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Brief Biographies of the Principal Officers who 

have Served in 


BETWEEN THE YEARS Z750 and 1885 




Part I.— 1750 to 1830. 





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IN gathering together, and publishing, brief memoirs of the nunierous 
maritime surveyors of all countries, but chiefly of Great Britain, whose 
labours, extending over upwards of a century, have contributed the 
means or constructing the charted portion of the world, the author 
claims no originality. The task has heen one of research, compilation, 
and abridgment, of a pleasant nature, undertaken during leisure evenings, 
after official hours spent in duties and imdertakings of a londred description. 

Numerous authorities have been consulted, and in some important 
instances, freely borrowed from ; amongst which, may be mentioned, former 
numbers of the Nautical Magazine, the Journals of the Royal Greographical 
Society, published accounts of voyages, personal memoirs, hydrographic 
works, the Naval Chronicle, Marshall, and O'Bymes Naval Biographies, &c. 

•^ The object aimed at has been, to produce in a condensed form, a work, 

'^ useful for hydrographic reference, and sufficiently matter of fact, for any 

"^ amongst the naval surveyors of the past, who may care to take it up, for 

^ reference — and at the same time, — to handle dry dates and figures, in such 

4^ a way, as to render such matter, sufficiently light and entertaining, for the 

\^ present and rising generation of naval officers, who, possessing a taste for 

^ similar labours to those enumerated, may elect a hydrographic career. 

?S Accounts of discoveries made in the course of Arctic Exploration, have 

barely been alluded to, the majority of these, having been chronicled, in a 
far abler manner, by an eminent geographical authority. 

The chronological order adopted, refers to the period at which the 
several officers commanded surveys, or contributed most towards hydrography. 

The Appendix deals briefly with a few subjects connected with hydro- 
graphy ; and the Index, at the end of the book, will perhaps be foimd useful 
for purposes of reference. 

With the exception of Captain Thomas Hurd, portraits of the various 
occupants of the post of hydrogfrapher to the Admiralty are given ; in his 
case, no likeness appears to have survived, and it has been with no small 
difficulty, that any record of his naval services could be lighted upon. 


To the ambitiousy it may be well to remark, that of the Royal Naval 
officers services herein enumerated, but few have risen to active flag rank, 
and only one, or two, ever hoisted their flags. 

In formulating the works, memoirs, or biographies, of the dead and 
living alike, the endeavour has been made to deal with all in an agreeable, 
and unprejudiced tone, so that no single individual shall find his suscepti- 
bilities in the slightest degree ruffled, either on his own behalf, or on the part 
of any, towards whom, he may cherish feelings of admiration, esteem, or 

By those whose nearness or easiness of access, enable them to form an 
accurate judgment, many will be found, neither so detestable, not so admir- 
able, as perhaps they may be thought by opposite parties. The truth is well 
expressed in the fable of " The Clouds." 

Two children once, at eventide, thus prattled b^ their parents' side : — 

See, mother, see that stonny cloud ! what can its inky bosom shroud ? 

It looks so black, I do declare, I shudder quite to see it there. 

And father, father, now behold these others, all of pink and gold ! 

How beautiful and bright their hue ! I wish that I were up there too : 

For, if they look so fine from here, what must they be when one is near ! 

Children, the smiling sire replied, I*ve climbed a mountain's lofty side, 

Where, Ufted 'mid the clouds awhile, distance no longer could beguile : 

And closer seen, I needs must say that all the clouds are merely grey ; 

Differing in shade from one another, but each in colour like his brother. 

Those clouds you see of gold and pink, to others look as black as ink ; 

And that same cloud so black to you, to some may wear a golden hue. 

E'en so my children, they whom fate, has planted in a low estate, 

Viewing their rulers from afar, admire what prodigies they are. 

O ! what a tyrant ! dreadful doom ! his dimes have wrapped our land in gloom ; 

A tyrant ! nay, a hero this, the glorious source of all our bliss ! 

But they who haunt the magic sphere, beholding then its inmates near, 

Know that the few, by some adored, by others flouted and abhorred. 

Nor sink so low, nor nse so high, as seems it to the vulgar eye. 

The man his party deems a hero; his foes, a Judas, or a Nero — 

Patriot of superhuman worth, or vilest wretch that cumbers earth. 

Derives his bright or murky hues, from distant and from party views ; 

Seen close, nor black, nor gold are they, but every one a sober grey. 

Having quoted the above, the author will not trouble his readfers with a 
longer preface, except to crave their leniency as critics, and forbearance for 
any errors that may be detected ; but it may be necessary to add that owing 
to the pressure of surveying duties in India, some delay may be caused in 
the production of the latter part of the book, so that it has been found 
advisable to divide the work into two parts, the first of which is now offered 
to the public. 

L. S. D. 



Ancient Geography and Hydrography. Mackenzie, Lane, Byron, Wallis, 
Carteret, Bougainville, Gauld, Captain Cook, Lieut. Mackenzie, Phipps, 
Varela, DesBarresand Holland, To fi no. La Peronse, Bligh, Phillip, Spence, 
Malaspina, McCluer, Columbine, Edwards, Vancouver, D*£ntrecasteaux and 
Kermadec, Bampton and Alt, Churruca and Fidalgo, Broughton, Flinders . 



Dalrjmnple, Beautemps Beaupr6, Galiano and Valdez, Wedgborough and White, 
Horsburgh, Wilson, Humboldt, Grant, Baudin, Peter Heywood, Cevallos, 
Murray, D* Urban, Knisenstern, Lisiansky, Court, Daniel Ross .... 25 


Hurd, De Ferrer, Thomas, De Mayne, Franzini, Martin White, Smyth, Holbrook, 
Hewett, W. Owen, Kotzebue, Lockwood, Tuckey, Maxwell, Gauttier, Bay- 
field, Freycinet, King, John Ross, Franklin, Fitzmaurice, Roussin, Dessiou, 
Hell, Bellingshausen, Scoresby, Basil Hall. Brucks, L'Artigue, Vidal, Tiarks, 
Weddell, Duperrey, F. Bullock 45 


Parry, the Walkers, Kendall, Skyring, Wickham, Modera, Back, Roe, Bougain- 
ville, Beechey, Copeland, P. Stokes, Zahrtmann, Kolff, Liitke, D'Urville, 
Dillon, Boteler, Foster, Mndge, Denham, Bamett, R. Owen, Slater, Moresby, 
Peytier, James Ross, Biscoe, Sabine 97 


Page 2, — sixth . . . 

2, — ^fourteenth . 

3, — twelfth . . 

9, — elevei)th . . 
II, — sixth . . . 
II, — fifth . . . 
i5» — seventh • . 
23, — first . . . 
23, — sixth . . . 
42, — twenty-third 
61, — nineteenth . 
64, ^thirty-second 
72, — fourth . . 
w 73>— eleventh . . 



line from bottom, omit '* English." 

for " Edmund," read " Edward." 
top, for •' Germany," read " Holland." 
omit '' of Sir Humphry Davy." 
for " Tunor," read •' Timor." 
bottom, for " Ariaduc;' read " Ariadmr 
top, for " Dactbitrta!^ read " Descubwiay 
bottom, introduce ''Sydney" at end of the last line. 

„ for " leading," read " leaving." 
top, for "Cadiack," read "Kodiak." 
„ for " ascertian," read " ascertain." 
„ for " seen," read " seem." 
bottom, for " 1827," read " 1817." 

„ for " supemumuary," read " supernumerary.* 





























Ancient Geography and Hjdrography. Mackenzie, Lane, Byron, WalliSi Carteret, BougainTille« Ganld, 
Captain Cook, Lieat. Mackenzie, Phipps, Yarela, Dee Barres and Holland, Tofino, La Peroase, Bligh, Phillip, 
Spence, Malaspina, MoClaer, Colnmbine, Edwards, Vancouver, D'Entrecasteanz and Eennadect Bampton 
and Alt, Ghnrmca and Fidalgo, Herrera and CeyaUos, Ugarte, Flinders, Broaghton. 

The first records we have of geographical knowledge are in the Pentateuch, and in the 
book of Joshua. In the East, on the shores of Asia Minor, we must look for the cradle of 
eeography. Homer describes the shield of Achilles as representing the earth surrounded 
by the Sea, and also the countries of Greece, islands of the Archipelago, and site of Troy. 
According to his writings, G>rsica was the limit of the civilised world ? — the coasts of 
Hesperia, Galias, Iberia, and Mauritiana, were beyond the seas. The Mamertine strait, 
was considered very dangerous in those days ; the rock of Scylla, the whirlpool of 
Charybdis, and the floating islets of Eolus, were bugbears which the Greek navigators of 
the period always avoided. Anaximander of Miletus, was the inventor of geographical 
maps, about 568 B.C. That the Phoenicians well knew the art of navigation is proved by 
the voyage of Hannon, a celebrated Carthaginian general, who, with a powerful armada, 
sailed for Mauritiana and Western Africa,, even beyond the gulf of Guinea, forming fact- 
ories along the coasts, and visiting the Canary islands. 

The Corinthians who were the inventors of the Triremes (ships of three tiers of oars) 
colonized Sicily, overrun Sardinia, Corsica, and France, landed forces at Marseilles, and 
continued on to the columns of Hercules ; they passed these, and came in contact with the 
Phoenicians, from whom, without doubt, they obtained the charts and directories, which 
they used in their voyages. 

Scillax, the Athenian traveller, penetrated beyond the strait of Gibraltar, and published 
his discoveries in his celebrated periplus. Alexander the Great, took with him geographers 
and astronomers, with a view to mapping the countries which he conquered. Hipparchus 
came from the school Alexander founded at Alexandria, to him is attributed, the invention 
of the plane chart, about 135 B.C. afterwards improved by the Moors and Arabs, and intro- 
duced into Europe about A.D. 1201. 

Strabo the historian, left the most complete work on geography of his day, in which the 
shores of the Mediterranean are delineated, he, also, gives an account of the Canaries (Fortu- 
nate islands). 


When the fall of the Roman Empire came about, a suspension of intellectual pursuits 
ensued, followed by an invasion by the enemies of learning, into all such matters, 
until the expeditions to the Holy Land of the Crusaders, became the commencement of a 
new era of advancement, including geography with other sciences. The Mahometan sects 
now came forward, creating universities at G>rdova, Grenada, Bagdad, Bassora, and 
Damascus, to initiate the mysteries of their service ; of these Mahometans, an Arab named 
Edrisi, a scholar of Cordova, about the middle of the twelvth century, wrote the work 
entitled '* Greographical Recreations," containing a description of the western part of the 

The voyage of Rabbi Benjamin de Tudela, in i i6o, to the South of Europe, contributed 
to the geographical knowledge of the period ; a description with maps, being published bv 
the Latins of the middle ages. The Genoese and Venetians in the twelvth and thirteenth 
centuries, were masters of the commerce of the Levant, and corrected the charts of the Alex- 
andrian geographers. The Catalonian school greatly improved Mediterranean hydrography, 
judging from tne documents it has transmitted to posterity. As soon as the Saracens of 
Majorca possessed sufficient power, they established in that island, a nautical school, where 
the celebrated Ramon Lull published in 1286, his " Phoenix of the Wonders of the World," 
and attracted to him, those skilled in pilotage and cosmography, who have handed down to 
us, their art in constructing charts. In the time of Lull, and before Flavius Gioja made 
known in Europe the compass needle, the Catalonians and people of Majorca, used it, in a 
crude form, in the Mediterranean ; but from the time the compass card was invented, a 
great change came about in the art of navigation, Spanish and Portuguese launching boldly 
out, making lengthy expeditions, and contributing to the improvement of hydrography 
in general. 

The atlas of charts of the Majorca nation, by James Farrer, August 1 346, preserved in 
Paris, is one of the most ancient and complete that are known. With the information 
obtained in the schools of Majorca and Barcelona, navigators extended their voyages, 
doubling the Cape, as well as discovering land to the westward. Nautical geography was 
improved ; the astrolabe which succeeded the balestible, gave place to the octant, and the 
variation of the Magnetic needle was studied, which so much assisted Columbus in his first 
expedition to the new world. 

The invention of the Mariners compass is the important connecting link between ancient 
and modern Geography. The modern maps and char/s were introduced into England by 
Bartholomew Columbus, to illustrate his brother's theory respecting a western continent, 
A.D. 1489. 

The plane charts, which served fairly well for representing the Mediterranean, were not 
adapted for use, however, when much range of latitude was required ; the Spanish chart 
makers now substituted another method, and by maintaining the parallelism of the 
meridians, represented properly, the due proportions of the land. 

This invention, termed the Spherical chart, did not satisfy every demand, and was im- 
proved on by Gerard Mercator, and perfected by Edmund Wright, and is now known as 
Mercator's projection. 

In the Sixteenth century, manuscript charts were gradually giving place to engraved 
charts, and triangulation combined with astronomical observations, began to step in. 

Geography being the Science of describing the earth and its several countries, as a 
matter of course, dates infinitely farther back than Hydrography, which may be said to be 
the art of describing, measuring, and illustrating the waters taken in conjunction with the 
surface of the earth. 

The first English Sea- chart is attributed to Henry the Navigator in the Sixteenth Cep- 
tury. Numerous voyagers following his example, recorded the results of their voyages, 
illustrating the same by maps, formed on no particular recognised basis, and varying in 
reliability and accuracy, in as great a degree, as, perhaps did the scientific knowledge 
and characters of those, whom, if they did not construct, may be said to have been at 
any rate in a considerable measure res|K)nsible for the publicity given to these productions 


The earliest work written upon modem hydrography, or nautical Surveying, is we 
believe, that of Murdoch Mackenzie, published in 1819, with a supplement by James 
Horsburgh, the East Indian Hydrographer. 

In 1778, an atlas of the South coast of the Spanish Peninsula, was published by Tofoo. 
Alcano Galiano, in 1802, followed suit, rectifying such important positions, as the Morea, 
Archipelago, Marmara, Bosphorous, Karamania, and African coasts. 

France, in 1737, had published reduced charts of the Mediterranean; later oil, Billan, 
D'Anville, Verguin, Bernard, and others followed, with Beautemps B^upre, Kerhallet, 
Hill, and Berard. 

England reproduced the French and Spanish works, under the management of Captain 
Knight, Moor, Reiner, Dalrymple and Hurd ; also, the private chart making firms of Van 
Keulen in Germany, Lawrie, Purdy, and Arrowsmith of the United Kingdom. Very few, 
if any, charts, of a trustworthy nature, had been constructed or published in England before 
the first of Cook's celebrated voyages, made in 1768-71, and as it is proposed to deal as 
closely as possible, with Hydrographic voyages and undertakings recognised for accuracy 
and utility, a brief account of what took place under governmental auspices, subsequent to 
1750, and prior to the impetus given to such works by Cook, in his first voyage, will suffice. 


Mr. Murdoch Mackenzie was employed by the Admiralty, as far back as 1750, to survey 
the Orkney and afterwards the Shetland islands ; he subsequently surveyed (with compass) 
a great part of the north coasts of Ireland, and west coasts of Scotland. These surveys, or 
examinations, were not, as may be readily understood, remarkable for accuracy ; albeit, 
the official authorities of those days, caring more for quantity than quality, were not pre* 
pared to continue the expenses attached to nautical surveying, unless the latter particular 
was duly attended to. Under Mr. Mackenzie's direction, in about 1760, a chart of the 
Atlantic Ocean was engraved in London (being the first upon a large scale made in this 
country), on the circular projection, which was his own invention ; it was afterwards found 
inaccurate in detail, and was superseded, in 1777, by one constructed by M. de la Rochette 
which was more highly thought of. The following appear to have been the main results of 
professor Murdoch Mackenzie's hydrographic labours. 

A hydrographic sarvej of the Orkney and Lewis i8laad8,/o/M> 1760. 

Naatical Descriptions of the west coast of Great Britain from Bristol Channel to 0. Wrath./o/to, 1776. 

Haritime sanrey of Ireland and the west coast of Great Britain, 2 VbUf folio, 1776. 

Naatical Description of the Coast of Ireland, folio, 1776. 

Charts of the Irish coast,yb/io, 1776. 


1763-68 (about). 

This officer was employed by order of Commodore Sir Hugh Palliser, the first governor, 
in surveying the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, about the same time at which Cook 
was similarly engaged in the former neighbourhood. His surveys were perhaps less 
accurate than those of Cook, owing probably, to the method used and instruments employed, 
being of a more primitive nature. As to the period of Lieutenant Lane's entrance into the 
Navy, or of his various services, and dates of appointment, no record exists. Some few of 
his hydrographic labours, by their title, appear to have been undertaken conjointly with 
Cook; others, single handed. It seems probable, that Lane did not rise beyond a 
Lieutenant's rank in the naval profession. The latest document that has come to hand, 
bearing his name, is dated 1768. The following were amongst the charts resulting from 
his surveys. 

Placentia bay. Chart from point Lanoe to oape Spear. The coast of Labrador from oape Charles to 
Sandwich bay. Fogo harbour and island. Cape Spear to Bona Vista. Baoalien island to Bona Vista, 
Bhicataen to Chateaox. St. Miohaeli to Spotted island (Labrador). 




The above officer, in command of H.M. Ships Dolphin and Tamary left Eng^land, January 
1764, and passing- into the Pacific through Magellan strait, discovered Disappointment, 
George, Prince of Wales, Danger, Duke of York, and Bjrron islands, returning May 1766. 
Lieutenant Mackenzie, afterwards employed as nautical Surveyor on the home coasts, 
served as a Midshipman throughout this voyage. 

See, — ^NarratiTe of Commodore the Hon. John Bjron in a yojage ronnd the world, with an aooonnt of the 
gigantio people seen called PatagonianB, together with a desoription of seren islands discovered in the 8oath 
Sea. 12 mo. DmbUn 1767. 

Also, aoooimt of distress soffered by himself and companions, and loss of Wagf. 800. 1768. 



In August of the year 1766, Captains Wallis and Carteret, in the Dolphin and Swallaw^ 
sailed from Eng^land for the Pacific. Having passed through Magellan strait in company, 
they there separated. Wallis discovered "NAHiitsunday, Queen Charlotte, Egmont, Duke of 
Gloucester, Duke of Cumberland, Maiatea, Tahiti, E^meo, Howe, Scilly, Boscawen, Keppel, 
and Wallis islands, and returned to England in May 1768. The result of this voyage was 
published as. 

Captain Wallis's voyage to the coast of Patagonia, Otaheite Ac; with ^bles of latitades and longitudes 
west of London ; 1766-68. Mcnokenoariht Voyaget, Vol. 1. 1766-69. 


. 1766-69. 

Carteret after parting company with Wallis, discovered Osnaburg, Pitcairn, Swallow, 
Admiralty, Carteret, and Gower islands, and the strait separating New Britain and New 
Ireland, returning to England March 1769. The title of his narrative ran thus. 

Voyage from Plymonth, Madeira, and strait of Magellan, to Masafaera, Qneen Charlotte islands Ac., 
with a table of the yariation of the compass. HawketworthM YogageM, Vol. 1. 1766-69. 


1 766-69. 

In November 1766, the frigate La Bourdeuse and store ship LEtoile^ under the command ' 
of Captain Bougainville, sailed' by way of Magellan strait for the Pacific, discovering several 
islands in the north part of the Low archipelago, Lanciers, Harp, Thrum, Cap, and Bow 
islands. He considered that he was the first to find Tahiti ; from thence, sailing for the 
Navigator islands, and taking a route between the New Hebrides and Louisiade, he arrived 
again in France, iMarch 1 769. 

6ee— Histoiy of a tojage to the Falkland islands, in 1763-64, and of two Toyages to the strait of Magellan, 
with an aoooimt of the Patagonians 4 to. 1771* 


1767 (about). 

Mr. Gauld surveyed the west coast of Florida and Louisiana, from which surveys, copies 
of the chart published, cost as much as sixteen shillings ; also, for a chart of Tortugas and 
Florida Cays, the public price wais twelve shillings ; that of the island of Grand Qiyman, 
however, by the same surveyor, was only valued at one shilling. These three charts appear 
to have embraced the greater part of Mr. Gauld*s labours. The following account of the 
coasts surveyed was afterwards published. 

Observations on the Florida Cays, Beef, and Golf; also, a description with sailing instmctions for the 
ooast of West Florida 800. 1796. 

Mr. Ganld also surveyed the west end of Cuba and St. John's harbour. 

Born in Yorkshire, in a lowly sphere of life, October 27th, 1728, James Cook, as is well 
known, first went to sea in a collier brig, afterwards joining the Navy on board 
H.M.S. Eagle, where he speedily worked his way to the quarrter deck, and rank of master, 
under the patronage of Captain Sir Hugh Palliser, who very soon recognised the merits of 
this remarkable man. When employed in this capacity, on the North American Station, 
Co<A, commenced his career as a nautical Surveyor, and from the first, showed marvellous 
aptitude, for this important, although at that time, little understood, science. The south 
and west coasts of Newfoundland, strait of Belleiste, and parts of the gulf of St. Lawrence, 
representing in turn, the vicinity of his labours, which may be said to have commenced as 
far back as 1763. In 1768, Cook returned to England, and in consequence of a memorial 
presented to the King by the Royal Society, setting forth the advantages which would 
accrue to science if an accurate observation of the then approaching transit of Venus over the 
sun's disc were observed in the South Seas, Cook was selected for the duty. Mr. Alexander 
Dalrymple, the East Indian Hydrographer, afterwards appointed the first hydrographer to 
the Admiralty, had been offered the opportunity of carrying out the service mentioned, but, 
as a difficulty stood in the way of granting him the naval rank, which he considered a 
necessary adjunct, to the successful carrying out of what was expected of him on such an 
expedition, it was utttmatety determined to employ Cook in his stead. A collier barque of 
370 tons, was purchased for this service, having been fully prepared for a foreign voyage ; to 
this vessel, the name of Endeavour was given, and she was duly commissioned by Cook, who 
had been made a Lieutenant on appointment, and sailed from Plymouth August 26th, 1768. 
In company with Cook was Mr. (afterwards Sir) Joseph Banks, (a gentleman of fortune), and 
Dr. Solander, as naturalists, with other assistants. The Endeaeour touched at Madeira 
Rio de Janeiro, Straits le Maire, Tierra del Fuego, Lagoon islands, Bow island. Chain 
island. Society islands, Otaheite, which latter was arrived at April 1 769. After successfully 
observing the transit of Venus (by means of which the distance from the sun to the earth 
was afterwards calculated at 108,000,000 of miles), the return voyage was made to New 
Zealand, which was circumnavigated, and the transit of Mercury observed; thence lo the 


westward, when the memorable discovery of the East coast of Australia was made, Port \ 
Jackson (Sydney) being discovered and named May 6th, 1769, (not after the look-out 
man of the Endeavour as has been erroneously supposed, but i;i honour of the Secretary 
of the Admiralty of that period). Passing along tne coast of New South Wales, discover- 
ing and naming in turn. Broken bay, Port Stephens, Moreton bay, Harvey bay, &c., Cook 
pa$sed through Torres strait, and thence to New Guinea, Batavia, the Cape of Good Hope, 
St. Helena, arriving at Deal, June loth, 1771. 

Dr. Hawkesworth edited the account of this voyage, and by adding his own remarks, 
is said to have brought down, some severe, but unmerited criticisms, on the whole 

A summary of this first voyage of Cook round the world, has been thus given. " Dis- 
*' covered the Society islands and determined the insularity of New Zealand ; discovered " 
'' the strait which separates the North from the South island (called Cook's strait), and " 
'< surveyed both. Explored the East coast of Australia hitherto unknown, throughout an " 
'' extent of about 2,600 miles of latitude." 

The minute accuracy of detail found in Cooks charts, claim for him the title of the grand- 
father of modem hydrography; to Sfr Francis fieaufort perhaps, more appropriately 
belongs the title, of father of the same. 

Immediately on the close of Cooks first voyage, the second was undertaken under the 
auspices of King George III, who determined on sending him in search of the supposed ■ 
southern continent, considered at that time to exist in the southern hemisphere. With this 
object in view, Commander James Cook was appointed to the command of the Resoluii<my and 
Lieutenant Tobias Furneaux, who had served under Captain Wallis during his voyage 
round the world, was appointed in a like capacity to the Adventure. Special attention was 
paid to the victualling of these ships, anti-scorbutics, &c., being liberally provided. The 
naturalists were Mr. J. R. Forster and his son. The astronomers were Mr. W. Wales and 
Mr. W. Bayley, and Mr. Hodges accepted the position of artist. Sir Joseph Banks had 
intended to accompany Cook, but some misunderstanding as to accomodation, stood in th6 
way, and had the effect of causing him to remain behind. 

The Reiolutim and Adventure sailed from Deptford April 9th, 1772, and Plymouth, July 
1 3th, calling at Madeira, Cape Verde, C^pe of Grood Hope, searched for a southern con- 
tinent, in the course of which, reached latitude 67° 15' S., longitude 40° E., January 1773 : 
continued to New Zealand, Resolution island. Doubtful island, Tongataboo, Oytstack, South 
Sea, Easter island, Marquesas islands, Society islands. Friendly islands. New Hebrides, 
New Caledonia, Norfolk island ; thence after stoppages of no particular note, returned to 
England July 1775. The Adventure under Furneaux, twice parted company during the 
voyage ; the second time, between the Friendly islands and Queen Charlotte sound of New 
Zealand, not to meet again before reaching England. Owing to this, Furneaux preceded 
Cook in making the voyage across the Pacific ocean in a high latitude. Cook 
reached 71° iS' S. 

By the excellent precautions taken by (3ook, the ship's crew escaped scurvy or other 
diseases, so common to nautical undertakings, extending over so long a period. His system, 
the basis of that even now in use in well conducted ships, gained for him, from the Royal 
Society, the Copley gold medal. During this voyage. Cook carried and tested what has 
received the credit for being the first chronometer, made by Kendall upon Harrison's 
description, and the result of his favourable report, procured for Harrison, the £10,000 prize 
granted by parliament. (See appendix). 

The chief discoveries of the second voyage, were the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, 
which is one of the largest and finest islands of the South Pacific, and Norfolk island. 

This voyage obtained for Cook great personal honour, and he was promoted to the rank 
of Captain and appointed a Captain of Greenwich Hospital on account of it. 

The third voyage of Captain Cook, was undertaken in the liesolutim, and Disccvety 
Commander Gierke, who had served as Cook's lieutenant during the second voyage in the 
former ship. Among Cook's officers were Lieutenants Gore and King, and his master 


was William Bligh (subsequently of the Bounty), With Gierke in the Discovery , was Lieutenant 
(afterwards Admiral) James Bumey, author of Burney's voyag^es, and justly termed the 
historian of the Pacific. 

This expedition Ailed from Plymouth, July I2th, 1776 ; its object was the exploration of 
the North Pacific, and to examine the connexion or separation of the American and Asiatic 
continents. The ships touched at Teneriffe, Cape Verde, Cape of Good Hope, and anchored 
in Adventure bay, Tasmania ; thence they sailed to Queen Charlotte sound,* in New Zealand ; 
then to the Tonga group, discovering Mangeea and Atiu on the passage, and making a more 
minute examination of the Friendly islands. Thence they proceeded towards TaJiiti, dis- 
covering Toobouai. They landed Omai, a chief brought to England by Cook in his former 
voyage, at Tahiti, and proceeding to the northward, made the grand discovery of the Sand- 
wich islands. Cook examined these, and has recited many most interesting details of them. 
From the Sandwich islands he proceeded to the north-^west coast of America, anchoring in 
Nootka sound. Thence he proceeded to the north-west, examining the coasts, and entered 
Prince William's sound and Cook's river (or inlet), reaching Ounalashka. Afterwards he 
continued through Behring's strait to the icy barrier, establishing the real character of the 
countries and the erroneous condition of ^the maps. After again touching at Ounalashka, he 
madefor Karakakooa bay, in Hawaii. Here the well-known tragedy took place. Cook, the 
Lono or god of the Hawaiians, was killed. This sad event occurred February 14th, 1779. 
Lieutenant King then took the second command under Captain Clerke. The ships proceeded 
to Awatska bay, and s^ain fruitlessly attempted the north-west passage. Before the return to 
Kamschatka, Captain Clerke died, and Gore and King became the commanders. They pro- 
ceeded along the Japanese coast f)ast Sulphur island, discovered the Pratas, to Macao, and 
thence to England by the Cape of Good Hope, reaching the Nore, October 4th, 1780; 
the two ships having been absent upwards of four years, and having only twice lost sight of 
each other during the voyage. Thus concluded the three most celebrated voyages of 
that period from which a new era in hydrography dates. 

The description given in these pages, may be taken as the barest scaffolding of Captain 
Cook's services as a scientific fiavigator. His widow died at Clapham, as recently as May 
1835, aged 94 years. At Captain Cook's death, a special pension of £185 a year, was 
granted her, by the Treasury. By her will (sworn under £60,000), the Copley medal, and 
that struck in her husband's honour by George III, were bequeathed to the British Museum. 

Far in advance of anything hydrographic that had ever gone before, the skill and pains- 
taking shown by Cook, may be said to have formed an example for the numerous surveying 
expeditions which subsequently set forth from the shores of all nations, but England in 
particular, and the necessity for which, has unfortunately now become almost extinct. 

Full accounts of Cook's voyages, and the Atlases of charts representing his numerous dis- 
coveries and surveys, were published under the patronage of the government of the period ; 
but of the earlier charts, made between 1 763 and 1 768, by order of Commodore Sir Hugh 
Palliser, at that time governor of Labrador and Newfoundland, less is known. 

They oonsiated chiefly as follow : 

The coast between cape Angoille and Quirpoint and Noddy harbonn. 

Great Jerris harboar, and strait of Belleisle. Grigoet to point Ferrol. 

South coast of Newfoandland, between Bay of Islands. 

Point Lance and cape Spear. Open bay to Green island. 

Bad bay, York harboar. Green island to point Ferrol. 

Dr. Douglas, bishop of Salisbury, superintended the publication of Cook's third voyage^ 
which is considered, the most interesting of the various books, dealing with the 
circunmavigators three great undertakings. 

In 1877, the government of New South Wales erected a handsome bronze statue of Cook ; 
upon a pedestal of marble, the great discoverer stands in a conspicuous position upon the rising 
ground on the south side of Port Jackson, looking out upon the harbour, an unmistakable 
landmark to the sailors of to-day. 


In Great St. Andrew's Church, Cambridgfe, is a marble monument, left to perpetuate Cook's 
memory. The inscriptions are as follows : — 


Of Captain James Cook, of the Royal Narj, 
one of tbe most celebrated NaTigatora that thii 
or former ages can boaflt of; who was killed bj 
the NatiTOs of Owhjhee, in the Pacific ooean, on the 
l4th, day of Febroary, 1779 ; in the Slst year of his age. 
Of Mr. Nathaniel Cook, who was lost with the 
Thunderer Man-of-War, Captain Boyle Walsingham, 
in a most dreadful hurricane, in October, 1780; 

aged 16 years. 
Of Mr. Hugh Cook, of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
who died on the 21st of December. 1793, aged 17 years. 
Of James Cook, Esq., Commander la the Royal Navy, 
who lost his life on the 25th, of January. 1794, in 
going from Pool to the Spitfire Sioop-of -war, which 
he commanded ; in the 31st year of his ag^. 
Of Elizabeth Cook, who died April 9th, 1771, aged 4 yeai*. 
Joseph Cook, who died September 13th, 1768, aged 1 month. 
George Cook, who died October 1st, 1772, aged 4 months. 

All children of the first-mentioned Captain James Cook, by Elizabeth Cook, who snrtired her husband 56 
years, and departed this life 13th May, 1835, at her lesidence, Clapham, Surrey, in the 94th year of her 
atve. Her remains are deposited with those of her sons, James and Hugh in the middle aisle of this 
Church. On a scroll, under a shield, bearing a globe, on which are lines tracing the shores of the Pacifio 
ocean, is written '* Nil intentatum Reliquit." 



The above officer, the nephew of Professor Murdoch Mackenzie, was bom about the year 
1 749, and served as a midshipman in the Dolphin, under Commodore Byron, in that officer's 
celebrated voyage round the world, 1764-66. In 1 771, he was appointed as head maritime 
Surveyor in the Service of the Admiralty, in succession to his relative the Professor, and in 
1773. was employed in the neighbourhood of the Lands End ; in 1775, on the north coast of 
Kent; in 1771, on the surveys of Plymouth, Falmouth, and Torbay ; having just completed 
Plymouth sound when the combined fleets of France and Spain, appeared before it, in the 
summer of 1 779. In this year, Mackenzie was made a lieutenant, and Lord Shouldham sent 
him on special services to Jersey, Torbay, and other places. In 1780, with Mr. Graeme 
Spence as his assistant, he surveyed the Channel between the Isle of Sheppey and the 
main ; suspicions being entertained, that the Dutch, with whom we were at war, might get 
into the Medway, through this back channel, and consequently out of reach of the guns at 
Sheerness. In 1781, at the request of the Trinity house, with Spence, he surveyed the 
Needles, with a view to fix upon a mode of lighting, and thence to the Owers. His eye- 
sight now began to fail, but he still continued to act as the head nautical surveyor for the 
government, until the spring of 1 788, when the Admiralty suddenly ceased to employ either 
him or his assistant. The greater number of charts constructed from his surveys, do not 
appear to have been published before 1804, when Mr. Spence was employed at the 
Admiralty in their preparation, together with Nautical Descriptions. The following were 
amongst Lieutenant Mackenzie's works. 

Owers, Chichester, Emsworth harbours. Torbay. 

8t. Helens &oad, Spithead, Portsmouth, and Tjangstone harbours. Plymouth to the Lizard. 

Part of Isle of Wight, including the Mother bank. St. Agnes head to Hartland point. 

Southampton riYer, the Brambles* Cowes road. Entrances of River Thames. 

Needles channel. St. Albans head to Abbotsbnrj. 

Isle of Wight, St. Helen's road to Needles point. Abbotsbury to Sidmouth. 

Blackwood point to St. Albans head, Falmouth. 

Bame head to Exeter. 

▲ treatise on Marine Surreyiiig ; with a supplement by Captain Jamea Horsbnrgh. 6ml 1819. 


(afterwards lord mulgravi). 


The North Polar expedition under the above officer, though not altogether of an 
hydrog^aphic nature, was remarkable for the numerous inventions and appliances made 
use of, apparently for the first time. It was made by order of the Earl of Sandwich, in 
consequence of an application from the Royal Society, the object being to ascertain how 
far navigation was practicable towards the North Pole. 

The Xacihorse and Carcass were fixed upon as strong and proper vessels for the voyage, 
the latter being commanded by Captain Lutwidge. 

The first trustworthy deep sea soundings were made in this voyage, the weight employed 
being 156 lbs., and depth found 780 fathoms. 

A water bottle* for recovering specimens of the water from the bottom, the invention of 
Dr. Irving was used, those of Sir Humphry Davy supplied for this purpose, failing to act 

Deep Sea thermometers by Lord Charles Cavendish, employed for ascertaining the 
temperature at different depths, appear to have acted well. An Apparatus for distilling 
fresh water from that of the sea, also, the invention of Dr. Irving, proved a great success. 
A chronometer by Kendal on Harrison's principle, and one by Arnold, with a pocket 
chronometer by the latter maker, gave accurate time, especially the latter. 

Nairnes dipping needle, and two pendulums, the swineing of which latter, was designed 
to give a more accurate notion of the figure of the earth, proved each in their respective 
sphere, of the greatest value. 

Sailing in June, 1773, an almost due north course was made by the ships for the west 
part of Spitzbergfen ; the hightest latitude attained was eighty degrees, fifty minutes. The 
north coast of Spitzbergen and North East land were partially examined, and a plan of 
Fair Haven made, with several sketches of islands, headlands, &c. The vessels returned in 
safety to England m September of the same year. 

Bee — A yoyage towards the North Pole* undertaken by Captain Oonstantitie J. Phipps, in 1778. 4io, 
Lo%do% 1 774. 



The above officer, the colleague of Tofino, accompanied De Borda in the frigates Bruxula 
and Espiegle making surveys among the Canaries and on the West coast of Africa in 
the gulf of Guinea. This work is quoted as the most accurate extant until the survey of 
Lieutenants Arlett and Kellett R.N., in the Etna and Raven in 1835. De Borda also made 
one of the expedition in 1771-72, with De Verdun de la Crenne, and Pingr^, which was 
ordered by the French government to report upon the various instruments and methods for 
ascertaining maritime positions in different parts of Europe, Africa, and America. Early 
charts and views of this part of the west coast of Africa have also been attributed to 
Captain Price, R.N. 


1777-81 (about). 

The above were ICngineer officers, who, with a few naval volunteer assistants, made 
surveys of parts of Nova Scotia, Prince Edwards island. River St. Lawrence, and New 
Brunswick, with portions of the now United States of America. From these officers. 
Captain Thomas Hurd, R.N., who was made Hydrogjapher in 1808, received his earlier 

*The bottle had a coating of wood, 8 inches thick, which was wrapped ap in an oiled skin, and let into a 
leather pnrse ; the whole encloeed in a well-pitched canyass bag, firmly tied to the month of the bottle, so 
that no water oonld penetrate to its surface. A piece of lead shaped like a cone, with its base downwards, and 
a cord fixed to its small end was pnt into the bottle ; and a piece of yalre leather, with half a doaen slips of 
thin bladder were strong on the cord, which, when palled, effectnallj corked the bottle fh>m the inside. 


tessons in nautical surveying. Among the charts made by them, were the following. 
Some few date as far back as 1764. 

Ohartfl of the coast and harbours of the Gulf and riyer St. Lawnmoe./oKo 1778. 

Charts of the Ooaat from New York to Florida,/o;»o 1780. 

Atlantio Neptune 2 voU. folio 1777 and 1781. 

OhartB of the ooast and harbours of New England 1764. 

Magdalen islands, St. John island. 

Chamdieve to Lake St. Francis. 

St. Lawrence riyer. 

St. John riyer to Little river. 

St. Lawrence gulf and Newfoundland. 

Nautical Bemarks and observations on the coast and harbonm of Nova Scotia, 4^o. 1778. 



In 1784^5, Captain Tofino, the great Spanish hydrographer was employed surveying 
the coast of Spain in the Mediterranean, and the islands of Majorca, Minorca and Iviza ; in 
1 786, Portugal and Gallicia ; and in 1 788, the Azores. He became Director of the Spanish 
Naval Academies, &c. in 1787. From his surveys, the British Admiralty published and 
reproduced the following charts : 

Strait of CKbraltar. Inlets of Corunna, Ferrol and Betanaos. 

Gibraltar to Cape de Gatte. Mouth and harbour of Fenol. 

Cape de Gatte to St. Antonius Met of Corcubion ; Port Camarinas. 

Carthagena. Huros and Arosa bays with Vigo and Pontevedra inlsts. 

Gape Nao to Barcelona. Vigo. 

Ports St. Sebastian and Passage. Entrance of the Tagus river. 

Ports Santano and Santander, Cadis. 

Bay of G^jon, entrance of Faysl road — ^Azores islands. 

^^iiero. Angra road in Teroeira island. 

Porte Cedeira, Ribadeo and Vivera Spanish coasting pilot, with Balearic islands and coast of Portugal, 

with 28 charto and plans, 4to. Mttdrid 1787. 

LA PEROUSE, (French). 

This voyage was undertaken for the extension of French commerce, at the time when 
Cook's voyages had given so great an impetus to trade in the Pacific ; and one of the first 
objects of L*Asfrciade, under La P^rouse, and La Boussole, under Capt. De Langle, was to 
examine the N.W. coast of America, where the profitable furs were reported to be 
procurable. This was followed from mount St. Elias (June 1786) to Monterey, from whence 
they proceeded to Canton ; after that to Kamschatka, sailing into the sea of Saghalin. 
Their next destination was the Navigator and Friendly islands ; and, lastly, Sydney, in New 
South Wales. After the ships quitted this port, nothing more was heard of them, 
notwithstanding that due search and inquiry were made ; until in 1826, some articles were 
found at Tucopia, which were traced to Vanikoro, where, in 1827, Captain Dillon found 
undoubted evidence of the wreck of two ships, and the departure of the crews in a vessel 
built from the wrecks, but never heard of. 

The detailed visits of this voyage were, left Brest August ist, 1785, Madeira, Teneriffe, 
Salvages, Martin Vas, Trinidad, searched for Ascensao island, St. Catherine island. 
Searched for I. Grande; R. Geillego, Patagonia, Straits le Maire, Cape Horn. Searched for 
Drakes I.; Mocha, Conception of ^ster islands. La Mesa, Sandwich I., Mount St. Elias, Port 
des i'rancais and coast to Monterey; Necker L, Marianas, Bashee Is., Macao, Manilla, 
Japan, Corea, Avatska bay. Navigator I., Friendly L, Tongataboo, Norfolk I., Pylstaart, 
Port Jackson. Wreck of the ships discovered in 1827, at Mallicolo (or Vanikoro) by 
Captain Dillon. 

See — Yojtuge of La P^rooso roond the world in the years 1785-88 translated from the French. 2 voU, 8 to, 
1798. Also, Labillardi^re's royage in search of La P^roose from the French. 2 voU, Qvo. 1800, 




Seventeen years after the return of Cook from his first voyage, the Bounty of 215 tons 
was fitted out under the command of Lieutenant Bligh, who had acted in the capacity of 
master under Cook, for the purpose of transplanting the " bread fruit tree" from Polynesia 
to the West Indies. 

In 1789, after the mutiny of the Bounty near Tofoa, Bligh in the launch steered for 
Coepang, in Tunor, and sailing northward, passed rounrl cape York and the Prince of Wales 
islands. Under the circumstances of distress and difficulty Bligh could not do much for 
navigation and geography ; yet, he took views and made such observations and notes as 
enabled him to construct a chart of his track, and of the coasts reefs seen from the launch 
And as Bligh passed north of Prince of Wales islands his interesting narrative and accom- 
panying chart, made an useful addition to what little was at that time known of Torres strait. 

The PcJwidTra was sent out in search of the mutineers in 1790, but wrecked in Torres 
strait, 29th August 1791, on the return voyage, with fourteen of those of the mutineers, 
who had returned to, and remained at, Otaheite, on board. 

The loss of the Pandora was not known in 1792; when Commander William Bligh 
visited Torres straits for the second time with H.M.S. Pramdence and the brig Asmtant^ 
commanded by Lieutenant Portlock. The object of his mission as before was to transport 
the bread-fruit plant from Tahiti to the West Indies, and to explore a new passage through 
Torres Strait ; in both of which he was succsssful. 

From Blighs entrance on the East, to Blighs Farewell pass on the West, the northern 
passage through Torres strait, teeming throughout with dangers, was successfully accompli- 
shed in a period of nineteen days. 

After his return to England from this voyage, Bligh commanded in turn, the Director^ the 
Glaiian, and the Warrior, and was afterwards for two years the governor of New South 

At the mutiny of the Bounty the whole of his surveys and sketches made during that voyage, 
were left behind, and it is to be feared lost. He appears to have been also engaged 
in the survey of a few ports on the coasts of the United Kingdom, &c., 

Among others ; St. Lncea harboar (Jamaica), Track Chart of BesolmHon and Discovery in N.W. Pacific, 
Dublin bay, 1800, Dnngeness, 1800. 

Captain Bligh commanded ships of the line at the battles of Copenhagen and Camper, 
down, and eventually rose to flag rank. His ideas of discipline however seem to have been 
slightly overstrained, bringing upon his own head much of the unpleasantness which appears 
to have haunted almost his whole career. 

Yoyasce to the South Sea in 1787-^t fo^ the purpose of conTcying the bread-fruit tree to the West Indies 
in H.M.S. " Bounty" — including an account of the mutiny on board, and the subsequent Toyage of part of the 
crew in the ships boat from Tofoa to Timor. 4/o. 1792. 

Dangerous Toyage with part of the crew of H.M.S. Bounty in an open boat over twelTe hundred leagues of 
the Ocean. 12mo. Dublin 18S4. 


Born October nth, 1738, and educated at Greenwich, Arthur Phillip entered the navy 
at the age of 16, partaking* in his younger days in the early misfortunes and subsequent 
glories of the seven years war. In 1 761, he was made a lieutenant, and in 1763, upon the 
restoration of peace remained for sometime upon half pay. The war between Portugal 
and :^pain however, caused him to oiler his services, which were duly accepted, to the fornier 
power. In 1 779, returning to England, he became master and commander of the Basihsk fire 
ship. November 178 1, finds him promoted to a post captain into the Ariadue, and in 1785, 
he sailed with a re-inforcement to the East Indies, where he remained until peace was 

It having been determined to form a penal settlement at Botany bay of New South Wales, 
Captain Phillip was appointed the first governor, and set sail from the Mother bank, 


May 13th. 1787, as G>minodore of H. M. S. Strtus^ Captain John Hunter, having under his 
orders the Supply^ Lieutenant H. L. Ball, three store ships, and six transports, eleven sail in all. 
A prosperous passage was made to Santa Cruz where the fleet anchored June 3rd, remained 
a week, and thence to Rio de Janeiro and the Cape of Good Hope. Leaving- the Cape 
November 12th, and having with Lieutenant P.G. King, his first lieutenant, transhipped to 
the Supply^ when about 80 leagues eastward of the Cape, Captain Phillip arrived at Botany 
bay January i8th, 1788. After examination, Port Jaclcson was found a more favourable 
neighbourhood for the formation of a settlement, and here accordingly Governor Phillip 
established the foundation of what is now the thriving capital of New South Wales. 
January 25th; the ill-fated expedition under La P^rouse in the BaussoU and As&olabe arrived, 
which sailed from France in June 1785, and had last touched at Norfolk island. February 
7th, 1788 was the day upon which a regular form of government in New South Wales was 
formed. On the 14th, of February, Lieutenant King left for Norfolk island in the Supply, 
there also to form a settlement Broken bay, about 8 miles north of port Jackson, and 
reported upon by Cook, was explored by Governor Phillip in the month of March ; on the 
loth, of that month. La P^rouse sailed from port Jackson, having lost his naturalist Father 
Le Receveur, who was buried at that port, a tablet being erected to his memory by the 
Colonists, he having paid a similar tribute to Captain Clerke, who sailed with Cook in his 
third voyage, at the harbour of St. Peter and Paul in Kamtschatka. The ships of La P^rouse 
were afterwards lost, and no soul escaped to tell the tale. The Supply under Lieutenant ^11 
returned on the 29th of February from Norfolk island, with promising accounts from 
Lieutenant King of the new settlement. During his voyage Lord Howe's island and Ball's 
pyramid had l]^en discovered. Considerable hardship was suffered about this time by the 
colonists at Sydney, owing to the scarcity of provisions and outbreak of scurvy, as well as 
the bad behaviour of some of the convicts. With these difficulties Governor Phillip success- 
fully contended in turn, but such is not matter to be dwelt upon here. 

In 1788, Captain Hunter of the Sirius surveyed port Jackson with its numerous arms and 
inlets, and produced an excellent chart on a scale of about i| inches to the mile, with 
hydrographical remarks and sailing directions. In 1792, Captain Phillip gave up, and was 
succeeded in 1 795, in his governorship by Captain Hunter, who had accompanied him in the 


Philip Gidley King born in 1758, entered the Navy at the age of twelve, in the SwallaWy 
and served as midshipman for five years on the East Indian Station. With Captain BeUew 
in the Liverpool he sailed for Virginia in 1775, and was wrecked in that frigate in Delaware 
bay in the same year. He then joined the Princess Roycd^ and was made a lieutenant by 
Admiral Byron into the Renown, He subsequently served in the English channel in the 
Kite and Ariadne until 1783. Sailing for the East Indies under Captain Phillip in January 
of the last mentioned year, at the conclusion of peace, he returned to England in May 1 784. 
Having thus come under the notice of Captain Phillip, he was appointed lieutenant of the 
Sirius for the New South Wales expedition in October 1786, and as has been related, was 
selected to conduct the first settlers to Norfolk island. He succeeded Captain Hunter in the 
governorship of New South Wales in 1800, and continued to hold that post until 1806, when 
he in turn was succeeded by Captain William Bligh, R.N. formerly of the Bounty. 


Entered the Navy on board the Anson at the age of sixteen, and afterwards joined the 
Cullodeny Hampton Courts and Vanguard. In 1763, he was made a Lieutenant by Admiral 
Swanton. Until 1 782, Lieutenant Shortland was chiefly employed in going to and from 
America, and in that year he commanded the transports with the 97th regiment on 
board which relieved Gibraltar. Homeward bound from this service he was chased by the 
Spaniards, who took three of the transports under his orders, but was fortunate enough to 
escape in the Betsy, t^nd arrived in England without loss or damage. In 17861 he was 


appointed agent to the transports sent to New South Wales, where he arrived in January 
1 788. After six months stay at the new settlement at Port Jackson, he was ordered to 
England by way of Batavia by Governor Phillip, carrying dispatches for government, and 
arrived in England, May 1789. 

In July, 1788, the transports Alexander, Frtmdshtf, Prince of Wales, and Borrawdale, 
sailed from Port Jackson under Lieutenant Shortland by way as it was intended of Endeavour 
Strait, but as it turned out by the Pelew islands, China Sea and Sunda straits. Bad weather 
overtaking the vessels after leaving Sydney, they became separated, the Friendship only 
remaining in company with the Alexander, m which latter was Lieutenant Shortland. The 
Middleton reef and island. New Greorgia, and Shortland of the Solomon islands, the Treasury, 
Four, and Wallis islands were discovered. Pellew islands were communicated with, and 
the north east Coast of Borneo reached October 17th. Here the crews of the vessels having 
been terribly reduced by scurvy, the Friendship was sunk, and the remnant of her ships 
company transferred to the Alexander, Continuing to Batavia, the Alexander arrived 
November 19th, in an almost helpless state only one man besides the officers being able to 
work aloft. A new crew was here embarked, and at the Cape of (rood Hope, the Sirius, 
Captain Hunter, fallen in with, who gave Lieutenant Shortland imformation that the missing 
transports Borrawdale and Ptince of Wales had returned to England by the southern passage. 
The Alexander arrived at the Isle of Wight May 28th, 1 789. 

This officer sailed in the transport Lady Penrhyn Captain Sever from Port Jackson for 
Macao roads, China, May 5th, 1 788. During the voyage, undertaken under great difficulties, 
owing to the alarming inroads made by scurvy among the ships company, the vessels in 
order to recruit the health of the crew and lay in a stock of fresh provisions were forced to 
bear up for Tahiti. Macauley and Curtis islands were discovered en route, and Matavai bay 
Otaheite arrived at July loth, 1788. Having refreshed his crew, the passage was continued 
for Tinian, Penrhyn island bsing discovered on the way. Having nlled up with water no 
material incident occurred between this and Macao which roadstead was reached October 
19th, 1788. 

In the transport Scarborough sailed from Port Jackson bound to China May 6th, 1788, 
being engaged to take in a cargo of tea by the East India Company. For a considerable 
part of the voyage he found himself in company with the Charlotte, Captain Gilbert, the 
latter discovered and named Matthew rock, Charlotte bank, and several of the Gilbert 
group which bears his name. Captain Marshall, in like manner, fell in with and named 
after himself, the Marshall islands. Both vessels touched at Tini2m of the Ladrone islands, 
previously discovered by Lord Anson, to recruit the health of their men, who had suffered 
greatly from scurvy, and to procure water. A heavy S.W. gale which afterwards ripened 
into a hurricane, rendered it necessary for both vessels to cut their cables and proceed to 
sea. Macao roads were arrived at 7th September, 1788, without any further noteworthy 
occurrence taking place. 

Voyage to Botany Bay, with an aoconnt of the eBtablishment of the colonies of Port Jaolcaon, and Norfolk 
island, and the Journals of Lieutenants Shortland, Watt, and Oapt. Marshall, with aoooonts of their 
discoreries. 4to. 1788. 

1 788-1804. 
Bom in 1758, at the agfe of fifteen years, or in April 1773, Graeme Spence was bound 
apprentice for seven years, to Lieut. Murdoch Mackenzie, R.N., (his cousin) to learn 
Maritime Surveying. Mackenzie was at this period employed surveying about the Lands 
End ; having succeeded his uncle Professor Murdoch Mackenzie, as head-surveyor in the 
Service of the Admiralty, two years before ; it was held out to Mr. Spence, that eventually 
he should succeed, to the charge of the survey in like manner. He was entrusted with the 
duty of Surveyor's assistant, in the summer of 1775, in the course of which year, and the 


next, he drew the chart, of the North Coast of Kent, from the North Foreland to Yantlet 
and Lee, in the river Thames. 

The survey of the North Coast of Kent being finished, Mr. Spence assisted in the year 
1777, in the survey of Plymouth, Falmouth, Torbay, and other parts of the channel to the 
westward, and no sooner had the survey of Plymouth Sound been completed, than on the 
appearance of the combined fleets of France off it, by order of Admiral Lord Shouldham, 
the buoys were sent in and removed, boats with flags flying being placed in their stead, 
whenever any of our own ships came in, or went out. This duty, although not connected with 
the survey, was carried on under the direction of Mr. Spence. The surveys of Plymouth 
Sound and Torbay, proved most serviceable to the Engineers employed in erecting batteries 
for the defence of those places ; and in consequence of the discoveries of new shoals made 
in Plymouth Sound, in the course of the survey, several buoys were laid down. Mr. Spence 
continued as assistant to Lieutenant Mackenzie to 1 788, when the eye-sight of the latter, 
failing, the work almost entirely fell into Spence's hands. He had employed under him, a 
midshipman, and a mate ; but one of these, finding the work too tedious for his tastes left, 
and the other, as it appears, did not evince much aptitude for it. At this time, Spence 
invented the " double sextant " and " station pointer. " These were shown to Lord Howe, 
the first Lord of the Admiralty, who was pleased to order others upon the same pattern, of 
Troughton, the skilled mathematical instrument maker, but we are told, that Spence 
received no pecuniary reward ; his pay at the time was £45 a year. In 1786, a plan of 
Portsmouth harbour on a scale of 8 inches to the mile, and system of moorings therein, 
engaged Spence's labour, and it redounds to his credit, that in 1841 Commander Sheringham^i 
after making a similar survey of the same harbour, gives his high opinion, of the extraor- 
dinary accuracy of Spence's work. 

In 1788, when the emplo3mient of Lieutenant Mackenzie and himself was for a time 
discontinued by the Admiralty, Spence was engaged by the Trinity House, in placing the 
Owers light vessel in position. In February 1789, he planned the situation and position of 
the Portland light near Portland Bill. He also assisted in experimenting for light houses 
with the new ^gand burners, and plano-convex lenses, and reflectors. 

In August 1789, at the age of 33, he again received orders to survey the Scilly islands 
for the Admiralty. This survey was finished in 1 793, and has stood the test of time. In 
June 1790, while thus engaged, his piloting knowledge saved the Pegasus frigate from total 
shipwreck on the Isle of Annet. In 1 793^4, he surveyed Garliestown bay. Ports Yorrock, 
Nessock, and Whitehom harbours, and afterwards the Downs and Owers. He placed the 
Goodwin light in August 1795, (the month in which Dalrymple was made Hydrographer), 
and also reported upon the position for leading lights in the Gull stream, with additional 
buoys. Spence then reported upon, and made a plan of, the intended London or West Indian 
Docks. In 1 796^7, he carried on the coast survey from the South Foreland to Beechy Head, 
including Dover and Rye harbours, which occupied until May 1797, a nautical military report 
following, as to its best means of defence ; also, a report upon the best mode of improving 
Rye harbour. He next surveyed the coasts of Essex and Suffolk, from the Nore to Orford- 
ness, which was finished by him in 1803. In August 1801, he piloted Lord Nelson in the 
Medusa frigate, drawing 18^ feet of water, over Harwich Naze, where no pilot would venture ; 
the Medusa channel still bearing the name of that ship. In a letter expressing his high 
obligation to Mr. Spence for this service, Lord Nelson promised to befriend him for the 
future. In October 1803, Spence at his own desire, was permitted to retire after being 
requested to draw a chart of the East Swin. The Trinity House added £50 a year to his 
pension, in consideration of his discovery of certain new channels into the river Thames. 
From 1804 to 1808, Spence was employed at the Admiralty, in writing nautical directions 
for Lieutenant Mackenzie's work, which had been left incomplete, as well as for his own 
survey of the Swin. He continued until 181 1, correcting the surveys of the Bristol Channel 
from the grand trigonometrical (ordnance) survey. This last work, closed his 38 years 
services, and he died in 1S12 at the age of 54 years. Many of the instruments and apparatus 


used by him were of. his own invention, and after his death, a small book containing 
drawings of these, with a description of their methods of use, was submitted by his widow 
to Lord Melville, at that time first Lord of the Admiralty. Graeme Spence was succeeded 
in the home survey by George Thomas Esq., Master R.N., about the year 1810. He never 
joined the Navy himself, carr>'ing on his surveys in a vessel commanded by a naval officer, 
who was directed to comply with his wishes. 



This officer though in the service of Spain, was an Italian, and in the Descebierta, with 
Bustamente in the Atrmda, left Cadiz August ist, 1789. Trinidad, Monte Video. 
Examined coast from Cape St. Autonio to Port desire, Falkland, Cape Virgins (the coast 
from Port Desire having been considered as surveyed by Magalhaens) Cape Horn, Aurora 
island, Talcapuauo, Valparaiso, Juan Fernandez, coast to the supposed strait of Juan de 
Fuca, Acapulco where they were joined by Espinosa and (3evallos from Vera Cruz, coast to 
northward of Marianas, Phillipines, Macao, New Holland, Friendly islands, returned to 
Cadiz, September 1794. His imprisonment on return at Coruna was the cause of most of 
his observations being lost. 

His journals or charts have never been published. A sketch of this voyage is given in 
the introduction to the voyage of (raliano and Valdez. What is known of it is from the 
charts subsequently drawn up by Don Felipe Bauza, who formed one of the expedition. 



From 1787 to 1790, this officer was engaged in the East Indies, on a survey of the coast 
of India,, under the orders of the Honourable East India Company; at first in the 
Experimeniy and afterwards in the Hawk and Experimmty neither of which, however, were 
of more than 50 tons burden. He had as his assistant a Mr. John Procter, of whose 
ability he sp#^ks in the highest terms. Having completed the coast between Bombay and 
Surat, he sounded over the space between the coast of Gruzarat and India, made surveys of 
other parts of the Indian coast, and then proceeded to the Maldivh islands and Diego- 
Garcia. A box and two pocket (Arnold) chronometers were used, but these proving 
irregular in their rates, he returned them. The bearings and altitudes of the land were 
taken by means of a Hadley sextant. Of this survey, a full account is given by Dalrymple 
in Vol. 2 of the collection of his voyages and surveys. He speaks highly of Lieut. McCluer's 
energy and zeal, with such small means at his disposal, in fact, the Lieutenant appears to 
have paid s(>ecial heed to paragraph 26 of his instructions, 

'* Let what is done, be done oompletely, and nothing left nndetermined in this space ; if any doabt arises, 
let them repeat their obserrations in such part, that an implicit oonfidenoe may be safely placed in their work 
when finished." 

From 1790 to 1794, the same officer surveyed among the Phillipine islands, the Pellew 
islands. Eastern Seas, &c. A few of the charts resulting from his labours were. 

The coast of Malabar, Goromandel and Ceylon. Pellew islands 1794. 

The Senhate islands and reef (Laooadivhs) 1790. C>a Loo archipelago 1794. 

Tracks of H.M.S. Sndetnxmr and Panther, from the Coast of Arabia from the Coria Mnria islands. 

East-end of Java to New Ooinea, 1791. Port of San Pio Qninto (Phillipines). 


1 790- 1 803. 

For a few of the surveys made in the West Indies, hydrography was in its early days 
indebted to the above officer. In 1808, Captain Columbine formed one of the committee, 
appointed by the Board of Admiralty, to report upon the Hydrographic Department, which 


report, resulted in Captain Thomas Hurd being selected to succeed Mr. Alexander Dalrym- 
ple as hydrographer. On the i ith, September 1809, Captain Columbine was tried by court 
martial at Portsmouth for the loss of the SoUhay^ but fully acquited of all blame. He died 
in June iSii, at sea, near the Azores, on his return on board H.M.S. Crocodile from the 
West coast of Africa, where he had been a great sufferer from fever and debility. The 
Crocodile was 63 days on the passag-e home, and lost 35 men from the same cause. 

Amonget Captein Golmnbine's snrreys were, 

St. John's harbour, Axxtigna. 

Island of Trinidad. 

Island of Saba, West end of Caba. 

Weet Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to the strait of I. Grande. 


