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MEMOIRS 



OF THE 



LIFE AND RELIGIOUS LABORS OF 

SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 

\ 

(Zctfe qf FbrmingUm, Ontario Cbimty. Nitw York) 



Jottrnal, 
lLttttx%, 



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PHILADELPHIA : 

FRIEND6* BOOK AfiSOaATIOlf, 
10th ahd Back Strkbib. 

1895. 



A 



THE NiZW YORK 

PUBUC LIBRARY 

819047A 

ASTOR. LENOX AMD 

TIJLDSN FOUMfiATIOMS 

H 1080 U 



OOPYBIOHT, 1895, 
BT FSIKNDB* BOOK AB80CIATIOH OF PHILADBLPHIA. 









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• » • • • • 



• • « 1 • 



At a meeting of the RepreserUative Committee of Gene- 
see Yearly Meeting of Friends, held at Bhomfield, 
Ontario, Sia:th month 14th, 1894, 

The Pablication Committee reporting that they 
have carefully examined and revised the '* Journal 
and other writings of Sunderland P. Gardner/' are 
authorized, with the approval of the Yearly Meet- 
ing, to have published a sufficient number of 
copies of the book for distribution. 

On behalf of the Committee, 

WILLIAM GREENE, Clerk, 



01 

o 

X 

CO 



CONTENTS. 

In MsMOBIAMy 1 

Preface, 3 

Adtobiooraphy, 7 

Notes in continuation of Autobiography, by A. H. 

Gardner, 19 

Letter giving some account of the Ancestry of 
Sunderland P. Gardner, 26 

Journal, suppLBSfSNTED by extracts from his Letters, 29 

Letters, principally upon Doctrinal and Religious 
subjects : 

To Freeman Clark, 167 

To P. A. E. 172 

To a Young Man who had Written asking for a 

Sermon to be sent him, 173 

To John Haight, 175 

To S. H., in Reply to his assertion that the " Elder 

Son '' and the Scribes and Pharisees were the 

same, 177 

To Charles Jones, 179 

To Sarah P. Carmalt, 182 

From a young Friend, inquiring as to the &ith of 

the Society of Friends and the causes of the 

Separation, 183 

Answer to the foregoing, 185 

Extract from a Letter written on a journey East in 

the Fall of 1866, 193 

To D. Griffen, 1867, before starting on a journey 

East and South, 193 



CONTENTS. y. 

Lbttebs — Contintied. 

To D. H. G., 194 

Written after a Visit to Skaneatelee, 196 

From M. M. P., a minister of Skaneateles, contain- 
ing queries on doctrinal subjects, 197 

Answer to the foregoing, 200 

To D. H. a, 222 

To Louisa Frost, 225 

From John B. Knott, a Methodist minister of 
Williamson, N. Y., containing queries on doc- 
trinal subjects, 227 

Answer to the foregoing, 229 

To Rachel Hicks, 236 

To £.£., a friend near home, 238 

To Cyrus Betts, 239 

From H. Heberling, Mt Pleasant, 0., 242 

Extracts from a Letter written to G. Bunlap, . . . 246 

To E. P., 250 

ToJ. S.C., 252 

To Lydia J. Mosher, 255 

Extract from a Letter fiom Serena Minard, .... 259 

Extract from a Manuscript of unknown date, . . . 260 

ToS., 261 

From Elias H. Borden, of North Easton, N. Y., con- 
taining queries on doctrinal subjects, 265 

Answer to the foregoing, 267 

To Julia Parsons, 277 

To J. C. Russell, 278 

To J. C. Russell, in answer to special inquiries, . . . 280 

Extracts from a Letter of unknown date, 281 

Extract, 283 

To Joseph E. Smith, M J)., 283 

From Joseph E. Smith, M.D. 287 

From Elizabeth Freeman, containing a query as to 
the Flood having occurred as recorded in 

Scripture, 290 



VI. CONTENTS. 

LRTTBiis — Continued. 

Answer to the foregoing, 291 

ToE. N., astudentat Swarthmore, 294 

To B. F. Thomaa, 297 

To Jehiel J. Moore, 299 

From Edgar M. Zavitz, containing queries on doc- 
trinal subjects, 301 

Answer to the forgoing, 302 

To a friend, 304 

To H. Ogbom, ... 308 

To Nathan Borton, • 310 

From Isaac Wilson, containing queriei as to the 

Gospel ministry among Friends, .*M4 

Answer to the forgoing, 315 

Answer to a second Letter from John B. Knott, . . 319 

From '^ one who travailed with him m spirit," . . . 338 
Reply to Dr. Holland's sermon, ** Punishment not 

Eternal," 339 

From a lady in Orleans Co., N. Y., containing 

queries on doctrinal subjects, 343 

Answer to the foregoing, 343 

Extract from a Letter of unknown date, 349 

8BRMONS AND ADDRESSES : 

Address to the Youth and Children of the Religious 
Society of Friends within the compass of Genesee 
Yearly Meeting, 362 

Sermon delivered at the funeral of Damans Hoag, 
Macedon Centre, N. Y., Eighth month 11th, 
1860, 368 

Extracts from a sermon delivered at Hamburgh 
Quarterly Meeting, 1862, 390 

Sermon delivered at Cheshire, N. Y., Sixth month, 
1862, 400 

Cause and EiOfect, 431 

Sermon, 444 



•  



CONTENTS. Vll. 

Sermons and ADDExaRES— Continued. 

Sermon delivered at Richmond, Indiana, Ninth 
month 28th, 1873, 470 

"Opening of the Seals," — Sermon delivered at 
Plainfield, O., Ninth month, 1873, 494 

Sermon delivered at Allxmy, N. Y., Firgt-day morn- 
ing, Second month 6th, 1876, 526 

Sermon delivered at Albany, N. Y., First-day even- 
ing, Second month 6th, 1876, 542 

Sermon delivered at Philadelphia, Fifth month 
10th, 1885, (morning), 559 

Sermon delivered at Philadelphia, Fifth month 
10th, 1885, (afternoon), 571 

Sermon delivered at Philadelphia, Fifth month 
10th, 1885, (evening), 582 

Sermon delivered at Philadelphia, Fifth month 
12th, 1885, (evening), 597 

Sermon delivered at Baltimore, Md., Eleventh 
month 19th, 1885, 617 

Sermon delivered at Farmington, (from notes taken 
by Annette Grardner), 648 

Sermon delivered at Farmington, date unknown, 677 



Sn JEemoriam* 

SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 

A MOURNFUL spell rests on our gathering now, 
A seat is empty and a presence flown ; 

A saint has felt the death-seal on his brow, 
A servant to his sure reward is gone. 

We loved his presence, for it ever gave 
A pore and steady beacon-light of truth, 

A help to the tired laborers in the field, 
A loving counsellor to the listening youth. 

He knew thy law, and labored to the end 
Thy ever-righteous mandates to fulfill ; 

But he has gone — the orphan's ready Mend, 
The heart that beat so generously is stilL 

His seat is vacant, yet there must remain 

A halo from his bright example won. 
And while we know for him ** to die is gain," 

Help us .to feel and say, ** Thy will be done." 

Give thou, dear Lord, to those who loved him well, 
A calm submission to thy high decree, - • 

'Till they may leave earth's sorrow and earth's strife 
To join him in a blest eternity. 

For though thou hast in thy appointed time 
Recalled the loved one thou so kindly gave, 

Thou wilt remember those who bow in tears 
As Jesus bowed and wept o'er Lazarus' grave. 



"^ 



Oh help U8 turn our eyes away from earth, 
Nor longer linger by the grave's dark night ; 

But bid us rather in our faith behold 
The joyous spirit in its upward flight. 

For now no barrier impedes his way, 
His warfare ended and his work well done 

Why should he longer in his armor stay ? 
The goal is reached — the victory is won. 

No longer by our weakness is he tried, 
Nor wrong nor sorrow pains his vision now. 

The cross so meekly borne is laid aside, 
The crown of righteousness is on his brow. 

He lias his pure, his wedding garment on, 

The palm of victory is in his hand ; 
He hears the glad, &miliar words in Heaven, 

The joyous welcome from an angel band. 

Then weep no more. Let faith its work perform ; 

Let love and hope and patience banish pain ; 
A few more days and time shall cease its hold, 

And we shall see our dearly loved again. 

A. H. G. 



PREFACE. 



The removal from a field of arduous labors in the religious 
world of our dear friend and elder brother Sunderland P. 
Gardner, has awakened in the hearts of those intimately 
associated with him in religious fellowship, strong desires 
to treasure up and perpetuate for the benefit of those who 
may follow after in the life journey, the fruits of a life of 
devotion to the call and will of the Divine Father, and it 
is for such a purpose the following sketch of his life and 
labors^ and some of the truths he so ardently promulgated, 
have been collected and are ofiered for the perusal of those 
who are seeking a knowledge of Divine Truths and the 
way by which such knowledge can be obtained. 

lUchly endowed with intellectual gifts, he early in life 
yielded to the admonition, " This is the way, walk ye in 
it," and by so doing was enabled to advance step by step 
m the pathway that led to his becoming a Master Work* 
man in the cause he had espoused, — truly '' a plant of re- 
nown," and "of the Father's right-hand planting." 

As this account of the life and labors of our friend 
goes forth to the world, ardent desires arise that a blessing 
may rest upon it in its mission, that it may help perfect 



4 PBEFACE. 

the work so nobly begun, and be a means of carrying joy 
and peace to many sincere, seeking souls. 

Most especially do we desire that all within our fold 
may renewedly rally to the standard as upheld by our 
dear brother ; be willing as he was willing to forego such 
of the pleasures of earth as stand in the way of an ad- 
vancement in the Higher Life ; faithful as he was faithful 
in supporting the beautiful principles and testimonies of 
our beloved Society ; and earnest as he was earnest in 
filial devotion to the All-Father. 

The present calls loudly for greater dedication of heart 
to the principles of pure Christian love and fellowship, 
for a return from perhaps many wanderings to the true 
fold, whose Shepherd will welcome and care tenderly for 
the returning ones. 

Although this brief tribute of affection for our brother 
goes not officially from those with whom he was most 
intimately associated in religious fellowship, it is the over- 
flow of that binding and cementing love that permeated 
the hearts of those who were thus privileged, and who feel 
that the voice that proclaimed the deep convictions of his 
heart gave no uncertain sound. Truly " the memory of 
the just is blessed." 

His demeanor always manifested a disposition of hu- 
mility, always endeavoring to be faithful to manifested duty, 
unfearful of the face of man ; his superior gift in the 



PREFACE. O 

ministry was widely known and acknowledged by all who 

were led by the peaceable spirit of Jesus. His numerous 

sermons preached at Minerals number in the thousands. 

He seemed bright in his spiritual sight, and preached a 

very lengthy and powerful sermon at Parmington, N. Y. , 

a few months before his decease. Although ninety years of 

age his voice did not fail him, neither dimness of purpose 

in the inward or outward, and his many attached friends 

can proclaim how sadly he is missed from our midst. Let 

us be willing to follow him as he endeavored to follow 

Chrigt — ^for surely he is worthy, and stands next to Elias 

Hicks in spiritual discernment and energy of purpose ; and 

this little token of respect is a feeble effort to what might 

be produced in the truth in description of his worthiness, 

and dedication of heart to the great cause of Truth and 

Righteousness in this state of existence. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY 

OP 

SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER 



I BELIEVE it to be right for me to leave some account 
of the vicissitudes and various exercises through which I 
have passed during my probation, and of the dealings of a 
gracious and merciful Grod with me, hoping that some at 
least who read me may be induced to shun the paths of 
folly, and improve their time and talents in such a way 
as to give glory to God and promote peace and good-will 
among men. 

I was bom the fourth day of the Seventh month, 1802, 
in the town of Rensselaerville (now Westerlo), Albany 
County, New York. My father's name was Elisha W. 
Gardner, and my mother's maiden name was Sarah Patti- 
son ; neither of them made any particular profession of 
religion. My father's native place was South Kingston, 
R. I. ; his great-grandfather, William Gardner, who died 
in 1748, was one of the early settlers of that part of the 
country, and located on what was called McSparran Hill ; 
the line of our family was through his son John, next 
William, who was my grandfather, who with his family 
settled in Albany County, N. Y., about the year 1790. 



8 MEMOIRS OF 

The families formerly held slaves, and I remember seeing 
some of these who, in their state of freedom, were industri- 
ous, respectable people. 

My mother's native place was in the town of Armenia, 
Dutchess Co., N. Y. Her grandfather, Thomas Pattison, 
came from the north of Ireland and settled in the colony 
of Connecticut ; two of his brothers, William and John, 
came with him, one of whom settled in New Jersey or Vir- 
ginia ; their descendants are numerous in the United States. 

Her grandfather's name on her mother's side was 
William Utter, whose family was mostly destroyed by 
Indians during the French war. They resided in the 
town of Coshocton, Sullivan County, N. Y. His wife, 
eight children, one white man and one colored servant 
were scalped and left dead on the floor ; the father and one 
son being absent, returned next morning to behold the 
terrible sight, and to learn that two young girls about 
seven and nine years old had been carried away prisoners. 
Overwhelmed with grief they buried their friends with their 
own hands ; the two girls, Hannah and Sarah, the latter 
of whom was my grandmother, were held in cruel cap- 
tivity eleven months, and then redeemed by an exchange 
of prisoners. The father could not bear this severe afflic- 
tion ; ho returned to Connecticut, and died of grief. Oh 
the horrors of war I 

I was the eldest of my father's family, and a great deal 
of care devolved upon me toward the younger children. 
It being rather an unfavorable country for people in 
limited circumstances, we all had to labor, which I have 
ever considered a blessing to us, except to my mother, who 
suffered her ambition and interest for her family to stimu- 



SUNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 9 

late her to work beyond her strength, which was the 
cause of much pain and feebleness during the latter years 
of her life. I think few mothers ever did more with their 
own hands for their children than she did for hers. 

My privilege for getting school-learning was limited, 
both on account of the manner in which the schools were 
mostly kept in that vicinity and the necessity for my ser- 
vices at home for more than nine months in the year. I 
found, however, that some knowledge might be gained by 
improving such leisure hours as are generally spent by 
many lads in recreation or idleness ; and in this way I ac- 
quired sufficient learning to do such business as I had 
deemed proper to undertake. 

My natural disposition and will were very strong, but 
even in childhood I felt an inward check upon them which 
was both powerful and clear, so much so that I cannot refer 
to any period of my life in which I had not a clear sense 
of right and wrong ; and when I listened to and obeyed the 
Counsellor which spake to my spiritual understanding, 
great was my peace and joy ; but when I suffered my own 
will to gain the ascendency and carry me beyond the 
bounds of propriety, sorrow and anguish of spirit were the 
consequence. 

My mother would frequently, when at work, seat nie 
near her and instruct me to read in the Bible, and would 
explain passages in answer to my many questions — en- 
deavoring to impress my mind with the value of the more 
important subjects set forth in the Scriptures. Her labor 
and care in these respects had a tendency to fix principles 
in my mind which have not been eradicated, though too 
frequently neglected or apparently forgotten. I have not 



10 MEMOIB8 OF 

language to express the gratitude that flows from my heart 
to that dear mother. 

Oh that mothers, especially young mothers, were more 
fully sensible of the eflect that their influence has upon the 
subsequent conduct and lives of their children. It is to 
them more particularly that the care of the children is con- 
fided ; they only possess that maternal feeling and ten- 
derness which is adapted to the mental as well as physical 
wants of the children ; it is very much with them in giving 
the first lessons of instruction to mould their minds and 
manners ; the tender, innocent mind needs proper counsel 
and direction, and also like the tender plant needs protec- 
tion from the rudeness of the storm. The mother next to 
God stands highest, in her stewardship to preserve immor- 
tal minds in innocence and prepare them for a glorious 
eternity. 

In our neighborhood were people who held many fool- 
ish and hurtful traditions concerning witches and devils 
which for a time caused me to be afraid to be out in the 
evening alone, but I early became convinced of the ab- 
surdity of such things. 

My father was steady in the attendance of Friends* 
meetings, and was careful to take me with him — hence my 
acquaintance with that people commenced in my early 
years. I was also permitted to attend meetings of the 
Methodists when held near our house, and though the 
Friends' meetings were held mostly in silence, and the 
Methodists always had singing, vocal praying, and generally 
preaching, yet I preferred attending the former. There 
was that steady, uniform exemplary course of conduct, 
that genuine friendly feeling manifested toward each other. 



dtJlTDERLAl^D P. GA^DKElt. 11 

that plainness and slmplicitj of dress and address, that 
dignity of demeanor and general deportment which caused 
me to love and respect them. They were not easily turned 
out of the course of apprehended duty, but faithful and 
seasonable in the attendance of their meetings; such was 
the Society of Friends when I first became acquainted 
mth it. Although I could not unite with the Methodists, 
yet I never showed any lightness or improper conduct in 
their meetings, and I believe many of them were well- 
meaning and sincere in their devotions. 

Among the first ministers of the Society of Friends 
whom I heard preach were Samuel Carey, Ruth Spencer 
and Christopher Healy — ^the latter being the first that I 
ever heard, which was on the occasion of my grandmother 
Gardner's funeral, and I but little thought at that time 
that the tongue which spake so sweetly would ever become 
an accuser of the brethren, and utter things concerning 
them inoonsbtent with the Christian spirit of brotherly 
kindness and charity. 

There was a young man in our neighborhood who pro- 
fessed to be under religious concern and turned his atten- 
tion towards Friends. They encouraged him to be faith- 
ful; he became very zealous, adopted the external appear- 
ance of a Friend, and by some was thought much of. 1 
was at his father's house one day on a visit to his younger 
brothers ; he also had a visitor, a young friend about his 
own age, with whom he talked much on the subject of religion. 
After a while he said he would go to the garden and get a 
melon; one of his younger brothers hearing it went out, 
and in bringing the melon in met the elder brother going 
after it. He was so offended at the boy for picking the mel- 



12 MEMOIRS OF 

on as to kick him and use improper and unbecoming epi- 
thets, which, when I heard and saw, I thought to be very 
inconsistent. He, however, became a member and fre- 
quently spake in meeting; he married a very exemplary 
and consistent member of Society, but they had not been 
long united before a difference arose between him and his 
father-in-law, and he soon came out a deist; his general 
conduct being such as to make his wife unhappy in her 
domestic relations during her life, and his principles and 
behavior were injurious to all with whom he had influ- 
ence. He had a large share of low cunning, and I have 
no doubt but that he contributed much towards poisoning 
the low circle in which he has moved during the most of 
his life. Some thought him to be an apostate, but I 
think only to the extent of profession and external ap- 
pearance, for I never had evidence in his case that the 
strong man was ever bound and cast out with his goods; 
yet he was apostate enough to manifest that revengeful, en- 
vious spirit towards religion which apostates generally do. 
He has always appeared to be discontented and unhappy, 
loving few if any himself, and no one having real respect 
for him ; he was not in a situation even to appreciate the 
comforts which the world affords. 

I would here say to all young people, Never give ear to 
any that cavil at the religion of Jesus Christ, or that speak 
lightly of virtue, which is the first pillar in the Christian 
building. Flee from the company and conversation of such 
as from your greatest outward enemy. 

About the seventh year of my age my father became 
a member of the Society of Friends, after which they fre- 
quently visited at our house, on which occasion their 



SUNDEBLAND P. OARDNEB. 13 

conversation was interesting to me, especially when they 
had religious opportunities in the family. My mother 
was much opposed to my father's uniting with Friends, 
hut I believe she soon became reconciled to it. 

In the fall of 1814, when in my thirteenth year, 
we removed to Farmington, Ontario county, in what was 
then called the Genesee country. Our manner of traveling 
was with a wagon and a three-horse team, the forward one 
of which I rode ; we were nine days on the road and it 
rained every day. We found the country comparatively 
new and much more productive than the one we had left, 
but there were some serious disadvantages to counter- 
balance, such as fevers — especially fever and ague ; and 
the effects of the war, which was about closing as to active 
hostilities, but not with regard to its consequences. Busi- 
ness was deranged, men had lost confidence in each other, 
morals were lax, and people had to a great extent imbibed 
the spirit and feeling consequent upon war ; hence in- 
temperance, quarreling, fighting, lawsuits and general 
licentiousness all contributed to exhibit human nature 
perverted, in its worst character. This state of things 
constituted the school into which I was introduced. I 
attribute much of the error into which I fell, and the con- 
sequent remorse and anguish of spirit, to the influence of 
the pernicious example of my associates, and many a time 
have I regretted that my lot was cast among them, or that 
I had not obeyed my Heavenly Counsellor, which would 
have enabled me to have arisen in moral strength to firmly 
withstand everything that tended to break down the sacred 
enclosure which our Heavenly Father has placed around 
every soul in its state of innocence, giving it power to 



14 MEMOIRS OF 

guard against the assaults of the enemy. This power it 
never loses so long as it looks to and depends upon Him 
who gives it. 

There were many young boys — older than myself — 
who had been brought up or rather abandoned to idleness 
and dissipation, and notwithstanding the care and anxiety 
of my parents on my account, frequent occasions offered 
to be in their company ; and they, having no respect for 
parental authority, endeavored to leaven me with the same 
spirit. Very much of their conduct at first was shocking to 
my feelings and sense of right, but I gradually gave way, 
and imitated in some respects their practices. But great 
were my conflicts ; my Heavenly Father reasoned with me 
as a father with an erring, beloved son, and showed me 
the path of duty and safety with indubitable clearness. 

I will now endeavor to represent the state of the So- 
ciety of Friends in the Grenesee country at the time of my 
first acquaintance with it. Farmington Quarterly Meet- 
ing included all the Friends in western New York (who 
were numerous), and was held a part of the time at Scipio. 
Farmington and parts of adjoining towns had mostly been 
settled by Friends ; there was no other meeting-house in 
the town for many years, and the consequence was that the 
inhabitants generally attended their meetings. There was 
not that plain, honest dealing and simplicity of manner 
here which characterized the Friends at the East; many of 
them were wealthy, and sought with remarkable ardor for 
more. Some were lawyers, yet were active in the Society's 
business. There was, however, a large body of valuable 
Friends, whose influence evidently tended to mould to some 
extent the character of the people in their vicinity. 



6UNDEBLAND F. GARDNER. 15 

Caleb Macomber was the only minister so far as I 
recollect in Farmington Monthly Meeting, and had great 
influence in transacting the business of the Society ; great 
deference was paid to his judgment, and matters were 
generally disposed of according to his choice or direction. 
I think that the implicit submission to his views eventually 
proved a serious injury to him and a disadvantage to 
Friends, yet I believe he was at that time a minister of the 
gospeL 

My father was very careful as to my attendance at 
meetings for worship, but not being a member I did not 
attend those for discipline. I have ever considered that a 
punctual attendance of religious meetings while a lad was 
of great advantage to me. I frequently felt the Father's 
love to fill my soul, and therefore had many seasons of 
instruction and profit ; but my natural propensities being 
very strong, I had much to war against, and was fre- 
quently jostled or carried away captive ; hence conflict 
after conflict, and sorrow and grief on account of my 
deviations from rectitude. I would renew my covenant, 
resolve to do better, — again lose ground, and be plunged 
almost into despair. I had seen the necessity of being 
very strict and circumspect in all my conduct, and any 
deviation from what I was clearly convinced was right was 
met by a swift and faithfiil witness in my own heart. 

I saw the necessity of separating from the company of 
the lads in the neighborhood, and of keeping much by 
myself, occupying my leisure time and First-day aft;emoons 
in reading the Scriptures and other religious books, such 
as Friends' journals, etc. I made a practice of being 
engaged in vocal prayer when alone, and would retire to 



16 MEMOIRS OF 

the fields and solitary places in the evening for that pur- 
pose ; and although uttering the desire of my heart 
vocally upon the bended knee, found no better success to 
my petitions than would, undoubtedly, have been granted 
to the same earnestness of prayer in the closet of my heart; 
yet in these seasons my soul was filled with love, and I had 
a measure of the foretaste of heaven. These religious ex- 
ercises in retirement I kept a profound secret, perhaps 
mostly on account of my great difiSdence, and I am not 
aware that any person ever knew of it but myself. Well 
would it have been ^vith me had I always obeyed that voice 
which spoke so clearly to' my spiritual understanding in the 
days of my early youth ; but notwithstanding this devotion 
on my part, and those seasons of Divine love and favor, my 
warfare was by no means accomplished. It was that state 
in which innocence is blessed and washed by the dew of 
heaven, which can only be retained and virtue attained 
through trials and the resistance of temptations incident to 
our probationary state ; and when these temptations come 
what conflicts ! These were things belonging to my nature 
and proper in themselves when under right control, but 
caused uneasiness when brought under the influence of the 
young persons in the neighborhood on the one hand, and 
the voice of God on the other, which latter clearly showed 
me the right way. Here commenced my warfare ; and I 
verily believe that had I fully taken up the cross to my 
propensities, and made unreserved submission to my 
Heavenly Father's will, which should have been the first 
and supreme point in my life and conduct, that the inten- 
sity of this warfare would soon have been over, and a 
victory obtained over everything that would lead from just 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 17 

and holy rectitude. But bj not fully surrendering as one 
necessity appeared for it after another, the conflict was 
long, and sometimes I evidently lost ground, though I fully 
saw it Under such circumstances I would endeavor to 
console myself by promising that I would yield full obedi- 
ence by and by. O dangerous ground I O false coun- 
sellor ! It is the false reasoning in man, or that which is 
represented under the figure of the serpent, that, if list^ied 
to, invariably leads astray, and brings away from a depen- 
dence upon the only sure foundation — Christ, the Bock of 
Ages. 

Among other improper diversions practiced by the lads 
and young men of the neighborhood was that of playing 
cards, in which I also indulged until it became a habit, 
and I often joined their company when not only cards, but 
profanity, levity, and excessive mirthfiilness, were com- 
bined to make up the entertainment, which was sometimes 
kept up until late hours in the night, when I would make 
disguised excuses to my parents for my absence. But 
through all my deviations my Heavenly Father's spirit 
was extended for my deliverance. During the excitement 
of the moment I endeavored to keep down the witness 
against the evil, but when that was over it would rise up 
in judgment against my sins. In those seasons I never 
iailed to promise that I would reform and forsake the error 
of my way ; but the power of habit was so deeply fixed, 
and the desire for such diversions would rise with such 
strength, that contrary to clear convictions I still went on 
my downward career, until one time I was on my way 
through the woods in the evening to join my associates, 
when I heard a language addressed to my mental ear of 

2 



18 MEMOIRS OF 

this import : " Thou hast often resolved to meet no more in 
these gatherings for playing at cards.'* I replied that *' I 
intended to leave them,' ' and the query was immediately 
and emphatically put, " When /'* which took such a hold 
upon my mind that I halted and reflected, upon which I 
perceived that the more I indulged the stronger my chains 
would become, and the less my strength to overcome, and 
I replied " nmv ! " and turned about and went home, since 
which time I have never engaged in such pursuits. I as- 
cribe this victory to the care of Israel's unslumbering 
shepherd. 

Oh you young men and women, who have health, 
ambition and energy of spirit, and above all, talents com- 
mitted to your care for right improvement, let me entreat 
you not to indulge in any course of conduct which will 
bring to the hearts of your parents one unnecessar}^ pang ; 
obey them in the Lord, for this is their due; and you will 
find more in this obedience than may appear to a super- 
ficial view, for as you are truly submissive to them a way 
will be opening for your submission to Him upon whom 
depends all your happiness both now and forever. 

The season of youth is that period of human life in 
which proper discipline or restraint should be laid upon 
everything that gives evidence of putting forth an im- 
proper, hurtful or unprofitable growth. This will be at- 
tended with some crosses to your first or corrupted nature, 
but by carefully looking at them by the light which truth 
gives, you will see that the cross forbids nothing but those 
things which would injure you if practiced. Such disci- 
pline is necessary to keep all our ]>owers under due re- 
straint ; lience, a proper guard upon our passions, or, in 



8ITNDEBLAND P. QABDNER. 19 

other words, takicg up the cross against our improper, 
not to say impure, desires, is indispensable for our good. 
And if the season of youth has been rightly cultivated 
and improved, we are fitted to discharge with propriety 
and usefulness all the successive responsibitities of life; 
and a life thus improved cannot fail to be satisfactory to 
ourselves and beneficial to others, and prepares us for a 
glorious immortality. 

About this period, having become convinced of a deep- 
felt ooneem to appear in the ministry of the gospel of 
truth in the religious gatherings of Friends, the way 
seemed open to Friends to recommend me in the ministry, 
which proposition was sent down from Farmington Quarter- 
ly Meeting of Ministers and Elders to Farmington Monthly 
Meeting, by which it was confirmed Eleventh month 22d, 
1849. 



NOTES.* 



Here ends, we regret to say, the narrative written by 
himself; and for the rest we have only to depend upon 
memory, scrape of journals, and letters. 

We see he was brought, while yet a child, close to the 
Father's heart The large stone yet remains in its native 
bed on the north end of the hill he has cultivated for so 
many years, where he used to kneel and pray when a boy, 
as he drove the cows to and from the pasture ; and we 
have heard him say that on this spot he has conversed with 
and been instructed by his Heavenly Father, even as a 

* By bis wife, A. H. Gardner. 



20 MEMOIRS OF 

man would commune with his friend. We see he thus 
continued humbly seeking for knowledge of spiritual 
truth, until, as is too often sadly the case with our youth, 
evil companions broke in upon the sacred security of inno- 
cence, to entice him into the broad road ; but, we also 
see that he did not long continue under their influence, 
and his calm, determined answer, "Now," when asked by 
the monitor **When?" seemed to be the turning-point 
from slavery to salvation. In the testimonies borne to his 
own family during the quiet home opportunities, while in- 
structing his sons in the important lessons of life and 
conduct, we have heard him say that whenever he had 
recognized a temptation to wrong in any form, he knew 
where to look for strength and power to say ** No " de- 
cisively. 

The writer of these notes did not become acquainted with 
him until after many years of his public ministry had 
passed, but it seems right to bear this testimony from an 
association with him of over thirty-four years. He seemed 
ever on the watch to do his Master's bidding ; often when 
answering calls of religious duty has he been known to go 
through storms and severe cold, sometimes through the 
darkness of night on foot and alone, poorly clad and even 
without his proper meals, not having time or money by 
which to obtain them. A large part of his time was taken 
up in attending funerals, often long distances from home, 
and his work was one of love ; though he was called to warn 
against sin, he could speak tender words of comfort and 
encouragement to the mourner and to the erring ; and we 
have felt that he might have said, as did the Master: 
" The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 21 

aooiDted me to preach the Gospel to the poor ; he hath 
aent me to heal the hroken-hearted, to preach deliverance 
to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set 
at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable 
year of the Lord." 

During some periods of his work he bore much perse- 
cution, doubtless from those who knew him not and from 
those who knew not themselves, but now, while we mourn 
our own great loss, we fully believe we may rejoice for him, 
that he has been permitted to lay down the cross and take 
the crown of life, with those others who ** have come out 
of great tribulation, and have washed their robes and 
made them white in the blood of the Lamb. " " They shall 
hunger no more, neither thirst any more, neither shall 
the sun light on them, nor any heat, for the Lamb, which is 
in the midst of the throne, shall feed them, and shall 
lead them unto living fountains of waters : and God shall 
wipe away all tears from their eyes.' ' 

We have known him to arise from a sick-bed, and, 
though trembling with weakness, go several miles from 
home. to attend a funeral or other meeting, and when as- 
sisted to his place in the house by friends, would sit in 
silence for a time until he received strength to stand up, 
when he would deliver a powerftil sermon, bearing evi- 
dence of the anointing Presence; and after the close of 
the meeting appeared to be strong and well, and declared 
himself as well as at any time in his life. We looked upon 

this as a miracle. 

But for many years he enjoyed, as a general thing, 
very good health, and was at home, able to labor on his 
&rm successfully for the support of his family, also thus 



22 MEMOIBS OF 

obtaining means with which to travel. He never gained 
much of this world's goods, for his necessary expenses 
abroad took all the surplus earnings, jet by strict econo- 
my he was enabled to retain his home and maintain his 
family comfortably. 

In the year 1882, when he was about eighty years of 
age, and had become too feeble to labor as hard as in the 
past, and not having much means to depend upon, pros- 
pects looked rather dark for the future, but he uttered no 
word of apprehension. He had sometimes been offered 
money from famiUes concerned for his services abroad, but 
had not felt at liberty — as a general practice — to take it, 
nor in any way to balk the testimony concerning a hireling 
ministry, and this being a matter of clear principle, no 
complaint was uttered or sorrow expressed; yet to the 
mother, whose health was now failing, many anxious 
thoughts arose, especially as to the future of their three 
sons, the eldest of whom was but thirteen. One day 
whUe she was alone in the field meditating, perhaps rather 
despondently, upon their circumstances, a strong and sud- 
den impression came to her — ^an impression Ml of life and 
hope — ^a feeling not to be controlled by her tvant of hope — 
and a strong intimation was given that the cloud should 
be lifted off from them — ^and the words, ** The earth is the 
Lord's, and the fullness thereof ; the world and they that 
dwell therein," were brought forcibly to her mind. Her 
&ith was weak, for there was no outward reason why this 
blessing should be expected. Hard labor and self-denial 
had covered the past, — ^what should change the future? 
Yet the impression would remain — ^though doubting instead 
of trusting deserved not the comfort But the change 



8UND£RLAND P. GARDNER. 23 

came ! the Liord's promise was sure; and through His 
willing stewards the work was done. An excellent suit of 
clothes was sent him by a Friend in New York (Jane C. 
Bossell), whose name at that time he did not even know, 
but whom we now know as one whose hands are always 
filled with good works. Immediately after this, other 
Friends, some of them living far from his abode, joined 
with her in this work of love, Friends and neighbors near 
his home not failing to lend their assistance; and a pleas- 
ant and comfortable house was built for him and other 
help received equal to his then present need. We believe 
this to have been a miracle of God's care, and but another 
evidence that his hand is not shortened, but his mercies 
and his promises are sure. For this reason I relate the 
ctrcumstances, and also to acknowledge our united grati- 
tude to all those who were so willing and active in this 
work of Christian generosity. I desire our children to 
always remember it, that they may know the kindness of 
our hiends and the providence of our Heavenly Father. 

Affcer this, his Ufe was made comparatively easy, and he 
was enabled to continue his work without the exposure 
and self-denials of the past. About two years before his 
death he suffered from La Grippe, after which he did not 
regain his former strength, but was still able to labor in the 
vineyard both at home and abroad. The next year he 
had another attack of the same disease, from which he never 
rallied so as to be able to travel far from home. He told 
us that he had prayed the Father for strength sufficient for 
his necessity, and it was given ; he was permitted to re- 
ceive calls from Friends attending the Yearly Meeting, 
which was held in his neighborhood in Sixth month, and 



24 MEMOIRS OF 

was a great pleasure and help to him, for it seeme^ as if 
peace and love came hand in hand with every one in their 
tender visits. He loved Friends, and these opportunities 
were precious to him and I believe to them ; he felt that it 
was the last time, and it proved to be so. 

After this he gained enough strength to attend meeting 
at home and to walk out a little — and was easy and com- 
fortable except when the pains of neuralgia attacked him, 
and they were often very severe. His mind remained 
strong and clear, and during the remainder of his frail 
earthly existence, his cheerful encouragements and wise 
counsels were a daily strength and comfort to us. On the 
last Seventh-day of First month (1893) he was taken very 
ill, neuralgia striking to the stomach. The attention of 
a skillful and kind physician relieved his pain; but he 
could not recover. During the few days he remained with 
us he gave us much useful advice and excellent counsel. 
He desired us not to mourn as those without hope, saying 
** he had been spared to us many years, but now his time, 
had come to depart and be at rest. He had enjoyed his 
family and would gladly remain with them, but he was 
ready to cross the river," yea, rejoiced to go on his journey; 
and at a little past six o'clock p.m., on the thirteenth of 
Second month, he left the sulTering clay and went to that 
other home — the place prepared for those who die in the 
Lord, where there is no pain nor sorrow nor tears. 

He had desired that our dear friend Isaac Wilson, 
of Bloomfield, Canada, should be requested to attend his 
funeral, and named the day on which he thought it might be 
best to hold it, "Sixth-day, the seventeenth of the month," 
which was accordingly attended to. On the day named. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 25 

Isaac was present, who, during a time of solemn wiuting at 
the house, knelt in earnest supplication ; the meeting was 
held at the meeting-house where he had so many years at- 
tended ; the day was severely cold, but the attendance was 
very large. 

Isaac spoke with great power and tenderness from the 
words, " Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright, 
for the end of that man is peace." — Ps. 37: 37. 

We will now gather together what we can of a dear 
life passed away, by consulting his papers, consisting of 
short notes of diary and promiscuous letters, unfortu- 
nately many of them not dated. Many of his choice 
papers were burned when hb house was burned, so we 
are limited in material, but we preserve what we can, be- 
cause they are his own written experiences. 

A. H. G. 



A LETTER 



LATELY FOUHD OlVIlfO SOME ACCOUNT OF THE AMCB8TBY OF 
8UVDBBLA2rD P. OABDNEB. 



Benjamin Rodman : 

Esteemed Friend : — I received, through the kiDdness 
of Benjamin Hallowell, of Sandy Spring, Md. , a note of 
inquiry concerning my ancestors. Some years since I 
went to Rhode Island for the purpose of learning their 
history, and traced it with certainty to five brothers, 
Benoni, Henry, George, William and Nicholas Gardner. 
William was my great-great-grandfather ; he had three 
sons, William, John and Thomas. John was my great- 
grandfather. He had ' three sons, William, John and 
Allen. William was my grandfather, and his son, Elisha 
Watson Gardner, was my father. 

The first mentioned five brothers purchased a part of 
the Pettequamscud purchase, where they probably settled. 
The first William mentioned lived on McSparran Hill, 
three miles east of Little Rest, now called Kingston, 
Washington Co., R. I. 

There was a George Grardner in Rhode Island as early 
as 1662 who might have been father to the five brothers, 
but I could not trace the connection : no doubt the 
particulars may be found in the first and second volumes 

26 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 27 

of the " Historical collections of the settlement of Rhode 
Island/' but I have only the third volume, being unable to 
obtain the others. There is a tradition in our family that 
Mary Dyer was a relative, but whether upon the Gardner 
side I have not learned — I have not even heard what was 
her maiden name. 

I have no doubt that our family may be traced to the 
Nantucket Gardners or to England by records that may 
yet be found in Rhode Island, Connecticut, Nantucket or 
Boston, and if I had time and means to devote to it, the 
work would be a pleasure. The Gardner coat of arms, 
an engraving of which I have, might assist us. The P in 
my name is from my mother's maiden name — Pattison. 
This family settled in Connecticut in an early day ; 
Thomas, her grandfather, and William and John his 
brothers. William Pattison was the first man who made 
tinware for sale in America. 

William Gardner, senior, died in Third month, 1748; 
his son John died Eighth month, 1800. My grandfather 
William died in 1832; my father, Elisha W. Gardner, died 
TweUUi month 15th, 1864. The whole of our line, so far 
as I know, lived to over eighty years. I am seventy-three 
years of age and am considered an old man, yet I am able 
to labor on the farm, and have traveled during most of the 
winter in attending funerals and meetings from home. I 
send this by the hand of my much-esteemed friend and 
elder brother in the truth, Benjamin Hallowell. 

From thy friend, 

Sunderland P. Gardner. 

FarminffUm, Third month BSih, 1S76. 



28 MEMOIRS OF 

[Note in relation to the foregoing letter, by A. H. Gardner. ] 

Afterward he was informed that Mary Dyer's maiden 
name was Long, and that she was a sister to Hored, who 
married a Hicks, ancestor to Elias Hicks, and afterward 
married George Gardner, an ancestor to Sunderland — ^thb 
was why Mary Dyer was called Aunt Mary in the olden 
time. 

Hored was taken from her spinning-wheel and carried 
to Boston, where she was publicly whipped, because she 
was a Quaker ; a female servant volunteered to accompany 
her on this terrible journey and carry her infant child. 
After Hored had suffered her cruel punishment she knelt 
and prayed for her persecutors. It is said that this day's 
work turned many away ftom the persecuting sect and 
brought many to favor the cause of Friends. 



JOURNAL. 



ftl'PPLRMEMTIED BY KXTRACTS FROM UZ8 LtrTTBRS WHEREVKK THESK 8URVKD 
TO MAKB THE NARRATIVE MORE NEARLY COMTINUOUa 



Third month 22d, 1853. 
My Dear Wife : — 

I wrote yesterday, but did not tell thee where to direct, 
— ^Battle Creek, Calhoun Co., Michigan. 

I had a meeting to-day at the tenth hour, nine miles 
south of this place, among the United Brethren, Baptists, 
Universalists, and, what was sad enough, some poor, life- 
leas Quakers. The most revolting character I ever beheld 
is a back-sUdden Quaker ; they are the greatest impedi- 
ment in the way of social or religious improvement. I had 
hard labor among total strangers (except three whom I 
knew), and I was told after meeting that I could not have 
described their states better if I had personally known 
them ; I told them I was glad I was a stranger to them. 
I was called to rather plain dealing, but I am satisfied and 
they appeared to be ; all behaved in a becoming manner, 
and some of them were evidently reached. 

But oh I what poverty of soul I labored under this 
morning : it seemed as though there was not one crumb to 
sustain my spiritual life, but I trust it is all in best wisdom ; 
such is frequently my state, and I find the more hungry I 
get, the sweeter the bread is to my taste when given ; but 
when these stripping seasons are upon me I cannot sec 
whence I am to be clothed again ; it is then I feel my want 

29 



30 MEMOIRS OF 

• 

and my soul seeks relief in prayer. Oh may I keep in 
humble dependence upon that inexhaustible fountain of 
light which alone is the true life of men ; it leads me into 
the low valleys and beside the still waters, and then again 
through the tumultuous raging waves of the unstable ele- 
ments. I believe I am willing to suffer : I ask not for a 
path clear of thorns, but I ask for patience to persevere 
and hold out to the end, for remember it is the end that 
crowns all ; running for a little while will not insure 
the prize ; it is continued faithfulness alone that can 
secure it. 

23d. — Attended meeting here to-day, which was en- 
couraging and comfortable. I am now (afternoon) about 
leaving for West Unity in Ohio, with-Joseph Thorn, where 
I expect to have two meetings ; thence to Battle Creek. 

I cannot now see home, but if all things work favor- 
ably, I shall be able^^ apprise you of my coming in due 
time. My tarrying seems long, but I hope to be patient, 
and not inclined to be in haste, for if I am permitted to 
return, I desire to go home without any burden as regards 
those I leave behind. The clouds which lowered over my 
path when I first came seem to be measurably dispelled ; 
I find the enemy has destroyed little beside himself. 
Those who had set up meetings out of the good order of 
Society are scattered abroad, and I believe do not hold a 
single meeting in Michigan, which is just what I expected 
would be the case, but I did not look for it so soon. 

a . * . . . 

Fourth month 22d, 1854. — Attended the meeting on 
the occasion of the burial of the wife of RoswcU Whit- 
comb. She had been blind a few of the last years of her 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 31 

life, and otherwise considerably afflicted ; he and his chil- 
dren appear to feel deeply their bereavement. 

The fore part of the meeting was a laborious time for 
my poor tired spirit, but finally a little light sprang up 
with the comforting words of Jesus, "Be of good cheer, I 
have overcome the world," from which was shown the 
necessity of overcoming the world in ourselves individually 
as he overcame its temptations, presentments, etc. , in him- 
self by the power given him from the Father. This help 
is manifested to all who seek it, and is given in proportion 
to the work called for at their hands. 

It was hard labor to rend the veil which seemed for 
some time to cover most of the assembly, and for a while I 
doubted if I should get relief, but finally truth got the 
victory, and the people were reached by the power of love 
and tendered in such a degree as I never witnessed before 
in a public assembly ; strong men qp^med to feel its power, 
and most faces present were bathed in tears. It was also 
a time of visitation to my soul, for which may I ever be 
thankful to my Heavenly Father. Amen. 

23d. — First-day meeting large. Many strangers and 
neighbors attended. I was led to speak of the importance 
of divesting our minds of prejudice and the power of tra- 
dition, and of coming to a dependence upon the revelation 
of the Son of God for instruction, which would lead to 
practical righteousness independent of the experience of 
others. That our prejudices and dependence upon others 
for tenets of doctrines too frequently placed us in the posi- 
tion of the children of Israel as shown by the prophet in 
the figure of the image of jealousy set up in the entrancx). 
Fourth month 26th, 1854. — Attended the funeral of a 



32 MEMOIRS OF 

daugher of Nathan Aldrich. I sat down in the meeting 
in much poverty of feeling. A solemn silence becoming 
the occasion appeared to be observed by all, in which my 
mind was drawn into exercise, and finally to communica- 
tion from the saying of Jesus, " Suffer little children to 
come unto me and forbid them not, for of such b the 
kingdom of heaven." Showing that in the midst of our 
mourning for the loss of our children there is still consolation 
in the belief that they are happy, which is fully justified 
by the above declaration of Jesus. I receive his words as 
coming from the highest authority, because whatever he 
said or did was by the Father's light and power, which 
light and power clothed his spirit and spake through him. 
I expressed a fear that many now, as in former times, were 
forbidding children to come unto Christ by setting im- 
proper examples ; by attaching undue importance to the 
things of this world and living out its spirit 

Children being of quick discernment soon discover the 
prevailing interest in the minds of parents or guardians, 
and are soon imbued with the same disposition, thus giving 
them a wrong direction in their setting out, and hindering 
them from coming to Christ 

The training of children is a most important work, and 
none are rightly qualified for this service until they have 
themselves been taught in the school of Christ. 

The subject finally led to the opening of many import- 
ant doctrines concerning practical righteousness, and the 
doing of our portion of the work while we have the light 
showing us clearly the path of duty. It was an instructive 
season to me and I trust to others ; so I returned to my 
home rejoicing. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 33 

Fifth month 7th. — ^First-day meeting comfortable, 
though an exercising time to me. It seems to me that my 
exercises increase upon me so much that in my waking 
hours there is but little intermission, and when I take my 
seat in meeting, poverty of feeling is my covering, accom- 
panied by a desire that I may be in my allotted place, 
gathered into silent worship and be still. But during a 
year or two past my labors in the gospel have been very 
frequent ; I desire to do my duty while it is day, and 
nothing more. My mind was brought into exercise upon 
the nature of the kingdom of Christ, and it led to a com- 
munication from these words, " My kingdom is not of this 
world, else would my servants fight. " Bringing into view 
that so far as men become the subject of his kingdom they 
cease to be carnal warriors ; but that kingdoms and gov- 
erments established upon no other foundation than man's 
own unregenerate nature will ever be fluctuating, and fre- 
quently unjust and cruel ; instancing prominent nations of 
antiquity who were thus governed, with their failure and 
dissolution as the result ; that the most civilized and 
enlightened nations of the present day are selfish and 
oppressive, and except a reformation take place both in 
Church and State, the reward of evil doing will be theirs. 
8th. — Received notice of the death of the wife of Stephen 
Hatfield (a member among Orthodox), requesting members 
of both Societies to meet on the occasion of her burial 
as one people, without distinction and with equal privileges. 
His wife attended our own meeting of late when she 
attended any, though not a member ; their son Peter 
became a member of our Society a short time since by 
request. Stephen has been in a position for some time 



34 MEMOIRS OF 

SO that, like Joeeph, ''his branches extend over the wall." 
May his worthy example prove like leaven, leavening the 
whole lump. 

9th. — Attended the funeral of the above-mentioned 
person at the meeting-house of the Orthodox Friends in 
Macedon. It was soon discovered that they did not mean 
that equal privileges should have a very extensive signifi- 
cation ; there were but three that occupied the high seat, 
yet they directed our Friends to lower seats. I do not 
notice it as holding one seat to be better than another, but 
it appears at least friendly on such occasions to invite 
elderly people, especially strangers, to take an upper seat. 

After the meeting became still, , a 

minister among the Orthodox, arose and had something to 
say concerning God as being no respecter of persons. 

He was soon followed by , a minister on 

the same side, in supplication; and the fixed form I had 
oft^n heard used amongst them led me to reflect upon the 
difference between asking in the name of Jesus Christ, and 
always using a set form of words till there seemed to be 
no life in them. ' ' Not all that say unto me. Lord, Lord, 
shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but they that do 
the will of my Father which is in heaven." After she con- 
eluded I supposed the meeting would soon close, but my 
mind was exercised in such a manner that I felt it to be 
necessary to leave in that meeting what seemed to be re- 
quired of me, so I arose and informed them that a view of 
the nature of the gospel and its blessed eflects upon the 
children of men had been so opened in my mind, that 
I did not feel easy to let the occasion pass without opening 
it to the people from the words, ' ' When I am weak then 



SUNDERLAND p. QARDKER. 35 

am I strongs" showing the difference between a regenerate 
and unr^enerate state. Paul in an unregenerate state 
^soiild persecute the humble Christians by the authority of 
the priests, — he was then the strong man in his own will; 
but when it pleased God to reveal his son in him, he con- 
ferred not with flesh and blood, but became obedient to 
the heavenly vision ; it led him to the cross — ^that is, to the 
subjection of self. After this, instead of depending on him- 
self or on the authority of the priests, he depended upon 
the revelation of Jesus Christ: hence he found it true in 
his own experience that when he ceased to trust his own 
strength and will as a man, he became strong in the Lord. 
This was the eflect of obedience to the gospel as shown to 
him by the master, and the same effect would be produced 
in all, if they would be equally humble and faithful. 

Such an obedience would disarm the warrior by cor- 
recting every desire of wrong, and would bring men from 
under the bondage of corrupt and perverted practices into 
the glorious liberty of the Truth. It reached the heart of 
Zaccheus in such a manner that he was constrained to de- 
clare that if he had taken any thing from any man by false 
accusation, he would restore fourfold. 

None are set at liberty while they are unjust 

I felt it right to address the mourners in a particular 
manner, reminding them that the principal source from 
which they could derive comfort is their trust in God ; in 
him they would find safety, for " a Father to the fatherless 
and a Judge to the widow is God in his holy habitation." 

It was a tendering season ; may it be remembered for 
good. There being no further work apparent, the meeting 
closed, I believe to the satisfaction of most present 



36 . MEMOIRS OF 

14th, First-day. — A satisfactory meeting. I was exer- 
cised in a public testimony. The text taken was Isaiah 
18: 16: "Behold I lay in Zion for a foundation, a 
stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure founda- 
tion. ' * A figure referring to the revelation of Jesus Christ 
in the soul. My friend William Clark appeared in solemn, 
humble supplication, which seemed to reach the witness in 
the people, and many could say Amen. 

21st, First-day. — A very large meeting ; I went ti) 
meeting in my usual state of poverty with a desire to be 
silent, but endeavored to stand resigned. Soon, however, the 
difierence between faith and a mere nominal belief opened 
to my view, and finally I found it necessary to communi- 
cate it to others from these words : ' * What shall we do, 
that we may work the works of God ? Jesus answered and 
said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on 
him whom he hath sent " (John 6 : 28, 29), stating that a 
true belief in Christ was only produced by the revelation 
of God, which is his own work. 

28th. — A very large meeting to-day — ^many strangers 
being present. I took my seat with a desire to remain 
silent, but an exercise came upon me in such a manner that 
I found it necessary to give it expression, which I did from 
these words : ' * The wages of sin is death, but the gift of 
God is eternal life through his Son Jesus Christ, our Lord." 
Showing that the death alluded to had no reference to 
the death of the body — for that, no doubt, was designed in 
the creation to be dissolved and returned to its kindred 
elements when its work was done ; but the declaration re- 
ferred to the state of the soul, dead in trespasses and sin. 
Having partaken of the forbidden fruit, there is a conscioue- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 37 

ness of the loss of innocenoe and peace — ^the clothing of the 
Father's love is forfeited, — this is the soul' s death. Yet the 
soul is not annihilated, only cold and lifeless, and if 
repentant may, by the drawing of the Father's love, be 
again brought under the influence of " Christ the power 
and wisdom of God,' ' and thus raised into newness of life. 

It was a satisfactory meeting to me. May I keep in a 
state of humble dependence upon my Heavenly Father, 
and be prepared to say with the Psalmist, " His mercy en- 
dureth forever." 

29th. — Attended the funeral of John Lawrence at 
Friends' Meeting-house in Mendon. He was not a mem- 
ber of any Society, but had the reputation of being an ex- 
emplary man. 

The meeting was largely attended by members of other 
denominations, who appeared to be edified and profited by 
the opportunity, some of them expressing themselves to 
that efiect. 

I was called to speak from the words : " Repent, for 
the kingdom of heaven is at hand." I held forth that this 
is in substance ever addressed to sinners, and that the 
* * kingdom of heaven " is in every soul that is reconciled 
to God ; hence a state that may be known in a measure 
in this life. 

It was a season of instruction, but a feeling of poverty 
covered my mind most of the day. 

Sixth month 4th. — A comfortable meeting to-day, but 
not so satisfactory to me as at some other times : though I 
thought it appeared to be a favored season to others. 

8th. — ^Mid-week meeting. David Adams from De 
Buyter attended to-day and had acceptable service. 



38 MEM0IB8 OF 

10th. — Our Yearly Meeting of Ministers and Elders 
held to-day ; it was a season of renewed visitation to the 
comfort of our hearts. We had the company of John 
Hunt from New Jersey, Joseph Foulke from Pennsyl- 
vania and Richard Cromwell and Elizabeth Leedom from 
New York. 

11th. — First-day public meeting very large. John 
Hunt had a seasonable and instructive offering in the 
Gospel which was truly edifying to many, but it was too 
sound to suit the libertine spirit which prevails to a great 
extent in this day. Many appear to want pillows sewed 
under their armholes (Ez. 13 : 18), that they may rest 
easy in their sins. J. Hunt's ministry was powerfully 
directed against all wrong and skepticism. 

We had a favored time to the end of the Yearly Meet- 
ing. It is truly a great favor for which we ought to be 
grateful, when so large a body of Friends come together 
and go through with the weighty matters pertaining to the 
church, and not one thing occurs to break the harmony and 
good order which should characterize a Yearly Meeting of 
the Society of Friends, but all speaking the same language, 
minding the same things. 

Such was the Yearly Meeting of Genesee in 1854. 

Seventh month 3d. — Left home with Elizabeth Lee- 
dom, my wife and little granddaughter to attend our 
Quarterly Meeting at Hamburgh. Arrived there at even- 
ing very much wearied with the journey, especially 
Elizabeth, who was almost exhausted. We had an excel- 
lent meeting, although on Fourth- and Fifth-days an 
individual who was not a member was tedious in communi- 
cation ; but I was glad Friends were patient Some labor 



8X7NDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 39 

in the ministry was required of me in the public meeting 
on Fifth-day ; the people appeared to be edified and some 
seemed to be reached and tendered in a remarkable man- 
ner. After I had left the house a young woman sent for 
me to retom and see her ; accordingly I went back and 
found her weeping. I saw her condition and advised her to 
be faithful to the witness of truth in herself which could 
"lead her into all truth." She was very much tendered, 
as were also some others ; I felt to call them to come to 
Christ — ^not to sectarianism. 

After meeting went across the Niagara river to Bertie, 
where my health was very poor, sufiering a good deal of 
psdn in my side and hip ; my granddaughter was also 
very sick. We were kindly cared for by our friends of 
the fiunilies of Henry and Jacob Zavitz. The young peo- 
ple also were very attentive and kind, as well as staid and 
exemplary in their deportment How I should rejoice to see 
all our young Friends manifest a similar interest in the 
best things ; how soon would the waste places become as 
fruitful fields ! In much weakness I attended their meet- 
ing on First-day, which was a comfortable meeting. 

On Second-day our friend, Henry Zavitz and his 
daughter accompanied us to the Niagara Falls, where we 
could see the river broken in its passage from the level of 
the upper lake country to the level of Lake Ontario. It 
is wonderful to see the chasm which the water has worn 
through the rocks for about seven miles to pass from 
Lewiston to their present location. It must have taken 
thousands of years. 

It is now seldom that we see the Indian pass this way ; 
he has been driven from his birthright — ^gone from his 



40 MEMOIRS OF 

hunting-grounds and given place to the white man. He 
no longer throws his offerings of tobacco into the angry 
waters to appease the spirit which he imagined presided 
over them. He no more shall pursue his game and eat the 
products of the chase upon the banks of that far-famed 
river. No— his struggle is over ; the last echo of the war- 
whoop has died away in the distance— his home and the 
home of his venerated fathers is occupied by strangers who 
scarcely know of the race they have supplanted and whose 
lands they occupy. They have been overcome in battle, 
and finally forced to wander in helpless want, until they 
are mostly sleeping with their warrior ancestors, leaving 
but few traces that such a people ever lived. 

Fourth month 17th, 1855. — Attended the funeral of 
Joseph Sheldon, an elder by whom I had lived as a neigh- 
bor for over forty years. 

Our friends are taken away one after another — and the 
fact seems to address to us this language : '' Be ye also 
ready, for in such an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man 
cometh. * ' 

The meeting was the largest I ever attended on a 
funeral occasion. I had to bear a close testimony from the 
words : ** Man finds death in the error of his ways." 

It was thought to be a season which would be long re- 
membered by some as a visitation of Divine favor. 

First-day 22d. — A large and favored meeting. There 
were more than usual present on account of the funeral of 
Sarah Hoag, a niece of mine, and daughter of Daniel and 
Hannah Hoag. 

She had been a great sufferer from consumption, and 
was rejoiced in the prospect of a release from her sufferings. 



BUNBEBLAND P. GARDNER. 41 

She was fearfiil at times that she should not be sufficiently 
patient to the end, and was very considerate and thought- 
fill about her preparation for a change, and queried with 
me if I thought it would be well with her. At one time 
near her close, when she became very weak in body, a 
man came and told her it was necessary for her to be bap- 
tized with water (he being a close Baptist) ; when I came 
again she informed me what the priest had said, and re- 
marked that it had hurt her feelings, at the same time 
asking my opinion upon the subject. I replied that I 
thought she might rest easy on that matter, as water bap- 
tism was only a form and could have no effect on one's 
spiritual state, upon which she appeared to be satisfied. 
I haye often thought that it needs great care on the part of 
those who visit and converse with the sick lest zeal 
should sometimes outrun knowledge. 

First month 2d, 1856. — Our Quarterly Meeting for 
business to>day, was a favored season. 

Uy mind was much exercised in the public part of the 
meeting, and finally I was released by communicating 
what seemed to be required, commencing with the follow- 
ing words : Jesus told his disciples what kind of evidence 
would convince the world that they were his followers. 
" By this," said he, "shall all men know ye are my dis- 
ciples, if ye have love one to another." 

He did not call them to any particular set of doctrines 
or forms, but taught them that true worship must proceed 
bora the soul that is clothed with and sustained by the love 
of God. 

9th. — Attended the fiineral of Elijah P. Quinby at 
Junius. 



42 MEMOIRS OF 

17th. — ^Attended the fimeral of Harriet Hoag. 

Third month 3d. — Attended the funeral of a son of 
Henry Bunnell, Junius. 

Fourth month 13th. — Attended the funeral of a son of 
Edward Sheldon, Farmington. 

Fifth month Ist. — Attended the funeral of Matthew 
Rogers, Galen. Favored season. 

Fifth month 8th. — A son of Wm. Durfee, about two 
miles north of Palmyra ; a favored meeting, very different 
from the one I attended in the same house a year ago. 

Fifth month 10th. — Attended the funeral of Mary 
Quinby, widow of E. P. Quinby, at Waterloo. I had con- 
siderable labor in the line of ministry, which appeared to 
be well received, but it was not as satisfactory to me as at 
some other times ; the well did not spring up to overflowing 
to such a degree as I have at times witnessed, but I desire 
to be preserved in patience under every allotment, that I 
may feel that it is the same merciful Father that watches 
over us for good when we suffer need as when we abound. 

Four months ago I sat with the bereaved widow and 
her children who deeply lamented the loss of a tender 
father ; to-day their mother was laid by the side of her hus- 
band whose death she felt so deeply. She awoke the 
family in the night and stated to them that she should con- 
tinue but a short time ; she complained of no pain, only 
shortness of breath. She commended her spirit to Grod, 
and calmly passed away in less than three hours from the 
first alarm. O my soul, be thou also ready, lest the pale 
messenger come upon thee as a thief in the night ! 

16th. — A son of Matilda Griffin, Macedon Center. 
Small meeting, but a comfortable season. 



