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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 



MUSEUM OP COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



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iTJ^NSFERn^D TO C^C'.CSlCAt 




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MAR 2 3 1934 




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MUSEUM OP COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 

4- I 



>MPARi 

GIFT OF 






fRANSFERnnO TO CiClC^lCAl 
■^o.^iiCl^S LIBRARY , 



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MAR 2 3 1934 



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MEMOES OF THE GEOLOeiCAL SURVEY. 



ENGLAND AND WALES. 



THE GEOLOGY 

OF THE 

ISLE OF WIGHT, 

BT 

HENRY WILLIAM BRISTOW. F.RS., F.G.S. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED, 

BY 

CLEMENT REID, F.L.S., F.Q.S., 

AMD 

AUBREY STRAHAN, M.A, F.G.S. 

pgBUSHBD BT OBDEB OF THX LOBDS C0aCMI88I09EB8 OF HEB MAJBSTT'S TBBIAUBY. 




LOKDOKt 

PRINTED FOB HBE MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OPPICE. 

BY EYRE AND SPOTTI8WOODE, 

PBIBTBBS TO THB QUBBH*8 MOST BXCBLLEVT MAJB8TT. 



And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 

BYRB JlItd SPOTTISWOODE, East Habdivg Stbbst, Plbbt Stbbbt, B.O., or 

ADAM ABB CHARLES BLACK, 6,Nobth Bbidob, Edibbuboh; or 

HODGES, PIOGIS, k Co^ 104^ Gbaftob Stbbbt, Dublib. 



1889. ^ 



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PREFACE. 



The onward ^rogreas of geolo^^cal sdence during more than a 
quarter of a century since the first edition of the present Memoir 
appeared has not left the Isle of Wight unaffected. The 
geological formations on which the beauty of that fair Island so 
largely depends have been studied in great detail in all parts of 
the South of England, as well as in foreign countries. The coast- 
sections of the Isle of Wight have even become subjects of discus- 
sion and controversy. When, therefore, the first edition of this 
Memoir was nearly exhausted^ and it bex»me necessary to under- 
take the preparation of a second edition, I felt that no satisf actoiy 
Erogress could be made in this task until the Map of the Island 
ad been first revised and brought abreast of the present con- 
dition of Geology. The publication of the large Oitlnance Survey 
Maps on the scale of six inches to a mile supplied for such a 
revision a far more accurate and convenient basis than was 
available at the time when the Island was originally mapped by 
the Geological Survey. 

Accordingly, Mr. Bristow, the Senior Director, to whom 
science is mainly indebted for the first Survey Map of the Isle of 
Wight, and for the Memoir descriptive of the structure of the 
Island^ undertook the serious labour of superintending the pre* 
paration of new editions, both of Map and Memoir. 

In the following Prefatory Note supplied by him he has stated 
how this work has been carried on under his general supervision. 
The revision of the Map became in fact a re-survey of the Island, 
as all the lines were retraced on the ground. It is, however, due 
to Mr. Bristow to add that the main geological lines remain 
nearly as he mapped them more than 30 years ago. 

In the preparation of the present edition of the Memoir so many 
and important have been the changes required that the work 
might not unfairly be described as a new one. The revision alike 
of Map and Memoir has been made under Mr. Bristow's direction 
and with his co-operation, by two of the officers of the Survey, 
Mr. C. Reid, who took the Tertiary area, and Mr. A. Strahan, who 
had assigned to him the Secondary Kock.<'. I have also myself 
personally visited the Island with Messrs. Reid and Strahan, and 
read over on the ground the proofs of the following chapters. 
I will here briefly mention some of the more important alterations 
and additions. 

In discussing the relations of the Wealden to the Upper 
Neocomian Rocks it is shown that these two groups are separated 
by a sharply-defined lithological demarcation, accompanied by a 
pabeontologicsd break. 

£ 567S6. Wt. 17874 a 2 



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IV 



In re-mapping the Lower Qreeneand Mr. Strahan has taken 
advantage of certain broad lithological characters^ which being 
traceable across the Island, permitted of a convenient subdivision 
of that formation into groups whose respective limits could be 
shown on the Map. This subdivision^ for which a new scheme 
of colouring has been adopted, is only intended for the Isle of 
Wight, where it is of considerable local service. Mr. Strahan 
found that an upper subgroup of the Lower Greensand^ correspond- 
ing to the Folkestone Beds, existed on the Island, capable of sub- 
division into an upper ferruginous and slightly conglomeratic rock, 
the Carstone, which passes up into the Gault, and a lower sand- 
rock resembling in lithological characters the Folkestone Beds, and 
passing downwards into ferruginous sands. Anotht^ subgroup, 
ejdhibiting both the lithological and pal»ontological features of the 
Sandgate Beds, has been placed with these underlying sands (the 
Hythe Beds) under the name of the Ferruginous Sands. The 
position and extent of the Atherfield Clay remain nearly as in the 
first edition of the Map. 

A few fossils have been added to the small fauna hitherto 
yielded by the Oault. A line has been engraved on the Map to 
mark the position of the bold topographical feature formed by 
the Chert beds of the Upper Greensand in the central parts of the 
Island. 

The subdivisions of the Chalk which can be traced on the 
ground have now been inserted on the Map. Tlie Chalk-rock 
is so shown, but the Melboum-rock, though frequently recog- 
nised in place, is not represented on the Map for want oi space. 

In the preparation of the following Chapters it has been found 
necessary entirely to re-measure the clifE sections of the Secondary 
Bocks. This has been done in Compton Bay from the Upper 
Greensand downwards, in Atherfield Bay from the Chalk-marl 
downwards, and in Sandown Bay from the Chalk-rock down- 
wards. The total thickness of strata measured at the last-named 
locality was 1,218 feet. The results of this detailed re-exami- 
nation are shown graphically in Plate II., which represents the 
coast-section from Compton Bay to Blackgang, and in Plate III., 
which contains a series of comparative Vertical Sections showing 
the varying thickness of the Secondary formations in different 
parts of the Island and on the adjacent coast of Dorsettf^hire. 

In revising the Tertiary area of the Island, Mr. Eeid found 
that only slight changes were required in the Eocene lines of the 
Map. In the Sections and Memoir he has somewhat modified 
the boundaries of the Bracklesham and Barton Beds in con- 
formity with the recent researches of the Rev. Osmond Fisher 
and Mr. Keeping. The so-called *' Upper Bagshot Sands" of 
the Isle of Wight are not improbably considerably higher than 
the division of that name in the actual Bagshot district. Hence, 
until the position of the glass-sands of the Island has been 
definitely ascertained, it has been thought desirable not to speak 
of these deposits as ** Upper Bagshot,^' but to revert to the older 
name of " Headon Hill iSande." 



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The claesification of the Eooene formations into Upper, Middle, 
and Lower, adopted in the first edition of the Memoir, has been 
modified. The so-called ^' fluvio-marine beds" of the Isle of 
Wifi;ht are now. classed as Oligocene. 

The most important alteration of the Map of the Tertiary part 
of the Island has been in the tract occupied bj the Hamstead 
(Hempstead) Beds. These strata have b^n detected by Mr. 
Beid by means of a boring apparatus over a large area, so that 
instead of covering a space of only two or three square miles, th^ 
really spread over half of the Tertiary district of the Island. 
They also prove to be of considerably greater thickness than has 
been supposed, their actual thickness being 260 feet instead of 
170 feet The sections in the Tertiary districts have been re« 
measured where it was thought desirable. The Chapters on the 
Tertiary rocks in the present Memoir have been largely extended 
and in great part re-written. 

In the recent re -survey of the Isle of Wight the superficial 
deposits have been mapped out in detail. They have been 
arranged in four groups which are based, as far as possible, on 
chronological order. Excluding the angular flint-gravel of the 
Chalk Downs, the age of which is doubtiiil, the oldest group, that 
of the Plateau Gravels, is shown to be probably as old as, and 
perhaps contemporaneous with, some of the Glacial deposits of 
the Midlands. But no conclusive evidence has been obtained 
in the Isle of "Wight of the co-operation of coast-ice or land-ice 
in the formation of these deposits. 

The later groups (Valley Gravels and Alluvia) contain the 
records of successive sta^s in the excavation of the present 
system of valleys. This chapter of geological histoiy possesses a 
special interest and value from the insular j^sition of the Isle of 
Wiffht and the chants that have resulted from the cutting back 
of Uie coast-line by tne sea. The drainage system of the Island, 
like that of the South of England generally, has been determined 
by the great lines of anticlinal and synclinal folds into which the 
^^condary and Tertiary strata have been thrown. Each main 
anticline became a line of watershed, but in the subsequent 
gradual denudation of the general surface of the land the forms 
and elevations of the topography have resulted, not from these 
underground movements, but from the relative durability of the 
rocks. The areas of maximum elevation at the present day are not 
those where the greatest amount of upheaval took place in past 
time. 

Mr. Strahan's survey of the superficial deposits in the south of 
the Isle of Wight afibrds a glimpse of an older and different 
topography before the Chalk Downs of that region had been 
reduced to their present limited area. An extensive sheet of 
river-gravel in the south-west of the Island marks the course of 
what must at one time have been a considerable stream, taking its 
rise among the Southern Downs which then stretched southwards 
into the English Channel. As Mr. Codrington has suggested, 
this stream flowed westwards and northwards by Freshwater to 



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▼1 

Yarmouth. But by the gradual encroachment of the sea itB 
drainage area has been greatly reduced, and at last iU valley has 
actually been reached and cut across by the waves, so that the 
stream there enters the sea» and the lower part of the valley is left 
almost dry. 

One of the following chapters has been devoted to a description 
of the nature and position of the various anticlinal and synclinal 
folds which play so lai^e a part in the geological structure, not 
only of the Isle of Wight but of the whole of the south-eastern 
mainland From the evidence obtainable in the Island we know 
that these plications of the rocks were produced at some time 
subsequent to the deposition of the Oligocene strata. Elsewhere 
we obtain proofs tliat they were completed before the Pliocene 
period. The limits of their geological date are thus fixed. 

The Appendices include a number of well-sections and borings 
collected and arranged by Mr. Reid. The fossil lists formerly 
dispersed through the Memoir have been thrown together into 
one tabular statement which has been prepared by Messrs. Reid 
and Strahan with the assistance of Mr. G. Sharman and Mr. E. T. 
Newton, Palaeontologists of the Geological Survey. A geological 
bibliography, compiled by Mr. Bristow, has been added to the 
Memoir. 

ARCH. GEIKIE, * 

Director- General. 
Geological Survey OfiSce, 
London, 
April 1889. 



[Since this preface was written, and while these pages are 

passing through the press, Mr, Bristow has been removed from us 

by death. We hoped that he would have lived to see the final 

publication of this Memoir, in the preparation of which he took so 

keen an interest. The correction of his " Notice " formed his last 

piece of scientific work, and in returning it to me only a few 

weeks before the illness from which he never recovered, he 

expressed with characteristic courtesy his approval of all that had 

been done to make this new edition a fitting termination to the 

labours of his long career in the Geological Survey. We cherish 

his memory as a loyal and helpful friend and a distinguished 

colleague. 

A. G. 

June 24th, 1889.] 



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NOTICE 

(Bt a W. Bbistow, RR.S.) 



The origisal survey or the Isle of Wight on the one-inch scale 
^BA commenced under the personal superintendence of Sir Henry 
T. De la Beche in the year 1 848, and was carried on at intervals 
between that year and 1856 by the late Professor Edward Forbes 
and myself, Mr. W. T. Aveline at the same time completing a 
portion of the Secondary area between Ghale and Dunnose, the 
whole being under the direction of Professor A. C. Ramsay. 
During part of the time that the Island was being surveyed 
assistance was rendered by the late Mr. B. A. C. Godwin-Austen^ 
Mr. Henry Keeping (now of the Woodwardian Museum^ 
Cambridge), and by the Fossil Collectors^ Richard Gibbs and 
John Cotton. 

A re-survey of the Island on the six-inch scale instituted by the 
present Director-General was begun in November 1886| and was 
completed by the end of the year 1887, the northern or Tertiary 
half of the Island being mapped by Mr. C. Reid, and the southern 
or Secondary half by Mr. A. Strahan. This re-survey, reduced to 
the new one-inch Ordnance Map, was published in 1888. Clean 
copies of the six-inch Maps have been deposited in the Geological 
Survey Office for reference^ and a duplicate set of these sheets, 
mounted as a wall-map, was exhibited at the International 
Geological Congress in 1888, and is now suspended in the Museum 
of Practical Geology. 

The first editiun of the present Memoir was published in 1862. 
It was written by myself by desire of the late Sir Roderick J. 
Murchison, then Director- General, use being made, when neces- 
sary, of the posthumous Memoir on the Fluvio-marine Formation 
of the Isle of Wight by Professor K Forbes, in which some of 
the notes I had made had already appeared. In the preparation 
of the present edition of the Memoir the authorship of the 
revision has followed the same general distribution as in the case 
of the mapping. The account of the Secondary rocks has been 
revised and enmrged by Mr. Strahan, who, besides examining 
these rocks in the Isle of Wight, continued the mapping of their 
subdivisions into the neighbouring coast of Dorsetshire. The com- 
parisons with the Geology of the mainland made in the following 
account of the Secondary rocks are thus entirely hi& 

The chapters on the Tertiary rocks have been revised and 
much enlarged by Mr. Reid. The most important change which 
he has been able to make in the Map, the great extension he has 
given to the Uamstead Beds, has been rendered possible by the 
application of a boring apparatus, whereby no fewer than 358 
borings, ranging from 10 to 33 feet in depth, were made in the 
Tertiary area of the Island. 



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The UstB of fossils have undergone a thorough revision by 
Messrs. G. Sharman and E. T. Newton^ vtrho have also named the 
additional specimens collected during the progress of the re- 
survey. 

Professor T. Rupert Jones undertook the detenmnation of the 
Ostracoda^ revised the lists of these crystacea^ and furnished 
Table V., which gives a synoptical view of their distribution. We 
are also indebted to Mr. J. Starkie Gardner for the account of 
the Flora of the Bagshot Beds of Alum Bay, and to Mr. Car- 
ruthers for looking over the lists (in MS.) of the plants of the 
Secondary rooks. Mr. W. Hill kindly undertook the ezanunatioii 
under the microscope of nodules from the Upper Ohalkof Whitei- 
cliff. Advantage was taken also of the intimate knowledge of 
the Geology of the Isle of Wight possessed by Mr. Henry Keeping 
to obtain his assbtance in revising some of the detailed sections 
of the Tertiary strata, 

H. W. Bbistow. 

London, March 80^ 1889. 



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IX 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Prkface, by the Director-General 
Notice, by H. W. Brirtow, F.R.S, 



Fagb 
iii 



CHAPTER I. 

If^TRODUCTlON AND TaBLS OF STRATA 



CHAPTER 11. 

WEALDENBEDS:- 

Introducttion .- - - - - - -3 

Brook and Compton Bay - - - - - 5 

Brook to Atherfiei«q -,- - - - -11 

Sandown Bay - - - - - - -16 



CHAPTER III. 



LOWER GREENSAND OR UPPER NEOCOMIAN :— 

Introduction - - - - - - -18 

Compton Bay - - - - - - -21 

Athbrfi'eld : — 

The Atherfield Clay and Perna Bed - - - • 24 

The PeiTuginous Sands - - - - - 26 

The Sand-rock Serieu - - - - - - 30 

Sandown to Bonchurch : — 

The Atherfield Clav and Ferruginous Sands - - - 32 

The Sand-rock Series - - - - - .34 

Sandown to Culver Cliff - - - - - 34 

PuNFiELD Cove - -- - - - -37 



CHAPTER IV. 

LOWER GREESSM^D— continued. 
Inland Sections: — 



u 



Along the Central Downs - - - - 40 

Around the Southern Downs - - - 44 

Indications of Conditions under which these 
Beds were deposited - - - '47 

Correlation with the Mainland - - 49 



CHAPTER V. 

LOWER GREENSAND-con/»niwrf. 
THE CARSTONE:— 
Introduction - - -- - - -52 

Compton Bay to Red Cliff - - - - - 65 

From Niton and Blackqanq to Shanklin and Bonchurch 57 



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CHAPTER VL 
THE GAULT AND UPPER GBEENSAND. 

The Gault :— 

Introduction •---••.60 
Landslips .......50 

DsscRiPTioN OF Sections <- - - - - 62 

Correlation with the Mainland • - - -65 

Upper Greensand: — 

Introduction - - - . - . -65 

Coast Sections : — 

1. Compton Bay - - - - • - 68 

2. Blackgang to Shanklin - - - . - 68 

3. Culver Cliff ...... 70 

Inland Sections: — 

1. Along the Central Downs - - - - - 70 

2. Around the Southern Downs - - - -72 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE CHALK :- 

Introduction -.-....73 
Chloritic Marl - - - - . --79 

Upper, Middle, and Lower Chalk: — 

1. Compton Bay along the Central Downs to Culver Cliff - 82 

2. The Southern Downs - - . . - 90 
Division of tbe Upper Chalk into Zones . .92 



CHAPTER VIII. 

EOCENE:— 

Introduction -•-... .94 

Reading Beds. .......94 

London Clay - - - - - . -97 

Lower Bagshot Bed^ - - - - . .101 

On the Flora op Alum Bay, by J. Starkib Gardner . 104 



CHAPTER IX. 
EOCENE— oofi/tfittcJ ;— 

Bracklesham and Barton Beds: — 

Bracklesham Beds ..... ^09 

Barton Clay . - - - . . . 117 

Headon Hill Sands - • . - . 122 



CHAPTER X. 
OLIGOCENE :— 

Introduction ---.... i24 
Headon Beds ....... 128 



CHAPTER XI. 

OLIG0CENE--M>neimce(2 :— 

OsBORHE Beds ---•••. 149 

Bbmbridge Limestone - . • - - . . 153 

Behbridge Marls • • - . . - 170 



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XI 

CHAPTER XII. 



OLIGOC£N£--eon«tnue<2 :— 
Hamstbad Bbds 



Paob 
184 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT DEPOSITS :— 
Clabsikication ---.-- 
I. Angular Flint Gravbl of th« Chalk Downs 



II. PlATBAU CrRAVBLS : — 

Their Age ..... 

St. George's Down to East Cowes and Osborne - 
Parkhurst Forest to West Cowes - - . 

Thomess and Rew Street ... 

HamstcAd . . . - - 

Oalboume . - - - - 

HeadonHiU 

Wootton Bridge to Ryde . - - - 

Rydo and St. Helen's . - . - 

Bembridge . - . - - 

Blake Down, Newchurch, Alverstone, and Sandown 
Brook - - 



III. Thb Vallby Gravblb and Brick-Eabth :— 
Mode of Occurrence - . - 

The Eastern Yar - 
Wootton Creek " - 
The Medina Valley 
The Western Yar . 



IV. 



. 208 
. 209 



210 
212 
214 
215 
216 
216 
216 
216 
216 
217 
217 
220 

220 
221 
222 
222 
223 



Bbds now forming* or of rbcbnt Datb: — 
Alluvium and Peat of : — 

a. The Western Ysr and the Coast from Freshwater to 

Yarmouth 228 

b. The Coast from Freshwater to Blackgang - - 230 

c. The Medina - - • - - - 236 

d. The Eastern Yar - - - . - 235 

Blown Sand 237 

Chalk Talus 237 



CHAPITER XIV. 
DISTURBANCES AND FAULTS • 



239 



CHAPTER XV. 
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY - 



248 



CHAPTER XVI. 



ECONOMIC GEOLOGY 



- 251 



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APPENDIX I. 

Paob 
RAINFALL . - 266 

APPENDIX IL 
TABLES OF FOSSILS :— 

I. Wealden 258 

II. Lower Greensand ...... 261 

III. Upper Cretaceoufi - .... - 268 

IV. Eocene and Olifrocene - - - - - - 282 

V. Fosdil Ostracoda of the Isle of Wiaht, by Prof. T. R. Jones, 

F.E.S. 298 

APPENDIX IIL 
WELL SECTIONS AND WATER SUPPLY - - - 300 

APPENDIX IV. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 319 

INDEX 338 



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LIST OF ILLPSTRATIONS. 



Paob 

Fig. ] . Cjpridea spinigera ...... 3 

„ 2. Cyrena -. - - - - - -3 

„ 3. Palndina flaviorum - - - - . - 3 

„ 4. Unio valdensifl -------7 

„ 5. Sketch of Weolden Beds between Brixton Chine and Barnes 

Chine ---...-- 12 

,, 6. Cypris oomigera and Candona Mantelli - - - - 14 

,, 7. llie Sand-rock Series in Compton Bay - - - - 23 

„ 8. PemaMuUeti 24 

,^ 9. Exogyra sinuata - - - - - - 25 

„ 10. Panopesa plicata - - - - - - 27 

,, 11. Gervillia anceps - - - - - - - 27 

,, 12. Terebratula sella 28 

,, 13. Junction of the Gault and Lower Greensand in Compton Bay - 55 

„ 14. Junction of the Upper Greensand and Gaidt in Compton Bay - 63 
„ 16. Freshwater Bay from the West. From a sketch by Prof.'E. 

Forbes .---... 74 

„ 16. Junction of the Chalk and Lower Tertiary Beds in Alum Bay - 95 

,, 17. Railway Cutting just south of Brading Station- - - 96 

,,18. Pholadomp margaritaoea - - - - - 99 

„ 19. Panopeaa mtermedia ------ 100 

„ 20. Ditrupa plana - - - - - - .100 

„ 21. Pinna affinis - - - - - - .100 

,f 22. Cardita planicosta - - - - - - 117 

„ 23. Turritella imbricataria - - - - - • 117 

„ 24. Phorus agglutinans - - - - - - 121 

„ 25. Murex asper ------- 121 

„ £6 Fusus pyrus - * - - ... - 121 
y, 27. Psammobia compressa " - - - - -121 

,, 28. Rostellaria rimosa - - - - - - 121 

„ 29. Crassatella sulcata - - - - - - 121 

„ 30. Voluta Inctatrix 121 

„ 31. Fusus longsBvus - - - - - - 121 

,, 32. Conus dormitor ....... 121 

„ 33. CalyptrsBa trochiformis --.--• 122 

„ 34. Typhis pungens -.-... 122 

„ 35. Pecten reconditus ------ 122 

,, 36. Section of the north-eastern comer of Headon Hill - • 136 

,, 37. Cytherea incrassata -.-... 144 
„ 38. Ostrea flabellula - - . - . .144 

,, 39. Potamomya plana -...-. 145 

„ 40. Unio Solandri - 145 

„ 41. Cerithium concavum ----.. 145 

,, 42. Melanopsis subfusiformis - . . • . 145 

„ 43. Cerithium pseudocinotum - - . . . 145 

,, 44. Planorbis euomphalus ------ 146 

„ 45. LimnsBa longiscata --•... 146 

„ 46. Paludina lenta ----.>• 146 

„ 47. Chara Wrightii - - - . - . - 146 

„ 48. Diagram of Colwell Bay CliflPs - . . - - 149 
,, 49. Chara Lyellii --.-.. .151 

t, 50. Section at Binstead ••-... 153 



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XIV 



Fig. 61. 


.,S2. 


„63. 


„ M. 


„65. 


„66. 


„67. 


.,68. 


„69. 


.,60. 


..61. 


..62. 


.,63. 


..64. 


.,65. 


,.66. 


.,67. 


..68. 


..69. 


.,70. 


..71. 


..72. 


..73. 


,.74. 


..76. 


»76. 


,.77. 


..78. 


..79. 


.,80. 


„81. 


,.82. 


..83. 


„84. 



Cliff near Porchfield 



Bulimus ellipticus 

Helix fflobosa - 

Planorbis discns 

Achatina costellata 

Section of the lower part of the 

Chara tuberculata 

Cyrena polchra - 

derithium mutabile 

Gyrena semistriata 

Area Wehsteri - 

Hydrobia Ghasteli 

Pseudocythere Bristovii 

Potamocypris Brodiei 

Melania tiirritissinia 

Gvrena obtuea ^ • 

Melanopsis carinata 

Ostrea vectensis 

Gerithium plicatum 

Gorbula pisum - 

Gerithium elegans 

Gorbula vectenus 

Gydas Bristovii 

Unio Gibbsii 

Melania iasciata 

PanopsBa minor 

Sketch of Hamstead Gliff 

Ostrea callifera - 

Cytheridea montosa 

Section in Valley Gravels at the 

Freshwater Bay from the £^t, 

Forbes - 
TnfaoeouB Deposit of Totland Bay . - 
Sketch of Gravels with hazel nuts in Shippard's Chine 
Section between How Ledge and Colwell Chine 
Diagram Section to show variation in the dip of the Strata as 

the Surface is lowered --..-. 



eastern end of Gompton Bay 
From a sketch oy Prof. £ 



Paox 

169 

159 

161 

162 

164 

169 

172 

172 

173 

173 

175 

175 

178 

181 

181 

182 

182 

185 

185 

185 

185 

190 

190 

192 

192 

193 

194 

199 

226 

227 

229 
231 
242 

244 



At the end of the Book. 



^ Plate I. Index Geological Map of the Isle of Wight, with a longitudinal 
section across the Island from Rocken £nd to Norris. 

^Platb II. Section along the Coast from Afton Down, near Freshwater, to 
St. Catherine's Down. 

*"Platk III. Connparative Sections of the Cretaceous Rocks of the Isle of 
Wight and of the Dorsetshire Coast. 

*^Platb IV. Longitudinal Sectious. No. 1. From Totland Bay over Headon 
Hill to Hiffh Down. No 2. From near Cliff End, over 
Sconce^ to the sea under High Down Beacon. 

^^ Platb V. Comparati\re Vertical Sections of the Oligoceue or Fluvio-Marine 
Series. 



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THE GEOLOGY 



OF THE 



ISLE OF WIGHT. 



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A I 



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THE GEOLOGY 

OF THE 

ISLE OF WIGHT. 



CHAPTER L 

Introduction and Tablb of Strata. 

The Isle of Wight is of a lozenge shape, with its longer axis 
extending nearly east and west from the Foreland to the Needles, 
a distance of 22^ miles, and its shorter axis nearly north and 
south from West Cowes to Rocken End, a distance of 13 miles. 
The northern apex is situated immediately opposite the mouth of 
Southampton Water. The two northern sides of the Island are 
nearly parallel with the mainland of Hampshire, from which they 
are separated by the Solent on the west, and on the east by the 
sea between Southampton Water and Spithead. The nearest 
point to the mainland is Cliff End, which is only a mile distant 
from the bank of shingle and sand on which Hurst Caatle is 
situated ; but the Solent is generally from two to three miles in 
width, while the channel east of Southampton Water reaches a 
breadth of four miles. The area of the Island, as deduced from 
the Ordnance Survey, is 165 square miles 370.209 acres, in 
which are included 122.684 acres of water, 9 square miles 34.076 
acres of foreshore, and 434.454 acres of tidal water. It is divided 
into East and West Medina by the River Medina^ which, rising 
near the southern apex of the Island, runs northwards through a 
gap in the chalk range, and discharges itself into the sea between 
East and West Cowes.* A more marked physical division is 
that produced by a bold range of Chalk Downs, which extends 
from the ^Needles to Culver Cliff.t The area lying to the 
north of this range is occupied by Tertiary strata, and is chiefly 
characterised by the heavy and clayey nature of the land^ and 
by the numerous woods which cover its surface, especially east 
of the River Medina. The tract of land south of the chalk range 
is occupied chiefly by the Lower Greensand, and presents a 

* The Isle of Wight ^as called " Meden" informer times. The Roman name for 
it was Vectis. In Camden's Saxon Chronicle and Domesday Book and in the 
oldest records it is written « Wict."— H. W. B. 

t Culver Cliff (after the Anglo-Saxon name " culfre," a dove) was probably so 
named from its being the resort of numerous wild pigeons of a small species {Columba 
saxitilis^ which made it their haunt. Pennant states that " these birds make at a 
certain season most enormous flights ; they come daily in vast flocks, as fat' as the 
nei|;hbourhood of Oxford^ to feed on the turnip-fields, and return again to these 
and Freshwater Cliffs, where they pass the night." (Pennant's Journey, p. 151.) 
Culver Cliff was also famous for a breed of hawks in the time of Queen Elizabeth.— 
H. W. B. 

E 56786. A 

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2 GEOLOGY OF THE iSLJi OF WIGHT. 

striking contrast to the north eide of the Island in its generally 
light and loamy soil, and in the absence of woods. In the 
southern part of the Island also is found a group of hills, capped 
by outliers of chalk, which rise to a far greater height than any 
part of the generally low Tertiary district^ and in fact form the 
most elevated tract in the Island. 

A considerable part of both the northern and southern parts 
of the Island is overspread by gravels and Alluvium, the former 
being of considerable thickness and conmiercial importance. 

Tlie following table gives in descending order the formations 
shown upon the map : — . 

Blown Sand - - - -T 

Alluvium - ^ - . vKecent 

Peat J 

River Terraces (Gravel) - -i 

Angular flint-gravel of the Chalk Downs ^Pleistocene. 

Plateau Gravel - - - 

Hamstead Beds - - - 

Bembridge Marls 

Limestone - 



Osborne Beds - 

Headon Beds - 

Headon Hill Sands 

Barton Clay 

Bracklesham Beds 

Lower Bagshot Beds 

London Clay - 

Heading Beds - 

Chalk-with-flints 

Chalk Rock - 

Middle and Lower Chalk with 

Melbourn Rock. 
Chloritic Marl 

Chert Beds"! ,t ^ T 

Sands J ^PP®^ Greensand 

Gault - 

Carstone ,- 

Sand-rock Series - 

Ferruginous Sands 

Atherfield Clay J 

Wealden Beds with beds of sandstone 



- Oligocene. 

- ^['* Fluvio-marine " 

- of E. Forbes.*] 



" ^Eocene. 
"I 



>- 



>-Upper Cretaceous. 



Lower Greensand or 
"" Upper Neocomian. 



J 



^ Lower Cretaceous. 



The above formations will be described in ascending order, 
commencing with the Wealden — the lowest and oldest strata seen 
in the Isle of Wight. 

♦ The term *< Vectian" was piopoeed for this group by Prof. John Phillips, but 
has not been generally adopted. 



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CHAPTER II. 

THE WEALDEN BEDS. 
Introduction. 

These beds rise to the surface on the southern and eastern 
sides of the Island, where they have been elevated along the 
anticlinal axes of Brixton and Sandown. The entire area occupied 
by them is very inconsiderable, not exceeding five square miles ; 
and there is no good section inland. On the coast, however, for 
six miles from Cx>mpton Bay to Atherfield, they are well exhibited 
in the cliffs (see Plates I. and II.), and there is abo a tolerably 
fair exposure of them on the coast in Sandown Bay. The lowest 
beds exposed in the Island are the variegated Wealden clays and 
sandstones of Brook Bay. Judging from the section at Swanage, 
where the whole of the Wealden formation is displayed, there may 
be about as great a thickness of these beds below the sea-level in 
the Isle of Wight, as is seen croppinir out in the cliffs. 

The Wealden Beds include two different but perfectly conform- 
able types, the one consisting of dark-blue or almost black shales, 
evenly bedded and splitting into thin laminae, together with 
layers of shelly limestone and ironstone, and very thinly laminated 
^' paper-shales," crowded with the shells of minute ostracoda 
(Cyprids). Fossik are abundant in this type, though the number 
of genera is somewhat limited. Paludina, Cyrena {Cyclas), and 
Unio occur in profusion everywhere, and Vicarya ( = Cerit/num, 
Melaniay Potamides of previous writers) is abundant at Atherfield. 
This type is found invariably at the top of the Wealden formation, 
immediately under the Lower Greensand, but appears also to be 
interstratified with the type now to be described. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

Cypridea spi7iigeray Sow. Cyrencu JPaludinaJluvioTiim, Sow. 







The other type, under which the Wealden beds appear, is that 
of red, green, and variegated marls and clays (curiously resembling 
the Keuper Marl), with numerous included bands of sandstone of 
variable thickness. The bedding is far from regular, and fossils 
are comparatively scarce. A large freshwater shell ( Unto valdensis, 
Mant.), dirfted wood in great abundance, the remains of fish, and 
the water- worn bones of terrestrial reptiles are met with throughout 
the group. 

A 2 



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4 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

The correlation of these two groups of the Isle of Wight with 
the Wealden strata of the mainland has caused some diversity of 
opinion. Dr. Fitton and the older authors spoke of the upper 
group only as Wealden and of the lower as Hastings Sand. By 
the Geological Survey they were both included under the name 
Wealden, but in 1856 Mr. Godwin Austin* slated that the Weald 
Clay might be seen " to alternate with, and therefore to be 
synchronous with, the marine Neocomian." Professor Judd t 
aieo in 1871 stated that he looked upon <Hhe great mass of 
variegated strata containing only freshwater and terrestrial fosails 
. . . . as the Wealden proper/' and that the upper group 
or Punfield Beds, as he called them, " may be regarded indif- 
ferently either as the highest member of the Wealden in our 
classification of terrestrial strata, or as a portion of the Neoco- 
mian in our grouping of the marine series." This view of their 
relations was suggested by the intermingling of brackish water 
or marine forms such as CizrAVa, dwarfed oysters, and the estuarine 
Vicarya with purely freshwater forms such as Paludina and Unio. 
But unfortimately, tlie true base of the Lower Greensand not 
having been then discovered at Punfield, a large part of this forma- 
tion, with its highly characteristic fauna, was included in the 
"Punfield Beds" of Professor Judd, with the result that the 
fauna of these Punfield Beds was made up partly from the Lower 
Greensand and partly from the Wealden. 

This fact was first ascertained by Mr. Meyer| in the years 
1871-72. He observed that the Atherfield Clay with some of 
its characteristic fossils occurred beneath the fossiliferous zone 
from which many of the marine Punfield fossils had been obtained, 
and that the characteristic cypridiferous shales with limestone 
occurred beneath and nowhere above this marine band. His con- 
clusions were strengthened by observations made by the Geologists' 
Association§ in 1882, and have been fully confirmed by the exami- 
nation that was undertaken for the purpose of the present Memoir. 
The results and measurements obtained during this examination 
will be incorporated in the following pages, but it may be stated 
here that at Punfield, as in the Isle of Wight, the palaBonto- 
logical break between the Wealden and Lower Greensand is 
complete, and is accompanied by evidence of considerable erosion 
of the former. 

The name of Punfield Beds, therefore, having been applied to 
strata belonging to two distinct groups, will not be used here. But 
at the same time it will be convenient to distinguish the beds for 
which the name was intended from the variegated Wealden type 
which has been mentioned above. The name Upper Wealden 
IS scarcely suitable, for, though generally found at the top 
of the Wealden formation, they appear also to be interstra- 

• Quart. Joiim, Geol, Soc, vol. xii. p. 66. 
t Ibid., vol. zxvii. p. 207. 
i Ibid,f vol. zzviii. p. 248, and vol. xziz. p. 70. 
§ Proc, Geoi. Aisoc^ vol. vii. p. 388. 



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WEALDEN BEDS. 5 

tified at various horizons in if^ On the other hand the moat 
striking characteristic of the beds is their ehaly character, as com- 
pared with the almost structureless variegated clays, and the name 
of Wealden Shales will perhaps be sufficiently distinctive. 

The Wealden Beds rise from beneath the Lower Greensand in 
Brixton and Sandown Bays, on the south-western and south- 
eastern sides of the Island respectively. In both bays they rise 
with a steep dip fiom beneath the rocks which compose the 
central range of the Island. On receding from this central axis 
of disturbance the angle of dip grows less, until the beds finally 
assume a horizontal position, as may be seen near Brook, in Brixton 
Bay, and in Sandown Bay at the point where the coast-line cuts 
the Alluvium of Sandown Marsh. Still further south in each of 
these bays a gentle southerly dip sets in, and the higher beds of 
the Wealden series pass in succession below the beach. The 
structure, therefore, is similar at each locality, namely, that of a 
dome with a steep side to the north. 

Brook and Compton Bay. (See Plates II. and III.) 

The lowest beds displayed in the Island are those forming the 
shore near Brook and at Sedmore Point, half a mile south-east 
of Brook Chine, t At Sedmore Point a bed of sandstone forms the 
foot of the cliff for about 400 yards. Above it are blue, purple, 
and deep-red marl?, overlain about half-way up the cliff by an 
impersistent bed of sandstone, with a gravelly band about 
18 inches thick, made up of fragments of sandstone with 
many small bones, at its base. Cj/clas, Paludina^ and Unio ai*e 
recorded by Fitton from this bed. The upper part of the cliff 
consists of purple and blue marls, with light-coloured bands 
containing much lignite. 

Between this Point and Brook Chine the strata have slipped, 
forming an underclifT, known as Roughland, along the whole 
length of which (some 600 yards) there is no clear exposure of 
rock m place, though the extent of the slip shows that the beds 
must be chiefly clays. As we approach Brook Chine the section 
becomes clear again. A greenish baud may be seen to rise 
westwards from beneath the beach, and to run along the upper 
part of the cliff past Brook Chine to a small chine 180 yards 
south of Brook Chine, where it descends once more to the beach. 
This bed is easily traced by its colour, and by the fact that it is 
crowded with large flattened masses of lignite, especially to the 
south and west of Brook Chine. It shows that the strata form a 

* Geology of the Weald (Geological Survey Memoir), and I>rew, Quart. Journ. 
GeoL Soc, vol. xvii. p. 283. 

t The local name for the deep fissures op gullies, which are termed chines in the 
Isle of Wight, is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cinu, a cleft. Wyclif speaks of the 
** chyne of a ston-wull." So also, Spenser — 

" WhtTu byting deepc, so deadly it imprest, 
That qoite it chyned his backe behind the sell." 

—Faerie Queene, b. iv., canto «, xiii. 



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6 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

gentle anticline, the centre being near Brook Chine, the deep- 
red and variegated marls of which are perhaps the lowest rocks 
seen in the Island. 

The lignite bed described above appears to pass out to sea 
south of, and therefore below, a similar bed which is seen at Brook 
Point, but the strata are so variable that it is impossible to speak 
with certainty. The section at the Point shows upwards of 
100 feet of red, purple, and blue clay with impersistent bands of 
sandstone, underlain by 13 feet of grey clay, the lower part of 
which contains numerous flattened masses of black shining 
lignite. This lignite band rests upon a bed of hard sandstone, to 
\rhich the Point owes its existence. It is a whitish or pale-grey 
rock, about 6 feet thick, containing fragments of marl and clay, 
and with iron-pyrites abundantly (Ssseminated through its upper 
part. It is irregularly stratified, and its surface is undulatiDg 
and covered with fucoidal and hollow vertical markings. 

Below and partly imbedded in this rock lie the scattered trunks 
of coniferous trees, known as the " Pine RafV." They were first 
observed by Webster in 1811,* but were more fully described by 
Mantell in 1846,t The trunko lie prostrate in all directions, 
broken up into cylindrical fragments. They are covered by thin 
bark, now in tiie state of lignite, the wood having been con- 
verted into a black or greyish calcareous stone, t with much iron 
pyrites. Many of the trees still present traces of woody structure, 
and the annular rings of growth are clearly perceptible ; but 
they are traversed also by numerous threads of pyrites. The 
trunks are generally of considerable magnitude, being from one 
to three feet in diameter ; two upwards of twenty feet in length, 
and of such size as to indicate a height of forty or fifty feet when 
entire, were noticed by Mantell. 

The "Pine Raft " can be seen at low water only. During spring 
tides it may be observed to rest on variegated marls, but all 
attempts to trace it eastwards from Brook Point have failed, pro- 
bably on account of its being of local development only. The 
purple marls forming the cliff above it are apparently the same 
beds that have made the great slip of Roughlsuad, and the Pine 
Raft, if it is continuous, should be found in the cliff near Sedmore 
Point ; but though many large fragments of trunks are lying on the 
beach, there is no bed in the cliff exactly corresponding to that of 
Brook Point. 

A? suggested by Mantell, the trees were probably drifted from 
a distance, in the same manner as the trunks, brought down by 
the Mississippi at the present day, are deposited in large rafts 
in the delta of that river. It is not to be expected, therefore, that 

• Englefield'B Isle of Wight. 1816. 

t Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc,, vol. ii. p. 91. 1846. 

J Unlike the trunks in the dirt-heds of the Isle of Portland, which are sill- 
cified. Professor Way pointed out the probahility " that the fossil forest imbedded 
in the Weald Clay at Brook Point is impregnated with phosphoric acid, instead of 
carbonic acid, as is generally assumed." Journ. Boy. Agric. Soc. of England, 
vol. ix. p. 82. 



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WEALDEN BEDS. 7 

the **Pine Raft" is of wide range, or that the horizon at which 
it occurs should be recognisable when the trees are not present. 
There is no evidence that any of the trees in this or any other 
part of the Wealden scries grew upon the spots where they are 
now found. 

In the cliffs of this neighbourhood there have been found also 
the cones to which more special reference is made in the fossil 
list on p. 258. 

Mantell records also the occurrence of Clathraria Lyellii as a 
pebble on the beach of Brook Bay. 

The large freshwater shell, Unio valdensis^ was first observed 
by Mantell "in the sandy clay beds immediately above the fossil 
forest " {op, cit, p. 94). It occurs also in some hard irony con- 
cretions, which have fallen to the beach on the west side of 
Sedmore Point. 

Fig, 4. A large number of reptilian bones 

Unto valdensis, Mant. ^^^ ^»» ^®®? obtained from the cliffs. 
Those on which the species Iguanodon 
Seelyi was founded were obtained by Mr. 
Hulke in the small chine 180 yards 
south of Brook Chine.* Omithopsis 
Hulhei also occurred in Brook Bay, and 
footprints, believed to be those of an 
Iguanodon, have been found 600 yards 
to the west of Brook Point, and near 
Sedmore Point by Mr. Beckles.t The prints occurred as casts, 
attached to a thin bed of hard sandrock on the shore at low 
water. For further information on the fossils the reader is 
referred to the list on p. 258. 

As we proceed from Brook either westwards to Compton or 
eastwards to Atherfield, an ascending section in the same beds is 
provided in the cliff, the distance to be traversed in the former 
case before reaching the top of the Wealden beds being less on 
account of the greater steepness of the dip. We will first examine 
the cliffs westwards, as far as the great slip which marks the 
position of the Atherfield Clay (Plate II.). 

On rounding the Point we find the cliff composed principally 
of red and purple marls for a distance of about 700 yards, the 
thickness of strata amounting to 439 feet. In the marls there 
occur beds of sandstone often conspicuous from their whiteness, 
and a few green bands containing lignite. Passing over some 
thin and impersistent sandstones near the Point, we meet the first 
noteworthy bed 170 yards further west, where there is seen in 
the upper part of the clifi' a grey clay packed with lignite, resting 
on a white sandstone 5 feet thick, but thinning away westwards. 
This is overlain by purple and variegated clays, and 100 yards 
westwards a second bed of white sand-rock, 7 feet thick, succeeds. 
A third bed, 16 feet thick, is seen on the east side, and a fourth, 

* Quart, Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xzxviii. p. 185. 1882. 
f Ibid,, Tol. xviii. p. 443. 1862. 




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8 GEOLOGY or THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

9 feet thick, on the west side of Shippard's* or Compton Grange 
Chine, the last-mentioned rock being of a pinkish hue from the 
abundance of grains of pink quartz in it. At 190 yards distance 
from this chine we see the purple strata pass up into characteristic 
blue Wealden Shales with abundant Cyrenay Paludina, Cyprids, 
fish-remains^ and fragments of ferns. These blue shales, which, 
like the Cowleaze beds, are interstratified with sands in the lower 
part, are about 222 feet thick, and are fully exposed up to and 
in a small chine 350 yards west of Compton Grange Chine, but 
beyond this they have been disturbed by slipping. They seem, 
however, to be succeeded by red marls at a point in the top of the 
cliff 50 yards west of the small chine, whether by a fault or natural 
superposition will be discussed subsequently. 

Continuing along the top of the cliff, where the strata are 
in place, we see a thickness of 193 feet of purple marls with 
irregular white sand-beds and with three beds of grey or white 
clay and sand with lignite, the highest and lowest containing 
large tree trunks in addition to a great abundance of small 
fragments of wood. 

These variegated strata pass up into blue shales and sandstones 
with bands of ironstone, which in the exposed parts have 
weathered into a cinder-like rock. About 27 feet of these blue 
deposits are seen in place, and they are followed by blue paper- 
shales with Cypris and slabs of Cyrcna limestone with fish-bones, 
seen only in slips, but estimated to have a thickness of 65 feet. 
These are overlain by the Lower Greensand. 

The question now arises whether the blue shales last described 
are the same beds as those near Compton Grange, the strata being 
repeated by a strike fault with a downthrow to the south ; or 
whether there are two horizons at which this type of the Wealden 
series makes its appearance in the Isle of Wight, as on the mainland. 

It is in favour of the theory of a fault, that neither at Atherfield 
6 miles distant, nor at Sandown ] 5 miles distant, nor at Punfield 
20 miles to the west, can more than one group of shales of this 
type be seen, and that only at the top of the Wealden series. 
The thickness also of the beds visible between Brook Point and 
the top of the lower blue shales is much the same as that between 
Brook Point and the top of the Wealden Shales of Shepherd's 
Chine, namely, at the former locality 676 feet, of which 454 
are variegated, and in the latter 754 feet, of which 562 are 
variegated. The blue shales, moreover, strongly resemble the 
beds of Cowleaze and Shepherd's Chines. 

But on the other hand, the differences in the two sections of 
Compton Bay are so great, though only a quarter of a mile 
apart, that even allowing for the variability of Wealden strata, 
it is difficult to suppose that the same set of strata appears in 
each. The variegated beds of the upper part are characterised 
by an abundance of lignite associated with white clays ; in those 
below lignite is scarce, but several bands of sand-rock stand out 

* Not to be confouDdcd with Shepherd's Chine, near Atherfield. 



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weAlden beds. 9 

conspicuously. In the uppermost blue beds the sandstones, 
except close to the base, are not prominent ; in the lower they 
form a marked feature. The thickness, moreover, of the lower 
set reaches 222 feet, that of the upper only about 92 feet, 
while, lastly, fossils occur abundantly close to the base of the 
lower set of blue shales, but have not been found in the 27 feet 
of the upper set which are clearly exposed. The evidence is 
therefore rather more in favour of there being two horizons in the 
Wealden series of Compton Bay, at which fossiliferous shales occur. 
Which of the two sets of shales should be compared with the 
Wealden Shales of Shepherd's Chine remains doubtful. If 
we correlate the lower set with the shales of Shepherd's Chine, 
we have nothing to represent the upper 285 feet of Wealden 
Beds of Compton Bay. But no evidence can be found of so 
great an erosion of the Wealden Beds as the absence of the strata 
in question would seem to imply. We may more probably view 
the lower shales of Compton Bay as a local intercalation of 
this Wealden type among the variegated beds. 

Before leaving Compton Bay we will refer briefly to the 
section of the Wealden Beds at Pimfield, on the coast of 
Dorsetshire, already referred to. The Wealden Shales at that 
locality form a well-marked subdivision at the top of the Wealden 
group. They have a total thickness of 34^ feet, cypridiferous 
paper-shales, hard limestone with Cyrena and Paludina^ and some 
thin bands of sandstone being interstratified with them. Down- 
wards they pass into white sandstone, grey clays with white sands 
or brown sandstone, and so into red marls. About 200 feet below 
them lie white clays and sands, with much lignite and con- 
cretionary lumps containing Unio valdensis. The total thickness 
of the variegated beds of the Wealden, near Punfield, has been 
estimated by various observers at 1,500 to 2,000 feet. 



Descending Section of the Wealden Beds from Compton Bay to 
Brook Point (See Plates II. and III.) 

Ft. In, 

Pema Bed (Compton Bay). 

"Beds seen only in land-dips, consisting of Cyprid shales with 

a hard band, containing numerous fish-remains in the 

S upper part, bands of limestone and ironstone ; estimated at 65 

^ Blue and grey clay and sand - - - . - 2 

w Sand - - - - - - -10 

c < Blue shale -- - - - - -30 

;§ White sand and ffrit - - - - - -30 

'S Ochry band (cinaer-bed) passing into a solid ironstone where 
^ less weathered - - - . . -06 

Blue shale - - - - . • -17 

Cinder-bed, as above - - - - - -06 

Grey clay, with large trunks of trees - . - 9 

Purple marls - - - - - - -110 

Wliite sandstone and clay with lignite - - - 9 

Purple marls with sand-beds, about - - - - 55 

Fine white sand - - - - . -30 

Pale purple clay - - - - - - 12 



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10 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



s 
-a 

GQ 



I 



White clay, crammed with great masses of lignite and trunks 

of trees - - - , 

Yellow and white clay, passing down 
Purple marls, about • 
White sandy clay, with bones 
Deep red marls, about 

Here there is possibly a large fault, repeating ttie Wealden 
IShales of Comnton Bay (see p. 8). 
'Blue shales, not well seen, about 
Shales, seen in the west bank of a small chine 
Paper shale, with (>prids - - - 

Cyrena limestone - 

Shales with lines of sand, Cyprids here and there 
Paper shales with Cyprids - - - 

Cyrena limestone - - - - 

Paper shales with Cyprids (in the east bank of the small 

chine mentioned above) 
Shales, not well seen - 
Shale, with lines of sand and grit containing ferns (rises 

from below the beach on the east side of the small chine) - 
Yellow and white sand-rock, ^nth large grains of pinkish 

quartz 
Blue shale 

Sand-rock, as above - 

Blue shale, with thin ironstone in the lower part 
Coarse grit, with grains of pink quartz 
Shale parting - 
Sandstone 
Blue shale 

Ironstone, with Unio, Cyrena, Paludina, Cyprids, and '' Beef 
Blue shale ...... 

Fine ochry and dusky sand - - . . 

Fine white sand-rock - - - ^ - 

Shales, with Paludina and Cyprids . - . 

Lenticular ironstone ----- 

Sandy shales, with ferns .... 

Shale -.-.-- 

Shales, full of Cyrena and Paludina . - - 

Sandstone, with lignite .... 

White sandy clay ..... 

Blue marly clay, with large concretions and obscure fossils 
White and blue marly clay .... 

Pale variegated marl . . . . - 

White sandstone, with irregular top ... 

Purple marls, estimated at - 

White sandstone, containing an abundance of grains of pink 

quartz (crops out west of Compton Grange Chine) 
Red, purple, and green marls of Compton Grange Chine 
White sandstone (east of Compton Grange Chine) - 
Variegated marl 



Ft. In. 



Burtz 1 



Red sandstone 

Greyish blue marl 

White sandstone 

Purple marls - 

White band - 

Purple marls - 

Gre^ clay packed with lignite 

White sandstone, thickening eastwards 

Purple marls - - - - 

Red sandstone and marl, thinning out east at 

Purple marls - 

Red marls 

Grey sandstone 







Brook Point 



5 
6 

35 
6 

12 



20 

21 





12 

o 



14 
25 



9 
78 
16 
30 
to4 
10 

7 
64 

I 
40 

2 
to6 
36 

6 

41 

12 

0to2 



51 6 



5 

3 

12 

5 



2 10 





6 
1 
2 
5 

5 
6 
3 

1 
3 
2 
5 
3 
78 



7 

6 

6 



6 

6 

0-4 







6 

6 

6 



6 

























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WEALT>EN BEDS. 11 

Ft. In. 
Grey sandy clay - - - - - -70 

Ditto with much lignite (seen in Brook Point) - 6 

Current-bedded white sands&ne, with much pyrites in the 

upper part (forms the foot of Brook Point) - - 5 04- 

The '* Pine-raft"; numerous trunks embedded in sandstone. 
Variegated marls, seen in the fore-shore. ^^^^^ 



Brook to Atherfield. 

We will now return to Sedmore Point, where we commenced 
the description of the series, and follow the coast eastwards. It 
will be remembered that the above beds described again come 
into view, but with a gentle and nearly uniform dip, at first a 
little north of east, subsequently a little south of east. 

The sandstone with 1 J feet of conglomerate at its base, which 
first appears half way up the cliff at Sedmore Point, thickens 
eastwards and runs for a distance of nearly a mile, before it 
finally descends to the beach 500 yards west of Chilton Chine. 
There also it presents at its base 1^-2 feet of a gravel, composed 
of pebbles of sandstone with many small bones, though this 
conglomeratic band does not continue through the whole distance. 
Below this sandstone lie deep-red marls, and above it come red and 
green marls as at Sedmore Point. The latter may be well seen in 
Chilton Chine. They contain lenticular harder bands with potato- 
shaped calcareous concretions, and a little lignita Another bed of 
sandstone comes in at the top of the cliff 250 yards east of the 
Chine, and descends to the beach about midway between Chilton 
and Grange Chines. This bed likewise has a gravelly con- 
glomerate, about 6 inches thick, at its base. It contains quartz 
pebbles, small bones, and rounded pieces of wood similar to those 
composing the " pine-raft." It is much current-bedded, and of 
variable thickness, reaching sometimes as much as seven feet. 

Near Chilton Chine the vertebral centrum of Uucamerotus, 
Hulke (OmithopsiSf Seeley), which has been described by Mr. 
Hulke,* was found, but from which bed is not known. Mantell 
records that boues were collected in 1829 near Bull-&ce Ledge 
also.t 

Grange Chine has been excavated in deep-red and green marls, 
the green beds containing much lignite. On the east side and 
near the top of the chine- a conspicuous black band two feet 
thick contains abundance of lignite, many fragments of bones, 
and Unto valdensis in some brown irony concretions. The bed 
descends to the beach 200 yards west of Ship Ledge, and the 
clifis above it consist of red and green marls with several bands 
of hard sandstone, liable to rapid variations in thickness. 

It may be observed here that the whole of the Wealden strata 
of the Isle of Wight are extremely irregular, and that the thick 
beds of sandstone which form conspicuous objects in the clifiFs 
■ — ■ ' 

* QuarL Joum, Ged. Soc., toI. zzzt. p. 753. 1879. 

f Geological Rxcnrsions ronnd the Isle of Wight. 3rd Ed., p. 226. 



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12 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

occasionally thin out rapidly, even within short distances. This 
may be observed in the case of the bed of greenish sandstone 
seen in the cliff near Barnes Chine, which is reduced to a 
thickness of 3 feet where it reaches the shore. 



Fig. 5. 

Sketch of Wealden Beds between Brixton Chine' and Barnes Chine. 




▲. Variegated Marls. 
B.B. Sandstones, 
o.c. B«d and porple Maris. 

The skull of Vectisaurus valdensis, a Wealden Dinosaur, was 
found by Mr. Hulke lying on the cliff-foot, 300 yards east of the 
flagstaff near Brixton (Grange) Chine.* 

Barnes Chine presents a section of red and mottled blue marls. 
At the top of the eastern bank of the chine, a bone-bed, containing 
also much lignite, was observed by J. Khodes, the fossU 
collector to the Survey. 

We have now passed over a thickness of 562 feet of strata, and 
at a point on the beach about 30 yards west of Cowleaze Chine 
wc reach the junction of the variegated beds and the Wealden 
Shales. The nature of the junction may be gathered from the 
following section which commences with the thick sandstone so 
conspicuous in the chine and the long dip-slope of Barnes High. 
The details were obtained from various points in the cliff below 
this hill. The section of the same beds as seen at Cowleaze Chine 
is given on p. 15. 

♦ Quart. Jourv. Gcol. Soc.y vol. xxxv. p. 421. 1879. 



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WEALDEN BEDS. 13 

Descending Section between Cowleaze and Barnes Chines 

Ft. In. 

Sandstone, very hard where washed by the waves, with nodules 
and veins of iron-pyrites and pebbles of clay. Cyrena 
abundant - - - - - - -20 

Yellow sand and soft bright-yellow sandstone, current-bedded, 

and ripple-marked ; carbonaceous in places - - - 19 

Grey ana olack shales, the upper part interlaminated with much 
sand in Cowleaze Chine ; a band, crowded with Paludina and 
Unio near the top, and another with Cyrena and Paludina near 

the bottom 19 

White sand and da^, with lignite - - - -26 

Current-bedded white rock - - - - - 2 6 

Reddish-blue sand and clay, with bone-fragments {Hypsihphodon 

Bed) 3 

Red and variegated marls - - - - - -44 

White and yellow sand with tree-trunks, passing westwards into a 
sandstone 15 feet thick, and then splitting up and fingering out 
among red marls near the top of the cliff - - - 9 

Blue and purple marls, &c. {see p. 15). 

This locality has long been celebrated for its reptilian bones. In 
1849, according to Mr. Hulke,* a blocks containing a considerable 
portion of a reptilian skeleton, was i'ound on the shore about 
100 yards west of Cowleaze Chine. The skeleton was described 
as a young Iguanodon Mantelli by Professor Owen.f Another 
specimen was discovered and described under the same name by 
the Rev. W. Fox in 1868. J These fossils were afterwards proved 
by Professor Huxley to be the bones of a new Dinosaurian, to 
which he gave the name Hypsihphodon Foxii,^ Subsequently a 

Seat part of the skeleton of the reptile was exhumed by 
r. Hulke from the same stratum.* The bed, which rests directly 
on the variegated marld, forms the floor of Cowleaze Chine, and 
rises to the top of the cliff near Barnes High. 

In 1874 the tibia and humerus of a reptile (probably 
HylcBosaurus) from the stone locality were described by Mr. 
Hulke. The bones occurred *• somewhere in the mottled purple 
and grey claj^s, therefore in the beds west of Cowleaze Chine, 
below the HypsHophodon-he^^l 

The beds above the thick sandstone of Cowleaze Chine consist 
almost entirely of shales, Cypridiferous paper-shales, bands of 
ironstone and limestone, with layers of calcite, or ** beef/' and con- 
taining Cyrena, Paludina, and small oysters, occur at various 
horizons. (Plate III.) Vicarya strombiformis also, associated 
with Cyrena, is found in crowds at 1, 12, and 30 feet from the 
top, the appearance of hand -specimens with the two shells being 
precisely similar to that of specimens in the Museum of Practical 
Geology from the lowest beds of the Wealden at Burwash Wheel, 
near Hastings. The total thickness of the Wealden Shales of 
Atherfield is 192 feet 

♦ Quart, Jovm. QeoL Soc., vol. xxix. p. .532. 1873. 
t Palasontographical Society's Publications, 
t Rep, Brit, Assoc, for 1868 (Sections), p. 64. 
§ Quart, Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi. p. 3. 1870. 
II Titrf., vol. J33t. p. 616. 1874. 



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14 



GISOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



The uppermost bed of Vicarya^ at one foot below the base of 
the Lower Greensand^ contains a Cyprid, not previously noticed^ 
and now described by Prof. Rupert Jones as Cypris cornigera 
(Fig. 6y 1). In the same pieces of shale with it there occur 
Metacypris FittonL and fish-bones.* Another new ostracod, 
described by Prof. Rupert Jones (pp. cit) under the name Candona 
Mantelli (Fig. 6, 2), occura at 80-84 feet below the Perna Bed 
in the cliff between Shepherd's Chine and Atherfield Point. It 
is associated with Metacypris Fittoni (Mantell), small ; Cypridea 
spinigera (Sow.), young individuals ; Cypridea tuberculata (Sow.) ; 
Cypridea valdensis (Fitton) ; Cyrena ; and Paludina. 

Fig. 6. 
Cypris cornigera^ Jones, and Candona Mantelli^ Jones. 



la. 



16. 



Ic. 




Cypris 

comiyera, 

Jones. 



26. 

^Fio. la. A right valve of a young iDdividnal. 
,y 16. A right valve of medium growth. 
„ Ic. A long and low (narrow) variety ; right valve. 
„ Id, A short and high (broad) variety ; left valve. 
„ le. The largest specimen ; outline of left valve. 
, if. The largest specimen ; outline of edge-view of carapace. 



Candona 

Mantelli, 

Jones. 






2a. Outline of a right valve. (Anterior end placed upwards.) 
26. Outline of the end view of the valve. 



Magnified 20 diam. ; drawn by Mr. C. D. Sherbom, F.G.S. 



Descending Section of the Wealden Beds from Atherfield to near 
Brook. (See Plates 11. and III.) 

Ft. In. 

Perna Bed (Atherj&eld Point). 

^Shales, with bands of Vicarya, I foot and 12 feet firom the 

top, and Cyprids in the lower part - - - 15 

"Beef-bed" 2 

Shales with Cyprids - - - - - - 8 10 

Shales - - - - - - - 6 



* Oeol, Mag. for 1888, p. 585. 



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WEALDEN BEDS. 



15 



I 

1 



Ft. 


IN. 


- 


2-3 


- 4 


3 


- 


Oi 


. 9 


6 


Otol 





1 


6 


- 35 





- 14 





. 


Oi 


. 9 






Pale blue ironBtone, with Vicarya, Oslrea, ftc. abundant 

Shales - - 

Band, with Cyprids and fish-remuns 

Shales, with imperaistent ironstone - 

Lenticular sand and sandy shale 

Shale, with fish remains at the base - 

Shale, with impersistent bands of ironstone, and bands of 

sand with ferns ; Cyprids abundant in lower part 
Shales ... 

Dark limestone weathering red 
Shales, with Candona Mantelli, Jones 
Shales, with a band containing Unto, Paludina, and C^prids 

near the middle, and bandy beds, containing ferns, in the 

lower part ------- 

Sandstone of Gowleaze Chine and Barnes High, massive, with 

bands of Cyrena .--.-. 
Sandstone of Gowleaze Chine and Barnes High, thin-bedded, 

with shale .....-- 13 
Blue shales,* with Umo and Paludina in the top, and Cyrena 

and Paludina near the bottom - . - . 

White sand and clay* - . - . - 

White rock ------- 

^Red sand, with bones (Hypsilophodon Bed) . - . 

Red and mottled marls, rocky and ripple-marked at the top - 
White and yellow sand, with fragments and large trunks of 

lignite, passing westwards into sandstone, and splitting up 

and dying away before reaching the top of the cnS 
Pale blue day, becoming purple downwards - - . 

Hard sreen bed, oontainmg lignite and bones (seen in the top 

of Barnes Chine) - - . . - . 

Deep-red marls ...... 

Purple and mottled marls - . . • . 

Sandstone, with clayey beds (crosses Barnes Chine) • 
Deep-red marls, purple below - . . . 

Conglomeratic grit, with an occasional pebble of quartzite, or 

of sandstone ...... 

Pale mottled clay - - . - . . 

Green and white days, with lignite - - . . 

Purple mottled marls - - . . . 

Deep-red marls .--... 

White sandy bed ..-.-. 
Pale purple and mottled marls .... 

Fine white sandstone (crosses the bottom of Ship Chine) 
Mottled marls ...... 

Black bed of Brixton Chine ; lignite, bones. Unto valdensis - 
White sandy marl - - • - - - 3 

Mottled red marls of Brixton Chine, with a lignite bed near 

the middle - - - - - - -94 

Green sandy bed, with bones - - - - - 2 

Red and white sandstone in beds of 1 to 3 feet, with partings 

of marl, and pockets containing shale and sandstone firag- 

ments; a band of gravel of sandstone fragments, 3 inches 

thick, at the base, with fragments of bones 
Mottled marls -•---. 

Pebbly band, lignite and pebbles of sandstone (top of east 

bank of Chilton Chine) . . . - . 

Red and mottled marls . . . - . 

Current-bedded sandstone (near the bottom of Chilton Chine) 

about ----.-. 



40 
8 



19 
2 
2 
3 

44 



9 
29 

2 
6 

35 
13 

28 

3 
14 

3 

9 
13 

3 
21 

4 
25 

2. 



17 
49 

2 
23 










6 


6 




6 

6 
6 







12 



* These beds give a slightly differents sction in passing from Gowleaze Chine 
Banes High. 5m p. 18. 



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18 





20 





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16 GEOIiOGY OF THE TSLB OF WIGHT. 

Ft. In. 

Mottled marls . 28 

Purple marls, with white concretions - - - - 4 

Red marls passing down into white sandstone, with partings 

of marl, current-bedded in large sweeping curves - - 9 

Massive sandstone, bands of bone and sandstone breccia 

running irregularly through ; 6 to 18 inches of gravel at 

base, with bones. This bed thins away westwards, and is 

last seen at Sedmore Point 
. Deep-red and purple marls (at Sedmore Point) 
Currant-bedded sandstone of Sedmore Point . . - 



Sanbown Bay. 

The Wealden formation occupies a mile and a half of coast 
in this bay, and extends inland for a little over a mile. The axis 
of the anticline, which has already been described, lies nearly 
abreast of the stone fort, and trends a little north of west, in a 
direction parallel to the range of Brading and Bembridge Downs. 
The southern side of the anticline is entirely concealed by 
buildings on the cliff, and by sand on the fore-shore. The first 
exposure on the northern side is met with at the east end of the 
groins, where mottled clays with bands of sandstone form gentle 
undulations, with a general tendency to dip to the north-east. A 
short distance further on the dip increases to 1 1^, and finally to 
about 20° to the north-east, before the Wealden beds are lost 
to sight below the Lower Greensand of Redcliff. 

The Wealden series is divisible here as in Brixton Bay into a 
lower group of variegated clays, and an upper group of fossili- 
ferous shales. The lower group forms the low cliff or bank which 
extends as far as Yaverland Fort It consists of mottled red, 
pm^ple, and white marls, but is much obscured by slipping. 

The fort stands on a low escarpment formed by a bed of 
sandstone about 8 feet thick ; possibly the same bed that forms 
the corresponding feature of Barnes High in Brixton Bay, for. 
the base of the blue fossiliferous shales is found at about the same 
distance below it in the two localities. This sandstone is seen 
again' in the road-side south of Yaverland, and in a sand-pit 800 
yards south-west of Sandown Farm. There it exceeds 18 feet in 
thickness, and dips to the south-west at 9°. 

The details of the beds above and below the sandstone in the 
cliff are as follows : — 

Ft. 
Fine black shale, Cyprids very abundant. 

Blue sandy shale, with lines of brown grit - - 10 

Sandstone, about - - - - - 8 

Blue shale, base not seen - • - - 10 

Blue fossiliferous shales, not well seen, about • - 30 
Purple and mottled marls. 

68 
The beds above these are much obscured by slips, but can be 
seen to consist of shales of the usual type of the upper group^ 



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1 





4 


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1 





6 





2-3 





9 



WEALDEN BEDS. 17 

without any of the purple variegated marls. The junction with 
the Lower Greensand can be exposed by digging, as will be 
described, but the top beds of the Wealdon are not clearly seen. 
The details in the following section are therefore quoted from 
Professor Judd's paper on the Punfield Formation.* 

Ft. In. 

Lower Greensand. 

Blue paper-shales ------ 

„ „ light-coloured and pyritic 

Dark-coloured paper-shales (with Cypndea valdensis), and 

several layers of nodular ironstone - . . 

"Beef" 

Limestone,, crowded with Cyrena and a few oysters 

"Beef" 

Finely laminated pyritic clay 

Ferruginous band, almost entirely made up of shells 

(oysters and small univalves) - - - - 3 

Otiier beds of dark blue laminated shales, with occasional 

beds of limestone, imperfectly exposed ; seen to 30 or 40 

The total thickness of the Wealden Shales, as estimated from 
the breadth of outcrop and the dip, is about 170 feet. 

The same assemblage of fossils occurs here as in Brixton Bay. 
Fragments of the thin bands of limestone containing Paludina 
and Cyrena may be found in abundance upon the beach, together 
with pieces of lignite, while the Oyprids occur in profusion in 
certain bands of finely laminated paper-shales. A pelvis and the 
external metacarpal bone of the right foot of Iguanodon have 
been discovered in the sandstone below Yaverland Fortt 

Vertebrae, a femur, and ribs of the same animal are stated by 
Mantell to have been found near the same spott 

A femur was found also in the low cliff of Weald Clay to the 
west of Sandown Fort, a part that is now obscured. The beds 
are stated to have dipped slightly to the weut.§ 

It will be observed that, if the sandstone under Yaverland 
Fort is the same bed that forms Barnes High, the horizon of 
the Hypsilophodon band is clearly fixed in Sandown Bay ; but no 
remains of this reptile have yet been discovered. Mantell notes 
that some *^ grey sandstone, interspersed with clay," near Yaver- 
land Fort, '^ several cones of a plant allied to the ZamitSy mixed 
with fragments of lignite, have been discovered." || 

For further particulars concerning the fossils the reader is 
referred to the fossil lists on p. 258. 

♦ Q^art, Joum. Geol. Soc., vol. xxyii. p. 220. 1S71. 
t Bev. Dr. Buckland. Proc. Geol. Soc.,ro\. i. p. 159. 1826^3. 
X Geolo^cal Excursions round the Isle of Wight, 3rd Ed., p. 9S. 
§ T. F. Gibson. Quart, J<mm, Geol. Soc., vol, xiv. p. 175. .1858. 
II Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wighty Srd £d., p. 99. 



E 56786. B 

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18 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



CHAPTER III. 

LOWER GREENSAND OR UPPER NEOCOMI AN. 

Introduction. 

This fpnnatipn occypies the greater part of the southern or 
Cretaceous area of the Iple of Wight, and forms important escarp- 
ments, such as that which runs from Compton Bay by Brook, 
Mottistone, and Brixton, or the succession of bold shoulders which 
dominate the upper parts of the Medina and Yar valleys, and on 
one of which Godshill is situated. But the most complete sections 
are to be obtained in the four coast-sections of Compton Bay, 
Atherfield, Shanklin, and Redcliff at the east end of Sandown 
Bay. 

At Redcliff the thickness of the Lower Greensand is about 
600 feet ; at Atherfield it has increased to over 800, but at 
Compton Bay, about 16 miles west of Redcliff, the thickness is 
reduced to 399 feet. Lastly, at Punfield, 20 miles west of 
Compton Bay, it is no more than 198 feet. It would seem then 
that the direction in which the strata thicken most rapidly lies a 
little east of south. 

The Lower Greensand of Atherfield was made the subject of 
the most exhaustive examination by Dr. Fitton in the years 
1824-47. The results of his work were embodied in a large 
number of papers, but chiefly in a paper read before the Geological 
Society in 1846.* Not only was the thickness at Atherfield found 
to be greater than elsewhere in the Island, but fossils were very 
much more abundant T'he rich collection made by Dr. Fitton 
showed that the fauna of the Lower Greensand was both distinct 
from that of the Upper Cretaceous Rocks above, and possessed 
nothing in common with the Wealden Shales below, there being in 
fact a complete palteontological break at the base of the formation. 
This is the more noticeable in that the lower beds of the Lower 
Greensand are, like the Wealden Shales, of a clayey character. 

Later observations have shown that this complete contrast in 
the fauna was caused by an abrupt change in the physical geo- 
graphy of the area in which the Lower Greensand was distributed, 
and was preceded by some erosion of the Wealden Beds. The 
abruptness of the change is indicated by the following evidence: — 

(1.) The division of the Lower Qreensand from the Wealden 
'Shales is everywhere absolutely sharp, so much so that 
the two can be cleanly separated by a knife-blade. 

* Quart. Joum. GeoL Soc, vol. iii. p. 989. 1847. References to his other 
papers will be found in the Bibliography at the end of this book. 



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LOWER GREENS AND. 19 

(2.) The base of the Lower Greensand is a thin line of coarse 
grit, containing rolled fragments of fos^sils (Ammo- 
nites and other marine formsj which must have been 
derived from some marine beds, expo^^ed outside tiie 
limits of the freshwater Wealden Bed-", togetlier with 
an occasional pebble of sandstone larger in size, «nd 
resembling the sandstones which are interstratified in 
the Wealden Beds. There are also in this grit numerous 
broken bones, teeth, and scales of fish, and at Atherfield 
it contains fragments of Vicarya strombiformis, the 
«^asteropod which is so abundsmt in the top of the 
Wealden Shales at this spot. The fragments occur only 
in the grit, which is about three quarters of an inch 
thick) and have doubtless been washed out of the sur- 
face of the Wealden Shales. At Punfield this grit has 
yielded a well-rounded pebble of white silicified wood» 
precisely, similar to the wood in the Lower Purbeck 
Beds. 

(3.) The Wealden Shales, where the junction is exposed, often 
present the appearance of having been disturbed and 
broken up for a distance of a foot or two below the base 
of the Lower Greensand. 

(4.) In Wiltshire the Lower Grreensand overlaps the Wealden 
Beds so rapidly as to indicate an actual unconformity.* 
As a result of this overlap it passes westwards on the 
Upper Oolites, a fact which provides a clue to the 
source of the rolled fossils of marine species, which 
occur as pebbles at the base of the Pema Bed in the Isle 
of Wight. 

As far as the Isle of Wight is concerned, however, there is 
not sufficient evidence to establish an unconformity between the 
Lower Greensand and Wealden Beds. That the bedding of the 
two is strictly parallel is proved by the persistence of the Wealden 
Shales at the top of this formation, not only in the Isle of Wight, 
but both to the east and west on the main-land. The change of 
sediment is such as might have been produced by the sudden con- 
version of a partially land-locked estuary or lake into a bay open 
to the sea, whether by subsidence or by the washing away of a 
barrier. 

On this theory we must suppose that a Lower Greensand sea 
with its proper fauna was in existence at the time when the 
Wealden Shales were still being deposited in the land-locked area. 
This supposition is in accordance with the sequence observed in the 
north of England. For the Upper Neocomian deposits of Yorkshire, 
as shown by Professor Judd, contain the same fauna as the lowest 
of the Isle of Wight Neocomian beds, namely, the Atherfield 
Clay. We are thus compelled to suppose the Middle and Lower 

* Geology of England and Wales, by H. R, Woodward, 2nd Ed. 1S87, pp. 862, 
854, 875. 

B 2 



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20 GEOLOGY or THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Neocomian strata of the north to have been contemporaneous with a 
part of the Wealden Beds of the south, the one having been depo- 
sited in an area open to the sea, the other in a basin that remained 
land-locked until a later part of the Neocomian period. The 
history of the great freshwater deposits, of which in the Isle of 
Wight we have only the upper part, is beyond the scope of this 
Memoir, and will be treated more fully in the General Memoir on 
the Cretaceous Rocks. 

The Lower Greensand of the Isle of Wight is divisible into four 
groups, capable of being traced throughout. But at Atherfield, 
where they are most fully developed, Fitton made six principal 
divisions and sixteen minor groups. In the following table 
Fitton's groups are compared with those adopted in this Memoir, 
and with those in use in the Weald of Kent and Sussex. 

The only point in which a material difference between the two 
classifications exists, occurs in Fitton's Division F. A portion of 
this has now been separated under the name of Oarstone, while 
the lower part of it is grouped with E., to which it is lithologically 
allied, under the name of Sand-rock Series. The lowest member 
of Fitton's Group XV., a thick bed of clay, is taken as the top of 
the Ferruginous Sands, in consequence of the similarity of the 
deposit to a band of shale which forms the top of the Sandgate 
Beds at Pulborough.* The Perna Bed, though palsBontologically 
of the greatest interest, is too thin to be separately mapped. The 
names used have been adopted as far as possible from those who 
first investigated the beds. 

The term Shanklin Sands was proposed by Fittonf for the 
whole of the Lower Greensand to avoid confusion between this 
formation and the Upper Greensand, and was used in this sense 
by Martin. But subsequently the name became restricted to the 
upper beds of the Lower Greensand, and having been made to 
include a varying proportion of the deposit by various authors, 
and its original meaning, as intended by its author, having been 
lost, it has been thought better to abandon it. The name Vectine, 
also proposed by Fitton, and subsequently modified into Vectian 
by Mr. Jukes-Browne, J has never come into general use. {See 
also p. 2 on the use of Vectian for the Fluvio-Marine Series.) 

Geological Geological 

Fitton, 1846. Survey, 1687. Survey. 

(Atherfield.) (Isle of Wight.) (S.E. England.) 



XVL Various sands and clays 

F 
XV. Upper clays and sandrock 

EJ 



"Oarstone. 



>•< 



Sand-rock 
Series. 



Folkestone 
Beds. 



• Geology of the Weald (Geological .Survey Memoir), p. 136. 
t Ann. Phil., 2, viii. p. 461. 
t GeoL Mag, for 1885, p. 298. 



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LOWER GRBENSAND. 



21 



Fitton, 1845. 
(Atherfield.) 

XIV. Ferruginous beds oF 

Blackgang Chine 
XIII. Sands of Walpen 
Undercliff - 
XII. Foliated clay and sand 
XL Cliff-end sands 
X Second Grrypheea bed - 
IX. Walpen and ' Ladder 



Geological Geological 

Survey, 1887. Survey. 

(Isle of Wighti) (8.E. England.) 



VIII. Upper Crioceras group 
VII. Walpen clay and sands 
VI. Lower Crioceras group 

V. Scaphites group 
IV, Lower Gryphaea bed - 
m. The Crackers - 
II. The Atherfield Clay 
L Perna Mulleti bed 



>^ 



Sands. \HytheBeds. 



- C 
. B^ 

- A 



Atherfield 
Clay. 



Atherfield 
Clay. 



These divisions pass one up into the other^ without any sharp 
line of demarcation, except in the case of the Sand-rock Series 
and the Carstone. Here tlie boundary is rather more sharply 
defined, and can be followed with little difficulty through the 
central parts of the Island. The Carstone everywhere passes up 
into the Gault. 

In describing the Lower Greensand it will be convenient to take 
the localities in order from west to east as before^ commencing with 
Compton Bay. 



CoMPTON Bat. 

The base of the Lower Greensand in Compton Bay is not seen 
in situ in consequence of a great slip of Atherfield Clay and of 
the upper Wealden beds described on p. 8. It is not difficult, 
however, to find among the ruins masses which show the junction 
as clearly as if it were in place. The following details were noted 
in a fidlen mass : — 



Atherfield Clay - Clay, mottled red and grey. 

{Calcareous and ferruginous 
grit, vnth Modiola, &c. 
Green sandy clay 
Wealden Shales - Blue paper-shale, broken up 
into a breccia for a distance 
of about 1 foot below the 
base of the Lower Green- 
sand . - - 



Ft. In. 



1 






9 



3 + 



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22 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



In every case where the junction was exposed, the same 
brecciated appearance in the surface of the Wealden Beds was 
observable, sometimes extending to a depth of 2 feet into the 
Wealden. There can be little doubt that it indicates that a 
certain amount of erosion of tliese beds took place before the 
Lower Greensand was deposited. In addition to the particles of 
quartz which give to the Perna Bed its gritty character^ there 
are in it small rolled phosphatic nodules. 

The Atherfield Clay, excepting the top beds, can be seen only 
as a flowing mass of pale-blue clay, with phosphatic concretions. 
Its thickness consequently is difficult to determine, but so far as 
can be judged it is like the other beds considerably thinner than 
at AtherfieTd, and may be estimated at about 60 feet. 

The succeeding beds are clearly exposed, and are shown in 
descending order in the following detailed section : — 



Carstone, 
6 ft. 



Sand>rock 

Series, • 

81 ft. 6 ins. 



Ferruginous 
Sands, 
251 ft. 6i ins, 



.1 



Compton Bay, 

Brown sand, with 3-inch pebble-band at the base, 
containing rounded quartzite pebbles up to 
} inch in diameter, some phosphatic pebbles, and 
many pieces of wood. Cylindrical phosphatic 
nodules also occur .... 

Blue clay ------ 

Pebble-band with quartzites, &c., 0-3 inch 

Grey and greenish sand, with a layer of pyritised 
wood 8} feet from the top, and scattered frag- 
ments near the top, about 12 J feet 

Pebble-band, as above, 6 inches - . - 

Bright-yellow sand, with an irony seam at the' 
base --.--. 

Clean white sand and blue clay, interbedded in 
wavy laminse, and giving out copious chaly- 
beate springs ('' foliated series") 

Clayey ^it, weathering green, with a band of 
quartzite pebbles, 5 inches thick, at the base - 

White sand like gannister ... 

Dark sand and clay intermixed, with much vege- 
table matter in the upper part, and looking 
like a rootlet-bed* .... 

Band of small quartzite pebbles - . - 

Sand like gannister .... 

VeiT black and sooty-looking sand or silt 

Lighter do. striped 

Band of soft yellow rolled phosphatic nodules^ 
with some quartzites .... 

Lighter coloured and striped *' sooty " sand, with 
many small soft yellow phosphate pebbles near 
the base ..... 

" Foliated ** sand and clay as above, passing 
down into paper-shale . - . - 

fVery green gntty sand, with hard pale-yellow 
phosphates, some cylindrical, some rounded - 

Brown sandstone . . . . 

Green grit as above . . . . 



Ft. In. 



6 
2 



^13 



10 



56 



26 





2 





3 








3 


5 





7 


8 


10 






\\ 



4 

5 8 



* This and the other dark sands were tested by Mr. C. Tookey for manganese, 
but found to contain none. The colouring matter appeared to be carbonaceous. 

t This and !tbe spven bods following it crop ont in the west side of Compton 
Chine. Its green colour is due to an abundance of grains of glauconite. See p. 255 
ioT an analysis of a specimen from this bed. 



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LOW£R O&EEMSAND. 



23 



Atherfield 
Clay, 
60 ft. 



Brown sandstone . - - - 

Green and ^rey silty sand^ with fucoidal markings 
Brown sandstone ... 

Green and grej silty sand, with fucoidal markings 
Brown sandstone, with smaU pebhles and pieces 
of lignite scattered throughout; an imper- 
sistent band of silty sand in the middle 
Green silty sand, passing down - 
Clay .----- 
Brown and red grit, made up largely of rounded 
grains coated by iron oxide ; forms the cliff 
east of Compton Chine ... 

Yellow sand, much fretted by the weather in the 
upper part . - . - . 

Pale-green sandy clay, with light-grey nodules 

containing fossils, and passing down into 
Yellow sand, clayey in parts ... 
Grey silt^ sand, with bands of soft yellow sand- 
stone below . - - - - 

Pale-blue clay with Pema Bed at the base ; esti- 
mated at - - - - 



Ft. 
^ I 
B 1 

1 
1 2 

1 


In. 
•2 





42 

11 

3 



6 



54 





20 





10 
15 






21 





. 60 





399 


Oi 



The precise correlation of the beds in this section with those 
of Atherfield is impossible. As will be seen subsequently, the 
beds are not only very much thinner^ but have changed their 



Fig. 7, 
The Sand-rock Series in Compton Bay. 




a. Soil and graTcl. 

b. Gault. 

c. Carstone, or femigincus grit. 

d. Pebble sand. 

e. Blue clay and sand, with small pebbles 

and lignite. 
/. Bright yellow sand. 



g, Ochry band. 

h, i, k, I. Blue clay and white sand 
interlaminated in varying propor- 
tions. 

m. Chiefly sand, throwing out much 
chalybeate water. 

«. Very green and gritty clay. 



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24 



GEOLOGY OP THB ISLE OF WIGHT. 



charactera. Fossils are also comparatively scarce in Compton 
Bay, Dr. Fitton identified a '^mass of brownish clay and sand *• 
which lies next above the Atherfield Clay, as the Lower Lobster 
Bed, or the lowest part of the Crackers sub-division of Atherfield, 
and a prominent portion in the lower part of the brown and red 
grit as the Lower Gryphaea bed of Atherfield. 

The upper beds present a general resemblance to those which 
form the upper part of Bhckgang Chine, though they are very 
much thinner, and contain none of the bands of sand-rock which 
form so distinctive a feature in that chine. The abundance of 
water strongly impregnated with sulphate of iron, which issues 
from them, is a noticeable feature. As will be seen, the chalybeate 
spring near Blackgang issues from the same beds, llie annexed 
wood-cut (Fig. 7) represents the general arrangement and 
appearance of these upper beds in the cli£ 



Athebfield. 

The Lower Greensand here attains a greater development than 
in any other part of the Isle of Wight, and has yielded a rich 
suite of fossils. Its thickness has been variously estimated at 
808 feet by Dr. Fitton, at 833 feet by Ibbetson and Forbes,* and 
at 762 feet 11 inches by Mr. Simms. The description of it will 
be taken from west to east, that is in ascending order of the 
strata. 

The Atherfield Clay and Pema Bed. 

After leaving Compton Bay the Perna Bed is not seen again 
till we reach Cowleaze Chine. It is here well exposed under the 

Fig. 8. 
Pema MuUeti^ Desh. 




* The thickness giren by these authors is 843) but the total obtained by adding 
np the figures given in their table is only 833. 



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LOWER GREEN8AND. 25 

bridge by which the military road crosses the chine. It re- 
appears in the top of the cliff 300 yards south of the chine, and 
slants down thence to the beach 150 yards east of Atherfield 
Point, the dip, as calculated from the heights and distances on 
the Ordnance Map, being 1 in 24, or about 2^°. 

The section of this bed in the cliff is frequently obscured by 
the slipping of the Atherfield Clay, but is now (1887) admirably 
exposed 250 jrards north-west of the point. 

Section of the Perna Bed near Atherfield Point, 

Ft. In. 

"Calcareous and ferruginous stone, with many 



Perna Bed s 



fossils 2 6 

Blue fossiliferous clay, based bv a gritty seam 
with phosphatic nodules and fish-remains. 
PanoptBa occurs in the clay in the position of 
growth - - - - - 2 7 

Wealden Shfdes (see p. 14). 

6 1 

The brecciation of the top bed of the Wealden, which has 
been described at Compton Bay, is not observable here, but the 
line of demarcation between the blue purely argillaceous shale, 
with its numerous bands of fresh or brackish water shells, to the 
rather sandy clay with numerous marine forms, is sufiGiciently 
striking. The gritty base of the clay, moreover, points to some 
erosion having taken place. The grit varies in thickness rapidly, 
and is sometimes absent. Dr. Fitton, in allusion to it, remarked 
that ^Hhe remains of fishes, chiefly teeth and small fragments of 

Fig. 9 
Exogyra sinuata. Sow. 




bones, are mixed with coarse quartzose gravel at the bottom of 
this bed [the Lower Perna Bed] ; and occurring thus immediately 



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26 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE Or WIGHT. 

over the Wealden, or even in contact with it, it is not unreason- 
able to suppose that the fish were killed by the change from fresh 
water to salt."* Remains of fishes were identified by Sir Philip 
Egerton, and a small Saurian phalanx by Professor Owen. 

The Pema Bed was so named by Dr. Fitton in consequence of 
its containing great numbers of Perna MuUeti, Desh. (Fig. 8), 
which has not been found in any of the other beds. Exogyra 
{GryphtBo) sinuata also occurs in abundance and of a large size. 
The rest of the fossils will be found distinguished in the fossil 
list on p. 261. 

The Atherfield Clay, which was also named by Dr. Fitton, is 
of a pale-blue colour, and, unlike the Wealden Shales, is devoid 
of lamination ; it contains numerous flat concretionary nodules. 
^' Among the fossils the most common in the lower portion is 
Pinna robiiiaidvia, d'Orb. Ammonites are not unfrequent ; and 
the remains of a turtle . . . were obtained here." (Fitton, 
op. city p. 296.) The thickness of the Atherfield Clay is about 
60 feet, according to Fitton, but 99 feet according to Ibbetson 
and Forbes, who include the Lower Lobster Bed in the sub- 
division. 

The Lower Lobster Bed is an impure fuller's earth, abounding 
in remains of Meyeria (Astiicus), from which fossil it takes its 
name. It is now grouped with the Atherfield Clay on purely 
lithological grounds, the natural base of the ferruginous sands 
which constitute the overlying group occurring above and not 
below the Lower Lobster Bed. The thickness of the bed is 25 
feet 6 inches according to Fitton, 29 feet according to Ibbetson 
and Forbes. 



The Ferruginous Sands. 

This division of the Lower Greensand attains a thickness at 
Atherfield of about 520 feet by Fitton's measurements, or 5u8 by 
those of Ibbetson and Forbes. 

The lowest bed of the group, bed No. 5 of Fitton, and named 
by him the Crackers, from the noise made by the waves in the 
slight rocky prominence formed by the rock, consists of coarse 
grey or brown sand, about 20 feet in total thickness. It contains 
two layers of ferruginous and calcareous concretionary masses, 
abounding in fossils. Some of the masses in the lower layer 
'^are 6 or 7 feet long, and a foot to 18 inches in thickness, and 
almost composed of Gervillia anceps (aviculoides), with Trigonia 
dcedalea, Ammonites DeshagesH, &c" (Fitton, op. ciLy p. 298.) 
In the upper layer Dr. Fitton noted coniferous wood bored by 
Teredoy and in the upper part of the sand, ThctiSy a large Astacus, 
and Ammonites Deshayesii. " In the lower part, great numbers 
of Panop<Ba {Myacitcs) plica ta. Sow., are found in it standing 



* Quart. Joum, Geol Soc, rol. hi. p. 294 (1847). 



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LOWER GREEN8AND. 



27 



obliquely upwards." Pinna occurs also in clusters. The promi- 
nence formed by this rock will be foiind at the foot of the cliff, 
600 yards east of the Coastguard Station. 

Fig. 10. 
PanojxBa plicatUy Sow, 




The overlying set of beds (forming the upper part of Fitton's 
Crackers Group, Nos. 6-10) embraces a thickness of about 40 
feet. It consists of brown clay, 16 cr 17 feet thick, in the lower 
part, and of clay mixed with snnd in the upper part. The beds 
are fossiliferous throughout, and are known as the Upper Lobster 
Beds, from the occurrence in them of remains of Meyeria {Astacus) 
vectensis. 

Fig. 11. 
GerviUia anceps, Desh. 




Group IV., or the Lower Gryphsea [Exogyra] Group of Fitton, 
has at its base a bed of rust-coloured sand about 21 feet thick. 
This is overlain by two feet of sand containing GerviUia (Perna) 
altsformis, but chiefly remarkable for the great abundance of 
Terebratvla selltty Sow., which, though ranging from the base of 
the Lower Greensand to the top of tlie Ferruginous Sands 
(Group XIV. of Fitton), is nowhere so numerous as here. 



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28 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

The bed with Exogyra sinuata, which FiG. 12. 

oomes to the shore under Atherfield ^ , i u a 
High Cliff, and forms a reef running Terebratulajella, Sow 
out through the beach about 350 yards 
west of Whale Chine, is next in suc- 
cession. It is about 10 feet thick, the 
lower part consisting of brown and 
reddish sand with spherical grains of 
oolitic iron-ore, and containing Pinna 
robinaldinay D'Orb., while the upper 
part forms the reef in which numerous 
large ExogyrcR are conspicuous. 

Group v., or the Scaphites group of Fitton, has a thickness of 
50 feet 4 inches, and may be divided into three beds, the lowest 
of which is brown and rust-coloured sand about 20 feet thick, and 
containing large Exogyra sinuata^ Ostrea carinata, &c., and at 
the bottom layers of Serpulce, Terebratults, &c. Nodules in 
layers containing Ancyloceras {Scaphites) gigas and A, Hillsii lie 
next above this sand, and are succeeded in ascending order by 
about 27 feet of dark-grey sandy clay, with the large Exogyra 
sinuata^ in the upper part. A reef containing conspicuous clusters 
of Serpul(B runs out from the cliff at this point 

Group VI., or the Lower Crioceras beds, contains several ranges 
of this fossil, imbedded in sand. The lowest range rises from 
the beach on the west of Whale Chine; the highest crosses 
the bottom of the chine. The group is 16 feet 3 inches in 
thickness. 

Group VII., the Walpen clay and sands, consists of a dark-green 
mud. at the vbottom, about 27 feet thick, with nodules including 
Exoqyra and Ammonites Martini, and of an upper division, clayey 
above and sandy below, about 33 feet thick, containing Panopcea 
(Myacites) mandibular Pinna robinaldina, and a Dentalium. The 
clay-beds of this group form the undercliff, on to which Ladder 
Chine opens. They rise from the beach about 200 yards east of 
the chine, cross Whale Chine, and reach the top of the cliff 
700 yards west of Whale Chine. Their position is always marked 
by the springs they throw out, except close to the east side of 
Whale Chine. 

Group VITI., the Upper Criocerafi beds, is 46 feet 2 inches 
thick, and contains four or more ranges of Crioceras Bowerbankii, 
with Ammonites Martini, GervUlia solenmdes, Terebratula selloj 
and Trigonia alceformis (T. vectiana, Lye). The top bed of the 
group rises on the east of Walpen Chine, crosses Ladder Chine, 
and may be seen in the chasm beneath it The whole group 
crosses Whale Chine also. 

Group IX., the Walpen and Ladder sands, consists of greenish 
and grey sand, about 42 feet thick, with a layer of lenticular 
masses of dark olive-green stone at the base, containing numerous 
fossils. About 6 feet higher up is a thin band, consisting for the 
greater part of Serpul<By apparently twisted together, associated 
with Terebratula sella and other fossils. 



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LOMTSli GREEN8AND. 29 

Group X., or the Upper Gryphsea group, includes about 16 feet* 
of sand, with 8orae clay. In the \inver 12 feet there arc several 
ranges of Exogyra sinuata, and nodules with Enallaster {Brissus) 
and Ammonites Martini, The ferruginous matter of tliis bed is in 
some places distinctly oolitic, like that of Group IV. The upper 
part of the group is a greenish sand with Exogyra sinuata, this 
being the highest point in the Atherfield section which has 
yielded that species. Small fragments of vegetable remains 
(Lonchopteris Mantellii) occur not only in these beds, but nearly 
throughout the entire formation. In the lower part of this 
group they are associated with Inoceramus* 

Group XL, the Cliff End sands, about 20 feet in thickneps, 
consists of sands with a thin bed of clay with Trigonia dcedalea 
in the lower part, and in the upper part of dark bluish and green 
sand, with niany cylindrical Btem-like and branching concretions, 
containing pyrites. 

Group XIL, the Foliated Clay and Sand, consists of thin alter- 
nations of clean greenish sand, with dark-blue clay, and much 
pyrites. The bed includes also lenticular masses of coarse 
current-bedded sand-rock. It is about 25 feet thick, and from its 
yielding nature forms an extensive undercliff on the west side of 
Blackgang Chine. But it is most clearly exposed to view on the 
buttress of rock which forms the south side of Walpen Chine, 
where, however, it can be reached from above only. The dip in 
this part of the section may be calculated by tracing this bed 
down to the beach. It amounts to 1 in 26, or a trifle over 2°. 

In general character this group is closely allied to the Sand- 
rock series, and it was correlated by Dr. Fitton with a bed which 
has been taken as the base of that series at Shanklin. Traced 
inland this bed passes by Pyle, Corve, and Kingston, cropping 
out at the foot of a marked feature all the way {postea, p. 30), 
and thence striking westwards seems to die way in beds 
distinctly of the ferruginous type. 

Group XIII., the sands of Walpen Undercliff, is about 97 feet 
thick. It has at its base a bed of loose white sand or sand-rock, 
about 10 feet thick, which rises to the top of the cliff on the south 
side of Walpen Chine. Above this bed, which he calls the First 
Sand-rock, Dr. Fitton noted the following in descending order : — 

Ft. In. 
Light green and yellowish sand, giving a bright-green streak 

under the pick •• - - - - 25 9 

Brown sand with Astarte Beaumontii, Pinna, Pecten, and 

Terebratula - - - - - -16 

Moist greensand - - - - - -12 6 

Sand, based by a coarse gravel with pebbles of quartz and 

Lydian stone - - - - - -298 

Above these are brown sands with polished particles of iron-ore, 
and sands with beds of dark-green or black coherent mud. 

♦ There are some slight discrepancies in this and other cases between the thick- 
giyen in the text and in the table of Dr. Fittou's paper. 



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30 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

Group XIV., t!ie Ferruginous heds of Blackgang Chine, forms 
the upward limit oF the fo^siliferous beds of the Lower Green- 
sand. The beds appear above the shore at a point 600 yards 
north-west of Rocken End, and form a vertical foot to tlie clifF 
as far jis Blackgan^ Chine. Here the underclift' formed by 
Groups XII. and Xlil. commences, and the harder beds of Group 
XIV., rising slowly in the cliff, form a step between this undercliff 
and a similar feature formed above by Gnmp XV. The cascade 
in the lower part of Blackgang Chine, which was ascertained by 
Fitton to be 91 feet in height, is caused by the comparative hard- 
ness of the ferruginous bands of Group XIV. This group crops 
out in the top of the cliff on the south side of Walpen Chine, and 
strikes thence in a bold escarpment through Pyle, Corve, and 
Kingston. 

The details of the group are given by Dr. Fitton as below : — 

Ferruginous Bands of Blackgang Chine, 

Ft. In. 

Ferruginous concretions, immediately above the cascade • 1 — 6 

Brown and yellow sand - - - - - 5 

Ferruginous concretions, with many vacant moulds of fossils, 

roost abundant near Walpen High-Cliff - - - 1 

Sand, with fossils - - - - - - 7 

Ferruginous sand-rock, with fossils - - - - 5 

19 6 

The species found in this group can be identified in several 
cases with those of the Perna Bed, at the very bottom of the 
Lower Greensand. Among them may be named Panopaa 
pUcata^ Sow., P. neocomiensis, D'Orb., Corbula striatula, Sow., 
Thetis minor, Sow., Trigonia caudata, Ag., Pinna rohinaldina, 
D'Orb., &o. 

The next overlying bed, forming the lower member of Fitton's 
Group XV., is a great mass of clay, between 35 and 40 feet thick. 
It occupies the shore For a distance of 350 yards, first rising into 
sight near a waterfall 200 yards north of Kocken End. It forms 
a step in the cliff as far as Blackgang Chine, where it widens 
out into an undercliff. The most convenient place for examining 
it will be found from 600 to 600 yards west of Cliff Terrace, near 
the top of the cliff, where the shale of which the bed largely consists 
has been cut back by wind and rain into a broad shelf, entirely 
bare of vegetation. This bed forms the top of the great division 
of the Lower Greensand, which we have named the Ferruginous 
Sands. ...'.! 

The Sand-rock Series. 

This series, like the other beds of the Lower Greensand, attains 
its greatest development in the southern part of the Island, its 
thickness being 186 feet by Fitton's measurements, or 208 by 
those of Ibbetson and Forbes, while at Compton Bay it amounted 
to 81i feet only. Here also it contains in their typical form 
those beds of slightly coherent white or yellow quartz sand. 



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LOWER QREEN8AND. 



31 



which form so conspicuous a feature in the upper part of Black- 
gang Chine^ and to which the name sand-rock is singularly 
applicable. Three distinct bands of this deposit occur, namely, the 
beds referred to by Fitton as the fourth, third, and second sand- 
rock. The second or lowest occupies the beach from Rocken i^^nd 
for a distance of 200 yards northwards ; but is partly concealed 
by slips of Chalk and Greensand. Thence it may be traced 
continuously to the top of the cliff 500 yards west of OUtf Terrace, 
where it is seen overlying the great clay-bed previously described. 
The third or middle bed, and the fourth at the top of the series, 
may be traced from the chalybeate spring to a point on the east 
side of Cliff" Terrace, where they reach the top of the cliff. 

The following descending section of the series was made in the 
neighbourh »od of the chalybeate spring, 600 yards south-east of 
Southland House : — 

Section of the Sand^rock Series near the Chalybeate Spring, 

Carstone (for details, see p. 57). Ft. 

Grey sand with wood, large concretions, and seams of clay; a 
line of quartz pebbles at the base - - - - 20 

Grey and yellow sand interlaminated with clay - - 7 

Current- bedded yellow sand-rock, with wood; thins away 
southwards (4th sand -rock of Fitton) - - - 14 

Laminated sand and clay, with wood ; throws out the chaly- 
beate spring - - - - - - 22 

A variable bed ; contains clay with partings of sand, some- 
times nearly all sand, and passes down into - - 16 

White sand-rock (Srd sand-rock of Fitton) about - - 25 

Variable sand and clay, with a ]ine of nodules about the 
middle ....... go 

White sand-rock (2nd sand-rock of Fitton) - - - 20 

184 

The interlaminated sands and clays in this section are identical 
in character with the ^* foliated bed " ^Q feet thick of the Compton 
Bay section (pp.22, 23), and like it throw out chalybeate water, 
derived doubtless from the decomposition of iron pyrites. 

The Chalybeate or Sand-rock Spring was first noticed about the 
year 1800. It was found to flow at the rate of 100 to 150 
gallons a day, and gave the following analysis* :-r— 

16 ounces yielded : — 
Carbonic acid ^i^, 3 cubic inches. 
Solid ingredients, dried at 180°, 80*5 f^rains. 

Grains. 



Sulphate of iron 
Sulphate of alumina 
Sulphate of lime, dried at 160° 
Sulphate of magnesia 
Sulphate of soda - 
Chloride of sodium 
Silica 



Temperature, 51°. Specific gravity, 1*0075. 



41 
Si- 
lo- 
s' 
16' 
4' 



107-4 



* Dr. Marcet, TratiB. Geo!. Soc.^ Ser. 1, toI. i. p. 218. 1811. 



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32 OEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

From the chalybeate spring eastwards the Sand-rock series is 
almost entirely concealed by the slipped Greensand and Chalk of 
the Underclifi'. The upper l)eds of the series are seen in a bold 
bluff between Rocken End and Knowles, and again in the lower 
part of the cliff below Niton. Here a white sandstone also is 
exposed above the beach, about 100 feet below, which seems to 
be the third sand-rock of Fitton. The last exposure occurs in 
Binnel Bay, where interlaminated sands and clays are e5cposcd at 
the base of the cliff. From this point eastwards there is no 
rock seen in place till we reach Monk's Bay at Bonchurch. The 
description of the Carstonc or uppermost sub-division of the Lower 
Greensand of this neighbourhood will be found on pp. 57, 68. 



Sandown to Bonchurch. 

The Atherfield Clay and Fcmigiwms Sands, 

Though nearly the whole of the Lower Greensand is exposed 
in this coast section, the beds are not so conveniently situated for 
examiiHttion as at Atherfield^ and have yielded far fewer fossils. 

The Pema Bed and Atherfield Clay rise from the beach near 
Sandown Pier in a low cliff, but are concealed by buildings; 
nor is the former exposed now at low water, as seems formerly to 
have been the case. The overlying beds consist of green grey 
and brown sands, so far decomposed as to render the identifi- 
cation of the groups of Atherfield impossible. But specimens 
of Crioceras were found by Captain Ibbetson in a quarry, not 
now identifiable, near the shore between Small Hope Chine (the 
north end of Shanklin sea-wall) and the Barrack Hill, Sandown. 
The horizon would seem to correspond approximately with that 
of the Crioceras ranges of Whale Chine. Some of the sands 
north of Little Stairs Point are very dark-coloured, and contain 
small fragments of wood impregnated with pyrites. 

At Little Stairs Point a fault is clearly exposed, a rare circum- 
stance in the lele of Wight The fault ranges about west-north- 
west, and throws the beds down to the south. Soon after passing 
this fault the beds assume a horizontal position, or nearly so, and 
we meet with the first marked bed in the section. It consists of 
ferruginous sandstone, studded with clusters of Exogyra sinuata 
and Ostreafrons (=0. prionota,) and identified by Fitton (op. cit. 
p. .31 7), with part of his Second Gryphaja Group X. Above it 
occurs a bed composed of alternations of dark slaty clay with 
greenish sand, which Fitton recognised as his Group XIL At 
the top of the cliff is an iron sand. 

Chalybeate water issues from these strata. The spring known 
as Shanklin Chalybeate Spa was first noticed by Dr. Fraser, 
physician to Charles 11. It has been analysed by Dr. A H. 
Hassall with the following; residt : — 



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LOW£B GREENLAND. 



33 



Chalybeate Spa, Shanhlin Esplanade, 
Chemical Composition. Combined as follows : — 



Total residue 

Idme 

Magnesia 

Potash . 

Soda 

Sulphuric acid - 

Chlorine - 

Iron 

Silica - 
Nitrof^en as nitrates 

and nitrites 
Free ammonia 
Organic nitrogen - 
Hardness. 9*30. 



Grains. 
23-46 per 

6-64 

1-90 

0-25 

2- 01 

2-81 

3-23 

103 

1-40 



0-01 



gallon. 



of 



Carbonate of lime 

„ magnesia 

„ prc^xide 
iron 
Sulphate of lime - 

,, magnesia 
Chloride of potassium 
,, sodium 
,^ magnesium 
Silica 

Volatile and combustible 
matter • 



7-66 
2-35 

2-13 
3-28 
1-32 
0*40 
304 
0-86 
1-40 



- 014 



The horizontality of the beds (exceptin^r in a very gentle anticline 
south of Little Stairs fault) is maintained as £eu- as Shanklin Chine. 
Here a south-south-westerly dip sets in, wliich gradually brings 
the upper strata down to the beach in succession, the an^le of dip, 
as calculated from the heights on the Ordnance Map, amounting 
to 1 in 30, or a trifle less than 2^. 

The strata last described contain oolitic iron ore, and are 
identified by Fitton with a part of \m Group XIII. They sink 
below the beach on the south of Shanklin Chine, and are 
succeeded upwards at a few feet distance by a richly fossiliferous 
bed, in which Fitton obtained Vermicularia, Serpula, Waldheimia 
\Terebratula) pseudq)urensis,Juteym., T. sella, Sow., Rhynchonella 
sulcata, Park. (T, multiformis , Fitton), Rhynchonella gibbsiana^ 
Sow. ( T. ffibbsiana, Fitton), and Anomia, Exogyra, Pecten, Lima. 
&c. Ten feet and eighteen and a half feet higher up respectively 
are two ranges of Exogyra sinuata, first discovered by Captain 
Ibbetson.* 

Next above these lies the sandstone which forms a reef called 
Horseledge by Fitton, f and which yields ferruginous nodules 
with Panopma pKcata, Sow., Trigonia alcsformis, Park., Thetis 
minor, Sow., Gervillia anceps, Desh., Terebratula sella. Sow., 
Rostellaria robinaldina, D'Orb. This was said by Fitton to 
resemble his Group XIV. 

A clay-band, 8 feet thick, which rises from the beach about 300 
yards north of Luccomb Chine, corresponds to the thick clay 
which lies next above the cascade in Blackgang Chine (the lower 
part of Group XV. of Fitton). It makes a small undercliff or 
ledge in the cliff, and crops out 300 yards south of Shanklin Chine, 
whence it may be traced through the brick pit at Lower Hide, by 
Apse Farm, to the brick pit, now disused, at Sandford. This 
bsmd forms the top of the Ferruginous Sands. 



* Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1844 (Sections), p. 43. 

t This seems to be the reef marked Yellow Ledge on the Six-Inch Ordnance Map, 
and is about 850 yards south of the reef marked as Horse Ledge. 

E 5C786. n 



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34 GEOLOGY OF THE I8LB OF WIGHT. 

It will be noticed that the fossiliferous group described above 
corresponds to beds at Biackgang^ In which only a few fossils 
occur. On the other hand, the strata between Little Stairs and 
Sandown^ though corresponding to richly fossiliferous beds at 
Blackgang, have yielded no fossils. These differences are princi- 
pally due to the condition of the rock. Fossils are seldom pre- 
served in any part of the series near the surface of the ground^ 
but only in the deep-seated strata that are exposed at the foot of 
the cli£»9 and the weathering of the beds, which has reached a 
depth varying according to local circumstances, has extended 
below the level exposed in the Sandown cliffs. This weathering 
consists chiefly in the replacement of carbonate of lime by car- 
bonate of iron, and the conversion of the latter into peroxide of 
iron, the effect being to destroy the coherence of the rock and 
to impart to it a brown colour. The original condition of the rock 
was probably that of the hard sreyish and calcareous concretions, 
in which alone fossils are found in perfection, even at Atherfield. 



The Sand^rock Series, 
This division is finely exposed in the cliffs from Bonchurch to 
Knock Cliff. Its base is very clearly marked by the ledge or 
undercM formed by the day last described. A second, but 
smaller ledge, is formed by a bed of very green clayey grit, at 
times more clay than grit, which lies about 20 feet higher up. A 
descending section is as follows : — 

Sand-rock Series at Luccamb and Knock Cliff. 

Cimtone (p. 59). Ft. 

fBright yellow and white sand with kininaa 
of blue clay in planes of current-bedding. 
A few bands of very green sand throwing 
Sand-rock Series ^ ^?* chalybeate water - . .35 

^ White and grey sand - - - 60 

Very green clayey grit, forming a ledge in 
the cli£P, and throwing out water - 8 

I White and ashy grey sand and sand-rock - 20 
Ferruginous Sand^ so. 



113 



The lower part of the series may be most conveniently studied 
at the top of Knock Cliff, and in Luccomb Chine. The upper 
beds are accessible in the cliff between Luccomb and Bonchurch, 
the last exposure being in Monk's Bay. The inland sections of 
these beds in the neighbourhood of Shanklin are unusually good, 
and will be described subsequently (p. 46). 

Sandown to Culveb Cliff. 

The position of the base of the Lower Greensand is marked 
here as in Compton Bay by a great founder of the cliff, and at the 



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LOWEB GBEElfSAND. 



35 



present time (1887) the junction is easily accessible throughout 
the greater part of the hollow from which the slip has taken place. 
The section of the Pema Bed is similar to those which have been 
described before. The base line of the Lower Qreensand is sharp 
and definite^ the lower beds are conglomeratic, and the surface 
of the Wealden Shales shows signs of disturbance and slight 
erosion. Lastly, the fossils characteristio of each formation are 
found close up to, but never transgressing the boundary. The 
Pema Bed is not only visible in the cliff, but reappears in the 
foreshore below Eedcliff Foot^ and forms a long straight reef 
running out to sea a little south of east. 

Southwards from the slip caused by the Atherfield Clay, the 
cliff consists of ferruginous sands and becomes mural, continuing 
so until the softer beds of the Sand-rock series are reached. On 
the yellow and white sands and blue clays of this series there rests 
a great thickness of Carstone, which passes up into the Gkult. 
A small fault crosses the cliff at an oblique angle at this pobt, 
running W. 30° N., and throwing the beds down to the north. 
It is best seen in the base of the Carstone, which it crosses about 
half way up the cliff. 

' The Gault forms a small gully descending the cliff obliquely, 
and occupied by a footpath. This formed a convenient starting 
point for the following, section ; — 



Section of the Lower Greensand at R^dcUff. 



Carttone, 
72 ft. 9 ins. 



\ 



Sand-rock Seriea, 

base uncertain, 
about 93 ft. 6 ins. 



Gault; blue micaceous clay passing down into 

'Brown oayey grit, becoming more ^ 

below ; small scattered pebbles, and a line 
of pale phoBphatic concretions made up of 
grit and grains of iron oxide 9 feet fiom 
tbe top - - - - 

Pebbly band, with small quartzites •« 
Brown sand with many scattered <}uartzite 
pebbles, and phosphatic concretions as 
above at several horizons. Wavy lines 
of iron oxide, and some beds with many 
grains of oxide • • « . 

^L<XMe brown sand and grit ... 
"White sand and blue clay interlaminated 

Do. with occasional lines of blue clay 
Striped sand and clay . ^ • 

Do. chiefly clay and veiy 

sulphury - - - - - 

Seam of iron oxide - . . . 

Bright-yellow and white sand, with ferru- 
ginous band at base ... 
Grey striped sand and day . . - 
White sand . - - - . 
''Blue and striped sandy day (P=40 feet clay 
ofBlackgang) . • . . 
Hard biown sandstone ... 
Grey sand, " soot-coloured " • 
Pebbly bands, containing small quartzites, 
phosphates, and iron oxide 



Ft. In. 



10 



3 
6 


60 
2 

12 

32 

9 









4 




6 


31 
2 

3 







21 
3 
6 



6 




2 



2 



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36 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE or WIGHT. 