This officer commisioned the PcMdora of 24 guns, 160 men, and sailed in September 1790, 
in search of the mutineers of the Bounty and to survey Endeavour straits. On the return 
from Otaheite, the reefs of Torres Straits were made August 2Sth, 1791, in lat. 10° South 
and two degrees of longitude eastward of Cape York, oteering from thence westward. 
Captain Edwards fell in with three islands, which he named Murray's with a reef which 
lay between the islands and the ship. This reef was of considerable extent, and during 
the whole of the 26th, 27th, and 28th, the Pandora ran along it without finding a passage ; 
a boat having been dispatched to find an opening on the evening of the 28th, one was 
reported, but darkness coming on, advantage was not taken of it. The tide meanwhile set 
the Pandora on to and over the reef, into deep water, where she sunk in 15 fathoms, at 
daylight of the 29th. Unable to save anything from the wreck, Captain Edwards set sail 
with four boats, August 30th, steering for the north east point of Australia. A keg of 
water was obtained at the York isles, but the natives proved treacherous. 

At the Prince of Wales' Islands good water was found '' There is a large sound here" 
" says Mr. Hamilton the surgeon of the Pandora^ which we named Sandwich's Sound," 
''and commodious anchorage for shipping in the bay to which we gave the name of Wolfs" 
" Bay (having heard here the howling of wolves probably wild dogs). 

Leaving this spot September 2nd, Captain Edwards reached Timor with t&e remainder 
of his crew and ten of the Bounty'' s on the 14th September. 

^In 1 79 1, Captain Edwards also discovered Rotumah island, near Fiji, and Ducie island of 
the Low archipelago. 

The track and discoveries of the Pandora constructed upon the authority of Lieutenant 
Hay ward, were published in a chart by Mr. Dairy mnle in 1798. 

The small Schooner, built under the direction of Morrison a boatswain mate of the Bounty^ 
but formerly a midshipman in the Navy, and found at Otaheite by Captain Edwards, was 
commissioned as tender, but parted company at the Palmerston islands, eventually however 
reaching Samarang in Java. She was a very swift sailer, and is stated afterwards to have 
made one of the quickest passages ever known from China to the Sandwich islands. She 
was eventually purchased by Commander Broughton of the Providence (the commission after 
Bligh had transported the bread-fruit to the West Indies) to assist in surveying on the coast 
of Tartary, and became the means of preserving the crew of that ship, amounting to 1 12 
men, when wrecked to the eastward of Formosa, in 1797. For account of the Pandora's 
voyage. See — ^A voyage round the world in H.M.S. Pandora by George Hamilton, Surgeon, 
R.N. Svo. Law and Son, London, 1793. 


1790 to 1795. 

Captain George Vancouver born about the year 1756, was appointed a midshipman to 
the Resolution in the autumn of 1771, under Commander James Cook in the second voyage 
made by the great navigator. On his return from that voyage round the world, he 


undertook to assist in the outfit and equipment of the Dmaoery^ destined to accompany 
Captain Cook on his last voyage, which was concluded in October 1780. On the 9th Dec- 
ember 1 78 1, he was made a lieutenant into the Afar/m sloop ; in this vessel he continued 
until he was removed into the Famty one of Lord Rodneys fleet in the West Indies, where 
he remained until the middle of the year 1783. In 17^4, he was appointed to, and sailed 
in the Europa for Jamaica, on which station he continued^ returning to England in 
September 1789. On the ist of January 1790, he was appointed to the Discovery, but soon 
afterwards, owing to disagreements between the English and Spanish authorities on the 
subject of certain proceedings which had taken place on the North West coast of America, 
the commissioning of the Dtsccvery destined for the survey of these coasts was suspended, 
and Vancouver appointed to the Courageux under Sir Alan Gardner, with whom he remained 
until December of that year, when he was made a Commander, and again appointed to the 
Discovery. The Discooery formerly a merchant vessel, built by Messrs Randall and Brent 
on the banks of the Thames, was purchased for this particular service, copper fastened, and 
sheathed with plank and copper for the voyage. At the same time, the Chatham sloop, of 
135 tons, Lieutenant W. R. Broughton was commissioned as a tender, being sheathed with 
copper in a similar manner. The Discovery carried 100, the Cha/ham 45 officers and men. 
Among Vancouver's lieutenants, were Zachariah Mudge, Peter Puget and Joseph Baker, 
two of them, officers of his own choice, with whom he was already acquainted. In the 
first instance, the command of the Discevery had been given to Captain Henry Roberts, who 
had served under Cook during his last two voyages, and was Vancouver's senior, the latter 
being appointed second in command. At the final commissioning in December 1790, 
however, Roberts was not again appointed. 

If Vancouver had not quite the varied talents and enterprise of Cook, the enormous 
amount of work compassed by him, show that at least he was as indefatigable. His instruct- 
ions were of a twofold nature — ^to settle the Spanish question relative to Nootka sound, and 
to ascertain the truth of a theory at that time current as to a large and navigable passage 
to the Atlantic from the North West coast of America. His surveys extend from the Bay 
of St. Francisco to Cape Douglas of Cook inlet. A vast extent of most intricate coast was 
by him delineated in the most faithful manner. He determined the insularity of Vancouver 
island and the character of the archipelagoes to the northward. Lieutenant Broughton 
under his orders in the Chatham, discovered the Chatham islands. King George Sound of 
South Australia, the Snares (south of New Zealand), and a more exhaustive examination of. 
the Sandwich islands was also made by him during the expedition. 

Vancouver sailed from Falmouth Friday April ist, 1791, calling at Teneri£fe and the 
Cape of Good Hope, discovered King George Sound, touched at Dusky bay (New Zealand) 
parted company with the Chatham, which rejoined at Otaheite, called at Otoo, Matavai bay, 
and Sandwich islands, Nootka Sound, San Francisco-^thence to Sandwich islamls, again to the 
coast of North West America, Juan de Fuca strait, port Discovery, Admiralty inlet. 
Desolation Sound, Johnstone strait, Broughton archipelago, Fitzhugh Sound, Friendly cove 
(Nootka), Columbia river, San Francisco, Monterey, Gray harbour, the Marquesas, — 
Lieutenant Broughton returns to England with dispatches and is succeeded by 
Lieutenant Puget as commander of the Chuitham, who visits Hergests islands, after murder of 
Lieutenant Hergests of Dosdalus at Woahoo. Search for Los Majos islands, O^hyhee, 
Mowee, Whyteete bay. Quit Sandwich islands for North America, Trinidad bay, Fitzhugh 
Sound, Restoration Cx>ve, Millbank Sound, Chatham Sound, Observatory inlet. Salmon bay 
Port Stewart, Port Protection, western side of Queen Charlotte islands to Nootka, San 
Francisco, San Diego, Owhyhee, examination of Whyeatea bay, Karakakoa bay, Tyahtatooa, 
Toeaigh bays, north side Mowee, Woahoo, Attowai. Leave Sandwich islands, sight 
Tscherikow, Trinity islands. Cook inlets. Prince William Sound, port Mulgrave, port 
Althooy, Cross sound, George archipelago, port Conclusion, Nootka, Monterey, Marias 
islands, Cocos, Galapagos, Masafuera, Juan Fernandez, Valparaiso, St. Jago, search for isle 
Grande, St. Helena. Capture of Dutch East Indiaman Macassar, join convoy under 


H.M5. Scepire for river Shannon, thence to river Thames arriving Sept, 24th, 179S, about 
a month after the appointment of Mr. Alexander Dahymple as first hydrographer to the 


Thb voyage occupied from 1792 to 1794, in August of which year, Vancouver was pro- 
moted to the rank of Captain. Arriving in England in a weakened state of health he Iwed 
until May 1798, not quite long enough to see the three volumes of his book and the 
accompanying Atlas of charts completed. His brother John Vancouver assisted by Captain 
Puget completed, and saw the latter part comprising the voyage from Valparaiso round 
Cape Horn to England through the press. It appears that many remarks of a miscellan- 
eous nature, bearing upon the natural history of the countries visited, together with the 
laws, religion, customs, Ac. of the people, which Captain Vancouver had intended should 
form a supplementary chapter at the end of the work, owing to his unfortunate decease, 
were never made public. 

Vancouver's longitudes were not in accordance with those of Cook, though the details of 
his survey have been applauded by the highest authorities. Sir Edward Belcher in the 
Sulphur was afterwards i^pointed to reconcile these differences, and later on. Captain fnow 
Sir George) Richards in H.M. Ships Plumper and Hecate. 

Smrej of the Sandwich islands. The 8.W. coast of New Holland, with a sheet of riews 

Yiew of the Sandwich and other islands. Twelre sheets of charts and Tiews of the N.W. coast of America 

The deecriptioa of YanoouTers Yoyage was published in 3 Yols, 4to, 1798, Robinson and Bdwards, London 


1 790 (about). 

Between 1777 and 1795 this officer was actively engaged in making surveys of parts of 
the Andaman Islands, the Katwar coast, Salsette, and other places. In 1788.89, he 
determined the longitude of the Andamans, and of Acheen, and ascertained the meridian 
distance between £k>mbay and Suez in 1795, by means of an Arnold chronometer, purchased 
in India, and found to keep excellent time. Port Blair of the Andaman Islands was named 
jrfter him, and an account of his survey of this group is given in " Selections from the 
Records of the Government of India." (Home No. 24). The following were amongst his 
surveys, afterwards published by the Admiralty. 

The Ghagoe archipelago. Strait of Papra. 

The harbonr at Ghagos I. N.B. harbour (Great Andaman I). 

Views of the^Chagos archipelago. Blair harbour (E. coast of Malay). 

Bajapora and Nowa Bander fioads. Dewgar harbonr. 

Ifonarah river (Salsette I). 



In November 1774, the above officer of the Hon. East India Company's Service, sailed 
in the Tartar* galley, of ten tons, with two Europeans and a Malay crew, to extend trade 
and explore western New Guinea. He received his immediate instructions from the council 
at Balambangan, and therein is inserted a clause to the effect that 

" Yon mnst therefore be as accurate as possible as well as explicit in your remarks and observatione. 
Charts and drawings must be taken, minntelj marking ererything that may conduce to the above purpose." 

The Tartar sailed through the Sulu archipelago, southward of Sangnir island, round the 
south point of Batchian island and Gilolo, along* the west coast of Waygiou island, to Dorei 
harbour in north-west New Gruinea. Having examined the coast of New Guinea east and 
west of Dorei, the return voyage, during which several previously unknown harbours were 
touched at and surveyed, was made, calling at Mysole and adjacent islands, past the east 
coast of Gillolo, coasting the southern part of Mindanao, visiting the river of that name and 
Port Pollok, through the Sulu archipelago, along the north-east and north-west coasts of 

*Tha Twriar was fitted with a tripod mast and the oblong sail known as " lyre tanjong." Captain Forrest 
remarks : Lash two London wherries together, and rig this double Tcssel in a similar way, and it will beat 
ike faat sailing boats at least three to two 


Borneo, to the English factory at Borneo (Bruni). From thence, Captain Forrest made his 
way to Madras, continuing- for part of the voyage in the Tartar ^ but losing his European 
companions David Baxter and Lawrence Lound at Acheen, they declining to remain longer 
in the crazy craft — ^she being in an utterly decayed condition. 

In 1783, Captain Forrest, in the brig Esther visited and examined the Andaman islands, 
and in 1783 being at that time the Senior Captain in the employ of the Company, he made 
a chart of the Mergui archipelago, and also a report upon Junkseylon (Jan Sylan) island. 
Accounts of these voyages were published by him in 1 792. His works contain numerous 
plans, explicit sailing directions, and some excellent views, as well as a vocabulary of the 
Mindanao language. The astronomical positions are the weakest ]>art of Captain Forrest's 

See — A voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas in the Tartar galley, 1774-75-76, 
by Captain Thomas Forrest. 4/^. London^ I779> ^^^ A voyage from Calcutta to the 
Mergui Archipelago, &c., by the same author. 4/^. London^ 1792. 

Besides numerous views of headlands, ftc, Forrest constructed the following rough charts. 

Track chart of the Tartar" 9 Toyage. Islands between Sain and Basilan. 

Malaleo and Ghkg harbours. 8.W. part of Mindanao. 

W. Part of Batchian and Mandioli islands with Bissory Bnnwoot (Bongo) island, 

harboor. Leno and Ubal harbours. 

Selang, Piapis, Offak harbours. Kamaladan (Dumanquilas) bay. 

Island of Waygioa, Rawak harbour. N.B. coast of Borneo. 

Bfbe harbour of Mysole island. N.W. coast of Borneo. 

Leron harbour. Siddo harbour near Acheen« 

Bass harbour, Pera ri^er. Part of the Mergui islands. 



In 1788, Captain Topping submitted to the Indian authorities a journal kept on board the 
E.I.C. ship WalpoUy in a voyage to Madras, with a chart of the Bay of Bengal. In 1790, 
he surveyed Korangi, and the mouth of the Godavari river, which he pe^ormed most 
creditably, compiling a chart and valuable memoir as its results. During 1792, he was 
engaged in taking observations for determining the currents in the Bay of Bengal ; and he 
afterwards took a series of levels of the river Kistna, from the sea to Bezwara, with a view 
to the construction of irrigation works. For these Services, in 1794, he was made chief 
Surveyor at Madras, where he drew up a general plan for the improvement of the 
geography and navigation of India. 

Captain Topping's Memoir on Coringa (Korangi) with notes by Lieut. Warren and Oaptain Biden, was 
published by the Madras Goyemment in 1855. SeUdionsJ^om Records of Qovemmsni of India, No. 19. 



The French government decided in the year 1791, at the instigation of the Parisian 
Society of Natural history to send an expedition in search of the missing La P^rouse. The 
command was given to Bruny D'Entrecasteaux in the Recherche^ having under his orders the 
Esperanc€y Captain Huon Kermadec. They left Brest, September 28th, 1791, touching at 
Teneriffe, Cape of Good Hope, Port D'Entrecasteaux of Tasmania, west coast of New 
Caledonia, Bougainville island, port Carteret, Portland, Hermit, Exchequer islands. New 
Guinea, through Pitt strait to Amboyna. From Amboyna the course taken was along the 
south-west coast of Australia, through D'Entrecasteaux strait on south side of Tasmania, 
past North Cape of New Zealand, to Tongataboo of the Friendly islands. The expedition 
after sighting Espiritu Santo of the New Hebrides, discovered Beaupr^ islands, 
anchoring near Observatory island of New Caledonia, (where Cook had also anchored). 
Here, Captain Huon Kermadec died. The southern part of the Solomon islands was next 
visited, Dampier strait sailed through, and the north coast of New Britain reconnoitred. 


About this time scurvy made sad havoc with the crews of both vessels, and August 21st, 
1793, D'Entrecasteaux died of this disease. Wayg^ou and Bouro were called at in turn, 
and the vessels passing through the strait of Bouton anchored at Sourabaya, ; and thence 
the officers and crews proceeded to Batavia. The Dutch at this time were at war with 
France. This expedition lost 99 men out of the 219 forming the crews, the Commanders of 
both ships, and Lieutenant Doribeau of the Recherche, The journals were brought to 
Europe by the second lieutenant of that ship, afterwards Admiral Rossel. 

See Bniny lyEntreoasteaaz Voyage a la recherche de la F^roiue. 2 toIs. 4to. Pcurit 1808. Alao, Atlas dn 
YoTSge de Bniny D'Bntzeoaateaaz. FoUo, ParU 1807. 


These officers with four brigantines surveyed Trinidad island. Churruca then proceeded 
to Porto Rico (Cuba) but did not complete the survey. Fidalgo with Noguera and Ciscar 
surveyed the coast to Porto Bello. Churruca was afterwards killed at the battle of 
Trafalgar when commanding the San Juan, 



The above in command of the ships Hcrmuuer and Chesterfield had their discoveries made 
public in two charts by Mr. Dalrymple in 1 798-99. It appears that they sailed in company 
from Norfolk Island with the intention of passing through Torres Strait, by a previously 
unknown route. June 20th, 1793, they sighted Murray island (of Edwards) and at 
Treacherous bay, of Damley islands, losing a boats crew ; and after numerous troubles 
amongst the reefs of Torres strait, anchored under Stephens island, July nth. After 
visiting Campbell island, Bristow island was discovered, and proceeding westward by slow 
degrees, accounts are given of Dungeness, Warrior, and Dove island of the Six Sisters. 
Turtle back island, the Cap, and the Brothers, were passed on one side, and Nicols Key oa 
the other. Upon the Cap, Captain Bampton saw a volcano burning, which induced him to 
name it Fire island. July 31st, Tumagain island was reached, — ^near here the Chesierfield 
grounded, necessitating a delay of eighteen days, August 20th, steering westward with the 
flood tide, Talbot island was discovered, near this the Hormuzeer grounded. Boats were 
sent to sound channel, and after infinite labour they safely reached Deliverance island 
August 27th. After again grounding in the Hormuzeer^ the straits were eventually cleared 
August 30th — ^the passage through occupying 72 days. — ^The accounts of Bampton and Alt 
deterred vessels from following the route of Torres Strait, and confirmed the truth of 
Torres having passed through it, by showing the correctness of the sketch contained in his 
letter to the King of Spain. 

The Bampton and Chesterfield reefs of the Western Pacific were discovered by Bampton 
and Alt, prior to the passage through Torres Strait above alluded to. 


1 795-98. 

For this voyage, the Providence^ of 420 tons, river built, formerly intended for the West 
India trade, which had been purchased for the purpose of conveying the bread-fruit tree to 
the West Indies, under Captain Bligh, after the mutiny of the Bounty, and had returned 
successfully from this service, was fitted out in 1793, under Commander Broughton. Sailing 
in April 1 794, it was contemplated to survey the coasts of Tartary, northern China and the 
Korea. The Canary islands, Rio, port Stephens and port Jackson were touched at. From 
thence, Otaheite, and the Sandwich islands, and Nootka sound, were successively visited. 
Search was made for Dorina Maria Lajara island ; intelligence of Vancouver obtained 
(early in 1796), and Juan de Fuca inlet anchored in. Commander Broughton then again 
sailed for the Sandwich islands, where some time was spent in surveying, thence to Japan^ 


anchoring in Volcano bay, which was surveyed, as also, Endermo harbour. Continuing 
along the coast to Spanbey island and Marikan (one of the Kuril islands), through Vries 
strait, and the strait of Tsugar along the East coast of Japan to Yeddo bay, and the 
F'atsisio islands. From this, the Providence sailed for the Loochoo islands, and thence past 
Formosa to Macao. At Macao, the small schooner built at Otaheite, by the mutineers of 
the Bounty was purchased for £1500, and fitted as a tender, and the voyage continued in 
April 1797, for the island of Lamay and Pa-chusan island. In May 1797, the Providence 
was wredced off the island of Typingshan of the Meiacosima group, the crew being rescued 
by the tender, and conveyed to Canton : — here the greater number were transhipped to the 
Sufift, and the East Indiamen under her convoy. Commander Broughton continuing in the 
tender for the coasts of Tartary and the Corea. Lieut. Hay ward one of the officers set 
adnft with Bligh of the Bounty commanded the Swifts which was lost on the return voyage 
to England with all hands. Visiting and examinmg June 1 797, the Pescadores, Kelung 
harbour, and Napachau harbour of Great Loochoo, the voyage was continued along the 
South and Eastern coasts of Japan to Endermo harbour for the second time, thence through 
Tsugar strait along the west coast of Yesso,to 52° N. latitude, in the gulf of Tartary. Here 
it was determined to return along the coast of Tartary and Corea. Tsima island was passed, 
and Chosan harbour visited and surveyed. Sailing thence October 22nd, 1 797, Quelpart 
was partially examined, Macao being again reached 27th November of the same year. 
From thence, Commander Broughton continued to Madras, through the strait of Malacca, 
and then to Trincomalee. At Trincomalee passage, was taken to England which was 
reached in February 1 799. 

See — ^Voyage of Diaooreiy to tHe North FkMifio Ocean in H.M.8. Pnmdenee and tender in yean 1795-97*98. 
by W. B. Broughton. 4to. CtuUU and DavU, London, 180i. 

Of the charts pabliehed from Commander Bronghion's stmreyi the following may be considered the ohief 
Coast of Corea and galf of Tartary with track of Proindence^ 
Coast of Japan with continuation of Provid^ne^M track. 
Loochoo islands. 

Chart of Volcano bay (Tesso) and Earil islands. 
Chosan harbour, coast of Corea. 
Xndermo harbour. 



Matthew Flinders entered the navy in 1791, and embarked as a midshipmani in H.M.S. 
Providence, commanded by Captain (afterwards Admiral) Bligh. In that voyage, he appears 
to have acquired a taste for the surveying branch of the profession, in which he afterwards 
greatly distinguished himself. 

On his return to England he joined the Bellerophon, in which ship he acted as eade^-^amp to 
Admiral Sir Thomas Pasley, in Lord Howe's action of the first of June 1 794. 

He then entered as a midshipman on board the Reliance, Captain John Hunter, who 
sailed in I79S> to relieve Captain Philip in the government of New South Wales, and 
remained with the Supply in company for several years on the Australian Station, where he 
devoted himself to geographical research in examining the harbours and rivers of New 
South Wales, particularly in circumnavigating Van Diemen's Land and examining its 
northern extremity, accompanied by his friend Dr. Bass, the Surgeon of the 7?^/iaffr^: thus 
completing the important discovery made by that enterprising officer of the strait Which 

bears his name. 

On Lieutenant Flinders return to England in the Reliance in 1800, the charts and an 
account of the new discoveries were published (the variation being allowed upon the bear- 
ings, and also in the direction of winds, tides, &c,), which led to his being appointed to the 
command of an expedition, determined on (in 1800) ; the object of which was, a complete 
survey of the coasts of New Holland, doubts at that time existing, as to whether it formed 
one great land, or consisted of two or more islands. 

In February 1801, prior to sailing in the Investigator (formerly called the Xenophon of 


334 tons) Flinders received his promotion to Commander's rank. With his instructions for 
the voyage, signed by Lords of the Admiralty St. Vincent, T. Trowbridge, and J. Markham, 
a memoir was furnished by the Hydrog^apher, Mr. Alexander Dalrymple, respecting the 
winds and weather to be expected upon the South coast of Australia — and thus the 
precedent of supplementing the command of a Surveying vessel's instructions with those of 
a hydrographic nature appears to have been established. With a complement of 76 
officers and men, among whom, the name of John Franklin, midshipman (afterwards Sir 
John Franklin of Arctic fame) appears, the Itfoesiigator sailed from Spithead, July i8th, 
1 80 1, and called at the Cape of Good Hope; here Mr. Crosley the Astronomer 
Appointed to the Expedition was compelled through sickness to leave the ship, taking with 
him (his private property) an excellent chronometer watch by Earnshaw, and a reflecting 
circle by Troughton, both of which were a great loss to Flinders. King George sound of 
Western Australia was reached December 9th, 1801, and the survey of the coast east and 
west of it at once commenced. Recherche archipelago, the south of Australia, Nuyts 
archipelago, Waldegrave and Flinders' islands. Investigator group. Cape Catastrophe, and 
Port Lincoln were partly examined in turn. Flinders then visited Spencer gulf. Kangaroo 
island. Gulf of St. Vincent, and Encounter bay, working through Bass strait to Port Phillip, 
where he arrived at the latter end of April 1802. Flinders considered he had made a new 
and useful discovery in being the first to cast anchor in this grand harbour, but afterwards 
learnt at port Jackson, that he had been forestalled in this, by Lieutenant John Murray^ 
in the Schooner LAdy Nelson, 

Leaving Port Phillip May 3rd, 1802, he passed cape Schanck, rounding Wilson 
promontory and its isles, Kent group, and Fumeaux isles, and arrived at Port Jackson 
May 9th, 1802, where the crew were recruited in health, and the ship refitted and stored. 
He had lost eight officers and men in Spencer g^lf, and in all, was fourteen short of his 
full complement. 

In Port Jackson the French expedition under Captain Baudin was fallen in with, consisting 
of I^Naturalhte and Gfographe^ but it was then contemplated by the Commander of that 
expedition to order the former to return to France. 

Having left two copies of his charts of the South coast of Australia with the governor, 
(Japtain Philip Gidley King, R.N. ; one set to be forwarded with Flinders' letters to the 
Secretary of the Admiralty, the other to be retained until his return, or in case of the 
Ifwesttgaior^s loss, to be also forwarded to the same destination, and after twelve weeks stay 
at Port Jackson, July 22nd, 1802, Flinders sailed with the brig Lady Nelson, Lieutenant John 
Murray, under his orders, and having examined various parts of the East coast of New 
South Wales, between that port and Sandy cape, anchored in Harvey bay, where the Lady 
Nelson, which had become separated, again joins him. — ^After a survey of the shores of that 
bay, Port Curtis was discovered and examined, and Keppel bay with its branches, one of 
which leads to Port Curtis explored. From thence, the Keppel isles, Harvey isles, and 
Shoal Water bay, were in turn visited, and partially surveyed, and anchorage found in 
Thirsty Sound. From this Sound, a boat excursion to the Northumberland islands was 
made, and expeditions to Broad Sound and Lay island successfully accomplished. Upon 
this part of the East coast of Australia (now called Queensland^ Flinders dwells in 
enthusiastic terms, especially as to its advantages for a colony, and he also calls attention to 
the remarkably high tides there observed. 

The Percy isles are next examined in detail in his boats, and he spends eleven days in 
search for a passage through the barrier reef, and so on to the Cumberland isles. Here 
the Lady Nelson which had lost anchors and cables and the greater part of her keel, was 
ordered to return to Sydney, and on the 17th October, 1802, this little vessel parted 
company with her consort. An opening through the great barrier reef which here girds 
the Australian coast was found by Flinders near cape Gloucester, and instructions are given 
by him explaining how best to make use of this opening. The reefs termed the Eastern fields 
on the outside of the Barrier are then visited, as also the Pandora's entrance to Torres 


Strait. Murray islands anchored off, and the natives communicated with. Halfway island 
visited and theories on the formation of coral islands entered into by Flinders. Prince of 
Wales islands and Wallis isles, with the entrance into the Gulf of Carpentaria, next occupy 
him, ann the East side of that gulf is examined. In Investigator road, the ship upon 
examination is found to be in a state of decay. 

The strong representations as to the decayed condition of his vessel, caused Flinders 
reluctantly to resolve to return to Port Jackson, examining* the north coast of Wellesley 
islands in the earlier part of his return voyage. Having left Sweers island we find him 
examining C. Van Diemen which he found to be one of a group of islands, thence along 
the north coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria to Pellew group. 

These islands he surveyed according to his means, thence westward to cape Maria, 
which also proved to be an island ; skirting Limmens bight, he circumnavigated the '' Groote 
Eylandt'' of the Dutch, and in Blue mud bay, became entangled in a skirmish with the 
natives. — Cape Shields, Mouilt Grindall, and the coast of Caledon Bay, next claimed his 

Leaving the latter, Feb. 1803, and visiting in turn. Cape Arnheim, Melville bay, cape 
Wilberforce, Bromby, and the English Company's islands, where he met with English vessels 
from Macassar, he examined Wessel's Islands, and postponing further examination of the 
north coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria, sailed for, and duly arrived at Coepang bay, 
Timor. Leaving Timor April 8th, he proceeded for Groose island bay, searching on the 
way for the Trial rocks. Here his boatswain died, and many of his ship's company were 
prostrated with dysentry. Leaving this bay without regret, the " Investigator " sailed through 
Bass's Strait arriving at Port Jackson 9th June 1803, after an absence of nearly eleven 
months during which the Australian Continent had been circumnavigated. Here their old 
consort the Lady Nelson was fallen in with again. During Flinders absence, the French 
exploring vessels Geographe and Naiuraliste had sailed for the south coast of Australia. 
Mr. James Inman afterwards professor of Mathematics at the R.N. College, Portsmouth, 
and author of a work and tables on Navigation was also at Port Jackson, having been sent 
out to join Commander Flinders as astronomer, by the Board of Longitude. A survey was 
held on the Investigator^ her decayed state verified, and all effort made to restore and 
reinvigorate his crew, after their exhausting voyage. On the 4th July, the armed vessel 
Porpoise arrived from Tasmania, and Flinders seeing the utterly unfit condition of the 
Investigator^ requested the governor to order that vessel to be again surveyed, with the 
result that she was reported altogether unseaworthy. After weighing other alternatives 
Governor Phillip Gidley King, offered Flinders a passage in the Porpoise to England by 
Torres Strait in order that he might lay his charts and journals before the Lords of the 
Admiralty, and obtain, if such should be their pleasure, another ship to complete the 
examination of Terra Australis. The Porpoise was at this time commanded by Mr. William 
Scott, a senior master in the navy, but he and the greater number of his crew having 
expressed a wish to be discharged, it was complied with. The command was now given to 
Mr. Fowler, first lieutenant of the Investigator, and another crew of thirty eight men selected 
from that ships company. Flinders taking the position of a passenger only. He hoped to 
make some further examination of the dangers of Torres Strait en route, and to prepare his 
charts and journals on the voyage home. 

The Porpoise sailed from Port Jackson in August 1803, being accompanied by the East 
India Company's ship Bridgewater, commanded by E. H. Palmer, Esq., and the ship Caio of 
London, 450 tons, commanded by Mr. John Park. On the 1 7th of August, eight days after 
leading^ Port Jackson, the Porpoise and CaJo were wrecked upon Wreck reef. The crews 
succeeded in landing on a sand bank, although the Bridgewater appears to have continued 
her voyage for India, the captain on arrival, reporting all lost. Flinders returned in jthe 
ships cutter to Sydney, and in September aeain made for the scene of the wreck, in the 
colonial schooner Cumberland, of 29 tons, with the schooners Rolla and Francis in company. 
Arriving the 7th of October, the shipwrecked crews were divided, some returning to 


and such as volunteered continuing with Flinders in the " CumkrlafuT* who successfully 
voyaged through Torres straits, by Wessels island, and Timor, to Mauritius, where the 
leaky state of the Cumberland rendered it necessary to remain. Here, in December 1803, 
by order of the French governor at Port Louis, Flinders was committed to the Garden 
prison ; the charts and journals of the Investigator's voyage being seized. In 1804, Flinders 
obtained the opportunity of informing Sir Edward Pellew the English Admiral commanding 
in the East Indies, of his situation, by means of the sailing of the brig Ariel. In August 1 805, 
he was let out of prison on parole, and allowed to visit various parts of Mauritius. From Sir 
Edward Pellew, Flinders received a reply in July 1807, stating that he had requested the 
Captain General of the island to permit his departure by H.M.S. '' Greykound^** and enclosing 
a copy of a letter from Mr. Marsden the Secretary of the Admiralty, transmitting authority 
for his release, under the authority of the French minister of Marine. This application was 
evasively answered, and an expected attack upon Mauritius by the British squadron, caused 
an abridgement of the liberty hitherto gfranted to the unfortunate Flinders. A strict blodcade 
of the island ensued. Eventually, in January 18 10, Flinders had his liberty confirmed, and 
sailed from Port Louis for England in the Oiler, Captain Tomkinson, arriving at Simons Bay, 
Cape of (rood Hope, July I ith. He left the Cape 28th of August in the Ofymfna, touched at 
St. Helena, and St. Mary's of the Azores, and on October 23rd anchored in Poole harbour. 
As a reward. Flinders was advanced to post rank, but not dated back as he had hoped, 
such being against established rule and necessitating an order in council. Unhappily 
His Majesty the king was at the time incapable of exercising his Royal functions." 

The Board of Admiralty were pleased to countenance the publication ** of the Invesltgalor^s 
voyage, by providing for the charts and embellishments " and in 1814, was published. 

A Toyage to Terra AustraliB in the years 1801, S, 8, in H.M.S. ImwewHgator, with an aoooant of the 
wreck of the ForpaUe and arriTal of the Cuwtherlamd at ICanritias, and imprisonment of the Ck>mmander 
daring 6^ jean in that island. By Matthew Flinders, Two 4to. Vols, with an Atlas. 

In the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 5Vociety for 1805, Flinders published an 
account of his discovery that deviation of the compass depended upon attractive bodies in 
the ship. Experiments verifying this discovery were afterwards made by him at the home 
ports, and his numerous charts corrected accordingly. 

Captain Flinders only lived to complete his charts, and publish his narrative, a work 
which certainly places him next to Cook amongst the exploring officers of that period. 
In 1853, the New South Wales government granted a pension of £100 a year to Mrs. Flinders, 
the appropriation to be reversionary to her daughter, the home government, in spite of 
the strenuous exertions of Sir Francis Beaufort, failing to recognise any special claim in 
her case. 

Captain P. P. King R.N. who followed in the footsteps of Flinders, in the same quarter of 
the globe, and who ended his days in New South Wales three years after the pension 
was granted, spoke thus of Captain Flinders upon the occasion. 

''This distingnished officer had laid the oolonists of Australasia mider great obligations, by having 
executed a series of skilfal surreys with less eqaipment than any narigator who had been engaged in similar 
duty daring the last half oentary. By his carefnl and correct surreys he had aSbrded aU the ocmmeroial 
cities of Biirope and America the means of safe communication with the shores of Australasia. And yet how- 
poor were the means placed at his disposal. In a mere dingy he had examined Botany bay, Bremen bay» and 
the niawarra coast ; and his charts remained to this day (1863) not only sure guides to the mariner, but 
mementos of his courage, skill, and perseveranoe. 

Independently of his eminent senrioes as a nautical surveyor, Gwtain Flinders had the high merit of having 
introduced many distinguished men into the service. Sir John Franklin and many other eminent names of 
navigators, botanists, artists, would be included when tribute was paid to the memory of Flinders.** 

Hydrographer, 1795-1808 


Daliympto. BMUiwinpa Bewipri, Oaluno and Tnldei, Wedgborongh utd While, Uorabargti, Wiltoa, 
Hnmboldt, Qnnt, Bandin, F«t«r H(rp*bod, Cerallofl, Mori*;, D'Ur^ui, EraHnBtern, LiiUknikj, Ooart, 

In I7S3| Alexander Dalrymple entered the service of the Honourable East India 
Company as a Writer, leaving England in that year for Fort St. George (Madras) ; he 
was then in all probability about sixteen years of age. After a service of five years, he 
was appointed sub-secretary and he relates that 

"Geography and discoveries had almost from infancy been the fond object of his 
attention, and although he went to the East Indies at an early age, neither the circum- 
stances of life in which he was placed, the disposition of his companion^ nor the want of 
books, could over-rule the natural propensity of his mind." 

Every young man enters life with a passion to emulate those characters who have 
gained his admiration. In most men the rubs of life soon blunt this passion ; in some it 
prevails over all difficulties. 

This was the case with Dalrymple. The desire for information having led him to examine 
the old records at Madras, he found from them, that the Company in former years placed 
a great value on the commerce of the Eastern islands, and were solicitous to regain a 
portion of it, after they were deprived thereof, by the intrigues of the Dutch. From 
these examinations, and printed accounts of early voyages, he was led to believe, that 
this valuable branch of commerce might not only be regained, but extended. 

In 1759, after the siege of .Madras, upcm the resignation of Du Pre, he succteded to the 


secretaryship at Fort St. George^ at a salary of 1200 pagodas or £500 per annum, but 
this he was contented to resign, in order to fit out a small vessel in prosecution of the end 
be proposed. 

The authorities at Fort St George, in a letter dated 17th April 1762, to the Company 
in England, speak of him thus, 

** Mr. Dalrymple is a man of capacity, integrity and unwearied application, qualities which 
we hope and believe are sufficient to entitle any man to your protection and favour." 

In June 1762, Dalrymple with an assistant (Mr. Kelsall) left fort St. George in the ship 
Ltmdan for Sulu, in which he appears to have visited Balambangan, returning to Madras 
in the ensuing year, having in the mean time sketched out a plan for forming a settlement, 
and suggest^ that he may return to England to lay his scheme before the G>mpany in 
person. This, the governor and council objected to, and order Dalrymple to again proceed 
to Sulu in the Nepimnt and return from thence direct to England. 

lO July 1763, therefore, he embarked, and having reached Manila, in an interview with 
the Sultan of Sulu, obtained the cession to the East India Company of the northern part of 
Borneo and islands adjoining, although it had previously been the intention of the Sultan 
to vest the government of these districts in his son Saraphodin. 

The governor of Madras had proceeded to England at the end of 1763, and his successor 
should, according to arrangement, have sent a ship to Sulu the enduing season. This was 
not done, and Dalrymple continuing to China, there found a letter enclosing an extract 
from the Company in &igland to fort St. George, directing that '^ Mr. Dalrymple should be 
appointed our Resident in Sulu if he chooses it." The ship bearing these tidings, reached 
Madras in January 1764, and had the authorities thought fit to dispatch her at once to Sulu, 
Dalrymple would have acted as suggested by the Company. He now resolved to return 
home, and leaving Canton in January 1765, reached England in July of the same year. 

Here he found the Company inclined to look coldly on his plans, the terms did not suit ; 
and in a succession of memorials, he begs at any rate, should no assent be given to his 
suggestions as to a new settlement in Sulu, that he may be restored to the office of 
S^retary at the Madras establishment, which he had relinquished nine years previously. 

Much correspondence of a vexatious nature now appears to have taken place between 
the Company and Dalrymple, extending over the next three years. The former did not 
see their way towards carrying out his suggestions, and evidently feared the first outlay, set 
down at about £50,000 ; no certain return for so large an expenditure seeming probable. 

Dalrymple appeared to have been indefatigable in his solicitations in this matter, showing 
strength of mind and considerable warmth of temperament, pointing out that he was 
actually a poorer man than when he entered the Company's service, and appealing to the 
public, states, that he is prepared to abide their decision " with heart felt gratitude, or 
manly resignation." Eventually, in 1776, he returned to Madras in the civil service of the 
East India Company, being appointed a member of council, to which he was entitled, from 
his original standing as a Writer in 1 752. 

During the twelve years which had elapsed between his return to England in 1765 and 
1776, he published several charts and plans of coasts and ports at that time visited by the 
Company's vessels in the East. The year 1777, ^g^in finds him the bearer of dispatches 
to England, notifying the deposition and imprisonment of Lord Pigot (Governor of 

In 1779, he was appointed by the East India Company to examine their ships journals, 
and publish charts and nautical instructions, which eventually, amounted to 58 charts, 740 
plans, 57 views of land ; altogether 855 plates ; also, 50 nautical memoirs. Dalrymple thus 
became the first East Indian hydrographer, although Captain John Ritchie, who was sent 
in the Diligent in 1770-71, to make a cursory survey of the coasts and islands around the 
Bay of Bengal, had formerly been termed hydrographer to the United India Company. 
He certainly made 7 charts, but for want of the necessary instruments and appliances, 
bis work was far from being of a reliable nature^ and Dalrymple, who published an 


account of it in 1 784, draws attention to the fact, that it was only intended as introductory 
to " a gceneral or accurate survey of the whole." 

In 1795, when the Hydrographic Office of the Admiralty was established. Earl Spencer, 
being* at that time president of the Admiralty Board, appointed Dalrymple the first 
hydrographer, thinking him the fittest person for that station, he having been for sixteen 
years employed in the same capacity by the East India Company. At this time, he must 
have been upwards of sixty years of age, allowing him to have been sixteen when he 
entered the Company's service as a Writer in 1752. 

The substance of the minute forming the Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty 
dated August 12th 1795, ran as follows: — 

'* The great inconTenience especially whea ordered abroad, felt bj officers commanding His Majestj'B 
Ships respecting the navigation, has led as to consider the best means for f mmishing saoh information, and 
preventing the difficulty and dang^ to which His Migesty's fleet most be exposed from defects on this 

On an examination of charts in office, we find a mass of information reqairing digest, which might be 
utilised, but owing to the want of an establishment for this daty, His Majesty's officers are deprited of the 
advantages of these yalaable communications. 

In other countries, considerable establishments have been formed for this object. 

We therefore propose that a proper person be fixed upon to be appointed Hydrogpnapher to the Board, to 
be intrusted with the care of such charts Ac. as are now in offloe, or may hereafter be deposited, and to be 
charged with the duty of collecting and compiling all information requisite for improving Nav^^ation, for 
the guidance of the Commanders of H.M. Ships. 

The extent of such an establishment not to exceed the sum of £650 per annnm, in aid of which, £100 a 
year given to one of the clerks of our Secretary, for his care of the charts above mentioned, and £80 a year 
for care of the office papers, will be applied, so that the actual expenses of this new establifl^mient will not 
exoeed £470 per annum. 

The British Navy at this period boasted no actually recognised nautical surveyors, 
except perhaps Captain Vancouver, who had returned the previous month from the 
N.W. coast of America, and Commander W. R. Broughton, who, after the wreck. of the 
Prcvidence in the Meiacosima group of China, was continuing his explorations and surveys 
in Japan and the gulf of Tartar y, in the small schooner purchased at Canton, as a tender, 
and formerly alluded to as the craft built at Otaheite by the better disposed of the 
mutineers of the Bounty, 

Mr. Graeme Spence was also about this time employed in making surveys of the 
home coasts in a vessel commanded by a naval officer. Cook's career of discovery had 
extended from 1768 to 1776. De Borda had performed service in the gulf of Guinea and 
amongst the Canary islands. There had also been amongst foreign surveyors,* Tofino, 
La Perouse, Malaspina, and D'Entrecasteaux, all of whom have already been alluded to. 
Lieutenant Matthew Flinders had explored the coast of New Holland in 1795, and upon 
returning to England in 1800 in the Reliance^ his charts were published, and plans for 
further exploration having received Royal approval, he joined the Ineoestigaior for this 
purpose with Commander's rank. 

Thus, Flinders may be said to have been the first naval surveyor employed abroad who 
started under the auspices of the Hydrographic Department, although record does not 
show that he received any extra remuneration for his surveying services. 

To return to Mr. Dalrymple, the now officially established hydrographer of the 

It appears that the Board permitted him to continue in the same capacity to the East 
India Company, and to have approved of a staff to assist him,' consisting of one assistant 
and a draughtsman, to which in the following year, were added three engravers and a 

• In 1758, M. r Abb6 de la Caille* conneoted St. Hel«na and Tia>le bays, at the Cape of Qood Hope, bj 
triftngnlation, and later on in the same year, triangulated the island of Mauritina in the moat soientiflo 
mannei, by means of a sextant only. His astronomical poBitions to within a few seconds, and distances to 
a few feet, remaining unshaken to the present day. He does not appear to haTe delineated th« coast-Una, 0* 
obtained soundings. 

See^Jonnal of aToyagatotbaCapaof GoodHopate by M.Ii'Abb^dalaOaaie. 12sia. Parit,1768. 


leopper plate printer. It was at this time 1796, writes an eminent authority, that ^he 
Messrs Walker, became connected with the Hydrog-raphic Department, afterwards 
retaining' their connection with it for over 60 years as engravers and draughtsmen, with 
great credit to themselves, and equal benefit and advantages to the public service. 

When a period of twelve years had elapsed from the date of Mr. Dalrymple's appoint- 
ment to the Hydr<^[Taphership, which period had been spent in arranging* documents, 
compiling charts, and engraving plates, the Admiralty b^^n to feel impatient at the 
non-pro<&ctiveness of the Department, and an order was given the Hydrog'rapher to 
supply at once charts to the Navy from his own Department, and by purchase from private 
firms. Symptoms of Dalrymple's activity in other respects are however to be found; 
for instance in the memoir he had prepared for the guidance of Captain Flinders in 1801, 
and in the publication in 1798^99 of the discoveries of Captain Edwards of the Pandora^ and 
of Bampton and Alt, commanding the ships Bormuseer and Chesterfield^ in Torres Strait 
and the south west Pacific. 

It was then that Mr. Dalrymple applied for the appointment of a committee of officers 
to consider how best could be carried out their Lordships' wishes. His request was 
complied with ; it consisted of Captains Sir Home Popham, Columbine (who had made 
surveys in the West Indies), and Thomas Hurd. The main result was, that the Board 
decided upon pensioning Mr. Dalrymple and appointing Captain Hurd in his place. 

On the 28th May 1808, Mr. Dalrymple was, after a somewhat unsatisfactory interview 
with Mr. Pole the Secretary, officially invited to resign. 

HaTing had niider their oonsideimtion sereral new amngements which are intended epeedilj to be 
into exeoution, in the Department oyer which 70a at present preside, which arrangements wiU 

require gpr o at and oontinaed exertions on the part of the Hjdrographer , and their Lordships being fnUj 
•ware that at joar adTanoed period of life, it wonld not be possible for yon to ondertake and carry through 
Bfteaaares of snoh a laborioos and complicated nature &c." 

So ran the invitation. At this date, Dalrymple had been nearly thirteen years hydrogra- 
pher, and must have been at least seventy five years of age. He protested strong-ly, 
and appears to have felt his position keenly, but eventually became by his own showing 
more inclined to accept his position cheerfully, for he quotes '< Cotton," as follows: — 

To be xesigned if iUs betide, 
Fatient if fayonrs he denied, 

And pleased with bounties given ; 
This is truly wisdom's part, 
This is that incense of the heart 

Whose fragrance mounts to heaven I 

Dalrymple was a man of undoubted ability, with a vigorous intellect, and a strong 
unbending will. He was an F.R.S. and ranked high among the scientific men of his day. 
In 1768, he was offered the charge of the memorable expedition to the Pacific to observe 
the transit of Venus afterwards entrusted to Cook, but declined it because the rank of a 
naval officer could not be accorded him. A precedent for such a favour might have been 
found in Halley, who was made a post Captain without previous service in the Navy for 
a somewhat similar service. 

While hydrographer, Dalrymple was strict to a degree towards those in his 
department, all of whom at that time received their pay weekly through him, a portion 
of which, was invariablv deducted for absence, whether from sickness or any other cause ; 
the only holiday he allowed in the year was Christmas Day. He never recovered from 
the mortification he experienced at his retirement, and died in a few months. 

All his private Hydrographical works and copperplates had been by his will offered 
for sale, first to the East India Company, and then to the Admiralty; but being 
declined by both Boards on account of the price, were sold by public auction, the 
latter as old copper ; they were subsequently through the exertions of Mr. Walker, 
privately obtained for th^ Admiralty, the plates aouxinting to one hundred and thirty. 



Up to the time of Dalymples' retirement^ besides Flinders already alluded to,^nd who was 
confined a prisoner by the authorities at the island of Mauritius, on his way to England 
with the results Of his voyage, there were in the surveying field, Captain Peter Heywood 
(formerly of the Baumiy under Bligh) who had made a consecutive series of chronometrical 
measurements in the Indian Ocean and China Sea, and Captain James Horsburgh. The latter 
had been introduced to Dalrymple, but owing to the refusal of both the East India Company 
and the Admiralty to undertake the expense of publishing his works, he was compelled to 
undertake them himself, in the form of the celebrated East India Directory, afterwards so 
well known and appreciated. 

Captains Court and Daniel Ross of the H.E.I.C.S. had surveyed respectively parts of 
the Red Sea and coast of China in 1804 and 1S07. Baron Humboldt, CevaUos^ and Galiano 
were also contributors to hydrography about this period. 

Dalrymple appears to have been an eminent compiler and hydrographical historian, and 
judging from the prefaces of some of his works, he does not attempt to conceal his contempt 
for those voyagers who approach inaccuracy, in the various journals and narratives 
which come under his notice. 

Undermentioned are the majority of the works of Dalrymple. 

Collection of cfaartB,/»/i{?, 1769-89. Collection of charts, Ao. is East Indies 3 to1s./o/»o. 

General Introduction to charts and memoirs published by A. DalrympVd, 4to. 1772. 

Essay on the most commodious methods of Marine Surreying, Ato, 1771* 

Memoir of a chart of the China sea, Mo. 1771. 

Journal of the Schooner Cnddalore on the coast of China, 4io. 1771. 

Memoir of the chart of the west coast of Palawan, 4to. 1771. 

Historical collection of Voyages and Discoyeries in fl. Pacific ocean being chiefly translations from 

Spanish and Dutch writers, 1770-71. 
Voyages dans la Mer du Sud, par les EBpagnolo, et lea Hollandois ; trad, par M. De Fr6Tille 8«e. Paris, 

Oriental Bepertory, 2 yols. 4/o. 1798. Essay on Nautical Surveying, 4io, 1806. 
Collection (^ Nautical Memoirs and Journals, 8 yols. 4to. 1808. 
Also, fiye volumes of tracts upon scientific and miscellaneous subjects, published between the years 1707 

and 1808. 

Snlu Archipelsgo. 

Coast of Borneo in vicinity of Handakan bay, with 

Balambangan I. 
Views in straits of Sapie, Snmbawa, Ac. 
Views on coast of Hainan. 
Views of Cochin China. 
Banton and Marinduque. 
N. end of Lusou and Babuyan islands. 

of Panay and Negros. 
Views of Negroe and Mindanao. 
4 Sheets of views on ooast of China. 
Port Mangarin. 
Harbours in Balambangan. 
Island of Geby. 

Toeratte and Bonthain bays (Celebes). 
3 Sheets of views on the coast of Celebes. 



Born in 1773, M. Beautemps Beaupr6, who by his great talents raised himself to scientific 
distinction, died in 1855 at the age of 82 years. 

He was appointed first geographical engineer to the surveyino^ expedition despatched by 
the French government under Admiral Bruny D'Entrecasteaux, in search of the unfortunate 

La P^rouse. , 

The construction of the atlas of this voyage, afforded M. Beauprfe an opportunity for 
improving the methods of hydrographical surveying, and the 39 charts which it contains 
were at the time unequalled. Under the first Napoleon, M. Beauprfe was constantly employed 
in surveying the rivers and ports of the North Sea, and in examining the Adriatic and other 
coasts to which the views of the Emperor were directed. 

But the great work which occupied him for twenty years, and which he had the 
satisfaction of being enabled to complete, was " Le Pilote Francais,'* in six atlas-folio volumes, 
embracing a coast-line of 466 leagues, and including 613 sheeto of charts and plans. 


The following attribute was paid to his memory by one of his fellow labourers in 
the hydrographic field. 

" Few lives were more useful than that of this distinguished savamf and estimable man. 
For sixty years he devoted himself to that science in which he took delight and excelled. 
In his career he did eminent service to science, and placed himself in its foremost ranks. 
He had the good fortune to see this position assigned to him by public opinion, with no rival 
jealousy to dispute the high place wnich success had gained for him. Never, have his works 
been slighted. If the practical part of his career had been trying and full of fatigue, his 
dealings with others were always marked by condescension. He was affable and con- 
siderate to all." 

Hydrography is one of the sciences most eminently useful to man. In presenting to 
mariners the means of navigating, maritime surveyors become an auxiliary to the naval 
force of a country; they preserve many lives from wreck, and facilitate maritime commerce, 
the great source of national prosperity. Under all these aspects, no science has greater 
right to our solicitude, to our gratitude, and to our respect 

G>mmencing his career at an early period of life under the celebrated geographer 
Nicolas Buache, Beautemps Beaupr6 at the age of twenty one, embarked as Hydrographic 
Kngineer in the expedition under the orders of D'Entrecasteaux, which was sent in 1791 to 
search for La P^rouse. « 

By a fatality attaching itself to nearly all French expeditions of discovery, D'Entrecas- 
teaux's ships, were in sea-worthiness, quite as bad as those of La P^rouse, of which he went 
in search ; and, when one contemplates the difficulties surmounted by Beautemps Beaupr^ 
with ships so ill adapted for the service on which they were sent, it is impossible not to 
admire still more the surveys which he made, with such means, on the coast of New 
Holland, Van Dieman's Land and several parts of the Pacific. 

The method which he employed in these works was not his own, but he had the merit 
of being the first to adopt it, and bring it into general use. He also contributed to nautical 
surveying, facile and correct appliances, before unknown. 

The end of D'Entrecasteaux's expedition is known. The locality where P^rouse and hit 
companions were wrecked, of whom some were living at the time, was seen at a distance ; 
but, among a variety of islands, all of which it was impossible to explore, who could say 
which of those before them, was actually that of which they were in search, and which was 
the only object of the voyage. There was nothing to lead to such a conclusion ; the wind 
.and current were against approaching it, and the two ships which formed the expedition 
were altogether deficient in the qualities necessary to overcome such obstacles. 

Important contributions to hydrography and to natural history were obtained. In an 
unhealthy climate, disease and death made sad ravages in the Recherche and Esperance. 
The chief of the expedition and the second in command died, and the two ships reached 
Java in a deplorable condition, where more evils followed ; this was in the latter part of 
1 793. Two years before, when they left France, violent civil discord had prevailed. This 
evil had increased during the voyage, and manifested itself among the officers of the 
expedition. The adherents of the old system were the least in number, but with the 
support of the Dutch government, in the port at which the ships had arrived, they became 
powerful, and used that power with rigour against the opposite partyt 

The greater part of the officers and naturalists of the expedition who had embraced 
the principles of 1789, and who, notwithstanding the errors and excesses of the revolution, 
adhered to the flag of the country, were thrown into prison at Sourabaya. Although 
joining their party, Beautemps Beaupr6 was not included in this measure. His personal 
character, and the acknowledged usefulness of his labours, found grace during political strife, 
and he preserved his liberty. Returning to France in 1796, he was appointed (Jbief 
Engineer to the Hydr(>graphic Office ; and, for some years, employed in the compilation 


of the charts resulting- from the voyages of Marchand * and D'Entrecasteaux. The 
superiority of his work obtained him the attention of Napoleon ; who entrusted to him 
successively, the survey of the Scheldt, those of the coasts of Illyria and Dalmatia, the 
mouths of the Ems, the Elbe, the Weser, and other rivers. 

After the Restoration of 1816, he undertook his great work of the survey of the coasts 
of France, from Dunkerque to Bayonne, and devoted himself to it with untiring* zeal for the 
space of twenty-two years ; always foremost in the various duties, and never leaving* any 
important point without due personal examination He delighted in hydrography for its 
own sake. 

In the year 184L, when at the age of sixty-five years, he considered that he had justly 
earned repose, he consented to undertake his last hydrographic exploration, that which 
had for its object, to determine the changes which had taken place in the bars at the mouth 
of the Seine, in the course of the seven preceding years. It was then for the first time that 
he had a steam vessel placed at his disposal. Struck with admiration at the facility which 
the employment of such means afforded him in his work, he exclaimed, " would that I 
could again commence my career that I might have the pleasure of surveying* with so 
much ease." 

In occupying* himself conscientiously and assiduously in works of exactness, he gratified 
his desire of truth ; in rendering, by his daily avocation, a service to his fellows, he satisfied 
his spirit of benevolence. He carried his ideas of modesty and simplicity to their utmost. 
He was deaf to praise. 

A compliment was paid him which he appreciated, when in 1852, the Emperor, who was 
then President ot the Republic, ordered tnat his bust in marble, should be placed in the 
Hydrog*raphic office. 

M. Ducos, the Minister, after having assisted at the inauguration of this bust, proceeded 
to the residence of Beautemps Beaupr^ to offer him his congratulations. The venerable 
man, highly enjoyed this mark of respect. Soon afterwards his health underwent a change. 
He was permitted to pass away quietly, surrounded by his family and friends. 

His career was made up of a succession of works of acknowledged daily practical utility. 
As long as the shores of France preserve their general condition, and their detail remains 
unaltered by any extraordinary change of nature, navigators will bless the name of 
Beautemps Beaupr6. 

The following works were published by M. Beautemps Beaupr6 : 

Atlas da Yojage de Bnmy D'EntrecaBteanx, folio, Paria 1807. 

Methodes poor la Levee et la oonBtruotion des cartee et plans Hydrographiqnes, pub. ^ 1808. 4^0. Paris 

Description Kaatiqoe de la Cote de la Mer do Nord, depais Calais Jo0qa*a Ostende, 4#o. PUris 1828. 
Le Pilote Francais, Sis Atlas folio Tols : Paris (aboat 1840). 
BzpoB^ dee Tranwz relatifs a la Reoonnaisanoe Hydrogrephiqae des Cotes occidentales de Fraaoe, 4/o. 

Paris 1829. 
f«iote sur lee operations Hydrograpiqaes a executer dans le voyage de la Bonite, 8po 1837. 
Bapports snr lee Badee, Ports, et Monillagos de la Cote orientale da golfe de Venise, 80e. P^ris 1840, 


1 795 (about) 

The voyagfe to the N.W. coast of America by Commanders GaHanc and Valdet, in the 
Spanish ships Suiil and Mexicana^ which were unexpectedly fallen in with by 
Vancouver, in the course of his voyage, to the eastward of, and inside Vancouver Island, 
was the last expedition attempted by the Spaniards for discovery in the North Pacific 
Ocean. A somewhat meagre account of it was published by the government at Madrid, 

* Voyage antoor da Monde, pendant les ann^ 1790-92 ; prickle d' an Introdaotion Historique; aoqael on 
a joint des Bechercbes snr les Terres Aostrales de Drake; et un Examen critiqae da Voyage de Roggeween ; 
ATeo cartes, par O.P. Claret Ftonriea. 4 volt, Paris 1708. 


in 1802. There is, however, a valuable historical introduction prefixed to it. The book 
itself is not equal to the more elaborate work of Vancouver. 

Galiano, also, when in command of the SoUdad inghie in 1802, having four chronometers 
on board, for the purpose of running meridian distances, visited Naples, Smyrna and the 
Levant, Black Sea, Alexandria, and the coast of Africa. He was killed* at Trafalgar 
in command of the Bahama, 



The above officers, of the East Indian Company's Service, sailed from Macao in 
July 1783, in the packet Antelope, under Captain Henry Wilson. The Antelope rah on a 
rock near one of tne Pelew islands and became a t^tal wreck. The castaways built a 
small vessel, and sailed in her for Macao in the following November, taking with them 
Prince Lee Boo, who died in December 1784, at Rotherville, of small-pox. 

In 1790, the chart made in the Endeavour and Panther by Captain McCluer, was drawn by 
Lieutenant Wedgborough, and this officer also made a chart of the Laccadive islands. 

Captain McCluer, whose services have been previously alluded to fp. 15), sailed in the 
Panther for the Pelew islands, to report the death of Prince Lee Boo, taking with him 
Wedgborough and White as*lieutenants. Having carried out this service, and made an 
examination of the west coast of New Guinea, the Panther returned to the Pelew islands, 
where McCluer settled.* Wedgborough return to Bombay, where he arrived August 

17th, 1793. 

In 1796, the first document deserving the name of a chart of the Red Sea, was drawn by 
Lieutenant White, for which he received much praise and his promotion. 

See — ^Memoir on the Indian Surveys, to 1878, p. 5 to 7. 



James Horsburgh was bom at Ely, in the County of Fife 23rd September 1792. At 
the age of sixteen, having acquired the elements of mathematical science, of book- 
keeping, and the theoretical part of navigation, he was apprenticed to Messrs Wood, of 
Ely. He sailed in several vessels during his three years' servitude, chiefly in the coal trade, 
from Newcastle to Hamburgh, Holland, and Ostend. In May 1780, his vessel was captured 
by a French ship, near Walcheren island, and in consequence, he became a prisoner at 

After his liberation, Horsburgh voyaged to the West Indies and Calcutta. Shortly after 
his arrival in India, Mr. Briggs a ship builder, obtained for him the appointment in August 
1784, of third mate of the Nancy y bound to Bombay. He sailed for two years from the 
port of Calcutta, and in May 1786, when serving as first mate of the il/Ztu, and bound 
from Batavia to (Ceylon, had the nfiisfortune, through making use of an erroneous chart, 
to be wrecked upon the island of Diego Garcia. 

From Diego Garcia he went to Bombay, and there joined the Gunjavar, afterwards, 
becoming first mate, in which capacity, he continued to voyage in several large ships, 
for ten years, between Bombay, Bengal and China. 

In I79iy he joined the Anna, making two voyages to China by the Eastern routes, 
availing himself of every opportunity to collect observations likely to prove useful to 
navigators. He taught himself drawing, etching, and spherics from Robertson's 
*' Elements of Navigation," often occupying his time after the hours of duty, till long 
after midnight, in his endeavour to perfect himself in these attainments. 


* Captain MoClner in 1795, sailed from the Pelew islands to Macao in an open boat, where he bought a 
ressel, and retoraed to Pelew ; haying called at Bencoolen, he again set sail for Bombay, and was nerer after- 
wards heard of. 


The obiervations made during^ these two voyages to ChnM> enabted hind to consthtct 
three charts ; one, of the strait of Macassar ; another, of the western pari of tbe 
Phillipine islands ; and the third, of th6 track from Dampier strait, through Pitt passage 
towards Batavia, acccompanied by sailing directions. 