SUSDERLAND P. QARDKEB. 43 



Fifth month 31st. — ^Angeline Ramsdale, wife of 



Bamadale, and daughter of Henry U. Underhill. The 
meeting was largely attended hy different classes of profes- 
80X8, and others. I felt during the first part of the meet- 
ing like an empty vessel, but my heart was opened in 
secret prayer. At length my good care-taker blessed and 
brake bread for me to hand to the multitude, and I believe 
we were all filled. A large number of our Orthodox 
Friends were present. 

Eighth month 24th. — ^Attended a meeting at half-past 
ten in the morning in the Methodist meeting-house, Can- 
andaiguay which was much to my satisfaction. They were 
very kind in consenting that their own regular meeting 
should be conducted after the manner of Friends ; it was 
an instructive season in which truth gained the victory over 
error. The subject was: "Jacob have I loved and Esau 
have I hated," and "The elder shall serve the younger," 
which led to many subjects of interest to man. 

29th. — ^The funeral of Addison Smith ; the meeting 
was large and solemn. I took my seat in a hungering and 
prayerful state, and my Heavenly Father answered my 
prayer by breaking and blessing the bread of life to my 
hungry soul, and then life arose and strength was given to 
stand up with these words, "That which makes manifest 
is Ughi, that which dispels darkness is lighi, that which 
takes away mystery is light,'* The truth seemed to fiow 
in a living stream. 

31st. — First-day, a favored meeting ; I was concerned to 
speak on the nature of spiritual worship and the work of 
the Gospel. My mind had been burdened for some time 
with a sense of the machinations of some persons and their 



44 MEMOIRS OF 

endeavors to injure me. which I am well aware they are 
tr}nng to accomplish by the means used only by the lowest, 
darkest states, but in this meeting my spirit was favored to 
be elevated beyond their reach, and I found a resting place 
where no enemy could come. 

Having for some time a prospect of a meeting with the 
prisoners in Auburn State prison, and the necessary 
arrangements having been made, I left home on Seventh-day, 
27th of Ninth month, 1856, taking the cars at Shortsville, 
thence to Cayuga, and from there by steamboat six miles 
to Union Springs, where I stayed the night with my kind 
friends Edward and Catherine Eldredge, and made arrange- 
ments for an appointed meeting at the Friends' meeting- 
house at three o'clock in the afternoon of next day. 

First-day morning, 28. — Started with Edward Eldredge 
and wife for Auburn, where we arrived at half-past eight 
o'clock. While waiting in the prison before meeting 
I was very much stripped, almost to depression^ At nine 
o'clock the chaplain told me to follow him ; we passed into 
the chapel of the prison, where the prisoners were all seated 
in good order, — I should judge between seven hundred 
and a thousand, beside a number of citizens who came in 
on the occasion. The chaplain immediately read a chapter 
in the Bible, and after making a few remarks sat down, 
and all remained in silence for some time ; at length my 
mind was introduced into exercise, and prepared to sit 
with the prisoners where they sat. 

The opportunity was satisfactory to me, and I believe 
it was to them ; some of them appeared to be very much 
tendered during the communication, and when I sat down 
some said. Amen ! I had cause to rejoice in yielding this 



8UKDERLAND P. QABBNEB. 45 

little service. After I closed the chaplain told them thej 
bad heard the gospel preached to them that day, and he 
hoped they would long remember it and profit by it. 

In the afternoon attended the appointed meeting at 
Union Springs to good satisfaction; the next morning 
returned home and found my family well, for which I feel 
thankful. 

Tenth month Ist. — Attended the funeral of the wife of 
Seth Beals; she was not a member among Friends, but re- 
quested a Friends' Meeting on the occasion of her burial. 
A solemn and satisfactory meeting. 

2d. — Attended the Quarterly Meeting at Mendon. 
The Yearly Meeting's committee appointed to attend Far- 
mington Quarter was present. Nicholas and Margaret 
Brown and John Watson had acceptable service. It was 
a satis&ctory meeting. 

5th. — A large and favored meeting — many strangers 
present. 



[fbom a letteb.] 

My Dear Wife: — I am now at Jeremiah Browning's 
in Chatham, and in pretty good health , although I 
have been very unwell for several days since I left home. 
I have had another tossing on the waters in coming up the 
sound yesterday, and night before last it was so rough that 
we had to put into New London and stay the night, so 
thou may see that I have had some experience on rough 
water. I stayed last night at New York and came on to 
this place this morning. It is now very pleasant. I ex- 
pect to attend Chatham Quarterly Meeting to-morrow, and 



46 MEMOIB8 OF 

perhaps meeting in Albanj on First-day; and on Becond- 
daj morning, if nothing occurs to hinder, I shall look 
towards home sweet home, which I thought of much when 
I was so dreadfiiUy sick among strangers. Oh, to me there 
is no place like home, and none so dear as those that com- 
pose the family circle. This is right, yet it is not a bar to 
our having proper love and respect for others, but every 
heart must have a center somewhere even in this world, 
though it may be supremely attached to the Great Source 
of all good. In wisdom we are made for society, and 
those who have no right connection with it, those who have 
no friends in whom they can repose confidente without dis- 
trust, are unfortunate indeed. One can realize this to 
some extent when away from home. These reflections 
lead me to consider in such degree as I can the vast amount 
of misery in the world, — yes, and all around us. 

Selfishness often causes that part of the heart which lies 
nearest to others to become distrustful, cold and hard, 
caring only for themselves, or if they hold intercourse with 
others it is only for selfish ends. This state of things I 
call unnatural, and I believe it has been the principal 
cause of the present inequalities among men. It is the 
same disposition that prevailed in Cain. 

I was led last night to reflect deeply on these matters 
during my wakeful hours; in my room I could hear dis- 
tinctly the slang, profanity and confusion of one of those 
dreadful dens of misery that exist in large cities (as well as 
in some smaller ones), and I looked for the cause in human 
nature; I could not find it in diversity of talents, chance 
nor Providence; whence is it then? It plainly lies in 
man's perverdan of the good works of God. It is difficult 



SUNDERLAND P. GABDNEB. 47 

ta point out many wrongs amongst men where inordinate 
BelfiBhnewi is not at the foundation; I can upon this 
ground account for wars, slavery, hypocrisy and un- 
chastened zeal in religion ; it fills the jails and prisons, the 
alma-houBes and such dens of hell as that from which 
I heard the cries last night And I cannot wrap my cloak 
around me and pass on without deep sorrow, for they are 
of the human family, and my heart feels — yea, bleeds 
for them. May God open their eyes and have mercy on 
them. What honest human heart could bear the pang of 
knowing that a daughter was within those accursed walls, 
or that a son was venturing into those whirlpools of misery 
and death ? I thank Grod that I can pray for them, and 
for all who have gone astray, and that he enables me to 
pray for my enemies — ^those who would slay me ; and I 
greatly desire that I may retain this state of mind during 
my probation here. If the world would seek to come 
into this condition the evils of society would soon be 
cured, for the gospel could do its legitimate work ; the high 
would be abased by humility, the low exalted by hope, the 
sword would be beaten into ploughshares and the spear 
into prnning-hooks, and all could put on the beautiful 
garments of linen clean and white, even the righteousness 
of the saints. With much love, thy own, 

Sunderland P. Gardner. 
Chatham^ Eleventh month 6th, 1856. 



Eleventh month 9th, Fifth-day. — ^Attended the meet- 
ing held on the occ^sipu of the burial of Betsy, wife of 



48 MEMOIRS OF 

Reuben Dean, at Friends' meeting-house, Maoedon, al 
the third hour in the afternoon. A season of favor, 
though in the fore part of the meeting great poverty of 
spirit. 

14th, First-day. — A very low time with me this morn- 
ing ; deep felt poverty of spirit in ray present state. Attended 
our meeting at the usual hour; silent suffering was my 
allotment. My state seemed to be best described by the 
language of Jesus: "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, 
even unto death. " 

Had an appointed meeting at the Baptist meeting- 
house, at Macedon Locks, at three o'clock in the afternoon, 
accompanied by my friends Abram Wilson, Stephen Hat- 
field and William Clark. It proved to be a highly-favored 
season, in which the gospel was livingly declared to a large 
and attentive assembly, which seemed to be impressed and 
solemnized in a remarkable manner. My bonds were 
loosed, and the Master led the way ; the language of my 
soul is, *' Blessed be the name of the Lord, for his mercy 
endureth forever." 

First month 7th, 1857. — Our Quarterly Meeting, at 
which we had the company of Nicholas and Margaret 
Brown, who were both favored in a close, searching labor 
in the Gospel. It was a favored meeting throughout 

14th. — Attended Scipio Quarterly Meeting to pretty 
good satisfaction to myself. In the meeting for businefis 
I called the attention of Friends to the importance of liv- 
ing up to the advices in the Discipline that some of us 
present had assisted in framing, and which we were giving 
to others ; it seemed to produce quite a sensation, and 
some rather unguarded expressions were made, saying it 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 49 

would not do to introduce politics into our meeting. (I 
had said nothing on that subject). I found I was not 
wounded, and so made no reply and it soon passed over. 
I hope they may profit for the occasion. 

17th. — Attended the funeral of a child of Truman 
Case. I had considerable service in the meeting, but did 
not get that relief which I was perhaps too desirous of. 

William Clark appeared in supplication, and upon the 
whole it appeared to be a season of Divine favor. 

First month 21st. — Attended the funeral of the wife of 
Esquire Thomas, held at his dwelling-house. It was a large, 
solemn meeting, during the fore part of which I felt a 
great sense of poverty and emptiness, under which I was 
renewedly brought to see the impossibility of man's doing 
anything of himself to advance the cause of righteousness 
or promote the glory of God. After waiting the Lord's 
time he gave me strength and ability to preach the Gospel 
to a very large and attentive congregation, and I believe 
many were reached. 

Fourth month 1st. — ^Attended our Quarterly Meeting 
at Mendon, which was a season of Divine favor. There 
appeared to be much exercise for the promotion of truth. 
The principal part of the public labor in the ministry fell 
upon myself. Isabella Webster from Hamburgh, wife of 
John Webster, appeared in the ministry— I think to the 
satisfaction of Friends ; if she keeps not back part of the 
price, she may become an acceptable testimony-bearer. 
May the Lord send more laborers into his harvest. 

20th. — A day of gloom without ; the snow has been 
Mling since meeting-time yesterday, and is of such depth 
as has not been known since the settlement of the country ; 



50 MEMOIRS OF 

it is supposed that in some places it fell to the depth of 
three feet or more. It is very hard on cattle, fodder 
being high and scarce. 

After we had retired for the night, a messenger came 
from Henrietta to inform me of the funeral of Franklin 
Russell, to be held the next day at half-past eleven o'clock. 

21st. — Started at three o'clock in the morning on foot 
to take the cars at Victor, the storm still raging and snow 
one foot and a half deep in the road ; it was hard travel- 
ing, there being no track. I went forward and the young 
man followed four and a half miles, when we got some 
horses; reached the cars and the funeral in season. It 
was held in the Presbyterian meeting-house and was satis- 
factory. 

23d. — Our Monthly Meeting at Macedon ; at the 
same time the funeral of Walter Newbury. A favored 
season. 

26th. — ^A large and greatly favored meeting. My 
heart was opened by the *' key of David;" it is the Lord's 
doings; may my soul keep humble before him and not 
presumptuously use his jewels. 

28th. — Attended the funeral of Asa Calkins at Farm- 
ington South to satisfaction. 

Fifth month 3d. — Attended the funeral of Alanson 
Sheffield at Farmington South ; it was a very large meet- 
ing, and truly a season of Divine favor; it seemed as if the 
windows of heaven were opened to the reaching and bap- 
tizing of the assembly. The subject was: *' Blessed be the 
name of the Lord, for his mercy endureth forever." 

Sixth month 28th. — Attended Macedon meeting in the 
morning, and had an appointed meeting at the Free Will 



SUNDEBLAND P. OARDNEB. 61 

Baptist house in Walnvorth in the afternoon, both of which 
were favored meetings. There appeared to be a good deal 
of lightness with the young people before meeting, but they 
became very thoughtful and attentive. 

Seventh month 4th. — ^I am this day fifty-five years old, 
and have spent the week, including to-day, in hard labor 
preparing to leave home on Second-day next to attend 
Scipio Quarterly Meeting to be held at De Ruyter. 

I am now advanced beyond the meridian of himian 
life; I can look back upon the past and see its pains, its 
pleasures and its sorrows in review. The years of my 
childhood are fresh ; I see my father in the first strength of 
his manhood, and my mother in the loveliness of her youth, 
both eagerly engaged to provide for and instruct my infant 
helplessness. The years pass on ; an increase of family 
brings an increase of care and anxiety, of hope and fear ; I 
see them rejoice when their desires are answered in the 
obedience of their children, and grieve when those chil- 
dren fidter in duty. I observe that the increase of labor 
and anxiety is making its mark on the brows of those 
whom I had seen rejoicing in the strength of younger 
years. Time moves on, and with anxious heart I see the 
weight of years and toil and care make them bow, their 
faces turned toward the earth ; still the years pass, and I see 
her smitten — that dear mother, — ^her pallid cheek, the tire- 
some, wasting cough ; we grieve as we see the slow but sure 
work of the destroyer ; the years still pass, she b gone ! 
Hy fiither yet lingers to console me and encourage me in 
the path of duty. 

I see what is past, but wisely a curtain veils the future 
firom my view. 



62 MEMOIJUS OF 

Seventh month 5th. — I left home to attend Scipio 
Quarter to be held at De Ruyter. Stayed at my brother, 
E. W. Gardner's, Jr., in the village of Canandaigua ; next 
morning took the cars for Syracuse, £rom there I took stage 
twenty-nine miles to De Buyter. I arrived late in the 
evening, and put up with that worthy elder, Stephen 
Bogardus, Edward Eldredge having joined me at Cayuga, 
and Joseph Head and some others at Syracuse. 

Third-day, at two in the afternoon, was held the meet- 
ing of ministers and elders, which was small, but a season 
of favor. 

On Fourth-day the Quarterly Meeting was pretty well 
attended, and was a comfortable meeting. Next day the 
public meeting was well attended by other people besides 
Friends, and my heart seemed largely opened in gospel 
service to the reaching of many states present ; after meet- 
ing several persons sent word they wished to speak to me, 
and when I came near, one of them gave me his hand, 
saying, " God bless you I I am glad to find one man that 
knows the truth and is not afraid to declare it." Thej 
appeared to have been reached, and may they be faithful to 
the convictions of truth. 

At 6 o'clock in the evening had an appointed meeting 
in the village about one and a half miles from Friends' 
meeting-house, which was well attended. A favored time. 

Eighth month 1st. — Labored hard this day, and in the 
evening was taken with severe chills, with pain in my 
lungs and difficult breathing. I had appointed a meeting 
to be held at West Walworth the next day (First-day), but 
jud^ng from my state of health matters looked rather 
doubtful. The subject passed before my mind but gave 



8XJNDEBLAND P. OARDNEB. 53 

me little uneasinese, as I had always been favored to 
attend the meetings I had appointed even when as far as 
human foresight could go it seemed impossible. 

Next morning, however, I with my wife and kind 
neighbors, George Fritts and wife, attended Macedon meet- 
ing at the usual hour, in which I had satisfactory service, 
and in the afternoon we were at the appointed meeting in 
West Walworth, which was well attended and the people 
were attentive. But it was rather a trying exercise for 
me; professors as well as others appeared to be very much 
outward in their views of religion ; there were many 
spiritualists present, and the word was close to the several 
states as they opened before me. But it is seldom I meet 
with such intense darkness as seemed to cover the people 
generally; however, it was thought by the Friends pres- 
ent that we had a favored meeting. Returned home at 
ten o'clock in the evening quite unwell, and got little rest 
during the night. 

Ninth month 6th. — ^Attended the funeral of Elizabeth, 
wife of Zachariah Shotwell. It was a large and favored 
meeting; the Methodists put by their meeting and gener- 
ally attended. 

10th. — Attended the funeral of Humphrey Hart about 
twenty-four miles from home; he was a stranger to me and 
not a member among Friends, but desired a Friends' meet- 
ing on the occasion of his burial. I had considerable 
service in the meeting, but it was a day of deep-felt 
poverty of spirit, almost painfully so, but oh, my soul, 
trust thou in the Heavenly Shepherd I 

17th. — ^Attended thefiineral of Mary Warren, daugh- 
ter of Nathaniel Warren, aged near twenty years, who 



. I 



54 MEMOIBS OF 

died suddenly with but little wamiug that her close was 
near. She was a sweet-spirited girl. Oh my soul, be thou 
also ready ! 

18th. — Attended the funeral of Elizabeth Lundy at 
Waterloo ; she had been a consistent Friend, and made a 
peaceful close. The meeting was held at Friends' meet- 
ing-house at Junius. The Junius meeting was once large 
and flourishing, but by removals, deaths and desertions 
there is no meeting of Friends held here now. 

20th. — Attended the funeral of Zachariah Shotwell at 
Macedon. A large, solemn meeting. The Methodists put 
by their meeting again and attended. The savor of 
heavenly goodness was evidently felt in this meeting. 

Tenth month 5th. — Attended the funeral of two 
children of a man by the name of Lattin (not Friends), 
at Farmington South ; a favored meeting. 

Upon seeing these children both in the same coffin, 
as if calmly sleeping, beautiful in death, the query arose 
in my mind. Have these lived in vain because they have 
been taken away in their infancy 7 The answer seemed 
to be, No ; dost thou suppose the flower, though not 
succeeded by fruit, has bloomed in vain ? Even when it 
is faded and has fallen to the ground, do we not remem- 
ber its beauty, and have we not been benefited by its 
health-giving influence ? Our lives have been made the 
better for it. So with these infants ; their sojourn was 
short, but they were here long enough to bring out our 
attachments by the sweetness and innocence of their lives, 
and to waken our love to something higher than earth, 
and now they are called back by Him who gave them, 
before the stains and eorruptions of this world had pol- 



8UKDEBLAND P. OABDNER. 55 

luted tlieir pure spirits ; surely they have not lived in 
vain. 

12th. — Attended the funeral of a daughter of John H. 
Rohinson, at his dwelling-house in the city of Rochester. 
It was a large, solemn meeting, in which I was enabled to 
set forth the doctrines of the reign of Christ with clearness 
and as adapted to the different states present. May it not 
be as water cast upon a stone, but as a nail driven in a 
sure place. I do not approve of holding funerals in the 
dwelling-house if a meeting-house is convenient, for it 
frequently occurs as in this case, that I probably do not 
see more than half of the people convened. 

18th. — ^After deep suffering in meeting to-day, light 
sprang up in a view of the importance of using means 
adequate to the accomplishment of the end in view. This 
we always find necessary in temporal things, in the gain- 
ing of wealth, power or pleasure, but do we not know it is 
equally so in respect to spiritual things ? If we would be 
at peace with God, if we would be safe, if we would be 
blest by the light of His love, we must certainly use the 
means adequate to the desired result. 

Peter wished to come to his Lord upon the water, but 
while he had not the required strength of his own, nor yet 
sufficient faith in Christ, he failed of accomplishing his 
desire until Jesus came to his help. So neither our own 
power nor that of other men can save us, or buoy us 
above the unstable elements or evils of the world ; we 
n:ust look unto Him who has said, " Come unto me all ye 
that labour and are heavy laden and I will give you rest.'* 
It was an instructive season to me and I trust to others 
also. 



56 MEMOIRS OP 

23d. — Attended the funeral of a child of Albert 

(not Friends), which was held in the Methodist meeting- 
house. The funeral had been appointed for yesterday, but 
apprehending I would wish to be at our monthly meeting 
they changed the time. It was a season of suflTering with me 
— my soul was truly made sorrowful, and it 8eemc<l my 
allotment to visit the spirits in prison and to be baptized 
into their state. O most holy Father, show them clearly 
their states and incline their hearts to seek after Thee. 

Eleventh month 6tli. — Attended the funeral of John 
Langdon, of Galen. The meeting wag large, and it was a 
time of favor. The subject which opened to my mind w^as, 
" Work while it is day, for the night cometh wherein no 
man can work." The doctrines of truth were largely 
opened, and the people appeared to be tendered and edified. 
15th. — First-day; attended the funeral of Charles 
Nichols at our meeting-house, a remarkably favored season. 
I was led to commence with,** Blessed are they that are 
called to the marriage supper of the Lamb." Many 
appea^'ed to be reached and tendered, but I fear by some 
the visitation will too soon be forgotten. 

19th. — Attended the funeral of Nicholas Rowland at 
his late dwelling-house in the town of Manchester. I went 
to this funeral in my usual stripped state of mind, and sat 
a long time in silent prayer for spiritual strength — ^nothing 
presenting which had the savor of life in it. At length the 
Lord in His own time opened to my understanding that 
**Love is the most powerful principle awakened in the 
soul of man." And with these words I arose and in- 
formed the meeting that this had been revealed to me, and 
as it had thus been immediately revealed, it was a matter 



6UKDERLAKD P. OARDXER. 57 

of certainty to me, and not depending upon hearsay or 
tradition. The subject finally opened into the declaration 
of many gospel truths, some of which were as new to me 
as any present. May the Lord alone have the undivided 
adoration of my soul. Amen. 

24th. — ^Attended the funeral of the wife of Thomas Cox 
at Friends' meeting-house at Macedon. The power of 
Divine life did not appear to rise very high in dominion, 
though to some comfort and relief. 

25th. — ^Attended the funeral of Thomas (not a 

Friend), about three miles north of Palmyra village. He 
was much respected by his neighbors, and the suddenness 
of his death produced the whole bitterness of grief to his 
family. He started for his barn a little after noon, and in 
about half an hour aftierward his son went out and found 
him lifeless upon the ground. It was not satisfactorily 
known whether he had died in a fit or was killed by a fall 
upon the frozen ground. 

First month 20th, 1858.— Attended the funeral of 
Robert Briggs at Farmington, which was a highly -favored 
meeting: the truth was declared in gospel authority. 

25th. — ^Attended the funeral of a daughter of Thomas 
Cox, a favored season. 

Second mouth 23d. — Attended the fiineral of Jonah 
Odell at Macedon, aged ninety-two years. He was re- 
markable for his innocency and simplicity of manners, 
and in the latter part of his life for zeal in the cause of 
truth, frequently going from house to house and imparting 
pertinent counsel, which seemed always to reach the visited. 
May a double portion of his spirit rest upon some who 
arc left behind. It was a highly-favored meeting. 



58 UEMOIBS OF 

27th. — Attended the funeral of Nathaniel Russell, at 
Mendon, who died after an illness of but two days. He 
will be greatly missed in that meeting, having been con- 
sistent in all the relations of life, and hence much loved 
and respected, which feeling was manifested by the large 
attendance at his funeral. It was a season of great favor ; 
the Lord enlarged my heart and I ran at His command ; 
the people were very attentive, and some of them I believe 
were brought to see clearly the beauty of holiness and the 
simplicity of the Gospel of Christ. 

Third month 27th. — Funeral of Asa Smith (not a 
member among Friends). It was a very large and 
solemn meeting ; the service of the ministry fell upon me 
in a very close and searching testimony, divesting truth 
of the clouds of mystery with which it had been clothed, and 
contrasting the fruits of the prevailing opinions of the day 
with the religion of Jesus Christ. 

Fourth month. — Funeral of Mercy Herendeen, widow of 
Welcome Herendeen, and cousin to my father, in the eighty- 
seventh year of her age. I was led to speak upon the nature 
and necessity of the new birth. A favored meeting. 

22d. — Our Monthly Meeting at Macedon to-day — a 
good meeting. I felt a concern to communicate a little in 
public, but soon after I took my seat a minister arose and 
expressed disapprobation with what I had said, and 
appeared to be laboring under excitement. After he 
closed I spake again to a state that appeared clearly before 
me without making any allusion to the remarks of the 
Friend ; I felt somewhat grieved on his account that after 
so long a profession of our principles he should remain so 
ignorant of their substance. 



8UNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 69 

23d. — ^In company with William Clark attended 
Bochester Monthly Meeting held at Mendon, in which 
William had good service; I also had something to say in 
the forepart of the meeting, to my satisfaction. The meet- 
ing for discipline was long and tedious — ^hours taken up in 
debating upon a subject of no particular importance. How 
much of the benefit we might realize in our meetings is 
lost to us in consequence of not keeping our minds centered 
on that which can still the tempest and preserve in the life. 

25th. — ^A large and interesting meeting in the south- 
west part of the town. 

28th. — Funeral of Hannah, daughter of David Shelden 
— a large and solemn meeting. I was concerned to speak 
fiom these words: '' I am persuaded that Jesus Christ 
takes his kingdom by entreaty and not by force." It was 
a highly-&vored season, and I felt merely as an instru- 
ment or vessel through which the gospel was poured forth. 
I felt the good eiSects myself, and was strengthened, which 
help I very much needed at this time. 

Sixth month 23d. — An appointed meeting in the 
Union School-house, Palmyra. 

30th. — ^Another at Lapham's school-house in the 
southwest part of this town ; both large, and satisfactory to 



Afterwards attended several funerals: sometimes the 
work was hard, and then again it seemed that truth went 
forth without an effort of my own. 

Seventh month 4th. — Another year of my pilgrimage 
18 closed ; I am this day fifty-six years old. The past year 
has been to me one of deep probation and close trials ; it 
has seemed to me many times during the deep conflict that 



60 MEMOIRS OF 

I should lose my confidence and my hope, and I am con- 
vinced that without assistance from a power superior to*my 
own I shall lose them I 

O Thou who in former times condescended in Thy 
mercy and loving kindness to look upon me with compas- 
sion, Thou who when I was dead in sin put forth Thy 
healing virtue and caused it to reach and heal my 
wounded spirit so that I was permitted to sing praise unto 
Thee upon the banks of deliverance, why is Thy counte- 
nance hidden from me ? Why is the stream of refreshing 
stayed that it no more distils as the dew ? Why is it that 
my soul is clothed with poverty as with a garment ? Why 
does not even the morning-star appear ? Why is there no 
morning, noon nor evening such as I once knew in Thy 
dispensation to my soul? Had I not once known 
Thee, I could not now mourn the loss of Thy countenance ; 
had not Thou once loved me I should not now be so 
sensible that all is desolate without Thy love ; had not I 
once known the healing virtue of thy presence^ I 
should not now be so oppressed with the power of disease. 
" Why art Thou cast down, O my soul, and why disquieted 
within me ? " Is there yet something remaining that must 
be tried by fire— is something still harbored within thy 
desire that must submit to the cross ? If so, let there be 
no pity until judgment is proclaimed victorious over all 
that separates thee from my God, O my soul I 

Tenth month 16th. — Funeral of Harriet Morey, of 
Macedon Center. 

17th. — Funeral of Drusilla Tabor, of Macedon Center. 
Both virtuous and circumspect young women, greatly be- 
loved by their acquaintances. 



BUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 61 

Twelfth month 4th. — Having obtained a minute of 
ocmcurrenoe from, our monthly meeting to make a religious 
visit to Friends and others in the western part of Genesee, 
I left home on the 4th of Twelfth month, 1858, and arrived 
in the evening at Warsaw, where I met with John and 
Joseph Head, who were waiting for me. Attended the 
meeting at Orangeville next day (First-day), but on account 
of a heavy run the meeting was small, though satisfactory. 
In the evening we had an appointed meeting at Johnson- 
burg, which was well attended. On Fourth-day we were 
at Boston, having Joseph Head for company; a good 
meeting. On Fifth-day we were at East Hamburg, 
where I had close-searching labor ; it appeared to me 
that the hidden things of Esau were sought out and 
exposed. Next day had an appointed meeting in the 
Methodist meeting-house at South Boston. The meeting 
was large and much to my relief, feeling that I had dis- 
charged my whole duty toward them. Joseph also had 
considerable service. On First-day we were at North 
Collins ; meeting well attended — ^a pretty searching time. 

On Second-day evening had an appointed meeting at 
Pontiac, which was to have been held in the Gurney 
Friends' meeting-house, but it was thought it would not 
hold the people, so another house was obtained near by ; 
it was a large attendance, and nearly satisfactory to me. 

Elisha A. Griffith and Barak Cushion thus far travelled 
with us, whose company was truly acceptable to us. 

On Third-day we went over to Bertie and attended 
their meeting on Fiftli-day. During the forepart of the 
meeting there was no spring of ministry opened to me, 
hut Joseph Head had good service, after which I saw my 



62 MEMOIRS OF 

way clear to oommunicate something bo very different 
from anything that had ever been called for at my hands 
that it was marvelous to me, but I ¥ni8 well satisfied, and 
rejoiced in having this singular evidence or manifestation 
of the Father's working. Thb was the last meeting we 
attended on this journey, and throughout the whole I had 
alternate seasons of deep baptbms and sufferings with those 
of heavenly favor and rejoicing. Reached home and found 
my family as well as when I left them, for which, together 
with many other favors, I am thankfiil to Him whom I 
profess to serve. 

First month Ist, 1859. — Attended the funeral of Lydia 
Cudworth, wife of Nathaniel Cudworth, and mother of 
Harriet Herendeen. Bhe was a member, I believe, among 
the Gumey Friends, and supposed the meeting would be 
considered as held according to their order, although in 
Friends' house in South Farmington. The meeting on the 
occadon was large and solemn ; after sitting awhile I 
found that necessity was laid upon me to bear a public 
testimony among them, in which the power of Divine life 
was exalted, and truth set above all false religious systems. 
The Gurney Friends were silent. O my soul, be thankful 
for these heavenly favors ! 

4th. — Our Quarterly Meeting of Ministers and Elders 
— I trust a time of profit to us. 

6th. — Quarterly meeting pretty well attended, and 
some Friends appeared to enter into the state of Society 
with considerable feeling. 

6th. — Public meeting for worship. I felt the necessity 
was again laid upon me in a clooe, searching testimony ; 
may it be profitably remembered. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNEB. 63 



LETTER. 
[Not dat4!d, but probably First month 16th.] 

My Dear Wife and Children : — ^I am at present 
writing at Freeman Clark's, in Norwich^ Canada West, 
and have pretty good health. We left Albion on Second- 
day (10th) morning last, the weather being extremely 
cold, and went up to London and stayed the night. Took 
the cars next morning, went south to Union, twenty-two 
miles, and took breakfast at James Haight's, whose health 
b poor, undoubtedly in decline. He kindly sent a boy 
with a horse and cutter to carry us to Yarmouth, where we 
stayed the night at Samuel Haight's. Next day (13th) 
we all attended the monthly meeting at Yarmouth. 
Notice having been given, the meeting was large, and satis- 
factory to me, and I believe to Friends. Here we met 
Freeman Clark and other Friends from Norwich, and 
Freeman and Jesse Cornell concluded to accompany us 
through to Norwich. After meeting we took dinner at 
Ephraim Haight's, and thence to Henry Zavitz; found 
them well, and little Seth as sprightly as a bird. We stayed 
the night at Asa Schooley's, the home of that interesting 
young woman, their daughter, who was at our house last 
Yearly Meeting. Next morning (14th) a messenger came, to 
call Jesse Cornell home on account of sickness in his family ; 
he therefore left, and Asa Schooley took us in his carriage 
to Jesse Kinsey's, in Malahide, Freeman Clark being with 
us. Next day (15th) we attended an appointed meet- 
ing at Friends' meeting-house at M., which, not withstand- 
in J the rain, was large. I went to this meeting rather low, 



64 MEMOIRS OF 

and exceedingly poor in spirit, and in looking toward the 
meeting had nothing in sight for them. I had one consola- 
tion, however, and that was, I was not under bonds to men, ob 
no man had hired me, so if no command from the Master was 
given, I was free. But the meeting did not so end, for after 
sitting some time in silence a little light sprang up, with 
a little life — just enough to warrant me to stand on my 
feet I commenced by bringing before them a view of the 
various religions in the world, and how materially they 
differed from each other ; and I proposed another term as 
a substitute for religion, to which and on account of which 
there need be no contradictions, even the name Righteous- 
n€M. If all will engage earnestly to know this righteous- 
ness in experience, it will secure them from the impo- 
sitions of the cralty and designing, and bring them to 
realize the blessing promised by Jesus on the Mount: 
* * Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteous- 
ness, for they shall be filled.' ' We had a favored season ; 
the bread of heaven was broken among us, and the multi- 
tude was not sent away empty. Some shouted, and many 
were tendered and bathed in tears; it was indeed a season 
of Divine favor, in which my own soul was made to live 
upon the gospel which I preached. It seemed sometimes 
as if my spirit were almost detached from the body and I 
could freely move over the congregation. May the oppor- 
tunity be remembered to the profit of all who were present 
Aflier meeting went to a Friend's by the name of 
Marsh and took dinner ; here we left Asa Schooley, who 
had brought us thus far, and also parted ^vith Elijah 
Shotwell, Samuel Haight and others who had come here 
with us. Aft;er dinner David Bearse brought us on to this 



8UND£RLAKD P. GARDNER. 65 

plaoe, fifteen miles, where we stayed last night, expecting to 
attend meeting to-morrow. I dreamed of home and loved 
ones. I can hardly picture to myself a heing more un- 
happy than one who loves no one and has no one to love 
him. 

I feel at present, and indeed most of the time, as if my 
state could be best described as like a sheet of blank paper 
— which may convey to you an idea of my poverty or des- 
titution, yet I find it to be the best state for me. Perhaps 
you may say, " Why not take a pen and fill the blank ? " 
But understand I do not hold the pen, and it is well that 
I do not ; but when He who holds the pen is pleased to 
write, and fill the blank with legible characters, then it is 
my business to read it to others. If this be so, how 
wrong it is for men to study in theological schools expect 
ing to become qualified to preach the gospel or to sell it to 
others. Nothing short of the Spirit of God and the com- 
mand of Jesus Christ can enable any man to preach the 
gospel livingly. 

17th. — ^At IngersoU. We attended meeting yesterday 
at Otterville, which was large, and I trust a favored season. 
I was led to open to the people many gospel truths. I am 
but a day laborer, and have to wait for my employer to tell 
me what to do day by day, and in this consists my safety, 
because I know that of myself I can do nothing. 

I am now at the house of James Noxon — on the Great 
Western railway, and about twenty miles east of London. 
I have a meeting appointed for this evening at the 
Wesleyan meeting-house. To-morrow we leave for Lobo, 
where notice is already given of our being there on 
Fourth-day next; from there, on Fifth-day, we expect to 



66 MEMOIBS OF 

go on to Michigan. I feel some uneasiness about home — 
I suppose you have written ere now. I am undecided 
as to whether I shall go to Battle Creek or to Adrian first; 
you may, if you think best, write to both places. 

I have only been from home about a week, and it seems 
almost a month to me : you can form but a faint idea how 
much I desire to see you, and mingle in sweet converse 
around my own fireside. I . meet with many and true 
friends here, who receive me with open arms, which is in- 
deed consoling to a poor pilgrim. 

We have yet, if not called home, a long journey before 
us, and I dare not look back, but I greatly desire your 
welfare in every sense of the word. I desire thee, my dear 
wife, to cease to burden thjrself with so much care for 
earthly things, and with me prepare to become an inhabi- 
tant of that city whose Builder and Maker is Grod, for it 
appears to me that no time can be profitably spent out of 
the vineyard; the day is far advancing with both of us, 
and it will be our greatest wisdom to strive to make our 
calling and election sure. 

To A. I would say, ** Mind the Light." It will bring 
thee to see thy way with increasing clearness, and qualify 
thee to build upon that stone which has been so much re- 
jected by the wise or self-sufficient, but which must be- 
come " the head of the comer '* to every Christian build- 
ing. I have prayed for thee that thy &ith fail not, for 
there is that which will yet try to sift thee as wheat, but 
fear not nor be dismayed ; remember, no cross no crown, 
and the greater the cross the greater the crown. 

21st. — I have just arrived at Battle Creek, and have 
received your letter, which gives the first news I have had 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNEB. 67 

from home. My health is good. I have already dis- 
patched three letters; I suppose you think I mean to fur- 
nish yoa with reading matter, or keep you posted as to my 
movements; the latter is my principal object. 

I have until the present time been quite comfortable 
in mind, except my usual poverty; but now it appears as 
though a cloud of death and darkness is hovering over the 
land: a sense of it bears heavily upon me, and I feel un- 
able to bear the weight. Had I seen this before I left 
home I should probably have been there to-day ; notice 
is being given of my expected attendance at meeting here 
day after to-morrow, but I see no light; O " blindness to 
the future kindly given!" I dare not despond nor look 
back, I do not wish to murmur; I will therefore endeavor 
to suffer patiently under the present allotment, trusting 
that that Arm which has hitherto been made bare for my 
relief, may clear away those dreadfully-portentous clouds ; 
and if my being '' baptized for the dead " can be of any 
benefit to them or to me, I am willing to suffer. Oh may 
my faith hold out, and may the hands of my arms be made 
strong by the power of the mighty God of Jacob. I feel 
as though I need the prayers of the strong in the stripping 
season of depression. 

22d. — A cold morning as to the outward, and it appears 
to me one of the darkest comers of the earth, and I do 
not as yet see any way to throw off the burden with which 
I am oppressed; but I must wait patiently to see what to- 
morrow will bring forth. It will undoubtedly bring its 
own labor, — "sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof." 
Why, then, need I be anxious about anything ? If I am 
a day laborer in another's employ, I should be so instructed 



68 MEMOIRS OF 

as not to be troubled in mind, though the Master does not 
tell me to-day what kind of work he will require of me 
to-morrow. You understand me ; you will sympathize 
with your absent friend. 

24th. — I am now at William Cornelius's, at Adrian. 
We came from Battle Creek this morning, about — mil&s. 
The day is clear and remarkably pleasant, with a south 
wind. 

I attended the meeting yesterday at Batthi Creek, in 
which I had pretty close service, during which I told them 
that that was the darkest corner of the earth I ever visited, 
equalling Egyptian darkness I I expect to be here at 
meeting day after to-morrow, and then go to Ohio. 1 am 
not in good health to-day ; changes of diet and water, with 
continual exercise and unseasonable hours, are rather pros- 
trating; but I hope it will soon pass over. 



My Dear Wife : — I am now at Jonathan Hart's, 
Battle Creek, in good health, but it is very sickly in this 
country with fevers — sick in almost every house. 

I got through visiting the meetings in Canada very 
much to my satisfaction; we had excellent meetings in 
every place, and largely attended. I have had but one 
yet in Michigan, and that was wholly amongst the ranters. 
After taking ray seat death and darkness were for a time 
all that could be felt, and submission appeared to be my 
lot; but after awhile sufficient light and strength were 
given to lift me above the confusion of tongues which pre- 
vailed there, and I was enabled to bear a very close, plain. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 69 

fiuthfiil testimony among them. The young people and 
the non-professors were much tendered, and the ranters' 
castle of self-sufficiency was wonderfully exposed and taken 
down, and I left them, satisfied and glad that I had had 
a meeting with them. I feel very desirous to hear from 
home, that little spot which embraces nearly all my world. 
Oh howl want to surprise you by stepping into your midst! 
How does that sweet little daughter behave ? does she im- 
prove in her deportment ? Tell her it would please me above 
all earthly considerations to hear of her improving in the 
best things. I feel that I am in the line of my duty, and 
this is all that keeps me from home any longer than it 
would take the present expeditious mode of travelling to 
carry me there. 

My mind is under almost continual exercise, but thou 
knows that is nothing strange with me, though to me it ap- 
pears always to be new. If I am permitted to get through 
my present visit to satisfaction and return again to the 
bosom of my family, I shall be filled with thanksgiving 
and gratitude to Him who has thus far wonderfully pre- 
served me. I presume that some changes have taken place 
since I left home. Sometimes one is suddenly summoned 
away, and some family is afflicted with the loss of one of 
its members, and feels hardly able to bear up under 
the trial. The source to which I recommend the bereaved 
mourners for consolation is never-fadling, it is consolation 
itself, even our Heavenly Father, of whom it is declared, 
" A' Father to the fatherless and' a Judge to the widow is 
Grod in his holy habitation." I trust I am understood. 

If this letter arrive soon, thou may send me one imme- 
diately, directed to Adrian, Lanawee County, Mich. 



70 MEMOIRS OF 

I have arranged almost one meeting a day since I left 
home. Remember me affectionately to all, especially my 
aged father. I dreamed that one of my neighbors had 
died, but it was only a dream. 

With all love, I bid you Farewell. 

S. P. Gardner. 

[N. B. — ^The dream above mentioned proved true, as he 
found on reaching home.] 



Second month Ist, 1859. — We are at present writing 
in Medina. We had two large, interesting meetings in Ohio 
on the 20th ; last evening we had a large and satisfactory 
one two miles from E.'s, and this afternoon at 2 p.m. 
we had a meeting at Medina. In all of these meetings I 
have found it to be required of me to declare the truth in 
a plain way, so that all could clearly understand, and the 
people here appeared to be edified and encouraged ; 
but oh, the exercises and baptisms through which I have 
had to pass since I left my home ! I have labored under 
such a deep sense of poverty most of the time as was not 
for the time being pleasant, but it is not for me to com- 
plain. I can truly bear testimony with Paul, " I know 
both how to be abased, and I know how to abound : every- 
where and in all things I am instructed both to be full 
and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need." 
But these things do not discourage me ; I desire to be so 
fully instructed in the school of Christ that in whatsoever 
condition I may be, if in the line of my duty, therewith 
to be content. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 71 

You see that we are improving the time as it passes, 
and my health holds out thus far almost to a miracle ; 
sometimes in crowded assemblies in warm rooms, in a free 
perspiration, and suddenly exposed to the cold air at the 
cloee of meetings, but thus far all is well, and I am con- 
firmed that I am in the way of my duty, and you will of 
course say to me, '* Be faithful." I feel that your minds 
are frequently turned toward me, and I am often thinking 
about you all, with desires for your welfare in every sense 
of the word. 

We expect to start in the morning for Orlando White's, 
and shall probably have a meeting there day after to- 
morrow, and then back to Hudson on Seventh-day ; at 
Adrian on First-day morning and in the afternoon near 
Raisin ; on Second-day evening at the city of Toledo in 
Ohio, thence to Pelham Half- Yearly Meeting and proba- 
bly home on Sixth-day evening. 

Nathan Borton from Ohio is with us, who has kindly 
volunteered with his team and carriage to accompany 
us; it would comfort you to see how welcome we are 
among all classes (except perhaps the spiritualists). 

Second month 7th. — I am now in Detroit waiting for 
the cars, which leave for the east at 6 p.m. We left M.'s 
rather late on Fourth-day morning on account of a severe 
mowstorm. We had an appointment at Hudson for the 
next evening, and finding Asa Calkins and wife there, we 
went home with them and stayed the night: next morning 
they accompanied us to E. W. Markham's, and in the 
evening we all went to the meeting, five miles through the 
cold, and although the time had arrived for gathering, the 
house was neither warmed nor opened, and word was yet 



72 MEMOIRS OF 

to be sent to the sexton for the key. I was grieved at 
this occurrence, but I had a clear sense that something 
was wrong before we reached there ; the difficulty was, un- 
doubtedly, for want of energy in those in whose care the 
matter was left. The house was at last opened, the bell 
rang, and we had our meeting, but I felt it was rather a 
cold affair both outside and in. The people sent word 
that they desired me to hold another meeting amongst 
them, but I felt best to decline. Every meeting which I 
have had in this kind of house has been singularly hard 
and trying. Markham then carried us about eighteen 
miles to Orlando White's, where we had a satisfactory 
meeting that evening, stayed that night at Moses Willets's, 
returned next day to Markham's, and had a very large and 
satisfactory meeting in the evening at Locust Corners ; 
truth prevailed over all in this meeting. Here as well as 
at Hudson I met with a large number of my former ac- 
quaintances ; I found smiling countenances and glad 
hearts, which was really refreshing and encouraging to a 
poor pilgrim as I feel myself to be. W. acquitted himself 
like a man in giving notice in the neighborhood, and his 
whole family attended, although more than two miles 
away and the night cold. After meeting we went home 
with Asa Calkins, and yesterday [First-day] he carried us 
with his family sixteen and a half miles to Adrian meet- 
ing, which was large, and where I had very close labor 
and honest dealing, in which the hidden things of Esau 
were searched out and exposed, greatly to my wonder and 
surprise. As I was speaking it came before me as clearly 
and certainly as though it had been spoken in words, that 
there were persons present who did not believe in the 



8UNI>ERLAND P. GARDNER. 73 

Bcriptures, nor in the Christian religion, nor in a Supreme 
Being ; and I found no way but to plainly say so, and I 
saw several persons bow their heads. I told them I was a 
stranger to them so far as any outward knowledge or in- 
formation was concerned, but that it was then made 
known to me so clearly that I declared the matter without 
any fear of successful contradiction. My labor in this 
meeting was of that nature which, like Jonah's, was very 
far from being pleasant, though I did not, like him, flee ; 
but I am not quite certain I should not have done 
so if I had known what would be required of me, and this 
would have been an evidence of weakness indeed. 

At 3 p.m. had another very large meeting in a place 
caUed the Valley, in an Orthodox neighborhood, but they 
did not attend as a general thing, though I believe a num- 
ber of their young people were there : I trust they heard 
nothing that would harm them. It was a highly favored 
meeting, in which the truth was fearlessly declared, and I 
trust under the right authority. Thus ended my religious 
services in Michigan and Ohio, in the discharge of which 
I have endeavored to dwell under that anointing Power 
which alone can give ability or qualification to be of any 
use in the truth. I have often drunk the bitter cup to 
the very dregs, and again I have sat at the King's gate 
and have sometimes been permitted to ride the King's 
horse. I now feel clear, and am turning my face toward 
you, toward home. Ah, what sympathies, associations 
and interests cluster around my heart to shield it from the 
chiUs and assaults which assail us in this vale of tears ! 
Can you read and understand me ? We arrived at Detroit 
12 p.m. If my health permits I expect to be at the 



74 MEMOIBS OF 

Half- Year Meeting at Pelhain, but if I do not feel better 
in the morning, I shall, if able, come home without delay. 
My sleeping-place last night was open and I took cold. 
We have been as rapid in our movements as the nature 
of the case would allow : we have had nine meetings in 
eight days, exposed to the changes of weather, frequently 
going out into the cold chills of night in a high state of 
perspiration, yet I took no cold until last night. 

(from journal.) 

We left Detroit on Second-day evening the 7th of 
Second month (my health being poor, having taken a 
severe cold the night previous), and arrived at St. Cath- 
erine's, C. W., about four o'clock on the morning of the 
8th. At light we started for Pelham on foot, some twelve 
miles, and arrived at noon, going directly to the meeting 
of Ministers and Elders, just in time to be present in tlie 
business part of the meeting ; it was a satisfactory season. 
My health continued so poor that I could get no sleep or 
rest during the night, and I doubted being able to attend 
meeting the next day. 

9th. — Attended the Half- Year meeting, which was a 
comfortable season, in which my strength was renewed, 
and I was rejoiced to witness the comely and Christian 
order in which the business of the meeting was transacted. 
We here met with many valuable Friends, and were truly 
made glad in mingling together in Christian fellowship 
and brotherly kindness. 

10th. — ^Public meeting, which was larger than for 
many years. Being so unwell and hoarse I hoped to be 
excused from public service. Stuart Christy from West 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 75 

liake appeared in a short, acceptable communication ; it 
was indeed sweet to my taste ; but I found necessity laid 
upon me and I saw no way but to attend to the exercise, 
which I did, commencing with the words, " The law was 
given by Moses, bat grace and truth by Jesus Christ," 
and I found the promise good, ' ' As the day is, so shall be 
thy strength." It was a season of Divine power. I un- 
derstood that some of the English Gumey Friends were 
there and expressed good satisfaction, saying *' there should 
not have been a division, and that the sooner the two 
Bocieties came together the better. " 

After meeting we parted with our dear friend, and 

Ward, at whose home we had lodged, carried us to 

his sou's, four miles distant, where we stayed the night. 
The next morning we took the cars for home, which we 
reached in the evening, and found my family in usual 
health. 

5th, 6th and 7th of Fourth month. — Attended our 
Q;aarterly Meeting at Mendon ; a good meeting. 

14th. — ^Attended the funeral of George Smith, a son of 
Orin Smith, at Farmington, South. It was a season of 
favor and yet one of deep searching. May those whose 
states were spoken to remember the visitation. 

17th. — First-day. — Attended our meeting in the morn- 
ing ; was concerned to communicate, to the apparent satis- 
faction of those present. A becoming solemnity was 
evident. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon had an appointed 
meeting in the Methodist meeting-house at Manchester, 
which was very large, and the people manifested an interest 
by their good attention and dignified deportment 



76 MEMOIRS OF 

I took my seat in this meeting with my usual feeling 
of poverty, but the Good Shepherd led the way, and I had 
to communicate from the announcement of the Angels to 
the shepherds concerning the birth of Jesus Christ. It 
was a highly-favored season, and the people were, I trusty 
profited by the lesson ; much satisfaction was expressed. 

20th. — Attended the funeral of the widow of Stephen- 
son Underbill. The meeting was large, and I was con- 
cerned to speak from these words, " Can God furnish a 
table in the wilderness?" A season of deep searching and 
painful baptism ; but I afterward understood it was con- 
sidered by others a favored season. 

26th. — ^Attended the ^neral of Giles Robinson (not a 
member), a man highly esteemed and respected for his 
virtues and usefulness. It was the choice of his friends 
that his funeral should be afler the order of our Society ; I 
was informed and felt free to go. The meeting on the oc- 
casion was large and solemn, and proved to be a season of 
heavenly favor ; it was indeed marvelous to me. I took 
my seat with my usual sense of poverty, destitute of almost 
everything but the spirit of prayer. At length light came, 
and with it strength ; I was concerned to speak of salva- 
tion by Christ, of the mission of Jesus to the Jews, and of 
Christ as the Saviour and Redeemer of man, to be univer- 
sally the same, forever without change, without beginning 
and without end. This Christ by the anointing spirit of 
God was and is rendered all-powerful, and by this same 
anointing (Luke 4: 18-19) must all true ministers of the 
Gospel be empowered. 

This and many other things were so clearly manifested 
that each heard the word in his own tongue. The Chris- 



SUNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 77 

tian minister told me that the doctrines held forth by me 
were their doctrines, the Presbyterians said they could not 
be successfully disputed, the Methodists and others ex- 
pressed unity ; several spoke to me in tears, saying that 
they had long been seeking the way of truth, but many 
doubts had clouded their efforts in consequence of the con- 
tradictory manner in which religion was exhibited by its 
various teachers ; " but,' ' said they, " you have made man's 
duty simple and plain, and cleared of all mysteries the way 
that leads to the kingdom of Gk>d, and wc feel relieved of 
our burden of anxiety. God bless you ! " 

A few of the Gumey Friends were there, and one 
minister, W. H. C. , appeared to be closely touched during 
the communication ; so much so that I noticed it but did 
not know the cause until after meeting. I was then told 
that he had reported about the village that " the Hicksites," 
as he called us, " do not believe in Jesus Christ," and the 
feet of some being present to whom he reported it, made 
him conscious of being in rather a tight place, for the 
communication from beginning to end had contradicted 
him. 

Fifth month 29th. — ^Attended the funeral of a man 
named Lynch, at Waterloo. He '* did not desire a hireling 
to officiate at his burial." A large and solemn meeting. 

Sixth month 5th. — A large meeting this morning, 
many strangers present. I was concerned to speak, com- 
mencing with the following words, " The full soul loatheth 
the honey-comb, but to the hungry every bitter thing is 
sweet" 

Seventh month 17th. — Attended an appointed meeting 
at Newark, and notwithstanding the very warm weather 



78 MEMOIB8 OF 

and crowded condition, all were very quiet and seemed to 
feel a deep interest 

30th. — An appointed meeting at the Methodist M. H. 
ten miles east of my home, at the eleventh hour. It was 
largely attended by various classes, all appeared to be in- 
terested, and earnestly requested another appointment for 
the next Fiist-day, saying, '' If these are Quaker doc- 
trines, we are Quakers. ' ' I returned home with the reward 
of peace. 

Eighth month tSd. — ^Attended the funeral of the wife 
of Joshua Cornell at Union Springs, who passed away very 
suddenly, having just time to tell the family she was going 
to die. 

They were early settlers in the country, and were very 
industrious, respectable and wealthy people ; the occasion 
of the funeral drew together a large collection of people, 
so that the house could not hold them. 

I had been severely sick two nights before, and was now 
so weak and faint, the weather very warm, I doubted being 
able to remain through the meeting, and after the people 
had convened I looked upon the multitude, feeling that I 
was a blank. I had nothing for them nor for myself, and 
under a sense of my weakness of body and leanness of 
spirit I prayed to my Heavenly Father for help. I soon 
received the command to go forward, and as I proceeded I 
found my strength increased, and the doctrines of truth 
flowed through my spirit in an unobstructed stream. 
Many things were opened to me which had not been re- 
vealed to me before. It was a precious, instructive, bap- 
tizing season to myself, and I believe to many others ; it 
seemed to me a remarkable condescension of Divine 



8UNDEBLANI) P. GARDNEB. 79 

goodness in thus visitdng, blessing and handing forth 
bread to the multitude, and may He have all the praise 
forever ; and maj I never distrust His providential and 
paternal care. Amen. 

At the cloee of my service I found mj physical health 
restored and my spiritual strength renewed. 

7th. — ^First-day. A favored meeting ; my mind was 
led into an exercise concerning the difference in the belief 
that is saving and the belief that is merely nominal, which 
led to a communication from the words, ' ' Ye believe in 
God, believe also in me." A sweet solemnity covered the 
meeting. 

Twelfth month 11th. — Attended the funeral of 
Nathaniel Cudworth, who was nearly 87 years of age. He 
had be^a remarkably industrious and successful in tem- 
poral things, and had maintained through life a moral 
integrity worthy of imitation. In consequence of the 
esteem in which he was held, a large concourse of people 
attended, more than could be accommodated in the house. 
The people were very attentive to what was communi- 
cated, and a precious solemnity covered the meeting, which 
was broken by the indiscretion of two individuals, one of 
whom, after I sat down, appeared in supplication, which 
did not seem to meet with reciprocal feeling in the meeting, 
for, contrary to custom, not an individual arose, but all sat 
quiet and still. Aftier he closed he seemed to fear the 
people had been misled by my communication, and under- 
took to set them right. I had said that I apprehended 
there was but one source of light and wisdom and 
power, but one law relating to man's spiritual nature and 
wantsy and that source was God, and that law directly 



80 MEMOIRS OF 

from the Creator of all good. He said if they wanted to 
know the truth they must go to the Scriptures, and there 
they would find it, and quoted a part of Jesus' language 
to the Jews, "Search the Scriptures," without giving 
enough of it to show what it was that Jesus designed to 
bring to the attention of the Jews. I was sorry on his 
account, for most of the people must have seen that the 
object of Jesus was to turn the attention of the Jews to 
himself as being the instrument through which the Father 
taught them, and that it was through the same power aiid 
light that was in him that they could have access to the 
only Fountain of Life. Oh when will men cease to make 
the commandments of God of none effect by their tradi- 
tions I When will they cease to try to bind the consciences 
of men, keeping them in darkness and perverting what 
would otherwise be the blessed effects of the universal 
light and love of God ! 

21st. — In company with George O. Fritts, attended 
the funeral of Samuel Durfee, son of Elias Durfee, at 
Marion. The meeting was held at the dwelling-house, and 
was large and satisfactory. 

First month 1st, 1860. — A very cold day. Attended 
the funeral of a child of Harvey Padelford in the town of 
Canandaigua (not Friends). Considering the extreme cold 
the meeting was large and satisfactory. 

4th and 6th. — ^Our Quarterly Meeting, well attended, 
and a favored season, in which, I believe, the spiritual 
strength of many was renewed. 

On Fifth-day my mind was much enlarged in bearing 
truth's testimony, commencing with these words: **John, 
the forerunner of Jesus Christ, preached repentance as the 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 81 

oondition of the remission of sins, and after he had fin- 
ished his course, and not until then, Jesus commenced his 
ministry, saying, ' Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is 
at hand,' which was succeeded by many Christian doc- 
trines and truths as they arose new and fresh before him 
from the Father (John 14 : 24). Thus we see that the 
oondition for the remission of sins has been, is, and must 
be repentance and amendment of life, and the consequence 
will be, entering into the kingdom of heaven, the kingdom 
of Grod, * righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost' 
Grand reward : glorious ending of a right course I " 

Oh how simple and plain are the truths connected with 
man's salvation, and yet how have they been clothed with 
mystery, much to the injury of the human family. Don't 
depend on traditions of men, my friends, but come 
directly to the Fountain of Truth. "Return unto me 
and I will return unto you, saith the Lord of Hosts." 
Everything concerning this most important of all interests 
is and must be experimental ; this will banish all doubt 
and uncertainty. Oh that the world could hear what my 
soul feels, but I felt the meeting to be a season of Divine 
favor. O my soul, may thou be found worthy of such 
anointing ! 

14th. — ^First<iay. In company with William Clark 
attended the Ameral of a daughter of Daniel Chase, 
Gralen. Large, favored meeting. 

16th. — ^Attended the funeral of the wife of Peckham 
Eathbun. 

Second month 4th. — ^The funeral of the wife of Elias 
Dorfee at his dwelling-house in Marion. The meeting was 
large and solemn, being the second Aineral in that house 



82 MEMOIRS OF 

within a short time, and now several are sick in the 
family. 

5th. — ^Attended the funeral of Lucy Smith, daughter 
of Ourden Smith, held at his dwelling house. A large 
assembly met on the occasion, solenm and still ; I believe 
there were some who had ears to hear; others, I fear, were 
so much bound by tradition that they were not profited. 
One woman said that what they had heard was the truth, 
for she knew it to be so in her own experience. I under- 
stood afterwards that she was a Methodist. 

6th. — Funeral of John W. (Jardner, South Farming- 
ton. Large and solemn meeting. 

10th. — ^Attended the funeral of Phebe Mosher, wife of 
Reuben Mosher, of Waterloo. The weather was cold and 
blustering, but the meeting was well attended. It was 
held in the meeting-house once occupied by Friends, but 
now occasionally occupied by that class calling themselves 
Progressive Friends, and modern Spiritualists, and on tak- 
ing my seat under a sense of my own weakness and the 
state of things, I almost regretted I was there. But, as 
I prayerfully turned my mind toward Him who had hith- 
erto helped me, He became strength in my weakness, 
and through His assistance I was enabled to bear a living 
testimony to the truth, which reached the witness in the 
hearts of the people, who were baptized into much tender- 
ness of feeling. 

12th. — ^A messenger came to inform me of the death 
of the wife of Isaac Stringham in Oakfield, upwards of 
sixty miles distant. I concluded to go, and so on the 
13th attended the funeral at the dwelling-house at one 
o'clock in the afternoon. I had considerable to communi- 



8UNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 83 

cate, which appeared to have a solemnizing and tendering 
efl^t ; but it seemed to me that the people had been too 
much fed with speculative notions of religion. My exer- 
cise was to call them to that which may be known of God 
tn thdr own hearts, for there, if they will receive it, they 
may experienoe the greatest good that can be known, even 
"the grace of God that bringeth salvation/' and that 
religion to be of any benefit to us must be experimental 
and practical ; that the Gospel is and ever has been uni- 
versal as the wants of man, and that the hour of God's 
judgment b come against all impurity and unholiness ; and 
if we will bring our deeds to the light of truth in our 
own consciences, we may know every defilement removed 
by that redeeming power which is the spirit of God. 
Thus we may witness an entrance administered for us into 
the kingdom of Christ, a state which it is our privilege to 
enjoy even in this life, and those who Juive experienced it 
already know of a resurrection from death, not of these 
bodies, but from that state of darkness and coldness and 
misery into which we bring ourselves, and which was 
referred to by Jesus in the parable of the Prodigal Son. 
''For this thy brother was dead, and is alive again ; and 
was lost and is found." 

After meeting I went home with my sister Miriam 
Sheldon, who, with her husband and most of her family, 
met me here ; next day returned home and found all well. 

Third month 18th. — The funeral of the wife of Henry 
Allen (not a member) at South Farmington. It was an 
instructive season. 

Slst — ^The funeral of the wife of Dr. Willson at his 
house in Maoedon. The meeting was large and attentive. 



84 MEMOIRS OF 

Fourth month 2d. — ^Funeral of the wife of Thomas 
Bussy (not members). The meeting on the occasion was 
held in the Orthodox meeting-house, but she requested 
before her death that I should attend her funeral, to which 
the. Orthodox consented. Word was brought that I could 
have my choice of their house or our own across the way, 
and I chose theirs, as it would seem more like home to them, 
and they generally attending, as well as our own Friends, 
with others, made the meeting very large. I took my 
seat with my usual feeling of destitution, and, prayerfully 
waiting, received help from the Lord, and I ran at his 
command. Many important truths were opened to the 
people, and the principles and foundation of Christianity 
so set forth in the simplicity of the gospel that it appeared 
to me all classes present heard it with their own ears, 
which I afterwards understood was the case ; that the 
Orthodox Friends, Baptists and Methodists acknowledged 
the truth of the testimony borne. May the Lord only 
have the praise, who alone is worthy. Amen. 