FerruginousSancU, i 
about 367 ft. Gins.*^ 



Atberfield Clay, 
83 ft. 4 ins. 



Dark-green or bluish clay and sand - 
Ferruginous pebbly band with small phos- 
phates and pebbles of iron oxide • 
Soft yellow sand . . . - 

Dark clayey sand - - - - 

Pebbly band, containing many rolled phos- 

phatic casts of ammonites and bivalves 
PuJe-brown ferruginous sand . - - 

Pebbly band, with small quartzites and 

numerous flakes of iron oxide 
Pale-brown sand with flakes of iron oxide - 
Brown pebbly grit with small quartzites and 

grains and flakes of iron oxide 
Loose pale-fpreen sand ... 

Greenish gnt with many wavy seams of iron 
oxide - . - . - 

Brown and green gritty sand 
Dark-green or nearly black clayey sand 
Brown sand with niakes and grains of iron 
oxide - . . - - 

Greensand, with a vivid green streak ; lines of 
clav occasionally ; a layer of broken oysters 
9 ft. from the base. Forms a smooth 
vertical wall - . - - 

Brown and reddish brown sandstone with 
grains of iron oxide veiv abundant about 
20 feet from the top ; forms the cli£f on 
which Redcliff Fort stands 
Green sandy clay with wood and a line of 
large nodules . . - . 

Fine and very clavey sand with wood ; lines 
of nodules in the upper part, and veins of 
iron oxide - - . . • 

Seam of brown iron oxide ... 
Fine grey clayey sand ... 

Band of blood-red iron oxide 
Fine gre^ clayey sand . . . 

^Fine white clayey sand - . - 

Pale-blue day with pale-blue nodules, 
weathering brown ... 

'Calcareous and ferruginous grit with 
many fossils, 1 ft. 6 ins. to - 
Passing down into pale-blue sandy 
clay with fossils . - . 

Impersistent grit, with scales and 
bones of fish and phosphatic pebbles, 
some of which are rolled ammonites 
and bivalves ; about 
Pale-blue sandy clay with fossils 
Grit, as above * . - - 



Ft. In. 
1 



'^ 09 



Lc 



1 


6 


6 


6 


6 








4 


3 








2 


11 





4 





17 





3 





3 





6 






68 



60 



14 





2 





14 








5 


2 








1 


10 





2 






77 
2 
3' 6 



3 
6 
OJ— 1 



617 1 



It will be observed from this section that the thickening of the 
Carstone, which was noted between Compton Bay and Blackgang, 
and still more between Blackgang and Shanklin^ is still progressing 
in an easterly direction. The Sand-rock Series and Ferruginous 
Sands on the contrary, as previously noted, thicken in a southerly 
direction. In the series of comparative sections forming Plate III. 
these differences are clearly presented. 



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LOWER GREENSAND. 37 

The occurrence of a band of rolled phosphatic nodules in the 
upper part of the Ferruginous Sands has attracted the attention of 
several observers.* The nodules seem to be on the same horizon 
as those noted at Compton Bay, but in the *'coprolite bed" 
4 inches thick at Bedcliif, are larger, harder, and better preserved. 
Among the specimens Mr. Keeping identified Ammonites biplex, 
Sow., A, cordatus, Sow., Pleurotomaria sp., Cardium striatulumf 
Lucina sp., Myacites sp., Cytherea ruyoiaf Area contracta, Phill., 
all being fragmentary and much rolled. There occurred also 
quartz! te and other pebbles, as large as walnuts. 

Up to the present this bed has not been discovered near Shanklin 
or at Black^mg, nor is its horizon marked by any break in the 
sequence of the strata. It was probably a near-shore deposit, and 
did not extend southwards in the direction in which presumably 
the deeper portions of the Lower Greensand sea lay. Near 
Godalming, on the contrary, it is largely developed according to Mr. 
Meyer, who describes it as resting on an apparently eroded surface 
of the sands beneath, and as constituting a well-marked basement- 
bed to an upper division of the Lower Greensand {op. cit^ p. 10). 



PuNFiBLD Cove. 



Before quitting the description of these fine cliff sections of the 
Lower Greensand, we will briefly notice the sequence of beds in 
Punfield Cove. Lying 20 miles west of the Isle of Wight, this 
locality gives further opportunity of observing the changes in the 
strata which we have already seen in progress within the limits of 
the Island. 

The section of the Lower Greensand in Punfield Cove is as 
follows. (See also Plate III.) :— 

Ft. In. 
Gault. , , ^ 

Carstone, seen only in lumps lying about i apparently about 
" Yellow sand, not well seen, about - 
Very sandy dark clay with selenite (perhaps the 
thick clay of Blackgang) - - - - 

White sandstone with white quartz pebbles 
Brown sandstone, and yellow sandstone with shales 
Interlaminated sands and clays, the latter traversed 
by numbers of small tubes filled with sand 
(? worm-burrows) - - - 

Ferruginous sand and hard sandstone with Leda - 
Interlaminated sands and clays with some thicker 

bands of yellow and white sand - - - 61 

Limestone with wavy seams of lignite and many 
fossils (the " Marine Bed " of Professor Judd), 
variable, but about - - - - 10 







4 


10 





16 





20 





15 





15 





12 






♦ Meyer, On the Lower Greensand of Godalming. (Ge<%i«C'« As$ot,)^ 1S69. 
Woods, Oeol Mag, for 1887, p. 46. 



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11 



Pema Bed -< 



38 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

Ft. In. 

Reddish cla^, becoming pale-blue below, very fos- 

siliferous in the lower part - . - 28 

Soft yellow sandstone, with a few fossils - -10 

Pale-red clay^ bluish in parts, a few fossils - 8 6 

Four bands of very hard grey sandstone ; no fossils 2 9 

•a w J Red clay, a few fossils in the lower part - - 6 

-2 \ TDark-green sand, with small pebbles 

and grit, many fossils - • 1 

Pale-blue sandy clay with many small 
pebbles (rolled bivalves. Ammonites, 
&c.)> and larger pebbles of sandstone, 
1^ wood, Ac, at base ; many fossils - 2 
Wealden Shales (see p. 9). 

198 5 

The lumps of Carstone contain many pebbles, up to half an 
inch in length. Its thinness is in accordance with what has been 
indicated ia the Isle of Wight, where it thins from about 70 feet 
at Sandown to 30 feet near Bonchurch, to 12 feet near Blackgang, 
and to 6 feet in Compton Bay. 

The Sand-rock Series is not easily distinguished unless the 
dark clay with selenite, 15 feet thick, be taken as the represen- 
tative of the thick clay of Blackgang Chine (35-40 feet thick). 
A large part of the Ferruginous Sands has assumed a character 
which in the eastern part of the Isle of Wight is seen only in 
the Sand-rock Series, namely, that of interlaminated white sand 
and blue clay (the " foliated sands and clays " of Fitton). In 
Compton Bay this change is foreshadowed by the appearance of 
thin beds of this type, interstratified with ferruginous sands, 
considerably below the base of the Sand-rock Series. 

The very fossiliferous limestone, 10 inches thick, corresponds 
in position with the Crackers, the most fosslliferous zone in the 
Atherfield section. 

The AtherfieW Clay presents no unusual features, except that 
there are beds of sandstone at two horizons in it The recog- 
nition of the Perna Bed, and of the usual sharply defined line 
dividing it from the Wealden Shales, was a satisfactory point 
The rolled phosphatic pebbles in the Pema Bed are slightly 
larger and more abundant at Punfield than in the Isle of Wight, 
and more frequently recognisable as the casts of bivalves and 
Ammonites. This, as well as the changes in tibe overlying beds, 
indicates that in working westwards we approach the old shore 
line of the Lower Greensand sea. 

The fossils in the following list, except where otherwise noted, 
were collected for the Survey by John Rhodes, and have been 
identified by Messrs. G. Shannon and E. T. Newton. The 
specimens marked thus * are inserted on the strength of their 
having been recorded from the " Marine Bands of Punfield ** by 
Prof. Judd in the Quart. Journ, Geol Soc, vol. xxvii. p. 215. 
Those marked t are added on the authority of Mr. Meyer, ibid', 
vol xxviii. p. 262 and vol. xxix. p. 73. 



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LOWER 0BEEN8AND. 



39 



Fossils from the Lower Greensand of Pur^ldU 
The Atherjield Clay and the limestone above it 



Wood. 

Crustacean, fragment. 
•Serpula. 

^Terebratula sella. Sow, 
tAnomia Isvigata, Sow, (collected 

by the Survey slso). 
fArca cornueliana, D*Orb. 

* ,i oymodyoe, H. Coquand 

t „ Raulini, Leym, 
„ sp. 
•fAstarte, sp. 

tCardita neocomiensis, UOrh, 
tCardium (Area) Austeni, Forbes. 
•f „ imppessum. Desk, 
t ,f subhillanum?, Leym. 
(collected by the Survey also). 
Corbula striatula ?, Sow, 

fCypnna, sp. 

fCytherea parva, Sow. 
•fMogyra Boussingaultii, D^Orh, 
^f „ sinuata. Sow, 

t ,> tpmbeckiana, If Orb, 

*Isocardia nasuta, H. Coq. 

* » sp. 

*Leda scaphoides, P. and C. 
Lima, sp. 
fLucina, sf). 

*Modio]a giffreana, P. and JR. 
f „ simplex, Leym. 
*OrthoBtoma Verneuili, Vil, 
^-Ostrea Leymerii, D*Orb. 
' 'Panopasa neocomiensis, Leym, 

„ Prevosti, Leym, 

„ sp. (=sP. plioata, var. of 
Atherfield). 



fPecten (Neithia) neooomieusis, 
lyOrb. 

t f, M robinaldinus, 

lyOrb, 



t 



If BP. 

If >, (venr small). 

*Pema nuiliniana, P. andR, 
^fPholadomya semicostata, Ag, 

„ sp. 

*t?licatnla aspenima, D*Orb. 

t „ carteroniana, D'Orb, 

fSolecurtus Warburtoni, Forbes, 

*TeUuia? gibba, H. Coq. 

t „ vectiana, Forbes. 

fThetis lovigata, B'Orb. 

fTrigonia (Athei^eld sp.). 

fVenus, sp. 

*ActsDoneDa oliviformia, if. Co^* 

*Act8Bon Esquarsd, De VemeuU and 
De Lorihre, 

• ,, pradoana, De V. and De L. 
•Cerithium Pailleti,i)c V, andDeL, 

• „ Vilanovro, De V. and De L, 
*Fusn8 ? neooomiensis, D*Orb, 

*tNatica Issvigata, Desk. 

• „ pradoana, VU. 
*Neritop8is minima, De V. and De L. 
*Pleurotoma UtriUasi, De V, and 

DeL. 
*Trochtts Esqueras, De V. andDeL, 
•Turritella Toumali, H, Coq, 
•Vicaiya Liqani, De V, and Coll, 

• „ pizauetana. Ft/, (collected 

by the Survey also). 

• „ Pradoi, De V. and De L, 
Ammonites Deshaysii, Leym, 

*Lamna (teeth). 
•Pycnodus (teeth). 



A band of soft sandstone in the Atherfield Clay. 



Area Raulini, Leym, 
Exogyra, sp. 



Fanopsaa plicata, Sow, 
Solecurtus (oast of). 



The Pema Bed. 



Multizonopora rimosa, D'Orb, 
Area comeueliana ?, If Orb, 

„ Raulini, D'Orb. 
Astarte, sp. 

Avicula depressa, Forbes, 
Gardita fenestrata, Forbes, 
Cardium subhillanum, Lewn, 
Cypricardia undulata ?, UOrb. 



Exogyra subplicata, Rom. 
lima lingua ?, Forbes. 

„ sp. 
Lucina, sp. 
Panopsda plicata, Sow, 
Peoten interstriatus ?, Leym, 
P. ^uinquecostatus. Sow, 
TeUina, sp. 



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40 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



CHAPTER IV. 

LOWER GREENS AND— confmiierf. 

Inland Sections. 

(1.) AxoNG THE Central Downs. 

The Atherfield Clay. 

No section of any importance occurs in this division away from 
the coast, and the tracing of a base-line has consequently been 
a matter of some difficulty The clue to the position of the 
boundary is provided by the topographical feature and change of 
soil produced by the Ferruginous Sands above. 

The Ferruginous Sands and Sand-rock Series. 

These two groups will be conveniently taken together in de- 
scription. As previously remarked, they pass one into the other. 
Commendng our description on the west, we find the Ferruginous 
Sands rising into a characteristic escarpment, slightly lower than 
the Chalk Downs, which runs eastward from Compton Bay on 
the north side of Brook, Mottistone, and Brixton. The higher 
part of the ridge is formed by the iron-sand which comes down 
to the beach on the west side of Compton Chine. The more 
massive iron-sand which forms the cliff on the east side of 
Compton Chine crops out in the southern slope of the hiU, and 
gives rise to the terrace of deep-red sand on which Brook Church 
stands. The position q\' the Sand-rock Series is marked by the 
abundance of white sand in the soil. 

At Mottistone a ravine has been cut through the Ferruginous 
Sands. The top of the Atherfield Clay seems to occur at the 
Church. The clay is overlain by a great thickness of ferruginous 
clayey snnds with a marked bed of brown iron-sand, which seems 
to be the same as that on the east side of Compton Chine. 
At the top of the ravine the following descending section may 
be traced in beds which form the passage between the Sand-rock 
Series and tlie Ferrufrinous Sands : — 



Near the Long Stone^ Mottistone. 



White sand, about 
Ironstone ... 

Grey and " sooty " silt and sand 
Grev silt ... 

Red clay, grit, and sand 
Ferruginous grit « 

Dark "sooty "silt 
Ferruginous grits, &c. - 



Feet. 

20 

u» 

6 
10 

2 
12 



^i 



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LOWER GREENSAND. 41 

These beds are seen again, but less clearly, in the lane to 
Calboume by Black Barrow, this hill itself being composed of 
very fine white and grey sand of the Sand-rock Series. But the 
best section occurs by the road-side at Rock. There the Sand- 
rock Series consists of current-bedded crimson, pink, brown, buff, 
yellow, and whitish sand ; a beautiful combination of colours, the 
crimson being very rich. Above tliis sand lies a band of pebbly 
iron-stone constituting the base of the Carstone. 

The Lower Greensand escarpment is breached at Rock by the 
stream from Bottlehole Spring, but rises again on the east of this 
valley into a bold hiU, many of the lanes up which provide good 
sections. The upper boundary of the Atherfield Clay seems to 
run along tlie upper road in Brixton, and the strata next above it 
consist of yellovv sandstone, brown or reddish in places, and with 
a few thin clayey bands. At the foot of the steeper and unculti- 
vated part of the hill there runs a bed of deep-red iron-sand with 
abundant spherical grains of iron*oxide as well as rounded quartz 
grains, which seems to be the same bed that extends from the east 
of Gompton Chine under Brook Church. Immediately over it lies 
a bed of yellow and white sand, with wavy lamin» of clay, closely 
resembling the Sand-rock Series. This series, however, comes on 
nearer the top of the hill, where bright-pink, pale-red, yellow and 
white sand-rock is repeatedly exposed. 

The escarpment becomes insignificant south of Shorwell, where 
it is crossed by the stream from which this village takes its name. 
Yafford stands on the Atherfield Clay, but a slight rise in the 
ground, and the brown sandy soil indicate the base of the Ferru- 
ginous Sands, and show that the strike has changed to nearly 
south. Near Yafford Mill, a pit shows buff sand and loam 
overlain by a little gravel, and at Wolverton iron-sand rests on 
greensand, the dip being north-north-east at 10°. The Shorwell 
and Atherfield road-cutting near this farm is made through brown 
and green current-bedded sand at a slightly higher horizon ; while 
at Haslett brown sand appears with bands of ferruginous grit, and 
in the upper part a band of white sand. It is difficult to detect 
here the horizon of the iron-sand which we traced as far as 
Brixton. It might be expected to run near Wolverton, and 
through Smallmoor, connecting itself there with a well-defined bed 
which we shall subsequently follow up from near Blackgang. 

The sections in the Sand-rock Series are more numerous. The 
beds of rock, which become a noticeable feature above Brixton, 
increase in number and thickness eastwards, and form small 
features along the strike near West Court and Presford. They are 
jrenerally white, though tinged here and there with red or yellow. 
So abundant is the white sand soil on these strata that some 
of the fields on the east side of Bucks had the appearance of 
being partly covered with snow in the dry summer of 1887. 

The dip of the rocks in this neighbourhood has diminished to 
8^ and grows less as we proceed eastwards. The various sub- 
divisions accordingly each occupy a wider belt, and at the same 
time display more fully their characteristic features in the form of 



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42 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

the ground. The Ferrnginous Sands stretch away in a broken 
table-land to the cliffs of Atherfield and to the southern hills of 
the Island. The Sand-reck Beds form a series of rounded hills, 
capped by the Carstone, and frin^ng the more continuous escarp- 
ments formed by the Chert Beds of the Upper Greensand and by 
the Chalk, while a belt of ground, characterised by its gentle 
slopes and generally by its comparative lowness, marks the 
position of the Gault These features are all well displayed in 
the valley followed by the Chillerton road near Billingham. 
The best section in the Sand-rock Series occurs by that road-side ; 
the Ferruginous Sands are well exposed in the road-cuttings at 
Kingston. 

Near Cridmore the upper part of the Ferruginous Sands con- 
tains beds of bright-yellow and white sand, much like the Sand- 
rock Series, and making it difficult to decide on a boundary 
line. 

After passing the Medina, however^ the base of the Sand-rock 
Series is marked by a bed of coarse white quartz-grit The bed 
is seen south of the Star Inn and near Upper Yard, but more 
clearly in a small pit, 300 yards north-west of Birchmore. There, 
and in the road-cutting close by, it may be described as a fine 
gravel, so large are the grains of quartz. The sands above this 
bed are seen in a pit south of Pagham; they are white and 
current-bedded wili lenticular ferruginous beds. The few 
sections in the beds below show brown and yellow ferruginous 
sands. 

The next section occurs in the Sand-rock Series in the lane 
running east from Blackwater Station. Here white sand and 
Band-rock were formerly dug. The base of the series is marked 
by springs and other indications of clay-beds. The same beds 
are repeatedly exposed in the lanes about Marvel, and are now 
being dug in a large sand-pit in Marvel Wood, where the following 
section is exposed : — 

Marvel Wood Sand-pit. 

Fbbt. 
Carstone ; a ferruginous grit, cemented irregularly in bands by 
iron-oxide; some of the lower beds contain small pebbles. 
Top not seen - - - - - - -12 

^Grey sand with fragments of day, with the ap- 
pearance of being a reconstructed bed {see 
also p. 56), resting on the edges of the cur- 
rent-bedding planes of - - - 3 
White sand with lines of blue clay - - 30+ 

"45" 

The strata dip, so far as can be judged, to the south-west at a 
gentle angle ; but a few yards further on rapidly roll over and 
plunge down to the north. From this point eastwards the series 
runs in n narrow belt near and parallel to ihe central Downs of the 
Island. The centre of the anttclmal axis described above seems to 



Sand-rock 
Series. 



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LOWKB GRBBN8AND. 43 

Strike nearly eaet from Little Wbitcombe to the north side of 
Marvel Farm, and thence towards Horringford, where further 
evidence of its position may be seen. 

A large sand-pit at Standen provides the following section of 
the Sand-rock Series : — 



Standen Sand-pit 

Green and my sand, current-bedded 
Yellow sand-rock - - • 

Ironstone with a few small nebbles - 
Yellow and grey loamy sand and clay 
Dark-blue <&j ... 
Ironstone, about ... 
Grrey pebbly sand, passing down 
Loose yellow and white grit 
Fine sand .... 
Clay-bed - - - - 

Fine white sand-rock 



Ft. In. 

12 

2 

6 

10 

15 

6 

6 

12 

8 
6 

9 0+ 



76 6 



The bottom of the pit is probably abont 15 or 20 feet above the 
base of the Sand-rock Series, but a considerable thickness of beds, 
consisting in part of fine-grained buff and brown sand, occurs 
in the hill-side above, before we reach the base of the Garstone. 
The dark-blue clay may be IJie upper of the two clays seen near 
Shanklin, but correlation in so variable a series is mere guess- 
work. 

Almost the only section of the Ferruginous Sands in the Black- 
water valley occurs in the road-side near Stone, where green and 
ferru^nous sand and deep-brown sand with many grains of iron 
oxide, are exposed. Similar sands extend along the southern 
slopes of St George's Down. On the north side of the Down, 
300 yards south of Garrett's, a sand-pit has been opened near the 
top of the Ferruginous Sands; the beds exposed are dull-green 
sands with lines of soft concretions, and are traversed by several 
small faults, which run nearly east and west, and throw the beds 
down a foot or two to the south. The dip is northwards at 23®. 

The next sections occur near Arreton and Merston. A road- 
cutting south-west of the former place exposes red sand containing 
many grains of iron oxide, the dSp being north-east at 13% while 
300 yards north of Meiston Cross pale sand is seen, dipping 
south-south-west at 7^. Here then we have the continuation of 
the anticlinal axis, which we noticed at Marvel. Obscure casts of 
fossils occur in a band of ironstone on the road to Merston, 
600 yards south-west of Arreton Church. 

At Redway and near Horringford Station red and brown irony 
sand may be seen, the latter locality yielding specimens of Venus 
and other fossils according to Mr. Norman.* Apparently the 
same beds are exposed in the road in Newchurch. Here and 



* A Popular Guide to the Geology of the Isle of Wight, p. 56. (1887.) 



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44 OKOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

wherever elsewhere visible, namely, east of Wackland, and on 
Skinner's Hill, they are nearly horizontal, but the Sand-rock 
Series, on the other hand, near Heasley Lodge dips north at 20°. 
The anticlinal nxis therefore must run nearly along (or a little 
north of) the River Yar at Newchurch. 

At Knighton a little irregularity occurs in the trend of the 

g'eat central axis of the Island, in consequence of which the Lower 
reensand dips at a more gentle angle, and the characteristic 
features of its subdivisions are better shown. The Sand-rock 
Series is seen in a deep lane and pit, 400 yards east of Knighton 
Mill, and in many ppots around Kern, as a brown, red and 
white sand, while above it the Carstone makes a fairly pro- 
nounced feature. Good exposures of the Ferruginous Sands occur 
about Alverstone Farm and on the road to Brading. At the 
former place, grey and green sand passes under red and brown 
sand, with many grains of iron oxide. The dip is westerly at 
5°-10®, but sweeps round to north at 21** at Adgestone. Here 
then we fix another point on the line of the Marvel Anticline, 
and join it on to the fold which brings up the Wealden Beds of 
Sandown Bay. 

The dip of all the strata increases, and their outcrops become 
proportionately narrow near Yarbridge. A pit in the lowest of 
the Ferruginous Sands, near Morton Farm, shows brown sand- 
stone dipping north-north-east at 35°, while the Sand-rock Series 
appears in a pit and road-cutting 400 yards west of Morton 
as a white sand with traces of blue clay. 

(2.) Around the Southern Downs. 

In describing the Atherfield section we spoke of a bold escarp - 
ment or terrace formed by the ferruginous beds of Blackgang Chine 
(Group XIV. of Fitton), which runs through Pyle, Oorve, and 
Kingston. There are many sections in the roads descending the 
hill at these placea On the top and extending nearly to the 
brow of the terrace, soft, brown, buff, and white sand appears 
similar to the sand at Cridmore (p. 42), and approaching the type 
of the Sand-rock Series. Lower in the hill-side, greyish-green 
sand follows, weathering brown, and of considerable thickness. 
On descending to the foot of the escarpment, we find a line of 
springs and a belt of peaty ground marking the outcrop of a soft 
and clayey bed, doubtless the '* foliated sand and clay " of Walpen 
Chine (Group XIL of Fitton). The escarpment spoken of runs 
through Kingston, and, sweeping thence to the south-west round 
Gun Hill, points for Haslett and Wolverton, but becomes obscure 
in that neighbourhood. 

A second terrace is formed locally by a thick bed of red and 
brown sand with numerous grains of iron-oxide. This feature 
includes the bold brow known as Warren Hill, three quarters of a 
mile west ol' Corve, and stretches thence by Dungewood towards 
Small Moor. There, like the other terrace, it ako becomes 
obscure, so that whether it is a continuation of the bed which we 
traced by Brook Church must be left in doubt. 



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LOWER GBEENSAND. 45 

It will be noticed that the source of the Medina at Ghale Oreen 
is situated on the upper of these two terraces. The valley of the 
river gains in depth northwards^ while the strata, except for some 
very gentle undulations, remain horizontal. It is probable that the 
depth thus gained is eufficieni to let the stream reach the '^ foliated 
sand and clay/' and that this may account for the width of the 
alluvial flat ; but there is no section to prove it The hills are 
capped by buff and white sand, while their sides are formed of 
brown and grey sands with an occasional seam of iron-oxide. 

The Sand-rock Series is exposed at Chale Farm, Gotten, and 
at the north end of St. Catherine's Down, with its usual character 
of fine soft white sand. But its outcrop, though broad, is partly 
overspread by Gault, which, owing to the influence of percolating 
water, has flowed down over the intervening Carstone. 

We now enter the drainage area of the (East) Yar. Blake 
Down, here forming the watershed between this river and the 
Medina, is a long spur of the uppermost beds of the Ferruginous 
Sands, capped with flint-gravel As the river is about 100 feet 
below the highest strata of this spur, the ^^ foliated sand and 
clay" might be expected to be reached. There can be little 
doubt that this is the case, for :i terrace, closely resembling that 
of Pyle, Corve, and Kingston, runs through Godshill, north of 
Sandford, towards Lessland, and perhaps to Branston. From 
the foot of the bold brow which terminates this terrace at Gods- 
hill springs wander through wide peaty marshes, as at Corve, 
while the brow itself is composed of a ferruginous sand and 
greyish green sand, exposed to considerable depth in the road- 
cuttings. 

The lower beds of the Sand-rock Series are seen in a pit near 
Sibbecks, which gives the following section : — 

Fkrt. 

Soft sand with seams of clay - - - - 20 

Soft yellovir and white sand-rock (perhaps the third * 

sand-reck of Fitton) - - - - - 18 

Thin-bedded yellow and white sand with brown loamy 

partings - - - - - - 6+ 

Similar beds are seen in the grounds of Wydcombe, RedhiU, 
Fairfields, and under the gravel at Ford Farm. Near Itchall 
a pit exposes the top of the series, namely, white sandstone, 
more than fifteen feet thick, overlain by eight feet of Carstone. 
The base of the series is difficult to fix throughout the neighbour- 
hood of Chale Green, but a blue clay seen in the brook south 
of Roud, in the lane at Russell's Farm, and in the high-road 
north-east of this farm, is presumably the same bed which we 
have already noticed at the top of the Ferruginous Sands at 
Shanklin. 

The characteristic scenery produced by the Sand-rock Series 
and the overlying Carstone is admirably shown around Sainhani 
and Godshill Park. The base line of the Carstone, the beds beino" 
nearly horizontal, meanders round a number of short but deep 



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46 GBOLOGT OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

valleys, the sides of which are composed of bright-white sand and 
sand-rock. 

A. remarkably coarse grit has been already described as occur- 
ring at the base of this series near Blackwater; a somewhat 
similar bed may be noticed in a lane south of Sandford, but not 
elsewhere. The clay-bed of Roud, however, referred to above, 
seems to have been well developed at Sandford, where it was 
formerly worked for bricks, and where it is still exposed to 
a depth of 8 feet. An outlier of the Sand-rock Series occurs 
here, its top capped with gravel, its sides showing the usual white 
sand soil, while a line of springs around its base marks the 
position of the clay -bed. 

Crossing the Wroxall stream, we find a sand-pit near Winstone, 
showing 10 feet of white sand, and another by the side of the 
railway half a mile east of Winstone, presenting more than 18 feet 
of white sand with thin lines of clay. The neighbouring railway 
cutting is much overgrown, but reveals some white sand in the 
upper part. The base of the series is marked near Bill by a fall 
in the ground and the issue of springs. 

In Apsecastle Wood and the adjoining valleys, the features of 
the Sand-rock Series are finely shown, a remarkably good section 
having been opened out in the railway cuttings. We may con- 
veniently take up the description at the east end of the cuttings, 
where we left it in speaking of Shanklin. It will be remembered 
that two clay-beds occur in Kjiock ClifE. The upper appears 
to be the one worked in a brick-pit west of Gatten, where, how- 
ever, it seems to be impersistent. The lower bed is worked by the 
side of the railway at Lower Hide, where it is a stiff dark-blue 
clay. The sand between the two beds is dug in a pit on the opposite 
of the line, which exposes : — 

Feet. 
Brown irony sand - - - - -4 to 6 

f oarse grit or fine gravel - - - - 1 to 3 

White sand ------ 14+ 

The railway cutting commencing 500 yards east of Lower Hide 
gives a more complete section of these sands and of the upper 
clay, which has here again developed itself. A descending section 
runs as follows : — 

Railway Cutting three-quarters of a mile west of Shanklin. 

Feet. 

Dark clayey sand - - - - - 4 

Dark-green sandy clay with scattered grit and pyritised 

wood - - - - - - 15 

Brown pebhly and ferruginous grit with wood, about - \ 

White sand with black grains - - - - 2 

Hard brown pebbly rock - - - - 2 

Coarse brown grit with numerous concretions - - 5 

Grey sand or white sand with black grains - - 5 

White sand-rock with bright-yellow and brown staining 14 

Dark sands ------ 3-h 

50| 



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LOWER GBEBNSAND. 47 

The strata dip gently (at about 2° to 3^) a little to the south of 
west, and the green clay slopes down to the level of the rails in 
the next cutting. The sands lying upon this clay are dark and 
ferruginous, but are not well seen. 

The upper clay-bed, seen near Upper Hide, runs along the 
valley in Apsecastle Wood, where it has caused a good deal of 
slipping ; the lower clay-bed occurs at Apse Farm, but elsewhere is 
overspread by a downwash of sand. 

The Ferruginous Sands between these localities and the Kiver 
Yar form an undulating tract, in part overspread with river-gravel, 
but in part rising into flat-topped hills, capped with gravel. The 
dip, if any exists, is too gentle to be detected in the small sections 
that occur, except on Blackpan Common. 

The features of this tract suggest that the same beds which form 
the escarpments of Fyle and Kingston, and pf Qodshill, extend 
here across the valley of the Yar in a neck of about a mile in 
breadth. The base line of the beds on the east side of the neck 
seems to rim from the cliff near Little Stairs Point, by the west of 
Lake, past Borthwood, across the river near Alverstone, and thence 
eastwards. The western boundary which we have already traced 
through Godshill to near Branston, seems to be continued in the 
hiU on which Newchurch stands, and to trend thence eastwards, 
but all evidence of its position is lost in the valley. 



Izn)I0ATTON8 OP CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THE LOWEB 
GbEENSAND was DEPOSITED.* 

" At the close of the deposition of the Wealden, there appears 
to have been a sudden depression of the bed of the great fresh- 
water estuary, and an influx of the sea. The first effect of such 
an influx would be the destruction of the animals in the estuary 
not adapted for living in salt water ; hence we find a total de- 
struction of the Wealden animals, the remains of which accumu- 
late towards the point of the junction of that formation with the 
Lower Greensand, — a fact which indicates the nature of the 
change. Even the Cerithium [ Vicarya]y although belonging to a 
genus many species of which are capable of living in the depths of 
3ie sea, was destroyed, notwithetanding that its appearance, only 
in the uppermost beds of the Wealden, indicates that its presence 
there was due to the commencement of the very state of things 
which eventually destroyed it. That the depression was of some 
extent, though not, perhaps, of very many fathoms, is indicated 
by the nature of the animals which lived in the first-formed sea- 
bed, and which, when they died, were often embedded in the fine 
and probably fast-depositing mud, in the vertical position which it 



* On the Section between Blackgang Chine and Atherfield Point, by Capt. L. L. 
B. Ibbetson and Prof. Edw. Forbes. iVoc. Geol» Soc,, toI. iv. p. 409 (1844). 



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48 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

is the habit of animals of such genera as JPinna and Panopma to 
assume when alive.* 

" After this a temporary change followed, when an influx of 
sand, mingling with the calcareous mud, caused a state of sea- 
bottom peculiarly favourable to the presence of animal life. In 
this way were called into existence a multitude of species which 
were added to those which had appeared before them. This was, 
in fact, such a state of sea-bottom as is now presented by great 
shell-banks ; but it does not seem to have lasted lonsr, and new 
depositiont? of mud appear to have extinguished some forms^ whilst 
others suffered by the change only in the diminution of their 
numbers. In the midst of this muddy epoch, a temporary and 
peculiar condition of sea-bottom, forming what are now called the 
Crackers, called forth the presence of numerous mollusca, at first 
of various species of the genus Gervillia, and afterwards of 
Auricula [Avettand], Cerithiuniy Dentalium, and other univalves, 
which appear to have enjoyed but a brief existence (as species) in this 
locality, since similar conditions were never afterwards repeated. 
The greater number of the Grasteropodous mollusca of the English 
Lower Greensand are found within this very limited range. At 
the close of the deposition of this great mass of clay there was for 
a time a great multiplication of the individuals of certain Brachio* 
poda, which had commenced their existence in the lowest beds. 
Thus Terebratula Gibbsii [Rhynchonella ffibbsiand] suddenly 
appears in immense abundance, covering the bottom of the sea, 
and predominating over the animals among which it had previously 
been but thinly scattered. 

** This lowest zone of Terebratulce marks the commencement of 
a new state of sea-bottom where sands predominated over the 
clays, each interval of deposition being usually marked by the 
presence of a layer of Gryphma [Exogyrd] sinuata, the period of 
rest being almost always sufficient to enable the Gryphaa to 
attain its full growth. Other bivalves are found with it, but in 
comparatively small numbers, and not such as are of gregarious 
habits. During the whole of this period enormous Cephalopoda, 
including species of Crioceras and Scaphites [Ancylocera^ly fre- 
quented these seas, and when dead formed the nuclei round which 
calcareous and sandy matter collected and formed nodules. The 
death of these animals seems to have been connected with the 
periodical charging of the sea with sediment ; hence we find tiiem 
usually alternating with the zones of Gryph<Ba, and forming 
irregular bauds in the intervening sedimentaiy deposits. 

* '* Th« saxae decided change from dark-coloured fresh water marls containing 
Melanopsis (or Melania) [ Vicarya] and Cypris to marine beds, occurs round the 
edge of the Weald, and wa» very well exposed at Haslemere during the cutting of 
the London and Portsmouth l{ailway, a few years back. In company with Professor 
Uamsay and Mr. F. Drew, I examined the passage beds, and found in the brown 
clay abundant tracks of marine worms, and the PanopaOy vertical in their old 
buiTows, within au inch or two of the dark marls. A great Pemaf a coral {Holo- 
cystis elegans), and numerous other fossils, occur in plenty just above these." — 
J. W. Salter. See Geology of the Weald, p. 114 (^Mem. Geoi. Survey). 



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LOWER GBEENSAND. 49 

'^ In the inidst of tliid epoch of Grifphaa there is a sudden 
reappearance of the muddy deposits^ during the predominance of 
which those animals adapted for such a sea-bottom, and which 
had survived the deposition of the fullers' .earth, again multiplied, 
but the species which had become extinguished were not replaced 
by representative forms. This, however, did not last long, the 
sand again predominating with its zones of Gryph<Ea and lines of 
Crioceras nodules. 

"A temporary multiplication of Terehratnla sella suddenly 
marks a change in the zoological conditions, — for the Cephalopoda 
disappear, although the zones of Gryph<Bay which animal does not 
appear to have been affected by the change^ (probably a change in 
the depth of the sea,) go on as before, there being, however, no 
alternating lines of nodules. It would seem that the sea began to 
shallow, probably from elevation of the sea-bottom, until at last 
the GryphcBa itself disappears, the bands exhibit traces of the 
influence of currents, and become more gravelly ; lignites, indica- 
ting a shallow sea, become common, form belts in the ferruginous 
sand, and in one place a bed in the wavy blue sand, at a time 
when much iron was deposited. l?he deposition of the peroxide of 
iron appears to have been connected with the disappearance of the 
majority of mollusca, though Trigonia^ Thetis, and Venus occa- 
sionally occur in considerable numbers. In the uppermost strata 
scarcely any animal remains are found, and everything appears to 
indicate a barren and shallow sea, previous to a new state of 
things, when a fresh series of clays (forming the Guult) being 
deposited, the majority of the animal forms which characterise the 
clays of the Lower Greensand disappear, and are replaced by 
distinct species, representative in time." 

Correlation with the Mainland and the Continent. 

Dr. Fitton first pointed out the identity of the fossils in the 
Atherfield Clay of the Isle of Wight with those of a clay in 
Sussex and Kent,* which corresponded to the Atherfield Clay, 
except in the absence of the fossiliferous stone known in the Isle 
of AVight as the Perna Bed. The ^jalcareous nodules of the 
" Crackers Kock '' were considered by him to represent the 
thick limestone (Kentish Rag) of Hythe, Maidstone, &c. The 
Carstone and Sand-rock Beds of the present Memoir were identi- 
fied by him as the upper division of the Lower Greensand which 
he had described at Folkestone, that is to say, the Folkestone 
Beds of the Geological Survey ; while the great mass of beds 
intervening between the Sand-rock Series and the Crackers 
group were correlated with his middle division at Folkestone, 
now known as the Sandgate Beds. Lastly, he noticed that 
the Ferruginous Beds of Blackgang Chine (Group XIV.) and the 
corresponding bed of Horseledge, near Shanklin, contain the 
same species as are found in the Sandgate Beds at Farham Park 



* Proc, Geol. Soc., vol. iv. pp. 198, 208, and 896 (1843). 
E 56786. D 

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50 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

and other places in Sussex, and near Sandgate,* thus obtaining 
further evidence of the correctness of the correlations given above. 
According to Mr. Meyer t the coprolite bed at Redcliff (de- 
scribed on p. 37) corresponds to a pebble-bed at Godalming which 
he considered to represent "a break in the hitherto continuous 
deposition of the Greensand," and which he traced hj Dorking, 
Nutfield, and Maidstone towards Folkestone. This bed he took 
as the base of his Folkestone Beds or upper division of the Lower 
Greensand. It cannot, however, be followed through the Isle of 
Wight, nor, when present, is it accompanied by any appearance of 
a break. 

But while this line faib us, we find that the base of the Folke- 
stone Beds^ as drawn by the Gedbgical Survey, J corresponds well 
with the line at the base of the Sand-rock Series, which was inde- 
pendently selected as a boundary capable of being traced through 
the Isle of Wight. During the present year a brief visit was paid 
to that part of the Lower Greensand outcrop in the Weald, which 
lies nearest the Isle of Wight, for the purpose of comparing the 
strata in the two areas, the result being to confirm in every par- 
ticular the conclusions arrived at by Fitton. Lithologically, the 
brightly coloured clean quartz-sands of the Folkestone Beds at 
Fulborough, Midhurst, and Petersfield closely resemble the Sand- 
rock Beds of the Isle of Wight. In both Sussex and the Isle of 
Wight, moreover, these sands pass down into a group in which 
beds of shale are conspicuous, and which is more evenly bedded 
and more mixed with loam than the Folkestone Bed8.§ At 
Pulborough a band of shale, 30 feet thick, and taken by 
Mr. Gould as forming the top of the Sandgate Beds,|| corre- 
sponds closely in character and position to the thick clay-band of 
Blackgang Chine, and of the railway cutting near Shanklin, 
described on p. 46. The identification on the mainland, however, 
of the rock now mapped in the Isle of Wight under the name of 
Carstone is attended with some diflSculty. The description of 
this rock and its probable relations will form the subject of the 
succeeding chapter. 

The great development of beds of corresponding age on the 
Continent has been pointed out by Professor Judd,^ of whose 
conclusions the following is an abstract. The Rhodanien of 
Switzerland, which forms a complete link between Upper Neoco- 
mian (Aptien) and Middle Neocomian {Urgonien)y has been shewn 
by M. Renevier** to be the equivalent of the Pema Bed, Atherfield 
Clay^ and Crackers of the Atherfield section. Among the fossils 

* Quart, Jour, Geol Soc, vol. iii. p. 311. 1847. See also Geology of the 
Weald (Geological Survey Memoir), pp. 186, 137. 

t On the Lower Greensand of Godalming (^Proc. GeoL Assoc.), 1869, p. 10. 

i Geology of the Weald (Geological Survey Memoir), 1875, pp. 138-144. 

§ The difference is greater than appears at the first view of 8and-pit8 in the 
two subdivisions. The Folkestone Beds are used commercially for building sand, 
the Sandgate Beds for moulding purposes. 

II Geology of the Weald, p. 186. 

% Quart, Joum. Geol. Soc,, vol. xxvii. pp. 228-5. 1871. 

♦* Bull, de la Soc. G4ol. de France, 2me 8&. tome xii. p. 89. . 



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LOWEB ORE£NSAND. 61 

Ammonites Deshaysii, which occurs in the "marine band" at 
Punfield [the top of the Atherfield Clay] abounds in the higher 
beds of the Neocomian, but is not known in the Urgomen or any 
lower bed. Vicarya Lujani and several other of the Punfield shells 
are well-known and characteristic Rhodanien forms. 

In the east of Spain^ the upper and middle Neocomian rocks are 
greatly developed, and contun beds of coal and jet which are 
extensively worked. They are divisible into three series, namely : — 

An upper series of variegated clays and brightly coloured sands 
(crimson, grey, violet, and white), 600 feet in thickness, 
probably in great part freshwater, but containing a few marine 
shells of Upper Neocomian affinities. 

A middle series, consisting of ferruginous sandstones and lime- 
stone, alternating with sandy clays, and containing ten beds of 
coal, lignite, or jet at Utrillas, where they are 530 feet thick. 
These beds contain the same fossils as the " marine band '^ of 
Punfield. They are characterised by six species of the 
gasteropod Vicarya^ three of which occur at Punfield, and 
one in the Rhodanien of Switzerland. Hardly a fossil is found 
in the " marine band " of Punfield [the top of the Atherfield 
Clay] which does not also occur in these Spanish beds. 

A third and lowest series, consisting of about 500 feet of 
alternations of limestones, sandstones, and marls^ with jet and 
coal, and containing Urgonien fossils. 

* See also H. Coqoand. Description stologiqae de la fonnation cr^tac^ de la 
Province de Teruel. BvlL Soc, Giol, de France, s^r. 2, tome xxiy. p. 144 
(1S68). 



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52 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



CHAPTER V. 

LOWER GREENSAND— continued. 

THE CARSTONE. 

Introduction. 

This name has been given to a coarse and highly ferruginous 
grit^ which may be traced continuously at the base of the.GauIt 
through the Isle of Wight Wherever fully exposed the Carstone 
is seen to pass up into the Gault ; on the other hand a fairly sharp 
line at its base separates it from the Sand-rock Beds, with an 
appearance even of slight erosion at times, though we have no 
evidence of an actual unconformity. The feature produced by 
this comparatively hard grit, capping the soft sands of the Sand^ 
rock Beds, is especially prominent where the beds are nearly 
horizontal. It is most marked at Marvel Wood, near Shide, and 
in the neighbourhood of Godshill. 

The Carstone varies considerably in thickness within the Island. 
From 6 feet at Compton Bay it expands to 12 feet near Blackgang, 
to 30 feet near Bonchurch, and to no less than 72 feet at Red 
Cliff. At Punfield, on the other hand, it seems to be represented 
by a few inches only of pebbly grit, but is not seen there in place. 
The Carstone, therefore, thickens to wards, the north-east, while the 
other subdivisions of the Lower Greensand increase towards the 
south. 

The Carstone corresponds to the upper part of Fitton's 
Group XVI. The present name* has been adopted on account 
of the resemblance the rock bears to the Carstone of Lincolnshire 
and Norfolk, of which there is reason to suppose it to be the 
stratigraphical equivalent For the Carstone of those Counties 
passes up into the Red Chalk, which there occupies the position 
of, and partly represents the Gault. Moreover, further south we 
find that the Gault when it makes its appearance passes down 
into a grey clay with phosphatic nodules, which in its turn shades 
into a lower light brown sand with phosphatic concretions and 
numerous fossils, f 

These fossils, as pointed out by Mr. Teall, are found in the 
south of England to occur in the Gault, and in the Ammonites 
mammiUaris zone, which lies next below the Gault. He infers, 
therefore, that ** the Norfolk Neocomians [Carstone] are found to 
resemble both stratigraphically and palasontologically the Folke- 
stone Beds of the South" {op. city p. 22). But we have already 
pointed out that the Folkestone Beds as a whole are comparable 
to the Sand- rock Series. It remains to be seen whether any sub- 



* The name is applied locally in the Weald to the portions of the Folkestone 
Beds, which haye been cemented bj brown iron oxide into a hard rock. 

t The Potton and Wicken Phosphatic Deposits (Sedgwick Prize Essay for 187S) 
by Mr. J. J. H. Teall. Cambridge, Sro., 1875, p. 20. 



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LOWER GBEENSAND. 53 

division of the Folkestone Beds corresponding to the Carstone of 
the Isle of Wight can be recognised on the Mainland. The 
Carstone thickens in the Isle of Wight towards the north-east, yet 
in the part of the Weald which is nearest to the Island, the 
Folkestone Beds preserve their character of fine-grained quartz 
sand up to within a foot or two of the base of the Gault But on 
the other hand the base of the Gault invariably consists of a more 
or less pebbly grit, or of a sand with phosphatic nodules. At 
Steep Common, near Petersfield, the Gault is green and sandy 
towards the base, contains phosphatic nodules, and rests on a 
^' brown and green sand, with large pebbles, and at one place 
phosphatic nodules at base." ^ Further east, near Midhurst and 
Pulborough, the base is formed by a pebbly grit, varying from 
3 to 10 inches only in thickness, but conspicuous from its extreme 
hardness and from its deep«brown or olood-red colour. The 
pebbles in this band range up to half an incn in length, and 
their presence, t(^ether with the gritty character of the rock, dis- 
tinguish it, even apart from its hard ferruginous cement, from the 
fine-grained sand of the Folkestone Beds. Elsewhere in the 
Wejdd the base of the Gault is marked by nodules of phosphate 
of lime or of iron pyrites, the hard pebbly grit described above 
being confined to the neighbourhood of Midhurst and Pulborough. 
Associated with the nodules, and likewise in a phosphatic state, 
there are fossils of Gault affinities, viz.. Ammonites Beudantii^ 
A. mammillariSf Exogyra conica^ Inoceramus Salamani, Natica 
ffaultina, and others, which have led to the remark that the 
Folkestone Beds are more closely connected with the Gault than 
with the underlying Sandgate Beds. In 1 859 Professor A. Gaudry 
remarked that the sands at the top of the Lower Greensand at 
Folkestone and Wissant in the Bas-Boulonnais contain Ammonites 
mammillaris, and proposed to group these sands with the Gault on 
that account t In 1868 Mr. Topley noticed that at Folkestone 
the Folkestone Beds both pass lithologically up into the Gault, 
and also contain in their upper part " nodules with Gault-like 
fossils,'' t and the same view of their relationship was taken by 
M. Barrels, who mentions that not only are several fossils of the 
Ammonites mammillaris zone, which in France is included in the 
Gault, found in the upper part of the Folkestone Beds, but that 
the brachiopods which occur in this zone are especially abundant 
in the lower part of the same strata. He concludes that unless 
the Folkestone Beds, like the A, mammillaris zone, are classed 
with the Gault, there is no satisfactory upper limit to the Aptian 
in England.§ Mr. Price, on the other hand, would retain the 
zone of A, mammillaris in the Upper Neocomian.|| 



♦ Geology of the Weald, p. 142. 

{BulL Soc, Giol de France, i6r. 2, vol. xvii. p. 83. 1S60. 
On the Lower Crctaceoas Bocks of the Bas-BoulonnaiA, &c. Quart, Joum, 
Geol. Soc., vol. xxiv. p. 474. 1868. 

§ L'Age des " Folkestone Beds " da Lower Greensand. Attn, Soc, Geclogique 
duNord, U iii. p. 23. 1875. 

II Monograph of the Gaalt, 1880, p. 85. 



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64 GEOLOOY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

The nodules and fossils referred to above occur in three to four 
feet of sand, which form the top only of the Folkestone Beds. 
^This sand, which both passes up into, and possesses this palseonto- 
logical affinity with the Gault, seems to be an expanded repre- 
sentative of the grit-band of Midhurst and Pulborough, which 
also passes up into the Gaulc. The grit-band^ as before explained, 
is sharply marked off from the underlying mass of the Folkestone 
Beds ; if the sand with Gault fossils could also be separated from 
the Folkestone Beds, we should no longer have to face the anomaly 
of the upper member of the Neocomian group being characterised 
by a Gault fauna, and should also be able to point in the Wealden 
area to a basement-bed to the Gault corresponding to the 
Carstone of the Isle of Wight. At present, however, it must 
remain uncertain whether an upper portion of the Folkestone 
Beds can be separated off, as an equivalent to the Carstone of the 
Isle of Wight, or whether the Carstone changes horizontally into 
a sand of the usual Folkestone Beds type during its passage north- 
eastwards below the Hampshire Basin. 

The fossils of the Carstone of the Isle of Wight, so far as they 
go, indicate as close a relationship with the Upper Neocomian as 
with the Gault. Two forms, however, occur which are not known 
below the Folkestone Beds, viz., Lima parcdlela. Sow., which 
ranges through the Gault, and Ammonites Betidantii, Brong., 
which occurs in the A. mammillaris zone both in England and 
France, as well as in the zone between the Upper and Lower 
Gault, to which it gives its name. The following is the complete 
list : — 

Fossils of the Carstone, 

Wood (Bonchuvch and Dunnose). 

Ecbinodenn, fragment (Bonchurch). 

Enallaater (Hemipneustes) Fittoni, Forbes: as a pebble (BoDchurcb). 

Crustacean fraf^ent (Bonchurch). 

Hoploparia longimana. Sow. (Sandown and Dunnose). 

Avicula (Bonchurch and Blackgang). 

Astarte (Sandown). 

Gardium (Bonchurch and Sandown). 

Ezogyra (Sandown and Blackgang). 

Leda scapba?, D'Orh. (Sandown). 

Lima (Blackgang). 

Lima parallela. Sow. (Blackgang). 

Nucula (Blackgang). 

Panopsea P (Fitton, Blackgang). 

Fecten orbicularis. Sow. (Bonchurch, Dunnose, Sandown, Blackgang). 

Pecten quinquecostatus. Sow. (Sandown). 

Plicatula carteroniana, D*Orb, (Sandown). 

Tellina (Sandown). 

Venus P (Fitton, Blackgang). 

Actaeon (Sandown). 

Pleurotomaria (Blackgang). 

Solarium (Forbes, BlMk^uag). 

Trochus (Bonchurch). 

Ammonites, fragment (Blackgang). 

„ Beudantii, Brong, (Blackgang). 

Lamna, tooth of (Dunnose). 



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LOWER GREEN8AND. 



55 



CoMPTON Bay to Eedolifp. 

At Compton Bay the Carstone is a brown sandstone, having as 
its basement layer a band, three inches thick, of quartzite pebbles, 
ranging up to three-quarters of an inch in length, with rolled 
phosphatic pebbles, many bits of wood, and cylindrical concretions 
which seem to have been formed in place. Though the beds below 
also contain pebbly bands, they appear to be more of the type of the 
Sand-tock Series, and to be divided from the Carstone by a hard 
and fast line. Upwards the Carstone passes gradually into the 
Gault, the nature of the junction being shown in Fig. 7 (p. 23) 
and in the accompanying sketch by Professor E. Forbes. 

Fig. 13. 
Junction of the Gault and Lower Greensand in Compton Bay. 











a. Dark blue sandy clay (Gault). 

h. Brown sand with a pebble-band, three inches thick, at the 

base, containing quartz- pebbles, many pieces of wood, 

and some phosphatic pebbles (Carstone) 

c. Blue sandy clay - - - " . " 

d. Grey and greenish sand with small quartzite pebbles at the 

top and the bottom, and with a layer of pyritised wood, 

4 feet from the base - - - - - 

c. Bright-yellow sand . . - - - 

/. A ferruginous band, about - . - . 

g. Irregularly interlaminated white sand and blue clay (for 

the continuation of this section, see p. 22). 



Ft. In. 



6 
2 



13 
9 

1 









Eastwards from Compton Bay there is no section of the Car- 
stone, though its position can be determined with some accuracy 
by the nature of the soil. In the section of the Sand-rock Series 
at Rock (p. 41) the base of the Carstone is exposed, but no 

more. 

There are indications, however, of the steady thickening of this 
subdivision eastwards. Not only does the outcrop widen, but 
south of Coombe Tower the rock begins to form a distinct escarp- 
ment, which gradually becomes the best marked feature in the 
Lower Greensand. Wherever exposed the rock consists of a brown 
and ferruginous grit 



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56 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

By the side of the high road from Chale to Chillcrton a pit 
shows the base of the Carstone, consisting there of a ferruginous 
grit with a few pebbles at the base, and resting on sand and cliy 
with markings resembling fucoids, about 6 feet thick, under which 
lies white sand. The escarpment continues to grow in importance, 
but excepting in a lane near Roslin, presents no sections till we 
reach Rookley Green, the road-cutting south of which place 
shows yellow and white laminated sand and loam (San^-rock 
Series) in the lower part, and ferruginous sand and loam with 
some clay nearer to Rookley Green. Thence the Carstone sweeps 
round to the east and north of Eookley, and crosses the same 
road south of Blackwater, in a cutting where it rests on white 
sand. 

It is next seen in small pits near Park Cottage, but is better 
exposed in a road-cutting at Sandway, 300 yards east of White- 
croft, where it rests on the white sand previously alluded to 
(p. 42). 

A short distance to the north, at Marvel Wood, the Carstone 
rises into one of the boldest escarpments in the Isle of Wight, 
of which the section was given on p. 42. It here rests on sands 
in which current-bedding is very conspicuous. The definiteness 
of its base, taken together with the manner in which it crosses 
the edges of the current-bedding planes of the strata below, gives 
a strong appearance of unconformity, which is heightened by the 
fact that the grey sand, 3 feet thick, on which the Carstone 
reposes, looks as if it had been " reconstructed " from the clays 
and white sands of the Sand-rock Series. The mapping of the 
Island as a whole did not, however, support the idea of an un- 
conformity at this horizon, though there may have been local 
erosion and redeposition. The base of this subdivision may be 
followed along Marvel Wood to the head of the valley on the west 
side, where two small pits give a similar section. 

The Carstone is next seen in the lanes near Newclose House, but, 
owing to the rapidly increasing dip, the outcrop becomes narrow, 
and the escarpment insignificant. On the east side of the Medina 
it is seen in the lane leading up the hill past Standen. The upper 
beds of the Sand-rock Series are also brown here, but may be 
distinguished without difficulty from the coarse ferruginous grit 
of the Carstone. 

■ From St. George's Down eastwards the position of the Carstone 
is marked by a slight rise in the ground, and the highly ferruginous 
soil. The rock is exposed in the^road-side at Great East Standen, 
but does not appear again till we reach a small opening 300 
yards south-east of Heasley Lodge, where it rests on buff sand. 

At Knighton it forms a fairly well-marked feature, and is 
exposed in the wooded bank on the east side of the stream, and 
again in the valley a quarter of a mile west of Kern. East of 
Kern the dip increases and the outcrop narrows down to a mere 
line. There is a small exposure 250 yards north-west of the 
Roman Villa at Brading. 



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LOWER GBEENSANI>. 



57 



This brings us to the coast section at Redcliff^ the section of 
which was given on p, 35. The Carstone here, as everywhere, 
passes up into the Gault, and shows at this locality a greater 
thickness than in any other part of the Isle of Wight, namely, 
72 feet 9 inches. A small fault, previously alluded to, is clearly 
shown in the Carstone, and in some of the beds below it. Such 
phosphatic concretions ns occur consist of cemented masses of grit, 
and seem to have been formed in place. The whole rock 
markedly ferruginous. 



IS 



From Niton and Blagkgano to Shanklin ajstd Bonchurch. 

We will now trace the course of the Carstone around the 
southern hills of the Island, proceeding as before from west to 
east. The exposures about the UnderclifT near Blackgang are 
numerous and easily accessible. The Carstone forms the brow 
of a shelf in the cliff, which is occupied by the Qault, or more 
usually by the d^ris of Upper Greensand and Chalk that has 
slid down over the Gault. This brow may be traced continuously 
from Chale to the Chalybeate Spring. It reappears above 
Knowles, and near the foot of the cliff below Niton presents its 
most eastern exposure. Still further east the southerly dip is 
believed to carry the Carstone down to the level of the beach, but 
no rock appears in situ to determine the point. 

The following section was noted above the Chalybeate 
Spring : — 



Gnult ; blue clay paaBin^ down. 

'"Browii gritj mterbedded with grey clay, and 
coiltaining phosphatic nodules in the upper 
part - - - - ■ 

Blue clay . - - - - 

Reddish-brown grit, very red in parts 
Line of small quartz pebbles with rolled 
phosphatic nodules up to 2 inches in 
diameter - - - - - 

Sand-rock Series (for details, see p. 31). 



Ft. In. 



Carstone < 



2 



12 2 



In the cliff below Niton we find the following details : — 



Gault ; blue clay passing down. 

fBrown grit - - - • 

j Clay-parting - - - 

Carstone < Brown grit with phosphatic nooules - 

I Brown sand and clay 

LPcbbly and ferruginous band 
Sand-rock Series ; grey sand with seams of blue clay, 
seen to 4 J ft. 



Ft. In. 



. 3 


3 


. 


1 


- 1 


4 


. 6 





- 


6 


11 


2 


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58 /5EOLOGY OF THE 18I.E OF WIGHT. 

In Blackgang Chine, and on either side of it, the Carstone with 
the base of the overlying Qault is repeatedly exposed, but a little 
north of the Chine, reaching the top of the cliff, it strikes inland, 
its base being exposed in the hill on the south si^e of the high 
road near Cliff Terrace. 

On proceeding inland along the outcrop of the Carstone, we 
are soon struck with the fact that it is more often than not over- 
spread with Gault clay. The appearance of the ground at once 
supplies the explanation. Over large areas the clay from the 
Gault outcrop has slid down and spread itself as a skin over a 
more or less even slope of Carstone, but is still easily distinguished 
by the hummocky appearance of the ground it occupies, as well as 
by the character of the soil. Ln some places the clay has flowed 
down in the form of mud-rivers, keeping usually to the lines of 
hollow in its descent, but overspreading also many of the higher 
parts of the Carstone feature. The course and limits of these 
mud-rivers or gutters may be distinguished, for many years after 
they have ceased to move, by the large sods of turf which have 
been torn off and heaped in a little irregular bank along their 
edges, and by the lines which still serve to indicate where the 
mass of moving clay was traversed by long curving cracks, convex 
in the direction of movement. The mud-rivers extend sometimes 
to a distance of a quarter of a mile or more beyond the base of the 
Gault. 

The sections along the western slope of St. Catherine's Down 
are few and poor, but at its extreme north end pebbly Carstone 
rests on buff and white sand. On its east side the guttering 
of the Gault, assisted by the slight easterly dip of the strata, has 
been more than usually extensive, but the Carstone near Wyd- 
combe forms a characteristic feature. It may be followed round 
the south side of the house, and is seen at a small waterfall 
350 yards south-east of it. Near here three outliers of Carstone 
cap conspicuous hills, the lower portions of which consist of 
white sand and sand-rock. The base of the Carstone appears in 
two sand-pits 300 yards west, and the same distance north of 
Itchall, which show clayey sand and ironstone resting on white 
sandstone. A similar section occurs at Sheepwash, where the 
Carstone forms a fine escarpment, corresponding to the feature at 
Marvel Wood, which we have already described. The strata 
being nearly horizontal, the Carstone runs for a long distance 
along the tops of steep spurs of white sand and sand-rock that jut 
out from the hill-side. Presenting everywhere the same ferru- 
ginous character, it may be readily distinguished from the series 
below. The 'slipping down of the Gault is especially noticeable 
south of Godshill Park Redhill, whete there is a good section 
of the Carstone, has been named, like Kedhill in Surrey, from the 
ferruginous colour of the soil. 

In Appuldurcombe'Park and about Wroxall, a large area is 
occupied by slipped Gault ; but the Carstone appears by the side 
of the road north of the village, and its base is well exposed at 
Yard Farm, where it rests on white sand 



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LOWER GBEENSAND. 59 

At Winstone, a fine example of a mud-elide is crossed by the 
railway cuttings now grassed over. Another a little to the east 
has travelled down a hollow in the hill-side, and is now being dug 
for bricks. On the hill-side above the brick-pit a small openin/^ 
has been made in the Carstone. 

From here to Shanklin occasional small sections serve to fix 
the position of the Carstone, but call for no particular notice. In 
the great cliff-section, however, which extends from Knock Cliff 
to near Bonchurch, this subdivision is finely shown. It strikes 
the coast half a mile north of Luccomb Chme, and forms thence 
the brow of the cliff to Monk's Bay, where it comes nearly to the 
beach. West of this, through everywhere hidden by landslips^ 
it probably descends to the level of the beach, as is believed to be 
the case near Niton. Everywhere it passes up into the Gault, and 
rests with a sharply-marked base on the brightly coloured sands 
of the Sand-rock Series. The following section was noted in 
Monk's Bay : — 

Ft. In. 

Gkkult. Blue micaceous day passing down. 

"Blue micaceous clay with lines of grit - 3 

Brown ferruginous rock with derived phos- 
phatic concretions containing oolitic grains 
of iron oxide - - - - 

Sandy and gritty blue clay, passing down - 
Clayey brown grit with nodules as above 
Brown grit - - - - - 

Brown grit with many small pebbles 
Pebbly band, with quartzites up to half-an- 
inch in length - - - • 

Sand-rock Seriej9. Bright-yellow and white sand. 

34 6 

A well-rolled specimen of Enallaster (Hemipneustes) Ftttoni, 
Forbes, was found as a phosphatic nodule in the clayey brown grit, 
3 feet thick. This fossil is recorded as occurring at Horseledge 
(p. 261), and more abundantly in the same beds at Atherfield, 
and in the Hythe Beds at Hjthe. Its occurrence therefore as a 
derived specimen in the Carstone is significant. 



Carstone^ 



1 





1 





3 





6 





20 








3.^ 



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60 GBOLOGT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



CHAPTER VI. 
THE GAULT AND UPPER GREENSAND. 

1. The Gault. 

Introduction. 

TiTE Gault, which rests quite conformably on the Carstone, may 
be described generally as a blue or bluish grey clay, more or less 
sandy, and with minute spangles of mica. It contains little or no 
calcareous matter, such proportion of this material as may have 
been originally present having been converted into sulphate of 
lime, which in the form of small crystals of selenite sometimes 
occurs in considerable quantity. The fossils are few, and dis- 
tributed at rare intervals. 

In thickness the Gault varies from 120 feet at Culver to 146 feet 
at Blackgang, and 139 feet in Compton Bay. At Punfield, 
where, however, it is difficult of measurement, it is about 111 feet 
thick. In its upper part it becomes sandy and lighter in colour 
than in the lower beds, so as to pass almost insensibly into 
the Upper Greensand. The proportion of sand increases west- 
wards in these passage beds, so that at Punfield the name of Gault, 
as indicating a clay, becomes quite inapplicable. In the extreme 
west (Black Down) the whole formation seems to pass into a 
sand. 

Landslips. 

The Gault has received the name of the "blue slipper"* in the 
Isle of Wight, from its tendency to give rise to landslips, or of 
" Platnore," a name which was in former days applied to any close 
black earthy stone or clay. The beautiful and romantic scenery of 
theUndercliff or " Back " of the Island has been mainly caused by 
the sliding of the Chalk and Upper Greensand over the unctuous 
surface of the Gault clay, the tendency to slide being principally 
due to a rather pronounced seaward southerly dip, and to the 
outburst of springs at the junction of the porous Upper Greensand 
and impervious Gault. 



* The term '< slipper '' is applied in the Island to any bed which gives rise to 
landslips. 



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GAULT. 61 

Through the greater part of the Undercliff the slipped materials 
assumed a position of rest before the commencement of the historic 
period. It seems likely that in the belt of ground occupied by 
the slip> the southerly dip was steeper than it is in the existing 
cliffy and that the strata now forming this cliff will never be in a 
position to slide so readily as those portions that have already 
gone. Still, as the sea, in the course of centuries, removes the 
Mien debris which forms the coast, the movements will doubtless 
be renewed from time to time. Indeed, at Blackgang and Bon- 
church, the west and east ends respectively of the Undercliff, 
there have been great slips within the present century. 

The following account of the East End Landslip, which took 
place in 1810 in Bonchurch and Luccomb, is taken from one of 
Mr. Webster's letters, dated May 27th, 1811, and published in 
Sir Henry Englefield's Isle of Wight (p. 131) :— 

*^ I was surprised at the scene of devastation, which seemed to 
have been occasioned by some convulsion of nature. A con- 
siderable portion of the cliff had fallen down, strewing the whole 
of the ground between it and the sea with its ruins ; huge masses 
of solid rock started up amidst heaps of smaller fragments, whilst 
immense quantities of loose marl, mixed with stones, and even the 
soil above with the wheat still growing on it, filled up the 
spaces between, and formed hills of rubbish which are scarcely 
accessible." 

** Nothing had resisted the force of the falling rocks. Trees 
were levelled with the ground ; and many lay half buried in the 
ruins. The streams were choked up, and pools of water were 
formed in many places. Whatever road or path formerly existed 
through this place had been effaced ; and with some difficulty I 
passed over this avalanche which extended many hundred yards." 

" Proceeding eastward, the whole of the soil seemed to have 
been moved, and was filled with chasms and bushes lying in every 
direction .... I perceived, however, on my left hand, the 
lofty wall of rock which belonged to the same stratum as the 
Undercliff." 

This description of the scene is equally applicable at the present 
day, except that the ruins are covered with vegetation. Huge 
pinnacles or slices of the Upper Greensand have moved down 
a few feet only and remain with their upper parts resting against 
the parent cliff, but separated from it below by a narrow cleft, 
along which it is possible to squeeze one's way. The top^^of the 
Gaidt is everywhere concealed by fallen rock. 

At the west end of the Undercliff, under Gore Cliff, a great 
slip took place in 1799, and the movement has been roncwe J f rom 
time to time ever since. A letter, dated Niton, February 9th, 
1799, and published in the Isle of Wight Magazine for the same 
year, is quoted by Mr. Norman as follows :*— " The whole of the 
ground from the cliff above was seen in motion .... . The 

♦ Geological Guide to the Isle of Wight, Svo., Ventnor, 1887, pp. 187-189. 

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62 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

ground above, beginning Mrith a great founder at the base of the 
cliff immediately under St. Catherine's Down, kept gliding 
forward, and at last rushed on with violence, totally changing the 
surface of all the ground to the west of the brook that runs into 
the sea, so that now the whole is convulsed and scattered about, 
as if it had been done by an earthquake. .... The 
cascade which you used to view from the house at first disappeared, 
but has now broken out and tumbled down into the withey- 
bed, of which it has made a lake." 

Mr. Norman relates that an enormous mass of rock by the road 
beneath Gore Cliff '^ once formed part of a lai^e pinnacle which 
had become loosened from the cliff and overhung in a manner 
extremely threatening to the safety of the public. The authorities 
decided upon its removal by means of gunpowder. In its fall it 
carried with it tous of adjacent rock and debris, entirely blocking 
and destroying the roadway made round the landslip of 1799" 
(op. city p. 189). The roadway has again been threatened with 
destruction (1887) by the constant slipping of the Qault, some 
of the rain gullies having cut their way into the slope as far as the 
seaward fence of the highway. 

The most striking feature in the central parts of the Under- 
cliff is the succession of short escarpments produced by the fall of 
slices of the Upper Greensand cliff. These portions range in size 
from mere blocks up to slices of half a mile in length. They have 
broken off along the vertical joints by which the sandstone is 
traversed, and as their bases slid forward over the Gault, have 
slowly acquired a steep landward (northerly) dip. The process 
has been repeated several times, thus producing at different levels 
in the Undercliff a series of Upper Greensand escarpments, 
separated by deep hollows, which have been not uncommonly 
occupied by natural lakes. The distance to which they have 
descended varies indefinitely. Above Bonchurch a very long but 
narrow slice has moved a few feet only, and still forms the 
nrincipal face of the cliff. But many others, with a portion of 
Chalk above them, have descended to the beach some 300 feet 
below, and from a quarter to half a mile distant 

Such wholesale slipping is, generally speaking, confined to the 
coast, but some large masses of Greensand have slid down on 
all sides of St Catherine's Down, and from the shoulder which 
separates Shanklin and Luccomb. The slipping down of the 
Gault in great mud-rivers all round the southern Downs has 
already been noticed (p. 68). It does not take place along the 
Central Downs of the Island, where the dip is generally at a 
steeper angle and into the hill-side. 



Description op Sections. 

The best section of the Gault is afforded in Compton Bay, 
where nearly thb whole deposit may be examined, the section being 
as follows : — 



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GAULT. 63 

Section of the Gault in Compton Bay» 

Feet; 
Upper Greensand (for details see p. 68). 

'^ pEard blue clayey bands with fucoidal 

I markings altematinfir with sandy bands. 
Passage I containing iron pyrites - - - 6 

Beds. I Pale blue silty sand or sandy micaceous 



Gault < 



clay with fucoidal markings, weathering 



I Clay 
L yeUc 



_ _ ow - - - - - 30 

Clay, as above, but of a deeper blue - - -8 

Greenish clay - - - - - - 2 

Blue cky as above, with fish-scales, &c. in several 

bands - - - . - . 20 

^Blueclay - -• - - - - 73 

Carstone (for details see p. bb), 

"139 

The passage up from the Gault is illustrated in the accompany- 
ing sketch (Fig. 14), made in the cliffs at Compton during the 
progress of the geological survey of the Island in 1852. 

Fig. 14. 
Junction of the Upper Greensand and Gault in Compton Bay, 



IS: 




<f\ 


V: 


¥' 


;^. 




*t .' .'• ". 


.' :' 


J* *• 


•*■ 




\v 


\i\b 




-:. 


,o. 






'w/-^ 






































1^-- 

-^5^ 




- ■ 






P 




d 
















tim3 




















ip 










'^iiJLjii 




^-•^^ 



Ft. In. 

a. Upper Greensand. Hard concretionary band, with phos- 

phatic nodules - - - • - -10 

b. Passage by a bluish sand with thin fucoidal markings, 

into - - - - - - - 6 

c. Green sandy band with a few nodules - • - 6 

d. Dark blue sandy clay - - - - - 2 
0. Paler and darker beds with small nodules: Fossils, 

Grypfusa, Vermicularia, Area (rare). 

The passage beds^ in the former Edition of this Memoir, were 
included with the Upper Greensand. Lithologically, however, 
they are more nearly allied to the Gault, with which they have 
usually been grouped of later years. 

Downwards the Gault passes into the Carstone as described on 
p. 55. In its lower part Mr. Norman observed Inoceramus 
sulcatuSj Natica gaultina, and Ammonites dentatus (var. of A, 
interruptua, D'Orb.), the last-mimed occurring as a brittle coal- 



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64 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE Or WIGHT. 

black material^ the inner whorls permeated by a phosphatic 
substance.* 

At Blackgang the numerous sections in the lower part of the 
Qault have been noticed in the description of the Carstone. 
Inoceramus sulcatus and L concentricus have been found in a gulley 
west of the hotel. The top of the Qault appears in Gore Cliff, this 
being the only spot in the Undercliff where it is not concealed by 
fallen rubbish. The beds are similar to those at Compton Bay, 
and the thicknesses differ but little. According to Mr. Simmst 
there are here 43 feet of light-coloured Gault (passage beds), and 
103 of blue Gault, giving a total of 146 feet 

The sections in the cliff from Bonchurch to Knock Cliff show 
the lower beds of the Gault only. The passage downwards into 
the Carstone may be conveniently examined in the brow of the 
cliff near Bonchurch (p. 59). 

In Sandown Bay the position of the Gault is marked by a 
narrow hollow in the cliffs. The passage beds into the Upper 
Greensand above and the Carstone below are there exposed, but 
the rest of the deposit is concealed by vegetation. The top 
layers consist of alternations of blue sandy clays and sands with 
Vermicularia, about 15 feet thick, and the lower beds of darker 
blue micaceous clay. The total thickness of the Gault here is 
about 120 feet. 

Through the central parts of the Island, the Gault occupies a 
narrow belt of low ground, separating the Upper and Lower 
Greensande. When not overspread by a downwash of sand, 
the soil of this belt is wet and rush-covered, and presents a 
characteristically different appearance from that of the strata 
above and below. But as a rule the Gault is entirely masked, 
and sections are exceedingly rare. 

The passage beds into the Upper Greensand are seen in a lane 
100 yards south-west of Kill, near Chillerton. At Gossard Hill, 
near Rookley, where a long shoulder of Gault, capped by an 
outlier of Upper Greensand, juts out across the Medina, a brick- 
pit has been opened; but only the weathered surface of the Gault 
is worked, a pale-blue or nearly white structureless clay. A 
better section is provided in the brick-pit at Bierley, near Niton, 
where the lower beds of the Gault are exposed. 

The brick-pits by the side of the railway between Wroxall and 
Shanklin are worked in Gault that has slipped down the hiU-side 
below the true outcrop (p, 59). One of the most noticeable features 
in connection with the outcrop of the Gault, is the copious supply 
of water which it throws out nearly all round the southern Downs 
of the Island. The greater part of the strata over-lying this clay 
being of a permeable nature, the rainfall is absorbed by them, and 
is thrown out in a line of springs along the top of the first imper- 
meable bed it encounters. The springs are of course most copious 
along the hill-sides where the Gault is at the lowest level, the 

* Geological Guide to the lale of Wight, p. 70. 
t Quart, Joum, Geol. Soc, vol. i. p. 76 (1845).- 



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UPPER ORBBNSANB. 65 

underground water naturally moving down tlie dip-slope of the 
beds; but^ the dip being very gentle^ there are springs along 
nearly the whole Grault outcrop. The most copious occur at 
Wydcombe, Bierley (utilised for the Niton and Whitwell Water- 
works)^ Niton^ Whitwell^ south and south-east of Wroxall, and in 
Greatwood Copse near Shanklin. The natural spring which 
formerly issued at the last-mentioned locality was utilised for the 
Shanklin Water-works, the supply of water having been some- 
what increased by driving a heading into the hiU along the 
junction of the Upper Greensand and Gault Ventnor is sup- 
plied by a spring issuing from the same strata, and met with in 
driving the railway tunnel. Several springs take their rise in the 
same neighbourhood, and were formerly used to drive a mill in 
Ventnor Cove. 

Along the central chain of hills the springs are 'less frequent, 
owing to the steep inward dip of the strata. But a fine spring 
issues at Bottlehole Well near Brixton, and another, issuing, 
however, in the Upper Greensand, gives its name to the village 
of Shorwell. About Chillerton and Gatcombe, where the dip is 
very gentle, numerous springs rise along the sides, and particularly 
at the heads of, the valleys. 

At Knighton there are good springs, which, supplemented by a 
well, are utilised for the supply of Ryde. , 

Correlation with the Mainland. 

The zones into which the Gault of Folkestone has been divided 
by Messrs. De Banco* and Pricef have not been recognised in 
• the Isle of Wight, and it is the opinion of the latter that the Gttult 
of the Island is of Upper Gault age (Monograph of the Gault, 
p. 27). This opinion was founded on the occurrence of Inoceramus 
wlcatuSy Ammonites rostratus, Solarium omatum, Belemnites ulti- 
mus, &c. Of these Ammonites rostratus, and Inoceramus sulcatus 
are confined to the Upper Gault, but Belemnites ultimus ranges 
throughout the deposit^ while Solarium omatum occurs in the 
Lower, as well as in the Upper Gault. On the other hand Am- 
monites dentatus is a variety of Ammonites interruptus which gives 
its name to the lowest zone of the Gault at Folkestone, from which 
it would seem that the Lower Gault also is represented in the 
Isle of Wight. This might be likewise inferred from the absence 
of any break in or below the Gault of the Island. A complete 
list of the fossils will be found in Table III. of Appendix II. 

Upper Greensand. 

Introduction. 

This rock forms one of the most conspicuous features in the 
Island, namely the cliff which overhangs the Underclift' from 

* OeU, Mag. for 1S68, p. 168. 

f (iuart.Joum, Oeol. Soc, toLzxx. p. 842, 1874, and a Monograph of the Gault, 
Sto. London. 1880. 



E A67S6. 



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66 GEOLOaY OF THE TSLE OF WIGHT. 

Bonchurch to Blackgang, and which reappears inland in the bold 
brows of St. Catherine's Down, Head Down, Ghit Cliff, and 
St. Martin's Down (Cook's Castle Crag). In the central range 
the same rock forms the bold ridge of Bams Down, which is 
scarcely less conspicuous than the Chalk Downs themselves. 

The existence of these striking features is due to the hard- 
ness of a bed composed of alternations of chert and sand, and 
underlain throughout the central parts of the Island by a band of 
freestone. The position of the base of the Chert Beds has been 
indicated on the map by a broken line in the central and southern 
parts of the Island, principally on account of their topographical 
importance. 

Above the Chert Beds a variable thickness of glauconitic sands 
passing up into the Chalk Marl is known as the Chloritic Marl, 
feelow the Chert Beds there lie from 70 to 90 feet of sands, 
called ''malm,*' with bands or lenticular masses of chert and 
cherty limestone or *' rag." Other local names of less common 
occurrence are " hassock " for the sands, " whills " for sandstone, 
** shotter-wick " for chert, " firestone " for a stone formerly em- 
ployed for lining hearths, and " rubstone " for a stone once used 
for whitening hearths or doorsteps. 

The thicknesses of the Malm Bock and Chert Beds are given 
for different localities in the Isle of Wight, and for Punfield, in the 
following table, the thickness of Gault at the same spots being 
appended to show that the Upper Greensand and Gault thicken 
and thin together, and not one at the expense of the other. 

Gore Cliff. Culver,* 

Feet 
27 1 

^121i - . 80 
94iJ 

- 146 - - 120 

The Malm Rock passes downwards into the strata which have 
been above referred to as "passage beds" into the Gault. A 
convenient base for this subdivision has been selected near Ventnor 
by Mr. Parkinson* in a band of chert nodules from which the 
carapace and rib-bones of a fresh-water tortoise {PlcLstremys lata^ 
Owen) were obtained by Mr. Norman, and the remains oiHoploparia 
Saxbyiy M*Coy, by Mr. Saxby.t In other parts of the Island the 
base has been drawn where the clayey bands begin to pre- 
dominate over sandy beds. 

The zone of Ammonites inflaius occurs, according to Mr. 
Parkinson, rather more than 20 feet from the base, while Ammonites 
Tostratus attains its greatest development about II feet from the 
top of the Malm Bock. By Dr. Barrois, however, the Malm 

♦ Quart, Jovm, GeoL Soc., vol. xxzyii. p. 870 (1881). 
t Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xiv. p. 116 (1854). 





Punfield. 


ComptoD Bay. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


Chert Beds - 


6-| - 


- 131 ■ ■ 

- 73J - - 




Us 


Malm Rock - 


39J - 


Gault - 


- Ill 


- - 139 - 



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UPPER 6BEBKSANB. 67 

Bock (excluding a few feet at the top) was grouped with the 
passage-beds into the Gault as the zone of Ammonites inflatus.* 

The most important bed commerciallj is the band of freestone, 
from 3 to 5 feet thick, above alluded to as occurring a short dis- 
tance below the base of the Chert Beds. Tl^is freestone is not 
recognisable in the east or west ends of the Island, but has been 
largely worked as a building-stone in the southern hills, being 
especially conspicuous in the clifi between Blackgang and Bon- 
church. Between it and the Chert Beds lie one or two bands of 
"firestone " and " rubstone." 

The Chert Beds attain their fullest development near Ventnor. 
In Sandown Bay they can scarcely be recognised. The chert, 
though used for road-metal, is not much worked, except in gaining 
access to the freestone below. Some of the beds of chert are 
crowded with the spicules of sponges. 

Dr. Hindef remarked of the Chert Beds of the quarry at 
Ventnor Station that they ** so abound with spicules that they 

may be considered as a continuous sponge-bed The 

chert is usually of a light brown tint» and in thin sections under 
the microscope it is seen to be filled with spicules and spicular 
casts imbedded in a translucent matrix of chalcedonic silica. The 
spicules are likewise of chalcedony, and their canals are infilled 
with glauconite. Another variety of chert, also very abundant, is 
of a grayish or greenish-white tint ; it differs from the former in 
that the matrix is of amorphous siUca, while the inclosed spicules 
are of chalcedony. The chert bands .... are enveloped 
in an outer crust, of varying thickness, of white or yellow 
fflliceous porous rock, which is interspersed with the empty moulds 
of spicules. 

*' In some of the thicker masses of chert there are cavities or 
pockets filled with spicules, loosely mingled in a grayish siliceo- 
oalcarous powder, in which there are also numerous well-preserved 
foraminifera, chiefly of the genus Textularia. The spicules in 
these cavities have undergone a remarkable alteration in structure ; 
they appear to have lost their original sUica, which has been 
replaced by glauconite and some other silicate of a greenish-white 
aspect. The replacing material has only partially mled the form 
of the original spicules, and thus they look like mere shadowy 
casts of complete spicules. These in many cases are peculiarly 
distorted and contracted." Spicules occurred in the lower beds 
in the quarry also, but not so abundantly. 

By Dr. Barrois the Chert Beds and the freestone below them 
were correlated with the Warminster Beds. A specimen of 
Clathraria Lyelliiy a cycadeous plant, which it will be remem- 
bered occurs in ^e Wealden Beds, has been obtained from the 
Upper Greensand by Capt. Ibbetson in bastard freestone at the 

* Becherches sor le Terrain Gr^tac^ Sap^ear de FAngleterro et de Tlrlande, 
p. 107. 

t PhiU Trans,, vol. 176, p. 418. 1S86. 

B 2 



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68 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

base of the Chert Beds.* Another specimen has been recorded 
by Mr. Parkinson from the Chert Beds at Steephill^ abont 10 feet 
below the Chloritic Marl.t A femur of a reptile is stated by 
Mantell to have been found at Bonchurch three or four feet above 
the firestone.| 

For the other fossils the reader is referred to the tabulated lists 
at the end of the volume. 



Coast Sections. 
1. Campion Bay. 

^ The following details were observed in the cliff forming the west 
side of Compton Bay : — 

Chalk Mftrl (see p. 83). Fbbt. 

Chloritic Marl (see p. 81). 



Upper 
Greensand 



Gault 



Chert 
Beds. 



Malm 



Green sand with 10 or 12 bands of 
chert, light-brown outside, blue 
inside - . . .13 

Darker green sand, light-green when 
dry, with small scattered phosphatic 
nodules and lenticular masses of 
chert or rag - - - 32 

Rock. '^. Sandstone, jointed and weathering 
I into caves at the foot of the cli£ 
I Many black nodules scattered 
[^ throughout- - . - 41 

- Passage Beds (see p. 63). 

86 



The Chert Beds are not so well developed here as in the central 
parts of the Island^ and the chert itself is more calcareous. The 
freestone bed also, so marked a feature in the Undercliff, cannot 
be recognised. 

2. Blackgang to Shanklin. 

Gore Cliff shows the Upper Greensand in a form that is typical 
of the central and southern parts of the Island. The Chert Beds 
form a vertical face, deeply scarred by the weather, each band of 
chert forming a ledge, while the soft sands between have been 
scooped out by the wind. At the foot of this vertical part of the 
cliff the 5-foot bed of freestone runs for some miles and can 
generally be recognised at a glance. The Mahn Rock below 
forms a steep, often precipitous slope. 

• Notes on the Geology and Chemical Constitution of the various Strata in the 
Isle of Wight, p. 25. See also Quart, Joum, Geol. Soc., vol. xxxvii. p. 372. The 
specimen is incorrectly stated by Mantell (Geol. Excursions in the Isle of Wiffht. 
pp. 215, 217) to have been found in the Chalk Marl. 

t Quart, Joum. Ged, Soc, vol. zxzvii. p. 872. 1881. 

{ Geological Ezcnrsions, pp. 179, 180. 



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UPPEB GBEEKSAIO). 



69 



Gore CM. 

Chlaritio Marl (see p. 81). 

Chert Beds. Altemations of chert and sand 

fFirestone and rag - 
i7i»«if^. / Basiard freestone 1 ft. \ 

r«^**^n]!Wstone -4,./ 

Malm Rock^ Sand with rag - 

with many ledges of rag • 

I Blue okyey sand 

(^Blue micaoeous sandstone 
Gault - Passage Beds. 



\l 



Ft. In. 

- 27 
. 2 

.50 

. 58 6 

- 27 



6 
6 



121 6 



A etill more convenient spot for examining the upper part of 
the Oreensand, known as the Cripple's Path, slants up the cliff, 
south-east of the village of Niton. The Chloritic Marl, however, 
is not seen. 

At Yentnor the section of the beds is given by Mr. Norman 
as follows : — 



CheH Beds, 
24 feet. 



Malm Rock, 
81 feet. 



Gault 



Section above Ventnor, 

Altemations of ohert and sandstone beds, 21 

to 24 in number - - • • 

^Firestone ..... 

Ri« 

Freestone Bed [bastard in upper part] 

Rag 

Sandstone . . . . - 

Rag ...... 

Soft sandstone .... 

Black band ..... 
J Soft yellow sandstone (" WhiUs **) - 
iRag 

Compact reddish sandstone ... 

Rag 

Compact reddish sandstone ... 

Mammillated rag .... 

Soft yellow micaceous sands with concretions 

Dark coloured rag .... 

Dark clayey bed .... 
^Hard blue chert, with crushed /aoeeramtit • 

light-grey sandy micaceous day. 



Ft. In. 



24 





2 





1 





6 





1 





3 








8 


4 





1 





7 





1 





10 





I 





10 








8 


30 





I 





2 








8 



105 



Near Shanklin in some quarries where the '' free-stone bed '' is 
worked for buildings and the beds above and below it for road- 
making, the following sections were noted. 

Quarry on the south side of the Luccomb Valley. 

Ft. In. 
Altemations of chert (" shotterwick ") and sand (top not seen) 15 
Rag in lenticular masses - - - - - 0-^ 

Firestone - - - - - . -26 

Rag 6-12 

Firestone - - . - - - .30 

Rag 6-12 

Firestone or Rub-stone (a stone formerly used for whitening 

hearths, &c.) - • - - - -08 

Freestone - - • - • - -40 



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70 GEOLOGY OP 'XHB ISLE OP WIGHT. 

Quarry on the north Side of Greatwood Copse. 

Cliert, rag, and sand (top not seen) - - - - 15 

Bar .- .0 0^ 

Firestone - - - - - - -20 

Rag 0-8 

Firestone - - - - - - -20 

Rag 0-12 

Rubstone - - - - - . -08 

Freestone - -- - - . -40 

Rag; - - 10 

Inferior stone or malm - - - - - 5 

Rag- 10 

Inferior stone - - - - - -20 



3. Culver Cliff. 

In this section the layers of chert, so conspicuous near Ventnor, 
are represented by a few lenticular masses only, or by layers of a 
hard flinty stone. The freestone also can no longer be distin- 
guished^ and the whole group shows a loss in thickness of 18 feet 

Culver Cliff. 

Ft. In. 
Chloritic Marl (see p. 81). 
Chert Beds f Green sand with lenticular masses of black 
and < chert at 9-11 feet from the top, and some 
Malm Rock. L bands of hard grey stone - - - 80 

Gault - Passage Beds (see p. 64). 



Inland Sections. 

1. Along the Central Downs. 

Although numerous inland sections lay open the Upper Green- 
sond^ the whole subdiyision is rarely exposed at one spot. An 
exception occurs in the road-cutting north of Brook^ where the 
following beds are seen : — 

Boad-cuttinff three -quarters of a mile north of Brook Church. 

Ft. In. 



Chalk Marl 



Chloritic Marl, 
11 feet 6 inches. 



Alternations of chalk and marl (top not seen), 

passing down .... 120 
Rocky chalk, vesrj impure, and with glauco- 
. nite, passing down - - - - 5 8 
*" Green sand with phosphatised Ammonites, &c. 
irregularly hardened into stone in the upper 
.part 11 6 

^0f«f6?nlV}^^'*y^"°^P''^«^^ - ^^ « 



Upper 
^^S^^^'i MahnBock, fGwenish sand wiih great len- 

107 feet. litf^ i ticular and oval masses of 

I ^^^®®*' L rock . . - 85 

Gault - Passage Beds, not clearly seen. 

The Chert Beds are seen in a by-road above Dunsbury, and 
make a small but well-marked escarpment for about 600 yards 
westwards. The next exposure occurs in the road from Brixton 



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UFFEB GBERNSAin). 71 

to Calbourne where the Chloritic Marl, 14 feet 2 inches thick, 
abounds with phosphatised Ammonites. The Chert Beds appear 
also, but the greater part of the Malm Bock is concealed by a 
thick stratified talus of chalk. 

Proceeding eastwards we find the Chert Beds at Coombe Tower 
beginning to form the feature, which becomes so conspicuous in 
the central and southern parts of the Island. In this neighbour- 
hood the chert, white in colour and accompanied with much 
chalcedony, is exposed repeatedly all along the crest of the 
escarpment to Shorwell, where it is quarried, or rather dug, for 
building. 

East of Shorwell the escarpment becomes steadily bolder, and 
we find blue chert associated with the white along the crest of the 
hilL At the east end of this hill, over the Chillerton road, free- 
stone is worked in a quarry below the Chert Beds, this being the 
most westerly appearance of the bed so prominent about Yentnor. 

Between the bold escarpment of Rams Down and the Chalk 
Downs runs the long winding valley of Chillerton Street, a slight 
prolongation of which would convert the Chert Beds of Bams 
Down into an outlier. This valley owes its existence to some 
springs issuing at the junction of the Greensand and Gault, along 
the line of a gentle synclinCi which is indicated by the relative 
dips in Bams Down (from 4° to 5^), and in the nearly horizontal 
Chalk. The trough becomes more marked near Sheat, and in 
Gossard Hill.* Near the former place the Malm Bock dips 
north-east at 10°, and the Gault, striking right across the valley 
of the Medina, runs for nearly a mile eastwards around Bookley, 
while on the top of the shoulder thus formed, an outlier of Upper 
Greensand makes a narrow ridge, capped with chert and striking 
nearly due east and west, with a dip to the north of 8° to 10°. 
The north side of the syncline is not well defined, as the beds 
gradually assume a horizontal position. It might perhaps be more 
correctly described as a monocline, like that of the central axis of 
the Island, but on a small scale. {See also Horizontal Sections, 
Sheet 43, No. 2.) 

Numerous old quarries in the Chert Beds and underlying 
freestone roughen the brow of the hill above Gfatcombe and 
Whitcombe. On mounting this eminence, we find a long dip- 
slope stretching away westwards to the boundary of the Chalk 
Downs, which is generally marked by a rise in the ground. 

In the valley of the Medina near Shide the Upper Greensand 
disappears from sight tiU we reach Great East Standen. In two 
large pits, however, long since completely overgrown, between West 
Standen and Great East Standen, '* malm " is reported to have 
been dug. So far as can be judged the pits have been opened in 
the lowest beds of the Chalk Marl. 

At Arreton, while the topographical feature of the Upper Green- 
sand is well marked, the Chert Beds no longer form as definite a 
subdivision as heretofore. The stony bands, to which this feature is 

* A bold hill near Booklej, so named in the old edition of the Ordnance Mi^. 



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72 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

due, seem to come in at a rather lower horizon, while the chert itself 
is impersistent. The escarpment becomes conspicuous at Knighton, 
where the dip is gentle, and is separated from the Downs by a 
deep valley. Some old quarries on either side of the Knighton 
valley have exposed friable green sand with cherty lumps. The 
springs previously alluded to (p. 65), issue at the base of the 
Chalk MarL The sand is well exposed in a lane at the east end 
of Knighton East Wood. 

This brings us 'to Yarbridge, where there is a fine section in 
the Chalk Marl, ending, however, at its junction with the Chloritic 
Marl. The latter can be seen in the sides of the lane which runs 
along the foot of the Down westwards, while the sand below it is 
shewn in the lane leading to Morton, 100 yards west of the High 
Bead. The Chert Beds are not distinguishable. 

East of the Yar the scarped ridge of the Oreensand stands 
out prominently, and excepting a break at Yaverland, continues to- 
do so till it presents on the coast the section which has already 
been described. 

2. Around the Southern Downs. 

On the west side of St. Catherine's Down several small pitfc 
occur along the scarped brow formed by the chert and freestone, 
the former material being used for road-metal The outcrop of 
^ the Upper Greensand is narrow, but steep, and on the broader 
slope of Qault lie many huge masses of Greensand that have 
slipped bodily down. The long fiat-topped spur of St. Cathe- 
rine's Down which juts out to the north, and marks the line of 
strike, is capped with a strip of Chert Beds, about 1,300 yards in 
length, but only from 60 to 80 yards in breadth, and terminate? 
northwards in a remarkable semicircular hollow, which seems to 
have been formed by a landslip. The chert is worked for road- 
metal in small pits here, and on Head Down. West of Kiton 
some old quarries range along the outcrop of the chert and 
fineestone. 

Another fine brow, known as Gat ClifF, is formed by these 
beds in Appuldurcombe Park. The dip being southerly, the 
boldest front is presented to the north. Here also a long line oi* 
old quarries marks the outcrop of the freestone. 

In the valley south-east of Wroxall, along which the railway 
passes, several sections may be observed. The cutting by whim 
the tunnel is approached has been made in the Malm Rock, the 
Gault, so far as can be seen, lying about the level of the rails. At 
the south end of the tunnel the rails are about eighc feet below 
the freestone; the tunnel descends southwards at the rate of 1 in 
173, and is about 1,300 yards in length. From these data it may 
be calculated that the dip of the strata to the south amounts to 
1 in 38 or an angle of rather less than 2^. 

St. Martin's Down which terminates northwards in nearly as 
bold a brow as that of Oat Cliff contains chert bands of 
exceptional thickness. 



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78 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE CHALK. 

Inteoduotion. 

This formation extends completely across the Inland in an east 
and west direction from the Needles to Culver Cliff. It may be 
examined both in the sea-cliffs and in the numerous pits with which 
its surface is covered throughoat the entire distance between those 
points. It forms a range of elevated undulating hills, conspicuous 
from afar on account of their altitude, and the bold rounded 
outline they present to the eye, as well as from their bare and 
uncultivated surface, which is covered with a t^hort grass, and is 
rarely used for any other purpose than the pasturage of sheep. 
In consequence of the high angle at which the Chalk dips 
throughout the greater part of its range from west to east, the 
breadth of sur&ce occupied by it is inconsiderable compared with 
that of most of the strata above and below it« while, on the other 
hand, its horizontal extension increases in proportion as the inclina- 
tion of the strata diminishes. For this reason, from Alum Bay to 
Mottistone Down, and from Carishrook to Culver Cliff, between 
which localities the Chalk is nearly vertical, it constitutes a mere 
ridge of high land, scarcely a quarter of a mile broad in Afton 
Down. Between Mottistone Down and Carisbrook, where the 
strata become less inclined, the width of the band of Chalk 
exceeds three mil^. For the same reason, the outliers of Chalk 
on the south side of the Island between St. Catherine's Down and 
Shanklin Down, although of inconsiderable thickness compared 
with the depth of the entire formation, yet in consequence of 
being nearly horizontal extend over a comparatively wide surface. 
Throughout the central range of the Island the dip of the Chalk 
gradu^ly increases in amount towards its higher strata, becoming 
nearly vertical at its junction with the overlying Tertiary formations. 

The well-known rocks called the Needles are large wedge- 
shaped masses of Chalk standing out in the sea, isolated from the 
main body of Chalk by the wasting action of the waves upon the 
coast A lofty spire of chalk, which once rose as the most con- 
spicuous of the group and chiefly suggested the name to these 
rocks, fell down in 1764. Conspicuous as they look from the 
land, the Needles appear of much larger dimensions when viewed 
from the sea. A base of 60 feet in diameter has been levelled on 
one of them for the foundations of the lighthouse, which was 
removed to it in 1858 from High Down, where it originally stood^ 

Other masses of chalk, consisting of the lowest beds of the flinty 
Chalk, forin similar but smaller isolated rocks in the sea near the 
base of the cliffs on the east side of Freshwater Bay. These are 
shewn in the accompanying sketch. Fig. 16, by Prof. Edward 
Forbes, made in the year 1862, for his Memoir on the Tertiary 
yiuvio-Marine Formation of the Isle of Wight (Fig. II., p. 4).* 

* These sea-itadcB of Chalk seem to have undergone oonsiderable diminution 
since this sketch was made. 

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74 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 




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n 



CHALK. 76 

The cliffs of flinty Chalk at the two ends of the Isle of Wight are 
among the finest to which this formation gives rise in the British 
Isles. The brow of the part known as the Main Bench^ near the 
Needles, which is vertical and descends sheer into the water, was 
determined by the Ordnance Survey to be 416 feet above the 
datum-level, while the Grand Arch, which forms the east side of 
Scratchell's Bay and overhangs considerably, is 300 feet in height. 
It will be noticed that the flinty chalk alone is capable of forming 
these vertical or overhanging cliffs. Both here and at Culver, 
wherever chalk without flints rises next the sea, there is a beach 
of chalk blocks, and a more or less accessible slope at the foot of 
the cliff.* It is in the Chalk-with-flints also that the numerous 
caves of the neighbourhood of Freshwater, the Needles, and the 
extreme point of Culver Cliff, have been excavated. 

In the Chalk of the Isle of Wight the following sub-divigions 
are recognisable. The thicknesses of the Middle and Lower 
Chalk have been obtained by direct measurement in Culver Cliff, 
that of the Chalk-with-flints by estimation. 

Feet. 
Xhalk-with-flints, about - - 1,350 

Chalk, nodular, but without flints - 15-25 
Chalk Rock, a line of green-coated 

noduies. 
"Thick-bedded chalk, with thin partings 

of marl - - - - 166 

Nodular chalk (? Melboum Bock) and 

marl (? Belemniteila Marl) - - 14 

^ Massive chalk - - - 86 

Thin-bedded chalk and marl in 

numerous beds - - - 120 

"Chloritic Marl ... 7^15 

The principal sub-divisions were first recognised by Mr. Webster 
in 1812 (Sir H. Englefield's Isle of Wight, p. 236). He used the 
names Chalk with Flints, Chalk without Flints, and Chalk Marl. 
The Chalk without Flints, he remarks, " differs from the former 
only in the absence of flints, in the bed^ being thicker, and the 
chalk being sometimes a little harder/' The Chalk Mai4 is 
described by him as consisting '' of chalk and an intimate mixtiire 
of clay . • • . It may be readily distinguished from chalk 
by its falling to pieces on being wetted and dried again." 

In 1866 Mr. Whitakerf identified a line of green-coated 
nodules, occurring some 8 or 10 feet below the lowest court^e of 
flints, as the representative cf the bed which he had previously in 
Berkshire named ^^ Chalk Eock," and had taken as the topmost 
bed of the Lower Chalk, i.e., of the Middle Chalk of the above 
table. 

* The coast from the Needles to Freshwater can be examined bj boat only. The 
point on the east of Freshwater Bay and that of Culver Cliff can rarely, if ever, be 
passed on foot. 

t Qatar/. Joum, GeoL Soc.f vol. xxi. p. 400. 



Upper Chalk 



Middle Chalk 



Lower Chalk -< 



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Crale Blanche 
(Chalk with flints). 



Craie Marneuse 
(Chalk without flints). 



76 GEOLOGT OF THE ISLB OF WIGHT. 

In 1876 M. BarroiB published his Description Criclogique de la 
Craie de rUe de Wighty in which he gives an exhaustive account 
of the literature, physical features, zones, and fossil contents of 
the Chalk. The sub-divisions which he adopted are as follows in 
descending order : — 

^Zone k Belemnitelles 80 metres 

(= 262i feet). 
Zone k Mieraster coranffuinum, Ag. 

160 metres (= 524^ feet). 
Zone k Mieraster cor»testudinarium, 

Gold. 50 metres (=164 feet). 
Zone k Holaster planus y Ag. 20 metres 

(= 65i feet). 
"Zone k TerebratuUna aracilis, D'Orb. 

20 metres (=65^ feet). 
Zone k Inoceramus labiatus Schloth. 
^ 40 metres (=131 feet). 

He stated that his zone of Inoceramtu labiatus has as 
its base a bed of very hard yellowish nodules imbedded in a 
greenish grey marl ; this he correlated in 1876 with the Melboum 
Rock.* He gave additional particulars concerning the Chalk Rock 
of Mr. Whitaker, which occurs near the top of his zone of 
Terebratulina gracilis, and noticed a third nodular horizon in the 
lower part of the zone of Holaster planus. 

Thus it will be seen that there is a general agreement as to the 
main divisions of the Chalk. The names Upper, Middle, and 
Lower Chalk are here used in place of those formerly employed, 
so as to bring the nomenclature into accordance with that of the 
mainland. 

The Lower Chalk, which passes insensibly down into the 
Chloritic Marl, consists of alternations of chalk with shaly and 
pale-blue marl, in beds of six inches to two feet in thickness. 
Towards the lower part it is impure, and contains glauconite, or 
even rolled phosphatic nodules, but upwards the proportion of 
chalk increases at the expense of the marly bands, the more 
massive rock thus produced constituting the "grey chalk'' of 
some author?. This sub-division forms generally the first rising 
ground at the foot of the Downs. It has been extensively dug 
for agricultural purposes, and the old pits have yielded a great 
number of fossils, among which Ammonites rhotomagensis^ A. varians, 
and Scaphites aqualis are the most persistent 

The Middle Chalk, of which the Melboum Rock constitutes the 
base, consists of massive beds of chalk from 3 to 6 feet in thick- 
ness, with parting of marl 2 or 3 inches thick. It forms the 
steeper part of the slope of the Downs, and is exposed in the 
upper part of many of the pits in which the Chalk Marl has been 



* Ann. Soc. Geol, Nord, t Hi., juin 1S76. 



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OHALE. 77 

dug. Inoceramus mytiloides occurs in great profusion towards the 
upper part of the Middle Chalk. 

The Upper Chalk occupies the whole area of the Downs except 
the steep slope in which the lower sub-divisions crop out as 
just described. It consists of a great thickness of white chalk 
with numerous lines of flints. Towards the base the flints be- 
come more sparse and grey, and gradually disappear, but below 
the lowest flint there occur nodules of hard siliceous chalk, having 
the form of flints, but the texture of chalk. This flintless 
portion of the Upper Chalk varies from 15 to 20 feet in thickness 
and has the Chalk Rock for its base. 

The line engraved on the map shows the position of the Chalk 
Bock, but on so small a scale as the one inch scale, especially 
where the dip is high, represents pretty closely the base of the 
flinty chalk. 

Tlie flint in the Chalk occurs for the most part as irregularly 
shaped nodules, but sometimes as tabular layers either coincident 
with the etratitication or filling cracks and joints. Those flints 
which occur parallel with the beddings are of a different age 
from those filling the cracks and joints. The former have been 
derived from siliceous matter^ frequently and perhaps in most 
instances deposited contemporaneously with the calcareous sedi- 
ment of which the Chalk is composed, around sponges and other 
organised bodies, the forms and internal structure of which are 
still preserved. The latter, on the contrary, are of more recent 
origin, having been carried by percolating water, holding silica in 
solution, into cracks and joints, where they occur as thin plates 
of black flint, from ^ to 1 inch in thickness, frequently separated 
by a central hollow, or porous grey layer. These subsequently 
introduced flints are, as might be expected, unfossiliferous, instead 
of abounding in fossils, as is the case with those of contempo- 
raneous formiition. 

The cracks and joints filled with this secondary flint were not 
improbably due to the movements which upheaved the rocks of 
this region. These movements will be shewn in a later Chapter 
to have taken place at a late Tertiary date. The redistribution 
of the silica was thus probably in progress after the Chalk and the 
flints in it had been buried beneath a great thickness of Tertiary 
Beds, and had assumed their present consistency. There is no 
reason to doubt that in certain situations the transposition of the 
silica is still in progress. 

In the parts of the Island where the strata are most highly 
inclined, the fossils in the more plastic strata, such as the Chalk 
Marl, are greatly distorted by pressure. The flints also which 
appear to be whole when viewed in sitUj are found on closer 
examination to be nearly all broken, so that when extracted from 
the quarry they fall to piecei>. The cracks are mostly filled with 
chalky matter, and the flints themselves appear to have been 
squeezed into the body of the Chalk, under the influence of the 
elevatory force by which it has been made to assume its present 
highly inclined position. These appearances are not observable 



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78 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

where the Chalk is in a oomparatiyely undisturbed state. 
Shattered flints may be observed in the lar^e Chalk pits south 
of Newport and on Arreton Down ; also on Asbey Down, where 
the Chalk is rather hard^ as is most frequently the case where 
it is inclined at a high angle. The distortion of the fossils is 
noticeable in the pit in the Chalk Marl at Yarbridge^ described 
on p. 88. 

At Sun Comer, near the Needles, as noticed by Mr. Whitaker,* 
'^ there is a bed of some thickness, in which the layers of flint are 
so close together that they form nearly as much of the rock as 
the chalk itself." This intensely flinty zone occurs towards the 
base of the flinty chalk. It is not recognisable in Culver Clifi^ 
but on the other hand the flints are very large immediately below 
the base of the Tertiary Beds at Brading (p. 96). 

In Culver Cliff a marked flintless zone in the Upper Chalk, 
about 350-400 feet above its base, was first noticed and described 
by Mr. Whitaker as follows : — " Here, in the midst of the Chalk 
with layers of flint at every three or four feet, is a space some 
forty or fifty feet thick, with only one seam of tabular flint, but 
with four lines of green-coated nodules, like those of the Chalk- 
rock but perhaps of a deeper colour." The following 

fossils have been obtained from one of the bands of green nodules : — 
a sponge, a coral, Cardiastei* pillula, Lam., Serpula plexus , Sow. 
(adhering to one of the nodules), and Rhynchonella plicatilis. 
Sow. These nodules were submitted^ for examination under the 
microscope^ to Mr. W. Hill, who kindly furnished the following 
information concerning them. He found them to consist mainly 
of the fine amorphous material of the chalky with a somewhat 
unusual number of lai^e and perfect foraminifera, and with many 
sponge spicules, the silica of which had been replaced by calcite. 
The colouring appeared to be sometimes due to a green material, 
much of which had acciunulated in the interior of foraminiferal 
cells, but the whole of the amorphous material was sometimes tinted 
green with no apparent change in its constituent particles. There 
were no isolated grains of glauconite, such as appear in the some- 
what similar nodules of the Chalk Rock. After treatment of the 
nodules with hydrochloric acid, the residue was a duU-greenish soft 
and earthy-looking material, a large part of which occurred as the 
casts of foraminifera and the canals of sponge spicules. In some 
of the nodules Mr. Hill noticed ramifying cylindrical perforations, 
filled with a white material, sharply defined from, and shewing in 
strong relief against the remainder of the nodule. In the larger 
perforations there was a greater proportion of foraminifera and 
shell fragments than in the material of the nodule. In the smaller 
ramifications the infilling material was like that of the nodule, yet 
always shewed a clearly defined edge. 

Nodules showing somewhat similar peculiarities occur at several 
horizons in the Chalk of the lilainland, and have been remarked 
by Mr. Hill to be usually accompanied by an exceptional abun- 

* Quart Joum, Geol, Soc., vol. xzi. p. 401. 1865. 



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CHtiOBITIC MABL. 79 

dance of organic remains. He considers that the fact that young 
shell-fish are frequently attached to their exterior^ and that the 
material now filling the so-called perforations seems to have been 
introduced after the formation of the nodule, leads to the con- 
clusion that the nodules were formed on the sea-bottom contem- 
poraneously with the deposition of the Chalk, and formed at one 
time a suitable home for some kind of boring animal. There is no 
structure in the nodules that points especially to sponges as having 
been their origin. On the other hand Mr. Hill remarks that their 
occurrence in strata exceptionally rich in fossils is suggestive of 
their having resulted from the decay of organic matter. 

The finest sections of the Chalk- with-flints form the precipices 
of Scratchells Bay and Culver ClifiT. In each case the lines of 
flint enable the eye to follow the bedding from a distance, and to 
take in at a glance the regularity of the great curve in which 
the Chalk rises from beneatih the Tertiary, and arches over the 
Secondary formations (see Section, Plate 1.). 

The thickness of the Upper Chalk can be arrived at by calcula- 
tion only. Lines of section have been plotted across four different 
parts of the central line of Downs, giving a mean thickness of 
1,350 feet, or rather more than the 1,017 feet assigned to this sub- 
division by M. Barrels. 

In describing the sections, it will be convenient, after dealing 
with the Chloritic Marl, to take the three sub-divisions of the 
Chalk together, for it generally happens that the same pit, or 
group of pits, provides sections of parts of all of them. 



The Chloritic Mabl. 

The Chloritic Marl received its name from the abundance of 
grains of green colouring matter in it, formerly regarded as chlorite, 
but now recognised as glauconite. Although a calcareous deposit, 
it is remarkable for the number of phosphatised casts of Ammonites, 
Turrilites, and other fossils it contains. These were at one time 
worked for phosphoric acid on St. Catherine's Down, but the 
attempt was soon abandoned. The Chloritic Marl varies in thick- 
ness, being 13 feeb at Compton Bay, Hi feet at Brook, 7 feet at 
St. Catherine's, 8^ feet above Ventnor,and 16 feet at Culver Cliff. 
The variation is perhaps accounted for by the fact that no definite 
line can be traced between it and the Chalk Marl above. The 
lower beds of the Chalk Marl not only contain an abundance of 
sand and glauconite, but sometimes also rolled phosphatic nodules, 
not distinguishable from those in the Chloritic Marl (see section 
at Compton Bay, p. 83). It is generally difficult to decide at jvhat 
exact horizon the proportion of sand in the rock falls so far below 
the proportion of calcareous matter as to justify the bed being 
referred to as chalk. 

The relations of the Chloritic Marl have been discussed by 
Messrs. Barrois, Parkinson, Meyer, Jukes* Browne, and others. 
By M. Barrois it was grouped with the Chert Beds and the 



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80 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Treestone as the zone of Pecten asper, which fossil is recorded 
from the freestone. Mr. Parkinson, however, denies that Pecten 
asper occurs in the Isle of Wight at any other horizon than in 
the Chloritic Marl, and that there it only appears as a derived 
form,* in a layer of broken specimens at the base of the upper- 
most bed of this subdivision near Yentnor. This Pecten being 
a characteristic Upper Greensand form, its occurrence as a 
derived fossil only in the Chloritic Marl seems to indicate that 
this bed is in part made up of the reasserted materials of the 
Upper Oreensand. All the phosphatised fossils which occur in 
the Chloritic Marl are also of Upper Cretaceous type, and, 
though they appear to have been phosphatised in a matrix similar 
to that in which they are now imbedded, namely a glauconitic 
sand, they have all been broken and many have been rolled. 