These labours he presented to Mr. Thomas Bruce, a gentleman who had previously been 
his ship>-mate. Mr, Bruce having shown the manuscript to several commanders of the 
£; I. Cos. ships, it was transmitted to Mr. Alexander Dalrymple, the E. I. Cos. 
hydrographer, and published for the use of their ships. The authors' satiisfdction was 
heightened by a letter of thanks, with a pecuniary gift for the purchase of nautical instni- 

In 1796, Mr. Horsburgh arrived in England as first mate of the Carr&n^ atid met Mr. 
Dalr3rmple, by whom he was introduced to Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Maskelyne (the astronomer 
royal) and other scientific gentlemen. 

In the Carron he proceeded to the West Indies and afterwards to Bombay, and on 
his arrival at that port, in April 1798, obtained command of the Anna. In this vessel he 
made several voyages to China, Bengal, and Madras, and two to England— one, from 
China direct, and one from Bombay. 

Ke purchased the astronomical clock made by L. Berthoud for the ships that went in 
search of La P^rouse ; it having been brought to Bombay and put up for sale after the 
return of the ships to Batavia. This clock, which had an excellent composition pendulum 
he generally set up at Bombay, and at Canton, to assist him in ratinfi^ his chronometers, and 
in observing a series of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, at each of those places, which he 
transmitted to the astronomer royal. 

From April 1802 to February 1804, Mr. Horsburgh kept a register of the rise and fall 
of tfab mercury in two marine barometers, taken every four hours, day and night, at sea 
and^n port. This experiment, proved the regular ebb and flow of the mercury twice every 
twenty four hours, within the tropics, and that it was diminished, or, sometimes entirely 
obstructed by the influence of the land ; a fact which seems not to have been previously 
known. This register was presented to the Royal Society and an abstract thereof publis- 
hed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1805. He then produced a chart of Alias strait, 
which Mr. Dalrymple caused to be engraved. 

In 1805, on his return to England, he published several charts, which were engraved by 
Mr. J. Walker. On this voyage, made in the Cirencesier, he had for a fellow passenger. 
Captain Peter Heywood, R.N., and from him, obtained much valuable assistance in 
afterwards arranging his various works for publication. 

In the spring of 1806, Captain Horsburgh was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. 
In October 18 10, he was appointed by the Court of Directors of the East India Company 
their hydrographer, in the place of Mr. Dalrymple deceased. The importance of the 
subject of compiling a trustworthy Oriental Directory, was first inipressed upon his mind, by 
the circumstance of his wreck, on Diego Garcia island, in 1786. Captain Heywood strongly 
urged him to follow up his good intentions on this subject. The first part of his celebrated 
work appeared in 1809, and for it the Court of Directors granted him a hundred guineas; 
the second part was published in 181 1. 

Captain Horsburgh died in May 1836, aged 74 years. To him. Eastern hydrography is 
indebted more than to any other individual, although he conducted himself, no especial 
expedition, of discovery or surveying. At his death, a monument was raised to his memory 
by his numerous friends and admirers in this country. In the East, where be laboured so 
long, and so zealously and successfully, for the cause of navigation, a durable tribute 
to his worth will be recognised, in the Horsburgh lighthouse, by every voyager who may 
visit the important port of Singapore. The supplement to Murdoch Mackenzie's work on 
Marine Surveying, was written by Horsburgh, and published in 1808. The late Comman* 
der Dunsterville of the Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty, after the death of the 


bt xw^ ht up to d a te, his famoos <fircctDty . 

works the f ollowii^ may be 

CUm Mft in two ihaJTB. A dbviia two dneto frtHB lai. 38 8. to the Iqaator 

duui of Mdfifm itnii. ooBprisuig ospe of Good Hope, Madagafloar ike. 

Chari of ontranoe to Smgapore atnit. Penimmla of Hiadoataa, Chagoa, MakUv^, LaeoadiTO 

Chart of Bombaj harboor. lalanda, and CejIoB. 

laUuidf and channela near Frntmrnm. 
Duedknm for miUnfi^ to or from the Beat ladiea, Chiius Keir Hcdfaoid, Gape of Good Hope and the 
Jater-jaeoBt porta, oompiled tlbieBj from origimtl jooniala and obtenratiaae, nmde during twenty one yean in 
nftfigating thoae aeaa. 2 toU. 4Ao. 1811. 

In 1816, he pnbliahed hit Aimoq>herio Begjater for Indicating atonna at aee, and in 1880, *- loebetga met 
with in the Soathem Hemiaphere." 

In 1882. Captain Honbuigfa wrote a paper on the HnTigaUe fiianwrfa aaparatmg the atoDa of the XaldiTO 
iilaada. Jl.a.a. J^mrmal. Vol 2. j^ 72. 



One of those energetic and able navigators of the last century. Captain Wilson, 
though hardly to be included in the category of maritime surveyors, added to no inconsider- 
able extent, to the hydrography of the western Pacific. 

When in command of the ship Duff, Captain Wilson conveyed from England, eighteen 
missionaries of the church of England, arriving and anchoring in Matavai bay of Tahiti, 
in March 1797. After seeing his charges comfortably housed and established, he sailed 
for Tongatabu in the Friendly islands towards the close of March, when ten more 
missionaries were landed. Captain Wilson then visited and surveyed, several of the 
Biarquesas islands ; leaving a missionary there, he returned to Matavai in July. After 
coasting along and partially surveying the south and western shores of Huahine, he 
return^ to Tongatabu, and thence to Canton and England. In the course of his voyage 
in September 1797, the Duff or Wilson islands, situated southward of the Solomon group, 
were discovered and examined, and also a few of the islands forming the eastern part of 
the Fiji group. 

Of the Low Archipelago, in May 1 797, he discovered Manga Reva islands, which he 
named after Ix>rd Gambier, and Timoe or Crescent island. 

In the course of a second voyage, made a few years later on, to Tahiti, the Duff was 
captured by a French privateer. 

Captain W. Wilson the nephew of the above, afterwards commanded the Royal Admiral, 
and during the course of voyages made to the missionary stations established in the Pacific, 
continued to gain information of a highly useful character in Polynesia, which proved of 
great value in the, at that time, almost unknown state of the hydrography of that region. 


1 799.1804. 

The above distinguished savanl was born at Berlin 1769. He appears to have cultivated 
assiduously every branch of science, but chemistry and the phenomena of animal electricity 
chiefly attracted his attention. Possessed of an ample independent fortune he was able 
to add the advantages of travel to that of study, and was thus enabled to intermingle 
geography aud hydrography with the numerous subjects he became so thoroughly master 

When the expedition of Baudin to the southern hemisphere was first projected, it was 
expected that Humboldt would accompany him, but the delays caused by the wars, in whidh 
France was then involved wearied his patience and prevented his remaining to take part 
in that not too fortunate expedition. 

In 1799, he fitted out an expedition at his own expense to solve the physics, natural 
history, and economical resources, of numerous countries in the West Indies and American 
continent. His researches in magnetism, etymology, zoology, botany, and geology, cannot 
be spoken of here; suffice it to say, that on the 6th of June 1799, he sailed from Coruna 


with his friend Ami Bonpland,* calling- and observing* at Teneriffe, Cumana, Margarita, 
New Barcelona and La Guayra. He then proceeded inland subsequently continuing to 
Port Cabello, Tortuga, Orchilla, Port Abacou, St, Domingo, Jamaica and Cuba. 

Here, with Bonpland, he employed himself in surveying the coasts of the latter island, 
and in making astronomical observations. 

Humboldt had promised Baudin, that should the projected expedition to the Southern 
hemisphere be put into execution, that he would certainly join it ; accordingly, when a 
report reached him, that the Geography and Naiuraliste had sailed from France, with 
instructions to double Cape Horn, and touch on the coasts of Chili and Peru, he left Cuba 
to cross South America, in order to meet the French navigator. 

It was not until he reached Quito, that he learned that Captain Baudin's expedition had 
taken a different course, and was to circumnavigate the globe from west to east. 

In March 1801, with Bonpland, he arrived at Carthagena, where the travellers met 
Fidalgo. After visiting numerous places and adding vastly to the geographical details of 
South America, Guayaquil was reached in the commencement of 1S03. From this port, a 
voyage of 30 days brought the pxarty to Acapulco. 

Returning to Mexico, some time was spent in arranging their collection of plants, and 
geological specimens, in calculating astronomical observations, and in constructing the 
geological atlas, for which they had collected materials. 

In January 1804, the eastern slope of the Cordilleras was examined, and after 
geometrically measuring the heights of some of the important volcanoes such as Puebla, 
Popocatepetl &c.. Vera Cruz was arrived at, from whence they set sail for Havannah. 
After remaining here for four months, they continued to Philadelphia, and having spent 
some weeks in studying the political character of the United States, returned to Europe 
in August 1804. 

Humboldt, in the course of his travels, determined the position astronomically of more 
than 300 places. No other individual has ever contributed so largely to physical geography. 
In 1829, at the invitation of the Emperor Nicholas, he visited Siberia, and amongst 
other places of interest, the Ural Mountains, with similar results, which were duly re- 
corded in his " Asie Centrale." He died at Potsdam, shortly after hearing of the death of 
Bonpland, May 6th, 1859, within a few months of his 90th year. 

The following were included amongst the twelve magnificent volumes on America, 
published by Baron Humboldt, between the years 1805 and 1820. 

1. Voyage aaz Regioiu Eqninoxales da NouToaa Continent, pendant los ann^, 1799-I804 

8. At1a8 Qeograpluqae et Physique dn Noavean Continent. 

8. Recneil d' obsenrations Astronomiqnee, et de Meeares ezioattes dana le Nonyeaa Continent. 

4. Tableau Physique dea Regions Bquinoxales. 

flee, also the Personal Narratire Keoueil d'obseirations &o, redige par J. Oltmanns, 1800. 



The voyag-e of discovery of this officer, apparently undertaken with less than the usqal 
amount of high patronage, has, in consequence, been greatly overlooked ; it was singular in 
more respects than one. Captain Schank R.N., seems to have been in about the year 1 800, 
a strong advocate for building small vessels, in watertight compartments, and with sliding 
keels or centre-boards. Under his direction, the Lady i\ eUcn^ of 60 tons, was ordered to be so 
fitted, and the ultimate service allotted to her, was that of exploring the sea limits of the terri- 
tory of New South Wales. Asurvey of the coast we are told was intended, with a journal of 
all occurrences, natural history, nature of soil, Ac. The Lady Nelson had been converted from 
a cutter to a brig, and provided with three centre-boards. Lieutenant Grant, who 

* Aftet many years persecution at the hands of Dr. Franois, Bonpland died at San Borgia, in Brasil, age4 
^ years. 


evidently from the narrative he afterwards published, had great faith in what was at that 
time looked upon as a decided innovation in the art of shipbuilding, was appointed to the 
command, and sailed from Portsmouth, March 17th, i8oa Many unpleasant criticisms were 
\;)estowed, and comments of a discouraging nature ventured, upon the notion, of a small 
vessel, of such novel construction, undertaking so long and hazardous a voyage. The 
general appellation assigned to the craft before quitting England was that of H.M.S. 
TMirJbox, It was with difficulty Lieutenant Grant kept his crew on board, mainly on 
account of these disparagements. 

The Lady Nelson duly arrived at Porto Praya, and the Cape of Good Hope, where she 
Viras for some time detained. 

On the 7th of October, leaving Simons bay, the commander had such faith in his vessel, 
that he chose what was considered a high latitude for the run to Australia, reaching Sydney 
after a passage of 71 days, having reached as far south as thirty nine degrees, fourty four 
minutes, and being the first vessel from Europe to sail through Bass's strait, discovered a 
short time previously by Dr. Bass the surgeon of the Reliance, At Sydney, the Lady Nelson 
was paid off, and Lieutenant Grant appointed to the command of the armed ship Supply ; 
but that vessel proving unsea worthy, he again resumed his first charge, and on March 6tfa, 
1 80 1, left Sydney with the Bee (a decked launch) as tender, under orders from the governor. 
Captain P. G. King R.N., to make a thorough examination of Bass's strait. The Bee 
failing as a sea-boat, soon returned to Sydney, and the Lady Nelson continued alone. 

Mr. Cayley, a botanist, who had been sent out from England by Sir Joseph Banks, 
accompanied Lieutenant Grant, who also had with him, Mr. J. Murray, a mate R.N., who 
subsequently commanded the Lady Nelson when the discovery of Port Phillip was made, 
and also when as a tender, that vessel was employed under Commander Flinders in the 
Investigator, Ensign Bareillier the surveyor of the colony made one of the expedition. 
Jervis bay was examined, and many interesting observations recorded as to the natives, 
their habits &c. Continuing to the southward, the northern coast of Bass's strait was 
explored, from Wilson's promontory to Western point, a distance of 70 miles ; after which, 
Botany Bay, to the southward of Sydney, wzts returned to. Having taken on board 
Lieutenant Governor Colonel Paterson (after whom the river Paterson was called), in 
company with the schooner FranceSy the Hunter river was explored, and coal being found in 
considerable quantity, the Frances shortly afterwards sailed for Sydney with forty tons of 
that commodity on board. Mr. Lewin a draughtsman now joined the party, and proved 
of material assistance, in illustrating the surveys made, of the Hunter river and port 
Stephens. The Lcuiy Nelson returned to Sydney July 25 th, 1801, and Lieutenant Grant 
sailed November 9th, of the same year in the brig Anna Josepha, laden with coal and timber, 
by way of Cape Horn and Falkland islands, for th^ Cape of Good Hope. After a wild 
passage, during which, the crazy vessel was becalmed for six weeks in the vicinity of 
Tristan d* Acunha, Table bay was arrived at April 1st, 1802, and shortly afterwards 
Lieutenant Grant embarked for England in H.M.S. Imperieuse, The first coal brought from 
Australia in the Annajosepha, realised 36 rix dollars a ton, at the Cape. 

Of the newly discovered places, head-lands, and islands, examined by Grant during 
this voyage, but few have retained the names he assigned to them ; of these, however, 
are Jervis bay. Cape Otway, Marsh's islands. Seal islands and Snapper island. 

A chart of the North and West parts of Bass's Strait and South Coast of Australia 
appears in the published account of this voyage, and an engraving of the Lady Nelson in the 
river Thames before starting, is a curiosity in itself. That no lives were lost, nor even a spar 
strained throughout, says much in favour of the accuracy of Lieutenant Grant's judgment in 
bestowing the confidence he did in the Lady Nelson, and the peculiar style of her build. 

See, NsrratiTe of a Toyago of Discovery, in H.M.S. Lady Neleon, of 60 tons, with sliding keals, in the years 
1800, 1801, 1802, to New South Wales, by James Grant, Lieutenant It.N. 



E 800- 1 804. 

The corvettes Geoffraphi and NaturaUste, under Captain's N. Baudin and Hamelin, were 
dispatched by Napoleon from Havre, October 19th, 1800, to complete the discovery of 
the south and west coasts of Terra Australis. Men eminent in every branch of science 
were attached to this expedition. Peron the naturalist wrote a narrative of the voyage, in 
which, however, he does not once mention the name of the Commander, and an account 
was also compiled by Lieutenant L. Freycinet. 

Having sighted the Cape of Good Hope, and encountered a violent hurricane near 
Madagascar, Mauritius was arrived at March 15th, 180K. Here the ships were re-equipped 
and many of the scientific civilian staff attached to the expedition, at their own request, 
permitted to remain. 

April 25th, the voyage was continued, the first Australian land made, being that in the 
neighbourhood of what was termed Cape Naturaliste, and Geographe bay anchored in 
June 8th. 

Compelled to quit this bay, in the night, by a violent gale, the ships parted company, 
the Geographe finding her way to Bemier island, where a running survey was commenced, 
and the position of the N.W. point of Australia determined, as well as of various islands 
including the Lacipede ; Cassini island was anchored off August 14th, from whence course 
was shaped for Coepang of Timor. 

The Naturaliste in the meanwhile examined the Swan river (which was ascended for 
about 60 miles), Gantheaume bay, and the Abrolhos, and then followed her consort to 

November 1 3th, the Naturaliste continued her explorations, and having searched for the 
Trial islands, and rounded the south Cape of Tasmania, arrived at the entrance of D'Entre- 
casteaux channel ; there discovering a new port. Leaving this February 17th, 1802, 
Oyster bay of Maria island was visited. H.M.S. Itwestigator under Conmiander Flinders 
was fallen in with in Encounter bay, in lat. 35^40' S., long 1 38^ S8'E., which was consequently 
made the position of the limit of the discoveries on this coast made by the respective 

To the extensive line of coast from Nuyts Land to Bass's strait the designation of 
Terre Napoleon was given ; and Spencer and St. Vincent gulfs were named respectively 
Golfe Bonaparte and Josephine. In the same manner, many of the islands and capes 
received a French denomination, * such as Decr^s, Vauban, Berthier, Catinat, Laplace 
Jer6me, St. Pierre and St. Francis islands. May 28th, 1802, course was again shaped 
for Tasmania, Adventure bay being anchored in twelve days afterwards. 

By June 4th, the crew of the Naturaliste^ which had long suffered from the inroads of scurvy, 
had only 4 sailors available, and in consequence, having previously parted company with 
the Geographe^ Captain Hamelin sailed for Port Jackson, where he arrived June 28th. Here 
the Georgaphe was found, and Captain Baudin now resolved to send the Naturaliste to France, 
with the hydrographic and other results of the expedition. She accordingly sailed Novem- 
l>er x8th, 1802, arriving at Havre June 7th, i&)3, after an absence of 2 years and 7 

The Casuarina (named after the tree), a small craft only 29 feet in length, was purchased 
at Port Jackson, and the command given to Lieutenant L. Freycinet, who had so far 
served in this expedition as first Lieutenant of the Naturaliste. In company with that 
vessel, the Casuarma sailed as far as Bass's strait, explored Hunter island, and surveyed King 
island. Quitting Bass's strait, having now been joined by the Geograt>he^ Freycinet 
discovered that La Caille and Chappe islands formed a part of Laplace islands ; ha then 

* The nomeaclatare of Captain Baudin, during this Toyage, Yam not altogether been adhered to in 
modern oharte, prioiity of diecoTery, in some cases, renting with contemporaneous navigators. 


sailed for the western extremity of Nuyts land, and having completed these investigations 
arrived at King George Sound, February nth, 1803. 

The Geographe examined the coast of Murat bay, Tourville river &c, and returned to 
the same destination as Freycinet, February i8th. 

March 6th, operations were renewed, the Casuartna examining the coast near cape 
Leeuwin, meeting the Geographe at Rottnest island, and continuing to Witt Land, 
Montebello islands, and Dampier archipelago ; thence to the Lacipede islands (the resort 
of Dampier in 1688) and Cassini island. 

Between the dates of June 3rd and 26th, the vessels re-visited the west coast of Australia, 
where many of the crew overcome with their exertions, became seriously ill, and the 
astronomer, Mr. Bernier, died. 

Returning to Mauritius, August 7th, 1803, ^^c results of the expedition were forwarded 
to the French government, and the Casuartna disposed of. Here, on September i6th. 
Captain Baudin who had long been ailing, died, and was buried with full naval funeral 

The Geo^aphe with the remnant of the officers and men forming the expedition, sailed 
for France, December i6th, arriving at Isle de Groix, 24th of March, 1804, after an absence 
of nearly i\ years. 

See— Voyage de D^oouTertes aaz Terres AnBtrales pendant lea ann^ 1800, 180i, 4io, ParUf 1815. 
Also, Atlas containing II sheets of charts and plans. 



The above officer born in 1 772, was a son of the Deemster of the Isle of Man, and Seneschal 
to the Duke of Athol. He sailed in the Bounty under Bligh in 1787, and as it is hardly 
necessary to state here, was tried and pardoned in 1792, on the charge of having taken part 
in the mutiny off Tofoa, on the 28th April, 1789. 

He rejoined the Navy in May 1793, in the Bellerophmt, Commodore Pasley (his uncle), and 
from her removed to the ^iger^ and afterwards to the Queen Charlotte^ bearing the flag of 
Lord Howe. 

In 1794, he received an acting order as Lieutenant to the Robmt^ to the Incendiary (flag- 
ship) March 179S, and Nymphe^ Captain George Murray. He then served in the Fox in the 
North Sea, and continuing in that vessel to the East Indies, as senior Lieutenant, was appointed 
to the Suffolk on the same station. In August 1800, he was promoted to the command of 
the Vulcan homhf and between 1800 and 1803, commanded in turn the Trmcomalee, Tiidmi^ 
I^opardf and Dedaigneuse, He was posted April 5th, 1803, and in that year made a survey 
ot the Typa. In January 1805, owing to ill-health he was allowed to return to England. 

While commanding the Leopard, he surveyed the East coast of Ceylon, and more especially 
the shoals off the north part of that island, and the whole extent between them and 
point Calymere, then utterly unknown. He also ascertained the position of many places on 
the Indian coast and of the different islands to the eastward, which enabled him to render 
material assistance to Horsburgh in the compilation of the East Indian Directory. 

In October 1806, he was appointed flag Captain of the Polyphemus on a secret and im- 
portant expedition to the Cape of Good Hope, and River Plate — he then joined the Donegal, 
and in May 1809, the Nereus, in which he served on the channel and Mediterranean stations. 
He returned to England with the remains of Vice Admiral Lord Collingwood in April 1810. 
Afterwards returning to South America, he surveyed the mouth of the river Plate, which 
survey, was afterwards added to and corrected by Commander H. Foster of the ChaniicUer; 
in July 18 1 3, he returned to England in command of the Montagu, and upon arrival was 
sent to the North Sea. In the following year, when Napoleon Bonaparte returned from 
Elba, Captain Heywood was ordered to join the squadron in the Mediterranean under Lord 
Exmouth, for special secret service. 

In 1815, he carried on the port duties and those of senior office at Gibraltar until 


February 1816. Upon paying off the Montagu in July 1816, Captain HeyNi^ood received 
a tribute of respect and esteem from his crew which took the quaint shape of a poem of 
five verses termed " The Seaman's Farewell " to H.M.S. Montagu. The following is 
extracted therefrom, 

'* Farewell to thee, Heywood ! a tmer one nerer 

" Exercised rule o'er the sons of the waye ; 

" The seamftD who serred thee, would serre thee for ever, 

" Who Bwaj'dv bat ne'er fettered, the hearts of the braTe. 

After the Montagu, Captain Heywood was not again employed afloat, having served 
actively for upwarc£ of 27 years, out of a period of 29. He reached nearly the Xopoi 
the list of Captains and died about the year 183 1, * leaving behind him a high 
character in the Navy, of which he was a most honourable and distinguished member. 

It has been stated on excellent authority, that in 1828, upon the resignation of Sir Edward 
Parry, he was offered, but declined, the post of hydrographer, which was then offered to 
and accepted by Captain (afterwards Sir) Francis Beaufort — this would also appear to 
stamp him as having been a highly scientific and intelligent officer. 

Some of the charts produced under Captain Heywood's directions were, 

Channel between Mindanao and Bassilan with track of H.M.S. Fox, 
Anchorage of Pooloo Samwai — ^north ooast of Snmatra. 
Point Pavay and sonndings. PoUcck bay, Mindanao. 
Back bay. Trinoomalee. Entrance of Mergni rirer. 

Remarks on, and Instmctiona for nayigating the River Plate. 4to. 181S. 

He also wrote a Tooabolary of the languages of Tahiti and New Zealand, which proved highly serrioeable 
to the first missionaries that visited those iBlands. 



This officer sailed from Cadiz in 1S02, to examine minutely the coast of New Spain, 
from point Delgada to Cape Catoche and Cozumel islands. He also made a chart of 
the peniusula of Yucatan, Bay of Campeche, and took several soundings. Part of his 
work was lost in the war. 



The above officer assisted Captain Flinders in the surveys made in the Inoestigaior upon 
the eastern coast of Australia ; returning to Port Jackson before him in the tender Lady 
Nelson, he discovered and named Port Phillip, after the first governor of New South Wales. 

After returning to England, his name is found as the maritime surveyor of several parts 
of the home coasts ; amongst his charts were, 

The coast of Sussex, Winohelsea to B. end of Owers 1804. Newhaven 1805, New Shoreham to Selsea 
bill 1807. Track of the Lad^ NeUon along E. 0. of Australia in company with InvestisfcUor, 180^. Port 
Phillip, 1802. Part of E. coast of New South Wales, with tracks of Captain Cook and Fnmeaaz. 



This officer having been educated under the well known mathematician Mr. J. Dalby 
who was employed with Colonel Mudge in the great trigonometrical survey, became 
particularly useful to Admiral Elliot, both in making and calculating observations, when that 
officer did so much to bring lunar observations into general practice at sea. The effect of 
his services fn this respect was, that at Admiral Elliot's request. Lord Howe promoted him 

* A Memoir of Captain Peter Hejwood's life with a portrait, by W. Tagart, was pablished by Bffinffham 
WiUton, 1882. 


to Lieutenant's rank. After various services, during an appointment held by him in oomnuuid 
6f the WkuU, employed on the Jersey station, he performed an essential service, by 
establishing marks for the inner channels along the French coast between St. Malo and 
Brest, for which he received the thanks of the Admiralty. He was then, until 1810, almost 
uninterruptedly employed in diplomatic and other services in the Mediterranean. 

In that year Mr. AiTowsmith published charts of the dangers in the channel between 
Sardinia, Sicily, and Africa, from the original surveys of Captain D'Urban ; (i) of the 
Esquirques (Skerki) shoals; (2) Keiths reef and shoal, of volcanic production named by 
him after his friend the Viscount; (3) survey of all the dangers on the N.W. coast of 
Sicily, between Trapani and Marsala, with the adjacent islands and channels ot Favignani. 
Formiche, the rocks of Porcelli Ac. 

The positions of the dangers here enumerated were determined by Captain D'Urban 
from the mean result of six chronometers ; the soundings were taken in boats, and carefully 
laid down by angles, taken from and to, vessels anchored on the shoals. 

He died at Warminster, aged 65 years, having arrived at a Rear Admiral's rank. 



Bom November 8th, 1770, in Esthonia. Krusenstem was educated at the Cathedral 
Church, Revel. In January 1785, he entered the corps of Naval Cadets established at 
Cronstadt. In May 1778, he became Midshipman of the Matisloff, 74 guns. Captain 
Maloff sky, who it was intended should command a squadron of five Russian ships for a voyage 
round the world, but war breaking out with Sweden, this project was postponed. In 1789, 
the Matisloff having taken a conspicious part in the action in Viborg bay against the 
Swedish squadron, to Krusenstem was allotted the honourable service of bringing on board 
the flag of the Swedish Admiral, Cynanker. Peace being afterwards concluded, in 1793, 
Krusenstem wsis selected as one of twelve Russian officers to serve on board the English 
fleet, joining H.M.S. Thetis, under Captains Cochrane and Murray, at that time employed 
upon the North American Station. This frigate having sustained damage from grounding, 
Krusenstem took passage in a merchant craft to the West Indies, where he visited 
Barbadoes, Surinam and the Bermudas. In 1796, he returned to England in the Cleopatra, 
Captain Penrose. 

Occupied with the thought of opening up Russian trade on the way to India, he succee- 
ded, not without difficulty, in getting with two companions Baskakow and Lisianisky on 
board the ship-of-the-line RaisonabU bound for the Cape of Good Hope. Finding at the 
Cape the frigate rOiseau bound to the East Indies, he sailed for Madras and Calcutta, where 
upon being hove down for repair, it was found, that having got ashore on a previous occasion, 
a large piece of rock had pierced the ships bottom, and become fixed there in a miraculous 
manner. After cruising in another English frigate in the Bay of Bengal, Krusenstem left 
the Oiseau at Malacca and after a severe illness, embarked in a small craft for Hong Kong 
where he remained for a part of the years 1798, 1799. Retuming to England in an East 
Indiaman in the course of the latter year, and hastening to Russia, he laid before the Minister 
of the Navy the results of his observations abroad, and proffered a scheme for forming a 
Russian trade to China round Cape Horn, the return voyage, laden with Chinese commodities, 
to be accomplished round the Cape of Good Hope. For some time however, little notice 
appears to have been taken of his suggestions. In August 1803, the two ships Nedeska and 
Neva commanded by Captain Krusenstem, and sailed from Cronstadt visited and partly 
surveyed Tenerifle, Cape Verds, Ascension, St. Catherine I., Staten island. Cape Horn, 
Mendoza or Washington island, Nukahiva, Port Anna Maria, Sandwich islands, Kamschatka, 
Nagasaki, Goto islands, Saghalin ; searched for Guadaloupe, Malabriga and Don Juan : 
Sulphur island, Formosa, Macao, Pulo Aor, Gaspar strait, Sunda strait, Christmas island, 
Cape of Good Hope. 
By this expedition, the hydrography of the Southern Seas was greatly improved, and 


the non-existence of several islands clearly demonstrated. Positions of a great extent of 
the coasts of Japan^ Yesso, &nd Saghalin, as well as of the northern Kurile islahdb, and long- 
itude of Nagasaki were ascertained. For this voyage Krusenstem was promoted to Captam 
of the second rank, and himself compiled at his country residence in Esthonia, the narrative^ 
which was published in German at St. Petersburgh 1 8 10-12; in Russian in 1809-13; 
translated into English by Hopner (1813), into French by Eyrees O821), abo, into Dutch, 
Swedish, and Italian^ 

In 181 1, Krusenstem was named Inspector of Naval Cadets. It was by his influence that 
the Chancellor, G>unt Romanzoff, fitted out the scientific expedition in the Rurick under 
Lieutenant Kotzebue for Behring's strait, the plan and instructions of the voyage being 
drawn up by him. In 1814, he visited the principal English ports. After returning to 
Revel his health again became indifferent, and he then produced the second volume of his 
voyage, together with charts of the South Seas. Many new positions were herein published 
for the first time, Kinisenstern having examined with great care the manuscript collections of 
the Admiralty, bringing to light much that had been before hidden. From 1822.26, he 
resided in the Russian capital as a member of many scientific committees. In 1826, 
on the accession of the Emperor Nicholas, he was nominated Director ot the corps of 
Naval Cadets, which he held to the end of 1842. Krusenstem rose in the regtilar way by 
seniority to the rank of rear, vice, and full Admiral. 

The fiftieth anniversary of his entry into the Russian Navy was celebrated by a 
great festival, which the Emperor himself honoured with his presence, and which was made 
known all over Europe. 

In 1842, Krusenstem asked for leave to retire from his post as administrator of the corps 
of cadets. The Emperor in reply, conceded his wish, at the same time appointing him to 
a high position on his personal staff. After a long illness, he died on the 24th August 
1 846, in the seventy sixth year of his age. 

He had been decorated with the orders of the Russian Empire up to that of Alexander 
Newsky, the insignia of which, set in diamonds, were conferred on nim on the occasion of 
the fiftieth anniversary referred to. 

He was Honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburgh, 
Honorary member of philosophy of the University at Dorpat, corresponding member of the 
Institute of France, and of the Royal and Royal Geographical Societies of London, also, of 
the Royal Society at Grottingen, and several scientific societies of Russia, Knight of the 
Prussian order of merit, and member of most of the scientific Associations of Europe. 

Krusenstem it is believed, saw that the welfare of Russia and Great Britain were not 
inconsistent or antagonistic, but in fact identical. He had too lofty an order of intellect to 
partake in those small prejudices of race or political illusions, which, at the commencement 
of his career, were professed by many of his contemporaries. 

The Pacific Atlas of Admiral Krusenstem contained 34 charts and {rians> and may be 
taken as an example of the extraordinary labour and perseverance of the author, as well 
as of his superior talents as a navigator and astronomer. None of his statements have 
ever been called in question ; ^yhile his discoveries and nautical corrections are universally 
acknowledged to have been of infinite service to navigation. * 

Among Krusenstem's published works were the following, 

1. Acooant of his royage ronnd the world (104 mapiEi) 

9. Yoeabalary of langoaget of eastemmost Asia and North West America St. Tetenhwrgh, 181t/ 4to, i% 

(8). Memoire but an Oarte dn dtooit de la Bonde, et de la rade de Batavia— £t^. PeUlrsUu^ki 1813; 4to. 

(4). A Jnstifioation of Lord Ooohrane — Bertin, 1817; 800. in German, 

(6). Bemarks on Hydrography of the Great Ocean. Leipmg, 1812 ; folio mUh eAor^, Qermmn. 

* Memoir of Admiral Erosenstern, translated from the German bj his danghter Uftdft*^» Chatlott^ 
Benhardi, and edited by Sear Admiral Sir John Sees. See. 1866. 


(6;. Atlas de Vocean Pacifiqae. 1823-26— folio, 84 charts. 

(7). Reoeail de Memoirea Hydrographiqne pour senrir d'analjsa et d'esplication a I'Atlas d« I'ooean 
Paoifiqae. St, PHershurgh, 1824-27. Mo. in French and Ru$H«m. 

(8). Sapplement to (7). 8t, Pttenhwrgh, 1835; 4/o. French and Miutian. 

Independently of theae works, Krusenstern wrote about 26 Essays and Memoirs, many of 
which appearei in other publications, notably in Kotzebue*s voyage to the South Sea, in 
the Magazine of Natural Sciences onMaldonado's and Malespinas voyages ; on the Caroline 
islands ; in the Geographical Ephemerides on the existence of Davis land &c. 



The above officer was bom of noble parents 2nd of April 1773, and studied at the Marine 
Academy at Cronstadt for the naval professon between the ages of ten and fifteen. 

In ijSSp he was made a midshipman in the Russian Navy and served in the Baltic 
throughout the Swedish war. In I793» he was made a lieutenant, and in 1794, selected to 
serve in the British Navy, sailing in the frigate I'Oiseau, Captain Murray for the North 
American Station, and after travelling for some time in the United States joined respectively 
the Topaee and CUopairay in the latter of which he returned to England. 

In 1797, he joined the RatsonabU^ in which he sailed to the Cape, and then removed to the 
Sceptre on the East Indian Station. 

In 1800, Lisiansky returned to Russia, and in 1802, when the expedition commanded by 
Captain Krusenstern was planned, he bought and equipped both ships in England, and 
was appointed to the command of the second ship (the Neva). 

From the different destinations of the two vessels on their arrival in the Pacific Ocean, 
and from their frequent and unavoidable separation, it fell to Lisiansky's lot to visit alone, 
Easter, and the Sandwich islands, to p>ass more than a whole year on the island of Cadiack 
and at Sitka or Norfolk Sound, and to discover Lisiansky island, and Krusenstern bank to 
the north west of the Sandwich islands. 

On the return of the expedition to Cronstadt, in 1806, a separate account of the voyage 
of each vessel, with an atlas of charts and engravings, was ordered to be printed at the 
expense of the emperor, which were afterwards translated into English. 

In 1807, he commanded a squadron in the Baltic, and in 1809, when Captain of a 74 gun 
ship was compelled from debility to retire from the Russian Naval service. 

See, A Toya^ Sound the World in the years 1808-1806, by order of the Emperor of Bnsda in the ship 
Neva by Urey Lifliansky, Oaptain ^. 4<o, London, 1814. 

In the appendix are vocabularies of the languages of Nukahiva, the Sandwich islands, 
Sitka sound and North West America. Charts are published with the work of 

St. Oatherine Harbour (Baster I). 8t. Paul Harbour. (N. W. America). 

Washington Islands (Marquesas). Cadiack Island. (N. W. America). 

Llaiansfy Islaad (N. W. Fftdao). New Archangel. (N. W. America). 



This officer's name will always be connected with the first reliable survey of the Red Sea. 
In I795» Lieutenant Court navigated the Panther up to the north part of the gulf of Suez. 

After the disagreement which took place between Lord Valentia and Captain Keys of 
the Antelope, in the first expedition which took place to explore the western coasts of the 
sea in question. Captain Court was chosen for his high character as a sailor and man of 
science to carry out the same service that was expected of Captain Keys. December 4th 
1804, the Panther under his command, having Lord Valentia on board as ambassador, 
with the Assaye under Lieutenant Maxfield, sailed from £(ombay. 

They surveyed part of the Dhalac Islands, Annesley bay, and Valentia Island, and the 


coast for some distance to the north of Musawwa. The embassy was a success. 

In November 1805, the whole party sailed from Musawwa and reached Suez in the end 
of January 1806. 

Lord Valentia agreed perfectly with the Commanders of the expedition and much useful 
work was accomplished. 

The results of the surveys of Captain Court were g-iven in a chart of the Red Sea published 
with Lord Valentia's travels. Lieutenant Maxfield also made a chart of Nfusawwa and part 
of the Abyssinian coast, assisted by Messrs Crawford and Hurst, midshipman. On his 
return to Calcutta, Captain Court was appointed Marine Surveyor General, a post which he 
held until his death in 1823. Under him worked Daniel Ross, Maughan, Maxfield, Knox, 
and Lloyd, — while at about the same period James Horsburgh's name became connected with 
the Manne Surveys of India. 

See— Yojages and trayels to India, Ceylon, tlM Bed Sea, Abyannia, and Kgypt in 1802-6, by George, 
Viscount Valentia. 8 Vols. London 1809. 



The above well known hydrographer of the Indian Navy, and founder of the Bombay 
Greog'raphical Society, surveyed part of the coast of China 1807, Paracels, with part of 
Cochin China, coast of Palawan 18 10, strait of Malacca 1819, coast of Tenasserim, Mergui 
Archipelago, Saya de Malha bank, and Rangoon 1825. Many of these surveys were made 
in conjunction with Lieutenant Maughan. 

His charts were published as they were completed, and the whole were incorporated into 
a general chart by Captain Horsburgh. 

Admiral Collinson, when surveying in China, had opportunities of testing several of the 
charts drawn from surveys of officers of the Bombay Marine, and he bears testimony to 
the accuracy of their work. 

On the death of Captain Court in 1823, he was succeeded at Calcutta, as Marine 
Surveyor General by Captain Ross, " The Father of the Indian Surveys" as he was called. 
He indeed first introduced a scienti^c method. 

During the Burmese war from 1823 to 1826, the surveying operations under his superin- 
tendence were interrupted, but he had the /Research (300 tons), and Investigator (450 tons), 
at work in the Mergui archipelago. The Research was given up to Captain Dillon to go in 
search of La Perouse, but the Freak was substituted, and in her, surveys were made of the 
Martaban coast. 

In 1828, Lord William Bentinck ordered the surveying establishment to be broken up 
But stout old Daniel Ross was urgent and importunate in advocating a resumption of the 
^ood work; and in 1830, he again had two brigs, the Flora 9Xid Sophia, in the Mergui 
archipelago, under his assistant Lieutenant Lloyd, while he himself examined the coast of 

Captain Ross did his work with great care and regard for scientific accuracy, and it was 
all carried out on a trigonometrical basis. His triangulation was often verified by 
astronomical observations. 

In Ross's time, the Government of India used to strike off a few copies of his charts at 
Calcutta by lithography, and send the originals to the India House for engraving and 

Between the years 1828 and 40, during the survey of the coasts of Arabia and Persia 
with the old Persian gulf survey by Captain Brucks, Captain Ross gave the benefit of 
his superintendence, and afterwards, under his direction, these, and other Indian Maritime 
Surveying officers, carried on a fine series of hydrographic operations, extending from the 
mouths of the Hoogly to the strait of Malacca. 

Captain Daniel Ross resigned his appointment as Marine Surveyor General in 




November, 1833, and was succeeded by his able assistant Lieutenant Lloyd. He retired 
to Bombay, where he became Master Attendant, as well as President of the Bombay 
Geographical Society, from 1839 until just before his death. 

The charts constructed from the surveys of Captain Daniel Ross are far too numerous 
for mention here, but the following are quoted as typical of the wide scope of his labours. 

See, Memoir of the Indian Surveys 2fKi EdUion, 1878. 

Ampliitrite iBlands. 

Fttraoel islanda. 

Singapore harbour and road. 

Dorian and Bhio straits. 

Chittagong, Kjouk, Fhyon, Hamrae. 

Negrais, Rangoon, Martaban. 

Twkvoj and Mergni. 

HaatitigB harbour. 

Tiben-pien Harbour. 

Hni-ling-son harbofur. 

Namo harbour. 

Canton rirer, Laniao to Lankeat islands. 


Hydrographer, 1808-1823. 


Do Forrer, TkomM« Do Kayn*, Fraonnii Martin Wbite, Smjth, Holbrook, Hewett, W. Owen, Kotseboe, 
Lookwood, Tuckej, ICazweU» dauttier, Bayfield, Frejoinet, King, Joha Boss, f^ranklin, FitsiaaDriot, 
Bonssin, Dessioa, Hell, Bellingshaiuen, Sooresby, Basil Sail, Brooks, L'JLrtigae, Vidal, Tiarks, Weddell, 
Dnperrey, F. Bollook. 

Born in about the year 1753, previous to the first American war, this officer assisted in 
the survey of parts of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia dc, under Colonel des Barres and Major 
Holland, and afterwards completed his time as a midshipman on board the flag--ships of 
Admiral Gambler and Earl Howe, by the latter of whom, he was made a lieutenant into the 
Unicom frigate, Captain J. Ford, 1777. 

The UnUom being coppered, was enabled to capture an unusually^ large number of 
American privateers and merchantmen, and Lieutenant Hurd, in consequence, realized a 
considerable sum, as had been predicted by the above nobleman, who, on presenting him 
with a lieutenants commission, had jocosely advised the purchase of an iron chest in which 
to secure his prize money.* In May 1779, the Unkom farmed part of the squadron 
under Sir James Wallace, at the Capture of La Danae^ and the destruction of several 
other national vessels, in Cancale bay, on the coast of France. 

Lieutenant Hurd commanded the main deck guns of the Hercules on the glorious 12th 
of April 1782. 

He was subsequently removed to the Ardeni, re-captured from the French on that 
memorable occasion, and afterwards attached to the ill-fated convoy that sailed from 
Jamaica under Rear Admiral Grraves, which suffered so dreadfully in the hurricane of 
Sept. 17th 1782. 

During the ensuing peace he was employed on various services ; and it is to his exertions 
that the first reliable chart of Bermuda is due. The geographical situation of that island, 
as well as that of its many detached banks and reefs, were determined by him with great 
exactness. He afterwards commanded the Lilyy sloop of war, and in the summer of 1804, 
was engaged in a survey off Brest, the result of which was the production of an admirable 
chart. App)ointed one of the members of the committee to inquire into the proposed ex- 
tension of the Hydrographic Department in 1808, he succeeded Mr. Alexander Dalrymple 
as hydrographer at the latter end of May of the same year. 

He appears to have determined from the first, to view the position he had been selected 
for, as well as that of the Surveying service of the future, as much as possible from a naval 
point of view. Sufficiently practical for the task, untrammelled by attachment to such 
scientific societies as at that time existed, how well he succeeded during the fifteen years 
remaining to him of life, the next few pages will tell. He was favoured moreover by the 
fact, that the war with France, had brought home to the minds of England's naval 
authorities, the priceless value of trustworthy charts, 

*The experiment of coppering ship's bottoms although reoommended in 1708, was first tried in the Alarm 
frigate in 1761 ; the Delphi* of Byron's squadron was also coppered in 1764, bat the plan was not generallr 
adopted until many years afterwaras. 


It would not seem to have been at first contemplated, when the Hydrographic Department 
was established in 1 795, to connect it with the Naval Service afloat^ or to do more than utilize 
the documents which already existed, or which might hereafter find their way to it, and 
together with these and the purchase of such as might be in the hands of private individuals, 
to construct charts for issue to the ships of the Royal Navy, yet; as several explorations or 
surveys both of our own and foreign coasts, had been undertaken before the Department had 
been formed, it could scarcely but have been foreseen, that such an amalgamation would 
sooner or later take place. 

Up to 1804, private individuals had been in the employ of the Admiralty as Surveyors, 
such as Professor Mackenzie and Graeme Spence, yet the connection between them and 
the Board was ill-defined and unsatisfactory. They were under an obligation to deposit 
their original surveys at the Admiralty, and were supposed to do so, but at the same time 
were allowed to publish for their own benefit. 

Most of the surveyors accordingly disposed of the copyright of their works to private 
publishers, which, at a later date were re-purchased by the Admiralty, when the Board 
commenced to publish their own charts for the Navy. 

Dalrymple appears to have turned his attention more to collecting and digesting than 
issuing charts to the fleet. It must be remembered however, that he was not a Naval 
officer, but an ex-Indian official, with a great talent for nautical surveying and geographical 
research, and appears to have preferred to risk blame for lack of immediate show, rather 
than be held responsible for the issue of charts that were incomplete and inaccurate. 

Upon the accession of Captain Hurd to the post of hydrographer, some additions were 
made to the staff, and the status of the department as regar£ pay and position was slightly 

One of his first acts was to extend the yearly holidays to the King's birthday and Gxxxl 
Friday, although at this time, owing to the war, the energies of all were severely taxed ; 
the draughtsmen working early and late, Sundays included, preparing manuscript charts 
for various expeditions ordered at short notice. 

A year or two after Dalrymple's retirement. Captain Horsburgh with the assistance of 
Mr. John Walker published his East India works which were adopted for the Navy as 
well as by the East India Company. 

About this time also. Captain Hurd succeeded in bringing about the issue of a regular 
supply of charts for each station, either published by the Admiralty or purchased from 
private firms, and he appears to have directed his special attention to the department 
becoming independent of all supplies from without, and in this he was greatly aided by the 
acquisition at Dalrymple's death, of the 1 30 copper plates forming his private stock. 

In 1 8 10, the surveying service and the Hydrographic Department became practically 
united under the control and supervision of one head, acting under the direction of the 
Board, and although there occurred breaks to the smooth working of this arrangement 
under successive Boards, this has been continued up to the present day. 

Commander Flinders who had been employed in a surve)dng capacity in Australia since 
1 80 1, at the time of Captain Kurd's accession, was a prisoner at Mauritius ; he was released 
in 18 10. In that year, also, Mr. George Thomas, a master R.N., was selected to carry 
on the survey of the Dutch coast in the Inoestigaior. 

Mr. Anthony De Mayne, while master of H.M.S. Amelia, had surveyed the west coast of 
Africa between Cape Palmas and Cape Formosa, he was afterwards similarly employed in 
the West Indies. 

In 181 1, Commander F. Beaufort in H.M.S. Fredertckstein commenced the survey of the 
coast of Karamania, being promised his promotion when that work was completed. • 

In 18 12, Commander Martin White was employed in H.M.S. Fox, surveying, the English 

* Captain Beaufort oompleted this soryey in 1813, durinj its execution lie was dangerously wounded by a 
ianatloal Turk. 


channel; this work was for a time discontinued owing- to the war, bat resumed in i8i8^ 
in H.M.S. Shamrock. 

In 1813^ Lieutenant W. H. Smyth was attached to the Sicilian flotilla of gunboats under 
Sir Robert Hall in the Mediterranean, for the purpose of making surveys for the Admiralty. 
As far back as 1 796, 97, this officer had forwarded charts of parts of the East Indies made 
by him, but their authorship does not appear to have been made clearly known until March 
1813; for, on learning from whom they had emanated, the Board promoted Mr. Smyth to 
Lieutenant's rank. In 18 15, he was made a commander, and in 18 16, H.M. sloop Aidvias 
sent out for him to carry on his work in. 

In 181 3, also, the apartments in the Admiralty building occupied by the Department 
were considerably extended. The persanel at this time consisted of seven members : — 
Captain Hurd. hydrographer ; Mr. John Walker, assistant hydrographer ; Mr. Michael 
Walker and three others, draughtsmen ; and Mr. William Nares, clerk. 

In I 8 m, two surveying vessels appear on the official Navy List, the Inoestigaiar under 
Mr. George Thomas, ana the Sydney employed on the coast of Newfoundland, under Mr. 
George Holbro9k, both masters R.l^ 

In 18 1 5, Lieutenant William Hewett of the Ine^mtaut^ forwarded plans of parts of the 
Brazilian coast, and offered his services as a marine surveyor, which appear to have been 
encouragingly received by Captain Hurd '' in the event of the Admiralty appointing certain 
officers to carry out certain scientific services" ; the latter was also of opinion, " that by 
no means should an officer be employed in the surveying service who could not produce a 
satisfactory certificate of his fitness, and that if possible, surveying* officers should become a 
separate corps, apart from any military considerations as to relative rank." In this year 
Captain W. F. W. Owen commenced the survey of the Canadian Lakes, which, in the 
ensuing season he left Lieutenant Ba}rfield to continue, returning himself to England. 

In the spring of 18 16, Mr. Anthony Lockwood master R N., doing duty as acting' Master 
Attendant at Barbados was appointed by Sir Alexander Cochrane to make surveys of 
part of Nova Scotia. This was the year too, which saw the departure of the ill-fated 
Congo expedition under Captain Tuckey, and of the China mission of Lord Amherst in the 
Alceste and Lyra, under Captain's Maxwell and Basil Hall, the latter of which contributed 
largely to the hydrography of the coasts of the Corea and northern China. 

On the 7th of January 18 17, surveying p>ay was established for naval officers as follows — 
for Captains and Commanders £1 a day — for Lieutenants and Masters iSs. a day — for 
officers specially employed as Assistant Surveyors 5s. a day. 

In 1 81 8, the following surveyors were employed by the Admiralty 

Lieut. P. P. King ... Mermaid ... West Australia. 

Mr. George Thomas ... luvesiigaiar ... Thames entrance. 

Mr. Lewis Fitzmaurice ... Congo ... East coast of England. 

Lieut. W. Hewett ... Protector ... Norfolk and Lincoln coasts. 

Commander W.H.Smyth ... Aid ... Coast of Sicily. 

Mr. George Holbrook ... Sydney ... Newfoundland. 

Mr. A. De Mayne ... Landrail ... West Indies. 

Commander M. White . . . Shamrock . . . Channel Islands. 

Lieut. H. W. Bayfield ... Hired hocUs ... Canadian Lakes. 

Large additions were made to the stock of Admiralty plates by purchase from private 
publishers about this time, and the Hydrographic Office becoming better known by, and 
blended with the surveying service afloat, commenced to assume a more important aspect. 

In [819, Captain Bartholomew C.B. in the Leven contributed certain charts of places 
visited in the North Atlantic, which were duly presented to the Board. In 1820, Captain 
Basil Hall in H.M.S. Conway, made a scientific voyage to the Pacific to swing the pendulum, 
in the course of which, due heed was paid to hydrographic research. 

In 1 82 1, Lieutenant P. P. King was promoted to the rank of Commander and given the 


command of the Baihurst sloop, for the survey of Western Australia. Captain W. H. Smyth 
having returned to England, exchanged the Aid for the Adomiure, for the survey of the 
coast of Sicily. Lieutenant Frederick Bullock in the Snap^ relieved Mr. George Holbrook 
in the S^dfuy^ in Newfoundland. The Kangaroo was substituted for the Lmidrail in the 
West Indies, and the Hasty for the Congo^ under Mr. Fitzmaurice, on the coast of England. 

In this year, the Geographical Society of Paris was founded, and the science of hydro- 
graphy at home and abroad, showed symptoms of rapid advancement. 

In February 1822, Major Edward Sabine visited Sierra Leone, for the purpose of making 
pendulum observations. At about this time, Mr. John Wilson Croker L.L.D.,F.R.S. was 
the first, and Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Barrow F.R.S.,F.L.S. was the second secretary, to 
the Admiralty. From the former of these officials, it has been said, the Department re- 
ceived but scant encouragement. Nevertheless, from year to year the number of officers 
and vessels, irrespective of those employed by the East India Company, who were at this 
time contributing largely to the hydrography of the East Indies, Persian gulf &c. showed 
a slow but sure increase. 

Under Dalrymple the newly created department may be said to have been an obscure 
institution, into the unrevealed secrets of which, few cared to venture to penetrate. Under 
Captain Hurd it seems to have passed alternately beneath the immediate control of either 
the civil or military heads, whichever chose to give most attention to it ; and more especially 
during the latter part of this period, under the civil authority, perhaps, principally, from 
its members, with the exception of the chief, being civilians. 

Captain W. F. W. Owen, and some of the older surveying officers, who had been 
employed abroad for some years collecting materials for charts, had returned to England, 
and been permitted to prepare their labours for publication at the Hydrographic office. 
They had suddenly received their dismissal^ and on the score of expense, it was decided 
not to publish their surveys. 

In fact, the department appears to have greatly depended then, as now, upon the regard 
of whoever rhight be the actual ruling authority at the Board of Admiralty, retrograding or 
advancing, in propottion to the position taken up by its head, and the breadth of the views 
concerning it, held by those having the preponderance of power in the Board's Councils. 

During the last year of Captain Hurd's life, the charts published by the department, 
which, during the war, had been restricted to the Navy only, were thrown open to the 
Mercantile marine and public generally, their Lordship's sanction to this effect having been 
obtained, not without trouble, by Captain Hurd himself. 

Early in 1823, the following were the surveys in progress. Captain Hurd having then 
been Hydrographer for about 15 years. 

Commander P. P. King ... Baihurst ... W. Australicu 

Captain M. White ... Shamrock ... English Channel. 

Lieut. W. Hewett ... Protector ... E. Coast of England. 

Captain W. F. W. Owen ... Leom ... Coast of Africa. 

Lieut. H. W. Bayfield ... {Hired vessel) ... Canadian Lakes. 

Mr. L. Fitzmaurice ... Heuty ... Bristol Channel. 

Commander A.T.E. Vidal ... Barracouta ... W. Coast of Africa. 

Lieut. F. Bullock ... Snap ... Newfoundland. 

Mr. A. De Mayne ... Kangaroo ... West Indies. 

Captain W. H. Smjrth ... Adventure ... Mediterranean. 

Mr. George Thomas . . . Imestigaior . . . North Sea & Shetland Islands. 

Mr. George Holbrook ... {Hired vessel) ... Newfoundland. 

Lieutenant Denham was chief assistant to Captain Martin White, Lieutenant Mudge to 
Captain W. F. W. Owen, Lieutenant Boteler to Commander Vidal, Commander Beechey 
to Captain Sniyth. 

The Hydrographic office remained in the same condition as in i3i3. 

Besides the above officers of the Royal Navy, the surveyors of the Hon. E. I. Company 



were actively engaged in th^ Eaat^ beiog' chiefly represented by Captain Daniel Ross, aad 
Lieutei>aiits Maughan find Lloyd, and iater on, by Captains Guy and Bruoks, during the 
period of Captain Herd's administration at the Admiralty. 

Of foreign nations, Don Jose Joachim De Ferrer, a Spanish officer, was appointed to 
establish the longitade of Havana. The services of M. Beautenaps Beaupr^ in France 
have been alreiady aUuded to. 

Major Franzim surveyed part of the coast of Portugal, perfonmng for that country 
similar service to what Toiioo had for Spain. 

Gauttier, between i8[6 and i8^, in the CheuretUy BMiasured several excellent meridian 
distances in the Mediterrane^ and Blade Seas; he also triangulated the Grecian 

Freycinet who had served with Baudin, again set forth in 1817 in VVranie for the 
Pacific, which vessel, in 1820, was wrecked at the Falkland islands. Excellent results 
attended the voyage. 

Roussin in 18 18, in la Bayadere and leFaomU, surveyed part of the Brazilian coasts; and 
M. Givry in the former vessel, during the previous year, explored the west coast of Africa 
from Cape Bojador to Isles de Los. 

Captain Hell, between 1819 and 1825, surveyed the island of Corsica. M. Lartigue, in 
182 1, in the Clorinde, one of Admiral Roussin's squadron, obtained several excellent 
positions among the Cape de Verde and Canary islands. 

Dr. J. L. Tiarks, in 1822, with 17 chronometers, established the longitude of Funchal, 

Captain Duperry, in La Coguilie, added fneteorological and hydrographic knowledge of 
an important nature, in that vessel's, voyage round the world. 

In the South Seas, private enterprise was actively at work in the persons of Messrs. 
James Weddell, R.N., and Brisbane, vho in the brig fane with the cutter Beaufoy, sailed in 
September 1822, for one of the most daring explorations ever attempted in the Antarctic Sea. 

In May 1823, Captain Hurd died, aged about 70 years. It has been said by a high au- 
thority, " that though not strictly speaking a scientific man, he was an officer of good 
acquirements and great application^ and that during his term of office he had greatly 
advanced the Department under many difficulties. His duties during the war, especially, 
were of a very arduous nature, his materials being imperfect and meagre. Under him a 
surveying service, composed exclusively of naval officers, had been inaugurated, although, 
up to his death it cannot be said eirtier in materiel or personnel, to have advanced much 
beyond its infancy." 

At the time of Captain Kurd's death he held the post of Superintendent of Chronometers, 
and was a Commissioner for the Discovery of Longitude, as well as Hydrographer ; but 
he does not appear to have belonged to the Royal Society. He has been credited with the 
following charts and publications, 

Brest Bay and TJshant island. Four passage into Brest- Baj. 

A folio of charts of Ua^listt Channel, 1811. Falmouth ll arbour, Helford River and the coast to 

Nautical Description of Brest Baj with the ManaoleSi with Directions. 

Instructions for its navigation. N. American coast, Penobscot to Bt. John's. 

Bermuda Island. St. John's River to Little River (I. of Cape Breton). 

North shore of the Bay of Fundy. 

DON J. J. DE FERRER, (Spanish). 


Don Jose Joachim D<j Ferrer was a msmber of tha Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, 
corresponding member of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris, and of the Historical 
Society of Madrid, &c. 

Between 1808 and 181 1, this talented astronomer, devoted his attention towards settling 
with accuracy the longitude of Havana, in the West Indies. 

To this end, the occultations of several stars and planets, as well as eclipses of the moon 


and Jupiter's satellites were observed with an excellent achromatic telescope, made by- 
Mr. Edward, Troughton, five Burgfos feet focal length, three inches aperture, with four 
eye-pieces, one direct and the rest inverting. It was mounted so as to observe in the 
zenith, as well as in every point of the heavens. 

The time was taken from two chronometers, made by Arnold and Pennington. 

The observations and results of M. de Ferrer's labours, compiled by himself, in two 
Memoirs, dated April 15th 18 12, and April 5th 18 16, were translated and abridged by 
Don Felippe Bauxa, at one time Director of the Hydrographical Department in Sp>atn 
and communicated by him to the Royal Astronomical Society, by whom they were 
published in paper xxxi of their transactions, and read June i ith, 1830. 

The result of his observations gave the Great tower of the Moro in longitude 76^ 4' 
34''.5 west of Cadiz. 



This officer succeeded the civilian marine surveyor, Mr. Graeme Spence, on the home 
coasts in 1810, having been appointed in that year to the command of H.M. brig Investigat&r 
without any naval assistant. 

The first survey accredited to him we believe to be that of Croque harbour in New- 
foundland, dated 1808, on the 12th of November of which year, he was made a master. 

The Itwaiigaior continued to be employed under Mr. Thomas on the east coast of 
England as well as on the Dutch coast and among the Shetland islands until 1836 or 
for a period of 26 years, during the latter part of which, Mr. C. F. G>x, Master R.N., 
was appointed as Assistant Surveyor. 

For a short space of time, in 1837, Mr. Thomas appears to have been without a vessel 
under his command, the InoeitigcUory no doubt, being worn out. 

At the latter end of that year, we again find him, however, in command of the Mastiffs 
which vessel had returned from surveying service in the Mediterranean, employed amongst 
the Orkney islands, with Mr. Wells, Master R.N., as a surveying assistant ; with him also, 
was his relative Mr. F. L. W, Thomas R.N., afterwards a commander. 

A tender, the Woadlark^ was about this period attached to the survey, to the command 
of which, Lieutenant F. W. L. Thomas succeeded in April 1845. 

Mr. George Thomas died in the autumn of 1846, and at the latter end of that year the 
Mastiff was paid off. Thirty six years of his life were devoted to the surveying service, 
very often with but slight assistance. His surveys had ever the impress of accuracy and 
care, and of the numerous charts engraved from them, the following specimens are quoted. 

Croque harbour (Newfoundland). Outer and Inner Gabbard. 

Liverpool harbour. Orfordness to Lowestoft (Suffolk). 

Holyhead bay. Eyemouth to the Tay. 

Coast of Holland and Flanders. The Shetland islands. 

Fowey harbour. Balta Sound. 

Frith of Forth. Several of the Orkney islands. 

The Gatway (Yarmouth). 

Sailing Directions for the Orkney and Shetland islands, in North Sea Pilot, part i, 8w. 
Published by the Admiralty in 1857. 


181 1.27. 

The date upon which this officer obtained the rank of Master was the 3 ist of July, 1806, and 
the first record extant of his services as a naval surveyor appears to have been in 181 1, 
when he, as master of the frigate Amelia^ Captain Irby, made a valuable investigation of the 


coast of West Africa from Cape Palmas to Cape Formosa. He was next engaged on 
the North American Station, where Sir Alexander Cochrane employed him in surveying 
the river Chesapeake, from Cape St. Aueustine to the southward. 