11th. — Funeral of Hiram Simmons, Macedon. The 
meeting was large and solemn, but the power of Divine 
life did not rise as much in dominion as I have witnessed 
at other times. I desire to be careful and to be found 
doing my duty and nothing more ; I suppose my com- 
munication was long, though I was not aware of it at 
the time, which, with the additions made by others, might 
have wearied the people, and even if all that was delivered 
was rightly given forth, yet the fuU soul loatheth the 
honey-comb. I hope I may be found prayerfully on 
the watch. Hiram Simmons was an exemplary Friend, 
and will be much missed in Maoedon meeting, and 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 85 

in the neighborhood generally ; he was a father to the 
fiatherleaB. 

Sixth month 2d. — ^Attended the funeral of a son of 
Pnrdy Willis at his dwelling house in Macedon. On 
account of wrong information we were an hour behind the 
time, but it proved to be a comfortable season. 

3d. — ^Attended the Aineral of at Friends' meet- 
ing-house in Rochester, also a comfortable meeting. 

6th. — Attended the funeral of R. S., a pauper, at the 
Wesleyan house, in New Salem. She was the daughter of 
a Methodist minister, and when she died a Methodist 
minister was sent for to conduct the funeral, but he refused ; 
they also sent for a Baptist minister, who also refused ; was 
it because they saw no prospect of reward ? 

Seventh month 3d, 4th, 6th. — Attended our Quarterly 
Meeting at Hamburgh, which was a favored season 
throughout. 

10th, 11th, 12th. — ^Attended Scipio Quarter, held at 
De Ruyter. A good meeting through all its sittings. 

17th. — ^The funeral of Clark Wilbur, at a school-house 
near his late dwelling, a few miles south of Rochester. It 
was very large and the people attentive, yet I got but little 
relief, for it seemed as if the people were looking too much 
outward for what can only be found within, if they would 
but let the Spirit with its light into their hearts. 

23d. — Funeral of Edward Smith at our meeting-house 
at four o'clock in the afternoon. It was very large and 
much was communicated, but it was not as satisfactory to 
me as something in me seemed to desire. 

Eighth month 11th. — ^The funeral of Damaris Hoag, 
widow of Jacob Hoag. She was about ninety years of 



1 



86 MEM0IB8 OF 

age, a worthy and exemplary woman. The meeting oo 
the occasion was largely attended by various classes of 
people. It was thought a favored meeting. 

20th. — Left home to attend Hamburgh Monthly Meet- 
ing, to be held at North Collins. The meeting was large, 
and a favored season. I had considerable to communicate, 
which seemed satisfactory. After I sat down, a woman, 
young in appearance, arose and said: ^* We thank thee, 
O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast 
hid these things from the wise and prudent and hast re- 
vealed them unto babes; even so. Father, for so it seemed 
good in thy sight." 

After she sat down, G. M. Cooper got up, being about 
in the middle of the house, and, turning his bee 
toward the door, said: ** He did not know anything about 
the Gospel or Salvation or Redemption," with other re- 
marks. After he closed, a Friend arose and said, " that He 
was thankftil he could say that he knew something about 
the Gospel by experience, and he hoped his aged friend 
(Cooper) might yet become acquainted with it." I do 
not think the circumstance disturbed the meeting much, 
for a covering seemed to rest upon it not easily rent 
asunder. 

But my mind was led to reflect upon the change that 
had come over G. M. C. I looked back to the time when 
he stood in the station of a minister in the Society of 
Friends; he at length found a place amongst those who 
styled themselves " Progressive Friends," and now, where 
is he ? It is very sad. 

Slst. — Had an appointed meeting at Collins Center. 
There had not been sufficient notice, and the meeting was 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 87 

not large, but comfortable, so I went away pretty well 
satisfied. 

Ninth month 2d. — First-day was at Hamburgh 
meeting at the usual hour. A large meeting, and my 
mind was led to speak on the subject of perfection. Chris- 
tianity was presented as being simple and free from all 
mystery excepting that of man's creation. 

After meeting, my friend Elisha Freeman carried me 
to Buffalo, where I took the cars for Palmyra, thence 
home eight miles on foot, where I arrived at 11 o'clock at 
night; all well. 

20th. — Attended the funeral of Isaac Stringham in 
Oakfield about sixty miles from home. It was a favored 
meeting, and truth reigned over all. Pressure of blood to 
my head to-day ; I hope it will not be serious. 

25tlL — ^Funeral of Abraham Vail at Waterloo, who 
died suddenly, and from the account his neighbors gave of 
him he was prepared for the change. The meeting was very 
lar^ge, and truth was freely declared, I trust from right 
authority. I was taken unwell while standing, and was 
under the necessity of sitting down for a while, but finally 
closed measurably to my satisfaction. 

27th. — Attended the funeral of Matilda, wife of 
Stephen Lapham, at Galen. This meeting was also large 
and satisfactory; my spirit was filled with Gospel love, 
which flowed forth to the people in an unobstructed stream. 
Oh may I be gratefiil for the strength and ability given to 
declare the Lord's mercies and speak of his love and good- 
ness to man. 

In attending the three funerals alluded to within the 
post week I have traveled two hundred and forty-one miles. 



88 MEMOIRS OF 

30th. — First-day. Attended the funeral of Samuel 
Lawrence, son of James and Rebecca Lawrence, an inno- 
cent young man and much beloved ; a grandson of 
Samuel Comfort, who, I believe, is a grandson of John 
Woolman. The meeting on the occasion was very large 
and solemn ; I had considerable to communicate, measur- 
ably to my satisfaction. 

Tenth month 8d. — ^The Aineral of Henry Peckham's, 
wife at the Wesleyan Methodist meeting-house in New 
Salem. The family on his side were Gurney Friends and 
on her side Universalists ; they chose to have a Friend^ 
meeting, and I stayed from our Quarter to attend it The 
meeting was large, and I was concerned to bear a close, 
plain testimony against many of the wrong practices of 
professors of religion, and especially against a bigoted 
sectarian spirit. 

4th. — Public Quarterly meeting at Mendon ; it was 
well attended considering the rain. I was concerned to 
speak from the words, '' My sheep hear my voice and 
they follow me, but a stranger they will not follow, for 
they know not the voice of a stranger. ' ' The communica- 
tion was somewhat lengthy, and I had an impression that 
there was a necessity for it. 

7th. — First-day. A pleasant morning and a large 
meeting to-day. A number of strangers present ; an ex- 
ercise opened before me with regard to the universality of 
religious impressions; it seemed to be well received, and 
my friend William Clark added something very satisfac- 
tory. In such meetings as this our strength is renewed 
and we return home rejoicing that we have been there. 

Afternoon at three o'clock had an appointed meeting 



SUNDERLAND P. GABDNER. 89 

at Shortsville, in the Congregational meeting-house, about 
seven miles from home. It was well attended, and the 
people were very attentive and quiet. My mind was 
turned toward man as he is, and I commenced with these 
words, " A poet never declared a greater or more important 
truth than this, 'The proper study of mankind is man.' " 
I felt that it was man's privilege to advance from a low 
to a very high condition of life and happiness in this state 
of being, and the design of the gospel is to assist him and 
instruct him how to overcome everything adverse to his 
true peace of mind. Hence the command to the apostles, 
" Go stand and speak in the temple to the people, all the 
words of this life" (Acts 5: 30). Many important truths 
were opened in a discourse of about an hour and a half, 
but the people were kindly attentive to the last. After 
meeting the minister came to me, asking the privilege of 
questioning me on some subjects of doctrine, which I 
readily granted. He wished that we might speak by our- 
selves, " for it would not do to have a public discussion." 
The first question was, " Do you believe the Scriptures 
were written by inspiration?" I replied that we held 
that the writers, so far as we had evidence, were good men 
and inspired. Again he said, ** I have understood your 
class of Friends, or Hicksites, hold that the Bible is no 
better than an old almanac." I asked who thus informed 
him, but he could not or would not tell. I told him it was 
false, and had been reported for no good purpose. He said 
he was well posted in the Orthodox Quaker doctrines, and 
he agreed with them very well. I told him I believed that 
Society followed more the doctrines of the Church of Eng- 
land than those of early Friends, and cited him to certain 



■n 



90 MEMOIRS OF 

modem writers of that church, who had declared such to be 
the fact. 

Twelfth month 17th. — Attended the Mineral of John 
Aldrich of South Farmington, which was large, and measur- 
ably satisfactory. I had considerable service in public 
testimony, after which a minister arose and took care to tell 
the people that he differed with me, which I believed he 
had a right to do. After this William Clark had an offer- 
ing which gave evidence of life. 

First month 18th, 1861. — Attended the funeral of 
Abbie Hoag, a daughter of David J. Hoag, Maoedon 
Center. The meeting was very large, so that all could not 
be accommodated in the house. The teachers dismissed 
the classes in the Academy, and teachers and students 
attended ; it was a solemn and interesting opportunity. 

20th. — ^The funeral of the widow of Barnabas Coleman, 
at her late dwelling in the city of Rochester. The meeting 
was large and satisfactory. 

Second month 27th. — The funeral of Cynthia, wife of 
William Cronk, twenty-four miles from home; held at his 
dwelling-house. 

On taking my seat in the meeting it appeared to me 
that death and darkness could be felt ; we sat in silence 
but a short time, when a man arose and began to speak in 
what was to me an unknown tongue, taking up much 
time which I thought had been better occupied in silence. 
He was fluent and evidently used to public speaking, but 
his words were dry, and without the savor of life; some of it 
clearly false, and some of it of so speculative a nature ajs to 
be like offensive dust; I soon dbcovered that he was one of 
the class called modern Spirituali8t«i. Aft;er he sat down. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 91 

David Brown of New York, a brother of the deceased, arose 
and alluded to the solemnity of the occasion; that he had 
come to attend the funeral of a beloved sister, and stated 
that he was a firm believer in the Christian religion; that 
he had endeavored to live in its spirit and its life, and 
defied to continue thus to live to the end. His remarks 
were seasonable and appropriate, and I rejoiced in hearing 
him bear such a clear testimony to the truth, which was 
especiaUy refreshing after hearing what appeared to me 
an ofibring of death. After he closed, I had a testimony 
to bear that " truth is unchangeable, and efiects follow 
their causes." When I sat down the Spiritualist arose 
and appeared to be excited, and exerted himself to go 
over the same ground as at first, this time making 
light of Jesus and the Scriptures. He said that man had 
progressed from granite rock, through the various stages 
of plant and animal life, until finally he had come to his 
present condition, the highest existence known; that each 
individual was independent and complete in himself and 
that death was nothing. It appeared to me that these 
ideas proceeded from a monomaniacal state of mind, yet I 
understood afterwards that many present held similar 
views, and quite a number who had once been members 
of the Society of Friends. Before the meeting closed I 
clearly saw the (»use of the state I was in when I took my 
seat. After he sat down the second time, I had a short 
communication to give, without alluding to anjrthing that 
had been said, but which was not of a nature to encourage 
licentiousness of principle; soon after which the meeting 
dosed* 

I am now of the belief that I was informed of this 



92 MEMOIRS OF 

funeral for the purpose of giving strength to the report 
that I was one of them, which I have since understood 
was the case, but I think those present on this occasion 
will claim me no longer. I consider Spiritualism to be 
one of the darkest, most death-dealing delusions that has 
ever originated from the bottomless pit. 

Fourth month 5th. — Attended the funeral of Annie 
Clark, wife of William Clark; she died suddenly, but I 
trust was prepared for the change. We shall miss her in 
our little meeting, of which she was a diligent attender 
and an elder, worthy of double honor; in her the poor, 
the orphan and the afflicted found a kind and sympathiz- 
ing friend. The meeting on the occasion was large, but 
very trying to many present ; a Friend from another 
monthly meeting arose soon after the meeting was con- 
vened, and seemed to branch out into rather speculative 
subjects, and such as did not seem to interest the people, 
nor to be of a nature that would feed the hungry soul; he 
was followed by another with a discourse evidently de- 
signed to upset what the other had said and represent him 
unsound; he labored hard, but notwithstanding all his 
exertions the multitude was not fed, and the words of the 
poet I thought applicable to the case: 

** Oars alone cannot prevail to reach the distant coast, 
The breath of heaven must swell the sail, or all the toil 
is lost/' 

It is to be regretted that we cannot or will not learn what, 
when and where. 

21st — First-day. Attended the funeral of Elizabeth 
Burling, wife of Wm. 8. Burling, held in his dwelling- 
house in Canandaigua at half past one in the afternoon. 



8UNDEHLAND P. GARDNER. 93 

When I fiiBt went in (rather early) a woman asked me if 
my name was Gardner. X replied in the affirmative, and 
she then invited me into another room and requested that 
I would make a prayer and dismiss the meeting, for, said 
she, our meetings all commence at three o'clock. I told 
her I could not do it ; that I could not pray except I was 
moved thereto hy a higher power than myself. She re- 
plied, " Do lay hy your peculiar views just this once to 
accommodate us." I told her I could not This was not 
neoeasarily on account of their meetings, for there was plenty 
of time to attend them, but some of William's hmily had 
left Friends and joined the Episcopalians, coming out in 
much gidety. I think the woman had been instructed by 
them, and William's case reminds me of the language of 
Jesus to Peter: '* When thou wast young thou girdedst 
thyself and walkedst whither thou wouldest, but when thou 
shalt be old, . . . another shall gird thee and carry thee 
whither thou wouldest not" 

The meeting was largely attended, sitting for some 
time in solemn silence. I had to call the attention of the 
people to the importance of being prepared for the change 
that would come upon all, stating that there was but one 
thing that would give us this preparation, which is, the 
religion of Jesus Christ AVilliam Clark had something 
to ofifer, which appeared to have a solemnizing effect. 

After meeting I went, in company with George O. 
Frittef, to the Armington school-house, about ten miles 
away, where I had an appointed meeting at four o'clock. 
It was a large meeting, so the house could not hold them 
all, and many Grospel truths were opened to them ; the 
opportunity was, to some extent, satisfactory to myself. 



94 MEMOIRS OF 

Edward Hopkins died last winter, aged a little over 
thirty-nine years. He, poor ,fellow, was rendered un- 
happy for life by circumstances beyond his control ; noth- 
ing of earth could compensate him for the want of limbs; 
neither kind &iends, wealth, the beautiful display of the 
works of Qod in the outward creation, the change of the 
seasons, the carpeting of the earth with flowers, the sing- 
ing of birds nor the voice of the dove brought consolation 
to him. But he has passed from mutability and from a 
world wherein beholding the happiness of others only 
filled deeper the cup of his own sorrows. Born without 
limbs. 

Ninth month 14th. — Funeral of the wife of 

Cornell, at Friends' meeting-house, Mendon. A large, 
solemn meeting. 

22d. — Funeral of Aaron Baker, at the above-named 
place ; I felt it to be a favored season. 

Tenth month 6th. — ^Funeral of Joel Thorn's wife at 
Gralen ; a largely-attended meeting. 

11th. — ^Funeral of Widow Parker (not a member) at 
her late dwelling about eight miles from my home. Large 
meeting. 

15th. — Funeral of a daughter of Thomas Lakey at his 
dwelling in Palmyra. 

18th. — Funeral of Amy Rathbun, wife of Wells 
Rathbun, about one hundred miles from this place, near 
Rome. The meeting was held at his dwelling-house and 
was very large; I have seldom observed so much interest, 
sympathy and feeling as were manifested by the people of 
the surrounding country on this occasion. I had con- 
siderable to communicate to them as it came before me, 



SUNDERLAND F. GARDNER. 95 

and truth was declared in its own authority. After I sat 
down a man asked me if I thought there would he any 
objection to a prayer; I replied, I thought not; whereupon 
he kneeled in prayer, and it appeared to me that he felt 
the awfulnesB of the subject; there was a sweet savor 
attending the ofiering. He expressed much unity with 
what had been expressed, which, I suppose, must have 
contravened all creed. I afterward learned he was a 
Seventh -day Baptist. 

27th. — The funeral of Charles Fountain at Mendon; 
said to have been the largest assembly of people ever con- 
vened at Friends' meeting-house at that place ; it was a 
fayored meeting. 

Eleventh month 19th. — The funeral of the wife of 
Caleb Van Duzer. The meeting was held in the meeting- 
house of the Oumey Friends in Macedon, a large con- 
oourae of people, and I was constrained to speak from the 
words, " Praise ye the Lord, for his mercy endureth for 
ever. " It was a highly favored and instructive season. 

24th. — Funeral of Seth Macy, at his late dwelling- 
house in Rochester. I have noticed that Friends are 
falling into the practice of others, of holding their funerals 
at their dwelling-houses, which, I think, is not the best 
way, especially where a meeting-house is as convenient as 
at this place; in the present instance the house could not 
bold the people, and though it was a cold day, many had 
to Bland outside, and a number of women could not find a 
seat; notwithstanding, all were very still, and many ap- 
peared to be touched as with a coal from the altar. 

28th. — ^The funerals of James Hdght and Mary Hoag 
were held at the same time in our meeting-house in Farm- 



96 MEMOIRS OF 

ington. It is supposed there were one thousand people in 
attendance; I was rejoiced to behold the good order that 
was preserved throughout. I felt rather an unusual de- 
gree of poverty of spirit during the fore part of the meet- 
ing; at length a little light arose and led the way, in- 
creasing until it appeared to me that my whole being was 
enveloped in it and my soul filled with love, and the truth 
was declared under its authority. O my soul, surely 
thou hast occasion to say, " My sufficiency is of God." 

Twelfth month 12th. — Funeral of a daughter of 
Charles Aldrich. Funeral to pretty good satisfaction. 

First month 21st, 1862. — Attended the funeral of 

Vandenburgh at Galen ; it was largely attended 

and a favored meeting. 

Becond month 7th. — Funeral of the widow of Peter 
Wells at Coonsville in Manchester; the house was filled, 
and it was to me rather a laborious season. I had a clear 
view of many of those things which are so hurtful in the 
practice of Christian professors, and I was led to a search- 
ing testimony against the wrong. I felt that the testimony 
was not received by all, which I believe was one, if not 
the only, cause of my painful exercise. After meeting 
closed I saw two ministers whom I was not aware were 
there; they appeared to be considerably agitated, and 
passed me so closely as to touch me, but did not speak with 
me; they went out, and when we left to go to the burying, 
we saw them, . and they appeared to be earnestly engaged 
in council. 

9th. — Word having been left at my house, while I was 
absent at a funeral, that the wife of William Kent had, 
just before her decease, requested that I should attend her 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 97 

foneral, which would be held at East Walworth, I pre- 
pared to go. While the people were gathering and I 
warming at the stove, I saw two ministers, one a Presby- 
terian and the other a Methodist, go up into the pulpit, 
firom which I judged there must have been some mistake; 
but after a while the Methodist minister came down and 
told me ''that it was arranged that brother £. should 
preach the sermon and that he and I should make 
some remarks." I told him I did not wish to intrude upon 
their arrangements, and went back to my seat, while they 
proceeded to carry out their program according to their 
nila £. read what he had written, but the doctrines 
were not according to my understanding of truth. 

There is quite a fueling manifested by many, under an 
apprehension that I was not treated with due respect, but 
I do. not feel thus; they were ignorant of our manner of 
worship and supposed we could join with them in a formal 
way. 

Second month 18th. — ^Attended the funeral of Wright 
Field, in the town of Parma, about thirty-five miles west. 
His wife was a Friend, but I knew nothing of the family, 
nor of any one there, but we had an excellent meeting, 
where truth was declared and love flowed as a living 
stream in which all seemed to be baptized ; may I be duly 
grateful for the favor. Soon after the people gathered a 
man informed me that they were now ready, but silence 
leigned for some time, and I found it to be right for me to 
explain to them the reason for my sitting in silence in all 
religious meetings, saying that a qualification for the 
Gospel ministry was from God alone, and that it became us 
to wait on Him in order to know his will ; and that if he 

7 



98 MEMOIB8 OF 

has anything for us to do, he can tell us what to do, where 
to do it and when to do it. 

Third month 25th. — Funeral of Johnson, at 

Shortsville; large and satisfactory. 

Fourth month 10th. — Funeral of a daughter of George 
Aldrich, South Farmington ; a season of Divine favor. 

13th. — Funeral of Susanna Reynolds, wife of Allen 
Reynolds at Galen. It was largely attended, and truth 
was exalted over tradition and mystery with which it has 
been clothed by the mistakes of men; the religion of 
Jesus Christ was pointed to as able to bring its followers 
into lives of practical righteousness. 

18th. — Funeral of a child of Tabor Colvin at his 
dwelling-house in Victor. After a considerable time of 
silence I was called to communicate from the words, 
'* Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was, and 
the spirit to God who gave it.'* 

Sixth month 8th. — Nearly a week since I was re- 
quested to attend the funeral of Samuel Duel, who was 
killed in one of the battles of Virginia two weeks ago 
yesterday, and was buried there, but his friends wished to 
hold a funeral in Cheshire, about thirteen miles from my 
home. The meeting was ap|)ointed to be held yesterday. 
Another funeral was appointed for the same day at New 
Salem, that of the wife of Dr. Abram BuUis ; I at first 
thought I would not be able to attend both, but finally 
made arrangements for a fresh horse at Canandaigua, ten 
miles from New Salem, so that I could. The meeting 
was large at New Salem, the house could not accommo- 
date all who came. After I took my seat a man intro- 
duced a Baptist minister (as I understood) and asked if I 



8UKDERLAND P. GARDNER. 99 

had any objection to the minister making a prayer at the 
doae of the meeting; I replied that I had not. It was a 
season of Divine favor, and truth seemed to reach the witness 
in many mi^ds present At twelve o'clock, when the meeting 
closed, I started for Cheshire, where I arrived a little after 
the time (2 o'clock); I found a large number of people 
collected, many from neighboring towns, and had to ad- 
vise them to exercise care on account of the crowded state 
of the meeting. They were very still and attentive, con- 
rideiing that many had to stand up in the house, besides 
those who were out of doors. I commenced my communi- 
cation by referring to the Apostle John, in his spiritual 
vision of the Gospel, declaring he " saw a mighty angel 
come do¥m from heaven clothed in a cloud, a rainbow 
upon his head, his face as the sun and his feet as pillars 
of fire.* 

I received Divine help in opening the subject, for the 
light of truth made things clear to my spiritual under- 
standing, and strength and utterance were given to unfold 
doctrines tending to practical righteousness. To me it 
was a season of Divine favor. Several ministers were 
there of different denominations, who, I understood, were 
fully united with what they heard ; but I can hardly under- 
stand how that could be, when some of the teachings and 
traditions in religious matters were so plainly dealt with. 

28th. — ^Funeral of Mary, wife of Thomas Hance, 
Macedon CSenter ; a favored season. 

In the afternoon at four o'clock attended the funeral 
of a young man named Corey. The Presbyterian minis- 



* Tills dlsconne has been preseired. See pa^ 400, 



819047 ^ 



100 MEMOIRS OF 

ter refusing the use of their meeting-house, on account of 
exceptions he had taken to what I delivered some time 
since in their house at an appointed meeting, we met in a 
large school-house near by, but many had to stand out 
doors, and as the time was long it must have been very 
trying and tedious. Would it not have been more neigh- 
borly, to say nothing of Christianity, to have granted the 
use of a house where all could have been seated ? But he 
is a rigid Calvinist, and from what I gathered of his views 
during an interview which he sought, I think he has but 
little knowledge of the Christian religion beyond the 
letter. Oh how long will the people be so blind to their 
highest interests as to encourage and support these mer- 
chants of Babylon, who sell to them their confused and 
contradictory comments upon the Scriptures and call it 
Gospel ? But perhaps nothing better can be expected from 
those professors of religion who have not advanced beyond 
Moses and John the Baptist, although they profess Christ. 

Seventh month 9th. — Attended the funeral of Samuel 
Frost in the town of Rush. The meeting was held in the 
Christian meeting-house, and largely attended by an intelli- 
gent audience ; a satisfactory season. 

27th. — ^The funeral of a son of Samuel Knowles, 
killed in a battle near Richmond, Va. On this occasion 
I felt to contrast the nature of war with the nature of the 
Gospel, showing the inconsistency of the opposing prayers 
of the time, neighbor against neighbor, minister against 
minister. Christian against Christian, only, one is at the 
North, the other at the South. 

28th. — Attended the funeral of , a widow ; 

the meeting was satisfactory to me, though small ; she 



8XJNDEBLAND P. GAKDNER. 101 

belongiiig to the " poor of this world. " I had to relate a 
little of the experience of Lorenzo Dow after he met with 
a change of heart ; he said, " he found love to God and 
his fellow-man was in him without limit, and he won- 
dered how his love should excel that of God, as he had 

• 

heen taught that Grod's love did not extend to all; " but, 
said he, ** a little real experience in the matter proved to 
mj mind that I was right in my own feelings, and God 
himself being unbounded love, tradition was wrong! " 

30th. — Funeral of Susanna Shotwell, wife of Benjamin 
Shotwell, Galen. The funeral was very large, and re- 
markably solemn. A season of Divine favor. 

Eighth month 1st. — ^Funeral of Isaac Thorn, of Galen; 
a large meeting, but not as satisfactory to myself as at 
some other times. 

3d. — An appointed meeting at Newark in the Metho- 
dist meeting-house — said to be the largest house belonging 
to that denomination in Western New York, and it was 
filled. We had a living time, and after meeting the min- 
ister said he had unity with the doctrines delivered, which 
convince me that he was not one of those bound by tradi- 
tion. He dared to think! 

10th. — Appointed meeting in the Baptist house at East 
Walworth ; large attendance ; many truths opened in 
opposition to the hurtful and hindering things taught by 
some to-day. The tendency of my testimony was to call 
to practical righteousness, showing that true religion was 
very simple and easily understood. 

13th. — Funeral of Stephen Lapham, Jr., at Gralen. 
He was much beloved, and a large concourse of people 
a.«sembled to show their respect on the occasion; much ten- 



102 MEMOIRS OF 

der feeling was manifested, and I felt to call their attention 
to that which can console us in all our sorrows ; but I did 
not feel as much refreshed as at some other times. 

24th. — Funeral of Philip Winegar, of Union Springs 
(not a member) . He was an old settler, and people of all 
classes came to show their respect; it was a favored season. 

Ninth month 8th. — Funeral of the wife of 

Carpenter, of Macedon Centre. A large and interesting 
meeting, in which the truth was set forth in its own sim- 
plicity. 

Anna Carpenter at our meeting-house at Farm- 

ington ; a season of Divine favor. 

Funeral of a child of Tabor Colvin in Victor. 

Funeral of at Shortsville, 

which was rather small; he was a poor man, and the 
Presbyterian minister reused the use of their meeting- 
house, so we held the meeting in the school-house near by. 
This is the third time I have attended a Mineral in the school- 
house not forty rods ^m the meeting-house, but this time 
there was room. The excuse for not letting us occupy the 
larger house was that I was " infidel," and he would not have 
such people in his church ; but alas for the people when 
their religious teachers judge their fellow-servants with 
such malice and bitterness ! It seems to me it was such 
spirits that cried out, " Crucify him, crucify him," 

Next day after the above, attended the funeral 

of the wife of Stephen Allen, about eight miles north of 
Albion, Orleans County, held on First-day. The meeting 
was very large, and was truly a season of Divine favor, for 
which I am deeply thankful. 

Eleventh month 27th. — Funeral of Phebe Waring, 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 103 

daughter of Nathaniel Waring, at Farmington. A large, 
solemn meeting. 

Another child of Tabor Colvin, in Victor, at his 

dwelling-house. It was a meeting of more than usual 
satisfaction to me. 

First month 25th, 1863.— The funeral of Maryette, 
wife of William P. Markham, at Farmington. The peo- 
ple showed the great respect in which she was held by the 
great number that attended, supposed to be about fifteen 
hundred. She requested, near her close, that I should 
preach her funeral sermon (she not being a member of 
Friends), which request was prudently kept from me. It 
proyed to be a season of Divine favor, and I was under 
exercise to speak from the declaration of John, that he 
heard a voice from Heaven saying, " Blessed are the dead 
that die in the Lord from henceforth : yea, saith the Spirit, 
that they may rest from their labors, and their works do 
follow them." Many gospel truths were declared in their 
own authority, and the people seemed to be reached. 

When I had the care of the public scbools in this town 
I became particularly acquainted with her as a teacher, 
and when I saw her determination to be useful and to build 
up for herself a character of high moral bearing, I became 
much interested in her welfare, — hence the friendship 
between us, which was real from the heart. She died of 
consumption, of short duration, induced in part, I fear, by 
too unremitting devotion to her calling. She was aged 
about 26 years. 

Second month dth. — Attended the funeral of El nathan 
Reynolds, in the village of Wolcott. So many were 
present that the house could not accommodate all, many of 



104 MEMOIRS OF 

them, no doubt, led by curiosity to attend a Quaker meet- 
ing. It waa a favored season, and I was requested to visit 
them again; one individual requested another, to whose 
house I was going, to ask me if I believed that any would 
be finally lost. I sent back the answer that I believed none 
could be saved in their sins. 

In the evening I had an appointed meeting among the 
Protestant Methodists at a school-house six miles north by 
east from Wolcott, which was so much crowded that some 
had to stand during the meeting. The opportunity was 
satisfactory to myself, and appeared to be so to the people, 
who manifested it both by deportment and expression. 

I returned home, rejoicing that I had given up to this 
little service. 

Third month 19th.— The funeral of William S. Bur- 
ling at South Farmington. An ancient Friend, aged about 
eighty-six years. He had been, while health permitted, a 
steady attender of meetings, both for worship and disci- 
pline, and filled with usefulness several important stations 
in the church. The early part of his life was spent in New 
York City ; he afterwards lived on his farm in the country 
until a few years before his death, when he resided in 
Canandaigua. Town life did not prove favorable in culti- 
vating a plain and consistent walk in his children, and he 
had the mortification in his old age of seeing his daughters 
follow the follies and fashions of the day. On the morning 
of the day of his funeral the family had a Presbyterian 
service held at his house, but as he had requested to be 
buried after the order of Friends, he was interred at South 
Farmington, and the meeting held at Friends' meeting- 
house, though so timed that but few Friends from North 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 105 

Farmington could attend, it being their Preparative 
meeting day ; and although but a short distance from their 
homes, none of his children attended his funeral at Friends' 
meeting-house. 

20tL — Attended the funeral of Joseph Cox at Scotts- 
ville; an aged man, who in earlier years had been a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, but had evidently sustained 
loss in some important things by taking upon himself too 
heavy a burden of the cares of this life; his ambition had 
gained riches for this world — what else ? He could secure 
the greater — ^the heavenly riches — ^but by an obedience to 
the croes of Christ. Oh may we be humble, and not for- 
get our high calling! The meeting was large, and a season 
of Divine favor. 

25th. — ^Funeral of Judith Robinson, wife of John H. 
Robinson, at Rochester. She had filled with propriety 
several stations in our religious Society, and was an elder 
at the time of her death ; she will leave a vacancy not 
easily filled, and may we profit by her consistent life and 
worthy example. The meeting was well attended, and 
measurably satisfactory. 

Fourth month 3d. — John Bedell, at Galen. The meet- 
ing was large, and a season of favor. 

22d. — The wife of Nathan Aldrich, Jr. A large and 
favored meeting. 

24th. — Humphrey S. Lapham, at Macedon Centre. 
He was a consistent member of our Society, beloved and 
respected by all who knew him. The meeting was largely 
attended, and I was concerned to show what the effect of 
the gospel would be among men if they would live in its 
spirit; and what it had done for those who had lived in it 



106 1C£M0II(S OP 

—contrasting the Christian state with its opposite in the 
world. It was a highly favored season. 

In the afternoon attended the funeral of a daughter of 
Obadiah Lawrence, at Farmington, and although a season 
of mourning, yet a time of consolation and instruction. 

28th. Peters, at the house of William Durfee, 

at Palmyra. The meeting was well attended, and I had 
considerable to communicate, yet did not get that relief of 
mind which I desired. 

Fifth month 8th. — ^Henry Benson, at Waterloo. The 
meeting was well attended, and the opportunity was meas- 
urably satisfactory. He was a wealthy man, and as I 
looked upon the coffin of highly-wrought mahogany, 
mounted with gold and silver, I sorrowfully thought of the 
evidences in many respects of a departure from the sim- 
plicity of the truth. These people had been members 
with us. 

21st. Carpenter, at Macedon Locks; a young 

man who was killed some two weeks since in a battle near 
Fredericksburg, Virginia. His parents, I believe, were 
members of the Society of Friends, and he a birthright 
member. I fear our testimony against war, as well as 
some other things, is becoming merely nominal in many 
instances; our children are not sufficiently trained in the 
way they should go, and thus we must see our young men 
— our promising and loved ones — cut down in our midst. 
God never designed such cruelty. 

The meeting was large and satis&ctory to me, and I 
l)elieve it may be truly said that truth had the victory on 
this occasion so eminently that the people seemed to feel it 
to be so. 



8UNI>ERL.AND P. GARDNER. 107 

23d. — Ad aged woman by the name of Weeks at Maoe- 
don Centre.* It was a comfortable meeting, and I had the 
ooDsolalion of feeling that I had done my duty. 

29th. — ^Phebe Lapham, a young woman, a daughter of 
Stephen Lapham, at Galen. A large and favored meeting. 

30th. —A daughter of Lorenzo Billings, four miles 
south of Rochester. Gospel truths as adapted to the wants 
and conditions of man were set forth in their simplicity ; I 
was deeply instructed in this meeting. 

Sixth month 11th. — ^Macedon Centre (Zeno Cornell). 

27th. — Attended the funeral of Milton Culver at 
Mendon, — ^the last son of Peter Culver. This young man 
was wounded in a battle in Virginia by a ball which passed 
through his lungs, of which he died. The meeting 
was the largest probably ever held in Mendon on any 
occasion. It was a time of hard labor to me, and not 
so satisfiictory as some others have been ; yet I believe the 
people considered it to be a favored meeting. 

30th. — Funeral of an adopted son of Gurden T. 
Smith, at his dwelling-house, Palmyra. This lad was play- 
ing with a bayonet, which was accidentally fallen upon ; 
it pierced his throat, and he lived but a day or two. 
The meeting was large and interesting, and truth was set 
fi>rth in its loveliness; the people appeared to receive the 
word with gladness. A Presbyterian minister sat near 
me, to whom I frequently appealed while speaking, asking 
if these things were not so. He assented to their truth. 

Seventh month 6th. — ^The Mineral of Sarah K. Pound, 
widow of Hugh Pound, of Farmington, aged nearly 
dghty-eight years; she was an elder and an exemplary 
and worthy woman. The meeting was large, and although 



108 MEMOIRS OF 

I was a perfect blank I remained a considerable time 
in silence; at length light and life arose, and led to one of 
the most plain and direct testimonies against the corrup- 
tions of religion and evils in the world that I ever found 
it to be my business to bear. 

8th. — ^Attended, in company with Edward Herendeen, 
Scipio Quarterly Meeting, held at De Ruyter. In conse- 
quence of being at the funeral of Sarah K. Pound we did 
not reach De Ruyter in time for the Meeting of Ministers 
and Elders, but the succeeding meetings were seasons of 
Divine instruction and blessing. I had an appointed 
meeting in the village in the afternoon, which was largely 
attended, and the people appeared to be fed with food con- 
venient for them. 

24th. — Attended, in company with George O. Fritts, 
Rochester Monthly Meeting, held at Wheatland. In thus 
mingling with Friends in feeling and exercise I was con- 
cerned to lay before them the importance of recurring to 
first principles, for only that which moves under the right 
power can safely lead. It was a season of consolation, 
and I returned to my home in peace. 

26th. — An appointed meeting at Clifton, which was 
large and satisfactory to myself. A number of people 
with the minister expressed their unity with the testimony 
borne. 

Eighth month 2d. — ^Had an appointed meeting at a 
Methodist meeting-house about ten miles east of my home 
at four o' clock in the afternoon. The house was filled when 
I went in, and some of the people were singing the lines, 

** So I but safely reach my home, 
My God, my heaven, my all." 



SUNDERLAND P. QABDNER. 109 

They soon ceased after I took my seat, and became still ; 
after my mind had also become still and entered into a 
prayerful state the above quoted lines came before me, 
whereupon I arose and repeated them, saying that the 
hues being sung when I entered the house, if carefully 
considered and understood, would be found to embrace 
much which related to the interest of man, but which, if 
lightly passed over, might not be perceived. The subject 
led to the inquiry, where and what was man's home, and 
how to reach it; how to become acquainted with Grod, and 
where he is to be found ; what and where heaven is, and 
how attained. It was a season of favor, wherein truth was 
brought out and set free from those clouds of mystery 
thrown over it by the traditions of men. 

14th. — ^Attended the foneral of Stephen Hallock, at 
Wheatland. Many convened on the occasion to perform 
the last office of kindness due to a departed friend and 
neighbor; his life had been consistent with his profession, 
hence he was able to say just before his close, " All is well,' ' 
which crowned alL Oh may that be the crown and result 
of my own life and labors; I ask no more than to be able 
to say in truth before God and men, '' All is well." 

Several testimonies were borne calling upon the people 
to turn their attention to the importance of doing their 
work according to their several allotments while it was 
their day of privUege. 

18th, 19th and 20th.— Attended Pelham Half-year 
meeting at Yarmouth in company with William and David 
Clark. The meeting was well attended, and I was re- 
joiced in witnessing the interest manifested by the youth, 
some of whom appeared in that plainness which is consis- 



110 MEM0IB8 OF 

tent with the simplicity of truth, but others, I noticed, had 
been leavened somewhat into the vain fashions of the world. 

I felt great poverty of spirit much of the time I 
was there, so that I almost doubted whether I was in my 
right place, yet I was resigned and poured out the desire 
of my soul in secret prayer unto God, and I found him to 
be a ready helper in every needful time. My mind was 
brought under deep exercise, and I found relief in expres- 
sion on Fourth- and Fifth-day, especially the last Truth 
gained the victory, and we were baptized in the strength- 
ening and exalting power of Divine love. 

30th. — An appointed meeting at Palmyra in the Union 
school-house at 3 o'clock p.m. It was well attended ; I 
felt stripped to rather an unusual degree during the fore 
part of this day, insomuch that it was painful to be borne, 
and when I took my seat in the meeting I felt that I could 
adopt the language of Jesus, ''I have a baptism to be 
baptized with, and how am I straitened until it be accom- 
plished." At length the life and light arose, and I com- 
menced with, " The wages of sin is death, but the gift of 
Grod is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord," in the 
opening and illustration of which many important things 
were presented to my mind concerning the condition of 
man, as he was before he sinned, in his transgressions, and 
in the death which is the consequence of sin ; what man 
loses by sin, and the way and manner of his restoration to 
life and safety. A large amount of religion now in the 
world is not Christianity, for the reli^on of the age sus- 
tains some of the greatest wrongs ever known in the 
world, and as these things become popular, the majority of 
mankind seem to be moving down the current of corrup- 



BXTETDCBIiAND P. GABDNEB. Ill 

ticm together, -while but few are found of sufficient moral 
strength to go agunst it. 

I thought the people would not desire me to appoint 
another meeting there. I left the house as soon as meeting 
closed to get my team, but a man followed me doselj, and 
taking hold of my hand asked, "When will you have 
another meeting here?" I answered, ''I thought they 
would not wish to see me again." He answered, '* We do 
want you; I am a Methodist and I want you to come again 
soon." I have since learned there were but few who took 
exceptions to my discourse, but that was not my concern. 

Ninth month 2d. — Attended the funeral of Phebe, 
wife of John Briggs, at our meeting-house in Farmington. 
It was a favored season, in which Gospel truth was livingly 
declared. 

5th. — Funeral of a child of Sitzer, Macedon 

Center. I spoke from the following words: ''If length 
of days gave fitness or qualification for happiness, then 
many years would be a blessing." 

9th. — ^Funeral of Jacob Clapp, held in the Christian 
meeting-house in the town of Bush, near Genesee Biver; 
it was a season of Divine favor; but it seemed to me that 
there were some there to whom the sayings were hard, 
but many appeared well satisfied. May it not prove like 
beholding their natural face in a glass ! 

11th. — ^The funeral of a daughter of William Bush- 
more at our meeting-house; had a comfortable, interesting 
meeting. 

Funeral of the wife of Solomon Merritt, at the Baptist 
house in West Walworth ; it was a large, interesting meet- 
ing, in which truth was set forth. 



112 MEMOIRS OF 

My mind was led into an exercise to hold up the im- 
portance of coming into a state in which we may receive 
instruction, and in order to obtain that qualification we 
must consider the command given to an active people in 
former years, '* Be still and know that I am God " (Psalms 
46: 10). All religion that is the true word of God is 
known in practical righteousness, and only by this can a 
way be opened into the kingdom of heaven. 

26th. — Funeral of Widow Smith, South Farmington ; 
favored meeting. 

27th. — ^First-day. A favored meeting, in which I was 
concerned to speak from the promise, " As thy days, so 
shall thy strength be." 

30th. — Funeral of a widow Randall — an English- 
woman and a stranger to me. 

On taking my seat in this meeting, I felt such a deep 
sense of poverty of spirit that it seemed there was but 
little choice between life and death; but after dwelling 
awhile in patience and resignation light and life sprang up, 
and I believe we were refreshed together by the baptizing 
power of truth. 

"If I can but touch his garment I shall be whole," 
was the subject that came up before me — ^which led into a 
lesson of faith, its nature, how it ori^ates in man and 
why so necessary. 

2 o'clock in the afternoon. — The funeral of Nathaniel 
Waring, at our meeting-house. He had lately become a 
member among Friends, and was a worthy example. On 
taking my seat I partook of the same stripped state from 
which I suffered so deeply in the morning, but after re- 
maining a while in prayer, strength and ability were given 



8TJNI>£RLAKD P. GARDNER. 113 

me to declare largely of the goodness of our Heavenly 
Faiher to the children of men, in the power of the gospel 
which Paul declared he was not ashamed of, for it is the 
power of God unto salvation to them that believe, which, 
as it opened and enlarged before me, led to a deeply arous- 
ing and searching testimony for truth, and many acknowl- 
edged that the hand of the Lord was in it. 

On some accounts I would be willing to leave it upon 
record if it were possible, but as it was for that assembly it is 
no doubt best it should be left there. I had occasion to remem- 
ber my exercise on First-day. " As thy days, so shall thy 
strength be." And I feel to thank Grod and take courage. 

Our last Monthly Meeting, held the 24th of Ninth 
month, granted a minute of unity with my proposition to 
visit all. the meetings of Friends in the State of New York, 
belonging to Genesee Yearly Meeting. Accordingly I left 
home on Seventh-day, the 10th of Tenth month, two days 
sooner than I had calculated on, in order to attend the 
funeral of Franklin Gomstock at Springport, Cayuga 
G>unty. I attended Friends' meeting in the morning and 
the funeral at the same house in the afternoon; there was 
not room enough for all the people and a great many had 
to renudn out; it was a solemn and favored meeting, in 
which the simple truths of the gospel were set forth in 
their own lovely dress, free from the clothing of mystery 
whidi men have placed upon them. Many of the tradi- 
tional professors cannot bear the truth now any better than 
did those Jews when Jesus came among them on his mission 
of love and mercy, and some to-day would treat me as the 
Jews did him, were it not for the laws of the land. Such 
a spirit can only come from ignorance and malice combined ; 



114 MEM0IB8 OF 

some are going about spreading false reports conoeming 
Friends, imputing doctrines to them which thej never held, 
and trying to array strangers who know nothing about us 
against us by their false representations. After the fun- 
eral a Methodist said to me, *' I thank Gk)d that I have 
found one man who dares declare his sentiments and preach 
them boldly; God bless you." 

On the 13th attended the meeting of Ministers and 
Elders at Constantia, to which place Sdpio Quarterly 
Meeting had been adjourned, and the two succeeding days 
attended the Quarter and public meeting. We had a 
favored season, and on Fifth-day, the meeting was large, 
many of the neighbors coming in. One woman, the daugh- 
ter of a clergyman, had been somewhat discouraged con- 
cerning religion, and declined going to any meeting, say- 
ing ''she believed all religionists were wrong so far as 
she had any knowledge, and although she was not much 
acquainted with the Quakers, she feared they were not 
much better than others. " A friend, knowing her state 
of mind, prevailed on her to attend our meeting ; I did 
not see her to know her, but I understood she wept much 
during the meeting. 

After meeting I left for home, traveling all night; 
walking eight miles from the railroad, and arriving about 
ten o'clock in the morning. 

Tenth month 17th. — Attended the funeral of a child 
of Trenville, held at South Farmington. A ten- 
dering season, wherein I believe many were enabled to see 
the beauty of holiness. 

Eleventh month 1st. — ^The funeral of Emily Dunmore, 
a young woman of Macedon Center; the funeral was well 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 115 

attended, and a season of instraction. My mind was 
opened to see the unchangeable nature of the gospel, of its 
uniTersal applicability to mankind, and of the agreement 
of all of its principles with the precepts and examples of 
Jesus Christ. The exercise led to a communication com- 
mencing with these words: '' Heaven and earth shall pass 
away, but my words shall not pass away," stating that 
in this declaration I understood heaven to mean the false 
rests of false religions which have their foundation in the 
wisdom, learning, and will of man in his unregenerate 
state, and the earth I understood to refer to the earthly 
governments established and sustained by war and ambi- 
tion. Many such had passed away, and all would change 
and pass away before the immutable principles of justice 
and truth, which are built upon the Bock of Truth. There 
was no allusion to this earthly ball, or ** the sun, moon, and 
stare which Thou hast ordained, — ^the work of Thy fin- 
gers." The words of Christ declared the truth which 
came from Grod, and is unchangeable; truth which, if men 
will observe, will instruct them to salvation. 

Twelfth month 16th. — Funeral of Mercy Bloodgood,at 
Maoedon Center, which was a large and solemn meeting. 
I was concerned to set forth the necessity of coming to 
Christ, and trusting to him to remove our burdens. I 
commenced by saying : " Since I have taken my seat, my 
spirit has been filled with love and interest for the present 
assembly, believing there was not an individual present, 
nor any class of people, which were less the favorites of 
heaven than any other; that the call of God through 
Jesus Christ to man was universal, and his grace full and 
fiee to all, if they would but receive it in honest, humble 



116 MEM0IB8 OF 

hearts. If I did not believe this, I should fall into the 
cold embrace of fatality or infidelity, in which state there 
is nothing to console or feed the soul with food suitable to 
its nature. 

Many find themselves, in consequence of sin, carrying 
burdens heavy to be borne, but they cannot pass from 
under them by any power of their own, or devise any way 
of escape by their own wisdom ; to these I would say. Come 
to Christ; obey his call: "Come unto me, all ye that 
labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take 
my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and 
lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest for your souls. For 
my yoke is easy and my burden is light." 

Obedience to this call will bring us out of bondage, up 
into the glorious liberty of the redeemed sons and daugh- 
ters of God, and there is no other name or power given 
among men but this Christ of God that can cleanse the 
soul from the stains of sin and redeem it to God. This 
was a season of divine favor. 

19th. — ^Left home to attend an indulged meeting, held 
at Galen, under the care of a committee from Farmington 
Monthly Meeting. 

20th. — Attended said meeting, notice having been 
given, the meeting was well attended, notwithstanding 
the cold, and proved a comfortable season. I was con- 
cerned to bring before the assembly, many of whom were 
descendants of Friends, the thought that their parents by 
being faithful in their day of probation had found the one 
thing needAil; had gained a victory, and no doubt received 
the crown of their faithfulness. I queried with them 
whether they believed there was any other arm of power 



dUNBEBJUAND P. GARDNER. 117 

than that of the Grod of their fathers, that could enable 
them to do the work before them, telling them that very 
much of what professed to be advancing was really going 
back further and fiirther into darkness; for everything 
that called men away from obedience to the light of Christ 
revealed in the soul was of Antichrist, no matter how 
good might be its profession, or how great the work it pro- 
posed to do. 

25th. — ^Attended the funeral of Levi Arnold at South 
Farmington, an innocent Friend over ninety years of age. 
I was favored to communicate what was presented to my 
mind, so that I felt clear, but I felt an opposition in some 
spirits present which was deep and bitter; nevertheless I 
was assnred that truth reigned over that dark, envious spirit 
which has for a few years been rankling in the hearts of 
some against me, especially among some of the Gumey 
Friends here, which they carry out by the assistance of 
some sons of Belial, who seem to represent in their work 
against Friends the same office that the Roman soldiers 
did for the Jews against Jesus. 

First month 11th, 1864. — Attended the funeral of a 
girl named Dutton, at Junius; a reasonably comfortable 
season. This place has been much affected as far as 
religion is concerned by a kind of ranterism. This 
trouble first commenced among those who professed to be 
Friends, by their taking very active measures out of 
Society on the subject of slavery, and uniting and mix- 
ing with almost everything, however absurd, until they 
left Society for larger liberty. Finally, Friends have 
nearly run out in this place, hardly enough left to bury 
their dead 



118 MEMOIBS OF 

20th. — ^Funeral of Allen Reynolds, of Galen; funeral 
well attended, and a favored season. . 

Second month 2d. — Funeral of John Duell, a soldier, 
who had by exposure and hardships in the army contracted 
disease, of which he died. He had requested I should 
attend his funeral, although a stranger to me; accordingly 
I attended at Friends' Meeting-house in Galen. There 
was a large gathering, notwithstanding the exceedingly 
muddy roads. I took my seat, and sat until the people 
had mostly convened, when I was taken suddenly ill and 
had to leave the house, thinking I might not be able to 
return ; but in reviewing the past I remembered that 
though I had been subject to acute attacks of disease, I 
had always been favored to attend meeting. I trusted it 
would be so in this case, and so it proved. I was able to 
return to the meeting, and after sitting some time in silent 
resignation, a subject was opened in my mind attended by 
a gentle stream of gospel truth, commencing in these words: 
" Such is my belief in the unlimited goodness and wisdom 
of God that I conclude he has ftimished means adequate 
to the happiness of all the human family without limit or 
distinction, and it remains for them to appropriate those 
means in order to secure the end desired.' ' It was a sea- 
son of divine favor. 

18th. — ^Attended the funeral of Henry C. Stephens, 
one of my nearest neighbors. The meeting was held at our 
meeting-house, though he was not a member among 
Friends. The occasion drew together a large number of 
people who seldom attend religious meetings, and have 
abandoned themselves to almost every species of immor- 
ality, and I felt the weight and burden of the power of 



BUKBSBLAND P. GABDNEB. 119 

darknesB that seemed like a doud for a time bearing down 
all; but at length truth arose, accompanied by that light 
and life which dispels darkness, and removes burdens how- 
eyer heavy; and I was, as many a time before, a witness 
that Grod is a present helper in every time of need to those 
who look to him for help. It finally proved a very satis- 
facU>ry season to myself, and many who were not members 
said it was so with them. Alas! how few effectually or 
profitably lay these things to heart. 

24tlL — ^The funeral of a child of Egbert Que in the 
Methodist meeting-house in Palmyra. I was concerned to 
speak fiom, ' ' Sufier little children to come unto me, and 
forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven." 

29th. — ^Funeral of Roswell Whitcomb, a minister, at 
Friends' Meeting-house in Mendon. The meeting was 
largely attended, but I clearly felt a deeply-fixed prejudice 
in the minds of some present against Friends. A certain 
class of professors appeared to me to be possessed of a 
Pharisaical spirit which was satisfied with and exalted in its 
own self-righteousness, despising all others; and what 
seemed worse than all was that this spirit was the most 
bitter in some who had once been nominal members among 
Friends. It was a season of rather hard labor, yet of 
plain dealing. 

Third month 4th. — Funeral of Walter Lawrence, Sr., 
at our usual meeting hour and day. He had been an ex- 
emplary Friend, and left the savor of a well-spent life; it 
was a solemn, instructive season. The people were re- 
minded of the importance of putting their trust in God, 
and that no religion would avail us unless we attended to 
the conunand, "Be still, and know that I am Qod." 



120 MEMOIRS OF 

5th. — Left home early in the moniing in company 
with Jacob Que and wife to attend two meetings at Horse 
Headsi about eight miles south of Seneca Lake. Took 
dinner at Josiah Marshall's, and in the evening went about 
two and a half miles to his father's, Joseph Marshall, and 
were welcomed by him and his family in a manner which 
was really comforting. He and his daughter Hannah 
appear to be genuine Friends, well settled in the truth. 
When I meet with such it seems like the cheering rays of 
the sun after a dark and gloomy storm. First-day morn- 
ing we attended the meeting at his house at the eleventh 
hour, several of the neighbors attending; it was a comfor- 
table season, and I was favored to communicate to the 
people such things as were applicable to their states, com- 
mencing with, **The kingdom of heaven was likened by 
Jesus to a merchantman seeking goodly pearls, and when 
he had found one pearl of great price, he sold all, and pur- 
chased it." 

At 3 o'clock in the afternoon we had a very large 
meeting in the Baptist meeting-house. Horse Heads; the 
people appeared intelligent and respectable, before whom 
the nature and office of the gospel were clearly set forth, — 
explaining man's nature, his relation to nature and to 
God, how man is redeemed by the redeeming power of 
God through Christ, man has always stood in the same 
relation, etc. I believe there was a general acknowledg- 
ment of these truths, though explained so differently from 
the usual mode of instruction. It was a satisfactory season 
to me. 

There are but few Friends here, and they have no 
established meeting; but Joseph Marshall has a meeting 



BUNBERLAND P. OABDNER. 121 

in his house r^ularly on Fiist-dajs. I would that some 
Friends in more favored localities as regards meetings 
would profit by the example set by this worthy man, for he is 
a worthy head of an intelligent family and living meeting. 
Sixth month 4th. — ^Funeral of Loretta Knight, wife 
of John Knight^ at South Farmington. It was a solemn, 
favored opportunity; she had lived an exemplary life, and 
amidst much trial had exhibited the virtue of patience in 
a remarkable degree. 

13Uu — ^Funeral of Joshua Cornell, at Union Springs. 
It was measurably a favored opportunity. 

I have for a number of years past attended funerals 
when requested, which has of course been detrimental to 
my temporal prosperity, some years taking up nearly a 
third of my time; yet as I believe a dispensation of the 
gospel has been given me, I freely have devoted the time 
alloted me, together with my means, and have travelled 
night and day, in cold and heat and storms, and amongst 
almost all the different denominations, far and near, rich 
and poor, because I would obey the call of the Master; yet on 
account of this, jealousy and envy have cruelly worked 
against me. Certain professors, and those under their in- 
fluence (I mean some of the Gumeyites), would, if the 
Uw had permitted, have deprived me of my liberty long 
ago; but as they could not do that, they have been active 
in slander and false representations against me for many 
years, endeavoring to build themselves up by breaking 
others down, rather than by Christian conduct. 

2^h. — Funeral of Thomas Lakey, in Palmyra Village. 
The meeting was held in the Presbyterian meeting-house, 
and was very well attended. In looking toward this 



122 MEMOIRS OF 

funeral after I received the word, I could see nothing pb 
ant in prospect, knowing that there would be many there 
watching and seeking to get something hy which to work 
harm to myself and Friends ; nevertheless I went, and after 
some time of silence I felt led to a communication without 
fear ; truth was sent home to the hearers, so that I left the 
place satisfied I had performed my duty, even if it did 
contravene the traditions of the day. 

Fifth month 5th. — Attended the funeral of Maria, 
widow of Harmon Benson. It was a season of right in- 
struction, I trust to be long remembered by some present. 
Her husband's funeral I attended about a year ago. 

8th. — Funeral of Ira Bedell, in Galen. Many people 
gathered on the occasion, and it was truly a season of 
divine favor. 

18th. — Funeral of Peter Culver, at Mendon. It waa 
largely attended. He had been through life exemplary, 
and all who knew him appeared to love and respect him ; 
it was an instructive and solemn season, in which I believe 
the veil was rent from the hearts of some present. 

20th. — Funeral of the wife of John Osbum, about 
four miles south of my home. A large attendance, com- 
posed of various kinds of professors as well as non-pro- 
fessors. My exercise in this meeting was so plain or so 
close that I sometimes doubted if the people could bear it, 
but that was none of my business; and I have no doubt 
that some Friends feared it would give ofiense, and that 
I considered none of my business. 

29th. — Funeral of a son of Nathan L. Aldrich. There 
were several communications borne, but with regard to 
what I had to offer I obtained no relief, and returned to my 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDKER. 123 

home in deep suffering and poverty of spirit. I endeavored 
to be patient under the exercise, and will endeavor to be 
more watchful and prayeriul in the future. 

Birth month 3d. — ^Funeral of Elias Durfee, held in 
the Christian meeting-house, in the village of Marion. It 
was largely attended by a very intelligent and attentive 
audience, and the gospel of truth was blessed by the Mas- 
ter, and handed forth to the multitude. I trust that those 
who had ears to hear and hearts ready to receive were fed 
to the satisfaction of their souls. Bo be it, saith my soul. 

Seventh month 10th. — Funeral of Bell, a 

young man who died in the army in Virginia (Sixth 
.month 16th). The meeting was held in the Methodist 
meeting-house at Mann's Comers, about twenty miles 
from my home, and was well attended. My exercise at 
this time led to a communication from these words: ''A 
religion without the cross, like faith without works, is 
deacL" The testimony borne on this occasion was brought 
80 close home to the present state of things and the popu- 
lar religion of the day, so clearly contrasting them with 
the religion of the cross, which is the religion of Christ, 
that the old yet highly-professing Adam could not well 
bear it, which was manifested by some contention after 
meeting, but I did not go among them to learn upon what 
particular points they were wounded ; having discharged 
my duty faithfully, I felt easy. 

Funeral of a child of Thomas Stanton at our 

meeting-house; a season of favor, for which I felt thankful. 

Eighth month 14th. — ^Attended North Street meeting 
of Friends at the usual hour, and we were favored with 
plain dealing. 



124 MEM0IB8 OP 

At 4 o'clock p.m. attended an appointed meeting at 
Union Springs; well attended, and both meetings were 
satisfactory to me. 

Ninth month 2d. — The funeral of a son of Bfiram 
Firman, at Macedon Center; a favored season. 

4th, First-day. — An appointed meeting at Macedon 
Locks, held in the Baptist meeting-house. I was favored 
to declare the truth to my own satisfaction, and I believe 
to the edification of many present. But alas I how few 
in proportion to the whole have ears to hear; endeavoring 
as they do to live upon tradition they are strangers to the 
vitality of the religion of Christ; professing Christianity 
they are still warriors; bearing the name of Christ they 
follow Moses; and now, in the time of this dreadAilly de- 
vastating war, there are comparatively few professors of 
religion that are not deeply dipped into the spirit of strife 
and carnage. Have they really forgotten the words of the 
Master, ** My kingdom is not of this world, else would 
my servants fight." Yet even some professing to be 
Friends cannot bear to hear the peaceable gospel of Christ 
held forth ! Where are the testimony-bearers of the 
Church of Christ ? Wherein the difference between the 
professing Christians and the world in these matters ? And 
because I have found it my duty to set these things before 
the people plainly, a spirit of malice and persecution has 
been stirred up, which I think has seldom been equalled 
in these latter days, — high professors employing the sons 
of Belial to carry out their purposes in slander and lies. 
But the end is not yet. 

10th. — The funeral of a daughter of Samuel Cole, 
near Port Qibson, about twelve miles from home; a com- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 126 

fortable opportunity. While I was speaking I was im- 
pressed that there was an individual present who did not 
believe in the soul, nor that man was responsible to any 
but man. The people were strangers to me, yet I delivered 
the message given me for this state, pointing out to him the 
facts by which he might see his error, having the evidence 
within himself. Among other things, the compound 
nature of man was referred to, showing that while the 
physical being was provided with wants and appetites with 
their corresponding supplies in the natural world, the soul 
also had its wants and desires, which must of necessity be 
supplied from another and a higher source. The words of 
Jesus Christ, " I am the bread which came down from 
heaven," etc., were explained and brought home to the 
understanding; also, ** Blessed are they that hunger and 
thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled," saying 
that a soul could not hunger or be filled if it did not exist, 
and that existing, no food but that which is spiritual could 
sustain it. I cannot now recall the arguments which 
appeared so dose to me at ihat time. The case being such 
a pointed one, the man who carried me to the funeral in- 
quired of one who lived in the neighborhood of the meet- 
ing, and was informed that there was an individual present 
whose condition was described to the letter ; that he was a 
good neighbor, a moral and respectable man, but of just 
that belief. 