Near Yentnor and St. Lawrence the Chloritic Marl is divisible 
into two or more bands, the uppermost of which contains the 
numerous phosphatic casts before alluded to.t According to 
Mr. Meyer, j: there are included under this title of Chloritic Marl, 
as first applied, *^ two sets of strata with, in time at least, a gap 
between them," the (local) top of the Upper Greensand, and the 
(local) bottom of the Chalk Marl, the lower including in its fauna 
Pecten asper, Terebratella pectita, CatopygtLS carinattu (colum" 
barius), Echinoconus (Galerites) castanea, Jkc, the upper, AmmO' 
7iites, Scaphites, Turrilites, §-c., mostly phosphatic These two 
sets he correlated with the beds overlying the Chert Beds at 
Warminster, for which he had previously used the name of the 
Warminster Beds. 

But Mr. Jukes«Browne§ remarks that the Warminster fossils 
occur only in a remani^ form in the Chloritic Marl of the Isle 
of Wight, and that the small indigenous fauna differs very little 
from that of the Chalk Marl, but is quite distinct from that of the 
zone of Pecten asper. The Chloritic Marl is therefore regarded 
by him a? the natural base of the Chalk. 

Mot only, however, is it impossible to recognise sub-divisions in 
the Chloritic Marl throughout the Island, but it is almost as 
difficult to fix on a definite line between it and the Chert Beds. 
While palseontologically it forms the base of the Chalk,|| litho- 
logically it is Upper Greensand, and the only line which can be 
traced across country is that which runs at the foot of the Chalk 
Downs, and marks the position of the lowest bed of chalk. Over a 

^ Quart, Journ. GeoL Soc., yoI. zxxvii. p. 872. 18S1. 

f This upper band seems to have constituted the Chloritic Marl of Captain 
Ibbetson, irho gives a thicknesft of 1 to 3 feet only to the bed. " Notes on the 
Geology, &c. in the Isle of Wight," p. 24 (bat see also p. 21 where he speaks of it 
as consisting of two portions, the upper exhibiting a conglomerate of pebbles and 
smaU boulders). 

X Geol Mag, for 1878, pp. 547-551. See also Quart, Joum, Oeol, Soc., toL zzx. 
p. 869. 1874. 

§ GeoL Mag, lor 1877, p. 857. 

II When the geological mapping of Dorset was undertaken by H. W. Bristow, B. 
Forbes, the palseontologist, pronounced that the Chloritic Biarl, containing Scaphitet 
aqualh, constituted the lowest bed of the Chalk, of the fossils of which this formed 
the earliest appearance. — ^H. W. B. 



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OHLORTTIO MABL. 81 

great part of the Island the outcrop of the Chloritic Marl ie so 
narrow that a single line suffices on the one-inch map to cover it ; 
but around the ^uthern Downs and near Gatcombei where the 
dip is gentle, the Chloritic Marl runs up the dip-slope of the 
Chert Beds considerably beyond the foot of the Chafic Downs^ 
ending oif along an irregular line marked neither by feature nor 
change of soil In such casep, the line at the base of the Chalk 
has been engraved, as the only boundary capable of being traced 
with any accuracy. 

In Compton Bay, the Chloritic Marl, 13 feet thick, consists 
of marly. sand with much glauconite and numerous pale-brown 
phosphatic nodules, most of which are the rolled casts of 
Ammonites (chiefly A. vartani), Turrilites Bergeri and bivalves. 
Some lines of irregular-shaped concretionary masses in it may 
possibly be imperfectly formed chert. The same subdivision is 
again well exposed in the road-cutting above Brook (see p. 70), 
where it is 11^ feet thick, and contains abundant rolled casts of 
Ammonites varians. The same description will apply also to the 
section in the chalk-pits on the Brixton and Calbourne road. 

In the Undercliff the Chloritic Marl is well exposed, some of 
the best sections being on the top of Gore Clifl* and on the diff 
above St. Lawrence, in the zig-zag road at Ventnor, at the 
railway station and 100 vards east of it, and in a pit by the road- 
side near the Pulpit Bock above Bonchurcb. It is about 7 feet 
thick, and consists in the upper part of marly sand with 
glauconite and many phosphatised casts of fossils, and in the lower 
part of laminated sand of a darker tint, with broken shells of 
Pecten asper, while between the two bands there runs a line of hard 
white stony lumps. The old coprolite diggings, before alluded 
to, were in the upper part of the Chloritic Marl and may still be 
distinguished on the edge of Gore Cliff, on either side of the 
township boundary. 

In Culver Cliff, the upper limit of the Chloritic Marl is difficult 
to fix If it is taken at the base of the lowest bed that can be 
fairly called chalk, the thickness obtained for the Chloritic Marl 
is 15 feet, the section being as follows: — 



Pr. In. 



Chalk Marl (see p. 89). 
fGreen] 



Chloritic 
Marl. 



marly sand with lines of my ooncre- 
tioni, witn Plocoseypkia, and a few scattered 
phosphates • - • • 5 

Do. with phosphatised Ammonites - -56 

Line of large lumps of ver^ hard grey stone 1 6 
Vevy green sand, with pipe-like markings, 
and a few phosphates • - - 3 

Chert Beds (see p. 70). 

15 



Inland the Chloritic Marl being very soft is usually hidden, 

_but sections of it may be seen 100 yards south-east of Garstons, in 

die r(Mtdside by the Convent at Carisbrook, and at Frogland, 

B ~ 567SS. y 



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82 GEOLOOT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

where a fine spring isBues from its junction with the Chalk 
MaxL 

At Punfield, the Ohloritic Marl is 3 feet 6 inches thick 
and contains phosphatic casts of Ammonites, Nautilus, and an 
Exogyra which seems indigenous. The Chert Beds below it^ in 
which the chert occurs only as cherty lumps, contain Exogyra 
conica in great abundance, with Sqihonia tulipa, Zittel, Pecten 
asper, Lamk., P. orbicularis. Sow., P. quinquecostatus. Sow., 
Pleurotomaria, and Ammonites varians, Sow. 



Upper, Middle, and Lower Chalk. 

1. Compton Bay, along the Central Downs, to Culver Cliff. 

In proceeding westwards from the Needles along the coast, wa 
find the Middle Chalk first coming in at the foot of the cliff at 
Oldpepper Rock, 700 yards east of Sun Corner, Up to this 
point the cliff, which is over 400 feet in height, is vertical and 
descends sheer into the sea, but, where the Middle Chalk rises from 
beneath the water, is fringed with a rough beach of fallen blocks. 
Oldpepper Bock is an outstanding mass of Middle Chalk, still 
in situ. After 500 yards the top of the Middle Chalk descends 
again beneath the sea, and the cliff becomes once more vertical. 
At a point 800 yards west of the Beacon (or about 1^ mile east 
of Sun Corner), known as New Ditch Point, the Middle Chalk 
rises again into the cliff, and so continues for a little over a mile, 
when it once more sinks below the sea. The same change in the 
character of the cliff is observable here also, and the vertical walls 
of chalk and remarkably picturesque range of caves are con« 
veniently situated for examination. The Middle Chalk rises 
finally about 600 yards east of the easternmost pomt of Fresh- 
water Bav. Thence it slants graduaUy up the cliff to a cutting 
in tiie !Nulitary Boad on Afton Down, where the following section 
occurs: — 



Military Road Cutting, Afton Doum, 



Ft. In. 



Upper Chalk < 



'Chalk with flints - 

Nodular chalk, without flints <• - 6 

Marl - - . . - 1-2 

Nodular cbalk« without flints - - 8 

White sbaly marl - - - - 1-2 

Nodular chalk - • • - 6 

Nodule Bed (Chalk.rock), green-coated no- 
\_ dules in the top 3-6 indies - - 1 6 

Middle Chalk - Massive chalk, weathering into small frag- 
ments, but not nodular, with bands of marl 
at 4-10 feet intervals. Pyrites and Tere^ 
bratvla senUfflobosa - • - 60 0+ 

The Lower Chalk first rises from beneath the sea, at a point on 
the beach nearly midway between the easternmost point of Fresh* 
water Bay and the path down the clifi* on the outcrop of the 



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rMassive 
Middle Ca«Ik-^«5Jit 



CHAUu 88 

Oanlt in Compton Bay. A poor representative of the Melboum 
Bock was detected here by Mr. Whitaker^ the sequence being 
as below : — 

Massive thick-bedded chalk traversed by straight 

joints. 
Melbourn Rock, hard thinly bedded chalk with layers 
L of marl, about 8-10 feet. 
Lower Chalk - Softer chalk, traversed by curving joints, producing 
' conchoidal fracture ' on a large scale. 

A small fault throws the beds about 6 feet down to the north* 
"» west, at the point where the Melbourn Rock comes down to the 
beach. Downwards the Lower Chalk passes so gradually into the 
Chloride Marl tliat it is difficult to fix its base. The following 
section, which forms the continuation of that given on p. 68, was 
obtained by climbing a short distance up the cliff. 

Ft. In. 

Alternations of chalk and marl in beds of 1-2 feet thick. 

Chalky sand, with glauconite, and containing rolled AmmO' 
nitea, Turrilites, &o. at base. The bed looks like chalk 
at first sight, but contains perhaps more sand than chalk - 8 

Pale-blue marl and chalk in alternations - - - 7 

C^loritio marl (see p. 81). 

Along all this part of the coasts from Compton Bay to Sun 
Comer, a line of rocks may be seen under the water when the 
sea is smooth and clear, running nearly parallel to the foot of 
the cliff, and still more nearly parallel to the line marking the 
top of the Middle Chalk, as traced above. This line of rocks 
marks the submerged outcrop of the Chert Beds, for further east 
it joins a reef formed by these beds, which is bare at low water 
in Compton Bay. It shews no deviation from its course opposite 
Freshwater Bay, whence we may infer that no fault runs along 
this valley, where a fault might have been su^ected from the 
course taken by the topmost beds of the Chalk. 

Following the Downs eastwards, we find the next sections at 
the south-eastern comer of Shalcombe Down. Here there are 
two pits, the upper of which was described by Mr, Whitaker.* 
The section seen in 1887 was as follows :— 

Pit at the south-eastern comer of Shalcombe Down. 

Ft. Iw. 

Chalk with flints 

Rouffh nodular chalk without flints - - - - 10 6 

Black day or shale - - - - - -0 1-3 

Rough nodular chalk - - - ^ - 6 

Nodular bed (Chalk Rock), the nodules in the upper 3 inches 

green-coated • - - - • -13 

Massive thickly bedded chalk with two or three seams of 
marl about 10 feet apart • * - - - 20 0+ 

The lower pit is in the lower beds of the Middle Chalk and 
seems to touch the Lower Chalk, but the Melboum Bock could 

* Quart, Joum, GeoL Soc., vol xxi. p. 402. 1865. 

P 2 



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84 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

not be clearly diBtinguiBhed. Inoceramus mytiloides is abandant 
in the Middle Chalk. In the same neighbourhood a deep catting 
for the coach-road shows in the upper part : — 

Ft. In. 
Alternations of chalk and marl, top not seen . . - 120 

RockjT chalk, very impure, with glauconite ; passing down 
into the - - - - - - -68 

Chloritic marl (sec p. 70) 11 6 

Large specimens of Ammonites rtiotamagensis, Defr., occur here^ 
and A. varians, Sow., is common but badly preserved. 

The Middle and Lower Chalk are both seen in a pit north of ' 
Mottistone, where the latter has been worked near its base ; but 
the junction between the two subdivisions u obscured. Thi$ 
seems to have been the pit alluded to by Mr. Whitaker,* and 
the layer of hard yellowish nodules seen by him may have been 
the Melboum Eock. The pits do not reach up to the horizon 
of the Chalk Kock. 

At the west end of Brixton Down a fine series of pits extends 
from the Upper Chalk to the Malm Rock of the Upper 
Ghreensand. The Upper and Middle Chalk are seen in the 
uppermost pit on' the north side of the Calboume and Brixton 
road^ the section, which was measured in company with Mr. 
Whitaker, being as below : — 

West end of Brixton Down, 

Ft. In. 

r Chalk with flints, seen up to about - - 20 

TT««#* rhtAV J Rough nodular chalk, without flints - 20 

upper unalk < N^^dular chalk (Chalk Rock), the nodules 

L green-coated - - . il - 1 3-6 

Rough nodular chalk - . - 1 6 

Middle chalk - Smooth massive chalk - . -6 0-f 

The lower beds of the Middle Chalk are seen in a pit a few 
yards further south, but the Melboum Eock is not now exposed. 
Another and larger pit in the Middle Chalk has been opened 
about one third of a mile further west in Mottistone Down, and 
seems from the character and curvilinear jointing in the lower 
part to have reached the Lower Chalk, but the Melboum Bock 
18 not distinguishable. Holaster subglobosus occurs in these lower 
beds. 

The Brixton Down pit was visited in 1865 by Mr. Whitaker, 
and figured on p. 403 of the paper already quoted. At that time 
a line of clay was visible, wluch seemed to shew an unconformity 
(or perhaps fiilse bedding) in the Chalk ; for southwards it was 
further from the nodular bed, whilst northwards the latter was 
not seen, but seemed to be cut oflT. This line of day, however, 
runs persistently through the Island at a scarcely varying distance 
above the Chalk Rock ; it was in fact selected by M. Barrois as 
the base of his Chalk-with-flints. Moreover, it was figured by him 

♦ Quart, Joum. Geol, Soc„ vol. xxi. p. 402. 1S65. 



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OHAXiK 85 

again in 1875,* and described ae occurring at about its proper 
distance above the Chalk Rock. Presumably therefore its ir- 
regular appearance in the Brixton f)it was the result of squeezing. 
The dip ranges from 27° to 30^ Southwards from this pit the 
high road passes steep banks of thin-bedded chalk and marl, 
which become very impure and sandy in the lower part, and 
so merge into the Chloritic Marl (p. 81). 

Near Coombe Tower, north of Brixton, several large pits in 
the Lower Chalk reach upwards into more massive beds which 
^eem to be the Middle Chalk, but the Melboum Rock is not 
distinguishable. 

The large pit at Shorwell exposes this rock, but unfortunately 
in a position wherein it is quite inaccessible at present. The strata 
consist of thin-bedded chalk and marl (Lower Chalk) but the 
top of the vertical wall of the pit is formed of a hard Baky chalk, 
underlain by a thin seam of marl, the appearance of the beds, 
as studied at a distance of a few feet, being the same as that of the 
Melbourn Bock near Arreton and Yarbridge (postea^ pp. 88, 89). 

The next sections are found in the projecting promontory of 
Chalk of Chillerton Down. The uppermost pit touches the 
Chalk Bock, but starts a few feet below the Chalk- with-flints. 

Chillerton Down, 

Ft. In. 

{Massive chalk - - - - 4 

S^r;U : : : : 5 5 
Greeii-ooated nodule bed (Chalk Rock) - 8 

Middle ch..k{«^'S,^„^a;^S, : : ; i^;^ 

The Middle Chalk, which has been worked, is now overgrown ; 
but the Lower Chalk, presenting its usual character of thin- 
bedded chalk and marl is worked in the lowest pit. At least 
three faults are visible in the pit, in each case with slickensided 
faces, coated with a film of blue marl. Two of them range 
nearly north-east, throwing down a wedge between them, while 
the third runs north-west with a downthrow to the south-west 
The dip is at 7°— 9° to the north, but decreases to 2° or 3° 
further north towards Gatcombe,and changes in direction to north- 
west. The faults may be connected with this change* 

The boundary of the Upper Chalk is shoivn upon the map, as 
running across the Downs from near Shorwell to Carisbrook, but 
the hills lying outside this boundary are believed to be capped 
with outliers of Upper Chalk. The existence of outliers there is 
not quite certain, l>ecause of the uniform sheet of flint gravel cover- 
ing the tops of all the hills, but it is inferred from the position of 
the Chalk Bock in the pit last described. They must, however, 
be exceedingly thin, the Chalk-with-flints having nearly all 
mouldered down into flint gravel. The few pits, which are open 
round the brows of these hills, expose the massive beds of the 
Middle Chalk. The best sections in the Lower Chalk are to be 
found 500 yards south of Newbarn and at Garstons. 

* Description G^logiqae de la Craie de Tile de Wight, p. 18. 



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86 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

The evidence on which the base of the Upper Chalk has been 
traced acroBS the Downs to CariBbrook is somewhat scantj. 
Middle Chalk is seen in the road at the top of Shorwell Shute, in 
a pit at Cheverton, at Rowborough, and in a pit at Bowcombe, 
while the Upper Chalk is exposed in pits on the southern and 
eastern brows of Idlecombe Down. In one spot only, namely a 
cart-road running northwards from Rowborough, a poor exposure 
of the Chalk Rock may be seen. There are sections of Upper 
and Middle Chalk close together in a lane leading up the hill to 
the north-west from Bowcombe, but no section of the Chalk Rock. 
In Carisbrooky however, this latter subdivision is well exposed. 
We first see it in a cutting where three lanes meet near Clatter- 
ford. Thence it runs along the south front of the hill on which 
the castle stands (the hill being a portion of the escarpment of the 
flinty Chalk), to a quarry near the Convent, where the following 
•ection occurs : — 

Quarry east of Carisbrook Castle. 

Ft. In, 

'Nodular chalk with grey flints. 

Do. without flints - -40 

Smoother chalk - - - - 1 

Marl 1 

Upper Chalk •{ Rouffh hard chalk - • - - 7 6 

Dark marl 1 

Hard chalk 6 

Chalk / line of green-coated nodules .03 

LRock \Nodular chalk - - - 2 4 

{Smooth chalk - - - - 4 

Thick-hedded smooth chalk with partings of 
marl at 2 to 4 ft. intervals - - 60 0-f 

The occurrence of the nodular bed here was first noted by 
Mr. Whitaker in 1865,* but, the Chalk-with-flints not being 
exposed at that time, he was unable to correlate it positively 
with the Chalk Rock. The fault mentioned above runs W. 16® S., 
very nearly along the strike of the strata which it throws 
down to the nortn^ its effect being to depress out of sight an 
unknown thickness of the upper beds of the Middle Chalk. 
The dip points a little west of north at 42^ 

The Middle Chalk and Melboum Bock are exposed in an old 
pit half a mile further east, on the west side of the Shide and 
Gatcombe road^ the section being as follows : — 



JPit an the east side of Mount Joy. 



Ft. In. 



30 





4 





2 





2 


0+ 



Chalk in beds of 2 to 3 feet thickness, with bands of marl, 
top not seen ...--- 
Thin-bedded chalk with hands of ffreenish marl, about 
Chalk with ydlowish nodules (Melboum Rock), about 
Marl (P Belenmitella Marl) 

The pit is now occupied by farm-buildings, and the section 
somewhat obscured. The nodular bed was first noticed and 

* Qnart. Journ, Geol. Sac,, vol. zzi. p. 408. 

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GHALK. 87 

described by M. Barrois iu 1875.* He obtained from it Inoce- 
ramus labiatus, Rhynchanella Cuvieri, and Cidaris hirudo. 

The Chalk Marl appears on the east side of the Gratcombe road, 
and in an bid pit midwaj between the two described above. On 
the east side of the valley a large pit exposes the Lower Chalk ; 
the Middle and Upper Chalk are seen^ but not well, in the side 
of the road. 

Some fine sections occur at the east end of Arreton Down. On 
the west side of the high road, in the bottom of a disused pit, 
Mr. Whitaker found the Chalk Bock. It is now overgrown, but 
the beds above it are seen as follows : — 

Ft. In. 

Nodular chalk with a few grev flints. 

Smooth chalk with Terebrattia semiglobosa, Inocercmus, &c. 2 6 

Rough nodular chalk - - - - -6 0+ 

Fifly yards east of this pit, and on the opposite side of the roadj 
a marl-pit exposes a good view of the Ubalk Bock, the section 
being as below : — 



r Smooth chalk - . - 

Black cky - - - - 

Upper Chalk < Rouj^h chalk - - . - 

ChaUL J Line of green-ooated nodules 
Rock \ Rough nodular chalk 
** Smooth chalk . - - 

Marl .... 

Smooth chalk ... 

Middle Chalk<( Marl .... 

Smooth chalk ... 



Ft. In. 



Marl 
Smooth chalk 



4 








1 


8 


(f 





4 


2 


2 


2 


8 





I 


2 


6 





Oh 


10 


6 





3 


2 


0+ 



Following the foot of the Down eastwards we find a large pit 
300 yards north-west of Heasley Lodge, in the upper part of 
which a band of rough chalk, nodular in parts, is no doubt the 
Melboum Eock. The section is as follows :— 

Pit on Mersley Down. 

Pr. In. 

Massive chalk with marly partings - <• 60 

r Nodular chalky the top concealed, seen up to 2 
Melboum J Thin-bedded chalk with partings of greenish 

P/u»V 1 mitfl . - - - - 4 



Rock. 1 marl 

iHard chalk, nodular at the base 
Alternations of chalk and marl 
P Belemnitella r Laminated marl 

Marl. L Marly chalk with curving joints 



3 6 

3 

2 

2 6 



The pit is worked deep into the Chalk Marl, but the rest of 
the section is obscured by talus. There is a large pit in the same 
beds by the side of the Ryde and Newchurch road, but the 
Melboum Rock was not to be found. The ^Ohalk Marl is well 
seen in a large pit north of Kern. 

♦ Cniie de I'lle de Wight, p. 16. 

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88 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



At Tarbridge all the subdivisions of the Chalk are exposed. 
Two large pits are situated on the side of the road to Alverstone, 
the upper one wholly in the Chalk-with-flints, the lower one partly 
in this and partly in the Middle Chalk. 

Pit half a mile west'-north'West of Yarbridge. 







Ft. In. 




'Chalk with a few grer flints - 
Bouffh nodular dialk, with lumpe slicken- 
aided and weathering yellow ; foaailiferoua in 


8 












the lower part . - . - 


6 




White niarl parting .... 


1 


Upper Chalk < 


Rough chalk with Terebratula $emiglobo8a • 
Black clay 


8 
I 




lUiugfa chalk ----- 


4 




Smoother cha]k 


4 




Chalk Rock, a single line of green-coated 






nodules lying on ... 


1 




Rough nodular chalk 


2 6 


Middle Chalk- 


Smooth chalk .... 
.Marl 


5 6 
1 



The same beds were formerly exposed in Yarbridge in some 
pits which are ^ now partly hidden by building. Mr. Whitaker 
n<Tted the^. folio wing seotion* :: — 

Chalk with a few nodular flints (shown only at the northern end of 
the quany, where it is 20 to 30 feet thick). 

Thin seam of dark-grey day. 

Chalk, about 8 feet. 

Inconstant layer of irregularly-shaped green-coated nodules (Chalk- 
rock P) 

Evenly and massively bedded chalky without flints, but with seams of 
man. 

The Middle and Lower Chalk are well exposed in a pit about 
200 yards west of the upper road in Yarbridge, which shows the 
following section :— 



Pit west of Yarbridge. 

Massive chalk in beds of 2-3 feet, iron 

]iyrites - - - - - 

. Thin-bedded chalk in beds of ^-^ inches, 

with partings of greenish marl - ' - 

r Hard nodular bed - - . • 

•j Laminated greenish marl . - . 

L Hard nodular bed - 

{Smooth earthy chalk with curvilinear jointing 
passing down into ... 

Grey or greenish marl with curvilinear joint- 
ing passing down into 
Hard c' 



Ft. In. 

30 



Melboum 
Rock. 



3 
2 

4 



2 



I chalk - 
Marl .... 

Alternations of marl and blocky chalk 

We now reach the great section aflForded by Culver Cliff. There 
the sub-divisions are not only well exposed, and the different 



2 

7 



21 



6 


1 




* Quart, Joum, Geoi, Soc,, vol. zzi. p. 404. 1865. 



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OHALK. W 

horizons identifiable, bat by choosing the least steep parts of the 
diff we have found it possible to take an unbroken series of 
measurements from the base of the Upper Chalk downwards, 
tims continuing the measurements which have already been given 
for all the beds down to the base of Lower Greensand. The total 
thickness of beds measured in this section 'amounted to 1,218 feet, 
as^ diown drawn to scale in Plate III. The section in the Chalk 
is as follows : — 



Upper Chalk ^ 



Middle Chalk,^ 
180 ft. 3 in. ^ 



Cbalk 
Rock. 



Melboum 
Rock. 



PBelemni-l 
teUa 
Marl. 



Culver Cliff. 

Chalk with grey flmts - 
Smooth chalk with Holaster - 
Chalk, splitting up into nodular 

masses along wavy dark lines ; 

fossils - • - 

Marl .... 
Chalk as above . - . 

Beds, obscured by talus 

{Hiurd grey chalk, with a line of 
^preen-coated nodules at top - 
Thick-bedded white chalk with 

partings of marl 

ShalT chalk . 

rChalk with yellow-coated no- 

I dules ... 

) Chalk split up by partings of 

^ greenish marl 

Chalk with yellow-coated no* 

dules - . . 



Ft. In. 

4 



^ Bluish marl, about 



3 



2 

16 



. 164 



Lower Chalk, 
206 fl:. 



Chalk 
MarL 




0* 





1 2 



3 
6 
2 



6 



. 86 



Massive smooth chalk . 
"Thin-bedded grey chalk and 
marl in numerous alternations, 
passing down 
Similar beds, but rather bluer 
and more marlv; the chalk 
bands very harcf and lumpy, 
and containing Ammonites 
variana and sponges abun- 
L dantly ... 

"Chloritic Marl (see p. 81). 

An abstract of this section may be arranged as follows:^ 



. 60 



70 



Abstract of the Section of Middle and Lower Chalk in Culver 

Cliff' 

Ft. In. 
. 166. 

- 8 3 

LBelemnitellaMarl - - - - 6 

LowerChalk,/ Massive chalk - - - - 86 ' 

206ft;. iChalkMarl 120 



MiddleChalk, r™^^^^1f^^ - 
180 ft. 3 in.^^*^^^'™^^ 



386 3 

The thicknesses uf these sub-divisions at Punfield compared 
with those given above^ show a westerly attenuation of the Chalk 



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90 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLB OF WIGHT. 

as of the other Secondary Bocks. The Upper Chalk becomes 
devoid of flints but very nodular in the lower 20 f eet^ and has as its 
. base a conspicuous band of green-coated nodules, about 4 inches 
thick (Chalk Bock), below which the section runs as follows >--. 

Near Puiifield Cove. 

Ft. In. 

Hard, rough, and lumpy chalk - - 6 
Smoother chalk, thick-bedded, with partings 

ofmarl - - - - - 90 

Melboum Rock • - - - 6 
Smooth chalk with conchoidal fracture, with 

several partings of marl - - - 3 

^Fine marl (P Belemnitdla Marl) - - 9 

{Alternations of chalk and marl in beds of 
1 to 2 feet, with an occasional line of 
nodules, some of which are green like those 
of the Chalk Rock - - * 132 



Middle Chalk, 
111 feet. 



243 



2. The ISouthem Dawns, 

The outliers of chalk, which cap these hills, consist of the 
Lower, Middle, and a mere film, if any, of the Upper Chalk, the 
Chalk-with-flints (and according to M. Barrois the whole of the 
Middle Chalk) having been denuded away. The tops of the hills, 
however, are so thickly overspread with flint gravel, a residue of the 
mass of beds that have been removed by subaerial agencies, that it 
is not possible to say what is the highest bed present beneath this 
covering. 

In the outlier of St. Catherine's Down the dip is at a gentle 
angle to the east-south-east — that is, about the same as that of 
the Lower Cretaceous Rocks seen in the coast* The thickness of 
chalk forming the outlier amounts to about 180 feet, and must 
therefore belong wholly to the Lower Chalk. But it is noticeable 
that the hill is capped with flint gravel, a relic of the Upper 
Chalk, that must have been slowly let down from above by the 
dissolving away of the chalk. The best exposures of the beds are 
to be met with in a large marl-pit at the north end of the outlier. 
They consist of alternations of chalk and marl generally in thick 
beds, and are traversed by a small fault running about E. 10^ N. 
with a downthrow to the south. 

A second outlier, scarcely separated from the first, occurs on the 
brow of Orore Cliff. The beds, well exposed along the clifi^, 
with the underlying Chloritic Marl, are very fossiliferous. This 
outlier evidently forms the northern flank of a chalk-hill, of 

* It was stated hj Captain Ibbetson that an onoonfonnit^ between the Upper 
and Lower Cretaceous Rocks was visible in the Isle of Wight CQuart Joum, Geol, 
Soc, Tol. ill. p. 815. See also Judd on the Funfield Formation, ib, vol. xvii. p. 221, 
1871). This statement was founded on a mistaken idea that the Chalk of the 
Southern Downs is horisontal, while the easterly dip of 2° of the lower rocks, as 
seen in the cliff section at Atherfield, was supposed to be maintained beneath them. 
Neither supposition Is correct. 



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CHALK. 91 

wkioh the only other traces left are masses of fallen: ohalk in the 
UnderclifF. borne of the rain-wash, however, from the slopes of 
this vanished chalk-down forms a conspicuous bed on the brow 
of the cliff (see posiea, p. 287). There is a small pocket of flint- 
gravel in this chalk. 

The same description will apply also to the chalk which caps 
the cliff cast of St Lawrence. The Chalk Marl only is seen, but 
it is possible that the tops of the hills touch the more massive 
upper beds of the Lower Chalk. The base of the Chalk Marl 
occurs in St. Lawrence Shute and in the footpath leading up the 
cliff to Whitwell. The dip is southerly and south-easterly at a 
gentle angle. 

In the high down which extends northwards to Appuldurcombe 
Park, there is a thickness of about 270 or 280 feet of chalk at a 
point between Week Farm and Rew Farm, and there must 
therefore be from 60 to 70 feet of Middle Chalk on this hill> 
underneath the gravel. Numerous old pits have been opened in 
the Chalk Marl around Stenbury and Appuldurcombe Downs, and 
a pit is now worked near Yentnor Cemetery, in a more massive 
chalk, apparently the upper part of the Lower Chalk (the Grey 
Chalk). Mr. Norman remarks that a portion of the head and 
jaws of a larore fish was dug up in the Cemetery, but unfortunately 
not preserved.* 

The junction of the Chalk Marl and Chloritic Marl is seen 
on the brow of the cliff 900 yards 6ast of St Lawrence Shute, and 
in the side of the zig-zag road leading up the cliff above the Eoyal 
Hotel, Yentnor. It is exposed also in the cutting at Yentnor 
Station, but is more accessible by the road-side, 150 yards east of 
the Station, and in a road-side 300 yards east of St Boniface 
WeU. 

St. Boniface Down forms the highest ground in the Island, 
reaching a height 787 feet above Ordnance Datum. The base of 
the Chalk on the north side of the Down is about 450 feet above 
tiie sea, and on the south side about 300 feet, the distance across 
being 1,B20 yards. From these data it may be calculated that 
the southerly dip amounts to I in 26^, or a little less than 2^, 
— a result which agrees with that obtained in the tunnel (p. 72). 
From the same data it may be calculated that the thickness 
oF chalk and gravel under the highest point of the Down must 
be about 430 to 440 feet But it will be remembered that 
the united thicknesses of Middle and Lower Chalk at Culver 
Cliff amounted to only 386 feet Above these there were 26 feet 
of Chalk Eock and flintless chalk, making a total of 412 feet of 
chalk below the lowest band of flints. If to this we add 20 feet 
for the estimated thickness of flint-gravel on St Boniface Down, 
we obtain a total of 432 feet It would seem then that, though 
the lowest bed of the Upper Chalk may be present, there is not 
room for any of the Chalk-with-flints, or at most for more than a 
mere film of it beneath the gravel. 

* Geologieal Guide to the Isle of Wight, p. 99. 

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92 GEOLOGY OF .THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

No section, however, occurs of the higher beds forming the 
Down, with the exception of a small hole on the east side of 
Shanklin Down, which seems to be in the massive beds of the 
Middle Chalk. On the very steep slope of chalk over Ventnor 
a small spring rises, known as St. Boniface's Well. It was 
remarked by Sir H. Englefield {op. cit p. 37) that *'a spring at 
this height, is a most remarkable circumstance, and the only 
instance of the kind in the whole island. It indicates some 
stratum withiu the hill differing from the chalk, which certainly 
would let the water sink through its substance here, as it does 
everywhere else." This spring occurs at about the height at 
which it may be calculated that the Melbouru llock and 
Belemnitella Marl should occur. 

Division of the Upper Chalk into Zones. 

^.rhe inland section or the Cbalk-with-flints presents a remarkable 
uniformity in lithological character. The sub-diyision of this 
great mass by M. Barrois depended therefore principally on the 
evidence of the fossils, which he collected himself. The following 
account of the four zones is an abstract of the description published 
by him in 1875.* The thickness of the various zones arc given by 
M. Barrois in round numbers of mitres. The conversion of mitres 
into feet gives a misleading impression of minuteness of measure* 
ment. The zones are taken in ascending order. 



E 



Zone of Holaster planus. 

For the base of this zone the seam of blnck clay, described on 
I. 87, 88, was chosen by M. Barrois. The zone is seen in the 
ilitary Koad cutting near Freshwater, as a very hard nodular 
chalk about 65 feet thick: The nodules are of a yellowish-white 
and very hard, so that it is difficult to detach some urchins, 
which occur in them. The rock enclosing the nodules is softer, 
and of a greenish-grey colour ; and numerous layers of homo- 
geneous white chalk with nodules are intercalated. Tabular 
layers of flint are abundant, and the zone is rich in fossils. At 
Watcombe Bay, near Freshwater, where the rocks are continually 
being scoured by the waves, there may be seen in every square 
yard of the clifl' all the fossils characteristic of the lower pait of 
the white Chalk. 

Zone of Micraster cor'testudinarium. 

This zone is exposed in parts of the cliffs scarcely accessible, 
and is rarely quarried inland. It forms the central part of 
the range of Chalk Downs, The thickness is 160 to 170 feet, 
but is difficult to estimate. The zone id exposed in pits at the 
west of Bembridge Down, south-east of Brading Down, in the road 
to the south of the great quarry on Arreton Down, in the road 

* Ciaie de Pile de Wight, pp. 22-29. 

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CHALK. 93 

from Compton Bay to Freshwater and in the cliffs known as t)ie 
Nodes and the Main Bench. 

Zone ofMicrtuter coranguinum. 

This zone has furnished but few fossils; and differences in 
&una were not therefore relied upon by M. Burrois in making 
this sub-division of 500 to 550 feet of chalk. He correlates it 
with the two divisions established by Mr. Whitaker in the Chalk 
of the Isle of Thanet, namely the Margate Chalk above^ and the 
Broadstairs and St. Margaret's Chalk below. In this lower 
diviMon in the Isle of Thanet he has obtained many specimens of 
Micraster coranguinumy and in the upper, a great abundance of 
Belemnites verus, Miller, Marsupites Milleri, Mant, M. ornatus. 
Miller, which, according to M. Hubert, are characteristic of the 
upper part of the zone of Micraster coranguinum. The upper or 
Maigate zone also contains but few flints, while the lower or 
Broc^stairs zone contains a great number. These two zones he 
considers to be recognisable in the Isle of Wight To the Margate 
zone he attributes the chalk of the great quarry on Arreton Down, 
and of that to the east .of Mersley Down ; while the Broadstairs 
and St Margaret's type is seen in the small quarry of Bowcombe 
t)own. 

Zone of Belemnitella. 

The great quarry to the north of Shalcombe Down shows, in 
the lower part, white chalk with many large black flints, and, 
in the upper part, softer chalk with smoke-grey flints. These 
correspond respectively to the zones known in France as those of 
Belemnitella quadrata and of B. mucronata, ' There are many 
quarries along the north side of the Downs, all in the zone of 
Belemnitella, but the deepest only reach the horizon of B. quadrata. 
The flints of the zone of B. mucronata are often grey as at 
Shalcombe and the Needles, but sometimes black, as at Alvington 
and Mottistone. In the upper part of the lower zone (that of 
B. quadrata)^ Magas pumilus is abundant. 'He united thickness 
of these zones of Belemnitella is 260 feet 

The junction of the Belemnitella zone and the zone of Micraster 
coranguinum may be observed on Arreton Down, but, except in their 
palseontological characters, there is little difference between them. 
They are distinguishable only by the relative abundance of flints 
in the Belemnitella zone, and their almost entire absence in the 
upper part of the Micraster zone. 

M. Barrois alludes also to the road-cutting near Apes Down, 
which extends for some three hundred yards along the junction 
of the Chalk and Plastic Clay. The section has now become some- 
what obscured by talus and vegetation, but the contrast between 
the red clay of the north, and the white chalk of the south side of 
the road, is still suflSciently striking. 



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94 GEOLOGY OF THK 'ISLE OF VIGHT. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
EOCENE. 

Intboduotion. 

The Eocene strata of the Isle of Wight may, as a whole, be 
more conveniently studied in the cliffs in Alum Bay* than in any 
other part of the Island. 

In this remarkable section the whole of the strata from the 
Chalk to the Muvio-marine formation are displayed in unbroken 
succession^ and that too in a manner the most fitvourable for close 
examination, in consequence of their being thrown into a vertical 
position by the action of the same elevatory force which has caused 
the Chalk to assume its present high inclination. 

When the face of the cliffs has been laid more than usually 
bare, and the colours of the various beds have been heightened by 
heavy rains, the aspect of the bay, always beautiful, is render^ 
still more striking. Every bed is then revealed to the eye from 
the baxe of the cliff to where it crops out at its summit, and while 
some of the beds attract the attention by their contrast in colour, 
others, like the coals in the Bracklesham series, the conglomerate 
bed dividing that series from the overlyin? Barton Clay, and the 
bed of white pipeclay in the Lower Bagshot series which is so 
crowded with vegetable remains, are not only rendered con- 
spicuous by their different colours, but, standing out from the rest 
of the strata, they become useful by enabling the observer more 
readily to perceive from a distance the positions and limits of the 
various formations. 

No drawing without the appliance of colour can do justice to 
the section, and even then no artist is capable of rendering a 
faithful and characteristic representation of it, who does not (like 
the late lamented Edward Forbes) combine with a dexterous use 
of the pencil a thorough knowledge of the geological structure of 
the scene he wishes to delineate. 

Keading Beds. 

The lowest member of the Tertiar v Group in the Isle of Wiffht is 
the Beading Series of Prof. Prestwich, formerly called the '' Plastic 
Clav " from the bccmrrence in it of beds used in the manufacture 
of tiles and coarse earthenware. Owing to the strata being nearly 
vertical throughout the Island, this division can only be examined 
at Alum and Whitecliff Bays. Formerly there were pottery 
works at Newport in the red clays, but the pits are now mled up 
and overgrown. The only other inland sections now visible are 
near Brading ; in a railway cutting at Ashey ; and at Downend 
Brickyard, near Arreton. The last has been opened since the 

* So called from the qaantities of alam formerly mannfaetared there. 



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BEADTKG BED& 95 

new Survey was complete, and there has been opportunity of 
examining it. 

In the Isle of Wight the Reading Beds consist almost entirely 
of mottled clays, in which shades of red and purple predominate. 
These rest on a slightly eroded surface of the Chalk, and contain at 
their base small rolled flint pebbles. (See Fig. 16, from a sketch 
by Sir Andrew Ramsay.) 

Fig. 16. 

Junction of the Chalk and Lower Tertiary Beds, in Alum Bay, 




The following section was measured, with the assistance of 
Mr. Richard Gibbs, in 1852. 

Section of the Reading Beds in Alum Bay. 

Ft. In. 
Red and white mottled clay, with a ferruginous parting at 

4 feet 

Ferruginous-brown clayey sand - - - - 

Bright-red and white mottled clay (pipeclay) 

Brown and grey sandy clay (with a bed towards the middle 

of dark-red clay 3 feet thick) ; most sandy in the upper 

5 feet 

Tenacious, wet, red and white mottled day 
Tenacious blue and brown ferruginous clay 
Brown sand covering an uneven eroded surface of Chalk 



As the strata are traced eastward their thickness increases to 
110 feet at Downend, 92 feet at Ashey, 140 feet at Brading, and 
163 feet at Whitecliff Bay. At the last-named locality they 
consist principally of mottled clay, but are so hidden by landslips 
and mud-streams that their details cannot at present be noted 
and the total thickness here given is taken from the original 
measurement made in 1852. 

The section in the railway cutting at Brading is now entirely 
overgrown, but a sketch and description, made by Mr. Whitaker 
during the construction of the line in 1878, is here giTcn* 



25 
U 

20 







10 

3 

8 

3to4 








84 






(Fig. 17.) 



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96 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF \V1GHT. 






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LONDON CLAY. 97 

Some caution is needed in estimating the true thickness of the 
Reading Beds in the Isle of Wight ; for it must not be forgotten 
that the strata are nearly vertical and have been subjected to 
yiolent pressure, varying in direction and amount according to their 
proximity to the sharp monodinal curve which forms such a con- 
spicuous feature in the geology of the Island. Where the Chalk 
is thrust northward, beyond the ordinary line of the Downs, the 
compression of these lower Tertiary strata is also greatly exagge- 
rated, but where the Downs recede slightly to the southward the 
thickness of the Beading Beds increases considerably. Allowing 
for this compression, and taking into account the measurements 
obtained on the mainland, it seems probable that the thickness 
we might expect to find in wells sunk beyond the limits of the 
most violent disturbance would be from 100 to 120 feet. 

The only fossils this series has yet yielded in the Isle of Wight 
are fragments of plants ; and though the beds are probably in the 
main of freshwater origin, there is little direct evidence in the 
district. On the mainbnd the principal fossils found in Beading 
Beds of this type consist of leaves of plants and other vegetable 
remains, showing, according to Sir J. Hooker and Mr. J. Starkie 
Gardner, a temperate climate. In similar beds at Lancing, 
however, the mottled clays are not entirely freshwater, for 
they contain a line of ironstone nodules with casts of marine 
shells. 



London CiiAY 

Like the Beading Beds, the London Clay forms a narrow belt 
extending across the Island, between the west and the east coast, 
from Alum Bay to Whitecliff. In consequence of the highly 
inclined position of the strata between these points, the width of 
the out-crop of the London Clay, or the space occupied by it at 
the surface, is frequently very little more than the actual thickness 
of the formation. The only places where it can be thoroughly 
examined are on the coast. 

The junction of the Beading Beds and the London Clay is 
sharp and well defined. In Alum and WhitecliiF Bays the highest 
part of the older deposit consists of red mottled clays, while the 
base of the newer one is ferruginous or blue sandy clay. At both 
localities the division between the two formations is indicated by 
a band of fiint pebbles, sometimes mixed with pebbles of the 
underlying red clay, representing the Basement Bed of Professor 
Prestwich. In Alum Bay, however* this seam of pebbles is not 
perfectly continuous. Inland, the Basement Bed is better repre- 
sented by an impersistent bed of fine sand, seen in the road 
cuttings between Calboume and Swainstone, and dug near Ashey 
Chalk Pit and close to Byde Waterworks. This sand appears 
nowhere to exceed 10 or 12 feet in thickness. There is nothing 
especially characteristic in the fauna of these basement beds in the 
Isle of Wight, all the species being also found in higher zones. 

B 667S6. G 



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98 



GEOLOGIC OF TH£ ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Junction of London Claji and Reading Beds at Alum Bay, 

(Observed hy Mr. Whitaker in 1865.) 

Grey and brown Bandy clay, with here and there a 
small flint-pebble \ — passing down into the next bed. 
'"brey and brown loam or clayey sand 
partly with day-lines and green grains; 
shells, and hard masses (sometimes 
ooncretionai^ clayey limestone and 
ironstone 6 inches thick) 4 or 4^ feet. 
Coarse pea-iron-ore 3 inches to a foot 
^ ^ OT more. 

Reading Beds. ^Grey and crimson plastic clay. 



London CUy^ 3,,^ 

bed. ■< 



Fossils from the Basement-bed of the London Clay in the Isle of 

Wight. 

P s: first noted by Prestwich. 



W 



99 99 99 



Whitaker. 



Alum Bay. 



WhitecliffB^7. 



Lanma, teeth 



Aporrhais Sowerbyi, dfant, - 
♦Calyptroa? 
*Fiisas .... 

Natica labeliata, Lam. 
*PV)arotoiua . . - . 

P^mla trioostata, Deah. 

Rostellaria ( ? a Aporrhais Sowerbyi) 
*Solariam . - - - 



•Area- 

Cardiom plomtteadiense, Sow. 

Corbnla ... 
*Cyprina Morrisii, Sew. 

Cytherea obliqoa, Desk. 
* „ orbicularis, Edw. - 
*Glyeimeri8 ? - - 

*NncQla - . - 

Ostrea ... 

*Fanopaa - - - 

Peetancoliis brerirostris. Sow. 



Ditmpa plana. Sow. 
Wood, &o. - 



W 
W 

w 

w? 

w 

w 

w 



w 
w? 

w 
w 
w 
w 
w 



w 

w? 



p 
p 



p 
p 
w? 

p 



p 
p 



p 
p 



* Here recorded for the flnt time (from the Ide of Wight). 

The following section was measured in July 1888 with the assis- 
tance of Mr. Henry Keeping, It continues the upward succession 
given at p. 96. 



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LONDON CLAY. 



99 



Section of the London Clay in Alum Bay. 



Dark blue loamy clay, with ironstone nodules. Becomes 
sandy in the upper part - . . . . 

Laminated dark grey loam - - . . . 

Loam, passing upward into fine sand - . . . 

Blue clay, becominfjr more loamy above ... 

Line of uurge septana full of Oardita Brongniatii (a conspicuous 
bed) 

Dark blue clay ---... 

Loam with scattered small flint pebbles. Panopaa intermedia, 
TelUna, Oasndaria, Fusus, TurriteUa imbricataria, Natica 
labeUata ....... 

Brown and bluish clay, with lines of septaria - • . 

Septaria full oi Pinna affinis (a conspicuous bed) 

Brown and bluish clay, sandy in places, with lines of septaria 

Basement Bed — Sandy glauoonitic loam with a little pyrites. 
Ditrupa at the base ..... 

Total 
Other measurements made the total 200 feet and 220 feet. 



Fkit. 

46 
13 
23 
17 



2 
35 

20 

15 

233 



Here again it must be observed that no reliance can be placed on 
the minute accuracy of the measurements^ for the top of the cKff will 
giye a different result from its base. If the monoclinal curve of 
tiie Isle of Wight be carefully plotted and measured^ it will be seen 
that the upper and under surface of any bed affected by the 
disturbance cannot always be parallel, but that the thickness will 
vary according to the part of the curve at which it is taken, and 
also according to the hardness or sofliness of the beds affected. 

At Whitecliff Bay the basement pebble-bed, two inches in thick- 
ness, is overlain by eighteen inches of buff-coloured sands, above 
which there lies a bed of hard sandstone, abounding in Ditrupa 
plana, that appears on the shore and may be seen stretching 
out to sea, for a considerable distance, at low water. About 
thirty-five feet above the basement bed there occurs a, zone of 

Panopcea intermedia (Fig. 19), and 

Fig. 18. Pholadomya margaritacea (Fig. 18), 

Pholadomya margaritacea, ^^^ ^^^'^^ calves closed ; at fifty feet 

Sow. another band of Ditrupa plana (Fig. 

20) comes in, and at about eighty feet 

there is a well-marked band of Cardita. 

The remainder of the section in 

Whitecliff Bay consists, in ascending 

order, of lignite in dark-grey clayey 

sand, aluminous and weathering to 

a brown colour; ferruginous-brown 

sands; clayey sand or eandy clay 

as before, but darker, harder, and 

more clayey than the beds below, 

and containing Panopcea intermedia, 




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100 



Q£OLOGY OF THB I8LB OF WIGHT. 



Fig. 19. 
PanoptBa intermedia^ Sow. 



Fi€L 20. 
Ditrupa plana, Sow. 




with their Talres joined, lying in the positions they occupied when 
alive. Succeeding these, are similar beds with sandy alternations 
and laminsB, and a layer of large septaria. Pinna affinis (Fig. 21) 
is fonnd in the septaria.* The total thickness of the London 
Clay amounts to about 320 feet A bed of flint-pebbles is found 
at 255 feet above the base. 

Fig. 21. 

Pinna affinis. Sow. 




No inland sections of the London Clay are now visible in the 
Island, unless the cutting at Ashey is partly in this division. 
Probably, however, the clays there^exposed belong almost entirely 
to the Bracklesham Beds, nearly the whole of the London Clay 
being cut out by a strike fault. 

The fossils of the London Clay (see Appendix) have not yet 
been fully collected in this district ; but as far as they go they 
indicate a subtropical climate, as in the London Basin. The 
occurrence of occasional scattered lines of flint-pebbles in the 
clay is noteworthy. This and the more sandy nature of the strata 
seem to point to a gradual shoaling of the sea towards the south, 
at the time when the London Clay was in course of being 
deposited. 

* See also Caleb Evans, On the Geology of the neighbourhood of Portsmoath and 
Byde. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. 11. p. 70. (1871.) 



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LOWEB BAGSHOT BEDS. 



101 



Lower Bagshot Beds. 

In 1847 Professor Prestwich* pointed out that the series of 
sands and clays between the London Clay and the Oligooene 
Beds in the Isle of Wii^ht is the equivalent of the Bagshot Beds 
on the mainland. He also showed that in the Isle of Wight there 
is a similar three-fold diidsion — into Lower Bagshot, without 
fossils ; Middle Bagshot^ with marine fossils like those found at 
Bracklesham ; and Barton CSlay and Sands^ the last two perhaps 
being equivalent to the Upper Bagshot of the London Basin, 
perhaps in part (the Barton Clay) dying out northward, or passing 
into the middle division. 

Subsequent research — especially the observations of the Kev. 
Osmond Fisher — has added largely to our knowledge of these 
strata and their fauna ; but there is still considerable doubt as to 
the exact limits of the divisions, which in fact pass almost 
imperceptibly into each other. Becent observations have also 
indicated that the Upper Bagshot Beds in the London Basin are 
probably the equivalent of the lower part of the Barton Clay in 
the Hampshire area ; and that the glass-sands (the so-called Upper 
Bagshot Series of the Isle of Wight) belong to a higher zone, 
apparently unrepresented north of Hampshire. 

Owing to the Bagshot Beds being nearly everywhere vertical, 
it has been found impracticable to trace their subdivisions on the 
map, especially in the absence of fossils. The whole series has 
therefore been grouped together, represented by one colour, and 
indicated on the map by the letters i 4 to i 7* In this Memoir 
the term ^ Bagshot ' is only applied to the plant-bearing pipe- 
clays and sands formerly called * Lower Bagshot* 

These Lower Bagshot Beds are highly developed in the Isle of 
Wight, attaining a thickness of 660 feet in Alum Bay. But it 
may be well at once to point out that part of this great thickness 
of sparingly fossiliferous beds may be the equivalent of the lower 
part of the marine Bracklesham Beds, which appear to thicken so 
greatly towards Whitecliff Bay. 



Lower Bagshot Beds in Alum Bay. 



Verv thinly laminated pale yellow sand ... 

White orimson, and rose-coloured varief^ated sand passing 
into pale brownish-yellow sand . • . . 

Thinly laminated light gre^ pipeclay . . 

Pale yellow sand and white laminated clay, with crimson' 
strcAKs. 

Details of the upper part of this subdivision : — Ft. In. 
Yellow sand - - - - 14 6 

Pipeclay parting - - - • — 

White sand 116 

Yellow sand - - - - 12 

White and crimson sand - - . - 



Ft. In. 

10 



60 

1 



>.104 



* Quart. Joum, Oeoi, Soc, yoL iii. p. S8S. 



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102 



GEOLOOT OF THE ISLB OP WIOHT. 



Pr. 


In 


27 








6 


.44 








6 


27 









Thinly laminated day, chocolate-coloured in the upper part. 
Details:— ~ ' 

Clay 

Lignite (very bituminous) ... 

Clay, with a band of lignite 5 or 6 feet from the 

base -•-..- 

Thinly laminated yellow sandstone, with much 

carDonaoeous matter - - 4 inches to 

Clay ; white, hard and marly - - . 

Tawny, variegatAd, pink and white sands, with brown^ 

laminae : white sand predominates. ... 

(Iron bands 1 inch thick occur at 62 feet and 79 feet from 
the bottom) -----. 

Pale grey and yellowish-brown sands, with thin laminsB of a 
darker grey clay, containing pyrites and carbonaceous 
matter -- - - - - -. 

(Some of the laminsd, when newly broken, are of a greenish r 

colour. These beds are darker and most laminated in the j 

lower part, and are most sandy towards the uppner part) -J 

Light grey sandy clay, with vegetable matter lying across 

the bedding ...... 

Fawn coloured and whitish sands, slightly variegated with' 
red : the upper 10 feet slightly laminated. 

Details :— Ft. In. 

Slightly laminated white sand - - 9 6 

Irony band - - - - I 

White, pmk and yellow laminated sand, with 
veins of white pipeclay and bright red 
laminae of iron - - . - 7 6 

Fine light yellow sand - - - 23 

Pipedav (full of leaves) between yellowish-white and vane-' 
gatea laminated clays. The lower 2 inches are composed 
of sandy white pipeclay, with laminsd of yellow and 
crimson sand, becoming thicker towards the upper part of 
thediff - 
Bright yellow sand, with thin laminsd of blue clay 
Iron band ------- 

Q-rey and yellow sands. 

Details :— Ft. 

Yellow and grey sands - - - - 15 

Grey laminated sands and clays; mostly sands 1.8 
Do. nearly all 

day : very carbonaceous - - -11 

Grey laminated sands and clay ; day predomi- 
nating ..... 

Iron sandstone band and ta^'ny ironsand with fenru- 

ginous veins and strings, and pebbles of quarts 
Grey sands, &c. 
DetaUs:— 
Pale yellow and bluish white sand, darker in 

the upper part and with a few laminas of clay 16 
Blue clay with thin (i inch) sandy laminae ; 

carbonaceous matter - - - 27 

Grey and yellow sands, with thin laminae of 
blue day; much pyrites and carbonaceous 
matter - - . . . - 61 

(N.B. — ^These beds have a slightly reversed dip towards the 
top of the cliff.) ^ 

Brignt yellow and white sands, more laminated and clayey 
than the bed above, and containing much carbonaceous 
matter. The lower 5 feet sand - - . • . 

Iron sandstone - - - 

Parting of pale clay of variable thickness ... 



Ft. In. 



> 99 



90 



60 



2 



> 40 



6 

13 

2 



In. 








. 3 6 



^ 45 



6 to 3 







^104 



23 
3 
3 



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LOWfiB BAOSHOT BEDS. 103 

Ft. In. 
Veiy thinly laminated white and yellow sand - - 1 10 

White sand and blue clay, becoming more clayey towards 

the lower part. 5 

[On London Clay.] 

662 6 

At the eastern end of the Island the Bagshot Beds present a 
different aspect. The mass of white pipecky has there disappeared, 
and the beds have either thinned from 600 feet to about 100 feet, 
or the upper portion has become somewhat marine and is inseparable 
from the Bracklesham Beds. 

The junction between the London Clay and the Bagshot Beds 
is clearly shown in Whitecliff Bay, the former being represented 
there by ferruginous bniwn clay, and the latter by pale grey sands 
weathering nearly white and containing occasional thin laminae of 
pipeclay. Thirty-seven feet of these sands, days, and pipeclays 
intervene between the upper part of the London Clay, and a band 
of sandstone that runs out to sea at the base of the yellow 
micaceous sands which constitute tlie greater proportion of the 
Lower Bagshot series there. Above them there is an 18-inch band 
of flint pebbles, taken by Mr. Fisher as the base of the Bracklesham 
Series, for in the clay immediately above marine shells occur. 

The inland sections are of little interest, none of them being 
fossiliferous or showing satisfactorily their relation to the over or 
underlying deposits. Commencing at the west end of the Island, 
we find the sands well exposed in pits around Freshwater, especially 
in one dose to Easton, and another on the opposite side of the 
marsh near some new houses. At the latter tnere are seams of 
pipeday. The road cutting south of Farringford House also 
shows a good section of ferruginous sand. 

Continuing eastward, we learn that pipeclay was formerly dug 
in a piece of rough ground half a mile east-south-east of East 
Afton. Due north of this old pit sandy white clay is again seen 
in the deep channel cut by a small stream north of the mgh road. 
This is probably a higher seam — perhaps in the Bracklesham or 
Barton Series. 

About a quarter of a mile east of Chessel a pit has been dug in 
sand with the bedding vertical* Between this pit and the London 
Clay a number of flint pebbles are ploughed up in the field, but it 
is not at all clear from what bed they are derived, though they seem 
to occur low down in the Bagshot Series, possibly at its base. 

Continuing along the high road, we come to a deep cutting in 
sand with seams of pipe day between the two entrance lodges 
belonging to Westover. Similar beds occur in the rood to 
Shalfleet, about a quarter of a mile north of Calboume. Higher 
beds are exposed in a small pit half a mile north-east of Calboume, 
where sand with a dip of 40^ is overlain by a bed of pebbles, and 
that again by clay. Probably this pebbly bed marks the base 
of the Bracklesham Beds. A few chains further north there are 
a number of old sand pits close to Five Houses. These were 



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104 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

probably opened in the glass sands of the Barton Series^ but no 
section can now be seen. 

From this point eastward no sections occur till Newport is 
reached. Here the brick-yard near St. John's Church shows at its 
southern end sand, with the bedding vertical. Wells in Elm Grove 
reach the same bed and a house at the comer of Elm Grove and 
the main road, is built on the site of an old sand pit. 

From Newport to Downend nothing is seen of the strata, the 
slope being much masked by a wash of clay and flints from the 
higher ground to the south. At Downend, however, the beds 
were well seen in a small pit in Saltmoor Copse^ where clay 
rests on a bed of pebbles overlying fine buff and red sand, the 
whole dipping north-north-east at 80**. The pebble bed, which 
perhaps forms the base of the Bracklesham Beds, is apparently 
only 160 feet above the London Clay. The Bagohot Beds must 
therefore have rapidly thinned out eastward, or else the beds of 
pebbles come in on different horizons in different parts of the 
Island. As the position of this pit necessitated the cartage 
uphill over a bad road of the sand needed in the brick-yard, it was 
pointed out by one of the writers that the same bed would be 
found close to the kilns, underlying the brick-earth. The pro- 
prietor has consequently opened a new sand pit since the survey 
was made, and probably the section above described will now be 
overgrown. 

At Brading Station the sands are again seen, and they re-appear 
in the bluffs on the eastern side of the Yar, but without any clear 
section. A few chains further east, close to Longlands, a pit 
shows a dip of 95° — ie. reversed 5° — to the north-east. 

Very little is yet known of the fossils of the Lower Bagshot 
Beds in the Isle of Wight, except the plants, for it is doubtful 
whether any other oi^anic remains besides elytra of beetles have 
been found in this series. 



On the Flora op Alum Bay. By Mb. J. Stabkie 

Gakdneb, P.L.S., F.G.S. 
The plant remains were found in a pocket or lenticular 
thickening of a seam of fine white pipe-clay in the midst of the 
Lower Bagshot Sands. They consist principally of most delicate 
impressions of leaves, rarely presenting traces of colour, and giving 
little indication of their texture when living. They lie with the 
planes of beddmg and are rarely twisted or rolled. The leaflets 
of compound leaves, of which there are many, are almost always 
detached, though a few specimens exist in which they still adhere 
to the axis. With the leaves are twigs of a conifer, shreds of 
fan-palm and reed, small leguminous podb, drupes and other bodies 
too decomposed for identification, and very rarely, a flower like 



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FLORA OF ALUM BAY. 105 

Parana or Kydia^ and the detached elytron of a beetle. All bear 
the appearance of long immersion and tranquil deposition^ and the 
sediment is so fine that the disturbance in it caused by the forma- 
tion and passage of gas bubbles is distinctly visible. Every trace 
of carbon has been chemically removed. 

This pocket must have been of considerable size^ for it was 
known to Mantell as far back as 1844^ and it continued to yield 
specimens of leaves abundantly down to about 1883^ when they 
became rare^ while at present scarcely any vestige of leaf-bearing 
pipe-clay can be found. 

The number of species obtained from this pocket has been 
variously estimated. The first critical examination of the flora was 
by De la Harpe in 1856^ when out of 48 species seen, 43 were 
pronounced determinable and named specifically. Of these 21 of 
the most important were fiigured in the former edition of this work. 
Heer added a species in 1859.* Ettingshausen in 1879 spent 
a winter in studying collections from Alum Bay, and announcedf 
that the flora comprised 274 species divided among 116 genera 
and 63 families. Like Heer, he found considerable afiSnily 
between these and the flora of Sheppey, and further called atten- 
tion to the community of more than 50 species with the floras of 
Sotsska and Haring. We are not able to reconcile this estimated 
richness with our knowledge of the flora, and surmise that 
fossil plants from other localities must have been inadvertently 
included. 

The flora appears indeed, very restricted as to species, as we 
might reasonably anticipate, since we are limited to the leaves 
wmch drifted waterlogged into a single pool. The most con- 
spicuous and typical of these are unquestionably the Ficus Bawer^ 
banhily De la H., Aralia primiffenia, Heer, Dryandra acutiloba, 
Stemb., D. Bunburyi, De la H., Cassia Ungerif Heer, and the fruits 
of CoMolpinia. It is not certain that these determinations are 
generically accurate, and indeed one of the latest specimens dis- 
covered proved conclusively that the Dryandra acutiloba is 
actually a Comptonia ; but £hey are all well-defined species, and 
as such form exact bases for comparison. These, with a number 
of less common but scarcely less conspicuous forms, unite to give 
the flora of which they are the chief elements, a very special and 
singularly early impress, so much so that Prof. Newberry would 
regard them as Cretaceous, if their horizon were not stratigraphi- 
caUy defined. The floras which it chiefly resembles are, firstly, 
that of Monte Bolca, as already noticed by Heer, and secondly, 
in a far higher degree, the flora of the Grfes du Soissonnais, which 
though resting on the lignites of Woolwich age in the Paris Ba^in, 
are reaUy unconformable and doubtless contemporary with our 
Lower Bagshot 

The cmef cause of the highly distinctive and interesting 
character of the Alum Bay flora, lies in the fact that it is the 

* Flora Tertiaria Helvetis, vol. iii., fol. Winter ihur. (p. dl5, Drepanocarpiu 
Dacamfdi, Mass.) 
t Proc. Royal Soc, Yol. zzz. p. 228. 1880. 



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106 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

most tropical of any that has so far been studied in the northern 
hemisphere. Following so immediately the flora of Sheppey^ 
with its wealth of Palm fruits^ some denoting the largest species*, 
it presents us probably with an insight into the dicotyledonous 
vegetation which accompanied them. Sifted a8 they have been 
by the agency of water, only those leaves and bodies endowed with 
certain powers of flotation were able to drift to that point ; the 
heavy palm leaves and fern fronds, and the large leguminous pods 
whicn give the Lower Bagshot flora its tropical aspect, have 
been eliminated. These were left in higher reaches of the stream, 
and we meet with them at Studland, where large quantities of Fern 
and Palm are massed together, and at Creech Barrow near Corfe, 
where the most magnificient opportunities for collecting fossil 
plants have passed away, never perhaps to recur.'^ 

The Beading flora has an exceedingly temperate facies, and 
thus presents to us a relatively recent aspect. The Woolwich 
flora is less temperate, for Palmettos appear in it. The Lower 
Bagshot flora is like that of the London Clay, decidedly the most 
tropical The Middle Bagshot flora begins to lose its tropical 
elements, and these appear to drop out very gradually and without 
any sudden changes, down to the close of the Hamstead period, 
when all traces of Eocene plants disappear from this country. 
Allowance must be made for the fact that local accumulations 
will of course present very difierent appearances and plant 
remains derived from a sheltered and swampy station will appear 
luxuriantly sub-tropical, which are not so, and conversely, leaves 
blown from an arid spot may seem to indicate a harsher climate 
than actually prevailed. 

The break between the London Clay flora and those which 
preceded it, is very great, and obviously due to a consider- 
able increase of temperature. The connection between that of 
Sheppey and of Alum Bay, though probably a good deal over- 
estimated, is likewise due, it appears, to the high temperature 
having been maintained, bringing in a vegetation that had not 
been able to exist so far north since the close of the Cretaceous 
period ; whence the Cretaceous aspect that has struck so many 
observers. The .break, which is very great indeed, between the 
floras of Alum Bay and Bournemouth, deposited as they must 
have been under very similar conditions, is far less easy to 
explain. It is not one altogether of temperature, because there 
are still many large palms in the latter, as Iriartoea, Phanix, 
Calamus, Nipa, with decidedly sub-tropical ferns. Some break 
or change must have driven the then indigenous flora almost 
completely away and brought in the new set of plants which 

* There are still fnpnaeut», some of them two feet in diameter, of enormous leaves 
of fim palms, which might easily have been extracted entire, and parts of huge pods 
of Cassia and Acacia, preserved in the Dorchester and Jermyn Street Museums and 
in private collections ; but for upwards of 20 years no leaf deposits of Lower 
Bagshot age have been found. The beds at Creech are much folded and leaf beds 
of Middle Bagshot age are preserved in the folds, ^m one of which the large series 
in the Oxford Museum must have been obtained, and from others I have more than 
once myself been able to collect. — J. S. 6. 



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FLORA OF ALUM BAY. 107 

mnintained themselves and spread oyer central Europe, only 
dying out or giving way in late Miocene times. This is why the 
Flora of Alum Bay is of such immense interest and importance, 
why its composition is so different from other Eocene floras, and 
why it is confined to a single horizon. Misled by its striking 
facies, together with that of the flora of Monte Bolca^ which 
resembles it, and !)eing unacquainted with any other type of 
Eocene florn, Heer set it up as a sort of test flora, determining 
according to the degree in which other floras resembled it, whether 
they should be classed as Eocene or not. Thus the floras of MuU 
and Bovey were discarded from the Eocene, as those of Reading 
and Bournemouth would have been had they been adequately 
known at the time. For the same reason the representatiyes of 
the Bcumeuioiith flora on the Continent, became his type of a 
Lower Miocene (now Oligocene) flora. 

In the present state of our knowledge no real analysis of the 
Alum Bay flora is possible. It is remarkable for the absence of 
any well authenticated ferns, except the pinnse of a still some* 
what doubtful Marattia. Anamia subcretacea, Sap., has been 
recorded only as Asplenium Martinsi by Heer. As it is common 
in the Beading Beds and again in the Bournemouth Beds and could 
evidently support a high temperature, its occurrence would not be 
extraordinary in the Lower Bagshot Beds, but requires confirma- 
tion. Chrysodium lanzceanum, Yisiani, which abounds in the corre- 
sponding pipe-clays of Studland, has also been recorded, probably 
erroneously, from Alum Bay. Of Gymnosperms the Cupressites 
elegans of our former edition has been transferred to the genus 
Podocarpus. Two specimens have revealed traces of fruit, but of 
too indistinct a chaiticter to be very reliable. The foliage greatly 
resembles that of Glyptostrabus which occurs plentifully in the 
Reading Beds beneath and the Bournemouth Beds above. There 
appear to be no other Coniferse in the flora. Of Monocotyledons 
none whateyer are determinable unless it be a yery doubtful and 
unique orbicular leaf something like a Smilax. Palms are repre- 
sented by a few macerated fragments that may have come from 
the fringe of a leaf such as Sahaly and Reeds by almost equally 
unsatis&otory fragments of sword-shaped leaves. The Dicoty- 
ledons are probably between 40 and 50 in number, of which 
almost all the most characteristic are absolutely confined to the 
Lower Bagshot horizon in this country. A dwarf leaf of a 
similar Aralia was once found in the highest Woolwich beds at 
Lewisham, and twice the Dryandra (^Camptonia) acuiUoba has 
been found in a small patch of pipe-clay low down in the Bourne- 
mouth beds, on the last occasion in the presence of that dis- 
tinguished palseobotanist M. de Saporta. Some of the most 
ordinary types of leaves look as if they may be common to other 
formations, but no importance attaches to them, and with the ex- 
ceptions just alluded to no strikingly well-marked leaf of either 
the Woolwich, Reading, or Bournemouth series is known to be 
conunou to the Alum Bay flora. The wealth, greater than is 
supposed, of leguminous plants is one of its chief characteristics, 
and next in order, are the large leaves ascribed to Ficus, The 



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108 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT, 

abundance of the single Bpeciee of AraKa and of a larger Acer 
furnish a higher proportion of palmate leaves than we are 
accuHtomed to in later Eocene strata. There are the usual simple 
laurel and willow-looking leaves, most of which afford no 
characters on which we can ever base any valid determinations. 
The question as to whether there are any true Proteaceas in the 
flora is still in suspense. There are several forms of leaves in this 
remarkable family which are quite unmistakable, but none of these 
have been found fossil in Europe. Nor have any unmistakably 
proteaceous fruits yet been discovered, even among the tens of 
thousands that have been collected at Sheppey, where they most 
certainly must have been met with, for the supposed Petrophiloides 
is proved to be an Alder.* The AustraUan elements in the 
Tertiary at one time thought to be so preponderant, grow more 
and more doubtful when critically examined, and it appears that 
it is rather to Central America on the one hand, and the Malayan 
Archipelago on the other, that we must look for species nearly 
related to those of our Alum Bay and Bournemouth floras. That 
there are some Australasian species cannot be questioned in 
presence of the Bournemouth Araucaria, and the Hordwell 
Athrotaxis^ but these Gymnosperms may well be of immense 
antiquity and once perhaps universal, so that their occurrence here 
or in Australia is of little importance. The study of Dicotyledons 
would alone show whether any part of the existing Australian 
flora had ever migrated across Europe or America, as the existing 
Japanese flora has most certaiidy done, and that study, too long 
postponed, will, it is to be hoped, shortly be continued in the pages 
of the Palseontographical Society. 



Pkovisional List of the Floba of the Pipe-clay of Alum 
Bay (revised by J. Stabkie Gasdneb). 

Apeiobopsis Symondsii, De la Harpe. Ficiui Bowerbankii, De la Harpe, 

Alalia primigenia, De la Harpe, Forbesii, De la Harpe. 

Ceesalpinia semula, Heer, Granad^Ua, Massah 

Bowerbankii, De la Harpe, -^— Morrissii, De la Harpe. 

brevifl, De la Harpe. GreviUea La Harpii, Heer, MS, 

mollis, De la Harpe. Juglans Sharpei, De la Harpe. 

! Salterij De la Harpe. Lauras Forbesii, linger, 

■■ phaseolites, linger, Jovis, linger, 

— * IJngeri, Heer. primigenia^ linger, 

Ceropetalum myricinum, De la Harpe, Salteri, De la Harpe. 

Chrysodium lanzeanum, Visiani. Marattia Hookeri, Ett. ^ Gardner, 

Cluytia f^laisefolia, lVe9s. Sf Web. Podocarpus elegans, De la Harpe, 

Ck)mptoma acutiloba» Brong, eocenica, linger. 

Cornus, sp. Quercus eocenica, De la Harpe. 
Oupania, sp. ■ lonchitis, linger, 

Daibergia Salteri, De la Harpe, Bbamnus densinervis, Heer. 

Dapbnogene anglica, Heer. 3 sp. 

veronensis, Massal. Sapindus, 2 sp. 

Diospyrus, sp. Smilax, 2 sp. n. 

Drepa'nocarpus Dacampii^ Massal. Zizypbus integrifolias, Heer. 

Dryandra Bunburyii, De la Harpe. — restustus, Heer. 

Elseodendron Heerii, De la Harpe. 

♦ J. S. Gardner, On Alnus Kichardgoni, Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. xx. p. 417. 

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109 



CHAPTER IX. 
EOCENE— confeViwed 

Braoklbsham and Babton Beds 

Above the Lower Bagshot Beds a variable series of sands 
and clays with lignite attains a thickness of about 700 feet. 
There is no dear line of division between this series and the 
underlying leaf-bearing beds, but the separation is often made 
at the point where a pebble bed occurs, or nt the lowest point 
where marine fossils have been found. It should be remembered, 
however, that there is no evidence of any real break, and that 
the change is so gradual that it is very doubtful whether we have 
really taken the boundary even approximately at the same horizon 
at opposite ends of the Island. The difficulty of following the 
beds inland makes it impossible to connect the sections by tracing 
the boundaries ^n the Map. 

The beds now to be described are often known as the Middle 
and Upper Bagshot series, but recent observations have shown 
that the Upper Bagshot Beds of the London Basin are probably 
the equivalent of the Barton Clay {i.e, of the so-called Middle 
Bagshot of the Hampshire Basin). It has therefore been thought 
safer to drop these names and simply to call the groups — for the 
present at any rate, and having regard only to the Isle of Wight — 
Headon Hill Sands, Barton Clay, and Brucklesham Beds. 

Bbagklesham Beds. 

In 1847, Prof. Prestwich showed that the marine bands over- 
lying the unfossiliferous Lower Bagshot Beds of Whitediff Bay 
were probably equivalent to the fossiliferous Bracklesham Beds so 
well seen near Selsey.* Subsequently the Rev. Osmond Fisher 
worked out the palsaontology of the beds in greater detail, and 
the following account of the sections at the two extremities of the 
Isle of Wight is mainly taken from his paper.t 

The Bracklesham Beds are represented in Alum Bay by clays 
and marls in the lower part, by white^ yeUow, and crimson sands 
in the middle portion, and by dark sandy days with numerous 
impressions of fossils in the upper part. The latter alone have 
been attributed to the Bracklesham Beds in Mr. Fisher's 
Memoir. The lower beds are remarkable for the quantity of 
vegetable matter contained in them, not, however, in the shape 
of leaves, as is the case in some of the Lower Bagshot Beds, but 
in the form of coal (lignite), constituting solid beds from fifteen 
inches to two feet three inches thick. Four of these beds, when 

* Quart, Jaum. GeoL 8oo», vol. iii. p. 385. (1847.) 
t Ibid,f Yol. zyiii. p. 66. (1862.) 



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110 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT, 

fully displayed, are conspicuous objects in the cliff, where they 
project out of the softer strata, and on the shore, owing to their 
black and coal-like appearance. 

At the time of our survey these beds of coal were more than 
usually well displayed in consequence of the prevalence of long 
continued wet weather having worn away the soft intervening 
strata in which they are imbedded. On examining them during 
a brief visit made to the Island, in company with Sir A. Bamsay, 
during the autumn of 1860, it appeared evident that the beds in 
question occur in the manner of ordinary coal. Like true coal, 
each bed was based upon a stratum of clay, containing, apparently, 
the rootlets of plants, as in the underclay of the Coal Measures. 
The underclays, which occur beneath beds of coal of Carboniferous 
date, are thought to have been soil that supported the vegetation 
which, by certain chemical changes, became subsequently converted 
into coal : it is reasonable, therefore to infer from the presence of 
similar underclays beneath the coal in the Bracklesham Beds at 
Alum Bay, that the plants out of which that coal was formed grew 
on the spot, and were not drifted from elsewhere, as was the case 
with the vegetable remains in the pipe-clay beds of the Lower 
Bagshot Series. 

A similar underclay was visible in Whiteclifi Bay in December 
1886, but, owing to the coal having been worked a few years 
before as far as it could be conveniently reached, the seam itself 
could not be examined or measured, though a sketch of the 
roots was made. 

On comparing the section of the Bracklesham Beds in White- 
cliff Bay with the corresponding section in Alum Bay, it will be 
seen that the beds are much better developed in the former 
locality than in the latter. It is, therefore, at the eastern ex- 
tremity of the Island that these deposits may be studied to the 
most advantage. Indeed, this is the only locality in the country 
where the entire series can be seen exposed to view. The follow- 
ing section is taken from Mr. Fisher's paper.* 

Section of the Bracklesham Beds at Whitecliff Bay, 

No. I. is the lowest of the series occurring towards the south end of the 
Bay, and No. XIX. the highest of the series further to the north. The 
letters ahc, &c., denote the more important fossil-beds. 



Ko8.in 
Fisher's 
Section. 


No0.in 

Prest. 

wich's 

8ection.t 




Feet 


XIX. 


(17) 


a Greenish and blue clays .... 
At 24 feet from the top is a band of small shells im- 
perfectly exhibited. 
Ostrea flabellula. Cardita, a small species like 
Mytilus, a small species. C. oblonga. 


162 



♦ Quart. Joum, Geol. Soc,, vol. xviii. p. 67. (1862.) 
t Ibid., vol. ii. p. dSS. (1846.) 



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BRACKLESllAM B£D& 



HI 




XVIII. 
XVII. 



(16) 



XVI. 



XV. 



XIV. 



(16) 



(14) 



XIII. 

XII. 

XL 



Dark -blue day, weathering brown • - - 

b Nummulites variolariiu in blue clay. The day is 
crowded with NummuUtes, which are often black 



Turbinolia sulcata. 
Nummiilites variolarius. 
Quinqueloculina Haue- 

rina. 
Alveolina sabulosa. 
Rotalia obscura. 
Fuaus longssvuB. 

pyrus. 

Mitra parva. 

var. 

labratula. 

Turritella sulcifera. 
Dentalium politum. 
— striatum P. 
Rissoa oochlearella. 



Peoten oomeus. 
Cassidaria nodosa. 
Pleurotoma infleza. 

plebeia. 

scalarati. 

Fisheri. 

Voluta nodosa. 
Gardium paiileP. 
LudnaP. 

Cardita planicosta. 
Crassatella (the spedes found 

also at Brook). 
Corbula pisum* 
cuspidata* 



e Light-coloured sand, with two beds of sand-rock. Tel- 
Una and small Univalyes in the bottom of the 
lower rock ---*-- 

Natica. Tellina donadalis. T. plagia. 

(This stratum forms a good horizon of reference 
being distinct in character and noticeable.) 

Sandy clay^ passinff into lead-coloured compact day 
Echinoderm m sand. Ancillaria canalifera in clay. 

d Dark sandy day, with grains of black sand, full of 
Corbula pisum in the upper part, and with numerous 
sheUs below; passes into dark clayey sand with 
Pecten comeiu 



22 
10 



10 



X. 



Nummulites yariolarius 

(common). 
Rostellaria subludda. 
Murex asper. 
FusuB pyrus. 
Strepsidura turgida. 
Cassidaria nodosa. 
Pleurotoma plebeia. 
Voluta nodosa. 

~ Selseiensis. 

Cerithium tritropis, 

Edw. MS. 
Calyptrsea trochifor- 

mis, 



Turritella imbricataria. 

sulcata. 

Ditrupa plana. 

Pecten oomeus. 

Pinna mar^raritacea. 

Nucula Dixom, Edw, MS, 

Leda. 

Crassatella (the Brook 

spedes). 
Corbula pisum (abundant). 

oostata. 

Cytherea lucida. 
Cultellus. 



Beds not exposed ; apparently clays 

Streaked, whitish-yellow, and foxy sands 

e Sandy cli^s, weathering grey and yellow. There is a 
layer of casts of shells where it passes into the next 
bed, Sangvinolaria Holhwaysti being extremely 
abimdant ...... 

Turritella sulcifera. Cytherea ludda. 

Pecten corneus. Sanguinolaria Hollowaysii. 

Pectunculus pulvinatus. Solen obliquus. 

Sand, weathering yellow and grey ... 



39 
10 



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112 



OEOLOGT OF THB I8LB OF WIGHT. 




IX. 



(13) 



VIII. 



VII. 



VI. 



(12) 



(11) 



V. 
IV. 



(10) 
(9) 



III. 



II. 



(8) 



(7) 



Voluta nodosa. 
Tumtella imbricataria. 

' Bulcifbni. 
NatiealabellataP. 



/ Brownish sandy clay, with shells and pebbles at the 
bottom. The shelly layer appears to oe a lenticular 
mass, and not to be persistent ... 
Nmnmulites variolarius. Ostrea zonulata P. 
Area. 

Pectunculus pulvinatus. 
Ohama f^igantea. 
Crassatella compressa. 
Oardita planicosta. 
Nuciila subtransversa P. Corbnla pisum. 
Tellina plagia P. Sanguinolaria Hollowaysii. 

Peoten SO-radiatus. 

Foliated, dark, sandv clays, weathering brown ; with 
vegetable matter interspersed. There is a layer of 
casts of shells at the junction with the next bed - 

g Green sand, in which Sanguinolaria HoUowaym is very 
abundant -•-.-. 

{Nummiulttes kevigatus occurs in a mass four feet from 
the bottom.) 

Nummufites Iserigatus. Sanguinolaria HoUowaydi. 

h Light- and dark-coloured green sands, ^th many shells 
in the upper part. (A spring at the base of the 

cliff) 

Nmnmulites laevigatus. Pecten comeus. 

Mytilus. 

Nucula. 

Leda. 

Ludna. 

Cardita planicosta. 

Tellina plagia. 

Sanguinoliuia Hollowaysii. 

Solen obliquus. 

Corbula (P Gallica). 

pisum. 



Fusus longsevus. 

pyrus. 

Voluta nodosa. 

spinosa. 

Pleurotoma dentata. 
Natica (small). 
Turritella sulcata. 
— — suloif era. 

terebellata. 

Calyptraea troohiformis. 



Laminated grey clay, with some beds of calcareous 
green-sand, and a few beds of lignite 

k Calcareous, clayey, green, and iron sand, with 
numerous shells in seams. The base seems washed 



into the next bed 
Nummulites laevigatus Calyptreea trochiformis. 



(rare). 
Fusus pyrus. 
Metula (Buccinum) 

junoea. 
Pleurotoma (small). 
Voluta nodosa. 
Natica. 
Turritella imbricataria P. 



Ostrea flabellula. 
Cardita planicosta. 
Cytherea lucida. 
C. suberycinoides. 
T^na. 
Ptoopsa. 
Corbula pisum. 



Alternating beds of green sand and finely laminated 
clay, weathering grey and brown ; with thin seams 
of lignite ------ 

Yellow sand --.«.. 



46 



15 



62 



76 



52 



18 
10 



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BBAOKLESHAU BEDS. 



lis 



No8.m 
Pisher's 
Section. 


Nofcin 

Prest- 

wich'8 

Section. 




Feet. 


L 


(6) 


Sandy clay, weathering grey and brown, finely-lanii- 
nated with yellow sand. There are casts of bivalve 
shellB in a band of clay at the bottom. It is based 
on from 10 to 18 inches of black rounded flint 
pebbles^ often as large as swans' e^s 

Total thickness 


95 
653 



The fossaiferouB beds marked (ft), (rf), and (/) are very 
persistent at the yarious localities where one or another portion of 
the series is exposed. It is from them that the many splendid, 
collections of fossils have been obtained. Of the well-known 
shell-beds round the Selsey peninsula, those nearest to Selsey Bill 
correspond with (b) and (d). The beds at The Park and Thomey, 
on the east and west of Selsey, correspond with (ff), and those of 
Bracklesham itself with (A). 

Of the fossiliferous beds near Stubbington, that of Brown Down 
corresponds with (d), and that at Hill Head with (/). 

Fine collections of fossils, in excellent condition, have also been 
obtained from the neighbourhood of Brook in the New Forest, 
from the horizons of (ft) and (d). The la:^e collections obtained 
from these localities by the late Mr. F. £. Edwards are in the 
British Museum, and those by the Kev. Osmond Fisher are 
deposited in the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

More recently (in 1886) clear exposures have enabled Mr. 
Keeping to fix exactly the junction of the Bracklesham Beds and 
the Barton Clay.* From the Sandstone or Tellina bed (No. XVI. 
of Mr. Fisher's section) to the Nummulites elegans zone the distance 
is 126 feet. This is about 70 feet less than the distance given by 
Mr. Fisher and would reduce the total to about 680 feet 

About the same time the measurements given below were made 
by the Geological Survey of the beds associated with the coal- 
seam (corresponding with No. VII., VIII., and parts of VI. and 
IX. of Mr. Fisher). 



Section in fVhitecliff Bay, measured December 1886. 

Ft. In 

Brown loam, not well seen. 

Black band of powdeiy lignite and sand • . • 

Laminated beds of loam, sand, and lignite . « • 

Shalv clay, full of slickensides, no fossils observed • 

Worked out [coal, &c.] - - 

Shaly underclay, with roots half an inch thick at the top and 
dying out below. Some of the roots are casts in day, 
some in pyrites ; nearly all have a film of lignite on the 
outside ------- 

Similar clay wiih pyritous nodules, no roots observed 





3 

23 

7 



E 56786. 



• Geoh Mag., dec. III., vol. iv. p. 70. 



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114 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Ft. Ih. 

Hidden by talus 24 

Glauoonitic loam with yellow joints and much selenite. 
Casts of small oysters and other marine shells, and 
occasional pieces of lignite - - - - 6 

Blue loamy clay with selenite and badly preserved fossils. 

TttrrUeliaimbricataria,^\X'8ctL\e3, Sec. - - - 16 6 

Clayey loam full of small quartz and flint-pebbles, and 
crowded with fossils, mostly small. Ostrea, Garditaf Area, 
8olen,8cc. 6 

Hard loam and clay, full of small fossils - - - 9 6 

Clay with beds of Uardita plofiicosta and Turritella imbricataria 8 

Laminated loam, clay, and sand, full of lignite. 

The Beds are perfectly vertical. The above being distances 
measured alon^ the beach, an allowance must be made for the cliff 
not cutting the beds at right angles. The true thickness of 
the measured beds will therefore be 90 feet, instead of 113 feet. 

One or two sections where what is perhaps the base of the 
Brackleshain Beds is exposed have been mentioned in the last 
chapter, but the only locnlitj yielding fossils is the cutting leading 
to Ashey Chalk-pit, about three miles south-south-west of Ryde. 
Here we find, above the London Clay, beds which are full of 
Bracklesham fossils. It is evident that unless the Bracklesham 
fauna here extends to the base of the Lower Bagshot Beds and 
into the London Clay we can only account for the proximity of 
the Bracklesham Beds to the Reading Beds by a strike fault, which 
has cut out the greater part of the London Clay, all the Lower 
Bagshot Beds, and perhaps part of the Bracklesham Beds also. 

The section is not perfectly clear, but no fault could be 
detected, and there being no marked line of division between the 
two formations it is uncertain how much belongs to the one and 
how much to the other. Probably if there is really a fault its 
position will be at the point marked in the subjoined section. 
Unfortunately the cutting being shallow at its northern end and a 
good deal overjjcrown, it was impossible to obtain details of the 
higher strata. All are nearly vertical. This disturbance will be 
again referred to in Chapter XIV. 

The highest bed which can be traced is a coal or lignite seam, 
formerly exposed in an old sand pit close to the line. The pit is 
now overgrown, but the coal was proved by boring. There 
follow 262 feet of alternations of laminated clay, loam, sand and 
•eams of white clay. These strata cannot be examined, only the 
lower portion being seen in the northern end of the cutting, 
which is much overgrown. Then follow the l)edH with Bracklesham 
fossils as below : — 

Section in the railway cutting south of Aslvey. 

r Light-blue or greenish loamy sand, crowded 

Bracklesham J with Bracklesham fossils (IV. of Fisher P) - 7 

Beds. I Dark blue loamy clay with a little lignite - 33 

L Blackish shaly clay with a Uttle lignite - 18 



Probable position of a strike-fault. 



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BBAGKLESHAM BEDS- 115 

T^*»^«« ri-« /Clay overgrown - - - - 11 

l^ndon Uiay | g^^^ (Basement Bed of the London Clay) - 6 

Reading Beds Red and mottled clay - - - 92 
Chalki nearly vertical. 

In the shelly bed 160 feet from the Chalk the following species 
(determined by Messrs. Sharman and Newton) were obtained^ 
mostly by J. Rhodes (the fossil- collector of the Geological 
Survey). 

B Area biangnla, Lam. B Natica acuta. Sow, 

LB Cardita planicosta. Lorn. B obovata, Sow. 

L B Corbula striata, Lam, B Pleurotoma dentata, Lam. 

B Cytherea lucida, Lam, L B denticola, Batt. 

L B suberycinoides, DwA. L teretrium? Edw. 

B tngonvdA, Desk. B Pseudoliva obtusa, Sow. 

B Rostellaria rimosa. Sow. 

B AnciUaria buccinoides, Lam. Solarium, sp. 

B Conus deperditus, Brong. L B Tuiritella imbxicataria. Lam. 

B Fusus longaevus. Lam. B sulcata. Lam. 

L B pynis, Brander. Voluta, sp. (fragment). 

Myliobatis (fragment). 

The species marked B (including the whole of the forms 
determined, with one doubtful exception) are well-known Brackle- 
sham shells ; those marked L are found in the London Clay. 
The Plenrotama teretrium (a somewhat doubtful det-ermination) 
is the only species elsewhere confined to the London Clay. 

Between Ashey and Alum Bay no good sections of the Brackles- 
ham Beds occur. When the strata are again met with, in Alum 
Bay^ their character is 8o entirely altered that it becomes impossible 
to correlate the minor divisions^ or^ as already stated, to be certain 
whether the upper and lower boundaries have been taken in the 
same place at opposite ends of the Island. 

In the following section the upper limit of the Bracklesham 
Beds has been taken at the point fixed, on palsBontologieal 
grounds, by Mr. Fisher, instead of at the pebble bed originally 
adopted as the junction in the first edition of this Memoir. This 
increases the thickness of the Bracklesham Beds at this point 
by 44 feet, making the total 155 feet instead of 111 feet. 
The details of the fossiliferous beds above the conglomerate are 
taken from Mr. Fisher's paper,* those of the lower beds are from 
the first edition of this Memoir. 

Section of the Bracklesham Beds in Alum Bay* 

Ft. In. 
Barton Clay. — Dark sandy clay with fossils (principally small 
. bivalves). 
Dark sandy clay - - - -- -16 6 

Indurated, dark-greenish, sandy clay, with impressions 

offossils - - - - - - - 1 

Fusus undosus P Qrtherea lucida. 

Murex asper. suberydnoides. 

Pymla nezilis. Sanguinolaria £[ollowaysii. 

Turritella imbricataria. Modiola, sp. 

Natica ambulacrum. TeUina plagia. 

• Quart. Jnum. GeoL Soc.^ vol. xviii. p. 86. (IS63.) 

H 2 

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116 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Dentalium^ sp. Tellina filosa P 

Cardium parile. Braiideri P 

Cardita, sp. . sp. 

Area aviculina. 

Dark sandy clay, cuntaining a bed of septaria 

Indurated, greyish, sandy clay, with impressions of fossils 



Ft. Ik. 



FuBus undosus P 
Voluta nodosa. 
Natica, sp. 
Phorus agglatinans. 
Turritella sulcifera. 
Dentalium, sp. 
Teredo, sp. 
Pecten corneas. 
Cardium parile. 
sp. 



Cardita, z sp. 
Cytherea obliqua. 

suberycinoides. 

lucida. 

Tellina tumescens P 

, 2 sp. 

Sanguinolaria HoUowaysii. 
Panopsea corrugata. 
Leda, sp. 
Modiola (or Mytilus) sp. 



11 




16 



Dark sandy clay, weathering greenish grey, containing 
bands of lignite* - - . . . 

Conglomerate of flint-pebbles, cemented by iron-oxide. 
The pebbles are of various sizes, up to a foot in 
diameter - - - - - -10tol6 

Sands (principally white), light tawny-yellow In the upper 
pari; the lower 3 feet crimson - - . . 

Wliitish marly day ..... 

Dark chocolate-coloured marls and carbonaceous clay,' 
with much lignite and selenite. 

Ft. In. 
Clays and marls - - - - 15 3 



45 
25 



Lignite band 
Clays and marls 
Lignite band 
Clays and marls 
Lignite band 
Clays and marls 
Lignite band 
Clays and marls 



1 
3 
1 
6 
2 
4 
9in.^»l 
5 



39 6 



Total thickness of the Bracklesham Beds 



155 



Whether the lower part of this section reallj belongs to the 
Bracklesham Beds is doubtful. Mr. Fisher takes as the base of 
the Bracklesham Beds at Alum Bay the bed of flint pebbles 
formerly adopted by the Survey as the base of the Barton Clay. 
He therefore places the pebble beds at WhitecliiF and Alum Bays 
approximately on the same horizon. The pebble bed at Alum 
Bay certainly appears to mark the incoming of marine conditions, 
after the deposition of the plant-bearing sands and pipe-clays of 
the Lower Bagshot Beds. But in the absence of recognizable 
fossils throughout the whole of the next 600 feet of strata, it is 
possible that we are merely dealing with decalcified equivalents 
of the marine beds of Whitediff Bay and Bracklesham. The 
pebble bed at Alum Bay may therefore really belong to the 



* This is the lowest bed attributed to the Bracklesham Scries in Mr. Fisher's 
section. 



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BBACKLESHAH BEDS. 



117 



middle or upper part of the Bracklesham Seriee, since pebbles 
occur on various horizons at Bracklesham itself. 

Though the Bracklesham Beds of the Isle of Wight have only 
yielded a small portion of the prolific fauna found at Selsey, yet a 
considerable number of the most characteristic Bracklesham 
species occur in both districts. Among the most conspicuous 
may be mentioned Nummulites Icsvigatusy Turritella imbricataria 
(Fig. 23), and Cardita planicosta (Fig. 22). 



Fio. 22. 
Cardita planicosta^ Lam. 



Fig. 23 
Turritella imbricataria, Lam. 




Specimens of the Cardita obtained from the lower portion of 
the beds at Whitecliff Bay are not only much less in nze than 
those found at Bracklesham, but are pierced by small boring 
shells ; showing that the animals must have perished, and the 
shells have remained a considerable time at the bottom of the sea 
before they were covered by the sediment in which they are now 
imbedded. 

The fauna of the Bracklesham Beds of the Isle of Wight 
appears to show a sub-tropical climate, shoal-water, the proximity 
of land, and perhaps estuarine conditions. The occurrence of a 
coal-seam, resting on an ancient vegetable soil, indicates an eleva- 
tion to a sufficient extent to raise the beds above the sea-level for 
a portion of the time. 

Barton Clay. 

This group of strata which is displayed in the cliffs at Barton, on 
the opposite coast of Hampshire, and is so well known to collectors 
for the richness and abimdance of its fossils, is here repre- 
sented by clays overlying the Bracklesham Beds in Alum and 
Whitecliff Bays. The nature of these deposits (which are com- 
posed of sandy clays, clays, and sands with layers of septaria) is 



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118 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

sufficiently shown in the measured sections of Alum Bay, in 
which locality tliey attain a thickness of about 250 feet. 

Section of the Barton Clay in Alum Bay* 

(Measured in April 1851.) 

Ft. In. 

Ferruginous dark-blue clay, selenite, fra^onentfi of univalve 
shells, numerous fossils - - - - - 24 

Pale aud ferruginous yellow sandy clay, green in the upper 
part. Lignite, Corals, DentaUum, Ostrea, Corbula, Pleuro- 
toma common and of several species. (The pathway from 
the chine to the beach cuts through the lower part of these 
beds) 69 

Sands, pale yellowish colour above, green bebw. (A layer 
of septaria occurs in this bed about 10 feet Arom the top, 
contaming pebbles and fragments of wood, and overlying 
a band of small flint-pebbles) • - - - 35 

Dark bluish-grey and ferruginous-brown sandy clay, con- 
taining much selenite and lignite. Corbula abundant. 
(A layer of septaria, 1 foot thick, occurs 5 feet from the top, 
3 feet under which is a band about 2 inches thick of very 
small pebbles of white quartz, with Shark's teeth. A 
second layer of septaria occurs at 28 feet ; and a third, 
5 feet from the bottom of the bed. Tliere is also a band of 
fossils at 13 feet, and a band of lignite 10 feet from the 
bottom) - . - - - - - 63 

Pale grey loamy sand, mottled with yellow, and thinly 
laminated - - - • - - -90 

Dark bluish-green clay, with numerous univalves and other 
fossils. A ribbed DentaUum, Fusus longavus, Voluta 
sptnostty Solarium, Cardium, Natica (2 species), Fusus 
pyrua, RosteUaria, Oancellaria, Pleurotoma, Mitra (small 
species) -- - - - - -650 

Total . - 255 



The Rev. O. Fisher gives the following details of the base of 
the Barton Clay (including 16 feet of beds) at this point :t — 

Dark-greenish, coarse, sandy clay. Crowded with Nummulina Prest* 
vnchiana [now known as N, elegans], 

Rostellaria ampla. Strepsidura turgida. 

rimosa. Cassidaria ambigua. 

Murez asper. Ancillaria, sp. 

Typhis pungens. Pleurotoma turbida. 

CanceUaria, sp. conoides. 

Pyrula nexilis. _^___ plebeia. 

Fusus bulbus. , sp. 

■ carinella. Voluta athleta. 

errans. depauperata. 

interruptus. maga. 

longsevus. • nodosa. 

Nose. Mitra parva. 



regularis. Marginella, sp. 

unicarinatus. Natica labellata. 

sp. Turritella imbricataria. 

* Another section, differing somewhat in details, will be found in Messrs. Gardner, 
Keeping, and Monckton's paper. Quart. J cum. Ged. Soc., vol. xliv. p. 600. 
I Quart Joum, Geol. Soc., vol. xviii. p. 84. (1862.) 



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BARTON CLAY. 119 

Phorus agglutinans. Corbula pisum. 

Caljptnea obliqua. Pholadomya, sp. 

Dentalium, sp. 

Ostiea flabellula Eohinoderm. 

donataP 

Pecten coraeuB. Opexculina, sp. 

Cardium, sp. Nummulina Prertwichiana. 

Lead-coloured clay^ with few f ossila - - - - 3 

Roetellana macroptera. Corbula pisum. 

Dark sandy clay, with fossils (principally small bivalves) - 9 (> 

Rostellaria ampla. Area avicubna. 

FusuB regulans? Leda, sp. 

Pleurotoma exorta. Nucula, sp. 

Voluta nodosa. Cardimn parile. 

TurriteUa imbricataria. Cardita globosa. 

Melania? Cnltellus, sp. 

Oalyptrsa, sp. Corbula pisum. 
Solarium plicatum. 

These details of the lower beds are given to show how gradual 
is the upward passa^e^ both lithological and paleeontological^ from 
the Bracklesham Series, already described at p. 115, into the 
overlying Barton Clay. 

When the original survey of the Island was made an inland 
exposure of the Barton Clay was visible at Gunville. This is 
now overgrown, and no new sections are at present open. The 
Brick Yard at Gunville showed shelly clay^ from which were 
obtained numerous sharks-teeth nnd some moUusca. Unfor- 
tunately few of these have been preserved, and the new Brick 
Yard on the west side of tlie road only shows Pleistocene Brick- 
earth, resting on the upturned edges of the Lower Bi^shot Sands, 
with perhaps in one place a trace of the base of the Bracklesham 
Series in some green sandy clay. 

At the east end of the Island the Barton Clay is seldom well 
seen, owing to the accumulation of beach, and to the landslips 
and mud-streams which constantly obscure this part of the cliff. 
However in 1886 the sections were exceptionally clear and Mr. 
Keeping was able to examine this part of die coast and to measure 
the following section.* 



Section of the Barton Clay in JVhitecliff Bay. 
(Measured by Mr. H. Keeping in 1886.) 



Ft. In. 



Blue sandy clays, with mottled brown patches of soft earthy 
ironstone near the base. The upper 15 feet consist of bluisn 
sandy day, containing - - - - - 50 

Terebellum sopitum, Brand, Calyptrsaa trochiformis, Lam, 

Voluta humerosa, Edw, Ostrea flabellula,I/am. 

IVrula nexilis, Lam, Pecten carinatus. Sow, 

>r8tica, sp. ^— , sp. 

* See Geol, Mag,, dec. III. vol. iv. p. 70. 

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120 GEOLOGY or THE ISLB OP WIGHT. 

Ft. Ih. 

Liina, sp. Cypricardia, Bp. 

Avicula media, Sow. Cardita obloi^ Soto. 

Aictk, sp. Cytherea tenuistnata, Sow. 

Pectuncnlus deletuB, Brand, T^UinaambiguaP Sow, 

Limopsis scalarb. Sow, Corbula ficus P Brand. 

Nucma bisulcata. Sow. Panopsoa intennedia, Sow, 

Chama squamosa, Brand. 

Cardimn porolosum. Brand. Schizaster D'Urbani, Forbes. 

Lucina gibboBula, Lam. 

Crassatdla tenuisulcata, Edw. Ditrupa plana, Sow. 

Imperfect ironstone band, not well seen - - - 3 

Grey and pale blue clays, with light fiawn-coloured bands near 

the base 36 

Stiff laminated clay, with occasionally dark patches. Few or 

no fossils - - - - - - -18 

Pale blue and yellow sandy days, with very few and badly 

preserved fossils - - - - - -640 

NtmmuUtes elegans zone, consisting of rather dark green and 

blue glauconitic sandy da^rs, much crowded in places with 

Nummulites elegans. Fossils : — - - - - 11 

Typhis pungens. Brand, Bulla, sp. 

Fusus bulbus, Brand. 

Cominella Solandri, Edw. Corbula pisum. Sow. 

Pleurotoma exorta. Brand. CrassateUa sulcata, Brand. 

Voluta luctatriz. Brand, Cardium semigranulatum, Sow. 

— -« — digitalina. Lam. Leda minima. Sow. 

Mitra parva. Sow. Ostrea flabellula. Lam. 

Calyptrssa trochiformis. Lam. 

Dentalium striatum. Sow, Nummulites elegans. Sow, 

Total - 162 1 

The Barton Clay of the Isle of Wight yields a fauna closely 
corresponding to that of the typical locality on the opposite coast 
of Hampshire, but at present the list of fossils is much smaller. 
This is perhaps partly due to a greater poverty of the fauna, but 
in all probability it munly arises from the difficulty in following 
thin fossiliferous seams where the beds are so much hidden by 
landslips. Another reason is that the area over which eacli seam 
can be examined is much less in the Isle of Wight than at Barton, 
owing to the tilting of the beds and their rapid disappearance 
beneath the sea-levd. 

As in the Bracklesham Beds, the moUusca in the lower part 
of the Barton Clay of Alum Bay show a decidedly warm 
climate, but the fossils are more exclusively marine, the beds 
contain a smaller mixture of lignite, and show altogether less 
sign of the proximity of land. Among the more conspicuous 
fossils are Nummulites elegans^ Pecteu rcconditus (Fig. 35), 
Corbula pisum^ CrassateUa sulcata (Pig. 29), Pectunculus deletas, 
Psammobia compressa (Fig. 27), Calyptraa trochiformis (Fig. 33), 
Conus dormitor (Fig. 32), Fusus loiigmvus (Fig. 31), Fusus pyrus 
(Fig. 26), Murex asper (Fig. 25), Phorua agglutinans (Fig. 24), 
Bostellaria rimosa (Fig. 28), Typhis pungens (Fig. 34), Voluta 
luctatrix (Fig. 30), &c. 



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BABTON CLAY. 



121 



Fig. 24. 
Fhoru$ agglutinanSf 



Fia 26. 
Murex asper^ 
Brand. 



Fig 26. 

Fusus pyrus, 

Lam. 




Fig. 27. 
Psammobia compressa. Sow. 





Fig. 28, 
Rostellaria rimosoy Sow. 




Fig 30 

Valuta luctatrixy Sow. 



Fig. 29. 
CrassateUa sulcata. Sow. 




Fig. 31. 

Fusus long(BVU8, 

Lam. 




Fig. 32. 
Conus dormitory Sow. 





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122 



OEOLOGT OF THE I8LE OP WIGHT. 



Fig. 33. 

Caiyptrma trochifarmis, 

Lam. 



Fig. 34. 
Typhis punyensy 
Brand. 



Fig. 36. 

Pecten reconditusy 

Brand. 






Headon Hill Sands. 

Between the Barton Clay and the Headon Beds lies a mass 
of unfossiliferous or sparingly fossiliferous sands. These have 
been usually called Upper Bagshot Beds, but as they probably 
belong, as already mentioned, to a higher zone than the Upper 
Bagshot Series of the London basin, it is better to use for the 
present the older term ^' Headon Hill Sands." 

The lower part of these strata at Headon Hill consists of about 
50 feet of yellow and white sand, succeeded by 60 feet of white 
sand, with occasional yellow stains caused by the presence of oxide 
of iron. The total thickness of this group in Alum Bay cannot 
be determined accurately, in consequence of the disturbed state of 
the beds there, but probably it ranges from 140 to 200 feet. The 
Headon Hill Sands arc of considerable economic value, their 
whiteness and purity rendering them particularly suitable for 
making glass, for which purpose they were extensively worked 
for many years. Mr. Squire, who rented the cliffs for several 
years, stated that between 1850 and 1855, 21,984 tons were 
shipped from Yarmouth, principally to Bristol and London, 
for the use of the glass-houses there ; and a native author, 
writing in 1795, says, — "Our trade and commerce chiefly 
is dealing in corn and wool. There are other commodities, such 
as copperas stones and white shining sand. The former are 
gathered up in heaps on the sea-shore, and occasionally sent to 
London, &c for the purpose of producing the several species of 
vitriol ; the latter is dug out of some very valuable mines, which 
are the property of David Urry, Esq., near Yarmouth, and 
from thence sent to London and Bristol for the use of the glass 
manufactories." 

Inland there are at present few or no clear sections of these 
Sands, but pits, now overgrown, formerly showed the junction with 
the overlying clays of the Fluvio-marine beds. This junction was 
formerly seen in a pit about halt* a mile west of Swainstone, by 
the side of a road to Fulholding Farm ; and, again, further east, 
under similar circumstances, in the lane a short distance south of 
Great Park Farm. 



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H£iJ>ON HILL. 8AJNDS. 123 

South of Qunville about half a mile from Oarisbrook in a north- 
west direction, the Headon Hill Sands and the Barton Clay are 
thrown up into a vertical position in the brick-pits, where the 
latter deposit constitutes the brick-earth which was formerly 
worked there^ and, as has been alresidy stated^ contained a few fossils. 

In East Medina, the Headon Hill Sands showed themselves 
near MornhUI Farm, and in a pit at the south-ea^t corner of the 
wood by the side of the road from Arreton Down to Lynn Farm, 
where they are pure white glnss-house sands, together with some 
of a yellow colour. They are here also vertical, resting with a 
sharp, well-defined line (marked by a few small rounded flint- 
pebbles) on green clay — Barton Clay. The age of the strata in 
this last section is, however, somewhat doubtful, for they are 
curiously disturbed at this point, and so hidden by gravel that 
the sands may possibly belong even to the middle division of the 
Hamstead Beds. Unfortunately this pit being now entirely 
overgfrown cannot be re-examined. 

The Headon Hill sands have also been observed in pits at 
Combley and south of Little Nunwell, as well as on the north side 
of Bembridge Down, by the side of the road to Bembridge Farm. 
In Whitecliff Bay the junction between the Headon Hill Sands 
and the Barton Clay is likewise sharp and well defined, and the 
former group has a thickness of 184 feet. 

Fossil remains are particularly scarce in this member of the 
Eocene series ; though repeatedly searched for during the pro- 
gress of the survey, no fossils were procured except in Whitecliff 
Bay, where a few ferruginous casts of bivahe shells were found — 
chiefly Tellinaj Panopmay &c. — which, however, could not bo 
preserved on account of their loose and friable condition. 



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124 GBOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



CHAPTER X. 
OLIGOCENE. 

Introduction. 

The Fluvio-marine or Oligocene Beds of the Isle of Wight 
were first described by Webster, who divided them into Lower 
Freshwater, Upper Marine, and Upper Freshwater, but treated 
as extensions of the beds in Headon Hill a large series of fluvio- 
marine beds really lying above the Upper Freshwater * It was 
not till the year 1853 that the complete succession was satis&c* 
torily made out, though Prof. Prestwich had already, in 1846,t 
suggested that the beds seen in Hamstead Cliff were higher than 
any of the beds at Headon. In 1853 Edward Forbes showed that 
above Webster's ** Upper Freshwater " of Headon Hill, there is 
found a thick series of beds divisible into several zones characterised 
by distinct species of fossUs.J A few years later, in 1856, the 
observations on which Forbes had been engaged up to the date of his 
death were published in the Memoirs of the Geological Survey, 
but the incomplete state in which many of the notes were left 
rendered it very difficult for Mr. Godwin- Austen, who edited the 
book, to do full justice to Forbes' work. The divisions and mea- 
surements made by Forbes have been adopted with very little 
alteration in the present Memoir. Later observers have some* 
times grouped the beds differently ; but this grouping is so much a 
matter of opinion, and there is such an entire absence of real breaks, 
thai until stronger evidence is brought forward it seems unnecessary 
to depart from the classification and nomenclature adopted by 
Edward Forbes. 

The following brief suaunary of the views taken by some of 
the able geologists who have written on the geology of the strata 
under notice, may not be out of place here. 

Professor Thomas Webster gave the earliest and perhaps the 
best account of the Fluvio-marine series, founded on observa- 
tions made in the years 1811-13, and contained in Sir Henry 
Englefield's work on the Isle of Wight,§ published in 1816. In 
those letters Professor Webster divided the section at Alum Bay 
into Lower Freshwater, Upper Marine, and Upper Freshwater 



* Sir H. G. Euglefield. A description of the Principal Picturesque Beauties, 
Antiquities, and Geological Phenomena of the Isle of Wight. With Additional 
Observations on the Strata of the Island, &c. by Thos. Webster. (London, 1816), 
p. 226. 

t On the Occurrence of Cypris in a part of the Tertiary Freshwater Strata of the 
Isle of Wight. Rep, Brit, Assoc, for 1846, Trans, of Sections, p. 56. 

J Quart, Joum. Geol, Soc., vol. ix. p. 259. 

I The letters of Professor Webster are illustrated by large copperplate views of 
cUfb and coast scenery which, for accuracy and spirited execution, have perhaps 
never been surpassed as drawings iUaatrating geological phenomena* 



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OLIGOCENB — INTBODUOTION. 1 25 

Formations ; and Headon Hill was considered to comprise a com- 
plete section of the whole of the Fliivio-marine series. Although 
the calcareous strata in the upper part of Headon Hill were 
noticed^ the limestones of other parts of the Island were referred 
to some of the thick beds of Lower Headon limestone displayed 
at Headon Hill, and all the marine shells of the Fluvio-marine 
series to his '* Upper Marine ** formation, or the Middle Headon 
beds of Professor Forbes. Hence the limestones of Gurnard 
Bay, East and West Cowes, and Binstead were referred to the 
" Lower Freshwater " formations, while the ** blocks of calcareous 
stone containing Limnsea lying on the top, in a detritus of blue 
clay," seen along the shore eastward of the latter locality, as also 
the limestones of Dodpits and Bembridge, were considered iden- 
tical with those of the '* Upper Freshwater " formation, or the 
thick limestones which are displayed in the Upper Headon beds 
at Headon Hill. 

Mr. G. B. Sowerby visited Headon Hill in 1821 and inferred 
that the Upp^r Marine formation had been deposited under 
estuarine rather than under marine conditions, in consequence of 
observing the occurrence together of shells of marine and fresh- 
water genera.* 

Professor Sedgwick, in a paper published in May 1822,t 
referred all the strata exposed in the diffi between Bembridge 
Ledge and Byde, between Byde and Gurnard Bay, and also the 
argiUaceous beds between Yarmouth and Hamstead, to the 
Lower Freshwater formation of Professor Webster; while the 
oyster bed and marine marls overlying the Bembridge Limestone, 
and the upper argillaceous beds of Hamstead, were regarded as 
the equivalents oi the Upper Marine formation of that author. 

Professor Prestwich showed,t in 1846, that there were no 
grounds for the supposition of a want of conformity between the 
series in Alum Bay and that in Headon Hill, and expressed an 
opinion that no well-marked divisions could be drawn there, as 
proposed by 'Webster,§ inasmuch as marine shells of the Barton 
clays re-appear among the overlying freshwater strata in White- 
clifE Bay, and that the same freshwater species ranged through 
nearly the whole thickness of the Headon Hill deposits; the 
phenomena being such as might be purely local, the result of an 
accidental irruption of brackish water into a freshwater area. 