He was then sent to the Bahama islands to report on a newly discovered port and 
anchorage, reported a few leagues eastward of New Providence; of this he made a 
finished chart, and wrote a nautical description, which were forwarded to the Admiralty. 

In 1817, he was placed in command of H.M. Schooner Kangaroo, for surveying service in 
the West Indies. His surveying assistant from iSiQto 1826, was Mr. Edward Barnett 
(now a retired AdmiraU, and from 1825 to 1827, Mr. Alfred Miles, who afterwards became 
a commander, and was for many years employed as a Naval Assistant in the Hydrographic 
Department of the Admiralty. 

During Mr. De Mayne's servitude in the West Indies, he was chiefly engaged in surveys 
of the Gulf of Florida, Cay Sal, New Providence, Nassau, Jamaica, &c. He fixed 
astronomically the positions of Jamaica, Pedro Bank, Cayman, and other places. 

In September 1827, Mr. Miles brought the Kangaroo to England, Mr. De Mayne having 
by some accident been left behind. 

He died in 1828 ; Commander Richard Owen, in H.M.S. Blossom succeeded him in the 
charge of the West India survey, at the latter end of that year. 

Among the charts constructed from De Mayne's surveys were the following. 

River Gambia to Cape Lopez (W. Africa). Island of Jamaica. 

The Gulf of Florida. Kingston and Port Royal harbours. 

Cay Sal bank. Bahia Honda. 

New anchorage. Royal and Egg Islands. 

Crooked island passage. Pelican and Little Harbours. 

Keys and shoals in the Douglas Road. 

Mira-p)or-vos passage. Whale and Green Turtle Cay anchorages. 

Porto de Cavanas (Cuba). 

MAJOR M. M. FRANZINI, (Portuguese). 


Major Marino Miguel Framdni of the Royal Engineers of Portugal, performed in his 
diay, similar labours in the cause of the hydography of that country, that (Jommodore D. V. 
Tofino had previously carried out for Spain. Taking as a model, the atlas and directions 
of that officer, the Major informs us in the Introduction of his work, published in 18 12, and 
ably translated into English by (Captain W. P. W. Owen in 18 14, that the great advantages 
resulting to navigation from good Hydrographic charts are so generally acknowledged, 
that to accumulate proofs of it, would be superfluous and tiresome. 

Also that, the modern perfection of Mathematical Instruments, by advancing the sciences 
relating to Astronomy and Hydrography, has occasioned some modem charts to attain a 
degree of perfection that will not easily be excelled. 

Before Franzini took in hand the hydrography of Portugal, the best authority on the 
coasts and harbours of that country was the chart made by Tofino ; but thwarted by 
political circumstances, he was obliged to pass rapidly by the Portuguese coasts, and to 
limit himself to such observations, as the shortness of his time permitted. These reasons 
caused this part of Tofino's Atlas to be much inferior to the remainder. 

Franzini, while serving in the Royal Navy of Portugal, lost no favourable opportunity 
of making observations, nor of acquiring S4*ch information as might contribute to the 
execution of his hydrographic work. 

The British Admiral, Berkeley, having learnt his project, and desirous of accelerating 
its execution, ordered numerous soundings to be taken along the coast, and caused some 
examinations, which were wanting, to be made. In Franzini*s chart, the heights of the hills 


and mountains visible from the offing are from the geodesioal observations of Doctor 
Ciyera, the views are from Tofino. 

Tables show the differences between the positions as given by Franzini and those of 
former observers^ such as Tofino and Piemontel, to which are added, statistics regarding 
the number of inhabitants of each town &c. Major Franzini's work offered a collection of 
the best elements and observations made on the coast of Portugal up to that date ; and 
from them, a correct and circumstantial chart was made, which proved of the greatest use 
and assistance to navigators, making the coast of that country. 

Sett Description of the Coasts of Portugal, a&d Naafeioal IiurtmotioiiB to aceompany the General Charfc 
and pl&ns of the said ooasts, bj Marino Miguel Franzini, Major in the Oorps of Bojal Engineers. Translated 
into English by Captain W. F. W. Owen, B.N., and published in the Hydvographio Office for the use of the 
Boyal Nayy by Captain Hnrd R.N., Hydrographer to the Admiralty, 1814. 



Martin White entered the Navy, in 1793, on board the Medusa^ CsLpta,in Norma.n, In 
November, 1 794, having removed, as Midshipman, to the Alexander, Captain Bligh, he was 
in that ship captured, after a glorious resistance, attended with a loss to her of 40 men 
killed and wounded, by five French 74's and three frigates under Rear Admiral Nielly. 
On being restored to liberty he joined the Jopaze, Captain Church, and sailed for the 
coast of North America, where he was in company, August 1 796, with a squadron under 
Vice-Admiral George Murray, at the surrender of the French 36^gun frigate Elizabeih, 
The lopaze was on this occasion the most advanced ship in the pursuit, and was the only 
one that engaged the enemy. On leaving her, Mr. White who had for some 
time held the rating of Master's Mate, was made Lieutenant, December 1800, into the 
PyladeSf Captain Boorder, in the North Sea. His succeeding appointments were — ^July 1802 
to the Alcmene frigate, Captain Stiles — next, to the command ot the Pigmy cutter — March 
1864, to the Queeuy Captain Theophilus Jones, lying at Portsmouth — and April and 
September following and June, 1806. to the command of the Sandwich lugger. Manly gun- 
brig, and Jackdaw schooner. The Alcmene wets employed in the conveyance of troops ; the 
Pigmy in watching the French ports near Chaussey ; the Sandwich off Ostend and Flushing 
under Sir Wm. Sidney Smith ; the Manly off Boulogne and in the North Sea ; and the 
Jackdaw between Sheerness and Spithead. The Manly, through the ignorance of her 
pilot, ran on shore, in January 1806, near Rysum, on the Efns, and was there seized by the 
Dutch in violation of the neutrality of the river. After he had attained the rank of 
Commander, September 1806, he was appointed — November 1806, to the Weymouth stofe- 
ship — September 1 808, to the Vulture guard-ship on the Jersey station, where he remained 
three years — and in August 1812 and January 18 17, to the iox and Shamrock surveying- 
vessels, in which he continued successively employed in the English, Irish, and Bristol 
Channels until 1828. Commander White was the first fairly recognised officer of that 
rank employed in the Naval Surveying Service ; of his assistants who afterwards shone 
forth in the same sphere, were Denham and Kendall. The early charts of the Channel, 
more especially the off shore soundings, were the work of Commander White. As a reward 
for his services he was advanced to Post-rank December 18 18. He accepted retirement 
October, 1846. 

Captain White constructed in 1824, two charts of the coast of Ireland; with others, 
of the islands of Jersey, Guernsey, Sercq, Herm, Alderney, and the Caskets (with plans of 
Grand, Bordeaux, and St. Sampson's Harbours, of the Pier at Montergueil, of St. Brelade's 
Bay, of Grand Greve, Baleine Bay, and of the anchorage between Herm and Jethou) ; 
one also of the English Channel east of Beachy Head; and in 1829, of Salcombe and 
Dartmouth Harbours ; and in 1830, one showing the result of his investigations from Cape 
Carteret to Cape Fr^hel, including the islands of Jersey, Sercq, and Chaussey. His surveys 

* The Nayal and war aervioes chiefly from O'Bymes Naval Biography, 1849. 


among the Channel Islands and upon the coast of France were associated with those of 
the eminent French hydrographer M. Beautemps Beaupr^ ; and his name stands recorded 
upon the pages of the French Maritime Atlas. He became a retired Rear Admiral in July 
1851, and died 1865, aged about 85 years* 
Rear Admiral White ako published : 

General observations upon, and Sailing Directions for the English and Irish channels, 

and Channel Islands. 4/0. 1822. 
On the erratic propensities of chronometers Svo, 1830. 
Remarks on the winds, tides, and currents of the ocean, with other phenomena. 

SvQ, 1844. 



William Henry Smyth, bom January, 1788, at Westminster, was descended, paternally, 
from the celebrated Captain John Smith, whose valour and genius, proved so instrumental 
to the colonization of Virginia. 

This officer witnessed in a merchant-vessel the reduction of Tobago, and took part in 
the E. I Co.'s frigate Comwalits in an expedition against the Mahe Islands in 1804; he entered 
the Navy March, 1805, when the latter ship was purchased by Government, and placed 
under the command of Captain Johnston, with whom he continued to serve in the Powerful 
until transferred in October, 1809, to the Milford^ Captains Baynton and Kittoe. He was 
present, in the CornwaUis, in a variety of skirmishes with the enemy's batteries on the 
Isle of France ; and in an attack made, November 1806, in company with the Sceptre upon 
the French frigate Semtilan/e, 3 armed ships, and 12 sail of merchantmen, at anchor in St. 
Paul's Bay, Bourbon. He also cruized in the Pacific. On his return to Europe in the 
Powerfuly Mr. Smyth accompanied the expedition of 1809 to the Scheldt. After participat- 
ing, in the Milfordy in numerous attacks upon the enemy's coasting-trade near Rochefort, 
he proceeded to Cadiz, where, being appointed to the command, September, 18 10, of a 
large Spanish gun-boat, the Mors-aut^ Gloria, he continued employed in its defence until 
181 1. Uniting in nearly every service performed by the flotilla, he was present, September 
18 10, in an action with the enemy's batteries near Matagorda. On his return to Cadiz, 
after the termination of the battle of Barrosa, Mr. Smyth, who had acquired an accurate 
knowledge of the coast and channels, was placed in charge of a large flat, armed with a 
32-pounder carronade. In this boat he had 3 men mortally wounded, and was nearly sunk 
by the enemy's batteries in the neighbourhood of Matagorda. On Anally leaving Cadiz 
the Milford, joined the fleet off Toulon. Here Mr. Smyth removed, August, 181 1, to the 
Rodney, Captains Allen and King, in which ship he attained the rating of Master's Mate 
December following, and returned to England in November 18 12. For a valuable survey 
he had made of the Isla-de-Leon, as well as for charts formerly furnished by him to the 
Admiralty of ports in the East Indies, which he had surveyed, but as to the authorship of 
which there had so far been some doubt, he was presented with a Lieutenant's commission 
dated March, 181 3, and appointed to a command in the flotilla employed under Sir Robert 
Hall in the defence of Sicily against Joachim Murat. He was subsequently engaged 
in conducting a series of hydrographic operations connecting Barbary, Sicily, and Italy — a 
service in which he displayed much talent. He continued his labours in a Sicilian gun-boat 
long after the British troops had evacuated the island, and their Lordships promoted him 
September, 18 15, to the rank of Commander, and expressed their intention of having a 
selection of his drawings engraved and published, that .he might reap the benefit. 
Difficulties unforeseen causing this arrangement to be altered, it was determined that the 
"Atlas of Sicily" should be engraved in the Admiralty Office, and that Captain Smyth 
should publish " A Memoir descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography of 

* Services of Rear Admiral Smyth, except those of a hydrographic natare, from O'Byrae's Naval 
Biography, 1849. 


that and of the neighbouring islands ; of this work the Admiralty purchased loo copies. 
In 1817, Captain Smyth was appointed to the Aid sloop^ and in her he was selected to 
complete the survey of the shores of the Adriatic commenced by Napoleon Buonaparte ; 
and assisted by a party of Austrian and Neapolitan officers, and by the Imperial sloop-of-war 
Velox, he accomplished his task in less than two years, His next and last appointment was 
January, 1 821, to the Adventure, in which vessel, he was again ordered to the Mediterranean 
for the purpose of carrying out a plan for perfecting the survey of that sea. 

He fixed the geographical position of Gibraltar mole, by runs with five chronometers, 
between Palermo, Malta, and Falmouth. Also a chain of points along the coasts of Spain, 
Corsica, France, and Italy. Surveyed the Italian and Ionian islands ; and in conjunction 
with the foreign officers alluded to, the whole shore of the Adriatic. Completed an 
examination of the North coast of Africa, from the mouth of the Nile to the strait of 
Gibraltar, inclusive. The positions of his points on the coast of Corsica agreed with those 
afterwards ascertained by Captain M. Hell of the French Navy, and his position of 
Malta was verified by Gauttier, a coincidence which, with others, induced Sir C. Penrose, 
then the Admiral, to report highly on the subject to the Admiralty. 

Wherever Gauttier took observations on shore, his positions and those of Smyth were 
found to agree very nearly. 

Owing to Smyth's representations, and before his surveys were published, the latitudes 
of several places on the then existing charts of the Mediterranean, were altered 

The additions he made during his absence to astronomy, geography, and hydrography, 
procured for him the congratulations of Scientific Europe; and raised him to the first order 
of maritime surveyors. " The more I see of your Mediterranean surveys,'* says Sir F. 
Beaufort, " the more I admire the great extent of your labours, the perseverance of your 
researches, the acuteness of your details, and the taste with which you have executed the 
charts. Take them altogether, no survey has ever before issued from the Admiralty 
that can be compared to yours. It is quite astonishing the work you did — and did it in 
such a masterly manner — in the time you were abroad." 

While employed in his various surveys in the Mediterranean, Captain Smyth usei five 
chronometers. He afterwards recommended his work, not as arriving at ultimate precision 
but as being near enough for all the purposes of navigation. Among his pupils, were 
Beechey, Skyring, Graves, and Raper, all notable surveyors in their days. 

While he commanded the Adventure, Captain Smyth received from Mehemet Ali an 
offer of " Cleopatra's Needle," intertded as a present to George iv.— but an opportunity of 
attempting its embarkation did not occur. 

He attained Post-rank February, 1824 ; paid the Adventure off in the following November, 
accepted retirement October 1846, became a Rear Admiral May 1853, and died the 
8th September, 1865, aged 77 years. 

He constructed the following charts and views, viz. 

A general outline chart of the Mediterranean ; Galita Island and the Gulf of Cattaro ; 
the coast of Egypt from Alamaid to the Rosetta branch of the Nile (with two views) ; the 
Gulf of Spezia, with plan of Via Reggio ; the harbour of Villa Franca (with two views) ; 
the coast of France and Italy from Cape Roux to Monaco ; the port and road of Marseilles 
and the position of La Caseidagne Rock ; twenty six of Sicily ; the harbours of Pantellaria 
and Lampedusa, as also of the Pelagic Islands and of the Island of Linosa ; four of Malta ; 
three of the south coast of Spain ; three of the west coast of Greece ; two of the Morea ; 
one of the south coast of France ; nine of the north coast of Africa ; four of Sardinia ; 
eight of the Adriatic Sea ; and four of the west coast of Italy. 

In March, 18 16, he received the small Cross of the Order of Ferdinand and of Merit. 
He was presented by the Emperor of Austria with a gold snuff-box decorated with bril- 
liants. In 1 82 1, he was admitted into the Antiquarian and Astronomical Societies of 
Tendon ; in June, 1826, he was elected a F.R.S. ; in 1829, he was named an Associate of 


the Academy of Sciences at Palermo; and in July 1830, he was chosen one of the Council 
of the Geographical Society of London — an institution he had been instrumental in 
establishing. It came about in this wise. Such a Society had been suggested by Captain 
Smyth at a party at Mr. F. Baily*s, the Astronomer Royal, on the 12th of April, 1830.* 
A few days afterwards, Captain Sm3rth printed and circulated a prospectus, and a provisional 
committee of 52 was formed, including the following officers connected with the navy 
and hydroeraphy — Beaufort, Horsburgh, Basil Hstll, Owen, Graves, Bethune, Smyth, 
and Sir John Barrow. The first secretary was Captain Maconochie R.N., and the first 
copy of the R.G.S. Journal was published in 1831. 

He became one of the Committee for improving and extending the Nautical Almanac, 
a Doctor of Civil Law, a President of the Royal Geographical Society,t an 
honorary member of the Royal Irish Academy, one of the Board of Grreenwich Visitors ; 
and a corresponding member of the Institute of France, the Scientific Academy of Naples, 
the National Institute of Washington, the Academy of Sciences at Boston, and the Naval 
Lyceum of New York. 

From January 1828 until October 1839, ^^^ irom that period until June 1842, a meteorolog- 
ical register (published monthly in the United Service Journal ) was kept by Captain Smyth 
in an observatory erected by him, first at Bedford and then at Cardiff. The instruments 
belonging to the late Colonel Beaufoy, were lent to him for that purpose by the Council 
of the Astronomical Society, until his own were made. Independently of the work alluded 
to in the former part of this narrative. Captain Smyth (to whom the public is indebted for 
the formation of the United Service Museum) published. 

Present state of Sardinia* 1828. Address to the members of the Royal Geograph- 

Life and Services of Captain Beaver, R.N., 1829. ical Society, 1850. 

Account of a private observatory at Bedford, 1630. Notice of the Scientific Services of Baron 

Account of an ancient bath in the Island of Lipari. Humboldt, 8oo. 1852. 

Catalogue of Cabinet of large Roman brass medi^ls, The Mediterranean Memoir, 1855. 

1884. History of the New World (translated from 

Observations on Halley's comet. 1836. Girolamo Benioni), 1857. 

Nautical observations on port of CardifT, 1840. Cycle of celestial objects continued up to 1859, 

A cycle of celestial objects, 2 volt, 1840 18C0. 

Description of an astrological clock belonging to The Sailor's Word Book, 1867. 

the Society of antiquities, 1848. 



This officer was made a master on the 28th of May,- 1 795, and he appears to have been 
one of the naval officers selected by Sir Alexander Cochrane about the year 18 14, and 
employed by hini on the survey of parts of the Eastern Coasts of North America. 

The Navy Lists for 1814 show that in that year, Mr. George Holbrook commanded 
the Sydney, at that time engaged in surveying upon the eastern shores of Newfoundland. 

In 1820, Mr. William Bullock RN. was appointed to assist Mr. Holbrook taking out 
from England, a small tender for that purpose, with a picked crew of ten men. 

H.M. brig Snap, under Lieutenant Hose, was in 182 1 sent out for surveying service to the 
same part of the world; on her arrival on the North American Station, Lieutenant 
Frederick Bullock appears to have succeeded to the command* Mr. Holbrook at about 
this time returning to England. 

He appears to have been subsequently engaged on surveying service in Newfoundland 

* The Boyal Geographical Society and its labours, 800. 18 V5. 
The African and Pideetine Associations, established in 1788* and in 1805, were incorporated with the Royal 
Geographical Society shortly afler its formacion in 1830. 

t Bear Admiral Smyth who was President of the Royal Geographical Society from 1849 to 1851, was the 
restorer of the prosperity of that Society. He was Vice President in 1845, and again from 1851 to 1855. In 
1858, he received the gold medal for his work on the Mediterranean. His portrait hangs in the Society's 
Coancil Room. (Fifty years history of the Royal (Geographical Society, by Clements Markham, C-6., F.R.8.) 


until about the period of bis death, which took place in 1832. 
Very few Admiralty charts have been published in his name, of such were the followingf. 
East coast of Newfoundland from Bonaventure Head to Rodcy Bay, including* Bonavista 

Bay, with Directions and Views. 
Barrow Harbour. 



This offioer first went to sea in 1805 in the IniefatigahU^ employed on the coast of France, 
in the Bay of Biscay, and latterly in China. In 181 1, he joined the Cornuxdl^ and in 181 3, 
in the Inconstani under Captain Sir Edward Tucker, on the coast of Brazil, he made several 
surveys, notably those of Penambuco, St. Marcos bay, Maranham, and coast from Ceara to 
Maranham and Rio. Promoted to Lieutenant 1814, he was nominated, after his return to 
Kni^Iand, to command the surveying-vessel Protector, on the 7th of March, 18 18. One of 
the first duties undertaken by him was to accompany Captain Kater to the Orkneys with 
M. Biot, at the instigation of the Royal Society, for pendulum experiments, connected with 
ascertaining the figure of the earth. From this period until 1830, in which interval he 
was made a Commander, he was constantly employed in survejring the coasts of Norfolk, 
Lincoln and Yorkshire, including the Humber, Lynn, and Boston Deeps, the Gabbards, 
the Dudgeon, the Leman, and Ower. 

Commander Hewitt rendered essential service to the compass committee, by his 
experiments and suggestions on the several trial compasses committed to his care. In 
1830, his great work of the survey of the North Sea commenced, the Protector was 
soon found unequal to the task, and in December 183 1, the Fairy was commissioned 
to take her place. Four first class chronometers were employed, and he speedily 
discoverer an error of 2000 feet in the length of the side of one of the Dutch triangles, 
by General Krayenhoff. 

In January 1837, Commander Hewitt was made a post-Captain. His observations 
enabled Professor Whewell to determine, with respect to the tides of the North Sea, that 
there must be a certain position in that sea, in which there would be no rise and fall, but a 
gradual gyration of the water. In 1840. the eighth years produce of North Sea operations 
had been just obtained, and the Fairy was on the point of returning to winter quarters at 
Woolwich, when she was ordered to Yarmouth to report upon a dredging invention of 
Captain Manby, for removing bars of harbours and rivers. In a great gale of November 
13th, 1840, the Fairy was lost with all hands, having been last reported between 
Lowestoft and Southwold on the morning of the 13th, and to have been seen capsize by a 
North country brig, when sailing on the starboard tack under close reefed top sails. A 
Ix^x of papers, triangular piece of board, stand of an instrument, and lid of a chart box, 
recognised as belonging to the Fairy, were picked up on the Suffolk coast, in the month of 

Fifty pounds reward was offered by the Admiralty for the discovery of the wreck of the 
Fairy, but no more was ever heard of her. A special fund for the widows and orphans 
of the officers and men, met with hearty sympathy and support, from the outside public as 
well as in the navy. 

Amongst the numerous contributions to hydrography of Captain Hewett were, 

Bemarks on the Leman and Ower shoals, situated in the North Sea. Sfo. 1826. 

Bemarks on the navigation of Yarmouth roads, i^aut. Mag. toI. vl 1837. 

Beport on a Marine Artificial Horizon. 

Essay on the encroaohment of the German Ocean along che Norfolk coast, with a design to arrest 

its further depredation. 8yo. Norwich 1844. 
Harbour and Road of Pemambuco. 

Chart of the North Sea from Dover and Calais to Orfordness and Scheyeniniren. 
Cromer to Tmsthorpe. 


Trasthorpe to Flamboroagfa Head. 

Flamborough Head to the Tees. 

East coast of Knglaod, from Gorehitheness to Cromer, with the adjaeent dangers. 

The Leman and Qwer shoals. 

Coast of Norfolk from Hasboroagh to Blakenej. 

Lynn and Boston deeps, with the Burnham flat, Dooking shoal* Blakenej Knock and OTerfall. 

Entrance to the rirer Humber. 

With other charts of the East coast of England and North Sea. 



William Fitzwilliam Owen entered the Navy in June 1788, as a midshipman, on board the 
Culloden attached to the Home station; where, and for a short time in the West Indies, he 
continued to serve in the Zebra sloop, Assistance^ Vengeance, Hannibal, and Culloden again, 
until the close of 1 794. In the last mentioned ship he fought in the famous action of the 
first of June, under Lord Howe, against the French, off Ushant. 

On his return to England from the Cape of Good Hope, whither he had gone in the 
Ruby, he joined, in November, 1 795, the London, bearing the flag of Vice Admiral John 
Colpoys. For his conduct during the mutiny at Spithead he was promoted, June 1 797, to 
the rank of Lieutenant ; and at the same time placed in command of the Flamer gun- vessel. 

He was next, between December 1798, and October 1801, employed, princii>al]y in the 
Channel, on board the Charon, Gorgon, and h amur, flag-ship of Earl St. Vincent, and for 
seven months in command of the Nancy, fire- vessel. Assuming command, July 1 803, of the 
Sea Flower, brig, Lieutenant Owen, after serving for a time on the French coast, sailed for 
the East Indies, where he effected the capture, July 1806, of Le Charles, a French national 
ketch. In the following September he explored part of the Maldive Islands, and their 
channels, and on the loth of November in the same year, he discovered an excellent channel 
now bearing the name of his brig, situated between the islands of Siberoet and Pulo, 
Poro, near the west coast of Sumatra.* 

Having conducted Sir Edward Pellew's squadron through the intricate navigation into 
Batavia Roads, he there distinguished himself by his gallantry in command of a division 
of boats, at the capture and destruction of a Dutch frigate, seven brigs of war, and about 
20 armed and other merchant-vessels. 

In September 180S, Lieutenant Owen was taken captive by the French, who detained 
him at Mauritius where Captain Flinders was also at the time a prisoner, until June 
1810 ; from August to November of which year, he was employed in superintending 
the transports sent from Madras to that island. He then, having been awarded 
a commission dated May 1809, obtained command of the Barracouta employed in the 
summer of 181 1 at the reduction of the island of Java, where he assisted at the debarkation 
of the troops at Chillingching, and continued attached to the army until after the surren- 
der of Batavia. 

In December 181 1, Captain Owen, who had been advanced to post-rank the preceding 
May, and had held for a short time the command of the Piemontaise at Bombay, was 
appointed to the Cornelia, In 18 12, he took p)ossession, with a squadron under his orders, 
of the island of Palembang. He returned to England with a China convoy in June, 181 3; 
and was subsequently appointed March 18 15, to carry out the surveys of the lakes of 
Canada, from whence he returned to England in 1816, leaving Lieutenant Bayfield in 
charge of this important work. 

Captain Owen then for a short time became attached to the Hydrographic Department 
of the Admiralty, contributing his assistance and advice with Captain Petei* Heywood to 
Captain Hurd, the hydrographer, in the formation of the Naval Surveying Service. 

His linguistic acquirements enabled him at about this time to translate the charts and 
sailing directions for the coast of Portugal of Major Franzini ; the result of his labours in 

* Geography of the Maldire ialands by Gaptain Owen, published in the Royal Geographical Society*! Joor- 
nal for 1838, p. 81. 


this respect, beings published by the Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty, in a 
quarto volume, in the year 1818. 

In August 1 82 1, at the age of about 46 years, Captain Owen was appointed to the 
command of the Levm, with the £arrac<mta, Captain Cutfield, under his orders, for the survey 
of parts of the east and west coasts of Africa, and the coast of Madagascar. Under him 
as officers of those vessels, subsequently known as eminent nautical surveyors, sailed 
Lieutenants Vidal, Mudge, Boteler, Arlett, and Richard Owen, with C. Gepp Robinson and 
Badgley as midshipmen, while Mr. Forbes joined the expedition as naturalist. 

The narrative of this interesting hydrographic voyage was not published until 1833, and 
then not by Captain Owen himself, but by Mr. Heaton Bowstead Robinson. 

The only Hydrographical Directions published with this narrative were drawn up by 
Mr. John Walker, the Assistant Hydrographer, and dated May 20th, 1823, with a further 
Memorandum by the same authority, dated June 30th, 1824. 

The equipment and manning of the vessels occupied until January 1822, when th« 
expedition sailed by way of Lisbon, Madeira, Santa Cruz, Porto Grande, and Rio de 
Janeiro to the Cape of Grood Hope. Here a survey was made of False, Haut, and Table 
bays by the Leven^ while the Barracouta was ordered to proceed along the south east coast 
of Africa as far as Algoa bay, and to determine en route the geographical positions of the 
various prominent points. At the same time. Captain Owen drew up a memorandum for 
the guidance of H.M. brig Heron, Captain Job Hanmer, which vessel Commodore Nourse 
resolved to despatch to the southward, in search of the Telemaque shoals and other re- 
ported dangers off the Cape of Good Hope.* 

On the 3rd of August 1822, the Leven left Table bay and commenced the survey between 
cape Hanklip and the Keiskamma river, and thence northward to Delagoa bay. Having 
examined the river Temby or Mahong for 46 miles from its mouth, and been subjected to 
an attack by the Zulus, the Mattoll, Dundas, and other rivers to Delagoa bay were partly 
examined. Captain Lechmere, who had become attached to the expedition as a companion 
to Captain Owen, was the first officer to lose his life from the deadly effects of the climate, 
to which the duties on shore of all concerned exposed them. He was speedily followed by 
^the carpenter, Mr. Tambs, midshipman, and Captain Cutfield of the Barracouta, the 
latter dying during the survey of Delagoa bay. 

Consequent upon this. Lieutenant Vidal succeeded to the command of the Barracouta, 
while Lieutenant Mudge became first lieutenant of the Leven, Boteler being transferred 
in a similar capacity to the former vessel. The decked boat, or tender, termed the Cockburn, 
was left to complete the survey of Delagoa bay, and of the river Mapoota, under Lieutenant 
R. Owen. 

A running survey of the coast from Inyack island southward to port Durnford was then 
commenced, the names of Morley l)ank and Watkins creek being given after the master 
and a midshipman of the Leven, both of whom, at this time, lost their lives from the effects 
of the climate. 

The vessels next visited the French colony in Madagascar, of Quail island or Isle 

January 8th, 1823, they sailed for Johanna, of the Comoro islands, where, having commu- 
nicated and obtained provisions, the vessels p)arted company, rejoining each other nine 
days iafterwards at Mozambique. 

Having surveyed the harbour of Mozambique, the ships again parted company February 
7th, 1823, the Leven continuing to the Angozha river, St. Anthony bank, Mafamede 
island, Matthew island. Walker reef, Barrow, and Caldeira islands, Hurd island, Spot reef, 
Raza or Epidendrae island, Casuarina island. Crown sand, Fogo island. South sand or de 
Sylvas, and David bank, rejoining the Barracouta on the 1 3th, near Cape Croker, when 
surveys and chronometers were compared. That vessel had examined the coast from 

• Commodore Noarse fell a yiotim to Afrioan ferer, in Angost 1824, caaght it waa said throngh 
■leeplng ashore at Zanzibar. 


Mozambique to the Bazaruta islands, and made some slight observations off Sofala and 
the mouths of the Zambesi river. Again parting company the Leven visited the Bassas 
da India or Europa rocks, and continued to the southward, surveying towards Delagoa bay, 
and arrived in English river, March i st. 

It was here found, that the tender Cockbum, which had been ' left behind under the 
command of Lieutenant Rici ard Owen, had but seven left out of a crew of 20 officers and 
men : all had been stricken down by the fever ; amonst the officers who had died, were 
Dr. Conolly, and Messrs Joyce, Hood, and Henderson, midshipmen. 

March i6th, the ships, with the Cockbum, proceeded for Simons bay, adding to the 
survey of the coast on the passage. The Z«;«» arriving April 7th'; and the Barracouia 
seven days afterwards. The Cockbum, owing to a mistake made in the navigation when 
entering Simons bay, ran ashore and became a total wreck. Here, two months were 
spent in completing charts, refitting &c. 

Although only seven months had elapsed since the vessels last quitted the Cape, the 
mortality had been fearful. Two-thirds of the officers, and more than one-half of the 
seamen having fallen victims to fever. 

Early in June 1823, the schooner AlbcUross was purchased at the Cape, to take the place 
of the wrecked Cockbum, as a tender, the command as before being intrusted to Lieutenant 

The Barracouia left for Algoa bay on the i6th of June, and was shortly afterwards 
followed by the Albatross and Ltven, the rendezvous apfyointed being Algoa bay. 

July 2nd, the Barracouia sailed from Algoa bay for Qailimane with a party of explorers 
for the Zambesi river, consisting of Lieutenant Browne, Mr. Forbes, and Mr. Kilpatrick 
an assistant surgeon. 

July 6th, the Leven sailed for Delagoa to finish the survey of that bay and the Mapoota 
and Dundas rivers ; this, and the plan of port Melville having been attended to, that vessel 
anchored under the north point of the Bazaruta islands September the 12th; thence, 
proceeding to Sofala, the Barracouia was fallen in with, on the i6th of the same month. 

That vessel had successfully landed Lieutenant Browne and party, and been 
almost wrecked on the bar of the Quilimane river, after surveying which, the Bazaruta 
islands and the Inhambane river had been visited, in quest of her consort; a fortnight being 
spent in the survey of the latter. 

Having surveyed Sofala bay, the vessels proceeded past the mouths of the several 
branches of the Zambesi river, calling at Casuarina roads, and arrived at Mozambique 
October 4th. 

During this visit. Lieutenant Mudge assisted by Messrs Badgley and Foster, surveyed 
the harbours of Conducia, Mozambique, and Mokamba. 

October 15th, the small squadron quitted Mozambique for their destinations. The 
Albatross and Barracouia were ordered to Patta, to survey the coast between that place 
and Mozambique, where they were to meet the Leven on the 14th of March 1824. The 
latter vessel continued to Bombay, which port was arrived at November 22nd. 

Here the charts of east Africa were completed up to date, and forwarded to England. 

From Bombay Captain Owen continued to Muscat, in order to procure the necessary 
passports from the Imaum to enable him to survey the coast of Africa from Cape Guardafui 
to Zanzibar. ♦ 

January ist, 1824, the Leven beat down the coast to a village named Hessat Shekh. It 
was the intention to trace the coast minutely from Muscat to Dafoor, but as when in- 
shore, it was found that the wind constantly failed, this had to be abandaned ; but the 
survey was re-commenced at Ras el Had, and continued to Ras el Hubba, near which, 
anchorage was found. 

* In 1812, LieateDsnt Smee of the Hon. E. I. Co., made a sarrej, on a amall scale, of the coast between 
ZaDsibar and Cape Gnardafai. This was by direction of the goyemmeat of Bombay. Captain Owen 
corroborated most of Lienteuant Smee*s obserrations. 


The Levm next made Ras Jibsh, and surveyed the outer coast of Massera island, cx^ntinu- 
ing to Aboo Rassas, then steering along the coast of the main land, and passing in turn, 
the Shoal cliffs, Cape Isolette, Raskooviat, and Ras Markass, to Cape Morebat. Here, 
Captain Owen became seriously ill from a stroke of " the blat," a pernicious land wind 
which produces rheumatic fever and affections of the bones, and 140 leagues of coast having 
been examined since leaving Muscat, it was decided to continue to Socotra. The north side 
of Socotra was arrived at January 1 3th, and examined, and having passed between Socotra 
and the Saboyna rocks, a bay in Abdul Koory island was next anchored in. 

Having sighted cape Guardafui and rounded Ras Hafoon, the coast was run along for 
some 80 miles to Ras el Khyle, and Mukdisha anchored off, and its position astronomically 
ascertained. The next anchorage was off the tower of Manara, originally intended as a 
sea mark ; from thence, the mouth of the river Juby was made, and course steered for 

The Leom left Lamoo February 4th, and having communicated with Mombas, anchored 
off the fort of Pemba on the Sth of the same month, and thence to Zanzibar, where letters 
from Captain Vidal of the Barracouta announced that he had concluded the survey of the 
coast as far as 6^ 28' S. latitude. Continuing along the coast the next port made was 
Lindy, from which Mizimbaty peninsula was steered for, port Ibo communicated with, and 
the Barracouta found surveying the coast off Picos Fragos (Broken Hills). 

Since parting company with the Ltoen^ October I Sth, 1823, Captain Vidal in the 
Barracouta with the Albatross, had proceeded to survey the coast from Patta island, 
situated in latitude 2° S., to Mozambique, including the port of Lamoo ; thence proceeding 
to Formosa bay, the survey was continued to Melinda road, which was reached November 
the 24th. 

Four days were devoted to the survey of the Leopard bank, and on November 28th the 
vessels continued the examination of the coast to Mombas, which was anchored at 
December 3rd. 

On the 7th December, the vessels left Mombas roads, the Albatross undertaking the 
survey of one part of the island of Pemba, while the Barracouta accomplished the remainder ; 
after which Zanzibar was visited. From this place Lieutenant Boteler was despatched in 
the pinnace to survey the coast of the main land from the Pangany river southward. 

January 1st, 1824. the Barracouta left Zanzibar for Latham island, and having examined 
this danger and fixed its geographical position, returned to Zanzibar on the 6th of 

Quitting Zanzibar again on the 8th, with the Albatross in company, after grounding on a 
coral shoal, the Barracouta anchored near Monfia on the loth, and devoting a week to 
the survey of the neighbouring islets and dangers, continued to Quiloa, of which a survey 
was made. 

January 30th, the prosecution of the survey southward of Quiloa was persevered in, the 
deep bay into which the Lindy river empties itself, visited, and Mikindany bay anchored 
in ; the Querimba islands surveyed, the position of the town of Ibo fixed, Pomba bay sur- 
veyed ; the Leven joined company March S^h, near the Broken Hills northward of port 

The vessels continuing to the last named port, arrived there March nth, and remained 
until April 4th, completing the charts. On that day, the Leven left for Delagoa bay and 
Mauritius for the purpose of running meridian distances, and the Barracouta for Quilimane 
and St. Augustine bay of Madagascar, where the Albatross, after examining Chesterfield 
island and Juan de Nova, was to join her, preparatory to commencing the survey of the 
west coast of Madagascar. 

Upon arriving at Mauritius 21st of May, Captain Owen heard of the loss of H.M.S. 
Delight, Captain Hay, which had foundered in a hurricane with all hands, February 23rd, 

Mr. J.Badgley and C. G. Robinson were landed at Mauritius to recruit their health, and 


on the 1 6th of July, having sent home 29 sheets of charts, the Levm sailed for the east 
coast of Madagascar. 

Tamatave of Madagascar was reached July i8th, and surveyed, and the Ltven next 
anchored off the town of Foul point, from whence the coast to the southward was ex- 
amined, and Port Louis of St. Mary island anchored in July 28th, and the survey con- 
tinued to Port Choiseul at the bottom of Antongil bay. The river Maransectzy was 
explored by Captain Owen, and August 13th, Mr. E. P. Durnford the principal hydro- 
grapher remaining in the Leven, after whom, the ports of that name, in south east Africa, 
as well as in Madagascar, were named, fell a victim to dysentry. 

Continuing to Diego Suarez or British Sound, an examination of this spacious bay, 
described as one of the finest harbours in the world, was made. 

Having concluded the survey of this harbour, Cape Amber was geographically fixed, after 
which, St. Mary island was ae:ain returned to. Here, Mr. Hilsenberg the botanist, had to be 
landed, dangerously ill with yellow fever. The Leom continued the survey of eastern 
Madagascar, naming port Leven, Leven isles. Cape Barracouta, and Cole islands; the latter 
after the governor of Mauritius, in hopes of inducing him to send some person to examine it. 
Calling at Johanna, and Mozambique, the Barracouta was again fallen in with by Captain 
Owen at Mombas. 

That vessel, had, on parting company in April, proceeded to Quilimane, to ascertian 
the fate of the Zambesi expedition landed there on a former occasion — all had died, Mr. 
Forbes previous to, and Lieutenant Browne and Dr. Kilpatrick after reaching Senna. 
Lieutenant Browne had served as a midshipman in the Lyra under Captain Basil Hall, 
and the illustrations in that officers account of Loo Choo, were chiefly taken from his 

May nth, the j5arriW(?f//« anchored off Sandy island, at the southern extremity of St. 
Augustine bay, Madagascar; here, the Albatross under Lieutenant W. Mudge joined 
company, Lieutenant Owen having been removed to the Leoen, 

This vessel had been 3 weeks surveying the bay ; continuing with the Barracouta to 
Tullear bay and Grave island, the latter so-named from the fact, that on the 22nd, of May, 
two midshipmen Messrs Bowie and Parsons, were foully murdered by the natives, and 
afterwards buried on that island, the coast from St. Augustine to Boyauna bay, was 
closely examined, as well as the off-lying islands. 

The Barracouta and Albatross then steered for Bembatooka, in the northwest part of 

July 31st, the survey of the remaining portion of the coast between Bembatooka 
and Boyauna bays was undertaken, after which, a day was spent at Mayunga ; 
Majambo bay was then visited and explored, and Narinda continued for, Keyvoondza 
rock, near the west point of Passandava bay being anchored off, after discovering and 
naming the Radama islands. 

This bay, as well as the Minow group was surveyed, and from the 7th to the 1 7th of 
October, was spent amongst the islands off Cape St. Sebastian, after which, Mombas was 
steered for, and reached October 23rd. Here news of the death of Lieutenant Reitz, who 
had remained at Mombas with Mr. George Phillips, to explore the river Pangany and make 
himself acquainted with the topography of the country, was received. 

December 9th, the Leven lett Mombas for Seychelles, the Barracouta steering for Juba, 
the former reached Maht^ island by the 25th, where Captain Owen received orders from 
the Admiralty to survey the west coast of Africa on his way home. The Barracovia 
surveyed the labyrinth of islands between Juba and Kwyhoo bay, and the Durnford river, 
in latitude 1° 13' S., so-named after the young hydrographic officer whose death hcis been 
alluded to ; continuing to, and surveying the Dundas islands, thence to Lamoo, and again 
to Mombas January 30th, 1825. 

The Leoen, left Mah^ the 30th of December, passed some days among the Seychelles, 

* For particnlan of Lieatenant Browne's expedition, communicated by Captain Owen, — see Royal Geogra- 
phical Society's Journal for 1832, p. 136. 


surveying Dennis islet the northern of the group, and then proceeded to Mukdisha, 
making many valuable additions to her former work during this part of the voyage. 
Lamoo was arrived at on the 17th January 1825, and Mombas three days afterwards. 

February 2nd, the LtDen left Monibas for Zanzibar, examining the west coast of Pemba 
island, and on the loth, left Zanzibar for Mahe, where she arrived the ist of March, 
being joined shortly afterwards by the Barracouta. A particular survey was made of the 
Seychelles before leaving on the sixth of April for Ma.dagascar (the Albair'oss had 
previously sailed to examine the coral group of Cargados Garagos islands), Cape Amber 
was passed on the 17th, and a survey made of ports Robinson, Jenkinson, and Liverpool, 
thence continuing to Bembatooka. Leaving the latter place May 6th, with the Barracouta 
in company, Mozambique was reached May 9th, and again departed from May 14th for 
St. Augustine bay, where anchor was cast June ist. Another run to Mauritius was 
made by the two vessels in company between the dates of June 3rd and 15th, and here the 
Albatross was found, having completed the survey of the Cargados Garagos islands Sailing 
again July 19th, after examining Tromelin islet, the Leven touched at St. Mary, thence to 
Tamatave and port Dauphin, doubled the south point of Madagascar, examined the Star 
bank, and arrived at St. Augustine bay Augxist 20th ; sailed the next day for Delagoa bay, 
where anchor was cast on the 28th, Europa island having been examined on the way. 
After touching at Natal, all three vessels arrived at Simons bay 28th of September, 1822. 
Here, Mr. Farley the purser, and Lieutenant Richard Nash a passenger on board the Leverty 

Having completed a survey of Table bay, and sent the Barracouta on in advance, the 
survey of the west coast of Africa was commenced by Captain Owen in the Leven , on the 
9th of November, 1825, 

"Captain Owen's orders did not require that he should survey the coast from the Cape 
of Grood Hope to the river Congo ; but, as it was very imperfectly described in the charts, 
he determined upon making at least a passing inspection, and adding what information 
his time would admit to hydrographical knowledge." * 

The first place anchored at was Walfisch or Whale bay. Next an examination of the 
bay, called in the old charts Rostra da Pedra was made ; and in latitude 22^ 32' a moun- 
tain of considerable elevation, having near it a large body of water, forming a kind of 
lake, about 40 feet above the level of the sea, was observed, and Great Fish bay reached 
November 28th. 

According to arrangement, the closer recognizance of the west coast of Africa was to 
commence in 19° S. latitude, the point where H.M.S. Espiegle had discontinued in 1824. 

From Great Fish bay, the Leven proceeded to Port Alexander and Little Fish bay. Turtle 
bay, St. Mary bay, St. Francis point, to Benguela, which was anchored off December 
6th, and St. Paul de Loando, where the Barracouta was found December 9th, having 
already surveyed that bay. On the 19th, the Leven sailed for Ascension, arriving January 
2nd, 1826: and there learnt, that the Albatross had left that island December 17th, and 
the Coquille with the French circumnavigator Duperrey, a few days previously — Captain 
Sabine had also recently visited the island, to fix its position, but had left no result. 

After surveying the Isles de Los, the Leven next sailed for Sierra Leone, where the 
Albatross was already engaged in a similar way ; thence, in company, the vessels con- 
tinued to the Banana islands. Great Tui tie islands, and Sherbro river. March 1 1 th, Mr. 
Charles Bullen and Mr. Hutcheson, midshipmen, died of fever, and many of the crew, 
as well as that of the Albatross, became seriously ill. On the 21st, the vessels were again 
amongst the Turtle islands, and another death, that of Mr. Charles Barrette, midshipman, 

April 1st, the vessels left for Sierra Leone, arrived on the 3rd, left again on the i ith, and 
commenced the survey of Rio Grande off the Bijuja islands on the 21st, and shortly 

• " Page 227, Vol 2, of Owen'a Yoyage." 


afterwards that of Bulama harbour or Beaver port, and Bissao, tracing the shores of 
Galinhas, Hog, Kanyabac, Orango, and Bawak islands. 

May 17th, Lieutenant Richard Owen, with Messrs. Tudor and Mercer, midshipmen, 
proceeded in the steam vessel African to examine the river Gambia. May 24th, the 
Leven left for Sierra Leone, obtaining* a base line by sound off Crawford island, and an in- 
spection of the coast having* been made by one of the boats, between Isles de Los and 
Sierra Leone, the Levm arrived at the latter port June ist, and was joined by the 
Barracouia June loth.* 

The Barracouia left Table bay October 26th, 1825, anchored off Dassen island, Saldanha' 
bay, Angra Pequena ; fixed position of Cape Negro, and surveyed Benguela. 

December 5th, left Benguela, passed Nova Rodonda, and arrived at St. Paul de Iu>ando 
on the 8th. Having surveyed this bay, the Barracouia and Levm left in company on the 
1 9th, the former continued to the mouth of the Congo, anchoring each night and carrying 
on a running survey by day. Entering the Congo on Christmas Eve of 1825, for six 
successive days, no headway could be made against the stream, but on January ist, favoured 
by a stronger sea breeze than usual. Shark point was passed, and anchorage found 
25 miles above the southern entrance of the river. Mr. Robinson examined the south, 
and Lieutenant Boteler the north shore, as far as Cape Palmeiro, the deep channel of the 
river being traced for 13 miles above Cape Pillar. 

January 5th, the Barracouia left the Congo, and two days afterwards anchored in 
Kabenda bay, quitting again January 8th, and anchoring in Loango bay the next evening. 
This bay was surveyed, and leaving on the loth, the survey was continued to Cape Lopez, 
the geographical position of which was accurately determined, and on the 27th, the survey 
of the coast to the northward continued to the Gaboon river, the southern entrance point 
of which, was accurately fixed, and the mouth surveyed. 

February 4th, the Gaboon was left for Corisco bay, which was well surveyed in the 
course of 14 days, the coast to the northward examined, and the river Camaroons 
anchored off February 24th. The survey of the entrance of this river was completed by 
March 2nd, when the Bimbia was visited, but owing to scarcity of provisions, the survey 
of the coast was suspended March 6th, the Barracouia sailing for, and arriving in. Maid, 
stone bay, of Fernando Po, on that day. Leaving again March loth, the Bonny was 
reached on the iSth, and the mouth of that river and New Calabar surveyed ; Commander 
Vidal and Lieutenant W. Mudge here received news of their promotion. Leaving the Bonny 
March 28th, the Barracouia sailed westward to Cape Formosa, from whence the coast was 
surveyed to the river Benin, off which, anchor was cast April 2nd. Having surveyed the 
mouth of the Benin, the survey was continued to old Calabar river, the bar of which, was 
more thoroughly examined, and on the i6th, the vessel continued for Rio del Rey. Rio del 
Rey was left April 20th, and Fernando Po again reached the next morning. May 1st, direct 
course from Fernando Po was steered for Sierra Leone, the Barracouia being almost dis- 
masted on the passage, the latter place was reached June 4th, 1826, and here her consort, 
the Zjcven, was found at anchor. 

Lieutenant Owen who left the Levm at the Bijuja islands to explore the river Grambia 
in the steam vessel African, having ascended as far as Macarthy island, and completed the 
survey of the river m six large sheets, returned to Sierra Leone, rejoined the Albatross^ 
and sailed for England. Touching at Porto Praya, Mr. E. O. Tudor, senior midshipman, 
one. of the most active members of the expedition, died, and was buried in one of the 
bastions of the fort, by the side of Captain Bartholomew, the former commander of the 
Levmy who had surveyed parts of the Cape Verd islands, and died here in 1821. 

From Sierra Leone the Ltotn and Barracouia returned to England. During their five 

* The Burrej of the ooAst aUotted to Captain Owen ooald not be completed in the limited time : it was 
afterward! performed by Commander Boteler, in the E9ela^ daring the year 1828 ; shortlj afterwards that 
soientifio oiBoer, who had serred throughoat Captain Oweu's African voyage, fell a victim to ferer. 



years absence under Captain Owen, 30,000 miles of coast line had been traced, and in 
some parts well surveyed, and the following charts and plans constructed viz : — 

22 of the West coast of Africa. 
31 ,, East ,, Africa. 
12 of the East coast of Madagascar. 
17 „ West „ Madagascar. 
I ,p Grrand Port, Mauritius. 

Also, the southern coast of Persia and Arabia, two charts of the Seychelles, and of the 
port and bay in Mahd. 

On his arrival in England, Captain Owen was almost immediately appointed to the 
command of the £dm, having with him Lieutenants J. Badgley (the translator of Roussin*s 
memoir on West Africa from Cape Bojador to Mount Souzos) and S. M. Mercer, both of 
whom had served throughout his former expedition ; also, Henry Kellett (afterwards a 
Vice Admiral). The object of the voyage of the £dm was to establish a settlement at 
Fernando Po, and to remove the mixed O)mmission Court for the suppression of the slave 
trade, from Sierra Leone. Paying off the £{ien at the close of 183 1, he was afterwards 
engaged in advising and drawing up plans for the government and administration of 
certain of our Colonial possessions.* Later on, he organised extensive plans for surveying 
parts of the coasts of north-east America and the Bay of Fundy, in addition to carry- 
ing out magisterial functions in those parts. In April 1847, he was placed in nominal 
command of H.M.S. Columbia, and having been promoted to Rear Admiral's rank in 
December 1847, returned to England. 

He was made a Vice Admiral in October 1854, and died at St. John's, New Brunswick, 
on the 3rd November 1857, aged about 83 years. 

In addition to the hydrographic labours enumerated, Captain Owen examined 
the coast of India from Cape Comorin along the shores of Malabar and Surat. He 
executed five sheets of charts also of the St. Lawrence river, from Ontario lake to the Gallop 
rapids, as well as those of lake Ontario, Toronto harbour, and Campobello island, and Quoddy 
head to Cape Lepreau, in the bay of Fundy. 

Like others of the earlier energetic naval surveying officers. Captain Owen appears to 
have possessed the talent of obtaining an extraordinary amount of labour from both his 
officers and men. He does not seen to have spared himself however, and certainly, 
his nephew. Lieutenant Richard Owen, least of all, for, throughout the narrative, the 
hardest and least tasteful of the work, appears to have fallen to his share, when in 
command of the tenders Cockburn, Albatross, and African, 

The advocates of geographical research in England, during the period of Captain Owen's 
survey, and more especially near its close, were very much devpted to Arctic Exploration. 
There was no Royal Geographical Society in those days, and this may have accounted for 
tho apparent absence of any sign of recognition, having been awarded to the chief of these 
extensive operations. 

At page 1 1 of the introduction to his narrative, he remarks, " No office ever defeated 
the intention of its projectors so perfectly as the Navy Board ; for, instead of expediting 
the equipment of his Majesty's ships they threw every obstacle in the way, either by an 
ingenious misconstruction or wilful delay, whereas every application to the Admiralty 
was instantly ordered," and at page 232 of the second volume is stated ** that the affectation 

* At Fernando Po, a terrible BickneBB overtook the offloers and orew of the Sden, all but three of the gpaa- 
Toom officers, as well as 46 of the men, died. 

Captain Washington in his {leport on the Progress of Geography in 1887-88, published in the Bojal 
(Geographical Societys Joomal of 1838, when he held the position of Secretary of that Society, remarks, 

" This gfigantio surrey, embracing the east and west coasts of Africa, from the Isthmus of Sues round bj 
the Cape of Good Hope to the Pillars of Hercules, may be said to hare been drawn and oolonred with drops 
ef blood. Twice did Captain Owen change his whole orew and officers ; those accomplished surreyore, Cap- 
tain Boteler and Skyring, fell a sacrifice during its progress, and now, in the hour of conclusion, the orews of 
the Sina and Rmven have aU but shared the same fate." 


of extreme minutioe and of reasoning on new hypothesis to account for all possible effects, 
and to make the Royal Society a stepping stone to the honours and benefits of our service, 
has certainly produced more injury, by discouraging- the unpresuming man of real profes- 
sional merit, than it has done good by raising talent from obscurity.'' 

The narrative of this surveying expedition not having been edited by Captain Owen 
himself, has been done but scant justice to. Compressed in a somewhat confused manner 
into two octavo volumes, with but few illustrations, and a chart which does not cover more 
than one half of the ground examined, it is difficult to disentangle the various accounts, or to 
gather, without looking backwards and forwards, whether the reader is learning of the 
Leom or the Barracoutay or if the remarks be those of Captain Owen, or of either Lieutenants 
Richard Owen or Boteler.* 

The amount of work done certainly seems prodigious. With the sentimentality attached to 
search after such goals as the North Pole or a N.W. passage, there is much in the public eclat 
awarded to such undertakings, to encourage and stimulate an explorer, whatever the difficul- 
ties to be overcome ; but, only the nautical surveyor proper, can fairly appreciate the dogged 
perseverance and persistent energy, attendant upon the operation of surveying coasts and 
rivers, day after day, and year after year, in a tropical and often pestilential climate, with an 
unsympadiising and at times hostile population, face to face, too often, with disease and death. 
Two thirds of the officers, and one half of the men, succumbed. 

There was no chart room in either of the vessels, the Captains had to give up their cabins 
for this work; nevertheless, duplicate charts were invariably forwarded with great punctuality 
to the Admiralty. 

Of such men as Captain Owen and his assistants, it may be truly remarked, that they loved 
their work better than their lives. Fesides the translation of Franzini already alluded to, 
Captain Owen has been credited with the following works : 

Voyages to explore the shores of Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar fh>in 1821 to 1826. 2 toIs 800. 1833. 
Gl'ables of Latitudes and Longitades bj chronometer of plaoea in the AtUntio and Indian Oceans. Aio. 1827 
To which was added an essay on the management and use of chronometers, edited by Commander Richard 

Owen. 4/0. 1827. 
On Circum-mendian altitudes at sea or on shore. 4/o. 18 ii. 



Otto Von Kotzebue, the son of the celebrated German author, was a cadet on board the 
Nedeska, under Krusenstem, in 1803- 1806. When a lieutenant, he was selected by that 
great hydrographer to command a vessel sent out by the munificence of Count Romanzoff, 
and named the Rurick^ to endeavour to penetrate to the north of Behring Strait, and make 
other explorations. 

It was first resolved to send the timber requisite to build a small vessel of 25 or 30 tons on 
board one of the ships belonging to the American Company, to the N.W. coast of America ; 
the officer to whom the undertaking was to be confided, was to embark at the same time 
with his pilot, and crew of chosen men, and have the vessel put together at Oonalashka or 

This plan was given up on account of want of space in the Company's vessels. It was 
then resolved to have a vessel of about 80 tons, with sliding keels, on the plan of Captain 
Schanck, similar to the Lady Nelson^ in which Lieutenant Grant surveyed Bass Strait, built of 
oak in the Imperial dockyard ; this plan, however, could not be executed. 

Eventually the JRunck, of 180 tons, built of fir, at a cost of 30,000 roubles, at Abo, 
was found to answer the purpose, admirably, for which she was intended. Her crew con- 
sisted of 20 men, besides the officers and naturalists. 

Lieutenant Kotzebue writes ** I bespoke the astronomical and physical instruments m 

* An interestmg abridgement of Captain Owen's voyage, bj Lieutenant Wolfe is pnblisbed in the Bojal 
Geographical Society's Joomal, for 1888. 


England of the justly celebrated Troug-hton ; they consisted of several sextants, comp>asses, 
two marine barometers, a dipping needle, an anemometer, thermometers, hygrometers &c. To 
these I added the log and sounding machine of Massey, a Six-thermometer, a mountain 
barometer, a camera lucida; the last articles by that ingenious artist, Thomas Jones, a pupil 
of the celebrated Ramsden, and two telescopes by Tully. I bespoke two chronometers, a 
pocket chronometer by Burraud and a box chronometer by Hardy. 

Besides these instruments, and an extensive collection of maps by Horsburgh, Arrowsmith, 
and Purdy, the ship was provided by the English Admiralty, with a life-boat by Fincham, the 
master ship-builder at the Royal Naval Dockyard, Plymouth. 

A Valuable Introduction to the account of this voyage of Kotzebue, as well as his Hydro- 
graphic Instructions in the first volume, and a chapter upon the hydrographical results of the 
voyage (there being some doubt as to the priority of discovery), are written by Krusenstem, 
the great Russian hydrographer, and are both instructive €md concise. 

The Rurick left Kronstadt July 30th, 1815, and Plymouth in the following October ; thence 
by way of Teneriffe and Brazil, round Cape Horn to the coast of Chili ; and in March 18 16, 
touched at Easter island, where the natives, exasperated by the injuries committed on them 
by the American traders, resisted the landing of the crew. 

On the 1st of August 18 16, he discovered on the American shore to the north of Behring 
strsut, a wide opening, commencing in latitude 66° 42' 30" N., longitude 164*^ 14' 50" W. This 
he entered, and made a rapid survey of, suspecting the existence of a passage out of it to 
the south-east communicating with Norton Sound: another channel running to the 

The naturalists who accompanied Kotzebue were surprised to find grounded on the shore, 
an iceberg 100 feet in height, completely covered on the summit with a layer of soil and 
luxurious vegetation. 

Kotzebue quitted this inlet, to which he gave his name, on the 1 5th of August, and crossed 
over to visit the coast of Asia. He wintered in that archipelago of the Pacific, which includes 
the Nautilus, Chatham, and Calvert islands. To these he gave new names, and seems to 
have regarded them as new discoveries. 

In the following year he again sailed for the north, but met with heavy gales, and having 
been thrown by the pitching of the ship, against a beam, with such violence as to break his 
breast-bone, his health became so seriously affected, as to render him incapable of 
bearing the vicissitudes of a northern climate. He returned to Europ)e, after having made 
some further discoveries in the Radack channel, the Low archipelago, and the Caroline 
islands, anchoring in the Neva, August 3rd, 18 18. 

The narrative of this voyage, translated into English by H. E. Lloyd, was published in 
three octavo volumes in 1821, and in addition to the valuable remarks of Krusenstem, 
contains in the second and third volumes, most valuable historical information on the 
inhabitants of the South sea islands, their customs, and languages, drawn up by Adelbert 
V. Chamisso the naturalist of the expedition ; also, a vocabulary of the dialects of the 
Mariana Islands, and of Eap, Ulea, and Radack islands. Charts accomi)any the work of 
part of the Marshall islands (called Romanzoff, Radack, and Ralick, by Kotzebue), and the 
Caroline islands. 

His second voyage was made in the Predpriaiie (Enterprise), This ship had been first 
destined for a voyage purely scientific, but circumstances occurred which rendered it 
necessary to change the object of the expedition, and Captain Kotzebue was ordered to 
take in at Kronstadt, a cargo for Kamschatka, and to sail from the latter place for the 
north-west coast of America, in order to protect the Russian American Company from 
the smuggling carried on there by foreign traders. 

On this station, the ship was to remain for one year, and then to be relieved by another, 
and to return to Kronstadt. The course to be followed, both coming and going, was left to 
Captain Kotzebue. 

May 1st 1823, the ship, which wets the first built in Russia under a roof, and the size of a 


medium frigate, was declared complete. She was armed with 24 six-pounders, 
and carried 4 lieutenants and numerous other officers, besides 2 naturalists, an 
astronomer, a mineralogist, a chaplain, and a physician ; making with her crew 145 persons 
in all. In her outfit, were two pendulum apparatus, a theodolite by Reichenbach, besides 
astronomical and other scientific instruments. 

July 14th 1823, (old style, according to which all reckonings during this voyage were 
made) the Enterprise was inspected by the Emperor, and on the 28th she sailed, touching at 
Rio de Janeiro, thence round Cape Horn, making important additions to our knowledge of 
the Low archipelago, the Navigator islands, the Radack chain, Sitka, and the Ladrone 
islands ; returning by w^ of the Phillipine islands. Cape of Good Hope, and St. Helena to 
Kronstadt, July loth, 1826. 

Plans are published in the English translation of this voyage, of Matavai bay (Tahiti) 
the Navigator Islands, and the Rurick chain of Islands. 