19th. — ^Funeral of John Head, Friends' meeting-house, 
Orangeville, Wyoming County. Joseph Head arrived at my 
house at midnight on Seventh-day, and the only way that 
we could get to the funeral was to take the cars on First- 
day morning at Palmyra and go to Bufialo, which we did. 



126 MEMOIB8 OF 

and attended meeting at that place, which is held under 
the care of Hamburg Monthly Meeting. Joseph had con- 
siderable to communicate, which was quite appropriate; 
a little appeared to me to do, but I did not get relief 
of mind, feeling poverty of spirit and want to be my 
allotment, which in our limited knowledge of what is best 
for us, we would gladly be rid of; but if there are seasons 
in which we are exalted to ride upon the King's horse, and 
to be decked with his garments and jewels, there are also 
times when it is profitable for us to sit at the King's gate, 
waiting and dependent. 

At 5 p.m. we entered the cars upon the Erie road, 
and another train upon a parallel road (the Central) start- 
ing at the same time, they vied with each other as to speed, 
and ran at a dangerous rate for some miles, as it appeared 
to me, and I think it would be for the interest of the pro- 
prietors of the roads as well as for the public if a stay 
could be put on such wild and reckless proceedings; prop- 
erty is something, but human life is more. 

We arrived at Joseph Head's Second-day morning, 
and attended the funeral at the eleventh hour; the atten- 
dance was large, John having an extensive acquaintance, 
and being much respected by those who knew him. He 
possessed talents above the common average, and had been 
several times a member of the State Legislature. 

This meeting was to us a season of divine favor, in 
which gospel truth was highly exalted above traditional 
error, and men were called on to consider the value and 
necessity of practical righteousness. The testimony borne 
reached the witness in the people, as many of them ac- 
knowledged, although there were various denominations 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 127 

represented. Some Orthodox Friends, as they are called, 
acknowledged they had heard the truth ; or, as some ex- 
pressed it, ' * the oracles of God." I saw the travail of my 
soul, and was satisfied and grateful to my Heavenly Father, 
whom I found to be " all in all." After meeting I left for 
home, and with many hindrances arrived next day at 
evening, having traveled two hundred and eighty miles. 

Tenth month 5th. — ^Attended the Quarterly Meeting at 
Mendon, in which the savor of divine life was eminently 
witnessed to be present. In the public part of the meet- 
ing there were about a dozen testimonies borne, and I 
thought every one of them was in the right authority. 
How pleasant it is when we are favored to experience such 
an evidence of the Lord's presence ! All seemed to feel 
that bread had been blessed and given forth to the multi- 
tude. I was favored to be silent. Sixth-day the public 
meeting was large, and also a season of feasting to hungry 
and thirsty souls. Oh how desirable to witness the Master 
of the feast to be present I 

Tenth month 12th. — ^Attended Scipio Quarterly Meet- 
ing. We were comforted and strengthened under the sen- 
able &vor of gospel love. 

27th. — Joseph Head arrived last night at midnight, re- 
qoesting me to attend the funeral of the wife of David 
Griffin, to be held in Friends' meeting-house at Orangeville. 
When we came in sight of the meeting-house the funeral pro- 
cession was moving, and we had time only to stop at Joseph' s 
long enough for some refreshments. The meeting was satis- 
factory. 

Eleventh month 23d. — Called to attend two funerals 
to-day, nine miles apart^ the one at eleven in the morning. 



128 MEMOIRS OF 

the other at one in the afternoon; the roads had been very 
rough, but I attended the one in the morning at the house 
of John Osbum, whose son had been killed in the war 
near Petersburgh, shot through the head by a sharpshooter 
and instantly killed. At the time of his funeral he had been 
dead about three weeks, and the sight was a sad one. A 
large meeting and a favored season. At the close I imme- 
diately left for the other meeting, arriving rather late, yet 
we had a satisfactory opportunity, — ^held for an aged man 
by the name of Jackson. 

30th. — Funeral of a child of Elias Downing, in the 
Baptist meeting-house at West Walworth. The meeting 
was large, and I had to begin with the words, '' God made 
man upright, but he hath sought out many inventions." 
The truth was so clearly set before the people that but few 
appeared able to bear it. While I was walking with a 
Friend to his place, where I had left my horse, he said: 
" If we do not fight, other nations will come and destroy 
our government." I told him that his reasoning was like 
that of the Jews, " If we let this man alone the Bomaos 
will come and take away our place and nation," so they 
sought out an invention (lies) to kill him, and thus saved 
themselves, but how did it end ? I had no doubt that if 
they had been prepared to receive him in truth, they would 
have been preserved in safety. It was indeed sorrowftil 
to find a Friend who was in the practice of exhorting in 
meetings, so bewildered as to join in the popular cry for 
war. 

Twelfth month 15th. — ^Attendedthe funeral of 

Peters, at Wayneport ; a young man whose hard fare and 
exposures in the army had brought on a decline which X^ 



dUNBERLAKD P. GARDNER. 129 

suited in his death. Oh how this dreadful conflict is destroy- 
ing our young men and demoralizing the people ! Most of 
the professors of religion are as much excited and exhibit 
as much of a warlike spirit as do the people of the world. 

** If the Son of man should come, would he find faith 
among men ? " 

24th. — ^Evening. Feel very much stripped in mind, 
and emptiness of spirit, that I may term a blank state, 
in which I clearly perceive how fully I am dependent upon 
a source higher than man for any good, and how impossible 
it is for spiritual wants to be ministered to until the Mas- 
ter is pleased to bless and hand forth the bread of life. 
If of ourselves we could obtain these blessings there would 
be no need of asking, and there would be another source 
of good befflde God . . . We need to watch and pray. 

I feel that a messenger will soon call to inform 
me of another funeral ; how oiten am I thus called I and 
these things as well as other considerations should admonish 
me that I have no continuing city here. 

26th. — ^Notified this morning of the death of Hannah, 
daughter of Gardner Mason, with a request for me to at- 
tend her funeral at South Farmington day after to-morrow. 

28th. — Attended the funeral above alluded to. In the 
morning I felt very poor in spirit, and read considerable 
portions of Scripture, but found no relief, and left for meet- 
ing in a prayerful state of mind. The meeting was so 
largely attended that some could not find seats in the house 
— and I took my seat in a perfectly blank state ; but the 
people had just settled into a solemn silence when life arose, 
and ability was given me to declare many gospel truths 
under truth's authority : — ^that "God had given hisonly- 

9 



130 MEMOIB8 OF 

begotten Son that whoBoever believeth on him should not 
perish, but have everlasting life/' This subject led to the 
opening of many things necessary to be experienced in the 
Christian warfare, and to the exposure of many of the 
traditional errors which are embraced in *' high places " of 
religious profession, greatly to the prejudice of the cause of 
the religion of Jesus Christ. It was a season of instruction 
to me, and appeared to be so to many others. 

First month 4th, 1865. — Our Quarterly Meeting — ^but 
I attended the funeral of Greorge Howland, at South 
Farmington; a large meeting, considering the rough 
weather, and a solemn opportunity, but not so eminently 
fJEtvored, judging from my own feelings, as at some other 
times; though others considered it a season of deep in- 
struction. 

5th. — Our public Quarterly Meeting; the Divine life 
was felt in a measure to be with us. 

8th. — ^Had calls to attend three fimerals to-day, but 
could attend only one, that of a daughter of John Riker, 
held in the Baptist meeting-house in " the Ridge," about 
sixteen or eighteen miles from home. The meeting was 
very large, and a testimony was borne to the efficacy of the 
Gospel, as embracing in its nature all that is necessary to 
redeem man and correct wrongs: rendering unnecessary 
all symbols and forms and ceremonies, making them as 
useless as were those things pertaining to the law which 
were "nailed to the cross of Christ,'* or, in other words, 
abolished by Christ Truth was exalted and unveiled, and 
I believe many were prepared to receive it, though others, 
no doubt, rejected it, because it did not run in the line of 
their old circle of belie& 



SUNDEBLAND P. QABDNER. 131 

FiiBt month 11th, 1865.— The funeral of Stephen 
Wrighty at South Farmington. After I had taken my seat 
a member of our Society, standing in the station of minis- 
ter, took me aside and said his daughter (widow of the 
deceased) desired that I should speak upon a certain text, 
naming it I felt hurt, but made no reply. I was grieved 
that a member of our Society should so little under- 
stand the nature of the true gospel ministry; his daughter, 
however, was not a member, and perhaps nothing different 
could be expected from those who seek nothing but to float 
with the popular current 

It seems to me that in this day, however much we boast 
of light and progress, popular religion is no further ad- 
vanced than it was in the time of Moses. K a learned 
and eloquent minister will declare that "man's highest 
glory is to die upon the field of battle,' ' and that right from 
the field of carnage, where "every battle of the warrior is 
with confused noise and garments rolled in blood " he goes 
to heaven, which is the preaching of many of the clergy in 
this day, what shall we do with the gospel? Grod said: 
" Thou shalt not kill! " but they (the priests) say otherwise. 
Christ said^ " Love your enemies," but theyosLj, ** Slaughter 
them.' • The Voice said, " This is my beloved Son, in whom 
I am well pleased: hear ye him," but they say with unre- 
generate Peter, " Let us build tabernacles to Moses and 
John the Baptist" We had measurably a good meeting, 
being the third fiineral I have attended at that place with- 
in two weeks. 

Fifth-day attended the funeral of Elizabeth Clapp, a 
widow, and on account of the delicate health of her 
daughter, who was unable to go to the meeting-house, they 



132 MEMOmS OF 

desired a sitting in the family before meeting; the funeral 
ivas well attended and satisfactory. There was something 
rather remarkable in her death ; she was taken suddenly 
ill after having done the housework in the morning, and 
informed those about her that it was death, and immediately 
began to give direction concerning some of her temporal af- 
fairs, and having done this she said with great composure: 
" Now give my love to my children and all others," and im- 
mediately passed away. This was a good legacy to leave her 
children. 

The latter part of Second month had an appointed 
meeting (at 1.30) about fifteen miles from home. What I 
had to communicate appeared to be well received, their 
minister and others expressing much satisfaction, and re- 
questing me to come oft;en among them. I called on the 
minister in the morning and accompanied him to his meet- 
ing, but was sorry to witness more formality than I had ex- 
pected to see — ^vocal and instrumental music and a written 
sermon, which was only another evidence to me that where 
a people depend upon a hired minister something mud be 
done to amuse and take up the attention of the people. 
While going to dinner one of the members asked me what 
I thought of their minister. I replied, " I think him to 
be a pleasant, kind-hearted young man. ' ' " Oh, ' ' said he, 
' • I mean, what do you think of him as a minister ? " I re- 
plied that I had no evidence on which to form a judgment, 
for his discourse to-day was written at his leisure, and he 
told us that considerable of it was taken from other men's 
writings, so that I was unable to judge as to his qualifica- 
tion for the ministry of the gospel. They all treated me 
very kindly, which was to me an evidence of their liberality. 



8UNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 133 

Eighth month 23dy 1866. — Opened a prospect in the 
Monthly Meeting of attending Scipio and Duanesburg 
Quarterly and Canada Half-year Meeting, and a minute 
iras granted accordingly. 

On the 27th left home, took the cars at Palmyra, and 
arrived at Albany at six o'clock the next morning, thence 
by stage to Westerlo, my native place. Duanesburg 
Quarterly Meeting being held at Rensselaerville at this 
time, and not coming on until Seventh-day, I improved 
the intervening time in looking over the once familiar 
places where transpired the scenes of my early childhood, 
after an absence of about fifty-two years. Most of my 
former acquaintances had passed away ; I visited several 
of the burying-grounds in the neighborhood, and found the 
graves of many who were filling their measure of greater 
or leas usefiilness when I knew them; others had removed 
to other homes, but some remained who were children 
when I lived among them, but are now being crowned 
with gray hairs. The house in which I was bom was 
gone, but I visited the spot where it stood; what so much 
of classic ground to me as that which gave me birth? 

I here visited the grave of my grandmother Gardner, 
whose ftineral I well remember attending. I think I 
was not over five years old ; Christopher Healy preached 
on the occasion the first sermon I ever heard. 

Ninth month 1st. — On Seventh-day I attended the 
Meeting of Ministers and Elders at Rensselaerville, where 
I met with James and Lucretia Mott and companion, 
and Esther Haviland. I was considerably exercised 
in silent travail of spirit that I might be favored to 
keep in my proper allotment. There was much said before 



134 MEMOIB8 OF 

going to business which did not seem to me adapted to the 

occasion on which we met; introduced the subject of 

holding circular public monthly meetings, and dwelt 
largely upon it, which meets my approbation, but I think 
it would have been better to have opened it in the Quar- 
terly Meeting. 

I had something to communicate from the charge 
given by Christ to Peter to feed his lambs and sheep, to 
the relief of my own mind, and apparently to the satisfac- 
tion of Friends. 

On First-day, second of the month, was held a public 
meeting, which was very large, the house not being sufficient 
to hold all. I was concerned to say in the early part of 
the meeting that '' had I not believed that the care of 
Israel's shepherd and the goodness of Grod were extended 
to all of His children, and the windows of heaven equally 
open to all, I should not have left my home to come, aa I 
apprehended, on a mission of the Gospel," which led to a 
somewhat lengthy communication in which many import- 
ant truths were held forth. The people were remarkably 
still and attentive, though the house was much crowded 
and very warm. After I sat down, Esther Haviland had 
something to declare which was of sweet savor ; she was 
followed by Lucretia Mott in a lengthy discourse, in which 
she gave an interesting history of the Society of Friends 
from the time of George Fox up to the present time ; also 
said much concerning slavery and abolition, and rejoiced 
in the part she had taken in the matter. 6he is a woman 
of bright talents and retentive memory. She uttered many 
valuable truths. The meeting, though lengthy, closed 
I believe to good satisfaction. 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 135 

3d. — On Second-day the Quarterly Meeting was held, 
and many people not members came in. I felt it right in 
the early part of the meeting to renew the call of Christ, 
' ' Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden, 
and I will give you rest ; take my yoke upon you and 
learn of me, for I am meek and lowly of heart, and ye 
shall find rest to your souls," which led to a communica- 
tion calling the people to come away from all things that 
would have a tendency to keep them from their soul's best 
interest. It appeared to reach the witness in many pres- 
ent. Esther Haviland had a short exhortation, which I 
thought well adapted, and Lu(»*etia had quite a lengthy 
oonmiunication embracing subjects of great moral interest. 

These were all favored seasons, in which the savor of 
life was evidently felt, and when meeting closed we affec- 
tionately took leave of each other. What a change fifty- 
two years has wrought ! Friends were numerous, a plain, 
ample, honest people, now mostly gone ; yet they are re- 
membered here — ^many of the present inhabitants being 
their descendants, and others having a respect for their 
principles. The public Quarterly Meetings are well at- 
tended. 

News having reached here of the death of Enoch Hoag 
at Duanesburg, I felt it right to attend ; I took dinner at 
Gilbert Moore's, and got a passage with Joel Moore, 
arriving at his house about ten in the evening, a distance 
of more than twenty miles. 

4th. — ^Attended the funeral, which was a large and 
solann meeting. I was baptized into a sense of the state 
of some present, and a way opened to point out to them 
how their conditions could be improved : '* Acquaint thy- 



136 



MEMOIRS OP 



self with Grod and be at peace," stating th6re was no real 
peace to the soul but through an acquaintance with Grod ; 
that a saving knowledge of Grod could not be derived from 
the evidence alone which nature furnishes, however har- 
monious and beautiftil, for this knowledge would carry us 
no further or higher than the deistical state ; it could not 
bring us into a state of Christianity— a belief and under- 
standing of which is only obtained through the Son, ac- 
cording to his own declaration, " No man knoweth the 
Son but the Father, and no man knoweth the Father but 
the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him." 
The Son — not the outward man, but " the Light which 
enlighteneth every man that cometh into the world." 

The outward man Jesus I believe to be the temple — 
the prepared body, the instrument through which the 
"Light," the power, the wisdom, the Christ of Grod was 
manifested. '* He that hath ears to hear, let him hear." 

It was truly a season of divine favor. Immediately 
after meeting I took the cars for Albany, at six in the 
afternoon started for Palmyra, where I arrived at three 
o'clock in the morning, thence on foot eight miles home, 
and found my family in comfortable health, for which, and 
preservation during my journey, I feel truly thankful. 

Fourth month 13th, 1867. — Funeral of Grardner Mason, 
South Farmington. While from home transacting 
business, he fell forward and instantly expired. He was 
a man generally respected, and the meeting was the largest, 
I believe, ever held in that house. I was concerned to 
speak, commencing as follows : '' When the body of Jesus 
was taken from the sight of man, all that essentially con- 
stituted the Christ of Grod remained the same as it ever 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 137 

had been, 'the power of God and the wisdom of God/ 
the light of €rod to man ; and the apostle John, when in a 
condition to receive instruction, in the Spirit on the Lord's 
day, heard him declare, ''I am he that liveth and was 
dead, and behold I am alive forever more, and have the 
keys of hell and of death." These declarations, together 
with the promise of Christ to St. Peter, " I will give unto 
thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven : and whatsoever 
thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven : and 
whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in 
heaven," figuratively set forth all the power adapted to 
the various conditions of men, from a heavenly state down 
to a state of hell and death. 

19th. — ^Funeral of John H. Robinson at his late dwell- 
ing in Rochester. Many people assembled, and many 
appeared to receive what was declared, and some expressed 
their feelings to that effect, but it seemed to me that it 
would prove too much like a man beholding his image in 
a glass, soon forgetting the lineaments of his own face. 

First month 19th, 1877. — Attended the ftineral of 
Gatheiine Rushmore, wife of Edward Eldredge, at Union 
Springs, Cayuga County, New York. The funeral was 
held at the dwelling house, and was largely attended. 
This dear friend had led a remarkably consistent life, and 
as a result the approaching close brought no terrors. Her 
bodily sufierings during her brief illness (only about one 
week) were severe, but her mind was calmly buoyed up in 
contemplation of the glorious prospect before her. Her 
departure leaves a blank which will long be sensibly felt 
within the circle of her friends and acquaintance. Her 
companion deeply feels the bereavement of her who in 



138 MEMOIRS OF 

every sense had been to him a help indeed. For some 
weeks a mantle of poverty had seemed to be my fittest 
covering, but on the occasion of this funeral light arose 
with sufficent liberty to enable me to commence with the 
command, ''Go stand and speak in the temple to the 
people all the words of this life," and I discharged appre- 
hended duty measurably to my satisfaction. 

This is the two thousand and sixty-fifth funeral that 
I have attended within thirty-four years (that I have 
noted). I tried to keep account of them as also of my 
religious visits generally, hoping the recollection of my 
past work might be some benefit to my children; but 
most of my papers were burned, — ^perhaps it is as welL 

21st, First-day. — We had a comfortable meeting to-day, 
in which I was very much stripped of a sense of everything 
save poverty, but at length a little light dawned upon my 
path, which led to a short communication tending to 
encourage all classes, however circumstanced, to look to 
our Heavenly Father for help, for if we prayerfully and 
sincerely do this, he will speak a language adapted to each, 
and by his love will, on His part^ assist in every right 
work and endeavor. 8. P. G. 



ANSWER TO A NOTE FROM A FRIEND. 

Dear Friend: I received thy note yesterday, and 
fully appreciate thy interest on my behalf. 

My hired man's time will close, according to our agree- 
ment, the middle of Twelfth month, and thy cousin may 
make arrangements to come and stay through the winter 
and longer if he is suited here. I have had a prospect 



8UNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 139 

of making an extensive visit within the compass of Phila- 
delphia and Baltimore Yearly Meetings, and in some of 
the Soathem states among the freedmen and others. I 
intended to lay my prospect before the last monthly and 
qoarterly meetings, but as such a journey will be attended 
with considerable expense, I thought best to wait And see 
the result of my farming this year, and if, after the neces- 
sary provision for my family, there is enough to meet the 
expense, and nothing else occurs to hinder, and if the 
concern still lives with me, I shall go. If I go before 
winter I shall want him soon, but the time is yet undecided. 
I have informed but two persons of my prospect before this 
(beside my own family). If I can go before cold weather 
I shall be glad. It may be submission will be taken for 
the deed and I shall be excused; I feel it to be, as I look 
at it in the distance, a great undertaking for me at my age, 
but it has always seemed thus, yet the way has been made 
easy. 

Eighth month 16th, 1877. 



Fourth month 30th, 1878.— Attended the funeral of 
George Quick, at Mendon, a large meeting and a measura- 
bly favored season. The public service in this meeting 
was allotted to me, which I was enabled to discharge to 
some satisfaction. If we may judge from the evidence of 
his life, he was prepared for the great change; his brother- 
in-law, Edwin Ewer, at the grave bore testimony to his 
worth and character. At two o'clock p.m., attended the 
Quarterly Meeting of Ministers and Elders at Mendon ; 
meeting rather small, and my spirit seemed to be bowed 



140 MEMOIRS OF 

down under a heavy burden, and a dark cloud appeared to 
be settling over the place. It was not my business to 
inquire or to cast lots to learn on whom it should fall, but 
I dwelt under the exercise. A way was opened to bring 
to view the thought that if we desired a blessing it was 
necessary to have something in our possession for the bless- 
ing to rest upon, instancing the lad with the loaves and 
fishes, the only one in the multitude who had anything to 
bless, and from him the whole multitude partook as they 
were prepared to receive from the hand of the Master of 
the feast. 

On Fifth-day the public labor was again laid upon me, 
which I was enabled to discharge to my satisfaction, but 
throughout the meeting the dark cloud seemed to continue, 
almost too heavy to be borne. 

Fifth month 7th. — ^Funeral of Benjamin Renouf at his 
late residence near Rochester. Meeting largely attended. 
My mind was opened to declare the truth according to the 
present state of the people, advising them to stand in that 
freedom which the present-revealed word of God will lead 
them into, if they will but open their hearts to feel, and 
their ears (spiritual ears) to hear. 

Fifth month. — Funeral of Paul White at our ndeeting- 
house at the usual hour. It was very largely attended, 
estimated at about two thousand people present The 
Methodists gave up their meeting to attend, and all re- 
ligious societies of this and the neighboring towns were 
represented. He was a man much respected for his moral 
worth and manly bearing. 

I was deeply exercised in this meeting,, which led to a 
communication beginning with, ' ' What evidence can man 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 141 

give that he is of Grod or that he is in unity with him ? " 
The answer appears at hand. " Every spirit that con- 
feaseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God, and 
every spirit that oonfesseth not that Jesus Christ is come 
in the flesh is not of God." 

Seventh month 11th. — Funeral of Burling Hoag, at 
South Farmington. My mind was largely opened in this 
meeting, resulting in a testimony beginning in these words: 
'* If a man die, shall he live again?" Also, from the 
declaration of Jesus : '* No man taketh my life from me; 
but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down 
and I have power to take it again. This commandment 
have I received of my Father." 

16th. — Funeral of a young man named Weed ; his 
home was nine miles north of Clyde, Wayne County. The 
funeral was held in the Methodist meeting-house at Rose 
Valley; a large meeting, and satisfactory to myself. 
"He said unto me. Cry, and I said. What shall I cry ? All 
flesh is grass, and the goodliness thereof is as the flower 
of the fleld; the grass withereth, the flower fadeth, but 
the word of the Lord abideth forever." 

I sufiered more with the heat this day than any day 
during my life so far; waited for the train until 45 minutes 
past 10 o'clock p.m.; stopped at Palmyra, and walked 
home eight miles; paid $1.20, out of my harvest, which I 
oould hardly afibrd. Arrived home, 4 a.m. 

20th. — Jjeft home to attend the circular meeting at 
Skaneateles to-morrow; met with Lucretia Mott at Auburn, 
who had come from Philadelphia on a visit to her sister^s 
family, and to enjoy the benefit of the country air during 
the extreme heat. When I arrived at the junction I must 



142 MEMOIBS OF 

either wait over some hours or walk nearly six miles. I 
chose the latter, and stayed with my esteemed friend, 
Grace A. Spaulding. On First-day morning, 21st, walked 
to Amy Ann Lapham's, and rode with them to meeting; 
which, considering the extreme heat» was well attended. I 
had considerable service in the meeting to some satisfac- 
tion; but there was a sense of desolation and lack of living, 
effective interest in the cause of truth. The young people 
have mostly gone from our Society, and into the broad 
highway of the fashions of the world. 

Afler meeting returned with Amy Ann, and stayed the 
night; I here saw plainly the evil that results from great 
wealth, — ^frequently bringing the possessor a heavy burden 
of cares and perplexities. 

22d. — Returned home ; rather discouraged. 

25th. — ^Our Monthly Meeting at Macedon Center. 
Soon ailer the meeting was settled, the saying of Jesus, 
** Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof," came with 
light and life into my mind, and led to a communication. 
It opened to my view that we have everything to learn, 
and must enter into the labor necessary to obtain the end 
desired. The experience and testimonies of others, though 
they may encourage us, cannot do our work for us; true 
morality must spring from a right principle in tho heart, 
founded on the work of God in the soul; true religion 
comes not by tradition or creeds, but by obedience to the 
living word of God; anything short of this will be iu the 
way, and must be removed before we can advance profit- 
ably to ourselves. 

28th, First-day. — Meeting well attended; several 
strangers present. An exercise of mind in this meeting 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 143 

led to a communication thus : If a profession of religion 
alooe could confer the reality, if a belief that Jesus Christ 
came into the world to save sinners would of itself save 
them, if the adopting of a certain creed as prescribed by 
the church could of itself save us, or make Christians of 
us, the needed condition could be easily attained; but 
they never have been able to do this for man. Paul 
found something necessary in his case that we shall find 
necessary in our own; said he: ''I am crucified with 
Christ; nevertlieless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in 
me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by 
the faith of the Bon of Grod, who loved me and gave him- 
self for me." To know the certainty of things we must 
experience them, and what was the nature of the cruci- 
fixion he experienced ? Not that on the outward cross of 
wood, but that which Jesus sufiered in overcoming the 
world, rejecting evil, dying to sin, which is by refusing the 
gratifications that come by sin ; hence, crucified to the 
world while he yet lived, thus gaining a victory over all 
wnmg. The life of Qod was there, and just what that did 
fi>r Paul and for Jesus, it will do for every one of us 
according to our measure, if we take up the cross and do 
our part of the work. 

Our Heavenly Father is not partial, but furnishes the 
means for the preservation of all, or the salvation of all 
who have sinned, if they will accept them according to his 
oftr through the working of his power and love through 
Jesus Christ. But Jesus never encouraged any to think 
that they should be saved on account of his faithfulnes-s 
and suffering, or that they should be exonerated from 
d<Mng their own work because he died upon the cross, but 



144 MEMOIRS OF 

"To him that overcometh " (Rev. 3d). In the after- 
noon we received a visit from Edwin Ewer and wife, ac- 
companied by Seth G. Hance and wife from Baltimore ; it 
was like '*iron sharpening iron." 

Eighth month 4th. — First-day; late to meeting from 
causes beyond my control, but it very much abated my 
enjoyment. Meeting well attended. Soon after taking 
my seat an exercise arose concerning the tendency of men 
to look back for authority. It led to noting the condition 
of man from the commencement of human history to the 
present time, showing the disadvantages under which he 
has labored because he has not rather looked to the Spirit 
of truth, who according to Jesus would lead into all truth. 
The earliest Christians showed the effect of depending on 
Divine revelation for their guide, but as soon as they be- 
gan to gather up the writings of their noted men, giving 
them authority in the church, they went into the wilder- 
ness ; and thus it is at the present day, — instead of'' mind- 
ing the present revealed light of God, they are looking 
back for authority," and confusion and uncertainty have 
ensued until the condition of things is very well repre- 
sented by the "smoke coming from the bottomless pit." 

6th. — Attended the funeral of Ruth Ann Blaker, 
daughter of Patrocles Blaker, in the town of Brighton. 
She had been on a visit to a sister in Maryland, and while 
there, the weather being very warm, she bathed in 
cold water, which so acted upon the brain as to prove 
fatal. I arrived at her late home before the corpse, and 
it was a sorrowful scene when, instead of returning to her 
friends with joyful greeting, her lips were sealed in silence 
and she lay before us in '' the sleep that knows no waking.' ' 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 145 

While waiting for the hour, — 2 p.m., — ^feeling poor in 
B^rit, I walked out, and my state drew me into silent 
prayer to my Heavenly Father for a renewed evidence of 
his sensible presence and strength. The meeting was 
large and satisfactory to myself, and the attention which 
the people gave was evidence of their interest in what was 
comnmnicated. ''Among all the offices which Christ fills, 
none is more dear to men who know him than that of 
•Good Shepherd.'" 

10th. — Funeral of Haynes — South Street meeting- 
house, Ledyard, Cayuga Co. The meeting was well at- 
tended and the people very attentive. While I was speak- 
ing a minister of the O. Friends called out, saying, " Don't 
give us any more of that stuff." It was the first time 
that I was interfered with while speaking, and I thought it 
right to set forth his condition in a very plain way, so 
that he and others in the same state might see themselves 
as in a glass, the charity of Jesus compared with the 
prejudice and hardness of the Pharisees. A^r which I 
continued my work with the people, which was to im- 
press them with the necessity of practical righteousness, 
and true Christian experience. 

Second month 4th, 1879. — Attended the funeral of 
Elida Cheesbro. 

23d. — ^Funeral of Deana Bunnell, Junius. 

Fourth month 3d. — Funeral of Joseph Reynolds, 
Galen. 

6th. — ^Funeral of the wife of Jacob Zavitz, Sparta, 
Ontario, Canada. 

13th. — Funeral of the wife of Jonathan Sprague, 
West Farmington. 

10 



146 MEM0IB8 OF 

27th. — ^Funeral of Charles Bunnell, Junius. 

Fifth month 12th. — Funeral of Stephen Lapham, 
Galen. 

13th. — Funeral of Maria, wife of Arnold Bristol, 
Farmington. 

The above funerals were all large and satisfactory to 
myself, the last making 2,111 that I have attended in a 
little short of thirty-four years. 

I am nearly seventy-seven years of age ; many and 
deep are the baptisms through which I have passed. I 
have not hesitated when duty called ; have exposed my- 
self at all seasons, by night and by day, to heat and cold, 
fatigue and hunger. I can say with Paul, " In journey ings 
often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by 
mine own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils 
in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in 
perils among false brethren ; in weariness and painfulneas, 
in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fieistings ofi^en, 
in cold and nakedness ; beside those things that are without^ 
that which cometh upon me daily.'* But the most dis- 
tressing and bitterest of all is, perils among j&lse brethren ; 
I have been wonderftdly sustained by that Power that can 
make strong the feeble hands. I now feel the effects of age, 
care and labor; my time of departure is drawing near and 
I am content. Amen. 

S. P. Oardneb. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 147 

23d. — ^Funeral of Henry Royce, south part of this 
town. I thought it singular (the relatives being mostly 
Methodists) that they should desire a Friends' meeting. 
I however attended, and it proved to be a highly favored 
season. There were many present who could think for 
themselves, and were prepared to receive the truth which 
went forth to them fineely. '' Other foundation can no man 
lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ'' 

Ninth month 24th. — Funeral of Sarah Carpenter, a 
widow, at Macedon Center. My mind was deeply exer- 
dsed in this meeting, but before I had said anything a 
woman appeared in supplication ; she was not a member 
amongst us, but her parents were ; she made some strange 
assertions, and read a chapter or two in £phesians, saying, 
"God had told her to bring her Bible, etc." We have 
been somewhat annoyed by this kind of people since they 
left the principles and practices of Friends. 

28th. — ^Funeral of Anne Everett, widow of Samuel 
Everett, at Palmyra. My health was poor; I left my bed 
where I had been confined for some days, but I gained 
strength to attend to my duty. 

Tenth month 2d. — Funeral of Vandenburg, at 

Waterloo. A favored, though to many a sorrowful 
season ; she was a young woman of about seventeen ; she 
M down as she was walking the floor, and when her 
friends came to her they found her dead! she was much 
respected and loved and her loss is deeply felt 

7th. — Funeral of Silas Bowerman at our meeting- 
bouse ; the meeting was largely attended, he being a man 
much respected in the community ; a solemn and favored 
season. 



148 MEMOIRS OF 

First month 12th, 1880. — Funeral of James Arnold, 
Union Springs. Satisfactory meeting. 

20th. — Funeral of Joseph M. Howland, of Maoedon 
Centre. I was silent at this funeral. 

21st. — Joseph Green, at the same place. Both of 
these were excellent men and valuable Friends, and will be 
greatly missed both in our meetings and neighborhood. 

Second month 3d, — Funeral of Lydia Arnold, Union 
Springs, measurably satisfactory. A severe snow storm 
prevailed at the time. 

Third month 9th, — Funeral of Sally Cotton, at our 
meeting-house ; a large and favored meeting. 

11th. — Funeral of a young girl at Macedon Center. 

12th. — A daughter of Levi Watson, Galen. She was 
about sixteen years of age, and much esteemed by her 
friends and acquaintances ; a very large meeting, a solem- 
nity prevailed that could be felt. 

Fourth month 6th. — ^Funeral of Marcus Johnson, 
Manchester, aged about seventy-one years. He fell in 
his barn and was found in an almost helpless condition ; I 
believe his mind was not clear after his injury. A favored 
season. 

9th. — Funeral of Nancy, widow of Lyman Herendeen, 
South Farmington, aged eighty-one years; it was a satis- 
factory opportunity to me. 

17th. — Funeral of a child in a family of Holland 
Dutch, who could not understand English ; a man was 
present to interpret. 

Fifth month 5th.^ — A funeral of a man in 

Penfield, a large attendance; truth was set forth in this 
meeting in its own authority. The weather being warm, 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNEB. 149 

and having a long way to ride, I felt weary when I got to 
the house, but after meeting closed I felt much strength- 
ened both physically and spiritually. 

11th. — Funeral of Eliza Converse, at the house of her 
son, Gardner Sheldon ; a large, solemn meeting, in which 
testimony was borne to the consistent life of the deceased, 
with a consideration of the highly responsible position of 
motheiB and children. 

27th. — Joseph Lawton, Pittston, Rensselaer Co. , N. Y. 
A large, satisfactory meeting, and I returned home thank- 
ful for the favor. The weather was oppressively warm. 

Sixth month 18th. — Funeral of H. Abbott, East 
Hamburgh. Truth was set forth in this meeting ; cleared 
from mystery. 

Seventh month 7th. — Funeral of Ruth Watson, widow 
of Joseph C. Watson, Galen ; a favored meeting. 

11th. — Funeral of Job Wilbur, at North Easton, 
Washington Co. , N. Y. Job was a minister belonging to 
Easton Monthly Meeting, and was highly esteemed by 
Friends and others where he was known. The funeral 
was largely attended, so much so that many had to remain 
oat-doors; it was a satisfactory meeting to me. 

27th. — Funeral of Sally Coleman, in the town of 
Phelps, held at her late dwelling-bouse; a large meeting. 
I had to tell the people, who had long been taught to be- 
lieve in mysteries concerning religion, that in true right- 
eousness there is no mystery, but that the Christian re- 
ligion is practical, experimental, reasonable, and there- 
fore easily understood. 

29th. — ^Funeral of Jane Estes, wife of David Estes, of 
East Hamburgh. An exemplary Friend, much beloved 



150 MEMOIBS OF 

and respected, a useful and faithful member of East 
Hamburgh Monthly Meeting. Her funeral was thought 
to have been the largest ever held in that section of 
country. 

Eighth month 1st. — ^Attended a Baptist meeting at 
Baptist Hill, Bristol. They received the communication 
kindly, and their minister, a young man, was gentlemanly 
and courteous; in the afternoon a temperance meeting 
was held which was largely attended. 

Eighth month 7th. — Funeral of Reynolds, 

Galen. Held in Friends' meeeting-house at Marengo; a 
favored meeting. 

Near this time attended the funerals of William Car- 
penter and Reuben Dean at Macedon Center. 

15th. — ^Funeral of Elizabeth, widow of Samuel Hanoe, 
Williamson. 

Another woman by the name of Pearsall, same place ; 
both satisfactory meetings. 

19th. — ^Left home to attend Pelham Half-year Meet- 
ing at Yarmouth, and was met by John Minard next morn- 
ing at St. Thomas. The meeting was satisfactory through- 
out and very large, thought to be as large as the first 
Yearly Meeting held there; the public service seemed 
nearly all to be required of me. There are many 
Friends in that section who are alive in the truth, which 
is truly encouraging to me. On First-day evening 
I attended an appointed meeting at Aylmer, some ten 
miles east of Yarmouth; it was satisfactory and largely 
attended. 

23d. — Second-day morning left St. Thomas for Gran- 
ville, Washington Co., to attend Easton and Saratoga 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNEB. 151 

Qoarter; passed by home, arrived at Troy the next morn- 
ing where I met Edward Eldredge, my companion for the 
eastern part of this journey. We arrived in season for 
the meeting of ministers and elders at 2 p.m. ; there is a 
considerable number of Friends attending here, some of 
them firm and well settled in their principles, but they are 
often visited and troubled by certain fanatical acquaint- 
ances, connected with some of them by marriage and 
otherwise, which has had a hurtful influence; and I be- 
lieve that unless they are well on their guard they will 
floffer a great loss. It is not heaping to ourselves doc- 
trines that will preserve us, but we shall be saved by 
minding the revelations of truth. 

We passed from there to Duanesburgh Quarter, where 
we found everything rather low as to interest in the con- 
cerns of Society; in the immediate neighborhood some 
were feeble and others advanced in years, which was a 
reasonable excuse, but some appeared to be lukewarm or 
indifferent; others seemed to be endeavoring to do their 
work in the day time, and they had an interesting First- 
day schooL I was enabled to discharge what appeared to 
be my duty in all the meetings to my satisfaction. 

On Second-dav I left for home, where I arrived about 
noon next day, and found all well. I have travelled about 
a thousand miles, and attended all these meetings within 
two weeks. 

Ninth month 5th. — Attended a meeting at Baptist Hill, 
Bristol, in the Universalist Church; much to my satis- 
fiiction. 

Tenth month 1st. — Funeral of a child of Edwin Mott, 
Farmington ; a lovely little girl of four years, an only child. 



152 MEMOIBS OF 

Eleventh month 14th. — A circular meeting at DeRay- 
ter, in Friends' meeting-house, at the eleventh hour a.En. , 
and an appointed meeting in the village hall at seven 
o'clock in the evening ; both were satisfactory to myself. 
The morning meeting was well attended, but that in the 
evening was very large, the Methodists and Baptists hav- 
' ing suspended their meetings that the people might attend 
ours. I thought it an act of Christian kindness. 

First month 21st, 1881. — ^Funeral of Elias Carpenter, 
Rochester, at his late dwelling-house; the meeting was sat- 
isfactory to me. '' The last enemy that shall be destroyed 
is death." 

30th. — ^A meeting at the Universalist Church in Vic- 
tor; satisfactory to myself and evidently so to the people. 
*' In my Father's house are many mansions." 

Second month 6th, — Funeral of Daniel Mitchell of De 
Ruyter; a large meeting, so that many could not get into 
the house, though it was extremely cold. I rode fifteen 
miles in the morning before meeting, with the thermometer 
12° below zero, but the opportunity was in the life, and all 
was satisfactory. 

16th. — ^Funeral of Edward Herendeen, son of Wilk- 
inson Herendeen, Farmington. An excellent young 
man; the meeting was held at the dwelling-house and 
largely attended; it was my allotment to be silent 

20th. — Attended the public Quarterly Meeting at 
Albany. Two meetings were held, one at the eleventh 
hour in the morning and the other at half past seven in 
the evening, both well attended and satisfactory. ** It is 
a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Jesus 
Christ came into the world to save sinners.' ' 



BUND£BLAND P. GARDNER. 153 

21st. — ^Meeting for business was held at Duane's, and 
was satifl&ctory, especially the public part. '* When I 
am weak then am I strong." 

22d. — ^Returned home, where I had not remained more 
than two hours, when a telegram came announcing the 
death of Charlotte Dorland, daughter of Andrew Borland, 
of Saratoga. I left home on the 23d, and arrived at 
Andrew's the next morning ; the funeral was held on 
Sixth-day at Friends' meeting-house at the eleventh hour; 
largely attended and satisfactory. Took the cars in the 
evening at the Springs and arrived home next morning, 
traveling over eight hundred miles in one week, having to 
go and return in the night, making four nights without 
much sleep. 

28th. — ^Funeral of a son of William Cheesbro, at our 
meeting-house; a favored meeting. ''The law was given 
by Moses, but grace and truth by Jesus Christ." 

Third month 18th. — Left home for Washington; ar- 
rived at Baltimore at eight o'clock next morning; Benja- 
min T. Starr met me at the cars, and took me home with 
him to breakfast, thence to Alfred Gardner's, where I 
stayed until First-day morning. Leaving there we arrived 
in Washington in season for meeting; we were accompanied 
by Alfred Gardner and his sister, Joseph Matthews, 
Thomas H. Matthews, Henry Janney, and a number of 
others. Friends had kindly chosen Henry Janney to ac- 
company me during my stay in the neighborhood. The 
meeting was large and satisfactory, and Friends were 
there from some parts of Virginia. After dinner we took 
a steamer for Alexandria, where we arrived just in time for 
meeting at 3 o'clock p.m. Baltimore Friends still with us: 



154 MEMOIB8 OF 

stayed the night at Robert F. Roberts', one mile west of 
Alexandria, where we were kindly entertained in his in- 
teresting family. On Second-day we went to Washing- 
ton, and spent most of the day in seeing things connected 
with government interests, and visiting the President, who 
appeared to be burdened with many pressing cares. 
Washington is now a beautiftd city, its streets regular and 
in good order. At evening returned to Baltimore and 
lodged at Alfred Gardner's. 

22d. — Attended the ^neral of Elizabeth Worthing- 
ton, a widow. 

23d. — ^Attended mid-week meeting on West Lombard 
Street. Notice had been given, and the Monthly Meeting's 
school children to the number of 250 were present, an in- 
teresting sight. I was concerned to speak to the people 
present, as it appeared to me, according to their conditions. 
At evening went to B. F. Starr's, where I had a pleasant 
social visit with his family and Rebecca Price. 

Benjamin accompanied me to the cars, which I took for 
home; had rather a slow, disagreeable passage home, hav- 
ing to change cars several times during the night. 

I neglected to state that on the 22d, after the funeral, 
I took tea at Henry Janney's, whence Joseph Matthews 
took me home with him, where I stayed all night I re- 
turned satisfied with my journey. 

31st — ^The funeral of Pliny Sexton, at his late dwell- 
ing-house. Palmyra. A large concourse of people was 
present, he having been a man highly esteemed for his 
benevolence and general usefulness in the community. He 
had long been a resident of the place. Webster, the 
Episcopal minister, read a psalm, and Eaton, the Preeby- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 155 

teriiin minister, followed in prayer ; I had a lengthy 
oommunicatioii which seemed to he well received. At the 
close of the meeting I took the cars for Easton, Washing- 
ton Co. , to attend the funeral of the wife of Gifford ; 

the meeting was held in Friends' meeting-house, and was 
evidently satisfactory. 

Took the cars in the afternoon, Fourth month 1st, and 
arrived home the next morning. Travelled in attending 
funerals and other meetings since the middle of Eleventh 
month 2,906 miles, most of the time during the extreme 
cold of the past winter, and have been kindly preserved 
through all, for which I trust I am grateful to my tender 
Shepherd. 

Fourth month 16th. — Funeral of Andrew Loomis, 
Fenfield. A man highly esteemed by his neighbors. 
" The wages of sin is death. ' ' 

30th. — ^Attended Scipio Quarter at Scipio. in the 
evening attended an appointed meeting at the Corners, 
about one mile east of Friends' meeting-house. On 
First-day was at the public meeting following the Quarter, 
and I felt in these meetings an evidence of that which 
Friends profess to seek after, — "the Divine help." In 
the evening was at a meeting in the Christian meeting- 
house at Union Springs. It was a favored season; the 
simplicity of truth, salvation and redemption was so 
clearly demonstrated that all appeared to understand it, — 
no mystery necessarily connected with our duties, — ^and 
those whose ''creeds" it contradicted acknowledged the 
truth of what had been declared to them. Stayed the night 
with my friend Edward Eldredge. 

fifth month 4th. — ^Attended the funeral of Thomas 



156 MEMOIRS OF 

Fritts, son of George O. and Maria B. Fritts ; the fiineral 
was held at the dwelling-house on account of the ill health 
of George, who was unable to leave home; it was a solemn 
season. I think dear Greorge will soon follow his son. 

10th. — ^Funeral of an aged woman at Palmyra. 

13th. — Funeral of George O. Fritts, at Farmington 
meeting-house. The meeting was largely attended, aiid 
the solemnity of the occaaon seemed to cover the assembly. 
He died on the 11th of Fifth month aged fifty-six years, 
a member and minister of Farmington Monthly Meeting. 
On First-day, less than two weeks before his burial, he 
appeared in good health, and was acceptably exercised in 
the ministry; on Fourth-day morning following, when his 
son Thomas was buried, George appeared very unwell but 
sat up during a part of the meeting. On the 11th of the 
month, only six days later, between twelve and one in the 
aft;emoon, he passed away without a struggle. He had 
suffered uncomplainingly (his disease being putrid erysip- 
elas), and near the close was heard to say, " All is well.** 

He had during his life passed through many trials and 
deep provings, but through watchftilness and the cross had 
evidently gained a standing upon the Rock of Divine 
truth, and he has been an encouraging example to others 
who are seeking " the better way.' ' His public communi- 
cations were neither frequent nor lengthy, but they bore 
evidence of the fresh anointing of truth and love, and his 
departure from our midst in the noon of his usefulness has 
left a blank in our Society and in our community as sad as 
it is sudden. 

Seventh month 3d. — Circular meeting at Skaneateles. 
Well attended and satisfactory. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 167 

Eighth month 13th. — Funeral of Benjamin 8. Estes, 
Quaker Street, Duanesburg. Well attended. He was a 
minister in the Society of Friends, and lacked but eleven 
days of being ninety years old. 

(Exact date unknown.) — ^Henry Adams, of Albany. 
Large and satisfactory. Near the same time, funeral of 
Creorge Dunlap, Macedon Centre. 

30th. — ^Emma D., wife of Charles Gridley; a large, 

satisfactory meeting. She was young, leaving two small 

children and a husband to feel and mourn their great loss. 

Salvation and redemption as set forth by Jesus and 

confirmed by reason and experience, being three sufficient 



Tenth month 7th. — ^Funeral near East Walworth of an 
old lady over eighty years of age. She was not in mem- 
bership with Friends, but she requested a Friends' meet- 
ing on the occasion of her burial. She became, when 
young, convinced of the truth of Friends' principles under 
the ministry of Elias Hicks, and continued in those princi- 
ples and practices to the end. 

9th. — ^Funeral of Isaac T. Sheldon, at Barre Centre, 
Orleans County, New York, held in the Presbyterian 
meeting-hoase. Largely attended, and truth arose in 
dominion in proportion to the capacity to receive it. 

28th. — ^Widow of Samuel Tripp, at Lavanna, Cayuga 
Coanty. Well attended, and I was led to bring before 
the aasembly " righteousness, " " light, " " Christ, ' ' 
" belief," and "the temple of God," — ^terms that embrace 
principles of vital interest to man in this state of being, 
and set over by the Apostle against their opposites: 
'* What fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness ? 



168 ICEMOIBS OF 

and what communion hath light with darkness ? and what 
concord hath Christ with Belial ? or what part hath he 
that believeth with an infidel ? And what agreement hath 
the temple of God with idols ? 

After I sat down a woman arose in another room (I 
was informed she was a Gurney minister) and said, '* It 
seemed strange that any one should disbelieve the Bible 
and yet quote from it.*' 

Twelfth month 11th. — Funeral of Mary A., wife of 
Elisha Brown, at his dwelling-house in Palmyra; a very 
large and, to me, satisfactory meeting. 

13th. — Cordelia Tabor, five miles north of Johnson villa, 
Washington County. Meeting largely attended, consider* 
ing the rainy weather. Satisfactory to myself. Was con- 
cerned to speak on the inconsistency and sin of war. 

1882. — A funeral the date and particulars of which are 
lost, only a few lines remaining, as foUovm : 

I informed them that before anything had been said a 
subject was upon my mind, and as it remained with me I 
would give it expression. The subject led to an exposition 
of the unreasonableness and inconsistency of the '' plan " 
which most Orthodox professors impute to Grod, by which 
to redeem man by the death of Jesus upon the cross, and 
the shedding of his material blood, which ''plan" is 
nowhere taught by Jesus, and is contrary to experience. 
The testimony of Jesus as set forth in the New Testament 
fully contradicts their doctrine, but the way of fiuth and 
salvation as set forth by the Almighty Judge through His 
luiointcd Bon Jesus is reasonable, wise and just. 

Tenth month 25th.— Funeral of Edmund Willets, 
Macedon Centre. 



BUNDEBULNB P. GARDNER. 159 

27th. — ^Funeral of Hall, a daughter of Joseph 

Head, at Orangeville, Wyoming County, New York. The 
meeting was large, but not as satisfactory as some, on 
account of my being painfully interrupted while speaking 
by a hernia^ which has greatly troubled me for many years. 

28th. — ^Left home for Baltimore Yearly Meeting ; 
arriTed there the next morning at the tenth hour, just in 
time for the morning meeting, and went directly to it 
without breakfast. The house was well filled by an intel- 
ligent audience that gave great attention to the testimonies 
borne, of which a lengthy one fell to my lot. I attended 
another meeting at 3 p. m. and at 7. 30 in the evening, in 
all of which I gave expression to lengthy exercises. I 
attended the public meeting at Oldtown on Fourth-day 
to my satisfaction. 

It is indeed a beautiful sight, and speaks encourage- 
ingly for the advancement of man, when a large delibera- 
tive body, without president or visible moderator, goes 
through with various kinds of important business, and 
harmoniously arrives at conclusions without vote or the 
calling for " ayes and nays. ' ' The Society of Friends is 
the only body that does business in this way as far as I 
know. 

Eleventh month 28th. — Funeral of H., at his 

late dwelling in Farmington; meeting rather small, he 
being a poor man and neither a high professor nor politi- 
cian, yet he was an honest man. I had to bear a very 
plain, close testimony on this occasion. 

Twelfth month 9th. — Funeral of Polly Ann Ewer, 
wife of Edwin Ewer of Mendon: large meeting. " How- 
ever it be, God is good and kind to Israel." 



160 MEMOIBS OF 

First month 2l8t, 1883.— Funeral of Silaa Oaidner, 
Farmington. 

30th. — ^Funeral of Phila, wife of Benjamin Chase, 
Macedon Center. I was silent ; John J. Cornell was 
greatly favored in this meeting. 

Third month 9th. — ^Funeral of Jared Smith at his late 
dwelling. 

Now come many names of those whose funerals were 
attended, but dates and particulars lost; a few we will 
mention who are known here. Widow of Pliny Sexton, 
Elizabeth Armstrong, Palmyra ; John Lauder, Victor; 
William Redfield, South Farmington ; Isaac Macomber, 
Palmyra. 

Fourth month 0th. — Joseph Gardner, Baptist meeting- 
house, Ontario. 

16th. — Funeral of Albert Sheldon, Barre Center, 
Orleans Co. , the son of a beloved sister. 

Sixth month 2d. — Funeral of Allen Hoxie, South 
Street, Scipio. 

Third month 2d, 1885.— Funeral of Richard Willson, 
at Welland, in Ontario, Canada ; he was a consistent 
Friend, respected and beloved by all who knew him. 

Seventh month 10th.— Ella, daughter of Robert Will- 
son, at Ridgway, Ontario, Canada. She had suffered long 
with pain and wasting sickness; her physician told me 
that she had lived thirty days without taking anything 
into her stomach but water, after which her desire for food 
returned, but the digestive powers of the stomach were 
gone. 

Eighth month 8th. — ^Funeral of Hugh Thorn at his 
dwelling-house in Junius; a large and satisfactory meeting. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 161 

Just a few months before, attended the funeral of his 
brother Joseph near the same place. 

Ninth month 7th. — ^The widow of George Rowland, 
aged nearly ninety years. She had been an exemplary 
woman. 

13th. — ^Funeral of Newberg, at Macedon Center; 

a laige attendance. " Heaven and earth shall pass away, 
but my word shall not pass away." 

17th. — Joseph Taylor, New Market, Ontario, Canada; 
was largely attended, at Friends' meeting-house at White 
Church. He was a consistent, exemplary Friend. " Mark 
the perfect man and behold the upright, for the end of 
that man is peace." 

Twelfth month 13th. — ^Horace Brownell, at Easton, 
Washington Co., N. Y. A very large and satisfactory 
meeting; a living time. 

First month, 1886. — Jonathan Sprague, at his dwel- 
ling-house; a large and favored meeting. 

First month.— Jesse Hill, Glen's Falls. 

Second month. — Attended Duanesburg Quarterly 
Meeting, Albany. 

Third month 7th. — ^Funeral of David Baker in Easton, 
great meeting. 

Fourth month 15th. — Funeral of Mary Bunker, 
Rochester. 

20th.— Widow of John Striker, Ontaria 

24tii.— Edith Dean, Macedon. 

30th. — ^Widowed sister of Levi Lundy. 

Ninth month 1st. — Funeral of a grandchild of I. 

Anderson. 

3d. — ^Unwell, but about to start for Easton, 
u 



162 MEMOIRS OF 

6th. — Returned home sick. Attended meeting in the 
morning of First-day, and one at the Methodist Meeting- 
house in the afternoon, both large meetings, at Easton. 

28th. — Funeral of Cole, near Port Gibson. 

Tenth month 22d. — Left for Baltimore, arrived next 
morning at 7 a.m. Had a great Yearly Meeting. 
Returned by New York. 

Eleventh month 5th. — Funeral of David Barker, at 
Somerset, Niagara County. Very large funeral. 

First month 27th, 1887. — Left home with my young- 
est son for New York, arrived in the morning of Sixth-day. 
Made our home with Jane C. Russell. Attended Quarterly 
Meeting in New York ; public meeting in New York in 
the morning, and in the afternoon in Brooklyn. Both 
large and satisfactory. Friends very kindly cared for us. 
Thomas Foulke very kindly accompanied us. 

Second month. — ^Went to Purchase to attend Quarterly 
Meeting, also attended the Youths' Meeting. Stayed a 
night at Ell wood BurdsalPs, also at Tacy Ward's. A 
highly-favored season. 

22d. — A funeral at Galen. 

24th. — ^Another in Ontario. 

Third month 4th. — Funeral of Padelford, eighty- 
seven years of age. 

Fourth month 24th. — Attended meeting in the Univer- 
salist house, Victor, to my satisfaction. 

Fifth month 12th. — Funeral of Isaac Kipp, in Maoe- 
don. Committed suicide. 

22d. — An excellent meeting. A stranger present said 
he wished there had been a thousand there. 

Sixth month 10th. — Went to Canada to attend Yearly 



SUNDERLAND P. OARDNEB. 163 

Meeting. Made our home at John Minard's, where we 
arrived about 6 p.m. Attended the Meeting of Ministers 
and Elders. Public meeting in the morning was very 
large. Elizabeth W. Thistlethwaite, Abel A. HuU, Robert 
8. Hayiland and J. J. Cornell had public service. At four 
in the afternoon a meeting. The public service fell to 
mj lot 

Seventh month 4. — My birthday (85). Shall I record 
mother ? Hidden from the sight of man. 

Eighth month 1st. — Went to Hamburg Quarterly 
Meeting; returned home on Fifth-day evening. ''Make 
your calling and election sure." 

11th. — ^Funeral of Susanna Chillson, New Salem. 

12th. — ^Left for Goose Creek Quarterly Meeting at 
Fairfiix. Arrived at Wm. Shoemaker's in the evening. 

TweUth month 10th.— Went to Rochester. Visited 
Susan Carpenter. Attended First-day meeting in the 
morning, and in the evening had a meeting in the opera 
house. Both to good satisfaction. 

12th. — ^Returned home and all is well. 

Religion is made complex for lack of experience in its 
teachers. Those who are deepest in its experience simplify 
it most 

First month 28th, 1888. —Arnold Bristol buried 
to-day, funeral at our meeting-house at 12 o'clock. 

Tenth month 8d. — ^Attended the funeral of Sarah 
Koon, widow of Cornelius Koon, held at the home of 
Elizabeth Koon. 

" A new oonmiandment give I unto you, that ye love 
one another." 

7th. — ^Funeral of Joseph Eldredge, Union Springs. 



164 MEMOIfiS OF 

8th. — Returned home, feeling that another has gone 
from our ranks. 

20th. — Funeral of Sarah, wife of Orr Hewitt 

Eleventh month 18th. — Funeral of Sarah, wife of Wm, 
Rushmore, at their dwelling-house in Palmyra. " What 
shall we do to be prepared for our change ? " 

First month 6th, 1889.— Funeral of the widow of 
Henry XJ. Underhill. 

20th. — Not being well I did not go to meeting to-day, 
but my mind seemed to be there ; I feel it my duty to 
attend meeting when practicable, but the time is drawing 
near when my seat will be occupied by me no more. I 
desire it may be by some one more worthy. 

Second month 16th. — ^Attended Quarterly Meeting of 
Ministers and Elders in Albany. All favored meetiags. 
Attended Duanesburg, large and interesting meetings. 
Thomas Foulke was in attendance and much exercised in 
the ministry. Philip 8. Borland was also engaged in the 
ministry. 

Sixth month 10. — Yearly Meeting begins. Rains 
nearly every day. 

18th. — ^Left home to attend Millville (Pushing Greek) 
Half Yearly Meeting in company with Elizabeth Phillips. 

Attended Monthly Meeting in the forenoon and Meet- 
ing of Ministers and Elders in the afternoon. Half-yearlj 
Meeting very well attended. John J. Cornell had an 
evening meeting. In public meeting I did not get the 
relief I desired; Robert Hatton had an evening meeting 
for the young people. 

22d. — Left for home. Had a dangerous passage on 
account of the flood which had destroyed the bridge. 



StTin>£RLAND P. GARDNER. 165 

23d« — ^Arrived home and found all well. 
25th. — Attended the funeral of Ljdia Bowerman, 
Farmington. 

Seventh month 20th. — Attended the funeral of Phebe 
Anna Field, at Brockport, aged eighty-six ; a member of 
Bochester Monthly Meeting. A consistent Friend. 

Eighth month 22d. — Left home to attend meetings in 
Canada. Attended Monthly Meeting at Bparta. Came 
near dying with strangulated hernia. 

28th. — ^Beached home this morning in a very weak 
state. Friends were very kind from first to last, and 
when I determined to come home, placed me under the 
care of the conductor on the train, who was very attentive 
to me. I think I realize and am grateful for all kindness 
bestowed on me, both to the Father above and his servants 
on earth. 

Ninth month 6th. — Funeral of a grandchild of Henry 
Nichols, Farmington. 

7th. — Funeral of the wife of Judson Hill, west of the 
place called I^ypt. 

19th. — ^Funeral of the wife of Reuben Halstead at 
West Walworth. Edward Eldredge accompanied me. 

Tenth month. — Funeral of Sarah D. Searing. 

14th. Johnson, of Shortsville. 

Second month 6th, 1890.— Funeral of Thomas 
Fhalen's child. 

27th. — ^A son of Edwin Cotton. 

Third month 12th. — Funeral of Sarah, widow of 
Stephen Y. Watson, Galen. 

Fourth month 6th. — A daughter of Jonathan Smith, 
South Farmington. 



166 MEMOlEd OF 

18th. — Oscar Smith, South Farmington. 

20th. — Hannah Briggs, Palmyra. 

Seventh month 3d. — Funeral of John Nichols, Farm- 
ington. 

30th. — Hannah Marshall, Horse Heads. 

Eighth month 7th. — Edwin Ewer's iuneral, large and 
satisfactory. 

13th. — Funeral of Edward Eldredge, Union Springs. 

17th. — ^An appointed meeting at the Universalist 
Church, Maoedon Locks. Their minister is very kind 
and courteous. 

19th. — ^Funeral of Elbert Seaman, at Macedon Locks. 

29th. — Funeral of Hiram Furmans, Macedon. 

Ninth montL — ^A child at South Farmington. 

For two weeks has been cold and rainy. 

First month 22d, 1891. — Funeral of Moses Powers. 

The funerals of John Young and Harriet Sheffield were 
the last. Ninth month, 1892. The number of those noted 
up to this date is 2298. "l" 



[* There is evidently a mistake in the number noted of 
funerals attended as above, for our Friend S. P. 6. was in his 
later years often heard to say that he had been called to attend 
upwards of 3000 funerals.] 