With respect to the age of the fluvio-marine series of the Isle 
of Wight, and their synchronism with the deposits of the Paris 
basin, Mr. Prestwich stated that he felt considerable hesitation in 
hazarding an opinion ; but, guided by the circumstance that all 
French and English geologists were agreed in referring the 
Barton group to the Calcaire grossier, as also by the consideration 
of the upward range of the Barton species, he was disposed to 

♦ On the Geological Formatioim of Headon Hill. , . , Attn. Phil., ser. 3 
Tol. ii. p. 216. 

f On the Geology of the Isle of Wight. Ann. Phil,, vol. xix. p. 329. 

X Quart, Joum, Geol, Soc,, vol. ii. pp. 823-259. 

§ Lower freshwater Upper marine, Upper freshwater. 



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126 GEOLOaY OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

consider the Headon Hill Heries as the upper portion of the 
Barton group^ and, as such, to refer the whole to the Calcairc 
grossier. 

In the autumn of 1846 Prof. Prestwich communicated a paper 
** On the occurrence of Cypris in a part of the Tertiary Strata 
of the Isle of Wight,*** to the Geological Section at the Meeting 
of the British Association at Southampton. 

The place from which these fossil C^ypridae were obtained was 
the upper part of Hamstead Cliff, near Yarmouth. The author 
gives a section of the beds, which will be found to agree most 
accurately with the description contained in the subsequent por- 
tion of this Memoir, and notes the genera of the included shells, 
adding '* We have thus in the lower part of the section a deposit 
containing essentially freshwater testacea, becoming more mixed, 
as we ascend, with shells frequenting estuaries. It is a 
singular feature of this group, which I believe to form the upper 
beds of the freshwater formation of the Isle of Wight, that a 
large portion of the species occurring in it are new; thus the 
two characteristic fossils are a species of Poiamides and a 
Melaniuy neither of which do I find described. The Cypris also 
is peculiar to this locality/' From the passages here quoted it 
will be seen that Professor Prestwich had the clue to the structure 
of the Upper Tertiary series of the Isle of Wight, and that time 
and opportunity were alone wanting to enable him t^ work out 
details on which the Bembridge and Hamstead groups were shortly 
afterwards shown by Forbes to be clearly separable from the 
Headon series, with which they had continued to be confounded. 

In 1853 Forbes publishedf an outline of the results of his 
work in the Isle of Wight between the years 1848 and 1853. In 
this paper he gave a new reading of the succession, and a revised 
classification and nomenclature of the beds. This was followed 
in 1856 by his posthumous memoir "On the Tertiary Fluvio- 
marine Formation of the Isle of Wight,"! and in 1862 by the 
first edition of the present Memoir. 

The only subsequent criticism tending in any way to contra- 
dict the work of Forbes was contained in a paper by Prof. Judd.§ 
This author maintained the correlation of the Headon Beds 
at Headon Hill with those of Totland and Oolwell Bays to be 
erroneous and stated that ''the strata exposed at the base of 
Headon Hill are not, as supposed by previous observers, a mere 
repetition, through an anticlinal fold, of the beds seen in CoJwell 
and Totland Bays, but are on a distinct and lower horizon than 
the latter. These He€idon-HiU beds are also found to contain a 
different assemblage of fossils from that which characterizes the 
Colwell and Totland Bay beds." Prof. Judd also proposed a new 
classification of the Oligocene Beds, in which they were divided 

* Report Brit. Amsoc, for 1846, p. 56 {Candona Forbesii, T. R. J. in Ptof. Prest- 
wich's Collection). 

f Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc., toI. vl. p. 259. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey. 

Quart. Jtfum. GeM. Soc., yoI. xxxyI. p. 187. (1S80.) 



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OLIGOCENB — INTRODUCTION. 127 

into Headon Group (estuarine), Brockenhurst Series (inarine)^ and 
Bembridge Group (estuarine). 

Subsequently Messrs. Keeping and Tawney maintained that the 
correlation of the marine beds of Headon Hill and Colwell Bay 
made by Forbes and the Survey was correct, and that the faunas 
at the two spots were practically identical, the slight variations 
being accounted fur by the somewhat different conditions under 
which the beds were deposited.* 

Forbes* correlation is followed in this Memoir, for though there 
are some minor points on which Prof. Judd's criticisms are no 
doubt just, yet with regard to the main difference the recent re- 
examination of the Island and mapping of the beds on the scale 
of 6 inches to the mile have not supported Prof. Judd's contention, 
but rather sh^wn that Forbes' correlation must still be accepted. 

As already observed, the subdivision and grouping of the beds 
in such a variable series of strata are, in the absence of any real 
breaks, so entirely a matter of convenience, that without stronger 
evidence it would be most unadvisable to upset the established 
nomenclature, and introduce a new mode of grouping, founded on 
that adopted in other districti^. Here also the original nomencla- 
ture and grouping used by Forbes have been adopted. 

The principal alteration in this new edition of the Memoir is 
in the use of the term Oligocene for the whole of the Fluvio- 
marine beds formerly known partly as Upper Eocene and partly 
as Middle £ocene.t This term is universally adopted on the 
continent, and the change of conditions at the base of the Fluvio- 
marine series is so marked in the Isle of Wight, that the division 
of our Lower Tertiary Beds into two, instead of into three 
series, and the acceptation of the Headon Beds as the base of the 
upper group is very convenient. Of course the rarity of fossils 
in the underlying Headon Hill Sands leaves it still somewhat 
uncertain to which group they should belong, but the marked 
change of lithological character at the base of the overlying 
beds, and the fact, recorded by Forbes, ttoit the ^ands contain 
marine fossils of Barton species, is certainly in favour of theii 
being grouped with the Barton Clay. 

Table of the Oligocene Beds of the Isle of Wight. 

Feet. 

Hamstead Series - - - . about 260 

Bembridge Marls - - - - „ 100 

„ Limestone - - - „ 10 

Osborne Series - - - - „ 100 

Upper Headon Series - " " 1 

Middle Headon Series (marine) - - > „ 150 

Lower Headon Series - - - J 



Total ... 620 



* Quart. Jaum. Geoi, Soe,^ toI. xxxyu. p. 85. (1881.) 
t Lyell referred the higheet portion to the Miocene. 



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128 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

Owing to the high dip and absence of any topographical feature, 
it has been found impossible to separate the Osborne from the 
Headon Series on the Map. These two series are therefore shown 
by a single colour, though described separately in this Memoir, 



Headon Beds. 

This series, as a whole, consists of a mass of beds of fresh- 
water, estuarine, and marine origin, the total thickness of which 
varies from 147 feet at Headon Hill to 212 feet at Whitecliff 
Bay. It is only at the western extremity of the Island, betweefn 
the river Yar and the sea, that the Headon series covers an 
extensive area, elsewhere it is comprised in a narrow belt of 
land, between the Headon Hill Sands and the Osborne Series. 
These beds are best displayed at Headon Hill, in Totland and 
Colwell Bays, and in Whitecliff Bay. There is also a small 
section of the upper portion — now almost entirely overgrown or 
hidded by the sea-wall — on the coast close to Norris Castle and 
Osborne. 

The Fluvio-marine formation, which extends over the northern 
portion of the Island, forms an undulating tract of country, the 
scenery of which presents a marked difference to that of the more 
open district covered by the Cretaceous rocks on the south, owing 
to the greater abundance of woods with which the surface is in 
many places covered. The land situated on the limestones is of 
a more fertile description than that based upon the clays or sande, 
but over a considerable part of the Island mapped as Fluvio-marine 
there is a thick deposit of flint gravel spread over the surface, 
which conceals the underlying strata, and causes the agricultural 
nature of the soil to bear no relation whatever to the rocks 
beneath. From the highly inclined position of the beds in the 
neighbourhood of the Chalk, the lower members of the formation 
are comprised, for the most part, within comparatively narrow 
limits, and the chief portion of the superficial area occupied by 
the Fluvio-marine series consists of the upper members of that 
group. The thick beds of limestone in this formation thin out 
towards the north, and nearly disappear in an easterly direction. 

The Headon Series was subdivided by Edward Forbes into : — 
- jy /"Uppermost marls^ with Cerithium lapidum? 

PP^^ "^Upper Headon freshwater and brackish beds. 

2. Middle ; Headon intermarine. 

3. Lower Headon fresh and brackish-water beds. 

The following sections, measured during the original survey 
of the Island, will give a good idea of the nature and fossils of 
these beds. It must not be forgotten, however, that each of the 
minor divisions is extremely variable, and many of them are 
found to die out or entirely change their character in short 
listances. 



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HBADON BEDS. 



129 



Upper Headon 

Beds, 

46 ft. 7 ins. 



> 8 



Section of the Headon Series of Headon Hill, measured by Edward 
Forbes in October 1852 (with a few Corrections made in 1888.) 

Ft. In. 

Blue and yellow clays and marls, passing 
into grey laminated days with crushed 
Pcdudina lenta and Potamotnya gre- 
garia - - - - - 15 

Varieffated days with Potamotnya, espe- 
ciaUy in the lower part. A 6-inch 
hand of ironstone with Paludina occurs 
in the centre of the hed. Serpula -33 
Brown and green clays. Potamomya, 

Paludina lenta, Melanqpsisfusiformit - 3 4 
Limestone, carhonaoeous at the top; 
details: — 
Carbonaceous - - 1 0' 

Sandy, with crushed Limmea 
longiscata and Planorhis 
euonushalus - - 2 

Full of fine shells; Limnaa 
longiscata, Planorbis euom- 
phalus, P. lens, P. obtusus, 
P. roiundatus, P. platy- 
stomas, Paludina, &c. - 2 
Rubblv, with Planorbis euom- 
phaks - - -3 0^ 

Bluish and purplish days, passing into 
Limestone. Melanopsis carinata, 
Linuuea longiscata, Planorbis platy- 
stoma, P. obtusus, Bulimas poHius ^50 
Limestone, compact in places, with many 
shells and lines of nodular concretions 
in places. Shells as in the limestone 
above - - - - - 10 

Greenish-white compact sands, carbo« 

naceous at the base. Serpula tewds - 2 
'Blue days and sands, crowded with 
univalve shells. Ceritkium ventri- 
eosum, C. concavum, Cpseudo'dnctum, 
Cyrena obovata, Ostrea, Natica. The 
shells are much broken at the lower 
part (at 2 feet down) and larger than 
further northward . . - 

Yellow sand, with bands of lignite and 

day* CeritMum eoncavum - 
Bluexgreen day with lignite. Fossils 
few i-^Cyrenaobooata, scaji^red Ostrea 
Limestone. Planorbis euomphalus, 
IdmwBa longiscata - . - 
^Blue, green, and brown sandy clay, 
with oyster-beds at about 5 feet 
from the top. A few fossils in 
blue clay above ; fossils mostly in 
the middle and lower part. Occa- 
sional flint pebbles. Ostrea, 
Cyrena obovata, Cytherea incra^- 
sata, Nucula, NcUica depressa, 
IfeZania, fV<«tts, small spedes. The 
oysters in this bed are smaller 
and fewer than at Colwell Bav ; 
the other marine shells are also 
fewer - - - - 16 



Middle Headon 
Beds, 
33ift. . 



3 3 

2 

2 

1 



E 56786. 



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130 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Lower Ileadon 
Beds, 
eiffi. 



< 
z 



Sand, claj, and lignite; with 

bands Cull of bivalves andscat- 

teitd univalves. Cyrena 

obooata, Cerithium ventricosum, 

^ C. concatmm, C. paetid(M!inctum, 

Z I Neritina concava, MeUmapsis 

L fi^formia - - . 

"Cream-coloured limestone in one bed. 

lAimncBa longiscaia, Planorbis ewm^ 

phalus, P, lens! This corresponds 

^ith the limestone of How Ledge 

Sand, clay, and lignite, with seeds. At 

the bottom 2 feet 9 inches of strone 

carbonaceous bands with seeds and 

univalves. Carpolithea, Melania 

Limestone with snells (much broken) 

probably brackish water? lAtanaa 

Green clays ; fossils few or none 

Zones of lignite and sand 

Ferruginous bands, alternating with 
clays full of Paludma 

Pale sands with bands of lignite 

Cyrena pulchra Bbd.— Sreen clays, 
carbonaceous at the base. Cyrena 
pulchra, Potamomya^ Limnaa 

Limestone, very shelly in the middle, 
and divided into two beds by a clayey 
parting. LimruBa lonaiscata, L. cOU' 
data, Planorbis euomphalus, fragments 
of Paludina - - . . 

Green clays with purplish streaks (from 
this clay to the base of the Headon 
Series the beds vary very much at 
different places; ... 

Sandy limestone, very shelly and ferru- 
ginous at the base. SheUs crushed - 

White and vellow sand, with a car- 
bonaceous band at the top 

*Blue clay with shells ; becomes sandy 
below. Potamomya, Cerithium 

Sandy limestone, passing upwards into 
sand. Planorbis euomphalus, lAmmea 
longiscata (shells much broken) 

Strong band of ironstone 2 inches to - 

Cyrbna cycladifgrmis Bed. — Sandy 
green clays, Potamomya, Cyrena 
cycladiformis, Cerithium elegans, C. 
duplex .... 

White sands with harder bands - 

Green cla;^s with a thin fenruginous 
band 1 inch thick at the base. No 
fossils? . . . . 

Totol 



Ft. In. 



10 



3 



- 20 



1 6 
8 

2 

3 

4 8 



6 

5 4 

1 4 
6 
4 
4 6 



1 6 
4 



3 
1 6 



6 



146 10 



fBright yellow sands, with white sand, 
Headon Hill Sands < forming lenticular patches 



(^ sand - 



in yellow 



11 



Another Section measured downwards from the beds marked 
(*), nearer Alum Bay, is slightly different. 



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HEADON BEPS. 



131 



Lower Headon 
Beds. 



f Green clajs with thick bands of Pota- Ft. In. 
ffumya plana. Paludina in places. 
Selenite . - - - 3 

White sands, without fossils - - 1 6 

Thin band of sandj limestone with 

PlanorbU, &c. - - - 6 

White dayej band. No fossils - 6 

White sand - - - - 2 

Green marls with li^te bands. Broken 
Cyrena and Potamomya, Cerithhm 
elegans? C. dupUal- - - 3 

Pink and yellow rather compact sands, 

with a lignite band at the top - 2 6 

Ferru^nous ledge of dark-red sandy 
beds, with a strong but narrow iron- 
band at the base. No fossils - - 2 
^ White sands (Headon Hill Sands). 

The Headon Beds vary so much in short distances that other 
measurements^ made only a mile or two from Headon Hill give 
very different results^ though the total thickness is nearly the 
same. The following were taken about 1852 by £. Forbes and 
H. W. Bristow :— 

Section of the Headon Beds in Colwell and Totland Bays. 

Ft. In. 

Dark blue days alternating with ferruginous 
and septarian bands. Paludina lenta, P. 
globuUndes, Limnma longiscata, Serpula, 
Potamomya gregaria - - - 6 

Red and green marls • - - 1 

Sandy beds, greenish clays, and grev shales, 
with lenticular patches of broken shells and 
wood. Paludina lenta above, Potamomya F 
Cyrena obovata, \ar. major, fragments of 
ifnio, Melanopsis fusiformis P and Melama 
murioata - - - - - 8 6 

White, yellowish, and dark sand, with clayey 
streaks. Melanopsis fustformis, M. subcari" 
nata? Cyrena pulchra. Lenticular patches 
of dead Melanopsis and Cyrena obovata in 
the lower part - - - - 5 

Limestone. Limwea longiscata, Planorbis - 1 
Upper Headon Greenish clay and sand, crowded in places 
Beds, 47i < with univalve and bivalve shells. A ferru- 
feet. I ginous band at 10 inches from the bottom 

of the bed. Potamides trizonatum, Cyrena 
obovata - - - - - 10 

Argillaceous limestone, passing southward 
into a bed of sand. A carbonaceous band 
occurs at the base. Paludina angulosa, 
Limmea longiscata, L. subquadrata?, L. 
angtuta?, L. arenularia?, L. tenuis?, 
Planorbis euomphalus, P. rotundatus, P. 
obtusus, P. lens, P. platystoma, Nematura. 
(This bed occupies the foreshore at Cliff 
End Fort)- - - - - 3 

Bluish-yellow and purplish laminated sands 
and carbonaceous shales (under the battery, 
southern end) - - - - 10 

Laminated clay and sand, with ferruginous 
sandy lenticular patches and lines of Pota- 
momya in places. Potamomya - - 3 

I 2 



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132 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Middle Headon 
Beds, 30 feet 
4 inches. 



full of 

varyinjf 

Ostrea 

Corbida 



Rather compact pale greenish-yellow sand, 
without fossils . . . - 

Verdigris-green clayey beds, abounding in 
Cyrma obovata, Ostrea, Melania mtcn- 
cata, Cerithivm concamtm^ Natica - 

Band of ferruginous concretions, often cal- 
careous int^ally. Small Nematura or 
Hydrobia, NeriHna (rare), Cerithium 
pgeudo-cinctum, Melania muricata, Cyrena 
obovata, Modiola, Ostrea (rare) 3 inches to 

Bluish-fipreen clays, often very fossilifeious. 
Cyrena at the top of the lied, and Ostrea 
in lenticular patches in the lower part, 
which becomes blacker and contains cal- 
careous nodules. Cyrena obovata, MyttUu 
dffinis, Cerithium pseudo-cinctum, Nertiina 

3 feet to 

Lignite and clay; sand in places. Nume- 
rous bands of Potamamya near the base. 
Cerithium pseudo^nctum, NeriHna, Mela- 
nopsis . . - 

" Vknus Bed." Brownish clay 
marine shells. Bank of oysters 
in thickness in different places. 
velata, Cytherea incrassata, 
cuspidata, Cerithium pseudo'cinctum, F^isus, 
Murex, Valuta spinosa, CanceUaria, 2 sp., 
Pleurotoma, 2 sji,,Nucula headonensis, Area, 
Natica, 3 sp.. Bulla, 2 sp., TtUina, 2 sp. 
(The Oyster Bed rises a little (15 feet) 
south 01 Linstone Chine) - 

Very variable alternations of blue and red 
clays and yellow and white sands, becoming 
fossiliferous, especially near the base, and 
with a ferruginous band 4i inches thick in 
the centre. Ostrea, Melania muricata, 
Cerithium pseudo-cinctum, &c. 

**Nkritika Bbd." Dark-blue san^ clay, 
with two well-marked bands of (Jyrena, 
Cyrena obovata, Cerithium, 3 sp., Neritina 
concava, Melanopsis fusiformis, Nematura, 
Chara - - - - - 

^Whitish sandy clay with crushed Limnaa 

Limestone. lAmntBa longiscata, L, pyramid 
dalis, L. gibbosula, L, minima, Pianorbis 
euomphalus, P. rotundatus, P. obtusus P, P. 
platystoma, P. lens, Paludina (rare), Chara. 
(This limestone forms How Ledge) 

Whitish and grey calcareous clay, passing 
into Limestone with thick bands of crushed 
Limfuea and lignite near the top and scat- 
tered Pa/iM^tita Delow. Turtle bones 

Blue soft sandy clay, with bands of Paludina, 
small black seeds, and Unio Solandri 

Purplish-grey carbonaceous laminae with 
oblique root like markings. Bands of 
Paludina, Melania, Cyrena, Unio, Seeds - 

Brown, red, and grey clays and sands, with 
seams of Paludina, Paler sands below 

Sand, abounding with small shells above, and 
with a concretionary band at the base. 
Helix labjrinthica, Achatina costeUata, 
lAmnaa pyramidalis, L. caudata, L» 



Ft. In. 

2 



3 



1 



5 



2 



9 



6 



2 



4 
4 



8 
8 a 



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H£ADON BEOS. 



138 



Lower Headon 
Beds, 82 feet 
4 inches. 



hngiscata, L. mixta?, L. fimformu, L. 
tumida p, Planorbis rotundatus, P. Uns, P. 
obtusus^ Mekmopsis brevii, Melama, PaJu- 
dina lenta, Cyrena cycladiformis?, C. 
obovata, Chara - - - . 

Bed partly concretionary, partly sandy with 
lenticular masses of broken Potatnomya, 
(Forms Warden Ledge) - 

Pure white sand with bright yellow stripes. 
No fossils - • • - - 

Blackish-grey sands with bands of Po/amomy a. 
Seecb - , - - - 

* Carbonaceous sand and clay, with bands of 
Potamomya. A strong band of lignite at 
the base. Seeds. Pa/tMfijta scarce 

Pale-green sandy clays . . • 

Limestone, with Potamomya at the top. 
Planorbis euomphtUus, lAmnma longiscata, 

' L. pyramdalisp L. sulcata - - . 

Greenish and yellowish day with lignite 

2 6to 

Impexfeot Limnaaan limestone 

Pale-green marls, with roots in places and 
occasional broken ImmMa and PdLudina, 
Melanopsis. (Numerous bands of Pota- 
momya near the base) ... 

Imperfect Limnsean limestone ; yery soft, with 
crushed shells - - - - 

White and yellowish sand. No fossils 

Hard greenish marl. Melanopsis brevis, Pota- 
momya, Serpula - - - - 

Sands ..... 

Greenish marl and sandy clay with bands of 
Potamomya - . - - 

Limestone with Limnaa and Planorbis. Fer- 
ruginous outside. Cyrena P - - 

Purple calcareous marl, with crushed shells - 

Strong lignite band - - « • 

Limnsean limestone - - - • 

^Greenish clay and sand . . - 

Headon Hill Sands (pale grey sand) 



Ft. In. 

2 6 

3 6 
8 

4 



2 6 
2 6 



1 6 

3 
6 



14 



1 





2 





1 





1 


3 


6 








8 


2 


6 





3 





9 


4 






Total 



153 2 



Ft. 


In 





3 


4 








6 





2 


2 






A Section measured in Weston Chine, commencing at the bed 
marked (^) in the foregoing di£fer8 somewhat. 



Lignite . - - - - 

Green marls, sandy clay, and day 3 6 or 
Green clay - - - - 3 to 

Hard line of crushed Potamomya in bright 
ochreous sand « - - - 

Limnaean lunestone ; soft and earthy 
Greenish tenaceous clay» with carbonaceous 
matter, especially at the upper part. 
Planorbis and Limntea at the base. Throws 
out water - - - - - 

Soft earthy Lhnnssan limestone, impure and 
thinning away and is then marked by aline 
of shells - - - - - 

Pale green sandy marl, with Paludina, Pota- 
momya, &c. in the lower 3 in. which be« 
comes harder and more marly 



I 6 



6 



I 6 



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134 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Lower Headon 
Beds. 



Ft. In. 

Hard irregular band of sandy marl; green 
and brown and containing ferruginous 
patches - - - - 2 to 4 

Impure limestone, with an undulating irregu- 
lar surface - - - - - 6 

Pale-green marly sand or sandy marl 4 in. to 6 

Light-grey sand, with occasional bright ferru- 
ginous stains in lines and patches. PotU" 
motnya at the base - - • -16 

Yerdigris-green marls and clays, with occa- 
sional Paludina and lines of Potamomya in 
the lower 6 inches - - - - 6 

Limestone (second ledge of the Chine). 
Potamomya at the top, Limfuea^ Planorbis, 

6 inches to 8 

Light-grey sands, becoming ferruginous to- 
wards the bottom - - -13tol6 

Line of lignite 1 inch. Hard band of variable 
thickness 1 inch. Imperfect limestone 
with lAmfUBa, Planorbis, Paludina (Lignite 
sometimes disappearing) 3 inches - - 9 

light-green clay weathering brown and be- 
coming harder and concretionary at the 
base 4i feet and sands, clays and marls at 
the upper 3 feet - - - - 7 6 



The detailed sections given above will show how thin and 
variable are the minor divisions which go to make up the Headon 
Beds at the western end of the Island. This variability largely 
accounts for the difficulty that is sometimes felt in correlating 
the beds at Readon Hill with those in Colwell Bay. But if 
instead of attempting to compare isolated sections, certain marked 
beds are followed continuously through the cliffy the connexion 
becomes much clearer.* . 

So many ^ologists visit this part of the Island that it will be 
useful to add a few notes which may assist in the tracing of the 
beds, and in the identification of the principal fossiliferous zones 
where the connexion is hidden by landslips. 

To obtain a general idea of the structure of the beds, it will 
be desirable first to examine the cliff from a boat at a distance of 
half or three-quarters of a mile off Totland, though a very good 
view may be obtained from the end of Totland Pier. By thus 
first examining the cliff from a distance, one is enabled to re- 
cognise the true structure of the Oligocene Beds, and is not so 
liable to be misled by changes in the direction of the coast, or by 
landslips-^— both fertile sources of error in estimating the relative 
position or dip of beds in theee soft deposits. 

Examined this way, the coast section shows that there is a high 
northerly dip at the west end of Headon Hill, where the cliff runs 
north and south, but that directly the trend of the coast changes so 
that the cliff runs parallel to the axis of elevation, the dip apparently 



* A raluable horizontal sectiou will be found in the paper by Messrs. Keeping and 
Tawney, " On the Beds at Headon Hill and Colwell Bay." Quart Joum, GeoL 
Soe., Tol. xxxyii. (188U P- 86. 



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HEADON BEDS. 135 

disappears. Another curvature of the coast, commencing near 
Widdick Chine, again shows the true northerly dip, but the angle 
is much lower, the distance from the line of greatest disturbance 
being greater. From this point there is a northward dip, till the 
Headon Beds sink beneath the sea-level a short distance north of 
the Cliff End Battery. There may be indications of a very slight 
anticline near the Totland Bay Hotel, but it seems scarcely more 
than a flattening of the beds for a short distance. 

When we attempt to trace the beds on the ground, the landslips 
at Headon Hill make it impossible to follow most of the horizons 
continuously. However, the thick limestone which forms so bold 
a feature all through the hill enables us to identify the beds above 
and below it. 

Commencing with the base, the Headon Hill Sands (the glass 
sands) can now only be traced for about 5 chains north of the Alum 
Bay Pier, though formerly they could be seen a short distance 
further. The extensive working of this sand in old times has 
much to do with the tumbled and obscure character of this part 
of the section. 

Then for a mile the foreshore is entirely occupied by fallen blocks 
and landslips and the sands are invisible. It is probable that they 
have really sunk beneath the sea-level for part of the distance, for 
the higher beds also apparently sink slightly in the middle of the 
hill, wnere the distance from the line of disturbance is rather 
greater than at either end. 

At the east end of the landslip and 8 chains south-west of the 
boat-house at Widdick Chine, the base of the Headon Beds is again 
visible. The following section was measured at this point imme- 
diately above the beach in May of the prefi^ent year (1888) : — 

Febt. 
Low„H«ulon Joi^y. 

{Black carbonaceous sana and brown sand - 9 

BuJa^dandCy - . - - , 

Do 1 r - 2 

Fine wMte glass sand | P'<^^^^ ^^ ^<^"°« { . 7 

"iT 

A similar section was seen by Prof. Forbes and H. W. Bristow 
when the original survey was made, and the junction of the 
Headon Hill Sands with the Lower Headon Beds was clearly laid 
open for examination. 

As Professor Judd had questioned the accuracy of the correla- 
tion of the sands seen at the base of the cliff with the ^lass sands 
at the other end of the hill, a boring was made to a aepth of 9 
feet below the beach level. The buff sand in the upper part 
might have been referred to either division, for the upper part of 
the Headon Hill Sands is generally stained for a depth of several 
feet. But the underlying pure white sands are so unlike any- 
thing found in the Headon Beds, that it was not thought neces- 
sary to carry the boring deeper, especially as the amount of water 



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136 



gbologt of the isle of wight. 
Fig. 36. 



Vertical Section of the Beds at the North-East Comer of Headon 
Hill {Scale, Sfeet to the inch,) 

(Reproduced, by permission, from the Quart Journ. GeoL 
Soc, vol. xxxvii. (1881), p. 91.) 



I 



ft. in. 
1 



el-8 



3 <^ 

9 iii.-2 ft. 
6 in. 
6 in. 

fUin. 

1 10 



9 8 



8 
S 



8 



2 6 



6 
1-1 8 



2M 6 



8 6 
Been. 



mt^ 



Fftrt of thick Limtksa limestone. LimnaaJksiformiSt dbc. 
Laminated greenish clay, with broken PalwlitM, 

Whity-brown to buff sands, with layers of lignitic matter. 

Greyer sands below ^ Paindina letUa, 

Lignite. 

Qreenish^ycUiys. cA^^^^^^^;^^^^^^ 

Limtuea limestone soft and crumbling, with a thin lignite attop. 
Verdigris-^nreen clay, with rootlets. 
2^mn<ea-li mestones. 

Stiff green clays with conchoidal fhkcture in drying. 
Oyster-bed towards the base. 



CFusui lahiatus, Mel^asciata M. muri- 
Clay becoming greyer J ''J^' ^''r*^- ""Pf"^' ^"^T- variahiU, 



below. Fossils. 



C. pgeudocinctwn, Ostrea velata, 
Myiilus afflnis, Corbioula obovaUit 
LuHna colvellensis. 



Alternating grey and ochry clays. 



^Cyth. incrauata^McKiTa fastis 
ffiatat Mya angustatat CoT' 
oicula obovaioy Nucula lUsa, 
N. h^donensis, Trig, deltoi- 
(hih Fuws labiatus, Cancdl. 
elongata, Malauopsis J^tsi- 
formis. Valuta sptnoaa, Vic. 
, conoava, N<Uica Studeri, 
Thin grey sandy clays, weathering brown. 



' r«*i«-bed,'* richest por- 
tion, contains scattered 
flints, brown sandy clay 
becoming green clay and 
sand below. Fossils. 



Cytherea ineraseaia, Ac, scattered throughout. 
Mya anffuttatot especially near base. 



Chooolate-brownorCTVMT. deltoidsa. Cer. pieudoeinetum, 
blackish sands. I Ifaiica labellata, Melan.fkt9\formis, 



Trigonoccsilia-hed, 



Blackish-bmwB sand., y^ina bed {^y^i^S! JLSt 
i j^ Very stiff tenacious day. 



t\'m' »•'•/- 



^^^t«'^-Vv*V>, 



jUmiksa-limestone, ** How-Ledge lime- ( X. longiae€Ua,fk9u 
stone." I form\8^ Ac. 



Whity-brown or yellow sands and sand-rock, with byers of 
P<Uudina and FoUmomya* 



[The base concealed by tumble and undercM.] 



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HBADON BEDS. 137 

met with would have necessitated the use of lining tubes if it were 
to be continued. North of this point the dip quickly carries the 
base of the Headon Beds below the sea level. 

Returning to the western end of Headon Hill we find a thick 
limestone forming the top of the cliff. The position of this lime- 
stone is close to the base of the Upper Headon Beds, and it^over- 
lies a series of marine clays and sands full of Cerithium, Ostrea, 
and Cytherea, These marine beds belong to the Middle Headon 
Series, but unfortunately they are not at the present time clearly 
exposed, except at the two ends of the Hill 

From this point the marine beds are almost entirely hidden by 
landslips for about a mile but the limestone can be followed, and 
in a similar position below it at the north-eastern end of the hill 
the marine beds again occur. Part of these can be well examined 
at the present time, though they are not easy to find unless one 
has first identified the thick LimnsBan limestone. 

Messrs. Keeping and Tawney give a carefully measured section 
at this point, which is here reproduced. Fig. 36 {see page 136). 

The base of the thick Upper Headon Linmaean limestone at 
the point where it leaves the coast is about 120 feet above the 
sea, and at the north-eastern end of the Headon Hill outlier it 
has fallen to about 110 feet. Crossing the small valley which 
divides Headon Hill from a lower hill nearer Middleton, we find 
the thick limestone at a height of 130 feet. From this point it 
falls in less than a quarter of a mile to about 110 feet. Then 
it flattens for another quarter of a mile, and remains at the 
same level at the northern extremity of the outlier near Amos 
Hill. 

Returning to the coast we find the Oyster Beds in the marine 
Middle Headon Beds about 95 feet above the sea at the point 
where the cliff becomes low near Widdick Chine. Half a mile 
to the north-east there is a small hill on the northern side of 
Weston Chine which just reaches 100 feet. The upper part of 
this hill is occupied by a brick-yard, and 7 feet down in the clay, 
ue.9 at about 93 feet, the Oyster Bed is again found. It is full of 
fossils, but they are not well preserved ; the species noted were 
Ostrea velata^ Cytherea incrassata^ and Buccinum lahiatum. 
Thus the same flattening of the beds for a short distance occurs 
here which we have already noticed in the limestone. 

Still further inland, to the north-east, the Oyster Bed is again 
met with in a large brick-yard near Amos Cottage. Here the 
height is about 60 feet In this brick-yard the fossils are all in 
the state of casts, and only Ostrea velata and Cytherea vicrassata 
could be determined. 

Eeturning to Totland Bay, we find the dip to become higher 
and the marine beds again to strike the cliff a few chains north 
of the Coast Guard station, at a height of about 80 feet. From 
this point these beds can bo foUowea continuously, except in the 
parts under Warden Battery, and over short distances where the 
face of the cliff is obscured by talus. A few yards north of How 



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138 (4KOLOOY OF IHE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Ledge the base of the marine beds falls to the level of the beach, 
and from this point nearly to Linstone Chine continuous sections 
are generally exposed, for there is little talus, and the lower part 
of the cliff is so full of fossils that it presents a vertical face. 
The thickening of the Oyster Bed, and the way in which it cuts 
into the underlying clay ftdl of Cythereay are very noticeable in 
this part of the cliilfl 

We have now reached the section which all geologists visit, and 
from which the majority of the marine Headon fossils have been 
obtained. It may therefore be well to stop for a moment to point 
out that even this most purely marine [)ortion of the Headon 
series is full of freshwater shells. A few minutes search is sure to 
yield several specimens of Limn<Ba and Cyrena mixed with the 
Oysters. The underlying clay full of Cytherea is more thoroughly 
marine, but it also cont:iins a good many valves of Cyrena. 
However there is a decided and essential difference between these 
marine beds with drifted freshwater shells, and the beds fiill of 
Potamomya, Melania, and Potamides, which lie above and below 
them. These fossils probably point lo deposition in braclddh-water 
lagoons and not in the open sea. Like nil accumulations formed 
in 8uch conditions, therefore they contain abundance of individuals 
belonging to very few species, instead of a wonderfully varied 
moUuscan fauna like that of the Middle Headon Beds. 

The How Ledge limestone, which underlies the marine bed, is 
another well-marked horizon. This stone is a band, from 3 to 
5 feet thick, of freshveater rather tufaceous limestone full of well 
presej ved LimncBa and Planorbis, belonging to many species. The 
perfect preservation of the fossils, the softness of the matrix, 
and the ease with which the bed can be examined, render this 
the favourite bed from which to obtain these shells. The rock is 
always visible between How Ledge and Warden Point, and can 
be traced continuously southward to the Coast Guard Station. 
Here it passes inland, but Messrs. Keeping and Tawney identify 
it vrith the Limnsean limestone at the top of the Lower Headon 
Beds at the north-eastern end of Headon Hill (see section p. 136). 
A section of the lower part of the cliff near Colwell Chine, given 
at p. 242, shows the small reversed or overthrust faults developed 
in this limestone by lateral pressure connected with the formation 
of the great uniclinal fold of the Isle of Wight. 

A short distance below the How Ledge limestone is a mass of 
calcareous concretionary sandstone and sand, forming Warden 
Ledge. This sand is traceable at intervals for about a mile. 
South of Warden Ledge other thin limestones form a minor ledge 
on the foreshore. These limestones, fuU of Chara and LimjicBa, 
can be traced nearly to Widdick Chine. 

The sections of the Headon Beds near Cliff End are, un* 
fortunately, somewhat obscure at present (1889), and the thinning 
out of the thick Upper Headon limestone renders it difficult to 
trace the northward limit of the Headon Beds. Messrs. Keeping 
and Tawney identify the thick limestone of Headon Hill with a bed 



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HEADON BEDS. 139 

1 foot 8 inches thick at Cliff End.* This correlation is probably 
correct, but it has been found impossible to connect the beds by 
mapping. 

Inland sections of the Headon Beds are rare — at least sections 
which yield any evidence of definite horizons seldom occur. A 
very fossiliferous section is exposed in a miniature chine, cut 
between the north-east corner of Freshwater (AH Saints) Church- 
yard and the marsh. A good deal of gravel has slipped over the 
beds, which are only clear at the bottom of the channel, so that 
it was impossible to obtain any measurements. The principal 
fossiliferous bed consists of a mass of shells in a slightly hardened 
sandy matrix. The species collected in 1887 were Planorbis 
obttisuSf Neritina concava, Nematura parvula, Melania muricata, 
Melanopsis suhfasiformisy Limn<Ba longiscata ? Hydrobia Chastetii 
Cerithium elegans, Cyrena obavata, Cyrena deperdtta, Serpula, 
Chard. The specimens of Nentina are particularly fine, being 
unusually large, and with the colour well preserved. 

Another manuscript list of fossils from *' Wheatlow Brook, near 
Freshwater Church " (apparently the same locality), gives Ancil- 
laria buccinoidesy Cerithium concavum, C, elegans, C. mutabile, 
Melanopsis fusiformis^ M, carinatUy Natica depressa, Nerita aperta^ 
Neritina concava, Paludina lenta^ Cyrena obavata. These fossils 
were collected about 1852.t In both cases the beds seem to 
belong to the base of the Middle Headon Beds — the "Neritina 
Bed " of the coast section. 

The well at Golden Hill Fort must have penetrated almost the 
entire thickness of the Headon Beds, but unfortunately the record 
of this well has been kept in such a way as to render it almost 
useless for geological purposes. The section will be found in the 
Appendix. 

Besides those mentioned, there were several temporarj^ sections 
near Freshwater, showing clays with Potamomya and Paludina^ 
A well at Poundgreen, 7 chains north-east of the cross-roads, 
seems to have reached the Headon Hill Sands. It showed : — 

Lower Headon / Green clay with PahuUna and Potamomya, 
Beds. \ Black clay with crushed Planorbis, 

Sand. 

The thickness of the beds could not be ascertained. 

dressing the Yar, the old marl pits near the Yarmouth road 
are in green clay, with Potamomya — probably Lower Headon, but 
no section is now visible. East of these pits the dip becomes high, 
and there are no exposures for three miles. 

Near Little Chessell the beds again flatten somewhat, and 
sections of the shelly Middle Headon Series can be seen extending 
for several chains along the stream course about a quarter of a 



* Op. ciUy p. 90. 

t I cannot learn definitely who supplied this list or who collected or determined 
these fossils (though Mr. Bristow thinks it was the late Mr. W. H. Baily), and am 
unable to find any place named Wheatlow Brook, near Freshwater. — G. R. 



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140 GEOLOGT OF THB ISLE OF WIGHT, 

mile north-east of the farm. Here the following species were 
collected by J. Rhodes^ the fossil collector of the Survey : — 



Chara. 

Cyrena obovata. 
Cytherea incr&ssata. 
Tellina, sp. 

AnciUaria buocinoides. 
Buccinum labiatum. 



Cerithium elegans. 
Hydrobia, sp. (young). 
Melania muricata. 
Melanopsis subfusiformis. 
Natica labeilata. 
Nematuia parvula. 
Neritina concava. 
Pleurotoma headonensis. 



The Cerithium, is very abondant, in a shelly sand, and there is 
also a bed of clay foil of Cytherea, but it is difficult to make out 
the true succession. 

Further north, about 8 chains south of Eades Farm, a ditoh 
section shows day full of Potamamya gregaria. On the opposite 
side of the stream fossils are ploughed up abundantly in the 
fields. Those collected by J. BhcSes were Cyrena deperdita, 
C. obovata, Hydrobia Chasteli^ Melanopsis carinata, Melania 
muricata^ Neritina cmtcava, NemaJtura parvula, and Planorbis. 
There is nothing among these to show to what part of the Headon 
Series this shelly clay belongs. 

From Newbridge eastward to the Medina, the beds are nearly 
vertical. Not a single section of the Headon Series is now 
visible there. 

At Newport, though the beds cannot be examined at the surface, 
the whole thickness of the Upper and Middle Headon stiuta 
seems to have been penetrated in a well at Messrs. Mew and 
Company's Brewery {see Appendix, p. 305). It is not easy to fix 
the boundary between the Osborne and the Headon Beds, but 
taking it as occurring at 259 feet &om the surface, we have thick- 
ness of 189 feet down to the sand which yielded water. Of the 
189 feet of Headon Beds, at least 82 feet should be referred to 
the Upper Headon, and the remainder to the marine Middle 
Headon. Any attempt to correlate the minor subdivisions 
would be unsafe, for the samples preserved were small, and the 
thickness of the different beds appears to have been greatly 
increased by lateral pressure. Within a few hundred yards of 
this well lies the area of sharpest folding. 

At West Cowes another well has been sunk to supply the town 
(see Appendix, p. 313). Here again the boundary between the 
Osborne and the Headon Series is very difficult to fix, but it 
seems to lie about 268 feet from the surface. At 365 feet, i.e,, 
97 feet below the top of the Headon Series, the shelly " Venus 
Bed," commences, and from a sample of clay .brought up from that 
depth the following species were obtained : — Cytherea incrassata, 
Cyrena, sp., Buccinum labiatum, Natica labeilata, Nematura 
parvula, and an otolith of fish. From 375 feet a sample of green 
clay contained Natica and indeterminable shell fragments. From 
the spoil heap at the well a considerable number of species were 
obtained, and though the exact depth from which they came could 
not be fixed, they certainly belong to the clays at about 414 feet 
The species collected were : — 



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Cftrdita simplex. 
Cytherea incnissata, 
Corbula cuspidata. 
pisum. 



Gyrena deperdita. 
— obovata. 
Ostrea ventilabrum. 



HEADON BED8. 141 

Bucoinum labiatum. 
Bulla, ep. 

Cancdlaria elongata. 
Cerithium eiegans. 
Natica labellata. 
PleurotoniA plebia. 
Rostellaria, sp. 
Voluta geminata. 

The occurrence of Cardita simplex and Voluta geminata is inter- 
esting, for these are Brookenhurst species previously rare or un- 
recorded from the Isle of Wight Both are abundant in this well. 

Between 420 and 434 feet grey shelly sand with Natica^ 
Pkurotoma, Nematuray Potamomya^ CyrenoLy and Planorbis^ oteon, 
so the Middle Headon Beds seem to be at least 113 feet thick. 
This thickness is nmdh greater than at the west end of the island 
but agrees very well with the Whitecliff Bay section. The increase 
of tMckness of the marine beds is apparently due to the incoming 
of the Brookenhurst beds, which are abseat towards the west. 
Below the sand the boring penetrated 3 feet into clay, in which 
no foesils were observed. This clay ought perhaps to be referred 
to the Lower Headon Series, for tiie occurrence of Potamamya 
and Flanorbis in the bed above seems to* indicate a change of 
conditions at this pointy but unfortunately the boring was carried 
no deeper. 

Another well, at Woodvale {see Appendix, p. 315), a short 
distance from the last section, penetrates about 13 feet into the 
Middle Headon Beds, with Potamomya gregaria, Cyrena obovata, 
Ostrea, Melania muricata, Cerithium c&ncavum, C. trizonatum ? 
The beds seem to correspond with those seen on the foreshore at 
Osborne. 

The Headon Beds reap;)ear for a short distance at the extreme 
northern point of the Island, brought up by a local undulation 
connected with the rise of the beds on the north side of the Isle of 
Wight syncline. During the progress of the first Survey of the 
Island these beds were well seen at the foot of the cliff near 
Osborne and Norris Castle. But now the building of the sea 
walls and the erection of groynes has almost entirely hidden the 
sections, though abundance of Cerithium concavum can still be 
found on the beach. The following description of the beds is 
entirely taken from the first edition of this Memoir: — 

Due north of East Cowes, a little round the first Point, light- 
green and red sandy clays, with bands of compressed Melania 
costata and bivalves, forming a shell-marl, have slipped from a 
higher level on to the shore, and Pahidina lenta, Cyrena obovata, 
Potamides {Cerithium) concavum, often in a silicified condition, 
lie scattered in great profusion on the beach. 

Immediately under these, apparently, and seen also on the 
shore, are 1 to 2 feet of greenish-grey clays, with occasional sandy 
laminae, and numerous bands of Potamomya sparingly mingled with 
Paludina lenta, Cyrena obovata, and an occasional C» pulchra. 

Bands of crushed Paludina lenta occur lower down, succeeded 
by bands of Melanapsis, with remains of Fish (scales, vertebrse. 



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142 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

and teeth). Green sandy clays follow^ with thin pyritased bands 
of shells^ a band of Limnma longiscata and smaller subordinate 
layers of Potamomya, 

Here the beds undulate, and towards the point above Norris 
lower beds make their appearance. West of the Point green 
clays are seen at the base of the cliff 4 inches thick, under a 
2-inch band of clay-ironstone. These clays contain Melania 
turritissima I and a black Cypris, Upon the clay-ironstone lies a 
band of Cyrena pulchra followed by greenish clay 1 foot thick, 
full of Cyrena obavata, occasionally with the valves in contact, and 
most numerous towards the upper part. Three feet beneath the 
ironstone another similar band occurs, separated from the first by 
green clays, with five or six bands of Potamomya, Below the 
second band of ironstone green clays, with Oysters succeed, 
associated with Cyreiia pulchray C. obovata, Cerithium, &c. 

On the shore, about 50 yards westward from the wall of Norris, 
pyritiferous bands of Potamomya underlie the green clay with 
oysters, and the section may be there continued as follows : — 

Pr. In. 

Green sandy days, with an oyster-band 2 inches thick - - I 6 

Gray sands, fossiliferous in the upper part, when they are alao 

laminated, and passing into ferruginous grit - - - 2 6 

Light-grayish clayey sands, with 2 inches of Potamomya in the 

upper part - - - - - - -40 

Beds not seen - - - - - -3 or 40 

Graeuish sands, with Melania muricata and Potamomya 

Greenish clav, with a few Potamomya - - - - 1 

Consolidated and partly ppitised bands of Potomomya, between 

which ara layers of greenish sandy clay full of Chara, fish-scales, 

and Melania muricata in patches - - - - - 5 

Light-graen sandy clay, with comminuted Cyrana . . - 

North of Norris, by the sea-wall, the beds on the shore at the 
Point are crowded with Cyrena obovata and Potamides ; Cyrena 
pulchra and oysters being somewhat scarce. 

The shells already noticed as bein*; so plentiful on the beach 
nearer East Cowes are probably derived from these beds, which 
are most likely lower than those with consolidated bands described 
in the preceding section. Opposite the Point they are probably 
covered by the *»ea. Hence to the wall separating the Royal 
grounds from those of Norris the strata are concealed; but on 
the shore opposite the latter, sands with Potamides, Cyrena, and 
Oysters, again api)ear. 

East of CJowes and Newport there are no sections of the 
Headon Beds till Whitecliff Bay is reached. However the trial 
borings Nos. 116, 117, and 118, about two miles eai»t of Newport, 
indicated freshwater beds belonging to the Headon Series, though 
they yielded no characteristic fossils. 

At Whitecliff Bay the Headon Beds are 212 feet thick, and 
are divisible, as in other parts of the island, into three sections — 
a middle marine, and an upper and a lower freshwater and 
cstunrine. 

The following section is that measiured during the original 
Survey, with some corrections and additions made in 1888 : — 



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HEABON BEDS. 



143 



Upper Headon 
Beds, 58 feet. 



Middle Headon 
Beds, 126 feet. 



Lower Headon 
Beds, 28} feet. 



Headon Beds in H'hitediff Bay. 

Grey, reddish, bluish and ash-ooloured Ft. In. 
laminated clays. Layers of Potamomya 
gregaria, with occasional Pahtdina lenta, 
Melania 2 sp., Fish-scales, Serpula on the 
Paludina and Potamomya - - - 12 

Grey laminated clays. Unto, Cyrena obovata 5 

Sandy clay with calcareous concretions. 
LimtuBa caudata, Chara Wrightii - -10 

Ferruginous sands and calcareous hard bands. 
. Hyarobia,&c. - - - - 1 

A Green clay, with Cyrena obovata - ' \ 5 

Brown clay, without fossils - - ' - J 

I Yellow sand, without fossils- - - 10 

Marl and green clay with calcareous concre- 
tions. Cyrena obovata, lAnuuBa longiscata, 
Planorbis euo/nphaluSf pieces of wood - 15 

White sand with thin layers of whitish clay - 4 

Alternations of carbonaceous clays and 
fpreenish sands Cyrena obovata, PotanUdes, 
Chara fVrightii - - - - 5 

Green sandy loam, with a few casts of marine 
shells. Psammobia compressa, Cytherea 
incrassaia, Cyrena - - - - 12 

Blue sandy clay. Cytherea inoraasata very 
abundant at the top; Cerithium paeudo' 
cmctum - - - - - 20 

Stiff blue clay, full of fossils. Cytherea tn- 
crtusaia, Psammobia compressa, Cyrena 
obovata, Fusus labieUta, CanceUaria elongata, 
C. mtaicata, Natica labellata - 4 

Sand or sandy greenish clay weathering 
brown. Ironstone nodules. Casts of 
marine shells - - - - 76 

Brown sandy clay, often with nodules con- 
taining marine shells and fish-remi^ns. 
Cardita deltoidea, &c. - - - 12 

Brown clay, containing pieces of the under- 
lying clay and flint-pebbles, and full of 
marine shells. Ostrea, Modiola, Cardium, 
Cardita deltoidea, Cytherea incrassata, 
Calyptrma, sp. Fiisus, VohUa spinosa, V. 
geminata, &c. (Messrs. Keeping and 
Tawney record 62 species of mollusca from 
this bed and compare it with the Brocken- 

. hurst zone of the New Forest) - - 2 

""Green ^shwater marls, with seams of Pota- 

mamya olana, Planorbis, IAmn(ea, &c. - 8 

Grey sanay clay • - - - - 7 

Hard ferruginous sandstone - - - 3 

Pale-green clays, with seams of lignite, and 
ironstone nodules. Paludina lenta, IAmn<Ba. 
Planorbis euomphalus, P. obtusus, &c. - 8 
Carbonaceous clay and lignite - - 1 

Green clay, ferruginous at the base. No 
fossils observed - - - - 4 



Total 



212 3 



Here^ as at Cowes, there seems to be a tendency in the marine 
bands to thicken at the expense of the estuarine Lower Headon 
Beds. These marine bands become more thoroughly marine, losing 



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144 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



to a large extent the admixture of firesh water shells which is so 
conspicuous at the west end of the Island. The tufaceous fresh- 
water limestones have all died out, and most of the purely 
freshwater beds seem to be largely replaced by beds of estuarine 
origin. However, the occurrence of derivative fragments of the 
underlying freshwater clays at the base of the marine beds, shows 
that the thinning out of the lower series may be due to actual 
erosion, and not to a replacement by contemporaneous beds of 
marine origin. Messrs. Keeping and Tawney record the occurrence 
of a similar line of erosion at the base of the Brockenhurst Beds 
in the New Forest 

In Whitecliff Bay two principal horizons in the marine beds 
yield most of the fossils. The lowest zone is about 30 feet from 
the base of the Headon Series and the greater part of the fossils 
are crowded into a seam a few inches thick. The most abundant 

species are the Ostrea, Nucula, Car* 

Fig. 37. dita acuticostay Cytherea incrassata 

Cytherea incrassata, Desh (^jg- ^7). Pleurotoma, and Valuta 

spinasa. 

The other bed is a shaly clay about 
90 feet higher. This latter seems to 
correspond with the "Venus Bed" 
of Colwell Bay, and contains a similar 
assemblage of fossils. Among the 
common species are Cytherea incras- 
sata, Gorbula deltoidea, Ostrea, San^ 
guinolariay Cerithium pseudo-cinctum, 
Valuta spinosa, &c. 
A large number of the marine moUusca of the Headon Beds 
range downwards into the Barton Clay, but about half are peculiar 
to the Oligocene. This apparent break between the Eocene and 
the Oligocene will probably disappear when the marine fossils of 
the Lower Headon JBeds and of the Headon Hill Sands are better 
known, but at present it is sufficiently marked. 

Cytherea ijicrassatay 




Fig. 38. 
0$treajlabellulay Lam. 



though especially abun- 
dant in the Middle Hea- 
don Series, has a some- 
what extended range, 
from the Barton Clay to 
the Bembridge Beds. It 
gives the name to the. 
well-known *' Venus bed " 
' of collectors, the Cytherea 
having formerly been 
known as Venus incras- 
sata. Among the other 
abundant marine bivalves 
may be mentioned the 
Ostrea t^elata^ which forms thick banks in Colwell Bay, and the 
Ostrea flabellula (Fig. 38), a much scarcer species which ranges 




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HEADON BEDS 



145 



downward into the Barton Olay but does not occur above the 
Headon Series. Nucula headonensis is also very plentiful in 
ColwellBay. 

The estuarine and freshwater bivalves most commonly met with 
are species of Potamomya (Fig. 39) and Cyrena. These occur in 



Fig. 39. 
Potamomya planuy Sow. 




vast numbers in certain beds. Unios (Fig. 40) are more rare and 
are generally confined to thin seams. 



Fig. 40. 
Unio Solandri, Sow. 




The most plentifol univalves in the marine and estuarine beds 
are several species of Gerithium^ including G, ctmcavum (Fig. 41) 
and (7. pseudo'cinctum (Fig. 43), Melanopsis suhfiisiformis 
(Fig. 42), Bitccinum labiaium, Murex sexdentatus, Nerita aperta. 



Fig. 41. 

Cerithium 

coneavum, Sow. 




Fig. 42. 

Melanopsis 

subfusiformis, 

Morris. 



Fig. 43. 

Cerithium 
pseudo'cinctum, D'Orb, 





Neritina concava, Ancillaria bucdnoides, Melania muricata^ and 
several species of Cancellaria, NcOica, Pleurotoma^ and Voluta. 



B 56786. 



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146 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT 



The mollusca of the fireehwater limestones are nearly all 
'Limnseids belonginfr to the genera LimncBa and PlanorbiSy 
LimncBa longiscata (Fig. 45), and Planorbis euomphalus (Fig. 44), 

Fig. 44. Fig. 45. 

Planorbis euomphalus. Sow. Limncea longiscata, Sow. 







being perhaps the most abundant and conspicuous species. 
Paludina lenta (Fig. 46) is a very abundant species throughout 
the Oligocene Beds, especially in the fresh- 
FiG. 46. water clays and marls. Nematura parvula 

Paludina lenta, Sow. is very plentiful, and more generally dis- 
tributed than is often thought, for its small 
size causes it to be overlooked. There is 
also a considerable number of species of 
innd-shells scattered through the lime- 
stones, but these are not so often met with. 
They however point to the close proximity 
of the shore. 

Of other fossils the most commonly found 
are valves of Balanus unguiformis in the 
marine beds, and nucules of Chara, generally C. Wrightii (Fig. 
47) in almost any part of the series, but especially in the 

Neritina-hed at the base of the Middle 
Headon beds. Vertebrate remains are 
comparatively scarce. Except Chara, 
there are few recognisable plants. 

Like the other Oligocene beds, the 
Headon Series seems to be mainly of 
lagoon or estuarine origin. In the 
Middle division we have truly marine 
beds, but these are interbedded with 
others deposited m brackish water. The Upper and liower Headon 
Beds are mainly fresh, or brackish-water deposits, and there seems 
to be an entire absence in them of purely marine genera, such as 
Voluta, Andllaria, Pleurotoma, Natica and Cytherea. 



Fig. 47. 
Chara Wrightii, Forbes. 




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HEADON BEDS. 147 

Every variation in the amount of salt in the water seems to have 
been marked by a change in the fauna. The purely freshwater beds 
contain few mollusca except Limn(Ba, Planorbis, Paludina, Unto, 
and land-shells. The different species of Potamomya, Cyrena, 
Cerithium (Potamides), Melania^ and Melanopsis appear nearly all 
to have liked water containing more or less salt So we have a 
gradual change to beds containing Oysters, and then to beds with 
Volutes. 

Besides these indications of varying conditions, it is interesting 
to observe a general tendency in the beds to become more fresh- 
water towards the south-west, while tufaceous limestones appear 
in that direction. The land-shells also point to the proximity of 
land, as do the pebbles of flint.^ Unfortunately at the point where 
the most rapid changes are taking place — ^at Headon Hill — ^the 
beds have been cut off by denudation. We cannot therefore see 
whether the beds show any tendency to overlap each other, or to 
overlap the underlying Eocene. 

* Pebbles of Chalk have been recorded, but they appear to be really white flints. 
The flint pebbles in the Headon Beds are sometimes weathered to the centre 



K 2 



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14d QEOJjOGtr or the islb of wight. 



CHAPTER XI. 

OLIQOGENE— continued. 
OSBOBNE BbDS. 

Between the Upper Headon beds, containing Potamomya and 
the Bembridge Limestone^ intervenes a series of strata to which the 
name of " St Helen's Series " was originally applied by Professor 
Forbes in consequence of the '^ conspicuous features presented by 
them between St. Helen's and Ryde." This designation was, 
however, subsequently changed by Professor Forbes to *'the 
Osborne Series," on account of their being displayed in the ciiflb 
and grounds of the Royal demesne, — a small distance to the east 
underlying the Bembridge Limestone, and a little to the west in 
conjunction with the Upper Headon beds, with which they do not 
appear in connexion at the locality after which they were named 
in the first instance. 

The total thickness of the Osborne Beds varies from about 80 
feet at each end of the island to 110 feet at Cowes and Newport. 

Commencing at the western end of the island it will be per- 
ceived, on comparing the sections of the Osborne beds at Headon 
Hill with those at Cliff End, that the thick bed of concretionaiy 
limestone seen in the former locality altogether disappears in the 
latter, where it is most probably represented by the mottled clays 
and marls in which the remains of Turtle are foimd, and by the 
days with pale-green nodular concretions containing LimntBa 
lauffiscata, Paludina globuhidesy &c. 



Osborne Series at Headon- HilL 



Ft. In. 



Whitish (passing into red and blue) marls, with occasional hard 
bands, and courses of nodular concretions of light-grey argil- 
laceous limestone in which occur traces of shells and tume bones. 
In the concretions are Limruea longiscata, Planorbis discus, 
P. obtusus, P. oliffyratus, Paludina, sp. - - - - 40 

Ghrey shale, with crushed Paludina lenta, fish-vertebras, &c. - •\ 

Ferruginous and nodular band - - - . "170 

Grey shale, Paludina lenta, Melanopsis carinata, Melania costata, f ' ^ 

Tne Fish and Plant Beds - - - . -J 

Yellow, red, and blue sandy clays - - - - - 3 

Thick concretionary limestone, with silicious concretions sometimes 
of laigtt size and used for building. This band almost disappears ^ 
northward. Fossils scarce. lAmntBa longiscata, Planorbis euom- 
phalus, P. lens, Paludina lenta - - - - - 18 

Greenish-white odcareous clay - - - - - 4 

Sandy ferruginous band - - - - . -20 



74 



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08B0BNE BEDS. 



149 



1 
I 



00 

d 



1 



I 




The concretionnry limestone can be traced inland towards Mid- 
dleton, forming a bold feature in the hill. At the old limekilns 
near Greens it contains Bulimus ellipticiis, LimrKBa^ and teeth 



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160 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

of PaltBotherium minus 7 This rock was formerly referred to the 
Bembridge Limestone, but both its lithological character and its 
continuity with the concretionar}' liraeutone of the coast show 
that it ought to he referred to the Osborne Series. 

Between Headon Hill and Linstone Chine as will be perceived 
by Forbes' sketch (Fig. 48, page 149) the Osborne Series has been 
removed by denudation, and the cliffs consist of the subjacent 
ileadon 'Beds. At Cliff End it reappears beneath the battery, 
and can then be traced at short intervals along the coast nearly to 
the river Yar. 

The Osborne Beds in this locality were examined by Professor 
Forbes and H. W. Bristow in 1852. Forbes revisited them twice 
in the spring and autumn of the following year (1853), and in 
the present year (1888) they have been re-examined and partly 
re-measured. Owing to the constant landslips considerable 
difficulty attends the determination of the relative importance 
of the several beds. The increased thickness here accepted for 
the lower part agrees so well with what has been obtained at 
other sections^ and was proved so carefully by levelling, that some 
of the original measurements must evidently have been taken from 
a slipped mass. 

Osborne Beds at Cliff End. 

Feet. 

Bluish Bandy and marly clays. Cyrena obovata (this bed is now 
invisible) -------- About 10 

Red and blue marls, with lines of nodular concretions of agillaceous 
limestone in which fossils occur occasionally - - - 25 to 30 

Dark-grey shales, with an ironstone band in the centre. Leaves, 
Insects, and Fish ; Candona, PalucUna lerUa, Mekmopsis earinata, 
Melama costata, Leptdosteus, Alligator, (Probably the equivalent 
of the Fish Bed.) ...--- 7 

Reddish and bluish clayey marls, with greenish nodules containing 
shells ; turtle; Limnaa longiscata, Hydrohia, and Paludina 
globuloides 40 



82 to 92 



Following the Osborne Series eastward, we can detect inliers of 
mottled clay in the plateau formed by the Bembridge Limestone 
south of Wellow, but no measurements can be obtained. 

Returning to the coasts we find these beds to be concealed for 
foui' miles by nev^er formations which occupy the whole of the 
cliff. However red and green clays reappear from under the 
limestone on the east side of the Newtown River, and can be 
examined for a depth of about 30 feet in the diff and in a 
brickyard. No fossils were seen. Half a mile further east the 
Osborne Beds a^in sink beneath the sea-level and are lost for 
two and a half miles. 

At Gurnard I^edge the mottled clays reappear, but between this 
point and Cowes they c»ill for no detailed description, being 
almost unfossiliferoup and generally niuch obscured by landslips 



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OSBORNE BEDS. 151 

The cliffs near Osborne having now been carefully sloped and 
planted., in this typical locality for the Osborne Series we can only 
follow Forbes, and the following is UU de8criptii)n of the beds. 

Osborne Series near Osborne, 

^' The slips and slopes at the eastern portion of the shore at 
Osborne* show mottled red and green clays^ overlying a limestone 
composed of broken shells and containing Melania costata and 
Melanopsis brevis. On the shore lie flags of 
i^io. 49. gandstone with fucoidal markings, and blocks of 
Chora Lyelliiy ^ greenish sandstone containing casts of Paludina 
Forbes. lenta, often weathered in high relief, Melania 
excavatay and a large-bodied LimncRa of consider- 
able size. Among the marls are layers containing 
entire shells of Melanopsis carinata, small Palu- 
dincB or Ht/drobicB, and Chara nucules in abun- 
dance. This appears to be an excellent locality 
for fossils." 

''Opposite the lawn that stretches down to the sea in the 
grounds at Osborne, there are no hard beds or rock masses 
exposed on shore^ but immediately to the west of the landing pier 
are strata of exceeding interest^ for here we see marls and shales 
belonging to the upper part of the Headon Series. On the shore 
by the pier outcrops of beds of tenaceous greenish blue day are 
exposed, full of Cyrena obovata^ mingled with Paludina lenta; 
and in the clay beds in which the foundations of the sea wall are 
placed are Ceritkia. At a height of about 20 feet above the shore 
is a stratum of ragstone, an imperfect limestone, 2 feet or more 
thick^ thickening more westward and thinning out eastward. The 
ragstone makes but bad lime. Higher up is a sandy limestone, 
and bands of comminuted shell stone, separated from tlie rag by 
marls. In fragments of the limestone I observed numbers of 
Paludina lenta, accompanied by peculiar large-bodied LimmBCR of 
considerable size, and occasional lines of Uniones, somewhat 
resembling U. Solandri in outline, but a larger shell. The Palu^ 
dincB were often lying loose in their cavities?, and had their shells 
frequently preserved. I found portions of a large Planorbis, 
apparently P. euomphalus ; also Planorbis obtusus, and another, 
P, platy stoma, Melania excavata and lines of broken CyrentB 
occurred in a gritty band. Pale blue and purple shales, about 
10 feet thick, capping yellow sands fhat become white eastwards, 
surmount the grits, and are succeeded by ferruginous marly and 
stony bands containing casts of Paludina lenta, hollow and having 
their cavities lined with crystals of cole-spar, Limnaa and 
Planorbis. Dark shales, with partings of Cyrena obovata, form 
the highest portions of the broken cliff. The details of this 
important section are obscured by land slips and cultivation, but 
it is evident that here the ground to the surface is occupied by 

* The old nftme of Osborne, according to Worsley, wai Autterbome. 

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162 OBOLOGT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

typical beds of the Osborne Series^ those on the western side of 
the lawn belonging to the lower or Nettlestone division, whilst 
eastwards we find the members of the higher or St. Helen's groupl 
The Osborne section is peculiarly interesting for the link that it 
affords between the very different aspects of these beds at Cliff 
End as compared with those at St. Helen's." 

A section in red and mottled clays of the Osborne Series is seen 
in the East Cowes Park Brick-yard. Here J. Rhodes obtained 
Chara, impressions of plants, casts of LimntBa^ Fish vertebr®, 
scales of Lepidosteus, Cheloiie, Trionyx, Crocodile, and the 
astragalus of a small mammal. 

Daring May of the present year (1888) the Osborne Beds near 
Byde were re-examined, under the guidance of Mr. Colenutt, who 
has paid special attention to this division. The principal point of 
interest was the occurrence of a bed of clay in which are multi- 
tudes of small fish ( Clupea vectensis), evidently suddenly killed 
and buried before they had time to decay. The thin seam in 
which these occur is difficult to find, but such has been the 
minuteness of Mr. Colenutt's examination that he has been able to 
trace it from King's Quay, near Osborne, to Sea View.* 

The first localitv at which these fish were diacovered was near 
Byde House, but during this visit the section was obscured at that 
point, though another one was measured close to King's Quay. 
Here the cliff is so obscured by landslips and so much overgrown, 
that the exact position of the Bembridge Limestone cannot be fixed, 
and only the beds on the foreshore can be well seen. Though the 
measurements are only approximate, the changes of clmracter and 
colour of the different clays are sufficiently marked to enable the 
different beds to be recognised. The fish-bed is generally just 
below the level of high-water, and being slightly harder than the 
other clays it often projects through the beach. 



Section east of King's Quay (measured with the assistance of 
Mr. Colenutt). 

Fbbt. 
Bembridge limestone. 

Red and mottled clay (only seen in landslips) . . - About 40 

G-reen clay, with scattered fish bones. Scales and vertebne of 

Lepidosteus abundant, Alliaator, Emys, TrionyK, and Chelone, 

Theridomys and snake vertebra . - - . . About 4 

Hard grey shaly clay^ full of fish bones, and whole fish (Clupea 2 

vectensis) -- - - - - - 2 

Similar clay with grass-like leaves and lenticular masses of cement 

stones -------- 3 

Blue day, with abundance of mollusca. Paludina lenta, Melanopns 

carinata, &c. ------- 6 

Unfossiliferous green clay, to low water. 



55 



♦ See GeoL Mag., dec. III., vol. v. p. 858. (Aug. 1 888.) The fish, which is new 
to science, has reoontlv been described by E. T. Newton under the name Clupea 
v§ctensis. See Quart 'Joum, GeoL Soc,, vol. zlv. p. 113. (Feb. 1889.) 



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OSBOBNK BEDS. 



153 



West of Binstead Point, thirty feet of reel and green marls are 
displayed at the base of the cHfF, supporting hard light-green marl 
with small white concretions ; above this succeeds a thin band of 
decayed shells (forming a soft shelly limestone, ihe greater portion 
of which 18 composed of fragments of bivalve shells), with a sort 
of laminated appearance. The calcareous band contains commi- 
nuted Ci/rena, Limncea lonffiscatUy Unio^ Melania excavata, Melan- 
opsis, Planorhis discus, &c., with two feet of interstratified sands 
and sandstones and grits above it, which are probably the equiva- 
lents of the silicious beds beneath the Bembridge Limestone at 
the Binstead quarries. Two feet of soft sand complete the section. 

Fig. 50. 
Section at Binstead, 



I 







a. (}rayel. 

6. Sand. 

c. Grits. 

At Byde House a ripple-marked flaggy sandstone (probably 
bed € in the above woodcut) immediately overlies the fish bed. 

At Binstead Point the upper calcareous portion of the thick 
bed at Nettlestone comes to the shore, capped with green marls, 
and assumes the character of a hard and compact white limestone 
with Melania excavata. Westward of the Point it forms a ledge 
on the shore, which strikes nearly due west in the direction of 
Osborne. About a quarter of a mile east of the Point, sandstone 
appears, dipping 10° W. of S. at 5°. Gravel and the enclosed 
nature of the ground now conceal the strata for a considerable 
distance ; but a few scattered blocks of grit lie under the sea-wall 
opposite the first houses west of the town of Ryde, and again 
midway between Ryde Pier and Apley. 

At the west comer of Apley Wood a bed of calcareous sand- 
stone, about four feet thick (foil, in places, of casts of Paludina, 
associated with numerous large Unio, LimncBay Planorhisy and 
occasional bones of Turtle), appears on the shore beneath the sea- 
wall The shells, which are as much crowded as in Sussex 
marble, are sometimes filled with a greenish marl, the rock itself 
being somewhat ferruginous, and of a pale ochreous colour. It 
rests upon ragstone similar to that at Nettlestone, ten feet or more 
thick, under which sandstone, in layers eighteen inches thick, con- 
tinues to a depth of ten or eleven feet. Under all lies a strong 



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164 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

greenish-blue clay for thirty feet more, which containedy apparently, 
crushed Paludina. Much of the stone used in the construction of 
the sea-wall has been obtained from the shore here, opposite the 
wood. Red and white clays are based upon the upper bed of 
stone ; they are seen in the cliffs for a considerable distance, and 
have furnished the earth manufactured at the brick-pits inside 
Little A[)ley Wood. 

The strata begin to arch from about this place, and in so doing 
disclose a good section of the Osborne Series, especially between 
Nettlestone and St Helen's, as far jis Watch House Point, where 
the Bembridge Limestone rapidly descends to the shore. The 
centre of the arch is somewhere near the old Salterns, but among 
the fossils found, or the strata brought into view, there is no evi- 
dence of any portion of the Headon series being brought to the 
surface. 

From the semicircular projection halfway along the bay, to the 
notch in the coast near thft eastern termination of the wood, hard 
beds with Chara appear at intervals on the shore and beneath the 
sea-wall, dipping VV.S.W. 2°. Opposite Puckpuol Farm, and be- 
tween the Point further east and Nettlestone, there is a broad 
expanse of bright green marl, which, although dry at low wat^r, 
and free from blocks of stone, is generally concealed from obser- 
vation by a thin layer of sand. Two hundred yards west of 
Nettlestone Point, thick beds of hard sandstone containing 
Ltmncea and large and small Paludina, and calcareous bands, 
sometimes formed of conuninuted shells, which are the same beds 
as those seen further onwards beneath Priory (Summer-house) 
Point, appear on the shore forming a cliff, and support the path- 
way in front of the Crown Inn. Under the Flagstaff, the shelly 
limestone which constitutes the upper five feet of the bed is almost 
entirely made up of comminuted Melania excavata^ with bands of 
Paludina lenta the whole resting on flaggy siliceous grits contain- 
ing ripple-marks. The rocks at Nettlestone Point are thick- 
bedded concretionary limestones, in some places sofl and composed 
of comminuted Paludina lenta, in others passing into hard siliceous 
grit. They constitute large blocks on the shore, eight feet thick, 
which weather very unequally into irregular cavities, and contain 
n few small rounded pebbles of flint, larger fragments of sub- 
angular flint. Turtle bones, and fossils with the shells preserved. 
The lower four feet become more indurated and cavernous (honey- 
combed) and pass into hard grit ; while in the freestone, about 
two feet six inches from the top, there is a well-defined band of 
LimncRay six inches in thickness. Qreen sand, with large flat len- 
ticular concretions of a yellow colour, which have an irregular 
surface and resemble septaria, overlies the limestone. 

Round the Point, the upper part of the thick grit becomes an 
indurated marl of an oohreous colour, with greenish-grey, argillo- 
calcareous concretions ; while further east, a short distance west 
of the boat-house, it become.s a limestone (containing Chara and 
Limncea lonffiscata), which has been quarried on the shore for 



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OSBOBNE BEDS. lo5 

building stone. This change of mineral character apparently 
escaped the notice of Professor Forbes, who has described the 
bed, both under its normal and altered aspect^ in his section of the 
Mettlestone Gnt, at pages 74 and 75 of his memoir on the Fluvio- 
marine formation of the Isle of Wight^ as two distinct and separate 
strata, Nos. 9 and 10. 

The following is Forbes' detailed section of the beds in the 
centre of this anticline : — 

(1. St. Helen's Sands.) 

1. Immediately under the lowest bed of the Bembridge Lime- 
stone (here divided mto three bands) occurs a band of dark 
greenish carb naceous clay^ breaking with a sub-conchoidal 
fracture^ and forming a truncated stratum in the cliff; 1 fl. 6 in. 

2. Pale greenish white and yellowish marls^ with patches of 
calcareous sand and comminuted shells ; also argillo-calcareous 
nodules of various sizes. In this bed a characteristic fossil^ 
Melania excavatUy occurs in abundance^ and has the shell 
preserved. 8 ft. 

3. Pale green, yellowish, and white sands^ hardening into sand- 
stones^ with large lenticular siliceous concretions and spongoid 
bodies. Melania excavata is plentiful here and there, and 
occasionally occurs crowded. A small Hydrobia is also present; 
and from a mass of loose sand I extracted a Helix with the shell 
entire, apparently Helix omphcUus, but unfortunately destroyed 
the specimen. 14 &. 

4. Greenish-yellow irregular and concretionary sandstone, with 
siphonoid or fucoidal bodies ; 3 ft 

5. Yellowish and whitish sands, with a line of purple (manga- 
nese ?) nodules and siliceous concretions below ; 9 ft. 

6. liaminated white sands, indurated into quartzose flags above 
and l)eIow ; the upper surface exhibiting strong current marks. 
This band is remarkable for its contents, including LimntBa 
longiscata, a shorter species of Limncea, resembling Z. pereffra, 
Planorbis obtusus, and Melania excavata, all in the condition of 
casts. The fossiliferous portion is in the lowei^ part. 3 ft. 

7. White sandy clay, with a band of broken Cyren<B ; 2 ft. 

8. Greenish-blue clay, seen on shore at low-water, containing 
CypridcB and traces of Melania and CyrentB (C obovataT). The 
thickness may be estimated at 8 ft. [This apparently contains 
the fish-bed discovered by Mr. Colenutt.] 

(2. Nettlbstone Gbits.) 

9. Imperfect softish bright yellow limestone, riddled by minute 
confervoidal cavities, hardening into a building stone by exposure 



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15(S GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

to the weather. Not very fossiliferous, but contained LvmntBa 
lonffiscata, a lar^e full-bodied species, Hydrobite, and Ckara 
nucules ( Chara Lyellii). This limestone may be seen opposite 
the boathouse near Nettlestone^ but as it is much carried away is 
not evident except at a low water. It is the equivalent of the 
band in the slope at Whitecliff Bay. 2 ft 

10. Bright yellow and white marly clays, with patches of 
greenish sand, filled with argillorcalcareous nodules of various 
sizes. In these nodules the Melania excavata abounds. These 
clays do not appear to exceed a thickness of 4 ft. 

11. Freestone or rag, with siliceous concretions passing into a 
grit. A great part of this bed is made of comminuted univalves, 
the fri^ments smaller and finer below. In the middle portion 
occur bands of unbroken Paludina lenta. This is the bed of 
which portions are thrown up in the line of the fiiult below 
Summerhouse Point, where it is very conglomeratic and includes 
pebbles of flint. Similar pebbles are seen here and there in it at 
Seafield. It is used for a building stone there, and for making 
the groins on the shore east of Ryde. In these beds the casts of 
Melania excavata occur in myriads, also Paludina lenta, HydrobicSy 
a short Melanopsis apparently M, brevis, Melanopsis carinata, 
Planorbis rotundatus (scarce), LimncBa lonffiscata, and the short- 
spired species, vertebrsa of fish, and fragments of turtle. 8 ft. 

In a block in a neighbouring wall I observed impressions of a 
small and peculiar Ceritkium, and remains of a large shell, 
apparently Ackatina costellata, 

12. Softer and whiter sandstone, Tnth frequent calcareous con- 
cretionary bands, containing LimncBa lonffiscata, and separated by 
a thin layer of compact sandstone with impressions of Unio, 
form a compact flagstone with fucoidal impressions. 4 ft 

13. Shelly sandstones, often studded with angular flints; 6 in. 

14. Soft calcareous stone, with Paludina lenta ; 6 in. 

15. Flags of sandstone, with large ripple marks; 6 in.** 

At Sea-View the fish-bed occurs at the base of the cliff a short 
distance east of the Pier, and as the Nettlestone Grits sink 
beneath the sea-level close to the Pier, it is probable that the fish- 
bed is in the clay at the base of Forbes' higher division, or 
St. Helen's Sands. At this locality, as near Ryde House, ripple- 
marked flags are found immediatly above it. 

At Priory (or Horestone) Point, thick-bedded sandstone (No. 11 
of Professor Forbes' Nettlestone section) forms the base of the 
cliff, containing in some parts bands of small rounded flint pebbles; 
in others, layers- of partially decomposed angular flints. The 
upper part is full of broken shells, and patches of comminuted 
shells occur about two feet from the top, which is calcareous, and 
less hard than the lower portion of the bed. There are also 
occasional fucoidal markings and large irregular concretions, 
which, weathering unequally, cause the rock to assume a honey- 
combed cavernous appearance. 



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CN3BOBME 3BD8. 157 

A fitult at the Pointy ranning in a direction 30° E. of S., skirts 
the shore and brings up the Nettlestone division of the Osborne 
Bedsj in a manner that at first sight appears to be very puzzling. 

Nothing more is seen of the Osborne strata between Watch 
House Point and Whitediff Bay. 

The strata composing the Osborne series were better displayed 
at Whitecliff Bay in the summer of 1856 than at the time of 
Professor Forbes's visits when they were concealed by landslips, 
or in grass-covered underdiffs. The following is a list of the beds 
then observed : — 



Section of the Osborne Beds in Whitecliff Bay, 



with 1 to 2 inches of clay iron 



Dark bituminous clay, with Xtmiuea in patches 

Grit . 

Dark olive-green clayey sand 

Red and green mottled clays, 

stone on the top of the bed 
Green clays 
Dark grey sandy days 

Shelly band, large Paludina, Melanapsis carinata 
Dark green marls . . • - 

Olive-green clay, Melanapsis carinata, Paludma lenta 
Fine cream-yellow limestone, running out to sea in a direction 

10°N.ofE. No fossils observed - 
Green days ; Paludina, Melanapsis 



FXBT. 

2 

1 
3 

18 or 20 

3 or 4 

3 

41 

8 

16 to 18 

1 
About 15 



Total thickness of Osborne beds - - 79i 



The foregoing sections will show how unccrt.iin and diflBcult to 
fix*i8 the boundary between tlio Headon and tlie Osborne Series. 
When one examines the fossils ako^ not a single mollusc can be 
found that is confined to the Osborne Beds, and the onlj peculiar 
fossils are small and delicate fish and prawns, the preservation of 
which is due to exceptional circumstances In fact» so little is yet 
known of the fauna of the Osborne Series, that it still remains 
doubtful whether these beds ought or ought not to be separated 
firom the Headon. 

The paucity of species seems to be mainly due to the conditions 
under which the beds were deposited. There is an absence of 
truly marine beds, though a few marine shells occur. Purely 
fresnwater strata are also rare. The mass of the clays seems to 
have been deposited in lagoons, varying in saltness, in which 
oould live brackish-water molluscs like Melania and Potamomya^ 
and a tew of the more hardy freshwater and marine species. 
Lagoons of this character are at the present day favourite places 
for turtles and alligators, like those so abundant in this deposit. 

No doubt the Osborne Beds have been undeservedly neglected, 
owing to their proximity to the much more interesting Headon 
and Bembridge Series. But the fish-bed, especially, is well worth 
further examination and tracing into other parts of the Island. 



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168 GEOLOGY OJP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Not only is this horizon noticeable for the occurrence in it of 
shoals of small fish and prawns, but the abundance of scales and 
vertebr» of the ganoid Lepidosteus is of great interest. A bed 
which yields such well-preserved fish and prawns is likely also to 
contain plant-remains and insects. A few plants have already 
been obtained from it near Byde. During a recent visit to 
Cliff End numerous well-preserved plants were discovered on 
this horizon (by Clement lieidand Henry Keeping). No attempt 
was then made at systematic collecting, but during an hour or 
two's search grass or sedge-like leaves of several genera, palm ?, 
fern, and fragments of several peculiar reticulated leaves were 
found. This locality would repay more minute examination, as 
scarcely anything is yet known about the botany of the Osborne 
period. 



Bembbidge Limestone. 

Of the Fluvio-marine strata of the Isle of Wight, the Bern* 
bridge Group is by far the most constant in lithol(^ical characters, 
and the changes exhibited by its component strata throughout 
their range are for the most part slight and unimportant It 
is consequently everywhere easily recognizable by mineral com- 
position, and, as might be expected, its most characteristic fossil 
contents are, in the main, very unifornaly distributed. Its lower 
portion is most calcareous, and everywhere in the Island exhibits 
more or less compact limestones, occasionally separated by shales, 
and accompanied by marly beds. 

These limestones in the first edition of the Map and Memoir 
were treated merely as part of the Bembridge Series. But it has 
been found easy to separate them on the more accurate topographical 
map now available, for they form the most marked feature to be 
seen in any bed above the Chalk in the Island. There is also in 
places a distinct line of erosion between them and the overlying 
marls, and everywhere proof may be found of a sudden break and 
change in the conditions of sedimentation, frt)m an almost purely 
calcareous freshwater deposit, to a marine clay or sand. 

As there is an equally sharp line at the base of the limestone, 
where it rests on the mottled clays of the Osborne Series, the 
Bembridge Limestone is here treated as a separate subdivision, not 
necessarUy differing greatly in age from the older or newer 
deposits, but showing a marked change of physical conditions at 
the time of its formation. 

The Bembridge Limestone includes the uppermost limestones of 
Headon Hill and Sconce, and the well-known limestones of Ham- 
stead and Gurnard Ledges, Cowes, and Binstead. On the same 
horizon lies the rock which, owing to a dip slope, spreads over so 
wide an area near Wellow and Newbridge. 

Headon Hill, — This important member of the Isle of Wight 
Tertiary series plays but an inconspicuous part in the Headon 



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BEMBBIUGE B£DS. 



159 



Fig. 61. 
BuHmus ellipticuSy Sow. 



section. Among the grassy slopes beneath the gravels that crown 
the summit of the hill, white and y«llowish sandy marls appear 
here and there in the broken ground, occasionally varied by con- 
taining hard white compact limestone nodules that break with 
a sharp-edged, splinteriDg fracture. A little to the nortii of the 
summit these beds, dipping northward, liecome rather more de- 
veloped, passing into concretionary and travertioous limestones. 
The bo(Jies regarded by Mr. Edwards as turtle's eggs occur 
among them in regular lines. The fossils found in the con- 
cretions are ulmost invariably terrestrial, and consist of Helix 
UUrbaniy H. aniphalus, H, occlusuy H, headonensisl Bulimus 
ellipticusy Pupa perdentata, and Cyclotus cinctus, 

Bulimus ellipticus (Fig. 51), Helix 
globosa (Fig. 52), Planorbis discus 
(Fig. 53), &c., have been obtained 
from these beds by the fossil collectors 
of the Geological Survey, mostly in 
tlie condition of casts, but the shell is 
sometimes replaced by calc-spar^ which 
also occurs in a crystalline form lining 
and tilling small cavities in the stone. 
As a general rule, the Bembridge 
Limestone may be distinguished from 
the thick Upper Headon Limestones, 
as well as from those in the lower 
groups, by its greater whiteness and 
its peculiar brecciated or tufaceous 
character, as well as by the fossils 
either being casts, or having their 
shells replaced by calc-spar. The 
Headon Limestones, on the contrary, 
are of a somewhat darker cream- 
colour, more earthy and soft in com- 
position, and have the shells of the 
LimncBtB and other fossils preserved. 

The total thickness of this lime- 
stone at Headon Hill is from fifteen 
to sixteen feet. It is surmounted by a 
greenish-grey marl with Cyrena obovata 
having both valves in contact, which 
passes upwards into a soft, unctuous, 
earthy limestone, containing Planorbis 
and a large Limnceay which again 
merges upward into very tenacious 
grey clay, weathering brown and 
blnck, and carbonaceous on the top. 
In thickness these deposits are variable, 
even within short distances, the limestone being sometimes as much 
as three feet, while the clay resting upon it varies from three to four- 
teen inches. In one place, however, where the three deposits formed 




Fig. 52. 
Helix fflobosa, Sow. 




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160 GEOLOGr OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

but a single bed, the aggr^ate thickness was three feet six inches ; 
viz., clay six inches ; limestone, one foot ten inches ; and green 
marl, one foot two inches. Above the carbonaceous clay is a soft; 
cream-coloured earthv limestone, also containing LimncBa and 
Planorhis. The thickness of this upper limestone, which has 
apparently a denuded surface, varies considerably, but from 5 to 
8 feet of it appear from beneath the white sands which form the 
lowest member of the gravel series constituting the summit of 
HeadonHilL 

In a section pointed out by Mr. Keeping, further north, the 
Bulimus limestone, uneven ai^ irregular, is covered in places 
with brown and black carbonaceous clay, filling irregularities in its 
surface. The green clay with Cyrena above the thick limestone 
(here from one foot nine inches to four feet thick) contains a 
layer of Cyrena fifteen inches from the bottom of the bed, while 
the limestone, which (in addition to LimncBa and Planorbis) also 
contains Cyrena in the lower three inches, is only one foot thick. 
The days above are irregular, and of variable thickness, but 
average about two feet, the lower six to nine inches of which is 
brown clay, becoming occasionally dark and carbonaceous towards 
the bottom, and dark grey carbonaceous clay 8ix to fifteen inches, 
the upper six to nine inches of which frequently consist of lignite ; 
two or three inches of sand, with carbonaceous laminas, succeeded 
by green marl, complete the section. Hard thick beds are quarried 
at the eastern extremity of this outlier. 

Another outlier, over three-quarters of a mile long, covers the 
high ground upon which Hill Farm is built. A pit has been 
opened in it at the end of the lane running in a north-westerly 
direction from the form. In the road to More Green casts of 
Limnca, Planorbis ^ and small Helix have been found. A short 
distaiKo further north the limestone is overlain by green clay 
containing comminuted fragments of Cyrena. At its northern 
extremity, the limestone based on red clay is cream-coloured, soft 
and earthy (somewhat similar to dried mortar), becoming, how- 
ever, occasionally harder in places, and assuming a kind of 
tufaceous character. Another inconsiderable patch of limestone 
similar to that last noticed, occurs half way between it and 
Norton. 

Sconce. — For years this locality has yielded many of the most 
interesting fossil shells found^in the Isle of Wight Tertiary Series, 
especially species of terrestrial origin. Not a few of the rarer 
and more curious pulmoniferous molluscs, so well figured and 
described in Mr. Frederick Edwards's excellent monograph, were 
discovered at Sconce. At present (1888) the section)being much 
overgrown, the following details are taken from Forbes' Memoir. 

^^ The Bembridge limestone at Sconce, a mass of limestone and 
marls, is from 16 to 20 feet in thickness. It rises with the slope 
of the hill opposite Yarmouth, and forms the partly mural crest 
cropping out at CliiF End. The entire thickness is composed of 
calcareous beds passing into each other, very concretionary. 



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BBHBRIDOE LIMESTONE. 161 — 

variable within short distances^ and of a liighly trayertinous 
character. Indeed, very much of the limestone in this locality is 
a true travertine, or calcareous-tufa. Much of it has a peculiarly 
brecciated appearance iiotr presented by the Headon limestones, 
and the porosity dependent on the presence of irregular confervoid 
tubular cavities, so characteri:«tic o? the Bembridge limestone in all 
its localities^ .ond so strikingly comparable with a like appearance 
exhibited by the travertines of the Paris basin, is very manifest in 
the rock at Sconce. The cause of this structure, first noticed 
by Von Buch, and afterwards laid stress upon by Cuvier and 
Alex. Brongniart, has been frequently discussed by French geo- 
logists, who are inclined to refer it to the effect of the disengage- 
ment of gaseous vapours. I am inclined to refer some of these 
appearances to the ancient and now obliterated presence of vege- 
table bodies, such as chara stems and algsB. The distinctive 
palseontological feature of the Sconce locality for this limestone 
is the remarkable abundance of land shells in it These occur tor 
the most part in the upper half of the beds, freshwater shells 
being more frequent in the lower, but much of the strata here 
seems entirely unfossiliferous. In some places the ma^s of land 
shells seems to lie in irregular tufaceous bands between harder 
strata, the latter abounding in LimncBa longiscata^ Planorbis discus^ 

P. obtusiis, and P. oligyratus^ mostly 

Fig. 63. in the condition of casts, but never- 

Plamrhis dUcus^mw. *^i«^ exceedingly well preserved 

and easily extracted. Crreat blocks 
of grey sandy limestone lie along the 
shore, fallen from the hill crest, full 
of Planorbides and LimncBCBy mingled 
with occasional Helices {H, occhisa, 
H. U Urbani, and H, vectensis being 
most common), and the fine Paludina 
orbicularis. These blocks are broken 
up by the native collectors, who seek 
especially for the last-niimed shell, and 
for Bulimus elUpticus, Achatina cos- 
tellata, and Helix globosa, all species of great size and beauty, that 
find a ready sale among visitors. In a thin white band beneath a 
belt of Limncsa hngiscata I find here the little Paludina 
ghbuhides occupy the same horizon as at Bembridge and Gowes, 
and remarkable for its constancy of place. The most concre- 
tionary and brecciated portion of these beds consists of a white 
band from 6 inches to a foot thick not far from the uppermost 
layer, and evidently comparable with the cap of the limestone at 
Bembridge. Just below the top, every here and there, a hard 
band of silex, often nodular, reminds us of the cherty layers near 
the summit of this limestone at St. Helen's. Four or five inches 
of soft calcareous marls, with small limestone pebbles (or possibly 
concretions), form the very uppermost portion. In the line of the 

E 5678€. L 




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162 



GEOLOGY OF THE IBLE OF WIGHT. 



tofaoeous concretionary portion is a curious layer or old surfiu^e, 
in which lie the remarkable bodies regarded by Mr. Edwards as 
turtle's eggB.'' 

Besides the fossils mentioned. Helix amphnlus and H. tropifera. 
Pupa perdentata and P. oryza^ Clausilia striatula, Cyclotus cinctus, 
and Succinea EdwarcUii, were all collected by Prof. Forbes and 
Mr. Gibbs in this prolific locality, the Clausilia and Cycloius 
being by no means uncommon. Although diligently searching for 
many days these observers met with no remains of vertebrata. 

Tne following list of shells procured by Mr. William Cotton of 
Freshwater, during the course of a single morning, will show the 
variety and abundance of the fossils contained in the limestone 
here : — 

Fossils from the Bembridge Limestone of Sconce. 

No. of Specimeni. 
Aefaatina costellata (Fig. 54) - - - - - 1 

Helix globosa ? - - • - - -8 

„ yeotensifv Tar. deprena - - - - 8 

„ D'Urbam - - - - - - IJ 

„ ocdiua - • • - - --4 

)» tropifera - - - - - - 1 

n (or Paladina) carinata, [probably Faludina angaloaa] 5 
Claosilia striatula? (young) - - - - - 2 

Planorbis obtosns - - * - - - 8 

,, dlBCIU 

„ oligprratos (young) - - - - - 25 

limnsa longiscata, var. 

n Blender var. smaU. 

„ ? large bodied var. 
Cyclotm cinctuB .... . s 

„ nuduB - - - - . - 1 

Bulimus ellipticus, Achatina costellata, and Helix globosa^ are 

all large conspicuous species. Faludina angulosa and Achatina 

costellata (Fig. 54) are the shells especially sought 

Fig. 54. for by the native collectors ; but good specimens' 

Achatina ^*^ *^® ^^^ preserved are rare. The blocks 

costellata^ Sow. which have fallen from the crest of the hill 

are crowded with specimens of Planorbis and 

Limnaa, and occasionally Helix, the most 

common being Helix D'Urbani, H. occlusa, and 

H vectensis. 

The Bembridge Limestone of Sconce descends 
^ ^ below the 50-foot contour at its eastern end, and 
the small outlier further east nearly touches the 
I? %iiJA 26-foot line. Continuing the dip shown by these 
y'lli™ outliers, we observe that the limestone ought to 
plunge beneath the sea within a short distance. 
O ff ^^ accordingly find an isolated rock at a quarter 
i Jmw Jf 0^ » naile from the shore off Norton. This is 
known as Black Bock. It is only visible at ex- 
tremely low spring-tides, and we have not been 
able^ to examine it, but have been told that it 
consists of a hard freestone. 




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BEHBSIDGE LIHB8T0KE. 168 

The depth of the old channel of the Yar prevents the lime- 
stone from being traced continuously to the east side. But near 
Yarmouth Gas Works it reappears on the foreshore, and was also 
well seen in the railway cutting dose by. Orossiog Thorley 
Brook it gradually spreads out, so as to occupy an extensive 
dip slope, such as one scarcely expects from so thin and soft a 
bed. 

In the neighbourhood of Wellow, Shalcombe, and Newbridge 
an area of nearly 3 square miles is covered by the Limestone, 
which forms a bold escarpment rising to a height of about 270 
feet near Shalcombe. A dip of about 2° to the north-north- 
east causes the Limestone to pass beneath the Bembridge Marls 
near the Yarmouth and Newbridge high road. 

Notwithstanding this large spread not many sections are now 
open, for brick has taken the place of limestone as a building 
materia], and chalk is preferred for agricultural purposes. One 
would have thought, however, that this limestone, with its greater 
quantity of phosphoric acid, would have made a better manure ; 
we have not been able to learn the reason for the substitution 
of chalk, even on farms where the Bembridge Limestone would 
be cheaper. The stone was formerly extensively dug in pits near 
the escarpment, but these are all overgrown, the only remaining 
sections being near Newdose Farm, in Thorley otreet, near 
Marshfield, in Wellow, and near Bank Cottage, Newbridge, where 
the outcrop becomes more narrow. None of these pits are of 
much interest^ or show the upper or lower surface of the stone. 

Other sections are seen in the old pits between Newbridge and 
Fullholding, and for nearly a mile the road runs along a ridge 
formed by the Limestone. From Fullholding eastward the bed 
ding becomes vertical. The limestone, therefore, occupies a very 
small area at the surface. There seems also to be a tendency 
for it, like other thin limestones, entirely to disappear for a depth 
of several feet from the surface, where exposed to the solvent 
action of rain water. For these reasons it is often difficult to 
follow the outcrop ; but limestone has been seen south of North 
Park Farm; north of Swainstone; at Great Park; for nearly 
three-quarters of a mile west of Gunville ; and in an old quarry 
half-a-mile east of Gunville. 

Returning to the coast, we find the Bembridge Limestone to 
sink beneam the sea at Yarmouth,* to reappear on the northern 
side of the syncline with a west-north-west strike. The limestone 
of Hamstead Ledge consists of three beds, with other softer 
bands between, and contains numerous specimens of Limnma 
lonffiscata, Flanorbis, Chara, &c. It can be traced nearly as far 
as the Newtown river, making a conspicuous feature, though the 
old cliff is now much overgrown. 



* In ancient charters it is called Eremuth (Worsley). 

L 2 



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164 



GBOLOOT OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 






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6 



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s oa 






I 



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On the east side of the Newtown river it appears above the 
Osborne Beds at the Brick Yard, but sinks when traced in a 
sooth-easterlj direction, and is lost beneath the marsh of Spur 
Lake^ to reappear in the bed of the stream near Porchfield for a 
quarter-of-a-mile. Continuing eastward along the coast^ the 
Limestone in the cliff gradually falls till it spreads 6ut on the 
shore, forming two ledges with an expanse of dark green niarl 
between/ Near Thomess Wood the stone is lost, and does not 
rise again for about a mile and a half. 

The section in the cliffs near Burnt Wood is of great interest, 
for it is almost the only place in the IslMid where the Bern- 
bridge Limestone contains perfectly preserved shells and not 

merely casts. It also shows a dis- 
tinct line of erosion between the 
Limestone and the overlying murine 
base of the Bembridge Mam. (See 
Fig. 55.) 

The bottom block of Limestone 
(not seen in the cliff at this point, 
but exposed on the foreshore oppo- 
site) calls for no remark. It is 
merely a freshwater limestone of the 
usual character, with casts of LimntBa, 
Above it comes a mass of dark'green 
somewhat mottled marl, the upper 
part of which is crowded with perfect 
specimens of the minute Paludina 
globuhides. On this lies the top 
block of Limestone; a soft earthy 
stone, easily cut when first dug out, 
but hardening by exposure. This 
stone is fidl of uninjured specimens 
of Limncea pyramidalis, L. mixta^ 
and Planorbis obtiisus, but only for a 
short distance. The preservation of 
the shells here is due to the stone 
being sealed up in a mass of im- 
pervious clay. The upper surface of 
the limestone is much broken up and 
eroded, and in the cracks are found 
marine shells, PanapcBa (or Mya) 
minor having the valves united. In 
some places the erosion has cut en- 
tirely through the upper block of the 
Limestone, so that the base of the 
Bembridge Marls rests directly on the 
green marl mthPaludina globuloides. 
In Thomess Bay the Limestone rises again, showing the same 
three divisions. The bottom block forms Gurnard Ledge, and 



■S 

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in 



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BBMBB1D6E LIMESTONE. 166 

the thin upper block makes a minor ledge nearly opposite 
Sticelett Farm. From (Gurnard Ledge the Limestone runs as a 
marked feature in the cliff as far as Gurnard Bridge, but on the 
east side of the marsh the sections are obscure and hidden bj 
talus, though abundance of fallen blocks can be examined as far 
as Kgypt Point. From this Point eastward through West Oowes 
another marked feature, now overgrown or hidden by buildings, 
shows the outcrop of the Limestone, which was formerly seen in 
the foundations of several of the houses. Near the West Cowes 
Gas Works the same rock is again met with, and from this 
point to Bottom Copse, where it sinks beneath the Medina, 
there is no difficulty in following its characteristic feature. 

Crossing the Medina, the Limestone is seen on the foreshore 
exactly opposite the point on the west bank where it was lost, 
thus proving that here the beds are continuous across the river 
and are not displaced by any fault. 

On the feature that marks the outcrop towards East Cowes a 
large abandoned quarry may be seen in Little Shamblei*'8 Copse. 
The stone has also been quarried near East Cowes Park, in places 
now occupied by houses, and it is again seen at Elm Cottage, close 
to the south-western comer of the grounds belonging to Norris 
Castle. Here, at a height of about 120 feet, it is lost under 
the Plateau Gravel. 

At Newport the Limestone, though masked by Drift and 
rainwash, has been proved in several wells (see Appendix). 
Unfortunately the well at Mew's Brewery — ^the only one that 
passed through the stone — was bored many years since, and the 
samples that have been preserved do not show the thickness of 
this bed. 

East of Newport the stone was formerly quarried about 
200 yards north-east of Great Pan Farm ; and again nearly due 
north of Little Pan Farm. It was also touched in a trial boring 
at Durton Farm. From this point it is lost for about a mile, 
owing to a covering of Gravel and wash from the Downs. 

Close to Combley Farm it re-appears, and can then be traced 
continuously, either by feature or by blocks ploughed up, as far 
as Little Duxmore, where it ifl vertical. Ikist of the last locality 
the Limestone cannot now be seen for about 3 miles, though 
blocks were formerly ploughed up near Ashey. During the 
original survey, a section was also seen south of Little Nunwell, 
in a ditch under a newly-made fence. 

At Brading, where the dip becomes lower, the Limestone 
forms a more marked feature which passes under the Church. 
Wall Lane is also carried along the ridge ; the stone having 
formerly been dug close to the road on the south side, there is 
now a vertical wall of i*ock running parallel with the lane. At 
the Cement Works the dip in the quarry is 5^ at the northern 
boundary, but it increases to 10^ close to the road, and to about 



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166 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

20° on the south side of the road. The flexure is as sharp as 
in WhitecliffBay. 

East of the Yar and Brading Harbour, the Limestone reappears 
at two spots at the edge of the marsh, and from Peacock Hill 
eastward to Whitecliff Bay it forms a marked ridge. 

At Osborne, the Limestone, which is lost under the Plateau 
Gravel, ought to reappear in the upper part of the Pier Wood, 
but the grounds are so well planted, and the features so obscured 
by rainwash, that no trace of it is met with till King's Quay is 
reached. Here, though the beds cannot be measured, part can 
be seen on the foreshore, and fallen blocks are abundant. From 
King's Quay to Wootton Creek and Binstead, there is no difficulty 
in following the limestone-feature through the woods and tumbled 
ground, but there are now no open sections, even at Binstead, for 
the celebrated stone quarries are all worked out or abandoned. 
The Binstead quarries are so celebrated that the following notes, 
taken from the first edition of this Memoir, may be acceptable, 
though the sections cannot now be examined. 

" In a quarry in the wood west of Binstead Church, and opening 
to the sea, the upper part consists of thick-bedded, nodular, shelly 
limestone, with Butimus eUipticusy LimncBay Planorbis (like rotun-- 
datus)y Cyreiiay or Cyclas, resting on soft sandstones, and hard, 
calcareous, flaggy beds, sometimes well-laminated, and containing 
teeth of Anoplotherinmy claws of Lobster, Paludina orbicularis^ 
P. (small sp.), Limnmay and a small Planorbis, The upper part of 
the quarry is made up of green marls, and an irregular surface of 
Limnasan limestone, which is covered with from one to four feet 
o.f ferruginous loam, almost free from flints. There are, however, 
a few small scattered flints in the loam, generally in the lower 
part, which is clayey, while in the upper half are lines of small 
fragments of limestone, with an occasional pebble. Under the 
rubbish) in the quarries between this and the road to Byde, con- 
cretionary shelly limestone rests on sandy beds, with layers of clay, 
beneath which are four feet and a half of grey, flaggy sandstone, 
forming the bottom of the quarry. The Binstead limestone was 
formerly highly esteemed as a building stone, and has been used 
in the construction of several churches in Sussex, the interior of 
Winchester Cathedral, Lewes Priory, Yarmouth Castle and Quarr 
Abbey (I. W.), an old Saxon ruin at Southampton, noticed by 
Webster, &c., &c."* 

In Eyde, according to Mr. Barrow, the Bembridge Limestone 
was met with in laying down some drains in George Street. It 

* The quarries near Qnarr Abbey were in estimation for many centuries. They 
fumiBhed some of the stone for building Winchester Cathedral, as appears by a ffrant 
made by the Conqueror (and confirmed by William Bnftis) to Bishop Walkdyne, 
and by two precepts from Henry I. to Richard de Redvers, Lord of the Island, for 
stone to be dug there for the Cathedral at Winchester ; and subsequently to Stigand, 
when he transferred his Sec from Selsey to Chichester. The registers of Winchester 
record that William of Wykeham used this stone in building the body of Winchester 
Cathedral. 



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BEMBBIDGE LIMESTONE. 167 

is now visible near St. John's Boad Station, at a height of about 
15 feet above the sea, but it soon sinks beneath the marsh levels 
and is altogether lost half a mile further south. The dip at Rjde 
is southward^ but the amount is only about half a degree. 

At the west corner of Apley Wood, about 200 yards south of 
the sea-wall, an earthy limestone of the ordinary Bembridge type 
has been quarried beneath the site of some unfinished houses. 
This was probably the lowest bed of the Bembridge Limestone, 
but the place is now covered with underwood. The blocks were 
from fifteen to eighteen inches thick, and contained Limncea, 
Chara, &c. From thin point the Limestone is invisible for more 
than a mile, reappearing in the road, and in a small pit about a 
quarter of a mile south of Sea View. 

At Horestone Point the Limestone again makes a distinct 
feature, traceable through the tumbled cTifi' as far as Watch 
House, or Node's Point, where we again meet with clear sections. 
The dip is south-south-west On the south side of Watch House 
Point the following section was measured : — 



Bembridge Limestone at Watch Home Point 

Ft. In. 

Limestone, iiregolar, marly, and most compact in the lower half 
of the bed, wnich is, also, the least fossilirerous. FuU of Chara, 
with a few Limnaa and PalwUna globuloides. The upper 2 feet 
fnore ferruginoas and less indurated^ and is frequently marked 
by the abundance of LmruBa - - - - -40 

Dark laminated clay ; the lower part of a lighter colour, and more 
sandy - - - - - - - -13 

Compact greenish clay (slightly bituminous), with fragments of 
Cyrefia, and now and then a perfect valve - - .09 

Earthy limestone ; the upper part soft and of variable thickness. 
Planorbis discus in the upper part, lAmnaa throughout 1 6 to 2 

Hard green marl, with concretions in the lower part - - 2 6 

At St. Helen's the Bembridge Limestone passes into the sea 
close to the old church tower^ and reappears at Bembridge Point. 
The upper bed has an uneven, undulating surface, and is covered 
with a cap, of variable thickness, containing Oysters throughout 
its entire depth. 

From Bembridge Point to the Foreland the Limestone becomes 
nearly horizontal, spreading out to form extensive ledges on the 
foreshore, but not rising above high-water level till Whitediflf Bay 
is reached. Between Foreland Point and the margin of the bay 
it forms in great part the floor of the shore, witn a hollow and 
slightly basin*shaped curve, dipping inwards and landwards on 
the east and south-east. The extension of the broken margin 
of this shallow trough constitutes the reef of rocks known 
as Bembridge Ledge, and formerly quarried at low water for 
building stone. Rolled fragments of the Limestone strew the 
bay, and mingle with the lint gravel of the drift to form the 
shingle. At a di^stance it is conspicuous among the neighbouring 



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168 GEOLOOT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

strata, owing to its general creamj^white hne^ and tlie angular 
fracture of its berls. When closely inspected it is found to 
consist of a number of distinct strata varying somewhat in thick- 
ness in different parts of the bay, and yielding different measure- 
ments to observers in different years, owing to the occasional 
swelling out of the individual beds. Their mutual relations and 
distinctions seem, however, to be tolerably constant at this locality. 
In the cliff, not far from the hotel, the Limestone rises from 
the shore with a rapid and sudden curve ; its uppermost portion 
inclining at a high angle. The best point for examination wifl 
be found where the great curve of the limestones first reaches 
the shore^ and where these strata are exhibited in their entirety 
with perfect clearness. Here this division of the Bembridge 
group is composed of the following elements : — 

Bembridge Limestone at Whitecliff Bay (Measured in 1856 by 
Professors Ramsay and Morris and H. W. Bristow). 

Fkbt. 

Hard white crumbly marl, with a few concretions and scattered 
■hells, and becoming harder and more shelly for the lower 
6 inches. Throws out water at the top. Planorbis diseug, 
Limfuea in places. Passes gradually into tne bed below. This 
is No. 6. of Profiessor Forbes* section (see below) - - 2} 

Hard, compact, rery shelly limestone, sometimes forming two beds, 
with a harder and darker-coloured parting between. Ckara 
tuberculata and Ch, sp. — ^very abundant. Paludina orbicularis at 
2 feet from the top. Limnaa, Planorbis discus, Planorbis - 5 • 

Hard bed of compact sandy Ihnestone, weathering white; plant' 
like markings, lAnuuea (a few) ; Paludina (sm. sp.) - - 1 

Dark grey and cvbonaceous clays, laminated with sand in the 
lower part; light green in the upper 2 feet, where they are 
compact and marly, and separated ^om the lower 12 inches by a 
band of Cyrena obtusa with both valves joined - - 3 

Cream-coloured cavernous limestone, with a hard brecciated con- 
cretionary cap, 6 to 9 inches thick, on the top of the bed, which 
weathers to a very irregular sur&ce. Limnaa, numerous 
Taxites and Planorbis (sm. sp.), Chora tuberculata, especiaUy 2 fbet 
from the top. Emits a bituminous odour when struck - - 4 to 6 

Soft, white, earthy limestone, with a few casts of shells ; Planorbis, 
Limnaa, Fish ------- 2 

Concretionary cream-coloured limestone, with an uneven surface 
above and below; weathering irregularly, and emitting a bitu- 
minous odour when struck. Chara, IAmk<ta longiscata - - 4 or 5 

Another section measured in 1853, near the same spot, by 
Professor Forbes nnd Mr. Bristow is interesting for comparison 
with the above, as it shows how the strata vary. 



Bembridge Limestone in Whtecliff Bay (1853). 

6. Crumbly white marl, with small globular concretions. Qhara tyihercHiaia 
has its uppermost limit apparently in this bed. Planorbis ohtusus is common 
in it, but, like all other shells in the Bembridge limestones, is almost always 
in the condition of a cast. 2 ft. 7 in. 



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BBMBRIDOB LIMESTONE. 169 

5. Greenish white limestone, very concretionuy and fossiliferous. Small 
patches of a white mineral are highly distinctive of this band. Limiuea 
longiscata is the most abundant fossil. Of other shells I find in this locality 
Planorbis discus, P, rotundatus, P. Sowerbn, and P. ohtusus^ a new Paludina 
(identical with that in Wo. 1^ Helix occlusa, H, labyrirUhica, and two other 
species. The uppermost 6 inches are yery conglomeratic. This cap weathers 
pebbly, and contains freshwater shells ; when removed by the action of the 
waters the stone below weathers with a rough and pinnacled surface, speckled 
by the white mineral and very shelly. The substance of tbe bed is mudi less 
shelly below. The thickness at the margin of the bay is 4 ft. 3 in. 

4. Pale, often white marly limestone, in some places becoming very 
compact ; remarkable for aboundinp^ in myriads of a small, rather globose 
Paiudina (P. gloMoidcs) : containing also lAmtuea longiscata, a snuJl 
Hydrobia, and, more rarely, Cyclostoma mumia. When this bed is much 
exposed superficially it forms a fiat white platform, with an undulated and 
much cracked surface, the cracks extending throughout its thickness. In its 
uppermost part is a paleish carbonaceous strip abounding in comminuted 
shells of CyreruB. The Chara tubercukUa occurs m it. 3 ft. 

3. Compact creamy yellow limestone, abounding in casts of JJmnMi 
hngiscata, of which parts of it seem almost entirely made up ; also Planorbis 
oligyratus f llie nucules of Chara tuberculata occur in this bed, but not so 
plentifully as in No. 1. The uppermost portion of it is conglomeratic. 
5 ft. 6 in. This is the bed most sought after here for building, yielding 
blodcs of considerable dimensions. 

'2. Greenish grey marly clay, with an irregular and crumbling fracture; it 
contains crushed shells of lAmnaa longiscata and Planorbides. 4 ft. 6 in. 

1. Yellowish compact limestone, weathering rather darker, exhibiting in the 
firaotufe minute coniervoid ramifying cavities. This bed is very full of casts 
lAmnaa longiscata and nucules of Ghara tuberculata are scattered abundantly 
through its substance. A small Paludina, a Hydrobia, and a Planorbts 
(oligyratus) occur occasionally. Tbe average thickness is 3 ft. 6 in. 