For account of Kotzebue's first expedition. See, 

A Toyage of Disoovery into the Soath Sea and Behring strait, for the purpose of Exploring a North East 
Passage, undertaken in the years 1815-1818, at the expense of the Chancellor of the Russian Empire^ Count 
Bomanzoff, bj Lieutenant Otto Yon EotMbue. 8 Vols, 8vo. 1821. 

For the second expedition, 

A new Voyi^ round the World in the years 1823 to 1826 by Otto Yon Kotzebue. Post Captain in the 
Russian Imperial Navj. 2 Yols 8vo. 1880 



This officer was appointed by Sir Alexander Cochrane when Commander in Chief in 
North America and the West Indies to carry out the survey of Nova Scotia. He was at 
the time of his appointment in about 181 3, acting mzister attendant at Barbados. Former 
Navy Lists give the date of his seniority as a master, 27th May, 179S. 

In 181 1, Mr. Lockwood surveyed Culebra or Passage island of the Virgin islands in the 
West Indies. 

He does not appear to have commanded a vessel of war, but carried out his work with 
a hired vessel and crew, and without any officer to assist him. 

At the completion of his labours in 1818, he wrote a hydrographic work upon Nova 
Scotia containing charts of Bedford basin, Sambro harbour, St. Mary's river. Country 
harbour (Sandwich bay of Des Barres), Eastern Nova Scotia, Port of Liverpool, Shelbume, 
South Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Lockwood appears to have been a veritable rara avis^ so contented was his disposition 
judging from some of the remarks he makes in the preface of his books after retirement 
from his profession, which took place in 18 18 " Secured from necessity in age, by the liber- 
ality of the Board I have the honour to serve, and enjoying an income exceeding my wants, 
I disdain the slightest wish to derive pecuniary benefit from this humble attempt to be 

He lived to enjoy his pension for 37 years, dying in the early part of 1855. 

He terms himself on the title page of his book " Professor of Hydrography, and assistant 
Surveyor General of the Provinces of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton." 

See, A brief Description of Nova Scotia, with plates, including a particular account of 
the Island of Grand Manan. 4J0. Cadell and DavieSy 18 18. 

A chart of New Brunswick constructed by Lockwood was also published in 18 18. 



James Kingston Tuckey was bom in August 1776. As a boy he was said to have been 
of an ardent and inquisitive mind and quickly imbibed a predilection for the naval profession. 



The period when Mr. Tudiey fixed his choicei being that of peace, and no opportunity being 
afforded for entering the navy, he undertook, in 1791, a voyage to the West Indies, followed 
by a second to the toy of Honduras, in which he caught a fever, that nearly deprived him oi 

On the breaking out of the revolutionary war he was received on board the Suffolk at the 
recommendation of Captain (afterwards Sir) Francis Hartwell. In that ship he proceeded to 
India, and was soon rated master's mate ; he was present at the capture of Trincomalee 
from the Dutch, and received a slight wound while serving in the batteries from the splinter 
of a shell. 

He assisted at the surrender of Amboyna. When the English undertook the defence of 
the Dutch from the native chiefs of that island, Mr. Tuckey was stationed in a brig to 
cruise round its coast ; and on firing a gun at a party in arms assembled on the beach, it 
burst, and a fragment broke his right arm. Having no surgeon he was obliged to set it 
for himself in truly sailor-like fashion, so that, in a week after, it had again to be 
broken by the advice of a surgeon. Mr. Tuckey never completely recovered the use of 
this arm. 

From Amboyna the Suffolk proceeded to Macao, and thence to Ceylon ; and when at 
Colombo on the 15 th January, 1798, a serious mutiny broke out on board, in the quelling 
of which, Mr. Tuckey exerted himself with so much success, that though wanting eighteen 
months for the completion of his servitude to qualify him for a lieutenants commission. Rear 
Admiral Rainier appointed him, the following day, acting lieutenant of that ship. From 
the Suffolk he removed to the Fox. and when belonging to that frigate, but being «t Madras 
in a prize, intelligence was received that La Forie, a French frigate, was cruising in 
the Bay of Bengal. H.M.S. SyhiUe immediately prepared for sea, and Mr. Tuckey with a 
small party of seamen belonging to the Fox^ volunteered their services in her. In this 
notorious action, in which Za Forte^ though of superior size and metal was captured. 
Lieutenant Tuckey commanded on the forecastle ; he afterwards received an acting 
commission from the Admiral for his meritorious conduct. 

In August 1 799, he was sent in the Braaoe to the Red Sea, and on his way thither, at the 
Seychelles, captured a ship proceeding to Europe with an embassy from Tippoo Sultaun to 
the French Directory. On his arrival in the Red Sea, having rejoined his old ship the Fox^ 
many months were spent cruising in the gulf of Suez and thence to Bombay. The excessive 
heat of the Red Sea seems to have laid the foundation of a liver complaint which never 
quite left him. 

Towards the latter end of 1 800, having again proceeded to the Red Sea, contrary to advice, 
he arrived at Jeddah in January i^i ; but in the course of a month his complaint 
returned, and his health suffered so many severe shocks, that he was reduced to a 
skeleton, and obliged to make his way back to India, where the Admiral intrusted him with 
his dispatches for England. 

His native climate soon re-established his health, and in 1802 he was appointed first 
Lieutenant of the Cakuitay in which situation he served throughout her voyage, the object 
of which was to form a new establishment at Port Phillip. He made a complete survey of 
that port as well as an examination of the coast and surrounding country. The Lieut- 
enant Governor, Colonel Collins, transmitted to the First Lord of the Admiralty a most 
flattering testimony of his merits. He was also furnished by the Lieutenant Governor with 
letters of recommendation to Sir Joseph Banks, and reaching England in 1804, he 
published an account of the voyage.* 

In 1805, the Cakutta, in which ship he still continued^ was captured by the French fleet 
on her homeward voyage from St. Helena, whither she had been sent to convoy home some 
merchant vessels. Captain Woodriff, her commander, determined to sacrifice the Calcutta 

• In Deoember 1808, Port Phillip not being considered a favoarable site for the new settlementi it was 
remored to Hobartown of Tasmania. The oolony of Yictoria, having ita capital, Melbourne, at the same port^ 
was not permanently established until 1838. 



to the safety of his convoy, and in order to bring this about, offered engagement to the 
whole squadron. His manoeuvre proved successful ; the Calcutta eventually had to strike 
her colours, but the valuable transports escaped. 

Lieutenant Tuckey thus became one of the forty naval lieutenants kept as a pris6ner 
during the war with France. He still kept up his spirits however, and in 1806, married 
Miss Margaret Stuart a fellow prisoner, daughter of a Commander in the £. I. Cos. Service. 

Severe as his fate was, he possessed a mind of too vigorous and active a turn 
to sink under his unmerited misfortunes; the painful moments of his long imprison- 
ment found some relief, in the laborious compilation and composition of a professional work 
" undertaken to pass away the tedious hours of a hopeless captivity, alike destructive of 
present happiness, and future prospects." This work was published in England shortly 
after his return, in four octavo volumes, under the title of " Maritime Geography and 
Statistics." It proved a work of useful reference, and abounded with general hydrographic 

In August 18 14, Mr. Tuckey was promoted by Lord Melville to the rank of Commander ; 
and in the following year, on hearing of the intention of Government to send an expedition 
to explore the river Zaire, or Congo, he applied for and was selected for the command. 

It was suggested by Sir Joseph Banks, who appears to have been the prime mover in 
this, as well as other expeditions of the period, that a steam engine might be found useful 
to propel the vessel built for the Congo expedition, against the rapid current of that 

The burden of the vessel was not to exceed 100 tons, her draft of water 4 feet ; of this 
tonnage, it was calculated, that the engine of 24 horse-power would alone occupy one 
third part ; and of her measurement, the whole breadth of the vessel, and twenty feet of 
her length. 

Such a vessel, Mr. Seppings the surveyor of the navy, undertook to construct, and at 
the same time to give her sufficient stability under sail to enable her to be navigated in 
safety to West Africa. Messrs Watt and Bolton were accordingly put in communication 
with Mr. Seppings in order that a proper steam engine might be Htted for the vessel. 

Unfortunately however, either the engine with its boiler, was heavier than had been 
anticipated, or the vessel drew more water than had been designed ; consequently the 
utmost speed produced was four knots an hour, and when lightened to a draught of 4^ feet 
her speed never exceeded S J knots. 

Commander Tuckey, therefore, earnestly urged that the boiler and engine should be got 
rid of. It was accordingly removed from the Congo (the name the vessel had received) to 
Chatham dock-yard. The Congo was schooner rigged and had three sliding keels, and 
although in the opinion of many naval officers it was thought that she would never cross 
the Bay of Biscay, she nevertheless proved an excellent sea boat, and in working from 
the North Foreland into the Downs, distanced every other vessel similarly engaged at the 
same time. 

The Dorothy^ transport, of 350 tons, was appointed to accompany the expedition to the 
mouth of the river Congo— she carried two double boats with connecting platforms, 
as well as several smaller ones, for use in the higher part of the river. 

The Congo carried 49 officers and men ; amongst the former, were Lieutenant John 
Hawkey who acted as artist, and Mr. Lewis Fitzmaurice, Master and Surveyor, who 
attended to the hydrography of the expedition. There were also, on a supernumuary list 
Professor Smith, botanist, and Messrs Cranch, Tudor, and Galwey scientific civilians, and 
Mr. Lockhart from His Majesty's garden at Kew. 

The ships reached the mouth of the Congo in the bejginning of July, and after pro- 
ceeding a short distance up the river, it was found advisable, from the strength of the 
current, to leave the ship, and to continue the expedition in boats. 

Having advanced about 150 miles from the mouth of the river, they arrived at the 


Yellala's Wife, a cataract or rapid extending nearly across the river. The party were 
here obliged to leave the boats, and pursue their journey by land. 

A few miles farther on they found the Yellala, or Great Cataract, which was found 
to be in reality only a rapid, but at the same time, so violent, as to put a stop to the 
navigation of the river. 

Near these rapids, the Congo was extremely contracted in its channel, and did not app>ear 
to pour down a large volume of water ; but about 24 miles above the Yellala it opened 
into a noble stream, sometimes three or four miles wide ; the scenery on its banks being 
highly picturesque and varied. 

But now, when a ray of success seemed to gleam on the expedition, their calamaties com- 
menced ; one by one, the party were attacked by fever, and obliged to proceed to the ship. 
The turning point of the expedition was at a distance of about 280 miles eastward from 
the mouth of the river. 

Commander Tucker, Lieutenant Hawkey, Mr. Eyre and ten of the Congous crew, as well 
as Mr. Smith the botanist, Mr. Cranch the zoologist, Mr. Tudor the geologist, and Mr. 
Galwey a gentleman of science who had volunteered his services to the expedition, died soon 
after reaching the ship. 

The senior surviving officer Mr. Lewis Fitzmaurice, the master and surveyor, and Mr. 
Hodder, master's mate, brought the Congo to England, where she was afterwards employed 
under the former, upon surveying service in the Grerman Ocean and east coast of England. - 
These officers almost entirely escaped from any attack of fever. 

By observations taken by Mr. Fitzmaurice during this expedition, the west coast of Africa 
from Cape Lopez to the mouth of the river Congo, was found as much as from twenty to 
forty miles out in longitude. He constructed the chart of the river to the farthest point 
reached by Commander Tuckey. 

The narrative of the expedition was written from the joint notes and journals of the officers 
concerned in it, as well as from those of Professor Smith. 

In reporting the death of his Commander, Mr. Fitzmaurice observes " in him the navy has 
lost an ornament, and its seamen a father." 

In his person. Commander Tuckey was tall, and must once have been handsome ; but 
long service in India had broken down his constitution, and at the age of 30, his hair was 
gray and his head nearly bald. He was at all times gentle and kind in his manners, and 
indulgent to every one placed under his command. 

A near relation observed, " that a want of sufficient economy, and an incapability of refusal 
to open his purse to others, had been the cause of many of the difficulties which clouded the 
prospects of his after life " ; — ^that " he knew nothing of the value of money, except in 
that in enabled him to gratify the feelings of a benevolent heart." 

The following were the works attributed to Commander J. K. Tuckey. 

Accoant of a voyage to establish a Colony at Port I'hillip in Bass's Strait, on the sonth coast of New South 
Wales in 1802-4. bvo. 1805. 

llaritime Geography and Statistics ; or. Description of the Ocean and its coasts. 4 Vols. 800., 1815. 

Narrative of an Expedition to explore the River Zaire, nsoally called the Congo, in 1816, under the 
direction of Commander J. K. Tackey* U.N., with a chart and nnmerons plates of views ko* 4^o., Murray 
London, 1818. 



The above officer commanding the frigate Alcesie, with the brig Lyra, Captain Basil Hall 
which took out Lord Amherst's embassy to China, added considerably to the hydrography 
of the north coast of China, giilf of Tartary, Corea &c., though, from a political point of view 
the expedition was not an entire success. 

On the 9th of February 18 16, the ships sailed from Spithead, having in company, the 


Indiaman General Hewitt^ Captain Campbell, on board of which were presents for the Chinese 
potentates it was intended to propitiate. 

The Akeste called at Rio de Janeiro, the other vessels proceeding direct to the Cape. The 
two vessels of war met again in Anjer Roads, and overtook the Hewitt at Batavia. From 
thence the vessels made the best of their way to Macao, and the islands near Hong Kong. 
Here the expedition was augmented by the East India Company^s surveying vessels Irwestigator 
and DiscoDery, the former commanded by Captain Daniel Ross, of the Bombay Marine. 

On the 13th of July 18 16, the squadron, consisting of four ships and a brig, sailed, and 
coasting the provinces of Quang-tung and Fokien, passed through the strait of Formosa 
and entered the Whang Hai or Eastern Sea. On the 26th, the mouth of the Pei-ho 
river was anchored off. 

August I ith, preparations for an examination of the gulf of Liau-tung were set on foot, 
the Lyra attended by the Investigatory taking a southerly direction, whilst the Alceste and 
Discovery proceeded northwards. In this way, the shores of the gulf were successfully 
mapped, the ships meeting again at the bay or harbour of Kin-san-seu at the head of the 
Yellow Sea. The southern part of the gulf of Pe-chili surveyed by Captain Hall in the 
Lyra was generally found to be low, one elevation remarkable for its height above the 
adjoining land being named mount Ellis. 

The East Indiaman General Hewitt, here parted company, for Canton, to complete the 
ulterior objects, allotted to her. 

Leaving Kin-san-seu * August 26th, the four vessels arrived next day at Wei-hai-wei, 
described as an extensive and secure harbour. Mr. Gawthrop, the master of the Lyra^ died 
here. The E. I. Cos. surveying vessels parted company, and returned to Macao, but the 
Alceste and Lyra continued their explorations. Basil bay in latitude 36^9' N. longitude 126° 
32' E., was discovered, about 120 miles up the country, as shown by the then existing charts. 

Having completed this important examination, on the 8th of September the ships anchored 
in latitude 34^ 26' N., and the insulation of Alceste island having been ascertained, felt their 
way in to Murray's sound, of the Sir James Hall group. 

Here, a number of observations were taken, surveys made, and distinguishing names 
given. From the summit of Montreal island one of the highest, as many as 1 35 other islands 
were counted, the main land, which seemed lofty, ranging from north east to east south east, 
distant about 40 miles. 

From Murray's sound, Craig Harriet, Huntly Lodge, Windsor Castle, and other peculiar 
rocks were discovered, and Thistle island was landed upon. 

On the loth, the vessels left Murray's sound, and proceeding to the southward, discovered 
Lyra island, bearing east from Alceste about 30 miles. Sighting Sulphur island, a volcano 
in latitude 27® 56' N., longitude 128® 1 1' E., course was steered for great Loo-Choo island, 
the ruse being resorted to, of filling the hold of the Alceste with water, and setting the pumps to 
work, as if the ship had sprung a leak, in order to gain the sympathy of the inhabitants, who 
were known to be averse to holding communication with foreigners. Having refitted, the 
Canton river was again visited, the Chinese showing strong symptoms of hostility, and 
eventually, on the 9th of January 181 7, the vessels took their departure for Manila of Luzon, f 
On the 9th of February, the Lyra parted company with her consort, proceeding to India with 

The Alceste continued down the China Sea, and in attempting the strait of Caspar, struck 
upon a sunken reef, and became a total wreck. The members of the Embassy, officers, and 

* In Captain Basil Hall's narratire, this harboar is termed Ohe-a-toa. 

t Canada is said to hare derived its name from the Spaniards, when they landed in that quarter, repeating 
the words " aca nada" or " nothing here'* (meaning there was no gold to be foond) which the Indians caaght 
the sound of. Some similar ocoarrence appears to hare occasioned the name of Luzon. When Magellan's 
party first went on shore, they found one of the native women beating rioei as is usual at the present time, in 
a mortar hollowed from the trunk of a tree ; and, finding herself surrounded by strange men, she held up to 
them the large wooden pestle, calling out " looeon," whi<3i is the natire name for it; and this becoming a by- 
word among the Spaniards, they named the island Loioa. 


ships crew, betook themselves to the island of Pulo Leat, where they remained for some 
months in a state of siege from hordes of Malay pirates. Taken off by the Temaie and 
carried to Batavia, after a short stay at that place, tney embarked for England, April I2th, 
1818, in the ship Cccsar, and having touched at the Cape of Good Hope, and at St. Helena, 
where Napoleon Buonaparte was at that time confined, with him the various members of 
the expedition appear to have had an animating and pleasing interview. Ascension was 
subsequently touched at, and Spithead reached August i6th. 

The resulting court martial held at Portsmouth, most fully acquitted Captain Maxwell 
and all concerned for the loss of the AlcecU. 

See, Voyage of H.M.8. Aleeeie along the ooaat of Corea, to the island of Loo-ehoo, with aoooont of her 
■ubseqnent shipwreck, bj John M*Leod, Surgeon. 8»o, London^ 1818. 



This officer in the Cheureite^ a government transport, was charged by the French 
government, to determine by observations made with the best instruments, the positions of 
the most prominent points in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, as well as to triangulate 
the Grecian Archipelago. 

Toulon was his starting point ; four chronometers were used and many excellent meridian 
distances obtained. 

The base of his operations, which are distinguished by great accuracy, was the distance 
between mount St. Elias of Milo, and mount St. Elias of Zea, which are almost on the same 
meridian, and measured astronomically, a distance of 105169 metres, the earth being 
supposed spherical. 

Upon these two mountains, Captain Gauttier observed the latitude by numerous obser. 
vations of the pole star. The difference of latitude was found to be 56' 51'' and by many 
true bearings taken at Milo, the true bearing of the base line was found to be N 1^ 14' 50" 
W. and its actual length measured on the arc of a great circle 0° 57' o". 

Operations of a similar nature were repeated at Mount St. Elias of Paros, and Mount 
Jupiter of Naxia island. It was upon these four mountains, that the angles of the main 
triangles were measured, whence were concluded the positions of all the points in the 
Grecian archipelago, of which the latitudes and lorgitudes are given in a tabulated form. 

The triangles were calculated on a spherical basis, without respect to any plane 

All the longitudes were referred to Milo, the meridian distance of which depends upon 
direct runs, to, and from Toulon, with four chronometers. 

His astronomical positions which were distinguished by great accuracy agreed well with 
those of Captain Smyth; in 1837, M. Peytier in his survey of Greece, found some of 
Gauttier's latitudes to be 15'' or 17" too great, which he states would be diminished by 4" or 
5" in consideration of the spheroidal figure of the earth ; some of his latitudes determined 
by observations on board ship were altered, but not to the extent of more than a mile of 

See — M. Ganttier, Capitaine de Frigate, Positions G^og^phiqaes determine en 1816-18, dans la Mer 
Mediterran^, V Adriatiqne, et X Archipel. 8vo. Paris 1820. 

Also, Tableau des Points de la Mer Noire et de la Mer de Marmara, determinees pendant la Campagne 
Hydrographiqne faite en 1820. 800, Paris 1824. 

A chart of the Eaxine or Black Sea was also constraoted from Gaattier's observations and surreys. 



Henry Wolsey Bayfield entered the Navy, January 1806, as supernumerary volunteer, on 
board the Pompee, bearing the flae of Sir William Sidney Smith. He joined soon after- 
wards the Queen flagship of Lord Collingwood, off Cadiz, and on being transferred, with 


Lieutenant Spilsbur^, to the Ducheis of Bedfordy hired armed ship, was slightly wounded in a 
severe action in which that vessel beat oft, in the Gut of Gibraltar, two powerful Spanish 
feluccas, defended by double her own number of men. For his conduct on this occasion, 
Mr. Bayfield was placed as first-class volunteer, 29th September in the same year (1806), 
on board the Beagle, commanded, in succession, by Captains Newcombe and Dolling. Under 
the former of those officers he assisted in compelling the enemy to abandon an English 
merchant-vessel, laden with naval stores, which had been stranded under the sand-hills 
on the coast of Spain — contributed also to the capture, at different times, of the Hazard 
Vhigeur, and Fortune privateers, carrying on the whole 44 guns and 155 men — and par- 
ticipating in Lord Cochrane's attack upon the French shipping in Basque Roads, in April 
1809, was present in the operations of the i ith, 12th, and 18th of that month ; on the fast 
of which days, the Beagle, in company with other vessels, distinguished herself in an 
engagement of five hours with the OcSan, RSgulus, and Indienne, as these lay aground at 
the mouth of the river Charente, and was exposed for some time to a heavy fire from the 
battery on He d'Aix. 

In the autumn of 1809, Mr. Bayfield accompanied the expedition to the Walcheren. In 
April 181 1, having previously attained the rating of Midshipman, he rejoined Captain 
Newcombe on board the Wanderer, and during the three following years was employed on 
the West India, Halifax, Lisbon, and Spanish stations. He served in Canada during the 
American War. At the commencement of the peace, he assisted Captain Owen in the 
survey of Lake Ontario, the Upper St. Lawrence, and the Niagara river. He was appoin- 
ted an Admiralty Surveyor in June 181 7 ; and for nearly forty years from that period 
was engaged in the survey of lakes Erie, Huron, and Superior, with their connecting 
waters — the river and GmJf of St. Lawrence, including the great river Saguenay — ^the strait 
of Belle-Isle, and the coast of Labrador to Cape St. Louis — the islands of Anticusti, Prince 
Edward, Magdalen, and Cape Breton — also. Sable island, Halifax Harbour, and nearly the 
whole of the coast of Nova Scotia, from Halifax to the Gut of Canso inclusive. 

In 1827, Commander Bayfield's survey of the river St. Lawrence was published. He 
met Lieutenant F. Bullock's survey at Belle Isle, and verified the positions of Cook in 

He obtained his first commission March 181 5 ; acquired the rank of Commander, 
November 1826; was posted for his services as a maritime surveyor June 1834; and 
became a Rear Admiral the 21st of October 1856, Vice Admiral on the 27th of April 1863, 
and full Admiral on the i8th of October 1867. 

Admiral Bayfield received a medal for the destruction of the French shipping in 
Basque Roads, and had a Greenwich Hospital pension of £150 a year awarded him 
on the 7th of February 1874. 

In 1837, Captain Bayfield's " Directions for the Gulf and River St. Lawrence" were 
published by the Admiralty. This work is now contained in two octavo volumes, and had 
reached its 4th edition in i860. * 

His name was borne as a supernumuary Commander on the books of various of H.M. 
Ships during his surveying services. In 1830, in the Hussar. The greater part of his 
surveys were however carried out in the schooner Gulnare, and hired boats. 

He contributed numerous papers to the Nautical Magazine, more especially upon longitude ; 
and in 1835, one upon Terrestial Refraction observed in the River St. Lawrence. 

Admiral Bayfield, in 1881, was about 88 years of age, and resident at Charlotte Town, 
Prince Edward's Island. 

In addition to his earlier work, comprising in all, about 40 charts of the Gulf and River 
St. Lawrence, he made surveys of the following, which form almost a complete list of his 
manifold labours. 

Trapttuej harbour (NewfoandUnd). Camp islands to Meoklenborg harbour fliabrador)^ 

* In 1881, a 5th edition of Oaptain Bajfield*s Sailing Direotions was in ooorse of preparation. 



Bonghfeon or Ghrand Rirer (Prinoe Edward iiluid) 


Ifirie Lake. Mohawk Bay. 

Rirdr westward of Baffido. 

Niagara riyer. 

Bt. Glair lake and mer. 

Huron lake. 


GoUingwood, Penetangnirtene and Goderich 

GoUier port. 
Battlesnake harbour. 

8t. Mary's river, from Mud lake to East Neebish. 
St. Mary's rijer from East Neebish to Iroquois 

Lake Superior. 

Grand Portage bay to Hawk islet. 
Neepigon and Blaok bays 
Small lake harbour to Peninsula harbour. 

Chateau Bay, Belle Isle Strait (Labrador) 
Bed Bay, Belle Isle Strait „ 


Mars head to Shoi-in island. 

fiambro island to Gape Canso. 

Halifax harbour. 

Bhut-in island to Pope harbour. 

Ship harbour. 

Pope head to Charles island. 

Pope harbour to Liscomb harbour. 

Lisoomb and Mary-Joseph harbours. 

Sheet and Mushaboon harbours. 

Lisoomb island to Green island. 

Country harbour. 

Green island to Gape Ganso. 


Gape Canso to Dorer head. 

Canso harbour. 

Canso gut, with Chedabuotou bay. 

Madame island and Lennox passage. 

Gnysborough harbour. Sable island. 



This expedition sailed from Toulon in the frigate Uranie on the 17th September 18 17, 
Captain Freycinet, in command, was the same officer who had been first lieutenant of the 
NcUuralisti in Captain Baudin*s voyage, and who afterwards commanded the Casuarina at- 
tached to the GeograpkU at the close of that expedition. 

The UranU touched at Gibraltar and Teneriflfe, and arrived at Rio de Janeiro, December 
6th. Here, Captain Freycinet remained for two months engaged in taking numerous 
magnetic observations, and also observations with the pendulum apparutus, four of which 
he had been supplied with. The UranU also carried four chronometers. 

At the Cape of Good Hope and Mauritius, the latter of which the Uranie reached May 5th, 
1818, similar observations were taken, which were of importance, as they could be compared 
with those by La Caille, made nearly 70 years previous. 

After making a short stay at the Isle of Bourbon, Sharks bay on the west coast of 
Australia was reached September 12th. The survey of this bay which had been commen- 
ced under Captain Baudin was now completed, and September 26th, Freycinet sailed for 
Coepang in Timor, where numerous observations were taken, and on the 23 rd of October, 
he resumed the voyage to Dilhi, the residence of the Governor of the Portuguese settlement, 
at the northern part of the island. 

Leaving Dilhi, November 22nd, the Uranie steered for Rawak islands, situated near 
Waygiou (New Guinea), almost exactly on the equator. During this passage, several 
parts of the coast of Timor, and of the islands in its vicinity were carefully laid down. 

In passing between the island of Bouro and the islands of Amboyna and Ceram, Captain 
Freycinet verified the accuracy of the chart of that strait, made during the voyage of 
D'Entrecasteaux ; and several parts of it were further explored and examined by the 
geographers of the Uranie, Following the same track as D'Entrecasteaux, Freycinet had 
an opportunity of determining the position of the islands situated south of Gilolo, and to 
examine, to the north of the Isle of Ruib, a dangerous archipelago, which had not 
previously been visited. 

At Waygiou, charts were made of such portions of the north coast of that island as 
D'Entrecasteaux had only seen in passing ; his operations also supplied detailed charts of 
Manouaran, Rawak, and of parts of the Island of Aiou. The Uranie remained at 
Waygiou from December i6th 1818, to January 5th 18 19. 

The next rendezvous at the Mariana Islands, was of nearly three months duration ; a 


delay rendered necessary not only for surveying" and provisioning", but to allow time for 
the sick, who were numerous, to recover. The island of Guam was surveyed in canoes : 
and also the Island of Rota, and a considerable part of Tinian. Thus, the labours of 
the Uranie added to those of La P^rouse, only left the position of the northem>most small 
island undetermined ; but as that island had been visited by Malaspina, materials were 
not wanting- to complete a chart of the Mariana archipelago. 

On the 5th of April 1819, the Uranie sailed from Guam ; casting anchor at Owhyhee 
the largest of the Sandwich Islands, on the 8th of August : on the i6th, she touched at 
Mowhee ; on the 26th, at Woahoo ; and on the 30th, finally quitted that archipelago for 
Port Jackson. 

Amongst the Sandwich Islands, the operations of the expedition, added to the charts, 
extensive portions of the coast, as well as plans of different harbours and anchoring 

In the passage to Port Jackson, Captain Freycinet discovered Rose Island eastward of 
the Navigator group ; and determined the positions of several smaller detached islands 
including that of Pylstaart, passed during this part of the voyage. 

At Port Jackson the Uranie re-fitted, and numerous meteorological and magnetic obser- 
vations were made. Here, Captain Freycinet determined the latitude by ten different stars, 
and the longitude by a great number of lunar distances. 

The expedition left New South Wales, December 25th 18 19, for Tierra del Fuego 
by the route south of New Zealand. On the passage, the position of Campbell Island and 
that of St. Ildefonso, Diego-Ramirez, Bamevelt, and Evoots, were verified. 

Scarcely had the Uranie anchored in the bay df Good Success of Tierra del Fuego, on 
the 7th of F'ebruary 1820, when a violent storm obliged them to cut the cables, and let 
the ship ran under bare poles for two successive days. Captain Freycinet was therefore, 
compelled to abandon the pendulum observations, intended to have been taken in a high 
southern latitude, and continued for the Falkland Islands. 

The Uranie was wrecked in French Bay of the Falkland Islands on the 13th of February, 
1820, and here the ship's company remained until April 17th — an American vessel which 
had accidently put in to that bay, had been purchased, and named the Physidemu, and on the 
latter date, the voyagers continued in her to Monte Video. 

The lamentable catastrophe of the shipwreck, did not prevent Freycinet surve3dng the 
north and north west coasts of the most western of the Falkland Islands, and making plans 
of the three harbours which that island contains. 

After remaining a month at Monte Video, the Physicienne sailed on June the 27th for 
Rio de Jameiro, where she arrived on the 19th. During a stay of three months, the 
observations made at this port, on the passage out, were repeated and verified. 

Finally, on the 13th of September 1820, they quitted Brazil; stress of weather drove 
the Physicienne in to Cherbourg, from whence she finally arrived at Havre on the 13th 
November 1820. 

The voyage thus occupied 3 years and a months. 

Almost the whole of the hydrographical labour was executed by M, Duperrey, who 
afterwards commanded La CoguHle on a similar voyage. 

Voyage Bound the World in the Uranie and PhgrieieMme commanded by Captain L, Frejeinet, 1817 to 1820 
by J. Arago. 4<o. London 1823. 

Also an atlas containing 84 oharts and plans. 

Mf Arago was the artist of the expedition, there was also an official aoooant pablished in nine 4io rolnmes. 
in Pttrid 1826-44 hj Gaptain Frd/oiaet, who had written a description of the Toyage of Qaadin in tl^e 
Oeo^rapke and NotwraUele made in the yean 1800-04. 




Phillip Parker King-, born December 1793, at Norfolk Island, in the Pacific, was son of 
Captain Phillip Gidley King, R.N., for some years Governor of New South Wales, who 
died September 1808. 

This officer entered the Navy, in November 1807, as volunteer, on board the Diana 
Captain Grant ; whose First-Lieutenant, Barclay, fie well supported in an attack made by 
the ship's boats in the following year, upon a French convoy, passing between Nantes 
and Rochefort ; King at the time being only sixteen years of age. 

In December 1809, he was noticed for his gallantrv in the boats under Lieutenant Miller, 
at the cutting^ut of three schuyts moored to the shore at Odenskirk, and provided with 
heavy ordnance. 

In September 18 10, he proceeded as master's mate of the Htbermaf Captain White, to 
the Mediterranean, where he followed the latter officer into the Centaur y and joined in August 
181 1, the Cumberland f Captain Otway, and Baker. Towards the close of the same year, he 
was received on board the Adaman/, flagship at Leith, of Admiral Otway. 

After he had again served for 18 months with Captain Grant, in the Armada, on the 
Mediterranean station, he was transferred to the Caledam'a, flag-ship of Sir Edward Pellew, 
through whom he was promoted, in Febru<iry following, to a Lieutenancy in the Trident, guard- 
ship at Malta, bearing the flag of Rear Admiral Laugharne. 

He next, from July 1814, until July 1815, served on board the Elizabeth, Captain Gower, 
flag-ship of Rear Admiral Fleeming at Gibraltar; and in February 18 17, was intrusted 
with the conduct of an expedition, having for its object, a survey of the north and west coasts 
of Australia ; on which he continued to be employed, first in the Mermaid, cutter, and subse- 
quently in the Bathuret sloop (to the command whereof he was promoted July 1821). 

For this service, he sailed from Port Jackson, in the Mermaid, of 84 tons, December 181 7, 
the survey of thft coast of New Holland being intended from Arnheim bay to North west 
cape, including Van Diemens bay and Rosemary island, with a view to discover a river in 
that neighbourhood, and including an examination of the shore line between capes Lewin 
and Josselin. He visited Bass's strait, King George's sound, Dampier's archipelago. In 
1818, we find him at Rowley shoals and refitting at Coepang, On three occasions he 
searched for the Tryal rocks, and examined the coasts of Tasmania northward of Hobart 
town, measuring meridian distances, also, between Mount Adolphus, Wessel island, and Java. 

In 1 82 1, he exchanged the Mermaid for the Bathurst, and was promoted to the rank of 

In June 1822, he refitted at Mauritius, and again visiting the western coast of New 
Holland, Houtmann's, and Abrolhos, corrected the coast laid down by D'Entrecasteaux, 
Flinders, and Baudin. 

Reviewing the results of the four voyciges made by Commander King, between the years 
181 7 and 1822, in continuation of the discoveries of Flinders, the object most worthy of 
attention, is a river on the northern coast, termed the Liverpool river of Port Essington, in 
the peninsula to the north of Van Diemen gulf. Commander King remarks '* As a harbour. 
Port Essington is equal, if not superior, to any I ever saw ; and, from its proximity to the 
Moluccas and New Guinea, and its being in the direct line of communication between Port 
Jackson and India, as well as from its commanding situation with respect to the passage 
through Torres strait, it must, at no very distant period, become a place of great trade, 
and of very considerable importance." 

The gulf of Van Diemen was discovered by three Dutch vessels that sailed from Timor 
in 1805. They entered, but did not explore it ; and, up to 181 8, its shores remained 
unknown. When Commander King sailed out of it, he coasted the northern shores of 


the northern Van Diemen Land, which had hitherto been considerd a peninsula. On 
doubling cape Van Diemen, he found an inlet opening to the south, which appeared to be 
the mouth of a great river, and he and his companions, entertained no doubt, tnat they had 
discovered what had long been the object of anxious research on the Australian continent, 
a river of considerable magnitude — ^when, on advancing, the open sea again appeared, de- 
monstrating that what they took to be a river was only a strait. 

Upon examination, it appeared, that Van Diemen Land of former maps was composed of 
two islands, separated by a narrow channel, to which the name of Apsley strait was given. 
This strait is forty miles in length, and from one to three broad ; the depth is generally 
from ID to 13 fathoms; but at the southern extremity, there are many shoals, and the 
channels are intricate. Of the two islands, the largest, which is the eastern, was named 
Melville Island ; the western, which is about half the size of the first, was named after 
Lord Bathurst. 

The broad channel between Melville Island and the main land of Australia, termed 
Qarence strait, has a low and uninviting coast. Cambridge gulf, in latitude 15^8., which 
at first had the appearance of a river, was found to terminate at a distance of 70 miles 
from its mouth in a few small streams. 

Admiralty Gulf, York Sound, and Brunswick bay in the northern part of De Witt land, 
were carefully examined by Captain King, and found to contain many excellent harbours. 
Prince Regent river was to use Commander King's language " without exception the most 
remarkable feature of the north west coast of Australia. In general, the inlets of this coast 
appear to form extensive ports in the distance ; and when they begin to assume the 
character of a river, their course becomes tortuous and very irregular. But Prince 
Regent river trends into the interior in a south easterly direction for 54 miles, with 
scarcely a point to intercept the view, after being 1 3 miles within it.'' At the fifteenth 
mile, a ridge of rocks, crossing the river, forms a rapid, above which, the tide does 
not reach ; but here the stream formed a beautiful fresh water river, of limped clearness, 
and 300 yards in width. About a mile below the rapid, it was Joined by an inferior 
stream, which fell from a height of 140 feet ; and though visited in the dry season, 
this cascade nevertheless had an imposing appearance. The marks of floods were 
noticed upon the shores of the inlet ; and the trunks of large trees were seen thrown up 
to the height of twelve feet above high water mark. 

The loss of all his anchors, together with other circumstances, prevented Commander 
King exploring the whole of the deep inlets of the north west coast of Australia in a 
satisfactory manner. He did not attempt however to underrate the importance of the omis- 
sions in his chart, or to suggest that no interest attached itself to those parts of the coast he 
was unable to explore. Exmouth Gulf, another deep inlet bounded on the west by the great 
peninsula of which North West Cape forms the termination, was left imperfectly explored, 
which left the advocates of a great Australian river, at that period, amongst geographers, 
some hope of such a river discharging itself in this vicinity into the ocean. 

Captain Wickham, in the BeagU, subsequently cleared up this, with other doubtful points 
left unsolved by Commander King, who had returned to England in 1823. 

The results of his Australian undertaking are contained in a ''Narrative of the 
Survey of the Intertropical and Western coasts of Australia," and in an Atlas, both com- 
piled by Captain King, and published, the former by Murray, and the latter by the 
Hydrographic Office at the Aamiralty. 

In September 1825, he was appointed to the Adventure sloop, and ordered to survey the 
south coast of America, from the entrance of the Rio Plata round to Chiloe, and the 
coast of Tierra del Fuego, He sailed in 1826, having under his orders the Beagle^ Captain 
P. Stokes, and measur^ meridian distances between Funchal, Tenerifle, Porto Praya, Rio, 
Palm Island, Anhatomorim, Valparaiso, San Carlos, Juan Fernandez, and Rio. He carried 



eleven chronometers. After arrival in England in November 1830, he was not again 
actively employed. His Post-commission was dated February 1830. 

Captain King compiled a paper entitled Observations upon the Geography of the 
southern extremity of South America, Tierra del Fuego, and the strait of Magalhaens, 
made during the survey of those coasts in H.M. Ships Adventure and Beagle, between the 
years 1826 and 1830, which was read at meetings of the Royal Geographical Society 
held the 25th of April and 9th of May 1831, and which will be found published at page 
155 of that Society's Journal for the year 1831. Captain R. Fitzroy in a second commission 
of the Beagle, subsequently continued and completed the survey of South America. 

In 1834, on his retirement from active service. Captain King returned to Australia and 
succeeded Sir Edward Parry as manager of the Australian Agricultural Company, the 
duties of which office, he performed with great ability and attention for many years. He 
was made a member of the Legislative council, and appointed chairman of the Denom- 
inational Board of Education of New South Wales. In 1855, he was mainly instrumental 
in obtaining a pension for the widow of Captain Flinders from the New South Wales 
government. He died in 1856, aged 63 years. 

The following charts are engraved by the Admiralty from the surveys of Captain King ; 
many of his charts have been superseded, and others added to, by Captain J. L. Stokes, R.N. 
and other officers. 


InTOBtigator Road to Gape Ford. 

Gape Ford to Baooaneer Archipelago. 

Gambridg^ Ghilf. 

Admiralty Oalf and Yansittart Bay. 

Gamden Bay to Vansittart Bay. 

Baooaneer Archipelago. 

Buccaneer Archipelago to Gape Lambert. 

Gape Lambert to Gape Farqohar. 

Dampier Archipelago. 

Exmonth Gnlf. 


Gape Three Points to Magellan Strait. 

Magellan strait. 

Second Narrows to Gape rillar. 

(Jlascott point to Gapo San Isidro. 

Smyth and Fnry harboars Ao. 

Barbara channel. 

Ports on the soath eide of Tierra del Faego. 

Magellan Strait to (3alf of Penas. 

The following works were alio published by Gaptain King. 

Narrative of a surrey of the Intertropical and Western Goasts of Australia in the yean 1818-22. 
2 Tols 800. 1827. 

Sailing Directions for the coasts of Eastern and Western Patagonia. 800. 1832. 

Sailing Directions for the Inner Koute from Sydney to Torres Strait. 4to. Port StephtnM, 1848. 

Sailing Directions for the Inner Route (another edition). 8oo» 1847. 

Description of the North Bast Goast of Australia. 8vo, 



Sir John Ross was bom in June 1777, at Balsarrock, Wig^onshire, and entered the Navy 
in 1 786, as a first class volunteer, and served in the Mediterranean until 1 789, and afterwards 
in the English channel. Between the years 1791 and 1799, he obtained employment in the 
mercantile marine, but, in September, of the latter year, returned to the Navy as a 
midshipman on board the Weasel, Captain W. D'Urban, under whom he look part in the 
expedition to Holland. He subsequently served in various ships under Sir James Saumarez. 

In 1808, Lieutenant Ross acted as Captain of the Swedish fleets and was made a 
Commander in 18 12. During- his war services he was wounded thirteen times, and received 
a pension on this account in 1808, of £91. 5s., which was increased in 1815, to £150 per 

In 181 7, the Admiralty having resolved to attempt to solve the question of the North 
west passage. Commander Ross was appointed to the Isabella, with the Alexander commanded 
by Lieutenant Parry under his orders. 

The ships put to sea on the 1 8th of April 18 1 8. On their arrival on the western coast 




of Greenland they found the ice abundant, and the reports of the g'overnor of one of the 
Danish settlements at which they touched, not of an encouraging nature. 

From observations made at the Island of Wygat, it appeared that this part of the coast was 
erroneously laid down in the charts ; the error in longitude in those of the Admiralty, amount- 
ing to more than 5^. Having made the circuit of Bafiins Bay, the ships returned to England 
the same season, when Ross was promoted to the rank of Captain. During this voyage 
the misconception was fallen nto by the Commander, of closing up the head of Lancaster Sound 
by a range of mountains, named after Mr. Croker, the Secretary of the Admiralty. Red 
snow was brought home from Baffin's bay, and submitted to the examination of naturalists 
and chemists ; some pronounced that the colouring matter was of an animal, others of a 
vegetable, nature ; but the question has since been decided in favour of the latter opinion, 
an extremely minute lichen being supposed to vegetate even upon snow. 

During this voyage, great attention was paid to deep-sea investigation, and Captain Ross 
invented one of the earliest satisfactory instruments termed a " deep-sea clamm '* for 
bringing up a considerable quantity of the bottom-mud in deep water. ♦ 

In 1829, aided by the munificence of Mr. Felix Booth, Captain Ross purchased the Victory^ 
a steam vessel of 1 50 tons, to follow up the discoveries already made in the direction of 
Barrow strait. 

The Victory sailed in iS29,Commemder (afterwards Sir) James Clark Ross, of subsequent An- 
tartic notoriety being second in command. Having visited the wreck of the Fury, abandoned by 
Parry, in Regent Inlet, the Victory reached Cape Gerry in August 1829, and thence proceeded 
to latitude ycr north, and longitude 92° west, when a barrier of ice compelled her to winter 
in Felix harbour. During 1830, the Victory could only be moved about four miles, and in 
the following year, merely gained a port fourteen miles further (Victoria harbour), where 
after another winter. Captain John Ross abandoned his vessel, in May 1 832. Exposed to 
much danger, the party made their way northwards to latitude 74^ North, longitude 90^ 
West, but want of provisions, and the approach of winter, obliged them to return to Fury 
beach, which they reached October 7th, about three years after they had passed it on 
their outward voyage. Here they lived in a hut, 32 feet long, made from the wreck of the 
Futy^ and passed another dreary winter, amidst privation and considerable suffering. 

On July 8th 1833, Captain Ross and his party made a last effort to escape. Dragging 
the sick to the boats, they embarked, and crossing the inlet to Cape York, reached a point 
east of Navy Board Inlet, where they fortunately got on board the whaler Isabella, formerly 
commanded by the gallant Captain himself, and in October they arrived in England. 

In the same year, 1833, (Captain Ross obtained the gold medal of the Royal Geographical 
Society, and the gold medal of the Geographical Society of Paris, together with 
various foreign orders, including that of the Swedish Polar Star, In December 1834, ^^ 
received the honour of knighthcxxl, together with that of C.B., his patron Mr. Felix Booth 
being raised to a baronetcy by King William iv. 

A committee of the House of Commons, assisted by scientific men, appointed to investigate 
the results of the expedition, declared that they saw no reason to doubt that Captain John 
Ross nearly approached, and that Commander James Ross actually reached, the Magnetic 

Obtaining Rear Admiral's rank in July 1851, he died in November 1856, aged 79 years. 

Sir John Ross was the author among other works of 

A Voyage of Discoveiy in ILM. Ships UoMla and Alexander ^ in 1818, for the puipoBe of exploring 
Baffin's Bay. 4to. 1819. 

Narratiye of a second Toyage in search of a North West Pftssage, and of a residence in the Arctic Regions 
during the years 1829-33 ; with an Appendix tvoU, ito» 1835. 

Treatise on steam Natigation. 4do. 1828. 

• <>n the 6th of September 1S18, he soanded in latitude 72<» 8S' N., longitude 78<> 7' W., in 1090 
'ftkthoms, from which depth the instrujient brought up 6 Lbs. of rery soft mnd« 


Oa Steam Oommiinioatioii to India by the Gape of Good Hope. 800, 1838. 

On the Deviation of the mariners oompaas. 8ee. 1849. 

Deep Sea Clamms. 8m>. 

Letters to young Sea Officers. 

Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord de fianmares. 

Memoir of Admiral Krosenstem. 890. 1866. 



Sir John Franklin bom in 1786, at Spilsbury, in the county of Lincoln, entered the Navy 
on the 1st of October 1800, as a Boy, on board the Polyphemus^ Captain Lawford, under 
whom he served as a midsj^ipman in the action off Copenhagen of the 2nd of April 1801. 

He then sailed in the Itwestigator^ Commander Matthew Flinders on a voyag-e of discovery 
to the north and north east coasts of Australia, and materially assisted in the surveys made 
during- that eventful voyage. Upon the Imestigator being found unseaworthy^ he formed 
one of that portion of the officers who embarked in the Porpmse^ Lieutenant Commander 
R. M. Fowler, which was wrecked on the 17th of August 1804, on Wreck reef, near the 
Cato bank, eight days after leaving Port Jackson. After returning to that port, he appears, 
to have again sailed by way of the East Indies for England, and while on board the Earl 
Camden, Captain N. Dance, the commodore of sixteen sail, Mr. Franklin distingubhed 
himself at the repulse of a French squadron under Admiral Linois, February 15 th 1804^ 

On arriving- in England, he Joined the Bellerophon 74, and subsequently under Captain 
Cooke took part in the battle of Trafalgar, superintending the signals of that ship during 
the engagement. 

He was then transferred to the Bedford, Captains A. Mackenzie and J. Walker, of which 
ship he was confirmed in the rank of Lieutenant on the nth of February 1808. During 
the latter part of the war he was chiefly employed at the blockade of Flushing ; at the 
close of 18 14 joining the expedition to New Orleans. 

On the 14th of December 18 14, he was slightly wounded, while leading the boats of the 
Bedford in company with those of a squadron, at the capture, on Lake Borgne, of five 
American gun-boats under Commodore Jones, which did not surrender until after a 
desperate conflict. 

During the attack on New Orleans he assisted in cutting a canal across the neck of land 
between the Bayou Catalan and the Mississippi ; and for his conduct on the morning of the 
8th of January 181 5, when he commanded the small-arm men under Captain R. Money at 
the defeat of a body of Americans, he was officially recommended for promotion. 

After serving for a short as first lieutenant of the Forth, he took command on the 14th of 
Jauuary 18 18, of the hired brig 2'reni, in which he accompanied Captain David Buchan of 
the Dorothea on a voyage of discovery to the neighbourhood of Spitzbergen. 

In April 1 8 19, having paid off the Trent in the preceding November, he undertook charge 
of an expedition for ascertaining the actual position of the mouth of the Coppermine River, 
and the trending of the North American shore eastward of that river. His companions 
were Dr. Richardson, Mr. Hood, (brother of the officer who lost his life during the African 
survey under Captain Owen) and Mr. (subsequently Sir George) Back, midshipmen, and 
two English seamen. They embarked at the end of May 1819, and arrived in safety at 
York Factory on the shores of Hudson's Bay, on the 30th of Augfust, On the 9th of Sep- 
tember, the journey commenced from York Station, and on the 22nd of October, the 
explorers arrived at Cumberland House ; a distance of 690 miles. 

On the 18th of January 1820, Captain Franklin and Mr. Back, set out for Fort Chej>- 
eweyan, near the western extremity of Athabasca Lake, in order to personally superintend 
the preparations for the journey of the ensuing summer, and arrived at the Fort on the 
26th of March ; thus performing a journey of 8S7 miles in the very depth of an arctic winter. 

As soon as the spring began to appear, Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood set forward to 


join their companions at Fort Chepeweyan^ arriving' in due course, and on the i8th of July 
1820, reaching latitude 64® 28' N., longitude us** 6' W., where Fort Enterprise was 
built on the bank of Winter River, the distance from Chepeweyan being 550 miles. 

Here the party wintered with the exception of Mr. Back, who, on account of provisions 
running short, returned with some Canadian and Indian attendants to Fort Chepeweyan. 

On the 1 8th of July, the expedition reached the mouth of the Coppermine River, and the 
north coast of America was successfully traced, in two bark canoes, as far as Point 
Turnagain, in latitude 68® 30' N. This point on the east, with Cape Barrow on the west, 
formed the opening of a deep gulf that ran southward as far as the arctic circle. It was 
called by Captain Franklin, Coronation gulf, and the river at its head Hood's river. They 
ascended this river for some little distance, but being stopped by a cascade 250 feet in height, 
were obliged to return on foot. After great sufferings, thanks to Mr. Back, to whose 
resolution and physical strength the expedition owed its ultimate safety, the party arrived 
at Fort Enterprise, where relief was eventually obtained, with the exception of Mr. Hood, who 
lost his life by the hand of Michel, an Iroquois ; Michel was shot in consequence. 

The results of this journey, which, including the navigation along* the coast, amounted to 
S.500 miles, proved of the greatest importance to geography. In travelling through the 
valleys which separate the Copper Mountains, Dr. Richardson picked up some plates of 
native copper ; and ice chisels, formed of pure copper, were afterwards found among the 

Franklin was made a Commander on the ist of January 1821, and a post Captain 
November the 20th, 1822. 

The '* Second Expedition" of Captain Franklin, left England February i6th, 1825, its 
object being to survey the coast westward of Mackenzie river. It consisted of Captain 
Franklin, Dr. Richardson, Mr. Back, and Mr. Kendall. Their instructions directed them 
to winter near the Great Bear Lake, and in the spring of 1826, to proceed down the 
Mackenzie River. At the mouth of this river, they were to separate. Captain Franklin and 
Mr. Back to go westward, and endeavour to reach Kotzebue Inlet, where they were expected 
to meet the Blossom, under Captain Beechey ; Dr. Richardson and Mr. Kendall were to 
proceed to the east, to examine the coast between the Mackenzie and Coppermine Rivers. 

Proceeding by way of New York, Niagara, and Lake Superior, they overtook the boats 
in which they were to descend the Mackenzie in Methy River, or in latitude 56^ 10' N., 
longitude 108^ 55' W. The party dividing. Captain Franklin and Mr. Back proceeded to 
the mouth of the Mackenzie, which they surveyed, while Dr. Richardson and Mr. Kendall 
investigated the Great Bear Lake. 

On the 5 th of September 1825, all met at their winter residence on Great Bear Lake, which 
was called Fort Franklin. In the spring of 1 856, after the completion of the survey of the Great 
Bear Lake by Mr. Kendall, the whole party embarked in boats, and proceeded successfully to 
the mouth of the Mackenzie. On the 4th of July 1826, at the fork, where the principal mouths 
of the Mackenzie branch off e€ist and west, called Point Separation, the parties according 
to the original instructions, divided, and started west and east. Dr. Richardson and Mr. 
Kendall, to whom the eastern journey had been allotted, successfully traced the coast as far 
as the mouth of the Coppermine River, without mishap, (for memoir of services of Lieu- 
tenant E.N. Kendall see tlie index of this work). 

Captain Franklin with Mr. Back, continued westward towards Kotzebue Inlet, past 
Herschel island and the Clarence and Canning rivers, the former of which divides British 
and Russian territory in about longitude 141^ W., as far as Return Reef near Cape Beechey, 
in latitude 70^ 26' N., longitude 148^ 52' W., which was reached August the i8th 1826; at 
which time, they were about 146 miles from the farthest point reached by Mr. Elson the 
Master of the Blossom, on the 22nd of the same month, in that vessel's barge, and 374 miles 
westward of the Mackenzie River. 

Winter was rapidly approaching, and the temperature at noon rarely exceeding 37°, 


Captain Franklin resolved to return immediately, rather than expose the lives of his 
followers in a hopeless enterprise. 

On the return voyage Peel river, was discovered, and on the 2 1st of September, Fort 
Franklin was reached, the distance accomplished in the three months of absence being 
2048 miles. 

On the return of the expedition to England on the 26th of September 1827, he was 
presented by the Geographical Society of Paris with a gold medal. On the 29th of April 
1829, he received the honour of knighthood ; in July, he was made a D.C.L. of Oxford. 

From the 23rd of August 1830, until paid off in January 1834, ^^ commanded the RaMow 
in the Mediterranean, and for his services in connection with Greece, received the Order 
of the Redeemer of that country. 

On the 35th of January 1836, he was made a ICCH., and was afterwards for some 
time appointed governor of Tasmania. 

The " Third Expedition *' under Sir John Franklin in search of a N.W. passage, left 
Greenhithe on May the 24th, 1845. It consisted of the Erebus and Terror y Captains Crozier 
and Fitzjames, canying 1 3 1 persons in all. The last despatches from them, were from 
Whalefish Islands, dat^ July 12th, 1845. Their protracted absence caused intense anxiety, 
and between the years 1848 and 1865, no less than eleven public, and ten private expeditions 
(the latter chiefly at Lady Franklin's expense) were sent from England and elsewhere, in 
quest of the missing explorers, to various parts of the ]x>lar regions. 

Numerous accounts, more or less illusory, of the expedition were received, derived 
principally from native sources. 

H.M. Government, on March 7th 1850, offered a reward of 20,oool, to any party of any 
country, that should render efficient assistance to the crew of the missing ships. Sir 
John Franklin's first winter quarters were found at Beechy Island, by Captains Ommanney 
and Penny. 

Captain Sir Leopold M'Clintock R.N., in the Fox, equipped by Lady Franklin aud her 
friends, forming the eighteenth British expedition devoted to this search, left Aberdeen 
July 1st 1857, and returned September 22nd 1859. 

Lieutenant Hobson found at Point Victory, near Cape Victoria, besides a cairn, a tin 
case containing a paper, signed April 25th 1848, by Captain Fitzjames, which certified 
that the Erebus and Terror were beset on September 12th 1846, in latitude 73*^ 5' N., long- 
itude 98** 23' W., that Sir John Franklin died June nth 1847 ; and that the ships were 
deserted April 22nd 1848. 

Captain M'Clintock continued the search, and discovered skeletons and other relics. His 
journal was published in December 1859; and on May 28th i860, gold medals were 
presented to him and Lady Franklin by the Royal Geographical Society. 

In 1879, Lieutenent F. Schwatka, an American officer, made a sledge journey in quest of 
information concerning the fate of the Franklin expedition, travelling upwards of 3000 miles 
in eleven months. He succeeded in finding further relics of that expedition, including 
parts of a sledge, clothing, portions of a boat Ac. These were presented to the British 
Government in the spring of 1881, and were for some days displayed in the Hydrographic 
Department of the Admiralty, and have since been presented to the museum of the United 
Service Institution. 

Admiral Sir George Richards, himself an Arctic Explorer under Sir Edward Belcher, in 
commenting upon Lieutenant Schwatka's journey, remarked it to have been one of the 
most extraordinary sledging feats ever accomplished, or words to that effect. 

Sir John Franklin published as the results of his first and second expeditions. 

Karratiye of a Journey to the shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1819-22, with an Appendix hj Sir John 
Richardson, Lieutenant Hood, and J. Sabine. 4io, 1828. 

KarratiTe of a second Bzpedition to the shores of the Polar Sea in 1826-27« inolading an Acconnt of the 
Ptogrees of a Detachment to the eastward hj Dr. John Biohardson. Uo, 1828. 





The first information obtainable conceming the surveying services of Mr. Lewis Fitz- 
maurice, who was a Master of the 19th of May 181 1, is that he was appointed as maritime 
surveyor to the ill-fated Congo expedition under Captain Tuckey, which sailed from England 
in February i8i6, having previously, about the year 18 14, made a survey in the neighbour- 
bour of Algoa bay. 

The transport Dorothy which accompanied the schooner Congo to the river of that name 
was intrusted to the command of Mr. Fitzmaurice. He carried in her the various presents for 
the native chiefs, as well as specially constructed boats for the expedition, extra 
provisions &c. 

Mr. Fitzmaurice corrected the chart of the west coast of Africa between cape Lopez and the 
mouth of the Congo, and having anchored the Dorothy at the Tall Trees anchorage, continued in 
the vessel Congo and boats, and afterwards overland with Commander Tuckey. He 
fortunately escaped any serious attack of the fever, which proved so fatal to almost the whole 
of the remainder of the officers of the expedition, of which he was the senior survivor. 

The chart of the river Congo which accompanies the narrative of the expedition was 
constructed by him, the lower part of that river from the mouth to Embomma having 
been corrected from Maxwell's chart ; from thence to the Narrows at Nomaza cove, where 
the Congo was anchored, being the results of his own survey, and from Nomaza cove to 
the extreme point explored, from a sketch by Commander Tuckey. 

Appendix No vi i of the Narrative, comprising Hydrographical Remarks upon the coast 
from the island of St. Thomas to the mouth of the Zaire or Congo, is from the pen of Mr. 

Upon returning to England in the Congo^ he was permitted to continue in command of 
that vessel by the recommendation of Captain Hurd, the Hydrographer to the Admiralty, 
and employed in surveying parts of the North Sea, and of Ireland, in her, and afterwards 
in the brig Hasty until the year 1834. He died at the latter end of 1849. 

Mr. (afterwards Captain) G. A. Frazer who served during the earlier part of his surveying 
career under Mr. Fitzmaurice, acted as that officers assistant in surveying Milford Haven. 

His son Lewis R. Fitzmaurice, who was born during his fathers absence upon the Congo 
expedition, subsequently became a lieutenant, and acted in the capacity of Assistant Surveyor 
to Captains Wickham and John L. Stokes on board the Beagle^ during the surveying expedition 
to the south coast of Australia, between the years 1837 ^^d 1843. 

The following manuscript charts were amongst those made from the surveys of Mr. 

Bird islands, Doddington rock Burford Bank (Dublin bay) 

and adjacent coast (S. Africa), 1814. Milford Haven, 1832 (drawn by Mr. 

Part of the River Congo, 18 16. G. A. Frazer). 

Amsterdam island (Curacoa). Ithaca Island (Ionian Islands). 

Sabrina island (St. Michaels). 

ADMIRAL ROUSSIN, (French Navy). 


This officer after obtaining much distinction in the French Navy about the time of the 
first Napoleon, was afterwards employed on a hydrographic survey of the coast of Brazil. 

In 18 1 8, he proceeded with the corvette La Bayadere^ accompanied by the brig Le Favorite, 
to undertake the examination of the South American coast between St. Catherine island and 
the Amazons. He took with him two chronometers, the temperature of which, was kept 
at 30^ Centigrade, by means of a lamp. Passing between (}ape de Verde islands and the 
coast of Africa, he called at St. Sebastian island, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, the banks off 


Cape St. Thomas, Espiritu Santo, Abrolhos, Pernambuco, Ceara, arrived at Maranham, 
January 1820; thence to Cayenne. 

In 1 8 1 7, 1 8 1 8, with M. Givry,* Ingenr. Hydrographique he made two voyag-es in La Bayadere 
to the coast of Africa, surveying from Cape Bojador to the Isles de Los (these positions 
were afterwards corrected in a French chart, 1838). A Nautical Memoir was published of 
this voyag'e, in French, in 1827, and translated for the use of the ships of the British Navy 
by Lieutenant James Badgley, a surveying officer of some distinction, who served with 
daptain W. F. Owen on the coast of Africa. 