LETTERS. 

PRIJICIPAI.LT UPON DOCnUNAL AlfD KEUGIOUfl SUBJKCTB. 



1860. 



TO FREEMAN CLARK. 



My Dear Friend: — Having thee frequently in re- 
membraiiGe, I felt best to pen thee a few lines that thou 
may see as in a mirror something of the exercises of thy 
distant brother. It has been supposed by some that if the 
thoughis of all men could be laid open to view, there 
would be very little difference discovered in them, and 
to some extent this is undoubtedly correct : it certainly is 
in regard to those minds which have been brought into 
exercise and travail on account of that most glorious of 
all causes, the Truth I Truth, like Deity from whom it 
proceeds^ is unchangeable, and its office is to regulate the 
lives of all who walk in it ; therefore such can labor 
together in effectually accomplishing the work for which 
truth is revealed ; they can understand each other's 
language, and hence among such there is no conAision of 
tongues. One can understand the experience of another 
because he has known the same exercises and feelings to 
be opened in his own mind ; therefore, being partakers of 
the same spirit, they are one in life and labor, even though 
there be a difference in allotments ; thus there will always 
be between them unity of purpose and harmony of action. 

1©7 



168 MEMOIBS OF 

The various caUings and diverse services required in 
the Christian church all tend to one glorious result, which 
is that each individual shall have and shall fill a peculiar 
position to which he is adapted in the great spiritual temple, 
just as every stone is shapen and adapted to its own place 
in the material building, protecting each and making the 
whole at last both beautiful and strong. And how differ* 
cnt is the relative position in which man stands to his 
Heavenly Father from that which we have sometimes been 
taught to believe ! If I am correct in my opinion, (jod is 
an eternal and all-pervading Power, necessarily superior to 
all His works, the first and only Power, the first and only 
Good, the Light, Wisdom and Love, the Fountain of all 
that has ever been revealed to man as spiritual and essen- 
tial attributes; and yet that He has never been fully re- 
vealed to man, and never will be in this present state, but 
we can see enough on and /rom the earth to prove to us 
that we cannot even imagine a limit or boundary to the 
work of His fingers 1 neither can we consistently particu- 
larize any location for this great " First Cause," but we do 
know that He is the central and pervading essence of all 
life both spiritual and natural, and that He does by His 
power and wisdom, which was in Christ, give laws to aU 
spiritual things as certainly as He does to external nature. 
As the heart of man, by its mysterious pulsations, throws 
the blood through the human system by the circulating 
mediums of animal life, conveying health to every ex- 
tremity, so does the great spiritual heart, even Christ, give 
the spiritual blood to the soul of men. But again, if 
upon the human system a wound is made, or if disease 
takes possession of the body, the circulating mediums be- 



SUNDERLAND P. GABDNER. 169 

oome impaired ; they may be weakened or they may be 
clogged, and then we find the blood cannot freely circulate 
in its life-giving mission ; perhaps it is let out altogether, 
80 that even death ensues, yet the heart, the veins, or the 
laws by which they have operated cannot be blamed. 
Now if we make application of the natural figure to the 
spiritual state we can see again that man has been taught 
iUsely in being told that God is a God of anger, revenge 
or any other diseased passion, as we account such develop- 
' ments and excitements in ourselves ; but rather, that He 
is a judge of our conditions and conduct, and is always 
positively opposed to anything that is evil, and will meet 
wrong with a power that will overthrow it, even if it 
destroy the aggressor. His purity and love, or life, can- 
not dwell in a corrupt soul : so if we sufier for our sins, 
or if we die for them, it is because our corrupt or mu- 
tilated state will not permit the grace of Grod, the light 
and the life of truth, to move in our souls that we might 
live. This la a fixed law of God; it cannot change; no 
more than will its giver ; He changes not. Nevertheless, 
Christ has not &iled to do his work ; the means have not 
been stinted nor destroyed ; only hindered by our own 
obstructing wrongs. We see this fully carried out in all 
the laws of nature, — ^if obeyed all is well ; if not, disease, 
deformity, pain or death inevitably follows. But in the 
umooent or redeemed soul there is nothing impure, noth- 
ing adverse to the circulation of the blood or life in Christ, 
" consequently there is no pain, no death there, but rather 
a constant healthful action, an enlargement and certain 
growth, a continued life of righteousness, peace and joy in 
the Holy Ghost." 



170 KEMOIRS OF 

Considering all these things, we can understand the 
nature of a true gospel ministry, for we at least, believe 
that the gospel is not made up of words, and that it is not 
preached except when there is a spiritual baptizing power 
attending it, which reaches the spiritual ear of those pre- 
pared to hear it; it is but the flowing forth of the Father's 
love and wisdom through the instrumentality of His 
dedicated agents ; and I wholly deny anything else being 
the gospel of Christ; for if words merely, or spoken or 
written sermons without this seal of the spirit, even if 
studied in theological schools, constitute the gospel, the 
greatest sinner as well as saint could be a minister of it. 
Alas I the world is abundantly supplied with such teach- 
ing, but what are its fruits ? 

But to return to first thoughts: when the circulating 
blood of Christ comes in contact with sin it produces pain 
in the soul, even as in the outward body pain is produced 
by disease, because an obstruction is met with ; for it is its 
nature and purpose to produce spiritual health, therefore, 
as it is unchangeable in its law, how can it produce peace 
and reconciliation so long as there remains a choice in the 
soul to persist in wrong ? Hence, we see, that it is not 
because God is angry with men, as we generally understand 
anger, but that all of His visitations are conceived in love 
and meted out in mercy; but He is wisely and justly un- 
changeable, so it is impossible for Him to confer peace 
and joy on the sinful soul. If we choose sin, we must as 
a consequence reap death, unless we, like the prodigal, 
choose to return to the Father's house. 

All that the sinner can do is to give up self with a full 
purpose of heart ; that is, become willing on his part to give 



dUKDERLAKD P. GAttDNEE. 171 

up the evil course of his present life, in exchange for a 
life in Christ — ^a life of purity and obedience to God's law; 
and God requires no more— else would he ask that which 
the soul cannot giva Although love and mercy are his 
unchangeable attributes, love cannot be reconciled to hatred, 
nor mercy with that which is unmerciful. 

Thou shalt discover, my fnend, that I set Christianity 
and its source far higher than do those who think that a 
saving knowledge of God can be had by man from any 
other means than the revelation of the very life of God 
Himself through His only-begotten Son, which is His light 
and life or blood. 

Thou may be at loss to understand why I have thus 
written, as it is not in answer to an3rthing that thou hast 
written to me; I may therefore say, by way of explanation, 
that if the way opens for it, I propose writing a series of 
letters embracing my views of Christianity and of man's 
true position in this state of being, and direct them to thee 
as one among the few outside of my own family to whom 
I can open my heart without reserve. I am well aware, 
as thou observed, that I am watched, and I should rejoice 
in it if I believed it were for good, but I have abundant 
reason to feel that it is for a far different object Were I to 
tell thee of some of the doings of some of my ostensible 
friends, it would make thy ears tingle if not thy heart to 
ache; they seem to disregard even the good and interest of So- 
ciety, and do more to strengthen our enemies than to build 
up our own walls. But my business, I find, is to let them 
all alone; I cannot do my work and mind them; and I may 
further say, I care very little for any of these things further 
than they hurt the cause in which my life is engaged. 



172 MEMOIItS OF 



My Dear Friend P. A. E. : — Thou asks if it is my 
view that there is no maDsion in the Father's house for 
the discouraged ? 

It is not my view that there is no hope for the discour- 
aged — while there may not be a mansion in the Father's 
house for discouragement. The dealings of our heavenly 
Father with his children are all adapted to their every 
possible state; are any exalted in pride, He calls them to 
humility; are any halting by the way in dis6ouragement, 
he offers his hand to assist them with the encouraging 
language, **Come up higher." To the weak he will give 
strength, and sight to the blind, and though he is ready to 
do all these things for us, yet there is something for us to 
do. " Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden, and I will give you rest." 

When we come unto him without reservation, and trust 
in him with hope and confidence, he will incline unto us 
and raise us from our discouragements to the mansions of 
waiting and trust. The analogy between natural and 
spiritual things sometimes conveys valuable instruction to 
the inquiring mind. "First the blade, then the ear, 
then the full com in the ear. " There are successive stases 
of growth necessary before the object of the care and growth 
is attained ; the agriculturist must not only bestow the 
labor necessary to promote the health and growth of his 
desired crops, but he must also be patient; sometimes the 
season for the time being is not propitious, too cold, too 



SUNDERLAND P. GABDNER. 173 

wet» or too dry, states unfavorable to the growth of plants. 
Now if, when any of these unfavorable conditions occur, 
he becomes discouraged and neglects his charge, the soil 
becomes too hard, or the weeds overrun the plants and rob 
diem of the nourishment which they need, the weeds 
assimilating it to their own growth, there would be little 
or no hope of a bountiful or profitable harvest. 

Jesus said to his disciples, " Be of good cheer, I have 
overcome the world. " Let not in discouragement and thou 
may overcome it too. Look to the bright side of every 
phase of human life and circumstances, bear with submis- 
sion things unavoidable though disagreeable and unsavory. 
8uch was the example set by the faithful Jesus. " No 
cross, no crown," and the greater the cross, the greater 
the crown. There is a possibility of attaining to a state 
of quietness, rest and peace; a state attainable by all be- 
lievers who use the means designed for such an end ; many 
ways have been recommended, but only one way is certain, 
which is to obey the scriptural injunction: ''Acquaint 
thyself with God and be at peace." This is according to 
the soul's real wants. All merely human efforts to correct 
an evil, or to evade such troubles as some of us have, must 
end in disappointment, for the power is not ours, yet the 
means, even the help of the Lord, is within our reach. 
Trust in God. 

EXTRACT FROM A LETTER TO A YOUNG MAN WHO HAD 
WRITTEN ASKING FOR A SERMON TO BE SENT HIM. 

Thou requested me to send a sermon embracing my 
doctrines, remarking that there were opinions circulating 
to my prejudice. In reply I would say, my sermons are 



174 MEMOIB8 OF 

delivered extempore, without study or notes, hence I can- 
not furnish anything in that line ; but I may say I am in 
principle and doctrine a Friend or Quaker; believing that 
'' the grace of Ood which bringeth salvation hath appeared 
to all men, teaching that denying ungodliness and the 
world's lusts, we should live soberly, righteously and godly 
in this present world." I am a firm believer in the doc- 
trine delivered by Jesus on the mount, and in all the pre- 
cepts and doctrines ascribed to him, found in the New Tes- 
tament; and I most assuredly believe that he now as much 
as ever teaches, enlightens and gives spiritual life and sal- 
vation to every willing and obedient soul. 

I further add that I believe all wilful sinners of every 
name and nature will have to suflfer the consequences of 
their wickedness, for nothing impure can enjoy peace in the 
presence of God. It is not only the extreme but the 
dreadfulness of folly to suppose that we can live the life 
of sinners and enjoy the reward of the righteous; but oh ! 
how many seem to be trusting in this false delusion, to find 
a bitter disappointment when it is too late for them to do 
their day's work. How important, then, that every day 
be passed as time lent us in which to prepare for eternity. 
Every faculty conferred upon us should be used, not merely 
for self comfort, but also for the glory of God, who gave 
in wisdom, and will as certainly require in justice. 

I can hardly find language in which to express my 
sense of grief when I see the corrupting examples set before 
the young in this day, and it adds to my sorrow to see the 
young so readily imitating those examples; profanity, 
licentiousness, libertinism, until, in many instances, almost 
every moral barrier is broken down. What can be ex- 



8UNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 175 

pected of thoee who are so utterly regardless of virtue 
while in their youth ? What when they arrive to advanced 
age ! Such have ever appeared and been (except when 
saved by repentance) miserable monuments of their own 
folly. " Life is the time to serve the Lord." 



Esteemed Friend, John Haioht: — ^After leaving 
thy house I went to £. Mitchell's, where I took supper, after 
which Hiram Coon carried me to Syracuse, where we 
arrived about eleven o'clock in the evening; the stay in 
Syracuse was rather tedious and disagreeable and I had 
no sleep that night. Next morning I walked from Pal- 
myra station, a distance of eight miles, and arrived at 
home about ten o'clock ; the frost had caused the fruit to 
&11 from my trees so much that the damage was not less 
than five dollars per day during the week I was absent ; 
however, I found my family in usual health. I am glad 
I attended your Quarter, and am glad I had the privilege 
of mingling with Friends, and thus extending my acquain- 
tance with them. I fear Friends do not visit each other 
as often as might be profitable, providing the visits were 
made in that good old Christian spirit which used to char- 
acterize them in days gone by. Oh how I desire to see the 
effect of a general return to that love which once prevailed 
amongst Friends, and which was the badge of true disciple- 
ship. The division of 1828, or the spirit that produced it, 
was and is more cruel than death ; it has done great harm 
to the cause of righteousness, to the Society of Friends and 
to the world. However, the past cannot be recalled nor 
its effects wholly eradicated, but we who are now in active 



176 MEMOIBS OP 

life are the more emphatically called upon to maintain our 
testimonies by faithfully carrying them out in practice, 
and I am clear that if this should become the general con- 
cern of Friends, they would gradually be led out of the 
spirit of the world, its maxims and its policies. Our harps) 
have been for a long time unstrung and hanging almost 
uselessly upon the willows, but there may be a coming up 
out of this state, and away from the mixed and turbid 
waters of Babylon, if we would but prayerfully seek light, 
and haying obtained help would put our own shoulders to 
the wheel. It was never designed by Divine wisdom that 
man should grow up into heaven as a plant shoots from 
the earth without consciousness or care, but it was de- 
signed that we should labor, not only for the bread that 
perisheth, but for that which perisheth not, and which 
nourishes the soul up into eternal life; and this we do when 
we properly improve the talents committed to our keeping. 
The travail of my spirit daily is for the promotion of the 
cause of truth, but when I see the mysteries, the contradic- 
tions and the inconsistencies that have been engrafted 
upon religion ; when I hear the prophets prophesy fidsely 
while the priests bear rule by their means, the people lov- 
ing to have it so, and even paying for being deceived, I 
am almost persuaded that I shall not witness in my time 
the great reformation so much needed, that reformation 
which will be the harbinger of better days. Some cannot 
receive my plain testimonies, and indeed under present 
circumstances I should be disappointed if they could, for 
I well know they are out of the usual current of ideas, and 
abo because they are free. I have never coveted any 
man's silver or gold, and never have taken it on account of 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 177 

mj ministry. Some find fault on this account, but Jesus, 
in giving his charge to his disciples, said : " Freely ye have 
receiTed, freely give." The Gospel of Jesus Christ, which 
is the power of God unto salvation, is as free as God's love, 
and was never bought nor sold. Though many seem to 
be in the dark concerning these things, yet I find others in 
the different church organizations where I am sometimes 
called to visit who clearly manifest the light and the love 
of God in their lives and conduct, yea, and the knowledge 
of the mystery of godliness and of the cross of Christ; 
with such my soul unites in prayer for the coming of the 
kingdom. 

1863. 

HOTE TO 8. H. IN REPLY TO SOB ASSERTION THAT THE 
"ELDER SON," AND THE '' SCRIBES AND PHAR- 
ISKBS" WERE THE SAME. 

Friend S. H. : — Since thou and A. were at my house 
I have reflected a little upon your exposition of the " elder 
brother " in the parable of the prodigal son, holding that 
he, the elder son, represented the Scribes and Pharisees, 
and perhaps, sometimes, the Jews at large. I will set 
over against that view a few passages by way of compari- 
son, whidi appear to me in such a light as to make it im- 
possible for me to ooindde with you. 

Matt 23: 15. — ^' Woe unto you. Scribes and Pharisees, 

hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one 

proselyte, and when he is made ye make him twofold more 

the child of hell than yourselves." 

Luke 15: 31. — ** And he said unto him. Son, thou art 
n 



1 



178 HEM0IB8 OF 

ever with me, and all that I have is thine. It was meet 
that we should make meny and be glad, for this thy 
brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost and is 
found/' 

Matt. 23 : 25. — * ' Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, 
hypocrites ! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and 
of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and 
excess." " Even so ye outwardly appear righteous unto 
men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity." 

Contrast : ** Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I 
have is thine." 

Luke 11: 42. — "But woe unto you, Pharisees! for 
ye tithe mint and rue, and all manner of herbs, and pass 
over judgment and the love of Grod: these ought ye to 
have done, and not to leave the other undone." 

Contrast: '' Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I 
have is thine." 

Mark 7: 9. — ''Full well ye reject the commandment 
of Grod, that ye may keep your own tradition." 

Contrast: ''Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I 
have is thine." 

Matt. 5 : 20. — " For I say unto you, that except your 
righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes 
and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom 
of heaven." 

Contrast : " Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I 
have is thine." 

John 7 : 19. — " Did not Moses give you the law, and 
yet none of you keepeth the law ? " 

Contrast : " Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I 
]iave is thine." 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 179 

Matt 23 : 33. — " Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, 
how can ye escape the damnation of hell ? " 

Gonirast : " Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I 
have is thine." 

Now if men possessed of learning and deep religious 

experience can so digest these sayings as to reconcile the 

state of the Pharisee, Scribe or unbelieying Jew with that 

of the " elder son," though I claim little of either of the 

above qualifications, I may be excused if I difier from them 

m my judgment. 

Thy friend, 

S. P. Oabdneb. 



Respected Friend Charles Jones : — ^After my visit 
at thy house, I recalled to mind the subject of our conver- 
sation, and B&er consideration thought it possible that I 
had been misunderstood. I therefore concluded to send 
thee a few lines exhibiting my views as clearly and as 
briefly as possible. 

I take the broad ground that there is one God (Deut. 
6:4, 32 : 39, 4 : 35 ; 1 Sam. 2 : 2, 2 Sam. 22 : 32, 
etc). Creator of all; that He has equal care for all the 
workmanship of His hands, that each individual may in 
his proper sphere fill the station designed for him, and 
that all are so organized as to be happy if they but be 
obedient to the laws of their nature, yea, that they may 
worthily enjoy every blessing He has bestowed upon them. 
He therefore on his part has done all that is necessary to 
be done for the promotion of man's well-being, and that 
by our obedience and consequent happiness Grod is glori- 



180 MEM0IB8 OF 

fied. Henoe I conclude that if man {slOb short of perfec- 
tion or happiness, the fault is on his own part and not on 
that of Deity, for the means of salvation is as free to him 
and as universal as is the light of the sun, or as the atmos- 
phere which gives strength and pulsation to every living 
heart. 

The votaries of religion have generally held too lim- 
ited views of God's favor, considering it as being ex- 
clusively bestowed upon themselves as sects (one of 
Peter's early errors), and this has been one of the reasons 
why Christianity has made such slow progress. Moreover, 
thou sees that by once adopting the belief that God is 
partial, the way b opened for the strange and ridiculous 
notions men have had of His attributes, making him 
changeable, angry, disappointed, repentant, etc Such a 
view of His character is evidently a false one; but thou 
sees that if on the other hand we believe that " God is 
love," and that He is forever and unchangeably the same, 
and that to become His children we must dwell in love, 
all of our unprofitable sectarian prejudices would be swept 
away, and we, so far as reUgion and man's spiritual wel- 
fare is concerned, would have but one common interest 

Thou remembers that the Universalists were united 
with my testimony, but I cannot see that I am therefore a 
Universalist, (as some have declared), for as a general 
thing Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and others^ have 
cordially united with the testimony I believe I am called 
upon to bear, yet none of them would have claimed me as 
being, in a general sense, one of them. A neighbor of 
mine who is a strict Catholic requested me to attend the 
funeral of his child, held at his house, and afterwards 



&CTStt>lSSLhX}ST> P. GARDNER. 181 

id, " It was a good meeting; " yet he did not claim me 
as a Catholic. Liove to Grod and love to our fellow-men 
can ofiend do Cbristiany whatever his name or sect. I 
know of but one test by which we can know men; not by 
their name, but '' by their fruits ye shall know them/ ' hence 
if a man's life is right, if we can see that he always does 
by othera as he would have them do by him under like 
circumstances, and if by his daily walk and conversation 
be shows that he is built upon the ''Bock/' we need in- 
quire no further. The ground, therefore, that I take is, 
that no doctrine can be evil that leads to righteousness, 
and none good that tends to unrighteousness. 

I became a member of Friends' Society by request, 
upon Gonyincement of the rectitude of the fundamental 
principles held by them, viz. ^ that " God is a spirit and 
those that woiship Him must worship Him in spirit and 
in truth; " and that ''the grace of God which bringeth sal- 
vation hatb appeared unto all men, teaching the denying 
of ungodliness, etc" Taking these declarations as truths, 
we can see that to be "children of God," "followers of 
Christy' ' or, in other words^ Christians, no elaborate sys- 
tems of fSsuth, no efforts to promote virtue by undue ex- 
citement are needed ; for if we would be truly virtuous it 
must be for virtue's sake, and if we would be the true ser- 
vants of Grod it must be, not through slavish fear, but 
through "that perfect love which casteth out all fear." 

Seventh nundh 21, 186S. 



182 SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 



Sarah P. Garmalt : 

Dear Friend : — Thy letter has been received, and aa 
a token of friendly regard is duly appreciated. I was very 
glad to hear from thee and to know how thou art circum- 
stanoedy and can truly say that my heart was dipped in 
sympathy with thee as I learned of the successive bereave- 
ments which it has been thy lot to experience within two 
years. First, the loss of thy dear companion, whose char- 
acter embraced all that was desirable in husband or friend, 
then the death of thy daughter-in-law, and finally thy sud- 
den grievous bereavement of thy son Samuel. Surely thou 
can now realize the feelings of Jacob when he cried: 
'* Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and ye will take Ben- 
jamin also. ' ' By the dispensations of Providence thou hast 
felt laid upon thee the care and guardianship of thy orphan 
grandchildren, and need I say, thou knows where to look 
for strength and qualification to bear the great responsi- 
bility of the work, and for that wisdom which shall enable 
thee to train them up in the nurture and admonition of 
the Lord. Oh the vast difierence there is between the 
merely intellectual education thought necessary by most 
parents and guardians for the children under their care, 
and the careful moral and religious training called for by 
Christianity and especially noted by our discipline. It is 
true that intellectual training may develop many noble 
and shining powers, good and to be appreciated in their 
proper place, but should these be cultivated to the neglect 
of the high and holy wants of the spiritual nature ? Must 
brilliant talents necessarily be accompanied by the sad 



8UKDEBLAKD P. GASBNER. 183 

mond turpitude we see so largely prevailiug around us I 
Thy task will not seem hard for thee, for thou art capable 
of realizing thy calling and position. Divine wisdom has 
formed the mother's heart, and endowed it with those 
peculiar qualifications for training children; and what 
greater consolation, yea, what brighter crown can there 
be laid up, than that of the mother who is conscious of 
haying faithfiilly discharged her duties ? But I need not 
enlarge upon these subjects, thou already knows them. . . 

We are deeply sensible of the blank left by Caleb's re- 
moval; particularly as regards myself, I had hoped the day 
would come when I could leave home long enough to visit 
you at your own place, where I could have mingled with 
Tou in free and social converse, unlimited by want of time 
and unrestrained by the presence of strangers, when I 
might have been instructed by the experience and en- 
lightened by the superior attainments of my friends ; but 
alas! one has already departed, his presence I shall not 
enjoy, but need I say, the remembrance of him is treasured 
up among the choice passages of my life. 

FROM A TOUKG FRIEND. 

Dear Friend Sunderland P. Gardner : — Thou 
wiD please excuse the liberty I am about to take in troub- 
ling thee with some lines of inquiry, the character of 
which must be my apology for now addressing thee. 

Since my parents' death, seven years ago, I have been 
almoflt entirely excluded from association with Friends 
until my marriage, three and a half years since, with one 
in membership with the Orthodox branch of Friends. 



184 MEMOIRS OF 

Our borne being witb my busband's parents, wbo are 
elders of tbat body, and perhaps as rigid as any of tbe 
sect at the present day, and their bouse being tbe home 
and resort of many Friends during the Quarterly Meet- 
ings held here, as well as at other times, I have been in 
the way of bearing remarks and accusations against tbe 
Society witb which I still claim membership, tbat I have 
been unwilling to credit, yet bad no proof through certain 
knowledge tbat they were wrong. 

When young and at home I accepted in faith tbe re- 
ligion of my fathers without the inquiry or investigation 
which mature thought would induce, and which is requisite 
for every mind before it should adopt any particular creed 
as a symbol of its religion. 

Will thou tell me the primary cause of the first separa- 
tion among Friends, and wherein lies tbe difference in 
doctrines? Will thou be pleased to give me briefly tbe 
views of our Society as to Christ's origin, the fall of man, 
his restoration, and justification. These are the points 
that have been mostly dwelt upon in conversations I have 
beard, and when statements have been given that ''such 
and such doctrines are held by those who went off firom us " 
I have felt unwilling to give them credence, yet bad not 
the knowledge to refute them if circumstances admitted. 
So various are the representations and constructions tbat 
individual minds place upon tbe workings of other minds, 
that even when each is endeavoring to be true to its own 
intuitive conceptions, they will widely difier upon doc- 
trinal technicalities, causing divisions and sub-divisions, 
engendering animosities, thus rendering it very difficult 
for one now so remote from opportunities to investigate 



Binn>ERLAND P. GABDNEB. 185 

facts to harmonize the antagonisms that are all clothed 
with high professions of Christianitj ; Paul's exhortations 
to charity are seemingly forgotten. It matters but little 
what others say or think of us if our own hearts are but 
pure and unspotted. My friend, I fear I am troubling 
thee more than I ought, yet these things have been with 
me for some time, and I know of no one to whom I could 
turn for more satisfactory information than to thee, and if 
thou should not consider it too great a tax upon thy time 
I diall deem it a great favor to hear from thee. 

Inquiringly thy cordial friend. 
Seoeath numih 18, 1864. 

ANSWER TO FOBEQOINO LETTEB. 

Dear Fbienb: — ^Thine of the 18th has been duly re- 
ceived, and I have improved my first leisure hour in reply- 
ing to thy interesting inquiries; and thy questions seem to 
be of considerable importance, especially to those who have 
ever since the year 1828 been engaged in raising calumnies 
against Friends; and is it not rational to suppose that any 
sect, if perfectly satisfied in its own position, would refrain 
from so constantly ''accusing the brethren " of other de- 
nominations ? — ^those, too, whose lives and morals are at least 
as good as their own. 

Thy first query, concerning the cause of the first division 
of the Friends' Society, would require a volume to answer 
it fully : yet I will endeavor to give thee some of the par- 
ticulars for thy present satisfaction, having had a knowl- 
edge of things pertaining to the Sodety generally since 
1826. But I would refer thee to '* Cockbum's Review," 
which is a very candid and impartial statement of the sep- 



186 SUNDEBIAND P. GARDNER. 

aradon and the causes that led to it; also to " JohnComly's 
Journal," which sets forth many of the particulars of the 
division of PhUadelphia Yearly Meeting. 

The first cause was : The days of persecution having 
passed away, Friends, as a natural result of industry and 
economy, became wealthy, and consequently much respected 
and courted by the people of the world; but alas! this 
ease and prosperity soon made the weaker members of the 
Society forget their dependence on the revelations of Grod; 
they turned to the letter (which, Paul says, kills), and in 
proportion aa they did this, died to the true life of religion. 
They also lost the badge of true disdpleship, which is love 
to one another, and though they still kept up the outward 
form, they began to contend about doctrines until th^ 
very language became, as it were, confounded. 

Thus stood matters in England when some of the more 
prominent and influential members began to introduce into 
the Society doctrines borrowed from the Church of Eng- 
land, which doctrines were diametrically opposed to the 
principles of early Friends. At length some of their min- 
isters came to America, when on finding that the prevailing 
influence amongst us was on the side of the old ground of 
original Quakerism, they commenced a crusade against 
those of our members who stood most prominent in Society. 
Of course they found some amongst us who were ready to 
follow them, and hence the division. At this time there 
were many eminent and faithful public Friends in America, 
men who stood high in the walks of truth and practical 
righteousness, among whom were Eliaa Hicks, Edward 
Hicks, John Comly, Jesse Kersey, Thomas Wetherald, eta 
Eliaa Hicks especially, who had been a faithful minister 



SUKBERLAND P. GARDNER. 187 

fi>r years, and who was inferior to none in point of talent 
or depth of experience, seemed, eventually, to be a particu- 
lar mark at wbicli the Orthodox dissenters sent their en- 
Tenomed arrows; but he bore a faithful testimony, and re- 
mained as he had been, a powerful instrument in promoting 
and advancing the cause of truth. * ' He was firm and im- 
movable, and could give, moreover, a reason for the faith 
that was in him." Thus the English ministers, when they 
came with their innovations, found him in the way ; they 
wished to get rid of him, and in order to do so they pur- 
sued the same course that other bigoted persecutors have 
followed towards those of their opponents whom they could 
not dislodge by arguments or flattery, bribes or force, for 
they immediately raised the cry of infidelity, deism, etc. 
And this they did while they themselves were the real 
aggressors, and had openly transcended the bounds of the 
simple but true and efiectual faith of their fathers. 

Perhaps it was not very strange that there were those in 
America who were prepared to receive these English min- 
isters with their extraordinary Church doctrines, and even 
ready to join them against their own friends, especially 
against Elias Hicks, as they envied him on account of his 
popularity and unbending integrity. 

Again, some very wealthy Friends in Philadelphia, 
many of them merchants, had at one time undertaken to 
carry out our principles in regard to slavery by refusing 
either to use or sell articles produced by slave labor, but 
after a time they balked their own testimony by both using 
and selling the same articles, for which Elias faithfully re- 
proved them; this gave them great offense, as if they were 
above rebuke, and they too became his enemies, and were 



18S MEMOI&S 6^ 

prepared to join with his English opponents in their perse- 
cution against him and his friends and the Society in g^i- 
eral. 

About this time also the English ministers propoeed 
that a congress should be established which should be com- 
posed of ministers and elders from all the Yearly Meetings 
in America; this congress should be supported and its ex- 
penses paid by the common members, while these members 
should have no voice in the proceedings of the business; 
thus the Yearly Meetings were to lose their independence, 
and the interest of the whole Society made subject to an 
irresponsible body I This scheme was, however, successfully 
opposed by Elias Hicks and his friends (coadjutors), and 
when the English Friends became aware that they could 
not succeed in their designs, they were, of course, both dis- 
appointed and offended. They seemed to feel that Eng- 
lish influence should alone be paramount, and that their 
standard should be the criterion of all. Their ministers 
were at this time numerous in America ; Ann Jones, Eliz- 
abeth Bobson, Hannah C. Backhouse, Thomas Shillitoe, 
William Forster and others were very busy in going to and 
fro through the land, sowing discord by their misrepresen- 
tations of those who could not bend to their dictation, 
always crying as they went, '* Infidel, infidel," in the mean- 
time manifesting that haughty bearing which so illy be- 
comes the disciples of Jesus Christ; they seemed to be en- 
tirely devoid of that greatest of all virtues, charity, with- 
out which, Paul said, he was nothing. It really seemed as 
if they thought that because Quakerism as such originated 
in England, they were therefore the only exporators of its 
principles, and we would almost think, from their conduct^ 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. t89 

that they were not willing to admit that the grace of Gk>d 
could make as good Quakers here as there. They also 
took care to fill the ears of the clergy of other denomina- 
tions with their own representations of our doctrines, mak- 
ing them appear dangerous to the true faith, Papers and 
handbills de&matory to the religious character of Society 
were thrown into carriages and wagons in cities and villages, 
and in their public ministry almost their whole discourse 
was filled with poisoned shafts to thrust at our Friends. 
I heard Ann Jones say in a sermon preached in Farming- 
ton, that, ** ' The devils believe and tremble,' but these de- 
cravers believe not," thus making Friends worse than devils. 
Thus they kept up this kind of agitation, embittering the 
minds of individuals against one another, even thus destroy- 
ing the harmony of families, until in 1828 they finally 
separated themselves firom us. While the Yearly Meeting 
of New York was in session they actually left the house and 
set up a meeting by themselves; they did the same thing 
in Farmington, going back to the old house, after which 
they boldly accused us of being the ''separatists." They 
now b^an to call us ' ' Hicksites," a cognomen which many 
here thought genuine, but which was, in reality, only given 
as another mark of their enmity towards us ; we have 
never coveted nor claimed any other name than that of 
Friends, which is the original name of the Sodety we 
represent ; indeed it has been openly stated by the 
Church of England that we are "the real Quakers, but 
that the Orthodox have come to agree with their church in 
doctrines." 

After the division had taken place, Joseph John Guiv 
ney, one of a fistmily that had made itself a princely fortune 



190 



MEMOIBS OF 



by speculating in war funds during the campaign against 
Bonaparte, came to this country as a representative of the 
high church doctrines, and he took great pains to define the 
difference between these doctrines and those of early Friends, 
stating that the latter were erroneous; upon which asser- 
tion, a number of those who had been misled into Ortho- 
doxy began to see that something was wrong. The conse- 
quence was a second division into Gumeyites and Wilbur- 
ites, since which, I believe, there have been some subdi- 
visions. 

Elisha Bates, who had been very active on the side 
of the Orthodox in promoting the first separation, after 
having, aa one of their chief leaders in America, 
done all the harm he could, finally proved his con- 
sistency by joining with another Society, following oat 
its various formalties, and at last being himself baptized 
with water. 

Second Query. Christ's origin I Our Friends from 
George Fox up to the present time have believed that ao 
far as relates to the manhood of Christ, he was made of the 
seed of David according to the flesh (Is. 11), and miraca- 
lously organized in the Virgin Mary. This was also the 
view of Elias Hicks, for in answer to a letter dated Twelfth 
month 13th, 1827, he says, "I never thought nor said that 
I disbelieved the account given by the Evangelists re- 
specting the miraculous conception of Jesus Christ, and 
thou may be fully assured that whoever has reported it has 
reported an absolute falsehood." Thus has our Society 
always held the origin of the outward body of Jesus Christy 
which, according to his own statement, " was not sent but to 
the lost sheep of the House of Israel/' and according to 



• / 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 191 

Paul was ^made of a woman, made under the law, to re- 
deem them that were under the law." But that Power 
which was in bun, and by which he did so many marvel- 
ous works^ was, and is, the universal Saviour of all men 
who will come unto him, or suffer him to reign in their 
hearts; for Christ as the Power of Qoi and the Wisdom 
of God must dwell and reign in us, thus becoming to us 
a present Saviour and Redeemer, if we would be saved. 
This redeeming Power is called by many names. Paul 
called it Jesus Christ: " Ejiow ye not brethren, how that 
Jesus is in you except ye be reprobates? " 2 Cor. 13 : 5. 
Now of course it is not the outward body but the spirit 
that dwells in us; though I have heard some Orthodox 
assert that that outward body was Grod. So thou sees, my 
fiiend, that Jesus Christ is considered a Saviour in a two- 
fold sense; first to the Jews outwardly according to his own 
declaration, and secondly, to all mankind in a spiritual 
sense, being the true Light, that enlighteneth all men that 
come into the world. ''He is the way and the truth and 
the life, and no man cometh unto the Father but by him." 
" In him was life, and the life was the light of men." 
The Gumeyites preach a trinity of presence in the Qodhead, 
bat our Society has never held that doctrine; they also 
bold to the resurrection of our natural bodies, which doc- 
trine never belonged to Friends; finally, we now hold the 
same doctrines as did the early Friends, Fox, Penn, Penn- 
ingttm. Whitehead, etc 

Third Query. "The Fall of man!" The account 
given in the Scriptures is evidently in figurative language, 
and Friends have ever held it to mean simply the first 
wilful act of disobedience committed either by our first 



192 MEMOIB8 OF 

parents or by any of their posterity, by which act or trans- 
gression they have fallen from their first estate of innocence. 
When and wherever this act has been committed the 
aggressor has spiritually died to innocence, purity and peace ; 
he has tasted of the forbidden tree (disobedience), and 
must "surely die," and when he has thus lost his first 
standing, he cannot redeem himself; yet, upon repentance, 
God through Christ restores to him what he took not away. 
Sin, therefore, is original in Adam, and has been original in 
every sinning soul since the world of mankind has had 
being. 

Fourth Query, Justification I This is only known to 
man by a submission on his part to the work of Christ in 
the soul, which is necessary for our redemption, and no 
matter how severe that work, even if it may be compared 
to Christ sprinkling his garments and staining his raiment 
with their blood. No restoration, no redemption, no 
sanctification, no justification out of Christ, but all must 
be known spiritually in him. ' ' But of him are ye in 
Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom and 
righteousness and sanctification and redemption" (1 Cor. 1: 
30). So that man, even in the redeemed state, can glory in 
nothing but the loving- kindness and goodness of Grod 
through Christ, and not in his own works. I cannot give 
my views fully in so short a communication, but what I 
have written may be relied upon as correct, although per- 
haps not sufficiently clear. All that I have said on doc- 
trinal subjects Ib fully borne out by the Scriptures and the 
writings of early Friends, and by experience. 

With regard to the divisions in Society I speak fit)m my 
own knowledge and well-authenticated facts; and may thou. 



BUNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 193 

mj friend, like the *' captive maid," remain faithful, and 
be able to inform lepers where they must go and what they 
must do in order to be cleansed. 

With desires for thy welfare in every sense 

I am thy Friend, 

Sunderland P. Gardner. 

EXTRACTS FROM A JOURNEY EAST IN THE FALL OF 1866. 

Sixth-day afternoon we took the cars, they for Albany 
aod I for Vermont, but we were going some miles the same 

hmmL beckoned me to take a seat by his 

side and said, ' ' Thou handed out pretty strong meat to- 
day." I replied I was not aware of it. He said, " Thee 
did," but, added he, " I have full unity with all thee had 
to say, for I believe it is truth ; but we ought to be careful, 
for the people cannot bear it; they are not prepared to re- 
ceive it." This talk unlocked to view all that I cared 
about knowing. I had supposed that a minister of the 
gospel ministered according to the present anointing, and 
that it was his business to attend to that without consider- 
ing whether it would please or displease, or whether they 
would applaud or gnash on him with their teeth ; and the 
minister who takes the other course I think a moral cow- 
ard. At any rate I do not think the eldering has done 
me any good, but has left a disagreeable savor. 

TO D. GRIFFEN, 1867, BEFORE STARTING ON A JOUR- 
NET EAST AND SOUTH. 

My wife says thy letter came in the right time, assur- 
ing us that there are still some who sympathize with those 
who are long detained in the stripping-room and have no 

13 



Id4 HEM0IIU3 OP 

power to reclothe themselveB or to put a new song into 
their own mouths. Perhaps few can realize to the full 
the conflict through which I have passed on account of 
the journey in prospect. It would seem sometimes that 
the lion's den would be a refuge, or that I would flee like 
Jonah, if the Red Sea were passed and the Egyptians over- 
whelmed, yet there is an arid desert lying across my way; 
if from Nebo I see the promised land in the distance, yet 
there remains a Jordan to cross and enemies to dispute the 
passage, and while standing upon the sea of glass many 
are trying to trip my feet. Who, my friend, is sufficient for 
these things? Burely those whose strength is in God. 



D. H. G., Dear Friend: — ^After leaving the meeting 
at Amawalk, we attended the appointed meeting in the 
evening at Peekskill, which was a large one, but I doubt if 
all present were prepared to receive the testimony delivered, 
but that was no business of mine, for it is no part of my 
mission to seek either to please or displease men, but to 
discharge my duty in bearing witness to the truth. 

Next day we all took the cars for New York, and I had 
expected to pass directly through the city to Long Island, 
but as we came near it it seemed most pleasant to attend New 
York Monthly Meeting, and I was glad that we did so. We 
met with Elizabeth Newport, Anson Lapham and fiaunily, 
and Edmund Willis and wife, from Nantucket. With 
the former we had a pleasant visit at Jonathan Thome*s; 
here we parted with Rebecca Price and companion. Next 
morning we went on to Flushing and attended the Montldy 
Meeting there on Fifth-day. In the afternoon Edmund 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 195 

Willis took US in his sleigh to his home, where we stayed 
the night, and next day attended the meeting at Manhasset 
at the usual hour, and in the evening another appointed 
meeting at Cow-neck in the Union Meeting-house; next 
day at the usual hour attended meeting at Matinicock, 
where we met with Samuel J. Underhill, who carried 
us to Joseph Post's, where we lodged. On First-day 
morning at the usual hour attended meeting at Westbury ; 
in the afternoon at Jericho we had the acceptable company 
of Rachel Hicks. Daniel Underhill kindly carried us 
to Bethphage Meeting at two o'clock in the afternoon 
on Seoond-day, and to Jerusalem, where we had a meeting 
at seven in the evening, stayed the night at Arden Seaman's, 
and next morning journeyed from Jerusalem to Jericho; 
thenoe, Daniel Underhill being with us, over to New 
York, where we stayed at Robert Willis's, thence to Plain- 
field and attended the Quarter there. Friends need en- 
oouragement here as well as in some other places. We 
stayed one night at Uriah Fields' and the other at Ephraim 
Vail's. Sixth-day night we retraced our steps to the city, 
where we parted with D. Underhill, and stayed the night 
at Effingham Cock's. Seventh-day morning went on to 
Albany and attended Duanesburgh Quarter. All these 
meetings were in the main satisfactory to me. At 6 
p.m. we took the cars for home, where I arrived at 9 a.m., 
well satisfied with my visit to Friends in their several lo- 
calities^ not one disagreeable incident occurring throughout 
the whole journey; meeting everywhere with kind, warm- 
hearted friends, and many that appear to travail in exer- 
cise for Zion's sake. My way was made easy, though the 
exerdse was sometimes deep, but I could see my Father's 



196 MEMOIRS OF 

hand in the work, and having that assurance I returned to 
my home satkfied. 



WRITTEN AFTER A VISIT TO SKAKEATELES. 

— I arrived home at twelve o'clock on Third -day. 



and found all well, and was well satisfied with my vi«t, 
excepting the neglect of those ministers to give notice of 
the last meeting ; aside from that, I feel easy in my mind 
at present. If it should ever occur that they desire a 
meeting here, I would endeavor to promote their object to 
the extent of my ability. I cannot see the propriety of 
being fearful with regard to doctrines or religion ; if these 
are right there need be no fears of their being overthrown. 
Gold loses nothing by being tried in the fire, neither does 
truth sufiTer loss by coming to the light " Error only will 
sufier by such exposure, and above all other things which 
concern us here we should be careful to get a knowledge of 
the truth in its simple purity, and its adaptation to every 
state and allotment of human life. No sect, nor minister 
of any sect, can truthfully claim any exclusive privilege 
received from heaven. God freely bestows His blessings 
upon all. The sun shines upon all, and the rains are 
designed to benefit all ; and thus it is with our higher 
spiritual interests, for by the visitation of His own spirit, 
even through His Son, he enlightens all who will receive 
it. Seeing, then, that all may freely have access to the 
highest good, where is the cause of so much fear and par- 
tialism ? Is it not the same that prompted the disciples to 
forbid some doing any more works in the name of Jesus, 
because they followed not with them ? 



8UKDERLAKD P. GARDNER. 197 

My mind frequently recurs to the pleasant social visit 
I had in thy family, and in the family of our friend A. L., 
where I met with some of the family of our late friend, 
Russel Frost. I shall affectionately retain the memory of 
those with whom I visited, and the kindly feelings mani- 
fested by all, as bright beams of sunshine upon my path- 
way. 

Ninih month 19th, 1866. 



About two weeks after S. P. Gardner's return from 
his visit to Skaneateles, he received the following com- 
munication from the minister of that place in whose 
meeting-house he had preached : 

Mb. Gardner: 

My Dear Sir: — As you recommended me to search 
the Scriptures in reference to the doctrinal statements you 
made in my pulpit a few weeks ago, so I have done, and 
find some objections to them ; and as Mr. S. says you are 
willing to answer any objections, I should be happy to 
state them and learn how you would dispose of them. 

You referred me to Scriptures, and I know iio higher 
and no other authority for divine and eternal truths than 
the Bible. Whenever I find a " thus saith the Lord,*' I 
believe it whether it looks strange or even unreasonable. 
It is most reasonable, it seems to me, for our reason to be 
silent and accept whatever and whenever its Maker speaks. 
Do we agree in this, — that the Bible assertion is the true 
one, and it known, ends all controversy on any and every 



198 MEMOIRS OF 

point in reference to whicli it speaks ? This settled and 
agreed upon, I will speak of but two points in your dis- 
course at this time, viz. : '' the holiness of children " and 
"man's power to live without sin.'* 

As we understand you to preach, you asserted that 
children were bora " holy, righteous, and sinless." 

It does not seem to me as I read the utterances in Job 
of the Spirit of God, that the Lord agrees with you in 
this, for we read in Job 15: 14, ** What is man that he 
should be clean, and he which is born of a woman that he 
should be righteous." I suppose that you will agree that 
all save Jesus Christ are born in the same state morally; 
but when you come to David, that faithful servant whom 
the Lord loved, and say to him, " David, you were right- 
eous and holy when you were born," — David answers, 
''Oh no sir, you are mistaken about that, for 'Behold, I was 
shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.' ' ' 
Could he have used stronger language to contradict you ! 

But here is another difficulty to your theory. The Lord 
told Abraham that if he found ten righteous in Sodom, he 
would not destroy it; ten righteous — not men nor women, 
but souls. He searched the city; he found them not, and 
the city, the old and the young, the mother and the in- 
fant, were destroyed together, when the Lord had posi- 
tively asserted that he would not destroy the righteous with 
the wicked. Were the infants of Sodom righteous? 

Now I do not believe tliat children are bom actual 
transgressors. I do not think they are looked upon or 
treated as if they had broken any law of God, but that 
they have a nature which will run into sin as soon as it is 
able to, and we call that disposition or nature a sinful one. 



BUNDEBLAKD P. GARDNER. 199 

Why do jou kill the little young and beautiful adder that 
runs across your path ? It has done no one any harm, it 
has not nor can it yet bite anybody ; why do you hate it ? 
Do you not see in it the serpent nature, and kill it for pos- 
sessing this nature, and for what it inevitably will be 7 Bo 
io&nts belong to a sinful race, and God looks upon them as 
sinners just as you treat the harmless serpent as a venomous 
one. 

One reason you give for believing infants could not be 
looked upon or treated as sinners because their father had 
sinned, is that it is unjust to punish one for what another 
has done: that it never was known nor heard of that God 
punished one for another's sin. In the valley of Achor we 
find something very much like it; we read in Josh. 7 : 15, 
" He that is taken with the accursed thing shall be burnt 
with fire, he and all that he hath." And in the 24th verse, 
'' And Joshua and all Israel with him took Achan .... 
and his sons and his daughters . . and all Israel stoned him 
with stones and burned them with fire." ''So God turned 
from the fierceness of his anger." How is it, did Achan's 
sons and daughters help steal the gold and garments, or were 
they punished because of the father's sin ? Why, how do 
you read the second commandment ? Does not the Lord 
there say, "visiting the iniquities of the fathers upon the 
children unto the third and fourth generation of them that 
hate me ? " Does the Lord mean what he says ? Don't 
imagine that treatment of the innocent as if they shared in 
the guilt belongs alone to God ; you do the same thing, so do 
all men ; we don't treat the son of the profligate and the 
drunkard as we do the son of the virtuous and industrious. 
Why were the infants drowned in the deluge if God 



200 MEMOIB8 OF 

does not visit upon some the punishment for others' crimes ? 
Noah's Ark was made for the salvation of the righteous, 
but we don't find the infants of the world housed within 
it. The deluge ought to have drowned the idea that God 
does not visit upon some for the sins of others, just as the 
fires of Sodom ought to have burned up the other erroneous 
idea. But my letter is growing too long and I must leavo 
the other point for a future time. Hoping to hear from 
you soon, I remain, Yours truly. 

Tenth month 17th, 1866. ^- **• ^• 



REPLY. 

M. M. P., Respected Friend: — I have just received 
a note over thy name referring to a discourse which I de- 
livered from thy pulpit some time since, stating that my 
friend G. S. said I was willing to answer objections to my 
statement. I will do so with pleasure on the grounds 
which I will state. 

I had asked that a meeting should be appointed for me 
in the village of S. , and was informed that it was to be 
held in the house where thou officiated as pastor, and that 
thou had been requested and had agreed to give notice of 
such meeting at the close of the morning service. This, 
I was afterwards informed, thou failed to do, perhaps 
through forgetfulness; but thou attended and I heard that 
thou took my discourse in writing, and that thou en- 
deavored on the following evening to refute it before a 
large congregation, while but few, comparatively, of that 
congregation had heard me in my own meeting. If this 



SUNDEBLAXD P. GARDNER. 201 

be true it certainly was hardly fair, as no one can do jus- 
tice to a speaker without stating all that he said in its 
proper connection; neither did thou show me the notes 
thou had taken, that I might have an opportunity of know- 
ing if they were correct; and for this reason I told G. S. 
that if thou would send me the notes together with thy 
own comments upon them as given before that meeting, I 
would consider them and answer thy objections ; if George 
has i&iled to do the whole errand, thou now has my prop- 
ortion over my own hand. What I ask is clearly my 
due, and unless thou complies I shall be obliged to think 
thou intended to attack me in the dark (or, in other words, 
behind my back). Please send the discourse as thou took 
it, and thy own remarks verbatim et literatim as made 
on the evening referred to, and thou shalt have a prompt 
reply to thy objections, and I will endeavor to sustain all 
the doctrines which I held forth from thy pulpit by 
Scripture and by rational principles. I write, not for the 
sake of controversy, but for the love of truth, and remain 

Thy Friend, 

8TJNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 



REPLY TO M. M. P.'S OBJECTTIONS. 

On perusing thy letter I doubted somewhat of the pro- 
priety of answering it, because it expressed such mistaken 
ideas of what I said on the occasion referred to; but I have 
just received thy second note, and as I have a little leisure 
just now, will endeavor to answer thy objections as I read 
them. 



202 MEMOIRS OF 

Thou sajB I recommended thee to search the Scriptures; 
I did so on account of a remark thou made that ** the doc- 
trines I advanced were new to thee/' and that matters were 
explained in a manner different from what thou had been 
accustomed to, therefore I recommended thee to compare 
these views with the Scriptures to which I had referred, 
supposing thou would see at once that the doctrines and 
Scriptures were corroborative of each other, and that both 
would be responded to by the witness for truth in thy own 
soul. 

Thou also adds: " I know of no higher and no other 
authority for divine and eternal truths than the Bible/' 
which expression is equivalent, as it appears to me, to a con- 
fession that thou knows nothing of God or of His Son Jesus 
Christ by experience, for the Bible says that '* that which 
is to be known of God is manifest in man. " Believest thou 
this ? Believest thou that God hath shown himself to man 
by his Son Jesus Christ, of whom it is declared, ' ' He is the 
true Light that lighteth every man that cometh into the 
world." Rather broader, my friend, than the Scriptures, 
for they have not yet reached every man, so either thou or 
the divinely enlightened apostle John must be in error; 
which shall I take for authority? Again he says, ''I 
saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the 
everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on 
the earth, and to every nation, kindred, tongue and people, '* 
and Paul also sa3rs, ''The gospel was preached to every 
creature." But the Bible has not so much as been heard 
of yet by every creature, though thou would have it that 
such are without divine and eternal truths. My Friend, 
the Bible with all other external things combined can never 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 203 

give a true and saving knowledge of God, except the 
Spirit of Truth accompanies, for what said Jesus Christ, 
the only-begotten of the Father ? — " No man knoweth 
the Son but the Father, neither knoweth any man the 
Father save the Son and he to whomsoever the Son will 
reveal him." 

Now I receive whatever Jesus said as coming from the 
highest Authority. The gospel is divine and eternal 
truth, and was preached aforetime unto Abraham and to 
others, while as yet there was no Bible written; but the 
Scriptures do contain, besides various biographical and 
historical accounts, a testimony to the authority of these 
truths, according to the declaration of Jesus in his appeal 
to the blind and superstitious Jews, ** Search the Scriptures, 
for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and they are they 
which testify of me, and ye will not come unto me that 
ye may have life." Again, see John 14: 17-26, and 16: 
7-14, and remember also the declaration and command of 
the Father on a certain occasion, '' This is my beloved son, 
in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him." Is not that as 
good as a " thus saith the Lord ? " 

And Jesus himself says, ' ' I am the way, the truth and 
the life, and no man cometh to the Father but by me. " 
And the apostle understood it, for he says, "the letter 
killeth^ but the Spirit giveth life " (2 Cor. 3 : 6). 

Now what doest thou, setting the authority of the letter 
above the Spirit ? for thou says thou knows of no higher 
and no other authority for divine and eternal truths than 
the Bible ! I am sorry to find a man who has dared to 
take upon himself the care of a flock, so destitute of ex- 
perience and a knowledge of the truth as thy expression 



204 MEMOIRS OF 

would make thee appear to be. Thou says, " Do we agree 
in this, that the Bible assertion is a true one, and it known, 
ends all controversy on any and every point in reference to 
which it speaks?" 

I can answer for myself that I do believe the Bible 
assertion, and so truly believe it that I am willing to take 
it just as it says. Again : " This settled and agreed upon, 
I will speak of but two points in your discourse at this 
time, viz. : the holiness of children and man's power to live 
without sin. As we understood you to preach, you asserted 
that children were born holy, righteous and sinless." 

To this I will simply say, that if such be the case your 
understandings were not clear. I said not that children 
were righteous, but that they were innocent, or without sin; 
that having come into the world in a state of negative 
purity, it was their privilege to retain this state. Virtue 
and righteousness must be acquired by a successful re- 
sistance to temptation. And is there anything in the com- 
mand or laws of God to prevent children from this ac- 
quirement? Is there anything in the infant against which 
their heavenly Father could be opposed ? 

I knew and remembered that this doctrine contravened 
the views taught by many, viz.: that Adam's nn rests 
upon and dwells in all succeeding generations, leaving its 
stamp of guilt and misery alike upon the evil and the good, 
but I also reminded you that this doctrine was so fully be- 
lieved atone time by the Jews as to work great harm among 
them in misleading them as to the true standing of man 
before his Maker; therefore, in order to put an end to that 
error and to set the people right in regard to it, God had 
to declare afresh to them through His prophets the great 



SUKDEBLAND P. OABDNEB. 205 

and eternal truths found in Ezekiel, ISth chapter. This was 
a " thus saith the Lord/' yet how many like thyself even 
now hold to that dark, forbidden doctrine, passing entirely 
over Jesus who said, ' ' To this end was I bom, and for this 
cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness un- 
to the truth," and bearing that witness did he not say, 
"Suffer little children to come unto me and forbid them 
not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven," which could 
not have been the case had there been the least stain of 
sin upon them from Adam or any other source. 

And again he says, ' ' Except ye be converted and be- 
come as little children ye shall not enter into the kingdom 
of heaven." Believest thou this, brother ? I believe what 
the Bible declares is true, therefore I consider all these 
dark doctrines forever swept away. How was it that thou 
failed to find these passages and could only see a few of 
those historical matters of Discipline in the Old Testament ? 

Again thou says, It does not seem to me, as I read the ut- 
terances in Job of the Spirit of God, that the Lord agrees 
with you in this, for we read. Job 15 : 14: " What is man 
that he should be clean ? and he which is born of a woman, 
that he should be righteous?" My friend, the Bible 
speaka of many righteous men; were they not bom of 
women ? Noah was righteous, had he not a mother ? But 
look again to the passage and thou cannot fail to see that, 
unhappily for ihy case, instead of it being the utterance of 
the Spirit of God, it was the utterance of Eliphaz the 
Temanite, whom God rebuked, chap. 42 : 7, and whom 
Job, chap. 16: 3, asks, "Shall vain words have an end ? " 

Again thou says, '' I suppose we will agree that all 
save Jesus Christ are bom in the same state morally, but 



206 MEM0IB8 OF 

when you come to David, that faithful servant whom the 
Lord loved, and say to him, ' David, you were righteous 
and holy when you were bom?' — David answers, * Oh no, 
sir, you are mistaken about me, for behold I was shapen 
in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.' 
Could he have used stronger language to contradict you ? " 
Wherein does David contradict me? His declaration 
that '' behold I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my 
mother conceive me," is far from proving she conceived 
him a sinner, which thing was perfectly impossible if the 
word of the Lord by Ezekiel was true ! And from what 
we can gather of David's childhood and youth, it seems 
that up to a certain time he was pure in the eyes of the 
Lord, for at the anointing God said to Samuel, " the 
Lordlooketh on the heart " (1 Sam. 16 : 7); and then when 
David appeared said, '* Arise, anoint him : for this is he " 
(verses 12, 13). He is also declared at one time to be " a 
man after God's own heart," which could not have been 
after he became a sinner. Moreover, it is said in another 
place, " Thy hands have made me and fashioned me " (Ps. 
119 : 73). This was addressed to the Creator, and thou 
knows God has pronounced all his creation good. Though, 
according to some authorities, this psalm and consequently 
ibis expression was not David's, yet it was written by a 
man who " had prepared his heart to seek the law of die 
Lord," and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and 
judgment (£z. 7 : 10. ) There is no doubt but the sins 
of his youth, of which he speaks at one time, commenced 
aftier his introduction to a corrupt court, when, through 
unwatchfulness, he became one of the greatest of sinners; 
so much so, that even after he had passed through the fiery 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 207 

ordeal of repentance, and had been redeemed, as he ex- 
pressed it, ** from the lowest hell/' he was not sufiered to 
build the temple, for he had been " a man of blood." 

But then, as to my own views of David, he was a poet, 
and used loftj and sometimes beautiful language with 
whidi to clothe his own ideas as well as those of inspira- 
tion, but does thou suppose he really knew anything more 
of the mystery of his creation or of his conception than do 
other men of theirs ? 

Thou speaks of Jesus as an exception to the general 
moral condition. How so ? According to the Bible he was 
born with like passions to our own ; he was made of the 
seed of David according to the flesh, and as such had. the 
nature of David, and hence was tempted in all points like 
as we are, which could not have been the case had he not 
possessed a nature like our own; but ''he learned obedience 
by the things which he suffered," and " was made perfect 
through suflering." 

'' But here is another difficulty, " thou says, '' to your the- 
ory. The Lord told Abraham that if he found ten righteous 
in Sodom he would not destroy it. Ten righteous, — ^not men 
nor women, but souls. He searched the city, but he found 
ihem noty and the city, the old and young, the mother and 
the infant, were destroyed together, when the Lord had 
positively asserted that he would not destroy the righteous 
with the wicked. Wefe the infants of Bodom righteous ?" 
The in&nts of Sodom, if there were any, must have 
been pure in spirit; how can we think otherwise when we 
read the declarations of both Father and Son already 
referred to ? True, Sodom was destroyed regardless of its 
infants, but mark, it was the righteous, not the innocent, 



208 MEMOIRS OP 

that were to save the city. The children were taken away; 
could God, as a merciful being, have done otherwise? 
AYhat could they have done without earthly care-takers, as 
God has framed his laws, unless he had changed these laws 
and taken care of them in a miraculous manner, which he 
was not necessitated to do. He made them, he gave them 
according to the promise of his law, and he took them 
away, and he doubtless had a place prepared for them. 