Total thicknees at Whitecliff Baj, as exposed in November* 
1853, 24 ft. 3 in. When measured near the same spot by Captain 
Ibbetson and Professor Forbes in 1854, it was made 27 feet. 
Professor Prestwich, in his section, states the thickness as 
26 feet. 

The fauna of the Bembridge Limestone has been very carefully 
collected. As a rule it consists entirely of freshwater moUusca. 
In a few places, however^ abundance of land shells have also 
been obtained, and in others, as at Headon Hill and Binstead, 
mammalian remains are not uncommon. The land shells comprise 
Fig 56 tropical-looking gigantic species of Bulimus 

Chara tubercu. ^1^^ ^''*^"« (?«« PP" ¥^' ^^^}- ^'"''8 
lat Lvell mammals Anoplothertuniy CntBropotamtts, 

' ^ HyopotamuSy and PalcBotherium are the most 

abundant Very little is yet known about the 
associated plants, for though nucules of Chara 
(Fig. 56), are abundant, the limestone seldom 
yields determinable leaves or fruit of the higher 
__ orders. Near Foreland Point the palm leat 

{Palmacites) figured by Dr. Mantell in the '' Geological Excursions 
round the Isle of Wight," 1854, p. 311, is said to have been found 
in one of the beds of the Bembridge limestone, but the specimen 
is in an ironstone nodule. 




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170 GfiOLOGT OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Bembridoe Mabls. 

Above the Bembridoe Limestone lies a series of freshwater^ 
estuarine^ and marine clays and marls. These attain a thickness 
of about 120 feet at the east end of the island^ but thin awaj to 
about 70 feet towards the west The Bembridge Marls were 
divided by Forbes into the Oyster Bed, Lower Marls, and Upper 
Marls. But there is no break or definite boundary between the 
Upper and Lower Marls, and no marked palseontolo^cal change 
anywhere in the series, except that the marine shells are confined 
to the base. The Marls are therefore here treated as one 
subdivision, in which certain marked beds can be traced for 
considerable distances, but which it is not necessary or practicable 
to separate into smaller sub-groups, except locally. 

At the east' end of the Island, where the beds are thickest, the 
following section was measured by Forbes : — 

Bembridge Marh in Whitecliff Bay. 

Ft. In. 

Variegated yellow and brown clay (occasionally sandy) con- 
taining lines of nodular concretions, but no fossils - 8 

Pale shaly clays, the lower part with a band of septarian con- 
cretions, containing PalwUna lenta and other shells - 3 

Lead-coloured cla^s, laminated above, paler below. Paludina 
lenta, Melanopsis, Melania turriHmma, occasional Cyrena, 
and remains of Fish - - - - - 20 

Pale bluish sands and sandy day. Melania tuniHsskna, 
Melanopsis fiaiformis, Paliuhna lenta. Fish, Seeds - 8 

Sandy gprey limestone occasionally passing into marl ; some- 
times very fossiliferous, often concretionary with few fossils. 
Bnlimus elUpHcus, Achatina eostellata, Limnma longiseata, 
Melania costata, Paludina lenta, Cyrena transversa, Unio, 
Chara WrightU - - - - - - 4 

Red marl, without fossils - - • - - 5 

Pale blue laminated sandy clay, containing a few pebbles of 
limestone and flint. Traces of Fish - - - 3 

Variegated red and green marls. Cyrena ; fragments of 
THonyx inorassatus • - - - - • 24 

Clays with whitish streaks. Melanopsis fiuiformis, Paludina 
lenta 2 

Seam of Serpula, 

Clay, with Cyrena sendstriata, C, pulchra, C. ohovata, C. 
dbtusa, Cerithmm mutahile and Melania eostata - - 4 

Hard unfossiliferoas bluish septarian stone [probably the 
equivalent of the Insect Limestone further west] - - 6 

Dark shaly day. Cyrena semistriata - - - - 2 6 

Green sandy beds. Ostrea vectensis, Cytherea incrassata, 
Mytilus etfinis, Nucula sinUlis, &c. - . . - 2 

Whitish sands interstratified with fine stripes of clay ; occa- 
sional pebbles. Lines of Cyrena semistriata and occasional 
Cerithium - - - - - - -20 

Greenish marls, with lines of white nodules in the lower part 3 

BbMBRIDGB LlMBSTONB. 



91 



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BKMBBIBGE MABL8. 171 

Another measurement of the Marls, made near the same place 
in 1888, gave a total visible thickness of 93 feet; but about 16 
feet of the upper part of the cliff are overgrown and hidden. 
Possibly there may be an outlier of Hamstead Beds here, but 
if not, the Bern bridge Marls must be at least 106 feet thick^ with 
the top not reached. This computation agrees with the thickness 
proved at St. Helenas. 

The marine base of the Bembridge Marls is so variable that 
the following detailed notes of the beds seen on the coast will be 
useful, especially as portions are often entirely hidden by beach 
sand or talus. The account is that given by Forbes, with some 
additions from notes made iu 1888. 

The blue septarian limestone strikingly resembles in mineral 
character the harder insect-bearing limestones of the Purbeck 
beds. It is thickest (about 1 foot) and finest about half way 
between Whitecliff Point and the Foreland, where its upper 
surface forms part of the floor of the shore. Everywhere it 
preserves the same peculiar mineral character. Near the same 
place the finest display of the oyster bed is seen, the surface of 
which also, for some distance, forms the floor of the shore. There 
it is underlain by a pale concretionary blue marl, containing occa- 
sional pebbles, and abounding in casts of shells, especially of 
Cerithium (probably C. mutabile), occasionally mingled with casts of 
freshwater shells (Limncea longiscata^ Planorbis disais and P, obtu* 
sus), Cyren(B of more species than one, a small angulated Corbula, 
Murez Forbesii^ a curious pupa-hke Bulimus ?, occasional Mytili, 
Hydrobi(B, a Tellinoid bivalve, occasional examples of Melania 
muricata, and traces of fish. Between this blue marl and the 
oyster band is a thin sandy bed, filled vdth comminuted shells, 
and on this rest numerous individuals of Cytherea mcrassatay with 
their valves closed, but the shells are in so exceedingly decayed a 
condition that, after many trials, Forbes was unable to remove 
any entire. The internal casts, howevex, are fine and transportable. 
Then come the oysters, mostly, but not all, single valves, here and 
there mingled with good double specimens. iSiey are thinly dis- 
tributed, but occasionally occur in clusters of considerable number, 
bristling the surface of the shore. Individuals vary much in 
shape even in the same cluster. With them are Mytili {M. qffints)^ 
Nucula similis, a /Sofeci/r^^-like bivalve, and Forbes once metvnth 
a Natica, The Mytili and NucuI<b retfiin the substance of their 
shells perfectly. Occasional pebbles are mingled with the oysters. 

In a few places interesting indications can be found that 
marine conditions lingered for some time. ClionaAyortA oysters 
occur, on and in which Serpula and Balanus have grown, and the 
dead SerpuIcB and Bcdani have been subsequently covered by a 
growth of Polyzoa. The best preserved marine shells will be 
found at about half-tide level, a short distance south of the Fore- 
land Inn, where even the CytJierea may occasionally be obtained 
in a perfect condition, though fragile. Nucula similis is abundant 



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172 



GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



here^ and uninjured specimens are sometimes washed up by 
the sea. 

At the foot of the cliff, half way between Whitecliff Point and 
Foreland Poin*, just beyond the place where the oyster bed is 
best displayed on the sliore, the strata immediately surmounting 
the septarian stone-band are well exhibited. Dark blue clays, 
with scattered shells (double) of Cyrena obtusa and C obovata 
first api)ear. Then come darker and more friable shaly clays, 
including^ a strongly marked band of Cyrena^ the species being 

Fio. 57. 
Cyrena puhhra. Sow. 




(7. pulchra (Fig. 57) obtusa, and obovatu, mingled with occasional 
large examples of Ceriihium mutabile (Fig. 58) of which now and 

Fig. 58. 
Cerithium mutabile^ Lam. 




then a specimen may be found with a Balanus attached. After 
some pale laminated clays, containing the game shells, succeeded 
by greenish marls, crowded with little knots of Serpula, clays and 



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BEMBBIDGE .MABLS. 



173 



Fia. 59. 

Cyrena semistriata, 

Desh. 




ehaly strata follow, including a thick band composed almost 

entirely of Melania muricata^ asso- 
ciated with Cyrena semistriata, which 
latter shell forms also a band of its 
own. The specimens of all these shells 
are beautifully preserved. In the days 
and mottled marls that follow, shells 
are scarce or wanting, but fra^gments 
of turtle occur, and Forbes had the 
good fortune to find in situ the greater 
part of the carapace of a Trionyx 
incrassatus. 

North of Foreland Point the diff becomes low and the Bern- 
bridge Marls are almost entirely hidden by slipped gravel. 
Crossing Brading Harbour these Marls re-appear in the cliffs near 
St. Helen's Church. Owing to the destruction of the sea-wall 

food sections of the lower parts of the group are now visible 
etween here and Horestone Point. 

The greater portion of the Marls is exactly similar to the corre- 
sponding part of the Whitecliff Bay section ; but with some 
slight though interesting differences in the region of the oyster 
beds, worthy of detailed notice. 

The top of the Bembridge limestone in this locality, as men- 
tioned in the account of that rock, presents a surface somewhat 
irregular, and including oysters, Cyrence, and casts of Cerithium, 
This is immediately succeeded by half a foot of greenish clay 
containing oyster;*. Then come s'ix inches of brown clay charged 
with CyrentB ; a coarse greenish clay, 1 foot thick, succeeds, 
havin<^ a crumbly and angular fracture, and including Melanopsis 
fusiformisy CyrencB, and a small Melania. The next overlying dark 
shaly clay, 1 foot thick, contains CyrejicB, and is surmounted by 
some four or five niches of pale-lilac, compact, septarian stone, 
weathering white. Nearly two feet of dark laminated clays and 
marls succeed, containing in their upper part a band filled with 
Cyrena semistriata, accompanied by Cyrena obovata and Cerithium 
mutabile. Then come greenish and variegated marls. 

A peculiarity in this section is the presence, in the brown clay 

above the oyster clay, of some shells of marine origin not noticed 

Fia. 60. elsewhere ; these are a pretty little 

A mr r \ • T?^«u^« Arca (A, Wehsteri), and a Modiola. 
Area fVebstert, Forbes. mi. ' u • lu 4. • 

' The above is the account given 

by Edward Forbes of this section, but 
it may be interesting to add a fuller 
list of the mollusca, from specimens col- 
lected in 1888 by Mr. Henry Keeping 
and Clement Beid. 




Mollusca of the Lower Bembridge Marls at St Helen's. 

Area Websteri. Mya minor. 

Cyrena obovata. Mytilus afiAnis. 



obtusa. 



Ostrea vectensis. 



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174 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

Gerithium elegans. Melania taxntiBBima. 

,, mutabile. Melanopsia carinata. 

M plicatum. „ fiiaifonnis. 

Fusus Forbesii. Paludina lenta. 

Melania Foibesii. Balanus. 
,, muricata. 

The occurrence of Melania turritissima so low in the Bembridge 
Marls breaks down the palsaontological line drawn by Forbei 
between the Upper and Lower Marls. Like many other Oligocene 
fossils^ this species is commonly confined to certain thin beds, 
but reappears on widely separated horizons. Even in the Hea- 
don Series, a scarcely distinguishable variety is met with under 
the name of Melania peracuminata. The specimens of Cerithium 
plicatum are not perfect^ but there seems little doubt that they 
are correctly determined, and that the occurrence of this species 
so far from its principal horizon is another case of the same kind. 

North of the Priory the beds rise, and the Marls are lost in 
the overgrown part of the cliff, or pass inland. The only section 
near Sea View is in an old pit on the road to Fairy Hill, where a 
bed with Oysters overlies the Limestone, but no measurements 
can be obtained. 

The inland sections near Bembridge and St. Helen's are few 
and unimportant, the most interesting being a small exposure of 
' the Oyster bed on the Limestone at the edge of Brading Harbour 
north of Woolverton ; and a brick pit, showing mottled clay with 
bones of turtle, on the northern border of the harbour, near 
Carpenters. 

A well-section, communicated by Mr. Parsons, shows that 
dose to St Helen's Station the Bembridge Limestone has sunk 
considerably beneath the sea-level, rock beinff reached at 28 feet 
from the surface, which is about 6 feet above nigh water. In the 
s, oil heap were found the ordinary fossils belonging to the base of 
the Bembridge Marl, including Ostrea vectensis, (See Appen- 
dix, p. 309.) 

Another well on the top of the hill about a quarter of a mile 
north of tit Helen's reached the limestone at 133^ feet. Perhaps 
15 feet of this depth belong to the Hamstead Beds, leaving 
118^ feet as the total thickness of the Bembridge Marls. Scarcely 
any determinable fossils were found in the samples, but Serpula 
occurs about 7 feet above the Limestone. 

Hamstead Beds or Gravels hide much of the Bembridge Marls 
west of Brading Harbour. As there are also few pits and no 
clear cliff-sections, little can be said about the changes this series 
undergoes between Sea View and the Medina. At the time of 
writing there are no good sections near Ryde. 

The upper part of the Bembridge Marls can be examined in 
Ashlake Brick Yard, near Wootton Bridge. Here the following 
section was observed : — 

Ashlake Brick-yard. 

Ft. In. 
Drift or Rainwash. Stony clay - - - - 3 6 

r Weathered clay - - - - 4 

Hamstead Beds •< Black clay full of lignite (the Black 

I Band) - - - .06 



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BBHBBIDGE MABL& 



175 



"Green day, weathered in the upper part. 

Melania turriHstima in pyrites - 
Seam of marl with Melama mtaricata, 
Bemhridge Marls -< Melanopsu and Hydrobia Chasteli. 

Green day .... 
Line of ironstone nodules. 
^Green clay (2^ feet seen) - dug for 



Ft. In. 
3 



1 
12 6 
24 6 



Fig. 61. 

Hydrobia 

Chasteli, Nyat. 



The occurrenoe of a thin shelly seam fall of 
Hydrobia Chasteli three feet below the Black 
Band is noticeable. This Hydrobia was formerly 
considered to be characteristic of the Hamstead 
Beds, but now we find that wherever there is a 
dear section of the upper part of the Bembridge 
Marls this thin seam — never more than two inches 
thick — ^is found at from three to eight feet below 
the Black Band. It is well seen on the foreshore at Hamstead 
and near Yarmouth. 

On the east bank of the Medina, near Whippingham, one of 
the trial-borings made by the Survey reached clay fiill of Serpula, 
apparently belonging to the lower part of the Bembridge Marls. 

Crossing the Medina good sections were exposed in the Zerena 
slip-way, near Shambler's Copse. At the time of the re-suryey 
the section was obscured, but it appears to have cut through the 
marine beds and the underlying Lunestone. The following fossils 
were found in the spoil heap : — 



Cyrena obovata. 

„ obtnsa. 

„ semistriata. 
Cerithium elegans. 



Cerithium mntabile. 
Melania mnricata. 
Melauopsis carinata. 
Lanma (tooth). 



Fig. 62. 

Pseudocythere 

Bristaviif Jones 

& Sherbom.* 



Similar beds were well seen in a deep ditch by the side of the 
railway cutting a quarter of a mile further south, close to Bolton 
Copse. Here the base of the Marl is crowded 
wim Melania tnuricata, so that the heaps 
looked quite white after iBm. The other 
species obtained were Serpula tenuis, Cyrena 
obovata, C obtusa and Cerithium mutabile. 
In places, a seam of white marl hardens into 
a' shell- limestone containing Cyrena setnis' 
triata, Cerithium mutabile, and Neritina 
concava. In this Cyrena limestone J. Rhodes 
found a new Cyprid (Fig. 62), 

A mile further south, at Werror Brick 
Yard, J. Rhodes obtained Plant-remains, 
Fish-bones, Paleryx, and a phalanx of a Bird. 
These were found immediately below the 
Hamstead Beds, which are also shown in the 
same pit. At this point the Bembridge Marls 
are lost beneath the marsh level. 
A series of wells at Cowes, the West 




. Biffht Talve (slightly 
brokeii along the Ten- 
tral edge). 

. Edge view. Magni- 
fied 30 diam. 



* Siipp. Monogr. Tert. Batom. Pai. See,, 1889. 



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176 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

Medina Cement Works, and Newport will be found in the 
Appendix. Unfortunately the samples preserved are not suffi- 
cient to prove the exact position of the base of the Hamstead 
Beds, or to show the palseontological character of the different 
parts of the Bembridge Marls. However, they show that the 
Marls are about 120 feet thick, and that they consist of variously 
coloured clays, as in other parts of the Island. 

The cliffs between Cowes and Gurnard are now much over- 
grown and obscured by landslips, but the marine beds overlying 
the limestone seem to have been better exposed when Forbes 
visited this part He observes that : " At Gurnard Bay, whitish 
marls, separated by a carbonaceous band, immediately surmount 
the limestone, and then succeeds about a foot thick of blue clay 
and shelly stone full of CyrencB, This is surmounted by nearly 
three feet of dark shaly clays containing oysters, Cyrena 
pulchra and obovata^ and Cerithium mutabile, a shell here much 
more plentiful than I have observed it elsewhere. A well- 
marked band of pale blue septarian stone succeeds ; then come 
some 10 feet of shales and clays, with Cyrena obtusa and 
obovata^ Melania muricata^ and the Cerithium, which fossils re- 
occur in clays and shales occasionally forming compact bands 
to the summit of the cliff. At the point where this section was 
noted the upper beds of the Bembridge limestone only are above 
the shore." 

A short distance north of Gurnard Ledge, the upper part of the 
Marls can be examined, for a small outlier of the Hamstead Beds 
caps the hill. Here the shelly 'seam full of Hydrobia Chastelt, 
Melania muricata, and Melanopsis carinata is found 8 feet below 
the Black Band. Further south, near Sticelett, the same seam is 
again met with in the upper part of the cliff. 

The lower portion of the Bembrid*re Marls in Gurnard and 
Thorness Bays is of great interest, for it contains a thin seam of 
insect-lime?<tone, which adds very largely to our knowledge of 
the land fauna of this period. Tliis limestone was discovered 
by Mr. E. J. A'Court Smith nearly thirty years ago, but no 
account of it appears to have been published till I)r. Henry 
Woodward, recognising the great interest of the fauna, read notes, 
on it before the British Association and Geological Society in 
1877.* Unfortunately a misunderstanding of the relation of the 
beds led to the ^ insect limestone " being referred at first to the 
Osborne Series and subsequently to the Bembridge Limestone. 
Its true position, however, is in the lower part of the Bembridge 
Marls, aoove the oyster bed. 

This part of the series was re-examined in May 1888 (hy 
Clement Beid) in company with Mr. Smith, who pointed out the 
exact position of the insect limestone and showed a number of the 

* Rep, Brii. Asmoc, for 1S77, Trans, of Sections, p. 78, and Quart. Joum. Oeol. 
Soe., vol. zxzv. p. 842, and pi. zit. 



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BEMBRIDGE MARLS. 177 

fossils which he had obtained. A short distance west of Gurnard 
L^dge the section of the lower part of the cliff was : — 

Ft. In. 
Blue day - -- - - - -10 

Fine-gnined blue-hearted limestone, like lithographic stone. 
Many insect remains, and occasional leaves and fresh-water 
shells. This bed does not appear to be perfectly continuous, 
but forms large thin cakes dyin^ out for a few feet and 
coming on again at the same horizon. One portion, a 
little rarther west, thickened to 2 feet, and was full of 
insect remains, but is now entirely destroyed - - 3 

Blue day - - - - - - - 3 

Sandy bed, fiill of Cert^Atttm m«/a^/« - - - 3 

Blue clay, with Cyrena obovttta, Melania muricata, Melanoptis 
carinata, and PaltuUna globuioides - - - - 2 6 

Ferruginous loam, with Ostrea vectensis, Cytherea incrassata, 

Cyrena, Cerithkim mutabUe, &c. - - • - 10 

Bembridge Limestone. 

Mr. Smith has traced the Insect Bed from West Cowes nearly 
to the Newtown river. He states that it varies in thickness from 
2 inches to about 2 feet^ though the extreme measurement of 
2 feet is quite exceptional. Its distance above the Bembridge 
Limestone also varies slightly, sometimes being as much as 
9 feet. 

The fossils of the Insect Bed have been collected during many 
years by Mr. A' Court Smith, to whose industry we owe the 
whole of our knowledge of this interesting fauna. Among the 
forms contained in his collection are numerous beetles, flies, 
locusts, and even spiders and caterpillars. These have been as 
yet only partially studied, but Mr. Frederick Smith gave the 
following ust of genera* : — 

I. COLBOPTBRA. V. NbUROPTBRA. 

1. Staphylinus. 12. Phryganea. 

2. Dorcus (Lucanidaa). 13. Termes P 

3. Anobiimi. 14. Hemerobius. 

4. Cureulio. 15. Perla. 

16. Agrion. 

II. Hymknoptbra. 17. ^ings of LibeUula. 

6: TSL'- VI. OBTHOPT.KA. 

7. Myrmica. 18. Gryllotalpa. 

8. Camponotus. 19- Acridiids. 

III. Lepidoptbra. VII. Hbmiptbra. 

9. Lithosia. 20. Wing of P 



21. Triecphora sanguinolenta. 

A] 
11. T^puSdsB. 1. Spider. 



IV. DiPTBRA. 

10. Wings of. Arachnida, 



♦ In Dr. Woodward's paper. 
E 56786. 



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178 



GSOLOOT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Fig. 68. 

Potamocypris 
Brodiei, J. & S. 



To this list Dr. EL Woodward adds two new Crustacea: a 
FhyUopody Branchipodites vectensis, and an Isopod^ Eosphmrcma 
/luviatile, A second species of Isopod^ Eosphceroma Smithit, was 
discovered hj Mr, Smith in a " fine yellow 
marl or pipe-clay^ full of rootlets of aquatic 
plants*' somewhat higher in the smes, 
Ostracoda also occur, and in the last volume 
of the Palseontographical Society's mono- 
graphs^ Messrs. Jones and Sherbom de- 
scribe a new species of Potamocypris 
(Fig. 63). 

The determinable plant-remains in the 
Insect Bed, though not abundant, are also 
interesting, but until Mr. Gardner has 
finished Us monograph on the Oligocene 
flora not much can be said about them. 

More to the west^ at Thomess Pointy 
Forbes measured a good section of the 
middle beds of the marls, exhibiting the 
following succession in descending order : — 




0. 



h. 



a. Bight valve (Blightly 
broken at the posterior 
margin). 

b. Edge view. Magnified 
aodiam. 



Ft. In. 



Green clays, with plentiful spedmeiiB of Melanopsis ccarinata^ 
and, leas abundantly, Paludina lenta^ Melania turritisgima, 
and Cyrena obovata ..... 

Band of comminuted MeUadm .... 

Dark-green shaly marls^ with ferruginous concretions, and 
numerous specimens of Melania murieata and Melanopsis 
earmata, a belt of which shell forms the base of this bed - 

Green marls, with Paludina lenta - - . . 

Pale-yellow'stmiy band, composed of comminuted shells, and 
becoming a limestone. Broken Cyrena and Melania muri-' 
cata form the mass of it - 

Green clays, with lines of broken Melania murieata • 

Band of comminuted Melania murieata ... 

Green marly stone, with a well-preserved band of Melania 
murieata -..-... 

Band of comminuted Cyrena . • 

Grey septarian stone band, capped by a thin layer of greenish 
8ton& with fucoidal markings .... 

Greenish marls, with bands of finely preserved Cyrena obovata, 
very abundant, patches of Melmua murieata, and scattered 
BhSla c^ Paludina lenta - • - - .2 

Band of septarian stone ..... 

Green clays, full of Melania murieata, constituting the last 
bed exposed upon the shore. 



In this neighbourhood the thickness of the Bembridge Marls 
has apparently decreased to about 90 feet, but the Hamstead 
Beds are so ovexgrown that it is difficult to obtain exact measure- 
ments. 

Crossing the Newtown Biver, we find, at Hamstead, the only 
locality where a section of the entire thickness of the Bembridge 
Marls is displayed. Here the whole of the beds which compose 



6 




2 


2 
2 


2 
3 


1 




2 






4* 
4t 





6 


2 



6 
2 



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BEMBBIDGE MABLS. 179 

the Bubdiyision^ from the Bembridge Limestone forming Ham- 
stead ledge to the ** Black Band** which constitutes the base of 
the Hamstead Series^ may be examined in detail at low water 
without a break, as they successively crop out on the shore^ and 
their beautifully preserved fossils may there be collected. 

The following section taken along the shore, at low water, in 
1856, by Sir A. Ramsay, then Director of the Geological 
Survey, Professor John Morris, and H. W. Bristow, is more 
complete than that of Professor Forbes, in consequence of its 
supplying the thicknesses of the several beds, which are omitted 
in his section. 



Bembridge MarU of Hamstead 

Measured along the Shore at Low Water, 

Ft. In. 
Black Band (base of Hamstead Series) - - - 1 9 

Green days, with large bands of Paludina lenta - - 4 6 

Ironstone -. - - • - - -09 

Clay 4 

Clay with Paludina - - - - - • 4 6 

Concretionaiy ironstone - - - - - 3 

Clay with Pa;«<^a . - - - - - 4 6 

Clay wiih two or three small black bands - - - 2 6 

Ferruginous brown sandy clay, with PalwUna at base, thick- 
ness variable - - - - - 0to06 
Thin bituminous bands, with reed-like plants, and a layer of 

Paludina lenta below filled with green clay - - 1 

Grey clay, with short zones of Melania FbrbesH and nodules 

containing Paludina lenta ^ - - • - 3 

Band of scattered nodules of iron pyrites, overlying verdigris- 
green clays, with bands of PaluOina lenta (occasionally of 
very large size), Melania Forhetn - - - - 5 

Dark-grey days, with Paludina and numerous oval seed- 
vessels, and containing thin carbonaceous sandy bands, with 
(reed-like) plant impressions, Cypns, Paludina^ Planorbis 
immediatdy overlying a layer of large Limnaa, This is 
altogether a freshwater deposit - - • - 3 

Bands of Melania turritissima, Planorbis, and Paludina -01 
Greenish shaly clay, with conoretions of indurated marl, and 
containing near the base a band of Melania turritissima, 
M. costata, Melaw^sis carinata, Paludina, Sfc. - - 4 

Hard shelly band chiefly made up of Melania turritissima, a 

few Melanopsis, and fragments of Fish - - - 3 

Pale-grey day, with bands of compressed shells, chiefly 

Palu^na 2 

Sandy band, fall of Cyrena obtusa (with both valves), 

Cefithiumnxid Melanopsis fttsifornds - - - 9 

Pale greenish shaly clay, with a thin band of Melania turrit 
tissima 6 inches from the top, and a 1-inch bituminous 
band at 3 feet. Compressed Carpolithes, Melania turri- 
iisshna, Melanopsis carinata • - - - 6 

M 2 



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180 GEOLOGT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Ft. In. 

Sandy clajr, with Melania muricata, M, turritissima, Mela- 
nopsis, 3 incheti thick, resting on sandy clagr, almost entinly 
oomposed of Melania muricatay with a few broken Cyrena, 
and some Melanopsis - - - -04to07 

Bluish irregular shahr clay, with selenite. A band of Melania 
turritissima and Melanopsis carinata, 2 inches from the top, 
Paludina 3 

Indurated, greenish marly clay, with bands of Paludina 
lenta - • - - - - -46 

Greenish clay, with 2 bands of broken Cyrena obtusa, and C. 
semistriata, and on the top a bed of Melania muricata, 
with scattered Melanopsis, and occasional Cerithium .09 

Green clays, Melania turritissima,with scattered Melanopsis and 
Melania muricata, mixed with patches of Cyrena semistriata, 
C. ohovata. Fish remains, &c., about the middle 4 inches 1 

Green days, n^th. Melania murieata, M. turritissima, and 
numerous Melanopsis carinata and Paludina lenta - - 1 6 

Verdigris-green day, with Cyrena semistriata - - 1 

Bright-green days, with Cyrena semistriata on the top - 2 

Bluish-green clays, with bands of Melania murieata and 
Cyrena obovata - - - • - -16 

Hard, sandy green marl, with scattered Cyrena semistriata - 6 

Verdigris-green clays, with 5 bands of Cyrena semistriata and 

Greenish clay, with 2 marked bands 1 and 2 inches thick, 
full of Melania murieata (small var.)» occasional Cyrena 
pulchra, and a few Cyrena semistriata - - - 1 

Green clays, with Cyrena semistriata (finely preserved) C. 
pulchra and Melanta - - - - - 9 

Dark clay, with soft green sandy concretions, 6 inches; 
greenish clay 1 foot. Scattered Cyrena obovata - - 1 6 

Blue clay, with small Cyrena {obovata 7), Melania murieata, 
and Melanopsis - - - . - -10 

Bbm BRIDGE LiMBRTONS in 3 bcds, with softer beds between^ 
forming a ledge (Hamstead Ledge), out at sea, in the 
direction of the Buoy, and containing numerous LimntBa 
longiscata, Chara, &c. 



Total of Bembridge Marls - - - 69 6 



Forbes gives the total as nearly 75 feet, but it is diBScult 
to obtain exact measurements in these soft beds. A recent 
measurement in the cliff above Hamstead Ledge gave 82 feet, so 
probably Forbes was nearly correct. 

Though not mentioned in the above section, the thin seam fiill 
oHHydrohia ChasteliynVi be found about 5 feet under the Black 
Band. The marine bed with Ostrea at the base of the series, 
was recorded by Forbes; but marine fossils are not abundant, and 
like most of the subdivisions in the OHgocene series, this bed also 
tends to become more estuarine towards the west. 
^ On the southern side of the syncline, the Bembridge Marls 
rise from below the Hamstead Beds due north of the pomt where 



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BEMBBIDGE MARLS. 



181 



Fig. 64. 

Melania 

turritissima, 

Forbes. 



the high-road strikes the coast. Here exceptionally good ex- 
posures were visible during 1887 and 1888, for though the olifE is 
low and overgrown, a continuous foreshore of claj was laid bare 
as far as the first houses in Yarmouth. The strata are so like 
those on the north side of the synclinal that it is unnecessary to 
give detailed measurements. The seam with Hydrobia Chasteh 
again occurs a few feet under the Black 
Band, and the section below is continued 
down to the Melania turritissima (Fig. 64) 
beds, which lie 10 or 15 feet above the 
Limestone. The base of the Marls cannot 
be examined here, but the Limestone out- 
crops on the other side of Yarmouth, at the 
Gras Works and Station. 

A good deal of drift wood occurs in the 
Bembridge Marls between Hamstead and 
Yarmouth, and thin seams rendered quite 
black by the number of seeds they contain 
are often conspicuous on the shore or in the 
washed base of the difi; The drift wood does not occur as rafts, 
but generally as isolated trunks and branches, often of considerable 
size. One of these'trunks, examined by Mr. Keeping and Clement 
Reid, was cleared for 18 feet without reaching the end. It 
measured 3^ inches thick at the broken smaller end, only in- 
creasing to 5 inches 13 feet below. The thickness of the over- 
lying clay prevented us from following the tree further, but its 
straightness and slenderness showed that it had probably grown 
in a forest — not in open ground. In the Marls near Yarmouth 
Toll Grate we also obtained portion of the bones of a large teleostean 
fish. 

Inland sections on the southern side of the syncline are few, 
and do not expose any of the more characteristic beds. In the 
railway cuttings near Shalfleet, Cyreiia obtusa (Fig. 65) is common, 
but no other species were noticed. 

On the west side of the Yar there are 
three outliers of the Bembridge Marls. 
The first caps the Ions ridge between Sconce 
and Cliff End for about half a mila It 
exhibits no clear sections, and all that can be 
made out is that days with Cyrena obavata, 
C. semistriata; Melania muricata^ Melanapsis 
Jusiformis^ and Serpula overlie the lime- 
stone. The thickness cannot be great; 
probably it is under 20 feet. The second 
outlier, of still smaller extent and thickness, 
occurs at Hill Cross, south of Norton. 

Shelly marl is found in the road' cutting, but there is no section. 

The third ouUier underlies the gravel capping Headon HilL 



Fig. 66. 

Cyrena obtusa, 
Forbes. 




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182 



GBOLOGT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Fig. 66. 

Melanopsis 
carinata, Sow. 




No section is visible^ and the surface is much ebscured by washed 
gravel. The Bembridge Marls here consist of grey and white 
clays with Cyrena. 

The fauna of the Bembridge Marls is not a prolific one. 
Leaving out the mammals^ which are little known^ though 
apparently the same as those of the Limestone^ the vertebrates 
are turtles, crocodiles, and fish, such as occur throughout the 
Oligocene Beds. 

The assemblage of moUusca is poor, consisting of abundance of 
individuals belonging to comparatively few 
species, the common genera being Cyrenuy 
Melajiia, Melanopsis (Fig. 66), and Paludina. 
However, thoogh the species are few, the 
shells are fine and remarkable for their 
beautiful state of preservation. The species 
of Cyrena often retain their colour-markings. 
In the marine beds, fossils are not usuimy 
well preserved, but this horizon is especially 
worthy of careful examination, for any cor- 
relation with other districts must be founded 
mainly on the marine moUusca. Though 
few species of these mollusca have yet been 
Obtained, it is important to note that a 
considerable proportion of them is con- 
fined to this horizon. Among these 
are Area Websteri (Fig. 60, p. 173), and 
Ostrea vectensis (Fig. 67). 

Certain thin seams in the Bembridge 
Marls contain only freshwater forms; 
but the usual character of the deposits 
and their included fauna points to an 
estuarine origin. Red-mottled lagoon 
clays, with nothing but remains of 
turtles and crocodiles, are compara- 
tively rare in these beds, though they 
appear again and again on Afferent 
horizons throughout the Oligocene and 
Eocene formations. 

Drift-wood, seeds, and fruit are com- 
mon in the Bembridge Marls, especially 
near Hamstead and Yarmouth, but few 
plants have yet been determined. The 
only good^ leaf-bed yet observed seems 
to be the insect-limestone, where, how- 
ever, leaves are not abundant. 
The following list of the Bembridge plants has been revised 

by Mr. Gardner; but the whole flora being under examination, 

the list can only be regarded as provisional : — 



Fig. 67. 

Ostrea vectensis^ 

Forbes. 




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BEMBBIDOE MABLS. 183 

Chan Lyellii, 'Forbes. Doliostrobus Siembergii» Chepp. 

> medicaginula, Brong, fingelhaidtia, sp. 

tubercalata, JjjfelL Ficus, ap. 

Claysodium Ui»»«>um, T^iani. ?!?Si ^T^"""' ^'^' 

Gis;heni..Bp. &jS2r;:'- 

Arthrotaxis (Sequoia) CouttsisD, Heer. Rnus Dizoni, Botoerb. 

Carpolithes (FollicnliteB) Websteri, Rhus, sp. 

. Brang. Sabal major^ Heer, 

Cinnamomum lanoeolatum^ Unger, Vibumum, sp. 

— — — — polymorphum, Unger, Ziijphus Ungeri, Ett. 



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184 QE0L06T OF THE ISLE OF ¥n[Oirr. 



CHAPTER XII. 



OLIQOCENE— «mftni«^df. 



Hambteab Beds. 

In 1853 Forbes pointed out that a thick series of beds overlies 
the Bembridge Marls, ^^^1 yields in its upper part a marine fi^una, 
which includes a large number of characteristic species. These 
beds attracted great interest, for they were the highest of our 
older Tertiary series, and were separated by many writers from 
the rest of the Fluvio-Marine Beds and were referred to the Miocene 
period. Though no longer classed as Miocene the interest of these 
deposits has not decreased, for nearly all the recent additions to 
the fauna are characteristic of the upper part of the Hamstead 
group. 

Not only has our knowledge of the fauna increased since 
Forbes' time, but the deposits prove to be both thicker and more 
extensive than was originally imagined. When Forbes' Memoir 
was published the only known strata of this age occurred in 
Hamstead and Bouldnor cliffs, with a doubtful outlier in Parkhurst 
Forest Now it has been ascertained that they cover a much 
larger area, for they extend over about half the Tertiaiy basin in 
the Isle of Wight, stretching continuously from Yarmouth to 
Brading, and occupying the greater part of the wide trough of 
the Isle of Wight syncline. 

In thickness also Forbes under-estimated the importance of this 
group. Instead of only reaching about 170 feet in Hamstead 
Cliff, new measurements prove that the Hamstead Beds are there 
266 feet thick (probably rather more), and that at Parkhurst 
Forest, and at Wootton, in the East Medina, they also exceed 
200 feet. 

Forbes divided the Hamstead Series into : — 
Corbula beds. 
Upper freshwater and estuary marls (ftdl of Cerithium 

plicatum). 
Middle freshwater and estuary marls (full of Melania 

fcuciata), with the " White Band " at the base. 
Lower freshwater and estuary marls (with Melania 

muricata and Melanopsis carinata). 
"Black Band." 



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hamstead beds. 



185 



Fig. 68. 

Cerithium plicatum. 
Lam. 



Fig. 69. 

Corbula pisum, 
Sow. 



Fig. 70. 

Cerithium elegans^ 
Desh. 






Fig. 71. 
Corbula veeteiisis^ Forbes. 




-h. 



This classification might with ad- 
vantage be considerably simplified. 
The Corbula Beds and Cerithium 
plicatum Beds pass imperceptibly into 
each other, and form one marine divi- 
sion, with Corbula becoming scarcer 
below, and Cerithium dying out 
. - . above. In fact, these strata become 

^^1^^^ more truly marine upwards, though 

/^^^^^^ Corbula vectensis (Fig. 71) extends 

V^^^^"'^^^ downwards even to the base of the 

marine bands. 
The line between the Middle and Lower Freshwater and 
Estuary Marls is a very indefinite one, and proves to be only of 
local value, for the White Band, which Forbes took as the 
junction, soon dies out and there is no palaeontological evidence on 
which to separate the two horizons.* 

The Hamstead Beds may therefore be divided into : — 



Marine Beds, with Corbula, Cytherea, Ostrea 
callifera, Cuma, Voluta, Natica, Cerithium^ and 
Melania - - - _ . 

Freshwater, estuarine, and lagoon beds, with 
UniOf Cyrena^ CyclaSy Paludina, Hydrobia, 
Melania, Planorbis, Cerithium (rare). Turtles, 
Crocodiles, Mammals, Leaves, and Seeds 



Feet. 



31 



225 



256 



* Melania fasciata seems to be onlj a stunted form of M. inflata. Selected 
specimens are suffioientlj different, bat certain beds contain forms that might be 
referred to either. 



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186 



GBOLOaY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



As the beds were evidently considerably thicker than had been 
thought, they were re-measured during the summer of 1888. The 
following section is the one then made : — 

Section of the Hamstead Beds at Hamstead, 
(Measured by Clement Eeid and Henry Keeping.) 



Drift 



Upper 
Hamstead 

BedB 
(mariDe) 

3\i feet. 



Febt. 

{Irre^gular clayey gravel of subangolar flint, 
flmt and quartz pebbles, &c. - to 5 

'"Pale bluish-green clay (much weathered), with 
seams of Ostrea caUifera bored by Lithodcmus 
and overgrown by Balanus - - - 11 

Carbonaceous and ferruginous days, full of 
broken and waterwom Cvrena semittriata. 
Ouma CharlegtDorthii and VohUa Rathieri 
also occur occasionally - - -1 

Stiff blue clay, full of Corhula pisum, Cerithuim 
plicatuM, 0. elegansy Valuta RatMeri, and 
Strebloceras comitoides, 'A layer of flat 
septaria about the middle - - - 7 

Black day, full of Oorbuia vectensis. Also 
Cytherea LyellU, Oyrena semiitriata, Hydrobia 
Chasteli, OerUhium jtlicatum, 0. eleffans, 
Melania fasciata, 3f . wflata . • . ^ 

Shal^ days, with Cvrena semutriata, Ceritkium 
phcatum, HydroUa Chasteli, seam of 3fya. 
minor. Occasional Paludina lenta and Unio 
towards the base - - - .4^ 

Shell-bed, full of CerUhium plicatvm, 0. ele^asu, 
Hydrobia Chasteli, Melania inflata, and 
Cyrena semistriata . - . . | 

Shaly clays. Seams of Paludina lenta 'tsid 

Unio - - - - - * - 4 

Stiff blue clay, carbonaceous at the base. 
Scattered Cyrena semistriata. At base seams 
of Mya minor, with Cerithium plicatum, 
C. elegans, Hydrobia Chasteli, Melania 
injlata, Corbula vectensis, Cyrena semistriata, 
and Balanus ..... l| 
Laminated carbonaceous clay, and sand- 
partings with Cyclas - • . 1 
Green clay, with Pa Wwa - - - 3| 
Carbonaceous clay, with Chora - - i 
Mottled red and ^^reen clay. Unio, Paludina, 

seeds, &c., occasionallv • . - 11 

Obscure (mottled clays P) . - - 18 

Carbonaceous seams, with Carpolithes ovulum, 

Unio, and Paludina lenta - - * 2 

Carbonaceous clays, with seams of Melania 
injlata, var. hevts, Unio, Paludina, Planorbis, 
Hydrobia Chasteli, and Seeds • - 15 

Bluish loam . • - - - l 

Clay, with Paludina, Seeds, Sec. - -3 

Obscure - - - - . 4 

Clays, with occasional Paludina and Melania, 

and seams of Carpolithes ovulum. Fossils rai« 20 
Obscure - - • . - 5 

Laminated carbonaceous day, with Seeds, 
Palm-leaves, leaves of Water-lily, Unio, 
Paludina lenta, Melania, and Candona - If 

Green and red marls - • - - 8 

Obscure (P sparingly fossiliferous) - - 60 



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hAmstead beds. 



187 



Lower 
Hamstead 

Beds 

(lacustrine 

and estuarine) 

224i feet. 



Whitb Band — Green clajs and white shelU 
marls. Melaniafasciata, Gerithiuminomatum, 
0' Sedgwickn, Mya minor, &c. 

Green clay, with lines of ironstone nodules at 
the base - - - - - 

Obscure '--..- 

Black or slate-coloured carbonaceous day, full 
of Gyrena semistriata and Nematura pupa. 
Also Bythinia coniea, Gerithmm 2 sp.t and 
Gyclas Bristovtt - - - - 

Green clay - - - - - 

Black laminated clay, full of Planorbis obtusut, 
P. ap., and Gyelas BrittovH - - • 

Green clays - - - . - 

Mixed black and green clay, full of Melania 
muricata, Hydro^ Ghatteli, lAmnma, Plan^ 
orbis, &c. - - - _ . 

Green clays with PalwUna, Nematura, sp. (in 
the upper part), Melanopsis carinata 

Black Band, full of Paiudina lerUa ; Unio at 
the base - . - . - 

Total ' . 



Fbbt. 



7 

28 



3 
U 



20 

H 
255} 



The constant landslips from Hamstead cliff render it impossible 
to measure the whole of the beds at any one time. It will there- 
fore be necessary, as far as possible, to fill up the gaps in the above 
section from notes taken during the original survey of the Island. 
Unfortunately the 60 feet of beds above the White Band do not 
appear ever to have been measured in detail, and the following 
section only gives the lower part : — 

Section of the lower part of the middle freshwater and estuary 
marls and of the white band, measured in a low cliff on the 
shore, at the base of a great founder, (By Professors Ramsay 
and Morris) 

Ft. In, 
Rubble. 

Small bands of day, with apparently nodules of ironstone - 4 

Band of crushed C^rena 1 inch . . . . .-^ 

Shaley clay I inch • - • - "Lft^ 

Band of crushed Gyrena and Melania faseiata in great abundance, r ^ ^ 

1 inch - - - - • - -^-J 

Brown clay - - - - " - -Olf 

Ferruginous band: Melania faseiata, Gyrena, Paiudina separated 
by a very thin layer (sometimes passing into it) from another 
sunilar layer - - - - - • -OIJ 

Ferruginous band, containing the same shells ; with Gerithium •02 
Laminated clay, with bands oi compressed Melania and Gyrena about 9 
Greenish tenacious clay, with bands of Paiudina and Fish remains 3 
Ferruginous concretions^ covering a layer of compressed Gyrena -02 
Tenacious green clay ; a layer of Melania (and bones of turtle) 

1 inch from the bottom, with concretions of clay-ironstone 

Thin layer of vegetable matter, with reed-like plants and long 

seeds (FolUculiies), patches of Paiudina ... 

Greenish sandy clay forming the shore, with large concretions ; 

patches of shells, Pa/tu2tna . . . - . 

P Verdigris-green clay, with two bands of Gyrena semistriata, 

more or less perfect ; in the lower half of the bed (between 

which is a thin layer of ironstone with Panop^a GibbsU ?) 

Gerithium, Melania, Fish, and FbUicvUtes m the lowest 

band of Gyrena - - - - - 1 



S 
Oi 
3 






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188 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Further east^ about 100 yards west of some stakes driven into 
the beach, where the fVhite Band comes to the base of the cliff, it 
contaius occasional large white nodular concretions 10 inches thick 
and a yard long, while above it are two bands of clay-ironstone, 
each one inch ihick. 



Section measured eastward of the preceding section^ where the 
white band appears at the base of the cliff. 

Ft. In. 
Dark clay ------- 20 

Tenacious dark-greenish clav ; at two inches below the top 
of the bed are two 1-inch bands of tabular ironstone, 
containing PaMiina, and separated by two inches of 
clay also with Pahndina ----- 10 

In. 
Very shelly day, with Cyrena, Melania, and Oerithium 3 

Clay OJ 

Shelly clay, as before ----- 2 
Clay with compressed Gyrena - - - - 1 

Shelly bands, as before ; sometimes separated by a thin 

layer of clay - - - - -3to4 

Clay, with bands of Gyrena, Gerithmm, and MeJania 4 

Green clay, mostly filled with broken Gyrena and 
Geriihiwn. The shells in this band are much black- 
ened, and occasionally at the bottom are Panopma 
in upright positions, partly sinking into the clay 
1^ below, Melania fasciata, Gerithiwn SedgwicJeii - 2 
Greenish clav about two feet from the shore, forming the 
base of the cliff, and containing bands of crushed 
PahuUna - - - . - - 



>4 IJ 



Further east of the place where the above section was measured, 
all the bands forming the White Band unite, and are well seen in 
the cliff, forming a distinctly marked white line at its base, with 
about twelve feet of dark clay weathering brown above. 

The next three sections help to fill up the gaps in the beds 
between the White Band and the Black Band. 



About S,£!. of the buoy the following section was measured in a 
projecting point of the undercliff. 

Ft. Ih. 

Laminated tenacious clay, with shelly bands, mostly made up of 
broken Gyrena - - - - - - -16 

Laminated clays, with Hydrobia Chasteli and Cyprida - - 9 

Band of broken Cyrena - - - - --02 

Lenticular patches of white marl, containing fragments of lignite 

and disseminated vegetable matter, with reed-Uke stems - 9 

Tenacious blue day - - - - - -03 

Fossil band ; Melania muricaia, Melanopsis, Gyrena or Gyclas, 

Nematura pupa, Candona ; Planorbis on surface of bed - - 6 

Tenacious greenish clay, with layers of Paludina and seeds towards 
the middle - - - - - - - 3 

Ochreous clay, passing into ironstone - - - - 1 

Stiff lead-colotured clays with several bands of Palndina towards 
the upper part; more sandy and ferruginous towards the base, 
where the beds sometimes become very finely laminated - 20 

Probable position of the Black Band, 



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Ft. 


In. 








5 





20 








1 


4 





1 





5 








4 





5 





6 





7 


1 


6 



HAMSTEAD BEPS. ' 189 

Section measured further west, in the broken ground a few feet 
above the shore, about 29^ E, of S.from the buoy on Hamstead 
Ledge. 

Traces of White Band on the top of broken ground 

Ground not seen •---.. about 

Clay, weathering brown, with traces of Cyrena bands on the 

weathered surfaces ..... about 

Ferruginous band, with fingments of shells . . - 

Laminated clays, unfossiliferous P - 

Clays, with laminse of Cyrena semistriata - . - - 

Dark tenacious clay, with two bands of Gyrena, the upper con. 

taining namerous Nematura pvpa and valves of Cyrena, often 

perfect and united at the hinge - - . . 

G-reen clay, with Cyprida .----• 

Dark fossil.band, Planorbis on top of bed, Cyprida throughout, 

associated with Melania muncata, M. fasdaia, a smootii 

Melania, Melanopsisfusiformis, Limnaa, and Cyrena or Cyclas 

Clay, with band of Cyprida and occasional Me/ania* at the base - 

Clay - 

Clay, with compressed PahuUna and seed vessels 

Measured (by pacing) along the shore at low water, under Hamstead 

ma. 

Ft. In. 

Shdly band with Melania, Hydrobia, Limnma, and Planorbis on top 

ofbed 6 

Green clays, with Paludina and seeds - - - - 4 6 

White marl, with Paludina lenta - - . - - 3 

Green clays, with bands of Paludina lenta and Melanopsis carinata 18 

Black Band, with reed-like plants, and Unio and Paludina at base 1 9 

As the Hamstead Series, though of considerable thickness, 
presents no breaks and no marked lithological changes, special 
attention may with advantage be called to its different fossiliferous 
horizons that can be identified inland. These, with their approxi- 
mate distances above the Black Band, are as follows : — 

Feet. 
Corbula and Cerithium plicatum beds - - 224 to 256 

Water-lily and leaf beds - - - 140 

White Band ... - - 66 

Nematura beds - - - - 30 

Black Band ..... o 

The Black Band was taken by Forbes as the base of the 
Hamstead Series '* for several reasons, and foremost, because It 
is apparently the first bed that succeeds to those which terminate 
the Bembridge marl at Whitecliff and elsewhere in the Isle of 
Wight. This circumstance, combined with those of the beginning 
of a new series of fossils, of which the Missoa Chasteli (Fig. 61, 
p. 175) is the first conspicuous representative, pf the disappearance 
of others, and the probable indications of a terrestrial surface 
indicated in some of the features, both of this bed itself and the 
bed below it, may fairly warrant the choice of so well marked an 
horizon." 



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190 



GBOLOOT OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 




Fig. 73. 
Unio Gibbsii^ Forbes. 




Fig. 72. Forbes thus describes the Black Band :— 

Cyclas Bristovii, Forbes. « It consists of nearly two feet of firm 

carbonaceous laminated clays, abounding 
in fossils. These are Paludina lenta, 
very numerous; HydrobiaChasteUmcqor, 
scarce ; Melanopsis . carinata ; Limn(B<B ; 
PJanarbis obtusits,o( large size ; a peculiar 
small Cyclas, (C Brtstovii, Fig. 72), 
which I have not met with elsewhere ; 
and fish vertebras. Impressions of the 
linear leaves of gramineous plants, occa- 
. sionally large seed vessels, and Gyrogo' 
'nites are found in it, and lumps of 
Ugnite. At its base is found a seam of 
tfnio (U. Gibbsii, Fig. 73) containing 
well-preserved specimens." 

** The Black band rests in perfect conformity on a bed, three feet 
in thickness, of dark green marls, becoming paler below, and 
separated by an irregular seam of broken univalves {Paludina 
lento) from greenish blue pale marly clays, with lenticular seams 
of crushed Paludina. In the dark green marls are scattered fine 
specimens of Paludina lenta and Melanopsis, also numerous fossil 
bones. There are, moreover, in this bed, curious vertical or 
slanting tubular concretions, with hollow cavities, as if formed 
round the roots of plants." 

This weathering of the surface of the underlying Bembridge 
Marls is very noticeable. It is a character still more marked 
inland, where repeatedly after boring through unweathered 
Hamstead Beds we penetrated a carbonaceous soil (the Black 
Band), and then again entered weathered clays full of roots, like 
the surface soil many feet above. 

Though this thin bed, however, can be traced nearly throughout 
the Island, there seems to be no evidence of any real break. 
Fossil species die out upwards one by one, and are replaced by other 
species. Even the species which Forbes considered to be most 
characteristic of the Hamstead Beds — HydroUa Chasteli — we have 
shown in the last chapter not to be confined to this Series, but 
to appear several feet down in the Bembridge Marls. Similarly 
Nematura pupa conies in somewhat higher: and so on with 
others. Probably if the beds were now for the first time to be 
sub-divided, we should class the the Bembridge Marls and the 
greater part of the Hamstead Beds together, and separate the 
marine beds as the commencement of a new series formed under 
different conditions. 

But though no palseontological break occurs at the Black Band, 
it was so necessary to sub-divide the thick mass of clay above 
the Bembridge Limestone, that some marked and easily re- 
cognisable bed had to be traced. The Black Band proved to 
be the only horizon that could be followed, and that would give a 
satisfactory line from which to calculate dips and thicknesses. 



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hahstead beds. 191 

Borings were therefore made, and the Black Band traced 
inland ; with the result that this horizon has been identified in 
many places, and over a wider area than any other part of the 
Hamstead Series. 

Forbes' description of the Black Band at Hamstead is excellent, 
and will also apply to the inland sections. Unfortunately the 
Nemaiurapupa bed at Hamstead has occasionally been confounded 
with the Black Band, and it is now probable that in a few of the 
well-sections and trial borings the bed at first thought to be a 
modified representative of the Black Band is really the Nematura 
pupa bed about 30 feet higher. 

In the trial-borings the difference between the Black Band 
and the days lying below and above it is even more marked than 
on the coast. The Black Band is generally a brown clay or loam, 
turning a sooty black after a few seconds exposure, in which 
abundant seeds and fish-bones are found, but lew shells except 
Paludina lentoy Melanopsis carinata, and IJnio, In it occasionally 
occur small angular fragments of flint 

The next marked zone is the Nematura pupa bed, nearly 
30 feet above the Black Band. This is a bed of laminated slate- 
coloured carbonaceous clay crowded with Cyrena semistriata, 
Nematura pupa^ Bythinia conica, and Cyprids, and more rarely 
yielding other species. On the coast it is the first bed that 
fields Nemaiurapupa^ but inland this species perhaps ranges down 
mto the Black Band, though it is not always possible to distinguish 
these horizons in borings. Though recognised at many localities 
this bed seems to be more variable than the Black Band. A few 
feet underneath it there is generally a line of Melania muricata. 

The Nematura pupa bed indicates slightly estuarine conditions 
of deposit, jaelding Modiola and Cerithium at several localities. It 
is perhaps the best horizon in the Lower Hamstead Beds for 
fossils, for not only are these exceptionally well preserved but 
the fauna is also more varied than is usual in these freshwater 
beds. The following is a list of the species obtained, but no doubt 
it could be considerably increased :— • 

Cydaa Bristovii. Melania muricata. 

Cvrena semistriata. Melanopsis carinata. 

Modiola Prestwichii. — subcarinata. 



> subulata. 



Bythinia conica. Neritina tristis. 

Cerithium elegans. Nematura pupa. 

sp. (like C. plicatum). Paludina lenta. 

Hydrobia Cnasteli. Planorbis (smidl sp.). 
Mlelania Forbesii. 

About 36 feet above the Nematura pupa bed and 66 feet above 
the Black Band occurs the White Band. This consists of green 
day in which are seams of white shell-marl. Though so con- 
spicuous at the base of Hamstead and Bouldnor Cliffs, it is not 
persistent, being only traceable as far as Parkhurst Forest. In 
the East Medina it is apparently represented by a seam of fine 
sand which, conunencing near Newport, expands eastward till it 



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192 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

reaches a thickness of about 40 feet and forms a marked 
topographical feature. 

The White Band is characterised by two species of Certthium 

(C, inornatum and (7. Sedgwickii), It also contains abundance of 

Melania fasciata (Fig. 74) and Mya (PanopoBo) minor, 

Jtf^^niflf - ^^^' "^^^^ ^^^ *^® fossils are so much decayed and so 

data Sow.' ^i^^le that no determinable specimens were obtained 

from any of the boring in Parkhurst Forest. 

Above the White Band there is a gap of 70 or 

80 feet before another marked fossiliferous horizon 

is met with. The intervening beds are generally 

much obscured by mud-streams and landsups, but 

they appear to be very sparingly fossili- 

•d« ^^^1:J1' v^^y^^ ferous. None of the inland borings or 
Panopcaa nunor, ForDes. ,, . • i j i i. r • x x • ^i.- 

^ well-sections yielded much of mterest m this 

part of the Hamstead Beds. As the series 
of borings in Parkhurst Forest penetrated 
the whole without meeting with any con- 
spicuous shell beds, it is probable that 

such are absent 

About 140 feet above the Black Band^ and 120 feet below the 

marine beds Ues a bed of compact laminated clay full of a 

Siculiar creeping root, and containing leaves of Palm and Water- 
y (Nelumbium)^ &c.* This horizon forms a ledge or low cliflF, 
over which the softer overlying beds slip. It has not yet been 
recognised inland; but as there are no open sections on this 
horizon, and the plants would not be preserved in the small cores 
obtained by boring, the leaf-bed may cover a considerable area. 

The marine beds commence about 224 feet above the Black 
Band, and range upwards to the highest point reached (see sketch 
by Edward Forbes, Fig. 76, jp. 193). Unfortunately they are 
confined to a small outlier of a few acres on Hamstead and 
Bouldnor Cliffs, and another about half a mile long at Wootton in 
the East Medina. 

A reference to the table on p. 189 will show the approximate 
position of the beds mentioned in the description of the inland 
sections, for though, as in all the Oligocene Beds, a considerable 
amount of lateral change may be remarked, yet certain marked 
beds extend persistently over the whole of the area. 

The notes made in the course of the re-survey were so 
voluminous that it has been necessary greatly to condense them ; 
but all the well-sections will be found in the Appendix, and the 

nition of each of the trial-borings is marked on the 6-inch maps 
^osited in the Office of the Geological Survey. As the number 
of the trial-borings in Hamstead Beds amounted to nearly three 
hundred, it has not been thought advisable to print so bulky a 
record, but wherever fossiliferous strata of marked character were 
met with, the occurrence will be found recorded in the text. 

* J. S. Gardner. Report of the Committee for ... . exploring the Higher 
Kooene Beds of the Isle of Wight. Report Brit. Assoc, for 18S7, p. 414. 



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hamstead beds. 
Fig. 76. 

Sketch of the upper part of Hamstead Cliff 
(By Edward Forbes). 



193 




a. Gravel, h, d. 



Marine Corbula beds. 
/. Shaly clays, 



c. e. Lower Cyrena band. 



In Parkhurst Forest, where a note by Mr. Godwin- Austen led 
us to expect an outlier of the marine beds,* the survey had to be 
entirely made by boring, for there are no open sections. Com- 
mencing at the highest part of the Forest, we made radiating series 
of borings and continued them southward and northward, till the 
Black Band was reached. These excavations, and those made by 
Mr. Keeping, lead us to conclude that the note of the occurrence 



* Mr. Qodwin-Aasten mentions the occurrence of Oatrea callifera in the Forest, 
but does not state by whom it was found. Forbes, " On the Tertiary Fluvio-marine 
Formation,** p. 37, footnote. 

E 56786. 



N 



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194 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

of Ostrea callifera (Fig. 77) is founded on some mistake. There 
seem to be no strata in the Forest so high as the base of the 
Cerithium pUcatum bed. 

Fig. 77. 
Ostrea callifera^ Lam. 




The highest strata in the Forest are found immediately west of 
the Signal House. Here an old grnvel pit has been dug, only a 
foot and a half below the top of the hill, and at the bottom of it a 
boring was made to a depth of 24 feet (B. H. 11). The surface at 
this point is 273 feet above the sea, and the base of the gravel lies 
at 266 feet. The strata passed through are red and mottled days, 
like those immediately beneath the marine beds at Hamstead and 
Wootton. Paludina occurred at 15 feet from the surface, but no 
other recognisable fossils were met with. 

About 8 chains soutn-west of the Signal House another old 
gravel pit lies at a height of 254 feet. In this ^ boring (B. H. 10), 
commencing 10 feet from the surface, was carried to a depth of 
33 feet, in alternations of red and carbonaceous clays, with 
Melania, Paludina, Unto, and Chara in the lower part This 
boring is important, as the upper part seems to show strata that are 
too much obscured to be measured at Hamstead. In this upper 
portion — ^probably corresponding with some of the beds marked 
" obscure,** about 25 feet below the marine beds* — a tooth of 
Theridomys was found at 11 feet, and another small mammalian 
bone at 15 feet Mammalian bones are of rare occurrence in the 
Hamstead Series, and the finding of two specimens in a small 
boring makes it probable that this horizon might turn out to be 
exceptionally fossiliferous, if it could be examined in Hamstead 
Cliff. 

Other borings continue the section in a southerly direction 
(B.H. 12, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43) into lower 
bed?, but nothing of interest is met with till we descend to 170 
feet. Here shell marls commence (£• H.35), but it is difficult to 

* See section, p. 186. 

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HAMSTEAD BBD& 195 

say whether they represent the White Band^ or whether this band 
should be identified with other white marls at about 120 feet 
(& H. 40). Probably the lower bed is more nearly equivalent 
to the conspicuous seam in the Hamstead Cliff. 

At the southern border of the Forest we meet with a bed that 
probably corresponds with the Nematura pupa bed of the coast. 
This is a stratum full of Cyrena semistriata and Entomostraca 
(B. H. 43). It is conspicuous over a considerable area, and its 
position and fossils correspond so well with those of the Nematura 

a a bed, that the local absence of the Nematura is counter- 
meed by the other evidence. No other band of the sort occurs 
over the same area, and a bed^ apparently on the same horizon, 
is full of Nematura pupa at Newport 

From Forest Side to Gunville the succes(*ion is carried on by 
other borings (B. H. 44 to 52). The first of these is in the same 
beds as B. H. 43, but as it commences at a higher level there must 
be a northerly dip of less than V* between these points. 

About 15 or 20 feet below the Cyrena bed lies a seam of shell 
marl crowded with Melania muricata and Hydrobia ChasteK. This 
seems to correspond with the similar seam below the Nematura pupa 
bed on the coast. 

About 26 feet lower lies the Black Band^ first met with a 
few yards noith of Gunville Bridge (B. H. 49), and again a 
quarter of a mile further south, in tlie village (B. H. 51, 52). The 
section is interesting from its exact correspondence with that seen 
at Hamstead : — 

Section 1 chain north of Gunville Bridge (B. H. 49). 

Fbbt. 
Soil - - - .... 1 

fBlue and gray loam. Nodule, with casts of small univalves 
I at 4 feet - - - - • .7 

Hamstead J L^td-coloured day. Abundant shell flragments {Paludina 
Beds. { lewta) and small anfipilar flints between 11 and 11] feet 3{- 
I Hard black laminated clay, with shells, pieces of lif^ite, 
[^ pyrites, and small angular flints • - - If 

r Green marly clay, with much ' race ' (concretions of carbonate 
Bembridge J of lime commonly found in weathered marls) and car- 
Marls. I bonaceous remains like small roots. Crushed Paludina | 
L Hard green clay ».-....} 

"ui 

On looking through the series of borings already referred to, it 
will be seen that the levels and distances have been so arranged 
that each boring slightly overlaps the preceding one. By this 
means the whole succession of strata has been penetrated^ and we 
can construct a section of the Hamstead Series comparable with 
that seen in the cliff at Hamstead. 

The total thickness of the Hamstead Series on the south side 
of Parkhurst Forest appears to be 220 feet. This calculation 
was made before the re-measurement of the typical locality, and 
it is interesting to find that it agrees thoroughly with the corrected 
thickness. The highest strata in Parkhurst Forest are extremely 

N 2 

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196 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLK OP WIGHT. 

like those immediately below the marine beds — a comparison of 
the measurements shows that they ought to be within 4 feet of 
the Cerithium plicatum bed. 

We will take next the rest of the sections in the West Medina, 
none of which show continuous exposures of any great thickness 
of beds. Commencing with the cliffs, we encounter Hamstead 
Beds for more than two miles^ from near Yarmouth Toll Gate to 
above Hamstead Ledge. Then travelling eastward we pass over 
a gap of two and a half miles, to Thorness Cliffs, where the Black 
Band again strikes the coast, much ovei^rown and hidden by 
landslips. From Thorness to Sticelett the cliff sinks, but in the 
higher cliff near the latter place the Black Band is well seen, 
overlying Bembridge Marls with the usual seam of Mdania 
muricata and Hydrobia Chasteli, Still further to the north it may 
again be examined in a pmall outlier cut through by the cliff. In 
both sections the Hamstead Beds are much weathered, only the 
lower part being exposed. 

Taking next the inland sections of the Black Band, we 
will give the evidence on which the division has been made 
on the map between the Hamstead and the Bembridge Series, 
commencing with the north side of the syncline. 

Above Hamstead ledge the Black Band strikes inland in a 
iouth-south-easterly direction. There was formerly a large brick- 
yard at Lower Hamstead, but this is now overgrown. However, 
a boring (B.H. 276) was made in the pit near the cottage. This 
proved hard brown and bluish-green clays, like those 50 or 60 
feet up in the Hamstead Beds. So another boring (B.H. 277) was 
put down on the northern shore of the creek immediately north 
of the brickyard. This proved beds crowded with Cyrena 
semistriata and Entomostraca. Another boring (B.H. 278) close 
to the shed at the Saltworks was in tough blue clay, in the upper 
part full of Paludina and Nematura, Unfortunately the speci- 
mens were destroyed, and it is uncertain whether the Nematura is 
the typical N. pupa or the other form which occurs lower down 
and near the Black Band. At any rate the outcrop of the Black 
Band lies only a few yards further north. 

Eastward the base of the Hamstead Beds disappears under the 
wide alluvial flat north of Newtown. A boring (B.H. 275) north of 
Newtown Coastguard Station proved hard clays like those found 
at Lower Hamstead. Another boring (B.H. 274) on the southern 
margin of Clamerkin Lake showed the bed with Gyreiia and 
Entomostraca, as in B.H. 277. A third boring (B.H. 271), further 
east and near Clamerkin, proved the Black Band. Beyond this 
point the strike changes and gradually curves to the north round 
Porchfield. 

At Locksgreen, close to the Smithy, the Cyrena bed was met 
with (B.H. 270). A quarter of a mile south of Porchfield the 
Black Band was reached (B.H. 268), and two other borings 
(B.H. 269 and 267) also pierced the lower part of the Hamstead 
Series. Haifa mile east of Porchfield two borings (B.H. 264 
and 263) were perhaps sunk in the lower part of the same Series, 



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HAMSTEAB BEDS. , 197 

but the evidence was not quite satisfactory. All the borings 
between Porchfield and Burnt Wood leave the age of the beds 
somewhat doubtful^ and it is still uncertain whether the thin 
carbonaceous seam met with (B.H. 264, 262) represents the Black 
Band. 

A similar uncertainty affects most of the borings near Great 
Thorness, but the Black Band occurs, acrain 9 feet below the 
surface at the cross roads north of Whitehouse Farm (B.H. 242). 
A boring immediately south of Little Thomess (B.H. 228) was 
put down into the beds above the Black Band. In the high road 
near the junction of the road to Little Thomess a seam of white 
marl, perhaps representing the White Band, was met with (B.H. 
212). It lies at about the right distance above the base and is 
full of Cyrena and Melania fasciatcu 

A quarter of a mile further east along the high road, clays with 
Melania muricata and Melanopsis were found in the spoil heap of 
a well, similar beds occurring at about the same level near Hillis 
Farm (B.H. 208). South of Hillis Farm a boring (B.H 209) 
in the valley reached the Black Band at 16 feet, another boring 
(B.H. 211), at Rolls Bridge, disclosed clays with Paludina^ 
Melania iurritisHma^ and Folliculites thalictroides. This last may 
be in Bembridge Marls. 

Of three borings near Whippance the highest (B.H. 220, 221) 
seems to have been sunk in or near the Nematura pupa bed, and 
the lowest (B.H. 222) reached the Black Band, in which again 
occur small angular flints. 

Near Sticelett either the strata undulate, or, as Is more likely, 
they are slipping downward towards the sea. . The highest boring 
(B.H. 213) commenced at 92 feet, but others at lower levels 
seemed still to be in Hamstead Beds. Much of the upper part of 
this hill is covered with gravel, through which it would oe difficult 
to bore. At the junction of Tinker's l4ane with the Gurnard 
Road the Black Band was again met with (B.H. 207), though 
the whole of the beds to a oepth of 14 feet were much altered 
and full of selenite. 

Skinners Grrove Tile Works show days with seams of Cyrena 
semigtriata and Cytheridea Millleri, J. Rhodes also obtained 
bones of Turtle and Crocodile. These beds lie probably 30 or 40 
feet up in the Hamstead Series, for in the valley a quarter of a 
mile to the east-south-east clays like those immediately above the 
Black Band were reached (B.H. 200). 

Two borings near Pallance, one north of the Farm (B.H. 205), 
and one south (B.H. 201), both reached the Black Band, but the 
fossils are very much decaved North of Pallance the junction of 
the Hamstead and Bembridge Series soon becomes much obscured 
by wash from the gravel plateau, but a well near Upper Cockleton 
showed shelly clay, full of Cyrena semistriata, beneath the gravel. 
North of this point the gravel descends and overlaps the junction 
of the Hamstead and Bembridge Beds. 

In the middle of the plateau, shaly clay with Paludina anguhsa 
and Melanopsis carinata has been dug at Place Brickyard \ but 
though from its position this clay must belong to the Hamstead 



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198 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Series, there is nothing characteristic among its fossils. Another 
section of the beds beneath the gravel was exposed in the new 
well at the West Cowes waterworks, which apparently penetrated 
about 30 feet of Hamstead Beds, including a shalj carbonaceous 
day like the Black Band ; but unfortunately few samples were 
preserved from the upper part of this well. 

Descending towards th^ Medina we find another Brickyard at 
Werror. In this the junction of the Hamstead and Bembridge 
Beds is apparently shown. Above a black seam were found 
Melania turritissima^ M, Forbem, Melanopsis, Paludina lenta. 
Fish bones, and Folliculites thalictroides with other seeds, but the 
strata are so weathered that it is not easy to obtain details of the 
section, and it is poesible that this black seam may be somewhat 
higher than the Black Band. 

Bejond this point the base of the Hamstead Series sinks 
beneath the sea level, and a boring (B.H. 97) a few hundred 
yards further south showed carbonaceous clays full of Nematura 
pupa, Fcdudina, and Mehzfiopsis, probably the Nematurapupa bed. 

At the West Medina Cement Works the Nematura pupa bed 
re-appears at the sea-level near Dickson's Copse, but in the pit 
close to the Kilns it is nearly 10 feet lower. A good section may 
be seen at the latter place ; and by means of boring (B.U. 93) 
it was carried 10 feet below the bottom of the pit and 8 feet 
below high- water level. It shows : — 

Feet. 

Blue and yellow clay, with faint red mottling in the upper part ; no 
mollusca observed. Turtle bones. (Seen in the pit) - - 25 - 

Soft finreenisb clay (in B. H.) - - - - - 3 

Soft light-blue and yellow loams, with sand partings and selenite. 
Decayed Cyrena at 6 feet ; Entomostraca from 7 to 7i feet - 7 

Lead-coloured, dark-grey, or black lanunated clay, full of shells 
between Hi and 12} feet. Nematura pupa, Hydrobia Chasteli, 
Neritina tristia, Melania muricata, Cyrena eemistriata - ' 2\ 

Green loam, with sandy partings ----- f 

38 

The carboDaceous clays were at first taken to represent the 
Black Band, but there is now little doubt that they are really 20 or 
30 feet higher in the series. 

South of Medina Cottage clays with Melania muricata and 
Melanopsis carinata are seen at several places in the river bank. 
They are the beds immediately above the lowei Nematura bed, 
for a boring (B.H. 95) at the western end of the Mill Pond 
shows the succession : — 

Soil 

Free-cutting loam, with much selenite . - - - 

Darker blue stiff clays. Melania muricata, Melanopsis subulata, 

Paludina ....... 

Seam of black clay ...... 

Green and blue day, with sandy partings and some carbonaceous 

matter. Nematurapupa, inflated var. at 11 feet - - 2 10 

Blacker shaly clay - - - - • -02 

Green clay, with sand partings - - - - - 2 10 

"l6 o" ^ 

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HAM8TBAD BEDS. - 199 

At the Reservoir about 50 feet above this level there seems to 
be some representative of the White Band, for J. Rhodes 
obtained from the spoil-heap Mya minor^ Cerithium, Cyrena 
semtstriata, Cytheridea MvJleri and a nevv species of Cytheridea 
(Fig. 78.) However, no white marl like that of Hamstead Cliff 
is visible at this spot. 

Fig. 78. Having; traced the base of the Hamstead 

Cytheridea montosa^ Series till it has now passed out of reach 

Jones and beneath the sea-level, we will follow the south- 

Sherborn.* em margin of the syncline from Yarmouth 

to Newport, taking afterwards the higher beds 

met with here and there in the West Medina. 

It will be remembered that the Black Band was 

traced on the foreshore to within a quarter of 

a mile of Yarmouth Turnpike (see p. 1 96). In 

the overgrown cliff it was again found 200 

yards further v^est, and a boring by the side 

a, h. of the high road (B. H. 356) reached it at 

ft! ffi^ew;^^ * ^®P**^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ showing that the Ham- 

from %e ventral stead Beds must extend westward along this 

margin. ridge to within 130 yards of Yarmouth Turn* 

Magnified 20 diam. pike. 

Half-way between Bouldnor and West Bouldnor, and also a 
quarter of a mile south-east of Bouldnor^ the Black Band is 
again met with (B.H. 352, 348). Then the strike suddenly curves^ 
and the Hamstead Beds extend southward in a tongue corre- 
sponding with the similar feature in the Bembridge Limestone. 
This curve is proved by a boring (B.H. 334) in the lane north of 
Lee Farm^ and by another (B.H. 332) a quarter of a mile north of 
Freeplace^ but as these only show the usual chai-acter of the 
Black Band there is no need to give the details. 

Near Ningwood the position of the base of the Hamstead Series 
is exactly fixed by a series of borings^ all reaching the Black 
Band (B.H. 325, 321, 319, 317, 314, 313). South-east of 
Shalfleet the boundary makes another sudden bend to the 
south, this time approaching the Chalk so closely that the 
beds come within the influence of the more violent flexure and 
have a high northerly dip. It is therefore often difficult to strike 
the exact base in a boring, though its place can be fixed within 
a chain of its true position. 

Two borings at Stonesteps (B.H. 296 and 297), within a chain 
of each other, show, the one Bembridge Marls, the other free- 
cutting loams some distance up in the Hamstead Series. A 
boring (B.H. 295) on the road to FuUholding happened to 
strike the Black Band at 4 feet below the surface, while another 
(B.H. 292) close to FuUholding reached it at 16 feet, though this 
latter commenced at a level 30 feet lower. There must be an 
average northerly dip of about 3^ between these points, probably 
the dip is much higher at the first boring and rapidly decreases 

* SappL, Monogr., Tert. Entom. Pal. Soc., 18S9. 

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200 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

near FuUholding. Other borings (B.H. 290 and 291), a quarter of 
a mile further norths showed grey clajs^ with Cyrena semistriata^ 
Melania muricatay and Cytheridea Muelleri — ^probably the Nematura 
bed — and similar beds occur in the railway cutting near North 
Park, and again north-east of Great Park. 

Near Alvington Farm the Hamstead Beds approach nearer to 
the Chalk than anywhere else. A boring (B.H. 245), a quarter of 
a mile north-west of the Farm, descended into the Nematura beds ; 
so that the Black Band cannot be more than 27 chains from the 
Downs, and the dip must be high. Due north of the fiirm a boring 
(B.H. 244) seemed to reach the beds immediately above the Black 
Bandy while an adjoining one (B.H. 243) showed the green clays of 
the Bembridge Series. 

This brings us to the series of borings at Gunville already 
described (p. 195). Passing these, the Black Band can be traced 
towards Newport in several borings (B.H. 64, 66 ?, 69 1, 70, 76), 
the first of which showed small angular flints in the carbonaceous 
mud. The bed of Cyrena semistriata and Cytheridea Muelleri 
occurred in two borings (B.H. 60, 62) near Little Kitbridge, and 
probably crops out also in the road-cutting between Newport and 
Hunny HilL 

In Newport itself there are no clear sections, but the Nematura 
bed was well represented in a boring (B.H. 92) in the siding be- 
tween the Station and the river. The fossils in this boring were 
exceptionally numerous and well preserved, and seem to prove 
that the strata containing them lie some distance up in the ELam- 
stead Series and are equivalent to those found at the Cement 
Works. Lithologically the black clay resembles the Black Band, 
and like that bed, rests on a green clay with ^ race ' and root-like 
markings. The well at Mew's brewery {see Appendix, p. 305) must 
also have penetrated the lower part of the Hamstead Series, but 
no samples of the beds above the Bembridge Limestone were 
preserved. 

The only inland sections of the higher portion of Hamstead 
Beds in the West Medina are borings ; there are no open pits, 
and no samples have been preserved of the beds passed through in 
wells. During 1887 Mr. Keeping sank a pit for the British 
Association Committee in Parkhurst Forest, on the hill near 
Marks Corner, but only found clays that probably lie about 25 
feet below the marine beds. They yielded Paludina, fish, and small 
globose fruits. 

Another pit on the Signal Hill showed mottled green clay, with 
Paludina, Planorbis, Unioy Chara^ and a fragment of JSmys. 
This Mr. Keeping took to correspond with the mottled bed about 
15 feet below the Corbula beds.* As this pit is somewhat lower 
than the highest boring made by the Survey (B.H. 11), which 
seemed to be sunk in the clays inunediately below the marine beds^ 
this correlation is probably right. 

On the southern end of the ridge above Northwood a trial 
boring (B.H. 91) below Noke Farm showed beds that seemed to^ 

♦ Beport Brit Assoc, for 18S7, p. 414-428. 

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HAMSTEAD BSD& 201 

oorreepond with those on the Signal Hill (B.H. 11). It is there- 
fore not improbable that an outlier of the marine beds may be 
found higher up near the Farm^ where the land is 20 feet higher. 
But the exact position of the synclinal axis has not been f^ed ; 
it* it lies south of this boring the ridge will be a dip slope and 
there will be no outlier. 

East of the Medina the beds continue with the same character^ 
except that in ihe middle portion is developed a bed of sand. 
Tracing first the lower beds^ we n^e a series of borings (B.H. 
1 to 9) between Newport and Whippingham* These show that 
the strata on opposite sides of Medina exactly correspond^ and that 
there can be no fault down the yalley. The Nematura beds are 
found opposite the Cement Works at exactly the same level as at 
the Works. Lower down the river the Black Band occurs. There 
is no necessity to repeat the details of the borings. 

At Whippingham the Black Band rises quickly, so that it must 
cross the 100-foofc contour near the village. A short distance 
further north characteristic fossils of the Nematura beds were 
found by Dr. Wilkins in a well at the Keeper's Cottage at 
Osborne.* From this point eastward the base of the Hamstead 
beds cannot be traced till Palmer's Brook is passed. But between 
the Brook and Palmer's Farm four borings (B.H. 175, 176, 177, 
178) seemed to have been sunk in the lower part of the Ham- 
stead Series, one of them reaching the Black Band. 

Half a mile to the south-west Alverstone Brick and Tile Works 
deserve notice as one of the few localities where the Hamstead 
Beds can be examined in an open section. The strata there 
visible belong perhaps to that part of the series which overlies the 
Nematura beds, but the fossils are not sufficient to settle this 
point, though a boring was carried 17 feet below the bottom of 
the pit. The following is the section obtained : — 



Alverstone Brick Yard. 



FSBT. 



Blue and yellow dajTj with a thin seam of shelly maorl. Paludina 
angulosa, Hydrohta Ghasteli, Melarda muricata, M. ForbesU, 
Melanopsis eubulata, Fish bones, and FoUicuUie$ thalietroides 6 

Ferruginous clay and ironstone - - ... | 

Laminated clay, with sand partinf^s. FoUiculUes thalietroides, 
Sequoia, and other plant remains, Trionyx P - - - 5 

Blue and yellow laminated clay, with selenite, becoming stifEer 
below. Falndina and Melanopsis earinata at 20 feet from 
surfikce ---•..-17 

28} 

The whole of the beds, except those reached in the lower part 
of the boring, are much weathered. Then the Black Band is again 
lost, though wells show that the Lower Hamstead beds are well 

* On a newly-discoTered Outlier of the Hamstead Strata, on the Osborne 
Estate, Isle of Wight. Proc, OeoL Assoc,, vol. I, p. 194. (1861.) 



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202 GEOLOOT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

represented at Wootton. East of Wootton Creek the Black Band 
re-appears in Aehlake Brickyard, the section showing the nsnal 
weathered soQ underneath it^ and also the thin seam of Melania 
muricata and Hydrobia Chasteli, The base of the Hamstead 
Series lies unexpectedly low in this pit, and various indications 
appear to show that its position is largely due to a landslip of 
ancient date. 

Borings in Firestone Copse did not yield any definite results, 
but one about the middle of the wood (B.H. 172), and two beyond 
the southern end (B.H. 168, 167) seemed to traverse the lower 
parts of the Series. 

East of Ashlake the boundary is again much obscured by gravel, 
hut about a quarter of a mile south of Binstead Lodge the 
Nematura beds were well shown in a boring (B.H. 180). As this 
is the most easterly point to which the Nematura beds have yet 
been traced, it may be interesting to note that the beds remain 
unaltered and contain the same assemblage of fossils as at Hamstead 
CliflF. The section is : — 

Febt. 
Free-cuttinff loam, full of ' race ' - - 3 

Stiff dark-blue and brown day, rather carbona- 
ceous and with small pieces of lignite - - 8 
"Bluer clay, not so carbonaceous. Nematura 

pupa and Gyrena semistriata - - - 3 

Nematura J Blacker clay, Nematura ^upa, Hydrobia Chasteli, 
Beds. ) Neritina tristis, CeritJUum elegans, Cyrena semi- 
I striatajdodiola PrestwichU, Cytheridea MiteOeri, 
[^ and otolith and bones of Fish - - - 2 

Green carbonaceous clay - - - 1 

17 

Similar beds, or perhaps beds a few feet higher or lower, were 
found in another boring (B.H. 199) by the side of the high-road a 
quarter of a rnile west of Stroud Wood. Between Binstead and 
Brading the Black Band has not been found, though the Hamstead 
Series undoubtedly extends as far as Brading, and the Nematura 
beds were reached in a boring (B.H. 199) at Hardingshute. No 
sufficient evidence of the occurrence of Hamstead Beds has yet 
been obtained at St Helen's, but from the height of the hill 
there may be an outlier of considerable size under the gravel. 
Betuniing to Newport, we will now follow the southern margin 
of the basin towards Brading. The first section of the Black 
Band met with was found in a boring (B.H. 99) at the angle of 
the road north of Great Pan, but the dip is there so high that 
other borings a few yards away pierced quite different beda Near 
Little Pan the Black Band is again met with, and a series ot 
borings (B.H. 108 to 103) showed the change upwards into red 
and mottled clays and then into fine sands. None of these borings 
were markedly fossiliferous, but there seems to be a gap in the 
series of borings just where the Nematura beds ought to occur. 

North of Durton Farm a boring (B.H. 116) showed carbonaceous 
clays belonging to the Nematura beds. The Black Band has not 
been reached in this neighbourhood, and the dip is so high and 



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HAMSTEi^D BEDS. 203 

variable that it would need a large number of borings a few yardd 
apart to follow it. However, the boundary on the map is correct 
within a chain or two. 

North-west of Duxmore Farm a number of borings (B.H. 126 
to 140) was made, but though most of them evidently cut the 
lower part of the Hamstead Series, none happened to yield 
diaracteristic fossils. Still further north a boring (B.H. 143) in 
the bed of the stream reached the Black Band after passing 
through clays with Pcdudina, A fragment of a dicotyledonous 
leaf was brought up by the auger from this boring. Close to 
little Duxmore similar beds were found (B.H. J 46), but the dip 
is evidently high. Strata apparently of the same age as those just 
mentioned occur near West Ashey (B.H. 149) and East Ashey 
(B.H. 150), but the only fossils obtained were Paludina. At the 
junction of the road to Nunwell with the road to Brading the 
Black Band was again found (B.H. 154). This brings us to 
the point where the dip decreases and the boundary curves to the 
north. 

There now only remain to be described the higher portions of 
the Hamstead Series in the East Medina. It has already been 
pointed out that tlie White Band seems to die out east of Parkhurst 
Forest » and that on or about the same horizon a bed of line sand 
appears in the East Medina. This sand is so usefid as fixing a 
definite horizon in a mass of clay, and also as a water-bearing bed^ 
that wherever it could be traced it has been laid down on the 
map. It seems to form an obscure feature above Cross Lane 
(about half a mile north-east of Newport), but is apparentlv thin 
at that place. As this feature is traced to the south-east it 
becomes bolder, and the springs given out along its course make 
a belt of wet land near Heathfield and Buckbury, but no section 
is visible. Between Buckbury and Little Pan the sand seems 
suddenly to have expanded to a thickness of about 40 feet, for 
three borings (B.H. 112, 113, 114) at different levels were aU in 
this bed, and another lower down (B.H. 103) also showed trace of 
it. A pit at Staplers Brickyard affords the only open section of 
these beds in the neighbourhood. It shows alternations of loam, 
fine sand, and shaly clay, the only fossils being casts of firesh water 
shells, principally Paludina and LimiKBa, and also some casts of 
cyprids. 

The same sand bed can be traced along Long Lane, till at 
Longlane Shute it approaches closely to the Downs. It is evident 
that at this spot the sharp monoclinal curve affects all the strata 
up to the middle part of the Hamstead Series. The high dip, 
however, dies away so suddenly that the beds flatten imme- 
diately and the sand can be traced for a long distance northward 
with only a gentle dip. Near Blackland the sand has sunk to 
near the stream level, but it re-appears in the cutting at Wootton 
Station, and also at several points on the eastern side of the 
gravel ridga 

Near Briddlesford two pits have been dug ki sand, the one in 
the hollow showing at least 10 feet of very fine white sand and 



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204 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE Or WIGHT. 

sandv loam. Further east this bed forms several small outliers 
on the hills around Haven Street. South of Binstead, in the 
upper part of Stroud Wood Brickyard, more than 7 feet of fine 
white sand overlie red and mottled clay, and the bed is probably 
of considerable thickness. On the high land at Upton Mill an old 
pit has apparently been dug for brick -earth. A boring (B.H. 185) 
at the bottom of this pit showed a considerable thickness of sand, 
but no fossils. In another outlier, at East Ashey, the sand has 
been dug, and it can also be well seen in several parts of the large 
outlier near Brading, especially in the road cutting between 
Kicketshill and New Farm. 

The beds overlying the sand in the East Medina only extend 
over the western part of the area, the marine beds being confined 
to a small portion of the high ridge between Wootton and Downend. 
Unfortunately at the time of writing there are no open sections of 
this part of the Hamstead Series, though wells and trial borings 
yielded plenty of evidence of their occurrence. At Staplers, where 
evidently a considerable thickness of clay lies above the sand-bed» 
two bonngs (B.H. 109, 1 10) were made on the top of the hill, to 
ascertain if any representative of the marine beds existed there. 
The height of this hill is nearly 300 feet, but the highest beds 
reached seem to be equivalent to those seen in Parkhurst Forest 
(B.H. 10), and at Noke Farm (B.H. 91). The thickness of 
the capping of gravel makes it difficult to bore at Staplers Hill, 
but possibly other beds a few feet higher may be represented 
there. 

Grossing to the parallel ridge further east, we find the beds 
much hidden by gravel, but fortunately during the progress of 
the Survey a number of wells were being sunk in this neighbour- 
hood. The mo^t southerly of these, at some new cottages at the 
northern end of Little Lynn Common, showed : — 

Fest 
Drift • Gravel and day « - • • .7 

XT \JS^. J 1 Bl'^c *^d green clays with Cerithitm . - 124 

B^dB. J Hard white Beam full of Jlfeteiitatfi^a,&o. - | 

The fossils, though abundant, belong to few species, the following 
being all that could be found by J. Bhodes : — 

Cytheridea Miilleri. Hydrobia Chaateli. 

Melauia inflata. 
Cyrena semiBtriata. 
SphsBrium (Cyclas). Fish bones. 

Cerithium elegans. Crocodile (scute of). 
plicatum. 

The fossiliferous clays evidently belong entirely to the Oerithium 
plicatum beds, though from the thickness of the strata one would 
expect the base of the more truly marine Oorbula beds to be also 
represented. Theqe latter very probably do occur in the upper 
part of this well, but so much weathered as to have the foss ils 
entirely destroyed. 



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HAHSTEAD BEDS. 



206 



than a quarter of a mile north-east of Little Lynn 
Common another well was sunk^ at Dorehill. Unfortunately this 
was finished and bricked before we heard of it. It showed blue 
shelly clay^ resting on red clay, water being obtained from a 
running loam at 52 feet. The exact thickness of the different 
strata, and the depth to the base of the Gerithium beds could not 
be learnt. However the fossils found in the spoil heap seem to 
show that probably the base of the Corbula beds is also preserved. 
The species found were: — 



Carpoliihes ovulum. 
Seeds. 

Cytheridea Miilleri. 

Corbula pisum. 

vectenais. 

Gyrena semistriata. 



Cerithium elegans. 

pUcatum. 

Hydrobia Chasteli. 
Melania inflata. 
Paludina (impressions). 



Nearly half a mile north-west of Dorehill, at Briddlesford 
Lodge, another well shows the beds with Gerithium plicatum 
and Melania inflata. The details are : — 



Drift - Clayey gravel ...... 

Upper r Yellow clay, much weathered - - - 

Hamstead •< Dark-blue shelly clay, full of Cerithium plicatum 

Beds. L and Melania inflata . . . . 

Lower f Green loamy clay . - . . . 

Hamstead < Green day . . • . . 

Beds. L Green clay, with faint red mottling 



Fbbt. 

5 

1 
1 

8i 
Si 



This well stands in the middle of the farm buildings, and com - 
mences at a height of 181 feet above the sea. Another well was 
sunk at the south-east comer of the fami at a height of 190 
feet. It showed some curious bands of broken-up or reconstructed 
clay. The section was as follows : — 



Lower (P) 

Hamstead 

Beds. 



Mottled liffht-grey and dark-red clay - 
Yellow and hrown mixed clay — perhaps a reoon 

structed shaly clay 
Greenish-hlue clay 
•^ Tenaceous blue clay 
Sand parting 

Reconstructed clav - . . . 

Mottled green ana red day, slightly carbonaceous 
^Blue carbonaceous clay, full of Unio 




30 



Though these wells lie only two chains apart, and apparently 
ought to penetrate the same beds, their sections are quite different. 
No trace of the layers with Gerithium plicatum could be found in 
ihe higher well, and the beds that were found are of such 
exceptional character as to render it uncertain to what horizon they 



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206 OEOLOOT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

belong. Judging by the dip of the strata shown in these wells, still 
higher beds ought to be found on the top of the hill immediately 
west of Dorehill — unless the gravel is exceptionally thick. This 
seems to be the only place in the East Medina where there is any 
likelihood of the Ostrea caUifera beds being found, but there is 
too much gravel to allow of a trial boring bein^ made. 

At Wootton Station the cutting through Quarrels Copse 
shows : — 

Febt. 
Light-blue clay, with roach ' race ' and concretionary stone with 
casts of C/fito ...... -.5 

Mottled red and blue clay .... about 20 

Fine sand, with water. 

25 

Several wells in the neighbourhood also penetrate the layers 
immediately overlying the sand^ but these beds are very sparingly 
fossiliferous and yield little but bones of turtle. 

Many of the peculiar fossils of the Hamstead Series have 
already been mentioned^ and it only remains to give an outline of 
the general character of the fauna and flora, and of the conditions 
under which the beds were deposited. The main mass of the 
Hamstead Series consists of mottled clays, probably deposited 
in brackish-water lagoons. These, as is usually the case with the 
mottled clays of the Oligocene groups, yield few fossils, except 
bones of Turtle and Crocodile, and drifted plants. Interbedded 
in the mottled days, however, we find occasional seams of 
Melania or Unto, or laminated clays with plants.* 

The blue clays are much more fossiliferous, yielding abundance 
of shells — principally Unio, Cyrena^ Paludinay Melania^ Melanopsis, 
and Nematura, with the addition of a few more estuarine forms^ 
such as Gerithium^ Modiola, nnd 1 fya, on certain horizons. These, 
with myriads of fruit of Fotttcu ites ihalictroides and GarpoUthes 
ovulum and senms of Entomostrac i are the fossils commonly met 
with in the Lower Hamstead Beds. 

The marine bands yield a much more characteristic fauna, 
including a number of species quite unknown in the beds below. 
It must be remembered, however, that there is no real break, but 
that the next marine seam — that at the base of the Bembridge 
Marls — ^is fully three hundred feet lower, and its fauna is so 
little known that we cannot compare the two. The only marine 
beds that can be fairly compared are at the top of the Hamstead 
Series and in the middle of the Headon Series — nearly five 
hundred feet apart. 

Among the more abundant or peculiar of the marine shells 
may be mentioned Ostrea cyathula and O. adlatay both confined to 
this horizon ; Gytherea Lyelliiy Corbula pisum, C. vectensis, Cuma 
Gh(zrleswortkiif Voluta Rathieri, Strebloceras and some species of 
Cerithium, such as C. plicatumy G. Sedgwiciii^ G. inomatum, 

* Set al90 J. S. Gardner, Report Brit. A»9oe, for 18S7, p. 414^ 

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HAM8TBAD BEDS. 207 

The plants of the Hamstead Beds are little known, and only the 
following short provisonal list can be given : — 

Andromeda reticulata, Ett. Cgrperites Forbesi, Heer. 
*Arthrotazi8 (Sequoia) Couttsie, Heer, Nelumbium, sp. 
CarpoUthes WebBteri, Brong. Chara, 2 sp. 
globulus, Heer, 

As far as one can judge by the character of the moUusca the 
temperature of the sea appears to have been very uniform during 
the deposition of the Oligocene beds. There is nothing in the 
character of the Ueadon or Hamstead fiiuna to mark the one as 
having lived in a colder or warmer sea than the other. 

* Dnrmg a recent Tuit to the Isle of Wight (in Aug. 1889) Mr. Gardner and I 
obtained cones of the so-called Sequoia, which showed clearly tiiat here, aa 
Mr. Gardner had already proTed for the Hordwell specimens, the abundant 
coniferous twigs belong to the shrubby Arthrotaxis of Tasmania, not to the 
gigantic Sequoia, The foliage of the two is very similar, but the cones are'quite 
different^C.B. 



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208 GEOLOGY O** THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT DEPOSITS. 
Classification. 

The boundaries of these deposits have now for the first time 
been drawn on the one-inch map of the Isle of Wight. In the 
course of this examination some problems of great interest in 
connection with the physical history of the Island have been 
opened up ; among them the question of the relative age of the 
older gravels cf the south of England and of the Glacial Deposits^ 
the age of the river valleys, and the date of the separation of the 
Island from the main land. 

The classification of the superficial deposits presents consider- 
able diflSculty, for though the gravels of difierent areas indicate a 
similar sequence of events, yet the events in any two areas may 
not have been contemporaneous. The period, moreover, during 
which the gravels have been forming, though undoubtedly pro- 
longed, does not seem to have been broken up by any marked 
changes of physical conditions, so that no classification can be 
proposed in which the deposits of one group shall not overlap in 
time those of another. Yet the position and character of the 
oldest gravel bring before us a picture of physical conditions so 
entirely different to those of the present day, that some dassifi- 
cation by age becomes necessary. 

In the first place, an important series of gravels occurs near and 
often on the watersheds by which the existing valleys of the 
Island are divided, and forms well-marked plateaus. Though we 
have no guide as to the relative age of the separate patches of 
these gravels, except the doubtful test of height above the sea, 
yet the similarity in their mode of occurrence justifies their being 
grouped together under the title of Plateau Gravels. These 
gravels were obviously laid down before the valleys in their 
present form had been excavated. Yet their distribution and the 
direction of the slopes on which they rest point to a drainage 
system bearing some relation to that which now exists. 

A second group of gravels is arranged as terraces along the 
sides and lower parts of the valleys, and though, like the 
Plateau Gravels, now undergoing removal by the modern streams, 
yet showing an obvious connection with their valleys. 

Lastly, come the alluvial and peaty deposits still in process of 
formation along the courses of the streams, or such as might have 
been formed by the existing streams. 

Three principal groups may thus be established in the Super- 
ficial Deposits, capable of being arranged in chronological 
order. But other deposits of importance occur which cannot be 



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PLEI3TOOENE AND RECENT DEPOSITS. 209 

placed in any one of these groups. Such is the angular flint- 
gravel of the Downs, which has probably been in process of 
formation from the time when the Chalk was first exposed to sub- 
aerial denudation up to the present day, and therefore runs 
through all three groups. But inasmuch as it provided the 
materials from which the Plateau Gravels were constructed^ we 
niay conveniently take its description first. The following table 
gives the sequence of the groups in descending order, the numbers 
indicating the order of their descriptions in the following 
pages: — 

IV. Deposits now in course of formntion or of recent date 
(Alluvium, Peat, Blown Sand, Tufa, Chalk Talus, &c.). 
III. Deposits forined after the present valleys came into 
existence (Valley Gravels and Brick Earth). 
II. Deposits formed before the present valleys existed (Plateau 
Gravels). 
I. Deposits partly earlier than, partly contemporaneous with 
Groups II., III., and IV (Angular Flint Gravel of the 
Chalk Downs). 

I. — ANGULA.B Flint Gravel op the Chalk Downs. 

This is a deposit of very indefinite age. It occurs on the tops 
of all of those Downs in which the Chalk dips at a small angle, 
probably beoiuse of the expanse of nearly level ground being 
greater than in the narrower Downs, where the dip is high. The 
deposit is unstratified, and closely packed with unworn flints or 
fragments of flints, imbedded in a loose gritty or sometimes a 
brown clayey nmtrix. In three instances near Brading, it contained 
a large proportion also of perfectly rounded flint*pebbles, mixed 
with angular flints, but probably derived from some Tertiary 
pebble-bed. 

This deposit is no doubt of sub-aerial origin, the flint?, together 
with a portion of the matrix, representing^ the insoluble residue of 
a great thickness of Upper Chalk. But there occur also materials 
in the matrix which could not have been derived from any part 
of the Chalk, viz., the grains of quartz and other rocks, which 
give the gritty character to the gravel ; and also the completely 
rounded pebbles alluded to above. The occurrence of such 
materials makes it certain that other beds besides the Chalk, 
presumably some of Tertiary Strata, have been laid under 
contribution. 

The thickness of rock that has bean removed since this sub- 
aerial deposit began to form has undoubtedly been very great. 
The gravel not only oversteps the present limits of the Chalk-with- 
flints, but occurs on hills in which no beds so high even as the 
Middle Chalk now occur, as, for example, on St. Catherine's 
HilL In such cases, the gravel seems to have been gradually 
lowered by the slow solution of the chalk beneath it. 

If this view of its origin be coiTect, some portion of the gravel 
must date back from a time when all the strata, both Tertiary and 

. B 567B6. O 



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210 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

Secondary, extended far beyond their present limits^ and must be 
much older than any of the other grayels in the Island. On the 
other hand, the formation of the gravels seems to be still proceed- 
ing (though far too slowly to admit of observation), for it is 
impossible to draw any hard-and-fast line between it and the 
gravelly soil, which is being formed on the outcrop of the Chalk- 
with-flints by weather and agricultural operations. 

The most important patch of this gravel is that which caps 
the western end of St. Boniface Down, and which supplies great 
quantities of road-metal to Yentnor. But similar patches occur 
also on Stenbury and Shanklin Downs. The patch on St» 
Catherine's HiU is small, and interesting only from its position, 
far away from, and far below the flinty Chalk ; small pockets of 
gravel occur also here and there in the Chalk Marl at the edge of 
the cliff. 

The extensive Downs between Calbourne, Chillerton, and 
Carisbrook are very generally overspread by angular gravel, the 
boundaries of the deposit following those of the flinty Chalk, but 
always overlapping them. There are many shallow gravel-pits 
along the southern edge of the Downs from Westover Down to 
near Shorwell. 

The three patches above alluded to as containing many 
rounded pebbles occur on Mersley and Brading Downs. No 
sections can be seen there at the present time, but the gravel has 
formerly been dug to a depth of about 2 feet for road-metal, 
and the abundance of beach-pebbles is striking. Except in con- 
taining these pebbles, which have probably been derived from some 
Tertiary Bed, the patches do not seem to differ from the others 
that have been described. 

II. — Plateau Gravels. 

Their Age. 

These gravels are so called from their habit of capping flat- 
topped hUls. They occur generally as small patches^ separated 
by deep and broad valleys, and deeply cut into by the action of 
springs, so as to present the sinuous outline generally found only 
in beds of much older date. The complete alteration which 
the features of the country have undergone since these gravels 
Avere laid down indicates the great antiquity of the deposits. 

Though these outliers have clearly been isolated by denudation, 
yet they do not seem to have belonged to one continuous sheet ; 
for they occur at difierent levels. More probably they represent 
successive stages in the process of development of the existing 
system of vaUeys. In some cases even, the Plateau Gravels run 
continuously down from the highest part of a watershed nearly to 
the level of the Valley Gravel, thus tending to link together the 
two groups. In the slopes of such outliers we have evidence of 
the position of the lines of drainage at an early date. 



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PLATEAU GBAVELS* 211 

This point was first noticed by Mr. Codrington,* who remarked 
that the high-level plains of the New Forest and the country 
between Poole and Southampton Water, generally covered with 
gravel or brick-earth, are portions of a table-land with a gradual 
southern slope. He further observed that the gravel covering the 
hills from St. George's Down to Norris ** coincides with a plain 
having a uniform slope to the north," thus giving proof that 
the excavation of the Solent Valley was in progress during the 
deposition of the Plateau Gravels. 

The great antiquity of parts of the Plateau Gravels is forcibly 
brought to mind when we study the vast amount of denudation 
that has been effected since their deposition, and the question 
naturally arises whether these gravels may not be in part contem- 
poraneous with the Glacial Deposits of the north of England. 
This question cannot be fully answered until the mapping of the 
gravels on the main land is completed, but it will perhaps not be 
premature to point out how far the evidence in the Isle of Wight 
goes in support of such a supposition. 

In the first place, though no organic remains have been found in 
the Plateau Gravels, the mammoth (Elepkas primigenius) and 
and Rhinoceros have been found in the Valley Gravels, which are 
unmistakeably later in date. 

Secondly, the amount of denudation which has taken place in 
the Isle of Wight, since the Plateau Gravels were laid down, is 
fully as great as that which the Glacial Deposits have undergone in 
other parts of England ; the valleys which cut up the former 
into outliers are as broad and as deep as those which have been 
excavated in the Glacial Beds. To quote a single example — the 
gravel plateau of St. George's Down terminates southwards and 
westwards in a bold bank at a height of 363 feet above Ordnance 
Datum, or at a height of no less than 313 feet above the bottom 
of the valley, this amount therefore representing the depth of 
valley cut out since the plateau formed part of the general 
surface. 

Thirdly, the gravels are precisely similar in their mode of 
occurrence, and in the amount of denudation they have under- 
gone, to those which overspread the chalk hills on the northern 
side of the Thames valley, in Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire. 
A part of these gravels is known to be of Glacial Age by the 
fact that they underlie outliers of Boulder Clay in the neighbour- 
hood of Watford and Finchley. The others to the west are 
inferred to be of the same age from the similarity in their 
character and position.t 

Lastly, the gravels and the older strata on which they im- 
mediately rest, are sometimes contorted or disturbed in a 
manner strongly suggestive of the action of ice. Such appearances 
have been seen below the older gravels only. 

* On the Superficial Deposits of the South of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight 
Qtuirt, Joum, Geol. Soc., vol. xxvi. pp. 528-551. 1870. 

t They are described in the Memoir on the Geology of London, &c., by W. 
Whitaker. 1889. Chap .19. 

O 2 

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212 GEOLOGY. OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

St Georges Down to East Cowes and Osborne, 

The sinuous outlier of gravel which spreads over the edges of 
the highly inclined Chalk and Greensands in this Down is one of 
the most remarkable in the Island, partly on account of its height 
above the sea and above the neighbouring valleys, and partly on 
account of the bold feature it presents to the south. The gravel, 
being thick and c«)arse, and having been partly cemented into 
a hard rock by iron oxide, forms an escarpment rivalling that of 
one of the older sandstones, while its even surface, slanting 
gently away to the north, resembles a dip-slope. On the north side, 
the central part of the outlier has been deeply notched by a number 
of springs, each forming a combe, and producing scenery of 
remarkable beauty. The gravel stretches away far to the north, 
both on the east and west sides, along the nearly level tops of 
rid^e:; composed of all the rocks up to the Chalk-with-flints. 

The original limits of the sheet of gravel, of which these outliers 
are remnants, are difficult to determine owing to the vast amount 
of denudation which they have undergone. On the eastern side, 
the boundary of the deposit may have run at the foot of the rising 
slope of Chalk which forms the east end of Arreton Down. On 
the western side, we find no corresponding feature nearer than the 
Down beyond Carisbrook. The gap between these two features 
is nearly three miles broad, and was probably the route by which 
the enormous masses of flint-gravel and Greensand chert of the 
neighbourhood of Cowes passed the Downs. 

It should be remembered that the Medina valley, which follows 
the same general line, is of much later date. It was during the 
process of its excavation that the old gravels were so extensively 
eroded, and the features of the old valley were nearly obliterated. 
North of the Downs it is scarcely traceable, except by the slight 
eastward or westward inclination of the gravels towards the 
Medina. The absence of any definite limits here arises partly from 
denudation, but partly also from the spreading out of the gravels 
into wide sheets which range along and slope down towards the 
iSolent. 

The gravels rest on a plain which slopes north, as mentioned 
above. The amount of slope may be calculated as follows: — In 
the western arm of St. George's Down the level falls about 
90 feet in a mile, or at the rate of 1 in 60. This arm, however, 
trends towards the Medina; but if a line is taken pkrallel to the 
Medina we find that the fall is less. At St. George's Down the 
height is about 320 feet ; nearly two miles to tlie north it sinks 
to 280 feet— a fall of about 1 in 260. The Whippingham 
outlier continues the slope down to about 120 feet, giving a 
general fall of 200 feet in 6 miles, or about 1 in 160. It is 
noticeable that the rate of fall tends somewhat to decrease as the 
gravels are followed further from their source. 

Taking next a parallel line about a mile further east we arrive 
at similar results. In the eastern arm of St. George's Down 
(including the Downend outlier) the level falls from 315 feet 



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PLATEAU OBAVELS. 2 13 

above the sea to 200 feet in 2^ miles, or at the rate of 1 in 104. 
A mile and a half to the north it has fallen to 170 feet, or at the 
rate of 1 in 264. These measurements give a general fall of 1 
in 136 in a distance of 3} miles. North of PaJmer's Farm the 
outlier of Plateau Gravel trends to the east and falls rapidly in 
the same direction, being apparently connected with the vaJley 
now occupied by Wootton Creek and not with the vaQey of the 
Medina. 

The gravel of St. George's Down is composed almost entirely 
of flints with a few fragnients of chert and ironstone. A notice- 
able feature in it ii the occurrence of rolled flints, a few com- 
pletely rounded, and probably derived from Tertiary pebble 
beds, but many only partly water-worn. In this respect the 
Plateau Gravel differs from the Angular Gravel of the Chalk 
Downs, in which the flints are quite unworn. 

The cementing of the gravel into blocks by a feiTuginous 
cement has already been noticed. These blocks occur in abun- 
dance all along the southern boundary of the outlier, and are found 
also in several distant 8pot8> having probably been carried off for 
rockeries, or building. The rain which is absorbed by the gravel 
saturally travels down the northerly slope, and is given off in the 
springs previously alluded to, but there is one spring on the south 
side, close to the house which is so conspicuous on the brow of 
the hill, known as the Dropping Well. The water oozes from a 
layer of cemented gravel, and is never known to fail, 

A great number of pits has been opened in the outlier, the 
gravel being brought down from the southern and western parts 
by inclined planes, and from the northern parts by road to Shide.. 
Some of the pits show upwards of 30 feet of rough stratified 
gravel, but the greatest thickness in the outlier is probably con-- 
siderably more than this. No bones or implements have ever 
been found in this or any other outlier of tlie Plateau Gravels. 

As the gravels are traced northward from St. George's Down^ 
the only noticeable change in them is that they become somewhat 
more water-worn, but their composition remains the same. Com- 
mencing with the outliers nearest the Downs, we find shallow pits 
near Staplers, which show 5 or 10 feet of gravel lesting on an 
irregular surface of Oligocene clay. Nearer Newport two small 
outliers seem to fill hollows in the clay. 

A mile to the north an outlier stands on Mount Misery at a 
height of only 170 feet above the sea. Here the clays are in 
constant downward movement, and continue to slip so steadily 
towards the Medina that the low position of the gravel may have 
no connection with its original height. 

At Downend a brickyard exhibits the following section : — 

Feet 
Beddish brick-earth with scattered chips of Hint - 15 

Rough sand. 

Other parts of the pit show this brick-earth resting on the 
flint-gravel ; it apparently belongs to the same period, but like 



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214 GBOLOGT OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

the gravel, is entirely devoid of fossils and appears to have been 
decalcified. Various other pits have at different times been 
opened in this outlier^ bat the only one at present worked is at 
Little Lynn Common. At the cross roads further north the 
gravel is eaid to be as much as 16 feet thick^ though the usual 
thickness is about 7 feet. 

The Whippingham and Osborne outlier occupies about two 
square miles^ but though the gravel sometimes reaches as much 
as 20 feet in thickness, ridges of clay constantly rise through it, 
and make the working very uncertain. A good section occurs at 
Whippingham, and another above Norris Wood. The latter shows 
over 10 feet of subangular gravel, more rolled and more distinctly 
bedded than in the pits further south. From this sheet of gravel 
the water-supply of Osborne is obtained. 

The Wootton outlier is similar to the one just described. A 
large pit about a quarter of a mile west of Wootton Lodge, 
shows 10 feet of worn flmt and chert gravel. Another pit near 
the northern end of the outlier gives a section of similar gravel 
with numerous well- worn flint pebbles. 

Parkhurst Forest to West Cotoes^ 

West of the Medina, the gravels have the same general 
northerly fall, combined with a slight inclination towards the 
Medina. At the same distance from the Downs and from the 
Medina we find gravels like those near Downend, and at about 
the same height The outlier in Parkhurst Forest, at the Signal 
House, is 260 feet above the sea ; the southern end of the North- 
wood outlier is 213 feet and the northern end at 120 feet, giving 
a fall of 140 feet in 3 miles, or 1 in 113. 

The outliers in Parkhurst Forest are a good deal worked, but 
call for no special description. The Northwood outlier is much 
more important for not only is it extensively worked, but it has 
also yielded till lately a suflicient supply of water for Cowes. 
The principal pits are two near Northwood Church, both worked 
to a depth of 13 feet ; Place Brick-yard, which shows 6 or 6 feet 
of gravel overlying the clay ; a pit dose to the cli£E north-west 
of Northwood Park and just above the 100-foot contour ; and a 
pit at the east end of Tinker's Lane. These all contain gravel of 
the ordinary character ; but a pit on the north side of Buffin's 
Copse, of greater interest, shows : — 

Fbbt. 
Gravel and mottled day, mixed - - - - - 5 

Fine white sand with black specks, about - • - 10 

Gravel (uov hidden), sud to be - * - - 2 

A trial boring made a few hundred yards further east, for the 
purpose of testing the water supply^ is said to have peoetrated the 
following deposits : — 



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PLATEAU GBATELS. 215 

Feet. 