In 1 82 1, Admiral Roussin commanded a small squadron on the coast of Brazil, and French 
Guiana, in one of which, the Clorindey M. L'Artigue served, adding considerably to the 
hydrography of that part of the world. 

Memoire but la Navigation auz Cotes Oooidentalea d'Afriqne, depuis le Gap Bojador jusqa'aa Mont 
BoazoB. 800, Pari«1827. 

Navigation aaz Cotes da Br^sil. 800. Paris 1831. Atlas folio, Fftris 1826. 

Le Pilote dn Br^sil, on Description des Cotes de 1' Amerique M^ridionale. 800. Parif 1827, 

Another Edition with folio Atlas. Pom 1846. 

J. F. DESSIOU ESQ., (Master R.N J 


Joseph Foss Dessiou was a master of the Royal Navy of the 24th of August 1805. He 
appears as far back as 1808, to have been engaged in constructing charts, and had evidently 
paid close attention to hydrography, whenever his professional duties permitted the 
opportunity. Having been reported physically unfit for further service afloat, he would seem 
to have applied himself more especially to the discussion of tidal phenomena. 

In Sir John Lubbock's report on tidal observations published in the Philosophical Tran- 
sactions of the year 1836, he fully describes how the data upon which the Admiralty Tide 
Tables were based, had been obtained, and that the semi-monthly inequality for each place, 
with the establishment, was found by Mr. Dessiou. 

The Nautical Magazine also remarks concerning the same officer " We have much pleasure 
in recording our testimony of the laborious exertions of this gentleman on the subject of 
tides. It is about six years since this subject so important to seamen, was taken up by 
those eminent philosophers, Mr. Lubbock and Professor Whewell ; and an immense mass 
of calculations, to prove the various parts of their theories, have been made by Mr. Dessiou, 
which do infinite credit to this gentleman, and show him £ls devoted to the interests of his 
profession in his latter years on shore, as he weis in his earlier years afloat." f 

The first volume of Admiralty Tide Tables was published and issued in 1833. The 
ports for which the tides were calculated were Plymouth, Portsmouth, Ramsgate, Sheerness, 
and London. Captain John Washington in his able report as Secretary of the Royal 
Geographical Society in the year 1838, remarks on this subject "Exact registers of the tides, 
the valuable researches of Messrs Whewell and Lubbock published in the Philosophical 
Transactions, entide them to the gratitude of all physicial geographers ; but voyagers 
and travellers in whatever part ofthe maritime world they may chance to be, can materially 
assist these eminent men in their researches by accurately registering the times of high 
water daily, for a whole lunation, and the heights if convenient : the former is the 
principal object. 

Mr. Dessiou's name was more closely connected with the tides of the Port of Liverpool, 
where he found the diurnal inequality very considerable. He compiled several charts, 
principally of the West Indies and English coast, for the Hydrographic Department, and he 
also edited the following. 

Directions for Navigating thronghont the English Channel. 800, 1816. 
Scaling Directiona for the coast and haibonrs of Brazil. 800, 1818- 

* M. Qivry, in an ootavo pamphlet, pablished a Diaoaasiia on the Gtoj^raphioal positions determined nnder 
Admiral Roossin by L'Artigue in 1821, 22, 23. 

t Nautical Magazine for 1836, Vol, 5 p. 623. 




The above officer, who was a Capitane de Valsseau in the French Navy, between the 
years 1819 and 1825, mak' a detailed and elaborate survey of the Island of Corsica, in 
which he was assisted by Messrs Deloffre, Matthieu, and Al\6gre. 

In 183 1, the French Government published a Book of Sailing Directions for the Island of 
Corsica, and in the same year the Hydrographic Office of the British Admiralty, engraved 
and issued a chart of the Island of Corsica, with plans taken from the French charts made 
from the surveys of Captain Hell. 



In ,1819, the sloops Vos/ok (Eastern), and Mimay (Peaceful), were equipped at Kronstadt 
under (Captain Bellingshausen for a voyage of discovery. They first sailed for England, 
where the final scientific preparations necessary for such an expedition were made, from 
whence they continued to Tenerifle and Rio de Janeiro. After staying some time at the 
latter port, on the passage to Port Jackson, the Vostok rounded the south side of South 
Georgia Island, sighted the Traverse Islands, and passed along the east coast of the Sand- 
wich group (of the South Atlantic). In the course of the navigation of the Antarctic, the 
Mimay became separated from her consort, but made no discovery of importance, the 
vessels again meeting at Port Jackson, where a considerable stay was made. 

Sailing from Port Jackson for Queen Charlotte Sound of New Zealand, the South Pacific 
Ocean was navigated to Tahiti, in the course of which, some islands to which the name of 
the Russian Islands was given, were considered owing to the error of their position upon 
the charts, a new discovery by Captain Bellingshausen. 

The islands of Vostok, and Bellingshausen were discovered after leaving Tahiti, as well 
as Ono island and Michaeloff and SimanofT of the Fiji group ; the two latter receiving the 
names of the naturalist and artist of the expedition. 

After a short stay at Port Jackson, during which, information upon Australia and Tasmania 
was obtained, on the 31st of October 1820, the expedition again sailed for the South Polar 
regions, crossing the sixtieth parallel of south latitude in longitude 163^ E., and sailing east, 
ward between the parallels of 64° and 68° S., as far as 93° West longitude. 

On the 9th of January 1821, the ships attained the highest southern latitude made during 
the voyage, that of 70° south, a short distance eastward of where (^ptain Cook had 
succeeded in reaching: his highest southern latitude. 

Peter the First Island was discovered in latitude 69° 30' S., longitude 90° W., (this is 
termed Petra Island upon English charts). Fifteen degrees further to the eastward, in 
about the same latitude, Alexander Island was discovered at a distance of about 200 miles 
south westward of Graham Land, to which Captain Bellingshausen considered it was 

Admiral Krusenstern, the Russian Hydrographer, was of opinion, that Peter the First 
Island, as well as Alexander Island, formed part of a continuation of Grraham Land. 

After this, the expedition sailed south of the South Shetland Islands, past South Georgia, 
sighting islands, to which were given the names of MorduinofF, Shishkoff, and Roshnoff. 

Continuing to Rio de Janeiro, after a brief stay, course was steered for Europe, Lisbon 
called at, and Kronstadt returned to in 1821. 

The results of this expedition were published in two 4to volumes, in the Russian language 
in 1825, with an Atlas containing numerous charts and illustrations of the hydrography, 
natural history &c., accruing from the voyage. 



A man eminently entitled to be singled out, as a most remarkable voyager, as well as 


a scientific observer and accurate writer was William Scoresby. At the early age of ten 
years he commenced his career as a seaman under the auspices of his father, one of the 
most successful captains of the port of Whitby, in the Northern whale fishery. Thus early 
inured to the hardships and f>erils of the Arctic Seas, his mind was developed by the em- 
ployment of the winter months in pursuing a course of study at the University of Edinburgh, 
where he gained the friendship of the professors, and laid the foundation of that knowledge 
which enabled him subsequently to offer so clear an account of the Arctic regions. 

As chief mate of his father's ship, the Resolution^ he navigated to the highest latitude then 
attained by any vessel, viz. 8i*^ 30'. ; aad though Sir E. Parry, in his celebrated boat 
expedition, during his fourth voyage, in 1827, arrived at 82° 45 , the distinction of being 
second in the approach to the North Pole, until recently, remained with Scoresby and 
his father. 

In 1820, in two volumes, appeared the result of 17 years experience in the Arctic Seas, 
containing besides a vast amount of statistical information, such a mass of scientific 
observation, as to render it still a text-book of nautical science. '' It has been said of him, 
" That of all the navigators who have combined with the due discharge of their duties as 
sailors, the scientific investigation of the conditions of the ocean, Scoresby is certainly the 
one most imbued with the spirit of the philosopher. The problems to be solved, seem to 
present themselves at once to his mind divested of all irrelevant matter, and he attadcs 
them directly and successfully. After showing how, from observation of the whale fishing 
he had often been able to draw correct conclusions as to the depths of water, seeing the 
amount of line which the whales would take out when running perpendicularly downwards, 
he relates the following remarkable incident, from the log-book of his father. 

On the 31st of May 1749^ the chief mate of the Hentiettay the ship my father commanded, 
struck a whale, which ' ran ' all the lines out of the boat before assistance arrived, and then 
dragged the boat under water, the men meanwhile escaping to a piece of ice. When 
the fish returned to the surface to ^ blow' it was struck a second time, and soon afterwards 
killed. The moment it expired, it began to sink, which, not being a usual cixrumstance, 
excited some surprise." 

After securing the whale, they set about the recovery of the sunken boat which had 
been dragged down with the whale when first struck, and was still attached thereto. 

'' My father imagining that the sunken boat was entangled among rocks at the bottom 
of the sea, and that the action of a current on the line produced the extr£U>rdinary stress, 
proceeded himself to assist in hauling up the boat. The strain upon the line he estimated 
at f of a ton, the utmost power of 25 men being requisite to overcome the weight. The 
laborious operation of hauling the line in, occupied several hours, the weight continuing 
nearly the same throughout. The sunken boat, which, before the accident, would have 
been buoyant when full of water, when it came to the surface, required a boat at each 
end to keep it from sinking. When it was hoisted in to the ship, the paint came off the 
wood in large sheets, and the planks were as completely soaked in every pore, as if they 
had lain at the bottom of the sea sipce the Flood. The boat was rendered useless ; even 
the wood of which it was built, on being offered to the cook as fuel, was tried, and rejected 
as incombustible." 

This is interesting as being, perhaps, the first occasion on which the effect of the 
enormous pressure produced by a column of water was directly observed. It is noticeable 
that the wood, though painted, got completely water-logged, while the whale which must 
have penetrated to the same depth, retained its buoyancy. 

In 1822, Captain Scoresby succeeded in reaching the east coast of Greenland, of which, 
with indefatigable labour, he made a running survey, from the 70th to the 75th degree 
of latitude, and which, taking in the bays and fiords, comprised a coast line of 800 miles, or from 

* Journal of the Society of Arts for March 1881, p. 820. 


Knighton bay to Gale Hawk land was defined correctly, and errors found in previous charts, 
amounting to no less than 7^ of longitude. 

The voyage was accomplished in the ship Baffin^ of 321 tons, built at Liverpool in 1820, 
expresslr for the whale fishery, under Captain Scoresby's immediate supervision. In addition 
to the hydrographic and whaling results of the voyage, endeavour was made to gain traces 
of the r«K>rwegian colonists, formerly said to have migrated in company with Icelanders to 
the east coast of Greenland. In the introduction to the narrative of this voyage of 1822, 
Captain Scoresby has collated the various ancient and other accounts bearing on this 
subject, and from such traces as were found of former civilization on these shores he evid- 
ently leans to the belief, that such colonies had certainly at one time existed, if not flourished 
on this part of the coast of Greenland. * 

Captain Scoresby in the course of his survey named the various sounds, islands, capes, 
and inlets, on the east coast of Greenland, between 70® and 75° N., after eminent geograph- 
ers of that period, such as Franklin, Parry, Basil Hall Ac. The instruments employed in 
this survey consisted of azimuth competsses, sextants, and a chronometer. Fifty stations 
were fixed astronomically, and numerous angles taken, as well as true bearings for ascer. 
taining the compass errors. During boisterous weather, when the vessel was so unsteady 
as to prevent the employment of the azimuth compass in the crow's nest, all requisite 
angles were taken with a sextant, and the bearings derived from them, by connecting one 
of the series by angular distance from the sun. The longitudes were ascertained by 

Throughout these laborous operations, Captain Scoresby was unaided, and judging from 
the appearance of the chart of this part of the coast of Greenland which illustrates his 
work, as well as by the trouble he takes to distinguish the parts on which most reliance 
can be placed from the remainder, the survey appears of a most praiseworthy, if not 
of quite a professional nature. 

Remarks on storms of this region, on mineralogy, botany, zoology, and meteorological 
tables, are also included in this work, which is dedicated by permission to King William 
the Fourth. 

In the course of a visit to Jan Mayen island, afterwards visited by Lord Dufferin, Captain 
Scoresby detected remarkable proofs of the set of the equatorial current. He found on 
the shores of that singular island, pieces of drift wood, bored by a ptenus or pholas, neither 
of which animals ever pierce wood in Arctic countries, and hence he concluded that the 
worm-eaten fragments had been drifted hither by the currents from a transpolar region. 

He was the first to attempt observations on the electricity of the atmosphere in high 
northern latitudes, and his experiments made with an insulated conductor, eight feet above 
the head of the main-top-gallant mast, connected by a wire with a copper ball, attached 
by a silken cord to the deck, may be still regarded with interest for their novelty and 

The collection of scientific data was never permitted to interfere with the main objects 
of the voyage, in the pursuit of which he was most successful, and notwithstanding his 
resolution that the sanctity of the Sabbath should not be violated by the pursuit of the 
whale, his ship usually returned the best filled of the season. 

Abandoning nautical pursuits in 1823, Scoresby gave a fresh and remarkable proof of 
his unbounded energy and great ability, by mastering the difficulties attendant upon the 
adoption of the career of a divine. Setting to work with the assiduity of youth, he grad- 
uated at Queen's College, Cambridge, as B.D., in 1834, ^^^ ^^ inducted to that Church 
of England of which he became a distinguished ornament. He devoted many years of 

* In the Journal of the R. 0. Society for 1831, p. 247, is an aocoant of the expedition of Captain Graah 
of the Danish Nary* made in 1829, lor the purpose of shedding light npon the former oolonisation of 
Greenland, oommanioated bj Captain Zohrtmann, the Hydrogrrapher Royal at Copenhagen, to Captain 
Beaufort. Although considered by Captain Zahrtmann as oonolnsire, he remarks " that th« matter appears 
stiU to admit of plausible reasoning on both sides." 


his life to the arduous duties of achaplahi among seamen, whose religious welfare he most 
zealously promoted, at the same time he continued to take the deepest interest in Arctic 
exploration, considering that although the efforts to find a north west passage to the 
China Sea might prove unprofitable for political or commercial objects, that the 
scientific results justiHed all the risk and expense of such expeditions. 

Scoresby became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1824, and subsequently was elected a 
Correspondent of the Section of Geography and Navigation of the French Academy of 
Sciences. He contributed to the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, and various periodicals, 
papers on scientific subjects. To observations on magnetical phenomena he devoted 
close attention, and his investigations published between 1839 ^"^ 1848, in the concluding 
volume of the latter year, contain a vast amount of valuable materials. 

His reports to the British Association, and his observations on the influence of the iron 
of vessels on the compass, were connected with inquiries of the utmost practical importance 
to navigation. It was in prosecuting these researches, and with a view to determine various 
questions of magnetic science, that Dr. Scoresby undertook a voyage to Australia, from 
which he returned in 1857, with his constitution much enfeebled by the arduous labours 
he had undergone. He died in 1858. 

The following were the principal amongst his publications. 

Aooonnt of the Arotio BegionB, with a History and Desoription of the Northern Whale Fisherj. 2 toIb, 890 
Edinburgh 1820. 

JoDnud of a rojage to the Northern Whale Fishery, inoloding Beeearches on the coast of West Greenland 
made in the sammer of 1822. 800. Edinburgh 1823. 

Disoooraee to seamen. 12iik>. 1881. 

Hagnetioal Inyestigatxons. 690. 1844. 

Zoistio Magnetism. 800. 1849. 

The Franklin Expedition, or considerations on measures for the dtscoyeiy of oar absent adventnrers in 
the Arotio Regions. 8vo. 1850. 

On the Compass in iron ships. 800. 1855. 

Illustrations of the Magnetism of Iron ships. 8vO. 1856. 

Journal of a voyage to Australia and round the World for Magnetical Research ; mKM ly Archibald 
SmUh, Svo. 1859. 



Captain Brucks who had been at sea ever since he was eleven years of age, had 
completed 16 years service in the Bombay Marine, when in 1820, the survey of the Persian 
fjnxli was commenced under Captain Guy in the Discovery of 268 tons, and he was selected to 
command the brig J^ycAe as that officers assistant Guy retired after having examined the 
Arabian side up to the head of the Gulf. 

Captain Brucks now succeeded to the charge of the work ; though an excellent sailor, 
from the nature of his early training he could hardly be termed a scientific surveyor ; but 
he had under him Lieutenants Haines, Kempthorne, Cogan, Pinching, Ethersey, Whitelock, 
and Lynch, all men of scientific and literary attainments, while the charts were constructed 
with great taste and ability by Lieutenant Houghton, who was afterwards draughtsman to 
the Indian Navy at Bombay. 

It must not be forgotten writes the author of the memoir of the Indian Surveys from 
whence this sketch is extracted "that surveying weis but a small part of the work of the 
Indian Navy. The influence of England in the Persian Gulf was exercised to suppress piracy 
and extend commerce, to maintain the s/afus quo of the chiefs, to exclude foreign influence, 
and to root out the slave trade. The successful invasion of Persia in 1856, is amongst the 
more recent operations of the Indian Navy. The naval headquarters in the Persian Gulf 
were at Bassadore (B^idu), in the island of el-Kishm, where there was a hospital on shore, 
a bdzir, five or six private houses, a billiard room, and a fives court. 

The survey occupied ten years, from 1820 to 1830. The results are given in 14 charts. 

Captain Brucks endeavoured to give his work a trigonometrical basis, and always 


observed on shore with an artificial borizion, because the refraction was so great as to make 
it useless to observe with the natural horizion. 

But in fact, only a portion of the survey was trigonometrical, and the bases depended upon 
measurement from ship to ship by sound. The remaining portion was merely a running 
survey, verified to some extent by astronomical observations. There was also some con- 
fusion in the longitudes. One half of the survey was referred to the meridian of Bassadore^ 
which was fixed by chronometric measurement from Bombay; but, in those days, Bombay 
was 7 miles too far to the east. The other half of the survey was calculated from Bushire, 
the longitude of which had been correctly fi^ced by Mr. Rich, a former Political Resident, 
of high scientific attainments. * 

At the same time, this old survey of the Persian Gulf reflects credit on those who executed 
it, when the imperfection of their instruments, and the difficulties they had to overcome 
are taken into consideration ; as well as the fearful climate, the hostility of the Arab tribes, 
and the vast amount of work done. Guy and Brucks were both invalided, besides junior 
officers. Captain Brucks returned to England in 1842, and died in 1850. He was for 
some years employed in preparing a history of the Indian Navy, but the papers collected 
by him on the subject have never been published. 

We have, as results of the old Persian Gulf survey, a "Memoir descriptive of the Navigation 
of the Persian Gulf," being sailing directions by Captain Brucks himself ; notes made by Lieu- 
tenant Kempthome on the identification of places touched at by Nearehus; on the ancient 
commerce of the gulf, and on a visit to the ruins of Tahiri, which he successfully identified 
with the missing old Muhammedan city of Siraf ; f and three papers by Lieutenant 
Whitelock, one being a description of the islands at the entrance of the gulf, another an 
account of the Arabs on the pirate coast, and the third a narrative of a Joiimey in 'Om&n. t 

Of the charts of Captain Brucks, the following were published by the Admiralty : 

Mqs^ttoBuGoberiDdee I Ooaat of Arabia. 
Rm Goberinde^ to Baa Soaote j '-~~*' "* -«""•'«• 

PerBian Gulf, general chart, 2 Bheeto 

El Katiff anchorage 

Entrance to the rivers at the he^i} of the Pernan Gnlf. 

Baa Tuloop to Biishire 

Bashire to Basaadore 

Clarence strait 

^ooe Mubarrak to Korraohae 

• Peorniui Gvllf 



A complete account of the voyage of the Lyra, which accompanied the AJcesfe, in Lord 
Amherst's mission to China and Loo-choo, was written by her Commander, Captain Basil 
Hall. Thoug^h not a surveying officer himself, he, like the late Commodore Goodenough, 
took every opportunity of adding to our hydrographical as well as general knowledge, 
regarding of the various countries he visited. 

After parting company with the Akes^e, February 9th, i8i7,theZfra proceeded to Calcutta, 
Madras, and Mauritius, and after a prosperous voyage round the Cape of Good Hope, tbuched 
at St Helena, where Captain Hall was favoured by a special interview with Napoleon 
Buonaparte, who had been personally acquainted with his father Sir James Hafl, the 

• The manoscript memoranda and maps of ICr. Bioh ifere pr e e m ted to the QtogmfikkiA Ptporlaient of 
Uie India Oflloe, by Mr. Claude Srskine, in 1877. 

t A- C^* S* Journal, Vol. 8, p. 263. Bombay Q. 8. Joomal, YoL If p. 294 
{ S. G. S. Joomal, Vol. 8, p. 170. Bombay 0. 8. Jounal, YoL 1, p. S94 


President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and had passed some time at the militar>' 
college at Brienne, where Napoleon was educated, to use whose own words, *' Captain HalPs 
father was the first Englishman he remembered having seen." 

The Lyra reached England and was paid off in October, 1817. 

The testimony of Captain Hall as to the value of the labours of East Indian hydro- 
graphers, quoted from page 73 of his work, is well worthy of repetition. In speaking of the 
passage of the AlcesU and Lyra up the Canton River, he says, 

" An admirable chart of the river had been constructed shortly before this period, by 
Captain Daniel Ross, a gentleman to whom the navigators of every nation, whose business 
leads them to the Eastern Seas, are indebted in the highest degree; 

The East India Company have the sole merit, and a very high one it is, of having orig- 
inated the splendid idea of surveying in a scientific manner, not only the vast seas and 
coast of China, but all the straits, bays, and islands in the Indian Ocean and Malay 
archipelago. This work, perhaps the most useful, and certainly the greatest of its kind 
that any nation ever undertook, has been carried on at an enormous expense for many years, 
under every circumstance of peace or war. To many persons, this langiiasre maj seem 
too strong ; but I write without exaggeration, at the dictation of feelings which most people 
will be ready to make allowance for. 

In the open sea, in broad daylight, and in fine weather, nothing can be more delightful 
than sailing along on such a voyage as ours, to visit strange countries. But when the scene 
is changed to a ^rk and stormy night, in narrow rocky passages, with rapid tides sweeping 
through them, the blessing of such directions as those of Horsburgh, is felt in a manner 
that the gentlemen of England, who live at ease, can form but faint conception of." 

The second voyage of Captain Basil Hall, in H.M.S. Conway was made during the years 
1820-21-22, to the coasts of Chili, Peru, and Mexico. With him as master's mate, sailed 
Mr. Henry Foster, who afterwards as a Lieutenant accompanied Captain Parry on the 
voyage in quest of a North West passage of 1824-25, as Astronomer and Assistant 
Surveyor, and became a fellow of the Royal Society at a remarkable early age ; to his 
share fell most of the pendulum experiments undertaken in the Conway, 

Lieutenant A. B. Beecher acted as hydrographer to the expedition, and Captain Hall 
tenders his thanks, also, to Charles R. Drinkwater Bethune, at that time a midshipman of 
H.M.S. Creole, ior his assistance in h^drographic details, as well as for endeavouring to 
bring the higher branches of astronomy into use ; this officer subsequently as Captain of the 
Conway, in 1837, added largely to our descriptive hydrographic knowledge of parts of 
the Pacific. Captain Hall remarks, 

Officers are too apt to underate the nautical knoM^ledge which they acquire in the 
ordinary course of service; and to forget, that every piece of correct information which 
they obtain, especially on distant stations, ib essentially valuable. If it be new, it is a clear 
S'ain to the stock already accumulated ; if not, it is still useful as a corroboration ; and this 
costs very little trouble, for a few practical observations, made during, or at the end of 
a voyage, give immense additional value to the dry details of a log-lx)ok." In Appendix 
No. I, of Captain Hall's narrative^ are Nautical Directions for passages made by H.M.S. 
Conway between the following ports are given, 

Rio de Janeiro to river Plate. Lima to Pacasmayas, Payta and Guayaquil. 

Monte Video to Valparaiso. Guayaquil to the Galapagos Islands. 

Valparaiso to Lima. Galapagos Islands to Panama. 

Lima to Valparaiso. Panama to Acapulco. 

Valparaiso to Lima by the Entremidios. Acapulco to San Bias. 

Chorillos to Valparaiso. San Bias round Cape Horn to Rio de Janeiro. 

Valparaiso to Conception, Bay of Rio de Janeiro to Bahia. 

Arauco and Island of Mocha. General remarks on the winds, weather, 

ValparaisotoLima,callingatCoquimbo, and navigation on the south and southern 

Gusaco, Copiapo, Africa and Mollendo coasts of Mexico. 


Appendix No. 2, gfives a table of Latitudes, Longitudes, and Variation of the compass of 
various ports on the shores of the Pacific. 

Appendix No. 3, gives an account of the pendulum observations made, with a description 
of how to make such observations divested of the scientific clothing in which such informa- 
tion is generally wrapped. 

The first series of experiments were made in London. The next, 32^ miles north of the 
equator, at one of the Galapagos islands, lying about 600 miles west of the continent of 
South America ; an astronomical circle, by Troughton, was u^ed as a transit instrument, 
the various details of adjustment and of the connection between clock and observatory are 
very clearly described, and might still be studied with advantage by any one intending to 
perform similar service. 

Observations with the pendulum were also made at San Bias and Rio Janeiro ; the whole 
being presented to the Royal Society in 1823. 

Appendix No. 4, contains a Notice on the climate of the western coasts of South America 
and Mexico, by George Bourie, Esq., Surgeon of H.M.S, Conway, 

The following charts, principally by Mr. H. Foster, who is permitted to take the credit of 
his own labours by Captain Hall, resulted from this voyage, 

Bity of Araaco. Haaoho bay, Ports of Oosma and Okiloa harbour. 

Port of Goasoo. Port of San Bias. 

Port of Copiapo. 

See— Namative of a Toyage to Java, China, and the Great Loo-ohoo island, with Extracts fVom 
a Joarnal written on the coasts of Chili, Pern, and vfezico; the first in the jeam 1816-18, the second in 
the years 1820-22, by Captain Baiiil Hall. Bound together in 800. 1840. 

Othfcr editions of these works were also published* inolnding a iio. volame on the Loo-choo Islands, by 
H. J. Clifford ; also, a folio of charts of the China Sea by the same author ; and a Book of trarels in North 
▲merioa, in 1827-28, in three 800. Tolumes, 1829. 

In the Edinbnrgh, now Philosophical Jonmal, for July, 1826, is published a letter from Ci^tain Basfl 
Hall to Professor Jamesoa, termed :— " Notice of a Voyage of Besearoh," in which is pointed oat the Tario«0 
subjects that should be studied, described, or inquired into, upon such a Toyage. 

M L'ARTIGUE, (Trench), 

The above was one of the most eminent of the many able hydrographic en- 
gineers that F*rance has produced. His first labours appear to have commenced as 
far back as 182 1, when attached to the Clormdif one of Admiral Roussin's squadron 
which sailed from Brest, August 5th of that year, running meridian distances between 
that port, Teneriffe, Rio, Cape de Verd islands, steering a course northward of 
Trinidad, and fixing the geographical position of St. Nicolas island. Port Praya, and 
East end of Trinidad. 

In 1825, in the schooner la Lyormahe^ he ascertained the difference of longitude by 
chronometer, between Fernando Noronha, and Pemambuco, and completed Admiral 
Roussin's survey on the north east part of the coast of South America. 

In 1827, he published Sailing Directions for the coast of French Guyana, and in the sam« 
year a nautical description of the coast of Peru. 

In 1836, observations upon the changes of Temperature and wind caused by the currents 
of the sea. In 1840, a \\ork upon the theory of the wind system and movements of the air 
in the upper regions of the atmosphere, as well as near the surface of the globe, A second 
edition of this book was published by the same author in 1855. 

In i860, M. L'Artigue published observations upon the various data which served as the 
basis for his different theories respecting winds; and in 187 1, an Essay upon the origin of 


the tieveral air currehts. It will thus be seen, that that portion of Maritime Meteorology 
which treats of the wind system, is what M. L'Artigue devoted hb attention to more 
especially during; the latter portion of his life-time. 


Dr. John Louis Tiarks was an astronomer, who in the summer of 1S22, established the 
long-itude of Funchal, Madeira, by means of seventeen chronometers which he carried with 
him from Greenwich to Falmouth, and thence to Madeira, returning by the same route. 

In 1823, he again corrected the position of Pendennis castle, Falmouth, with twenty-six 
chronometers, and thus chedced his former results. 

The flagstaff of Pendennis castle being one of the points used in the great trigonometrical 
(ordnance) survey, was thought the most convenient spot for determining local mean time, 
before and after the voyage to Funchal. 

The equal altitudes were taken with a sextant of ten inches radious made by Troughton . 
At Funchal the observation spot was in the garden of the English consulate on the meridian 
of the house, being the same position as that used by Captain W. F. Owen and the officers 
of H.M.S. Leven. 

Dr. Tiarks also devoted his attention towards determining by chronometer the precise 
longitudes relatively, of Dover. Portsmouth observatory, and Falmouth. He published 

Keport on ABtronomical obaenrations to ascertain the longitade of the Island of Madeira, 4to. 1822. 
Keport on ohnnometrioal obserrations made in July, Aagnst, and September, 1828, with a Tievr to ascer- 
tain the difference of longiiade between Dover and Falmouth, and Portsmouth and Faloiouth, 4to. 1828. 



In 1 81 8, Mr. William Smith of the brig Wdliam,oi Blyth, on the passage from Monte 
Video to Valparaiso, disco tiered in about the 62nd degree of south latitude, and in about ten 
degrees of longitude, eastward of Cape Horn, certain islands, to which the name of South 
Shetland was given. 

Having communicated his discovery to the Captain of H.M S. Andromache^ stationed at 
Valparaiso, Mr. Barnesfield, the master of that ship, was sent to make a survey of their coasts. 

He found the South Shetlands to condst of 12 islands, and many rocks above water, 
extending between latitude 61° and 63° S., and longitude 54^ and 63® W. 

The tracks of Cook and Furneaux passed within 45 miles of these islends, which there- 
fore narrowly escaped being classed amongst their discoveries. 

On the 17th December, 1822, Vr. James Weddell, a master in the Royal Navy, in the 
brig Jane, of 160 tons and 22 men, with the cutter Beaufcy, of 65 tons and 13 men under 
Mr. Matthew Brisbane, in company, sailed from the Downs for the purpose of collecting 
fur-seal skins in the South Shetland islands. 

After calling at, and surveying Port St. Elena, on the coast of Patagonia, Mr. Weddell 
ran to the southeast in the beginning of January, 1823, and on the 12th of that month, came 
within sight of the South Orkney islands, which he discovered during a voyage made in the 
preceding year. 

The lx)ats coasted these islands for more than fifty miles ; but seals being few, and the 
weather thick and boisterous, the vessels soon left these shores. 

Mr. Weddell now shaped course to the southward, passing through numerous ice islands, 
especially between the parallels of 68^ and 71^, after which, these obstructions to navigation 
disappeared, the weather became pleasant ; and great numbers of seabirds were observed 
flying round the ship, and many whales seen. 

As the navigators proceeded south, the weather became still milder, whales became more 


numerous, and the sea was literally covered with birds of the blue petrel kind, without a 
particle of ice in sight 

Under these favourable circumstances, Mr Weddell was hourly in expectation of dis- 
covering land ahead; but it was now the 20th of February, the close of summer in those 
latitudes: he was in longitude 34*^ 17' W, and had reached latitude 74° 15' S., when the 
wind blowing fresh from the south, he felt it would be imprudent to persevere in holding 
his course any further in that direction. " I would willingly" he says " have explored the 
south-west quarter ; but, taking into consideration the lateness of the season, and that we 
had to pass homewards through 1000 miles of sea, strewed with ice islcmds, with long 
nights, and probably attended with fogs, I could not determine otherwise than to take 
advantage of the favourable wind for returning" 

In this voyage Mr Weddell penetrated within the Antarctic circle 214 miles further than 
Captain Cook, or any preceding navigator. This part of the ocean, heretofore unexplored 
was named by him George the Fourth's Sea 

It is worthy of remark, that he did not find the difficulties arising from ice increase 
as he proceeded southward, on the contrary, he found all appearance of a deep sea, a 
milder temperature, and an open ocean. He found, also, that the compass manifested the 
same sluggishness in a High southern latitude which other voyagers had found in the north 
polar regions. 

Violent gales having separated the/on^ and Beaufqy^ they repaired to South Georgia, which 
had been appointed as the rendezvous. This island previously examined by Cook, Weddell 
thoroughly described. 

He relates a rather curious incident which occurred in endeavouring to make use of the 
artificial horizon for observations on the top of a mountain in South Georgia. He states 
" that after planting my artificial horizon, I was surprised to find, that although there was 
not a breath of wind, and everything around perfectly still, yet the mercury had so tremulous 
a motion, that I could not get an observation The ground was evidently agitated inter- 
nally ; though it was not only by means of the quick-silver that I could detect it." 

South Georgia, was discovered by a Monsieur La Roche, in the year 1675. It wa« 
visited by a vessel called the Lyan, in 1756 ; but was not explored until the time of Captain 
Cook in the Reseluiion^ in 1771 

Having given an account of a search made by himself during a former voyage from 
February ist to 7th 1829, for the Aurora islands, supposed to have been discovered by the 
Spanish exploring vessel i4/r^zv&, in 1796, Weddell proceeded to New island, at the west 
end of the Falkland islands, and wintered in Quaker harbour of Swan island. 

Having spent two winters at the Falkland islands, Mr Weddell then proceeds to give 
a hydrographic account of . them, including a description of Freycinet's shipwreck in 
VUrame, on the Volunteer rocks, at the entrance of Port Louis, in February, 1820. 
It appears that he was near the spot at the time, and rendered material assistance to the 
French Commander He also describes how in November 1820, the Buenos Ay rain frigate 
Heroind^ Captain Jewitt, had taken possession of the Falkland islands for that government ; 
of the ravages of scurvy amongst the crew of that frigate ; and of a mutiny which took 
place on board shortly afterwards. 

On the 7th October 1823, the Jam and Beaufoy again sailed from the Falkland islands 
steering towards the South Shetland's in prosecution of the objects of their voyage. — Bad 
weather prevented the vessels making any prolonged stay in the neighbourhood of this 
group ; but an interesting hydrographical account of them is given ; this making WeddelFs 
third visit Continuing to Cape Horn and Tierra del Fuego, through the Strait Le Maire, 
Monte Video was reached, April 3rd, 1824. Here, Commodore Sir Murray Maxwell (formerly 
of the Akesie) of H.M.S. Briion^ offered every assistance in the repairs of the Jane, 

On the 4th of May, Mr Weddell sailed from Monte Video, and on the 2nd of July, 
arrived off Falmouth. 

A seoond voyage made by the Beau/ay, under Mr. Brisbane, which occupied about 


eighteen months to the same part of the world ; is briefly alluded to in the Appendix o 
the Narrative, from which this account has been taken. 

The following charts are incorporated in Mr Weddell's Book : 

KiTer of Santa Craz (Patagonia). Polar chart of the Southern Hemisphere. 

Port St. Elena (Pata.i;onia). Berkley soond Falkland Island. 

South Orkney Islands. Tracks of JaJM and Beaufoy, 

South Shetland Island- Chart of Cape Hom* with plana of Indian core. 

Two sheets of views of headlands, islands, Ac., Wigwam ooTe and part of Doff baj. 

near Cape Horn and the South Orkney 


See— A. Yoyage towards the South Pole, performed in the years 1822-24, containing an examination of the 
Antartic Sea, ^., by Jamoe Weddell, &.N., F.R.S.B. 8po. London, 1827. 



Alexander Thomas Emeric Vidal entered the Navy in December 1803, as first-class 
volunteer on board the Illustrious^ Captains Sir Charles Hamilton, Michael Seymour, and 
W. Shield, with whom he served in the English channel, on the north coast of Spain, and 
in the West Indies, until November 1805. 

In May 1808, he joined the Royal Navy College; and was afterwards received, in 
November 1809, on board the Lavinia, Captains Lord William Stuart, and George Digby ; 
in which ship he Weis for upwards of three years employed on the Mediterranean, West 
Indies, Cadiz, and Lisbon stations, the chief part of the time in the capacity of midshipman. 

In the course of 1713-14, he joined in succession on the Home Station the Salvador del 
Mundo, Aiobe, Cornwall, Namur, Bonn, and Conway, Having sailed in the latter ship for the 
North American station, he was there, and on the Canadian lakes, employed in 18 15 on 
sur\'eying service, and for a short time as flag lieutenant to Commodore Sir Edward Owen. 
He was then presented with a commission dated February 1815. 

In August 1818, he was appointed to the />p^. Captain Bartholomew, and afterwards 
Captain W. F. Owen, under whom he served as first lieutenant until the death of 
Commander Cudlip, of the Barracoula, when he succeeded to the vacancy, and was 
confirmed in the rank of a Commander in May 1823. Serving throughout Captain Owen's 
African voyage, on his arrival in England in the Barracoula, he was promoted to post-rank 
on that vessel being paid off in October 1825. 

In the summer of 1830, in consequence of the ill-success of the Gannet in 1824; of the 
Harrier and Badger in 1827 ; and of the Pylades and Despatch in 1829, in searching for the 
Aitkins' Rock, the Admiralty resolved to place the ten-gun brigs Onyx, Lieutenant Dawson, 
and Lever at. Lieutenant Worth, under the orders of Captain Vidal, to pursue the inquiry. 

No less than seven different reports as to the existance of this danger had been received ; 
the mean position assigned to it, was in about latitude 55® 16' N., longitude 11® 40' W, or 
some 70 miles northwest of Urris Head on the northwest coast of Ireland. The rock was 
said to be small, and 4 feet above water 

Particular instructions were drawn up by Captain Beaufort, the hydrographer, for the 
method of proceeding on this examination. Chronometers were rated at Bunerana, and the 
search lasted from June 6th to August 31st ; when, having visited every position assigned to 
this danger, and indeed the whole space comprehended by them, without seeing any rock, 
or discovering any detached bank, which could indicate its having existed, the search* was 
relinquished, and the brigs returned to England. 

During this search the Vida) bank extending off the west coast of Ireland was 

In December 1835, he sailed in the JEtna with twelve chronometers for the purpose of 

tOn the Yigia called the Aitkin'a Rock. By Captain A; T. E. Vidal, B.N. Royal Geographical Society's 
journal for 1881, p. 51. 



measuring meridian distances to the Cape Verd Islands and west coast of Africa. 
In January 1836, he met the Sulphur, Captain Beechey, and Siarling, Lieutenant Kellett. His 
chain of meridian distances extended to Porto Praya, Banana Island, Sierra Leone, 
Mesurada, Cape Palmas, Fernando Po, and Corisco Bay. 

In 1838, Captain Washington, then Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, 
remarked of the survey of west Africa, " This tedious undertaking is drawing to a close, and 
will then be of equal utility to the fair traders, and to the anti-slavery cruisers. It is 
fortunately in the hands of such a man as Captain Vidal, R.N., who has steadily devoted 
himstlt during a long period of ill-health, to complete this unpopular work, and to connect 
with it a minute examination of the Canary islands.'' 

From September 1841 until January 1845, Captain Vidal conducted the survey of the 
Azores or Western Islands, in H.M.S. Styx, and from January 1845 until the early part of 
1846, with his name on the books of the WtUiam and Mary, yacht. 

He ultimately arrived at the rank of Vice Admiral, and died at Clifton, on the 5th of 
February, 1863, aged about 73 years. 

The following were the principal amongst his charts : 
West Coast of Africa. 

>< Madiera, Porto Santo and Dezartas 

^ Funchal and Pontinha Bays. 
X Porto Santo Bay. 
X Salvage Islands. 



Sheet 9 — Sherboro island to cape Mesurada. 

10 — Cape Mesurada to cape Palmas. 

1 1 — Palmas lo grand Lihou. 

12 — Grand Lihou to cape Three points. 

13 — Cape Three points to Banacoe. 

14 — Banacoe to cape St. Paul. 

17 — Cape Formoso to Fernando Po. 

18 — Fernando Po to cape Lopez. 
X Azores or Western Islands. 

X Corvo and Flores. '>n . . 

X Terciera and Graciosa. 

X Fayal, Pico, and San Jorge. 

;c Fajal channel, Horta and Pim Bays. 

X San Miguel. 

^ Santa Maria and the Formigas. 



Louis Isidore Duperrey was bom at Paris on the 21st of October, 1776. He entered the 
French Navy at the age of sixteen, and in 1811, was employed upon the Hydrographical 
Survey of the coasts of Tuscany. 

In 18 1 7, he embarked as midshipman in the Urame, and accompanied Captain Freycinet 
in a scientific voyage round the world, made in that ship. 

He became a Lieutenant in 1822, and in that year set sail from Toulon as Commander of 
the CoquilU, in which vessel he made a second scientific voyage round the world, which 
redounded greatly to the honour of the French nation, returning to Marseilles on 
March 24th, 1825. 

The Ca^/7/^ carried four chronometers. The guns near the standard compass of the 
vessel were removed and copper substituted for iron wherever possible. Thronghout 
the voyage the temperature of sea and air were taken every four hours. 

The places visited by Captain Duperrey in the course of this expedition were Teneriffe, 
St. Catherine Island, Falkland Islands, Talcahuana. In 1823, Callao ; then Payta, Otaheite, 
Bora Boxa, Maupiti, Port Praslin, Waygiou, Cajeli, Amt)oyna, Savu, Port Jackson. 

In 1 824, New Zealand. Oalan Island, Port Dorey, Sourabaya, Mauritius, St. Helena, Ascension. 

The main theatre of his explorations will thus be seen to have been Oceania, and he made 


during' his voyage a large number of observations on the pendulum, which served to 
demonstrate the equality of the flattening of the two hemispheres and contributed to the 
determination of the magnetic equator. 

Geography owes to him also, maps of the Caroline Islands and Dangerous Archipelago. 
He was the author of several memoirs published in the " Atmales Maritim»sJ^ Ac., ftc. The 
great merit of his labours, particularly those on terrestrial magnetism, gained him admission 
into the Acad^mie des Sciences, in 1842. He died in August, 1865. 


Frederick Bullock entered the Navy, the 28th of November, 1804, on board the 
Indefatigable 46, Captains Graham Moore and J. T. Rodd, employed in the Channel : 
removed, in February, 1806, to the Fanu 74, commanded successively by Captains Richard 
Henry Alexander Bennett and Walter Bathurst, on the Mediteranean station ; and having 
passed his examination in 181 1, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant, 22nd January, 
1 8 12. His appointments in the latter capacity, were — i6th April following, to the PapiUm 
sloop. Captain James Hayes, in the Gut of Gibraltar — next, to the Fearless g-un-brig. Lieu- 
tenant Commander Harry Lord Richards, in which he was wrecked, 8th E^cember, i8i2, 
near Cadiz — 3rd November, 181 3, to the Revolutiannaire 38, Captain John Charles Woolcomb, 
on the East India station, whence he invalided, in October, 1814 — loth March, 1823, to the 
command of the Snap surveying vessel, on the Newfoundland station, in which, in 1824, he 
accompanied Captain George Francis Lyon, from England to the coast of Labrador, when 
that officer sailed on his voyage of discovery to the Arctic regions — and, 4th December, 
1827, to the command of the Eclio steamer at Woolwich. 

He attained the rank of Commander, 26th August, 1829; was borne as a Supernumerary, 
from October following until 1836, on the books of the WilUam and Mary ydicht, Qa.p(B,m& 
John Chambers White and Sir Samuel Warren ; and on 8th June, 1837, was appointed to 
the Boxer. Although advanced to Post-rank, 28th June, 1838, Captain Bullock continued 
in the Boxer until transferred, 8th March, to the Fearless^ another steamer. 

His next appointments were, ist January, 1843, and ist July, 1844, to the Tartarus^ and 
Porcupine steam surveying vessels. He paid off the Porcupme^ in which he had been employed 
in the river Thames, 30th October, 1847 ; but continued attached to the surveying service, 
with his name on the books of the /ils^ar^, until the summer of 1853; on 8th Aug-ust, in 
which year, he was awarded a pension for wounds. He was advanced to Flag-rank, 2nd 
October, 1857. 

Rear-Admiral Bullock was elected a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in 1830. 
He rose upon the retired list to the rank af Admiral, and died February the 6th, 1874, in 
his eighty seventh year. 

Many of the charts resulting from bis surveys have been superseded by modern product-* 
tions ; of those yet remaining are the following : 


Fogs Island to Partridge Point. Thames River, London to Gravesend. 

La Scie Harbour, do. Gravesend to the Nore, 

Cutwell Harbour, do. Sheet 3 : Sea Reach. 

Triton Harbour. do. Sheet 4 : Gravesend Reach. 

Fortune Harbour. Medway River 1 Sheet i. 

do. Sheet 2. 

North Foreland to Orfordness, 
His chief work was a survey qf the River Thames, which was executed upon a scale of 
six inches to the mile, in 24 sheets. 

He was the inventor of what was considered an improved form of protractor by many 
nautical surveyors and draughtsmen, and of a patent log, the principle of which, consisted 
of the tension produced upon a line, as indicated by a special spring balance, by towing* 
astern a cylindrical-shaped piece of heavy wood — In smooth water, and at a fixed rate of 
speed, this log v^as found to accurately demote the speed of a ship. 



Hydrographer, Nov. 26th, 1823, to May i8th, 1823. 

November, 1825, to March 25th, 1827. 

November ist, 1827, to July 20th, 1829. 


The Walkers, Kendall, Skyring, 'Wickham, Modexa, Back, Roe, BougainTille, Beechey, Copeland, 
P. Stokes, Zahrtmann, Kolff, Lutke, D'UrvUle, Dillon, Boteler, Foster, Mudge, Denham, Bamett, 
R. Owen, Slater, Moresby, Peytier, James Ross, Biscoe. 

Sir William Edward Parrv, bom December, 1790, at Bath, was foarth son of Dr. C. H. 
Parry, F.R.S., an eminent pnysician in that city. 

This officer entered the Navy, June, 1803, as volunteer, on board the Vtlle De Paris, 
Captain Ricketts, bearing the flag of the Hon. Wm. Comwallis, in the Channel ; where, 
and in the Baltic, he continued employed as Midshipman and Master's Mate on board the 
Tribune and Vanguard, Captains Baker and Glynn, until promoted to the rank of Lieutenant, 

ianuary, 1810. In the Vanguard h^ commanded a gun-boat attached to the ship, in which 
,e came into frequent action with the Danish flotilla. 
Zealous in his profession, intelligent and ambitious, Parry soon recommended himself to 
notice, and after his promotion to Lieutenant's rank, was appointed in February, 1 810, to 
the Alexandria 32, Captains Quilliam and Cathcart, in which vessel, besides affording 
protection to the Spitzbergen whale fishery, he was employed in making astronomical 
observations, and preparing the Admiralty Charts, which were much prized, of Balta Sound, 
of the Voe, a harbour in the north-eastern part of the Shetland Islands, and of various 
places on the coasts of Denmark and Sweden. It was here that he first became acquainted 
with that frozen ocean, amidst the dangers and difficulties of which he was destined to earn 


At the commencement of 1813, Lieutenant Parry proceeded in the Sceptre, Captain 
Honyman, to North America, for the purpose of joining La Hogue, Captain Hon. T. B. 
Capel. On the 8th of April, in the following year, having accompanied a detachment 
of boats under the orders of Captain Richard Coote to the neighbourhood of Pettipaque 
Point, on the river Connecticut, he there contributed to the destruction of 27 of the enemy's 
vessels, three of which were heavy privateers. In the course of 18 14, Lieutenant Parry 
furnished many of the junior officers on the Halifax station with copies of his " Practical 
Rules for observing at Night by the Fixed Stars," a treatise which was afterwards published 
in order to " facilitate the acquisition of a species of knowledge highly conducive to the 
welfare of the naval service." In August, 1814, he exchanged into the Maidstone 36, and he 
next, in July, 18 15, and January and June, 1816, became in succession attached to the 
Ardent 64, Carron 20, and Niger 38, all on the North American station. On his return 
to England in 181 7 the extraordinary changes reported to have taken place in the state of 
the Polar Sea determined the Government to equip an expedition for Arctic discovery. 
This was the turning point in Parry's life. Like most men of enterprise, he seized the 
occasion, and determined to devote himself to Arctic adventure. There are but few who 
have not, at sometime, the chance of distinction, and Parry took advantage of his. In 
January, 1818, he obtained command of the Atexander brig, hired for the purpose of 
accompanying an expedition to the Arctic Regions under Captain John Ross, with whom he 
returned home in the following November ; the result of this expedition was the restoration 
to our maps of the outline of Baffin Bay, and the re-discovery of the famed Lancaster 
Sound. A new expedition was then determined on, and the conduct of it entrusted to 
Lieutenant Parry, who was consulted in the choice both of his ships and officers. He 
accordingly assumed command January, 18 19, of the Hecla bomb, and in the early part of 
the ensuing May sailed from Deptford in company with the Gn^^r gun- brig, Lieutenant- 
Commander Liddon, for the purpose of carrying out the object of his mission — the discovery 
of a north-west passage. In the course of the voyage, which, although not thoroughly 
successful, exceeded in its general results the most sanguine expectations of its projectors. 
Lieutenant Parry penetrated to long. 1 1 3° 54' 43" W., within the Arctic circle, and thereby 
obtained for the expedition the sum of x 5,000, the amount of a Parliamentary reward 
which had been promised to such as should cross the meridian of iio^ W. from Greenwich, 
in the latitude of 74^44' 20^'. In the following spring, by an overland journey, he discovered 
Liddon gulf, where his broken cart remained to be seen by M'Clintock thirty years 
afterwards. A full narrative of his proceedings will be found in a volume, published by him 
in 1822, entitled '* Journal of a Voyage for the Discoverv of a North-West Passage in 
1819-20." The Hecla and Gn^^ re-entered the Thames aoout the middle of November, 

1820, and were paid off at Deptford the ensuing month. In November, Lieutenant Parry 
was advanced to the rank of Commander, and on Z9th December, the Bedfordian gold 
medal of the Bath and West of England Society for the Encouragement of Arts, 
Manufactures and Commerce, was unanimously voted to him. With the sum of 500 guineas 
subscribed for the purpose, "The Explorer of the Polar Sea" was afterwards presented 
with a silver vase highly embellished with devices emblematic of his arctic voyages, and 
March, 1821, the city of Bath presented its freedom to him in a box of oak, highly and 
appropriately ornamented. 

Although this voyage, like the last, failed in its main object, much valuable geographical 
knowledge resulted from it, and considerable information as to the Esquimaux tribes of that 
region was obtained. On returning to England, Parry was promoted to the rank of Captain, 
and in another year found himself once more on his way to the frozen North, in order, if 
possible, to co-operate with an overland expedition under Franklin. For this purpose the 
Fury^ bomb, with the Hecla^ commanded by Captain G. F. Lyon, sailed from the Nore, May, 

182 1. After passing two winters in the Polar regions, the first to the northward of 
Southampton Island, and the second at Ingloolik, a small island in latitude 69°2i'N., 
longitude 81^44' W., ^^^ expedition with its object still unattained, but with the acquisition 
of n^uch important geographical knowledge, returned to England November, 1823. 


Captain Parry was then made Hydrographer, which post was rendered vacant by the death 
of Captain Thomas Hurd a few months previously. In December, 1823, the freedom of 
the city of Winchester was presented to him, and he then undertook the charge of a fresh 
expedition for the north Polar regions, sailing in May, 1824, with the ffecla and Fury^ the 
latter being commanded by Captain H. P. Hoppner. 

During his absence, the duties of hydrographer were undertaken by Mr. Michael Walker, 
the chief draughtsman, afterwards assistant hydrographer at the Hydrographic Office, under 
the immediate supervision of Mr. Croker, the first Secretary to the Board of Admiralty. 
The first winter of this expedition was spent at Port Bowen, of Prince Regent's Inlet, where 
the two vessels remained from September, 1824, to July, 1825. The Fury was shortly 
afterwards wrecked, and the Hecla thus became compelled to return forthwith to England 
with the double ship's company, where she arrived in October, 1825. On his return, 
Captain Parry resumed the duties of hydrographer, which duty he continued to perform 
until March, 1827. The freedom of the borough of Lynn had been voted him in 
December, 1825, in testimony of the high sense entertained by the corporation of his 
meritorious and enterprising conduct. 

Still directing his attention to Arctic research, in January, 1827, he offered to carry out a 
scheme which had been proposed in z8 18 by Sir John Franklin and Rear- Admiral Beechey, 
to attempt reaching a high northern latitude by travelling over the Spitzbergen ice with 
boats carried upon sledges. With this scheme in view, again leaving the hydrographership 
in the hands of Mr. Walker, he sailed in the Hecla in March, 1827, leaving that vessel in 
Trewvenburg bay, lat. 79® 55' 20" N., long. 16** 48' 45" E., in June following, and then took to 
his sledge boats. But an unexpected impediment presented itself, for the ice over which he 
travelled was found to move southward at almost the same rate that his party advanced 
northward, and he was most unwillingly compelled to retrace his steps, having proceeded 
to 80^ 45' N. latitude, or farther towards the pole than any of his predecessors. Captain 
Parry brought home and paid the Hecla off in November, 1827, and on the following day 
took up his duties again as Hydrographer to the Admiralty, which he continued to perform 
up to May, 1829. In April of the same year he received the honour of Knighthood. 
Captain Francis Beaufort succeeded him as Hydrographer. 

In May, 1 829, Parry was appointed Commissioner for the management of the affairs of 
the Australian Agricultural Company, and in pursuance of the duties of that office, took up 
his residence at Port Stephens, about 60 miles to the northward of Sydney. Before leaving 
England, in addition to Knighthood, he was made a D.C.L. of Oxford. 

Returning once more to England after an absence of five years, and having resigned the 
duties of his Australian appointment into the hands of Captain P. P. King, R.N., he was 
made Assistant Poor Law Commissioner in the county of Norfolk, but did not long hold an 
appointment so uncongenial to his tastes. In April, 1837, Sir Edward Parry was appointed 
to organise and conduct a newly-created department of the Admiralty under the title of 
Comptroller of Steam Machinery, and it was during the time that he remained in this office 
that the screw propeller, now indispensable to our fleets, was introduced into the Navy. 

Early in 1847, in consequence of failing health from over work, he resigned this also, and 
became Captain Superintendent of Haslar Hospital. In 1853, the Lieutenant Governorship 
of Greenwich Hospital falling vacant, he accepted it. Disease, however, had begun its 
ravages, and under the direction of his medical advisers, he determined to try the waters of 
Ems. On his way to those baths he was detained by exhaustion at Coblentz, and only 
reached Ems to die, at the age of 65 years. Thus ended the career of one of the most 
distinguished officers of that time, who had spent his days in active usefulness, and whose 
life was remarkable, not only for its varied character, but also for the genuine and unaffected 
piety which pervaded it. 

. During Sir Edward Parry's first absence from the Hydrographic Department, 1823 to 1825, 
an inquiry was instituted by Sir G. Cockbum, then First Sea Lord, which resulted in an 
effort at reorganisation, but no naval chief was appointed to do duty in Sir Edward Parry's 
absence, and owing to the unfortunate state of affairs the department had been for some 



time passing through, great losses were sustained in the shape of original surveys and other 
documents. Valuable surveys which had taken years to execute, owing to the apparent 
opposition which existed against making use of them, never found their way into the 

In 1825, Sir Edward Parry having returned from the Arctic, resumed his duties as 
Hydrographer, and was enabled to get Lieutenants A. B.^ Becher and Sheringham attached 
to his Department, for the purpose of compiling nautical directions to accompany the 
charts. Still, rather a troubled condition of matters continued, for it is evident that Mr. 
Croker, the secretary before alluded to, was using his energy and strong will not altogether 
in favour of the department. 

In 1 825, the first Catalogue of Admiralty Charts was published. It was divided into eighteen 
geographical headings or sections, the number of charts amounting to 736. Of these, 
the majority consisted of small sketches or plans, sold at the price of sixpence, and they 
can by no means be taken as typical of charts or plans of modern times. No accompanying 
directions were up to this time issued or published by the Admiralty. 

In 1827, when Sir Edward Parry again left the Hydrographic Office to assume the 
command of an expedition to endeavour to reach the North Pole by boats, Mr. John 
Walker, the chief draughtsman, was again left in charge. In the same year, the Duke of 
Clarence, Lord High Admiral, and several of the old officers, among them Captain Peter 
Heywood and W. F. Owen, who had formerly been so unceremoniously dismissed, lost no 
time in making an appeal to His Royal Highness as to the state of the Hydrographic 
Department. The Duke was not slow to act ; he wrote with his own hand an order for six 
extra draughtsmen to be entered on the establishment to prepare the documents, long lying 
idle, for engraving; that the surveying captains who had been employed abroad were 
likewise to prepare their works for the same purpose ; that the officers of the Hydrographic 
Department were to be exclusively under the orders of their immediate chief; and that one 
of his own Council at the Board was to be considered the presiding officer of the establish- 
ment in case of any reference to the Board. 

Matters were now in better training, and great advancement was made for a time. Shortly 
after Sir Edward Parry's return in November, 1 827, however, and when he had again resumed 
his position as Hydrographer, the Duke of Clarence retired. Narrow views again got the 
upper hand in spite of Sir Edward Parry's eflforts to the contrary, and seeing no prospect of 
conducting the duties with advantage to the service, or credit to himself, he resigned the 
appointment. His view of the Hydrographic Department is said to have been '' that it 
made him the Director of a Chart Dep6t for the Admiralty, rather than the guide or 
originator of Maritime Surveys." Sedentary pursuits never quite suited him, and becoming 
conscious, that situated as he found himself, the times were requiring something more of 
him than he considered, under the circumstances, he could give, he very \^isely tendered 
his resignation. He was succeeded about July, 1829, by Captain (afterwards Rear-Admiral 
Sir) Francis Beaufort, and with this appointment a new era seemed likely to open upon the 
Hydrographic Department, as well as the Surveying Service. 

So far, Hydrography had been regarded as a kind of hybrid institution, the office at the 
Admiralty inviting, as it were, the opposition of the civil element at Whitehall, while the 
Surveying Service abroad was calculated to encounter the ill-will of the naval authorities 
afloat, from the circumstance that it was necessary that the officers composing it should be 
in a measure independent of their authority. 

The originators of the Department, as will have been seen, contemplated but a very 
narrow sphere of action for it, and did not foresee the calls which the vast requirements of 
commerce and navigation would make upon the nation at no distant time, or that it would 
be the special mission of this country, foremost among the maritime States of the world, 
principally to provide for these wants. 

The Department under Parry continued to fight its way into life, inch by inch, and was long 
regarded as a monster, swallowing annually so many thousands, estimated for the regular navy. 


It may have had other enemies besides Mr. Croker, but certainly none holding so prominent 
a position, or a position in which disregard could be so effectively applied. Mr. Croker 
was a Fellow of the Royal Society, a title which in those days had more importance 
attached to it than in the present sceptical epoch, for the Royal Society boasted fewer 
sleeping partners in 1 82 1 than in the present day. Doubtless he had his duty to do, or 
what he regarded as his duty, in a financial way, viz., to keep down the expenses of the 
Admiralty as well as of the navy generally. He saw the original estimate of /'450 for the 
Department, rolling and swelling at a dangerous rate of speed. It is possible that a youthful 
Department, promising such rapid growth as did the Hydrographic, appeared likely 
to soon exceed the limits of his control. Looked upon from his point of view, it may have, 
appeared an institution of highly-skilled map makers, who, encouraged by a few enthusiastic 
naval officers, were likely to make work for work (not without profit's sake). It has been 
said that he imposed upon the traditional credulity of the naval members of the Board, using 
the oft repeated arguments so dear to the naval mind — that they had managed to navigate 
ships and conduct opesations without such scientific charts in their day ; why, therefore, 
should not the navy of the period, and posterity, do the same ? 

Mr. Croker was listened to, and that his advice carried great weight there can be no 
doubt, but the sheer vitality of the Department saved it. It could not be quite done 
without, and being allowed to exist at all, it was bound to grow, increase, multiply, improve. 

The progress and changes amongst the naval surveying vessels at home and abroad 
between 1823 and 1829, were not numerous. 

In January, 1825, the Blossom^ of 24 guns, was fitted out by Commander F. W. Beechey, 
who had been the Chief Surveying Assistant to Captain Smyth in the Mediterranean, for a 
voyage round the world. Lieutenant Edward Belcher, who afterwards commanded the 
Sulphur and Samarang^ was appointed as the Second Lieutenant and Assistant Surveyor. 

In September the Mastiffs brig, under Commander Richard Copeland, succeeded the 
Adventure in the Mediterranean, which latter vessel, in the same month was commissioned 
by Captain P. P. King, with the Beagle^ under Captain P. Stokes, for a survey of the coast 
of South America and Magellan Strait. 