Again thou says, " I do not believe children are bom 
actual transgressors ; I do not think they are looked upon 
nor treated as if they had broken any law of God, but that 
they have a nature which will run into sin as soon as it is 
able to, and we call that disposition or nature a sinful one. 
Why do you kill the little young and beautiful adder that 
runs across your path ? It has done no one any harm, nor 
can it yet bite any body. Why do you hate it? Do you 
not see in it the serpent nature and kill it for possessing this 
nature, and for what it inevitably will be ? So infants be- 
long to a sinful race, and Gk)d looks upon them as sinners, 
just as you treat the harmless serpent as a venomous one. " 

A serpent or an insect, a mineral or a weed, may have 
an inherent poison, not a moral evil, for nothing morally 
evil comes from the hands of God ; all is good if kept in 
its proper place; but these poisons not being agreeable 
under certain circumstances to our peculiar natures, may 
be avoided or averted if necessary,' as all things were put 
under the dominion of man at the creation (Gen. 1 : 26). 
And even though I might destroy a venomous serpent in 
order to save my life or that of another, I consider that 
a necessary act incurs no blame. I do not kill the little 
young and beautiful adder that runs across my path, but 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 209 

having " humanity forewarned, I turn aside and let the 
reptile live." Yet, even in case of the full-grown and veno- 
mous, though we may sometimes be compelled to slay them, 
this circumstance implies neither guilt on their part nor 
hatred on ours. Who created the serpent? If he has 
venom for his safety and defense, what of that ? Did he 
make his own weapon or did his Maker give it him ? And 
should we hate him for this ? Should we hate the ox for his 
horns, the lion for his strength, the bird for its fleetness, or 
the bee for its sting ? Did not God in his love and wisdom 
make them all as they are? Yea, even the dangerous 
doubtless have their uses, and " help fill up the measure of 
created good.*' But perhaps thou may some day take a 
more liberal view of the works of the Creator, and learn 
to think * * not alone on man when thousand worlds are 
round.'* 

But this bears no analogy to the relation between chil- 
dren and their heavenly Father. Thou says, that " as the 
young adder will inevitably become venomous, so will 
children^ they having sinful nature, become sinners as soon 
as they are able to. " 

Now Gkxl is as much the Creator of children and their 
nature as he is of the serpent and its nature, and let me re- 
peat, did he not pronounce all his creation good? But 
children have souls connected with their natures, and Christ 
says, " Of such is the kingdom of heaven. ' ' And my 
rational faculties say. Amen. But to declare that children 
wiU inevitably sin is equivalent to saying that they cannot 
avoid it; this granted and it follows that they are not re- 
sponsible, for necessity knows no law. It is useless how- 
ever to think of such a thing so long as we believe in Jesus 

14 



210 MEKOTR9 OF 

Christ ; yet it is true that they may run into sin, and whj? 
Because of the loving-kindness and goodness of God in 
making us capable of choosing for ourselves I Hast thou 
not read any such thing as this in the Bible ? 

Again, to say that they or we cannot live without sin is 
to presume against Jesus, for he was declared to be our ex- 
ample, and he bade us follow him ; and did he not say, " Be 
ye perfect, even as your Father in heaven is perfect. ' ' Did 
he mean what he said ? It is also to deny the scriptural 
account of Abel, Enoch, Joseph, Samuel, John the Bap- 
tist and others, of whom not the least stain of sin is men- 
tioned during any part of their lives, though it is generally 
received as a fact that when the Bible speaks of a man it 
is faithful in giving his bad qualities, if he has any, along 
with his good ones. And of Jesus thou may say. He could 
not sin. I could agree with thee in this, 09 he ever trusted 
in Ood ; neither could any man sin if he put his heart and 
trust where Jesus did. 

Thou will agree with me that Grod ''knoweth no 
variableness nor shadow of turning," and that his laws are 
like himself, fixed and unchangeable, because he has made 
them as he has everything else, good and perfect and ac> 
cording to best and highest wisdom, and we ourselves may 
observe that under these laws every act brings upon itself 
its proper consequences, both in the natural, the moral and 
the spiritual world. Now, according to these laws of €rod, 
who is to be responsible for children's sinful nature, if thy 
theory is true, that is, that they are bom with such natures 
and that sin is inevitable ? They did not make themselves, 
nor did they plan their own natures, but God is the Maker, 
through his laws, of all living, therefore he is responsible 



SUNDEBLAND P. GARBNEB. 211 

for the manner in which he made them. I cannot believe 
that such a lack of wisdom, justice and love is to be at- 
tributed to my heavenly Father as thy theory would have 
it appear. Why, even a commonly wise and loving 
earthly parent would not blame or punish his child for be- 
ing deformed or disfigured, and shall man be more just 
than God ? Yet if his moral creation cannot avoid sinning, 
it is as helpless and irresponsible as the physically deformed. 
This is a thought which is very clear to my mind. We 
all have, like our first parents, the power given us at setting 
out in life, as soon as a knowledge of good and evil is given 
us, to choose which we will, and is it not plain enough to 
thee, even in the history of Adam and Eve, that we have 
the power to refuse temptation if we will, and that we can 
keep our natural passions, which are all good in themselves, 
yes, that we can keep them by proper watchAilness just as 
God designed them to be ? In thus doing, we might become 
truly righteous and holy, our hearts might be like the 
mountain on which the peaceable kingdom of Christ was 
established (Is. 11: 6, 7, 8). But when a child becomes 
old enough to pervert the nature given him, old enough to 
know right from wrong, and becomes capable of choosing 
between good and evil, then it is that he becomes responsi- 
ble, and not till then can he become a sinner; else was 
Jesus mistaken in his assertion concerning little children, 
and God was at fault in his word that came to Ezekiel, 
which last, if thou believest it, will set thee right as to the 
fact that justice has its *^ habitation in the throne of God/' 
and that he mil not punish the innocent for the guilty, 
"nor let the guilty go free." (The erroneous assertion 
thou made in r^ard to my sajdng that little children were 



m MEMOms OT 

righteous has been pointed out, I trust, with sufficient 
clearness.) 

It never was known nor heard of that God punished 
one for another's sins, but thou says, "In the valley of 
Achor," etc. '' How is it, did Achan's sons and daughters 
help steal the gold and garments, or were they punished 
liecause of their father's sin ? " 

Why, of course, if they were stoned and burned they 
must have been guilty, else the Lord did not mean what 
he said by the prophet already referred to. And thou 
must observe they were not called infants, but sons and 
daughters, and might have been of a responsible age; also, 
if they dwelt in the same tent with their father how could 
they but have known of his theft and consequently been 
accessory to his guilt, which would make them punishable 
even by our own laws; if so they were not punished any 
further than they were guilty, so says immutable justice, 
and so I believe. But if, on the other hand, we look closely 
to the whole statement we shall see if it is not somewhat 
doubtful if any were punished beside himself, for Joshua 
says, *' And the household which the Lord shall take shall 
come man by man" (Josh. 7: 14); and in verse 25th he 
says, *' Why hast thou troubled us ? the Lord shall trouble 
thee this day; and all Israel stoned him with stones, and 
burned them with fire after they had stoned them with 
stones. And they raised over him a great heap of stones 
unto this day. " Thus, thou sees, that the pronouns make 
it doubtful as to whether they really mean one or more. 
I have no reason to believe that "all he hath " refers to 
his relations who are innocent, but rather to his property. 
We know, however, that these ancient chronicles are 



SUNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 213 

often, by one means or another, rendered somewhat 
ambiguous. 

Next thou queries, " Why, how do you read the second 
commandment ? Does not the Lord say, * visiting the iniqui- 
ties of the &thers upon the children to the third and fourth 
generation of them that hate me.' Does not the Lord mean 
what he says?" 

I answer that I read it as it stands upon record, and 
believe that the Lord means what he says; but does visit- 
ing the iniquities of the fathers upon the children imply 
guilt or iniquity in the children ? By no means; but the 
fathers, by disregarding or violating the physical laws 
which God has fixed in them, do transmit and entail dis- 
eases upon their offipring ''even to the third and fourth 
generation of them that hate me. " Any honest and well- 
read physician might have made this clear to thee, and 
thou canst see instances of the broken law almost daily, 
but durst thou say that the father's guilt is transferred 
to the souls of any of his descendants ? If thou durst, I 
shall have to refer thee to the word of the Lord again : 
"The soul that sinneth, it shall die." " He shall not die 
for the iniquity of his father, he shall surely live. " See 
Ezek. 18: 14-17. Hast thou never seen an instance 
where a son or daughter, having seen and considered the 
evil ways of a wicked parent, has turned from the evil 
example, even turned to the Lord and been saved ? 

The Lord has shown clearly and without leaving any 
room for controversy that all souls are his, so every soul 
shall stand upon its own choice regardless of sire or son, 
and since it is a ''thus saith the Lord," thou art bound to 
believe it even though it goes against thy own reason. 



214 MEMOIRS OF 

Again thou says, ** DonH imagine that that treatment 
of the innocent as if they shared in the guilt belongs to 
God alone ; you do the same thing — so do all men; we 
don't treat the son of the profligate and drunkard as we 
do the son of the virtuous and industrious/' 

The above is one of the most remarkable passages that 
I ever read, and shall it serve as a guide to show where 
its author is to be classed — namely, with the priest and 
the Levite who looked on the helpless and wounded man, 
and passed by on the other side, rendering him no aasis- 
tance? And then to this exhibition of sentiment thou 
adds the temerity of charging God with the same disposition ! 
Is God partial? In Rom. 2: 11 Paul says : "For there 
is no respect of persons with Grod." ** O house of Israel, 
are not my ways equal? are not yours unequal?" And 
will thou contradict Him? And then thou proceeds to 
charge all men with the same cruel injustice I Why, if 
thy declaration is true there is not a Christian on earth : 
for any man who can thus act or thus feel shows that his 
soul is not warmed by gospel love nor his life corrected by 
gospel truth. How far short of a disciple of Christ must 
he be who can thus discriminate and in effect say, '* Stand 
by thyself, for I^am holier than thou." Perhaps thou re- 
memberest the case of the Pharisee. * 

Jesus was anointed ' ' to preach the gospel to the poor, 
to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the 
captive, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at 
liberty them that are bruised," etc. Did he exclude the 
son of the profligate and the drunkard ? His noble and 
feeling soul could sympathize with the afflicted and dovrn* 
trodden, for he not only recognized in them humanity, but 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 215 

the image of Grod ; and he gave forth the universal call, 
" Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, 
and I will give you rest." But it seems that thou would 
say otherwise; thou would imply that the son of the 
profligate and drunkard is not included in that call, for of 
course if thoa thinks him unfit to claim the love and re- 
spect of men like us, thou cannot believe Jesus could love 
him : nay, for his father's character was bad; only the son 
of the virtuous and industrious may come at that call I 

And can it be that this is the feeling of a pastor of a 
Christian denomination ? Write me and tell me if pos- 
sible that such are not thy real sentiments, that thou 
penned the wrong words and did not mean what thou said, 
for I am loath to think that thou art building tabernacles to 
Moses, or, allowing me to make a repetition, that thou can, 
like the priest and the Levite, look upon the helpless child 
of misfortune with coldness or contempt, and thus pass on : 
no mercy, no sympathy to bestow on such an one. I 
would rather believe, my friend, that thou and every other 
professed minister of the gospel art like the good Samaritan, 
who, when he saw the sufferer, regardless of his creed, 
regardless of his inability to pay, came to him and bound 
up his wounds, and on his own beast conveyed him to a 
place of safety and comfort, defraying the expenses from 
his own purse. Seest thou what a beautiful picture of 
Grod's love through Christ? 

Immediately after reading thy statement concerning 
the son of the profligate and drunkard, a little child of 
seven years came to my side, and said, ' ' Uncle, that is not 
right, for if the son had not good parents to teach him how 
to do right, he has more need of our kindness, and we 



216 MEMOIRS OF 

should teach him the way of the Lord; it seems to me it 
would be very wrong for us to despise him and hate him 
just because his father was bad ; our Heavenly Father 
would have us love all and be kind to all if we are His 
children." 

Now this innocent child had a clearer view of the 
spirit of the gospel than have many who claim more years 
and wisdom. 80 truly has it been said that ' ' out of the 
mouths of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise. " 
And can anything higher than perfected praise come from 
the mouths of saints or from the tongues of angels? 

'' Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings ! " not out of 
the mouths of creatures whom God looks upon as we look 
on the venomous serpent^ for the pure in heart alone can 
see (jod as he is, or worship him acceptably. What a re- 
buke is the spontaneous utterance of this child to those who 
teach that Gk>d is partial and unjust. Next thou asks, 
" Why were the infants drowned in the deluge if God does 
not visit upon some the punishment for others' crimes? 
Noah's ark was made for the salvation of the righteous, 
but we do not find the infants of the world housed within 
it.'' 

To this I reply very much as I did concerning the 
infants of Sodom; physical death is not necessarily a pun- 
ishment for crime ; the people were taken from the world 
that they might not corrupt it any farther, and doubtless 
received the reward due their crimes, but the infants were 
taken into the care of an all-wise Creator, and consequently 
would not become corrupted. 

Life b a boon given by its great First Cause, and he 
alone has the right to take that which he gives, which right 



8UNDKRLAND P. OARBNEB. 217 

he exercises ivhen and where and how he pleases. There 
are perhaps more infants now dying every year than existed 
at the time of the floods or in the days of Sodom, but wilt 
thou say these are taken on account of their sin^I natures 
or of their parents' sins? Nay, instead of its being a pun- 
ishment now or heretofore, I look upon it all as being in 
the wisdom and goodness of God's laws, the result of his 
Fatherly care, and is for the best. " The Lord gave, the 
Lord taketh away; blessed be the name of the Lord." 

I have not particularly noticed thy second objection, 
namely, " Man's power to live without sin," because I nec- 
essarily touched upon it in treating of infants, but thou 
will of course agree with me in this, that man has the power 
of choice given him, for it is from Bible assertions ; and if 
he chooses the way of life every experienced Christian knows 
that he will have the grace of God given to assist him just 
so far as he seeks it and depends upon it; but if, on the 
other hand, man chooses sin or the way of death, the con- 
sequences will inevitably be upon his own head. If this 
be not true, then indeed are God's words as recorded in the 
Bible, and Grod's law as written in the soul, but mockery, 
and our hope is vain ; but I believe him as he says it and 
am satisfied. 

But to return one moment to the Sodomites. They 
evidently were not in the worst condition possible, for Jesus 
says in speaking to Capernaum, " But I say unto you that 
it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day 
of judgment than for thee ' ' (Matt. 1 1 : 24). And thinkest 
thou it was better with the Pharisees ? See Luke 11 : 29 to 
the end. 

And now suppose we give a glance at our own times. 



218 MEMOIttS OF 

Cannot we see any trace or coloring of the superstition, the 
guile, the malice, the hatred, the self-righteousness so point- 
edly mentioned hy Jesus in his address to that people ? Do 
we not, indeed, see more of it than of the meek and humble 
Christian charity, which is *' the bond of perfectness," and 
which has imprinted in its very being the direction of the 
Master, '* Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto 
you do ye even so to them." 

Brother, cannot we say that we earnestly desire the 
time to come when, '' as the earth bringeth forth her bud, 
and as the garden causeth the things that are sown in it to 
spring forth, so the Lord will cause righteousness and 
praise to spring forth before all the nations" (Is. 61: 11). 

I have now, my brother, replied to thy letter in as 
plain and concise a manner as my time will permit, though 
all points might have been extended both in argument and 
quotation; but I have written in love and good-will to thee 
and thy people, and am ready, if permitted, to answer any 
further objections with equal candor. • 

Thou says in thy last note, ''As you were in our house 
out of courtesy, and knowing how erroneous the views you 
presented were to us who worship there, I was surprised to 
hear you present them under these circumstances; there are 
BO many points in turning men from sin that we are all 
agreed on, that I expected you to take one of those in 
which we all could sympathize with your teachings; courtesy 
demanded it too." 

Courtesy is a good thing, my friend, and I am not 
aware of having outstepped its boundary, for as courtesy 
springs from kindness of heart, and as kindness is an 
offspring of love, and as love is itself the gift of God, so I 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 219 

believe that it must be in submission to him ; therefore if 
he bid me speak a truth I n^ust speak it, even though it 
be in your house and contrary to your doctrines; yea, 
even if you were to say to me as was said to the prophets 
of old: '• Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto 
us smooth things, prophesy deceits." Why, my friend, 
Paul was whipped for his preaching, — ^was it because he 
was uncourteous ? Even Jesus was crucified for bearing a 
testimony to the truth, and thousands have been sacrificed 
by means of rack and sword and fire, and for what ? For 
following the meek and humble Jesus, yea, for denying 
themselves and taking up their cross and following him; 
persecuted and driven from city to city because they 
preached truths that were new to the people and to their 
priests and leaders. But it would seem that the time had 
come when all might speak without giving offense, and 
think without fear on any and every subject which is not 
contrary to the purity of God. If I trespassed against 
thee or others while in your meeting-house, it certainly 
was not my design to do so. I came to S. for the purpose 
of declaring the truth as it was given me, in love and good- 
will to you all. I knew you not, neither did I know any- 
thing of your personal circumstances, but met with you, 
believing we were but travellers on one common journey. 
I had to declare in substance that the gospel is the free 
gift of Grod to man, free as the sun's light or the air we 
breathe ; and that it can neither be bought nor sold but 
must be handed out to the multitude without money and 
without price. (Did thou not know that great truth be- 
fore ?) I also declared that infants were negatively pure 
and innocent as they came from the Father's hand, and 



220 MEMOIRS OF 

that they labored under no disadvantage because of what 
Adam or any one else had done before them as to their 
spiritual condition, and that man had the power of choice 
given him in regard to right and wrong, and that it was 
therefore possible for him to live without sin ; and all that 
I said I can support from the highest authority, namely: 
God through his prophets and his Son Jesus Christ, and 
my reason says Amen. 

But thou disparages reason by saying, ''It is most 
reasonable, it seems to me, for our reason to be silent and 
accept whatever and whenever its Maker speaks.' * Now I 
cannot say exactly thus, for did not God himself make our 
reason, and whoever saw the works of God disagree with 
him ? Reason is the highest faculty he has given us, and 
should, like all of his gifts, be kept in subordination to 
him, not silent, but in subordination to and agreeing with 
him, ever ready to be breathed upon by his holy Spirit, 
ever ready to obey his command. Reason is to the soul 
what the eye is to the body, the medium through which 
light is to be received. Don't let us throw it aside, my 
friend, on any occasion, but bless God that he has given us 
our measure of the precious gift; only use it under the 
guidance of the spirit of truth — which spirit has been 
promised to all the disciples of Christ. Do this, brother, 
and thou will not again make such broad mistakes con- 
cerning the sapngs of a brother as to substitute " righteous 
infants " for innocent infants, etc. Thou wilt know that 
righteousness is an attainment possible in its fullest extent 
to all men if they will have it so, for Jesus said : ' ' Be ye 
also perfect, even as your Father in Heaven is perfect;" 
and thou wilt know that it is attainable only through a 



dUKDERLAKD P. GARDNER. 221 

Steady and successful resistance and overcoming of tempta- 
tion. By its guidance thou wilt also be enabled when thou 
searchest the Scriptures to gain instruction from them, so 
that instead of going back to Moses, thou wilt come to 
Christ for thy teacher, and he will bring thee off from 
a dependence on "the letter that killeth to the Spirit 
that giveth life." He will also teach thee how a true 
gospel minister is made (Is. 61 : 1, Luke 24: 49, 1 John 
2 : 27) ; and thou wilt also learn the great and important 
&uA that there is another and a higher authority for divine 
and eternal truths than the Bible, even Christ, who declared 
himself to be the true light: *' I am come a light into the 
world, that whosoever believeth on me should not abide in 
darkness ' ' (John 1 2 : 46). Thou wilt no more wish to take 
that which testifies to the truth for the fountain of truth, 
and thou wilt see that even the reasonable views of the 
little child which I quoted are preferable to those old 
musty doctrines coined at Geneva. 

Thou art at liberty to read this my letter to thy con- 
gregation, — ^indeed, I would be pleased to have thee do so, 
that they might the more clearly understand my views and 
the reasons I have for them, and that they might know the 
love I have toward them. 

Thus I remain 

Thy true friend, 

S. P. Gardner. 



222 MEMOIRS OF 



1867. 

D. H. G., Dear Friend : — ^Thy friendly epistle came 
duly to hand. Thou had been so much before my mind for 
some time previous to its reception that I was about to 
write, but after receiving thine I thought I would defer 
answering it for a few days, but in looking at the date of 
thy letter just now, to mysuri^rise I find it to be in Eighth 
month I So swiftly time passes, almost unheeded, when the 
mind is too much burdened with care. 

... I heard thou had had a severe course of sickness, 
and I had fears it might have been induced by exposure 
while waiting upon us at that cold season of the year. 

Thou asks my views on the subject of First-day Schools. 
My judgment is, that so far as they promote moral im- 
provement they may be beneficial, but when any thing 
foreign to this is introduced I think it may do much harm; 
for instance, when it is impressed upon children that they 
must believe things which they cannot comprehend nor 
understand, such as matters that tend to build up sectarian- 
ism, or fill the mind with traditions which can neither profit 
in childhood nor in advanced age. But when taught by those 
in whom the child has confidence, these become deeply fixed 
in his mind, growing stronger with the increase of years, 
and like the traditional religion of the Pharisees may be 
so tenaciously held as to exclude the light of truth. What 
then? 

In regard to debates upon scriptural subjects in such 
schools or anywhere else, I have not been able to perceive 
any substantial benefit resulting therefrom. If we consult 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 223 

all history, all books of controversy upon religious subjects, 
we shall see that they have profited mankind but little; 
they may have trained the mind, but not the heart, and the 
word in our Christian religion is, ' * My son, give me thy 
heart" All that does not inculcate and encourage prac- 
tical righteousness is no better than a dependence upon 
''the letter that kills," for it is practical, living truth, 
which is necessary to the condition of man and essential to 
his wants; at least I find it so in my own case, and I so 
understand the teachings of Jesus. 

Truth needs not the arguments of men, however ingen- 
iously framed, to sustain or uphold it. Truth is still truth, 
Vihatever may be said ; and man cannot properly fulfill his 
mission here without truth as the foundation on which he 
builds his work. Thou speaks of seasons of poverty of 
spirit which at times are allotted to us. This, my friend, 
18 no new thing; no doubt similar experiences have in all 
ages been meted out to the servants of God, and the 
disciple should endeavor to receive and patiently learn all 
the lessons in which the Master sees fit to instruct him. 
He must be washed in Jordan before the heavens will be 
opened unto him, or the conditions of men made clear to 
his view; he must endure the fast in the wilderness before 
the angels will minister unto him; he must learn unre- 
servedly to trust in God before he can gain a victory over 
temptation ; he must suffer with Christ before he can reign 
with him; he must be crucified with him and buried with 
him if he would be raised with him; he must taste death 
with him if he would be raised unto everlasting life. 

The Christian's meat and drink should be new every 
day; his prayer should be, ''Give us this day our daily 



224 MEMOIRS OF 

bread/' and the best of bread will be savory only in pro- 
portion to our hunger or sense of want, therefore is not 
the sense of want, or poverty of spirit, an evidence of the 
great wisdom of God in so dealing with us ? 

It appears that by some means thou hast the im- 
pression that there are those who, instead of being sources 
of encouragement, are rather disposed to make my path 
more difficult. This is true, but I am not aware that it 
materially affects me in any way. The leaders amongst a 
certain religious profession have in these parts been my 
strong opposers for many years, manifesting anything but 
a friendly or Christian spirit even to the bitterness of malice ; 
but these things are not so grievous as is the weakness of 
some such as Paul thought it perilous to be associated 
with. As we however are not to be choosers of those* 
things by which we are to be proved, perhaps it may be 
best for me to be tried in that direction, and I regret it 
only as it may affect Society, for what I may suffer in my 
own feelings as a man is comparatively but a small matter. 

The interest and Christian kindness which thou and 

thy wife, with others, manifested towards us in our journey- 

ings among you are recorded with' the choicest recollections 

of my life, and especially thy deep exercise and travail of 

spirit with mine. . . • 

From thy friend, 

S. P. Gardkeb. 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNEB. 225 

Deab Friend, Louisa Frost: — ^Thy kind and inter- 
esting letter of Second month 13th has been received, and 
its contents have been truly encouraging to me. When I 
see one, especially of those who have had comparatively 
a lengthened probation, with whom, as thou observes, the 
evening of life has set in, the evidence that their leaf is 
still green, encourages me in the belief that it is because 
they are as trees beside the river of waters, wherefrom the 
roots draw continually of that which gives life and is ever 
full and free ; and as the privilege is not exclusive, all of 
every class may, if they will, witness it to become the only 
saving and redeeming power. It is for this object that the 
Gospel of Christ is preached in every creature without 
distinction : and it cannot be otherwise if Christ is the 
true light which enlighteneth every creature that cometh 
into the world. It was obedience to that which this light 
makes dear as the right course to pursue that enabled 
any ever to overcome the world and become Christians ; 
it was this that prompted righteousness in Abel, helped 
Enoch to walk with God, inspired the prophets, gave evi- 
dence to Abraham, which being entertained by him grew 
into faith ; it anointed the soul of Jesus, and became to 
him power and wisdom by which he overcame the world, 
and all from Grod. It was the fire that glowed in the 
souls of the Christians and in all true reformers in every 
age; it called and qualified our early Friends, and sent 
them into the world to bear witness to the truth and testi- 
mony against the corruptions in the world and wickedness 
in high as well as low places; the same also which pro- 
duces good thoughts in thy own mind, with desires and 
aspirations for the welfare of others. These are true 

16 



226 MEM0IB8 OF 

fruits, which are the production of a branch that abides in 
the vine. As I said, it is the privilege of every one to 
know these things, and If they would be profited by them 
they must have personal experience, for in things that per- 
tain to spiritual wants we cannot live upon the labors or 
faithfulness of those' who have gone before us^ hence I 
find in my own case I have but little to do with doctrines 
or matters of faith any further than I know the truth of 
them in my own experiences. I hold this to be true, for 
another's faith b not really my own. I may profess Co 
adopt it, but if it has not been produced from evidence 
furnished to my own mind, I do not know it to be genuine. 
The division and resulting alienation of feeling which has 
torn our once flourishing Society never could have oc- 
curred if all had had the faith which gives victory over 
all earthly things; but when faith becomes speculative 
and love becomes coldness, the pole-star of truth becomes 
clouded, the compass varies from the true pointing, being 
attracted sometimes one way and sometimes the other by 
hidden influences. In this condition the mariners are 
divided in judgment, their language is confounded, and 
instead of casting anchor and remaining on watch, they 
seem not so much to regard the safety of the ship and all 
on board as to contend each for his own particular theory 
of nautical science. Meantime the ship drifts upon the sand, 
and piece after piece floats away, being detached by the 
force of the storm. 

Although this may portray the state of Society, it does 
not necessarily conclude that individuals may not be faith- 
ful, and such may again by united efibrt advance those 
things which will better the condition of man, for in the 



8UNDERLAKD P. OAKDNEB. 227 

ordering of wisdom, true religion, or man's sphere of 
action, does not consbt of abstractions in which men may 
be engaged and make no advance in the right direction, 
like the horse that is continually stepping in the treadmill 
without going ahead; but by carefully finding what and 
where is his proper allotment in the Divine economy, to 
labor for the improvement of man. I mean by improve- 
ment the right exercise and use of all his powers, for they 
are all good, and by a proper use of them they may all be 
kept so. And in this condition man is benefited and Qod 
glorified. 



Rev. 8. P. Gardner : 

Dear Sir : — I trust I am a sincere inquirer after 
truth, and have therefore concluded to accept your offer 
and open correspondence respecting some points discussed 
in the discourse you delivered in this place yesterday.. 

Perhaps your age and experience if nothing else may 
qualify you to answer such questions (or rather inquiries) 
as I may propose, upon doctrines which you so confidently 
asserted. 

If then you should not respond, or should in any way 
evade returning a direct answer to these inquiries, I can 
henceforth only regard you as an errorist, a false teacher, 
a deceiver of the people. I wish then to call your atten- 
tion first to your assertion of the moral purity of children. 
You said all children at birth are as pure as Adam when 
he came from the hand of his Creator. 

Now if this be true, is not every sinner a backslider. 



228 MEM0IB8 OF 

an apostate T And is not the fall of every man that sins 
as flagrant as the fall of Adam from paradisiacal inno- 
oency ? Again, if the dogma you assert be true, how is it 
that not one of all Adam's descendants has grown to adult 
years in that state of inborn innocence, but all are either 
declared by God himself to be bad or have themselves con- 
fessed their sinfulness and need of cleansing? If you 
should answer that it is the power of example, it then de- 
volves upon you to account for the general prevalence of 
sin before bad examples were multiplied. 

Again, Adam before his fall was under the covenant 
of works, — ^that is, stood justified before Grod by work& 
Since the fall and under the redemption scheme man is 
justified only by faith in Christ's atonement. 

Now if children are bom holy as you assert, do they 
not retain that holiness until they reach a responsible age ? 
If so, are they not then under the Adamic covenant of 
works instead of the covenant of faith ? 

If as you assert they are like him in one respect, why 
not in the other ? To such then all your talk about faith 
being the first stone in the temple is simply nonsense. 

But once more, if man is bom morally pure, what is 
the new birth ? And why is it so absolutely necessary that 
Christ should declare with the most solemn asseverations 
that without it no man shall see the kingdom of God ? 

When you have answered these inquiries then I wish to 

proceed with an examination of the doctrines as presented 

in the Scriptures. 

Yours, etc., 

John B. Knott. 

Williamson, Tenth month 18, 1869. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 229 



A REPLY TO A LETTER FROM JOHN B. KNOTT, A 
METHODIST MINISTER OF WILLIAMSON, N. Y. 

Friend Knott : — ^After the close of the meeting ap- 
pointed for me in the Baptist meeting-house at W ^ 

thou informed me thou would like to have a little conver- 
sation with me on some subjects, and I replied that I would 
cheerfully converse with thee had I the time at my dis- 
posal, but as it was then 5 o' clock p.m., and I had more than 
twenty miles to travel in order to reach home, besides 
having my chores to do for the night, it would not be con- 
venient for me to remain longer at your place : but if thou 
had anything in particular to say to me thou might write 
and I would reply to thy letter, expecting from the 
pleasant manner in which thou addressed me that thou 
was a gentleman and a Christian. With such I delight to 
correspond to compare views and exchange thoughts. 

Reserving my remarks upon thy first paragraph I will 
pass on to notice the second, in which thou says I declared 
** that all children at birth are as pure as Adam was when 
he came from the hand of his Creator.' ' Thou hast quoted 
correctly. Thou then adds, * * Now if this be true is not 
every sinner a backslider, an apostate ? " Art thou a mas- 
ter in Israel and knowest not these things ? The primor- 
dial state of the infant, of innocence and purity, is the gifl 
of God : so far the child has done nothing. It has added 
nothing to itself, it has gained nothing for itself — it has 
taken no step from which to backslide, has made no pro- 
fession from which it can apostatize. There is an attain- 
ment to a greater or less degree of elevation in virtue from 



230 MEMOIB8 OF 

which one may backslide. And there is such a thing as 
apostasy ; for instance, Judas was an apostate, for he had 
professed to be a follower of Jesus, and had even received 
a part of the ministry ere he betrayed the Master ; yet I 
really think more favorably of his final condition than of 

* 

many of his class who live nowadajrs upon the earth, for 
he became ashamed of what he had done and returned his 
ill-gotten silver. Thou further asks, '* Is not the fall of 
every man that sins as flagrant as the fall of Adam from 
paradisiacal innocence ? " I answer. Yes : the soul that sin- 
neth shall die, and Adam by sinning could do no more than 
die. 

In thy fourth paragraph thou asks : " How is it that 
not one of all Adam's descendants has grown to adult 
years in that state of inborn innocence, but all are either 
declared by God himself to be bad, or have themselves 
confessed their sinfulness and need of cleansing? " 

In this thou shows ignorance of Scripture declaration, 
and hast perverted the facts as presented to us. It is a 
remarkable and important fact that when the Scriptures 
speak of a man's virtues they speak also of his vices if he 
have any, hence if they speak of a man's virtues without 
mentioning his vices, what right have we to go behind the 
record and say that he was a sinner? The Bible says that 
Abel was righteous : what is there to show that he ever 
sinned? " Enoch walked with God :" there is no account 
that he ever walked otherwise, and would it not be folly 
for man to assert it? We have a pretty full account of 
the life of Joseph, but no account .of his having done 
wrong ; on the other hand he was a model Christian. 
Bead the account of Samuel also : when or where did 



SUNDERLAND P. OARDNEB. 231 

Ood declare these to be bad, and what was meant by Jesus 
in his parable of the prodigal son, where he represents the 
fiUher as saying to the elder son, ''Son, thou art ever with 
me, and all that I have is thine." If as his son he was 
ever with him, when was he absent or in a state of sin ? 
Does he not mean here to represent those who have re- 
tained their innocence and purity of heart and thus re- 
mained with the Father ? But here is another point in re- 
gard to the purity of children. Jesus said, '* Except ye be 
converted and become as little children ye shall not enter 
into the kingdom of heaven ' ' (Matt. 18:3; also see Matt 
21 : 16) : " Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings thou 
hast perfected praise." Can anything be higher than per- 
fected praise. Do not such expressions make it appear 
clear enough that little children are in a state of acceptance 
with God ? and would He accept anything impure ? Yea, 
they are positively declared by Jesus himself to be in a state 
fit for heaven, — " Buffer little children to come unto me, for 
of such is the kingdom of Heaven." Jesus, who was made 
of the seed of David according to the flesh, a man 
anointed of God, and who certainly retained his primordial 
innocence and purity, and who advanced up into the highest 
virtue, left us an example that we should follow his steps 
(1 Peter 2: 21), and what is an example worth to us unless 
we may follow it ? Canst thou deny these things, and hast 
not thou perverted the truth ? What thou undertook to put 
into my mouth about Adam's example, in order to refute 
me upon a proposition which thou had framed and upon 
which I had said nothing, is mere quibbling and nonsense. 
Every rational man of common capacity knows that no one 
is forced to follow a bad example, and that if he were 



232 HEMOIBS OF 

forced to do so against his will he would not be responsible. 
We have a child of ten years living with us, who utterly 
refuses to associate with children that set bad examples. 
May not her course enlighten ? Jesus showed the freedom 
of choice men have in regard to imitating the example of 
others when he spake to the multitude and his disciples con- 
cerning the Scribes and Pharisees. Said he : " The Scribes 
and Pharisees sit in Moses* seat; all therefore whatsoever 
they bid you observe that observe and do, but do not ye 
after their works, etc." Now if those to whom he spake 
had not the power of choice, his words were but a mockery 
of their inability, and thou cannot deny it. 

In the sixth paragraph thou says that ''Adam was 
under the covenant of works before the fall." I answer 
that we have no accounts of but two covenants made with 
man — ^the one a special covenant of moral works given to 
the Jews, the other a universal covenant offered to all man- 
kind, which in substance is summed up in these words, 
"Obey and thy soul shall live." 

The Lord through his prophet says, ' ' Behold the days 
come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with 
the house of Israel " (Jer. 31 : 31 ; read to the 35th verse). 
One might infer from thy remark that thou had not studied 
the subject. The new covenant was only new as relating 
to the Jews to distinguish it from their covenant of moral 
works, the latter never having been given to any other 
people; and moreover it was now to be removed, the taking 
away of the old wall being represented by the rending of 
the veil of the temple. The Jews being discharged from 
that covenant by Clirist should avail themselves of the 
privileges of the new covenant, the one given to Adam and 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 233 

to all his descendants alike. I recollect reading an essay 
entitled ** Paper," a poem written by Benjamin Frank- 
lin when a lad, wherein he made use of the several kinds 
thereof to represent the diflerent states and occupations of 
men. Clear blank he made to represent the infant mind, 
whereon fidr virtue puts a seal, or vice a blot. Here 
the rational mind of the boy Franklin clearly perceived a 
fact which thou, who professes to be an enlightened, 
anointed minister of the gospel fails to see. Thou says 
that my talk about faith being the first stone in the temple 
is simply nonsense. What ! nonsense to say that faith is 
the first pillar in the Christian building, which are the 
words I used and which I still assert, though it may appear 
to thee as nonsense. But I do not wonder at thee, for I 
read in the new Testament of a people who thought Jesus 
spoke nonsense when he told them that except they ate his 
flesh and drank his blood they had no life in them. But I 
return to faith. The Gentiles attained unto righteousness 
through faith. " The Gentiles, which followed not after 
righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the 
righteousness which b of faith ' ' (Rom. 9 : 30). 

"This is the victory which overcame the world, even 
your faith." ** Thy faith hath made thee whole.'* 
" Without &ith it is impossible to please God.'' But 
individuals who have arrived at a state of accountability 
and in whom the higher law is developed are required to 
exercise faith just in proportion to the evidence received, 
and then their works must be commensurate with their 
faith or it is of no avail ; " for as the body without the 
spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also. " 

Lastly thou sajrs, If man is bom morally pure, what 



234 MEMOIBS OP 

is the new birth? Moral purity does not preclude the 
necessity of a new birth ; it is regeneration, or in other 
words the removing of the government from our own 
hands to that of Christ. Jesus was morally pure, yet he 
said to his disciples, "Ye that have followed me in the 
regeneration, etc." They could not have followed him in 
the regeneration unless he had experienced it before them. 

I have now fulfilled my promise to respond to thy 
communication, and will further notice a part of thy first 
paragraph which reads thus : " If you should not respond, 
or in any way evade returning a direct answer to these 
inquiries, I can henceforth only regard you as an errorist, 
a false teacher, a deceiver of the poople." 

Had I not agreed to respond' to what thee might 
write, I should, upon receiving such ungentlemanly and 
insulting language, have returned the missive with silent 
contempt. Thou dogmatically threatens (under certain 
results) to regard me as ''an errorist, etc., a false teacher, 
a deceiver of the people." Let us see where are the induce- 
ments to deceive, to teach false doctrines, etc. , — such in- 
ducements as might have a probable bearing on human 
nature. I have no salary, I receive no pay for preaching 
from any man or society, I allow no donation parties, nor 
in any way use inducements directly or indirectly to per- 
suade those who are not members to bring in their ofier- 
ings to swell the amounts of my comforts or luxuries; but 
I can say with honest Paul, " Mine own hands minister to 
my necessities." I endeavor to obey the Saviour's com- 
mands to those he sent abroad: " Freely ye have re- 
ceived, freely give." I am from home much of my time, 
attending funerals among all classes of people; I receive 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 235 

nothing at their hands except occasionally a meal of 
victuals or a night's lodging. I feel responsible for a 
fiiithfiil discharge of the duty required of me. What is 
tiiere in all this which could lead to deception, or what 
would deception or false teaching gain for me ? Perhaps 
thou could produce a different record, a record which 
might lead some to think there were inducements for a 
weak mind to practice the arts of deception, but I am not 
thy judge. In thy concluding paragraph thou informs me 
that when I have answered thy inquiries thou shalt pro- 
ceed with an examination of the doctrines presented in the 
Scriptures. To this I would say that I have the Scrip- 
tures, and love to peruse them, and that I take the privi- 
l^e granted by the Giver of all true liberty of judging 
of their contents for myself by the light and power which 
€rod ^veth me; and if at any time I think I need thy 
counsel concerning them, I shall not fail to ask it. I am 
also satisfieu^torily posted in the doctrines of the Methodists 
from the Arminian Wesleys to Calvinbtic Whitfield, and 
being somewhat acquainted with the works and doctrines 
of many of the worthy fathers and brilliant lights of the 
Methodist Church I have no inquiries to make of thee on 
that subject. Moreover, my time being very much and 
necessarily occupied with important matters, I will not 
trouble thee with any further correspondence, and if thou 
should spend any more of thy time in writing me such a 
letter as the one thou lately sent me, I could only look at 
it as an impertinence. 

I wish, moreover, to refer thee to St John 5 ; 39-40, 
and Acts 17 : 11, and remain thy friend, 

Tenth month, 1869. ^' ^' Gardner. 



236 MEMOIRS OF 



Rachel Hicks: 

My Dear Friend : — I received thy friendly epistle 
yesterday. It gave me much satisfaction in assuring me 
that I was remembered by a distant friend, and to be made 
to feel that there are those who have an abiding interest 
for their fellow-travellers in the exercises and baptisms 
necessary to qualify them for the work allotted them in the 
Lord's vineyard. I need not enlarge upon this subject, for 
it would only be speaking of things which thou hast long 
known ; but when I meet with those who are seeking, 
like myself, for their "daily bread," which is always 
handed forth by the Father according to his children's 
needs, it is comforting and encouraging to me. It seems a 
singular coincidence that about the time thou was con- 
cerned to write me, I said to my wife that I had some 
prospect of attending the approaching Yearly Meetings 
west, and probably including Baltimore, and I have not 
spoken to any one else of late on the subject. 

I will answer thy friendly questions as desired. It is 
true that in making religious visits from home they have 
been limited by want of means to defray expenses, both in 
travelling and to hire a man to take care of my work 
during my absence. Nearly all that my farm produces 
Iwyond home necessity I have spent in travelling on a re- 
ligious account ; last year I was ninety days from home 
attending funerals, and in most cases bore my own expenses. 
I suppose that for twenty years past it has cost me from 
three to four hundred dollars a year, besides absence from 
my business in religious services, as I was convinced in the 
interest of Society and the truth, always with the approba- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 237 

tion of my Monthly or Quarterly meeting, as the case 
might be. 

When I commenced business for myself I was without 
means, save that great blessing, a good constitution; but 
by continued perseverance in industry I have one hundred 
acres of land clear of encumbrance. This makes a com- 
fortable home for my family, and I appreciate it and am 
grateful for iL I have three interesting sons, and though 
I do not expect to leave them much means, I shall try to 
give them such opportunities as I am able in order to fit 
them for such business as they may follow. 

As to the subject of means to which thou so carefully 
alluded, I would not have thee contribute, for thou thyself 
hast been abroad much in truth's service, and thy ex- 
penses have been large enough for thee to bear; and what- 
ever my circumstances might be, I could not ask assistance 
from others ; but I can see no wrong where a friend or 
friends have abundance, if they should feel it in their 
heart to make a free-will offering to the work as they feel 
it is needed. I cannot see that such an offering would in 
the least encourage a hireling ministry. It is to this ' * hire- 
ling system '' we are opposed ; Friends here have always 
been considerate to those who were in need, whether min- 
isters or not 

I recollect the conflicts of mind I passed through before 

I gave up to make a visit to within your Yearly 

Meeting. I felt that I had not so much as one '' smooth 
stone from the brook " in my sling, yet, as thou observed, 
the way was made plain and straight for me (when the 
proper time came), even where there had seemed to be no 
way. 



238 MEMOIRS OF 

My wife joins me in the expreBsioa of our love to thee 
(whom we appreciate aa a mother). Please remember us 
also to all inquiring friends. 

S. P. Gabdker. 
Seventh marUh 4th, 187S. 



TO A FRIEND NEAR HOME. 

My Esteemed Friend E. E. : — In preparing to leave 
home on a somewhat extensive joumej for me, I felt like 
addressing some of my friends, and thee among the num- 
ber. I felt thee to be one between whom and myself 
the chain of friendship has never been broken nor become 
dim with corroding rust; such friendship is of more value 
than gold or silver, because it centers in a unity of spirit 
which carries us above the region of material interests. It 
has been rather an unfavorable season for some of us here; 
between the drouth and the grubs my crops are nearly a 
failure, but I have cause to be thankful, for we are blessed 
with enough for our support, but no maigin for this year. 

My prospect was to visit Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 
with several of the meetings constituting it^ with most or all 
of the Quarterly Meetings and some others belonging to 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, but for the want of means 
I shall be under the necessity of making calculations ac- 
cordingly, and, as dear George F. White said and practiced, 
"go no farther than the way in all things opens for it." 
This is, I think, safe ground. We caimot see, but the 
Master knoweth best what is required. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 239 



Ctbus Bbttb : 

My Dear Friend : — I duly received thy letter of 
Third month 7th, but my time has been so much taken up 
in attending funerals and in necessary labor, that I do not 
mlways find it easy to pa» from mental or hard physiial 
exercise to that calm state of mind which I desire in 
writing upon any subject. 

The matter which thou hast alluded to, and the man- 
ner of thy query, viz.: "What is thy fidth and belief 
concerning the manner and way Jesus Christ came into 
the world, — ^was it by the miraculous power of the Most 
High, without the intervention or agency of man?" — 
claimed my attention in my early years, and my efforts 
with this, together with some other subjects which I under- 
took to unravel without experience of soul, proved abor- 
tive; and like Israel, toiling and striving for forty years in 
compassing a mountain without coming any nearer the land 
of promise, I gained nothing. 

In regard to the question of a miracle concerning the 
birth of Jesus Christ, I consider it a matter of history and 
not of faith ; and the written evidence for and against it, as 
being very nearly balanced. As the outward mission of 
Jesus was exclusively to the Jews, so the miracle of his 
birth, and all things pertaining thereto as to the outward, 
were also exclusively to that people. Only his spiritual life, 
his precepts and examples relate to universal man. But 
admitting the miracle, it changed not the human nature of 
Jesus; he was essentially a man, made of flesh and blood 
and bones like other men. Like other men he possessed a 
rational soul created in the image of God. Like other 



240 MEMOTBS OF 

men, he possessed human passions, propensities and pow- 
ers. His spirit was the recipient of the spirit or anointing 
of God, and this constituted all of his extraordinary pow- 
ers. He declared, ' * Of mine own self I can do nothing ; " 
this is just the condition of other men. When his prayers 
were according to the will of God they were answered; 
when they were not, they were not answered, — just the case 
with other men. Power from his Heavenly Father was 
granted him, just equal to the work given him to do, — just 
so with other dedicated men; and what the Father re- 
vealed to him he could declare, and nothing more. Just so 
it was with the prophets of old, just so with other men. 
Jesus declared, *' That which is bom of flesh is flesh, and 
that which is born of spirit is spirit." He was nurtured 
like other children, subject to hunger and thirst, and 
" made in all things like unto his brethren." 

The religious element has been clouded ever since the 
church ceased to depend upon revelation and turned to the 
letter concerning Jesus Christ, the Son of Mary. Since 
the beginning of the fourth century religious teachers have 
divided God into three parts, counting Jesus as one of 
the parts. Jesus, however, was the Son of Grod in the 
same manner that others may become the sons of God, by 
being led by the spirit of God; and in this sense they are 
joint heirs with Jesus Christ. But he did not constitute 
an equal part in the God-head, he was not omniscient, 
nor is there any omniscience save that of the One God, the 
Almighty Father. Said Jesus of a certain event: "But 
of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the 
angels that are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father." 
Thus, I do not believe that a trinity of persons consti- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 241 

tutes the Grod-head ; jet I do believe there Is a trinity in 
unitj. I will illustrate it bj the sun as a figure. The sun 
reveals, from the treasures of its elements, light and heat. 
All know the offices of these emanations: by the one we are 
enabled not only to see the sun, but to distinguish between 
different objects upon the earth ; the other has the quick- 
ening power to give life and growth to animal and veget- 
able nature. So as a figure the light represents the Son 
of Gody — ever-begotten, ever emanating from the bosom of 
the Father, — and is the true light that lighteth every 
man that comeih into the world. This was not the soul of 
Jesus, bat his soul was enlightened by it This dwelt in 
him, and with life, power and wisdom was the anointing 
that made him the Christ of Qod, And the same anoint- 
ing will bring all who are obedient to it into the Christ or 
Christian state. I understand Paul to refer to this state 
when he said : " Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be repro- 
bate." Paul did not mean that Jesus Christ's materiality 
could dwell in the soul of man, for he said, '* We have 
known Christ after the flesh, yet know we him no more." 
And this Jesus personified when he said : " I came forth 
from the Father, and came into the world, and again I 
leave the world and go to the Father." And this is ever 
going on, and the Father remaineth perfect and complete 
as God; just as the sun, though continually sending forth its 
light and heat, calls back its powers without deterioration. 
Thus having the Son and the Holy Ghost as emana- 
tions from the Father, in like manner as we have the light 
and heat as emanations from the sun, we may plainly see 
how each is dispensed from its own 'proper fountain: — 
light and heat from their source the sun; Christ and the 



242 MEMOIBS OF 

Holy Ghost as living powers from their source, even God, 
without any division into parts. These may all be re- 
jected of men, but men cannot destroy or put them to death. 
These, my friend, are my views concerning Jesus, and 
the Christ, or anointing, that was upon him ; these my 
views concerning the unity of God. And thou art at lib- 
erty to make what use thou pleases of this letter. 

From thv friend, 

Su3Sa)ERLAND P. GARDNER. 

Farmington, Third month ^4thy 187 Ji^ 



Sunderland P. Gardner : 

Much Esteemed Friend : — ^After your visit to our 
neighborhood I thought often with special interest of the 
favored communications which I heard from you on sub- 
jects so near my heart, and this sympathy with your lib- 
eral sentiments and the spirit in which you uttered them, 
inspired me with a desire to court a better acquaintance. 

For a long time after your visit my health remained too 
poor to write, but my desire to have a little talk remains 
unabated. 

That characteristic in your discourses which impressed 
me with special interest was their freedom from conven- 
tional forms of thought, your independence of crystallized 
systems, asserting your own distinctive identity as a man, 
standing alone, if need be, in the wide field of Grod's truth, 
and contemplating God's moral beauties with your own 
eyes and not through other men's vision. This, my dear 
brother, was what so much drew my love out after you. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 243 

and at this moment the hold that you have on my sympathy 
inspired the desire to say a few words on what I conceive 
to be the fundamental truths of the Christian religion. 
Ist I believe in One uncreated, All-powerful, All-know- 
ing, All-seeing, infinitely good Being, the Creator of all 
things, and all beings beside him. The apostle John says, 
" God is Ught ; '' and intelligence, " God is love.*' This 
uncreated and perfect intelligence must have known from 
all eternity just what he would create through all eternity, 
and all the changes that he would allow on matter and 
mind evermore, and consequently comprehended perfectly 
every sensation of happiness or misery that any body, 
mind or spirit would ever realize. If this is not so he 
is not an infinite being, and if not infinite he is not 
Grod. But the material universe proclaims an all-compre- 
hending and aU-wise intelligence. Therefore atheism is 
not true. But we have not only found him in outward 
nature, but we have found him in our own hearts. There- 
fore we know that God is, and that he is a rewarder of them 
that diligently seek him. 

2d. The following deductions seem to follow as incon- 
trovertible truisms : 

Ist. That no interpretation of Divine revelation can be 
true that contradicts the foregoing fundamental proposi- 
tions. 

2d. It will follow that no accident has fallen out in our 
great Father s plan that requires any new expedients to 
adjust them, and that everything now, in the past, in the 
future, and forever must work in harmony with the pur- 
pose of the Infinite one. 

3d. Infinite goodness cannot order infinite misery as an 



244 MEMOIB8 OF 

end. He may order temporary suffering as a means to 
eternal happiness as an end, and this oonverts the tem- 
porary evil into good. 

4th. If Grod will the final happiness of immortal 
spirits, and they should fiul to attain to it, it would be an 
impeachment of his power, and would thus indeify him, 
hence this cannot be true. 

5th. If he has created intelligent beings to the end that 
they shall be eternally miserable, this would impeach his 
infinite goodness, hence this cannot be true. 

6th. K He has created und3ring spirits whose final 
destiny he cannot control, this would impeach both his 
power and wisdom, hence this alternative cannot be true. 

7th. If He has brought into being sentient intelligences 
whose final destiny he did not know, this would impeach 
his infinite knowledge, hence this assumption must be fiedse. 

8th. If God has created man, &ngel, or malignant 
spirit, or any such has invaded the domain of our Heavenly 
Father's universe, whom he would but cannot control, he 
is not God, hence this last alternative is not true. 

9th. We therefore affirm with joyful heart what Grod 
himself declared, that He made all things good, and O 
false theology, who is able to disprove what God has 
affirmed to be true ? 

10th. Man is intelligent, man is free, man is finite; 
hence falls into error and temporary suffering. But so 
sure as God reigns he will triumph over all evil. 

Alleluia! The Lord God Omnipotent reigneth I I ! 

My dear Friend, if I am in error please point out my 
error, and if I can see it I will at once abandon it, for I 
have no interest in error in time or eternity. I think I 



SUNDERULND P. GARDNER. 245 

have travelled over the ground occupied by orthodox the- 
ology 80-called, but I found no rest for my soul until I 
found it in Jesus Christ, the representative and proclaimer 
of the Father's infinite goodness and love. On this blest 
foundation I rest in hope of a glorious immortality. 

I will append one illustration of the popular doctrine of 
the day and dose the present scattering epistle. 

Suppose, according to evangelical teaching, that but 
one soul, dying unconverted according to their theory of 
conversion, should pass into future existence. That soul 
would aoBer more than all the inhabitants of this world 
have 8u£bred since the creation, added to all that shall be 
sufEeied while the world shall stand. For subtract aU the 
suflbringa of the past and all the sufferings of the future 
from unending suffering, and it leaves it unending just the 
same, for time is no part of Eternity, for that which can 
be divided into parts is not Infinite. 

Oh that men would preach the love of God, the doc- 
trine of human conduct, mastery over our passions, purity 
of heart and motive, and charity in judging others, in- 
stead of presenting the Father of all mercy and goodness 
as the greatest tyrant in the universe. Please answer at 
your convenience. 

Yours affectionately for freedom of thought, 

H. Heberlino. 
Jft Pleasant, O., Firei month 23, 187 J^ 



' 



246 MEMOIBS OF 



EXTRACTS FROM A LETTER WRITTEN TO G. DXINLAP. 

Thou seems to speak rather discouragingly in r^ard 
to the present state of our Society, but low as the state 
of things may appear to be, I do not consider that a just 
ground for despondency or discouragement, for I believe 
that if we as individuals were governed by and knew our 
works to proceed from the true faith which is the gift of 
God, it would not only be well with us, but much of the 
anxiety and solicitude of feeling would be taken away, 
and then if it appeared in the counsel of Divine wisdom 
that our Society should soon come to an end we should be 
prepared to say. Amen. 

I apprehend if we take a correct view of present cir- 
cumstances we can trace their origin to a date somewhat 
remote. Our Society, previous to the separation in 1828, 
had become formal to an alarming degree, and it pleased 
our Heavenly Father to raise up a few to bear a faithful 
testimony to the truth in true simplicity, as primitively 
held by the early Christians and subsequently by our 
Society in its origin. Prominent among whom was 
Elias Hicks, who made no compromise, neither with the 
innovations, nor the endeavors that were being made to im- 
pose them upon Society in this country, backed by Friends 
from England, where these innovations had already ob- 
tained; nor with the prevailing evils out of Society. In 
consequence of hia persevering int^ty he became a 
serious obstacle in the way of the ambitious and designing, 
and when they beheld him firm and immovable as Mor- 
decai at the King's gate, they, like Haman, became envious, 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 247 

and like him were desirous of enlisting all the powers of 
the earthy not only against him (Elias), but also against 
all that would not reject him. Such a state of things re- 
sulted in a division of our once favored and peaceful Society. 
The peculiar elements which characterized each party after 
the separation, existed to a greater or less extent in the 
body as a whole for some time anterior to that event, but 
they subsequently became more particularly apparent. 
Both parties in the strife suffered improper feelings toward 
each, and disgraced their profession in the sight of the 
world. 

The Orthodox drew nearer and nearer to High Church 
principles, in imitation of the majority of their English 
Friends, and undertook to maintain them by eradicating 
everything which stood in their way. 

On the other hand our part of Society inclined rather 
towards liberality of principles, which were undoubtedly 
true to a great extent But this liberality in our Society 
drew fix>m the whole body not only those who were liberal 
to a proper extent, but also those who had transcended the 
limits of truth, and become wrecked upon the rocks of 
infidelity. Having passed through the fiery ordeal of the 
separation, we were inclined to rest, more from previous 
excitement, than from a sense that all was well. 

But that libertinism of principle which now seemed to 
have little or no restraint, availing itself of the privileges 
of the Society, vrsa by no means dormant. Elias Hicks 
(with others) had succeeded in parting the clouds in some 
measure which had been suffered to envelop the Society and 
perhaps all Christendom. He set the Scriptures in their 
true light so far as relates to the manner in which we may 



248 UEMOIBS OF 

be benefited by them, and his boldness was indeed sneh as to 
arouse that state of mind which was seeking after righteous- 
ness by the works of the outward law ; but he was no infidel 
as regards the Scriptures, and advocated the doctrine of 
immediate or special Divine Revelation in all matters ex- 
cept in those things where Deity has provided by his laws of 
nature for the wants of our physical being. But it was soon 
discovered that this germ of liberalism, which answered 
very well to the Ranterism which infested the Society in its 
early stages, began to develop itsel£ Some under a pro- 
fession of great spirituality were very active in the minis- 
try. Their speed was swift as the arrow and high and airy 
as the eagle's flight, and they soon outstripped their friends 
and claimed perfection in their spiritual attainments. They 
professed to see beyond the Scriptures, and even made the 
important discovery that Society as established was of no 
value. They had now passed by the time in which the labor 
of Society could be of any service to them, for Society in 
their estimation was far behind them. They now had but 
one more degree to take, and that plunged them into the 
depths of licentiousness, and lust, and infidelity to the 
marriage covenant. 

These things have transpired among us since the divi- 
sion, and when some concerned Friends undertook as 
individuals to bestow labor, the cry of persecution, bigotry, 
superstition and zeal without knowledge was raised, and 
many well-disposed Friends, out of misapplied sympathy, 
stepped in and prevented the healthy and necessary action 
of discipline. 

Some of them commence by endeavoring to point out 
the evils of sectarianism and priestcraft, and in this man- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 249 

ner open a way to the sympathies and affections of many, 
and when ooofideuce is gained, we pretty soon hear them 
attack the Scriptures, especially the Old Testament But 
let us look a little at the consequences of the position they 
take, that Moses was an impostor;— does it not follow that 
Jesus was an impostor also? — ^for if Moses was a deceiver 
how oould Jesus speak of him as he did ? I am prepared 
to say that if the Old Testament is rejected as false, so must 
the New Testament be also. If Moses was an impostor, so 
also was Jesus. True, say they, " Jesus gave forth some 
good precepts, but he borrowed the best ones from the 
heathen philosophers, and as for his working miracles, that 
is now proved to be contrary to philosophy." Now, my 
dear friend, do not consider me uncharitable when I tell 
thee that I believe that sceptical Ranterism abounds in 
different degrees of maturity in our Society. Not a few 
even of our ministers have entered into what is called the 
philosophy of the present day, and their preaching is made 
up to a considerable extent of lectures against the 
Scriptures, Parker's theology, and speculative theories 
upon what are called the reformatory measures of the day. 
Some of them (I speak advisedly) go so far as to say 
that '' Society should not disown an individual for holding 
any principle or doctrine whatever, even if he should in- 
troduce and practice in our Society water-baptism, vocal 
mufflc, and all the other forms practiced in other societies." 
This serves to explain the reason why such great efforts are 
made to prevent the healthful action of discipline. 

If there b any soundness or life left in Society, it is 
strange that an effort should not be made to arrest the 
Lpread of such dangerous and pernicious doctrines. Dost 



250 MEMOIBS OF 

thou not think that truth and the welfare of Society require 
it ? See the language addressed to the Church of Pergamos 
(Rev. 2: 14, 15, 16), also to Thyatira (Rev. 2:22), by 
which thou may see that the churches were held respon- 
sible for the things which existed within their proper juris- 
diction. Our Friends have in some instances laid hands 
too suddenly on some who were too young in the ministry, 
and formally acknowledged them before they had brought 
the necessary evidence from the depths of Jordan, or had 
faithMly endured the fast in the wilderness, and so have 
given an impetus to forward spirits; and for such ill-advised 
premature proceedings the Church must suffer and bitterly 
repent S. P. Gardner. 

Farmington, N. F., Eleventh month 16th, 1846, 



1876. 
To E. P 

• 

Esteemed Friend : — ^I duly received thy friendly 
note, but was immediately called from home, and have been 
so much from home since that I could not be prompt in 
corresponding with my friends. The book for which I am 
indebted to thy kindness and liberality, has answered the 
purpose designed, and I am truly grateful for it, fully ap- 
preciating the interest thou manifested in my welfare. 

Please say to thy sister Mary B that I received the 

token of her remembrance to me, and that I feel to sympa- 
thize with her in her bereavement I have sat where she 
sits, and a sense of her loss is shared by many others. 



8UKDERLAND P. GARDNER. 251 

ThuB the faithful laborers are called away, I trust to 
a higher state, and although we deeply feel our loss, yet 
we can rejoice on their behalf, because they have safely 
passed over the river, the forces of which we have yet to 
try. And what can be of greater importance to us than 
to have oil in our lamps, and they trimmed and burning; 
so much is necessary for our preparation in order to obey 
the call, whether it be given at the evening, midnight, or 
morning watch, and may a double portion of the spirit, 
that rested upon the faithful that have passed away, rest 
upon those remaining to qualify them for the great work 
necessary to be carried out further, penetrate more deeply, 
and more thoroughly done than heretofore except in indi- 
vidual cases. The fields are already white unto the 
harvest Reform is greatly needed, and rightly qualified 
instruments are needed for the work. I am not telling 
thee anything new; thou already knows them, and thy 
spirit is often baptized into sympathy with the exercised 
sons and daughters, and bowed in supplication of spirit on 
behalf of Zion, that her borders may be enlarged, and that 
her stakes may be strengthened and firmly set 

The circumstances of meeting with thee and thy dear 
husband at Baltimore, and the nearness and unity of spirit 
which I felt with you, will long remain in the chamber of 
memory, for it is recorded on the heart And say to him 
how pleasant it would be to me if permitted to again take 
him by the hand and embrace him as I did when we parted ; 
as one between whom and myself there was no partition wall. 