Gravel 11 

Sand .....-.- 20 

To clay . - - 31_ 

The Band crops out ia Buffin's Copse, and there yields a con- 
siderable supply of water. 

The resemblance of this sand to that found in Goodwood Park, 
near Chichester^ is so great, and the height (130 feet) coincides 
so exactly, that careful search was made here for marine sheUs. 
Nothings however, could be found, the bed appearing to have 
been thoroughly decalcified ; it has no impervious covering like 
that which has preserved the deposit with its shells at Goodwood. 

Returning to the neighbourhood of the Downs, we find close to 
Gunville a mass of flint shingle at a height of 140 feet This 
does not appear to have any connexion with the Oligocene or 
Eocene Beds, neither does it seem to belong to the ordinary 
Plateau Gravels. Its true position must at present be left 
uncertain for want of sections. 

For three miles west of Gunville no gravels occur near the 
Downs, and denudation has been so great that the outliers near 
the Solent, thoroughly isolated, cannot be traced to their place of 
origin. 

Thorness and Rew Street 

The only pit now open in the Rew Street outlier is one in 
its south-east comer. This, however, does not show much of 
the gravel, but has been opened for sand, like that three-quarters 
of a mile further east in Kuffin's Copse. This sand has been 
exposed to a depth of 12 feet, but no fossils could be found. 
Its height above the sea is slightly over 100 feet. 

The outlier east of Great Thorness shows no section. Its 
height is about 130 feet. The larger outlier west of Great 
Thorness is worked to a depth of 15 feet, and slopes markedly 
to the eastward, not to the west, where the larger valley lies. 

Hamatead, 

The sheet of Plateau Gravel at Hamstead appears to have no 
connexion with the present system of drainage. At the highest 
point, close to Hamstead Farm, it reaches 200 feet, but in every 
direction except the north-west, where it is cut off by the cliff, 
it quickly sinks to the 100-feet contour, or even lower. This 
fixeet is composed of partlv-wom flint gravel, with many quartz 
pebbles and occasional blocks of grey wether sandstone. Greensand 
chert was not observed in it* 

Calboume. 

Some gravels near Calboume seem to belong to this series, 
though they are probably somewhat newer, than the outliers of 
Hamstead and Heeulon J^. They range in height from 200 feet 
at Westover to 120 feet near Newbridge. 



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216 GEOLOGT OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

A small outlier caps the highest port of the hill near Norton- 
green^ apparently unconnected with the present valleyB. 

Headon Hill 

Another outlier, on Headon Hill^ is perhaps the most puzzling 
of aoy. It reaches a height of 390 feet, but is separated from 
the Downs by a deep valley, and is cut off on the west and north 
by sea-cliffs?. The gravel is exceptionally thick, appearing some- 
times to measure 30 feet. It is composed of unworn flints and 
sand with pieces of ironstone, but no chert or foreign rocks 
could be found in it. 

Wootton Bridge to Ryde* 

Keturning to the East Medina^ east of Downend, we find no 
trace of Plateau Gravel on the Tertiary area anywhere near the 
Downs. The whole of the country through which the lines of 
railway pass consists of low ground which has suffered great 
denudation in more recent times. One gap through the Downs, 
that through which the eastern Yar passes, is probably of ancient 
date, but no gravels lie in it and the continuitj' of the plateaus 
north and south of the Down is lost. It therefore only remains 
to describe the belt of Plateau Gravel which ranges parallel with 
the coast between Wootton and Bembridge. 

The outlier east of Wootton Bridge consists of partly rounded 
flint and chert gi*avel, rising to a height of 170 feet towards the 
south, but sinking below the 100-foot contour on the north, and 
below 70 feet towards Ashlake. The lowness of the gravel to- 
wards Ashlake, however, may be mainly due to a landslip which 
has also affected the position of the Hamstead Beds. 

East of the outlier just described, the character of the gravel 
changes in a marked manner, and the beds have all the appear- 
ance of true beach-shingle. The first pits in which this character 
presents itself occur close together south-west of Binstead Lodge. 
The Kyde outlier evidently consists of similar materials, though 
at present no sections of it can be seen. 

Ryde and St Helen's^ 

The large sheet east of Small Brook deserves special study, 
for the sections are curious and some of the pits may ultimately 
yield fossils. The southern and eastern branches of this mass 
show no sections, but 'well-worn shingle is seen in the fields. 
The western branch descends to within about 30 feet of the sea* 
level and shows fine sands like those of Buffin's Copse. Close to 
Preston in a large brick-yard and gravel-pit the subjoined section 
may be seen : — 

Feet. 
iShingle and mottled clay, contorted together • 2 to 6 
Fine sand with seams of loam and scattered 
flints ... - - - 9 



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PLATEAU QBAYELS. 217 

" Several other pits between this brick-jrard and Oakfield ehow 
similar beds, the sand always lying below the gravel. Search was 
made there for fossils, but none could be found. 

The large irregular outlier at St. Helen's consists also of shingle, 
but offers no sections, except in the cliff above Priory Woods. 
Unfortunately the exact heights of the outliers east of Byde cannot 
be given as no contours are found on this part of the map. 

Bemhridge, 

The last outlier to be described is the sheet of shingle between 
Bembridge and the Foreland. This ma^s, well seen in the 
cliffs, rests on a surface of Bembridge Marl sloping to the 
north-east, so that the gravel descends almost to the sea-level in 
that direction. To the south-west it rises rapidly, but instead 
of disappearing gradually it seems to abut against a steep bank 
of clay near Ilowgate Farm. At the same time the boulders 
become much larger, so that between the Foreland Inn and 
the old cliff the gravel consists of a mass of coarse flint shingle, 
25 feet thick, with current-bedding dipping to the north-east. 
Towards Tyne Hall and East Cliff Lodge the shingle is finer and 
has a thickness of about 15 feet. Though this gravel consists 
mainly of flint pebbles, mixed with them there is a noticeable 
quantity of Greensand chert and sandstone, ironstone, a small 
proportion of greywether sandstone, and occasional pebbles of 
veined grit and quartz. 

The shingle just described is so similar, both in position and 
character to that found at Selsey in Sussex, 12 miles to the 
east, that search was made here for the associated bed of marine 
shells which has yielded so large a fauna in Sussex. Unfortu- 
nately the Bembridge gravel is so full of water and slips so much 
over the clay that it is generally impossible to examine its bottom, 
and no shell bed was met with. As the shells at Selsey only 
occur in local patches under the shingle, some section exposed 
by a storm may yet show a relic of this curious marine bed in 
the Bembridge peninsula. This bed should be searched for when* 
ever the base of the gravel is exposed. 

So greatly do the gravels in the north-eastern portion of the 
Isle of Wight resemble the lower series at Brighton, Qoodwood, 
and Selsey in position, materials, and arrangement, that they not 
improbably belong to the same period. The curious change the 
Plateau Gravels undergo when traced westward seems to point 
to the higher portions being sub-aerial continuations of the lower 
marine beds, xlow these angular Plateau Gravels were formed 
still remains uncertain. 



Blake Doum^ Newckurch, Alverstane, and Sandown. 

The features above described in St George's Down are repro- 
duced, but on a smaller scale and at a lower level, in the gravel 



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818 GEOLOGX OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

patch of Blake Down and the series of patches which runs north- 
ward to near Blackwater. 

Blake Down^ forming the watershed between the Medina and 
the eastern Yar. and the highest ground in what has been called 
the Bowl of the Island^ is capped with a deposit of gravel similar 
to, though not so thick as, that of St. George's Down. The slope 
of the plain on which it rests falls in this case towards the east^ 
that is down into the valley of the Yar, and, as before, the springs 
break out at the lower margin of the gravel, and have cut it 
back into a sinuous outline. 

The highest point of the gravel outlier occurs at its south end, 
where it is 278 feet above the sea ; towards the north the plateau 
slants down to a level of 230 feet But the gravel runs down two 
of the low ridges, which project eastwards, to a point 125 feet above 
the sea, and only about 20 feet above the Valley Gravel of the 
Yar. This is the nearest approach we get to an actual connection 
between the Plateau Gravels of subdivision II., and the Valley 
Gravels of subdivision III. 

Many gravel pits are dotted over Blake Down, showing 
stratified flint-gravel with a few fragments of chert, and an occa- 
sional band of gritty sand. Sometimes a layer of loam 1 to 3 feet 
thick, lies above the gravel, but nothing that could be mapped 
atj brick earth. 

The series of outliers extending northwards from Blake Down 
are clearly portions of a once continuous sheet. A line drawn 
along their western margins forms a regular curve, and probably 
corresponds approximately with the original boundary of this 
area of gravel. But on the eastern side the sheet has been dee^dly 
eroded by the streams draining into the Blackwater. Two small 

f)atches of gravel occur on the west side of the Medina, but they 
ie at a lower level, contain more chert than those last described, 
and are probably of later date. 

Excluding these two patches we find the level of the upper 
margin of the series of gravel outliers falling northwards from 
278 feet at Blake Down to 200 feet near Blackwater, and with 
such regularity as to convey the impression that the gravel must 
have been deposited along one continuous valley. Though the 
present watershed between the Medina and the Yar passes right 
across this line of gravels, yet it is so low, being only about 25 
feet above the alluvial level of the Yar, that physically the valley 
maybe said to run on continuously, along the line indicated. We 
may suppose that the stream from Niton and Whitwell, which now 
forms the head water of the Yar, formerly continued a northerly 
course by Blackwater to the Medina, instead of, as now, making a 
sharp bend across the normal direction of drainage at Budbridge. 
Such alterations in the course of a river are not unknown else- 
where, and have generally been brought about by the eating back 
of one of the sources of ^e one river until it taps the waters of 
the other. 

The date of the change must have lain between the deposition 
of the Plateau Gravels and that of the Valley Gravels. For while 



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PLATEAU GBAVFXS. 219 

the former follow the original valley, the latter have been carried 
along the new course of the river. It may be noted that when 
the terraces of Valley Gravel were formed, the bed of the Yar must 
have been about 20 feet higher than now, that is at about the level 
of the watershed. 

In some parts of the broad tract of Lower Qreensand which 
runs eastwards to Sandown, the remains of an old gravel-covered 

Elain are very striking. They occur at a fairly constant level, 
ut there are scattered patches also at a variable height on the 
sides of the hills. South-west of Arreton, for example, several 
patches of gravel, associated with brick-earth, occur in an ir- 
regular manner on the flanks of St. George's Down. They are 
clearly intermediate in age between the Plateau Gravel on the hill- 
top, and the Valley Gravel of Horringford, and, as might have 
been anticipated, contain a larger proportion of Lower Greensand 
material than does the older gravel The best sections are to be 
found in three road cuttings west-south-west of Arreton. 

Near JMewchurch good examples of gravel-covered plateaus may 
be observed. One extends through the village and idong the top 
of the steep bank overhanging the alluvial flat, showing in its course 
a tendency to slope down towards the north, that is towards the 
valley of the Yar. Another, cut by denudation into a sinuous out- 
line, is well exposed at Skinner's Hill, on the road from Newchurch 
to Borthwood, and is worked in many places for gravel. These 
patches, more stony than those near Arreton, are associated also 
with brick-earth in an irregular manner, which makes it impossible 
to draw a hard and fast boundary for this deposit. 

The hill near Sandford is capped with a conspicuous outlier of 
these gravels at a height of 200 feet above the sea ; and similar 
but very thin patches occur near Apse and Apse Heath. At 
Alverstone the gravel caps the top of the steep bank which bounds 
the modem alluvial flat, as at Newchurch. 

Two more patches belonging to this same series of outliers 
occur on the top of the cliff between Shanklin and Sandown. In 
the more southern of the two, at Little Stairs Point, may be seen 
at difierent points on the clifi^, sand and loam with flints, 9 feet 
thick ; flint gravel, 12 feet thick ; and loam and brick-earth 6 feet, 
with flint gravel 1 foot thick underneath. 

Lastly a few small patches occur on the north side of the Tar 
between Alverstone and Yarbridge. Their mode of occurrence is 
precisely similar, except that the ridges on which they lie slope to 
the south, and more rapidly than those on the south of the Yar 
slope to the north. 

It will be gathered from this disposition of the deposits that the 
lowest part of the ancient valley in which this sheet of gravel was 
laid down occupied about the same position as the bottom of the 
existing valley, and that then, as now, the ground rose rapidly to 
the north towards the Central Downs. Judging from their mode 
of occurrence, we may infer that the gravels of Blake Down, 
Newchurch, Alverstone, and the Sandown Clifis were approximately 
contemporaneous. 



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220 OBOLOGT OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 

Brook. 

The greater part of the series of gravels and brick-earth which 
caps the cliff at Brook and Brixton belongs to a later group, and 
will be described under the head of Valley Gravels^ but four small 
patches may be referred with more probability to the Plateau 
Gravels. 

The Valley Gravels, it will be noticed, follow an old line of 
valley, which runs nearly parallel with the coast. The encroach- 
ments of the sea have removed the south side of this valley, 
except for a distance of about a mile between Brook and Chilton 
Chines, where the slight convexity of the coast leaves room for 
just the lower slopes of some hills which formed the south side of 
the old valley. The cliff section shows that the valley deposits 
thin away against these slopes, leaving the Wealden Beds bare, 
but on mounting the slopes we find another series of gravels of a 
different character coming on at a higher level. The section is 
similar to that above described, where the Plateau Gravel of Blake 
Down runs down nearly to the valley gravel of the Yar, leaving 
only a strip of bare Lower Greensand between. The difference 
between the two gravels at Brook consists in the comparative 
absence of brick-earth and stratification in the higher and older 
set, and especially in the peculiar contortions which appear both 
in the older gravel and in the Wealden Clays on which it rests. 
The clays liave been bent and puckered, and the gravel forced 
into the puckers so as to occur in pockets, while the beds of loam 
or sand in the gravel are doubled up and bent, or dragged over 
towards the west There are four places only where the cliff rises 
high enough to reach these older gravels, and their thickness barely 
reaches 8 feet. The contortions are best seen in the patches at the 
east and west ends respectively. As mentioned before, these 
contortions arc regarded as probable evidence of the action of ice 
during the deposition of the gravels, perhaps in the form of frozen 
soil, or of masses imbedded in the gravels. 



III. — The Valley Gravels and Bbigk-Earth« 

Mode of Occurrence. 

We have already mentioned that these deposits differ from the 
Plateau Gravels in having been distributed along the lower parts 
of the existing valleys. They were no doubt made up principally 
of the materials of the older gravels, redistributed after the exca- 
vation of the valleys to nearly their present depth. 

They occur as terraces, often nearly level, bordering the modem 
Alluvium, but at a variable height, up to 50 feet, above it, and 
often separated from it by a steep bank The streams having 
lowered their beds below the base of the gravel, the greater part 
of this bank is formed by rock in place, usually the Lower 
Greensand. This is ' particularly the case along the upper part 
of the etistern Yar, where, as may be seen on the map, a narrow 



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YAIXBT GBAVIILS. 22L 

strip of Greensand nearly always intervenes between the gravel 
and the All avium. The greater age which this difference in level 
indicates, together with the difference in character, justifies the 
placing of the gravels and the Alluvium in separate groups. It 
will be seen also that great changes in the physical geography of 
the Island have taken place since the mvels were deposited. 

The Valley Gravels are most fully developed in the valleys of 
the two Yars at the eastern and western ends of the Island 
respectively. Those of the Medina are comparatively unim- 
portant. 

The Valley Gravels of the Eastern Yar. 

The longest feeders of this river descend from Whitwell and 
Niton, and from Wroxall. From near Whitwell northwards an 
almost continuous terrace of pravel borders the Alluvium on one 
side or the other. The gravel ranges in thickness up to 10 feet, 
and is generally loose and stony, but occasionally consists in the 
upper part of loam. Small pits for road metal may be seen 
almost everywhere, and a good section occurs at Beac-on Alley in 
a road-cutting. 

The gravel of this part of the valley has doubtless been derived 
from the Blake Down plateau, and from the continuation of it, 
which is indicated by the small patches north of Whitwell. The 
terraces cease at Budbridjre, and the streams which descend from 
Godshill, where there are no Plateau Gravels, are entirely devoid 
of gravel terraces. 

The Wroxall feeder, on the other hand, draining a country in 
which outliers of Plateau Gravel form a marked feature, is bor- 
dered by the most extensive gravel terrace in the Island. The 
terraces near Sandford are narrow, but the gravel is well seen in 
several pits. A little further north the valley widens out into a 
nearly level space a mile broad, and about 1^ miles loner, uni- 
formly overspread with gravel, except in the sides of the channels 
which the river and its tributaries have cut in it. This gravel has 
been extensively dug at Horringford in a siding from the railway, 
where the cuttings show well the irregular surface of Lower 
Greensand on which it rests. 

From Horringford eastwards the terraces occur on the north 
side of the river only. The gravel appears repeatedly on the top 
of the bank of Lower Greensand, at a height of only about 6 feet 
above the Alluvium. 

In the lower part of the Yar there are no terraces, but the 
tributary which descends from Apse has formed a large gravel flat 
near Bkck Pan. The gravel, dug near Ninham, and near the 
high road to Sandown, contains much chert and greensand, but 
has no doubt been principally formed from the old Plateau Gravel 
of which patches still remain on the neighbouring hill-tops, as 
previously described. 

North of the Downs patches of stony brick-earth at Bembridge, 
near Howgate Farm, and in the valley south-east of Sea View, 



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222 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

may be referred to this series, or may be considered as thick 
deposits of rainwash. Such local deposits of loam are common 
over the Tertiary area, but can seldom be mapped, as without 
sections they are indistinguishable from the older Tertiary clays. 
In the upper part of the patch at Howgate Farm Mr. Codrington 
found a palaeolithic implement — the only one yet found in the 
Isle of Wight. 

Wootton Creek. 

There are now no sections visible in the brick-earth of this 
locality, and it has been found impossible to map such small 
patches in the absence of sections. The following account is taken 
from Forbes' Memoir, but, since it was written, a large bone has 
been dug out of the brick-earth from a well close to the Baptist 
Chapel at Wootton Bridge. This bone has not been satisfactorily 
determined. It has been described as a tusk of elephant, but its 
discoverer, Mr. Newbury, says it was pointed at each end. 

** Along the western side of Wootton Creek, on the slope of the 
banks, are considerable deposits of rich umber-brown sandy clay, 
with scattered, small, and but slightly worn fragments of flints. 
This clay is of considerable thickness in places, varying from 
6 and 8 to 20 or 30 feet. It shows only very slight evidence 
of successive deposition ; it extends to a height of 30 feet or more 
up the slope of the hill, and appears to be distributed in extensive 
patches. It ceases altogether before the lower edge of the gravels 
that cap the hill above is reached, the interval being occupied by 
Eocene clays. Patches of brick-earth occur also, though ap- 
parently more sparingly, on the eastern side of the creek ; it may. 
be seen along the edge of the shore of the Solent at Fish-house, 
at the eastern angle of the creek. It is highly prized as a brick- 
earth, and was in requisition for the bricks used in the new fortifi- 
cations at Sconce." 

Medina Valley, 

There is apparently little gravel or brick earth in the Medina 
valley, the only patches of importance lying between Newport and 
Shide. 

At Shide the brick-earth was formerly dug, but all the pits 
are now closed. On the west side of St. John's Road a large pit, 
still worked, extends as far south as Elm Grove. The upper end of 
this pit was opened for sand (Lower Bagshot Sand), but the part 
now worked lies in brick-earth with carbonaceous seams. No 
fossils have been found here. At first sight this sheet of brick- 
earih might be expected to underlie great part of Newport, but 
drainage works showed Oligocene Beds so near the surface as to 
suggest that the loam must occupy a lateral valley extending 
towards Carisbrooke. 

A hhort distance further north gravel has been dug on both 
sides of the Medina. The patches are interesting, inasmuch as 
they contain a much larger proportion of Greensand chert than is 
found in the plateau gravels. It seems clear that in this case 



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VALI/fcY GRAVELS. 223 

iAie gravel is derived directly from the Greensand, and not from 
the plateau gravels^ though the present stream with its slight fall 
is incapable of transporting such coarse material. 

Near Coppin's Bridge loam comes on again, overlying the 
gravel. 

The Western Far. 

The most remarkable fact in connection with the valley gravels 
of this tract is the entire disappearance of the river by which they 
were deposited. For nearly the whole of the southern side of the 
valley of the Yar, as well as a large part of its drainage basin, has 
been removed by the encroachment of the sea, so that the old 
river gravels have come to occupy the position of a terrace of 
gravel capping the sea cliflF, while the small streams, which drain 
what is left of the basin of the old iTar, now find their way direct 
to the sea by deep notches or chines cut in this cliff. The evidence 
on which this gravel terrace is attributed to such a river was 
first recognised by Mr. Codrington in 1870,* and is singularly 
impressive. 

The breach in the Chalk range at Freshwater is out of all pro- 
portion large in comparison with the stream which now occupies 
it. Moreover, the river gravels conclusively prove the valley to 
have once formed the channel of a river comparable in size to the 
Medina, or eastern Yar. The distribution of these gravels further 
shows that this river, like the others, flowed from south to north, 
draining lands which, lying to the south of the Chalk range, have 
since been washed away. We may further assume that some of 
the sources of the river lay in the direction of St. Catherine's 
Down, in the area which has formed the principal watershed of 
the Island from a very early period. 

The gravels at Brook occur in the line which the old river 
might have been expected to take« and at such a height above 
those of Freshwater Gate, as would be required to allow a gradient 
for the stream. When we add to this that the gravels and brick- 
earths bear every appearance in themselves of being old river 
deposits, there is left no room for doubt that they mark the course 
of the old Yar. 

The occurrence of teeth of Elephas primigenius in these gravels 
at Freshwater has long been known ; remains of the same animal 
have been recorded also from Brook Chine and Grange Chine by 
Mr. Codrington {op, cit, p. 639). 

The continuous section afforded by the cliff gives unusual 
Opportunities for examining these gravels. In describing the 
section, we will commence in the upper part of the valley and 
proceed westwards to Freshwater. 

Gravel first makes its appearance on the top of the cliff between 
Blackgang and Atherfield. It is seen as a band 2 to 4 feet thick 
underlying a considerable depth of alluvial deposits and blown 
sand {see p. 234), and is composed principally of chert It may 



* Quart, Joum. Geol, Soc., vol. xxvi. p. 52d. 



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224 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

be contemporaneous with the far thicker deposits about to be 
described. 

But the principal deposit consists of brick-earth resting on 
stratified flint-gravel and sand. It commences at Grange Chine, 
the easternmost patch being on trie east side of the chine, near 
Brixton Mill. On the west side of the chine, a slip shows brick- 
earth, 5 feet thick, resting on 3 feet of gravel, and in the field 
close by is a shallow pit from which bricks were made for the 
viaduct of the Military Road. These deposits seem to have been 
laid down by the stream which now runs in Grange Chine, at 
the point where it joined the Yar, for at the clifT close bv 
they spread themselves westwards, and attain s. great thickness. 
Remains of Elephas primigenius have been observed at a point 
100 yards east of Grange Chine at 60 or 70 feet above the sea 
(Codrington, op, cit). 

The sections seen in the clifE between Grange Chine and Chilton 
Chine are as follows : — 

400 yards west of the Stream of Grange Chine, 

Fbkt. 
Brick-earth - - - • • . -4 

Gravel -•-.... 4.^ 

Loam, dark and clayey in parts, with bands of flint gravel, 
containing some ferruginous sandstone - • -18 

IT 



250 yards west of the preceding Section. 

Feet. 
Brick-earlh - - - - - - -2 

Gravel and loam -• - • . • .7 

Blue silt and clay, with fragments of wood • • -4 

Gravel and sand .......5 

"IT 

Near Chilton Chine. 

Feet. 
Brick -earth, thinning away near the chine • - • 6 

Gravel -----•-•8 

TT 

Four hundred yards to the west of Chilton Chine the cliff rises 
a little in height, and is bnre of gravel for a distance of 300 yards. 
This slight rise, like those referred to in the description of the 
Plateau Gravels (p. 218), evidently formed the foot of the slopes 
which enclosed the Yar valley on the south. In observing the 
thinning away of the river deposits against the elope it will be 
noticed that the brick-earth passes beyond the limits of the gravely 
so as to rest directly on the Wealden Beds, before it also thins out 

There are likewise yariations in the thickness of brick earth 
due to erosion, for the small stream which now follows the old 



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VALLEY GRAVELS. S25 

valley has out out its smaller valley in the old deposits of the 
larger one. The sand and gravel beneath are fairly constant in 
thickness. The following sections were noted : — 

On the west Side of Chilton Chine. 

Febt. 
Brick-earth .-.--.. 0—4 
Gravel- ....... 8 



12 



Half-a-mile west of Chilton Chine, 



Fbbt. 

Red and yellow loam - - - - - * 2 

Do. with flints - - - - - 1 

Sand -..-•...6 

Gravel 4 

We now reach the parts of the cliff which were described on 
p. 220, ns being capped with Plateau Gravel. The Valley Gravel, it 
will be noticed, runs to the edge of the cliff between the low hills 
on which the Plateau Gravels rest, so that the relations of the two 
can be conveniently studied. Remains of Elephas primigenius 
have been recorded from a point half a mile east of Brook Chine, 
about 96 feet above the sea.* Apparently they must have 
occurred in what has been described as Plateau Gravely but the 
point is uncertain. 

On the east side of Brook Chine gravelly loam, 6 to 8 feet 
thick, rests on 4 feet of well-bedded sand and gravel ; but at 
the chine, and for a few yards west of it, the gravel has been 
re-arranged and will be described among the more recent deposits 
Cp. 231, Hazel-nut Gravels). 

At Hanover Point the Valley Gravels thin away against a slope 
of Weald Clay rising to the south, as near Chilton. On the east 
side of the point the following section was noted : — 

Fbbt. 
Brick-earth • - - - - . . g 

Bright buff sand - ...... 4 

Grey sand, with some gravel - - - - .4 

"le" 

At Shippard's Chine the Hazel-nut Gravels re-appear, but 
200 yards to the north-west of the chine we find the following 
section : — 

Fbbt. 
.Gravel made up of ferruginous sandstone (recent) - . 1-2 

Brich-earth - - - .4-6 

Gravel and sand ...... 8-10 

* Codrington, QuarU Jaum, Geo/. Soc,, vol. zzvi. p. 539. 
£ 56786. p 



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226 ' GEOLOGY, OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

200 yards north-west of the preceding Section, 

Brick-earth -----. 
Laminated sand and loam ...... 



Fbkt. 
12 



Lastly^ in a small chine, 350 yards north-west of Shippard's 
Chine, we are presented with the section iUustrated bj the 
accorapanjring woodcut. 

Fig. 79. 

Section in Valley Gravels at the east end of Compton Bay. 

a. Soil, 2 feet. 








"iMfeT7^V:riLr ''•Sand cemented into a rock by 

I'^T^^t'^^^\l'>KS^^.fY^:' e. Coarse anpilar flint-grarel, 

conUuning iron, clay, and 
qoartz-pebbles. 

/. Wealden Shales. 



This is the last section in the Valley Deposits, for 50 yards 
further on they thin away against the rising slopes of Afton 
Down, and do not touch the coast again till we reach Freshwater 
Gate. 

At Freshwater Gate the cliff cuts across the old valley at right 
angles, giving a clear section of all the river deposits^ except the 
modem Alluvium which lies at and below the sea-level. The 
section has long been noted for the finding of two teeth of 
JSlephas primigenius in the gravel as described in detail by Mr. 
Godwin Austen.* 

On the west -side of the valley (Fig. 80) the lower part of the 
gravel is composed of large partly worn flints, with chert and 
ironstone, and" is stained and partly cemented by iron-oxide. 
Above this rock a grey stratified chalky loam overlaps the flint- 
gravel, and runs up the slopes of chalk above it, much as a rain- 
wash would do. Nearer the middle of the valley this chalky loam 
is overlain with brown loam and briok-earth, but, still lower down, 
thins out, leaving the brown loam resting on the flint-gravel. The 
flection now exposed at the Bath House shows — 

Feet. 
Brown loam • .. -. -- -. - -8 

FUnt gravel, with a few bands of sand or grit . • « about 20 

♦ See (Geological Surrey Memoir on the Tertiary Flavio-Marine Formation of the 
Isle of Wight, p. 2. (1852.) 



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valley gravels. 227 

Fig, 80. 
Freshwater Bay from the East From a Sketch hy Prof. E. Forbes. 







On the east aide of the valley, of which a view is given in 
Fig. 15, p. 74, a thin spread of flint-gravel and chalky loam 
occupies the top of the cliff for a considerable distance, and forms 
a small outlier, now rapidly crumbling away, on the sea-stack 
known as the Stag Bock. These deposits rapidly thicken into 
the valley, where behind the new esplanade the subjoined section 
may be seen : — 

Fbbt. 
Soil 1-2 

Flint grarel 1-2 

Lenticular mass of stratified chalky loam, with fragments of 
flints ....... 0-6 

Flint gravel -------4 + 

The lower beds of flint gravel, on the two sides of the valley, 
have probably been derived from older gravels that once lay on 
lands to the souths since washed away. The flint fragments in 
the upper part have a fresher and less water*wom appearance, 
and have probably been washed out of the chalk of the Fresh- 
water Downs. No fragments of chalky it will be noticed, occur 
in the lower or far-derived flint gravel, the wear and tear of 
transport having been too ^reat for their survival. In the upper 
beds on the east side of the valley Mr. Godwin Austen observed 
considerable numbers of Pupa miiscorum and Succinea obhngOf 
the latter now extinct in the Isle of Wight. 

** The Elephant remains found at Freshwater consist of two 
molar teeth, of which the first was met with on the west side of 

P 2 



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2^^ GEOLOGY, OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

the valley, in a excavation on .the site of the lower hotel, and 
where the specimen is now preserved ; the other was procured 
from the beds on the east ride."* 

North of the gap through the Downs the Gravels have not 
yielded fossils, though they form sheets of considerable extent* 
From the scarcity of sections it is also difficult to say whether these 
deporits belong to one period or mark successive stages in the 
denudation of tixe valley. 

In the sheet of gravel which extends to Freshwater Bay a pit 
has been opened at Easton at a height of about 50 feet above 
the Alluvium, but the gravel slopes continue down to the Marsh. 
On the opposite side of the Yar the gravel occupies a plateau 
from 30 to 50 feet above the sea, and a pit shows 25 feet of coarse 
gravel resting on Bagshot Sands. In Afton Park a large pit was 
opened to supply ballast during the construction of the railway. 
It showed about 6 feet of gravel, resting in one place on shelly 
clay — probably Barton Clay — but the gravel itself yielded no 
fossils. The sheets further north show no sections, and are 
only interesting as fringing the present estuary. 

IV. — Beds now Fobming, or of Recent Date. 

In this group we include Alluvium, Peat, Blown Sand, Chalk 
Talus, Tufa, &c. Chronological arrangement being impossible 
among such beds, the Alluvial Deposits will be taken in the 
geo^phical ordcjr of the streams with which they are associated. 

Alluvium and Peat. 
ft. The Western Yar^ and the Coast from Freshwater to Yarmouth^ 

The small stream which now follows the old valley of the Yar 
takes its rise at Freshwater Gate in a spring known as the Rise 
of Yar, pituated on the eastern edge of the " Alluvium at a 
distance of 200 yards from high-water mark. Though fresh, this 
spring ebbs and flows coincidently with the tide. In dry weather 
it ceases to flow 6oon after the tide begins to fall. 

The Alluvium, consisting of peat, silt, and marsh clay, extends 
continuously southwards to the foreshore, where, however, it ia 
almost always covered with sand and shingle. In digging a 
foundation for the sea-wall, this peaty deposit was excavated to a 
depth of 10 feet without the bottom being reached, and was 
found to be abundantly charged with fresh water. The ponding 
back of this water by the rising tide is probably the cause of the 
spring alluded to above. 

The tide flows up the Yar as far as Freshwater, where it is 
stopped by a dam. Formerly the whole of the marsh must have 
been part of the estuary, for shells of the common cockle occur 
abundantly just below the peat opposite Afton House. 

* The Tertiary Flayio-Marine Formation, &e., p. S. • 

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ALLUVIUM AND PEAT. 229 

A deposit of tufa and tufaccous marl lying on the top of the 
cliff at Widdick Chine has attracted a good deal of attention. 
This tufa is a deposit from the springs given out bj the Headon 
Limestone inmiediately abova There is nothing to point to its 
being of any great antiquity, for the stoppage of the springs is 
merely due to the recession of the cliff, by which they have been 
tapped at another point The section is now almost entirely 
overgrown. These deposits were first noticed and described 
by the late Mr. Joshua Trimmer {Quart Journ. GeoL Soc,, 
vol. X. p. 63 (1864)), and were subsequently referred to in 
greater detail by Professor Forbes ('^Memoir on the Tertiary 
Fluvio-marine Formation," p. 8), and in notes by Mr Bristow 
appended to his Memoir. When the first edition of this Memoir 
was published this deposit could be seen to occupy the upper 
part of the cliff in Totland Bay for a distance of nearly 
360 yards, at about 60 feet above the sea. On the top 
(Fig. 81) lay an luiequal thickness of brown loam, containing 

Fig. 81. 
Tufaceous deposit of Totland Bay. 







a. Fermginous brown sandy loam. 

b. Brown clay and periched shells. 

c. Fine tufii. 

d. Coarser tofiu 

e. Potamomya sands of the Upper Headon Beds. 

a few scattered angular flints^ beneath which was a layer of 
brown clay and decayed shells, resting on four or five feet of 
calcareous tufa (with a few black lines derived from decomposed 
vegetable matter), sometimes equalling fluvio-marine limnaean 
limestone in hardness. This tufa was finest in the upper part, and 
became gradually coarser towards the bottom, where it was full 
of round calcareous concretions of various sizes, and of what seemed 
to be the twigs and stems of plants^ which having fallen into 
water highly charged with carbonate of lime became incrusted 
vnth it The concentric concretions were largest at the base of 



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230 GEOLOGY OF THE I8LB OF WIGHT. 

the deposit, and decreased in size in an upward direction, the 
whole deposit resting on an uneven surface of the Potamomya 
sands, which underlie the limnaean limestone of Totland Bay. 
Occasionally a layer of small angular flints intervened between 
the tufa and the sands. 

Helix nemoralis, H, rotundata, Cydostoma eleganSy with 
occasional Bulimus lubrictis and JPupa muscorum are the most 
abundant land-shells, and occur throughout; in the loam are 
Succinea and Limn(BCLy and in the lower part a small Planorbis 
and fragments of Unio. In addition to the above, the following 
sheila were noticed by Prof. E. Forbes, viz., Helix arbustorum 
(or nemoralis\ H pulchella^ H. ericetorum^ H cellaria, H. Mspida^ 
H hortensisy Achatina acicula^ Clausilia^ Pisidium, Limn(Ba 
palustriSy Succinea oblonguy Cyclas^ &c. 

The only other deposit of similar character is a small patch of 
shelly tu£i immediately below the limestone a quarter of a mile 
further east. This tufa is seen in the road cutting east of York's 
Farm, but occupies so small an area that it cannot be placed on 
the map. 

b. The Coast from Freshwater to Blachgang^ 

It has been previously explained that the streams which now 
empty themselves into the sea between Freshwater and Blackgang 
have once been tributaries of the old river Yar. In consequence 
of the encroachment of the sea by which the river was intercepted, 
some curious anomalies have been brought about in the position 
of the alluvial deposits. 

It will be noticed that a long strip of Alluvium which com* 
mences near Chilton Chine, only 50 yards from the edge of the 
cliff, winds away westwards parallel to the coast, catching a 
little land drainage in its course. At Brook it passes out to 
the edge of the cliff, and the water from it, cutting through the 
Alluvium and deep into the Wealden Beds, escapes by the chine 
so formed to the sea. But a few yards west of Brook Chine 
another strip of Alluvium appears on the top of the cliff, and> 
winding round Hanover Point, passes out to the cliff again at 
Shippard's Chine. This latter isolated strip is, without much 
doubt, the continuation of the other which runs westward fronk 
near Chilton Chine. The separation of the two strips has re- 
sulted from a comparatively recent encroachment of the sea in 
Brook Bay. 

The alluvial tract follows the centre of the Valley Deposits 
of the old "Yar, coinciding in position with what must have been 
the course of that river. That any part of the Alluvium dates 
back to the time when this river ran through the Freshwater 
Valley is hardly probable. But it was probably deposited by a 
diminished representative of the old Yar, gathering the drainage 
of Brook, Chilton, and still earlier of Brixton and Shorwell, and 
falling into the sea somewhere a little further south and west than 
Shippard's Chine. 



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ALLUVIUM AND PEAT, 



231 



The section of this Alluvium at Shippard's Chine has long 
been noted for the occurrence in it of timber and the shells of 
nuts. These were first noticed by Mr. Webster, who described 
them as follows : — 

** It was near to this place, that I had been informed, fossil 
fruits had been found in great abundance, and which were regu- 
larly called in the island, Iloah's nuts. • • • Near the top of 
this cliff lie numerous trunks of trees, which, however, were not 
lodged in the undisturbed strata, but buried eight or ten feet deep 
under sand and gravel. Many of them were a foot or two in 
diameter, and ten or twelve feet in length. Their substance was 
very soft, but their forms and the ligneous fibre were quite dis- 
tinct: round them were considerable quantities of small nuts, 
that appeared similar to those of the hazel. None of the wood 
nor fruits were at all mineralised. • . « No hazel whatever 
now grows upon the island. . . • Pieces are sometimes found 
so fresh as to bear being worked into furniture."* 

Fig. 82. 
Sketch of Gravels with Hazel Nuts in Shippard^s Chine. 




a, Ferrogmoiis loam 
6. Bbek clay 

c. Pale f errogiiioiis clay 

d. Black carbonaceous clay 



Inches. /. Angular flint grayel, hardening into 

- 6 conglomerate. 

- 6 g. Coarse sand, with fragments of fine 

- 6 sandstone, nuts, twigs, branches, &c. 

- 6 h. Red mottled clay of the Wealden. 



The sketch forming Fig. 82 was made in the southern side 
of Shippard's Chine in June 1856. The upper two feet consisted 
of black peaty clay and ferruginous pale clay, overlying ferru- 
^ous loam, which rested on angular flint gravel, sometimes 
hardening into conglomerate, beneath which was a coarse sand 
enclosing fragments of fine sandstone. This sand, based upon 

* Sir H. Englefield's Isle of Wight, p. 152. 



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232 GEOLOGY OP THE I8LE OF WIGHT 

red mottled Wealden clay, contained nanierous shellB of nats, 
and the remains of beetles mixed with matted fragments of the 
twigs and branches of trees. The latter^ which were sometimes 
coated with phosphate of iron, retained their original shapes and 
general appearance, and were saturated with water, which 'on 
evaporation left a light shrivelled substance behind. The largest 
fragments did not excf ed two or three inches in diameter. 

In more recent years a causeway has been made on the north 
side of the chine, and in the approach to it the following beds have 
been cut through : — 

Brick earth, a reddish loam - . • . 

Grey silt, with much soft and blackened wood and bark, and 

black, brittle nut-shells .... 
Hard cemented gravel .... 
Dark earth, with muoh wood, as above 
Gravel - - - . . - 
Vegetable layer, not continuous ... 
Gravel - - 
Wealden Clay 

12 8 

On the opposite side of the cutting a still more recent alluvial 
peat and rootlet bed, about 18 inches thick^ lies above the brick- 
earth of this section, probably the black peaty clay seen in 1856. 

On the west side of Brook Chine also there occurs a peaty layer 
in gravels of the same age au those at Shippard's Chine, and pro- 
bably once continuous with them, as previously mentioned. A 
large tree trunk is to be seen sticking out of the bed in an 
inaccessible position near the top of the clifi*. 

It has already been explained that the gravels in which these 
vegetable remains occur are later than the Valley Gravels of 
Group III., which cap the neighbouring cliffs. The newer series 
was no doubt made up from the washing of the older, and it is 
difficult to draw a hard line dividing the gravels of the two ages. 
The later or ** hazel-nut gravels " clearly form part of the alluvial 
deposit which commences near Chilton Chine (p. 230). 

The stream, which has cut out the great ravine known as 
<7rnnge Chine, is fed by the two powerfol springs of Bottlehole 
Well and Shorwell. The alluvial flat of the former consists of 
peat where the stream runs over the Lower Greensand, that of 
Shorwell of silt, sand, and fine gravel. The chine begins where 
the two streams join at Brixton, and has been of course cut 
through the Alluvial Deposits deep into the variegated beds of 
the Wealden series. 

The water, which enters the sea by way of Shepherd's Chine 
(Cowleaze Chine on the former edition of the one-inch map), is 
principally derived from springs issuing at the foot of the 
escarpment which we described on p. 44 as running past Pyle 
and Kingston. The springs being highly charged with iron^ 
the alluvial flat at Atherfield contains much ochre; the broad 
flat west of Corve is peaty. The stream meanders through 



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ALLUVIUM AND PEAT. 233 

Little Atherfield bonlered by a narrow alluvial flat^ which how* 
e^er in the area underlain by clay (the Atherfield Clay and 
Wealden Beds) widens out, and becomes indefinitely bounded. 

The chipe commences at Combtonfield ns a small notch, hut 
slants down towards the sea so as to gain a depth of about 90 feet 
at the sea-clifi! The chine being cut along the middle of the 
alluvial flat, gives a section along both its banks of the alluvial 
deposits, which have thus come to occupy the curious position of 
being 90 feet above the stream which formed them. 

The mouth of the chine up to the year 1810, when the old 
edition of the Ordnance Map was published, was situated 350 
yards further north than its present position. Before Fitton 
visited the spot a change had taken place which he thus describes. 
The streamlet " was very tortuous near the shore, and formerly 
came close to the edge of the cliff near its present outlet, but 
made its way to the beach at Cowleaze ; till the soft and 
narrow barrier at top having been cut through, the water soon 
deepened the chasm, and formed a new chine, leaving its previous 
bed, with Cowleaze Chine itself, deserted and diy."* 

The change is reported to have been hastened at the last by a 
shepherd having dug through the narrow barrier of shale, whence 
the namo of Shepherd's Chine for the new mouth. The old 
ravine of the stream remains much as it was, except that the sides 
are overgr6wn. It runs neaf^ and roughly pariJlel to' the sea- 
cliS*, and is separated from it by a long and narrow but flat- 
topped ridge, capped with two small outliers of Alluvium; a 
remarkable position in which to find remains of such a deposit. 
The stream has greatly deepened the new chine since it gained 
an exit by the shorter route, — a result which followed naturally 
from the temporary steepeuing of the gradient, and the consequent 
temporary increase in the rate of erosion. The case is precisely 
analogous to those of Brook Chine and Shippard's Chine described 
on p. 230. 

The following sections in the Alluvium were noted : — 

On the south side of Shepherds Chine, 

Fbbt. 
Loam -------- 2-5 

Gravel and sand ...... 2-6 

On the north side of Shepherds Chine^ neccr Chine. 

Ft. In. 

Sandy Toftm -* - -" - -" - -20 

Flint gravel - - - -" - - -26 

Grey loam and grit» with man/ small fragments of stems and 

nut-shells - - - - - - -16 

Flint gravel, with many fragments of Wealden Shales, and 

with fragments of wood - - - - - 4 

~10 



* On the Strata below the Chalk. Trans, Ged, Soe., Ser. 2, toI. iy. p. 197. 
1886 Cread 1827). 



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234 OEOLOGT OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

In an outlier between the cliff and the old course of the ttream. 

Brown loam ------ 

Light blu8 silt - - - - - 

Grey silt, with stones - - - - - 

Flint gravel ------ 

Gravel, chiefly of fragments of Wealden Beds 

^9 8 



The mode of occurrence of this deposit leads to the inference 
that it is of the same age as the Alluvium at Shippard's Chine, 
where also nut-shells are imbedded. 

Whale Chine forms the outlet for a small stream taking its 
rise in the western slopes of St. Catherine's Down. The sides of 
this extremely precipitous ravine are capped, like those of 
Shepherd's Chine, witn an alluvial deposit, consisting of loamj 
beds above, and gravelly beds below, the majority of the stones 
in the latter being chert and ferruginous sandstone. The sub- 
joined section may be seen at the top of the cliff, on the north 
side of the chine : — 

Ft. In. 

Loam- - - - - - - -90 

Black oeaty seam - - - - - - 3-4 

Grey sut, with bands of chert gravel below - - - 4 
Chert gravel 40 

17 4 



On the north-east side of the Military Boad, the chert gravel 
comes to the surface, and has been dug for road-metaL On the 
south side of the chiae it is overspread by Blown Sand, which 
will be described subsequently, but the gravel can be traced 
beneath this covering in the face of the cliff for about three^ 
quarters of a mile, rising south-eastwards from about 145 feet 
above the sea at Whale Chine to about 200 feet at Walpen 
Chine. The following sections were noted in it : — 

At Ladder Chine (see also p. 287). 

Fbbt. 
Blown sand, variable - - - - - - 6-16 

Yellow loam -------2 

Chert gravel - - - - - - -3 

South side of Walpen Chine. 

Fbrt. 
Blown sand, prey ----.. 15-20 

Do. Drown ------ 5-10 

Coarse angular chert gravel, resting on slightly bent beds of 
Lower G&eensand - - - - - - 3 , 



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ALLUVIUM AND PEAT. 285 

100 yards south of Walpen Chine. 

Fbrt. 
Blown Band, with fragments of shale and a few small stones • 1 5 
Blown sand, brown - - - - - - 3 

Grey sUt 1 

Peaty layer ---•--.J 

Ocbiy layer and silt- - - - - -^ 

Grrey silt - - - - - - - - 2 

Chert gravel ------.2 

The last section idsible in the undercliff formed by the thick 
clay which lies next below the Sandrock Series (p. 30), exposes 
the following strata : — 

Fbrt. 
Blown sand - - * • - - - 6-8 

Yellow loam ------- 4_6 

Chert gravel - - - - - - - 0-2 

South of this undercliff, the Blown Sand rests directly on the 
rock. 

This large spread of gravel is clearly not the product of the 
small stream of Whale Chine, or of the still smaller one of 
Walpen Chine, but may perhaps have been deposited by the upper 
waters of the old Yar, of which the present streanJets were 
tributaries. 



c. The Medina. 

The Alluvium of the River Medina commences at Chale Green, 
and forms a long strip of marsh land^ gradually widening to about 
200 yards in the part known as the Wilderness and near 
Gatcombe, but narrowing down as it passes the projecting spur 
of Upper Cretaceous Rocks of Gossard Hill, and those of the 
central range of the Island. The alluvial deposits are generally 
marsh-clay and silt, with a black peaty soil on top. 

On the other hand the Alluvium of the tributary which joins 
the Medina at Blackwater is principally peat, as perhaps the name 
indicates; its boundaries on the low watershed near Merston 
are extremely indefinite, as described on p. 218. Below Newport 
the Alluvium consists of estuarine clay and silt. 

d. The Eastern Yar. 

The Alluvium of the two longest feeders of this river, namely, 
those wluch descend from Whitwell and Wroxall, consists super- 
ficially of a narrow strip of marsh-clay spread over the bottom of a 
shallow trough cut through the Valley Gravels into the Lower 
Greensand. The alluvial flat is bounded for some miles by a low 
hank of Greensand with a thin covering of gravel. But the 
streams which rise on the north side of Godshill, and join the 
river above Horringford, drain some extensive peaty flats and are 
hordered by peaty land, until they join the Yar. The develop- 



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236 THE OEOLOGT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

ment of peat has resulted from the form of the CTound and the 
issue of the springs which mark the outcrop of a clayey bed in the 
Lower Greensand, as described on p. 45. 

Below Newchurch the alluvial -flat is bounded by steep banks 
of ferruginous sand (Lower Greensand), and is extremely irregular 
in its boundaries, the river in its wanderings having undermined 
first onQ bank then .the other. .The apil is pf the' usual dark 
character, but there is no great thickness of peat. 

At Sandown the river must have been formerly joined by an 
important tributary, for the alluvial flat, known as Sandown Levels 
which branches ofi^ to the south, is at least as broad as that of the 
main river. This tributary Alluviuui runs only half a mile before 
it is cut off^ abruptly by the "sea, so that nenrly the whole of the 
basin of the river which foriped it has dis^ippeared. The streams 
of Shanklin and Luccomb Chines were probably some of the head 
waters of the river, and a little patch of gravel on the south side 
of Shanklin Chine may have formed part of its valley deposits. 
The tract of land on which Yaverland and Bembridge are 
situated is isolated from the rest of the Island by this alluvial flat 
and that of the Yar, and would be literally an island at high tide 
in certain winds, but for the artificial bank along the seaward 
margin of Sandown Level. It corresponds curiously to the '' Isle 
of Freshwater " at the opposite extremity of the Isle of Wight. 

Brading Harbour was continually inundated at high water until 
the end of February 1880, when the uea was finally shut out by 
the present permanent embankment, which encloses an area of 
600 acres. Sit* Hugh Middieton, in the time of James L, 
employed a number of Dutchmen to recover it from the sea by 
embankments. 7,000/. were expended in the work ; but, partly 
by the badness of the soil, which proved a barren sand, partly by 
the choking of the drains for the fresh water, by the weeds and 
mud brought by the sea, but chiefly by a furious tide which 
made a breach in the bank, they were obliged to desist, and put a 
stop to their expensive project (^See Pennant's Isle of Wight, 
vol. ii. p. 149). 

Near Lane End, Bembridge, a hollow in the older jrravel con- 
tains a newer peat and gravel. It was impossible to separate the 
two gravels on the map and no determinable fossils were observed 
in the peat, but these deposits seem to be merely the Alluvium 
of the small stream which now flows through Lane End. 

The alluvial deposits of the smaller streams that flow into the 
Solent consist of marsh-days with trunks of trees, but in the 
absence of clear sections there is little to be said about them. It 
may be pointed out, however, that the Alluvium of all the streams 
descends far below their present beds. Though we have no means 
of telling the full depth, yet judging by analogy, we should expect 
that the old channels of the larger streams have been cut fully 
40 feet deeper than their present ones, as is the case in most parts 
of England. This indicate-s that their excavation dates back to a 
period when the land stood at a considerably higher level. 



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blown sand. 237- 

Blown Sand. 

The largest area of Blown Sand in the Isle of Wight is to be 
found on the top of the verlical cliff between Atherfield and Chale, 
at a height of 150 to 250 feet above the sea. The sand is blown 
up from the face of the cliff, not from the beach below, and con- 
sists merely of disintegrated Lower Greensand. Several sections 
in it have been noted above in describing the gravel below it 
(p. 234) ; the greatest thickness of it seen was about 20 feet, but it 
probably exceeds this in parts of the line of dunes which it forms 
along the edge of the clifP. It extends also for some hundreds of 
yards inland in the form of a thin covering of dusty sand. The 
most westerly patch of this sand lies on the outcrop of a bed of 
iron-sand, and contains vast quantities of spherical grains of iron- 
oxide derived from it 

On either side of Ladder Chine the sand is piled up in small 
hummocks or dunes, and, if we descend into the chine, the source 
of the sand becomes sufficiently obvious. The chine appears to 
have commenced its existence as a small notch cut by the surface- 
drainage from the adjoining fields. The wind, especially that from 
the south-west, entering the notch has gradually widened it out 
into a beautifully symmetrical amphitheatre, leaving the harder 
beds and concretions standing out in tiers of benches, but whirling 
every loose particle of sand up over the top of the cliff. The 
chine thus provides an interesting illustration of wind-erosion, 
comparable on a small scale to the ccenery of parts of the desert 
region of Western America* 

Very small spits, consisting partly of blown sand, extend half 
way across the alluvial flats of the western Yar and of the Newtown 
estuary. At the mouth of the eastern Yar a more extensive tract 
of Blown Sand rises here and there into small dunes, used for the 
Golf Links, and serves to protect Bembridge Harbour on the 
north-east side. The sand travels in all cases from west to east. 



Chalk Talus. 

At the foot of the slopes of the chalk hills a gravelly detritus 
of chalk has accumulated to a considerable thickness. It is well 
seen in Compton Bay, where the steepest part of the cliff in 
which the Upper Greensand crops out is formed by a stratified 
chalk talus, or rain- wash, from the slopes of Afton Down. The 
deposit here reaches a thickness ol' 20 feet, and is compact enough 
to stand in a vertical cliff. The second exposure is seen in the 
road-cutting between Brixton and Calbourne, where the talus has 
spread itself over the Upper Greensand, and become hardened. 
The third occurs on St. Catherine's Hill, on the summit of Gore 
Cliff. In this locality the deposit consists of hard calcareous mud, 
attiuning a thickness of about 9 feet, and becoming harder and 

* Ah was remarked ta the writer by Mr. G. K. Gilbert, of the United States 
Geological Survey, daring an excursion to this locality. 



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238. THE GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

darker towards the lower part. It contains numerous existing 
land-shells, among which are Helix aspersa^ H, nemoralis, H. 
ericetorum^ H. virgata^ H, rotundata, Bulimus lubricus^ &c* 
It rests on the northern slopes of a small outlier of the Chalk 
Marl, but extends a few yards beyond the boundary of the Chalk, 
so as to touch the Upper Greensand. It is made up almost 
entirely of small fragments of Chalk and Chalk mud, but con- 
tains a little Upper Greensand, and a very few fragments of 
chert. It is clearly a rain-wash from the slopes of a hill of Chalk, 
which must have once existed to the south, but of which the 
small outlier is the only surviving fragment. The remainder of 
the hill has slipped down to vai'ious positions in the UnderclifE, 
one of the most striking features of which is the great slices of 
Chalk and Upper Greensand, still retaining their relative 'posi- 
tions. 

The inland limits of the deposit are altogether indefinite, but pre- 
sumably tend to follow the boundary of the Chalk, though slightly 
overlapping it as in the cliff. Similar deposits would probably be 
seen along the greater part of the base line of the Chalk, were 
there any sections to show them. Agriculturally they are im- 
portant, for they produce a chalk-soil over the outcrop of the 
Upper Greensand. In the same way the guttering down of the 
Gault, described on p. 68, has spread a clay-soil over the 
outcrop of the Carstone, and part of the Sandrock Series. 

* Helix aperta aUo appeared in the list in the Ist edition of the Memoir. Bat as 
the authority is not fordicoming, and the occurrence of this continental shell is im- 
probable, it 18 no?r omitted. 



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239 



CHAPTER XIV. 

DISTURBANCES AND FAULTS. 

Of the moyements of the strata which produc€!d the almost 
unique geological features of the Isle of Wight, the most marked 
was that which brought the Chalk up in a nearly vertical position 
in the central range. The fold of the stmta thereby eifected is 
found, however, on close examination to consist of two separate 
anticUnal axes, the one dying out as the other increases ; while 
other lines of lesser disturbance run nearly parallel, each having 
its influence on the structure of the Island. 

Before describing in detail the various folds observable in the 
Isle of Wight we will briefly notice the great series of nearly 
parallel anticlinal and synclinal axes of the south and south-east 
of England, of which they form part These axes, taken in order 
from north to south, are as follow : — 

Ist The great syncline of the London Basin, which extends 
from Marlborough in the west, and is lost under the German. 
Ocean to the east. 

2nd. The great anticline of the Weald of Kent» which com- 
mences in the west as two separate anticlines, the one near 
Devizes, the other near Petersfield, passes under the Englidi 
Channd, and terminates about 14 miles east of Boulogne. 

3rdly, The syndine of Chichester, which passes north of Ports- 
down to the sea near Worthing, and eastwards along the coast 
by Brighton. 

4thly. The anticline of Portsdown and High Down, which runs 
under the sea at Worthing. 

5th. The syncline of the Isle of Wight, which runs from near 
Dorchester in the west through the Tertiary area of the Island 
and out to sea near Brading. 

6th. The double anticline of the Isle of Wight, which com- 
mences off the coast of Devon, strikes the shore near Weymouth, 
runs along the Dorset coast near St. Albans Head, through the 
Cretaceous area of the Isle of Wight, and out to sea near San- 
down. 

These ax68 are not strictly paraUel. The London axis, for 
example, runs a little north of east ; the Weald axis curves round 
consiaerably south of east in its eastern part ; the Chichester 
and Ports^wn axes are nearly parallel to that of the Weald, but 
are inclined a little more to the south ; while the synclinal axis. 



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240 GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

and the two nearly coincident anticlinal axes of the Isle of Wight, 
run nearly east and west. The want of parallelism in these great 
folds is not sufficient, however, to invalidate the assumption that 
they form part of a single series, and were formed oontem- 
poraneonsly. 

They have, moreover, this property in common, namely, that 
the north side of every anticline is much steeper than the 
south side. Thus the strata rise gently towards the north for a 
varying distance, and then, reaching the crest of the fold, plunge 
suddenly down, slowly to rise again* This sudden downward 
plunge is seen in the Hog's Back, inPortsdown,and in the central 
Downs of the Isle of Wight, which form the northern sides of 
the respective anticlinal folds, enumerated above* 

We may next notice that these folds do not run for an indefinite 
distance either east or west, but die away, each syncline being 
truly an elongated basin, and each anticline an elongated dome. 
The two ends of a fold are visible in one instance only, viz., in the 
anticline of the Weald, but the western terminations of all the 
others, excepting the Isje of Wight (Brixton) anticline, can be 
seen, and in this case we find the eastern termination of the fold 
near the centre of the Island. The Sandown anticline, which 
commences where the Brixton anticline dies away, probably itself 
disappears a short distance east of Sandown ; for, as previouslv 
pointed out, the strike of the Chalk in the southern Downs is such 
as to cause this range to meet the central range at an oblique 
angle. Similarly we have evidence of the eastern termination of 
the Isle of Wight syncline off Selsea Bill. 

In respect of their relative positions to one another these folds 
show this peculiarity, that while they run east and west (approxi- 
mately), as if formed by a force acting from the south, they are 
arranged en Sckelon along a line running a little north of east. 
This ca^ be most easily rendered intelligible by drawing a 
line through the whole system of folds touching the ^rea of 
maximum movement in each fold. Such a line starting from 
near Weymouth, runs between Cowes and Newport, near Ports- 
down and Chichester, a little north of Battle, and thence out into 
the Oerman Ocean, where presumably the deepest part* of the 
London syncline is situated. The line thus traced has a direction 
of east 10'^-15° north, and, what is deserving of remark, is not 
very far from being parallel to the great Chalk escarpment across 
Enjgland. 

The Palseozoic Rocks on which the Secondary strata rest in 
the north-west of France, and which doubtless pass under the 
south-east of England are known to be intensely contorted, and 
thrust over one another, the strike of the folds being about west- 
north-west, turning to east and west where they emerge at the 
surface in Devon and Somerset. The Carboniferous Rocks of 
Valenciennes also tend to assume this strike towards the west. 
But though there is this approximate agreement in direction 
between the folding of the Secondary and Tertiary Rocks, and 
that of the Palaeozoic Bocks, it must not be concluded that any 



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DISTUBBANOSS AHD FAULTS. 241 

connection exists between them. The Palseozoic Bocks had 
already been folded when the Secondary Period commenced, while 
the folds with which we are concerned were produced in a late 
Tertiary age. It is> howevery possible that» the direction of the 
later folds was influenced by that of the earlier set, for the old 
rocks may have yielded more readily along the former lines of 
flexure, than along new lines crossing these obliquely. 

We have already noticed the sudden downward plunge of the 
beds on the north side of all the anticlines. This form of fold 
seems to be the first stage in the formation of a thrust-plane or 
slide-fault. For though m the Isle of Wight the movement has 
not usually gone further than to produce verticality of the beds, yet 
on following the fold across to Dorsetshire, that is nearer the area 
of greatest movement, we meet an instance of an actual thrust- 
plane in the Chalk. This dislocation was first noticed by Mr. 
Webster in 1811, and described and figured by hun in Englefield's 
Isle of Wight (pp. 164-168, PL 26 and 27). The cliff of Hand- 
fast Point is formed in the southern part of vertical beds, and 
in the northern of nearly horizontal beds of chalk. The hori- 
zontal strata, as they approach the vertical series, turn upwards in 
a great curve, forming nearly the quarter of a circle. A fracture 
has taken place, exactly following one of the curved bedding- 
planes, and the curved and gently inclined beds have been pushed 
bodily over the edges of the vertical beds, so as now to rest 
upon them .with an appearance of an extreme unconformity. 
The bedding of the vertical strata seems at a distance to be 
regular, with the lines of flints in their usual condition. But on a 
closer view, the chalk is found to be entirely reconstructed. The 
flints are not only broken to fraffments, but the fragments are more 
or less separated from one another, while the entire mass of chalk 
is traversed by veins of calc-spar, and by planes of slickenside 
filled in with secondary flint. The chalk, moreover, has been 
hardened to the consistency of limestone. 

No trace of a similar thrust-plane is found at either end of the 
Isle of Wight, but at Ashey the close proximity of fossiliferous 
strata, probably representing the middle part of the Bracklesham 
Series, to the basement bed of the London Clay, shows that a strike 
fault of a peculiar character must there be present* The bedding 
on each side of the presumed line of fault is perfectly vertical^ 
and to account for tne absence of about 400 feet of clays and 
sands the simplest explanation seems to be that adopted in die new 
edition of Sheet 47 of the Horizontal Sections now in preparatioa 
— that at Ashey a thrust-fault occurs, and that its form and 
effect on the beds correspond closely with what we know is found 
on the mainland. Even at a considerable distance from the belt 
of highly inclined rocks, in the Tertiary Beds of the Isle of Wight, 
small thrust-planes are occasionally found in the harder strata 
(see Fig. 83). 



E 56786. 



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242 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



.a 



^ 
^ 



O 
C4 



1 

CO 



•S 

60 ^ 

00 ;;- 






s 

I 



I >l 










:r^ 



'hi 



1 - 




m 
against 



The date of the disturbaucea of which we 
have a part in the Isle of Wight is known 
to have been subsequent to the deposition of 
the Hamstead Beds (Middle Oligocene) by 
the fact that these strata share in the tilting 
up of those along the central range. There 
is no evidence of the movement having com- 
menced in an earlier period. Had such been 
the case, there would have been a tendency 
the Tertiary formations to thin away 
the anticlinal folds. On the other 
hand, the movements have been proved to 
have been earlier than the Pliocene, For on 
the North Downs, near Lenham,* we find 
Lower Pliocene deposits resting directly on 
the Chalk, the absence of all the older 
Tertiary strata being clearly due to the 
denudation that resulted from the upheaval 
of the Weald anticline. The date of the 
disturbances may therefore be assigned ap- 
proximately to the Miocene Period. 

As will be presently seen, the fixing of this 
date is of special interest, for the production 
of the folds directly determined the courses 
taken by most of the South Coimtry rivers. 

As is often the case where beds have under- 
gone much folding, there are comparatively 
few faults in the Isle of Wight. The few 
which have been observed produce only a 
trifling effect on the position of the outcrops, 
and have had no share whatever in pro- 
ducing the physical features of the Island. 
They nave been noted in the course of the 
detailed descriptions of the sections, but we 
may enumerate them here for the purpose of 
comparing their directions. The amount of 
throw is uncertain in every case, but always 
insignificant, except at Ashey (p. 114). 



Ashey. 
Compton Bay ! 

(p. 8). 
Carisbrook, W. 15"^ 

S. 
St. Catherines, 

W. 11° S. 
Commencing with 



Chillerton Down, 
W. 30"* S. and S. 
25° W. 

Culver CUfl&W. 30° S. 

Little Stairs Point, 
E. 20° S. 

tlie northern half of 



the Island, we see at once from the map that 
the most important feature in that district is 



* Clement Reid, On the Pliocene Deposits of North West Europe. Nature, toL 54, 
p. 841. 1886. 



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. I>I8TnBBAN0BS AHB FAULTS. 243 

the broad flattened gyncline occupied by the Hamstead Beds. 
On the north side of this trough the strata rise at a gentle 
angle— probably never more than 5^ On the south they rise 
abruptly at a high angle, so that near the Chalk they are 
nearly always vertical, sometimes even slightly inverted. Other 
minor folds occur, but these are all of comparatively slight 
importance. 

It has already been pointed out that the anticlinal and synclinal 
folds in the south of England form ovals elongated in an east and 
west direction. This syncline is no exception to the rule, for if 
the base of the Hamstead Beds be followed by means of wells 
and borings, it is found to lie below the sea-level for about 14 
or 15 miles, but then to rise rapidly towards the east, so that the 
Bembridge Limestone lies at. or close to the beach on the coast. 
On the west the syncline must die out rapidly beneath the Solent, 
for neither Hamstead nor Bembridge Beds have yet been detected 
on the mainland, though the bottom of the Hamstead Beds 
descends well beneath the sea-level at Hamstead and Bouldnor. 

Owing to the absence of any hard rocks in the greater part 
of the Oligocene series the exact position of the synclinal axis 
cannot be easily traced, but the various trial-borings made during 
the progress of the Survey enables us to fix it within narrow 
limits. Its centre follows a curved line passing through Bouldnor 
Cliff, Shalfleet, the southern paii; of Parkhurst Forest, Dorehill, 
Ashey, Kicketshill, and Bradin^ Harbour. 

On the northern side of this syncline traces of several minor 
undulations may be detected, but it is difficult to reduce them to any 
definite system. Headon Beds are brought up near Norris and 
Osborne in a rather peculiar manner, but this seems to be mainly 
due to the increase in the rapidity of the dip alons a line parallel 
with the coast between Osborne and Ryde. The occurrence of 
the Bracklesham Beds on the opposite coast shows that such an 
increase must take place, while at Norris the coast projects some- 
what beyond the general line, so that the strata are there brought 
within the influence of this increased dip. 

In Thorness Bay the Bembridge Limestone sinks beneath the 
sea-level, so that Hamstead Beds are seen in the cliffs. In 
Newtown Bay, on the other hand, the Osborne Beds rise. These 
two folds show a tendency to follow east and west lines, but 
nothing more can be said about them. 

Following next the southern margin of the Tertiary basin, we 
find that in Whitecliff Bay, while all the lower beds are vertical, 
the Bembridge Limestone, after dipping at a very high angle in 
the upper part of the cliff, suddenly flattens into a horizont^ reef 
on the foreshore, the Bembridge Marls being only slightly 
aflected. This structure continues as far as Brading, where not 
only is the Bembridgo Marl affected, but the lower part of the 
Hamstead series is also tilted slightly. Near Nunwell and Ashey 
the pressure of the terrestial movement that plicated the strata 
seems to have reached its maximum, for all the beds as high as 
the Lower Hamstead series are tilted at high angles and so 

Q 2 



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244 GEOLOGY OF THE I8LE OF WIGHT. 

compreBBed that the breadth of their outcrop is less than their 
true thicknees. 

Between Ashey and Newport the strata below the Bembridge 
Limestone still continue nearly always vertical^ ihoufi^h not quite 
so much compressed. In several places there seems to be a 
tendency to develop small secondary plications parallel to the 
main fold but not traceable more than a few hundred yards. 

West of the Medina the Bembridge Beds, though dipping at 
high angles, are seldom or never vertical, but the borings at 
Ounville show that the Hamstead Beds are still much tilted. 

These variations in the extent to which the Tertiary formations 
have been influenced by the monoclinal curve seem at first to point 
to variations in the height or sharpness of the curve. But they 
may be otherwise simply explained. If a series of curved strata 
were cut through at different levels the age of the beds most 
strongly tilted would be found to vary considerably. If the 
country at Ashey were lowered one or two hundred feet by 
denudation the Bembridge Limestone at the surface would only 
dip at low angles, and more of the Secondary beds would appear 
to be affected by the disturbance. Any such lowering of the 
surface leads to an apparent shifting of the verticality into a lower 
geological horizon and an apjmrent shifting of the line of greatest 
disturbance towards the south. Thus the apparent dying out 6f 
the syncline eastward may really be the result of an upward tilt 
in that direction, causing the curve to be cut through at a lower 
level, but not affecting the thickness of the beds affected or the 
real height of the curve. (Fig. 84.) 

Fig. 84. 

Diagram Section to show variation in the dip of the Strata as^ 
the Surface is lowered. 

\ 1 n \ \ ^^: 




v^ 



Where the strike of the rocks turns sharply southward at 
Calbourne, the angle of dip rapidly lessens and the width of 
the several outcrops correspondingly increases. At Shalcombe, 
however, where the former strike has been resumed, the lower 
beds are again vertical, while the Osborne and Bembridge Beds 
occupy long dip slopes. The sudden curve of the strata to the 
south and re-appearance of the high angles along a new line 
is connected witih the dying out of an anticline, which cannot 
be traced west of Calboume, except perhaps in the lower angles 
of the dips in the southern part of the long slope of Bembridge 
Limestone. A slight indication of the flattening of the beds may 
also be found in Freshwater, and even as far as Totland Bay. 



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BISTUBBANOES AND FAULTS. 245 

Oo the south side of the central range of Downs, the strata 
rapidlj curve over and assume a horizontal position at a distance 
varying from one to two miles south of the region in which they 
are vertical. They never present, however, so sharp a fold as that 
seen in the Bembridge Limestone in WhiteclifF Bay. 

The central range consists of two separate axes, which may be 
<K>nveniently named the Sandown and the Brixton anticlines. 

The first appearance of the Sandown anticline in the Tertiary 
area west of Ualboume has already been referred to, and its 
subsequent course eastwards by Arreton to Sandown Level was 
noted in describing the Lower Greensand (pp. 42-44). The axis 
runs in a nearly straight line due east and west as far as New- 
ohurch, but then bends round to about E. 18° S., its direction 
being definitely given by the line of Downs from Ashey to 
Culver. The strike of the strata forming the Southern Downs is 
a little north of east, and the two ranges therefore, if prolonged in 
these directions, would meet at no great distance from the coast 
near Sandown. The central point between the east and west ends 
of the axis lies perhaps not fiir from the centre of the exposure 
of the Wealden beds, where the strata are horizontal. 

The dip on the north side of the arch formed by the anticline 
ranges from 60° to verticality, on the south side from 2° to 3°, in 
accordance with the general rule previously alluded to that the 
north side is the steeper in all these anticlines. 

A little north of Shanklin, a gentle anticline, accompanied by 
a fault, probably is the continuation of that which has been noted 
near Gossard Hill, though it cannot be traced through the Lower 
Oreensand area. This hill itself stands on the northern side of 
the anticline, the beds showing a northerly dip of about 10°. On 
the other hand, the large chalk pit on Chillerton Down lies south 
of the axis, which must therefore run very near the south side 
of Gossard Hill. The distance between the axes of this and 
the Sandovm anticline amounts to two miles both here and in 
Sandown Bay. 

The fault at Little Stairs Point occurs on the north side oF this 
anticline and runs about E. 20° S. for the small distance it is 
seen in the cliff. It trends therefore nearly parallel to the axis 
of the anticline, and perhaps replaces it In order, however, to 
effect a displacement of the beds corresponding to that of a fold it 
should have a downthrow to the north, but in reality it throws 
the strata in the opposite direction. 

South of this small anticline the beds eently roll over and 
assume the south-easterly dip which prevails Uirough the Southern 
Downs. The direction of dip is not constant, but ranges locally 
from south-east to south and even south-west, as in the reef of 
Yellow Ledge near Luccomb. But the general direction may 
be ascertained by taking the levels of the base of the Chalk at 
various points. In St. Catherine's Down this base is about 620 
feet above the sea at the north-west end and 600 feet at the south- 
east, the dip being south-east In Appuldurcombe Down the 
base lies at 600 feet, but falls in a south-south-easterly direction to 



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246 GEOLOOT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

300 feet above the sea in the top of the cliff above SteephilL 
Similarly it is at a hdght of nearly 600 feet on the north side of 
St. Marun's Down bat falls to the south-south-east till it. is 300 feet 
above Yentnor. It is clear that the diff irom Black}(anff to 
BoDchurch does not give the line of strike, in as much as die base 
of the Chalk falls from 500 feet at the former to 300 at the ktter. 
The true strike may be traced by drawing a line through the points 
in each contour, at which it is intersected by the base of the 
Chalk. Taking the 600-foot contour first we find such a line 
touches the northernmost point of the Chalk on St. Catherine's, 
Appuldurcombe, and St. Martin's Downs. A similar line drawn 
through the 500-foot contour is almost exactly parallel to this, 
and at a distance of a little more than 1,000 yards from if, from 
which it may be calculated that the average dip amounts to 1 in 
31 or a little less than 2^. Lastly a line drawn in the same way 
with reference to the 400-foot contour runs approximately parallel 
to the other two^ but with a less decided bend, and therefore 
more nearly parallel to the coast between Niton and Bonohurch. 

It will be noticed that the strike from Appuldurcombe west- 
wards is south-west, curving round to the south-south-west in 
St. Catherine's Hill, while from Appuldurcombe eastwards it is 
only a little south of west. The difference is clearly due to 
the influence of the Brixton and Sandown anticlines; in St 
Catherine's we have the remains of an escarpment of Chalk which 
must once have closed in this end of the Brixton area, while St 
Martin's Down forms part of a long escarpment which formerly 
bounded the Sandown anticline on the south, eventually joining 
itself on to the continuation oF the Central Downs^ as already 
suggested. 

It has been remarked that there is evidence of the dip becoming 
rather steeper in the Undercliff than it is in the Downs imme- 
diately to the north. If to the three lines of contour above 
enumerated we add a fourth, viz., the 300-foot contour, which the 
base of the Chalk touches at Ventnor and Bonchurch, we shall 
find that there is less distance between this and the 400-foot 
contour, than there is between the 400- and 500-foot contours, or 
that, in other words, the gradient of the Chalk increases towards 
the coast 

The Brixton anticline first makes its influence perceptible in 
the strike of St Catherine's Down, as already mentioned. 
Further west it becomes more marked, and the position of its 
axis is indicated by the southward sweep of the Atherfield Clay 
and Wealden Beds, but the axis itself lies just outride die coast 
line. It seems to run about west-north-west, but curves round 
to due west at Freshwater, and to W. 14° S. at the Needles. 
Here it passes out to sea, but re-appears on the coast of Dorset, 
everywhere throwing the beds into a nearly vertical position along 
ita north side* and eventually bringing Oolitic rocks up to the 
surface near Weymouth. 

It will be seen that the Brixton and Sandown anticlines form 
two members of the great system of folds which have been 



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DI6TUBBANGES AND FAULTS 247 

described as replacing one another along a line ranging a little 
north of east. It is therefore in accordance with this rule that the 
Sandown anticline lies a little to the north, as well as to the 
east, of that of Brixton>and that the one dies out where the other 
begins. The actual re^on in which this replacement of the one 
fold by the other takes place lies between Calboume and Gut- 
combe. For west of the longitude of Gatcombe the Sandown 
anticline gradually flattens out^ so as to allow the Chalk to 
extend itself southwards, but at the same time the extreme 
southerly point of the spread of Chalk, vvz., Chillerton Down, 
assumes a dip which is obviously due to the Brixton anticline. 
The increase in this dip along the southern border of the Downs 
proceeds pari passu with the flattening of the Sandown anticline 
along the northern border, until at Calbourne the latter is scarcely 
recognisable, while the former has become fully pronounced. 
Between these two lines, viz., about Newbam, Bowborough, and 
Idlecombe the beds are nearly horizontal, but assume a westerly 
dip further west, which increases to 17° near Calboume 



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248 OEOLOGT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

CHAPTER XV. 
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Haying already noted the leading physical features of the Isle 
of Wight, we will now proceed to show that they have been 
produced by denudation acting along lines of drainage which were 
determined by the formation of the anticlines and synclines 
described in the previous Chapter. Though the modern^ rivers 
still follow the courses so determined, the actual surikce-features 
produced by the movements of the strata have long since dia* 
appeared ; and, as in the case of the Weald, the anticlinal areas 
of the Isle of Wight show that the regions of greatest upheaval 
iu past times are often those of least elevation at the present. In 
studying the physical features of the Island, one of the most 
prominent facts that strikes us is the comparative insignificance of 
the central chalk ridge or back-bone as a watershed. Both in past 
times and at the present day, the principal rivers of the Island cut 
right across it, ignoring, as it were, the easier passage which seems 
to exist for them along it either to the east or west The ex- 
planation has been already found in the case of the Weald, and it 
will be sufficient here to point cut the similarity between the 
two districts. 

The existing watersheds of the Isle of Wight are complicated 
by the fact that there are so many small streams having a sepa- 
rate existence. Ignoring the minor watersheds between these, we 
will trace that which separates the water draining south into the 
Channel, from the water which runs north into the Solent This 
line runs from the cliff near Sandown over Shanklin and Boniface 
Downs to the cliff above Ventnor, and thence over Rew Down. 
Westwards it keeps close to the cliff edge as far as St. Catherine's 
Down, along which it runs, turning down south of Chale Green to 
Kingston, and thence along the southern brow of the Downs to 
the Needlea 

It has been shown that the streams which run into the sea in 
Brixton Bay were within a geologically recent period tributaries 
of the western Yar, and that similarly the streams of Shanklin 
Chine and Luccombe Chine were tributaries of the eastern Yar. 
The separation of these streams from their original drainage- 
basins has been due to the encroachment of the sea, and if we 
trace the watershed as it existed before the separation took 
place, we find that it must have run south of the whole Island, 
excepting only a small portion of Week, Rew, and Boniface 
Downs. That is to say uiat the whole drainage of the Island, 
excepting the short and steep heads of valleys in the south side of 
these dowuF, must have made its way northwards, the water from 
the area now occupied by the Lower Greensand all escaping in this 
direction across the high central ridge of chalk. 



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phtsioaij oboobaphy« 249 

The phyncal geography of the Weald has been too fully 
described* to need more than an allusion here. The rivers of that 
area rise in what is now the area of least elevation, and make 
their way to the north and south through gaps cut in the bold 
escarpments of the Noiiih and South Downs. The watershed, 
however, though now low, follows the axis of the anticline, that 
is the line of greatest upheaval in past times, and in this fiict is 
provided the key to the history of the rivers not only of the 
Weald and Isle of Wight, but of all the part of England affected 
by the synclinal and anticlinal folds described above. 

For we find that without exception the main lines of drainage 
follow the synclinal axes, while the tributaries flow at right angles 
to, and off the anticlinal axes. The first land to emerge from 
beneath the sea was that formed by the crests of the anticlinal 
folds, and each of these thereupon became a watershed, and has so 
remained. The last land to emerge was the deepest line of each 
synclinal fold, and along this was collected the drainage from the 
anticline to the north and south of it The lines of drainage and 
watershed, thus initiated, have been maintained, though the form 
of surface due to the original movements has been lost It thus 
happens that the watersheds have little relation to the hill-ranges 
of the present day. 

The two leading examples of rivers following the synclinal 
troughs are the Thames and the Frome. Part of the Thames, with 
its tributary the Kennet, form a line of drainage running the whole 
length of the London syncline. On the north side it collects 
the rivers which run down the back of the Chalk escarpment of 
Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, and Hertfordshire ; on the south side 
it gathers the streams which descend from the anticlinal axis of 
the Weald and its continuation on the north side of Salisbury 
Plain. 

Similarly, in the Hampshire Basin, we find the Frome following 
the synclinal axis, and forming an exact counterpart of the 
Kennet On its north bank it receives rivers which flow down 
the south side of the anticline named above, and on its south side 
it must have received the drainage of the Isle of Wight anticline 
until the Hampshire Basin was invaded by the sea. 

In the alterations brought about by the encroachment of the 
sea^ lies the principal difference between the rivers of the London 
and the Hampshire Basins. The Frome now enters the sea near 
Poole, but it is clear that, before the sea made the great breach in 
the Chalk escarpment which separates Dorset and the Isle of 
Wight, this river must have followed the svncline eastwards. For 
this breach, though probably commencea as a river valley, can 
hardly have been the course followed by the Frome, for in such a 
ease the river must have turned from following a syncline to cut 
directly across an anticline. On the other hand, we have in the 
Solent, and the arm of the sea at Spithead, an old valley and 

*W. Toplej. Geology of the Weald (Memoirs of the Geological Sarrej), 
ehapter 16. 



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250 GEOLOOT OF THE ISLE OF WIGOT. 

estuary exactly in the position, which we should^ by analogy with 
die Thames^ have ascribed to the ancient river Froma 

Among the tributaries of this ancient Frome we may mention 
on the north side the Stonr, the Atoo, the Anton, and the Itchin ; 
on the south side^ the small stream which traverses the Chalk 
escarpment at Gorfe, the three rivers of the Isle of Wight, and in 
all probability a tributary between the Needles and the coast of 
Dorset, in the great gap now occupied by the sea. The northern 
boundary of the basin of this old river can be traced without 
difficulty, but of the southern boundary a yery small portion only 
is left. It runs south of Dorchester, across the Isle of Purbeck^ 
and reappears in the extreme south point of the Isle of Wight. 
The valleys in the south side of Bew, Week, and Boniface Downs 
are therefore almost the only survivors of another river system 
next on the south to that of the Frome. 

This small portion of watershed does not follow the crest of 
either the Brixton or Sandown anticline, but lies among the 
Downs where a southerly and south-easterly dip has fairly set in. 
An explanation of this fact would probably be forthcomings could 
we tell what was the form of the land which once lay to the south. 



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EGONOMIO GEOI<OGT« 251 



CHAPTER XVI. 
ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

The Isle of Wight has do mining industries and few quarries 
or pits, except those for freestone, chalk, sand, and brick-earth. 
Hydraulic cement is made at the West Medina Cement Works from 
chalk and Oligocene clay^ and at Brading Cement Works from 
the Bembridge Limestone and Marl. The Wealden Shales are 
used for brickmaking at Sandown, as well as deposits of brick- 
earth, associated with gravel, near Borthwood. At Shanklin a 
bed of clay in the Lower Greensand is dug by the side of the 
railway for the same purpose (p. 46). The Gault is worked at 
Bierley, Rookley, and by the side of the railway between Wroxall 
and Shanklin (p. 64). An extensive deposit of brick-earth near 
Brixton has received little attention from the remoteness of that 
district ; the brick? for the viaduct of the Military Road over 
Grange Chine were manufactured from this deposit (p. 224). 
Brick pits are opened in various parts of the superficial and 
Oligocene Beds, but curiously enough the bed that would probably 
make the best brick-earth — ^the free-cutting decalcified loam so 
often met with in trial borings low down in the Hamstead Series — 
has not been used. Tiles and coarse pottery can be manufactured 
out of the Reading Beds. The white pipe-day in the Bagshot 
Beds is no longer worked, the bed being thin and so nearly 
vertical that it can only be reached by mining. 

The Bembridge Limestone was formerly much need as a 
building stone, but the principal quarries are now worked out, and 
brick is generally preferred. The limestone stands the weather 
very well, though the large cavities left by the fossils are often 
objectionable and much of the stone is too soft for use. The sea- 
walls round the northern portion of the Island are generally built 
of Bembridge Limestone. A better building stone is obtained 
from the four-foot freestone of the Upper Greensand, described on 
pp. 64-72. This bed has been worked from time to time through 
a larger part of its outcrop in the central and southern parts of the 
Island, but the principal quarries, now in use, lie around Shanklin, 
Bonchurch, and Yentnor. Road metal is obtained from the 
Angular Flint Gravel on St. Boniface Down (p. 210)» from the 
Plateau Gravel on St. George's Down (p. 21?), and from the Valley 
Gravel at Horringford (p. 221). There are many smaller pits 
scattered about, which have been referred to in the description of 
these gravels in chapter xiii. 



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252 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

For a short time the coal-seam in the Bagshot Beds in Alum Bay 
was worked, but it is of very little value. Alum was formerly 
manufactured in the Island from the clays of Alum Bay, and as 
early as 1679 at works in Parkhurst Forest. The Crown used 
formerly to monopolise the whole of the alum, and proper people 
were appointed to gather and preserve it for Government. This 
practice commenced with Queen Elizabeth, who sent a mandate to 
Bichard Worsley, then Captain of the Isle of Wight, in order to 
ascertain the truth of what she had heard, and a warrant was 
issued, dated 7th day of March 1561, to search for '^ certan Oure 
of Alume." 

Iron pyrites was collected on the shore about Shanklin, and 
<mrried by boat to London, during the last century.* The clay 
ironstone, which is found in considerable quantities lying loose 
upon the shore at the foot of the cliffs between Yarmouth and 
Hamstead ledge, was collected on the beach and sent to Swansea^ 
to be smelted into iron. 



Phosphatio Nodules, 

Beference has frequently been made in the preceding pages to 
the occurrence of phosphatic nodules at various horizons, but 
more especially in the Cretaceous Bocks. In consideration of the 
great economic importance of such nodules, it is proposed to 
devote a few lines to describing their mode of occurrence and 
composition. 

The Wealden Beds. 

Fhoephate of lime occurs in these beds, but in small quantities 
only, in the numerous fragments of lignite, which are found at 
almost all horizons in the variegated marls. The wood is similar 
in appearance to that which occurs in the Lower Greensand, and 
which is stated by Messrs. Paine and Wayt to be rich in phos- 
phoric acid. They remark that the fossil forest at Brook Point is 
probably impregnated with phosphoric acid. It should be noted, 
however, that most of these lignites are encrusted with, or traversed 
by threads of iron pyrites. They are moreover too thinly scattered 
through the clay to be profitably mined. 

The Lower Greensand. 

A specimen of the fossil wood which occurs sporadically in so 
many of the beds of the Lower Greensand was analysed by 
Dr. T. L. Phipson with the following result : — % 

* Warner. History of the Isle of Wight, pp. 261 and 263. 1796. 
f On the Phosphoric Strata of the Chalk Formation. Joum. Boy. Air. Soo. 
BMland, vol. ix. p. S2. (1848.) 
f CheimcalN«wByTol. tI. p. 194. (186S.) 



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ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 253. 



Water 


. 


- 


- 11-00 


Organic matter 


• 


- 


- 6-62 


Sand &c. 


- 


• 


- 4-40 


Lime 


. 


• 


- 38-62 


Magnesia 


- 


- 


- 1-00 


Phosphoric acid 


- 


. 


. 32-43 


Fluorine 


• 


. 


- 3-90 


Chlorine 


• 


m 


- traces. 


Sulphuric acid 


- 


- 


- traces. 


Oxide of iron, of 


uranium, 


pyrites, 


and 


loss 


- 


• 


- 2-13 



100-00 
Specific Gravity, 2-71. 

The specimen showed crystals of wavellite and iron pyrites 
here and there. 

The fossil remains of animals also in these beds have been found 
by Messrs. Paine and Way (op, cit., p. 84) to be very rich in 
phosphoric acid. Among these may be particularized the blocks 
of fossils in the Scaphite, the Lower Crioceras, and the Second 
Gryphsea beds ; besides the casts of Ammonites and Scaphites 
which lie upon the beach. Some nodular masses of shells of a 
dark iron colour in the cliffs near Shankliu are stated by Mr. 
Nesbit to contain phosphoric acid to the extent of at least 15 per 
cent. The whole of the substances examined contained likewise 
organic matter and fluorine, at times in large quantities.*^ 

In the upper part of the Lower Greensand, at Kedcliff near 
Sandown^ there occurs the band referred to as the ^^ Coprolite 
Bed" (p. 37)^ and as was pointed out^ phosphatic nodules occur 
at about the same horizon in Compton Bay. The nodules in the 
'^ Coprolite Bed " are probably richer in phosphate than any others 
in the Island. They are of a brown or yellow colour and about 
i to } inch in diameter. The band in which they occur, however, 
is only 4 inches thick. It rises from beneath the beach about 160 
yards from the centre of the gully formed by the Gault. Those 
in the Compton Bay section are small and few and far between. 

The Upper Greensand, 

The only attempts hitherto made in the Isle of Wight to extract 
phosphatic nodules^ were commenced in the Chloritic Marl, on 
St Catherine's Down. The nodules are of a pale brown colour^ 
friable, and of rather a low specific gravity. They are scattered 
through about three feet of sand, and are nearly all casts of shells, 
principally Ammonites varians. The workings, which seem to 
have been soon abandoned, were conunenced about the year 1851 
on the brow of Gore Cliff at the north end of the outlier of chalk. 
The following analyses by Mr. J. C. Nesbit are quoted from 
the Notes on the Geology and Chemical Constitution of the various 
Strata in the Isle of mght by Captain Ibbetson, p. 36. 

♦ QwurU Joum, GeoL Soc., vol. ir. p. 262. (1848.) 

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254 



GEOLOOT OF THB ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Phosphoric Acid, etc.^ in Nodules and Ccuts of Shells, in the 
Chloritic Marl, St Catherine's Downs, 







Insoluble 
Hatter 


Phosphoric 
Add* 


Phosphate 
of Lime 


Amount 
= 160 
tons of 
Bones. 






per cent. 


percent. 


percent. 












Tons. 


CaitofTnrrnite 


_ 


600 


24-26 


49-79 


90 


Cast of Ammonite 


. 


6*00 


21-28 


43-68 


103 


Small spoDgite nodule - 


- 


17-00 


20-20 


41-60 


108 


Small spongite nodule - 


- 


9-60 


19-18 


89-26 


114 


Cast of Ammonite 


^ ' 


10-00 


23-06 


47*32 


95 


Cast of Ammonite 


. 


9-60 


28-44 


4810 


98 


Castof Tarrtlite 


- 


21*00 


17-28 


85-36 


127 


Green calcareous sand 


immediately 










encasing ditto 


. 


21-00 


5-38 


11-06 


409 


Small nodule - 


. 


4-40 


20 07 


41-60 


108 


Green sand or hassock 


in which the 










fossils occur - 


^ 


26-50 


1-28 


2-58 


178 


Large nodule - 


- 


Kot de- 
termined. 


18-81 


28-84 


158 


Large nodule, portion near exterior 


17-00 


7-98 


16-38 


274 


Portion from interior - 


. 


18-00 


7-85 


16-12 


274 


Large nodule, interior - 


. 


6-00 


10-86 


22-29 


201 


Ditto, near exterior 


. 


12-90 


9-56 


19-63 


229 


Ditto 


. 


7-00 


7-72 


16-86 


283 


Calcareous green sandy coating of nodale 


60- 00 


9-44 


19-87 


230 


Large nodule - 


- 


700 


11-65 


22-92 


200 


Ditto, interior - 


- 


1300 


14-82 


80-42 


148 


Large nodule - 


. 


22-00 


16-60 


34-06 


132 


Ditto, near exterior 


-' 


6-70 


9-18 


18*85 


232 



* Good Cambridge ooprolites contain about 26 per cent, of phosphoric acid. 

Chalk. 
A very tbin, but well-marked band of nodular chalk, known as 
the ChaUk Rock, runs through the whole of the central range of the 
Island^as described on pp. 75-89. The nodules are slightly phos- 
phatic as shown by the following analysis, made by M. Duvillier for 
M. Barrels.* 



Nodules from the Chalk-rock of Shalcombe Down. 


Insoluble matter, clay 
Soluble sUica 
Oxide of iron 
Phosphate of lime - 
Carbonate of lime • 


- 


2-48 
0-72 
0-89 
4-4> 
- 91-25 



99-77 



Soluble Silica. ' 

The Upper Greensand of the Undercliff was examined by 
Messrs. Way and Paine for the purpose of comparing it with a 
bed of the same age in the neighbourhood of Farnham, in which 
silica in the soluble form existed in large proportions* They 
found however thai the Upper Greensand of the Isle of Wight 
was comparatively poor in this form of silica, as shown by the 
following table. It should be stated that the silica, which of 
course formed one of the lai^^t constituents of the sandstones, 
occurred as quartz, &c. in the insoluble form. 



* Crate d«rU« de Wight, 1876, p. 19. 



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BOONOMIO GEOLOGY. 



255 



Upper Greensand of the Undercliffi 

Soluble 
SUica. 



Ckerty flint 

Blue limestone (ng) 

Rubbly rock 

The Freeetone Bed 

" False freestone ** 

Sand with occasional chert 

Light-brown or cream-coloured " malm ' 

Duk malm (passage-bed into the Gkiult) 

Best Famham Malm-rock, up to 



311 
1-71 
2-82 
3-20 
5-94 
9-64 
8*56 
4-84 
72-00 



Carbonate of 
Lime. 

^34 

66-00 

5-80 
1404 
12-54 

8-75 
12-50 

8-30 

0-00 



Analyses of Chalk. 
Chalk Jr&m the East Quarry, Ashey Down.* 

1. Analysis made at Tennant's Works, Manchester, 1874. 

2. Do. do.' by Dr. Voelcker, 1875. 

3 and 4. Do. do. by Mr. Pattisou of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
The specimen No. 3 was taken moist. 



(1.) 



(2.) 



(8.) 



(4.) 



Carhonateoflime 
Sulphate of „ - - 

MoiBtoie ... 

Silica (*' ailiceoas matter " in 3) 
Ainmiim and ozide of iron 
Magnesia (carbonate) - 



98-53 

•31 
•17 
•44 



98-05 

•39 

1-S8 

•21 

•07 



93* €4 

4-73 
•5 
•16 

1-01 



98 01 
•06 
•2 
-4 
•6 
•94 



Analysis of Glauconite from the Lower Greensand of Compfon 
Bay (see p. 22), by Mr. J. Hobt Plateb, F.G.S., F.O.S. 
April 12th, 1889. 

Loss by ignition 

Silica 

Alumina 



Ferric ozide • 
Ferrous ozide 
Lime • 
Magnesia 
Potosh 



9-2 
56-6 

9-6 
14-6 

2'7 
•9 

M 

4-9 

99^ 



** The substance used in the above analysis when examined under 
the microscope is seen to consist of glauconite with a ye^ small 
admixture of quartz. The grains of glauconite vaiy in size from 
about '25 mm. to -5 mm. They are of fairly uniform dimensionp 
in the different directions, but many of them shew more or less 
rounded protuberances. They are opaque by transmitted light 
except at the edges« Small particles produced by crushing the 
grains are grass^green by ordinary light and give minute aggregate 
polarisation. There is no trace of any definite structure in the 
substance of the grains." — J. J. H. Teall. 

* Communicated by the late Mr. J. Young to Mt. Bristow. 



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256 



OEOLOOT OF THB ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Q 
iz; 

I 



& 



1 


S 2 

• • 


s s 

09 m. 


1 
t 

1 

1 


O eo 

«> 09 


09 09 


09 09 


5 S 

• 


1 


CI en 


1 


S R 

• • 


i 


00 lA 

• • 


i 


s s 

1-^ f-i 


.1 

1 


^ 1-4 


s s 

• • 

en e« 


s s 

• ■ 
M 00 




, ' i 1 • V 

till T;l 

llilll iilll 

O O o5 O 



^ I 

.9 f 



00 p 



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257 



APPENDIX II. 



TABLES OF FOSSILS. 

Tablks I. — ^III. Cretaceous. 

In these lists the Survey Collections have been supplemented by those of the 
various authors^ whose names are indicated. The specimens collected for 
the Survqr, previous to 1887, were identified hj Messrs. H. W. Bristow, F.R.S., 
and R. £theridge, F.R.S. A farther collection was made for the Survej in 
the years 1887-^8 by John Rhodes, and the specimens have been identified 
by Messrs. 6. Sharman and £. T. Newton, F.G.S., who have also corrected 
the whole of the lists for the synonymy. The names formerly in use, but now 
discarded, are printed in Italics, with a reference to those by which they have 
been replaced. 

The lists of plants from the Wealden Beds and Lower Greensand have 
been revised by Mr. W. Garruthers, F.R.S., and that of the Ostracoda from the 
Wealden Beds by Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. 

The authorities, by whom the fossils have been recorded, are indicated by 
letters as below : — 
Ba. Barrois. Recherches sur le Terrain Cr^tac^ Superieur, LUle, 1876, and 

Oraie de THe de Wiffht, Paris, 1875. 
Be. Bell. Monograph of the Fossil Malacostracous Crustacea. Pal. Soe. 

for 1862. 

C. Carruthers. Trans. Ltim. 8oe., vol. zxvi. p. 690, 1870. Joum. Bot, 

vol. V. Geol, Mag., vol. iiL p. 542, 1866 j Dizon'9 Geology of 
Sussex. 2nd ed. 

D. Davidson. Pal. Soe. for 1855. 

Fi. Fitton. TVaiw. Qeol. Soe., ser. 2, vol. iv., p. 103, 1836, and Quart. 

Joum, Gtol. Soe, vol. iii. p. 289, 1847. 
Fo. Forbes. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soe., vol i. pp. 190, 237, 346, 1845. 
G. Gardner. Qeol. Mag. for 1875 and Rept. Brit. Assoc, for 1876. 
H. Hulke. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soe., vols, xxvi.— xxx.; xxxii.; xxxiv.- 

zxxvi.; xxxviii. PhU. Trans. Roy. Soe., vol. xxxi., 1881 Proc. 

Roy. Soe., vol. xxxiii. 
L Ibbetson. On the Geology and Chemical Constitution of the various 

Strata in the Isle of Wight, London, 1849. 
Jo. Jones. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soe., vol. xli. p. 333, 1885. Geol. Mag. 

for 1878, pp. 110, 277, and for 1888, p. 534. 
L. Lydekker. Qitart. Joum. Geol. Soe., vo). xliv. p. 54, 1888. Catalogue 

of the Fossil Reptilia in the British Museum (in the press). 
-Lv. Ljeett. Pal. Soe., 1872-79 (Trigonia). 
Ma. Mantell. Geological Excursions round the lale of Wight, 3rd ed., 

lou4. 

-Mo. Morris. Catalogue of Britirii FossUs, 2nd ed., 1864. 
N. Norman. Geological Guide to the Isle of Wight, 8vo. Fwtfiior, 1887. 
O. Owen. On the Fossil Reptilia, Pal. Soe. 
Pa. Parkinson. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soe., vol. xxxvii. p. 370, 1881. 
Pr. Price. Monograph of the Gault, p. 27. 
S. Geological Survey Collections previous to 1887. 
Sur. „ „ „ during 1887-8. 

Se. Seeley. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soe., vol. xxxi. p. 461, 1876; vol. xxxix. 
p. 55, 1883; vol. xlui. 1887. f , / , «lxix. 

Sh. Sharpe. On the Mollusca of the Chalk. Pal. Soe. for 1853. 
W. Wright. On the British Fossil Echinodermata, Pal. Soe, for 1864-78. 



E 56786. 



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258 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Tablk I. Wbaldbk. 

The letters refer to the authorities hy whom the fossils have been recorded. 
See p. 257. 
The localities are indicated by numbers as below : — 



1 . Isle of Wiffht, exact locality not 

specified. 

2. Compton Bay. 

3. East side of Compton Bay. 

4. Shippard's or CQmpton Grange 

Chine. 

5. West of Brook Point. 

6. Brook Point. 

7. Brook Bay. 

8. Sedmore. 



9. Grange Chine and Brixton. 

10. Between Brixton and Ather- 

field. 

11. Barnes. 

12. Between Barnes and Cowleaie 

Chine. 

13. Cowleaze and Shepherd's Chine, 

14. Atherfleld. 

15. Sandown Bay. 



The specimens marked thus Sh. are from the Wealden Shales. Those from 
the variegated Wealden beds are indicated by V. 

Planta, 

AUetites. See Pinites. 
V. Bennettites saxbyanus, Carr, 6 C. 

Sh. OarpoHthes sertum <- the impressions of parts of Equisetites. 
Burchardti, Dunker. 
CharaP 10 S. 

V. P Clathraria Lyellii,* Mant. P 7 Ma. 

V. Cycadeostrobust crassus, Carr. 6 C. 15 Ma.^ S. 

V. „ elegans, Carr, 6 C. 

V. „ ovatus, Carr. 6 C. 

V. „ truncatus, Carr. 6 C. 

V. P „ tumidus, Carr. 6 C. P 

V. „ Walkeri, Carr. 6 C. 

Sh. Endogenites erosa, itfon^ 12 C. 

Sh. Equisetites Burchardti, Bunker. 12 C. 

P Fittonia squamata, Carr. 1 S., C. 
Sh., V. Lonchopteris Mantelli, Bnmg. 6 Ma. 4, 13, 14 Sur.' 

V. Pinites Carruihersi, Gardn. 6 G. 

V. „ Dunkeri, Mant. 7 S., C. 

V. „ yaldensis, Gardn. 6 G. 

Sh. Seeds. 13, 14 Sur. 

V. Thuytes (fruit of) 9 Sur. 

V. Zamia crassa P, Lindl. Sf Hutt. See Cycadeostrobus crassus, CarrJ 

Crustacea. 

Ostracoda, 

Sh. Candona ManteUi, Jones nov. sp. 12 Sur. 
V. Cypridea Austeni,^ Jwes P 7 Ma. P 
Sh., V. „ Dunkeri, Jones. 4 Sur. 5, 9, 14, 15 Jo. 

* The oocnrrenoe of this plant in the Wealden series is doubtfiil. The specimen 
80 named by Mautell was found by him in the riiingle of Brook Bay. 

f Mr. Cfurmthers remarks in Dixon's Geology of Sussex, 2nd ed. p. 980, that " in 
the Wealden at Brook Point, numerous cones of Qycaden occur. They are con- 
yerted into jet, and are largely charged with iron pyrites. . . . That they. are 
Cycadean fruits there can be no doubt ; but to what living genus they have relations, 
or to what fossil stems or foliage they may belong, it is impossible to say^ I 
accordingly proposed for^ them the generic name Cycudeostrobns, by which 1 
intended to convey nothing more than that they were Cycadean cones (Seeman's 
Joum. Bot,v, p. «)." 

X This species is figured in MantelVs Isle of Wight Ed. 8, 185i, p. 283, und^the 
name of C. valdensis, Fiit, from Brook Bay. But the figure was copied firom Fitton 
PI. 21, fig. 1, which shows C. Austeni, and may have been wrongly used for* the 
specimens from Brook Bay. See GeoL Mag, for 1878, p. 277. 



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TABLES OF FOSSILS-* WEAIJ>BN. 269 

Sh'., V. Gypridea apinigera, Soto. tp. 4, 13, 14, Sur. ; 2, 14, 15 Jo. ; 7 Ma. 

Sh. „ tuberculata, Soto. tp. 4 Sur. ; 13 Jo. ; 14 FL PanBeld, Fi. 

Sh., V. „ valdensis, JFV«oii sp. 2, 4, 13, 14, Sur. ; 16 Ei. ; 2, 4, 6, 13, 
. 14, 15 Jo. ; 6, 11 Fi. Punfield, R. 
Sh. Gjrprione Bristovii, Jones. 4 Sur. 
Sh. Cypris oornigera, Janes noo. sp. 14 Sur. 

„ faba, Sow. See Cypndea valdensis. 
Sh. Darwinula leffuminella, Forbes sp. 13 Su.; 14, 15 Jo. 
Sh., V.MctacyprisFittoDi, Mant. sp. 2, 4, 13, 14 Sur. 5, 9, 14, 15 Jo. 
Punfield, Sur. 

Cythere. See Metacypris. 

Lamellibranchiata, 

Sh. CarditaP 14 Sur. 

Sh. Cyrena major, Soto. 2, 3, 14 Fi. 

Sh. „ media, Soto. 11, 13, 14, 15 Fi. ; 13, 14 Sur. 

Sh. „ „ (large variety), 14 Sur. 

Sh. „ membranacea, Soto. (P « C. media) 11, 13, 14, 15 Fi. ; 14 Sur. 

Sh. „ subquadrata, Soto. 13 Sur. 

Sh. „ sp. 2, 4, 13 Sur. 

Sh. „ sp. 14 Sur. 

Sh. Ezogyra Bousingaultii. lyOrb. 14 Sur. 

Sh. P Modiola, 15 FI. 

Sh. Ostrea distorta, Soto. 14 Sur. 

Sh. „ sp. 3, 11, 15 Fi. 

Sh. Potamomya P 14 Sur. 

Sh. Unio antiouus, Soto. 13 Sur. 

Sh. „ Gualteri ?, Soto. 14 Sur. 

V. „ valdensis, Mant. 6 Ma. ; 9 Sur. ; 8 N. 

Gasteropoda. 

Cerithhan. See Vicaiya. 
Sh. Paludina elongata. Soto. 3, 11, 13, 14, 15 Fi. ; 4, 13 Sur. 
Sh. „ fluviorum, Soto. 15 FI.; 4, 13 Sur. 

Sh. „ sp. 2, 4, 13 Sur. 

Potamides. See Vicarya. 
Sh., V. Vicaiya (Melania) strombiformis, ScMoth. (= Potamides oarbonaria, 
iltco^)14Sur.,7Ma.; 2, 14 N. 
Sh. „ «p. 15 Fi. 

Cephalopoda. 
Sh. Ammonites (a derived specimen) 15 ¥i. 

Pisces. 

Sh., V. Hybodus basanus. Eg. 14 Ma. ; Sur. ; 7 S. 
Sh.' „ subcarinatus, Ag. 4, 13, 14 Sur. 

V. Lepidotus Fittoni, Ag. 8 Ma. 
V. „ Mantelli, Ao. 6, 7 S. 

Sh. Various fish-remains, 2, 14 Sur. 

Reptilia. 

By E. T. Nbwton, F.G.S. 

Deinosaurian remains have been obtained in Sandown and Brixton Bays from 
various horizons in the lower variegated strata of the Wealden, and from a bed 
in the upper Wealden Shales, which forms the floor of Cowleaae Chine and rises 
to the top of the olifF west of Barnes High. The bones were at first referred in 
^nost cases to the Iguanodon, but have since been made the sulject of special 
■tudy, chiefly by Hulke, Huxley, Lydekker, Owen, and Sedey. The iatet 

B 2 



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280 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT, 

revision of this work Is giren in the " Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia inthe 
British Museum "by Mr. R. Ljrdekker, which has been made the oasis 'Of the 
following list. 

In this Catalogue will be found full information as to the various changes in 
name undergone by many of the bones. The names which have been used, 
but are now discarded^ form the second of the two following lists : — 

V. Aristosuchus pusillus, Otoen. 7. 

P Calamospondylus, Foxi, Lydekker. I. 
V. Cetiosaurus brevis^ Owen. 7* 

P Coelurus Daviesi, Seeley. 1. 
V. Goniopholis. 7. 

V. Heterosuchus valdensis, Seeley. 7. 
V. llylseochampsa vectiana, Owen. 7. 
V. Hylseosaurus Oweni, MarUell. 7, 9. 
Sh. Hypsilophodon Fozi, Huxley. 12. 

P Icthyosaurus P 
V. Iguanodon bernissartensis, Boulanger. 7- 

P „ Dawsoni P Lye^Her. 1. 

P „ Mantelli^ Meyer. 1. 

V. „ sp. 9. 

P Megalosaurus Dunkeri, Koken. 1. 
V. Ooiithes obtusatus, Carr. (Reptile eggs), 9. 
V. Omithocheirus nobilis, Owen. 7. 
V. Omithopsis Hulkei, Seeley, 7, 9, 15. 
V. Pelorosaurus Conybeari, Mantell. 15. 
V. PholidosauruB. 15. 

Plesiochelys Brodiei, Lydekker, 1. 
Plesiosaurus. 
Sh. Polacanthus Foxi, Hulke. 12. 
V. Saurian bones, various. 2, 3, 9 Sur. 
P Spheuospondylus gracilis, Lydekker. I. 
v. Suchosaurus cultridens, Otoen. 15. 
Y. Titanosauius. 7* 

Y. Tretostemum Bakewelli, Mantell. 7. 
Y. Turtle, bones of, 8 Sur. ? carapace of, Norman, 15. 
V, Yectisaurus valdensiS;, HtUke. 9. 

Synonyms. 

Bothriospondvlus magnus, Owen, to Ornithopsis Hulkei, Seeley. 
Ceteosaurus Bucklandi, Meyer, to Megalosaurus Dunkeri, Koken., 
Ceteosaurus or Pelorosaurus tooth, to Omithopsis Hulkei, Seeley. 
Cheirotherium footprints to Iguanodon. 
Chondrosteosaurus gigas, Owen, in part to Omithopsis Hulkei» SeeUjf. 

„ magnus, Owen, in part to „ „ 

CrooodiluB to Groniopholis. 
Eucamerotus, Hulke, to Omithopsis, Seeley. 

Iguanodon Seeleyi, Htdke, to Iguanodon bemissartensis, Bouianger. 
Megalosauras Bucklandi, Meyer, to Megalosaurus Dunkeri, Koken. 
Omithopsis eucamerotus, Htuke, to Omithopsis Hulkei, Seeley. 
Pdorosauras P tooth, Owen to Omithopsis ETulkei, Seeley. 
Poikilopleuron Bucklandi, Meyer, to Megalosaurus Dunkeri, Koken. 

„ pusillus, Otoen, to Aristosuchus pusillus, Otoen. 

Streptospondylus major, Otoen, to Iguanodon Demissartensis, Boulanffer, 
Thecospondylus Daviesi, Seeley, to Coelurus Daviesi, Seeley. 
Trionyx Bakewelli, Mantell^ to Tretostemum Bakewelli, Mamteil. 



?Aves. 

Y« Omithodesmus duniculus, Sfieley^ Brook. 

(It has been thought that this may be an Omithosaurian. See QmrU Jimn^ 
OeoJ. Soc, voL xliii., p. 206, 1887.) 



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TABIiBS OF FOSSILS — ^LOWEB QBEENSAKD. 261 

Table IL Lower Grkbnsand. 

The lefcten refer io the authorities by whom the fossils have been recorded. 
S€«p. 257. 
Tne locality, when not otherwise stated, is Atherfield. 
Thb horizons are indicated by numbcors as below : — 

1. Pema Bed. 4. Sand-rock Beds. 

2. Atherfield Clay. 6. Garstone. 

3. Ferruginoas Sands. 

Plantm. 

Bennettites f^bsonianus, Carr. Lucoombe Chine, C. 

„ mazimus, Carr, 3 S. (ShankHn). 

Coniferous wood, 1, 3 Fi. ; 3 Sur. (Shanklin) ; 5 Sur. (Bonchurch and 
Donnose). 
Fucoid, 1, 2 Sur. ; 3 Fi. 
Lonchopteris Mantelli, Brong, 1 Sur. ; 3, 4 Fi. 
Pecopteris reticulata, Mant. See Lonchopteris Mantelli, Bromg, 
Pinites Leckenbyi, Carr. 3 C. (Shanklin). 

IncertcB sedis. 

Actinophyllum sp. f Beokles. 

Conis oontortuplicata, Lons, Atherfield, Lonsdale (QimH. Joum, Choi, Soc,, 
ToLv.p.63. 1848). 

Actinozoa. 

Cyathophora ? elegans. See Holocystis el^ns. 

Efolocystis elegans, Lons, 1 Sur. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown) ; 3 S. (Shanklin). 

Isastrs^a haldonensis. Dune, S. 

„ neocomiensis, l^mes. Tomes (Geol. Mag. for 1885). 

„ reussiana, E. df H. Tomes. 
FarastraeaP 1 Sur. 

Pleurosmilia neocomiensis, E, de From, Tomes. 
Titfbinoseris de Fromenteli, Dime. 1 Sur. (= LeptopkylUa anglica, Tbmei). 

Eckinodermata, 
Cardiaster Benstedi, Forbes, 3 W. (Atherfield and Shanklin) ; Sur. (Compton 
Bay). 