In November, 1826, Lieutenant Bayfield was made a Commander, and continued with 
hired appliances his extensive operations in connecting Lakes Erie, Huron, and Superior, 
with the river St. Lawrance. 

In December, 1826, Lieutenant Frederick Bullock, who had been in command of the 
Snap^ employed on the sutvey of Newfoundland, appears in command of the steam vessel, 
Echo^ at Woolwich. This (1826) was the year also in which Captain Dillon first got trace of 
the expedition of La Perouse, which he induced the authorities in India to allow him to 
successfully follow up the next year in their surveying vessel, the Investigator. 

In February, 1827, Captain W. F. Owen, who had returned from his great African survey 
in the preceding autumn, was appointed to the command of the Eden for special service, in 
the first instance directed towards the formation of a British colony at Fernando Po. 
Commander Boteler, too, who had served throughout Captain Owen's campaign, latterly, 
and for the greater part of the time as first Lieutenant of the Barracouta, and from whose 
journal so much of the narrative of that expedition has been culled, was appointed to the 
command of the Secia for a continuation of the surv^ of the West Coast of Africa, in the 
first instance between Cape Roxo and Cape Verd. H.M.S. Chanticleer^ under Commander 
H. Foster, who had accompanied Basil Hall in the Conway^ on the coasts of South 
America, and Captain Parry in his search for a N.W. passage, was commissioned in 
December of this year for special surveying service, in the former part of the world, in 
which further pendulum observations were to form a part. Commander William Mudge, 
Captain Owen's former first Lieutenant, was also engaged this year in surveys of the N.W., 
and afterwards the N.E. coast of Ireland. Lieutenant Denham, in December, assumed the 
command of the Linnet for the examination of part of the north coast of France. 


In 1828, Lieutenant £. Bamett succeeded to the command of the Linnet for the survey, 
which was still being continued, amongst the Channel Islands. Commander R. Fitzroj had 
been appointed by the Commander-in-Chief in South America to the command of the 
Beagle^ vacant by the unfortunate death of Captain P. Stokes, November 23rd. 

In May, 1829, the Blossom having returned under Captain Beechey from her voyage round 
the world, was commissioned by Commander Richard Owen, who had been serving in the 
Bristol Channel survey, for the West Indies, in succession to the KangaroOy Master 
Commander De Mayne, which vessel had returned to England the previous year. Lieutenant 
Michael Slater was appointed to survey part of the east coast of England in the neighbour- 
hood of the Tyne. 

The officers most prominent amongst the East Indian nautical surveyors at about 
this time, besides Captain Brucks already alluded to and Lieutenant Haines, were Captain 
R. Moresby, who had executed a survey of the Tavoy River in 1824, and who, at the 
close of 1829, was selected by the Indian Government to conduct the survey of the 
northern half of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez in the Palinurus^ while Captain Elwon, in 
the Benares^ undertook the southern part, from Jiddah to Bab-el-Mandeb. 

From foreign nations the following were the chief contributions to Hydrography : — 

In March, 1824, Captain Bougainville left Brest in the Thtti% for an exploratory voyage, 
more especially directed to the neighbourhood of Pondicherry, Java, and the Eastern 

In 1826, Captain Zahrtmann, of the Danish Royal Navy, obtained some chronometrical 
measurements in the West Indies. Lieutenant Kolff, of the Dutch Navy, surveyed part of 
the Moluccas in the brig Dourga. 

Captain Lutke, in command of the Russian frigates Seniavine and Moller, sailed September 
I St for a voyage of research amongst the Aleutian Islands to Awatska Bay, across the 
Pacific to Fetropaulski and Manila, thence home by the Cape of Good Hope. 

Captain D'Umont D*Urville, in VAstrolahey sailed from Toulon in April of this year, on 
the first of his celebrated voyages. 

In 1828, Le Saulnier, with the brigs, Badine and Aisactenne, sounded on the West Coast 
of France, proceeding to Cape Finisterre, and correcting the Spanish Hydrographer, 
Tofino, in certain positions. 

In the early part of 1829, previous to Sir Edward Parry's resignation and shortly 
before Captain Beaufort became Hydrographer, the following Admiralty surveys were in 
progress : — 

Captain P. P. King Adventure South America. 

Commander R. Fitzroy Beagle Ditto. 

Commander H. Foster Chanticleer Ditto. 

Commander T. Boteler Hecla West Africa. 

Commander R. Owen Blossom For West Indies. 

Commander R. Copeland Mastiff Mediterranean. 

Commander H. Bayfield Hired Boats Canada. 

Commander W. Mudge Hired Boats Ireland. * 

Commander W. Hewett Protector North Sea. 

Lieutenant £. Bamett Linnet Chsumel Islands. 

Lieutenant M. Slater Hired Boats River TVne. 

Lieutenant F. Bullock Echo River Thames. 

Lieutenant H. M. Denham Hired Boats Bristol Channel. 

George Thomas, Esq Investigator Shetland Islands. 

Captain W. F. Owen Eden Particular SeAice. 

Lieutenants Wickham and Graves were under Captain King, the latter commanding the 
tender to the Adventure, Lieutenant Skyring, who afterwards was so foully murdered on the 
West Coast of Africa, continued as Supemumeraiy Lieutenant and Surveyor in the Beagle. 


With Commander Richard Owen, in the BlossoMyWZA Lieutenant Bird Allen ; and Lientenants 
Horatio Austin and Kendall were in the Chanticleer, nnder Commander Foster. 

Besides Lieutenants Badgley and Mercer, Captain W. F. Owen, in the Eden^ had with him 
Lieutenant H. Kellett. 

The Hydrographic Department consisted of Sir Edward Parry, Hydrographer ; John 
Walker, Esq., Assistant Hydrographer ; Michael and Thomas Walker and one other 
draughtsman, and one clerk* 

The number of charts, plans and views available for issue and sale, as shown in the 
published catalogue of 1829, amounted to 942. 

It was customary at this period to print brief sailing directions upon the charts and plans, 
but in addition to this method, the following were separately published by the Admiralty : — 

Directions for Coasts of Spain, Portugal and Balearic Islands. 
Directions for the North oea. 
Coast of Karamania Pilot. 
Description of the Coasts of Nova Scotia. 
Memoir on the navigation of South America. 

Description of the Coast of Africa between Cape Blanco and Mount Sowzoo, translated from the 
French of Baron Rousson, by Lieutenant J. Badgley, R.N. 

The Agents for the Admiralty Charts at this time consisted of Messrs* Wyld, Arrowsmith, 
Norie, and Laurie, in London ; J. and A. Walker, of Liverpool ; and J. king, of Bristol. 
Later on, in 1 829, by Captain Beaufort's suggestion, and mainly to save the trouble and 
time of corresponding with so many firms, Bate, of the Poultry, was appointed sole chart 
agent to the Admiralty, and permitted to employ as many sub-agents as he considered 
necessary, both at home and abroad. 

Sir Edward Parry was made an LL.D. of Oxford before his death ; he was also a fellow 
of the Royal Society's of London and Edinburgh, and a member of the Imperial Academy 
of Sciences of St. Petersburgh. Amongst the works written by him were : — 

Astronomy by Night. 

The Parental Character of God. 

Journal of four voyages for tiiie discovery of a N.W. passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 

including an attempt to reach the North Pole» 1819-27, 4 vols. 4i^, 1823-28. 
Lecture on the Character, Condition, and Responsibilities of British Seamen, iitno. 185^. 
He was also associated with three papers published in the transactions of the Royal Soaety. 

His personal character and worth appear to have been well summed up in a few lines 
quoted in the memoir of his life by his son, the Rev. E. Parry : — 

'* Both sex's virtues were in him combined : 
He had the firmness of the manliest mind. 
And all the tenderness of woman-kind. 
He never knew what envy was, nor hate. 
His soul was filled with worth and honesty. 
And with another thing quite out of date. 
Called modesty.*' 


Mr. John Walker, bom in 1787, acted in the capacity of Assistant Hydrographer to 
Captain Hurd, R.N., as well as to Sir Edward Parry, and was the founder of a family who 
gained considerable reputation as map engravers to the English Government. He had 
worked privately for Alexander Dalrymple, the first hydrographer, and through him became 
connected with the Admiralty in 1 796, the year after the formation of the Hydrographic 
Office. His name also appears on the maps of Vincent's Nearchus, on that of Lett's 
Abyssinia, and on many others' of that period. 

Sir Edward Parry immortalized the name of John Walker by attaching it to a lofty Cape, 
in the far north, well-known to many of the Arctic travellers of the old school. 

John Walker, under Mr. Croker, the secretary of the Admiralty, for 3ome time conducted 
the scientific and technical portion of the duties of Hydrographer ; the professional, or 


that which related to the connection between the Naval Surve3dng Officers and the Hydro- 
graphic Department, having, during the absence of Sir William Parry, fallen back almost 
into the same condition that they were found in by Captain Hurd when he succeeded 
Dalrymple in 1818. 

Mr. John Walker, who left the Admiralty in 1831, and died on the 26th of July of the 
same year, left four sons, John, Michael, Thomas, and Charles ; these continued in the same 
sphere as their father, each bringing to bear great powers of perseverance, judgment and 
ability upon their special tasks. Of these, Mr. John Walker succeeded Captain Horsburgh, 
as Hydrographer to the India Office in 1836. He was employed as early as 1825 by the 
East India Company to construct the India Atlas, which was designed to occupy 1 77 sheets 
(40 inches by 27) on the globular projection and scale of four miles to an inch ; of which 
84 were completed by him. The numerous other maps and charts, including 87 from 
surveys executed by officers of the Indian Navy, are described by Mr. Clements Markham, 
C.B., F.R.S., in the second edition of his Memoir on the Indian Surveys, p. 405. He also 
tells us that engraving was Mr. John Walker's special work, "that his duties as a cartographer 
were admirably performed," and that there had always been the highest testimony to the 
accuracy and excellent style in which the numerous sheets of the Indian Atias were 

This Mr. John Walker, junior, was the depository of official traditions at the India Office, 
extending, over half a century, and his well-stored memory frequently proved of great value 
to his successors. Just before his death he received a complimentary letter, which was 
addressed to him by order of the Secretary of State for India, on the value of his long and 
zealous services. 

He died in his 86th year, April 19th, 1873, having been in the employ of the East India 
Company and the India Office for 48 years. Of him, Colonel (now General) Walker, th^ 
head of the Great Indian Trignometrical Survey, who had been deputed to make the 
necessary arrangements for the completion of the Indian Atlas, writes : — '' He alone knew 
anything about the theoretical principles or the practical details of the system of projection 
on which the sheets of the Indian Atlas had been constructed hitherto." When his health 
broke down there was no one to take his place, consequently most of the new sheets had 
not yet been commenced, for he had not been able to construct the projections and put the 
materials together. On the other hand, the completion, of the copper-plates, which were 
actually in the hands of the engravers, was progressing very slowly, for want of funds to pay 
the engravers. Mr. Walker had been in the habit of paying all the expenses of engraving 
from his private means in the first instance, and sending in bills to the India Office after 
the completion of the work ; but for upwards of ten years he had not taken any steps even 
to reimburse himself for the large advances which he must have made, and hence the 
operations languished for want of funds. 

Out of deference and regard to the great family of geographers and engravers, by one of 
the members of which, the Atlas had hitherto been brought out so admirably, an arrange- 
ment was made with Mr. Charles Walker, a younger brother of the deceased, who had 
once been in partnership with him, but had long retired from business, for the completion 
of the plates actually in the hands of the engravers ; but Mr. Charles Walker died very 
suddenly and unexpectedly, while the arrangement was under discussion. There was no 
other member of the family who was in a position to take his place, and thus the connexion 
of the Walker family, with the great Indian geographical work with which its name had 
been so long connected, became dissolved, and the copper-plates and geographical materials 
were collected together and returned to the India Office. 

Of the remaining brothers, Michael and Thomas, who were employed at the Admiralty as 
chart draughtsmen, the first was the more important official, and as such, better known to 
naval surveying officers of the past 30 years. He left the Admiralty shortly after Rear- 
Admiral Washington's death in about the year 1864, and died in February, z868. Thomas 
Walker who, though excellent in all respects, was hardly his brother's equal in talent and 
powers of work, left the Admiralty in 1865, and died May lothi 1 881, at an advanced age. 





Edward Nicholas Kendall entered the Navy 26th October, 18x4, and passed his examina- 
tion in 1 822. He served in the expedition to the Polar Sea, under Sir John Franklin, in 
1857, on which occasion he completed the survey of the Great Bear Lake, and as the 
companion of Dr. Richardson, was the surveyor who delineated the north coast of America 
between the Mackenzie and Copper Mine Rivers. Following the shores of two extensive 
bays named respectively Liverpool and Franklin, and discovering Wollaston Land, he 
advanced sufficiently far up Coronation Gulf to join the survey where it had formerly been 
discontinued by Captain Franklin. Fort Franklin, in the Great Bear Lake, was successfully 
reached September the ist, 1826, the length of coast examined being 902 miles; he was 
awarded a commission, dated 30th April, 1827. Lieutenant Kendall was next appointed 
Second Lieutenant and Assistant Surveyor of H.M.S. ChanHcleer^ Commander Foster, 
which made a scientific voyage to South America between the years 1827-30. 

Besides contributing the descriptive hydrography to the account of that voyage, which 
was edited by Lieutenant A. B. Beecher, a paper giving an account of the Island of 
Deception, one of the New Shetland islands, from his pen, was communicated by Sir John 
Barrow to the Royal Geographical Society, read in January, 1831,* and published in the 
journal of that year. In it. Lieutenant Kendall points out that the South Shetland Islands, 
said to have been discovered by Mr. William Smith, Commander of the brig William^ on 
his voyage from Monte Video to Valparaiso, were more correctly only re-discovered, for 
that " Dirck Gheritz, who commanded one of five ships which sailed from Rotterdam in 
1598 to make a Western passage to India, became separated from his companions off Cape 
Horn, and carried by tempestuous weather as far as latitude 64° S., where he discovered a 
high country, with mountains covered with snow, resembling the Coast of Norway, and 
there can be no doubt, that this was the group of islands in question." 

After describing Smith Island of this group, and giving an account of Deception Island, 
on the south-east side of which, in a small cave, the Chanticleer was secured, as well as of a 
remarkable lake or internal sea, having an opening about six hundred feet in width, here 
situated, on the 8th of March, 1829, after a stay of two months, the Chanticleer took her 
departure, not without difficulty, owing to the fury of the gales which had blown down all 
the tents of the Surveyors, and broken many of the instruments. 

Lieutenant Kendall died on the 12th of February, 1845, at Southampton, in his 45th year. 
At the period of his death he was Superintendent of the Peninsula and Oriental Steam 
Packet Company ; as such he wrote : — 

Remarks on Steam Navigation between England and Australia, iimo, Southampton, 1842. 

Apart from his Arctic Explorations, he is quoted as the authority for the following charts 

engraved by the Admiralty : — 

Staten Island of TieiTa del Fuego. 
St. Martin Cave „ „ 

LIEUTENANT J. MODERA (Netherlands). 


An expedition in the Netherlands corvette Triton and Colonial schooner Iris was formed 
in 1828, with a view to establish a settlement on some convenient spot on the west coast of 
New Guinea. 

During the voyage out the greater portion of the south-west coast of that island was 
partially surveyed, the general trending only, of which, had been previously ascertained. 

* R, G, S, youmal for 183 1, p. 62. 


A brief sketch of the progress of discovery on these shores may furnish a suitable intro- 
duction to this vo3rage. The Portuguese claim the discovery of New Guinea for Abreu and 
Serrano, who were despatched from Malacca to the Spice Islands, by Albuquerque, in i5ii« 

Abreu proceeded no farther than Amboyna, and Serrano was wrecked on one of the 
neighbouring islands, so that it is not likely that either discovered New Guinea, although 
they might have heard of its existence from the natives of Amboyna. 

The discovery may, with more justice, be attributed to Alvaro de Saavedra, who was sent 
from the Moluccas on a voyage of discovery to the eastward in 1527. Many of the bays 
and headlands on the north coast were named by the Portuguese, and these were retained on 
a Dutch chart published at Amsterdam as late as 1753. 

In 1537, the i^orth coast was visited by Grijalva and Alvarado, two Spaniards, who had 
been sent on a voyage of discovery from Mexico by Cortez ; and again, in 1567, by Mendana, 
who, in 1595, attempted to colonize the island of Santa Cruz, about 1,100 miles eastward of 
New Guinea, but the settlement was broken up at his death. 

The above-mentioned voyages were confined to the north coast. In 1 606, ten years after 
their arrival in the Indian Archipelago, the Dutch despatched the Duy/hen, from Bantam to 
New Guinea. She passed along the south-west coast, and stretched across to Australia, 
which was considered to be merely a continuation of the coast of New Guinea. 

In the same year Torres, after having separated from Quiros, near Vera Cruz, passed 
between New Guinea and Australia, discovering the strait which bears his name. 

In 16 16, the north coast was traced by Schouten and Le Maire, and the Dutch navigators, 
Carstens in 1623, Gerard Pool in 1636, and Tasman (second voyage) in 1644, followed the 
track of the Duyfhen, Carstens and Pool were both murdered, and as two rivers on the 
north-east coast are named in the old charts Doodslagers, or Murderers* Rivers, they probably 
met their death in the vicinity. All these navigators supposed that New Guinea was united 
to Australia, and previous to 1762 it was thus represented on the charts. 

In 1762, at the taking of Banda by the British, an original letter of Torres, describing 
his proceedings after parting with Qairos, was found by Dalrymple,*and is published in his 
collection of voyages to the South Seas. 

In 1700, Dampier, in the Roebuck^ touched at Sabuda Island, near the west coast of New 
Guinea, and passing through the strait between Waygiou and Battanta, sailed round New 
Britain, and discovered the strait which divides it from New Guinea. He then passed to 
the westward along the north coast of the latter island. Roggeveen, Carteret and 
Bougainville pursued nearly the same track as Dampier along the north coast. Cook 
touched on the south-west coast in 1770, but remained only a very short time, and had no 
friendly communication with the natives. 

In 1774, Captain Forest visited Dorey Harbour at the north-west end of New Guinea 
(page 18); and, in 1791, Lieutenant M'Cluer surveyed part of the west coast (pages 15 and 
32). D'Entrecasteaux, Duperrey, and D*UrvilIe also visited the eastern and northern coasts. 

On the 2ist of April, 1828, the Dutch corvette Triton and the Colonial schooner Iris left 
Amboyna, and after sighting Bird Island, and having passed through the group which 
stretches from the Ki Islands to Ceram, and which, until then, formed the eastern boundary 
of the Dutch Oriental possessions, they entered the channel between the Ki and Arrou 
Islands, and on the 20th of May made the coast of New Guinea in latitude 7^ 15' S. The 
following day the vessels entered Dourga Strait (discovered in 1825 by Kolff), and anchored 
off the north shore. After examination, no place suitable for a settlement having been 
found, the vessels left the strait, and on May the 2&th. sighted the village in latitude 6° 17' S. 
seen by Cook during his first voyage. On the 29th, a shoal was met with in latitude 6^ S., 
and the following day the Providential Bank was seen. 

On June 2nd, after having traced the coast for 230 miles to the north-west of Dourga 
Strait, the vessels anchored off the mouth of False Utanata River, in latitude 4^ 48' S. 


June 8th, the voyage was resumed to the north-west, and on the nth anchorage was 
found off the mouth of the Utanata River, where they remained until the 22nd, cutting 
wood and filling up with water. Continuing the voyage to the north-west on the 27th, 
having passed through a strait dividing some high islands from the main, they visited a 
village in a small cave on the north side of Aiduma Island, with a view to establishing a 
fort, but conceiving that a large land-locked bay on the main land served the purpose 
better, a fort which consisted of a square enclosure of stakes surrounding a few huts, was 
completed. To this the name of Fort du Bas was given. Two officers were sent to survey 
the neighbouring coasts, and the Iru was despatched to Amboyna for provisions and 

August the 2oth the Iris returned, having on board several guns for the fort. The 
Commander reported the arrival of the French ship U Astrolabe at Amboyna under D'Urville, 
from the South Seas, many of her crew being sick. 

August the 24th the fort was opened with much ceremony, and possession taken, in 
the name of the King of the Netherlands, of the entire west coast, and part of the north 
and south coasts of the island westward of the meridian of 141° £. on the south coast, to 
the Cape of Good Hope on the north. 

September the ist the vessels left the coast of New Guinea, and arrived at Amboyna on 
the 5th, when sixty-two men were sent ashore to the hospital, several of whom died, making 
the totsil loss of European seamen, by sickness during the voyage, amount to twenty-one. 

The following geographical positions were ascertained by the Triton during this voyage : 
— ^Bird Island (south of Banda), the north-east point of Great Ki Island, and the north- 
west point of Wassier Island (one of the Arrou Islands). 

From Amboyna the Triton continued to Timor, where the naturalists were employed in 
researches in the interior. The main hydrographic result of the voyage was the rough survey 
of the west coast of New Guinea between Fort Du Bas and Dourga Strait. (Abridged from the 
R. G. S. Journal for 1838.) 



The date of this officer's commission as a lieutenant was March 20th, 1823, but previous 
to this he had (in 1820) served under Captain Smyth in H.M.S. Aid, in the Adriatic. In 
1824, his name appears on the books of the Protector, on the east coast of England, under 
Commander W. Hewett. 

In September, 1825, he was selected as lieutenant and assistant surveyor for the Beagle, 
Captain Pringle Stokes, which vessel (with the Adventure, Captain P. P. King), fitted 
out for the survey of the South American coast, and upon the death of that officer in 
November, 1828, was appointed to the acting command by Captain King, but the 
Commander-in-chief of the station having nominated his flag-lieutenant, Robert Fitzroy, to 
the vacancy. Lieutenant Skyring was constrained to continue in his former capacity in the 
Beagle until paid off in 1830, on the 25th of February, in which year, he was made a 

In the charts resulting from the Beagles voyage, Skyring Water, in the neighbourhood of 
Magellan Strait, is named after him. 

He appears to have remained unemployed as a Commander until October, 1833, when he 
was appointed to the command of the jEtna (with the Haven, Lieutenant Arlett, as tender), 
in succession to Commander Belcher, for the continuation of the survey of the west coast 
of Africa, and was foully murdered by the natives at the Caches River, near Cape Roxo, 
December the 22nd, 1833, while executing his arduous duties as a nautical surveyor. The 
£tna, under the acting command of Lieutenant Arlett, and the Raven, under Lieutenant 
Kellett, returned to England in 1834, sailing again in December of that year, with their 
appointments confirmed for the continuation of the survey of the same coast. 




John Clements Wickham entered the navy in Febraary, 1812 ; passed his examination in 
1819; and was made Lieutenant 6th October, 1827, into the Adventure^ surveying vessel. 
Captain Philip Parker King, on the South American station, whence he returned to England 
and was paid off in November, 1830. His next appointment was in 1831, to the Beagle, 
another surveying vessel. Captain Robt. Fitzroy, with whom he returned to South America 
as First Lieutenant. He came home again at the close of 1836, and on the loth January, 
1837, he was advanced to Commander's rank. Commander Wickham was re-appointed to 
the Beagle i6th February, 1838. 

The Beagle sailed from the Swan River, Western Australia, January 4th, 1838, and having 
carefully examined the shores of Roebuck Bay, with a view towards ascertaining if Dampier 
land were an island, as had been supposed, proceeded to the northward, narrowly examined 
every part of the coast as far as Point Swan.* 

Beagle Bay, in latitude 16° 50' S., was found to afford the best anchorage on this part of 
the coast, and here Captain Wickham remained to rate chronometers and complete wood and 
water until February 9th. From Beagle Bay a course was steered for Sunday Strait, the 
plan of which, formerly commenced by Captain P. P. King, was completed. Here shelter 
was found under the largest of the islands situated on the west side of Sunday Strait, and 
named Roe's Islands, in compliment to Lieutenant Roe, who had been the senior Assistant 
Surveyor under Captain King. 

Proceeding to Cygnet Bay, a close examination of the coast to the southward was made, 
and many good anchorages were found. Having reached as far as Foul Point, Lieutenant 
J. L. Stokes was sent with two boats to trace the coast to the southward, and he found that 
the head of King Sound terminated in a river, to which the name of Fitzroy was given. 

Between King Sound and Port George IV., the shore of the main land was carefully 
traced by the same officer in quest of any considerable opening or river, but without success. 

fir ^ci-yt >. ,^ Having met Lieutenant Grey and his party, who had returned from a journey of explora- 
f r*- • ■ . tion in the interior, and receiving supplies at Swan River, the Beagle proceeded to Sydney 
for refit, before examining Bass Strait. 

In March, 1841, Commander Wickham was invalided to England, and after spending 
some time upon half-pay, obtained the appointment of a police magistrate in New South 
Wales, in which capacity he died about the year i860. 


Sir George Back, bom 6th Nov., 1796, at Stockport, in Cheshire, entered the Navy in Sept., 
1808, on board the Arethusa 38, Capt. Robt. Mends. He was present at the capture, off 
Cherbourg, of Le General JSmou/ French privateer; and, in the course of March, 1809, he 
assisted in the boats, while serving on the north coast of Spain, at the destruction of the 
batteries at Lequeytio, defended by a detachment of French soldiers — at the seizure also of 
several vessels up the River Andero — and at the destruction of the guns and signal-posts at 
Baignio, on which latter occasion he was made prisoner and sent to France, where he 
remained until May, 1814. On regaining his liberty, Mr. Back joined the Akbar 60, flag- 
ship for some time of Sir Thos. Byam Martin, at Flushing, and afterwards employed on the 
Halifax station. He became attached, in March following, to the Bulwark 76, bearing 
the flag of Sir Chas. Rowley, in the River Med way ; and, on 14th Jan., 1818, removed to the 
Trenit hired brig, Lieut.-Commander, afterwards Sir John, Franklin. After intermediately 
accompanying the voyage of discovery made to the neighbourhood of Spitzbergen under 

* R. G. S. youmal for 1838, p. 460. 


Capt David Bachany*he was, early in 1819, selected to attend the former officer in his 
expedition overland from Hudson's Bay to the Coppermine River. To Capt. Franklin's 
"Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea in 1819-2Z," we must refer our 
readers for the particulars of that undertaking— throughout every detail of which, including 
his journey on foot, in the depth of winter, from Fort Enterprise to Fort Chipewyan and 
back, a distance of 1,104 niiles. Back displayed in perfection all the qualities of a traveller of 
the most heroic cast. On ist Jan., 1821, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant, and on 
being subsequently appointed to the Superb 78, Capt. Sir Thos. Staines, visited Gibraltar and 

In Feb., 1825, Lieut. Back, after attending a public dinner given to him by his fellow- 
townsmen at Stockport, again left England with Capt. Franklin, on another expedition 
to the Arctic Regions, for the purpose of co-operating with Capts. Fred. Wm. Beechey and 
Edw. Wm. Parry, in their simultaneous endeavours to ascertain, from opposite quarters, the 
existence of a north-west passage. Capt. Franklin's " Narrative of a Second Expedition to 
the Shores of the Polar Sea in 1825-7," ^^'^ ^^^^ afford every information on the subject of 
this very interesting mission. In its execution he extended his researches to lat. 70° 24' N., 
long. 149^37' W. During this last sojourn in America Lieut. Back was promoted to the rank 
of Commander, by commission dated 30th Dec, 1825; and when Capt. Franklin, on the 
return of the expedition, set out in advance, with five of his party, from Great Bear Lake, he 
was left at Fort Franklin in charge of the other officers and men, the boats, and the collections 
of natural history, rough journals, notes, and astronomical, magnetical, and meteorological 
observations, with orders to proceed, on the breaking up of the ice, to York Factory, and 
thence to England, where he arrived loth Oct., 1827. From that period he remained on 
half-pay until appointed, early in 1833, to conduct an expedition fitted out for the purpose of 
seeking Sir John Ross, who had, in the summer of 1829, gone in quest of the long-sought 
north-west passage. A full account of the results of that harassing enterprise, in the course 
of which he had the good fortune to discover the sources of the river that now bears his 
name, Capt. Back has delineated in his " Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the 
Mouth of the Great Fish River, and along the Shores of the Arctic Ocean, in 1833-5." He 
returned to England i8th Sept., 1835, and on the 30th of the same month was advanced to 
the rank of Post-Captain. On nth May, 1836, he was next appointed to the Terror bomb; 
and, on 23 rd June following, he sailed from Papa Westra, one of the Orkneys, in command 
of a new expedition to the frigid zone. The details of his return to Lough Swilly, where he 
arrived 3rd Sept., 1837, after reaching as far only as the northward of Charles Island, in 
Hudson's Bay, were published by Capt. Back in his " Narrative of an Expedition in H.M.S. 
Terror, undertaken with a View to Geographical Discovery on the Arctic Shores, in 1836-7." 

Sir Geo. Back, who was presented, 27th Nov., 1837, with the gold medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society for his important discoveries while in search of Sir John Ross, and 
who received the honour of knighthood i8th March, 1839, was afterwards employed by the 
Treasury. He died the father of modem arctic explorers in the year i88o. 



John Septimus Roe was bom at Newbury, in Berkshire, being the seventh son of the 
Rev. James Roe, of the same place. 

He was educated at Christ's Hospital, and entered the Royal Navy as a midshipman in 
June, 1813, being then fifteen years of age, on board the Rtpon attached to the Channel 
fleet. On the 21st of October of that year he was present at the capture of Le Weser^ a 
French, 40-gun frigate. 

From August, 18 14, to January, 181 7, he served on the North American, Home, and East 
India stations in the Horatio 38, Captain William H. Dillon. On the latter station he first 
gave his attention to nautical surveying, producing more than one creditable plan. 

* See "A Voyage of Discovery towards the North Pole, performed in H.M. Ships Dorothea and Trent, under 
the command ot Capt. David Bachan, 1818."— By Capt. F. W. Beechey, R.N. ivo, Lond., 1843. 


From Febraary, 1817, until June, 1823, he was employed under Captain P. P. King, on 
surveying service in Australia, part of the time in the Bathurst sloop, of which vessel he 
was made a Lieutenant 25th April, 1822. In February, 1824, he was appointed to the 
Tamar 26, Captain James Gordon Bremer. He went through the Burmese War 1825-27, 
and was engaged at the siege of Ava. 

In December, 1828, he received the appointment of Surveyor-General for Western 
Australia, the duties of which he filled with eminent success, and to the satisfaction of both 
government and colonists, for the long period of forty-two years. He made the colony his 
home, and became a member of its Legislative and Executive Council. Commander Roe* 
was one of the first to land in the colony of Western Australia, having arrived at the mouth 
of Swan River with Captain (afterwards Admiral Sir James) Stirling, in the ship Pamulia^ 
on the I St of June, 1829, and he was present when the colony was established soon after- 
wards by proclamation. 

It fell to his duty to all the preliminary surveys of harbours, anchorages and approaches 
to Swan River, and it was on his reports that sites were chosen for Freemantle, the sea-port 
town, and Perth, the capital of the colony. For many years afterwards he was occupied in 
explorations and surveys of the coast, and the great unknown tracts in the interior. Thus, 
in 1830, he examined the country about Leschenault, the rivers Collie, Ferguson and Preston, 
Cape Naturaliste and Geographe Bay; in 1 831, the south-western angle of the continent, 
visiting King George's Sound and the neighbouring places ; in short, important work of 
this kind was performed by him almost every season until 1848-49, when he made the 
longer and more eventful journey from Swan River to the south-coast of Australia at Cape 
Pasley, and explored the desert tracts far into the interior, his narrative of which, illustrated 
by an excellent map by Arrowsmith, was published in the twenty-second volume of the 
R. G. S. JfoumaL On this hazardous and trying journey he received serious personal 
injury, which incapacitated him for further active work in the field. 

Besides being a skilled surveyor and explorer. Commander Roe was a man of intellectual 
tastes, and versed in other departments of science. He was a Fellow of the Linnean 
Society, and made during his journeys large collections in botany, zoology and mineralogy; 
many a new species from that region so prolific of strange forms has been named after him. 
He founded a Public Museum and a Mechanics' Institute at Perth, and was for many years 
the president of the latter institution. He died on the 28th of May, 1878, aged 81 years. 
At his death a public funeral with military honours was accorded to him, his intellectual and 
moral worth being duly appreciated in Western Australia. Among the surveys made by 
him, besides those made in his earlier days in the East Indies, were : — 

Fort Jackson (New South Wales). 

St. Asaph Bay and Port Cockbum (North Australia). 

Endeavour River and Percy Islands. 

He also had published in the Nautical Magattne^ vol. zi. p. 161, 299 : — 

Instructions for ships from the Cape of Good Hope to the south-west coasts of Australia, as wiell as a 
series of papers, showing grounds on which he solicits promotion to the rank of Retired 
Commander (8tv. 1861.) 



On the 2nd March, 1824, the French frigate Thetis^ under the command of Baron de 
Bougainville — the son of the celebrated navigator of the same name, who conducted in 1766 
the first voyage round the world made by the French marine in La Boudense and VEioile — 
quitted Brest. Touching at the Canaries, the Thetis anchored at the Isle of Bourbon, 
where she found her consort VEsperancty Captain Camper, May 20th, 1824. Sailing in a few 
days and having fixed the position of the southernmost group of the Maldivh Islands, 

*i?. G. S. youmalf new series, vol. i. p. 277. 


Bongainville anchored at Pondicheny, Jane 29th. Thence traversing the Bay of Bengal, 
through the straits of Malacca, by Singapore, across the China Sea to Port Cavite of Manila, 

From Manila the Thetis continued to Macao, and then examined the Island of Hainan, 
which forms the eastern side of the gulf of Tonkin. Having surveyed Tourane Bay, the 
expedition then sailed for Sourabaya, on the passage examining for the first time the 
Andaman Islands. The positions of 22 of the islands or remarkable points were accurately 

Proceeding to the southward, the Thetis ran through Caspar Strait, reconnoitered the 
Carimon-Java Islands, and anchored off Sourabaya, where the ships remained for six weeks, 
the crews suffering much from dysentery. Afterwards steering through Alias Strait, the 
shores of the Island of Lombok were examined, and the road-stead of Tanjong-Louar or 
Feejow found to be the best on the coast. Thence rounding the south-west point of 
Australia and southern extreme of Van Diemen's Land, Port Jackson was reached July ist, 
1825. On the 2ist September the vessels sailed for Valp/traiso, thence to Rio de Janeiro, 
and finally anchored at Brest 24th June, 1826. Great attention was paid during this voyage 
to meteorological and magnetic observations. The second volume of M. de Bougainville's 
work contains an itinerary from Santiago de Chili to Buenos Ayres, by M. de la Touanne, 
who adds many fine views of scenery in Cochin China, Phillipine Islands, Java, &c. 

Journal de la Navigation autour du Globe, de la frigate la Thetis et de la corvette VEsperance^ 
pendant les anndes 1824-26. Par M. le Baron de Bougainville, Capitaine de Vaisseau. 2 vols, 
440. Paris, 1837. 



Frederick William Beechey, bom Feb., 1796, entered the Navy July, 1806, on board the 
Hihemia^ bearing the flag in the Channel of Earl St. Vincent, attained the rating of Midship- 
man 8th Jan., 1807 ; and, until Jan., 1808, continued to serve in the same ship with Capts. 
Ricketts, Bedford, Conn, and Schomberg, under the latter of whom and the flag of Sir Wm. 
Sidney Smith, he escorted the Royal Family of Portugal on its flight to the Brazils in Nov., 
1 807. He next joined, with Capt. Schomberg, the Minotaur^ stationed ofl" Lisbon ; then 
accompanied the same officer and Sir W. S. Smith to Rio de Janeiro in the Foudroyant^ and, 
after a further attachment with Capt. Schomberg to the President^ came home with him in 
the Elvtahethy Capt. Curzon, early in 18 10. Mr. Beechey subsequently served for about a 
fortnight in the Cyane^ Capt. Brenton, whence, having rejoined Capt. Schomberg in the 
Astrea^ he proceeded to the Cape of Good Hope. On 20th May, 181 1, when in company, 
off Madagascar, with the Phahe and Galatea frigates, he assisted, after a warmly-contested 
action, at the capture of the RenommU^ and, on 25th of the same month, of the Niriide 
and the settlement of Tamatave. He returned to England in Sept., 18 12, on board the 
Galatea^ Capt. Losack ; and afterwards, until the receipt of his first commission, March, 
1 81 5, served in the Thisbe^ Capt. Thos. Dick, lying at Northfleet, Madagascar, Capt. Lucius 
Curtis, in the Channel, Vengeur, Capt. T. R. Ricketts, and Tonnant, flag-ship in North America 
of Hon. Sir Alex. Inglis Cochrane. While attached to the Vengeur he attended the expedition 
to New Orleans, and was in the boats on Jan., 181 5, when they swept across the Mississippi 
with a body of troops, seamen, and marines, to create a diversion in favour of the general 
attack on the American lines. As Lieutenant, his appointments appear to have been — 
Sept., 1815, to the iVir^^r, Capt. Sam. Jackson, on the North American station— Jan., 1818, 
to the Trent hired brig, Lieut-Commander (afterwards Sir) John, Franklin, whom he 
accompanied in a northern expedition under Capt. David Buchan — 22nd Jan., 1 819, to the 
Ilecia sloop, Lieut-Commander Wm. Edw. Parry, in which he penetrated to long. 11 3^ 54' 43'' 
W. within the Arctic Circle, and received in consequence part of the Parliamentary reward, 
amounting in his case to /*2oo*— and, 23rd Jan., 1821, to the Adventure sloop, Capt. W. H. 
Smyth. In Nov. following, having been appointed, in conjunction with his brother, Mr. 


Henry W. Beechey, to co-operate with the last-named vessel in conducting overland a survey 
of the North Coast of Africa, he set out from Tripoli for that purpose. The results of his 
researches, which extended as far eastward as Dema, and lasted until July, 1822, have been 
fully detailed in his "Proceedings of the Expedition to explore the Northern Coast of 
Africa from Tripoli eastward, in 182 1-2; including an account of the Greater Syrtis and 
Cyrenaica, and of the ancient cities composing the Pentapolis." He was advanced to the 
rank of Commander Jan., 1822 ; and, in Jan., 1825, received an appointment to the Blossom 
24, fitting at Woolwich for a voyage of discovery to Behring Strait, there to act in concert 
with the expeditions of Franklin and Parry in their efforts to ascertain the existence of a 
north-west passage. 

H.M.S. Blossom was commissioned by Captain Beechey in the early part of 1825, who was 
ordered to co-operate with the second Polar Expedition, under Captain Franklin, as well as 
to clear up the doubtful existence of some of the islands in the South Pacific, to survey the 
Society Islands, and to afford assistance to Mr. Collie, the naturalist of the expedition, in 
making collections of his branch of research. As lieutenants under Captain Beechey were 
Messrs. Peard, Belcher, and Wainwright ; Mr. Elson was the master, and Mr. Wolfe one 
of the midshipmen. On the 19th of May, 1825, the Blossom sailed, and on the 30th, the 
reef, known as the Eight Stones, was ascertained not to exist. The position of Fernanda 
Noronha was found on the 26th of June, 18 miles eastward of the position given in the 
East India Directory. Arriving at Rio de Janeiro on the nth of July, they remained until 
the 13th of August. In making Cape Horn on September i6th, the ship was drifted 50 
miles to the northward in 24 hours. On the 6th of October they made Mocha Island, once 
celebrated as the resort of buccaneers ; it was found deserted by Captain Strong in 1 690, and 
appeared to have remained uninhabited since. On the 8th of the same month they anchored 
at Talcahuana. 

The Blossom^ after surveying Conception Bay, put to sea on the 24th, anchored three days 
afterwards at Valparaiso, and on the 29th took final leave of the coast. Having determined 
the position of Salas y Gomez, and proved the non-existence of Washington or Coffin 
Island (reported by an American ship), the 17th of November found Captain Beechey off 
Easter Island. The gigantic busts of stone which once existed here, of which Captain 
Cook found only two remaining, while Kotzebue found nothing more than a square 
pedestal in their place, had altogether disappeared.* A serious and unpleasant dispute took 
place with the natives of Easter Island. 

On the 28th of November the Blossom reached Ducie Island, discovered by Captain 
Edwards, of H.M.S. Pandora, and on December the 3rd, Henderson or Elizabeth Island, 
so named by the Commander of the Hercules, of Calcutta, thoagh first visited by the crew 
of the Essex, an American whaler, two of whom landed here after the loss of that ship, and 
were subsequently taken off by an English whaler. 

On the 4th of December the expedition arrived at Pitcaim Island, of which an interesting 
account is given, as well as of Adams and the surviving offspring of the mutineers of the 

On the 23rd of December Deno Island was reached, which takes its name from a whale 
ship whose master supposed it had not before been seen ; but the discovery belongs to 
Captain Henderson, of the Hercules. Crescent Island was reached on the 27th, where 
about 40 natives were seen. 

On the 29th oi'Dtcem\}ej\h^ Blossom reached the Gambier Islands, discovered by Mr. Wilson 
commanding the missionary ship Duff, in 1797. This group was surveyed, and the 
respective islands named after members of the expedition, the whole being taken possession 
of, and the English ensign hoisted on shore. 

Lord Hood Island, reached on the 14th of January, 1826, also discovered by the Duff, was 

* Easter and Pitcaim Islands afford curious examples of men settling upon islands and erecting stone 
images, themselyes becoming either extinct or abandoning such islands. 


examined, and its position fixed. Clermont-Tonnerre Island, named hj Captain Duperrey, 
of the Coquilkt though in Captain Beechey's opinion, previously discovered by the Minerva^ 
was examined, and its position geographically determined, also Serle Island. 

Whit-Sunday Island, discovered by Captain Wallis in 1767, was landed on January 23rd, 
and found to be 12 miles in length and not four miles as had been supposed, and without 
inhabitants. Queen Charlotte Island, also discovered by Wallis, was approached on the 
same evening ; here the coral had so grown up that no lagoon could be perceived in the 
centre, and not a single specimen of the numerous cocoa*nut trees reported by that navigator. 

Lagoon Island, visited January 24th, preserved the appearance given of it by Captain 
Cook, and the inhabitants were found honest and friendly. 

Thrum Cap Island, one of Cook's discoveries, was examined, but landing could not be 
effected on account of the surf. Bougainville gave this island the name of les Landers, 
Egmont Island, Captain Wallis's second discovery, was examined on the 25th of January, 
but without landing. 

On the 26th of January, 1826, Barrow Island (named after the second secretary of the 
Admiralty, afterwards Sir John Barrow) was discovered by Captain Beechey ; it was 
examined and is described in his narrative. The position of Carysfort Island, of Captain 
Edwards, was determined on the 2nd of February. The next island visited was Osnaburgh 
of Carteret. The lagoon was entered by the Blossom, It bad apparently never been 
inhabited, the birds being so tame as to allow themselves to be lifted from their nests, while 
fish were taken as easily by sticks and boat-hooks as by lines. 

Lagoon Island (of Captain Bligh) was not landed upon, but its geographical position was 
determined, and remarks as to the natives were made. 

Byam Martin Island, discovered by the Blossom^ was examined, also Gloucester Island 
(Wallis), and Bow Island,* discovered in 1 768 by Bougainville. The Blossom, having navigated 
with considerable difficulty and some danger through a channel in the coral reef, was enabled 
to anchor in the lagoon. Water was procured in abundance by digging holes in the sand. 

Between Bow Island and Otaheite the positions of the following islands were determined, 
Melville Island and that of Croker being new discoveries (the former taking its name from 
Lord Melville, the first Lord of the Admiralty, the latter from Mr. Croker, the first secretary): 
Moller, Resolution, Cumberland, Prince William Henry (or Lostange), Dawahaidy, Maracan, 
Doubtful, Melville, Bird, Croker, Maitea. The discoveries of Cook and Wallis, in the 
track of the Blossom, were relatively correctly placed ; but those of Wallis were found as 
much as 40 miles in error in longitude, and several miles in latitude, which occasioned two 
of them to be mistaken for each other by Bellingshausen, and one to be considered a new 
discovery by Captain Duperrey ; but Captain Beechey considered that this navigator's 
Lostange is the same as Wallis's Prince William Henry Island. Of the 32 islands visited 12 
were inhabited, and the amount of the population was set down at 3,100 in all, of which 
1,000 belong to the Gambier Islands, 1,260 to Easter Island, leaving 840 persons only to 
occupy the other 30. 

Matavai Bav, of Otaheite, was reached March the i8th, 1826, and left on the 26th of 
April, on which date Tetharoa was reached, and Honolulu anchored at on the 20th of May. 
On the I St of June they hauled into Oneehow, the westernmost of the Sandwich Islands, 
where Vancouver anchored. Leaving this island Captain Beechey shaped course for 
Kamschatka, deviating from the tracks of Cook and Gierke, passing eastward of Bird 
Island, and on the 28th of June anchoring off Petropaulski. On the 4th of July this 
harbour was left, Behring Island passed close to, and on the 17th St. Lawrence Island 
communicated with. On the 19th of July they saw the island of King, which is described 
as small, but high and rugged. 

After sighting the Diomede Islands, fifty miles distant, and doubling Cape Prince of Wales, 
they were becalmed in Schismareff Inlet. From this inlet they sailed northward, and 
entered Kotzebne Sound on the 22nd of July, discovered Hotham Inlet and proceeded 

* Bow Island was one of the islands visited by Sir Thomas Brassey in his yacht Sunbeam in 1874'. 


directly to Chamisso Island, the rendezvous appointed (with Franklin) on the 26th of July, 
only five days behind the appointed time, subsequently examining the coast for a consider- 
able distance to the north-east in the Bbssomt and in the barge, which attained a western 
longitude of 156° 21' at Point Barrow. 

The expedition was unsuccessful in obtaining any information of the proceedings of Sir 
John Franklin, in this, their first visit to the Polar seas, and equally so in their return to the 
same latitude in the following year. The farthest tongue of land which Mr. Elson reached 
in the Blossom* s barge was named Point Barrow. It lies 126 miles to the north-east of Icy 
Cape, and is only 146 miles from the extreme of Sir John Franklin's discoveries in his 
progress westward from the Mackenzie River. 

Captain Beechey left Kotzebue Sound on the 13th of October, 1826, passing Cape 
Krusenstem, King Island, and the group of St. Paul, sailing through the strait westward of 
Oonemak, which is 9^ miles across. On the 8th of November he arrived at San Francisco, 
continuing to Monterey and thence to the Sandwich Islands, searching for Henderson and 
Cooper Islands en route. Captain Beechey anchored again at Honolulu on the 26th of 
January, 1827. After a stay of 39 days at Honolulu, Assumption Island was passed on the 
25th of March, the channel between Botel Tobago, Xima, and the Bashee Islands taken, 
and Macao arrived at April the loth. 

From thence Captain Beechey sailed for the Loo Choo Islands, where a survey of the 
port of the town of Nepa, or Papa Ching, was completed, and several excursions made. 
Loo Choo was sailed from May the 25th, 1827, and on the 6th of June the spot assigned to 
the Island of Disappointment was passed without seeing land. On the 8th they reached 
the Bonin Islands,* surveying and naming Port Lloyd in Peel Island, and a large bay at the 
north-east angle of the same island, Fitton Bay ; Parry Islands was the name given to the 
northern cluster of the Bonin Islands, and Bailey Islands to the southern cluster. Captain 
Beechey now again steered for the north, in order to try and gain tidings of Sir John 
Franklin, but without success. In the course of his voyage of this season he discovered 
Port Clarence and Grantley Harbour, and named York promontory as well as Spencer and 
Jackson points at the entrance of the former port. In October, 1827, he returned from the 
north, and on the 29th anchored at Monterey, remaining at anchor in this harbour until 
November the 17th, when he sailed for San Francisco. The Blossom afterwards put into 
San Bias and Mazatlan, taking the opportunity of examining the Tres Marias and Isabella 
Islands, an account of which he gives. On the 29th of March, 1828, crossed the 
equator in 99^40' W., and arrived at Valparaiso on the 29th of April. On the 23rd of May 
they arrived at Coquimbo, from which they finally put to sea, on their way to Brazil, passed 
the meridian of Cape Horn on the 30th of Jane, and arrived at Rio de Janeiro on the 21st 
of July. After a passage of 49 days they arrived at Spithead, and on the 12th of October, 
1828, the Blossom was paid off. Captain Beechey had been advanced to post rank on the 
8th of May, 1827. 

His next appointment was in September, 1835, to the command of H.M.S. Sulphur, to 
continue the survey of the South American coast, where Captain Fitzroy had terminated his 
operations in the Beagle. He returned from Valparaiso in the autumn of 1836, on account 
of ill-health, and was succeeded by Captain £. Belcher. 

Captain Beechey was employed from 1837 ^^^^^ 1846 in the African, Lucifer, and Firefly (the 
last of which vessels he paid off Oct., 1847), in executing a general survey of the Irish Sea. 
During that period he made a number of valuable reports, viz., — one in 1837, on the Post 
Office communication between the North of Ireland and Scotland, and on the harbours best 
adapted to that purpose — another, in 1839 (having been appointed a joint Commissioner 
for the inquiry with Rear-Admiral Sir fames Alexander Gordon), on the best line of 
communication between London and Dabfin — in 1 842, one on the works at Fleetwood, and 
on the best mode and probable expense of improving that port ; and a second, on the lands 

* Captain Beechey considered that the Bonin Islands correspond with the Yslas del Arzobispo described in 
the Navigacion Especulativa y Ftatica, published at Manila, and not with the account of them by Abel 
Remusat and Klaproth, taken from Japanese documents. 


which had been reclaimed, and on the encroachments which had been made on the rights 
of the Dachy of Lancaster around Fleetwood and on the Wyre — one, in 1845, on a proposed 
embankment on the northern shore of Belfast Channel, and on the construction of a railway 
along it — and several, in 1846, on Holyhead Harbours, besides one on the navigation of 
Menai Strait, and on certain suggestions for its improvement. He also prepared a memorial 
of artificial harbours constructed at Government expense in the Irish Sea, and a report on a 
plan proposed for improving Ardglass, and for constructing a harbour of refuge at Douglas, 
in the Isle of Man. 

Having paid off the Firefly^ Captain Beechey was in succession nominated Additional 
Captain of the Caledonia^ San Josef ^ and Impregnable, In 1848, he executed a survey of the 
Severn, from Worcester to Minehead. He had charge, in the course of the same year, of 
the pilotage of the Royal Squadron on the occasion of the Queen's visit to the Western 
Islands of Scotland ; and again, in 1849, when Her Majesty visited Cork, Waterford, Dublin, 
and Glasgow. From 1850, Rear- Admiral Beechey (who obtained flag rank Sept., 1854), 
filled an appointment at the Board of Trade, to which he became attached for the purpose 
of superintending and organizing the Mercantile Marine. In the course of the same year 
he reported upon Hull. In 1851, he was sent to quell the riots among the seamen at the 
north-eastern ports, and was nominated an Aide-de-camp to the Queen and a member of 
the committee assembled to consider the best means of searching after Sir John Franklin. 
In 1852, he was appointed to a committee on lights for sailing vessels, and also to a 
commission ordered to frame a report, which was laid before Parliament, on the western 
ports of Ireland with reference to the establishment of a Transatlantic Packet Station. 
During the same year he was employed to lay down the submarine telegraph between 
Holyhead and Dublin. In addition to other published productions of this officer, was an 
able paper on Hydrography contributed by him to the Admiralty Manual in 1848 ; and two 
others, published by the Royal Society in 1852, on the Theory and the Course of Tidal 
Streams in the Irish Sea, English Channel, and German Ocean. The papers last named 
were the means, as may be found detailed in the Transactions of the Archaeological Societv 
for 1852, of enabling the Astronomer Royal, Professor Airy, to determine the spot at which 
Julius Caesar landed on our shores. Rear-Admiral Beechey, who was a Fellow of the Royal 
and Astronomical Societies, died President of the Royal Geographical Society in November, 

The following books and charts were the results of his labours :^* 

Voyage of Discovery towards the North Pole in H.M.S. Dorothea and Twenty under the command of 

Capt. D. Bochan, in 1818 ; with a summary of all the early attempts to reach the Pacific by way 

of the Pole, 8w. 1843. 
Proceedings of Expedition to explore the North Coast of Africa from Tripoli eastward, in 1821-22, 

with accounts of Greater Syrtis and Cyrenacia, and of the ancient cities composing the Pentapolis, 

4/0. 1828. 
Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Strait, in H.M. S. Blossom^ during the 3rear5 1 825-28, 2 vols. 46). 1 83 1 . 
Report upon the tides of the Irish Sea, and of the similarity of tidal phenomena of the Irish and 

English Channels, i8a8.. 
Report of observations made upon the tidal streams of the English Channel and the Grerman Ocean, 1851. 
Tidal phenomena of the River Severn, 185 1. 

Bescription of the Double Sextant. Hydrography (Admiralty Manual). 
The Use of the Lead, or how to correct soundings. 
Report on the Mercantile Marine Act, 1851. 
Napha Kiang Road (Northern China). 
Avatcha Bay, Petropaulski. 
Outer Avatcha Bay. 

Rodney Point to Banow Point, with plans of Chamisso, Clarence and Grantley Ports. 
Mazatlan Harbour, Chamatla River, Ports Sihuatanejo and San Bias. 
Gambier Islands (South Pacific). 
Parts of Otaheite and Grimeo Islands. 
Heyow (Bow or Harp) Island. 
Pitcaim Island. 

Two sheets of the Irish Channel. 
Belfast Lough. 
Campbellton Loch« 




Richard Copeland, bom 5th March, 1792, was a son of the late John Copeland, Esq., of 
the 7th Fusilier Guards, and Stafif Surgeon to H.R.H. the late Duke of Kent when Governor 
of Nova Scotia. This gentleman, together with his wife and youngest son, was lost in the 
Frances transport, ofif Sable Island, in December, 1799. 

This officer entered the Navy ist January, 1805 (under the auspices of Queen Charlotte 
and the Princess Augusta), as a first-class volunteer on board the Medusa 36, Captain Sir 
John Gore ; and, on removing to the Revenge 74, witnessed the capture of four French 
frigates by Sir Sam. Hood's squadron off Rochefort 25th September, 1806. He was present, 
in 1809, at the destruction of the French shipping in Basque Roads and the siege of 
Flushing. In September, 18 10, he rejoined Sir John Gore, as midshipman, in the Tonnant 
80, and after serving for some time with the British Army in the Tagus^ and with Captain 
Jas. Brisbane in the Belle Poule 38, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant i ith December, 
181 1. From nth February, 181 2, until wrecked off the mouth of the Comantine River, 8th 
March, 1815, Mr. Copeland next served on board the Cygnet 18, Captain Robert Russell; 
and being promoted 13th June following, was afterwards appointed 7th September, 1825, to 
the command of the Mastiffs in which he remained surveying in the Mediterranean until 4th 
February, 1830, when he was succeeded by Lieutenant W. J. Cooling, who was succeeded in 
turn by Commander James Wolfe on the 22nd November of the same year. The Mastiff 
was paid off and re-commissioned by Lieutenant Thomas Graves in May, 1832. On the 4th 
February, 1830, Commander Copeland was appointed to the surveying ship Meteor^ alias 
Beacon^ on the Mediterranean station. While at Gibraltar on one occasion he seized a 
notorious pirate; and, in 1834, he took captive, near Thasos, another famous marauder, 
Kara Mitzos, with 160 of his men, all of whom were delivered over to the Greek govern- 
ment. Being, however, liberated without trial, these plunderers resumed their former 
atrocities with redoubled zest, and falling again into the hands of Captain Copeland were 
sent to the Pacha of Thessalonica, by whom they were executed. Captain Copeland was 
placed on half-pay February, 1836, and was promoted to Post rank, at the instance of Her 
Majesty, 28th June, 1838. 

He published "An Introduction to the Practice of Nautical Surveying and the construc- 
tion of Sea Charts, &c.," translated from the French of C. F. Beautemps Beaupr6, Hydro- 
grapher of the French Marine. 

Numerous surveys of ports and islands in the Grecian archipelago were made under his 



Pringle Stokes, the elder of the two surveying officers of that name, which were 
distinguished about this period, was made a lieutenant on the 2nd of March, 181 5. 

From June, 1 815, to 1820, he served in the Leda^ of 36 guns, under Captain George Sayer, 
in the East Indies, and subsequently in the Iphigenia^ Captain Sir Robert Mends, from July, 
1 82 1, to December, 1823, in which latter month he was promoted to Commander. He 
appears then to have remained on half-pay until appointed on the 7th September, 1825, to 
command the Beagle brig, of 10 guns, for the survey of the South American coast and 
Magellan Strait. 

Under him as a supernumerary lieutenant and assistant surveyor served Lieutenant W. G. 

The difficulties which the Beagle experienced in buffeting about in the neighbourhood of 
Cape Horn and Magellan Strait fairly wore her Commander out. He died November 23rd, 
1828, a victim to over exertion, worry, and excitement, attendant upon surveying labour 
conducted in this part of the world in a ten gun brig. 




This officer entered the naval service as a cadet in 1805, and served as a lieutenant in many 
arduous services during the remaining years of the old war. He was employed afterwards 
in the measurement of an arc of the meridian, under Professor Schumacher. After a cruise 
to the West Indies, during which he made a chart of a portion of those Seas, and set up an 
observatory at St. Thomas, he was appointed successor to Admiral Lovernon as director of 
the Hydrographic office. When a lieutenant in the West Indies during the years 1825-26, 
he connected chronometrically such points as his vessel visited. He had with him three 
chronometers. In 1833-34 he again resumed the same task, and a few of his positions were 
for some time adopted on the Admiralty charts.* The works on which his fame chiefly rests 
are the charts of the coast of Denmark, and especially that of the North Sea (1843). "^he 
'* Danish Pilot," which contains a complete description of the seas surrounding Denmark, 
was translated, under the direction of Sir Francis Beaufort, into English and French. 

Admiral Zahrtmann died in April, 1853. Some eulogistic stanzas upon the deceased were 
written by Rear-Admiral Steen Bille, who commanded the Galathea^ corvette, on her voyage 
round the world. 

LIEUTENANT D. H. KOLFF (Netherlands). 


This voyage, which was performed in the Dutch colonial brig Dourga^ was undertaken by 
the Netherland's government for the purpose of obtaining information respecting the islands 
lying between Timor and the South-West Coast of New Guinea. The Dutch East India 
Company formerly had small settlements and spice plantations on many of these islands ; 
but towards the close of the 1 7th century they had been abandoned, and since then scarcely 
any intercourse had existed between the inhabitants and the Dutch. May the 26th, 1825, 
the Dourga left Amboyna, and on the 2nd of June arrived at the Portuguese settlement of 
Dilli, on the North Coast of Timor. June 6th the brig left Dilli and stood over to the South 
Coast of Wetta, Kissa, Lettee, Moa, Damma, Lakor, and Luan, the principal islands of the 
group, and lying north and north-east of Timor, were subsequently visited. 

KolfiTs work was afterwards added to and corrected by Lieutenant Modera, in the corvette 
Tri/oftf in i828.f 



Frederic LUtke entered the Russian Navy at the age of sixteen, and in 18 17-18 made his 
first circumnavigation of the globe under the command of Golovine. During four successive 
summers (1821-24) he was employed in surveying the coasts of Novaya Zemlya, and the 
narrative of these voyages forms one of the richest sources of our knowledge of that part 
of the Arctic Regions. 

September the ist, 1826, the corvettes SSniavim, Captain Fr6d6ric Liitke, and Mbllert 
Captain Stanioukovitch, of the Russian Navy, left Kronstadt for a voyage round the world. 
After touching at Tenerifife and Rio de Janeiro, and rounding Cape Horn in latitude 61** S., 
and calling at Conception and Valparaiso, the Seniavtne crossed the equator on her way to 
the northward, not making land until on the 23rd of June, 1827, she sighted Mount 
Edgcumbe, an extinct volcano, rising 2,800 feet above the sea, and on the following day 

* Astron. Nach. Nos. 113 and 305. Conn, des Tern. 1839. For notice of life and labours of Adnxiral 
Zahrtmann, see journal of Koyal Geographical Society ^ vol. 23, page Ixvi. 

t See R. G, S. Journal for 1837, vol. vu.; also « Sailing Directions to accompany Chart of Aiafoia Sea," 
by J. Earl, Admiralty, 1838. These are compiled from Lieutenant KolGfs Journal. 


anchored off the settlement of Novo-Arkhangelsk, the residence of the Governor of the 
Russian colonies^ whose jurisdiction extends over the Aleutian and Kurile Islands. 