Since my return home I have been twice to Canada to 
attend funerals — one for Freeman Clark, a worthy minis- 
ter in our Society, the other for Eliza Cromwell, the widow 



262 MEMOIBS OF 

* 

of John Cromwell; and to attend both, in going and re- 
turning, travelled eight hundred miles, besides attending 
a number of other funerals. I have attended four quar- 
terly meetings within the compass of New York Yearly 
Meeting, viz. : Nine Partners, Stanford at Grum Elbow, 
Saratoga and Easton, and Duanesburg Quarter held at 
Albany, together with a number of appointed meetings, 
all satisfactory to myself. Ourden T. Smith was my com- 
panion. 

Friends' School at Easton is in a flourishing condition. 
We attended two meetings with the school. We stopped 
with Samuel Gary at Albany; they told us of your visit 
there, I think last year. Please write as way opens, and 
if health permits I will endeavor to respond in due time. 
Under a sense of a measure of that Spirit which baptizes 
into one body, I bid you farewell. 

Thirimotdh, 9th, 1876. S. P. Gardner. 



Under date First month 21st, 1882, J. S. G., who is 
passing through a season of great sorrow, owing to the 
death of '' my only child and my dear wife," writes, asking, 
** Mj dear brother, can thee lighten my load of grief by 
encouraging words ? I am cast down in the lowest depths 
of humility." The following letter is in answer : 



My Dear Friend, X S. G. : 

Thy letter was duly received, but a great pressure of 
various cares and weariness firom labor, kept me, in part» 
in a condition not favorable to a baptism of spirit suitable 
to sit with thee where thou sits : which is necessary, at least 



BUNDEBLAKD P. OABDNEB. 253 

in a measare^ in order that we may be brought into sym- 
pathy of heart. Although each heart knows best its own 
sorrows, yet the gospel is designed to bring man so into sym- 
pathy with man, as to be willing to bear at least a share 
of each other's burdens : one cannot do the work for 
another, yet Divine wisdom has so arranged our relations 
to each other, that we may mourn with those who mourn, 
and rejoice with those who rejoice. I can say to thee, my dear 
friend, that similar dispensations to those through which 
thou hast passed and art passing, have in a large measure 
been within the lines of my own experience. In earlier 
life I lost what was then an only child, and so deeply did 
it affect me that I desired to be taken also, but I now believe 
that to have been a wrong desire. It would have been better 
had I endeavored to be resigned to circumstances which I 
could not change or control, and be thankful that the 
sorrow had not come sooner. 

My path through life thus far has been one of conflict 
and trial, and sometimes baptisms unto death even in my 
early years ; but from my present standpoint I can see that 
they, in a general way, have been conducive to my higher 
interests. I have learned that upon all mundane things is 
inscribed, " passing away,'' and hence our principal trust 
and interest should not be placed upon them; but that we 
should look higher, to seek first the Kingdom of Qod and 
His righteousness, and then all secondary things come 
along in their proper allotments. And His kingdom, so far 
as relates to us in this state of being, we can find nowhere 
else but in our own hearts; every man has a kingdom in 
himself, and it depends upon his own choice whether it 
shall be governed by the principles of, and so become the 



254 MEMOIBS OF 

kingdom of, God and righteousness, or whether it shall he 
a kingdom of evil. 

In order to gain a victory over the world, we frequently 
have to enter into a warfare, truth against error. Our 
noble powers are brought into hard servitude, and we are 
led into evil habits when we neglect to school and give 
right direction to our passions and propensities. " His 
servants ye are to whom ye render yourselves servants to 
obey." Just here comes in the cross of Christ, which is 
not designed to be cruel or to harm men, but simply to re- 
strain them from those things which would harm, in the 
practice of them. Thy path and mine have not been 
peculiar, for such has been the allotment of many. The 
best men of whom we have any account passed through 
similar experiences, and many, no doubt, much deeper. 
Jesus sidd, ' ' My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even unto 
death." I apprehend that no allusion to the death of the body 
is here intended, but a death to sin and attachment to every- 
thing except His Father's will and a desire to finish His 
work. He was baptized iuto the states and various con- 
ditions of men, hence qualified to speak to those con- 
ditions. There are seasons when we seem to abound with 
food, and others when we are filled by a sufiering need ; the 
latter condition is as good for us as the former, and why ? 
Because when the vessel has been filled wHh love, and a 
qualification for any particular service, and that performed 
the vessel must needs be empty, and the bread used yester- 
day will not answer for to-day. Then a sense of poverty 
ensues, and is so deeply felt that it seems for the time being 
we have never tasted of good. 

Here we have need of patience and trust, and as we 



8X7KDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 255 

abide in this state our Father gives us a new qualification, 
with bread for to-day and consequent strength for a new 
work. 

As to thy inquiry whether departed spirits ever appear 
to us so as to make a sensible impression on us, will say, 
I think there have been such instances. My father when 
dying said, '' What light is that? I thought it was Sarah 
come," — ^my mother, who had died fifteen years before. 

A girl in this neighborhood, about eight years old, when 
dying said she saw angels in the room and heard them sing; 
they appeared to be the spirits of children. 

Alexander Young, of New York, an eminent minister 
in the Society of Friends, when dying said, '* Do you call 
this dying? I call it just be^nning to live," and de- 
clared that he heard angels sing ; he appeared to be 
rational and very happy. 

Dwell not, my friend, too much upon the gloomy side 
of life, but look to that light which dispels the clouds, 
causing the storm to recede, and the sunshine of love and 
truth to penetrate the heart and resurrect it to a higher 
state. 

1884. 

Mt Dear Youno Friend, Lydia J. Mosher : 

Thy kind and interesting letter came duly to hand, but 
on account of some unanswered letters previously received, 
and frequent caUs from home, I have not been able to en- 
deavor an answer until now. 

The Book of Revelation has almost entirely (except 
the epistle to the churches) been sealed up or hidden from 



256 MEMOIRS OF 

the understandings of men; comparatiyely few religious 
writers have referred to it or endeavored to explain its 
meaning, yet some have essayed it. The prophesies it con- 
tains are set forth in such bold and wonderful imagery, 
that they are not generally understood until the fulfillment 
of them furnishes a key to the meaning of the mysterious 
language used. 

Unless we had been inspired by the same spirit with 
which John was filled, we could not have understood that 
the mystery of " Babylon the great, the mother of harlots 
and abominations of the earth,'' and the woman that rode 
the scarlet-colored beast and sat upon many waters 
(nations), referred to the fallen church, which as yet had 
no such existence; but when the condition of religion came 
upon the world to which the prophecy related, the meaning 
became evident. 

As the seals of kings and governments represent the 
highest authority, so authority and power from the great 
mover of all events are represented. Also, ships sometimes 
sail under ** sealed orders," the commander being ignorant 
of the particulars of their mission until the time arrives 
for the " opening of the seals." This not only indicates 
power, but that the Power thinks it best that the import- 
ant matters remain hidden until a certain time. 

Greatest power and highest wisdom man has not attained 
to, so there are seals that yet remain unopened. I have 
not the key. 

Now to the question, " What is meant by the seal of the 
living God? " It seems to me to mean the work of the 
Spirit of God upon all who walk by His light This light 
is universally given, even as is the light of day, and all 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 257 

who by humbling themselves are prepared to receive and 
walk in the light, living holy lives and doing the works of 
righteousness in pare hearts, will be led by His Spirit, and 
" as many as are led by the Spirit of God are the Sons of 
Qod and joint, heirs with Jesus Christ," this being the 
highest condition to which we can attain. The light has 
dawned upon us (even as the first arising of day is from 
the east). And an angel has ascended from the east with 
the seal of the living God. Now we will begin to see the 
opening of Divine Truth, giving us knowledge, directing 
us in our moral and religious habits; and we shall be able 
to walk without stumbling because we have the light of 
God's day upon us. Others will see that there is some- 
thing within us,— some principle emanating from a source 
higher than man; but we know that the spirit quiekeneth, 
we have received the '' seal of the living God I ' ' We read 
in Revelation 4 : 6, that "in the midst of the throne 
and round about the throne were four beasts'' (I have 
been informed that in the Greek it is living creatures), 
the lion, the calf, one with the face of a man, and a flying 
eagle. These diverse natures make up a part of the com- 
pound nature of man, and are not necessarily wrong, but 
may act under Divine direction, rising up into harmony 
with the will of God, by leaving all uncleanliness of 
sensuality, and dedicating each its own power and work to 
the service and worship of God. Lion, strong will; calf, 
meek dependence; face of a man, self-respect; flying 
eagle, lofty soaring, strength, ambition. Each may be- 
come holy to God. 

But the ** Beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit" 
has quite another signification. It evidently represents 

17 



258 MEMOIRS OF 

tjraiiDical power, and the figure was clearly made mani- 
fest when the ecclesiastical powers gained ascendency over 
the civil governments, made war against all who held theb 
allegiance to the Truth, torturing and destroying as far as 
they could all who were opposed to them, and licensing 
crimes by selling indulgences. Such are the works and 
the fi'uits of unrestrained ecclesiastical rule, which consti- 
tute the work of the Beast; and by such mark he may 
ever be known wherever he makes his appearance. This 
evil comes from unrestrained human will mixed with the 
other evils, malice, greed of gold and love of power. 
Neither has this mark been confined to any particular 
branch of profession, but has shown itself according to 
the opportunity afibrded. It was clearly manifested by 
the heathen Roman tyrant, as much so by Henry VIII., 
by Catholic Mary and by Protestant Elizabeth, by the 
so-called reformer, John Calvin (witness the burning 
of Michael Servetus), the persecutions of our early Friends 
both in England and America by Protestants, persecution 
of Baptists, and in fact in every place and time where an 
opportunity has been offered for its evil manifestations. 
The same mark was manifest in the Society of Friends, a 
part desiring to exercise an undue and unjust power over 
the others, setting themselves up as the only true standard, 
and finally becoming so unendurable in their designs as to 
cause a separation in the Society. Here the '* mark of the 
Beast " was as clearly manifest as in any former age, the 
difference of result being due to the wise laws of our 
country, which would not allow of physical and material 
persecution; and it yet grieves, because there are some 
remaining who, true to the old standard of simple fiiith, 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 259 

retain their integrity; but, thanks to the better times 

in which we live, it can strike no heavier blow than to 

feebl J crj ' ' infidel," which sound passes by on the wind and 

18 scarcely remembered. There are circumstances which, at 

present, restrain the Beast to some, — ^yea,to a great,— extent. 

It received what by many was thought a deadly wound 

when it was deprived of its political power, and at present 

there is comparatively a calm, but this is no evidence of 

death or change of purpose. Its wound is healing, and it 

is steadily gaining strength, and only waiting the maturity 

of its plans to show itself as cruel as when it had power 

over many of the nations of the earth. 

The claim of ''infallibility" will seek to exalt itself 

above the stars so long as inordinate selfishness prevails 

either in churches or individuals. 

8. P. G. 

EXTRACT FROM SERENA HINARD'S LETTER, 1886. 

I feel near sympathy with thee in our exercises and 
travails, and consider thee wonderfully preserved both 
spiritually and physically; be encouraged to pursue the 
service and be faithful to the end. 

How often to our humbling admiration a way is made 
where there appears to be no way, and ability furnished to 
the satisfaction and peace of our own minds, and if the 
power which calls to labor qualifies and strengthens, what 
more can we ask? Thy influence is great for good. I 
can say it to thee without fear of being misunderstood. I 
enjoy the freedom which enables us to give or take encour- 
agement or reproof, and believe this freedom, rightly 
exerted, is wanting among us. 



260 MEMOIRS OF 

EXTRACT FROM A MANUSCRIPT, DATE UNKNOWN. 

Children and youth, if trained according to Ood's law, 
will develop both physically and mentally, both morally 
and spiritually, up into a perfect humanity. Moses, 
although he gave the outward law to the Israelites, well 
understood that the outward observance of the letter did 
not exonerate them in the least degree from knowing and 
doing the substance of the commandments as ¥nitten upon 
the heart, "for," said he, ''this commandment which I 
command thee this day, it la not hidden from thee, neither 
IB it far off. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say, 
Who shall go up for us to heaven and bring it unto us, 
that we may hear it and do it ? Neither is it beyond the 
sea, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go over the sea 
for us and bring it unto us, that we may hear it and do it? 
But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in 
thy heart, that thou mayest do it." (Deut. 30: 11.) And 
Paul refers to the same thing when he says, ''It is the 
word of faith which we prea:bh." 

Hence we may see that the law of Qod has ever stood 
the same, in the days of our first parents, of Abraham, 
of Moses, of Jesus, down to the present time, without any 
change, and with this law, the light, life and power neces- 
sary for man's salvation have all and at all times been 
revealed. The gospel was preached to Abraham, and 
Paul says it was preached to every creature; no exclusive- 
ness, no partiality. "He that hath ears, let him hear." 
The moral law and the gospel act in unison in the redemp- 
tion of men, and have ever been equal to the necessity for 
salvation. 



StJKBEBLAKD P. OABDNER. 261 

But the true shepherd will lead his flock into green 
pastures and beside the still waters, the refreshing waters 
of life. The true medium for man is neither found on the 
barren mountains of an empty profession, nor down in the 
turbid waters of unbelief, where the serpents and reptiles 
of all kinds can live in any element except fire. 



Friend S: Thy interesting letter was duly reoeived 
and the contents have been carefully considered, and I 
may say that in my joumeyings I have met with many 
circumstanced like thyself, who feel a desire to fill with 
propriety their proper sphere in the world, could they but 
know just what and where it it. But in looking abroad 
upon the various religious associations they find nothing 
that comes up to the standard, a glimpse of which they 
have doubtless seen in the opening of light in their own 
minds, and thus they stand aloof firom all organized re- 
ligious bodies, hoping and waiting for something to develop 
itself to their minds which shall be more in accord with 
the pattern shown them in the mount of spiritual vision. 

Others, again, taking a general view of the religious 
condition of communities, and seeing how often the prac- 
tice of religious people, or at least of those professing re- 
ligion, fi&Us below expectation, come to the conclusion that 
''there is nothing in it," and being discouraged turn away. 

Thou seems to stand with the former class, a position in 
which I once stood, and had I continued to look outwardly 
and to others with the query, ''Who shall show me any 
good ? " I have no doubt I should have become discouraged 



262 MEM0IB8 OF 

and fallen in with the other class long ago; but by retiring 
into the closet of my own heart I found a witness that 
proved to be true, and one that could speak to my state. 
I found its teachings in my own spirit to correspond with 
the teachings of Jesus. 

If we will look calmly and without prejudice upon the 
circumstances, we shall not necessarily come to the con- 
clusion that there is nothing in religion, even though we 
see the weakness, disbelief or even treachery of some 
amongst professors, for do we not also see noble evidences 
of sincere piety in all Christian denominations ? Different 
tastes and peculiarities of mood or judgment lead men to 
different organizations and forms, but not to a difierence in 
their beliefs as to the existence and authority of God and 
their duty to their fellow-men. All true Christians stand 
alike here. 

When I became acquainted with the history and prin- 
ciples of the Society of Friends I was convinced that 
those principles were such as I could unite with, and so I 
became a member, nor have I ever regretted the step. 
Notwithstanding the divisions and sub-divisions which have 
taken place amongst them, and the shortcomings and 
derelictions of many members from the truth, I have 
found in their ranks many really devoted servants of Grod. 
The Society in its very origin took a step farther in 
reformation than had, perhaps, any other of their time, 
and bore some very important testimonies against promin- 
ent unchristian doctrines and practices, which other 
societies, even at the present day, with all the light they 
claim, have scarcely reached. And I may ask. Have not 
the ''enlightened nations" of the earth received much 



eUKDEBLAKD P. GARDNER. 263 

benefit from the faithfolness and consistency of Friends in 
advocating the rights of man ? Human life is more highly 
valued and better guarded on account of the truths dis- 
seminated through them to the world, and which were 
proclaimed by them at a time wheh to speak the truth was 
to dare the unbridled tortures of persecution. 

They originated the idea of imprisonment instead of 
death for many of the lesser crimes, also of abolishing 
slavery, acknowledged the equality of women with men, a 
free gospel ministry, and many other matters of importance, 
amongst which their testimony against war was not the 
least, an account of which may be found in history. 

The Friends' meeting may be on the wane at DeRujrter, 
as is the case in some other places; some of their meetings, 
however, are on the increase, both as to life and member- 
ship, and in many places the young people are coming up 
to the work and are a great strength to the meetings where 
they reside; yet it is too often the case now as it was in the 
beginning of Greorge Fox's time, ''The old people had gone 
into the earth and the young people into the air." 

Friends have suffered a loss in becoming too much 
diffused in their settlements, in consequence of which their 
children have formed associations to their disadvantage, 
and the lessening of their attachment to their own Society ; 
they have also sufiered a loss from an undue attachment to 
the things of time, and some, even, have suffered loss from 
having to do with ''modern spiritualism; " but neither the 
Society nor individuals would have been harmed by any 
of these things had they "minded the light," and abode 
in the truth : for the light is clear and the truth unchangeable. 

While, like the early Christians, they depended upon 



264 MElfOIBS OF 

the Spirit of Truth to lead them, and the power of love to 
control them, they prospered, for God was in the work ; 
but when, also like the early Christians, they began to 
lessen their trust in that Spirit, their love (the true 
evidence of discipleshi{^) began to cool, and they began to 
lay more stress upon certain doctrines as a test of sound- 
ness than upon uprightness of conduct, hence contentions 
about faith, which resulted in alienations of feeling, dis- 
unity and divisions. 

Nevertheless the foundation on which Society first 
built, and on which the early Christians built, stands firm, 
and all those who build upon it, even every individual 
concerned therein, will know his building to be founded 
upon the rock to which Jesus referred. — Matt. 7: 24, 25. 

And I am aware that present appearances may seem 
discouraging to the sincere engineer, but it may please the 
Father soon to open a way for these where, as yet» no way 
appears. I believe the leaven b even now at work in the 
minds of many, preparing them for an advancement in the 
cause of truth, and power will be given them to turn back 
the waves of unrighteousness, and to show the inutility 
of a dead formalism, and to make the clouds of mystery 
which a false spirit has spread over Christianity to vanish. 

The instrument of such a work may expect to meet 
with opposition, even to persecution;. I have reason to say 
that if we lay aside tradition and plainly declare what 
experience shows us to be true, we are accused of depart- 
ing from the ancient land-marks; if we exercise our 
rational powers, the greatest gift Grod has bestowed upon 
man except the Spirit, our conclusions may contravene 
certain standards acknowledged as popular and proper, 



8tTKD£RLAKD P. OAfiDKSS. ^6 

and then we must remember that every important truth 
when new to thought has been met with opposition. I 
therefore know of no safe way for us to follow but to be 
faithful to the dear convictions of truth in our own minds, 
whatever others may think or say. Truth will make us 
free men in Christ, and then we shall be free indeed. 



[EliasH, Borden, of North Easton, N. Y., after having 
listened to the sermon preached by Sunderland P. Grardner 
at the funeral of David Baker, addressed to him the fol- 
lowing letter.] 

Friend Oabdkeb: — I take the liberty to write you a 
few lines asking your opinion in regard to a few questions 
on Scripture. I attended the funeral of Friend David 
Baker and listened to your discourse, which I consider one 
o£ the greatest, soundest, and made the plainest to be un- 
derstood that I ever heard in my life. I do not belong to 
any church, but believe in the principles set forth by the 
Society called Friends as the true guide to live by. There 
were some persons present on that day who did not 
agree with you on any of the doctrines set forth in your 
discourse, but come to talk with them and reason with them 
they could not shake the rock foundation on which your 
remarks were founded. The questions I would like your 
opinion on are as foUows: 

Do you think that a person can live a life in this world 
as perfect as Christ did while on earth ? 

What is the meaning of the 5th verse of the eleventh 



266 MEMOIRS OF 

chapter of Hebrews, where it says, " Enoch was translated, 
that he should not see death"? 

In Beyelation where it speaks of war in heaven do 
jou think there was a war in Heaven ? — ^which is not a 
heavenly state in this world. 

Please explain the resurrection of Christ mentioned in 
St. John, 22d chapter. Do you think his body, flesh and 
blood, entered the kingdom of heaven? 

Do you think it right to take Sunday as a day to 
visit ? My wife wished me to ask this question ; she belongs 
to the Presbyterian church. 

Do you believe that portions of the Bible are inspired ? 

If Adam had never sinned would there ever have been 
sin in the world ? 

Do you think that, after death, murderers and those 
that live a life of sin, and those that live a perfect life, 
will be together ? 

Do you think that there will be a general judgment 
day when all will be judged, or will each one be judged 
immediately after death ? 

Please have patience with me for asking so much of 
you. I am an uncle of Lydia J. Mosher, of Greenville, 
Washington Co., N. Y., with whom, I think, you are ac- 
quainted. I oftien ask her opinion in regard to Scripture, 
and she generally refers me to you. Again I ask you to 
bear with me in taking the liberty to write to you, and also 
in asking so many questions. 

Yours truly, 

Elias H. Bobden. 

North Eastm, March 8, 1886. 



sunderland p. gardner. 267 

Esteemed Friend, E. H. Borden: 

Thy letter of inquiry is at hand, and at my first lei- 
sure I endeavor to answer, according to my understanding 
of the subjects referred to. 

First. " Do you think a man can live as perfect a life 
in this world as Christ did while on earth ? " 

Answer. "Christ is the power of Grod and the wisdom 
of God/' says the apostle, but the term ''Christ" being 
so often used for " Jesus/' I suppose thou refers to the 
outward, the instrument ** Jesus.'* I believe it is possible 
for a man to do what is required of him (Matt. 5 : 48). 
And to make my views more clearly understood I will use 
the name Jesus (the son of Mary) as distinguished from 
" Christ the Spirit. ' ' We have a history of the beginning 
of the life of Jesus; we have no knowledge of a beginning 
or ending of ''the power and wisdom of God." Jesus came 
into the world and subsisted as do other children, and 
"grew in stature and in favor with God and man." 
He " was made in all things like unto his brethren,' ' and 
being tempted in all points like other men, where was his 
power above common humanity ? He was humble and 
obedient. Said he, ' ' Of myself I can do nothing, ' ' classing 
himself in the same condition of dependence upon a higher 
power as is man generally. " He learned obedience by 
the things which he sufiered," and " was made perfect 
through suffering." It was by taking up the cross, i,e., 
resisting evil and living a life of righteousness, that he 
gained a victory over the world and became fully perfect. 
The same way is open to others, and if they are as faithful 
as he they will with him become the sons and daughters 



268 MEM0IB8 OF 

of God, (being led by the Spirit of Qod), and consequently 
joint-heirs with Jesus Christ. 

Jesus said in His teaching, "Be ye therefore perfect 
even as your Father in heaven is perfect." Now if men 
can become as perfect in their sphere of being as is God in 
His, I think we may infer they may live as perfect lives 
in this world as did Jesus while on earth. 

Second. What is the meaning of Hebrews 11:5, where 
it says, ''Enoch was translated that he should not see 
death?" 

Answer. Let us go back to the original account, Gen. 
5: 29. "Enoch walked with Grod and was not, for God 
took him." 

''Was not " and " is not " are common expressions in 
the scriptures to represent death. Jacob said, " Joseph is 
not," in speaking of the supposed death of Joseph. Hence 
I see nothing in the text to justify the writer in Hebrews, 
or ourselves, in supposing Enoch passed from thb life in 
any other manner than by death, even as it is appointed 
unto all men once to die. " Flesh and blood cannot 
inherit the kingdom of GU)d." There is nothing in the 
narration about translation, and all I can see is, that he 
"walked with God," as all good men must do, and God 
took him from this present life in his own good time, when, 
as to this world, he ceased to be, or "was not" 

Third. " Do you think there was war in heaven, which 
is not a heavenly state in this world ? " I understand it to 
mean a conflict between truth and error. Michael repre- 
sents truth, goodness and love; the dragon represents the 
opposite. Tyranny against freedom, error against truth, 
hatred against love, — ^these antagonistic principles are ever 



SUKDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 269 

at war with each other. This war seeinB to have com- 
menced with human history (see Gain against Abel). 
Notice the persecutions of the past, notice to-daj the con- 
flict of truth and error in the various forms of action, in 
all moral, scientific or religious matters. All these con- 
flicts have left their mark, for evil or for good. The Jews 
kiUed Jesus because he told them truths they did not like 
to hear, and Michael Servetus was burned because he 
difiered from John Calvin in a matter of opinion. The out- 
ward church has cruelly slain its thousands for the same 
reason, the Presbyterians persecuting the Quakers and 
Baptists; and the agonies that have been borne for con- 
science' sake, or for opinion's sake, on account of the 
tyrannical selfishness of ignorant egotism, could not be 
borne even in imagination to-day. 

This war is also carried on in each individual soul, and 
where Michael (Truth) prevails, all the cardinal virtues, 
'* the fruit of the Spirit," will enter and take possession 
of the hearty — ''Love, joy, peace, longsufiering, gentle- 
ness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance, against which 
there is no law." "And they that are Christ's have cruci- 
fied the flesh with the afiections and lusts." Then, perfect 
love casts out all fear, and the power of the dragon is 
broken. 

Fourth. "The resurrection of Christ (Jesus?) men- 
tioned in John, chapter 22. Do you think his body, flesh 
and blood, entered the kingdom of Heaven ? " 

Answer. The outward bodily resurrection of Jesus is 
a subject to which I have never felt it my duty to refer in 
public ministry, nor has it been revealed to me by Divine 
truth or by experience that a belief concerning it one way 



270 MEMOIB8 OF 

or the other will materially affect mankind. There is a 
resurrection of Christ the Spirit, which Spirit Jesus fre- 
quently personified as the power which anointed him for 
his mission, which I can understand, because it may be 
realized by experience. Carefully read Romans, 6th 
chapter. Paul also says, ''Except Christ be raised our 
preaching is vain, and your faith also is vain." Study 
the 8th chapter of Romans. Paul also taught that " Christ 
within is the hope of glory." Now when we choose 
to be led by the Spirit of Christ within, Christ having 
the dominion will draw us from a lower to a higher con- 
dition ; thus every soul that obeys him is raised or drawn 
unto him. Paul also says that " Except Christ be risen 
ye are yet in your sins." Thou sees that if this refers 
to the bodily resurrection of Jesus, it indicates that all 
men are by that act freed from their sins, which I think 
no man will venture to assert. But if it means the rising 
into dominion of Christ in the soul of man, the matter is 
easily understood by those who have experience in the 
"new birth." 

Regarding the second part of the query, " Do you think 
his body, flesh and blood, entered into the kingdom of 
Heaven?" (see 1 Cor. 15: 50): if we consult John we 
shall see that after the resurrection of Jesus, he said to 
Mary (John 20: 17), " The kingdom of Cod is within 
you. " Therefore it is not a place located at a great dis- 
tance, but rather a condition. " Righteousness, peace, and 
joy in the Holy Ghost " is the definition given in Rom. 
14 : 17. But as to the mystery of the resurrection of Jesus 
I can explain nothing. I can only read the accounta 
as given in the Scriptures and know nothing mor^. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 271 

Bat let us refer to the saying of Jesus in regard to 
his own flesh and blood. If thou wilt refer to St. John 
6: 32, and carefully consider the words which he spake to 
the Jews, and also to his disciples, thou can see how he 
personified the principle or "bread of life," and it was 
clearly this principle to which he always referred, and not 
to the material flesh and blood (see verses 63 and 65). In 
the last-mentioned verse he utters forth the great and 
important truth, *' No man can come unto me (the living 
principle) except it were given unto him of my Father. ' ' 
44th verse, " No man can come to me except the Father 
which hath sent me draw him. " Again made clear and 
easy in the 45th verse, " Every man therefore that hath 
heard and hath learned of the Father cometh unto me." 
This is only saying, as a pure prophet of Grod could 
say, "The principles I teach are the truths of Gk)d; they 
are living and essential truths, necessary for the well-being 
of mankind. Believing them, and thus from the heart obey- 
ing them, ye will become purified from your errors, and 
strengthened in the life of Christ," — or, in other words, 
" anointed with the Spirit, and thus enabled to go on unto 
perfection." Therefore, "Come unto me and I will give 
you life," i.e., *' I, being a pure vessel or instrument devoted 
to and made use of by the Father, receiving the words 
of life or *' bread of life by which ye may live" from him, 
stand before you and speak them unto you. If you will 
listen unto me, you will thus know his will, but you must 
humble yourselves even as a little child, for in no other 
condition can instruction be received with the best advan- 
tage. "God resisteth the proud; humble yourselves 
therefore before God, and he will give you grace; then 



272 MEMOIBS OF 

if you come unto me ye will know whether I speak of 
myself as a man or speak that to you which the Father 
giveth me to say." It is written in the prophets, '* They 
shall all be taught of God." 

Thus partly in my own language and partly by quota- 
tion I recount his teaching. By " searching the scriptures ' ' 
we find that God sent his messages to mankind, sometimes 
by means of human instruments, and sometimes by direct 
impression on the soul concerned, but in all cases man has 
been required to humble himself before God, giving up the 
command of self into the hand of his Heavenly Father, 
even as a child must submit himself to his parents if he 
would be protected and guided by their superior wisdom 
and love. In this condition he will be " taught of Gk)d," 
and in the days of Jesus all those who brought themselves 
into this teachable state could and did understand him as 
he was, and thus came to be his true followers. The only 
wall between the Jews and the Truth was their want of true 
humility, their egotistic pride, — the common idea that they 
were " the wise and prudent," instead of feeling or desiring 
to be " babes " in Christ; and this is the wall which still 
stands between the sinner and his Grod. 

53d verse: '' Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, 
and drink his blood, ye have no life in you." 54th: 
''Whoso eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath 
eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day." 
This indeed was a hard saying to men who were not in a 
condition to be taught of God (verses 55-58 inclusive) . 
They could not fathom it; to them all was outward. He said 
to them, "Not as your fathers did eat manna (physical) 
and are dead." "As (in like manner) the living Father 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 273 

hath sent me, and I live by the Father (spiritually), so 
(in the same manner) he that eateth me, even he shall live 
by me/' ''This is the bread (the spiritaal life and 
iriom) which came down from heaven.'' 

63d: "It is the Spirit that quickeneth; the flesh 
profiteth nothing : the words that I speak unto you, they 
are Spirit and they are life" (they are from the Spirit 
of Truth and in the life). 

At one time Jesus spoke thus to the Father, and it seemed 
to be an answer to something that had been revealed to 
him: "I thank thee,0 Father, Lord of heaven and earth, 
because thou hast hid these things from the (worldly or 
considered by the world) wise and prudent, and hast 
revealed them unto babes." " Even so, Father, for so it 
seemed good in thy sight " See the justice and consequent 
harmony and beauty of this law of Grod, — ^the rich and 
mighty ones of the world have often robbed and crushed 
the poor and weak ones by their power as tyrants, but 
they cannot take Grod's kingdom into their hands. He 
will rule and call to account in justice, and those who are 
humUe before him, seeking and obeying him as their 
Father and Gk>d, have all things necessary for their good 
revealed unto them, all necessary strength given unto 
them, and at last receive, as Paul did, the crown of right- 
eousness (2 Tim. 4: 8), which good things, yea, incompara- 
bly good things, cannot be wrested from them. 

Only in this humble condition could the Jews have 
seen and only in this teachable condition can we see the 
truth as it was in Jesus. He made it quite plain that he 
meant not the flesh and blood physically, but the spirit 
only. Thus it seems from all accounts most reasonable to 

18 



274 MEMOIB8 OF 

suppose that only the spiritual or spiritualized body can 
enter heaven. 

Fifth. Do you think it right to take Sunday as a day 
to visit ? 

The right or wrong of it, I think, depends upon a 
conscientious estimate of the day (Col. 2 : 16). If any 
believe it to be a divinely-appointed day, especially sacred 
to the Lord, into which no worldly cares are to intrude, 
such could not consistently make social visits or business 
visits on that day, but those who consider it simply de- 
signed for a day of rest, sacred only for the purpose of 
natural recuperation, will probably visit with a clear 
conscience, only let them beware that their visits do not 
intrude on those who do consider it their duty to honor 
the Seventh-day, or who may be wearied out with the 
labors of the week past and sorely need the rest allotted 
in wisdom for that day. See Nehemiah 9 : 14, Exodus 
20 : 8. Read the 19th chapter of Leviticus, and though 
it be contained in the Jewish law, it was the Lord who 
spake these words unto Moses. And in order to realize 
the value of them to humanity, whether amongst the Jews 
or elsewhere, in the olden days or now, let us imagine the 
spirit of them to be swept from the world ! It is claimed 
by many that the Seventh-day of the week, or the Jewish 
Sabbath, was the one designated by the Almighty as holy, 
but I see no reason to think otherwise than that it was the 
seventh part of time, — one day out of each seven, — set 
apart for the Sabbath of rest, — rest from worldly cares, no 
matter how good in their place ; yet Jesus made it clear 
that any necessary act for the benefit of any is lawful for 
the Sabbath day. It seems to me that the Divine authority 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 275 

for a Sabbath is proved by human necessity: — what 
sajB the physician? The more modem arrangement 
of taking the First-day of the week for rest and public 
worship, according to the convenience and decree of an 
Eastern emperor converted from sun-worship to Chris- 
tianity, has no Divine authority that we know of ; yet the 
particular time set apart by the people or by common con- 
sent and custom is of course the most convenient and 
pleasant, as ail being agreed will work in harmony ; at the 
same time it will honor the seventh part of the time, the 
Seventh-day, as holy unto the Lord, and will give the 
desired quiet and rest. I see nothing incongruous in this. 
We do not visit on the Sabbath except in case of sickness. 
I have observed that after a woman has labored six days 
of the week, she needs to rest as well as her brothers; but 
if Sunday brings visitors, her work is as hard as on any 
other day, giving her no opportunity to renew her strength 
for the coming days, thus surely, and dangerously for her 
at least, breaking a law of nature, and proving to my mind 
that the law, consequently the command, is in Divine 
wisdom. 

Sixth. Do you believe portions of the Scriptures are 
inspired? 

I believe that portions of the Bible were written by 
inspired men, that there is a spirit in man, and the inspira- 
tion of the Almighty giveth him understanding. If the 
instrument is pure, as Jesus was, the inspiration of God will 
be active in that spirit, and His will and wisdom will be 
made known to us through that chosen instrument just as 
clearly as it was in the old times when the prophets spake 
to the people. 



276 MEMOIRS OF 

Seventh. If Adam had not sinned would there ever 
have been any sin in the world ? 

Answer. That would have depended upon the choice 
of Adam's successors. If they had all lived righteous lives 
as did Abel, there would have been no sin. Adam's sin 
entailed no disadvantage to his posterity other than by 
the strength of example ; each individual being responsi- 
ble only for what he is intrusted with. Read Ezekiel 
18 : 20. Jesus said, '' Suffer little children to come unto 
me and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of 
Heaven." These Scripture declarations plainly contradict 
the doctrine that men are affected by Adam's sin. Sin 
comes only by a wrong use of that which is good; it 
originates only where such wrong use is made, therefore is 
original in every soul that sins. 

Eighth. Do you think murderers and those that live a 
life of sin, and those that live a perfect life, will be together 
after death ? 

Answer. The two conditions are incompatible, and can 
have no more unity with each other than can the two 
antagonistic elements of fire and water. " Righteousness 
hath no fellowship with unrighteousness, neither hath light 
any communication with darkness." Christ hath no con- 
cord with evil, neither hath the believer any part with the 
infidel. These adverse conditions cannot unite and har- 
monize anywhere. As to personal location in another 
state I have no definite idea. 

Ninth. Do you think there will be a general judgment 
day when all will be judged, or will each one be judged 
immediately after death ? 

Answer. Wherever there is a rational soul there is 



SUyDEBLAND P. OABDNEB. 277 

present a seat of judgment ; and where the Grospel of 
Christ is preached, — and that is in the soul of man, — ^it b 
accompanied by a consciousness of right and wrong. I 
look upon this fact as one of the certain evidences given 
to men of the presence and Fatherly care of the Supreme 
Being, and I consider it the only judgment that need con- 
cern us now, for if we bring our thoughts and motives to 
this bar of Truth in our own souls, and regulate our lives 
accordingly, we need have no fear concerning a future 
judgment^ as all must be well with us in any case. If we are 
true to our highest interest, we shall most carefully attend 
to this point, and will thus be enabled to quickly feel the 
condemnation or approbation of the ' ^ Judge of the quick 
and dead," thus being enabled to walk without stumbling 
in the path appointed by His wisdom and goodness. 

There are several passages in the Scriptures that seem 
to indicate an especial time of general judgment in the 
future, see Rev. 11: 17, 18, 19 ; 14: 6, 7, etc. But this 
is in the future; we can only read the account and wait 
imtil it is shown unto us. The present judgment is all we 
can influence or understand or be benefited by in our 
walk through probation. 



JuuA Pabbons: 

Mt Dear Young Friend: — ^Thy letter has come to 
hand. . . I have not only sympathized with you in the great 
loss you have sustained in the death of EUwood Birdsall, 
but have largely shared with you in a sense of the bereave- 
ment, for as a brother, a friend, a Christian, a truly noble 
man, we all had a deep interest in him. We find it is the 



278 MEMOIRS OF 

oommon lot of all, that, however strong our attachments, 
however sincere our affection, however deep our love, sep- 
aration is unavoidable in this world. We are deeply affected 
by the sundering of the tender relations we bear to each 
other, but the hope of the Christian is that a state will be 
reached where there will be no more death or separation 
or sorrow or tears. 

I have not heard anything concerning thy grand- 
mother since thy father wrote. Has she been able to bear 
up under the united pressure of sorrow and ill health ? 
My health has not been good this winter; about five weeks 
ago I was taken with the "grippe," which waa very 
severe; I thought for a time it would be my last sickness. 
I was confined to the house until yesterday, when I 
attended meeting, which I enjoyed very much. 



My Deab Fkiend, J. C. Russell: 

Thy letter of kind remembrance came duly to hand, 
and it seems to me that it is a still further confirmation 
(if any were needed) of especial providence and guidance; 
to make this clear I will use the freedom to inform thee, 
since thou hast done this kindness, of my circumstances 
during the past year up to the time in which thy last letter 
was received. 

Our Monthly and Quarterly Meetings in Ninth month 
last, granted to me a minute of unity with my prospect 
of visiting the Yearly Meeting of Philadelphia, and 
of attending quarterly and other meetings as the way 
opened for it within the compass of Philadelphia, New 
York and Baltimore Yearly Meetings; also to attend 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 279 

Indiana Yearly Meeting. My time has been mostly occu- 
pied during the year according to the prospect, but my 
work is not all yet accomplished. Besides attending 
funerals not far from home, I have travelled 9100 miles. 
It has proved true this year that farming in this section 
has been almost a failure; my own case was not an excep- 
tion; my wheat was nearly destroyed, and our potatoes 
rotted so badly we had none to sell, though we have had 
enough for our own use; thus my available means for 
travelling were entirely exhausted, not a dollar beyond 
home necessity remaining; accordingly I saw no way but 
to hire money or wait for something to come from the 
ground. Just at this point I received thy check, which 
will enable me, when the right time comes, to further carry 
on my religious prospect. I think my sons with my help 
will be able to manage the farming; produce is so low and 
wages so high I think it not best to hire a man this year. 
Genesee Yearly Meeting is held here this season, and we 
are preparing for it; we have ample room, and shall 
endeavor to furnish the house in a plain way so that 
Friends shall be comfortable during the meeting. We 
hope thou wilt be with us on the occasion, and if so we 
wish thee to make thy home with us; when informed 
of thy prospect of coming I will send directions where to 
come so we may meet thee. 

I have used great freedom in stating my circumstances 
on this occasion, for after I had received thy unsolicited 
and unexpected assistance, it seemed meet that the truth 
be told, that God should receive the glory. . . • 

Thy assured ftiend, 

Sunderland P. Gardner. 



280 MEMOIBS OF 



EXTBACTS FBOM ANOTHER LETTER LATER IN ANSWER 

TO ESPECLA.L INQUIRIES. 

J. C. Russell: 

Dear Friend: — I am glad to learn that thou and 
family are blessed with comfortable health. M7 own 
health is much improved. . . . 

While travelling in Virginia I caught a severe cold, and 
instead of stopping and thoroughly applying the proper 
remedies as I ought, I continued my journey, attending 
meetings and changing lodging-places until I had finished 
the work in that vicinity; the last meeting I attended was 
Bucks Quarter at Langhome. The visit throughout was 
satisfactory. I was accompanied by Edward Eldredge. 

A few days after my return home I attended a funeral 
at Easton, north-east of Troy, during the coldest period 
reached this winter, which seemed to aggravate my cold; 
after returning home I was for some time confined to my 
bed, having a severe cough and catarrh in my head. For 
some time it seemed I was tending to a decline. But the 
cough has ceased, the catarrh has disappeared, and a pain 
which has troubled me for some years in my left side has 
ceased. Farming, as thou already knows, has not been 
favorable the past year; my potatoes were mostly destroyed 
by rot, and my wheat mostly eaten ofi* by insects. From 
thirteen acres I had a little less than one hundred bushels, 
which, counting the cost of phosphate, the price of seed, the 
use of the land, and the labor to raise the wheat, made the 
expense more than twelve shillings per bushel, while it will 
bring in market no more than ninety cents. It is a close 
time with many farmers here, taxes being high. But I 



i 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER* 281 

feel thankful that we have enough for our present neces- 
sities, and trust for the future. 

I have been from home the most part of the past year; 
mj lot has been among kind friends. I have travelled by 
night and by day, and through the various changes 
of weather, and it has seemed to me that I have been sus- 
tained and strengthened by a power above human ability. 
I certainly should not have been able to finish the work I 
felt a call to do, had it not been for thy timely assistance. 
Surely I have cause to be grateful to thee, and to our 
Heavenly Father who has chosen thee as a dispenser of his 
bounty. 



EXTRACTS FROM A LETTER, DATE UNKNOWN. 

If we do not feel it laid upon us as a special duty to 
speak publicly of those matters which appear inconsistent 
with reason, and which of themselves hold no apparent 
relation to our circumstances or interests, it may be as well 
to pass them by wherever found. 

I do not believe our Heavenly Father requires us to 
believe or trouble ourselves about mysteries, for ' * things 
revealed belong to us and our children; " and just as fast 
as anything, an act or understanding, is required of us, a 
corresponding revelation will be made to us. 

" Faith is the evidence of things not seen," therefore 
the true fiuth " that works by love to the purifying of the 
hearty" enabling us to overcome the world, is the kind 
easily understood and well pleasing to God. 



282 MEMOIRS OF 

A truth revealed to my own mind i» as sacred, in my 
estimation, as though it had been spoken by Paul, Peter 
or John, or any other scriptural personage; because if my 
Heavenly Father speaks unto me, telling me of his will con- 
cerning myself, or my duty to others, is not his word as 
holy to-day as it was eighteen centuries ago ? and is not 
the Spirit of truth that Jesus said should lead us into all 
truth, as good authority now as it ever has been in any 
age of man's existence ? And when taught by this Spirit 
may we not discern between the false and the true, between 
bare tradition and things that livingly concern us, and 
may we not under such instruction judge of second-hand 
declarations as well as those to whom Paul said: '' Know 
ye not that we shall judge angels ''? (1 Cor. 6:3.) 

I value the Scriptures highly, for there is that in them 
which bears witness to the truth; the precepts and testi- 
monies of Jesus contain deep springs of wisdom and 
instruction, and the code of morals that he held forth is 
just what the world needs, and is the only one that will 
ever prepare man to truthfully sing the anthem, " Glory 
to Grod in the highest, peace on earth and good will to 
men.*' 

God in his goodness has given us many helps, amongst 
which the influence of worthy people, his messengers, in 
their various callings, and the Bible, especially the inspired 
portions, are very near to us; yet we should not make 
idols of any of them, or blindly receive everything that 
offers itself to our attention, for there are fitlse angels to be 
met with as well as true ones. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNEB. 283 



EXTRACT. 

In taking a review of my ministerial labors, I would 
not recall anything that I have delivered in public testi- 
mony. Some of my public communications have not been 
correctly reported — ^but those which I had the privilege 
of seeing before publication are correct, except a few errors 
of the printer. 

I am accused by some of denying the divinity of Jesus 
Christ. I believe there is but one Grod, the Father of all, 
and do believe that all that was divine in Jesus, or any 
other, was and is of the Father; and that Jesus equally 
with all other men was dependent upon Him of whom it 
was said, ''The Lord he is Ood in heaven above, and 
upon the earth : beneath there is none else. " (Deut. 4 : 39.) 



Joseph E. Smith : 

Dear Friend : — Thy friendly note of inquiry is at 
hand, and as my memory goes back to a time prior to the 
Separation, I can assure thee that the unpleasantness which 
resulted in the Separation in 1827 and 1828 did not origi- 
nate because of alleged unsoundness of doctrines but from 
wholly another source. London Yearly Meeting of Friends, 
being the first one organized, was looked to as embracing 
the principal strength of the Society, which was natural 
and correct for awhile. But as the Society increased 
9ther Yearly Meetings were established in America, and 
until the organization of those meetings London Yearly 
Meeting exercised something like parental care toward 



284 HEHOIRB OF 

Friends as its members in all countries wherever they 
were. This was well so far; but in the early part of this 
century some of the ministers (members of London Yearly 
Meeting) visiting Friends here began to interfere improp- 
erly with the business and arrangements of the Yearly 
Meetings in America. They urged that a congress or 
principal meeting should be established, composed of dele- 
gates from each Yearly Meeting, mostly ministers and 
elders, and that each Yearly Meeting should contribute 
according to its means to pay the expenses of this congress, 
viz. : for time spent, board for themselves, keeping of their 
teams, and all incidental expenses. All important matters 
that came before the several Yearly Meetings should be 
referred to this congress for final decision. This aroused 
the feelings of many Friends who opposed, asserting that 
''each Yearly Meeting b an independent body, and should 
not be held in leading strings to London Yearly Meeting 
or any other." The project of our English Friends &iled. 
Elias Hicks was one of its prominent opposers, but he 
was not to be forgiven. The shafts of envy and bitterness 
were soon discovered to be the weapons that the archers 
aimed at him. Thus commenced the unpleasantness in the 
Sodety of Friends, when it could no longer be said truth- 
fully, "See how the Quakers love each other.'' But at 
this time there was nothing said of heresy or unsound 
doctrine. 

Elias stood probably second to no member of the Society 
of Friends anywhere as a minister of the gospel, in great- 
ness of talents, well improved, deep experience and moral 
rectitude. And as a faithful watchman he seasonably gave 
the alarm when any innovation against the healthful order 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNEB. 286 

of the Society was proposed, whether from EDgland or 
nearer home. Therefore in order that the prestige of 
English Friends should be continued here, it was necessary 
that the influence of Elias Hicks should be counteracted or 
destroyed. In order to produce this result, the English 
Friends claimed that Elias Hicks was unsound in doctrine, 
and that he and those Friends who would not join with 
them should be disowned from Society. (Proceedings in 
New York Yearly Meeting in 1828.) On the opening of 
the Yearly Meeting on Second-day morning, Thomas 
Shillitoc, a minister from England, protested against the 
meeting proceeding to business until certain persons pres- 
ent had withdrawn. Here was a palpable case of foreign 
interference. 

Being present, it seemed to me that London Yearly 
Meeting assumed authority, as manifested by their numer- 
ous ministers here at that time, to endeavor to exercise a 
power over the Yearly Meetings in America in religious 
matters similar to that exercised by the English Govern- 
ment politically toward the colonies, which they could not 
bear, and hence the revolution; the coincidence was clearly 
seen. 

The Society of Friends never having adopted a creed 
in such a way as to set metes and bounds in all things per- 
taining to doctrines perhaps never was a unit in belief 
concerning them. This appears evident from their writ- 
ings and sermons. But while they went forth clothed with 
the best garment, love, a difference in belief, where it 
admitted no turpitude of morals, was not used as a matter 
to judge one another. 

But in the case of the Society of Friends, unjustly 



286 MEMOIBS OF 

called Hicksites, there has been a pharisaical spirit mani- 
fested against it similar to that which brought Jesus to the 
cross. But there is a reaction gradually progressing which 
I rejoice to see. It is working like leaven in England. The 
work entitled "A Reasonable Faith " gives evidence of it, 
and there is not and never was a true faith except it was 
a reasonable one. I have stated some of the circumstances 
which led to the separation in the Society of Friends as I 
saw and understood them as they transpired. 

In regard to the birth of Jesus. Elias Hicks, in answer 
to a query of Thomas Legget, Jr., of New York, said, " I 
have ever believed and asserted, from my youth up, that I 
had as full a belief in the miraculous conception of the 
fleshly body of Jesus Christ as it was possible for history to 
give belief, and I may now assure thee that I never 
thought or said that I believed Joseph was his father." 
(Book of Letters, page 226. ) 

As to George Fox I confess I am not satisfied in my 
own mind what his belief was on the subject. His style 
of writing is rather peculiar, sometimes complex, abound- 
ing in repetitions. But he did not place much value on 
externals and non-essentials in religion. He said the Son 
of God and truth are synonymous, meaning the same thing, 
and whether he believed in the miraculous conception or 
not, the one or the other I think by themselves would 
make neither the better or the worse man. I esteem him 
as a devoted servant of God. 

The separation in New York Yearly Meeting was 
forced upon Friends by ministers, ' members of London 
Yearly Meeting. They were sorely disappointed in failing 
to draw after them a majority of the Friends here, but 



6UNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 287 

they rejoiced in the success in producing a separation ; in 

setting Friend against Friend, husband against wife, and 

wife against husband in matters of religion ; in short, greatly 

hurt the character and checked the influence of the Society 

at large. 

Thy friend, 

Sunderland P. Gardner. 



Sunderland P. Gardner: 

Dear Friend : — I have spent a good deal of time read- 
ing the cause of the Separation. I found it elaborately given 
by the Orthodox, but nowhere could I find Hicksite defense. 
Thee has given the cause intelligently and very satisfact- 
orily. I was led to search for unsoundness as charged. 
In order to draw comparisons I first read the great trial 
which drew from witnesses various doctrines. This caused 
me to read Hoag-Shillitoe, which latter bore in foot-notes 
many extracts from Hicks and others. I then felt drawn 
to read £. Hicks' Sermons, Comly, Kersey, Fox and 
Barclay, to know whether Elias had departed from the 
ancient fiuth. I found all very profitable reading. I had 
about concluded Elias had presented a stumbling-block, 
until I received thy very acceptable letter. The first 
stumbling-block, as I understand it, was spoken at Arch 
Street, 1824. 

'* Who was his father ? He was begotten of God; we 
cannot suppose that it was the outward body of flesh and 
blood that was begotten of God, — ^but a birth of the spirit- 
ual life in the soul. We must apply it internally and 
spiritually. For nothing can be a son of God, but that 
which is spirit ; and nothing but the soul of man is a re- 



288 MEMOIRS OF 

cipient for the light and spirit of God. Therefore nothing 
can be a son of God but that which is immortal and invis- 
ible. Nothing visible can be a Son of God. ... By the 
analogy of reason, spirit cannot beget a material body, be- 
cause the thing begotten must be of the same nature with 
its father. Spirit cannot beget anything but spirit, it cannot 
beget flesh and blood; — no, my friends, it is impossible." 

After reading the above, I felt like appealing to thee, 
thinking from thy age and experience thee could speak 
from personal knowledge upon this point. While I am 
writing this, please allow me to extend my remarks. When 
Jesus promised that the Father would ** send another 
Comforter," what was the Comforter? Was it di&rent 
in essence or quality from what many have realized 
since the birth of Adam ? Jesus said his disciples looked 
up to him too much ; to the outward, for it is readily seen 
they could not realize the presence of the Holy Spirit, 
while he was here bodily. 

They continued to look on his earthly power to set up 
a temporal kingdom. This was evident by the question 
they proposed; Lord, wilt thou at this time restore the 
kingdom to Israel ? Jesus knew they looked too much 
outward to turn inward to that Light, which he well knew 
was inherent in each and every one, ready to guide them. 
I do not think Jesus' departure is now preached among 
Hicksites as being necessary to fulfil the Scripture, nor 
that he should become a sacrifice for the sins of the whole 
world. But that he naturally became a sacrifice, as many 
have since done, and that his shedding material blood did 
not expiate the sins of any part of the world, except in- 
directly, through the effect of his example and preaching. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 289 

which taught the whole world the means of salvation. I 
am in somewhat of a dilemma upon the term mediatorship, 
and hope thee may see clear to say something on this 
point; if not, let it pass. That Christ is the only mediator 
between God and man^— does this not make Christ or the 
Spirit somewhat distinct ? If not distinct, please tell mc 
in what does the mediator consist? To say God was 
manifest in the flesh, to say God and Christ are one, and 
to say Christ is the only mediator between God and man, 
is a doctrine I cannot quite reach. I feel concerned to 
make my point of inquiry as clear as possible. What are 
we to do about the Christ, or that spirit which belonged to 
Jesus? The writers say that Christ has dwelt in mankind, 
and was considerably manifested to the patriarchs, prophets 
and holy men. If we hold that Christ in a measure is 
distinct, I can understand. If there were nothing belonging 
to Jesus except what has been made known to others, a 
plain question right here occurs to me. What have we to 
do now with Jesus bom of the Virgin Mary, or of his 
Spirit which was conceived of the Holy Ghost ? Thee 
may think I ought not to ask this question, but it is one I 
have thought about, and I feel whatever impression 
thee has, if imparted at all, would be done in a clear 
manner without ambiguity. I am willing to ascribe all to 
Jesus, but do not think externals make much difference so 
long as we live by Micah 6 : 8. Some of the foregoing 
remarks might lead churchmen to ask. Where is Jesus now ? 
If I were to answer that his atoms have returned to their 
parent dust, and his soul rests with its God, they would say, 
Down goes the Christian religion ! I could say, No; for 
the principle upon which Jesus based his doctrine will 

19 



290 MEMOIRS OF 

last forever, and when we place religion on such a basis, it 

will be understood, cherished, and appreciated. 

Ideas and doctrines may change, but the structure will 

grow and remain throughout eternity. ** The Reasonable 

Faith" I read last summer. I have not written with a 

view to controversy. If thee anawerB any part, please 

notice the paragraph of E. Hicks and the mediatorship, 

also my last question. I hope not to intrude upon thy 

attention. I am favorably impressed with thy plain 

delineation of the principles of truth. 

Respectfully, 

Jos. E. Smith, M.D. 
Yardley, Pa. 

Note. — By a brief subsequent letter, J. E. S. ex- 
pressed full satisfaction with 6. P. G.'s answer to the fore- 
going, but it did not appear among the manuscript. 



LETTER OF ELIZABETH FREEMAN. 

S. P. Gardner: 

My Dear Friend: — It is with hesitancy and delicacy 
of feeling that I intrude upon thy time, and perhaps season 
of rest, realizing in a measure how fully thy time must be 
employed, and how sweet the occasional respite from labor 
must be, but there is a subject upon which I would like to 
get thy views, providing it shall seem best to thee to give 
them. 

In conversation with a young inquiring mind recently, 
the subject of the "flood '' or "deluge" of Noah's time 
was brought up, and my expression of some doubt as to 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 291 

its ever having taken place literally, as we might conclude 
from simply reading the account as recorded in scripture, 
was cause of some surprise. 

It has long seemed to me contrary to the attributes we 
ascribe to our Heavenly Father that He should ever have 
repented having made that which He at one time pro- 
nounced " good/' and not only good but " very good," or 
that he would have employed such a means to destroy the 
workmanship of His own hand or creative power, but have 
felt to advance the idea with great caution, not wishing to 
harm one of the least of the little ones, or to advance any 
views that might be erroneous; also I have not been able 
to discover a spiritual application of it that seems satisfac- 
tory, therefore my mind has turned to thee as one of large 
experience and deep spiritual insight, and also a very dear 
friend, to show me my error or confirm my convictions as 
the case may be, — ^that is if thee feels it best to give it any 

attention. . . . 

Thy attached friend, 

EuzABETH Freeman. 

Orchard Park, First month 15th, 1888. 



A LETTER TO ELIZABETH FREEMAN.* 

Dear Friend: — ^Thy friendly note of the 15th inst 
came duly to hand, and contents careAiUy noted, but during 
ten days past I have been afflicted with an epidemic cold, 
confining me to the house, and nearly disqualifying me for 
doing anything. 



*In replj to one asking his (S. P. Gardner's) opinion respecting the flood 
haying oocnrred as recorded in scriptore. 



292 MEMOIRS OF 

I have for a long time had doubts about such a flood 
as stated in the Bible; also of some parts of the story of 
Jonah y and about the three men being cast into a furnace 
heated seven degrees beyond what was necessary to melt 
iron, and not even their clothes affected. 

Yet there is no doubt there was a warp of truth in 
them which gave a start to the legends, and whatever cir- 
cumstances or truths there were, passed along traditionally 
a great length of time before they were written, and as 
they passed firom age to age, by accretions became clothed 
with very different representations from what were the 
facts in the commencement. 

If there really were a flood, as probably there was to 
some extent, there are good reasons to suppose that it did 
not cover the whole earth, for in order to cover the tops 
of the mountains the waters must have been over five miles 
deeper than at present, and if so, what has become of them ? 
Besides that, there are numerous animals in America that 
are not found east of the Atlantic. It is, I think, reason- 
able to suppose that if some animals from America had 
been gathered into the ark, after the flood had been dis- 
missed they would have multiplied and left some of 
their posterity there before coming back to America, where 
only they are now known to exist. A chain is no stronger 
than its weakest links. ** And it repented the Lord that 
He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at 
His heart; " again, '* For it repentethme that I have made 
them; " these are weak links, and sufficient to destroy the 
chain of the whole story. 

I have said there was probably a warp of truth origin- 
ally in them, but the woof that was interwoven in process 



BUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 293 

of time, no doubt long before they were written, has so 
obscured the fabric that we cannot now discern what was 
the truth. 

I am of the belief that all scripture given by inspira- 
tion of Gk>d, or any truth revealed for the benefit of man, 
will be expressed in such terms as to be understood by 
right reason, and proved to be truth by experience. 
"Things revealed belong to us and our children; secret 
things belong to God." 

I think no faith is required of us any further than 
evidence is furnished to build it upon, hence religion that 
stands in mystery is not the religion that can benefit us. 

Among many subjects that might be referred to I will 

refer to but one, the circumstance of the sun and moon 

being commanded to stand still to enable Joshua and his 

army to more successfully destroy their enemies. "Sun 

stand thou still upon Gibeon, and thou moon in the vale 

of Ajalon. So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, 

and hasted not to go down about a whole day." (Joshua 
10: 12-13. 

I do not suppose there is an astronomer on earth that 

will admit its literal truth, and it is set forth in such terms 

that there is no mistaking the meaning. I therefore think 

that none will claim it to be the word of Grod except 

religious fanatics. 

From thy sure friend, 

SUKDEBLAKD P. GaRDVER. 



294 MEMOIBS OF 



AN8WEB8 TO A STUDENT AT SWARTHMORE. 

E. H., Esteemed Young Friend: 

Thy note of the 21st of First month came seasonably 
to hand, but poor health is my excuse for not answering it 
promptly. 

As to just what the different Yearly Meetings set forth 
as proper to be read, I am not posted, further than con- 
cerning those writings generally approved by Friends from 
the organization of Society to the present time. 

In selecting a course of reading, I would advise young 
people to try to get the benefit of the practical experience 
of their parents and teachers, or of some elderly Friend, 
who, on account of virtue, wisdom and learning, may be 
trusted; for the knowledge derived from the experience of 
such is of incalculable value to the new beginners in any 
path. As a rule, it is safe to choose our reading as we 
would our companions; purity, honor, honesty, justice, 
human-kindness and intelligence, are attributes we could 
not dispense with in a friend. Could we take into our 
confidence, into our very souls, the companionship of a 
literature less worthy ? I do not deem the particular form 
of a composition as constituting the life of it, but the 
essence, the meaning, the direction, the final impression, 
— or, in other words, the influence upon our dispositions is 
the thing to be considered. 

It is well to know something of the world and of 
human nature with which we are necessarily surrounded, 
but I would not advise a child of mine to wallow with the 
swine (excuse me) in the mire, in order to know what 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 295 

kind of sensation contact with the mire might give. I 
would rather he would look on from a distance, if at all, 
and keep just as far from both jswine and mire as possible. 
I would not wbh him to mingle with the low and sensual 
either in mankind or books in order that he might know 
what evil is, but I would have him know as Paul would 
have Timothy know (2 Tim. 1:7). 