Catopygus vectensis, Wright, 3 W. (Shanklin). 
Clypeopygus Fittoni, Wrtght, 3 W. (Shanklin). 
Echinospatagus Renevieri, Wright, 1, 2, 3 Fi.; 3 W. (Shanklin). 
Enallaster Fittoni, Forbes. 1 W.; 2 Sur.; 3W. (Shanklin)^ 5 Sur. 
(derived) ; S. (Sandown). 

Fragment, 5 Sur. (Bonchurch). 
Hemipneustes, See Enallaster. 

Holaster complanatus, Fitton. See Echinospatagus Renevieri, Wiight. 
Peltastes Wrightii, Desor. (= Salema punctata, Forbes), S. W. (Sandown 
and Atherfield). 
Pseudodiadema Fittoni, Wright (at first incorrectly identified with Diadema 
autissiodorense, Cotteau), 3 W. 
„ Ibbetsoni, Forbes, 3 W. 

„ Malbosi, Ag. and Desor. (= Diadema M^kesoni, Forbes), 3 

W. 
„ «p. S. 

Annelida, 

Serpula antiquata, Sow, 1, 2, 3 Fi. 
filiformis, Sow. S. 

gordialis, Sehloth. S. (Sandown and Atherfield). 
. plexus. Sow. 1, 3 Fi. ; S. 
quinque-angulatus, Rom. S. 
sp. 2 Sur. 
Vermicuutfia polygonalis, Sow. 1, 2 Sur. ; 3 Fi. 
„ j^. 1 S. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown). 



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262 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Crtutacea. 

* Astacodes fdoifer, Phil. S. 

„ ^eetensU, Bell, 3 Fi. 

Hoploparia longimana, Sow, dP S. ; 5 Sur. (Dunnose and SandownP). 
Meyerta magna, M^Coy, See M. vectexuis^ Bell. 
„ yectensis, Bell. 2 Sur. 

„ Willettii, H. Woodw, {Geol, Mag. for 1878, p. 566). 
Mithradtes Yectensis, OoM. 3 Sur. 
Xanthosia, «p. 3 S. (Shanklin). 

Polyzoa, 

Chisma furdUatum, Lom. 3 Fi. 
Chorutopetalum impar, Lons. Mo. 
Diastopora, sp. nov. {Lons. mss.), 1 Fi. 
Bntalophora irregularis, D^Orh. 1 Sur. 
Siphodictyon gnudle, Lons. 3 Fi. ; 3 S. (Shanklin). 

Braekicpoda, 

Lingula truncata. Sew, 1, 3 Fi. ; 3 8. (Sandown); D, (Shanklin). 
RhTuchonella cantabrigensis, Dav. D. 

„ depressa, Sow. 1 S$ur. S. (Sandown) ; D. (Shanklin). 

„ gibbmana. Sow. 1, 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown). 

,, latissima. Sow. S. 

„ nuoiformiB, Soto. D. (Shanklin). 

,y parvirostria, Sow. D. (Shanklin). 

„ Bidcata, Park. 3 Fi. 

,f „ var. panrirostris, Sow. 3 Fo. (Shanklin). 

M jp. I Sur. ; 3 Sur. (Compton Bay). 

Terebratella Davidaoni, Meyer. 
,, Fittoni, Meyer. S. 

„ oblonga, Sow. 1 FL; Fo. 

Terebratula depressa, Ijam. D. (Shanklin). 

,, microirema, Walker. D. (Shanklin). 

„ prsolonga, Saw. D. (Shanklin). 

„ sella, Sow. 1, 3 Fi. ; 1, 2, 3 Sur. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown). 

Waldheimia (Terebratula) celtica, Morr. 3 S. (Shanklin and Sandown). 
f, Morrisii, Meyer. 3 S. and D. (Shanklin). 

„ tamaiindus, Sow. 3 S. (Shanklin). 

„ Wankljni, Walker. D. (Shanklin). 

Lamellibranchiata. 

• ' Monomyaria, 

Anomia convexa, Sow. 3 Fi. ; Fo. (Shanklin). 
,, IseviRata, Sow. 3 Fi. ; S. 
„ radiaU, 5ow. 3 Fi. ; Fo 
Aviottla depressa, Forbes. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ epnemera, Forbes, 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ lanceokta, Forbes. 2, 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ pectinata, Sow. 3 Fi. ; S. 
,, «p. 5 Sur. (Bonchurch). 
Ezoffyra conica. Sow. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ harpa. Goi^. 1, 3 Fl ; Fo. 
„ laciniata. Mills, S. 
„ plicata, Lam. S. 

,, ainuata; Sow. 1, 2, 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. ; Fo. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown). 
„ subplicata, Rom. 1 Sur. (Sandown). 
„ tombeckiana, D*Orb. 1 Sur. 
„ ip. 2 Sur. ; 6 Sur. (Blackgang and Sandown). 
Gervillia ^seformis, Sow. 1, 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. ; 1 Sur. and Fo. (Sandown). 



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TABLES OF FOSSILS — ^LOWIBB GBEBNSAKI>| 263 

GerviUia anoeps, Desk, 3 Fi. ; S. ; Fo. ; W. [G. aviculoides]. 
„ atficuhides. See G. anceps. 
,» forhegiana, D*Orb.' See G. solenoides. 
„ linguloides, Forbes, 2 Sup. ; 3 Fi. and Fo. 
„ 8oleDoide8, 2>^. 1, 2, 3 Fj. ; S. Fo. (Shanklin). 
Gryphoea. See Exo^yra. 
Hinnites Lejmerii, Desk. l» 3 Fi. ; S. ; Fo. 
InoceramuB concentricus, Park. Fo. 

„ gryphaaoides, Sovu. (?="T. concentricus. Park.), 3 Fi. 

„ neocomiensis, D*Orh. 3 Fi. ; Mo. 

Lima cottaldina, D'Orh. 1, 2, 3 Fi. 
„ dupiniana, D*Orb. 2 Sur. 
„ elon^taP, Sow. Fo. ' 
„ semisulcata, Sow. 1, 3 Fi. 
y, undata. Desk. I Fi. 

„ ^. 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown) ; 5 Sur. (Blackgang). 
Ostiea carinala. Sow. See O. frons. 
„ frons, Park. 1, 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. ; Fo. 
„ Leymerii, Desk. I,' 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ macroptera, Sow. See O. frons. 
„ prionota, Forbes. See O. frons. 
„ retusa, Sow. 3 Fi. 
„ spl 2 Sur. 
Pecten cinctus. Sow. S. 

„ drcularis, Forbes, may be the P. cottaldinus of D*Orbigny. 

„ cottaldinus, lyOrb. 1 Sur.; 3 Fo. 

„ interstriatus, Lejftn. 1, 3 Fi.; 1 Sur.; 1 Sur. and Fo. (Sandown). 

„ obUquus. See P. interstriatus. 

„ orbicularis, Sow. 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. ; 1 Sur. and Fo. (Sundown) ; Mo. 

(Shanklin) ; 5 Sur. (Bonchurcb, Dunnose, and Sandown). 
„ quinqueoostatus, Sow. I, 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. ; 3 Fo. (Shanklin) ; 1 Sur. 

(Sandown) ; 5 Sur. (Sandown). 
,, robinaldinus, jyOrb. Mo. (Shanklin). 
„ sp. 2 Sur. 
Pema alcBformis. See GerviUia. 
„ Mulleti, Desk. 1 Fi. and Sur.; 1 S. (Compton Bay); 1 Sur. 

(Sandown). 
,, ricordiana, D'Orb. 1 Fi. ; Mo. (Sandown and Shanklin). 
„ royana, D'Orb. S. 
Pinna Galliennei, D'Orb. 3 Fi. 

„ restituta, Forbes. See P. tetragona. 
„ robinaldina, ITOrb. 2, 3 Fi. ; S. 
„ tetragonu. Sow. S. ; Fo. 
,, sp. \, 2 Sur. 
Plicatula carteroniana, D'Orb. Mo. (Shanklin) ; 5 Sur. (Sandown). 
„ placunsa, Lam. 1 Fi. ; Fo. 

Dimyaria. 

Anatina Agassizii, Ptc^ and Bona. S. 

„ Carteroni, D'Orb. S. 
Area Carteroni, ITOrb. 1 Fi. ; Fo. ; S. (Sandown P). 
„ cornueliana, UOrb. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ dupiniana, UOrb. S. 

„ Raulini, Leym. 1, 2, 3 Fi. ; 1, 2 Sur.; 1 Sur* (Sandown) ; Fo. 
„ robinaldina, UOrb. S. 
„ seciurisy Leym. 1, 3 Fi.; Fo. 
Astarte Beaumontii, Leym. S. ; Fo. (Sandown). 
„ multistriata, Sow. \Y\, 
„ numismalis, D'Orb. 1, 3 Fi. 
„ obovata, Sow. 1 Fi. ; 1 Sur. and Mo. (Sandown). 
„ sp. 5 Sur. (Sandown). 
„ striato-costata, jyOrb. Mo. 
\, substriata, Leym. 1 Fi. ; Fo. 
Cardita fenestrata, Ftn^bes, 1, 2, Fi. 1 Sur. 



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264 ^ OKOLOGr of the isle of wight« 



Cardita neocozniensis, D^Orb. S. ; Mo. 

„ quadrata, lyOrb. S. ; Mo. 
Cardium AuBteni, Forbes, (Hemicardium, 1, 2, 3 Fu); 1 Snr.; 3 
(Shanklin); Fo. 
„ oomuelianuin, lyOrb. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ Ibbctsoni, Forbes, 3 Fi. ; 2 Sur. ; 3 Fo. 
„ imbricatorium. Desk. Fo. 
„ pere^nosum, IXOrb, 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
i, raulinianum, D'Orb, 3 Fi. 
„ sp, 5 Sur. (Bonchurch and Sandown). 
,, sphssroideum, Forbes, 1 Fi. ; 1 Sor. and Fo. (Sandown). 
„ subhillanum, Leym. 3 Fi. and Fo. ; S. (Shanklin). 
„ Voltzii, Leym. 3 Fi. 
Corbis (Sjphaera) comigata, Sow. 1, 3 Fi. ; Fo. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown). 

„ ? fibrosa, Forbes, Fo. 
Corbula incerta, D'Orb. 1, 2 Fi. 

„ striata. Sow. 1 Stir. (Sandown). 
„ striatula, Sow. 1, 2, 3 Fi. ; 2 Sur. ; Fo. 
Cucullaea exaltata, Nilss. \, 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. ; Fo. (Sandown). 

„ gabrieUs, Leym. S. 
CTpricardia ?undulata, Forbes, 2 Fi. ; Fo. 
Cyprina angulata, Flem. 1 Sur. ; 3 Fi. ; Fo. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown). 
„ „ var. rostrata, Sow. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 

„ dongata ?, D'Orb. S. (Sandown). 
Cytherea caperata. Sow. 3 Fi. 

„ parva, Sow. 1, 3 Fi. ; S. ; Fo. 
Gastrochena dilatata. Desk. Fo. 

f, M. 3 Fi. 

Goniomya mailleana, D'Orb. S. 
Isocardia ? ornata, Forbes, 3 Fi. ; Fo. 

„ Sur. (Sandown). 
Leda scapha, D'Orb. 2, 3 Fi. ; S. ; Fo. ; 6 Sur. (Sandown)? 
„ spathulata, Forbes 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ sp. 1 Sur. 
Lithodomus oblongus, D'Orb. 3 Fi. and Fo. 
Lucina arduennensis, D'Orb. S. 
„ dupiniana, Forbes, 3 Fi. 
„ glooiformis, Leym, 1,3P Fi.; Fo. 
„ solidula, Forbes, 1, 3 Fi. ; Fo. P 
Mactra Garteroni, D'Orb. 2, 3 Fi. 

Modiola spqualis. Sow. 1, 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown); Fo. (Mytilus). 
„ bella, Sow. 1 Fi.; Fo. (Mytilus). 
,, (Mytilus) oomuelianus P, D'Orb., 1 Sur. (Sandown.) 
,f reversa, Sow. P 1 Sur. (Sandown). 
Myacites. See Panopaea. 

Mytilus lanceolatus, Sow. 1, 2, 3 Fi. ; S. (Sandown). 
„ „ var. edentulusy Sby. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 

„ simplex, Desk. 1 Fi. ; S. ; Fo. 
Nuciila antiquata, Sow. 3 Fi. 
„ impressa. Sow. Fo. 
„ obtusa, Sow. Fo. 
„ scapha. See Leda. 
,, simplex. Desk. 3 Fi. 
,t spathulata. See Leda. ' 
„ sp? 5 Sur. (Blackgang). 
Panopsea arcuata, D'Orb. S. 

„ elongata, Rim. 1, 3 Fi. ; S. 

„ irregularis, D'Orb. 2, 3 Fi. 

„ mandibula. Sow. I, 3, 5 Fi. ; I, 2 Sur. ; 3 Fo. 

„ ,9 var. obliqua, 3 Fo. 

„ neocomiensis, D'Orb. 1, 3 Fi. and Fo. ; 1 Sur. P 

„ plicata, Sow, I, 2, 3 Fi. ; Fo.; I, 2 Siur. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown). 

„ sp. P 6 Fi. 



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TABUSS OF FOSSnjB — LOWER OBEBNSAIII). 266 

Fboladomya Agassizii, lyOrb. 1 Fi. 

,, Martini, Forbes 1, 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur. P ; 3 Fo. 

„ sp. 2 Sur. 

SolecurtuB Warburtoni, Forbes 3 Fi. and Fo. ; 3 S. (Shanklin). 
Tellina angulata. Desk. 3 Fi. ; S. 
„ Carteroni, I^Orb, See T. angulata. 
f, ince^ualis, Sow. 1, 3 Fi. ; Fo. ; S. (Sandown). 
„ vectiana^ Forbes 3 Fi. ; Fo. ; S. 
f, 6 Sur. (Sandown). 
Teredolithes. See Gastrochsena. 
llietis ffigantea (young). Sow. S. 

9, Sowerbii, Rim. 1, 3 Fi. (as T. miyor and minor), Fo. S. (Shanklin), 
1 Sur. (Sandown). 
Trigonia aliformis, Forbes. See T. vectiana. 

„ carinata, Ag. 1 fl. and Lvc. ; Fo. (Sandown) ; S. 

„ caudata, Ag. 1, 3 Fi. ; 3 Lye. ; Fo. (Sbanklin); S. 

„ dedalea, Forbes. See T. nodosa. 

9, Etberidgi, Lye. Fi., L, and Fo. (as T. caudata) ; 1 Lye. ; S. 

,, nodosa. Sow. I, 3 Fi. (as T. rudis) ; 1, and Fo. (as T. dedalea) ; 

1 Lye. (Sandown), 3 Lye. $ 1 Sur (Sandown) P 
„ omata, D'Orb. 1 Fi. (as var. spinosa); 1 Lye. 
„ spinosa, Forbes. See T. omata. 
„ rudis, FUton. See T. nodosa. 
„ vectiana, Lye. Fi., L, Fo. (as T. alseformis); 1 Lye; 3P Lye; 

1 Sur. (Sandown). 
„ sp. S. (Shanklin). 
Venus brongniartiana, Leym. Mo. 
„ caperata. Sow. See Cytherea. 
„ comueliana, D'Orb. 1 Fi. 
„ fenestrata, Forbes. See Cardita fenestrata. 
„ orbi^niana, Forbes. 1, 2 Sur. ; 3 Fi. and Fo. ; 1 Sur. (Sandown) P 
„ ovalis. Sow. var. elongata, 1 Fi. and Sur.; S. (Sandown). 
„ parva. See Cytherea. 
„ ricordeana, D'Orb. 1 Fi. 
„ sp.P 6Fi. 

„ striato-costata, Forbes. 1 Fi. ; S. 
„ vectensis, Forbes. 2, 3 FL ; S. ; 3 Fo. 

Gasteropoda, 

Actseon affinis, Sow. S. 

„ albensis, D'Orb. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ maiginatus, D'Orb. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ sp. 5 Sur. (Sandown). 
Aporrbais, 1 Sur. (Sandown). 

„ calcarala, Auctorum. See A. (Dimorphosoma) ancylocheila and 

A. (D.) kinclispira. 
„ dupiniana, D'Orb. 3-P (Sandown) G. 

„ Fittoni, Forbes. ( =-. Pteroceras, Forbes, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soe., 
vol. i. p. 361. Figured by Mantell in '^Geological Excursions " 
as P. retusa.) 3 Fi. ; S. 
„ fldabra, Forbes. 3 Fi. ; S. 
„ Parkinsoni, Mant. 3 G. (Shanklin)» 
„ Tobinaldioa, D'Orb. 1, 3 Fi. ; Sur. ; Fo. (Shanklin). 
,, (Dimorphosoma) ancylocheila, Gardn. 3 G. 
,, „ kinclispira, Gardn. 3 G. 

„ „ vectiana, Gardn. 3 G. (Shanklin). 

„ ,, sp. 3G. (Shanklin). 

„ (Ornithopus) moreausiana, D'Orb. (=> Pteroceras retusa of Fitton. 
See Gardner, Geol. Mag. for 18/5 and Forbes, Quart. Joum. 
Geol Soc, vol. i. p. 360). 3 Fi. 
Cerithium aouleaturo, Ms. Forbes. S. 
,, attenuatum, Forbes. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
„ clementinum, D'Orb. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 



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266 • • GEOIiOOT OF THE I8LB OF WIGHT. 

Cerithiam lallierianum, lyOrh. 3 Fi. and Fo. 
„ neooomieiise, D*Orb. 3 fi. and Fo. ; 8. 
„ Fhillipsii, heym. 3 Fi. ; S. ; Fo. 
„ taiTiculatuxn« Forbes, 3 Fi. and Fo. ; S. 
Dentalium cjlindricum. Sow, 3 Fi. ; Fo. 
Emarginalft neooomiensiB, D^Orb. 1 FL ; Fo. 
Eulima melanoides, Desk, 3 Fo. (Shanklin). 
Littorina oonica. Sow. Mo. (Shanklin). 
„ rotundata, Sow. See Natica. 
Natica oornueliana, D'Orb. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 

„ gaultina, D'Orb. 1, 3 FS. ; 1 Sur. P ; Fo. 
f, loBvigata, D'Orb. See N. rotundata. 
y, rotundata, Sow. 1, 3 R. ; Fo. ; 8. 
Patella sp. 3 S. (Shanklin). 
Plearotonaaria gigantea, Sow, S. 

sp.? 6 Sur. (BJackgang). 
Pterocera FUtom, Forbes. See Aporrhais. 

9, retusa of Forhes and Fitton. See Aporrhais moreaunana. 
' Rostellaria. See Aporrhais. 
Scalaria dupiniana. If Orb. S. 
Solarium minimum, Forbes. Fo. 

sp.? 5 Fo. 
Tomatella. See Actteon. 
Trochus, 8p..5 Sur. (Bonchurqh). 
Turbo munitus, Forbes. 1 Sur. 
Turritella dupiniana, D*Orb. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 

Vicarya strombiformis, Schhth. {^PotanUdes earbonaria, Auet,) 1 Bar 
(derived). 

Cephalopoda. 

Ammonites Beudantii P, Bronff. 5 Sur. (Blackgang) ; a fragment. 
„ Carteroni, jyOrb. S. 
,f oonsobrinus, D*Orb. 3 Fi. 
,, oornuelianus, D*Orb. 3 Fi. ; Fo. 

,, Deshaysii, Leym. \, 2, 3 Fi. ; 2 Sur. ; Fo. ; S. (Sandown). 
,, furcatus, Sow. 1 Fi. ; Fo. . 
„ Hambrovii, Forbes. 2 Sur. ; 3 Fi. 
„ P inflatus, D'Orb* 
,f P intemiptus, Bronp.f 

leopoldinus, D'Orb, 1, 2 Fi. 
„ Martini, D'Orb. 3 Fi. and Fo. ; S. 
„ nut6eldensi8, 5oto. S. Qoc. P). 
„ (rolled fragments), 1 Sur. (Sandown). 
„ (a fragment) 5 Sur. (Blackgang). 
Ancrlooeras gigas. Sow. 3 Fi. (Scaphites) and W. ; S. 
HiUsii, Sow. 3 Fi. and W. 
„ matheronianus, D*Orb. 1 Mo. 

Belenmites sp. Fo. (as P B. lanceolatus). 
Criooeras (AnOTloceras, D'Orb,) Bowerbankii, .Sow. 3 Fi. ; 8. 
Hamites, S. (Sandown). 
Nautilus pUcatus, Sow, S. (loc. P). 
,, pseudoelegans P S»(loc.P). 
,, radiatuSy Soto. 1, 3 Fi. ; 1 Sur 
„ requinianus, D'Orb. 1 W. 
„ Saxbii, MorrisA ^ Fi* 
Scaphites. See Ancylooeras. 

„ grandis. See Ancylooeras gigas. 

* OThis Ammonite Ih recorded by Fitton from the Atherfield Clay and Pema Bed, 
and by Forbes from Atherfield. Its occurrence in the Lower Cretaoeons Bocks, 
however, has not been verified. 

t One specimen of this Ammonite was presented to the Mosemn of Practical 
Geology by Dr. Fitton, as being from the Lower Greensand of the Isle of Wight. 

X Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist 1848. 



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TABLBS OF FOSSILS — SLOWER GBKBNSAKD. 267 

Edsphodon Sedgwickii, Ag» S. 

Hybodus baaanus. Eg. PI Egerton {Qmrt, Jwam. Oeoh 5o0., vol. i. 

p. 197). 
Hybodufl, sp. S. 

Lttmnay 1 W. ; 5 Sur. (Dunnose). 
Lepidoliu, 1 Sor. 
OdontMpis, 1 W. 

ProtoephyrsBna (Saurooepbalus), 1 W. 
Varioas, 1 Sur. (Sandown). 

RipHlia. 

Chelonia, S. (Shanklin). 
Iffuanodon Mantelli» Owen, 3 P, O. and L. 

nemoBaurus sp., O. and Whidborne, Quart. Jowm. Oeol. Soc, vol. zzzvii. 
p. 480 (Shanklin). 



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268 



OBOlCtOT OP THB^-IgLB OF WIGHT. 



TABLE III.— Upper Ceetacbous. 

The letters re£er to the authorities by whom the fossils have been recorded. 
See p. 257. 

lliose fossils marked S. were collected from the ** Lower Chalk " as mapped 
in 1852. That subdivision included the Lower and Middle Chalk of the 
present survey. 

The Middle Chalk of Bairois includes the Chalk Rock and about 20 feet of 
chalk above it. 

The Upper Greensand of Barrois includes about 35 feet of beds now 
included in the Gault. That of Fitton includes the Chloritic Marl. 

The numbers indicate the localities enumerated below : — 







Localities, 




1. Isle of Wight, 


exact 


13. Brixton Down. 


27. Standen. 


locality not specified. 


14. Calboume. 


28. East Standen. 


2. Needles. 




15. Rowborough. 


29. Arreton. 


3. Alum Bay. 




16. Apes Down. 


30. Messley. 


4. High Down. 




17. Alvington. 


31. Knighton. 


5. Main Bench. 




18. Cheverton. 


32. Yarbridge. 

33. Bembridge. 


6. Freshwater. 




19. Shorwell. 


7. Afton Down. 




20. Chillerton. 


34. Culver. 


8. Compton Bay. 




21. Gatcombe. 


35. The UnderclifP. 


9. Shalcombe. 




22. New Bam. 


36. Blackgang and Niton. 

37. Western Lines. 


10. Brook Road cutting. 


23. Bowcombe. 


11. Motteston Down 


, 


24. Carisbrook. 


38. Bonchurch and East 


12. Brixton and 


Cal. 


25. Mount Joy. 


End. 


bourne Road. 




2e. Shide. 


39. Frequent. 



a 



I 



Planus, 



Alffn 
Chondrites 



fastigiatns. 



88 Pi. ft 
M. 



^Claihraria LyelUi. Mant 
Conif erouB wood - 
Fncoides Tarffioni., see Chondrites fiwtigiatus. 



Spongida, 

Azinella stylus. Hinds, • 

Craticolaria (Bnchio- 
lites) Fittoni, Mant. 

Ohenendopora - 

Dorydenna 

Heterostinift (Chenendo- 
pora) obliqua* Ben, 

Cliona cretaoea, Par^2. - 

Dmdro9p<mgiafenutraU$, F, 



36 1. 



SSSur. 



88 Fa. 
86 N. 



86 
Hinde. 



86 

Hindo. 



86 H. 



18. 



IB. 



18.,1L. 



iBa. 
12Siir. 



J2armn we Craticolaria Fittoni. 
• Bteephill and East End. 



24 Bar. 



IS. 



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TABLES OF FOSSILS — ^VFPSB GRRAOEOTrS. 



269 



i 



I 



Distheles oonferU, F. 
Jtmm, 

HallirhoA affBridformii, 1 IB. 

BIppaiiMusy^nffoidei, linux, see Hallirhoa tf^ianoiformii. 

Jerea (Siphonia) Web- .. 85Ba.ft .. S7Fi. 
Bteri, Sow, N. 

Floooeoyphia feneitmta, 
7. SmUK. 

labitwa, 7. .. •« 8 Sur. ' 

SlHtthm 

Flocateifphia ueandrima^'teQ P. labrow. 

Plooo§qyphia letioulata ?, 
Hinde. 



Setfphia FUtoni, see Ontionlaiia. 

JSHphonia pmiformit, auctomm, see P. tnlipa. 

Siphonia tulipa, ZUUi, - .. 85 Ba. 1 Pa. ft 

Spongia meandroidett IhbeUfmt see Plooosoypliia Iftbrosa. 

Stanronema Ourteri, Sdti' 
laa. 



IBa. 



lOBup, 
II. 



8,86 
Bur. 

II., 86 
Bur. 



%^. 



34 Sur. 



82,86 
Bur.?, 
IBs. 



U.89,86 



9 Bur. 



Ventriculites moniliferus, 
F,Moem, 



Ventriculites 



SydroMoa. 

Forosphnra (Ooadnopora) 
globularis^PAO. 



Aetino€oa, 

Uiorabaoia coronula^ 
OoUlf, 

Mcmocarga, see Parasmilia. 

Parasmilia centralis, 
Mont, 



Bnulotrochus 
Troohocyathus 



JB^ifudsrmaia, 

Bonnrnetiorinns (Ipioori- 
nns) eUiptlous, MiUer, 

Oardiaster fossaritis, B«fw 



I N. 



12 Sur. 



8,8S»S8 
Bur. 



85 Pa. 



86 N. 



IB. 



86 Bur. 



86 Bur. 



7,24,29, 
82 Bur. 



6t,Sl,S4 
Ba. 

Bur. 



7,12,24, 

29.82 

Bur. 



7 Bur.. 
6Ba. 



6,6Ba. 



^ Chalk Book. 



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270 



OEOLOGT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 











|l 




1 






1 


1 


1 
1 


P 


1 


1 


I 
1 


1 


Gardiastor latiMimus, 4^. 




• • 


,, 


18. 










* „ pillulus, Lamk. 








•• 


i« 


pa 

IB. 


** 


"tK- 


H • • ■ 




86 N. 














Catopygus oolumbariiis, 








11. 










CidAria e\Kf\ger%Kanig» 
n di88imilii?^or6«ff 










. '* 


86Siir. 


.* 


6,eBa. 


„ hirudo, Sorig. - 










• • 


.. 


18 26, 
84 Ba. 


6.26Ba. 


„ plemoanthft, Ag, 










• • 


.. 


88 Ba. 


„ pieudohirudo, 
Cattsau. 










• • 


^ 




8.1lBa. 


„ soGptriferai Jfonf. 










.. 


• . 


.. 


6.6Ba. 


„ semtAyDMor. - 










.. 


• . 


• • 


7,84 Ba. 


„ BubYetiotdoiOt 










' ••' 


• • 


•• 


18,81,84 
Ba. 


„ ye^ouicuL, Goldf. 










86 Fa. 








„ (fpinei) - 








' 


.. 


• • 


.. 


28 Bar. 


tCyphofloma 

Disooidea oyHndrioa, 
Lamk. 










.. 


IBa. 


'■■ 


18.24^ 


„ ISdlOXDM, Jifft ■ 










IBa. 


.. 


86 Bur. 




t „ Bubacnliis, KMn, 

u 




•• 






86 Pa., 


86 Bur. 




Echinocomu oajfanifla 
Bnmg, 




•• 






IBa. 








„ Gonicus, ^r^i». 










.. 


.. 


.. 


iSB.. 


Eehinooorys Tulgaris 
Brevn (=Aiu«iohyte8 
ovatus). 










•• 




•• 


"^ 


EchinoBpatajnu (Hemi- 
aster) MurohiBOuis 
ManL 






" • 


IB. 










Goniaster Goombii, 
FoTbet, 










• • 


IB. 






(osBide of) - 










.. 


.. 


.. 


12 Bur. 


HemiaBter Horriaii. 










•• 


86 W. 






n 






8 Bur.? 




IS. 








HolaBter oor-avium. Ag, 
(Pap.) 






•• 




•• 


•• 


24Ba.P 


6,18Ba. 


„ fo99ariMt aee Oi 


^rdiaator 

















* In a band of green nodtdet in the Upper Chalk. 8eep.78. 
X Melbonm Sock. 



tChalkBook. 



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TABLES OF FOSSILS — ^UFPEB CBETACBOTJS. 



271 





J 


^ 


1 


i! 

p 


"5 

JO 


j 


g 


1 


Ho]asterl»7ii,2>0£«c. . 


• • 






.4S. 


1 1. 


iBa. 


































• „ planus, if<M<. 




• • 


.< 


. .. 




36 N, 


^ 




* "" jSjjfcT* 




•• 


^- 


IS. 


1 Ba. 


IBa. 










• • 


. .i 


.. 




3S8ur.? 
IBa. 






•, tp. - - 






iFk 










InfalMter major, Duor. 


".. 


".. 


.. 




'".. 


.. 


.. 


lSBa.r 


MicniBter breyiporos, Ag. 






.... 


,,.. 


.v.. 


• • 


.. 


9.18 Ba. 


„ BwagDinriUnSb.} 






• • 


.. 




.. 


.. 


2,86Ba. 


„ oor-anguinum, 
Klein, 

„ oor-boyiCi Forbet. 






•• 


•• 




•• 


•• 


82 8ur., 

82 8ur.. 
88 Ba. 


„ oor-teitudin- 
arium, Oolcff. 






•• 


^•• 


. 


••^ 


•; 


^ag. 






•• 


•• 




•• 


•• 


1\S 


» - .. - 






... 


.~.. 




.. 


.. 


18 Ba. 


Srong. 








.... 




IBa. 






„ .. (Irafifmfints) 








.... 


.... 


.. 


.. 


12Sur. 


OMioles . 






•• 


•• 




"^ 


•• 


24Sur. 


Anmlida. . 






• ' 




"* 














iPa.. 




















.. 


,, 


.. 


6Ba. 


. y ipranulata^ Sow, - 






.. 


.... 


.... • 


..- 


.. 


29 8iir. 


„ Uimn. Gol4f. - 






.. 




.. 


.. 


.. 


IS. 


„ obtuaa, Sow, - 


•• 




.. 




86Sur. 






» plana, Woodw, - 


*' 




.. 




.. 


.. 


.. 


29 8ur. 


VeiiDioiilaria ooncava, 
Sow. 

Fhiljpdi. 


aSur. 


Sfinr., 
86 Ba. 


10.12 

Sur., 85 

Ba. 


IS. 


86 But. 

«Sur., 
86Ftu 


•• 


•• 


5Ba.. 

^^ 

711.17 

Ba.,24 

8ar. 


n pohrgonalis. 


•• 


•• 


•• 


38 Fi. 


.. 








„ nmbonata, 
Mant, 


•• 


•• 


•• 


37 FL 


•• 


IBa. 




• f^ 



^ Chalk Book. 



t In a green nodnlar band in the Upper Chalk, see p. 78. 



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272 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE 0F WIGHT. 



YennicolariA sp. - 

Cruttaeea. 

Cythera - • • 

Qytheridea perforata* 
JBoem. 

H^oDaria Bazbyi, 

tfeyeria ^mUettii, JET. 
Waiodw. 

Neorocardaiu Wood- 
waidii,B0«. 

Fabeooorystes Normani, 
BbU. 

Cirripedia, 
PoUidpes - 



Polygoa, 
Bidiastopora 
Gboristopetalum impar, 

Defranoia MioheUni 
Hcig. (near to). 

Entalophoia • 

Eiohara . . . 



Frufltellaria 
jyOrb. 



oonftiHa, 



Beptescharella radiata. 



Brachiopoda. 
Orania ■ ■ 
Kingena lima* J>^. 



Lingula BuboTalio, Iktv, 

Magas pumfla, Sow, 

BihynchoneUa compreua^ see B. dimidataj 



84Sur. 



Jo. 



88 Fa. 



SSBa. 



8 8ur. 



lOSur. 



Cuyieri, 
Sow. 

dixnidiata» 
Sow, i^eOTHr 
pre$$o,J>a»,) 



85 Ba. 



88 Ba. 



il 

lil 



X 



§ 



88 Be. 



86 8.? 



86 Ba. 



IS. 



86 8ur. 



8.86 
Bar. 



85 ?♦ 
86 Be. 

86 Be. 



86 Bur., 
iBa. 



86 Bar. 



80 Bur., 
Ba. 



29 Bur. 



24?t9 
Sur« 



28,82 
Bur. 

29.88 
Bur. 
29, S8 
Bur. 
29.82 
Bar. 



29 Bur. 



89 Ba. 



89 Bur., 
Ba. 



* Beoorded by Br. H. Woodward from the Ohalk near Yentnor, OeoL Mag, tot 18T8^ p. 666. 
t Ohalk Book. t Melboum Book. 



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TABUiS OF FOSSILS — UPPER CBBTACBOUa 



273 



BhyiiohoneUa gnnana. 
J>'0r6. 

n latigsima. 

Sow, 

n limbata. 

Sohioth, 

mantelliana, 
Sow, 

Martini 
ManML 

paryirostrii. 
Sow. 

plicatilia. 
Sow, 



plioatUis 
var. ootoplicata. 

Sohlcenbachl, 
Ban, 

aubduplicata, 
iyOrb,{73p.), 

■ubplicata, 
D'Orb. (fsp.). 



n 



t§ 



Terobratella peotita, Sow, 

t Terebratttla biplicata, 
• Sow*- 



I 



iPa.. 

85 N. 



SSur., 
»Ba. 



I 



lOSur. 



I 

■g 

6 



87 H. 
IS. 



86 D. 



IS. 



oame&tSow, 

' convemi. Sow,, see Bhynchonella latiuima. 
disparilis, 

lacrymoA, 
D* Orb. {ftp.)' 

ovata, Saw, 89 Ba. 



pectita. Sow., see TerebrateUa. 



phaaeolina, 
Lamk. 



pUum, Sow,, see Bbynohonella Martini. 



86 D. 



n 



nemigloboaa. 
Sow. 


" 


•• 


• •• . 


•p, - 


84Sar. 


SSnr. 


.. 


oa Rracilifl, 
Schloth, 


•• 


•• 


•• 


striata. 


•• 


_•• 


•• 


9p,' 


•• 


%, 


88 Ba. 



87 Fi. 



8,12 

Snr., 85 

Pa.* 

8,86 

Sur.,? 

II. 

85 N. 



12 Bar. 



85Sur. 



I 



iBa. 



88,86 
Sor. 

82.86, 
86 8ar. 



86 Snr*, 
86 Pa. 
86,88 
Sur.,6 
Pa. 



85 Bar. 



6 Pa. 



86 Pa., 

86 Bar. 



82Sur. 



IN. 



IBa. 
IBa. 



i 



26 Sor. 



12,82 
Sur. 



10 Snr., 
IBa. 



86 Sur. 



12.86, 
86 Sur., 
IBa. 



88 Snr., 
Ba. 



12,24 
Sur., 89 

Ba. 
18.26, 
84 Ba. 



7Ba. 



2^29. 
82 Snr. 



7,88,84 
Snr., 
14 Ba. 

7Ba. 



26 Ba. 

24.20 



2»» 
Bur. 



82 Bar. 



7,9,32 

Bur., 2^ 

Ba. 



80 Sor., 
Ba. 



SO Sur., 
13 Ba. 

7,20.82 

Snr.. 6, 

6Ba. 



* Derived and indiffenons in the Chloritio Uarl. t Melbonm Bock. t Chalk Book. 

§ In a green nodular band in the Upper Chalk, see p. 78. 

£ 56786. 8 



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2T* 



OEOIiOGT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



S 



.s 

1 



ZamMibnmehiata 
(JUonamyaria). 



Avicnla giyphnoides. 



Bzosyx* CHialioalata, 
Sow. 

f, oolumlM, Lam, 

M oonicai Sow, - 



S6 8ur. 

SSur. 



94 8ur. 



86 Ba. 

8 Bur. 

SSur^ 
85 Ba. 



10 Bur. 



10 Bur. 

85 N., 
Pa. 



Bzofirrahaliotoidea, Xam. i 
n laoiniata^^rOM. 
u undata, see B. canalicolata. 



Gfyphsa yeeiculosa. Sow. 



M 9p, 

Inooenumu Brongniarti, 
Park, 

n conoentricns. 
Park. 



Orispii. CMdf. 

Cuvieri, 
D'Orb. 

involntiu, 
Sow. 



88 Bar. 



8&,88 
Fi. 



86 Bar. 



86 Ba. 



labiatns, see I. mytiloides. 
]atu8,Jfaji& 



' „ ir;tiIioides»' 

MaiU. 

' „ striatal, 

KatU. 

„ snloatus. 
Park. 

n »f>. - 

Jamira. BeePecten. 

Liina arohiadana, Cor. • 
andBri. 

„ aspen. Sow. 

M coiiaolirixia» D*Orb. 

„ elongata. Sow. • 

* „ globom^t Sow. 



B..8 
N..lPr. 

84,88 
Bar. 



8Bur.P 



85BaM 



85 Ba. 



lRkj86, 
88 Ba. 



10 Bur. 



iPa. 



IB. 
87 A 



IB. 



86 Bur. 

V 



IB. 



&86 
Bar. 



86 Bur. 
86N. 



85 Bur. 



12,82 
Bur. 



85,86 
Bur? 



86 Bur. 
IL 



10,82, 
86^86 

Bur. 



20 Bur.? 
iBa. 



12 Bur. 



86Bur.P 



S,aOBa. 



18.82 
Ba. 



6.18 
Ba. 



80 Bur. 
Ba. 

24.20, 
82 P Bur. 



28 Bur. 



7 Bur. 



7,9.16 
Ba. 



6Ba. 



82 Bur. 



' If elbovm Book. 



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Google 



TABI(ES OF FOSSILS — ^UFPBB CBBTACE0T7S. 



275 



I 



I 



II 



h 

.11 



I 



i 
I 



Lima Hoperi, Sow, 

n OTDAt^ jyOrb. ' 

n panUeUw 8ow, 
n sexniiuloata, Sow* • 
* „ ipiuoea, iSow. 



8.86 
Bur. 



84Sur. 



18. 
87 PL 



S»Bttr.? 



8Sur. 



• » striata, (?o^. 
Oitnea oandHeulcOa, jyChrb,, itee Exogyra. 
» ooiUea, Lamk., see Bxogyra. 



iPfc 



82.86 
Bur. 



flabellUbrmis, 
JVOw. (;«p.). 

ftons, Parit 



hipDopodium, 



*p.). 



normauiana ?, 
iyOrft. 



V IMcMfiaifa, see O. flrons. 
M veeicularis, ZamA;. 

M ftetienXota, Soto., see Gryphaoa. 
M virgata. (?oJ4A 

n 9p, 

tPecten aaper, XiamJk. 



8 Bur., 
iPa. 



18. 

Ba, 
8SN.. 
86 Bur. 



85 N. 



Beayeri, Sow. 

cretoeos, J></r. - 

depre88U8,Jf«n«<. 

elongatus, Lamk, 

QaUiennii, see P. iDterstriatus. 

bispidiis, Qolif, .. 85 Ba. 
(?«>.). 

interstriatus, 
Leifm. 

Umimo9u$» MaiU., see P. ortfioularis. 

Bitidos, Mant. 

orbicularis, Sow, 



(Neithea)omith- 
op8is» ieeping. 



8 Bur. 



18. 



86 Ba. 



8 Bur. 



85 Bur. 



llnBa, 

86 N.. 

Pa. 

86 Pa., 

86 Bur. 



iBa., 
35 N. 



IBa. 

86 Bur. 



85,86 
Bur. 



12 Bar. 



IBa., 
85 N. 



IBa. 



8.84, 
86,88 
Bu. 



iPa., 
85 Ba. 



8 Bur., 
IPa. 



10 Bur., 
85 Ba. 



86 Pa. 



^88 
Bur. 



8 Bur. 



85 Bur. 

10,85. 

86 Bur. 



0,13. 
SLBa. 



18 Bur.? 



15] 



84 Ba. 



V 



7 Bur. 



82 Bur. 

88kur. 
6.18 
Ba. 

7 Bur.? 

7.12 
Bur. 



17 Ba. 



88 Bur., 
»Ba. 



12 Bur. 



7*^ 



« Chalk Bock. 



t DeriTsd in the Chloritio Marl according to M* . Parki]i»;ii. 

s 2 



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276 



OBOLOGT OF THE ISLB OF WIGHT. 



I 



ill 



I 



Pecten quadrioostatuB, 



» qainqueoostatas. 
Sow. 

„ sp. allied to P. 
raolinianus, 
irOrb, 

n 9p. - - - 

Pinna . . . 

Pltigiottoma Hoperi, see 

Plicatula inflata. Sow, • 

„ peotinoides. 
Sow. 

„ sigillina, 6, P, 
Woodw, 

» "P. 

^ BpondyluB cqualis, Hih. 



IS. 



•8 PL, 
94 Stir. 

8Sar. 



8,34 
Sur. 



w dutem] 

M 9pinotu$, see 
n 8triatu8» Sow, 
» *P' ' 

LamMUbranchiaia 
(JHmyaria). 

Area Oarteroni, 2>'Or6. - 

„ mailleana, I>*Or&. 

„ royana, D'Orft. • 



84 Sur. 



Caprotina» tp. - 
(;ardito tenuicoeta* Fitt 

Gardium gentianum. Sow. 
„ tuberouUUum, m 

H 9p, 

Cuculleea carinata» Sow, 
„ fibrosa, Sow, 

M glabra, Park, 
M tp' 
Cypiina angulata, Flsm, 

n V>' 

Gytherea, «p. 



8S. 



8 8., 84. 
88 Bur. 



85 Ba. 



8 Sur., 
85 Ba. 



85 Ba. 



iPa., 

85 Ba. 

86 Ba. 



10 Bur., 
II., Pa. 



IP*. 



10 Sur. 
8 Sur. 



86 Ba. 



llnPfc, 
85 N. 

1 0. gentianum. 



88 Sur. 



8.84 
Sur. 



38 Sur. 



lI.,Pfc., 
86 Ba. 
iPa. 



lPa..85 
Ba.,N. 



86.88 
Ba. 



IPa.. 
87 Pi 



IPa. 



IS.. 
87 Pi. 



* 12, 85, 
86 Sur. 



8.86. 
86 Sur. 



24 Sur. 



87 A 

IS. 



86,86 

Sur. 

8 Sur., 

85 Pa. 



«2,35. 
86 Sur. 
10 Sur.? 



IS. 



19 Ba. 



85,86 

Sur. 

85 Sur. 



18. 

18. 

87 Pi. 

IS.? 
IS. 
IS. 



82 Sur. 



IS. 



8.12 
Sur. 



86 Sur. 
86 Sur.? 



30 Ba. 



6Ba. 
6.7Ba. 



6Ba. 



Digitized by 



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TABLES OP FOSSILS — UPPER CRETACEOUS. 



277 



iBocardia - - - 

Luckia tenon , Sow. 

Modiola llgterieQsli, 



iPk. 



Mjiaciies fnandihnla. Sow., nee Punopna* 



I 



aSur- 



Snr. 



B8uT. 



I 



38 FL 



Mjtilui laiiceulatus, Sow. 
Nueula blrii^ia, Sb^. • 84 &ur. 
Pftuppgea XQAodibubf Sow^ 

Fbolodomja deouHa&ta, 
Phil. 

fbolAB, igi, - - 

Solau dupiniiinua, J&" Or&. 34 S«r, 

I 
Tbetb jwijan «^ T. SowerbyL 

t, Sowerbyi, Mom. 

TriffQiiiA aUlormtflf Park 

,, arcbiadana, 

,t harpOf lee I. carinatc, 
„ Kpinoiak -Pur*, 
^ Ylcjaryanft, 

Actttxin liffltii^, Sow. 



ApQirrbftJS Piirkinsoni, 



36 X, 



N., 1 1. 
S«ur. 

35 X. 



IS. 



*p- • 

Avellaim c^mum, B* Orb. 

^ (Oiuidiai) 
Oohunbellina 
DenteUom 
BnuurRinnlaiip. - 



IL 



iPa.. 



IL 



II. 



lOSui*. 



10 Bur. 



1 I^c. 



IS. 



^eur. 



SSnr. 



IP^ 



18. 

3dJLyc. 

40 Lyo. 
Lye. 

37 PL 



IS. 



IB. 



I 

•g 



I 



SSur. 



12 Sur. 



II. 



IN. 






35 ?4, 



3a«36 



10 Sur. 



18. 



Bur, 
{ 1.. Ba. 



138ur.P, 
85 P^ 
36 Sur. 



86 Pa. 






86 Bar. 



mB&, 



Digitized by 



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278 



OEOLOOT OF THB MLB OF WIGHT. 



I 



FofnsP . . . 
Qibbula laBTiatriata, Seek 
Littorina cuinata. Sow. 
Natica gaaltina, JTOrb, 

w • • ■ 

Plearotomaria morean- 
Biauna, 

» penpeo 

tira. 
Maui. 

» Rbodjun, 

irOrb. 



8N. 



BotMlaria, see Apoiriiau. 
Solarium oonoidevm, 

JSO¥K 

» omatii]n» Sow, 
TroohuB ... 
Torbo problematious. 



TuxriteUft - 

SepAaiopoda^ 
AmMonit«B MaAtma^SiMt. 



iFft. 



I 



iPr. 



88«ir^ 



86 Ba, 



IFa. 



li 

eg 

la 

p 



IS. 



IS, 



BmtetUm, Somr^ see' A* mtetrvptiB. 



Bendantii?, 
Brong, 



84Sur. 



boachardianoB, 

catmiis» Mmtm 

omomamiiBiBt 
J/Areh, 



oineta8,Jf«n£. 

Coupei, J9y*ofi^. 

curvaius, Maut. 

dentatus, see A. interrdptua. 



deverianuB. 
irOrb. 

falcatoB. Mont. 

feraudianiiB, 
jyOrb, 



37 FU 

S7PI. 
37 Fu 

IS. 
IB. 



IB. 



asK^f 



as Pa. 



11. 



35, «e 

Smv 



8?* 36 



aaPifc. 



Bur. 



lasur. 



sasur. 



56 Pa., 
Bh. 



la^Ba. 



IW. 



18, 



30 Sot. 



36 K. 
iBo. 



mm 

But. 



lOSur.? 



iBa-, 
36 Bb. 






QenUa^Bronff. .. •• «• <• >* 1 Ba. 

itijlatn$. Sow., see A. xoBtratuB. 

• Derived in the Chloritac Uarl according to Mr. Parkinaon. 

t DeriTed and indigenona in the Ghloritio Marl aooording to Mr. ParkinBon. 



I 



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TABUBS OF FOSSILS— 'UPPBB GBBrAOBOUS. 



279 



• 








|l 


1 

1 










1 


1 


1 


M 


1 


I 


i 


AminoDiies interrnptuf ,• • 
Brong, 


38 fL 
















„ IftticIaTina, 
Sharyte. 


• • 


•• 


• • 


•• 


IBiL 


18h. 






n toptpnema* 
Sharps* 


•• 


•• 


• • 


•• 


• • 


86 8h. 






n xnammillaris. 




• • 


• • 


•• 


11. 








KaDtel]J.Aw. 
■■ fiMHiX€m 8e6A. n 


• • 


•• 
lis. 


«• 


87Fi.f 


8,86,86 
Bur. 


■S" 






w navknilarU, 
Mant, 


• • 


•• 


• • 


•• 


868ur., 
Ba. 


8eSur. 






t, octotuloatuB, 
Sharps, 


•• 


•• 


• • 


•• 


•• 


86 8bu 






* „ peramploB, 
Mant, 


•• 


• • 


• • 


• • 


86 N. 


•• 


OBa., 
ISh. 




• » planulatuB, &>to. 


•• 


•• 


• • 


•• 


88 8. 








tf renanxmimg, 

jyorb. 


• • 


85 Ba. 


• • 


•• 


• • 


85 Sh. 






» Benevieri, 
Sharpe, 


•• 


•• 


• • 


•• 


• • 


86 8ur.. 
88 Sh. 






n ro8tratufl,£^ot0. 
Brong, 


IPr., 
8 Bur* 

•• 


• • 


•• 


• • 


86 N. 

128ur., 
iBa. 


SO Bur., 
Ba. 






„ 8axbii,<8%anM. 


•• 


• • 


•• 


•• 


• • 


35 Bh. 






Brong, 


•• 


• • - 


•• 


38 FL 










• 8plendeD8»j9oio. 


•• 


36 N. 


• • 


• • 


11. 








t » VKriaii8,/SSM0.- 


•• 
• • 


86 N., 

88:PL 

• • 


• • 
•• 


•• 
•• 


80 

IBa^ 
85 8h. 


80 Bur., 
Ba. 






^ VeDedK, 

Miehelin. 


•• 


• • 


• • 


•• 


•• 


85 8h. 






WoolgarMfon^. 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


•• 


•• 


i 




• «>. - 


•• 


• • 


10 Bur. 












M M between A« 
anritns and 
iuroBtratua. 


•• 


IIH. 




■ 










Baenlites anceps* Xam. - 


•• 


• • 


•• 


»• 


• • 


IN. 






» tecnloidfim 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


LS..Ba. 






,, VanJa0ii,iSI^.- 


• • 


• • 


•• 


•• 


• • 


85 N. 






B.UmBiten.m«^jg5j^ 


• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 


• • 


WSnr. 


%S. 


•• 


80 Ba. 



• Deriyed in the Chloritio Marl f 

t DeriTod and indigenoua in the Chloritio Marl according to Mr. Farkiownu 



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280 



GBOLO0T OP THE I6LE OP WIGHT. 





^ 


1 


1 


l|l 
III 


i 


% 


\ 


1 


*BeleinnitelIa mutdrata. 


.. 


.. 


.. 


.. 


•• 


.. 


•• 


96 Ba. 


Belemnites munmuBjAst, 


•• 


,. 


,, 


,, 


86 N. 








„ ultimus, D*Orb. 


IPr.' 


.. 


.. 


18. 


1 Ba.,P 

86 Sh. 








»»-•-. 




85 Bi^ 


.. 


87 Pi. 




, 




Hamites annAtus, Sow, • 
„ attenuatn8,i9(>ir. 


•• 


11^ 
36 Bv 


•• 


IS. 


IS. 
86 Pa. 


18., 
12 Sur. 
85 N. 


. 




„ elQgaoB, Park. - 


.. 


., 


.. 


•. 


SSur.P 








n - . - 


8Sur. 


.. 


., 


.. 


^1^ 




s 




Nautilus eomprei$us, see N. Fittoi 


d,Shan 


ye. 










„ deslongchamp- 
sianus, D'Orb, 




.. 




• • 


18. 


Ifia. 






„ elogans, /89W. *-' 


.. • 


.. 


IPa." 


.. 


85 Pa. 


lBa.,N. 


1- 




„ ezponsus. Sow. 




.. .. 


.. , 


•• ,. 


18., 
85 Pa. 

85.36 
Sur. 


IN.? 




c 


„ Pittoni, Sharpe 




•* 


•• 


87 Pi., 
iSh... 


iBa. 






- '•gssr'"'":. 




•• 


•• 


•• 


iSh. 








- "^"^r* 




36 N. 


•• 


•• 


85 N. 


36 Sur. 










36 N. 


, , 


11. 










„ undulatuB, Sow, 




11." 














„ sp. . .^ 
RhjnchoUtes - 






IPa^. 


.. .. 


18. 


82 Sur. 






Soaphitea aequalis. Sow. 
u eostatus, see S. 


equalii.' 


•• 


•• 


•• 


lBa.,S. 
85 PL 


85,86 
Sur. 


. 




ttriattu, see S. nqualis. 














• 


Turrilites Berf^mi, Brong. 


' 


• • 


' 


.. 


8.85,36 
Sur. 

• . 


86 Sur. 

85 N. 

85Slu? 






„ bifrons, lyOrd., 




.. . 


• • « 


• • . 


, 




. g^v^ua. •• 




•• 


•• 


•• 


18. 
IS. 


Sb^; 






Morriaii. 
Sharpe. 




•• 


•• 


•• . 


89 Sur. 


'L« 






P'Monanua, 
lyOrb. 




•• 


•• 


•• 


88 Sh. 








soheuchaeri- 
anuR, Bote. " 




•• .. 


•• . 




- 


85,86 
Sur. 






BOBC. 


'* ♦ 




• • . 


88 Pi.. 


85.86 
Sur. 


»J,86 
Sur. 








haerianv 


B. 




- 


- 


' 




„ "WwM\ Sharpe 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


Sui, 
85 Pa. 


85 Sur. 







'Bm. 



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TABLES OF FOSSILS — UFPEB CBBTAOEOUS. 



281 



II 






I 

I 



s 



.PUee$. 

Elaamobnnoh Tartebn - 

Gyrodna . - - 

Lamnft (teeth and Ter* 
tebnB). 

OtoduB - 

Ftjohodiu paacisttlcatua, 

„ polygnms. Jfl'. 
Various teetb, Ac 



Mtpmia. 

Ohelonian renuuns 

FlMtremys lata» Owen, - 

Poly]»tyohodon inter- 
raptaa» Owait . 

TttanoMMunis, tp, 

Yaiioiu bones - 



8ur., 
88 Fi. 



85 N. 



86 N. 



86 N.. 
88 Ma. 
iFa. 



18. 



a6 8ur.» 
86 N. 



8 8ur. 



S6 8ur. 
88 8nr. 

IN. 
IN. 



18,84^ 
86Sur. 



18. 



IS. 



IL. 



86 N. 



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282 



GEOLOGY OF TH£ ISLE OF WIGHT. 



TABLE rV.— Eocene ahd Oligogenb. 

One authoriiy for iihe occurreiice of each species is indioftted by the 
letters : — 

E = Edwards, Monograph of the Eocene Molhuca (Paloeontographicdl 

Society). 
r = Fisher, Quart. Jov/m. Qeol 8oc., vol. xviii. p. 66. 1862. 
G = Gardner, Geol Mag. for 1885, p. 241. 
J = Judd, Quart. Jowm. Qeol. 8oc., toI. zzxvi. p. 137. 1880. 
K = Keeping and Tawney, Qtuvrt. Jowm. GeoL 8oc, Tol. xxxTii. 

p. 86. 1881. 
L = Lydekker, Gai. Foes. Mammalia m Brit. Museum 
P = Frestwioh, Qua/rt. Jowm. OeoL 8oc., vol. ii. p. 223. 1846. 
S = Geological Snryey (specimens in the collection, or recorded in 

the 1st edit, of this Memoir), 
W = Wood, Monograph of the Eocene MoUusca {Pal. 8oc.). 
Ww. = Woodward, Qworf. Jowm.- Geol. 8oc., vol. xxxv. p. 342. 1879. 

MS. species are not included. 

As the plants are now being examined by Mr. J. Starlde Gtodner it has 
not been thought advisable to republish the old determinations. 
"Mr. Gardner's account of the flora of the Lower Bagshot Beds of Alum 
Bay will be found at p. 104. 



5 



Foraminifera. 
Alveolina fusiformis, iSk>w. 
„ sabnlosa, MotU. 
Nnmxnalites elesans. Saw. 
„ Isrigatns, Brmg. 

„ vaiiolarius. Lam. 

Opercniina tp. - - 

Quinqueloculixia Hauerioa, 

Rotallmi obflCUTB. Bovt. 

AeHnoKoa. 
Dendrophyllift «p. - • 



LittaaraBa 
Ikme. 



BrookenhuntU, 



Hadrepoia anglio^ Ihme. 
BoleiiaBtFBa oeUuloM* Jhme. 



Torbinolia Bowerbankii, E. 
AH. 



Forbeni, Ihme. 

FroderidaiiaP 
JtE. 



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TABLES OF FOeSUiS — EOCKHnS A17D 0LI60CENE. 



283 



tzd 



TmrUnolia minor, Xoot. 
V saloata. Lam. 

JSehinodermata, 
Bohisaster B'UiImuu, Forbes. 



AfMtiida. 

Bitrapa ixicns»U» Sow. 
» pbmm&HO. - 

Berpulft ooimgAtak /SSow. 

» eztenn, .B^ymmI 

a» tenolf, /SStHO. - 

. Yennicalaria bognorienflis, 
Mont. 

In$ecta. 
{Hemiptera,) 
Trieophon soiiRuiiioleiita, Scop, 
WiDgof?- 

{Orfhoptera.) 

Qryllotalpa . • - 



{NeuropUra,) 

Agrion - - - - 

Hemerobins . . - 
libeUnlft (wings) 

Perla - . . . 

Phryganea - - . 

Termea? - - - - 

(DipUru.) 
Tiptnlida- - - - 
WingsofP 

{LepidopUra.) 
Lithapoyche aiitiqiia» At^Zm* - 
Llihoiia . - . • 



Ww. 
Ww. 



Ww. 
Ww. 



Ww. 
Ww. 
Ww. 
Ww. 
Ww. 
Ww. 



Ww. 
Ww. 



B. 
Ww. 



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284 



OEOLOOr OF THE ISLE OF WIOHT. 



S 



I 
i 



iSymenoptera.) 
Oamponotas 
Formica - - - 

Mjmiica - • • 

Wings of? 



(CoUoptsra,) 
Anobiam - 
Gurculio - 
DoTcus (Luoanidfle) 
Staphylinos 



Arachnida. 



Eoatypua 
McCook, 



Woodwardii, 



Orust€icea. 
(For Owtraeodu, lee 



p. 298). 
Balanos ungailormis, Sow, 



table 



▼ectensis, JST. 



Brachipodites 
Woodw. 



Gallianaaaa Batei•^H: Woodw. 
Eosphnroma fliwiatdlef J7. 



fliwiatdlef 
Woodw. 

SmithU, jr. 
Woodw, 



MithraoiteB veotenaia, Osuld, • 
Pollioipes reflexuif Soto. > 
Xanthopsii Leaohii, Demnareit, 

Polygoa, 
Membranipora Laoroizii, Bu$k, 
Undetermined speoies - 

LamtXUbrcmehiata, 
(ifofiomyario.) 
Anomia tenuistriata, Beth. - 
Avicula media, Bow* - 
Lima^. . - - - 

Ortrea adlata* 8. Wood 



Ww. 
Ww. 
Ww. 
Ww. 



Ww. 
Ww. 
Ww. 
Ww. 



S 
Ww. 



Ww. 
Ww. 



Ww. 



• Bee Proe. ^©ad. N^.Se.PhiiadapMa, 1888, pp. 900-809, and Jnnaiitmd Mag. KaL Eittn 
aer. 6^ vol. IL, 1888| pp. 90v-908. 



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TABUE8 OF FOBSIUB — EOCENE ASV OLieOCBNE. 



285 





^ 


i 


1 


1 


1 


rf 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 
1 




1 


1 




1 


a 


i 


1 


H 


Oitreaoallifeni,Xam. - ... 






• • 




•• 










8 


« domtaf.DM^ . 


.. 


.. 






P 












u lUbellula, Lam. - 


.. 


.. 






B 


.. 


8 








. loDgirutrii, Xam. 


.. 








.. 


.. 


.. 


.. 


.. 


W 


„ YeetmBiB, Forbes 


.. 


.. 






.. 


.. 


? 


.. 


8 




n Telata, TTood ' - 


.. 


.. 






.. 


.. 


8 








n large *p. - 


.. 


s 


















Peotenbellicottatiu, FTooci - 


,. 


.. 






.. 


.. 


K 








» osrinattm, Ahv. • 


.. 


.. 






K 












n oorneus, iSlow. - 


.. 


.. 




p 


P 












,, idonecu. Wood 


.. 


.. 




K 
















.. 


.. 


•• 


.. 


8 


.. 


8 










.. 


.. 




P 














Pinna a£Biiia,iSS9i0. 


.. 


s 


















„ margaritaoea^ Lam. 


•• 


•'• 




P 














(JHmwaria.) 






















Ana appendiculata^ Sow. 


.. 


.. 




K 


8 












» aTioulinaP Deth.^ 


... 


...• 




P. 


P 












„ biangula^ Xam. - 


• •. 


>•. 




.. 




». 


K 








. liBTigata, ait«. - 


... 


.. 




.. 


.. 


.. 


J 








^ "Webiteri, JPor6*« 


••. 


.. 




... 


>.. 


.. 


.. 


.. 


8 




Astarte rngata. 4^010. - 


.. 


s 














• 




Garditftdeitoidea,iStoto. 


.. 


.. 




.. 


.. 


.. 


8 








n obloDga,i9atr. - 


.. 


.. 




K 


K 


.. 


K 








» imucicoB^ta, i9a»d. - 


.. 


.. 


.. 


.. 




.. 


W 








„ planicosta, Lam. 


.. 


.. 




8 














„ rimplex, TTood- 


.. 


.. 




.. 


.. 


.. 


8 








„ sulcata. Brand. 


.. 


.. 




8 


8 












Cardinm pbrulosum, J^rand, • 




.. 




P 


8 


.• 


K 








„ semiKranulatum, Sow. 




s 




.. 


8 


• * 


8 








„ turgldura. Brand. - 


.. 


.. 




.. 


8 












„ 8p. - 


.. 


.. 




.. 


.. 


• • 


.. 


,, 


.. 


K 


Cbama gigantea, Xotc^ry 


.. 


.. 




P 














„ Miuamosa, Bmnd. 


.. 


.. 




.. 


K 












Corbula cuspidata. Sow. 


.. 


.. 




S 


.. 


.. 


8 








M ficuBt Brand. • 


.. 


.. 




.. 


8 












M gallica ? Xom. - 


•• 


•• 




8 















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286 



OEOIiOOT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 





1 


f 


i 


i 


1 


» 


m 


j 


1 
1 


i 


Corbiil»nitida,i8fofc. - 

„ piguxD,5oto. - 

„ revoluta» Sow, (= eo9' 
tata), 

„ rogosa, Xam. - 

Cra9Wt6llaoompressa,Xa«ii. - 
„ Sowerbii, Bdw. - 
„ subquadmta, Bdw. 
„ snloata. Brand. - 
„ tenuisulcatak JBdw, 

CyclM BristoTii, Forbet 

«p. - 
CyprinaNy8ti,JW6. - 
„ planata* Sow, - 
qyrena wrenaria* Forbea 

„ cydadiformiB, D0<A. - 
„ dep«rdita,X«». 
., gibbosula, Morria - 
„ ohoraXAf Sow. - 
„ obtoaa, Forbet 

„ somistriato. Deth, 
„ transrersa, Forbet - 

„ incnsaatOtDM^ 
,. ludda, /Stw. - 
„ Lyellii,J'or6« 
„ obUqua* DbbK 
„ Solandrl. Sow, 
M suberycinoideB, Deth, 
„ suessoneiLBiB, De$h, - 
» tenui8triata» Sow, - 
„ tmnsreraak Sow, 
^ tellinaria, Lam, 
Diplodonta«p. - 
„ *p. - 


• • 

• • 

•• 
.. 

.. 


•• 
8 




•• 
F 

F 

8 

F 
W 
W 

8 


•• 
8 
8 

• • 

8 
F 

F 

•• 

• • 

8 
S 

8 

• • 
K 
8 
8 

• • 


•• 
•• 

•• 
•• 

•• 


8 
8 

•• 

•• 
K 

K 

8 
8 

8 
8 
8 

•• 
8 

8 

K 
K 

C 


•• 
• • 

8 

•• 


8 

•• 

•• 

8 
8 
8 

8 
8 

8 

•• 


B 
8 

8 

8 

8 



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TABLES OF FOSSILS— EOCEKE AlTD OLIOOCENE. 



287 



DNteeD* Bnrdtt, JStHvot 
Leda Tninlmis Sow, 

n partimrtriatab Wood . 

„ propinqua. Wood 
Leda«p. ... 
Lepton «p. - - 

Limoptis loalari^ Soic, - 
lithodomus «p. - 
Ladna concava, D^/y*. - 

» gibboiula. Lam. 

w inflatab Xoirry - 

„ Thierend, SSb, - 

M 4 speflftea - 

t$ sp* • - 

Mactra futigatab Lowry 

»' 9p, • 

Hodiola ? oonflobrina, TToocf 
» elegana, 6Bofo. - 
» flabellala, Wood 
„ NystU, JTttfA^r. 
M Preatwiohii, Morris 
n rimplex. Sow. 
]C7a?aiigUBtata»/8ow. - 

„ (see also Panopna). 
Hytilm afflnis. Sow, 
Ne»ra ooehlearella. Deah, 
Nucnk amygdaloides. Sow. 
„ bisuloata, Sow. - 
„ deltoidoa (see Trigonoocelia) . 
» Bizoni, JSdtr. • 
M Headonenais, Jbr6«9 • 
„ lina. Wood 
n nudata, Wood - 
„ mmiiiB,Sow. - 
^ sphenoides, J^ir. 
n sttbtransrena? Npat. • 
Panopmt oomigata, Sow. 
» intermedia* Sow. 



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288 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



Fftiiopttft minor, Corbet. 

Peotunoulns brevirostris. Sow. 
n deletofl. Brand, - 

n palyinatoB, Xai». 

Pholadomya maigaritacea. Bow, 

Potamoxnya gregaria. Bow, 
„ plana, Sow. 

Protocardiuxn «2>. - - 
w (see also Oardiiun). 

Pgamxnobla compressa, i9oir. • 



rudig. Lam, 
i-goUda). 



Sangainolaria Hollowaysii, Bow. 
Scintilla «p. 
Solon afflnlB, Bow, 

„ obliquua. Bow, - 
Strigilla piilc1iella» Ag, - 
Sydoflmya^p. • 
Tellina ambignap Bow, - 
„ filosa ?, i9oio. - 
„ Nystii?.2>MA. . 
,, plagia, le^ciio. - 
„ tumetcens P, JBdw. 
„ 8 ■pedes 
Teredo fp. - - - 

Trigonoooelia deltoidea, Leun, • 
TTnio Au8tenii> jPor&M • 
„ Gibbsii, Jbr&dt - 
„ Solandri, /S<oto. - 



Seaphopoda, 
Dentalium striatum. Sow. 
ap. - 



Gasteropoda. 
Achatina costellata, Bow. 
Actnon dactylinus, Deah. 
M limDeeiformis, Bandb. 



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TABLES OF FOSSILa — ^EOCENB Ain> OUOOCENE. 



289 



Aoteon riimilafaiTn, 8ow» 
Andllarift baodnoides, XoM. - 
» OMudif era» iMm, - 
Ancjlus? latiu» Bdw, 

AponhAia Sowerl^i, MamL - 

•f *P- - 

Bononia niloata, Bdw, 

a* «p* - - - 

Biioofniixn Andrei, DmA. 

» deBertum, ^roiMi. - 

M (PiMnia) labiatom. 
Sow, 

H It laTatoiDi 

Sow, 



BnUmiu oonreziu, Bdw, 

„ elliptiolu. Sow. 

ft heterostomiu, JBcitf. - 

n Inmlongaa, BomMe - 

M veotensiB, JEdw. 

Bnlla atteniiata^ iSToto. - 

„ Bawerbyi, NifH. - 

» niiiplicata» Ahp. - 

n ?«p. - • - 

Ononin tpm ■ • - 
Oalyptnea obliqiia» iffoco. ' • 
„ trochiformi4» Xam. - 
Oanoellaria dongata, xytt - 
„ eTul8a» Brand. « 
» laemvMsalM, Sow. - 
,» miorot(oma» JSroNd. 
„ quadraia^ Sow. 
O^oluB squamiformis, Deah, 
OMwidaria ai&bigna» Brtmd. 
„ ooroiuita* I>Mft» 
„ iiod08a» Bramd. 
„ BtriatBh Sow., 
Oeritbium Austenii, Morris 
„ oonoaTiun, Sow. 

B 56786. 



K 



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290 



GBOLOGT OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



I 



Oerithiuxn contigaum 7, Beth. 

„ duplex, iffoir. •• - 

„ elegans, Desh, 

„ filoBum, CharUmo,' 

„ inomstum, Morris 

M muitispiratum, 2>mA. 

„ * matabile. Lam. 

„ plicatum. Lam. 

„ pseudo-cinotum, 
D'Orb. 

„ Sedffwickii, Morri» 

„ trucaoAiom, Morris 

„ troohiforme. Desk. • 

„ variabilOt Desk. 

„ ventricosum, Sow. - 

ClAusilla Btriatula, Sdw. 

OUtneUa (Me Fusiu). 

Cominella flexoosa, Lowry - 
„ Solandri, Edw. 



Ckmus (Ck>norbis) dormitor. 
Brand, 

„ procerua, 
Beifr. 



BcabricukiB, 
Sow. 

ElizabeliluB. 



Onflpedopoma 



Cumfe Gharlesworthii, JSdw.. . 
Qyolostoma mnmiak Lam, 
CydotuB cinotm, Bdw. - 

w nudvoitSdw, • 
Cylicbna 9p. 
Cypnea ixiflata» Lam. - 

„ platyttoma, JBdw. 
Eulixnatp. 
Faaoio]Bi*iA funiomloia, l>0th. 

FosQi armatiu. Sow. - 
» ctdialioiilalui. Sow, 
„ cfuriDeQA, Sow. - 



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TABLES OF FOSSILS — EOOBNE AND OLIOOCENE. 



291 



I 



I 



FuBiifl Edwasrdsii, Morri* 
„ (Chiysqdomus) emuos, 

„ Porbesii, Morris 
H interruptus. Sow, 



{=F. 



» (CUveUa) longnvua. 
Brand, 

„ minaz. Brand, - 

,9 porrecttui. Brand, . . - 

„ pjrufl, Brand, 
bitUnu). 

„ (ChiyBodomnB) reflrularii. 
Sow, 

„ turgidos, Brand, 

„ unicarinatusy Desk, . - 

Helix lyDrbani. Eduu • 

„ globo8a»^fo. 

„ headonensia, Bdw, 

„ labyrinthica. Sap, 

„ Morrisii, Edw, • ' • 

M ooolusa, J^to. 

„ omphalufl. Edw. - 

„ 8ablabyrintliica» Bdw^ • 

M ttGfMen^ JBdw, • ' - 

„ Toctensis, ig(k0. - 

Hydrobia anoeps, Lowry 

„ conica (= Chasteli 
Tar.). 

„ ChaBteli,JVy«< 

„ Dnparnaudi, Linn. 

» ?polita,JEMio. 



8 



TiiniTtf**^ angmta, Edw. 

„ arenulariak Brand. - 

^ caudata» Edw. 

M dnota, J?d«9. - 

„ eoliimeUaru, iS^w. - 

M oonvexa, JBtftf. 

„ ooit6Uata».S(iw. 



T 2 



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292 



OBOLOOT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Tiimnoa iabnla, Brong^ 

w foaifonni^ Sow, 

„ gibboaulat Bdw. 

n longisoata, Bmo, 

n minima) Sow, - 

M mixta, Bdu), - 

M OTun ?. Bnmg. 

n pyramidalifl, !>«•&. 

„ recta, JStffo. « 

M Bublata, .Stfcff. - 

» iubquadnta> .Beko. 



H tenuia, Riw. • 

H tumida, Bdw. - 

» •?• - • 

Marginella aMtnarina, JScko. - 

M bifldo-plioafca» 
CharUww, 

» pusilla, Bdiw, 

„ aimplez, Bdw. 

„ Tittata,.&^fto. 

Helania ftMOiata, /SSow. - 

a Forbesit MorrU 

n inflata^ MorrU 

V minima. 8ov>, • 

» muricata, Wood 

M peracnminatak 
Charl€9w, 

u turritiflsimak IVn^M - 

HelanopsiB brevis. Sow, 

„ oarinata, Sow. 

„ fuaifomiia, Soto. * 

„ siiboariiiata, JTorHa 

M mbfiifllfonnia, 
Morris. 

„ subulata, Sow. 

Metula jnnoea, Sow. • 

Mitra labratula» Xam. - 

„ paira, Sow. 



B 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 



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TABLES OF FOSSILS — EOGBKB Aim OLIOOGENE. 



lOtra porreete. .Sdw. - 
J. *p.-- 

Murez aaper, Brander - 
i» in>rb§iii (see Fusns). 
» hantonensiil Zowry 
y minax, JBirafKi. - 
w lezdentatiu. Sow, 

m 9P, - - 

Natioa ambnlaonun. Sow, 

» depie8fla,i8iH0. - 

w epiglottiiuw Lam, 

„ hantonieniiiB, /Siho. 

» labeUAta^Xom. • 

„ mutabUis, ^nmd. (» 
ac«to). 

,» iigaretixia,i89tr.- 

» Studeri, Bronm, - 

Nematun parmlak JMh, 

„ pupa,2V|f«e. - 

» «>. - 
Nerlta aperta» <S(H0. - 
Neritina oonoaTa* Sow, 

„ plaiiulata» .fitfw. 

M tristia, for&M 

„ Konula, Wood 

Odoatomia 6 apeoies - 

Oliva Branderi, Sow, - 

Orthoatoma ^. . - • 

Ttittdina anguloaa^ Sow. (•= 
orbieulariM), 

M leatt,Sow. • 

,1 minuta, Sow.i^ gkh 
buloides), 

Phonu agglutinana, Xom. 

» jp. - - - 

Pi^ania (see Puras). 

Flaaorbia biangoUtua. JBdu;. - 
„ discus, JSdw, 
» elegans* .Bdie. 



K 
K 

S 
K 

6 
8 
S 
S 
8 

J 

B 



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294 



GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



I 



HuLorblB euofmphatiu, Mom. - 

„ . lenB, Bronff. * 

„ obttisuj} Sofc. 

„ QUgyratuA, EdiB. 

n platjitoma^ Wood * 

« potuiidatus* Brard. 

,t Bowcrbji, Br onff- ' 

„ fttteniuta. Sow. • 

„ ocnnnut, S^w. 

t, GODoides, Brand* > 

„ omBsii, £'!f«t?. * 

p, curta, £dm. 

^ denticuLi, Bdf^. - 

„ FMieri, Sdu>. " 

„ ETB^ulatA, Lam. - 

„ headonensift, .Eif«f, 

„ inlleim. Lam. 

toQCColatat Edw: - 
iDM;ilenta, Brand, 
ft miitat Edw. 

f, plicatn, Lttm. 
„ prmk, BrAnd. 

rofftmtii. Brand. - 
^, KiiU&ratA, Edto. - 
^ B^lfBii, 2^ Kan. ■ 
tt tmbdpnticulaU, 

ntntit). 
„ trwuvorsa™, Lt^m. 
„ turbidfl. ^raiidL 
H tumidulo, Mdw. 

„ lonulata, Edut. 
Potamid0t (sro C«rttbium|. 



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TABLES OF FOSSILS — ^EOCENE AND OUGOGENE. 



295 



Pwadoliva obtnia, Sow. 
H ovalifl, Sow, 
Pupa oryttk Sdw, 

perdeniaU, Sdw. 
PymmideUA (Turbonills) tp. 
PjnJitL DfliOiB, Lam. - 
„ trirMtataP, DeBh. 
Biwoina ooohlearellAk Lowrg 
BofteUaria ampla, Brand. 
„ rimosa, Brand, 
n snblucida, jyOrb, 
Scalana aoata ?, Sow. • 
„ inteiTupta* 5010. 
H l0YiB» Morris 
„ retioalata, Brand, 
t, nndom. Sow, - 

Snooiiiea Bdwardsi, Forbst 
„ impenpicna. Wood 
» spamaceiuis f , Dnh. 
Teinof toma, 2 «p. 
Tarebenum sopitum, Uroiul. - 
TomaUUa (lee Actteon) . 
Triton arxntiu, Sow. - 
TnrixmiUa, 5tp. 
Tmritella gnnulosa, l>Uh. 
M imbrioataria» Lam, • 
« Bulcata, Lam. 
M rolcirera, Deih, - 
M terebellata. Lam, • 
^^hia fliliiilosiu; Sow. - 

» pnngens, Braiul.' 
Ficarya (tee Cerithinm). 
Yolnta ambigna, Brand. 
» afehleta. Brand. 
M depauperata, iS^oto. 
» digitflina^Xam. 
» ffeminata, i99io. 



1 



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2d6 



QEOLOGT OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



Yoluta humeroaa, Bdw, 
n luctetrix. Brand. 
„ magm JBtlcp. 

M Bathieri, H6b. (a 
JbrftMii). 

M scaJaris, iSbw. • 

H selaeienfliBy JRft^. 

M fiolandri, Sdw, - 

•» ipinoaaiZtiMi.- 

n nitunUs, A^«^. 

VolTariik acutiaflca]a» iSow, 



Olupea vectensis. Newt. 
Lamiia aoutissinuik ^. - 

w comiir«nB?, Jlgpi 

,, eoBtortidsiifl, J^. 

,, dabia»4^. 

» elegana,^. 

„ Hopd, Ag. 

H verticalls,^. • 
LepidoBteoa «p. - 
IKyUobatisfp. - 
Otodua Obliqnua, Ag, - 

MeptiUa, 
DiplooTnodon (Crocodiliu) sp. 
Binya «p. - 

Ophia^p.- • . . 

Paleryxi^ph - • • 
Triooyz iDoraawtoB, Owe» - 



AV€9. 



Ptenomiaap. 
Bird phalanx 



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TABI.es of fossils — ^EOGEm: AND OUaOOENE. 



297 



Mammalia, 
Aoothemlnm aatnniinam. 



AnchilophiisDesmarMti, Oerv. 

Anoplotheriom oommiine, Ouv, 

„ minuB, FUhol - 

M secundarium, 

Cfitv. 

Anthraootherinm aJmtiouiD, 
Cuv. 

„ Gresslyl, H. 

wm Meyer, 

„ minus, Ow). 

gypsomiD, 



ClUBiopotamas 
Detmar, 



Ooiyphodon «p. - 

Daerytherium oyinum, Owen 

JHehobtme cervinum (see Diohodon). 

Dichodon cervinus, Owen 

„ cuspidatus, Owen - 

Elofherium mai^uni, PofMl - 

HysDnodon minor, Oerv. 

Hyopotamua borinna, Owen - 

„ poroinufl^ Qerv. - 

„ veetianut, Owen 

(seeboYinuBuid 
velaunus). 

„ velannas, Cuv. - 

Lophiodon ep- (s^ Coiyphodon) 

FalsBotheriam anneotans, Owen 

„ cramun, Ouv. - 

fourtum«CW. - 

magnam, Onv. 

„ medium* Owt, - 

„ miuns, Cuv, 

Pterodon dasynroides, Blainv, 

Theridomys aquatOis, Afmard 

Xiphodon gracilis, Ctw. 



L 
L 



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298 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



TABLE v., by Peof. T. B. Jones, F.R.S. 
Fossil Osiracoda of the Isle of Wight. 

Those marked thus are known to have been found in the 'Island ; 
those marked X occur also at localities not in the Island. 



^4 

»1 



Cypris gibba, Bamdohr. 

„ oornigera» Jone§ 

Potftmocypria Brodiei, Jones 
db Sherbom • 

Candona Forbesii, Jbnet 
„ Mantelli, «7b«M 

Cypridea Taldenais {Sow.) 

t, spinigera {Sow,) 

n Anateni, Jone$ 

H Dunkeri, Jon«9 

„ tubercolata* Sow, 

? Pontooypris, sp. 

Darwinnla leguminella 
{Forbe») , - 

Csrprione BrietoTii, Jonet 

Hetacypris Pittoni {Mant.) 

P „ unisulcata, Jonet 



Cythere 



fftriatopunctata, 
Jonet - 



w Wetherellil, Johm 

,. Boaquetiana^ J. AS. 

n delfrata, J. dt S. 

M plicafim Muneter 

a tranaeima^ J. db S. 

Forbeaii, J. db S. 

Qythereb ooifugata (Smu$. 
var. 

M Preatwichiana, 
J.dbS. - 

H Bowerbankiana. 
J.dbS. . 

„ oornnta {Boenur) 

CytherideaMuelleridfuM^) 

« rar.toTOw, 
Jones " 

„ montosa, J.dbS.* 



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.TABLES OF FOSSILS — 08TBAGODA. 



299 



1^ 



QytheridMdebilii, Jomm 

I. perfonta {Bo&mer) 

X6tt6Ieberii oolwelleniif, 
J. A a. ' 

m aunntia {Baird), 
▼ar. - 



Ffeendooytberd 



Bristoyii, 



Qytherideifl 



Qytherella 



attenuata, 
Jones 

ooIweUenais, 
Jonet 

9p. - 

gracilis (Mamst,) 

Muansteri 
{jBoemer)' 



8p. - 



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300 



OBOCOOT OF THfl JSLE OF WIOHT. 








Pi 




s^ 




Eh 


>< 


Q 


Q 


Z 


as 


<1 


u 




PL4 


59 


-J 





O 



§ 



6 



l«»OJi 



'^uoimxuQj 



'Xmodmox 



•ouLioiito 






poaiqmoo p^ox 






■vpionrnxy 



'uoSomx offRSjio 



■noqiio onnSio 









m9j, 



I ^ 5 



i 



Its- i 

QQ 






11 



i ' 
s. 

1 ' 



s & 



S3 SS 5J 



a s 



s s 



s 9 



^ e 



g oS § 3 

O IH 1-4 fH 



s § S § 



o o o 



§ § 



§ I i § 



i § I § 



g S S 9 

is s ^ s 



s s 



S S S S 



12 03 



I I i I 

^-1 ^^ lg ?:& 



&=! -Ss ^^ ^i . I •* s -gf S 



5 o.. 



I 






III 3 
si- 



I ^ 



1 



QQ ► 



§ s 



II I 



§ I § i 



s § s 



i § 



§ § i i 



8 S 
S 8 



I I 



O QD 



!|| 



S 

I 



I 

§ 

f 

I 
t 



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W£LL SECnONH. 



301 



Bbmbripob. At the Bembridge Hotel. 
R. F. Grantham. TVonf. Surveyon^ hut,, toL zz., pt. ▼., p. 144, plate. 
0888.) 
231 feet above Ordnance Datum. 
Shaft 70 feet, the rest bored. 
Water-level 24| feet down. Yield 2,200 gallona in 12 honn. 

Tbicknbss. Depth. 



Brown and blue clay [no details] 

Clay 

Stone 

Mixture of sand - 
[Bembridge Light [-coloured] sand 
and Osborne^ Stone 
Series.] ] Dead grey sand - 

Coloured [mottled] clay 

Stone 

Blue clay with shells 

Blue clay with sand 

Rock 

Green sand 

Clay and stone • 

Green sand 

Sandstone 

Green sand 

White marl 

Green sand with clay 

Purple clay 

Clay and shells - 
[Headon J Green clay 
Beds.] ] Small shells 

Dark green clay - 

Light [-coloured] sand 

Hud rock 

Sand 

Brown clay 

Hard rock 

Black clay and shells 

Mixture of sand - 

Light [-coloured] sand 

^Rock 

Hie Bembridge Limestone was probablv reached at about 35 feet, but no 
record has been kept of the beds passed through in the shaft. 

Carisbrook. Newport Waterworks. Height above Ordnance Datum 

about 58 feet. 

From information obtained by Mr. Whitaker on the spot. 

Shaft 25 feet, bore of 20 inches diameter, 30 feet. Water pumped 
down 10 feet, but soon rises (to the surface) on cessation of pumping. 
Supply abuncUint. Chalk. 

Frbshwatbr, Golden Hill Fort. For H.M. Government. 
(Communicated by Mbssrs. Docwra.) 



Frbt. 


Febt. 


70 


70 


5 


75 


2 


77 


12 


89 


4 


93 


24 


95i 


4i 


100 


36 


136 


} 


137 


10 


147 


3 


150 


24 - 


152} 


34 


156 


^i 


161} 


1 


162i 


2} 


165 


1 ■ 


165} 


3} 


169 


6 


176 


23 


198 


22 


220 


3 


223 


7 


230 


6 


236 


6 


242 


2f 


244f 


2i 


247 


2i 


24.9} 


3 


252} 


4 


256} 


2J 


259 


4 


263 


1 


264 



Light red day 

„ coloured clay 
Dark red day 
Yellow clay 
Red clay and shdls 
Light stone 



Feet. 



VAU thin beds 



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302 



GEOLOOY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



[Osborne 
Beds? 
74 feet.] 



[Headon 
Beds, 

m feet.] 



light loam 
Brown claj 
Light loam 

„ blue clay 
Brown loam 

Light blue clay and shells 
Blue mottled clay - 
Rock and shells 
Shells 

Black sand and shells 
Light red clay 
Dark blue clay 
Light blue clay 

„ red xjlay 

„ blue day 
Red mottled day - 
Brown clay and shells 
Light rock - 

», loam 

„ blue clay and sheila 
Blue clay - 

„ mottled day (dark) 
Light loam 
Shdls . - 
Blue clay and shells 
Rock and shells • 
Blue clay and shells 
Shelly stone 
Light clay - 
Mottled loam 
Green loam 
Brown loam 
Stone 

Green loam 
Sand rock - 
Mottled loam 
Dark sand- 
Btown sand and day 

.„ clay and sand 

.„ sand 
Bhie clay and sand 
Dark sand - 
Blue loam - 
Black sand 
Dark sand - 
Stone 

Blue clay - 
Black sand 

„ sand 

„ sand and shdls 
Blue day - 
Black sand 
Sand 

Blue clay - 
Yellow mottled clay 
(Bed, not named) - 
Black clay - 
Limestone - 
Light green day - 
Dark green clay 



Fbbt. 



>• Thicker beds • 44 



>> Thin beds 



Thick beds 



24 



> Moderately thick 50 



>. Thinner beds • 24 



.Thin beds 



Total 



34 



173i 



Total depth, 173i feet. 

Water levd 95 feet down. 

94 feet to bottom of shaft, the rest ii bored. 



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WELL SECTIONS. 



303 



Havbn Strbbt. 6 chains north-west of the Chiirch. 
From specimens and notes communicated by Mr. Townend. 
Old well 30 feet, then bored to 378 feet. 
No water obtained. 



Hamstead Beds f Sand 1 .^ n ^ ^ 

andBembridgeJ Cky ^^^ ^^"""^ «^'^ 



Marls. 

Bembridge 

Limestone. 



Feet. 

/ about 20 
X about 10 
at 130 to 208 



Osborne Beds 

and 
Headon Beds, 



L Shelly blue slipper - - . 

f Hard earthy limestone with lAmmBa - at 206 to 210 

^Blue and black slipper - - - to 230 

Sand(P) at 249 

Blue shelly slipper - - - - at 264 

Mottled yellow and white marl - - at 278 

Stiff red clay - - - - 280 to 286 

Shaly slipper - - - • 290 to 320 

Yellow and green slipper - - - at 330 

Reddish slipper - - - - at 343 

. Reddish marl - - - - at 350 

Greenish slipper and clay - - - at 367 

Rock, light blue - - - - at 366 

Hard green sandy marl - - - at 368 

'LSpongy fine-grained grit - - - at 378 

Owing to the destruction of the fossils it is impossible to fix the limits of 
the different beds in this boring. The " sand " in the old well is the bed 
at the base of the Middle Hamstead Beds. The ** limnsean limestone " is 
apparently the Bembridge Limestone. The boundary between the Osborne 
and Headon beds is quite uncertain. 



■] 



Haven Street. Longford House. 
From specimens communicated by Mr. Townend. 

Old well 100 feet (no record), the rest a 10-inch bore (on Parson's system). 

At first yielded over 22,000 gals, a dav, the water rising 12 feet above the 
ffround. In July 1887 the water rose 9 feet above the around after seve«d 
hours pumping. In October 1887 the supply had fydlen off greatly, the 
water not nsing above the surface and being greatly lowered by pumping. 
The water is unpalatable and ferruginous. Temperature Sff*. 



Thickness. 



Hamstead 

Beds 
(perhaps 
40 feet). 

Bembridge 

Marls 

(about 120 feet). 

Bembridge 
Limestone. 



Old Well (no record) 

Shelly blue and green clay 

Whitish marl 

Green clay 
•^ White granular marl 

Shelly blue clay - 

Hard and soft whitish marl 

Black and green clay 
^Bluish white very shelly marl 
^Grit and rotten stone, with much 

water - . - 

. Rock, very hard - 




10 
2 2 



Analysis of sample of water taken 13th August 1887. 



Depth. 



Ft. 


In 


100 





142 





147 





149 





150 





156 


6 


160 





161 


6 


164 





164 10 


167 






Total Solids 

Chlorine ... 

Free Ammonia ... 
Albuminoid Ammonia - 
Nitrogen as Nitrates and Nitrites 



25-0 


Grains per Gallon 


2-5 


>» t> »« 


•063 


9f ff ff 


•0014 


f> ff f% 


•03228 


»> » M 




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304 



OEOLOGY. OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Knighton. South-east part of the Pumping Station of the Rjde Corpora- 
tion Waterworks, about 130 yards south of Knighton Mill. 1885. About 
46 feet above Ordnance Datum. 

From information and specimens communicated bj Mr. F. Nbwman, 
Borough Engineer^ to Mr. Whitaker. 

Shaft 15 feet, the rest bored. Water at 53 feet, rose above the surface, but 
the tubes soon filled with sand. Water was again met with at 66 feet, and from 
this downward the sand was all wet. The greatest quantity was at 53 feet. 

Dbpth 
OF Spbcz- 

MBN8 

IN FeBT. 

9 
10 

11 



[Alluvial 
Beds, about 
12i feet.] 



[Carstone. 
Base 
uncertain, 
about 40 feet.] 



!{ 



[Sandrock 

Series, 

about 57 feet +] 



Dark-grej (blackish) sand, with plant-remains 
Grey and brown dir^ sand ... 
Dry. Pieces of chalk, a little 'grey clay and 

pieces of flint . . . - 

Moist. Grev and brownish sand^ dav, with 

green sand, plant-remains and bits oi flint - 
'"Brown gritty sand - . . • 

Dry. Brownish grey firm clayey sand 
Moist. Brownish grey firm clayey sand. 

This and the above with small pieces of a 

more clayey character • • • 

Moist. Brownish grey clayey sand - 

Brown clayey sand, with quartz grains and 
•^ small pebbles ; only slignt difierences in 
the specimens . » . 

Brown and grey clayey sand, like the above 
but finer, partly hard, with a trace of plant- 
remains ..... 

Described as stony and with water at great 
pressure. Specimen brown firm clayey sand 
with quartz grains . - . . 

'Dry. Grey and greenish-grey firm clayey 
sand . - . - - 

Described as moist Greensand, as also are the 
beds below. Specimen grey and blackish 
firm clayey sana .... 

Grey firm clayey sand, with quartz grains and 
pebbles - - . - - 

Greenish sand - - ' - 

Green clayey sand .... 

Pine grey sand .... 

Loose light-grey fine sand ... 

Fine grey sand . . . - 



12 

124 

22 



40 
44 
45 
46 
49 
50 



51 



53 
56 



66 

74 
78 
82 
91 
101 
110 



Knighton. Ryde Waterworks. Just north of the Engine House, 1885. 
About 45 i feet above Ordnance Datum. 

Communicated by Mr. F. Newman, Borough Engineer, to Mr. Whitaker. 

Gault, to Lower Greensand, with water, 46 feet. 

The boring at the Mill, of which a note follows this, is 185 feet to the north. 
The difEerence of level of the bottom of the Gault in the two borings shows a 
northerlv dip of between 16^ and 17^ supposing that the inclination is uniform : 
it probably mcreases northwards. 

Kniohton. Ryde Waterworks. Boring in the Mill, 1885. Floor of Mill 
48 feet above Ordnance Datum. 

Communicated by Mr. F. Newman, Borough Engineer, to Mr. Whitaker. 

€rault, mixed with sand at 101 feet below the floor of the Mill. At 
120^ feet a specimen of daycnr sand, with clay and small pebbles [7 junction of 
Gault and Lower Greensand]. 



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WELL SECTIONS. 



805 



Water flowed up from the bottom, and, at the surface, seemed to hare some 
head. 



Nbwport. Messrs. Mew & Co/s Brewery. 

gf'rom information and samples communicated by Abthub Kindbb, Esq.) 
urfSace 12 feet above O.D. Well sunk 138 feet; boring carried to 
460 feet. Temperature of the water 61 ' 5°. 

Thickness. Dbpth. 



Hamstead 

and 
Bembridge 

Beds. 
Bembridge 
limestone. 



} 

1 



Osborne Beds. 
107 feet. 



.U] 



deadbn Beds <{ 
82} feet. 



Middle 
Headon 

Beds 
106} feet. 



B 56786. 



Clay, with thin rock at 26 feet 
and 90 feet (no samples pr^ 
served) - . - . 

Limestone - . . 

Mottled ckys ... 

Shell limestone and green marl 
full of Oyrena at about 180 feet. 
Platy shale full of Ostracoda at 
about 180 feet Ourena obovaia 
in green clay at about 200 feet 
[samples are not marked with 
the depths] - . . 

Mottled clays. Oyrena at 245 feet 

Lead-coloured shellv clays 

Mottled green^ red, and yellow 
days . - - - 

Greenish sand ... 

Mottled dark-red and green clays 

Mottled green, red, and yellow 
clays .... 

Limestone ... 

Green day . . . 

Lunestone. Lignite at 313 feet. 

Turtle bone at 313 feet - 
^Pale green, red, and yellow clays - 

Brown and green clays 

Whitish marl and green soapy day 

Darker green marl 

White marl, with indeterminable 
shells and fish bones 

Lead coloured clay and shell marl 

Green day . _ - 

Lead coloured clay with Cyrena • 

White chert [Fragments marked 
366 feet] 

Greenish marl full of Cyrena 

Pale green marl ... 

Green marl. Potamomya, Oyrena, 
Serpula - - . - 

Dark-green and yellow marl. 
Melania muricata 

White shdl-marl with indetermin- 
able bivalves and fish bones 

White marl and dark-green day. 
Potamomya ... 

Green clay and ironstone nodule • 

Lead-coloured shdly marl 

Dark-green sheUy marl full of 
Oyrena - - - - 

Limestone or hard marl, full of 
indeterminable shell fragments - 

Hard shell bed (pyrites) - 



Feet. 

148 
4 



20 
69 

8 



1 
6 

9 
4 
4 

3 

26} 
2J 
3 
1 

2 
4 
i 

14 



3 
24 

54 

3 

6 

3 



Feet. 



148 

162 
180 



200 
25^ 
267 

28^ 
290 
295 

304 
308 
312 

315 

341} 

344 

347 

348 

350 
354 
354i 
356 



359 
3614 

367 

370 

376 

378 
379 
380 

381 

388 
389 



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306 



GEOLOGT OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



THicKras. Dbpth« 



Hard flaggy sandstone with nodule 
Black sanoj clay with shells 
Dark-green shelly clay with iron- 
stone nodules. Cyrena obovata, 
Paludina, Melania, Flanorbis, 
Bakmus, and Serptda at 409 feet 
Lead-ooloured sheUy clays. Cyth' 
erea incrassata, Melania P NoHca, 
and Balanut ... 
Ghreenish and lead-ooloured clay - 
Green sandy clay. Gythcrea fit- 
crassata, Gyrena, Natica at 420 
feet - . - - 

G-reen sand and sandy clay. Water 
at 448 feet 



Depth. 

1 

13 



10 

1 



28 
13 



Febt. 
390 
403 



409 



419 
420 



448 
461 



Newport. At the Steam Mills in Pyle Street. 
Communicated by Mr. Taylor. 



Clay, dry - 
Clay, bored 
Soft marly rock 



Ft. 


In. 


70 





76 





4 


6 



149 6 



Newport. At the corner of South Street and Archer Street. 
Communicated by Mr. Lock. . 

To rock 



Febt. 
146 



Newport. At the Round pump. 
Communicated by Mr. Lock. 



'Clay to rock 



Feet. 
140 



Newport. Anchor Brewery, 3 wells. 

Communicated by Mr. Lock. 

Ft. In. 

To rook 150 

Rock - -76 



Newport. West Medina Cement Works. 
Sunk and conmiunicated by Mr. Parsons. 

Thickness. 



Feet. 

Hamstead fClaywiihSbedsof shalyrock f old |163 
-«?nl!«^rii«- I Stone, with water - - L well J 5 

*"^^^"**«^^ Black and grf«n clays - • - 12* 



173 feet. 

Bembridge 

Limestone 

6 feet. 



Yellow and white marl 
Limestone and marl 

. Limestone 



1 



Depth. 

Feet. 

1&3 

158 

1701 

172 

173 

179 



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WELL SEGTIOKS^ 



807 



THICKJnUS. DSFTH. 



Osborne 

iBeds 

113 feet. 



'Green and carbonaceous clays 
Mottled red, ^reen and yellow days 
Hard fine-grained grit (ooncretionP) 
White and green clays 
G-reen and red days 
Mottled green, yellow and carbon 

aoeoas clays 
Black day 
Mottled days — green, black, yellow^ 

and brown 
Hard green day with Paludma 
Green dayey sand 
Limestone 
Sand 
Rock 

Green clay 

Red clay .w - • 

Red and green clay 
Green clay 
Sand rock 
Light-green clay - 
Blue cby - - - 

Rock 1 foot 4 inches (sandy 

limestone) 
Blue clay 
Hard detrital limestone 3 feet 

4 inches 
"Light-green day - 
Limestone 

Light-green sandy clay - 
Lime8tone'*2 feet 5 inches ' 
Dark green day - 
Black peaty substance 
Green clay 
Limestone 
I Red, green and mottled clays 
^ Green day and i-inch concre- 
tionary limestone 
Dark green clay - 
Dark blue clay 
Black clay full of shells - 
Light-coloured very fine loam 
Dark green shelly clay 
Dark-coloured shelly days 
Whitish days 
Very dark shelly days, black at 

the base 
Green^clays 
Black clays full of shells, Cyrena 

chovata, Potamomya gregaria, 

lAmnma, Fish-bones 
Dark-green day • 
Black shelly clay - 
Sandy clay, yery shelly - 

Do. do. with water, 

2,500 gals, per hour 
Middle Headon J Dark sandy day - 
■D^j- "S Deep black clay - 

Dark-green sandy clay, with 

rena obovata, C, deperdita, jne- 

lania nmrieata, Buecinum 



Upper Headon 
^ Beds 

L 64ifeet. 



Beds. 



FSST. 

8 
26 



17 
6 



26 

i 

U 

li 

i 

3 

U 
4J 
4 

i 

u 

2 

1 



i 
U 
2J 

1 

U 

^ 

2 
21 



6i 
1 

i 
3 

2J 

lU 
. 2i 



6i 

8 

i 
13i 



F£BT. 

187 
213 
213 
215 
216 

233 
239 

265 

265} 

267 

268} 

269 

272 

273} 

278 

282 

282} 

284 

286 

287 



292 



292} 

294 

296} 

299 

300 

301} 

306 

308 

329 

331 
331f 

338 

339 

339} 

.342} 

345 

356} 
358} 



364} 
365} 
367 
368 

376 

376} 

390 



u 2 



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308 



GEOLOGY or THE ISLE OP WIGHT, 



Thickness 



labtattan, NenuUura parwda, 
Planorbis, and Cerithitan pseudo' 
cinctum - - . - 

Blue clay with Cytherea incrnssata 
[Venus Bed P] - 

Blue sandy clay with Cytherea tn- 
crassata ... 

Veiy shelly greenish day with 
Cytherea - - - 

Blue and brown clay with Cytherea 

Greenish clay full o*f Cytherea 

Brown sandy day 

Brown very sandy day 

Hard blue clay . - - 

More sandy brown day - 

Hard earthy limestone 

Fine micaceous sandv loam 

Micaceous loam and lignite 

Brown sandy loam 



Febt. 



15 



Depth* 
Feet. 

405 
410 
411 



1 


412 


2^ 


414} 


2i 


417 


3 


420 


6 


426 


3 


429 


7 


436 


4i 


440} 


7 


447i 


3 


460} 



At the time of going to press this well was still unfinished. 



PARKHtjRST Upper Prison. 
Commimicated by Mr. Lock. 

Clay, &c. - - - - - 

Limestone [Bembridge Limestone] 



Ft. In. 

255 

4 6 

259 6 



Parkhurst Prison Farm. 
Communicated by Mr. Lock. 



To rock 



Feet. 

about 200 



Park HURST Lower Prison. 
Communicated by Mr. Lock. 



Clay with thin Kbcks 
Freestone. 



Feet. 

239 



At the Prison this well is said to be 250 feet deep. It was probably 
deepened afterwards. 

Park HURST Barracks. 

Feet. 

Clay, to rock - - - - - - -236 

Water rises to 56 feet bdow sur&ce, but after pumping sinks much and 
continuously. Pumping affects the wells at the Cement Works and Prison, at 
also at High Street, mwport [P]. Now (Aug. 29th^ 1887) water stands at 
70 feet from the surface. 



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WELL SEGTIOX& 



309 



St* Hblxns. Nearly half a mile aoath-eaat of the Church. Height about 
150 feet above the sea. Sunk 15 feet, the rest bored. 

Sunk and oommunicated by Mb. Parsons. 

Thicknbsh. Depth. 



Hamstead 

BedsP 
15 feet (P) 



Bembridge 

Marls 
118Heet(P) 



Bembridge 

Limestone 

16 feet. 



Osborne Beds 

(St. Helen's ^ 

Sands) 

2&i feet. 



Blue slipper, black at base [no 
specimens] 

Green and brown clay 

Stone (3 or 4 inches) 

Blue clay (shelly at 100 feet) 

Green clay 

Green clay and marl 

Green clay 

Brown clay 

Green clay 

Mottled brown and green olay 

Green clay 
i Green marl 
"^ Green clay 

Green stone 

Dark marl and black clay 

Green clay 

Green stone and clay 

Brown carbonaceous clay 

Black shelly clay - 

Black clay with Serpula - 

Dark-green shelly clay with Cyrena 

Black clay 

Green clay and pyrites 
" Freestone - - - 

Greenish grey clay 

Sandy clay 
^ Freestone - - - 

f Dark ^reen clay - 
' Very dark green clay 

Do. sandy 

Dark green and brown clay 

Green sandy clay and sandstone 

Grit 

Fine-grained sandstone - 

Blue sandstone - 

Buff sandstone - 

Rock 

Buff sandstone - 

Hard sandstone 



Fbbt. 



15 
75 

11 



3 
2 

1 

\ 
2 

4 
1 

1 

Si 
2i 
i 
i 
3J 
H 

2 

5 

4 

4 

3 

1 

1» 

1* 

1 

31 

1 

u 
u 

6 

5 
i 



Fbkt. 

15 

90 

101 

103 

105 

108 

110 

111 

IIU 

112 

114 

118 

119 

120 

1201 

123f 

126 

126i 

127 

130i 

132 

134 

139 

143 

147 

150 

151 

152f 

154i 

1551 

159 

160 

161} 

163 

169 

169i 

174J 



175i 
1^0 fossils ^m the first 15 feet could be found among the waste and no 
fragments of the Black Band. A thin black seam is said to hare been passed 
through at 15 feet, but samples were only preserved below that depth. 
Perhaps the first 133^ feet is entirely in Bembriage Marls. 



St. Hblbns. North-east of the Station, 
high-water. 

Sunk and communicated by Mb. Pabsgns. 



Height about 5 feet aboye 



Thigknbss, 



Bembridge 
Marl. 



^Blue marl with Ostrea veetensis, 
Cyrena obovata, C. obtusa, C. 
semistriata, Melania muricata, 
Cerithium mutalnle, Serpula 
tenuis • - - • 

SiS^n^. }l^-to- - - - 

Osborne Beds Blue and various coloured days • 



Fbbt. 



28 

9 

11 



Depth. 
Fbbt. 



28 

37 
48 

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310 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



St. Helen's Fort. 1867 P 

Sunk and oommunicated by Messrs. Docwra and Son. (The words in 
brackets from an account oommunicated by Mr. Mylnb.) 
Bored throughout. 

Depth. 



Concrete • • • - • 

Speckled sand - - • . 

Sningle and black pebbles 
Grey clay (Yellow sandy day, 57) 
Peat (BUck earth) 
Greenish sand (Coarse green sand) 
Stones (Flint grayel) - . - 

Greenish day and shells 
Pale green shell-marl (Shelly clay) 
Green clay and shells (Hard green day) 
Claystone - - . 

Grey clay and shells (Brown shdly clay) - 
Claystone - . - 

Green clay and shells . - - 

Stones - - •• . 

Dark green clay and shdls 
Claystone - - 

Green sand . - . 
Green clay and pebbles - . •> 

Grey sand - - - . 

Mr. Mylne's account is as follows, below 149 feet. 

Thickness. 



Thickness. 


Ft. In. 


- 19 


3 


- 15 


. 54 


2 


. 7 


2 


- 15 


- 13 


. 10 


6 


9 


. 4 


. 1 6 


4 


- 2 6 


- 10 


. 7 


2 


6 



Ft. 


In. 


19 





22 





37 





91 





93 





100 





102 





117 





130 





140 





140 


6 


149 


6 


149 10 


151 


4 


151 


8 


154 


2 


155 





162 





164 





170 






Claystone "1 

Hard blue clay J 
Limestone 
Green clayey sand 
Dark blue cla; 
Dark sandy cl 



} 



ilay 



Ft. 
5 

8 

6 
2 



Depth. 

Ft. 

154 

162 

168 
170 



Spithsad Defences — Horse Sand Fort. 

Communicated by Capt. Hewett, B.E., to H. W. Bristow. The fossils 
determined by Mr. Etheridoe. 

Surface of shoal 24^ feet below high-water of ordinary spring-tides. 
Measurements from the Pump Room Floor, 3} feet above high-water. 
6 foot Cylinder to 83 feet ; the rest bored. 

Thickness. Depth. 



Recent 
Marine De- 
posits 70i 
feet. 



:} 



Water, &c. to surface of shoai 

'Shingle and a little sand 

•* Natural concrete ** 

Clean shingle - 

Moderately fine sand and occa- 
sional shingle, pieces of bark 
and branches of trees - 

Shingle, sand and vegetable 
matter, the latter almost entirely 
compressing to centre dark band 
[shown on the drawing sent] - 

Shingle, sand and shells - 

Blue clay, shingle and sand 

Pure sand 



Feet. 
271 



18 



8 

5 

14 



Feet. 
27* 

32f 



50f 



58f 
63f 

77t 
78 



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WELL sjscnoNa 



311 



Thickns8«« Depth. 



Bncklesham 

Beds 
471i feet. 



Blue clay ... 

Chalk flints 

SHingle, sand and shells 

Rook .... 

Flint shingle and clean orange 

sand .... 

^Greenish-grey clay with slight sand 

and occasional flint pehbles and 

stone - - - - 

Greenish-grey clay 

Greenish-grey day and slightly 
more sand. Ottrea^ CardUa 
planicotta ... 

Greenish-grey day, less sand, no 
fossils .... 

Greenish-grey sandy clay 

Gbeenish-grey day, no fossils 

Greenish-grey clay. 'SummndUe$^ 
Corbula 

Brownish-grey clay. Nodules of 
siliceous sandstone full of fflan- 
conite at 335 feet No fossili 

Fine clean greenish-grey and black 
sand. CardUa vkmcotta. 
Many nodules of sanastone and 
iron pyrites ... 

Grey rook. Pee ten eomeuSf Car^ 
dkan eemigrawdattim - 

Brownish-grey day. Cardkun 
semigranulatum, Pectuncuhu 
jnUvinatus, Pecten eomeut 

Darker brownish-grey clay and 
flint pebbles. Pectuncuhu put' 
vinatut, Turritella imbricataria 

Very fine greenish-sre^ and some 
orange sand, and flmt pebbles. 
Cardium tenUgranulatumt Pee^ 
tunculug, Valuta, Ikmritella im^ 
bricataria, Fusus hnacBVUt 

Greenish-grey sandy clay, slightly 
stratified ... 

Greenish -grey clay, with some 
sand, slightly stratified. 
Cytherea wberydnmdes. Pec- 
iunculus ... 

Greenish-grey sand rock ,numeroiis 
fossils. Nummulites • 

Light greenish-grey and black 
yery fine quicksand. CardUa 
planicoita and Turritella at 
494 feet 

Rather darker green-grey sand 
with clay in lumps. Cytherea 
lucida, Corbula gaUica, Cardita 
planicosta, Fusus pyrus 

Dark-green band of sandstone and 
iron pyrites . . - 

Light-grey clean sand. Frequent 
nodules of iron pyrites and 
pieces of lignite. Cardita plam- 
casta . - . - 



Fbvt. 
1 
i 

i 
15f 



45 
25 



37 

30 
20 

18 

15 



50 



58i 

271 
i 

24i 



Fbbt. 

79 
79* 
82 
82i 

98 



143 
168 



205 

235 
255 
273 



338 



20 


358 


u 


3591 


12 


871t 


4* 


376 


10 


3se 


34* 


4204 


24 


444* 


2 


446* 



505 

532f 
533* 

667* 



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312 



OEOLOGY OF THE ISLB OF WIGHT. 



Thickness. 



Brownish-grey sand and stratified 
clay with iron pyrites - 

Brownish-grey clay, oocasionaUy 
stratified and with vegetable 
impressions and plant remains 

Clean sharp light-grey (almost 
white) siUoeous sand. No 
fossils .... 



FXKT. 

2J 



2t 




567 
569i 



Spithbad Defsncbs — Noman Fort. 

Communicated by Major E. A. Hewitt, R.E., to H. W« Bristow. The 
fossils determined by Mr. Ethbridgb. 

Surface of shoal 34 feet below high-water. Measurements from Powder 
Magazine floor. Si feet above High-water. 

Thickness. Depth* 



Recent 

Marine 

Deposits. 



Bracklesham 
Beds. 



Water &o. to surface of shoal 

Hard compact flint shingle, bright" 
sand, chalk stones. Isle of WLrht 
stone, shells &c. Jaw of Ked 
Deer fifty feet down. Large flint 
shingle, fine pale-yellow sand, 
shells, &c. ... 

Fine flint-shingle, coarse angular 
pale-yellow sand. Remains of 
trees, shells, &c. Nassa reticulata, 
Trochvs ziziphinus 

Grey sand with slight clay and^ 
occasional flint shingle, shells, &c. 

Greenish-grey sandy clay. No fossils 

Green-grey clay, fosHils. CardUa 
acuticasta, Astarte, Cytkerea, 
Ostrea tenera ? fragments 

Green-grey clay, fossils numerous. 
Indurated phosphatic nodules with 
PlicatuUe . - . . 

Green-grey clay, rather more sand, 
fossils . . - . 