August the ist, the Sintavine sailed for Oonalaska, on quitting which a north-west course 
was made towards the islands of Pribyloff and St. Matthew. The islands of St. Paul and 
St. George, with a few smaller ones, were called by Captain Ltitke the Pribyloff, after the 
pilot who discovered them in 1786. St. Matthew Island, so named by Lieutenant Sindt in 
1766, and afterwards termed Gore Island by Cook in 1778, was thoroughly examined and 
described by Dr. Mertens, M. Postels and Baron Kittlitz, naturalists to the expedition. 

The autumn approaching the Siniavine steered for Kamchatka, touching at Behring 
Island, and thence continuing to Petropaulski, where she remained until the end of October. 

On November ist the same vessel sailed for the Caroline Islands, passing over on the 
way, the position formerly assigned in American charts to Culinas Island, in lat. 28^ 9', long. 
128° W. Also, for Dexter and St. Bartholomew Islands, but in like manner, without success. 
December the 4th she sighted Strong, or Ualan Island, of the Caroline group, anchoring in 
Coquille Bay on the loth, where a stay of three weeks was made. 

Captain Liitke returned to Cronstadt after an absence of three years and five days. The 
principal geographical results of this expedition were the determination of the positions of 
the chief points on the eastern coast of Kamchatka, of the country of the Koriaks and of 
the Chukches, from the bay of Avatcha to the north-east point of Asia ; also of the islands 
Karaghinsk, St. Matthew, Pribyloff, &c., in Behring Sea ; the archipelago of the Carolines 
examined, from the island of Ualan on the east to the group of Uluthy on the west ; twelve 
islands discovered, and twenty-six detached groups or islands described ; as also the islands 
of Bonin Sima. The Moller had in the meantime discovered Moller Island in 25^46'N. lat., 
171^50' W. long., and examined the chain of islands and reefs which extend north-west 
from the Sandwich Islands. She discovered, also, a dangerous reef six miles S.S.W. of 
Lisiansky Isle, and afterwards surveyed the north-western shore of the peninsula of Alaska. 
Experiments with the invariable pendulum were made at nine stations, besides magnetic 
and meteorological observations. Rich zoological collections were made, which included 
300 species of birds, 300 of fish, 700 of insects, and 150 Crustacea. The botanical collec- 
tions comprised 2,500 specimens of dried plants and of Alg<z\ and 330 specimens of rocks 
were brought from the various points touched at. The ethnographical results included a 
vocabulary of upwards of 200 words and phrases, besides the numerals, in four dialects of 
the language of the Caroline Islands, compared with several other dialects of Polynesia ; 
also descriptions and portraits of the Chukches, the Koriaks, the natives of the Caroline 
group, &c., and the Bughi, of Celebes ; a collection of costumes, arms, ornaments, &c. In 
the course of the voyage 1,250 drawings were made, some of which give an excellent idea 
of the characteristic vegetation of tropical climes. A detailed account of this memorable 
voyage and its rich results was published, under the title of *' Voyage autour du monde sur 
la Corvette le Siniavine en 1826-29," in 1835 ei seq. The geographical portion of the work 
is illustrated by various plans, charts, views of headlands, &c. ; and, more especially, by an 
excellent chart of Behring's Sea. The third volume was the joint production of Dr. 
Mertens, M. Postels, and Baron Kittlitz, naturalists to the expedition, and contains much 
valuable information on geology and natural history. For this voyage, the Demidoff 
premium was conferred upon Captain Liitke by the Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg.* 

Within a few years of the return of the Siniavine, Liitke was nominated aide-de-camp to 
the Emperor, and governor — afterwards guardian — to the Grand Duke Constantine 
Nicolaivitch. He passed rapidly through the various grades of the military and 
administrative services, and was made aide-de-camp general in 1 842, vice-admiral in 1 845, 
naval governor and commandant of the port of Revel in 1851, and was transferred some 
years later to Cronstadt in the same capacity. In 1855, he was nominated member of the 
Imperial Council, and was raised to the rank of Count on the fiftieth anniversary of his 
entering the service. For many years he directed the work of the Imperial Russian 

* Abridged fix)m Pkt>ceedings of R. G. Society, 1882. 


Geographical Society as Vice-President — the President's chair being occupied by the Grand 
Duke Constantine Nicolaivitch — with all the zeal and activity which characterised him to 
the last. He retired a few years ago, " to make room for the young ones," as he was fond 
of saying, but he never ceased to take a considerable interest in hydrographic work, and 
to support its various enterprises. In 1869, he was called upon by the late Emperor to 
succeed Count Bloudow as President of the Academy of Sciences, and he occupied this 

Eost to within a few months of his death, when advancing age and infirmities compelled 
im to ask to be superseded. 

With the Caroline Islands we were very imperfectly acquainted in detail, until a short time 
previous to this voyage, when Captain Duperrey in the Coquille/m 1824, ran through their 
whole extent from east to west, discovering many small islands and surveying Ualan in 
detail. Space was, however, left for Captain Liitke to work in, who, in his examination of 
this group visited each island, thus obtaining a complete acquaintance with the geographical 
position of each, as well as information relative to the manners and customs of their 
inhabitants, and a short vocabulary of their language ; also an account of the structure and 
natural history of the islands. The centre of Ualan Island was ascertained to be in lat« 
S<»i9'N.,long. i63«»6'E. 

January loth, the Slniavine sought in vain for two small islands, in lat. 5^ 12'N., long. 
i6o^55'£.; and on the 13th with as little success for the Musgrave Islands, in lat. 6^ 12'N., 
long. 159® 15' E. On the 14th three groups of islands extending between 6*43' and 7°6'N. 
latitude, and 1 58° and i58i°E. longitude, were discovered. To these the name of S6niavine 
was given, and separately they were termed Pouynipete, Andema, and Kapenuare, by Captain 
Liitke. Having looked for St. Augustin Island of Freycinet's chart, in lat. 7^18' N., long. 
i58^6'£., Los Valientes, of Tompson, in 1772, (Ngatik of the natives), were sighted and 

February 3rd the Matlock Islands (1795)1 Lugunor of the natives, according to Captain 
Liitke, were found to be composed of three groups of coral islands, 90 in number, Lugunor, 
the most eastern group, being 1 8 miles in circuit. February 14th, determined the Island Quirosa, 
of the Spanish pilot, and Hogolen, of Duperrey, to be called by the natives Hong. Examined 
the Namonuito group and thence proceeded to Guam, of the Mariana Island to re-fit. 

March 20th, returned to the Caroline Islands, and examined the group of Swede Islands, 
or Namourak ; thence to the westward to the group of Faroilap, Ifalouk, and Ouleai (the 13 
isles of Wilson), composed of 22 islands, and 15 miles in circuit. 

April 9th, the Slniavine sailed for Kamchatka, touching at the Bonin Islands, and again 
anchored at Petropaulski, whence, after a stay of three weeks, the corvette steered along the 
coast to the north-east fixing the positions of various capes and headlands and ascertaining 
the altitude of the volcanoes of Kronotsky and Kamchatskoi, to be 10,610 and 16,512 feet 

July 5th the island of Karaghinsky was examined, which, with the adjoining coast, had 
not been seen by any known navigator except Sindt. From this island Cape Ilpinsky was 
visited, and thence course was steered through Behring Strait, and on the 28th anchorage 
was found in the bay of St. Lawrence, 30 miles southward of the east cape of Asia. 

Returning to the southward, a strait to which the name of S6niavine was given was found 
in lat. 64^45' N., between two islands and the main land. From the bay of St. Lawrence 
course was then shaped to the westward into the gulf of Anadyr, and the bay of St. Croix 

Having ascertained the latitudes and heights of six of the most prominent of the 
volcanoes of the peninsula of Kamchatka, and spent five weeks in the harbour of Peter 
and Paul, the Slniavine sailed on the nth of November for Manila, reconnoitring on her 
way such of the Caroline Islands which she had not before visited. 

December the loth, the Liitke or Mourileu group was discovered and examined, and its 
centre found to be in lat. 8^4o'N.9 long. 152^8' £. December the 20th, sighted Fe/s Island, 


and the following day made the Mackenzie Islands (Ulnthi, of the natives), consisting of 
two groups, on one of which Faraulep, a century before Captain Liitke's visit, the Spanish 

Jesuit, Padre Cantova, established a mission; and in 1732, on the neighbouring island of 
logmog, fell a martyr to his zeal. 

The Simavine arrived at Manila January the 13th, 1829, and ultimately, after touching at 
St. Helena and Havre, at Kronstadt, in September, after an absence of three years. The 
summary of her voyage may be said to have consisted of the determination of the chief 
points on the eastern coast of Kamchatka, and from the Bay of Avatcha to the north-east 
point of Asia ; also, of the islands of Karaghuisk, St. Matthew, Pribyloff, &c., in Behring 
Sea. Examined the Caroline Archipelago from Ualan Island on the east to Uhitby on the 
west, twelve islands discovered, and twenty-six small groups described. 

Rear-Admiral Liitke drew up a useful hydrographic memoir from many Russian and other 
sources besides giving the narrative of his own voyage. He died on the 20th August, 1882, 
at the age of 85 years. 

The following were published by Rear-Admiral Liitke : — 

Viermalige Reise darch das Nordliche Eismeer auf der Brigg Nowaja Semija in deu jahren, 1821-24. 

8w. Berlin^ 1835. 
Voyage an tour du Monde ex^ut6 sur la corvette, U Siniamne^ dans les ann^s, 1826-29. Thiee vols. 

8w. and folio Atlas. Paris^ 1835. 



Among the illustrious navigators who have enriched science by their exertions, Jules 
S6bastien-C6sar Dumont D'Urville deserves a conspicuous place. His first expedition, in 
the Astrolabe^ left Toulon April 22nd, 1826. He examined parts of the coasts of New 
Zealand, the Tonga Islands, the Fiji Islands, the Santa Cruz Islands, the Loyalty Islands, 
and the great chain of reefs extending off New Caledonia. He then passed on to New 
Britain and New Ireland, and the north coast of New Guinea. On his return to Hobart 
Town he received intelligence that Capt. Dillon had discovered the remains of La P6rouse's 
expedition, to the scene of the loss of which, at Vanikoro Island, he then repaired. 
Quitting this, he passed on to Guam and part of the Carolines, arriving at the Mauritius 
September 29th, 1828, and at Toulon March 25th, 1829. More extended examinations have 
since been made of many of his explorations, but he greatly increased our then imperfect 
knowledge existing at the time. 

The second expedition under M. D'Urville, consisting of the Astrolabe and Zelie^ the 
latter under the command of Capt. C. H. Jacquinot, quitted Toulon September 7th, 1837, 
and reached the South Shetland group, where he made many additions to our knowledge ; 
thence entering the Pacific, he visited Manga Reva, Marquesas, Society Islands, Tonga 
Islands, the Fiji Islands, Vanikoro, the Salomon Islands, the Ladrone Islands, and then 
entering the Asiatic Archipelago, continued thence to Hobart Town. Quitting this, he made 
for the antarctic regions, and discovered portions of the supposed continent. He then again 
examined some portions of New Zealand, the Louisiade Archipelago, thence out of the 
Pacific, and reached Toulon November 6th, 1 840. During this voyage he discovered la Terre 
Ad61e and Clarie. In 1841, he received the honorary distinction of the medal of the Geo- 
graphical Society of Paris. 

The death of this celebrated navigator will be long remembered in France. D'Urville, 
with his wife and son, were travelling on one of the Paris and Versailles railways, when in 
consequence of the engine failing, the whole train was overturned and burnt, together with 
upwards of forty of the passengers.* 

The results of D'Urville's first voyage were published in Paris in 1830, in 11 vols, of 8w. 
and a large atlas of charts. The out-put of the second voyage was published in 1847, in 16 
vols, of Sva.i and a folio atlas of charts. 

* From Findlay*s Pacific PUotf p. 20. 




In September. 1813, the Bengal ship Hunter^ Captain Robson, touched at the Fiji Islands 
for a cargo of sandal wood. While the Hunter lay at anchor at one of these islands, with 
the crew of Europeans on shore, the natives rose and massacred all but three. Martin Bushart, 
a Prussian, with his Fiji wife, and Achowlia, a Lascar, took refuge on board the Hunter^ and 
were, at their own request, set ashore at Tucopia or Barwell Island, at the south-east 
extremity of the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

In May, 1826, Captain Dillon, who had been an officer of the Hunter iMnn^ the vovage 
of that ship to Fiji, and was one of the three Europeans who escaped from the hands of the 
islanders, while returning from Valparaiso to Pondicheny in a vessel called the St, Patrick^ 
touched at Tucopia, and the Lascar, with Bushart, came off to the ship. The Lascar had in his 
possession a silver sword guard, and Bushart related that on his first arrival on the island he 
found there several iron bolts, axes, knives, tea cups, one silver spoon and other articles of 
French manufacture. He found that these had been brought from Manicola by the natives, 
and upon inquiry learnt from them that many years before two ships had been cast away on 
the shores ot that island. The crews got safely on shore and built a small vessel, in which 
thev sailed, leaving behind them a few of their number. The Lascar had visited Manicola 
and seen two of these Europeans, but could not be induced to return to that island. 

Captain Dillon induced Bushart to sail with him to search the islands to windward, but 
when within sight of Manicola it fell calm, and he was compelled in consequence not to 
delay the further prosecution of his voyage to Pondicherry. 

On his arrival in India he lost no time in informing the Government of the clue which he 
thought he had discovered respecting the fate of La P^rouse, and of his own fitness to 
follow up the inquiry. This application met with due attention, and in January, 1827, the 
Research^ at that time employed in the survey of the Mergui Archipelago, was placed under 
his command. At Tucopia, Captain Dillon obtained a pilot and interpreter, and then 
proceeded to Manicola, which, after surveying, he found to be almost entirely surrounded by 
a coral reef. From the natives he ascertained that one of the ships had struck at a place 
called Whannow and had sunk in deep water, the other ran on the rocks near Paiou, and from 
her the strangers landed and remained on the island five months, during which time they 
built their small vessel. On examining the coral reef, several brass guns were discovered 
and raised. From the natives he purchased the backboard of a ship ornamented with a 
fleur-de-lis, a ship's bell with the inscription Basin nC a^aity a great quanti^ of iron bars 
and bolts, fragments of china, and of barometer tubes with other articles. In April, 1827, 
he returned to Calcutta. 

On arrival in Paris in February, 1828, with the relics of the French expedition, Captain 
Dillon was liberally recompensed for his exertions by Charles X. with a pension of 4,000 
francs and the cross of the Legion of Honour. Of the two Frenchmen who had been seen 
by the Lascar, one had died at an advanced age, about three vears before Captain Dillon's 
arrival in 1827 ; the other had followed the fortunes of a chief with whom he was allied, and 
who, being worsted by his enemies, had retired to one of the neighbouring islands.* 



Thomas Boteler obtained his commission as a Lieutenant on the 15th September, 181 5, 
and served for some time on the Home Station. 

When the Leven and Barracouta fitted out for the survey of the east coast of Africa in 
August, 1 82 1, he was appointed as second Lieutenant of the former vessel under Captain W. 
F. Owen. 

* Abridged from Cooky's MariHme Disce/viry, voL 3. 


Upon the death of Captaiii Cutfield, who commanded the Barracouia at Delagoa Bay, 
Captain OWen having appointed his first Lieutenant, Vidal, to the vacancy, Lieutenant 
Boteler was transferred with him as first Lieutenant of the vessel, and in that capacity 
continued to serve during the remainder of that extensive voyage. The proceedings of 
the Barracouia throughout the expedition, whenever quoted in the narrative of Captain 
Owen, are from Lieutenant Boteler's journal. Having paid 6£f the Barracouia as first 
Lieutenant he was promoted to the rank of Commander September 26th, 1826, and was 
again appointed on the 24th of December, 1827, to the command of the Hecla, for the 
continuance of the survey of a part of the west coast of Africa, left incomplete during the 
former commission. 

An historical memoir he prepared of Princes Island and Anno Bom was published in the 
Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of 1832, and at page 78 of the Nautical Maga%ine 
for 1835 will be found an exhaustive account of Magador, drawn up by him a short time 
previous to his premature decease. In both instances the subjects appear to be treated in 
a most searching and exhaustive manner. 

He died in the year 1828, from the effects of fever brought on in the course of the survey 
of the coasts of Africa, in which he was so long engaged. 

Throughout nearly the whole commission of the Barracouia, under Commander Vidal, he 
was not only first Lieutenant, but the principal Surveyor, and is spoken of by Captain Owen, 
who had command of that expedition, as one of the most scientific of his officers. 

Charts published from Commander Boteler's surveys, made in the Hecla : — 

Cape Verde to Cape Roxo. 

Foreecarreah and Mellacoree Rivers. 

Salm and Joobas Rivers. 

Scardes River. 

Tannanly, Mahneah, and Morebiah Rivers. 

Princes, St. Thomas, and Anno Bom Islands. 



A particular interest attaches itself to the above officer, as he may be said to have died in 
harness, when the results of one pi the most interesting voyages on record, under his 
command, had been well-nigh achieved. The voyage of the Chanitcleer to the South Atlantic 
Ocean for the purpose of making scientific observations, and swinging the pendulum at 
certain places, the object being to arrive at more definite conclusions concerning the figure 
of the earth, compiled as it was from the journal of Dr. Webster, the surgeon of the ship, 
by Lieutenant H. B. Becher, at the special request of Captain Beaufort, is well worthy of 
perusal by all scientific sailors. 

Commander Foster was the eldest son of the Rev. Henry Foster, of Woodplumpton, near 
Preston, Lancashire. Bom in 1796, he was originally intended for the church, but entered 
as more congenial to his tastes, the naval service, as a volunteer, in 1 8 1 2, in H.M.S. Fork. He 
then served in the Vcngeur, 181 5, Eridanus, 1817, Blossom, 18 17, Creole, 1819, Conway, 1820, 
Griper, 1823. 

When in the Blossom he surveyed the mouth of the Columbia River, and in the Creole he 
made a survey of the north shore of the River Plate. In the Conway, under Captain Basil Hall, 
he made some excellent observations with the pendulum, thereby obtaining admission to the 
Royal Society. In 1824 he was made a Lieutenant, and sailed in the Futy, under Sir Edward 
Parry, which was lost in Prince Regent's Inlet, as astronomer to the expedition. During 
the Arctic Winter he made experiments in magnetism, refraction, and the velocity of sound, 
besides astronomical observations. For these (published in the Philosophical Transactions 
for 1826), he received the Copley Medal of the Royal Society, and in half-an-hour afterwards 
his Commander's rank. He was then appointed to the Chaniicleer. The instructions drawn 
tip by a Committee of the Royal Society, consisting of Davis Gilbert, Captain Beaufort, Dr. 
Fitton, Mr. Herschel, Captain Kater, Dr. Roget and Captain Sabine, were signed by the 
hydrographer, Sir Edward Parry, and James Horsburgh (of East Indian Directory fame). 


The Chanticleer was a barque rigged sloop of 237 tons, built in 1804, at the Isle of Wight ; 
pierced for ten, she carried only two guns for this voyage. Among her 'officers were 
Lieutenants H. B. Austin, Williams and £. N. Kendall — the first afterwards of Arctic fame 
— the others of marked hydrographiq skill. Lieutenant Kendall wrote the hydrography of 
the voyage in the form of an appendix, and also contributed the illustrations. He had 
been trained as a youngster under Captain Martin White in the Shamrock on the home 
coasts and English Channel. We read in this voyage of the use of Sixs' thermometer 
(deep sea) and Dr. Marcet's iron water bottle coming into use. Commander Foster, at the 
early age of 36, was drowned in Chagres River, February 5th, 1831, while engaged measuring 
the difference of longitude between Panama and Chagres, falling overboard from a canoe. 
The command of the vessel at his death devolved on Lieutenant Austin, and the Chanticleer 
under that officer, arrived at Falmouth 17th May, 1831. A tablet to the memory of the 
deceased was erected at the port of St. Lorenzo and another at Chagres. His body, shrouded 
in the colours of his country, was buried near the spot where it was found, a board carved by 
Lieutenant Williams, with particulars, &c., of his death being affixed to a lofty tree. Besides 
this, a moi^kent to his memory was erected in the church of his native village. The 
Chanticleer carried 1 7 chronometers, and in the course of the voyage called at Madeira, 
Teneriffe, St. Antonio, Penedo de San Pedro, Fernando Noronha, Abrolhos, C. Frio, Rio, 
St. Catherine I., Monte Video, Staten Land, Cape Horn, S. Shetland, Terra del Fuego, Cape 
of Good Hope, St. Helena, Ascension, Fernando Noronha, Maranham, Para, Port Spain, 
La Guayra, Porto Bello and Chagres, where the unfortunate accident occurred. 

The results of the pendulum experiments proved of the highest value, although differing 

from the results obtained by Captain Sabine 1822-23, and Freycinet. 

See Narrative of a voyage to the Soath Atlantic Ocean, 1828-29-30, in H.M.S. Oumticieer, in two 
vols. 9vo. Bentley, London, 1834. 

He was credited also with the following charts : — 

Hnacho Bay, Ports of Casma, and Chilca Harbour (Pern). 
Port of St. Bias (California). 
Bay of Arauco (Chtti). 
Port of Htiasco „ 
Port of Copiapo „ 



The above-named officer died at Howth while conducting the Admiralty survey of the 
coast of Ireland, July 24th, 1837. 

His first appointment in the surveying service was made in August, 1821, when we find 
him first lieutenant of the Barracouta under Captain Cutfield, which vessel with the Leven 
formed Captain W. F. Owen's expedition for the survey of the African coasts in August, 
1 82 1. He subsequently, at the death of Captain Cutfield, succeeded Lieutenant Vidal as 
first lieutenant of the Leven. 

In 1826, towards the close of the arduous commission of the Leven, Lieutenant Mudge 
was made a Commander, and almost immediately afterwards was selected to conduct the 
survey of the Irish coasts, at that time in a sadly neglected state. 

Page 616 of the Nautical Magazine for 1837 has the following remarks : — 

"In our nsual obituanr notice we have recorded the death of the above officer, whose valuable 
qualities had been long known in the scientific branch of his profession, whose name through his 
relative, the late General Madge, was connected with the first scientific work of his country,* and 
whose amiable and generous mind had endeared him to those who knew him. The long 
continuance of a severe cold, arising from exposure on the Irish coast, produced those effects 
which a constitution, weakened by similar service On the coast of Africa, was unable to withstand, 
and was the original cause of his death. His remains were consigned to their last resting-place 
in the ground of the Cathedral at Howth, attended by the officers and men of the Ordnance, also 
those of his own department, and those of the coastguard, on the 24th July, with the usual 
military honours." 

* Alluding to the Oittnance Survey of Great Britain commenced under General Mudge. 



Henry Mangles Denham, born 28th Aug., 1806, entered the Navy in April, 1809, as a 
volunteer, on board the Daphne 20, on the Gnemsey and Jersey station, where he served 
from April, 18 10, until May, 18 14, latterly as Midshipman, in the Vultun 10, Captains Martin 
White, George Morris, and Henry Baugh. During the three following years we find him 
borne on the books of various ships, but detached the whole of the time on the survey of 
the Channel Islands, under Captain Martin White ; with whom as Midshipman and 
Lieutenant, of the Shamrock 14, he was employed, from March, 18 17, until May, 1827, in 
examining the English and Irish Channels, and the south-west ana north-east coasts of 
Ireland. In Oct., 1827, he assumed command of the Linnet 10, for the purpose of surveying 
the coast of France; and while nominally attached, between Sept., 1828, and March, 1835, 
to the St. Vincent, Caledonia^ and San Josefs he conducted a survey of the Bristol Channels 
and of the ports of Liverpool and Milford. He was promoted to the rank of Commander 
on the 2oth of the month last mentioned ; was employed, from Jan.y 1842, until July, 1845, 
in the Lucifer, in defining the coasts of Lancashire and Cumberland ; was then appointed 
to the Avim ; and on 27th September following, sailed on a surveying expedition to the 
coast of Guinea, including the mouths of the Niger. He returned to England on the 
attainment of post-Captain's rank, 17th Aug., 1846 ; was borne on the books of the William 
and Maty ydicht from 2nd December following until the summer of 1847; and from i8th 
Feb., 1852, to 1859, commanded the Herald 8, for surveying service among the Fiji Islands. 
Captain Denham acted as Chief Assistant in the survey of the English and St. George's 
Channels, from the Straits of Dover to the edge of soundings ; of the coast of Ireland 
from the Shannon to Belfast, including Berehaven, Crookhaven, Valentia, Baltimore, 
Glandore, Cove of Cork (entrance), Youghall, Waterford, Carlingford, Strangford, Ardglass, 
Belfast, Copeland Isles, and Larne ; and of the English coast, including Falmouth (Sound), 
Helford, Manacles (reef), St. Helen's Pool, Scilly Islands, Skerries, Start Bay, Salcombe, 
Plymouth Sound, and Dartmouth. He concluded, also, the survey of the Bristol Channel 
throughout, including Hartland Quay, Clovelly, Barnstaple Bar, Appledore, Ilfracombe, 
Minehead, Watchet, Bridgewater, Kingroad off the Avon, Cardiff, Newport, Chepstow, 
Swansea, the Mumbles, Llanelley, Estuary of Bury, Carmarthen, Tenby, Milford Haven, 
Solvach, St. Bride's Bay, and Lundy Island ; and of the coasts of Lancashire and 
Cumberland, with the Dee (to Chester), Liverpool Bay, and the Mersey ; Morecombe Bay, 
including Fleetwood (Lancashire), and Piel a Foudra ; and the Duddon and Ravenglass 
Estuaries, Whitehaven, Workington, Harrington, Maryport, and Douglas, Isle of Man. 

In the Pacific during the commission of the Herald, surveys were made of Port Jackson, 
Lord Howe Island, Herald B^, and Simonoff and Michaeloff Islands, Vatoa, Moala, 
Mbatiki, Matuku, Nairai, Ngau, Totoya, Ovalau, Wakaya, Makongai Islands of the Fiji group. 

Trained in the Herald were Hutchinson, Napier, Wylds, Howard, and Hixson^all 
subsequently employed as active surveying officers. 

The rank of Commander was conferred on him as a reward for the talent he had displayed 
in the execution of his surveying services generally, and in particular to mark the high 
sense entertained by the Lords of the Admiralty of the advantages accruing to the public 
from the completion of his survey of the port and harbour of Liverpool, and the neighbour- 
ing coast. The return of the port of Liverpool to the mere capacity of a hdf tide harbour 
Capt. Denham succeeded in averting-, by dredging a new opening through the Burbo and 
Jonlan Sands, which, on the accession of Her Majesty to the throne, was named the 
" Victoria Channel." In reference to a steam survey made by him in the North Sea, Sir 
Francis Beaufort declared it to be his conviction, "that no man could have achieved that 
great work with more skill ; " and, in remarking upon the survey of Morecombe Bay, the 
same eminent authority recorded it as his opinion, " that a more complete and masterly 
work had rarely been sent to the Hydrographic Office.*' 

In allusion to Captain Denham's services in the Avon, on the coast of Africa, whither he 


was sent for the express purpose of surveying the Bight of Benin, Sir Francis Beaufort thus 
expressed himself. ** In examining a survey made in such a deleterious climate, along such 
an impracticable coast, and in contact with such a treacherous population, I was prepared 
to maxe great allowances for work done under such striking disadvantages ; but I find, with 
equal pleasure and surprise, that the whole has been performed with all the precision and 
fcdness that could have been expected if made under the most favourable circumstances." 
For this service Capt. Denham was promoted to Post rank. 

Subsequently to his return to England, he executed several commissions with reference to 
the steam marine for the Lords Committee of the Privy Council for Trade, under the 
conjoint authority of the Board of Admiralty, and also with reference to harbour improve- 
ments at Swansea and Bideford. Capt. Denham, who was some time Inspector of Steam 
Boat Accidents, was the inventor of ** Denham Row Locks " for rowing boats ; and of 
" Denham's (registered) Jury Tiller," for steering a ship on fire abaft, or when twisting her 
rudder ahead, breaking her tiller in a gale of wind, or receiving the enemy's shot. 

In 1830, he received the thanks and a vote of plate from the Trinity Board ; in 1834 he 
was further presented with the freedom of the borough of Liverpool, and elected a member 
of the Literary and Philosophical Society at that place ; and in 1839 he was chosen a Fellow 
of the Royal Society; also, in 184 1, a Younger JSrother of the Trinity Corporation, and a 
member of the United States National Institution for the Advancement of Science. He 
also received the thanks of the Geological Society, of several Refuge Harbour Committees, 
and of the Committee at Lloyd's. 

Sir Henry Denham, who was knighted on account of his long and meritorious services in 
the Herald on the Pacific station, may be considered as mainlv instrumental in having 
brought about the various colonial surveys in Australia. At the close of the Herald*s 
commission it became evident that some system was needed which would guarantee a 
continuation of the work which he had already commenced. The arrangement entered 
into between the Admiralty and Colonial Office allowed that while Royal Naval officers 
should be permitted with hired means to conduct the various colonial surveys in Australia, 
that the colonies should make to these officers a stipulated monetary idlowance, as well as 
bearing half the working expenses of the several undertakings. 

This SjTstem, which continued in force until the surveys of New South Wales, Victoria, and 
South Australia were completed, was found to answer admirably. It still holds good as 
regards Western Australia, but in the matter of Queensland, secondary circumstances 
emanating from abroad would appear to have acted against its being persevered in. 

Sir Henry Denham's dates on the retired list are as follows : — Rear-Admiral, 5th March, 
1864, Vice-Admiral, 14th July, 1871, Admiral, ist August, 1877. 

In 1883, Sir Heniy Denham continued active and well, notwithstanding his many years of 
continuous and active labour. 


1828-48. -^ . _ ' ;. f ' .^r ^J . 

Edward Bamett entered the Navy Feb., 181 1, as volunteer on board the SyhilU^ Capts. 
Upton, Saunders and Forrest. In that frigate, in which he was employed for four years, 
part of the time in the capacity of Midshipman, he cruised off the coast of Ireland, off 
Newfoundland, and among the Western Islands, and visited the latitude of Greenland. 
After serving for a few months in the Malta^ Capt. Fahie, on the Mediterranean station, 
where he assisted at the siege of Gaeta, he was received, in Nov., 181 5, on board the Superb ^ 
Capt. Ekins, under whom he fought at the Battle of Algiers, Aug., 181 6, and was afterwards 
until paid off in Oct., 1818, employed on home service. 

Passing his examination Feb., 18 19, he was nominated, in the following month, Master's 
Mate of the Kangaroo^ surveying vessel, Master-Commander Anthony de Maynej on the West 


India station, where he remained until Dec., 1826, when, having been promoted to the rank 
of Lieutenant in June preceding, he was placed on half-pay. He was subsequently 
appointed — Feb., 1828, to the command of the Linnet^ surveying vessel, employed among 
the Channel Islands, under Captain Martin White — in Feb., 1830, to the Hydrographic 
Office at the Admiralty — and to the command, Feb., 1833, Sept., 1835, and Nov., 1837, of 
the JackdaWy Lark, and Thundery surveying vessels, on the North America and West 
India station. He had the misfortune to lose the Jackdaw on a reef off Old Providence — 
(this vessel was tender to the Blossom-Aj^ol laid down in the charts, March, 1 835. The Thunder 
he commanded for a period of ten years and nine months successively, as Lieutenant, 
Commander, and Captain. His promotion to the two latter ranks took place, June, 1838, 
and June, 1846. 

Looking at Capt. Bamett's performances in the character of a Surveyor, it will be found 
that he assisted in the survey of the Channel Islands, of various parts of the West Indies, 
and of the Bahamas and Bermuda, and that he surveyed the coast of Central America from 
Chagre to San Juan de Nicaragua — the coast of Yucatan, from Cape Catoche to Campech6-*- 
and the Islands of Antigua Nevis, St. Kitts, Barbuda, St. Bartholomew, St. Martin, and 
Anguila. Of his career afloat, 22 years were passed in the West Indies, and nearly 17 in 
actual command of vessels. During the time he was in the Thunder he received a vote of 
thanks from the legislature of Bahama and from the merchants of St. Thomas for services 
rendered by him to those islands. He was placed on half-pay in Aug., 1848, and was not 
again employed. 

Admiral Bamett who lived to the age of upwards of 79 years* died September 7th, 1879. 


Richard Owen, nephew of the great surveying officer, Vice-Admiral W. F. Owen, whose 
services have already been alluded to at page 57, entered the Navy, May, 181 1, and was 
employed during the war in the Sctpion and Zt'on, flag-ships of Hon. Robert Stopford, at the 
Cape of Good Hope, and in the Blenheim, Capt. Warren, in the North Sea and Mediteranean. 
In July, 1 817, after a servitude of three years on the coast of Africa and in the West Indies 
in the Ulysses, Capt. Browne, and Primrose, Capt. Phillott, he passed his examination ; and 
on 1 6th Feb., 1821, while attached to the Kangaroo surveying vessel, under Mr. Anthony 
De Mayne, he was promoted to a Lieutenancy in the Euryalus, Capt. Bigland, on the Jamaica 
station. His next appointment was Nov., 1 821, to the Leven, Capt. W. F. Owen, employed 
on a surveying expedition to the coast of Africa, where, during a continuance of nearly five 
years, he was for some time intrusted with the command of the Cockbum and Albatross 
schooners. In the Albatross it was his fortune, during the Ashantee war, to obtain the best 
thanks of Major-General Chas. Turner for his successful exertions in getting his vessel up 
the river, and for his forwardness both in the boats and on shore in an attack made, Feb., 
1826, on the town of Maccaba. As a reward for his services he was promoted to the rank 
of Commander Sept., 1826. In 1828, he was employed by the Admiralty in surveying on the 
south coast of Wales, in connection with the Ordnance Survey; and in May, 1829, leaving 
Lieutenant Denham to complete the survey of the Bristol Channel, he commissioned the 
Blossom for the purpose of conducting a survey in the West Indies. He undertook the chain 
of islands outside Cuba, the cays and banks from Bajo de Nairdad to Crooked Island, south 
coast of Hayti, Bahama bank and channel. Bay of Honduras and coast to Porto Bello. 

On the Blossom from her defective condition being paid off", Capt. Owen obtained command, 
March, 1833, of the Thunder, He continued employed as before in the West Indies until 
advanced to his present rank Jan. 1837, when, on obtaining his promotion, resigned to Lieut. 

Capt. Owen was afterwards employed as Auditor of the Poor-Law Commissioners. 



Michael Atwell Slater entered the Navy in 181 1, and from an early age is said to have 
shown a marked taste for hydrographical pursuits. 

In 1 816, we find him acting as an assistant to Capt. W. H. Smyth in that officer's extensive 
surveying operations in the Mediterranean. At the conclusion of that work he was at once 
appointed to conduct surveys of the eastern coast of England and Scotland, commencing in 
1829 accurate surveys of the coasts of Durham, Northumberland, and part of Scotland from 
Hartlepool to Fort William. His work was remarkable for accuracy and care, more 
particularly the drawings, which were perfect pictures of faithful detail and neatness of 

In the furthering of his surveying operations he spent no small amount of his private 
means, the resources allowed by the State in those days being not altogether adequate. He 
was cut ofif in his prime. On the 2nd February, 1 842, he fell over the clifif called Holbum 
Head, near the eastern extremity of Scotland, an accident, which it is hardly necessary to 
add, terminated his life. Lieutenant Otter, R.N., succeeded him in charge of this part of 
the survey of the United Kingdom. 


Robert Moresby, formerly of the East India Company's Service, and subsequently of the 
Bombay Marine and Indian Navy, was a brother of the late Sir Fairfax Moresby, who died 
an Admiral of the Fleet in 1876, and uncle of the present Rear- Admiral John Moresby. 

The first record of a survey by him is that of the straits of Durian, made with Lieut. W. 
S. Collinson in 1822, and that of Tavoy executed in 1824, and published by Horsburgh in 
1827. A copy of this survey was recently discovered by Commander Taylor, the late 
Superintendent of Marine Surveys at Calcutta, who had a chart constructed and published 
from it. 

About the year 1830, when the Indian government resolved upon a survey of the Red 
Sea at the instigation of Sir John Malcolm, Captain Moresby was selected for the command 
of the Paltnurus and appointed to survey the northern half of that sea from Suez to Jiddah, 
while Captain Elwon in the Benares took up the southern half, or from Jiddah to &ab-el- 

No expense was spared in fitting out the expedition, and amongst the officers were James 
Young, Pinching, Powell, Barker (the Abyssinian traveller), Christopher (the pioneer of the 
Indus;, who fell at Multan, Wellsted (the accomplished author), and Felix Jones, whose 
skill as a draughtsman was already appreciated. The first base was measured by chain at 
Suez by Captain Moresby in 1830, and the survey was steadily continued, without other 
interruptions than were necessary to refit the ships and crews, to its completion in 1834, by 
a system of triangulation down either shore. The work was verified by frequent bases, by 
azimuths, by latitudes of the sun and stars observed on shore with artificial horizons, and by 
chronometric dififerences. 

The original charts were drawn on a scale of an inch to the mile, but in places where the 
complicated nature of the channels required greater nicety, scales as high as ten inches 
were employed. The original drawings were by Felix Jones. 

The resolution of all the officers was that the Red Sea survey should be as perfect as 
labour and skill could make it ; and it has served well to guide thousands of steamers up 
and down one of the most important, and, at the same time, one of the most intricate routes 
in the world. 

The northern part of the Red Sea, by Captain Moresby, was published in two sheets in 
1833, the southern part by Captain Elwon, also in two sheets, in 1834. 

Two sheets of harbours in the Red Sea, and the sailing directions by Captains Moresby 
and Elwon, were published in 1841. 

*^ Memoir on th« Indian Surey, p. 14, 15. 


Captain Horsbnrffh had strongly recommended that the coral islands, which cross the 
track of Indian trade, should be surveyed. As soon, therefore, as Captain Moresby had 
completed his Red Sea work, he was ordered to proceed in the surveying ship, Benares^ with 
the Royal Tiger, commanded by his assistant, Lieutenant Powell, I.N., and a large decked 
boat c^led the Maldtva, to survey the Maldive Islands. The charts were again drawn by 
Felix Jones, and so beautiful was their execution considered that they were sent home for 
the Queen's inspection. 

The Maldive Islands were at this time almost unknown, and in order to acquire a 
knowledge of the language, customs and resources of the inhabitants, Lieutenants Young 
and Christopher were landed in June, 1834, and resided for some time at Mal6, the principd 

In the Bombay Geographical Society s Journal \% an interesting memoir on the inhabitants 
of the Maldive Islands by those two officers, by which it appears that the Maldivians were 
found to be a civilized, commercial, and seafaring people, who constructed their own 
quadrants, and translated our nautical tables into their language.* On the completion of 
the Maldive Island survey. Captain Moresby proceeded to the Chagos Archipelago in 
February, 1837, and afterwards surveyed part of the Saya da Malha bank, about 300 miles 
south eastward of the Seychelles. He completed this important work, and returned to 
Bombay in September, 1838. 

One section of Mr, Darwin's work on the structure and distribution of coral reefs is 
devoted to the Maldive archipelago and the great Chagos bank, and mainly consists of 
information communicated to him by Captain Moresby. 

The principal charts resulting from Captain Moresby's surveys were :— 

Two sheets of the northern part of the Red Sea. 

Three sheets of the Maldive Islands. 

Chagos Islands, principal groups in the Chagos Archipelago. 

Tavoy River, Straits of Dorian, Tanjong Bon and Pulo Barellah (2 sheets), 1823. 

Nautical Directions for the Red Sea and eulf of Suez, 1841. 

Nautical Directions for the Maldive Islands and Chagos Archipelago, 1839. 

M. M. PEYTIER (French). 

The operations executed in Eastern Greece by M. Peytier are a continuation of those in 
the Morea, an account of which was published in the Bulletin de Geog, vol. xix. p. 89. These 
observations were made with the same instruments (Gambe/s theodolites) and with the 
same care. No new base was measured, nor any further astronomical observations made. 
Several sides of the triangulation of the Morea were made use of as the basis for the 
calculations of the new triangles, and to determine the geographical positions ; the 
extremities of these bases have been taken. 

The heights above the level of the sea were calculated from a massive ruin at the entrance 
of the Piraeus, which was connected with the triangulation, and of which the precise height 
above the level of the sea had been measured. 

Starting from this point, the elevation of two mountains in the Isthmus of Corinth were 
calculated, the heights of which had been already obtained from the direction of the gulf of 
Napoli ; and the agreement of the two results confirms what had already been said in the 
paper before alluded to, that the gulfs of Napoli, Athens, Corinth, Marathonisi, and the sea 
near the Ionian Islands, were on the same level. 

M. Peytier's operations in 1837 extend over the Negropont, Attica, Boeotia, and Phocis, as 
far as the high mountains on the west of Salona, and the frontier near Zeit^n. They covered 
a surface of more than 700 square leagues, and the number of positions fixed amounted to 
nearly 600. 

* «S^ an interesting account of the nautical instruments used by the Maldive Navigators by James Frinsep, in 
the Journal of the A^tic Society of Bengal, v. p. 784. 




Bom in 1800, this oflScer entered the Navy 5th April, 1812, as first-class volunteer on 
board the Briseis 10, Captain John Ross (his ancle), under whom he became a midshipman 
and master's mate in the same vessel and in the Ac/an and Driver in the Baltic, White Sea, 
Channel, and west coast of Scotland until December, 181 7. 

On January i6th, 18 18, he was appointed as Admiralty midshipman on board the Isabella^ 
hired sloop, and in the course of the same year accompanied Captain John Ross in that 
vessel on his first expedition for the discovery of a north-west passage. 

In Dec. 181 8, having returned to England, he joined the Severn^ Capt. Wm. ATCulloch. 
Between Jan. 18 19 and Oct. 1825 he was engaged, under the present Sir Wm. Edw. Parry 
{to whose memoir refer\ in three other voyages to the Arctic regions. During the first two he 
was attached to the Hecla and Fury bombs, commanded in person by Capt. Parry; and while 
absent on the second he was promoted, 26th Dec. 1822, to the rank of lieutenant. On the 
last occasion he was again in the Fury, with Capt. Henry Parkyns Hofiner, and was in that 
vessel wrecked in lat. 72^42' 30'', long. 91° 50' 5". In 1827 Mr. Ross, as first lieutenant of the 
Hecla, was the companion once more of Capt. Parry in his attempt to reach the Pole from 
the northern shores of Spitzbergen, by travelling with sledge-boats over the ice. On his 
return to England he was presented with a commander's commission, dated 8th Nov. 1 827. 
He was next, from 1829 until 1833, employed under his uncle in the Polar expedition 
equipped by Sir Felix Booth. His eminent services during that period (he had the honour 
of planting the British flag on the North Magnetic Pole) were rewarded (after he had 
ofilciated for a year as supernumerary-commander of the Victory 104, flag-ship of Sir Thos. 
Williams at Portsmouth) by his elevation to post-rank, 28th Oct., 1834. 

In Dec, 1835, Capt. Ross was appointed to the command (which he retained about 12 
months) of the Cove, a sixth-rate, for the purpose of proceeding in quest of, and of convey- 
ing relief to, some missing whalers who had been frozen up in Baffin Bay. 

He was subsequently, until 1838, employed in making a magnetic survey of Great Britain 
and Ireland, by order of the Admiralty; and on 8th April, 1839, he was appointed to the 
command, in the Erebus bomb, of an expedition (consisting of that vessel and of the Terror) 
which, in the ensuing September, sailed from England for the purposes of magnetic research 
and geographical discovery in the Antarctic^ Seas. During an absence of four years three 
persevering attempts were made to penetrate the icy limits of the South Pole. In the course 
of their cruizes the ships discovered a vast continent, fringed with a barrier of ice 150 feet 
in height ; they nevertheless adventurously persisted, and in spite of many perils, succeeded 
in arriving within 157 miles of the South Pole (lat. 78^), or some hundreds of miles nearer 
than any previous navigator. Among other discoveries they met with an active volcano in 
lat. 77^ 32' south, and long. i67*'east — seated amidst eternal snows, and gaining an altitude 
of 12,400 feet. To this was imparted the name of ''Mount Erebus," as had been to the 
continent that of " Victoria Land." . 

The result of this voyage placed the magnetic phenomena of the southern hemisphere in 
a clear light before the world. Valuable contributions were also made to botany, zoology, 
and geology; and meteorology and terrestrial magnetism derived much benefit from the 
assiduity bestowed on them. The expedition returned in Sept., 1839; and as a proof of the 
skill, humanity, and attention with which it had been conducted, we must add that in the 
whole of the four years it had only lost three men by accident and one by illness.* 

A short time after his arrival in England, Capt. Ross received the honour of knighthood, 
and on 31st Jan., 1848, he was appointed to the Enterprise discovery-ship, now in search of 
the expedition under Sir John Franklin. 

* .Sm •< A Voyage of Discovery in the Southern and Antarctic Seas," published by Sir J. C. Rots, in a tola, 
hfo. 1847. 


Sir Jas. Clark Ross was elected a Fellow of the Llnnaean Society in 1823, and a Fellow of 
the Royal Society, nth Dec, 1828. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical and 
Royal Geographical Societies of London, a Member of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of 
Copenhagen, and a Corresponding Member of the Geographic^ Society of Paris. In i835» 
he received the thanks of the common council of London, and a piece of plate from the 
Subscribers to the Land Arctic Expedition; in 1841 the "Founder's Gold Medal" from the 
Geographical Society of London ; in 1 842 the Gold Medal of the Geographical Society of 
Paris; and in 1844 the honorary degree of D.C.L. from the University of Oxford. Sir 
James Ross published a work on the effect of the pressure of the Atmosphere on the Mean 
Level of the Ocean, 4/9. 1854. 

Sir James Ross had more experience of Arctic service than any other ofScer that ever lived. 
He endured nine Arctic winters, and passed sixteen navigable seasons in the Arctic regions. 
He was, without comparison, the fittest man to command the expedition which first crossed 
the Antarctic circle on January ist, 1841. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, the eminent botanist, served in that capacity, and as assistant-sqrgeon 
in the Erebus, Besides contributing to the narrative of the voyage, he collected materials 
for the six quarto volumes subsequently published on the Flora Antarctica, Novae Zelandiae, 
and Tasmanica, which are said to have established his reputation. 

On receiving the Founder's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in May, 1883, Sir 
Joseph Hooker alluded to his former commander, Sir James Ross, as "the greatest navigator 
since the days of Cook." 



The name of John Biscoe stands prominently forward as one of the recipients of the 
Royal Premium or Medal of the Royal Geographical Society. In 1833, this honour was 
awarded him for the discovery of Enderby Land and Graham Land in the Antarctic Ocean^ 
the result of that enterprising spirit which led him while prosecuting whaling operations to 
extend his voyages far to the southward in search of land. 

In the account of this voyage, published in the Nautical Magazine for 1835, it will be 
found that the brig, Tula^ of 148 tons, belonging to Messrs. Enderby, and commanded by 
Mr. John Biscoe, R.N., with the cutter. Lively as tender, under Mr. Aveling, left London 
July 14th, 1830, on a sealing voyage to the south seas, but with instructions to make 
discoveries in a high southern latitude. 

After touching at the Cape Verd Islands for salt. Port Louis, Berkley Sound, of the Falk- 
land Islands, was anchored in November loth. On the 27th of the same month the vessels 
proceeded to sea, searching in vain for the Aurora Islands in latitude 53^ 15' S., longitude 
47° 57' W., said to have been discovered by the ship Aurora^ in 1762, and to have been again 
seen by the Principessa in 1790, but not found by either Weddell or Biscoe in the above 
assigned position.* 

Having experienced a continuous series of gales, the vessels parted company in lat. 
58®2o'S., long. 25° 11' W. on the 19th of December. Sandwich Land was sighted, and the 
position of its southern end in lat. 58° 25' S., long. 26° 55' W. determined. Attempts to 
penetrate further south at this season proved unsuccessful. 

February 28th High Land was seen at a great distance off to the southward, and on the 
2nd March, 1831, the position of Cape Ann was inferred by bearing to be in lat. 66° 25' S., 
long. 49° 18' E. 

*In 1794, the Spanish vessel of war Atrevida was sent to ascertain the position of the Aurora Islands. 
Nine days were spent in the ^cinity. The position quoted was given to the southern island; a second idand 
was sUted to be in latitude sj"* 3' S., longitude 47'' 53' w., and a third in latitude 52'' 37' S., longitude 47<> 43' W. 


The Lwefyi which had parted companj in a gale» was at this time given np for lost by the 
officers of the Tula. 

Van Diemen's Land was made on the 7th May, and the Tula moored in Sullivan's Core, 
of the Derwent River, with the aid of the Antarctic vojager, Captain Weddell, who was 
here foand in his vessel, the Eliza. 

The Tula^ after repairs, &c., sailed from the Derwent River 3rd September, 1831, and 
when in the entrance unexpectedly fell in with her long-lost consort, the Lively. Mr. Avery, 
her commander, had a melancholy tale to tell of the sufferings passed through since last 
they had met — this necessitated the return of the Tula to the Derwent River. 

October loth, 1832, the vessels sailed again, shaping course towards New Zealand, and 
calling at the Bay of Islands, Chatham Island, Comwallis Islands, and Bounty Rocks, in 
quest of skins and oil. 

February ist, 1833, Adelaide Island was discovered, and on the 19th Pitt Island, situated 
in lat. 65° 20' S., long. 66^ 38' W. On the 21st William IV. land was named after the ruling 
monarch, the two highest mountains being named Mount William and Mount Maberly. 

On the 5th March the vessels had reached New South Shetland, and put into a harbour 
called New Plymouth, where they found the schooner Exquisite, of London. Having made 
a short coasting trip in the Lively in search of seals, Biscoe returned to find the Tula in a 
damaged condition, owing to a heavy swell having bumped her stem on the rocks, 
necessitating a visit to Berkley Sound, of the Falkland Islands. 

The Lively was wrecked on Mackay Island in July, her crew returning to Berkley Sound, 
afterwards joining the Tula. 

Biscoe then continued to Santa Cruz, of St. Catherine Island, and had intended spending 
another season round Cape Horn previous to returning to England. '' But my crew," says 
Biscoe, in his journal, '' were quite out of heart with the voyage, and are leaving me one by 
one, as opportunity offers," in which, he continues, " I can hardly blame them." The whole 
crew having deserted him by the 29th September, with the exception of 'four men and three 
boys, he resolved on returning to England. 

The Tula reached the Downs on the ist February, 1833, and thus terminated a voyage, 
which assigns to Captain Biscoe no humble station among the persevering and enterprising 
of our coimtrymen, who have added to our nautical and geographical knowledge of the 
southern hemisphere. 

The land discovered by him on the parallel of 67^ S., and in longitude 50° W. was named 
Enderby Land, in honour of the merchants who fitted out the expedition. 

Captain John Biscoe died in the year 1848. 



In his younger days as astronomer to two successive Arctic Expeditions, Sir Edward 
Sabine contributed to a great extent by his observations to the hydrography of the Polar 
Regions. His pendulum experiments in the Griper and Pheasant also bear, indirectly and 
advancedly, perhaps— nevertheless, they bear, on hydrography. 

He was bom in Dublin October 14th, 1788, and was the youngest of a large family, whom 
he has long survived. He was educated at the Royal Marine Colleges of Marlow and 
Woolwich, and obtained his first commission December 22nd, 1803. He served in the 
American War, 181 3-1 8 16, was present in the campaign of 1814 on the Niagara frontier, 
and was favourably mentioned in despatches. 

On the conclusion of the war he was appointed, on the recommendation of the President 
and Council of the Royal Society, astronomer of the first expedition in search of the 


North-West Passage— viz.. the expedition commanded bj Sir John Ross in i8i8^-and on 
the return of that expedition accompanied the second expedition of 1 819-1820, commanded 
by Sir Edward Parry, in the same capacity. 

In 1 821-1822 he was employed by the Government in conducting a series of pendulum 
experiments for determining the figure of the earth at several stations at or near the Equator 
on the coasts of Africa and America in H.M.S. Pheasant ; and in the following year (1823) 
he proceeded in H.M.S. Griper to extend the series to Greenland, Spitzbergen, and Norway. 

In 1824, he was engaged in publishing the results of these experiments. In 1825, he was 
appointed with Sir John Herschel the British members of a Joint Commission between the 
French and English Governments to determine the precise difference of longitude between 
the observatories of Paris and Greenwich by means of rocket signals. 

In 1827, he was employed in determining by direct observation the difference in the 
length of the seconds pendulum at Paris and Greenwich, and of the magnetic force of the 
earth at the same stations, and in the same year he accepted the office of Secretary of the 
Royal Society. In 1828 and 1829 he was engaged in various scientific investigations, of 
which the accounts are published in the *' Philosophical Transactions." 

In 1830, in consequence of the disturbed state of Ireland, where his company of Artillery 
was then serving, he was required to join it, and served partly with his regiment and partly 
on the general staff of the army in Ireland from 1833- 1837, when he returned to England on 
leave, and resumed his scientific pursuits; and in 1836 and 1837 presented to the British 
Association an account of a magnetic survey of the British Islands, and a report on the 
variations of the magnetic force in different parts of the globe. 

In 1839, he was appointed to superintend the proceedings at the magnetic observatories 
established in the Colonies, and to reduce and publish the results obtained at them, as well 
as those of a general magnetic survey of the globe, commenced at that period, under the 
direction of the Admiralty. In the same year he was elected General Secretary of the 
British Association, in 1846 Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, and in 1850 Vice- 
President and Treasurer of that Society. In 1 86 1 he became President of the Royal Society, 
which office he retained until 1871. 

Sabine was elected to the Royal Society so long ago as 181 8, was Vice-President in 1850^ 
and succeeded the late Sir Benjamin Brodie in the presidency in 1861. He held the latter 
post for many years, and so late as 1870 we find him presiding at one of the most brilliant 
of the Royal Society's conversazioni. He was for many years an active member of the 
British Association, at whose meetings some of his most important papers were read, was 
its general secretary 21 years, and the presidential chair of which he filled in 1853. He was 
a member of the Royal Commission to inquire into the standards of weights and measures 
(1868), and was made a K.C.B. in 1869. He had the Prussian order pour le mirite^ the 
Italian of Ss. Maurice and Lazaro, and the Brazilian of the Rose. In 1 82 1 he received the 
Copley Medal of the Royal Society; in 1826 the Lalande Medal of the Institute of France; 
and in 1 849 the Royal Medal of the Royal Society. He was elected honorary or correspond- 
ing member of many of the principal academies and societies of Europe and America. As 
a scientific worker. Sir Edward Sabine holds a high rank, and his name will ever hold a large 
place in the annals of science and the history of navigation. He died June 26th, 1883, at 
the advanced age of 95 years. 

The following were published by his authority : — 

Account of Experiments to determine the figure of the Earth by means of the Pendulun vibrating 

seconds in different latitudes. 4/0. 1825. 
Discussion of Magnetical observations made during the voyages of H.M. ships, Adventure and BeagU^ 

1826-36. ^vo, 1838. 
Report of the Variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed at different points of the Earth's surface. 

8v0. 1838. 
Report on the Magnetic Isoclinal and Isodynamic Lines in the British Islands. %vo, 1839. 
Lines of total Magnetic Intensity. \to, 1839. 



Contribatioiis to Teiiestrial Magnetism. 4I0, 1840-49. 

Wrangell, Ferdinand von. Narrative of an Expedition to the Polar Sea in the years 1820-3. ^*^' 

Observations on Days of unusoal Magnetic Disturbance, made at British Colonial Magnetic Obser- 
vatories onder the Departments of the Ordnance and Admiralty, 1840-44. 2 vols. 4^. 1843-51. 
Hydrogiaphical Notices (Cnrrents). 8vo. 1845. 
On some Foints in the Meteorology of Bombay. &vo. 1846. 
On the Diurnal Variation of the Magnetic Declination at St. Helena. ^, 1847. 
On the Lunar Atmospheric Tide at §t. Helena. 4I0. 1847. 
Manual of Terrestrial Magnetism. (Instructions for Magnetic Surveys by Land and Sea). i»mo. 

Humboldt, Alex. von. Cosmos : Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe ; translated under 

the superintendence of Col. £d. Sabine. ^ vols. i2mo, 1850-58. 
On the Annual Variation of the Magnetic Declination at different Periods of the Day. ^. 1851. 
On Periodical Laws discoverable in tne Mean Effects of the larger Magnetic Disturbances. 4/9. 1851. 
On the Periodic and Non-Periodic Variations of the Temperature at Toronto in Canada, from 1841 to 

1852 inclusive. 4/b. 1853. 
On the Periodic and Non-Periodic variations of the Temperature at Toronto from 1841 to 1852 

inclusive. 4/9. 18^3. 
On the Magnetic Variation in the vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope. Svo, 1855. 
On the Lunar-Diurnal Magnetic Variation at Toronto. 4/0. 1856. 
Directions for the use of a small Apparatus to be employed with a Ship's Standard Compass for 

ascertaining the changing part of tne Deviation in the pointing of the Compass. S/vo. 1857. 
Circular to the Visitors of the Royal Observatory. Siva. 1862. 
Report on the Repetition of the Magnetic Survey of England. 8vo» 1862. 
On the Cosmical Features of Teirestnal Magnetism, ^vo, 1862. 
Results of the Magnetic Observations at the Kew Observatory from 1857 to 1862 inclusive. 4/10. 

A Comparison of the most notable Disturbances of the Magnetic Declination in 1858 and 1859 at 

Kew and at Nertschinsk; preceded by a brief Retrospective View of the Progress 01 the 

Investigation into the Laws and Causes of the Magnetic Disturbances. 4/0. 1864. 
Address defivoed at the Anniversary Meeting of the Royal Society. 9vo. 1865-70. 




Alt 20 

Ancient Geography i 

„ Hydrography z 

Back io8 

Bampton 20 

Barnett 125 

Barres, Des g 

Baudin 37 

Bayfield 72 

Beautemps Beaapr6 29 

Beechey, F. W 1 1 1 

Bellingshausen 85 

Biscoe 130 

Blair 18 

Bligh II 

Boteler ' • . 121 

Bougainville . . . . . . . .110 

»» L. A. ^ 4 

Broaghton 20 

Bracks 88 

Byron 4 

Bullock, F 96 

Carteret 4 

Cevallos, De 39 

Chumica 20 

Columbine 15 

Cook 5 

Copeland 116 

Court 42 

Dalrymple 25 

Denham 124 

Dillon 121 

De Cevallos 39 

De Ferrer 49 

De Mayne 50 


D*£ntreca8teanz 19 

Dessiou 84 

D'Urban 39 

D'Urville 120 

Duperrey 95 

Edwards 16 

Ferrer, De 49 

Fidalgo 20 

Fitzmaurice 83 

Flinders 21 

Forrest 18 

Foster . 122 

Franklin 80 

Franzini 51 

Freycinet 74 

Galiano 31 

Gauld 4 

Gauttier 72 

Geography, Ancient i 

Grant 35 

Hall, Basil 89 

Hell 8s 

Hewett 56 

Heywood 38 

Holbrook • • 55 

Holland . • 9 

Horsburgh. 32 

Humboldt 34 

Hurd 45 

Hydrography, Ancient i 

Kendall 105 

King, P. G 12 

» P. P . 76 

Kolff 117 

Kotzebue 65 

hidex to Part I. 


Knisenstem 40 

Lane ; • . 3 

L'Artigue 91 

La Perouse 10 

Lockwood ....?:.... 67 

Lisiansky 42 

Liitke 117 

Mackenzie, M. (Lieut.) .... 8 

„ M. (Professor) ... 3 

Malaspina . . . . 15 

Marshall 13 

Maxwell (Murray) 70 

Mayne, De 50 

McCluer 15 

Modera 105 

Moresby 127 

^udge 123 

Murray 39 

Owen (Richard) 126 

» W.F 57 

Parry 97 

Perouse, La 10 

Peytier 128 

Phillip n 

Phipps 9 

Roe 109 

Ross, Daniel 43 

„ James 129 

M John 78 


Roussin 83 

Sabine. 131 

^ Scoresby (Dr.» William) .... 85 

Shortland (John) 12 

Skyring . . 107 

Slater 127 

Smyth, W.H. ....... 53 

Spence (Graeme) 13 

Stokes (Pringle) 116 

Thomas 50 

Tiarks 92 

Tofino 10 

Topping 19 

Tuckey 67 

Valdez 31 

Vancouver 16 

Varela 9 

— Vidal 94 

Walker's (The) 103 

Wallis 4 

Watt. . *, 13 

Weddell 92 

Wedgborough 32 

White, R. . . . » 32 

„ (Martin) -5* 

Wickham 108 

Wilson 34 

Zahrtmann 117