Brown-grey clay, fossils. Contu, 
Turritella sulcifera, in sandy clay 

Brown-grey clay, slight sand, fossils. 
Pinna margaritacea, CorbiUa, TW*- 
ritella sulcifera, Nummulitea variO' 
larius, Serpula at 502 feet from 
surfSsce; at 506, Cardium send" 
granulatum ; at 510 Pecten comeus, 
Cytkerea suberycinoides, Cardium 
semigranulatum . . . 

Darker green-grey sandy clay 

Hard grey-green sandstone rock, 
numerous fossils. Oardium semi' 
granulatum, Cytkerea suberycu 
noide$, Cardita planicotta, Tur- 
ritella, Fueus ... 

Pale green-grey sand, numerous 
fossUs. CardUa planicoeta, Tur* 
ritella sulcifera, Serapkt, sp., 
Cardium semigranulatum, Pectun^ 
cuius pulvinatue - • - 



y 90 



28 
111 

130 

43J 
100 
25i 



47 
27 



Feet. 
374 



1274 



1554 
1674 



2974 

3404 
4404 
466 



513 
540 



541 



550 



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WELL SECTIONS. 



313 



Thickkess. Depth. 



Feet. 



Brown-green day, with slight sand 

in layers, chalk [weathered dint?] 

pebbles from SSS-SeC, T»rri- 

tella imbricaiaria, Fecttmculus 

pu/vifuz/tM, flint pebbles - - 21^ 571i 

Green-grey with some orange sand 

slightly stratified in places, fossils. 

Oerithium giganteum, Turritella 

imbriccUaria ... 8^ 579 

^Bottom of bore at 571 feet. 

Water rises to 4' 4" below Powder Magazine, i,e. 10" below high-water 
ordinary spring tides. The supply of water 

at 5& below Powder Magazine Floor is 10,800 gallons per diem. 
„ lOu „ „ „ 23,000 ,, „ 

Staplers. Farm west of the Gravel Pits. Height about 257 feet above 

the sea. 



Feet. 



From information supplied by the farmer. 



Thickness. DRrm. 



Drift 

Middle? 

Hamstead 

Beds. 



Gravel - - - - 

fBlue clay - - -\ 

I Mottled clay - - - / 

^ Fine-grained hard concretionary 

I sandstone - - - 2 

LOlay . - . . 5 



Ft. In. 
1 6 

64 



6 




65 6 

68 
73 



West Cowks Waterworks. 7 chains east of Broadfield. Height 165 feet 
above Ordnance Datum. 

communicated by Mr. Atkey and 



From samples and measurements 
Messrs. Tillby & Sons. 



Thickness. Depth. 



Drift 10 feet 



Lower 

Hamstead 

Beds 29 feet. 



Bembridge 
Marls 116 feet. 



Bembiidge 

Limestone 

9 feet. 



- Gravel - - - . 

fGreenish clay (disturbed on one 
I side of the well and coutaining a 

drain at 23 feet) 
J Blue clay (a 2 inch seam of shells 
A at 30 feet) 
Flat cement stone 
Blue day - - - 

Black shaly clay - - - 

Blue and green clay. A shell bed 
with Melania muriccUa at 40 
feet. Rock with Melanopsis 
and PaUidina lenta at 61 feet - 
Stone and a little water - 
Blue and green clay 
Cement stone ... 
Green shelly clay and shale with 
nodular stone at 1 10 feet. Very 
shelly at 115 feet 
Green clay and stone 
Blue clay (pyrites at 127 feet) 
Very hard freestone 
White bed 
. Black brown and white clay 



Ft. In. 

10 



13 



33 6 

6 
31 

1 



14 

5 

31 

5 

2 

2 



23 

32 

32 6 

38 

39 



72 6 

73 

104 

105 



119 

124 

155 

160 

162 

164 



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314 



CHEOLOGTOF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Thicknbbs. Depth. 



Osborne 
Beds 103} feet. 



Upper Headon 

Beds 

5di feet. 



Middle 
Headon 

Beds 
116 feet. 



rRed and green mottled clays 
I Blue sheU marl - . . 

j Green day ... 

•< Do. rather sandy - 
Stone, and a little water - 
Dark green and bro#n mottled day 
Stone - - . . 

Mottled clay, with veins of sand 

and a little water 

Stone and a littie water - 

Blue clay ... 

Stone and a little water 

Blue clay (fragments of shell at 

320 feet) 

^Sand with shells and water 

(pumping from this spring dried 

the well at Woodvale) - 

Green sandy clay and blue clay, full 

of Cyrena obovata and Melania 

muricata at 331 feet ; green and 

carbonaceous at 341; at 365 

blue and very shelly, with 

Cytherea incrassata, Cyrena, 

sp., Natiea labellata, Nematura 

parwda, Buccinum labuOvm, 

Fish otolith (Vbnus Bbd); 

at 375 green clay with NoHca, 

Oerithium &c. ; at 385 blue 

shelly clay; at 400. hard clay; 

at 414 green sandy clay full of 

fossils (the following species 

were found in the spoil neap, 

but the exact depth to which 

they belong is imcertain, but lies 

between 4U and 420 feet— 

Ostrea ventilabrum, Cardita sim" 

plex, Cytherea incrasaata, Cyrena 

obovata C. deperdita, Corbula 

euspidata, C. pisum, Cancellaria 

ehngaJta, Buccinum labiatum, 

Vtduta geminata. Pleurotoma 

j^lebia, Rostellaria, sp., Cer- 

tthium elegans, Natiea labellata. 

Bulla, sp. (BrOC KEN HURST 

Bed?) 
Grey shelly sand, Natiea, PleurO' 
toma, Nematura parvula, Plan^ 
orbis, Cyrena, Potamomya 
_Clay .... 



28 



7 



Pr. 


In. 


Ft. In. 


36 





200 


30 





230 


21 





251 





6 


251 6 


1 





252 6 


14 





266 6 


1 





267 6 


21 





288 6 


1 





289 6 


3 





292 6 





6 


293 



14 
3 



321 



328 



92 420 



434 
437 



An Analysis by Professor J. Attpielo, F.R.S. (November 1887) of the 
spring at 320 feet gave the following results : — 

Grrains per Gallon. 
Total suspended solid matter, dried at 250° F. - None after subsidence. 
Total dissolved solid matter, dried at 250° F. - 1 7*00 

Anunonia ----- 0*07 

(Equal to ammonia per million 1*00). 
Albumenoid organic matter, yielding 10 per cent, 
of nitrogen ----- 0*01 

(Equ^ to ammonia per million, 0*02). 
Nitrites ------ None. 



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WELL SECTIONS. 



315 



Gnins per Gallon. 

* Nitrates containing 17 per cent, of nitrogen - u-SS 

(Equal to grains or nitrogen per gallon, 0*06). 

* Chlorides containing 60 per cent, of chlorine - 3*20 

(Equal to grains of chlorine per gallon 1*9). 
Hardness, reckoned as chalk grains or " degrees " ; 

removed hy ebullition - - 10* 

unaffected by ebullition • -0' 

Total hardness 1000 

Lead or Copper ----- None. 

Physical examination after subsidence - - Satisfactoiy 

Oxygen absorbed in three hours - - 0*02 

West Cowbs. Boring at Egypt Point by Mb. Vionollics. 
Height 8 fset above datum line. 

Clays of various colours [Osborne Beds] 

WooDVALS. West of West Cowes, Isle of Wight. 
Communicated by the Messrs. Addis, of Preston, to Mr. Whitaker. 
The FossDs determined by Mr. J. W. Elwes. 



Feet. 
94 



Thickness. 



Bembridge 
Beds. 



Osborne 

Beds 

109 feet. 



Upper 
Heaaon 

Beds 
73 feet. 



'Whitish earth, calcareous 

Grey shelly clay. Melania 

muricata 
Light-buff calcareous earth 
Grey clay with shells. Melanin 

muricata - - - 

light ffreenish-grey clay with 

some broken shells 
Grey and brownish clay - 
Dark-grev or blackish clay with 

some snells ... 
Dark-grey . and brown clay. 

Mektnia fnurieata 
Grey clay with some broken shells 
■ Cream-coloured limestone 
^'Light-grey clay, mottled brownish 
Puce and grey mottled day 
Pale-grey clay - - - 

Crimson and grey mottled clay - 
Light-greenish and brownish clay 
Grey ckv with some very fine and 

soft sand P 
Grey clay, partly brownish (speci- 
men from 138 feet) 
Crimson, grey and brown mottled 

clay . - - - 

Limestone 7 nodular 

Pale gpreenish-grey clay - 
Greenish-grey and puce mottled 

clay - - - - 

Light-grey clay with some broken 

shells . - - - 

Grey clay with crushed sheUs 

P Potamomya . - • 

Grey clay with some broken shells 
Calcareous nodule (P) 
Greenish-grey clay with broken 

shells - - - - 

^Stone (no specimen) 



Ft. In. 

2 

10 6 

1 6 

30 

2 
15 

2 



3 
9 
4 
8 
2 
2 
42 
2 



2 
24 

27 

3 6 

18 3 

30 

10 3 

1 

3 

6 

6 

6 



Depth. 

Pr. In. 
2 

12 6 
14 

44 

46 
61 

63 



66 
76 
79 
87 
89 
91 
133 
136 



137 3 

161 3 

188 3 

191 9 

210 

240 

260 3 



261 

264 
254 



260 9 

261 3 



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316 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



Thickness. Debth. 



Middle 
Headon 

Beds 
ISi feet. 



^ 



'Fine gtej sand, with shells: 
Cerithium concavum (many), C , 
trizonatum?, Melania muricata, 
Cyrena obovata, Potamomya 
gregaria (P 2 vars.) Ostrea with 
Serpula - . - 

Finn grey clayey sand with some 
shefis - . - . 



Ft. Ih. 



9 
4 6 



Fi. Lit. 



270 3 
274 9 



This well was subsequently deepened to 437 feet, at which depth shelly 
sand occurred — perhaps representing the Headon Hill Sands — ^but no further 
details can be obtained. 



WooTTON. In Beech Lane. 6 chains north of the Station* 



From specimens communicated by Mr. Nbwbuky of Wootton, and notes 
and specimens communicated by Mr. Brown of Tottenham* 
Water at 370 feet, rose to 100 feet from surface. 



Lower 

Hamstead 

Beds about 

110 feet. 



Thickness. 



Bembridge 

Marls about 

115 feet. 



Bembridge 
Limestone. 

Osborne Beds 

about 117 

feet. 



Upper Headon 
Beds 59 feet. 



Light-blue clay [no specimens] - 
Clay [no specimens] about 

Dark-blue and carbonaceous clay, 
full of fossils. Pdludina lenta^ 
. Hydrohia pupa, H. Chasteli, 
•{ Neritina tristis, Melania For^ 
hesii, M. muricaia, Melanopsis 
carinata,M. Bvhulaia, Planorbis, 
small sp., Cyrena semistriaia, 
Modiola Prestwichii 
Clay . - • - 

Green clay &c. [specimens pre- 
served are green clay at 114^, 
Cement stone and pyrites with 
Palvdina and Melania turrit 
tissima at 140', Grey clay at 
143', Green chiy at 166', 160^, 
166', Green and black clay at 
169', 170', Green clay at 176', 
180', IBS', Bright-green clay at 
^ 206'] 

'Limestone [Black clay and lime- 
\ stone at 208'.] - 
""[Red clay at 264', Red and green 
clay at 260^, 265', 278', 285', 
Bright-green clay at 290' and 
340^, Red and green clay at 341 ' 
^ and 346'] 

fClay .... 

Rock - . - . 

White sand, very sharp. [Very 

fine brown sand at 370'] 
J [no record kept] 



Feet. 
40 
60 



5 
16 



115 



117 
11 
3i 

lOi 
34 



Depth. 

Feet. 
40 
90 



96 

no 



226 
228 



346 
366 
369i 

370 
404 



The thicknesses are only approximate, as no complete record or series of 
specimens is available. Another memorandum gives 385 feet to sand with 
water, and a total depth of 420 feet. 



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WIILL SEOTIONS. 



317 



WooTTON. At Briddlesford Lodsre, in the middle of the Fann BuUdiDgs. 
Height 181 feet above the sea. 



From notes made during the excavations. 



Thickness. 



Drift- 
Upper 
Hamstead 
Beds. 

Middle 

Hamstead 

Beds. 



Glavey gravel - - - 

Yellow clay, much weathered 
Dark -blue shelly clay, full of 
Ceritkium plicatum and Melania 
inflata - - - - 

Grey loamy clay - - - 

Green clay - - . 

Green day with faint red mottling 



Depth. 



Ft. In. 

4 6 

5 


Ft. In. 

4 6 
9 & 


1 
1 
8 6 
3 6 


10 6 

11 6 
20 
23 6 



Woottok. At Briddlesford Lodge. At the south-east corner of the farm 
buildings. Height 190 feet above the sea. 



F^m notes made during the excavations. 



Thickkbss. 



Middle? 

Hamstead 

Beds. 



'Mottled light-grey and dark-red 

clay - - - - 

Yellow and brown mixed dav^ 

perhaps reconstructed shaly 

clay 
Greenish-blue clay 
Tenaoeous blue clay 
Sand parting 
Reconstructed clay 
Mottled green and red clay, 

slightly carbonaceous - 
Blue carbonaceous clay, full of 

Unio - 



Ft. In. 

8 



2 
1 
6 




11 
7 
5 



Depth. 
Ft. In. 

8 



10 

11 
17 

17 1 

18 

25 

30 



Though these two wells are only 2 chains apart the sections are quite 
difEerent. No trace of the bed with Cerithium pltcatvm could be found in the 
second. 



Wootton. a quarter of a mile north of Beech. 

Thickness. 



r Gravel 
Driit« .^jSand 

L Loam and ironstone 



Ft. In. 

. 15 

[P] 16 

4 



A good supply of water. 



Depth. 

Ft. In. 
15 
30 
34 



Wootton. 5 chains west of Femhill. 

Thickness. Depth. 



Tw-ft. / Gravel 

•"^^ - "ISand 
Hamstead Beds. Clay 



Ft. in. 

13 

3 

2 



Ft. In. 
13 
16 
18 



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318 



OEOLOOT pF THE ISLB OF WIGHT. 



WooTTON. Close to Brannon's Cottage. Height about 170 feet above 

the sea. 

From notes made during the excavation. 

Thickness. Dfpth. 



Middle and 



Beds. 



'Red and green clay 
Sand - - - 

Lower m Green day 
H&mst^ < Concretionary sandstone - 
namsveaa jj^^ ^ji^^ and green loamy clay 
Ironstone with casts of LimntBa • 
^Harder green and purple clay 



Ft. 


Ik. 


Ft. 


In 


10 





10 





4 





14 





10 





24 








8 


24 


8 


20 





44 


8 





4 


45 





12 





57 






WooTTON. At Beech. 



Thicknbss. Dspth, 



Middle rClay 
Hamstead i Sand . - • 

Beds. [Clay 

The bed of sand corresponds with the one seen at Brannon's Cottage, and 
in the cutting above the Station. 



Pr. 

36 
5 
3 



In. 









Ft. 



41 

44 



In. 







Wootton. At Whitehayes. 
From notes made during the excavation. 



{Yellow clay 
Blue clay -. 
Rej clay ... 
Blue and yellow clay with turtle 
bones - . - - 



Thickness. 


Depth. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In, 


- 10 


10 


3 


13 


. 1 6 


14 6 



3 6 



18 



This well was still unfinished at the time of the completion of the Survey. 



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319 



APPENDIX IV. 



GEOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE ISLE OF 

WIGHT. 

1. Publications of the Gbolooical Survcy. 

Maps and Sections. 

Sheet 10 of the Map. Originally geologicallj surveyed on the One-Inch 
Scale, by B. W. Bristow and W. T. Avblinb a866). The Isle of Wight 
re-surveyed on the Six-Inch Scale, byCLSMBNT Kbid (Tertiary) and Aubrby 
Stbahan, ma. (Cretaceous) 1888. 

Geological Map of the Isle of Wight (in MS.)» surveyed by Clbm bnt Rbid 
(Tertiary area) and Aubrby Strahan (Secondary area), on a scale of 
6 inches = 1 mile. Exhibited at the fourth meeting of the International 
Geological Congress in September 1888, and subsequently hung in the 
Museum of Practical Geology. 

Horizontal Sections, Sheet 47. By H. W. Bristow, 1858. Revised Edition 
in 1870. . [Under revision in 1889.] No. 1, from Totlands Bay, across the 
western extremity of Headon Hill to the Sea near the Main Bench. No. 2. 
Section from the Solent, near Worsley's I'ower, to the Sea under High Down 
Beacon. No. 3. Section from Hetnpstead QxS to Hanover Point. No. 4. 
sSection from Norris to Rocken End. No. 5. Section from Binstead to 
Ventnor Cove. 

Vertical Sections, Sheet 25. By H. W. Bristow in 1858. [Under revision 
in 1889.] Illustrative of the Upper, Middle, and Lower Eocene strata of 
Hempstead, St. Helens, Colwell and Totland Bays, Headon Hill, Alum Bay, 
and Whitecliff Bay. 

Memoirs, 

On the Tertiary Fluvio-marine Formation of the Isle of Wight, by 
Prop. E. Forbbs. 8vo. 1856. (Edited bjr R* A. C. Godwin-Austbn. 
With notes bv H. W. Bristow, and Descriptions of Fossils by Prof. J. 
Morris, J. W. Saltbr, and T. R. Jonbs.) 

Description of Horizontal Section, Sheet 47. By H. W. Bristow. 8vo. 
1859. (Pamphlet.) 

Description. of« Vertical Section, Sheet 1J5. , By H. W, Bristow. 8vo. 
1859. (Pamphlet.) 

A Descriptive Catalogue of the Rock Specimens in the Museum of 
Practical Geology. By Prof. A. C. Ramsay, H. W. Bristow (and others). 
8vo. 1862. (3rd Ed.), pp. 154, 158, 160, 166, 167, 170-173. 

A Catalogue of the Gollection of Fossils in the Museum of Practical 
Geology. By Prof. T. H. Huxlby and R. Ethbridob. 8vo. 1865. 

A Catalogue of the Cretaceous Fossils in the Museum of Practical Geoloiry. 
ByE.TNBWTON. 8vo. 1878. "' 

A Catalogue of the Tertiary and Post-Tertiary Fossils in the Museum of 
Practical Geology. ByE. TNbwton. 8vo. 1878. 



2. List of Works, othbb than thosb of Thb Gbolooical Survby 
BY H. W. Bristow, F.R.S., F.G.S.* 

iThis list is arranged in chronological order. For Index of Authors, see 
p. 336.] 



* In the compilation of this List mach assistance has be^ derived from the 
zcellent <*Listof Works on the Geology, 
lampdiire Basin," by W. Whitaxbb, pa 
Haaqnkire Sou Soe. for 1878, pp. 108-137. 



excellent'* List of Works on the Geology, Mineralogy, and PalsBontoIogy of the 
Hampshire Basin," by W. Whitaxbb, pnblished in the Proc, Winehester and 



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320 QEOLOGY OF THB ISLE OF WIGHT. 

1605. 

Vbrbteoan, R. — Restitatioii of Decayed Intelligenoe in Aiitiqaitie§ 
ConoerninR the most noble and renowned English Nation. 4to. Antwerp, 
(Other Editions in 1628, 1634, 1655, 1673, 1723.) 

1738. 

Cooke, B. — ^An Observation of an extraordinary damp in a well in the 
Isle of Wight. (Letter dated 1736.) PkU. Trans., yol. xl., p. 379 (voL viiL 
of Abridgment, pp. 244 and 658). 

1749-^. 

Ck>OKB, B. — ^Account of an earthquake felt in the Isle of Wight, March 18, 
19. Phil. Trans., vol. zlvi. p. 651 (vol. x. of Abridgment, p. 508). 

1755. 

Fielding, H.^4oumal of a Voyage to Lisbon (1?53)« 12mo. London, 
(Gives an account of the shore at Ryde, I.W.) 

1782. 

Anon.— The Isle of Wight : A Poem, with Plate of Needle Rooks before 
the Fall of the Pointed Rock, from which the group takes its name. 12mo. 

1794. 

Driybe, a. & W. — ^General View of the Agriculture of the County of Hants, 
with View of the Isle of Wifht. 

Agriculture by Rev. R. Wabnbe, and a Postcript by A. Young. 4to. 

Warner, Rev. R. — General View of the Agriculture of the Isle of Wight 
(forming a part of Hampshire), with observations on the means of its Improve- 
ments. 4to. London. 

1795. 

Warner, Rby. R.^The History of the Isle of Wight : Militaxy;, Eccle- 
siastical, Givil, and Natural : to which is added a View of its Agriculture 
(folding Map). 8vo. Southampton. 

. 1798. 

Marshall, W.— The Rural Economy of the Southern Counties of En^^d, 

comprehending the Isle of Wight, &c &c. 

8vo. 2 vols. London. (Second edition in 1799.) 

1801. 

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in a Chalk-pit in the Isle of Wight. Trans, Linn. Soc, vol. vi. p. 103. 
Additional Observations, p. 303. 

1805. 

Brayley, E. W., and Britton, J. — ^The beauties of England and Wales : 
or delineations, topographical, historical, and descriptive of each county. 
8vo. London, 

[Vol. vL : Topographical and Historical Description of Hampshire and the 
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Camden, W.^i^History of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight; with 
additions by R. Gough. FoL 



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Lbiipribrb, W. — On the medicinal effects of an Aluminous Chalybeate 
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322 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

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BIBLIOGRAPHY. 323 

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X 2 



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324 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLB OF WIGHT. 

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1846. 



'■ Egbrton, Sir P. db M. G. — Description of the mouth of a RyboAu 

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SiMMs, F. W.--On the Thickness of the Lower Greensand Beds of the 
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1846. 

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326 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

1848. 

CHA.MBBR8, R. — Ancient Sea- Margins, as Memorials of Changes in the 
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extinct Anthraootherioid Quadrupeds — {Hytmotamus Vectianus and H. bovinus,) 
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, .*. — On the Structure of the Strata hetween the London Clay 

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Woolwich and Reading Series. Tbid., vol* x., pp. 75-170. Isle of Wight, 
78-80, 81. 

Trim M BR, J. — On the Superficial Deposits of the Isle of Wight, fbid., 
vol. X., p. 51. 

1855. 

GoDwiN-AusTBN, R. A. C. — On Land-Surfaces heneath the Drift-Gravel* 
Ibid., voL xi., p. 116. 

Trimmbr, J. — On the Agricultural Relations of the Western portion of the 
Hampshire Tertiary District, and on the Agricultural Importance of the Marls 
of the New Forest. Joum. Roy. Agric. Soc., vol. xvi., pp. 125-151. 

1856. 

La Harpb, Dr. P. dr. — Flore Tertiaire de TAngletenre. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise 
Sci.J^at. VoL v., pp. 133-156 (Alum Bay Leaf-Bed). 

Rbnbvibr, E. — Notes sur ouelques points de la geologic de TAngleteiTe 
Ibid., vol. v., pp. 51, 52, and Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc,, voL xii., p. 2. 

Whitlby, N. — ^llie Physical Geognphy of the South- Western Counties 
of England. Joum, Bath and W. of England Agric. Soc., N. Ser., vol. iv., 
p. 227. 

1857. 

Godwin-Austbn, R. a. C. — On the. Newer Tertiary Deposits of the 
Sussex Coast. Quart. Joum, Geol. Soc., vol. xiii., p. 40. 

OwBN, Prof. [Sir] R. — On the Dichodon cutpidatus, Owen. Ibid., vol. xiii., 
p. 190. 

. — Deseription of the Lower Jaw and Teeth of an Anoplotheroid 

Quadruped (DtcAoottfie ovifkz) from the Upper Eocene Marl, 

Isle of Wight. I&icl., voL xiii., pp. 254-260. 

Prbstwich, Prof. J. — On the Correlation of the Eocene Tertiaries of 
England, France, and Belgium. Part II.— The Paris Group. Ibid., vol. xiii., 
p.89. 

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S28 OBOLOGY OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT 

1868. 

Brion, J. — Stanford's Relief Map of the Isle of Wight (oolotured geologi- 
cally). Ixmdon. 

Gbrvais, Prof. P. — On some teeth of the Anchitheriuxn, recently dis- 
covered in the Isle of Wight. Geologist^ vol. i., p. 163. 

Gibson, T. F. — Notice of the Discovery of a Large Femur of the Iguanodon 
in tbe Weald Clay at Sandown Bay, Isle of Wight. Quart, Joum. QeoL Soe,, 
vol. xiv., p. 1/5. 

La Harps, Dr. P. dr. — Quelques Mots eur la Flore Tertiaire de I'Angle- 
terre. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci, Nat,, vol. v., p. 123-143. 

Maktrll, Dr. G. A. — ^The Wonders of Geology; or a familiar exposition 
of Geological Phenomena. 7th Edition. London. Revised by Prof. T. R. 
Jones. 

Norman, M. W. — Description of the Section of the Upper Greensand at the 
Undercliff, in the Isle of Wight. Geologist, vol. i., pp. 48(M84 and 609-513. 

OwBN, Prof, [Sir] R,— Notes on the Bones of the Hind-foot of the 
Iffuanodon, &c. Quarts Joum^ Geoh Soe,, vol. ziv., p. 174. 

WiLKiNS, Dr. £. P. — On Mammalian Remains from Gravel near Newport 
I.W. Geologist, vol. L, p. 444. 

1859. 

Gould, C. — Description of a New Fossil CruBtacean from the Lower 
Greensand (Atherfield). Quart. Joum, Geol, Soc, vol. xv., p. 237. 

Hbbr, Rkv. Dr. O.— Flora Tertiaria Hdvetis. Vol. iii. Fol. Winterthwr. 

Norman, M. W.— The "Crackers" and other fossilifenms nodules. 
Geologist, vol. ii., p. 91. 

, .-^The Flints of High Port, near Yentnor. Ibid,, vol. ii., 

p. 297. 

WiLKiNs, Dr. £. P. — Sand-pipes near Swainstone, Isle of Wight. 
Ibid., vol. ii., p. 175. 

, . — ^A concise Exposition of the Geology, Antiquities, and 

Topography of the Isle of Wight (with a Relievo Map). 8vo. London and 
Newport, I.W, 

1860. 

OoRNUSL, J. — Lettre snr I'^tage N^ocomien du d^partement de la Haute 
Mame. Bull. Soc. G^l. France, 2 ser. t. xvii., ^. 426. 

.-^Notice Bur le groupe des gr^ vert inf^rieur du bassin de la Seine 
. • . . et sur les rapports, asuse par assise, avec les diverses parties du 
groupe Wealden et du lower greensana d'Angleterre. Ibid., p. 736. 

Norman, M. W.— Notes on the Geology of White Cliff Bay, Isle of Wight 
Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. i., pp. 38-46. 

■ ■■ — On the re-occurrence of Fossil Species at various stratal horisons. 
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Heer, Rev. Dr. O. — Recherches sur le Climat et la Vegetation du Pays 
Tertiaire. Fol. Winterthur. 

Norman, M. W. — On a Deposit of Recent Shells and Bones in the Cliff of 
Monk's Bay, Isle of Wight. JVoc. Geol, Assoc, vol. i., p. 160. 

Wilkin 8, Dr. E. P. — On a newly-discovered Outlier of the Hempstead 
Strata, on the Osborne Estate, Isle of Wight. Proc GeoL Assoc, vol. i., p. 194. 

Wilkinson, Rev. J. — ^The Farming of Hampshire. [Report on tbe 
Agriculture of the Isle of Wight.] Joum. Roy. Agric Soc England, scr. i., 
vol. xxii., p. 239 (Isle of Wight, pp. 348-57). 

1862. 

Bbcklkb, S. H. — On some Natural Casts of Re])tilian Footprints in the 
Wealden Beds of the Isle of Wight, and of Swanage. Quart. Joum, Geol. Soc. 
vol, xviii., p. 443. 



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JoNBS, Prop. T. R. — On the microscopical examination of some Brackles- 
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Phipson, Dr. T. L. — On the Composition of a Specimen of Fossil Wood 
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Sandberobr, Prop. F. — On Upper Eocene Fossili from the Isle of Wight* 
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1863. 

Co&NUBL, J.^-Sur la limite des deux Stages du grte vert infi^eur dane le 
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GoRNUBL, J. — Sur Pinsuffisance de TOstrea aquila pour prouver oue la 
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KoBNBN, A. voN. — On the Correlation of the OUgooene Deposits of 
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WHiTAKBR,W.-*<)n some Evidence of .there being a Reversal of the Beds 
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.^-Notice of Polacanthus found by Rev. W. Fox in Wealden Beds at 

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330 GEOLOOY or THE ISLE OF WIGHT 

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RicKETTS, Dr. C. — On the Oscillations of Level on the Ckntst of Hamp- 
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Whitakbr, W. — On Subaerial Denudation, and on Glifh and Escarpments 
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1868. 

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Tylor, a. — On the Amiens Gravels. Quart. Joum, GeoL Soc., vol. xziv«, 
p. 103. 

Walkbr, J. F.— On the Species of Biachiopoda, which occur in the Lower 
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1869. 

Carruthbrs, W. — On some Undescribed Coniferous Fruits from the 
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Tylor, A.— On Quaternary Gravels. Quart. Joum. Geol. JSoc., vol. xxv., 
p. 67. 

Woodward, Dr. H. — Fourth Report on the Structure and Classification 
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1870. 

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CoDRiNGTON, T. — Ou the SupehBicial Deposits of the South of Hampshire 
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EvAKS, C. — On the Geology of the neighbourtiood of Portsmouth and Ryde. 
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Hulkb, J. W.— Note on a Large Reptilian Skull from Brooke, Isle of 
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1877. 

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489. 

.^The Headon Hill Section. Geol. Mag., dec. ii., vol. ix., p. 189. 

Lucas, A. H. S. — On the Headon Beds of the Western Extremity of the 
Isle of Wight JWrf.,p.97. 

Norman, M. W.— The Cbloritic Marl and Upper Greensand of the Isle of 
Wight. JWd.,p. 440. Plate X. 

Seeley, Prof. H. G. — On a remarkable Dinosaurian Coracoid from the 
Wealden of Brook in the Isle of Wight, probably referable to Omitkopsis. 
Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxviii., p. 367. 

1883. 

Ethbridgs, R.— Plresident's address on Geology. Rep. Brit. Assoc for 
1882, pp. 502-629. 



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334 GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

HiNDE, G. J. — Catalogue of Fossil Sponges in the British Museum. 4to. 
* Prbstwich, Prof. J.-^ Notes relating to seme of the Drift Phenomena of 
Hampshire [Elephant Bed^ Freshwater Gate]. Rep. Brit, Assoc, for 1882, 
p. 629. 

Seblsy, H. G. — On the Dorsal Re^on of the Vertebral Column of a new 
Dinosaur (indicating a new genus, SphenospondyJus), from the Wealden of 
Brook in the Isle of Wight. Quart, Joum, GeoL Soc., vol. xzxiz., p. 55. 

1884. . . 

Lydekker, R. — Note on the Anthracotheriidae of the Isle of Wight. 
QeoL Mag., dec. iii., vol i., p. 547. 

1886. 

Brodie, p. B.— Fossil Birds. G^ol, Mag,, dec. iii,, vol. 2, p. 384. 

Gardner, J. S. — On the Land Mollnsca of the Eocene. Ibid., p. 241. 
Plate vi. 

Jones, Prop. T. R.— On the Ostracoda of the Purbeck Formation ; with 
Notes on the Wealden Species. Quart. Jaum. Oeol. Soc, vol. xli., pp. 31 1-353. 

Lydekkbr, R. — Catalop^e of the Fossil Mammalia in the British Museum 
(Natural History). Parts i. and ii. 8vo. London. 

Tombs, R. F. — ^Observations on some imperfectly known Madreporaria, 
from the Cretaceous Formation of £ngland. . GeoL Mag., dec. iii., voL ii., 
p. 541. 

Woodward, A. S. — On the Literature and Nomenclature of British Fossil 
Crocodilia. Ibid, p. 496, 

1886 

HiNDE, G. J. — On Beds of Sponge-remains in the Lower and Upper Green- 
sand of the South of England. PML Trans., vol. 176, Part II., plates 4(M6, 
pp. 403, 412, 418-20, 447. 

Rbpobt of the Committee on the Erosion of the Sea Coasts of England and 
Wales. Rep. Brit. Assoc, pp. 428-432. 

1887. 

Jones, Prof. T. R. — Notes on Numfnulites elegdns. Sow., and other 
English Nununulites. GeoL Mag., dec. iii., vol. iv., p. 89. 

, — , and Sherborn, C. D.— -Fiurther notes on the TertittyEntomos- 

traca of England, with special reference to those from the London Clay. Ibid., 
pp. 385 and 450. 

Keeping, H. — [Letter.] On the Osborne Beds. Ibid., p; 70. 

, — . — On the discovery of the Nummulina elegdns Zone at WhitediiT 

Bav, Isle of Wight. Ibid., p. 70. 

Lydekkbr, R.— Catalogue of the Fossil Mammalia in the British Museum 
(Natural Histoiy). Parts III-V. 8vo. London. 

, — .—On certain I'Hnosaurian Vertebra from the Cretaceous of India 

and the Isle of Wight. Quart. Joum. GeoL Soc, vol. xliii.; p. 166. 

,_.__Note on the Hordwell and other Crocodilians. GeoL Mag., 

dec. iii., vol. iv., p. 307. 

NoRBiAN, M. W,— Geological Guide to the Isle of Wight. Maji, sections, 
and 16 plates of fossils. 8vo. Ventnor. 

Rbid, C— The Extent of the Hempstead Beds in the Isle of Wight. GeoL 
Mag., dec. iii., vol. iv., p. 510. 

Seeley. Prof. H. G. — On Aristosuchus pusillus, Ow., being further 
Notes on the fossils described by Sir R. Owen as Poikihpleuron pusillus, Ow. 
Quart. Joutu. GeoL Soc, vol. xliii., p. 221. 

, — . — On a Sacrum, ' apparently indicating a new type of Bird 

{Omithodesmus cluniculus, Seeley), from the Wealden of Brook. Ibid., 
p. 206. 

Woods, H. — [Letter] On the occurrence of Phosphatic Nodules in the 
Lower Greensand, east of Sandown. GeoL Mag., dec. iii., vol. iv., p. 46. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY. 335 

r 1888. 

C0LBNUTT5 G. W. — On a Portion of the Osborne Beds of the Isle of Wi/^ht, 
uid on some Remarkable Organic Remains recently discovered therein. OeoL 
Maa,, dec. iii. vol. v., p 358. 

Uardnbr, J. S. — [Letter] On the Correlation of the Grds de Belleu with 
the Lower Bagshot. Ibid., p. 188. 

, — , H. Kekping, and H. W. Monckton. — ^The upper Eocene, 

comprising the Barton and Upper Bagshot Formations. Quart. Jowm. 
Geol. Soc., vol. xliv., pp. 678-€35. 

HuLKR, J. W.— Supplemental Note on Polacanthus Foxii, describing the 
Dorsal Shield and some points of the Endoskeleton, imperfectly known in 
1881. PhU. Trans., vol. 178 (B.) Plates 8, 9. 

Jones, Prof. T. R.— Ostraooda firom the Weald Claj of the Isle of Wight. 
OeoL Mag., dec. iii., vol. v., p. 534. 

Lydkkkbb, R. — Catalogue of Fossil Reptilia in the British Museum, vol. i. 
8vo. 

. — Note on a new Wealden Iguanodont and other Dinosaurs. Quart. 

Joum. Geol. Soc., vol. xliv., p. 46. P&te iii. 

McCooK, H. C. — A new Fossil Spider (Eoatypus Woodwardii). Proe. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia for 1888, pp. 200-202, and Annals ^ Mag. Nat. 
Hist., ser 6, vol. ii. 

Prbstwich, Prof. J. — Further observations on the correlation of the 
Eocene Strata in England, Belgium, and tbe North of France. Ibid., p. 88, pL v. 

SssLEY, Prof. H. G. — On Thecospondylus Daviesi, with some remarks on 
the Classification of the Dinosauria. Ibid., p. 79. 

Strah AN, A., and C. RsiD.-^La G^logie d Tile de Wight. Printed for the 
Intemationid G«ol. Congress. 8vo. London. 

1889. 

Blytt, a. — ^The probable Cause of the displacement of beach-lines. An 
attempt to compute geological epochs [with additional note]. Ckristiania 
Videnskahs—Selskdbs Forhandlinger, 1889, No. 1. 

Lydbkksr, R. — On the Remains and Affinities of five Genera of Mesoaoic 
Reptiles. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc., vol. zlv., p. 41. 

..On a Cceluroid Dinosaur from the Wealden. Geol. 



dec. iii., vol vi., p. 119. 

. — On Remains of Eocene and Mesozoic Chelonia, and on a Tooth 

of (P) Omithopsis. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xlv., pp. 237-239. 

Newton, Ei. T. — Description of a New Species of Clupea (C. vectensis) 
from Oligocene Strata in the Isle of Wight. Ibid, p. 112. Bate iv. 

3. List of the Monographs published by the Paljeontographical 
Society, which refer to the Isle of Wight. 

Gardner, J. S., and C. von Ettingshausbn.-- Eocene Flora, vol. i. 
(FiHces). 1879-1882. 

Gardner, J. S.— Eocene Flora, vol. ii. (Gymnospennse). 1883-1885. 

Milne-Edwards, H., and J. Haimb. — Tertiary, Cretaceous, 

Corals. 1849-1854. 

Duncan, P. M.— Supplement to the Fossil Corals. 1866-1870. 

Forbes, E. — ^Tertiary Echinodermata. 1852. 

Wright, T.— Cretaceous Echinodermata, vol. i. 1862-1882. 

Darwin. C— Fossil Cirripedes. 1861-1858. 

Jones, T. B. — Cretaceous E^tomostraca. 1849. 

Jones, T.R. — Tertiaj^' Entomostraca. 1855. 

JoNBs, T. R., and C. D. Sherborn. — ^Supplement to the Tertiary Ento- 
mostraca. 1889. 

Bbll, T.— Malacostracous Crustacea. 1856-1860. 

Davidson, T.— Fossil Brachiopoda, vols, i., iv., and v. 1850-1884. 

Lycbtt, J.— Fossil Trigoniae. 1872-1883. 

Edwards, F. E., and S. V. Wood. Eocene MoUusca, Cephalopoda and 
Univalves, vol. i. 1848-1877. 

Wood, S. V.— Eocene Mollusca, Bivalves, vol. i. 1859-1870. Supple- 
ment to the Eocene Mollusca, vol. i. 1877. 



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336 



GEOLOGY OF THB ISLE OF WIGHT 



Sharps, D.— Upper Cretaceous Gf^halopoda. 1853-1855. 
Owen, R., ana T. Bbll. — Reptilia ot the London Clay [and of the 
BracklflBham and other Tertiary Beas], vol. i. 1848. 
'OwsN, R. — Reptilia of the Cretaceous Formations. 1851-1862. 
OwBN^ R.— Reptilia of the Wealden and Purbeck Formations. 1853-1879. 



Ikdxx of Authors. 



(The figures refer to 

Allrin, J., 1808. 
Anon, 1782, 1818, 1865. 
Aveline, W. T. See list 1. 

BarroiB, Dr. C, 1874, 1875, 1876. 
Beck^,S.H., 1862. 
Bell, Prof. T. See List 8. 
Betg«r,Dr. J. F., 18n. 
Blake, Piof. J. F., 1881. 
Blytt, A., 1889. 

Bowerbonk, Dr. J. S., 1838, 1841. 
Brayley, E. W., 1805. 
Brion, H. F., 1874. 
Brion, J., 1858. 
Bristow, H. W. See Lbt 1. 
Britten, J., 1805. 
Brodic, Rev. P. B., 1878, 1885. 
Browne, A. J. Jnkes. See Jokes- 
Browne. 
Browne, H., 1832. 
Backland, Rev. Prof. W., 1825, 1835. 

Camden, W., 1805, 1806. 
Camithers, W., 1867, 1862-72, 1875. 
Chambers, R., 1848. 
Clarke, Rev. W. B.. 1889. 
Codrington, T., 1868, 1870. 
Colenutt, G. W., 1888. 
Conybeare, Rev. W. D., 1822, 1832. 
Cooke, B.. 1738, 1749-^. 
Cooke, W^., 1809. 
Comoel, J., 1860» 1862, 1863, 1864. 



the dates of publication.) 

Fairbolme, G., 1887. 

Faiey, J., 1818. 

Fielding, H., 1756. 

Fisher, Rev. O., 1862, 1382. 

Fitton, Dr. ^. H., 1824, 1836, 1843-7. 

Forbes, Prof. E., 1845, 1853. See oho 

Lists 1 and 3. 
Fox, Rev. W., 1862, 1865, 1866, 1369. 

Gardner, J. S., 1875-7, 1879, 1880, 1882, 
1885, 1888. See also List 3. 

Gervais, Prof. P., 1858. 

Gibson, T.F., 1858. 

Godwin-Austen, R. A C, 1850, 1855, 
1857. See aUo List 1. 

Gongb, R., 1805, 1806. 

Gould, C, 1859. 

Granville, Dr. A. B., 1841. 

Grimshaw, H., 1879. 

Haime, J. See List 3. 

Harris, T., 1865. 

Harrison, W. J., 1882. 

Hubert, £., 1852. 

Heer, Rev. Dr. O., 1862. 

Hinde, G. J., 1883, 1886. 

Hulke, J. W., 1870^, 1876, 1878-^, 

1888. 
Huxley, Prof. T. H., 1870. See aUo 

List 1. 

IbbetsoD, Capt. L. L. B., 1838, 1845, 
1849. 



D'Arehiac, Vieomte, 1838, 1839. 

Darwin, C. See List 3. 

Davidson, Dr. T. See list 3. 

Davies, W., 1865. 

De la Beche, Sir H. T., 1833. 

De la Harpe, Dr. P. See La Harpe. 

De Luc, f. A., 1811. 

De RauCe, C. E., 1882. 

Dixon, F., 1878. 

Driver, A., 1794. 

Driver, W., 1794. 

Dumont, A., 1851, 1852. 

Duncan, Prof. P. M., 1870. See edso 

List 3. 
Edwards, F. £. See last 3. 
Egertou, Sir P. de M. G., 1845. 
Elwes, J. W., 1882. 
Englefield, Sir H. C, 1802, 1816. 
Erosion of the Coast, Report, 1886. 
Etberidge, R., 1883. See also List 1. 
Ettingshausen, Dr. C. von, 1879, 1880. 

See also List 3. 
Evans, C, 1871, 1872. 



Jones, Prof. T. R., 1858, 1862, 1870, 
1878, 1885, 1887^ 1888. See also 
Lists 1 and 3. 

Judd, Prof. J. W., 1871, 1880, 1882. 

Jukes-Browne, A. J., 1871, 1877. 

Keeping, H., 1881, 1887, 1888. 
Eoenen, A. von, 1864. 
Kowalevsky, Dr. W., 1874. 

La Harpe, P. de, 1856, 1858. 
Lankester, Prof. E. R., 1863. 
Lee, J. E., 1843. 
Lef^vre, Th., 1880. 
Leighton, W. H., 1866. 
Lempri^re, W., 1812. 
Leymerie, A., 1844, 1845. 
Liveing, Prof., 1871. 
Lonsdale, W., 1849. 
Lucas, A. H. S., 1882. 
Lycett, J. See List 3. 
Lydekker, R., 1884, 1885, 1887-9. 



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BIBLIOGBAPHT. 



337 



McCook, H. C, 1888. 

McCoy, F., 1849, 1854. 

ManteU,Dr. G. A., 1888, 1844, 1846, 

1847, 1849, 1854, 1858. 
Marcet,Dr. A., 1811. 
Marshall, W., 1798. 
Meyer, C. J. A., 1866, 1869, 1871-8. 
Middleton, J., 1813. 
Milne-Edwarda, Prof. H. See List S. 
MitoheU, W. S., 1865, 1867. 
Monckton, H. C. W., 1888. 
Morris, Prof. J., 1835, 1848, 1854. See 

also List 1. 
Mndie, K., 1841. 
Mnrchison, Sir B. L, 1848. 

Newton, £. T., 1889. See aUo List 1. 

Nesbit, J. C, 1«48. 

Norman, M. W., 1858-61, 1882, 1887. 

Ogilby, W., 1889. 

Owen, Prof. Sir B., 1838, 1841, 1842, 

1844, 1846, 1848, 1857, 1858, 1861. 

See also List 3. 

Paine, J. M., 1849, 1853. 

Parkinson, C, 1879, 1881. 

PengeUy, W., 1862, 1865. 

Pennant, T., 1801. 

Phillips, W., 1822. 

Phipson, Dr. T. L., 1862. 

Pratt, S. P., 1835. 

Prestwicb, Pro! J., 1846, 1847, 1849, 

1850, 1854, 1857, 1883, 1888. 
Plr6vost,C., 1837. 
Price, F. G. H., 1879. 

Bamsay, Sir A. C, 1878. See also 

List 1. 
Beid, C, 1887, 1888. See also List 1. 
Benevier, £., 1856. 
Uicketts, Dr. C, 1867. 
Bickman, W., 1840. 
BiTers Pollution, Beport, 1874. 
Byle, T., 1873. 

Salter, J. W. See List 1. 
Sandberger, Prof. F., 1862. 



Saxby, S. M., 1846. 

Scudamore, C, 1820. 

Sedgwick, Bev. Prof. A., 1822, 1825, 

1831. 
Seeley, Prof. H. G., 1866, 1875, 1882, 

1888, 1887, 1888. 
Sharpe, D. See List 3. 
Sherbom, C. D., 1887. See also List 3. 
Simms, F. W., 1845. 
Sollas, Prof. W. J , 1877. 
Sorby, Dr. H. C, 1853, 1857. 
Sowerby, G. B., 1821. 
,J. De C, 1816-1829, 1837, 

1840. 
Strahan, A., 1888. See also List 1. 

Tate, Pro£ B., 1865. 
Tawney, E. B., 1881. 
Tomes, R. F., 1885. 
Tooke, A. W., 1837. 
Townsend, Bev. J., 1813. 
Trimmer, J., 1841, 1854, 1835. 
Tjlor, A., 1868, 1869. 

Vancouver, C, 1810. 
Verstegan, B., 1605. 

Walker, J. F., 1868. 

Warner, Bev. B., 1794, 1795. 

Waterworth, Dr. T. L., 1813. 

Way, J. T., 1849, 1853. 

Webster, T., 1813, 1814, 1816, 1824, 

1825. 
WethereU, N. T., 1852. 
Whitaker, W., 1864, 1865, 1867, 1873. 
Whitley, N., 1856. 
Wigner, G. W., 1878. 
Wilkins, Dr. E. P., 1858, 1859, 1861. 
Wilkinson, Bev. J., 1861. 
Wood, S. V. See List 3. 
Woods, H., 1887. 
Woodward, A. S., 1885. 
Woodward, Dr. H , 1869, 1879. 
Wright, Dr. T., 1851, 1852. See also 

List 3. 

Young, A., 1794. 



E 56786. 



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338 



INDEX. 



Achatina costellata, 162. 

Addie, Messrs., veil oommaDicated by, 

815,316. 
Adgestone, anticline at, 44. 
Afton Down road-catting, 82, 92. 
Afton House, cockles in peat near, 228 ; 

ffrayei near, 228. 
AUuFial Deposits, 228-236. 
Alum, 94, 252. 

Alum Bay, Barton Clay of, 118-120; 
Bracklesbam Beds of, 109, 110, 11 5- 
117; coal at, 252 ; Headon HiU Sands 
of, 122 ; London Clay of, 97-99 ; 
Lower Bagsbot Beds of, 101-108; 
Reading Beds of, 94, 95. 
Alyerstone Brick and Tile Works, 201. 
AlverBtone (near Sandown) gravel at, 

219 ; Lower Greensand of, 44. 
AlviDgton, Chalk of, 93. 
Alvington Farm, Hamstead Beds near, 

200. 
Ammonites ir{flatus, zone of, 66, 67. 
Amos HiU, Headon Beds of, 137. 
Angular Flint Grayel, 209, 210. 
Anticlines, 239-247. 
Apes Down, 93. 

Apley, Osborne Beds at, 153, 154. 
Apley Wood, Bembridge Limestone in, 

167. 
Appuldurcombe, Chalk near, 91 ; Gault 

near, 58. 
Appuldurcombe Down, dip of beds in, 

245, 246. 
Apsecastie Wood, Sandrock Series at, 

46, 47. 
Apse Farm, clay at, 88. 
Apse Heath, gravel at, 219. 
Area Websteri, 178. 

Arreton Down, 87, 92, 98 ; gravel of, 
212, 219; Headon HiU bands near, 
123 ; Lower Greensand of, 43 ; 
shattered flints of, 78 ; Upper Green- 
sand of, 71. 
Ashey, Bembridge Limestone of, 165 ; 
Bracklesbam Beds of, 114, 115 ; com- 
pression of beds at, 248 ; fault near, 
100, 114, 115, 241, 242; Hamstead 
Beds near, 208, 204; London Clay 
near, 97, 100; Beading Beds near, 
94, 95. 
Ashey Down, analysis of chalk of, 255 ; 

shattered flints on, 78. 
Ashiake Brickyard, Hamstead Beds and 
Bembridge Beds at, 174, 175, 202; 
gravel at, 216. 
Atherfield, Blown Sand of, 237 ; gravel 
at, 223 ; Lower Greensand of, 18, 24- 
82 ; Wealden Beds at, 8, 18-15. 



Atherfield Clay, 21 ; of Atherfield, 24- 
26; of Compton Bay, 22, 23; of 
Panfield, 38, 89 ; of Sandown, 32, 85, 
86; of the Central Downs, 40, 41. 

Atkey, Mr, J., well conmiunicated by, 
813-815. 

Attfield, Prof. J., analysis of water by, 
814,815. 

Austerbome, an old name for Osborne, 
151. 

Bagsbot Beds, 101-109 ; ooal in, 252 ; 

pipeclav in, 251. 
Barnes Chine, 12, IS, 15, 16. 
Barrois, Dr. C, on the Chalk, 76, 84, 85, 

87, 92, 98 ; on the Folkestone Beds, 

58 ; on the Upper Greensand, 66, 67, 

79, 80« 
Barton Clay, 101, 103, 109, 113, 116*123, 

125, 127, 144. 
Barton Cliff, 117,120. 
Beacon Alley, gravel at, 221. 
Beckles, Mr. S. H., on Iguanodon, 7. 
Beech Lane, wells at, 316-318. 
« Beef " in Wealden Beds, 10, 13, 14, 17. 
Belemnitella Marl, 85-90, 92. 
Belemnitelta mucronatti, zone of, 98 ; 

quadrata, zone of, 93. 
Bembridge, Alluvium near, 236 ; Blown 

Sand at, 287; brick-earth at, 221; 

gravel at, 217 ; Bembridge Limestone 

of, 125, 167, 168 ; Bembridge Marls oC 

171-174; well at, 301. 
Bembridge Beds, 126. 
Bembridge Downs, 92. 
Bembridge Farm, Headon Hill Sands 

near, 123. 
Bembridge Group, of Prof. Judd, 127j^ 
Bembridge Limestone, 125. 127, 158- 

169; economic uses of, 168, 251; 

tubular cavities in, 161. 
Bembridge Marls, 170-183, 190, 195; 

eroded sur&ce beneath, 164. 
Bierley, brick-pit at, 64, 251 ; springs at, 

65. 
Billingham, Sand-rock Series at, 42. 
Binnel Bay, Sand-rock Series at, 82. 
Binstead, Bembridge Limestone of, 125, 

158, 166, 169 ; Osborne Series at, 158 ; 

Quarries, 153, 166. 
Binstead Lodge, gravel at, 216; Ham- 
stead Beds near, 202, 204. 
Birchmore, Sand-rock Series near, 42. 
"Black Band," 174-176, 179, 184, 187- 

191, 193, 195-208. 
Black Barrow, 41. 



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INDEX. 



389 



Blaokgang, Oanlt at, 64; ^rayel near, 
288; landslips at, 61, 62; Lower 
Gieensand of, 29, 30, 83, 50, 57, 58 ; 
Upper Gieensand near, 68, 69. 

Blackland, Hamstead Beds at, 203. 

Black Pan, gravel at, 22 1 ; Lower Green- 
sand of, 47. 

Black Rock, Bembridge Limestone of, 
162. 

Blackwater, AllnTiam at, 235 ; graTel 
near, 218; Lower Greensand of, 42, 
48, 56. 

Blake Down, gravel of, 217-219, 221 ; 
Lower Greensand of, 45. 

Blown Sand, 284, 285, 287. 

Bolton Copse, Bembridge Marls near, 
175. 

Bonchnrch, Cbloritic Marl at, 81 ; Gaolt 
at, 64; landslips near, 61, 62; Gar- 
stone at, 59 ; qoarries near, 251. 

Boniface Down, a watershed, 248, 250. 

Borings in the Hamstead Beds, 191-198. 

Borlhwood, briek-pit at, 251 ; Lower 
Greensand of, 47. 

Bottlehoie Spring, 41, 65, 282. 

Bottom Copse, Bembridge Limestone of, 
165. 

Bouldnor, Hamstead Beds of, 184-198, 
199. 

Boomemooth Beds, flora of the, 106-108, 

BoTcy, flora of, 107. 

Bowcombe, 86, 93. 

Bracklesbam Beds, 101, 108, 104, 106, 
109-117, 119; flora of the, 106; at 
Bracklesbam, 109, 113. 

Bradlng, Bembridge Limestone of, 165, 
166; cement-works at, 251; Ham- 
stead Beds near, 184, 202-204 ; Lower 
Bagshot Beds at, 104 ; Reading Beds 
at, 94-96. 

Brading Down, 92 ; gravel of, 209, 210. 

Brading Harbour, Bembridge Beds of, 
166, 178, 174 ; enclosing of, 286, 287. 

Brannon's Cottage, well at, 81 & 

Brick-earth, 219,221-226,251. 

Briddlesford, Hamstead Beds near, 203- 
206, 317. 

Brighton, grayel at, 217. 

Brixton Anticline, 5, 240, 245-247. 

Brixton, brick-earth at, 224,251 ; chalk- 
talus near, 287 ; Cbloritic Marl near, 
71 ; Lower Greensand of, 40, 41 ; 
streams at, 282 ; Valley Deposits at, 
280 ; road-cutting near, 84 ; Weaiden 
Beds at, 15. 

Brixton Bay, the streams of, 248. 

Brixton Down, 84, 85. 

Broadfield, well near, 813-815. 

Broadstairs Chalk, 98. 

Brockenhurst Series, 127, 140, 141, 148, 
144. 

Biongniart, M. A., on the travertines of 
the Paris Basin, 161. 

Brook, Alluvial deposit near, 330, 282 ; 
Chalk Marl near, 70 ; Cbloritic Marl 
near, 70 ; gravels near, 220, 223, 225 ; 
Lower Greensand of, 40; Upper 
Greensand near, 70. 



BrookBay, 3, 5-11. 

Brook Chine, elephant remains at, 228, 

225 ; valley deposits of, 225. 
Brook Point, 6, 10, 11, 252. 
Brook (New Forest), Bracklesbam Beds 

at, 113. 
Brown, Mr., well commanieated by, 316. 
Brown Down, Bracklesbam Beds at, 118. 
Buokbury, Hamstead Beds near, 203. 
Bnckland, Rev. Dr. W., on reptilian 

bones, 17. 
Bucks, Sand-rock Series near, 41. 
Budbridge, river-courses at, 218. 
Building-stone, 66-72, 251. 
Buiimua ellipticus, 159. 
Bull-ftoe Ledge, bones at, 11. 
Burnt Wood, Bembridge Limestone 

near, 164 ; Hamstead Beds near, 197. 
Burwash Wheel (Sussex), Weaiden 

Shales of, 13. 

Calboume, gravel at, 210, 215 ; London 

CUy near, 97 ; Lower Bagshot Beds 

near, 103 ; structure of beds at, 244» 

247. 
Cktfyptrtta trocMformis, 120, 122. 
Candona Mantelli^ 14. 
Cardita planicoBta, 117. 
Carisbrook, brick-earth at, 222 ; Chalk 

Bock at, 86; Cbloritic Marl at, 81 1 

fault at, 242; gravel at, 210, 212; 

Headon Hill Sands near, 122, 128; 

well at, 301. 
Carpenters, Bembridge Marls near, 174. 
Carruthers, Mr. W., on Cycadean fruits^ 

258. 
Carstone, 20, 50, 52-54, 56 ; fossils of 

the. 54; of Bonchurch, 64; of 

Compton Bay, 22, 28 ; of Marvel, 42 ; 

of Norfolk, 52 ; of Punfield, 37, 88, 

52 ; of Rock, 41 ; of Sandown, 85 ; 

of the central Downs, 55-57 ; of the 

southern Downs, 57-^9. 
Caves in the chalk-difb, 75, 82 
Cement Works, 251. 
CenlAtiiai concavum^ 145; C. elegatiM, 

185; C. mutabUe, 172; C. plieatum, 

185 ; C pseudo^inctum, 145. 
"Cerithium plieatum bed«," 184-186, 

189, 192, 198, 204-206. 
Chale, Blown Sand at, 237; Carstone 

near, 57 ; Sand-rock S«ries of, 45 ; 

source of the Medina at, 285. 
Chalk, 73-93 ; analyses of, 254, 255 ; 

cliffs of, 75, 79, 82; eroded surface 

of, 95, 96 ; features and thickness of, 

78-79; outliers of, 85; used for 

cement-making, 251. 
Chalk Marl, 75, 76, 79-91 ; glauconite 

in, 79. 
Chalk Rock, 75-77, 82-90; analysis of, 

254. 
Chalk Talus, 287, 288. 
Chalybeate Springs, 23, 24, 31, 84, 57. 
Chara Lyeiiii, 151 ; C iubercuiata, 

169 ; C. Wrightii, 146. 
Chert Beds, 66-72 ; reef formed by, 83 ; 

sponge-spicules in, 67. 

T 2 



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340 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



Cbert in the Bembridge Limestone, 161. 

Chessel, Lower Bagshot Beds near, 103. 

Chererton, 86. 

ChicheBter, gand near, 215 ; STncline of, 
2S9. 

Chillerton, Carstone near, 56 ; features 
near, 42 ; Gaalt near, 64 ; gravel near, 
210: springs at, 65; Upper Green- 
sand at, 71. 

Chillerton Down, 85 ; faults on, 242. 

Chilton Cbine, AlIuTinm near, 230, 232 ; 
Plateau Gravel near, 220; valley 
deposits at, 224« 225. 

Chine, origin of the name, 5. 

Chloritic Marl, 66, 79-82 ; of Brixton, 
70, 71 ; of Brook, 70 ; of the Umler- 
cliff, 79-81 ; worked for phosphates, 
79-81, 253, 254. 

Clamerkin, Hamstead Beds near, 196. 

Clatterford, 86. 

Cliff End, Headon Beds of, 135, 138 ; 
Bembridge Limestone of, 160 ; Bem- 
bridge Marls of, 181 ; Osborne Beds 

^ of, 143-150, 152. 

Clupea vectetuis, 152. 

Coal in the Bracklesham Beds, 109, 110, 
114,116,117,252. 

Codrington, Mr. T., on gravels, 211, 
223 ; on a palsDolithic implement, 222. 

Colenutt, Mr. G. W., on the Osborne 
Beds, 152, 155. 

Colwell Bay, 149 ; Headon Beds of, 126- 
128, 131-135, 138; thrust-planes in, 
242. 

Combley, Bembridge Limestone near, 
165 ; Headon Hill Sands at, 123. 

Compression of strata, 97, 99, 244 ; flints ' 
broken by, 77, 78. 

Compton Bay, Carstone of, 55; Chalk 
o^ 82, 88 ; Chalk talus of, 237 ; 
Chloritic Marl of, 81 ; compared with 
Fonfield, 38; Ganlt, 63, 66; glau- 
conite from, 255 ; gravel near, 226 ; 
Lower Greensand of, 18, 21-24, 40, 
55 ; phosphates of, 253 ; Upper Green - 
tand of, 63, 66, 68 ; Wealden Beds of, 
7-11. 

Cones, fossil in the Wealden Beds, 7, 17. 

Continental equivalents of the Iiower 
Greensand, 50, 51. 

Contortions in gravels, 211, 220. 

Canus dormitory 120, 121. 

Coombe Tower, Carstone near, 55 ; 
Chalk near, 85 ; Chert Beds of, 71. 

Copperas, 122. 

Coppin's Bridge, gravel near, 223. 

Coprolites, 86, 37, 81, 258. 

Corbula beds, 184, 185, 189, 192, 193, 
200, 201, 204-207. 

Corbula pinuny 185 ; C uectensis, 185. 

Corfe, flora of, 105. 

Corve, Lower Greensand of, 44. 

Cotton, Mr. W., on fossils from the 
Bembridge Limestone, 162. 

Cowes. See East Cowes and West 
Cowes. 

Cowes, water supply of, 214 ; gravel 
near, 21 2-2 U. 



Cowleaze Chine, a deserted stream-bed, 

233 ; Pema Bed in, 24, 25 ; Wealden 

Beds of, 12, 13, 15. 
Crackers Rock, fauna of, 48, 49 ; of 

Atherfield, 26, 27 ; of Compton Bay ; 

24. 
CraasateUa sulcata, 120, 121. 
Creech Barrow, flora of, 105. 
Cretaceous Beds, flora of the, 105, 106. 
Cridmore, Lower Greensand of, 42, 43. 
Cripple's Path, 69. 

Cross Lane, Hamstead Beds, near, 2()8. 
Culver Cliff, Chalk of, 75, 78, 79, 88, 89 ; 

Chloritic Marl of, 81 ; fault in, 242 ; 

Gault and Upper Greensand of^ 66, 

70 ; origin of the name, 1. 
Cuvier, on cavities in travertine, 161. 
Cifclaa Bristovii, 1 90. 
Cyjtridea spinigerOf 3. 
Cypria comigera, 14. 
Cyrena^ 3 ; C, obtusa, 181 ; C pulchra^ 

172 ; C. aemiatriata, 173. 
*'Cyrena cycladiformis Bed," 130; " C. 

pulchraBed," 130. 
Cytherea incrasaaia^ 144. 
Cytkeridea montoaa, 199. 



Decalcification, of Gault, 60 ; of gravel, 

214, 215 ; of Lower Greensand, 34. 
De la Harpe. See La Harpe. 
Denudation, effects of, 210, 211, 223, 

230, 233, 236, 244, 248-250. 
Dickson's Copse, Nematura pupa bed 

near, 198. 
Ditrupa plena, 98-100. 
Docwra, Messrs., wells communicated 

by, 301,302, 310. 
Dodpits, Bembridge Limestone of, 125. 
Dorchester, a watershed at, 250. 
Dorehill, well in Hamstead Beds at, 205, 

206. 
Dorsetshire, anticline of, 239 ; coast of, 

see Punfield ; thrust-plane in, 241. 
Downend Brick-yard, 94, 95, 104, 213 ; 

Hamstead Beds near, 204. 
Downs, 73, 76, 77 ; Chalk of the, 73-93 ; 

angular gravel on, 209, 210. 
Drainage, origin of the lines of, 248, 

250; in the Weald, 249. 
Drift wood, in Alluvium, 231-233, 236 ; 

in the Bembridge Marls, 181 ; in the 

Lower Greensand, 19, 22, 23, 31, 32, 

36-8'), 46, 49, 54, 55 ; in the Wealden 

Beds, 3, 5-16. 
Dropping Well, 213. 
Dungewood, Lower Greensand of, 44. 
Dansbury, Cbert Beds near, 70. 
Durton Farm, Bembridge Limestone of, 

165 ; Hamstead Beds near, 202. 
Duvillier, M., on analysis of Chalk Rock, 

254. 
Duxmore Farm, Hamstead Beds near, 

203. 



Eades Farm, Headon Beds near, 140. 
East Af ton, Lower Bagshot Beds of, 103. 



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INDEXr 



341 






East Cowes, Bembridge Limestone of, 

125, 158, 165 ; Headon Beds near, 

141, US. 
Easton, Lower Bagshot Beds of, 103; 

gravel at, 228. 
Edwards, Mr. F. E., collection by, 1 13 ; 

on turtles eggs, 159, 162. 
Egypt Point, Bembridge Limestone of, 

165 ; boring at, 315. 
Elephant remains, 211, 222*228. 
Elm Cottage, Bembridge Limestone of, 

165. 
Elm Grove (Newport), Bagshot Beds at, 

104. 
Elwes, Mr. J. W., fossils determined by, 

315, 316. 
Encroachment of the sea, effects of, 223, 

280, 233, 236, 248-250. 
Englefield, Sir H., on St. Boniface 

Well, 92. 
Eocene Beds, 94-123. 
Eremuth, an old name for Taimouth, 

163. 
Etberidge, Mr. R., fossils determined by 

310-318. 
Evans, Mr. Caleb, on the London Clay, 

100. 
Exogifra sinuata, 25. 



Fairfields, Sand-rock Series at, 45. 
lg*airy Hill, Bembridge Marls at, 174. 
Famham, Upper Greensand of, 254, 

255. 
Farrlngford Hoose, Bagshot Beds of, 

103. 
Fanlts, 8, 32, 43, 57, 242; at Ashey, 

100, 114, 115, 241 ; at Carisbrook, 86 ; 

at Chillerton, 85 ; in Dorsetshire, 241 ; 

supposed, in the Medina Valley, 165, 

201. 
Femhill, well at, 317. 
Ferns, in the Lower Greensand, 29 ; in 

the Wealden Beds, 8, 10, 15. 
Ferruginous Sands, 21 ; of Atherfield, 

26-30 ; of Compton Bay, 22, 23 ; of 

Punfield, 37, 38 ; of Sandown to Bon* 

church, 32-34 ; of Sandown to Culver, 

84-37 ; of the central Downs, 40-44 ; 

of the southern Downs, 44-47. 
Finchley, gravel near, 211. 
" Firestone," 66, 67, 69, 70. 
Firestone Copse, borings in, 202. 
Fish-remains, in Chalk, 91 ; in Gault, 

63 ; in Lower Greensand, 25, 86 ; in 

nhe Osborne Series, 148, 150, 152, 155- 

158 ; in Wealden Beds, 8, 14, 15. 
Fisher, Bev. O., on the Bracklesham and 

Barton Beds, 101, 103, 109-113, 115, 

116,118,119. 
Fish-house, brick-earth at, 222. 
Fitton, Dr. H., on the Lower Greensand, 

18, 21, 24-33, 49, 50; on Shepherd's 

Chine, 238 ; on Wealden Beds, 4, 5. 
Five Houses, Lower Bagshot Beds at, 

103. 
Flint-implement, 222. ' 
Flints, 77, 78. 



Flora, of the Bagshot Beds, 104-108 ; of 
the Bembridge Marls^ 178, 181-183; 
of the Hamstead Beds, 190, 192, 203, 
207. 

Fluvio-marine Beds, 124-207. 

Folds, 239-247 ; age of the, 242 ; origin 
of the lines of drainage, 248-250. 

Folkestone Beds, 20, 49, 50, 52-.54. 

Forbes, Prof. E.. on the Chalk, 74 ; on 
the Chloritic Marl, 80 ; on the Fluvio- 
marine Beds, 124, 126-128; on the 
base of the Gault, 55 ; on the Lower 
Greensand, 24, 26, 30, 47-49 ; on 
tufa, 229, 230. 

Foreland, Bembridge Limestone of the, 
167-169; Bembridge Marls of the, 
171-173 ; gravel near the, 217. 

Forest Side, Hamstead Beds at, 195. 

Fox, Bev. W., on reptilian bones, 13. 

Freeplace, Hamstead Beds near, 199. 

Freestone, in the Upper Greensand, 
66-71. 

Freshwater, Bagshot Beds of, 103 ; 
Chalk of, 73, 74, 82, 92; spring at, 
228 ; valley deposits at, 228, 226-228 ; 
well at, 301, 302. 

Freshwater Cl^urch, Headon Beds at, 
139. 

Frogland, Chloritic Marl at, 81. 

Frome, origin of the valley of the, 249, 
250. 

Fullholding, Bembridge Limestone near» 
163; Hamstead Beds near, 199, 200; 
Headon Hill Sands at, 122. 

Fusus longcevus, 120, 121; F. pyrufy 
120, 121. 

Gardner, Mr. J. S., on the flora of the 
Bagshot Beds, 104-108 ; of the Bemr 
bridge Beds, 182, 183; of the Ham- 
stead Beds, 192, 206, 207; of the 
Beadiuff Beds, 97, 106, 107. 

Garretts, Lower Greensand at, 43, 

Garstons, Chalk near, 85; Chloritic 
Marl at, 81. 

Gat Cliff; Upper Greensand of, 66, 72. 

Gatcombe, Alluvium near, 235 ; Chalk 
near, 87; Chert Beds at, 71; Chlo-^ 
ritic Marl near, 81 ; springs near, 65 ; 
structure of country near, 247. 

Gatten, clay-bed at, 46. 

Gaudry, Prof. A., on the Folkestone 
Beds, 53. 

Gault, of Compton Bay, 23, 55, 63 ; of 
Sandown, 35 ; of the Undercliff, 57- 
62, 64 ; slipping of the, 58, 59 ;. 
springs from the, 64, 65; thickness 
and relations of, 52-55, 60, 63 ; used 
for brick-making, 251. 

GervUlia anceps, 27. 

Gibbs, R., 95. 

Gibson, Mr. T. F., on reptilian bonea,. 
17. 

Gilbert, Mr. G. K^ on Ladder Chine, 
237. 

Glacial age of the Plateau Gravels, 211. 

Glaas-sands, 101, 104, 122, 123, 127, 
128. 



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342 



GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



GlaucoDite, analjsifl of, 255; in the 
Chalk, 76 ; in the Chloritic Marl, 66, 
79. 
Qodalming, coprob'te-bed near, 37; 

pebb]e-bed at, 50. 
Grodshill, Lower Greensand of, 45-47 ; 
slipping of the Gault at, 58 ; source of 
the Yar near, 235. 
Godwin-Austen, Mr. B. A. C, bn the 
Flavio-marine Beds, 124; on the 
gravel of Freshwater, 226-228; on 
the Hamstead Beds, 193, 194 ; on the 
Wealden Beds, 4. 
Golden Hill, well at, 139, 301. 
Gore Cliff, Chalk on, 90; Chalk-talas 
on, 237 ; Chloritic Marl of, 81 ; Gault 
of, 64, 66; landslips near, 61, 62; 
phosphate diggings on, 253, 254 ; 
Upper Greensand of, 66, 68, 69. 
Gossard Hill, AUuviam near, 235 ; anti- 
cline near, 245 ; Gault of, 64 ; syn- 
dine of, 71 ; Upper Greensand of, 71. 
Gotten, Sand-rock Series of, 45. 
Grand Arch, the, 75. 
Grange Chine, brick-earth at, 224 ; 
elephant-remains at, 223, 224 ; source 
of the stream of, 232 ; Wealden Beds 
of, 11. 
Grantham, Mr. B. F., well communicated 

bj, 301. 
Gravels, 208-228 ; classification of, 208. 
Great Fan, Bembridge Limestone near, 

165 ; Hamstead Beds near, 202. 
Great Fark, Bembridge Limestone near, 
163 ; Hamstead Beds near, 200 ; Hea- 
don Hill Sands near, 122. 
Great wood Copse, springs at, 65 ; Upper 

Greensand of, 70. 
Green-coated nodules in the Chalk-with- 

fiints, 78. See also Chalk Rock. 
Gr^s du Soissonnais, flora of the, 105. 
Gun Hill, Lower Greensand of, 44. 
Gunville, Barton Clay at, 119; Bem- 
bridge Limestone near, 163 ; gravel 
at, 215 ; Hamstead Beds at, 195, 200 ; 
Headon Hill Sands of, 122, 123; til- 
ting of strata at, 244. 
Gurnard Bay, Bembridge Limestone of, 
125: Bembridge Marls of, 176-178; 
Hamstead Beds of, 176 ; Insect Lime- 
stone of, 176-178; Osborne Series 
near, 150. 
Gurnard Ledge, Bembridge Limestone 
of, 158, 164» 165. 

Hamstead, age of the beds at, 125, 126 ; 

Bembridge Marls of, 178-182; gravel 

at, 215 ; Hamstead Beds of, 184-193, 

196. 
Hamstead Beds, 184-207 ; at Ashlake, 

174, 202 ; at St. Helen's, 174 ; tiltmg 

of the, 242-244. 
Hamstead Ledge, Bembridge Limestone 

of, 158, 163 ; clay-ironstone near, 252. 
Handfast Foint, fault at, 241. 
Hanover Foint. See Brook Foint. 
Hardingshute, Hamstead Beds near, 202. 
H&ring, flora of, 105. I 



Harpe. See La Harpe. 

Haslemere, Pema Bed at, 48. 

Haslett, Lower Greensand of, 41, 44. 

Hassall, Dr. A. H., analysis by, 38. 

" Hassock,** 66. 

Haven Street, Hamstead Beds near, 204 ; 

wdlls at, 303. 
" Hazel-nut Gravels," 231-284. 
Head Down, Upper Greensand of, 66, 72. 
Headon Beds, 124-147 ; erosion at the 

base of, 144 ; of Col well Bay, 149. 
Headon Group of Frof. Judd, 127. 
Headon Hill, Bembridge Limestone of, 
158-160, 169; Bembridge Marls o^ 
181, 182; gravel on, 216; Headon 
Beds of, 124-131, 134, 136, 137; 
Osborne Beds of, 148-150. 
Headon HiU Sands, 101, 109, 117-128, 

127, 130, 133, 135, 139. 
Headon Limestones, character of, 159, 

161. 
Heasley Lodge, Carstone near, 56; 
Chalk near, 87 ; Sand-rock Series at, 
44. 
Heathfield, Hamstead Beds near, 203. 
Heer, Rev. Dr. 0., on the flora of the 

Bagshot Beds, 105, 107. 
Helix globosa^ .159. 

Hewett, Major E. A., wells communi- 
cated by, 3 1 0-3 1 3. 
Hinde, Dr. G. J., on the Chert Beds, 67. 
Hill Cross, Bembridge Marls at, 181. 
Hiil Farm, Bembridge Limestone at, 160. 
Hill Head, Bracklesham Beds at, 113. 
Hillis Farm, Hamstead Beds near, 197. 
Hill, Mr. W., on green nodules in the 

Chalk, 78, 79. 
Hog's Back, the, 240. 
Holaster planus^ zone of, 92. 
Hooker, Sir J., on the flora of the 

Reading Beds, 97. 
Horestone Foint, Bembridge Limestone 
of, 167; Bembridge Marls of, 173; 
Osborne Beds at, 156, 157. 
Horringford, anticline at, 43 ; gravel at, 
219, 221, 251 ; Lower Greensand at, 
43. 
Horseledge, 33, 49. 
Horse Sand Fort, well at, 310-312. 
Howgate Farm, brick-earth near, 221, 

222. 
How Ledge, 132, 136-138 ; thrust-planes 

near, 242. 
Hulke, Mr. J. W., on reptilian remains, 

11-13. 
Hunny Hill, Hamstead Beds at, 200. 
Hydraulic cement, 251. 
Hydrohia Chasteliy, 175, 189, 190, 
" Hypsilophodon Bed," 13, 15, 17. 
Hythe Beds, 21. 

Ibbetson, Capt. L. L. B., on a supposed 
unconformity, 90; on Bembridge 
Limestone, 169; on phosphatic 
nodules, 253, 254 ; on Lower Green- 
sand, 24, 26, 30, 32, 83, 47-49'; on 
Upper Greensand, 67. 

Idlecombe Down, 86. 



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INDEX. 



343 



Ignanodon bones, 7, 18, 17; footprints 

of, 7. 
« Inseet limestone/' 171, 176-178, 182. 
Inyerted beds, 104. 
Iron ore, 852 ; grains of, 85, 86, 40, 48, 

64; oolitic, 28, 29, 88, 41, 59. 
Itchall, Carstone at, 58; Sand-rock 

Series at, 45. 

Jones, Prof. T. B., on cyprids, 14, 175, 
178, 898, 299. 

Jndd, Prof. X W., on Oligooene Beds, 
126, 127, 185 ; on Punfleld, 4, 88, 
89 ; on Lower Greensand, 4, 19, 50, 
51 ; on Wealden Beds, 4, 17. 

Jukes-Browne, Mr. A. J., on Ghloritic 
Marl, 80 ; on " Vectian," 20. 

Keeping, Mr. H., on Bembridge Lime- 
stone, 160 ; on Braoklesham and 
Barton Beds, 115, 118-120; on 
Hamstead Beds, 198, 194, 200; on 
HeadonBeds, 127, 186-189, 148, 144. 

Kern, Carstone near, 56 ; Chalk at, 87 ; 
Sand-rock Series at, 44. 

Kinder, Mr. A., well commnnicated by, 
805, 306. 

King's Qaay, Bembridge Limestone of, 
166 ; Osborne Beds of, 152. 

Kingston, Lower Greensand of, 29, 42, 
44 ; watershed at, 248. 

Knighton, Carstone near, 56 ; Sand-rock 
Series at, 44 ; springs near, 65 ; Upper 
Greensand at, 72 ; wells at, 804. 

Knock Cliff, Carstone at, 59 ; Ganlt of, 
64 ; Sand-rock Series of, 84. 

Knowles, Carstone near, 57. 

Judder Chine, gravel of, 284 ; origin of, 
287 ; Lower Greensand of, 28. 

La Harpe, Dr. P. de, on the Bagshot 
Beds, 105. 

Lake, Lower Greensand o^ 47. 

Lancing, Reading Beds at, 97. 

Landslips, 60-62, 72. 

Lee Farm, Hamstead Beds near, 199. 

Lenham, Pliocene Deposits of, 242. 

Lepidosteusy 150, 152, 158. 

Lessland, Lower Greensand of, 45. 

Lewisham, Woolwich Beds at, 107. 

Lignite, in the Bracklesham Beds, 109, 
110, 112-114, 116, 117 ; in the Lower 
Greensand, 22, 28, 26, 81, 32, 36, 37, 
49, 54, 55 ; in the Wealden Beds, 5- 
18, 15, 17 ; phosphatle, 252. 

Limnma longUcata, 146. 

Linstone Chine, 182, 188. 

Little Cheesell, Headon Beds of, 139, 
140. 

Little Doxmore, Bembridge Limestone 
of, 165 ; Hamstead Beds near, 208. 

Little Kitbridge, Hamstead Beds near, 
200. 

little Lynn Common, grarel on, 214 ; 
Hamstead Beds at, 204, 205. 

Little Nnnwell, Bembridge Limestone 
of, 165; Headon Hills Sands near, 
123. 



Little Pan, Bembridge Limestone near, 
165 ; Hamstead Beds near, 202, 208. 

Little Shambler's Copse, Bembridge 
Limestone of, 165. 

Little Stairs Point, &nlt at, 242, 245; 
graTel of, 219; Lower Greensand of, 
47. 

Little Whitcombe, anticline at, 43. 

« Lobster Beds," 24, 26, 27. 

Lock, Mr., wells communicated by, 806, 
808. 

London Basin, Bagshot Beds of the, 101, 
109 ; syndine of the, 289. 

London Clay, 97-100 ; basement-bed of 
the, 97-99 ; flora of the, 105, 106. 

Longford House, well at, 803. 

Longlands, Bagshot Beds at, 104. 

Long Lane^ Hampstead Beds near, 208. 

Lower Bagshot Beds, 101-109. 

"Lower Freshwater Formation" of 
Webster, 124, 125. 

Lower Greensand, 4, 18-20, 25, 88, 35, 
47-49; glanconite of , 255 ; phosphates 
in, 252, 253 ; of Ather6eld, 24-32 ; 
of Bonchurch, 84, 59 ; of Culver Cliff, 
36-37, 57 ; of Punfield, 37^9 ; of 
Sandown, 82, 84-87 ; of Shanklin, 83, 
34, 59. 

Lower Hamstead, Hamstead Beds near, 
196. 

Lower Hide brick-pit, 33, 46. 

Luccomb Chine, Ciu^one near, 59; 
dip of strata near, 245 ; Lower Green- 
sand of, 33, 34 ; old source of the Yar 
near, 286; Upper Greensand near, 
69. 

Lynn Farm, Headon Hill Sands near, 
123. 

Main Bench, 75, 93. 

Maiden, Bev. C, on rainfall, 256. 

Malm Rock, 66-72. 

Mammalian bones in the Hamstead Beds, 

194. 
Mann, Mr. J. B., on rainfall, 256. 
Mantell, Dr. G. A., on Palmacitea, 169 ; 

on reptilian bones, 11, 17, 68; on 

the " Pine Raft," 6, 7. 
Margate, Chalk of, 93. 
Marks Corner, Hamstead Beds near, 

200. 
Marshfield, Bembridge Limestone near, 

163. 
Marvel, anticline at, 43; Carstone at, 

56 ; Sand-rock Series at, 42. 
Meden, an old name for the Island, 1. 
Medina, 218 ; Alluvium of the, 235 ; 

borings along the, 175, 198, 201. 
Medina Cottage, Hamstead Beds near, 

198. 
Medina Valley, a^e of the, 212 ; Lower 

Greensand of the, 45 ; valley deposits 

ofthe, 222, 228. 
Melania foiciata, 185, 192. 
Melania turritiaasima, 181 ; range of, 

174. 
Meianopsis carinaia, 182; M, suhfiuh 

formis, 145. 



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344 



GEOLOGY OP THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



Melbourn Bock, 76, 88-90, 92. 
Mersley Dowd, 87, 98 ; gravel on, 210. 
Merston, Lower Greensand of, 48. 
Mew & Co.'s WeD, 140, 166, 176, 200, 

805, 306. 
Meyer, Mr. C. J. A., on the Chloritic 

Marl, 80; on the Lower Greensand 

37, 50; on the Pnnfield fossils, 38, 

39 ; on the Wealden Beds, 4. 
Afieraater coranffutMum, zone of, 98 ; 

M, cor-teBtudinariufHy zone of, 92. 
Middle Bagshot Beds, 101, 109-117. 
Middleton, Headon Beds of, 137. 
Midhurst, Folkestone Beds of, 50; 

Gault of, 58, 54. 
Miocene flora, 107. 
Miocene period, Hamstead Beds formerly 

referred to the, 184. 
Monk's Bay, Carstone of, 59 ; Sand-rock 

Series of, 34. 
Monocline, effect of on the apparent 

thickness of strata, 97. 
Monte Bolca, flora of, 105, 107. 
Mornhill Farm, Headon Hill Sandu near, 

128. 
Morris, Prof. J., on the Bemhridge Lime- 
stone, 168 ; on the Bemhndge Marls, 

179, 180. 
Morton Farm, Lower Greensand near, 

44. 
Mottistone, Chalk near, 83, 84, 98; 

Lower Greensand of, 40. 
Mount Joy, 86. 
Mount Misery, gravel on, 218. 
Mud-rivers of Gault, 58, 59. 
Mull, flora of, 107. 
Mwrex asper, I20f 121. 
Mya minor, 192. 
Mylne, Mr., well communicated hy, 810. 

Needles, the, 73, 75, 93. 

"Nematura Beds," 189-191, 195-200, 

202. 
Nematura pupOf 190. 
<< Neritina Bed," 180, 182, 186, 189, 146. 
Neshit, Mr. J. C, on phosphates, 258, 

254. 
Nettlestone, Oshome Beds at, 152-157. 
Newbam, Chalk near, 85. 
Newbridge, Bembri^ge Limestone of, 

158, 168; gravel at, 215; Headon 

Beds near, 140. 
Newbury, Mr., well communicated by, 

816. 
Newchurch, Alluvium near, 286 ; anti- 
cline near, 44 ; gravel at, 219 ; Lower 

Greensand at, 48, 47. 
Newdose Farm, Bemhridge Limestone 

near, 163. 
Newclose House, Carttone at, 56. 
New Ditch Point, 82. 
New Farm, Himistead Beds at, 204. 
New Forest, gravels of the, 211. 
Newman, Mr. F., wells communicated by, 

304. 
Newport, Alluviam at, 285; Bagshot 

Beds at, 104 ; Bemhridge Limestone 

at, 165; Bemhridge Marls at, 176; 



brick-earth at, 222 ; Hamstead Bedff 

near, 191, 192, 195, 200-203; Headon 

Beds at, 140, 142 ; Osborne .Beds at, 

148; Beading Beds at, 94; wells at, 

805-308. 
Newport Down, shattered flints on, 78. 
Newport Waterworks, well at, 801. 
Newton, Mr. £. T., on Bracklesham 

fossils from Ashey, 115; on the 

Wealden reptiles, 259. 
Newtown, Bemhridge Limestone near, 

163, 164; blown sand of, 237; fold in 

the strata near, 243 ; Hamstead Beds 

near, 196; *' Insect limestone " near, 

177 ; Osborne Series near, 150. 
Ninffwood, Hamstead Beds near, 199. 
Nixmam, gravel at, 221. 
Niton, Carstone near, 57 ; Sand-rock 

Series near, 82 ; source of the Yar at, 

221 ; springs at, 65. 
Node's Point, Bemhridge Limestone of, 

167. 
Nodes, the, 98. 
Noke Farm, Hamstead Beds near, 200, 

201, 204. 
Neman Fort, well at, 812, 818. 
Norman, Mr. M., on landslips, 61, 62 ; 

on Upper Greensand, 66, 69. 
Norris Castle, Bemhridge Limestone at, 

165; Headon Beds near, 141, 142; 

gravel near, 214. 
North Downs, Pliocene Beds on thci 

242. 
North Park, Bemhridge Limestone near, 

163 ; Hamstead Beds near, 200. 
Northwood, gravel at, 214; Hamstead 

Beds near, 200, 201. 
Norton, Bemhridge Limestone near, 162 ; 

Bemhridge Marls near, 181. 
Norton Green, gravel at, 216. 
Nummulites in the Barton Clay, 118, 

120; in the Bracklesham Beds, 111- 

113, 117. 
Nunwell, compression of beds at, 243 ; 

Hamstead Beds near, 203. 

Oakfield, gravel near, 217. 

Oldhaven Beds, 97-99. 

Oldpepper rock, 82. 

Oligocene Beds, 124-207 ; thickness of 
the, 127. 

Oshome Beds, 126, 127, 148-158 ^ lime- 
stone, 148-150. 

Osborne, Bemhridge Limestone of, 166 ; 
gravel near, 214; Hamstead Bedf 
near, 201 ; Headon Beds of, 141, 142 ; 
Osborne Beds of, 148, 151 ; rainfallat, 
256. 

Ostrea caUifera, 198, 194 ; O.JlabeibUa^ 
144 ; O. vecteiuis, 182. 

Owen, Prof Sir B., on reptilian bones, 
18. 

Paf(ham, Sand-rock Series at, 42. 
Paine, Mr. J. M., on phosphates, 252, 

258 ; on soluble silica, 254, 255. 
Paleolithic implement, 222. 
Pallance, Hamstead Beds at, 197. 



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INDEX. 



345 



Palmer's Brook, HamBtead Beds near, 

201. 
Palmer's Farm, gravel near, 213. 
Pahtdina lentOj 146 ; P.Jluviorumt 8. 
Panopaa intermedia^ 99, 100 ; P. minor^ 

192 ; P. jdicaia, 27. 
Paper-shales, 8, 8, 10, 18. 
Paris Basin, correlation with the, 105, 

125, 126. 
Parkhurst Forest, alum-works in, 252 ; 

gravel of, 214; Hamstead Beds of, 

184, 191-195, 200, 204 ; wells at, 308. 
Parkinson, Mr. C, on the Upper Green- 
sand, 66, 68, 80. 
Parsons, Mr. T., wells commnnicated hy, 

306-809. 
Pattison, Mr., on analysis of Chalk, 255. 
Peacock Hill, Bemhndge Limestone of, 

166. 
Peat, 235, 236. 
Pecfen aaper, zone of, 79, 80 ; P. recon- 

ditus, 120, 122. 
Pennant, Mr. T., on Brading Harbour, 

1, 236. 
Pema Bed, at Atherfield, 24-26; at 

Compton Bay, 21 ; at Pnnfield, 38, 39 ; 

at Sandown, 35, 36; pebbles in the, 

19, 25, 85, 83, 39. 
Pema Mulkti, 24. 
Petersfield, Folkestone Beds at, 50. 
Phillips, Frof . J., on the term " Veo- 

tian,''2. 
Phipeon, Dr. T. L., on analyses of fossil 

wood, 252, 253. 
Pholadomya margariiacea, 99. 
Phorus a^glutinana, 120, 121. 
Phosphatic nodules, 6, 22, 25, 85-38, 50, 

53, 55, 57, 68, 70, 76, 79-81, 252-254. 
Physical features, 1, 2, 248-250. 
"Pine-raft,"6, 7, 11,252. 
Pitma affinis, 100. 

Pipe-day in the Bagshot Beds, 101-108. 
Place Brick-yard, 197, 198, 214. 
Planar bis discus, 161; P. euomphaluSf 

146. 
Plant-bed in the Osborne Series, 148, 

150, 152, 155, 156, 158. 
Plants of the Bagshot Beds, 104-108 ; 

of the Bembrid^ Marls, 178, 181- 

183 ; of the Hamstead Beds, 190, 192, 

203,206,207 ; of the Beading Beds, 97, 

106, 107 ; of Sheppey, 105, 106, 108. 
Plastic Clay, 94-97. 
Plateau Gravels, 208-220. 
" Platnore," 60. 

Player, Mr. J. H., on glanconite, 255. 
Porohfield, Bembridge Limestone of, 

164 ; Hamstead Beds near, 196, 197. 
Portsdown anticline, 239, 240. 
Poiamocypris Brodiei, 178. 
Potamomya plana, 145. 
Pottery clays, 94. 
Ponndgreen, Headon Beds of, 139. 
Prawns in the Osborne Beds, 157, 158. 
Presfoi^d, Sand-rock Series at, 41. 
Preston, gravel at, 216. 
Prestwich, Prof. J., on the Bagshot Beds, 

101 ; on the Bembridge Limestone, 



169 ; on the Bracklesham Beds, 109- 

113 ; on the London Clay, 97, 98 ; on 

the Reading Beds, 94. 
Price, Mr. F. G. H., on the Gault, 58, 

65. 
Priory, Bembridge Marls near the, 174. 
Priory Point, Osborne Beds at, 154, 156, 

167. 
Proteacea in the Eocene Beds, 108. 
Psammobia compressa, 120, 121. 
Pseudocythere Bristovii, 175. 
Puckpool Farm, Osborne Beds at, 154. 
Pulborougb, base of the Gkult at, 53, 

54 ; Folkestone Beds at, 50 ; shale-bed 

at, 20, 50. 
« Pnnfield Beds," 4. 
Pnnfield, Chalk at, 89, 90 ; Gault and 

Upper Greensand at, 66, 82 ; Lower 

Greenjsand at, 4, 18, 19, 87-39, 51, 

52 ; Wealden Beds at, 4, 8, 9. 
Purbeck, a watershed in the Isle of, 250. 
Pyle, Lower Greensand at, 44. 

Quarr Abbey, Bembridge Limestone at, 

166. 
Quarrels Copse, Hamstead Beds at, 206. 

"Race," 195. 

«' Rag," 66, 69, 70. 

RainSui, 256. 

Ramsay, Sir A., on Bembridge Lime- 
stone, 168 ; on Bembridge ]^&rls, 179, 
180; on coal-seams in Alum Bay, 
110; on the eroded surface of the 
Chalk, 95. 

Rams Down, 66, 71. 

Reading Bede, 94-97 ; used for pottery, 
251. 

Redclifi; 18, 35-37 ; Carstone of, 57 ; 
phosphates at, 50, 253. 

Redhill, Carstone at, 58; Sand-rock 
Series at, 45. 

Redway, Lower Greensand of, 48. 

Renevier, M., on the Lower Greensand, 
50, 51. 

Beptiliau bones, 259, 260; from the 
Upper Greensand, 66, 68 ; from the 
Wealden Beds, 7, 11-13, 15-17. 

Rew Down, 248, 250. 

Rew Farm, Chalk of, 91. 

Rew Street, gravel at, 215. 

Rhinoceros, 211. 

RicketshiU, Hamstead Beds at, 204. 

Rill, Gatdt at, 64 ; Sand-rock Series at, 
46. 

** Rise of Yar," 228. 

River-systems, 248-250. 

Road-metal, 67,72,210,218, 218,219, 
221, 234, 251. 

Rock, Carstone at, 55 ; Sand-rook Series 
at, 41. 

Rocken End, Lower Greensand near, 80, 
31. ' . 

Rolls Bridge, Hamstead Beds near, 197. 

Rookley, brick-pit at, 251 ; Carstone 
near, 56 ; Upper Greensand at, 71. 

Roots in Bembridge Marls, 190, 195. 

Roslin, Carstone near, 56. 



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S46 



GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OP WIGHT. 



Eosteliaria rimosa, ISO, 121. 

Boud, claj-bed near, 45. 

Boughland, 5, 6. 

BowboroQgh, 86. 

" Bubatone," 66, 67, 69, 70. 

Boffin's Copse, gravel at, 214, 215. 

Bossell's Farm, dav-bed near, 45. 

Byde, Bembridge Limestone at, 166, 

167 ; Bembridge Marls near, 174 ; 

Fluvio-marine Beds at, 125; gravel 

near, 216, 217 ; Osborne Beds at, 153. 
Byde House, Osborne Beds at, 152, 153, 

156. 
Byde Waterworks, London Clay at, 97 ; 

wells at, 304, 805. 



Sainham, Sand-rock Series at, 45. 

St. Boniface Down, 91 ; gravel on, 210, 
251. 

St. Boniface Well, 91, 92. 

St Catherine's Down, a watershed, 248 ; 
Carstone of, 58 ; Chalk of, 90 ; chalk- 
talus on, 237 ; dip in, 245, 246 ; &ult 
in, 242 ; gravel on, 210 ; landslip 
near, 62 ; pbosphate-difgings, 253, 
254 ; Sand-rock Series o^ 45 ; scarce 
of the Yar, 228, 235 $ Upper Green- 
sand of, 66, 72. 

St. Geoige's Down, gravel on, 211-213, 
219, 251 ; Lower Greensand of, 48. 

St. Uelen's, Bembridge' Limestone of, 
167, 174; Bembridge Marls of, 171, 
173, 174; gravel at, 216, 217; 
Osborne Beds at, 154-157 ; Hamstead 
Beds at, 174, 202 ; wells at, 809, 810. 

St. Helen's Series, 148-158. 

St. Lawrence, Chalk near, 91 ; Chloritic 
Marl at, 81 ; rainfall at, 256. 

St. Martin's Down, dip in, 246 ; Upper 
Greensand of, 66, 72. 

Salter, Mr. J. W., on the junction of the 
Wealden and Lower Greensand, 48. 

Saltmoor Copse, Lower Bagshot Beds 
in, 104. 

Sandford, brick-pit at, 83 ; gravel near, 
219, 221 ; Lower Greensand of, 83, 
45, 46. 

Sandgate Beds, 21, 49, 50. 

Sand in the Hamstead Beds, 191, 192, 
201, 208, 204. 

Sandown, anticline at, 5, 16, 42-44, 240, 
245-247; brick-pit at, 251; Ganlt 
near, 64 ; gravel near, 219 ; Lower 
Greensand near, 82-37 ; Wealden 
Beds, 16, 17. 

Sandown Level, 286. 

Sand-rock Series, 20; correlated with 
tbe^ Folkestone Beds, 49, 50, 52-54 ; 
of Atherfield, 80-82; of Bonchurch, 
84; of Compton Bay, 22-23; of 
Ci|lver, 35, 36 ; of Punfield, 87, 38 ; 
of the Central Downs, 40-44 ; of the 
Southern Downs, 44-47. 

Saxby, Mr. S. M., on a crayfish, 66. 

Sconce, Bembridge Limestone of, 158, 
160-162; Bembridge Marls of, 181; 
bricks used at, 222. 



Scratchell's Bay, 75, 79. 

Sea View, Bembridge Limestone o( 167 ; 

Bembridge Marls at, 174 ; brick-euth 

near, 221 ; Osborne Beds at, 152, 156. 
Sedgwick, Prof. A., on the Fluvio-lftuine 

Beds, 125. 
Sedmore Point, 5-7, 11, 16. 
Seeds in the Bembridge Marls, 181, 182. 
Selsey, Bracklesham Beds of, 109, 118, 

117; gravel at, 217. 
Sbaleombe, Bembridge Limestone sear, 

163 ; vertical beds at, 244. 
Shalcombe Down, 88, 84, 98; Chalk 

Bock of, 254. 
Shalfleet, Bembridge Marls near, 181; 

Hamstead Beds near, 199 ; Lower 

Baffshot Beds near, 108. 
Shammer's Copse, Bembridge Marls 

near, 175. 
Shanklin, anticline near, 245; an old 

source of the Yar, 286 ; brick -pit near, 

251 ; Carstone near, 59 ; clay-beds 

near, 50; gravel near, 219; iron- 
pyrites at, 252; phosphates at, 258; 

quarries near, 251 ; Sand-rock Series 

near, 46, 47 ; Upper Greensand at, 69 ; 

water-works at, 65. 
Shanklin Chine, 38. 
Shanklin Down, 92 ; a watershed, 248 ; 

gravel on, 210. 
"Shanklin Sands," 20. 
Shanklin Spa, 32, 38. 
Sharmau, Mr. G., on fossils from Ashey, 

115. 
Sheat, anticline near, 71. 
Sheepwash, Carstone at, 68. 
Shepherd's Chine, Alluvium o? 282, 

234; Wealden Beds o^ 18-15. 
Sbeppey, flora of, 105, 106, 108. 
Shide, brick-earth near, 222. 
Shingle (in gravel), 215-217. 
Ship Chine, 15. 
Ship Ledge, 11. 
Shippard's Chine, Alluvium of, 280-282, 

234 ; gravel of, 225, 226 ; Wealden 

Beds of, 8. 
Shorwell, Chalk near, 85, 86; Chert 

Beds at, 71 ; Lower Greensand of, 41 ; 

spring at, 65, 232. 
« Shotterwick," 66, 69. 
Sibbecks, Sand-rock Series at, 45. 
Signal House in Parkhurst Forest, 

borings near the, 194, 200. 
Silica in the Chalk, 77 ; in the Upper 

Greensand, 67. 
Silicified shells in the Headon Beds, 

141. 
Simms, Mr. F. W., on the Gault, 64 ; on 

the Iiower Greensand, 24. 
Skinners Grove Tile Works, 197. 
Skinner's Hill, gravel at, 219 ; Ix>wer 

Greensand at, 44. 
Slide faults, 241, 242. See also Ashey. 
** Slipper," a name for clay, 60, 
Small Moor, Lower Greensand o^ 41, 

44. 
Smith, Mr. E. J. A'Court, on the Bern- 
bridge Beds, 176-178. 



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INBEX« 



347 



Smhh, Mr. F., on the Bembridge Beds, 

177. 
Solent, 1 ; an old riTer-Tallej, 811, 249. 
Sotyka, flora of, 105. 
Sowerby, Mr. G. B., on the Headon 

Beds, 125. 
Spain, Neocomian Bocks of, 51. 
Spithead Defences, wells at the, 810- 

818. 
Sponges, in the Chalk, 78 ; in the Upper 

Qreensand, 67. 
Springs, 64, 65, 71, 79, 89, 282, 286. 
Spar Lake, Bembridge Limestone of, 

164. 
Stag Bock, grayel on, 227. 
Standen, Cuetone near, 56; Sand-rock 

Series at, 48; Upper Qreensand at, 

71. 
Staplers, gravel near, 213; Hamstead 

Beds at, 203, 204 ; well at, 818. 
Star Inn, qoartz-grit near, 42. 
Stenbory Down, 91 ; gravel on, 210. 
Sticelett, Hamstead Beds of, 196, 197; 

Bembridge Limefitone near, 165 ; 

Bembridge Marls of, 176. 
Stone, Lower Greensand at, 48. 
Stonesteps, Hamstead Beds near, 199. 
Stroad Wood, Hamstead Beds near, 

202, 204. 
Stubbington, Bracklesham Beds at, 118. 
Stndland, flora of, 105, 107. 
Snmmerhouse Point, Osborne Beds at, 

154, 156, 157. 
Son Corner, 83 ; flints at, 78. 
Sussex, the Lower Greensand of, com« 

pared, 50. 
Synclines, 239-247; of Gossard Hill, 

71 ; of the Hampshire Basin, 249 ; of 

the London Basin, 249. 
Swainstone, Bembridge Limestone near, 

163 ; London Clay near, 97. 
Swanage, 8. 
Switzerland, the Neocomian Bocks of, 

50, 51. 

Tawney, Mr. E. B., on the Headon Beds, 
127, 136-139,148,144. 

Taylor, Mr., wells communicated by, 
806. 

Teall, Mr. J. J. H., on Carstone, 52, 58 ; 
on glanconite, 255. 

Terebratuin sella, 28. 

Terraces of river-gravel, 220-228. 

Thames, the valley of the, 249. 

Thorley, Bembridge Limestone near, 1 68. 

Thomess Bay, Bembridge Limestone of, 
164, 165; Bembridge Marls of, 176; 
fold near, 248. 

Thomess, Bembridge Limestone near, 
164 ; gravel at, 215 ; Hamstead Beds 
of, 196, 197. 

Thometti Point, Bembridge Marls at, 
178. 

Thmst-planes. See Slide-faults. 

Tilley & Sons, Messrs., well communi- 
cated by, 818,814. 

Tinker's Lane, gravel at, 214 ; Ham- 
stead Beds at, 197. 



lV>ploy,Mr. W., on the Folkestone Beds, 

58 ; on the Weald, 249. 
ToUand Bay, Headon Beds of, 126, 128- 

188 ; tufa in, 229, 280. 
Townend,Mr., wells communicated by, 

808. 
Travertmes of the Paris Basin, 161. 
Trees, fotail in the Wealden Beds, 6-1 1, 

18, 15 ; in Alluvi m, 231-288, 286. 
Trial*boring8 in the Hamstead Beds, 

191, 198. 
<< TrigonoccBlia Bed," 186. 
Tuft, at Widdick Chine, 229, 280 ; at 

York's Farm, 230. 
TufaceoQi ehamcter of the Bembridge 

Limestone, 161. 
Tunnel, at Ventnor, 72. 
7\irritella imbrieataria, 1 17. 
Tnrtle-eggs, supposed, 159, 162. 
Tyne Hall, gravel at, 217. 
Typhis pungens, 120, 122. 

Unconformity, supposed, between the 
Bocene and OUgocene Series, 124, 
125. 

Underclay in the Bracklesham Beds, 
110. 

Undercliff,*Chloritic Marl of the, 79-81 ; 
Gault of the, 57-68, 64 ; landslips of 
the, 60-62 ; rainfall of the, 256 ; 
Upper Greensand of the, 65, 66. 

Unto Gibbsil, 190; U. Solandri, 145; 
17. vMensis, 7. 

Upper Bagshot Beds, 101, 109, 117-128, 
127. 

Upper Cockleton, Hamstead Beds at, 
197. 

Upper Freshwater Formation of Web- 
ster, 124, 125. 

Upper Greensand, 65-72 ; building- 
stone in the, 251 ; phosphatic nodules 
in the, 253 ; soluble silica of the, 254, 
255. 

Upper Hide, clay bed atp47. 

Upper Marine Formation ot Webster, 
124, 125. 

Upper Neocomian. See Lower Green- 
sand. 

Upper Yard, quartz-grit near, 42. 

Upton Mill, Hamstead Beds near, 204. 

Utrillas, Neocomian Bocks of, 51. 

Valley Gravels, 208, 210, 211, 220-228. 
^Vectian," name proposed for the 

Fluvio-marine Series, 2 ; fbr the Lower 

Greensand, 20. 
" Yectine," name proposed for the Lower 

Greensand, 20. 
Vectis, the Boman name for the 

Island, 1. 
Ventnor, Chalk near, 91 ; Chloritic Marl 

near, 80, 81 ; dip near, 246 ; quarries 

near, 251 ; Upper Greensand of, 69 ; 

water supply of, 65. 
" Venus Bed," 129, 182, 186, 140, 144. 
VignoUes, Mr., boring communicated by, 

315. 



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348 



GE0L06T OP 1:HB ISLE OP WIGHT. 



Vodcker, Dr., on an analjriis of ohalk, 

255. 
Volut'a luctatrix, 120, 121. 
Von Buch, or trsiyertines, 161. 



Wackland, Lower Greensand at, 44. 

Wall Lane, Bembridge Limestone of^ 
165. 

Walpen Chine, Gravel, &c. of, 284, 285 ; 
Lower Greensand of, 28-80. 

Warden Ledge, 188, 188. 

Warden Point, diagram of the cli£b 
near, 14V. 

Warminster Beds, equivalents of the, 67, 
80. 

Warren Hill, Lower Greensand of, 44. 

Watch House Point, Bembridge Lime- 
stone of, 167 ; Osborne Beds of, 154. 

Watcombe Bay, 92. 

Water-lilj bed in the Hamstead Beds, 
189 192. 

Watenheds, 285, 248-250. 

Watford, age of gravel near, 211. 

Way, Mr. J. T., on phosphates, 252, 
253 ; on soluble silica, 254, 255. 

Weald, anticline of the, 289, 240, 242 ; 
drainage system of the, 249* 

Wealden Beds, 8-17 ; equivalents of the, 
4 ; marine fossils in the, 4, 18 ; of 
Brook and Atherfield, 11-16; of Brook 
and Compton Bay, 5-11 ; of Sandown, 
16, 17; phosphates in, 252; relations 
to the Lower Greensand, 4, 18, 19, 25, 
85, 47 ; thickness of the, 8, 7-11, 18- 
17. 

Wealden Shales, 8-5, 8-10, 12-19 ; used 
for bricks, 251. 

Weathering of Lower Greensand, 84. 

Webster, Mr. T., on a fault, 241; on 
"hazel-nnt gravels," 281; on the 
Chalk, 75 ; on the East End hindslip, 
61 ; on die Pluvio-marine Beds, 124, 
125 ; on the " Pine Baft," 6. 

Week Down, a watershed, 250. 

Week Parm, Chalk of, 91. 

Wellow, Bembridge Limestone of, 158, 
168 ; Osborne Series near, 150. 

Werror Brickyard, 198. 

West Court, Sand-rock Series near, 41. 

West Cowes, Bembridge Limestone of, 
125, 158, 165 ; Bembridge Marls of, 
176, 177 ; Osborne Beds c^ 148, 150 ; 
weU at, 140, 175, 176, 198, 818-815. 

West Medina Cement Works, 175, 176, 
198-200, 80(V-808. 

Weston Chine, Headon Beds of, 188, 
187. 

Westover, Lower Bagshot Beds at, 108 ; 
jpravel near, 210. 

Wbale Chine, Alluvium of, 284 ; Lower 
Greensand of, 28. 

Wheatkm Brook, Headon Beds of, 189. 

"Whills,"66,69. 

Whippance, Hamstead Beds near, 197. 

Whippingham, Bembridge Marls near, 
175 ; gravel near, 214 ; Hamstead 
Beds near, 201. 



Whitaker, Mr. W., on Chalk, 83, 84. 86- 

88 ; on Chalk Rock, 75 ; on flints, 78 ; 

, on London Clay, 97, 98 ; on Beading 

Beds, 95, 96 ; wells communicated by, 

801,804,815,816. 

Whitcombe, Chert Beds at, 71. 

" White Band," the, 184, 185, 187-189, 
191, 192, 195, 197, 199,203. 

Whitecliff Bay, Lower Bagshot Beds of, 
103; Barton Clay of, 119, 120; Bern- 
bridge Lim^tone of, 167-169 ; Bem- 
bridge Marls of, 170-178 ; Brackle- 
sham Beds of, 101, 108, 109-114, 116, 
117; fold in the strata of, 243; Headon 
Beds of, 142-144 ; Headon HiU Sands 
of, 128; London Clay of, 97-100; 
Osborne Beds of, 157 ; Reading Beds 
of, 94, 95. 

Whitecroft, Carstone near, 56. 

Whitehayes, well at, 818. 

Whitehbuse Parm, Hamstead Beds near, 
197. 

Whitwell, a soorce of the Yar, 221, 285 ; 
springs at, 65. 

Widdick Chine, Headon Beds of, 185, 
187, 188 ; tnfit at, 229, 280. 

Wilderness, Alluvium of the, 235. 

Wilkins, Dr. E. P., on the Hamstead 
Beds, 201. 

Wiltshire, overlap of Wealden Beds in, 
19. 

Winstone, Carstone near, 59 ; Sand- 
rock Series near, 46. 

Wolverton, Lower Greensand of, 41, 44. 

Woodvale, well at, 141, 815, 816. 

Woodward, Dr. H„ on the "Insect 
limestone," 176-178. 

Woolverton, Bembridge Marls near, 174. 

Woolwich Beds, flora of the, 106, 107. 

Wootton Bridge, Bembridge Marls near, 
175; gravel at, 216; Hamstead Beds 
near, 174. 

Wootton Creek, an old valley, 218; 
Bembridge Limestone of, 166 ; brick- 
earth of, 222. 

Wootton, gravel near, 214 ; Hamstead 
Beds of, 184, 192, 201-206 ; wells at, 
816-818. 

Wroxall, a source of the Yar at, 221, 
285; brick-pits near, 251; Carstone 
at, 58 ; Gault near, 64 ; springs at, 65 ; 
Upper Greensand near, 72. 

Wydcombe, C^urstone at, 58 ; Sand-rock 
Series at, 45 ; springs at, 65. , 



Yafibrd, Lower Greensand of, 41. 

Yar (eastern). Alluvium of the, 285; 
blown sand of, 287; change in the 
course o^ 218, 219 ; LowerGreensand 
of the valley of, 45, 47 ; old tribataries 
of, 248 ; terraces of, 218-222. 

Yar (western). Alluvium of the, 228, 
280-285; blown sand of, 287; old 
sonrees of, 228, 280, 235 ; old tribu- 
taries o( 248 ; valley-deposits of, 228- 
228. 



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INDEX. 



349 



Yarbridge, Clialk at, 88 ; Chloritic Marl 

at, 73 ; gravel near, 219 ; Lower 

Greensand of, 44; Upper Greensand 

at, 72. 
Yarmouth, Bembridge Limestone of, 

16S ; Bembridge Marls near, 180-182 ; 

day-ironstone at, 252; Hamstead 

Beds of, 184, 196, 199. 
Yaverland, 16, 17; Upper Greensand at, 

72. 



York's Farm, ta& at, 230. 

Zerena ship-way, Bembridge Marls in 

the, 175. 
Zones in the Chalk, 92, 98 ; in the 

Gaalt, 65 ; in the Upper Greensand, 

66, 67, 79, 80. 



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L o N D o K : Printed hj £ T r b and Spottiawoodk, 

Printers to the Queen'tf most Excellent Migesty. 

For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 

[17374*— 600.— 10/89.] 



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Gcolo^fff^u: Irlt affVi^lU. Flnte 2 



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OFl\ 




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SrJTHEAD "■■' 




■LAD SERIES 



BEMBRIDGt 



OSBORNE A HEAOON 



Judd»C?lV Lith. 73»75.F»rp«nqdon R^ 8- Docio.'»Cp«nnif nf 



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\ 






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iir Freskwd 



Oi}ohyqy oftJw Isle of Wiqfvt 



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