In this present day we are so happy as to have access to 
good publications in great variety, and on every legitimate 
subject, and should hardly be tempted to seek the lower 
grades of literature. As for novels, I do not read them, 
and so have no experience to give, but looking upon them 
as compositions, I suppose that one from a pure and good 
writer, containing only pure and noble teachings, might 
be to the mind what a dish of fruits might be to the table, 
— a dessert but not a meal ; it might be a recreation to a 
mind fatigued with solid study, it might be a lesson, an 
encouragement, a comfort to a burdened or uncertain 
heart in some conditions, but, like the dessert on the table, 
innocent, and useful to a certain extent; but too much of it 
will weaken, and in the end destroy. 

The saddest thought that comes with this is, that, like 
the Egyptian plague of frogs, these works, and the worst 
class at that, often come into our houses, even into our 
bed-chambers and kneading-troughs, to the exclusion of 
better matter; for thou knows that "two things cannot 
occupy the same place at the same time." As the vast 
amount of precious time and brain labor consumed with so 
little profit cannot come back to us, and considering the 
time and power given us are no more than we need for use, 
had we not best be wise and careful ? 



296 MEMOIRS OF 

As for playsy I do not perBonally know much about 
them, but like all else, if they are pure and useful, let 
them do their proper work ; if not, beware 1 Whatever 
unduly stimulates the mind will weaken the understanding, 
but whatever is healthy truth, whatever can prove an 
auxiliary to enlarge and strengthen the intellect in the 
right direction, is and ever must be right. 

Thou asks concerning evolution. I have never read 
the authors, but from the impression I have received from 
the remarks of others, I would suggest that if thou art 
strong enough to walk in a, to thee, unknown path, to 
wander in a strange forest, or trust an unproved bridge, 
thou may get some science out of their writings; but I 
would also suggest a guide. It is very easy for human 
curiosity, if not on guard, to be led in ways it does not 
know and by means it does not understand. Science 
proved is always truth; speculations or theories unproved 
I should prefer to handle with gloves on when I had plenty 
of time. 

But the best thought I can give to your precious, and 
no doubt very interesting, school is, In all things " mind 
the light " of God in the soul; that never will lead astray 
nor leave you in the dark. 

My idea of evolution is, that as the flower is evolved 
from the bud, as light is evolved from its source, so, with 
proper care, useful and great thoughts may be evolved by 
study and cultivation, and all obtainable good may be 
evolved by a natural and God-directed progress. 
I remain. 

Thy friend and well wisher, 

Sunderland P. Gabdneb. 



BUNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 297 



TO B. F. THOMAS. 

The monthly meeting of the Society of Friends of 
Farmington was organized the 2l8t of Fourth month, 1803, 
and opened by a minute of Easton Quarterly Meeting, hel<l 
at Easton, Washington County, New York, 16th of Sec- 
ond month, 1803. It was composed of members who had 
emigrated firom Easton, New York, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland, and the 
limits of the meeting extended from the outlet of Cajruga 
Lake, westward to the Niagara river, and from Lake 
Ontario on the north, into the northern part of Penn- 
sylvania. 

The first meeting-house was of logs, and built in 1796, 
and was burned the latter part of the year 1803. A 
framed one was built in 1804; the clapboards were riven 
from cedar and the nails wrought. The increase of mem- 
bers rendered it necessary to build a larger house, which 
was built in 1816 and 1817, forty by seventy feet, two 
stories high, and estimated at the time it was built to seat 
2,500 people. This is the house now occupied, and has 
been, by the Society of Friends first organized as above, 
ever since it was built. 

The number of families and their names you have 
already from the records, for the Society was a unit until 
1828, when a division took place, a minority leaving the 
Society, and establishing a separate meeting; they are dis- 
tinguished as Orthodox or Gumeyites, from Joseph John 
Oumey, whose doctrines they adopted. 

The cause of the separation in America arose from the 



298 MEMOIRS OF 

fact that the influential part of the Society in England had 
adopted many of the doctrines of the high church, which 
the first Friends were earnest to bear testimony against, 
and for a few years previous to 1828, a large number 
of their ministers came over the water and endeavored to 
induce American. Friends to follow their example in 
departing from the ancient land-marks in doctrines and 
practice. But Friends in America very many of them 
knew the truth of the principles of the Society as exhibited 
in the life and examples of Fox, Penn, Pennington and 
many others, and were not prepared to receive or sanction 
the innovations which the English Friends endeavored to 
fasten upon them. But they succeeded in getting many 
followers, hence the divbion. 

This Society never adopted any formal creed, but were 
left to worship God according to the dictates of their own 
conscience. They, however, ever professed as a Society 
that true worship which is acceptable to God and profitable 
to man, — He, being Spirit, must be worshipped in spirit 
and in truth. Also that the grace of God that bringeth 
salvation hath appeared to all men, teaching them that, 
denying all ungodliness and the world's lusts, we should 
live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world. 

The organization of the Society of Friends is upon true 
republican principles: every member has equal privileges 
one with another ; neither minister nor elder has an 
authority over the flock or individuals. Each has a right 
to speak to any business and be heard, and that which 
appears to be the expressed judgment of the whole is 
adopted. If any proposition meets with considerable opposi- 
tion it is either laid aside or continued upon minute for 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 299 

further consideration , if the opposition is not withdrawn. 
This being the manner of doing all their business pertain- 
ing to the church. 

When some of the ministers from England came into 
their meeting and undertook to dictate about church affairs 
very much in the same spirit which was manifested on 
the part of the English here in America in 1776 in polit- 
ical matters, the Friends therefore reAised to be controlled 
or dictated to by them, and when they found they could not 
rule they produced the division by leaving the meeting, 
and got all they could to follow them, giving to those who 
would not follow them the epithet of Hicksite, a name 
never taken by Friends, they acknowledging no other 
name than that of " Friends." 

A Yearly Meeting was established at Farmington in 
1834, embracing the Friends of western New York, the 
Canadas, Michigan and northern Ohio. 

Sunderland P. Gardner. 
Canandaigtia, N. F., 1889. 



LETTER TO JEHIEL J. MOORE. 

Esteemed Friend, Jehiel J. Moore: — After receiv- 
ing thy note stating that thou intended to forward to my 
address a book which thou thought very clearly set forth the 
principles of the Society of Friends, I concluded to delay 
answering until I could acknowledge the reception of the 
book, but it has not come to hand, hence I write to say that I 
have not forgotten my promise to thee when at Richmond. 
Many times has my mind turned toward Friends composing 



300 MEMOIRS OF 

your Yearly Meeting. I well remember the daily exercise 
of my mind while with you, though mostly kept to myself 
in silence, and I finally came away without that evidence 
of relief which I desired on leaving. 

But it is better perhaps to be thus, than to feel that I 
ran when not >8ent. I was, however, upon the whole, 
much strengthened and encouraged while there in witness- 
ing the devotion of so many Friends in the cause which I 
think must be truly felt at heart by every true Friend, 
viz. : the cause of righteousness, which, branches out as from 
a central perennial spring, watering, invigorating and 
revivifying the different kinds of soil, stimulating to pro- 
lific production in bringing forth such fruits as the pecu- 
liar strata of soil are congenial to, but to drop the figure, 
men have gifts differing widely in their character, and 
which a wise Providence has so arranged that each may be 
peculiarly fitted for some particular kind of labor in the 
great work of elevating common humanity above the 
fluctuating waves of instability. I thought I saw among 
you a clear evidence of the diversity and strength of talent, 
which if rightly improved would promote the state of 
things above alluded to. 

It seems that conditions alluded to prophetically in the 
scriptures are being at least partially fulfilled in this day: 
'' Behold the time cometh when I shake not only the earth 
but also heaven, that that which is shaken may be 
removed, and those things which cannot be shaken may 
remain." So likewise the earthly human governments 
founded in error, and sustained by violence and a spurious 
lettered dogma upon which rests a false religion, need this 
shaking and agitation until that which is false and not 



SUNDERLAND P. QABDNER. 301 

founded on justice and truth shall be removed out of the 
way. But tradition and the wrong practices under it have 
great power over men, sealing their hearts against the 
reception of truth notwithstanding it may be declared in 
truth's own authority. 

What I greatly desire for Friends is that they may 
stand firm in that power and wisdom which will give 
ability to do their share of the work of reform and advance, 
not in a fanatical or over-zealous spirit, but with that calm, 
enduring, yet persevering spirit which has ever character- 
ized the works of true Friends, and I may add, of all real 
Christians ; and I may furthermore state that I believe 
that very few are the peculiarities that Friends can afford 
to part with and still claim to be Friends. 

I need not go into particulars, but the plain language 
is a language of truth, and some may say there is nothing 
in dress, yet I answer if there is no principle, there is no 
Friend, and so with regard to all other testimonies. 



LETTEB OF EDQAB M. ZAVITZ. 
SUNDBBLAND P. OaBDNEB: 

Deab Fbiend: — It has been living with me for some 
time to ask thee two or three questions that crop up 
occasionally in the study of the First-day School Lessons. 
I ask them for private satisfaction. 

First Did God command Abraham to sacrifice Isaac ? 
(See Gen. 22.) 

Second. Did God command Saul to destroy the Amale- 
kites? (See 1 Samuel 15: 18.) 



302 MEMOIBS OF 

Third. Did God intend that Israel should ** possess the 
land/' as was promised, by the sword? or might they have 
done so in a better way ? 

Thy friend, 

Edoab M. Zavitz. 



REPLY. 

First Did God command Abraham to sacrifice Isaac? 

Answer. No farther than to make a surrender of him, 
or sacrifice in his own mind, but not by any means to take 
his life. Had Grod so intended the command would not 
have been changed and Abraham forbid doing so. God 
said of himself, *' I am the Lord, I change not." (MaL 
3: 6.) Again it is said, '' With him there is no change- 
ableness nor shadow of turning.'' But had Grod com- 
manded Abraham to kill Isaac and then commanded him 
not to do so, it would show changeableness and shadow 
of turning. The story is badly told and will not bear just 
criticism, for it represents God as having learned some- 
thing that he did not know before proving Abraham. 

Second. Did God command Saul to destroy the Amale- 
kites? 

Answer. No. 

Third. Did God intend that Israel should ''possess 
the land," as was promised, by the sword ? or might they 
have done so in a better way ? 

Answer. It would be unjust to take possession of what 
is called the ''promised land" by the Israelites by the 
sword, or any other way than by consent and amicable 
agreement with the owners of the land. It was a case 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNEB. 303 

similar to the invasion of America by the Caucasian race, 
and it seems to be copying the same thing on the same 
principles and similar motives of covetousness and lust of 
power, both cases claiming not only the approbation of God, 
but the command of God to justify them in their cruelty 
and injustice. As my answer may seem in the estimation of 
some to be infidel, I will refer to some scriptural passages, 
not as authority, but corroborative of what I have written. 

In the first place I assume that God never in a single 
instance commanded directly or indirectly men or nations 
to make war upon or destroy each other. We will take 
tlie case of David, who claimed that his wars were from 
divine authority, that when he appealed to or consulted with 
God, he was commanded to go forward, therefore his wars 
were stamped as wars of the Lord. David was a religious 
man and was intending to build a house to the name of the 
Lord, but it is stated that God said unto him, " Thou 
shalt not build a house unto my name, for thou hast made 
great wars and shed much blood in my sight, therefore 
thou shalt not build a house unto me.' ' 

Can it be supposed that if the Lord had directed David 
to engage in the work of building a house to his name 
He would have withdrawn the command, and then 
charged him with the great sin of making many wars and 
shedding of much blood ? 

Jesus, the highest authority in the New Testament, 
said, * * Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be 
called the children of God." If we accept the precepts 
of Jesus, it follows that God is a peacemaker, and if once a 
peacemaker then always a peacemaker, for He changes not. 
Coldstream., First month ISth, 1890. 



304 MEMOIRS OF 

[The following manuscript, addreesed to a friend, ¥rith- 
oat name or date, was found written with a pencil on a 
piece of tissue paper, and had become so blurred in places 
as to be scarcely discernible.] 

Esteemed Fbiend: — ^I received thy letter dated 23d 
ult. It is pleasant to be remembered by distant friends, 
and the chain of friendships may be kept somewhat 
brighter by written communications when we have not the 
privilege of personal greeting. 

Thy letter, I perceive, contains two queries, viz.: 
" Wherein could regeneration have been necessary for him 
(Jesus) to pass through who had always been in unity with 
the Father, brought forth by his power, and doing his will 
alone in all things, resisting all temptation, and entirely free 
from sin? " and secondly, '' What are thy views of a Aiture 
state of existence ? " 

Answer. First — A necessity for regeneration does not 
necessarily require that one should first be a sinner. The 
term regeneration, when applied to man, means the submis- 
sion of all his powers, including his will, to the will and gov- 
ernment of God. Adam stood in need of this, and had he 
obeyed he might have been dipped into a baptism of deep 
proving, yet had he taken the cross, he might have passed 
safely through regeneration without sin. Jesus stood in 
the same condition as did Adam before he sinned, and like 
him was a son of God, and both had in diem that which 
was susceptible to temptation. In this both stood upon 
the same ground, ''for Jesus was made of the seed of 
David according to the flesh," and if of the seed of David 
then also of the nature of Adam, the same propensities, 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 305 

paasion and will; and admitting a miracle in the birth of 
Jesus, it changed not the man nature, for he was tempted 
in all points like as we are, which could not have been 
except his nature was like ours, with propensities, passions 
and will constituted the same, yet to Adam's temptations 
he neither yielded nor fell; showing that Jesus was also 
tempted, but he took up the cross, trusting in God, and 
submitted his own will. Although the effort was great, the 
struggle hard to endure, yet he experienced regeneration 
and was saved from sin. He set an example for us to fol- 
low in regeneration as in other things. 

A great mistake has arisen from the fact of theologians 
setting forth Jesus to be what he was not They have 
divided Grod into three personages, and claim that Jesus 
was one of them, which if true would make Jesus in all 
things perfect as Ood, whereas in truth nothing can be 
farther from the truth. Grod is perfect as God, a being to 
whom nothing can be added or taken fiY>m as to fulness — 
but of Jesus it is said he learned* obedience by the things 
which he suffered, and in learning obedience there was a 
schooling of power, and a submission of his will as he 
was passing through regeneration and advancing in knowl- 
edge. It is also said that he was made perfect through 
suffering. There was a time then when he was not perfect, 
and in passing through the probation necessary to arrive 
at perfection came that state in which his will was wholly 
submitted to the divine, or in other words, he did the will 
of his Father. 

After Jesus was taken from the sight of John, in the 
Spirit, then his declaration: ''To him that overcometh will 
I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also over- 

20 



306 MEMOIItS OF 

came and am set down with my Father in His throne;'* so 
that Jesus experienced the same overcoming which we 
must experience to sit with him in a throne of victory or 
power over all opposing things. " He was made in all things 
like unto his brethren ; ' ' if so, there was the same necessity 
for him to experience regeneration as for them. There- 
fore, if I am correct, there is necessity for the innocent 
and pure to experience regeneration, a state in which the 
spirit-truth leads and controls, instead of the will of man. 

Second. The subject of the future state is one in which 
people have been differing materially, and but little is 
really known of it. None have returned to tell us, and I 
do not consider it necessary that we should know, or more 
would have been developed. Our day for work is now, 
here, in this pleasant state of being, and if we are fidthful 
in the discharge of our duties required under present cir- 
cumstances, we need have no fears as to the future. 

I am a believer in a future state, or a condition in 
which all that is vitally^essential in constituting this won- 
derful being will continue to exist or live, after the visible 
earthly tabernacle is returned to the earth or its kindred 
elements. That part which is created in the image of God 
will return to Him ; hence, in Scripture language, ** Then 
shall the dust return to the earth as it was, and the spirit 
shall return unto Qod who gave it." Returning to God, 
I hold simply to refer to the spirit being set free from its 
earthly tabernacle, when it will be more sensibly in the 
presence of Grod without respect to particular location, for 
God is present in and fills all space, a being whose centre 
is everywhere and circumference nowhere. 

I probably view the state of the soul or a spirit in man 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 307 

somewhat if not entirely different from others. No doubt 
the Creator in the plenitude of His goodness and exercise 
of His wisdom and power so arranged that man might 
advance higher and higher, or in other words, might ex- 
perience continually accessions of happiness; so that after 
we have had (those who have lived long enough for the 
development of the labor of our being) a day of proba- 
tion, — ^yet we in this state see things but darkly, — ^but 
when our spirits are set free, it will be like being born into 
another or comparatively new state, and as much higher in 
comparison than is that of the child born in this world, as 
the light of day is higher than its state of embryo. 

Children are innocent and pure, and in a state of 
Divine acceptance, but a great part of them are taken 
^m the world before the law for their direction is 
developed; but their being taken out of the world I do not 
consider necessarily prevents an advancement or higher 
development somewhere. 

The idiot, whose faculties of mind are dwarfed because 
of an unfavorable physical development, I cannot suppose 
must ever remain so, but when set free may advance, and 
in his powers freely act and grow stronger. 

A sin, or a tmnsgressiof of the la^ which God has 
fixed in our being, retards our advance in this world, and 
makes us unhappy by keeping us from the enjoyment of 
the harmony necessary to promote us in righteousness and 
peace. It is like a disease of the body which weakens and 
emaciates, and, if not removed, results in death. So sin, 
when continued until all of man's powers consent, con- 
stitutes a finished result in death, or a separation of the 
soul from its only source of happiness. 



308 MEMOIRS OF 

[In the First month, 1890, he wrote the following in re- 
ply to a letter received from H. Ogbom, of Richmond, 
Indiana, with whom he was entirely unacquainted.] 

Friend H. Ogborn : 

Thy note of the 4th inst. came safely to hand. Thou 
seems to be an independent Unitarian, and thy creed lave 
to Ghd and num, with desires for more light, love and purity. 

I concur with the above declaration, and am glad .to 
learn that some people in this day are making an advance 
from the old so-called orthodox sptems, and are coming to 
a better understanding of the relation which we bear to God 
and He to us. When we come to acquaint ourselves with 
God, not from tradition, nor frx>m the laws of nature out of 
ourselves, but by the revelation of Himself in our own 
hearts, we learn that he is not an angry, revengeful being, 
but a kind Father, a God of love; and as He kindles love 
upon the altar of our hearts, obedience on our part keeps 
alive the flame. We have been taught in the Scriptures, 
especially the Old Testament, that we must fear God, but 
that is not the condition we should occupy, for in all fear 
there is torment He that feareth is not perfected in love; 
perfect love casteth out all fear. 

One of the many obstacles obstructing the advancement 
of truth and true religion in the world is the doctrine of 
the Trinity, which was born of a fallen church, and declared 
by its parents in their innocence and inexperience to be a 
canon of the church. 

While it is said to be a declaration of God concerning 
Himself, yet I would have thee compare and note the dif- 
ference from the following, viz. : " I am God, and beside 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 309 

me there is none else," * * I 'am the Lord, and beside me 
there is no saviour/' ''I am Grod, and not man." 

Thou sayest thou hast long felt it to be thy duty to 
preach the gospel, in which is thy delight. If thou art 
called to preach the true gospel of Christ, He that has 
called thee to the work will also furnish the necessary an- 
ointing, as was the case with Jesus, who thus applied the 
fulfillment of a prophecy to his own mission, viz.: ''The 
spirit of the Lord Grod is upon me, because the Lord hath 
anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor, " etc. 

I am confirmed in the assurance that all ministers need 
this anointing to make them true gospel ministers, as Jesus 
did. And being assured that they have the call and an- 
ointing, they should not let dogmas, creeds, opposition, 
pride, nor orthodoxy prevent or discourage them from 
fearlessly doing their duty. Paul said: '' Woe is me if I 
preach not the gospel." 

The gospel to which I am alluding is " the truth of 
God," and is not learned from books nor at theological 
schools of learning, as lawyers would study to qualify them 
to pursue their calling success^lly, but that which Jesus 
charged his disciples to wait for, "The Spirit of Truth, 
which would lead into all truth." 

I know not of any way of obtaining the crown of peace 
and satisfaction but by way of the cross, or in other words, 
laying a proper restraint upon the passions and propensi- 
ties of our physical natures, that they may be kept within 
the allotment designed for them by our Heavenly Father. 
None are sinful of themselves, and error only comes in 
when we pervert to make a wrong use of them. When we 
become acquainted with ourselves we shall discover that 



310 MEMOIRS OF 

sin never entered the world through any other door. We 
find there are really no other devils than wicked men, and 
none of us have ever been tempted by any fallen angel or 
personal evil spirit that came from without us, therefore we 
have reason to doubt that such a being ever existed. 
When we are tempted, the prompting comes from our ani- 
mal passions and lusts. 

There is no mystery in true religion. If our Heavenly 
Father requires a work at our hands, He brings His re- 
quirements down to our capacity to understand what He 
derires. Thy friend. 

8. P. Gabdneb. 
FanningUm, First month 16th, 1890, 



[We find the following letter addressed to Nathan 
Borton on the doctrine of the '* Trinity." The date is 
unknown.] 

Esteemed Friend, Nathan Borton: 

I received thy very acceptable epistle yesterday. It 
found my health improving, and I think my wife's health 
also somewhat improved since my return home. 

I perceive that our West Unity friends are somewhat 
divided on a certain subject; yet in one sense generally 
satisfied. I have but little to say on that subject further 
than if the motives are right, and the life and practice 
correct, a mere difference of opinion or belief as to doc- 
trine, which leads to no error in practice, will not keep us 
out of Heaven. Men have been too critical upon these 
subjects, and in their efforts to bring mankind to a unity 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 311 

of belief, have too much overlooked and neglected the sub- 
stance; hence the barren state of religion and the great 
surplus of doctrines in the world. 

As to the statement that God has but one son, it strikes 
me as singular, or rather strange, that any rational man 
should make the assertion in general terms, for the position 
is untenable and un-Scriptural ; but I suppose the ground 
upon which he based the assertion was that of the Trini- 
tarian doctrine, that the Godhead is composed of three per- 
sons, a dogma which is dark as Egyptian darkness, and had 
its origin in the fourth century of the Christian era, after 
the Church had become corrupted, and had in a great 
measure gone into the wilderness. It was then decreed by 
a council of bishops and priests that it should be held as 
a canonical doctrine of the Church, and that those who 
would not so acknowledge it should be pronounced hereti- 
cal, and punished accordingly. Many lives were sacrificed 
to establish this doctrine of the Trinity, which was con- 
ceived in ignorance and maintained by persecution and 
tyranny. Jesus took no such course to advance the inter- 
ests of his religion. What is the basis of this doctrine of 
the " Trinity ? " It is this: that the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Spirit, these three, combine and are one, and 
equal in power and glory. Now did any rational man 
ever believe this T No ; no further than he is under the 
power of tradition. 

Now the term son implies one begotten ; consequently 
there was a time previous to this begetting when there 
could have been but two persons in the God-head, thus 
clearly proving the error of the doctrine. Again they say 
the three are equal in power and glory, but where is the 



312 MEMOIRS OF 

proof? Should we concede it, what would follow? If 
there be three equal beings or personages, then three equal 
wills, and it is clear to me that where there are more than 
one will guiding and controlling, there can be no direct 
purpose, and if harmony be necessary to make a condition 
of heaven, which of them is to submit if all are equal ? 
But here comes the Trinitarian, exclaiming, These are great 
mysteries, and it will not do for us to reason regarding 
them; therefore mankind must be compelled to believe 
blindly something God never required of man. 

But let us return to this three-fold being, each part 
equal in power and glory, which they sometimes express as 
God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost. 
Now if each of these is equal with either of the others, 
then there must necessarily be three equal and distinct 
Gods; and, logically speaking, it would be folly to deny it, 
but if they take the other horn of the dilemma, and say 
that it takes the three to make one God, then each one 
separately considered has but one-third of the constituents 
necessary to make a God ; hence to call upon God the 
Father to assist and to save us would be futile, unless we 
accept the three different names as meaning one and the 
same thing. 

Now I conceive the truth of the subject to be this, — that 
there is but one God, according to the declaration of Jesus, 
who turned the attention of the man that called him good 
Master away from himself, saying, * * Why callest thou me 
good? there is but one good, that is God." It is therefore 
clear to me that all good comes from this one Grod, whom 
Jesus called my father and your father, my God and your 
God. If these declarations of Jesus are true, then firstly 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 313 

there is but one God, and secondly Jesus included others 
with himself as sons of God, which b also confirmed by 
the Apostle John : *' That as many as have the spirit of 
God are the sons of God." Now will they say that none 
have the spirit of Grod, which would be equivalent to say- 
ing, " There are no sons of God"? 

But I suppose they stumble at the term, ' ' the only- 
begotten of the Father," than which to me there is nothing 
more clearly understood, for the only-begotten of the 
Father is that which only proceeds from the Father, which 
is the emanation of His own spirit, and was the beginning 
of the creation. 

By figure it may be compared to the outward sun, send- 
ing forth its powers actively in the characters of properties 
of light and heat, which are of themselves of its own 
nature, and which would apply with equal truth if the 
sun should say to the light it sends forth. Thou art my 
son, this day have I begotten thee ; that being truly the 
case, as it is ever emanating from him. 

So it may be said with regard to the spirit of God, 
His spirit is ever going forth, and hence the expression, 
"this day have I begotten thee," is just as true of the 
present day as in any other day or age, for as many as 
receive the spirit of God and obey it, are the sons and 
daughters of God. 

It is also called Christ, because it is the anointing 
power of Grod, and the Apostle Paul clearly understood 
the subject when he preached, "Christ the power of GK)d 
and the wisdom of God." Were the power of God and the 
wisdom of God ever separated from God ? Let enlightened 
divines answer. 



314 MEMOIRS OF 



Sunderland P. Gardner : 

Esteemed Friend. — Thee may be somewhat sur- 
prised to find a letter from me; but it has been a long time 
since we have heard from thee, and then only indirectly; 
and I felt it to be no stretch of courtesy thus to address 
thee in the spirit of inquiry as to thy health and enjoy- 
ment, feeling as I do that thou hast been so long spared, 
and well preserved to do thy full part in the Master's 
vineyard, that purely thy reward must be sweet. And if 
rewards and recompense are in proportion to the toil and 
labor bestowed, thy cup must be full. 

It seems to me I should enjoy very much a visit with 
thee again. What are thy feelings in relation to our 
Society. Art thou inclined to look favorably or odierwise 
upon it in its present condition ? I have my own thoughts 
in reference to it, and it would do me good to hear from 
one of thy age and experience. 

I find in my travels a very receptive and appreciative 
feeling with the people, both in and out of Society, and that 
at no time in my knowledge has it been more so. 

But the laborers that can go abroad and devote their 
time to the ministry are few. What are thy thoughts of 
the duty of our Society in this particular ? There was I 
cannot question the need of helpful hands, and without 
that our part could not be performed, marvelously as it 
may have seemed at times. Are we to depend upon in- 
dividual faithfulness on the part of those blessed with 
abundance, or does thou think Society as a body will feel 
to assume any responsibility in this direction. I do not 
write this because I feel disturbed about it, nor can I say 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 315 

that I am in favor of the latter thought, but felt best to 
ask thy opinion upon it. 

I attended Saratoga and Duanesburgh Quarterly Meet- 
ings a few weeks ago, and felt them to be very highly 
fieiyored seasons; finding the people so hungry and appre- 
ciative ; and many not in membership with us gladly 
accepting our views, but still standing outside of Society, 
being but little use in its support. A letter this morning 
from our friend Samuel Cary, of Albany, reports Mary 
Davis quite poorly. It looks doubtful if she remains long 
with them. They feel very small and poor of themselves, 
but a good many gather in when a preacher comes, and 
ask in the meantime when he is coming again. Must we 
make an effort to meet such conditions ? But I am weary- 
ing thee with many questions, which thou may not care to 
answer. It would please me to have a few lines from thee 
at least, and believe me thy friend, 

Isaac Wiibon. 

BUxm^ld, OnL, Twelfth month 10, 1890. 



answer to isaac wilson. 

Esteemed Friend : 

Thy friendly letter is at hand, contents noted. I find 
by it that some things which have long been revolving in 
my own mind have claimed the attention of others, though 
I have not communicated with anyone concerning them. 
The future of our Society will depend upon the faithful- 
ness of its members in practically exhibiting in their lives 
the truths of their profession. There is a great difference 



316 MEMOIRS OF 

between making a high profession by talking and arguing 
doctrinal points, and knowing the truth bj experience; for 
men may be zealously engaged in the former, while quite 
destitute of the latter. " Not every one that saith unto 
me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, 
but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven." 

The Society of Friends has for a long time labored 
under many disadvantages; far back, a faulty discipline, 
carried out to the letter, deprived it of what might have 
been an increasing strength to it, for the clause concerning 
marriage drove many well-inclined young members from the 
meetings (see Ed. 1810). Thus was lost to Society the 
very class which should have filled the ranks of the elders 
as they passed away, and now, though the required change 
has been made, it is too late to remedy the difficulty. The 
division of 'Twenty-seven and 'Twenty-eight injured the So- 
ciety to a large extent, and the name ' ' Hicksite " imposed 
upon Friends had a bad effect; those who are not well- 
informed get the impression of a new Society. I am free 
to say I am not a Hicksite nor a Foxite ; I profess to be a 
Friend, and neither need nor desire any other name; the 
light and truth of the present is, I believe, sufficient to 
lead and direct without borrowing from any man. 

But to return: Then came up the subject of slavery, 
and many Friends were exercised as to the best manner of 
abolishing it; and there was a division of feeling, some 
being conservative while others were pursuing a course 
which would eventually lead to war. Then, in Genesee 

Yearly Meeting, , who was a prominent 

leader of the radicals, left the Society, setting up separ- 
ate meetings and doing more harm than did the other 



8UNDEBLAKD P. OARDKEB. 317 

divisions. Then followed modern Spiritualism, which as 
fiir as I have been able to see has produced religious 
paralysis if not death. Priscilla Cadwallader, while mak- 
ing a religious visit to Friends here, declared that our 
troubles and provings were not over; that after the storm 
the whirlwind would come, and that all who were not 
building upon the immovable foundation of truth would 
be carried away. I dreaded the thought of more trouble 
in Society, and said I hoped she would prove a false 
prophet But alas 1 it proved true; the whirlwind came, 
and behold the wreck I 

We see by the statistics of the Yearly Meeting that the 
membership lessens every year ; from such data it needs but 
little mathematical labor to decide as to the future. I was 
at New York Yearly Meeting a few years since, when the 
subject came up of reports from subordinate meetings con- 
cerning the number of members annually noted, and some- 
one stated that according to reports already made, the 
Yearly Meeting would become extinct in sixty years. On 
my return home while stopping at Palmyra I was informed 
that New York Yearly Meeting had been heard from, and 
that " it was stated in the meeting that Society would not 
last more than sixty years.*' While I was in the Yearly 
Meeting I doubted the propriety of making our business 
public to the world. 

Except the Society can so interest the young that they 
will choose to remain members, but a few generations, or 
perhaps but a few years, will pass when it may be asked, 
" Where is the Society of Friends?" and echo will answer 
** Where ? " In proportion as Friends have ceased to be 
aggressive, they have ceased to be progressive. But within 



318 MEMOIRS OF 

a few years there appears to be a renewal of energy — an 
awakening and devotion in practically carrying out the 
fundamental principles of the Society, or, in other words, 
the Christian religion. This cheers me with the hope that 
its future will exceed its former usefulness to the world. 
** The fields are white unto the harvest," and each one may 
do some part of the labor in gathering it in. 

In regard to the matter of Society furnishing means, as 
a rule, for public Friends in their ministry, I stand where 
I always have ; a change in the custom of Society in this 
matter would cause confusion : though if a monthly meet- 
ing thinks it advisable to assist a member in his or her 
work by contributing of its substance, or if individuals feel 
this duty upon them, there is liberty ; but being a spiritual 
affair, it should be felt after spiritually. I can remember 
when ministers from England, London Yearly Meeting, 
visited America, American Friends paid their expenses 
while here and vice versa, but this arrangement ceased at 
the time of the division. 

I will give some of my own experience. When I was 
called to the ministry I was conscientious in refusing even 
a gift because of my ministry, and I also refused to let any 
one pay my travelling expenses, and for a number of years 
(about forty) I spent all that my farm and labor would 
produce above supporting my family in travelling on re- 
ligious accounts. This, at length, however, together with 
the frequent caUs to funerals, often far from home, began 
to bear heavily upon me financially : and one day while I 
was working in the field, as I stopped to rest the horses, I 
turned my mind to the consideration of my worldly affairs, 
wondering why I did not succeed better in the result of my 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 319 

industry. The thought seemed to come to me like a forcible 
impression, How can thou expect to succeed when leaving 
thy own work to labor for others ? I then concluded that 
if I travelled any more in this work away from home I 
would accept means to pay my expenses abroad if any were 
offered me; and the way from that time was made easier. 
The time had come when so heavy a sacrifice was no longer 
demanded, and many kind friends were moved to assist me, 
so I have not been left to want. And I have been enabled 
to make religious visits, sometimes far from home, which I 
could not have done but for their generous liberality. I 
am now holding a minute for an extensive visit to meetings, 
especially of the Quarterly Meetings within the limits of 
New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore, which I have been 
unable to accomplish as yet : this is in the hands of the 
Master. The last two years have gone hard with my farm- 
ing products, but another season may prove more favorable. 
My health is very delicate — an affection of the heart; any 
severe exertion or exposure bringing on the pain ; but by 
means of prompt treatment I have been able to subdue it 
80 far. Otherwise I enjoy life comfortably. 

Thy friend, 

8. P. Gardner. 



reply to second letter from j. b. knott. 

Friend Knott: 

Thine of the 30th came duly to hand, and influenced 
by thy request I concluded to answer thee as soon as cir- 
cumstances made it convenient. The first thing which 
claimed particular attention was the statement that I had 



320 MEMOIRS OF« 

invited thee to write, which was not exactly the case. I 
simply gave thee liberty to write if thou wished to do so, 
and I mention the fact because I want it understood that I 
did not desire a controversy, but was willing for a fiiendly 
and honest correspondence on a subject interesting to all 
thinking minds. In the next place thou states, '' There 
were some half-dozen points of doctrine which I noted 
while you were delivering your discourse, held by all evan- 
gelical churches as fundamental, that were by you either 
neutralized or wholly denied." I reply that I am not 
aware of any obligation resting upon me by which I am 
bound to the doctrines of all or any of the evangelical 
churches because they are the doctrines of those churches. 
Such a foundation may answer for thee, but it will not do 
for me. Grod's laws alone are binding upon me, — the laws 
He has proclaimed through nature and through his Son. 
As to the churches called evangelical, I believe they have all 
gone more or less astray, many of them justifying war and 
vanity, and many of them having supported human slavery 
just so long as public opinion permitted it. How long in- 
deed since the chaplains of our opposing armies (all pro- 
fessing to pray to the same God) begged each for the 
victory over their enemies ? How long since Methodist 
was arrayed against Methodist, Presbyterian against Pres- 
byterian, Baptist against Baptist, Episcopal against Epis- 
copal, Catholic against Catholic, etc. , in the deadly con- 
flict? notwithstanding the declaration of Jesus, ''My 
servants cannot fight. " And now look down into the past 
history of the evangelical churches ; what does it disclose ? 
Signs of perfection and purity ? See Galileo imprisoned 
by the evangelical church of Rome for declaring a truth 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. ^ 321 

of nature. The church did not consider him orthodox. 
The church believed the earth stood still while the sun and 
stars moved round it, thus producing day and night. 

Galileo was imprisoned for being heterodox. Again 
look at the time of Henry the Eighth and of Elizabeth. 
How was their Protestant church work carried on but by 
bloody and cruel persecutions ? Who was the procuring 
cause of the burning of Michael Servetus on account of a 
difference in religious doctrines — who but John Calvin the 
evangelical reformer? Who was it that persecuted the 
Quakers of New England, banishing and murdering them 
on account of their religious sentiments ? Who banished 
Anne Hutchinson and her family into the forest, where they 
were murdered by the Indians, — ^banished her because she 
preached among the people ? Who did all these cruelties, 
and many more, the recital of which would sicken any 
humane heart ? Who but the popular orthodox evangelical 
churches and their priests ? And by whom was Jesus per- 
secuted and crucified but by the power and spirit of the 
then popular religion ? And who to-day would persecute 
those who differed from them in religious opinions but the 
orthodox, or, as thou would term them, evangelical 
churches? And why? For the same reason that Jesus 
was persecuted, viz. : for declaring the truth, and rejecting 
their traditions. And are these the legitimate fruits of the 
Qospel? 

Now, my friend, though I can truly say that I love 
good men, and though I believe there are many of them 
in the difierent popular churches, yet thou can see that 
these churches are even now far too much mixed up with 
the wisdom, ambition, and selfishness of the world to mak^ 

21 



322 MEMOIRS OF 

it profitable for men to be bound by their decrees, or 
wholly influenced by their dogmas, and shall any for 
taking this liberty of conscience be anathematized as infi- 
del ? Nay; I take the ground that God yet lives, and is 
just as powerful for good as He ever was, and that He 
does not make it necessary for man to go back to what may 
have been revealed to other men in other ages for a knowl- 
edge of what is right. He is an Omnipresent God, and 
all that can be savingly known of Him is still revealed in 
and to man, and I prefer to look and depend on this rev- 
elation in my own soul rather than to all evangelical churches 
(so-called). Thou next refers to my quoting from Ezekiel 
18: 4, "The soul that sinneth it shall die," and asks, 
" What death is meant here ? Is it not the death of the 
body ? " It will not bear such a construction, for it is 
appointed unto all men once to die, saints as well as sin- 
ners. " Sin when finished bringeth forth death," which 
Jesus alluded to when he said, "He that liveth and 
believeth in me shall never die." 

" Paul says, 'And so death passed upon all, for that all 
have sinned. ' ' ' Look to the original, and see if it is not, 
"Death passed upon all in whom sin abounds;" but it is 
clear Paul does not mean physical death. Look at verses 
9, 10, 11 of Romans 7. Again, " Sin when finished bring- 
eth forth death; " now this finishing of sin unto death, I 
apprehend to be a voluntary act of the soul, and not as 
having anything to do with Adam, for the natural man is 
the offspring of Adam, while the soul is from God, who 
created it in His own image^ and could not have sinned in 
Adam as it was never in him. Nor can it sin until it 
becomes responsible by receiving the law (Kom. 7: 9). 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 323 

Paul also quotes the Cretan Poets to confirm his doctrine, 
'' We also are his ofispring." Now flesh does not beget 
spirit, nor spirit flesh. That which is first is natural from 
Adam, and afterward that which is spiritual or from God. 
"The Lord formeth the spirit of man within him." 

Next thou quotes Genesis 6 : 5, to prove that all men 
have sinned and died in Adam, that every imagination of 
the thoughts of the heart was only evil continually, ''and 
the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth," 
and then adds: *' He has declared this of the race, for he 
has made no exceptions.' ' A little too fast, my friend, for 
after taking this melancholy view of the condition of 
things, and grieving and repenting that He had made man 
(as it reads). He found at least one man that amounted 
to an exception, for Noah found grace in the eyes of the 
Lord, etc. So he was a just man and perfect, which does 
not mean that the imaginations of his heart were evil con- 
tinually. How wilt thou answer this fact, which is accord- 
ing to the Bible and common-sense ? Next thou brings 
Job 11: 12, to thy assistance: "Man is bom like the 
wild ass colt." It is true that most animals, including 
man, are propagated in the same way, but this does not 
seem to be what thou desires to prove ; thou endeavors to 
bring all men down on a level naturally with the wild ass 
colt. Well, thou shalt have all the glory of enlightening 
us, and may thy brilliant rays extend back to enlighten the 
Psalmist, who said, " Man was made a little lower than the 
angels, and crowned with glory and honor." But thou art 
no doubt well sustained, as thou hast 2k)phar the Naama- 
thite for authority, to whom Job himself said in answer: 
"No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die 



324 MEMOIRS OF 

with you" (Job 12: 2). But then I would rather have 
Benjamin Franklin for my authority after all, for Frank- 
lin did much good in the world, while Zophar was one of 
those whose sayings God refused to sanction. Then thou 
adds, '' intractable, ungovernable; " this may be true as to 
the wild ass, but is it true in regard to man ? If so, why 
was it said, ' * Train up a child in the way he should go, 
and when he is old he will not depart from it. " Why did 
the apostle say, " Train up your children in the nurture 
and admonition of the Lord ? ' ' Why did holy men of 
old try to persuade parents to do what was impossible? or 
was it possible ? If so, then the children were not '' in- 
tractable, ungovernable," and the parents who could have 
obeyed this injunction could not have been evil, and only 
evil continually in the imaginations of their hearts. I 
confess I envy not the man, though he be clothed in clerical 
robes, and though he believes all the doctrines of all the 
evangelical churches, who can think so meanly of his kind, 
can think so diminutively of the being who was made in 
the image of God ! But perhaps some people really feel a 
resemblance to the wild ass colt ; if so, they cannot be 
blamed. Again, thou says, "God looked down from 
heaven to see if there were any that did seek Him," and 
the result of the divine inspection is given as follows: 
"There is none that doeth good; no, not one." 

The above is just as it stands in the copy of the letter 
thou sent me. I will now quote it as it reads in my Bible: 
*' The Lord looked down from heaven upon the children 
of men to see if there were any that did understand and 
seek God." " They are all gone aside, they are altogether 
become filthy; there is none that doeth good, no not one" 



SUKDERLAKD P. GARDNER. S26 

(Pb. 14: 2, 3). Now, my friend, we see that true and fair 
quotation entirely sustains my position; for it says, " they 
are all gone aside;" they could not have gone aside if 
they had not once been in the right place. ** They have 
altogether become filthy; " then they were once pure. But 
now I would have thee read the next four verses, and con- 
sider who His people were that were eaten up like bread, 
and of whom consisted the generation of the righteous, 
and who was the poor that had the Lord for his refuge, 
and to whom does the 7th verse refer ? I think thou will 
conclude that the 14th Psalm is not the one for thee to 
make use of. 

Next thou quotes Jer. 17: 9, — "The heart is deceitful 
above all things, and desperately wicked. " This is true 
only of those who have sinned, and turned their hearts 
from God. 

See Jer. 17: 5. "Cursed be the man that trusteth 
in man, and maketh flesh his arm ; and whose heart 
departeth from the Lord." Here the whole turns upon 
the fact of the heart departing from the Lord. Nor was 
it deceitful nor desperately wicked until it did depart from 
the Lord ; but after that he did make flesh his arm« and 
had naught to depend upon but poor fallen self; and thus 
he became a carnal mind and at enmity against God, and 
was not subject to the laws of God, neither indeed could 
he be. Thou next says Jesus Christ, the great teacher 
come from God, traced our sinfulness to the state of the 
heart. " For from within, out of the heart of man, " said 
he, '' proceedeth evil thoughts." This is likewise true: 
" Either consider the tree good and its fruit good, or else 
consider the tree corrupt and its fruit corrupt, for the tree 



326 MEMOIRS OF 

Ib known by its fruit;** also, "A good man out of the 
good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things, 
and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth 
forth evil things " (Matt. 12: 35). This is all the truth 
of Grod, and makes it very clear that man, the workman- 
ship of God, stands right in the sight of his Creator until 
from his own free choice he turns from the right, and seeks 
the path of evil ; else, if sin were unavoidable, man would 
not be responsible. Jesus used the figure of the tree and 
fruit in answer to the Pharisees, who had accused him of 
casting out devils by Beelzebub, the Prince of devils 
(Matt 12: 29), showing how the nature of the source is 
known by the character of the work proceeding from it. 

Thou says Jesus called the Jews a generation of vipers 
(Matt. 12 : 34). The 24th verse will correct thee, and 
show thee that it was not the Jews as a whole, but the 
Pharisees, to whom he was speaking, so that even this does 
not sustain thee in making all men as low as thou would 
like them to appear. Then thou proceeds: **How, I 
would inquire, does the viper come by his bad nature if 
it is not by inheritance ? '* The logical inference drawn 
from thy position and efforts at reasoning would be that 
there was originally an Adam- viper, which must have 
been good because it was of the creation of God, but that 
by means of transgression it contracted fangs with sacks 
of poison, and these were transmitted by inheritance to all 
succeeding generations of vipers. 

The above is a fair inference, and portrays just the 
condition in which thou hast placed man, viz. : that because 
Adam sinned a poison was contracted, and transmitted to 
all his succeeding generations. God made the viper, and 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 327 

as a viper made it right, but He made man upright (ac- 
cording to thy rule, all men), " but he hath sought out 
many inventions," and among these inventions the Pharisees 
had fortified themselves behind their traditions, and lay 
ready like the viper to dart out their venom toward any 
who, in bearing witness to the truth, spake contrary to 
their Pharisaical notions, or as thou might have termed 
them, evangelical doctrines. Thus did they by Jesus while 
he was instructing them in the way of life and salvation. 

Thou says that I * ' offer Abel, Enoch, Joseph, etc., in 
proof that some have grown up to maturity as pure as 
Adam before the fall." Let us take the case of Abel, and 
by it we may safely decide in regard to all the rest 
*' This deciding of the case by Abel would amount to about as 
much as the following : A black man was seen to pass along a 
certain road (decision) ; all who have traveled that road must 
have been black." But let us consider Abel and his offering. 
Thou asks, ** Why did he offer a sacrifice? Why did he 
offer a bloody one ? ' ' etc. Thou should keep to Scripture 
terms. The term sacrifice is not used in this place, but 
offering, and it was no doubt made because of gratitude 
for blessings received ; and he brought an offering of such 
things as the Lord had blessed him with. The term blood 
is not used, but of course he must have used such things 
as he had. Then thou asks, " Why is it that for this very 
reason (bloody) he is accepted, while Cain who offered an 
unbloody sacrifice is rejected ? ' ' How dost thou know 
this is the very reason? Abel's faith was a faith that 
worked by love to the purifying of the heart; his offering 
was therefore sanctified and acceptable to God, while 
Cain's faith was of the kind that is overcome by the world. 



328 MEMOIRS OF 

therefore neither his faith nor his offering was acceptable 
to God. But I refer thee to Gen. 4 : 7 for a full answer 
to thy question. Thou says there were no sacrifices 
offered before the first transgression because none were 
needed. This is more than we know, but one thing is 
certain, viz.: if offerings of flocks and herds, of the fruit 
of the ground, of flower and vine, or of silver and gold 
(all of which were accepted under the law), were not 
needed, a sacrifice of self and of a desire to obtain knowl- 
edge improperly, was needed; and if Adam had made 
these needful sacrifices before the first transgression there 
would have been no transgression at all. His was a proba- 
tionary state, and because he did not take up the cross he 
lost ground. But to return to the subject of the innocence 
and purity of Abel, Enoch, Joseph, etc., — may I ask where 
thou obtained knowledge, power or authority to sweep out 
as it were by one mighty stroke of the pen the unsullied 
record of the above named individuals? 'Tis more than 
I could venture to do. It is more than the Bible has 
done, nor has God through priest or prophet ever pro- 
nounced them otherwise than righteous. Next thou says, 
that my citing the case of the elder brother in the parable 
of the Prodigal Son to prove Adamic purity shows the 
desperate strait to which I am driven, and queries, " Was 
not the elder son angry ? ' ' He was, but is that an evidence 
that he was a sinner ? Perhaps thou had better examine 
the subject again before thou concludes I am in a desperate 
strait Let us see: Paul, who seems to be thy favorite 
authority, exhorts, ''Be ye angry and sin not," and it is 
said of Jesus that he looked about on them with anger 
(Mark 3 : 5) : was he therefore a sinner ? Some unchari- 



8UNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 329 

table individual might judge thee to be making desperate 
efforts at something if they should hear thee say that anger 
in this case indicated evil. To me there is deep instruc- 
tion in the parable, nor do I see anything improper in the 
conduct of the elder son toward the father, but only a 
simple statement of facts which thou would cloud over with 
reproach. Luke 15 : 29 : " And he answering said to his 
father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither 
transgressed I at any time thy commandment, and yet 
thou never gavest me a kid," etc. This declaration of the 
son was confirmed by the father saying, *' Son thou art 
ever with me, and all that I have is thine, etc.'* Jesus by 
this parable evidently divides men into classes, those who 
have sinned and those who have not. He also makes a 
similar division in the parable of the ten virgins, five of 
whom were wise and five foolish ; and another such division 
in the parable of the seed sown by the wayside, and mark, 
that after mentioning the stony ground and the thorns, 
he speaks of good ground, and explains it by saying, 
' ' These are they which in an honest and good heart, hav- 
ing heard the word, keep it and bring forth fruit," and it 
would not seem possible that an honest and good heart is 
deceitful above all things and desperately wicked. I do 
not feel myself to be in a desperate strait when I have such 
good and ample authority to sustain mc, even that of God 
himself through his son Jesus Christ. Now regarding the 
innocence and purity of children Jesus said, "Suffer little 
children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such 
is the kingdom of Heaven." 

JigB. Knott: "Not so, Jesus : you are mistaken; you 
speak m the present tense, which could not properly be 



330 MEMOIRS OF 

used, because jou have not yet shed your blood, and Paul 
says, " Without shedding of blood there is no remission.' ' 

Jesus : ** For their angels do always behold the face of 
my Father which is in heaven." 

«7. B. Knott : '* That cannot be, for children are under 
condemnation to the Adamic death, and as they have no 
faith, that cloud cannot be removed until you are crucified 
and your blood is shed." 

Jesus : " To this end was I bom, and for this cause came 
I into the world, to bear witness to the truth. * ' 

J, B, Knott (aside): ''Certainly Jesus contradicts 
Paul." 

Peter: **Our beloved brother Paul has written many 
things hard to be understood, which they that are un- 
learned and unstable construe as they do also the other 
Scriptures into their own destruction.' ' 

J, B. Knott (aside) : " Does Peter mean to apply that 
to me ? I did not think he would treat a brother apostle 
thus, — one, too, who does not entangle himself with the 
things of the world, and has been regularly ordained by 
one of the evangelical churches. ' ' 

Bible : ^* No man taketh this honor upon himself but 
he that is called of God, as was Aaron." 

Again thou undertakes to make Paul contradict God as 
to the condition of man. 

Ood : " What mean ye that ye use this proverb con- 
cerning the land of Israel, sapng, The fathers have eaten 
sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge." 

J. B. Knott : ** Paul says by one man's sin deat& entered 
into the world, and so passed upon all men, for all have 
sinned, that is federally in Adam." 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 331 

Ood: '* Afl'I live, saith the Lord God, ye shall not 
have occasion to use this proverb in Israel." 

J, B, Knott : '* It comes by inheritance, and all are 
dead because of Adam's sin. " 

God : "All souls are mine ; as the soul of the father, so 
also the soul of the son is mine. The soul that sinneth, it 
shall die." 

J". B. Knott : ** You seem by the term it to limit the 
death which is the consequence of sin to the individual 
that sins." 

Ood : " The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father." 

J, B, Knott : " If the case stands thus, and if the de- 
praved moral nature of mankind, both Jews and Gentiles, 
does not lie back of the fruit in the tree, what becomes of 
the doctrine of the Fall and Redemption, as held by all 
evangelical churches ? " 

Ghd : * ' I had planted thee a choice vine, wholly a 
right seed." 

J. B. Knott: "I understood Paul differently, and set 
up my understanding against Gardner's in regard to the 
innocence and purity of children." 

Lorenzo Dow : " Every tub must stand on its own bot- 
tom, whether it be oak, ash, or chestnut." 

Jesus : ' ' Except ye be converted and become as little 
children ye cannot enter into the kingdom of Heaven." 

After taking exceptions to my remarks upon the two 
principal covenants, viz. : the Jewish and universal, thou 
says, '' It certainly would be a great satisfaction to me to have 
vou define the difference between these two covenants." 
Kow, my friend, I will endeavor to give thee that very 
great satisfaction. 



332 MEM0IB8 OF 

The outward, or Jewish covenant, was composed of out- 
ward laws to the outward condition of the people, and ac- 
cording to Paul, was not faultless (Heb. 8 : 7). The 
other, which I call a universal covenant, is offered to all 
people, is inward, spiritual, the law of God written on the 
tablets of the heart instead of on parchment, and is faultless, 
accommodating itself to all conditions (Heb. 8: 9, 10, 11). 
Thou says I alluded to but two covenants, the two above 
mentioned, and then goes on to enumerate more, as it seems, 
to gain a point. I was aware of the covenant with 
Abraham, but was not aware that it extended to general 
humanity, or was ever binding upon any beside the par- 
ticular individuals concerned at the time of the making of 
it. I was also aware of the covenant that God established 
with Noah and the fowls and the beasts, that He would no 
more destroy them with a flood. Still I was not aware 
that that covenant involved any moral obligation on the 
part of Noah or the fowls or the beasts of the field, so I 
passed them over without any particular remarks and con- 
sidered only the two that concerned the interests of man- 
kind : the outward law and the spiritual covenant, which 
latter calls not for the circumcision of the flesh but of the 
heart Now, if any doubt my interpretation of the spiritual 
covenant, let them endeavor to solve it for themselves by 
the spirit and not by the letter. Thou says my reply to the 
inquiry, " If man is bom morally pure what is the new 
birth?" is so weak and puerile that it hardly merits a 
serious notice. " Moral purity," thou quotes, " does not 
preclude the necessity of the new birth, and the new birth 
is regeneration, or a removal of the government from our 
own hand to that of Christ'' Thou then remarks, ''If 



SUNDERLAND I*. GARDNER. 333 

moral puritj does not preclude the necessity of the new 
birth, then Adam and Eve must have needed it before they 
fell. The angeb must be bom again, and even God him- 
self must be regenerated ; wonder to whose hand He will 
remove the government ? Are you not shocked with such 
monstrous conclusions ! " I answer that if a man could 
be shocked by foolishness in the extreme, he might be 
shocked by thy conclusions. 

Of whom was I speaking? Was it not clearly of man 
and of him only ? — of man who was created by God a free 
moral being, having the power of choice, so that he might 
be governed by his own will, or might place the govern- 
ment in the hand of his Creator, thus being capable of 
rising from his innocent child-state up into positive virtue, 
or of continuing in his own self-will, thus alienating him- 
self from God. But by what rule of honesty, justice or 
truth thou could transfer my ideas of regeneration to God 
and the angels, I cannot understand. Why did thou not 
as well mention the trees and grass ? Men who glory in 
the cross of Christ should be very careful about putting 
their own constructions on other people's words, lest they 
be found judging. I maintain the ground with regard to 
the new birth that it is giving the government to Christ, 
the establishment of the kingdom of heaven in the soul by 
bringing all the passions and powers of man into subjection 
to the truth, so that it may be said, " Unto us a child is 
bom, unto us a Son is given, and the government shall be 
upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonder- 
ful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, 
the Prince of Peace;" and we may further say, that the 
effect of this regeneration is to produce a perfect equilibrium 



334 MEMOIRS OF 

in the nature of man, bo that ** the wolf also shall dwell 
with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid 
and the calf, aod the young lion and the fatling together, and 
a little child shall lead them,' ' etc. It would seem from thy 
remarks tliat thou understands the nature of the new birth 
just about as well as did Nicodemus, and that thou en- 
deavors to evade if not iu effect to deny the doctrines of 
Jesus, whose testimony I receive as coming from God him- 
self, for He was in Jesus speaking through him to the people, 
Jesus being the pure and willing instrument Thou fur- 
ther adds: *' You have gone so far as even to virtually as- 
sert that Jesus Christ must have been regenerated : upon 
this horrible of all horribles I can offer no comment." 
And why ? Dost thou see in it a point so delicate and im- 
portant that if pursued thou fears it might develop into 
something entirely different from what is held by all evan- 
gelical churches? But I purpose to pursue the matter 
further, and to quote some passages of Scripture which I 
believe are seldom if ever used in public by such men as 
thyself: "Arise, and take the young child and his 
mother and flee into Egypt, ... for Herod will seek the 
young child to destroy him" (Matt. 2 : 13). Oh how hor- 
rible, to say that Jesus was in danger of being destroyed! 

' ' His mother said unto him. Son, why hast thou thus dealt 
with us ? Thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing. ' ' 
How horrible for his mother thus to chide him! — ^yet there- 
upon he returned and was subject to them. Obedient 
Son! But oh, how horrible to quote anything that would 
indicate that he was like other children ! " Jesus increased 
in stature and in favor with God and man." ** He was 
made perfect through suffering." Horrible, to say there 



8UNDEBLAND P. QARDNER. 335 

was ever a time when he was not perfect, br saving he was 
madeperfect! 

Perhaps, Friend Knott, before he attained to perfection 
his condition was that of innocence and purity. ''He 
learned obedience by the things which he suffered." 
* * What ! Jesus learn obedience ? " 

It pleased Him by whom and for whom all things were 
made, to make the captain of our salvation perfect through 
suffering. He was made of the seed of David according 
to the flesh. 

"Oh I the idea," that he was made of the seed of 
David, for we know that David was made of the seed of 
Adam according to the flesh, and that Jesus was tempted 
in all points even as we are, which could not have been 
had he not possessed a nature like our own. Any one may 
see by the above quotations from the Scriptures that the 
life of Jesus was one of probation, and being made like 
unto his brethren in all things he found it necessary to take 
up the cross in himself just the same as do other men. 
''Except a man deny himself and take up his cross, he 
cannot be my disciple." Admitting the miracle of his 
organization, it changed not the nature of the seed of David 
or of Adam according to the flesh ; it needed to learn 
obedience ; it needed perfection, and the way was open to 
it as to all other men. ' ' Horrible ! " 

I asserted the self-evident fact that Jesus' s disci- 
ples could not follow him except he went before them. 
Furthermore, in confirmation of my position, I will refer to 
his declaration in Revelation: "To him that overcometh will 
I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame 
^d am set down with my Father in his throne." Thou 



336 MEM0IB8 OF 

must perceive that the terms of this high priyilege stand 
upon the fact of their overcoming as he overcame, which 
overcoming includes all things necessary in the experience 
of man except in the case of repentance. Job is another 
case to the point He was declared by the Lord to be a 
perfect and upright man, one that feareth God and eschew- 
eth evil (Job 1 : 8) . His waa evidently a case of moral 
purity, but as the sequel proved his purity did not obviate 
the necessity for regeneration, for experience, for perfec- 
tion, being born of the Spirit; and in attaining to this he 
found the cross in his way ; and in taking it up he was 
found measurably faithful. 

It seems to me that if thou had carefully considered 
the state in which Adam was created, it might have pro- 
duced diflferent results in thy mind. He needed a saviour 
every day of his life even before his transgression, and had 
he listened to the grace of Grod which bringeth salvation, 
and hath appeared unto all (including Adam), teaching 
them, etc., he would not have fallen, and would have 
needed no Redeemer; all young children are in the same 
state as was he before he fell, viz. : innocent and pure; and 
he like children had the privilege of adding to his purity 
virtue, by the resistance of temptation ; but he fell by the 
first temptation. Gould any one fall sooner ? Jesus makes 
it plain to my understanding : '^ He that liveth and 
believeth in me shall never die. " The death here alluded 
to does not mean the death of the body, for ''it is 
appointed unto all men once to die." The death referred 
to must therefore be the death which is the effect of sin 
when finished. I understand him thus: Children are 
negatively pure, and when in process of time the law of 



8UNDERLAND P. OARDNER. 337 

God 18 developed in their hearts, which is Christ in them, 
if they continue in obedience they will not sin, and conse- 
quently never die the death which is the effect of sin. 

I may here observe that no religious society is respon- 
sible for the views which I hold forth ; I declare that 
which I believe to be true, and am content to rest therein. 
I have a testimony to bear concerning the truly Christian 
character of many clergymen in the different evangelical 
churches. They do not lay so much stress upon abstract 
doctrines as they do upon practical righteousness; having 
learned in the school of Christ the truths of essential and 
vital religion, they are liberal in their views, and have found 
that another has just as good a right to differ from them as 
they have to differ from him. These I recognize as 
Christians, as brethren in Christ; they do not build them- 
selves up on tradition, but upon Christ the Bock. I am 
compelled to say, however, that there is another class of 
clergymen, who appear to have no other knowledge of 
reli^on than that which they draw from the letter. I find 
that such as these are always ready, as were certain in the 
time of Jesus, to call down fire from heaven to consume 
those who declare a truth which is not drawn from their 
understanding of traditions. It seems to be their nature 
to persecute. Their case reminds me of the serpent in the 
spring of the year, before he has shed his scarf skin, and 
with it the scales from his eyes. At this time he is par- 
tially blind, and as he cannot see anything distinctly, he is 
annoyed and alarmed at the merest trifle, snapping and 
biting at every thing that comes near him, and is more 
venomous than when he can see clearly. Such, it would 
seem, have more claim to our pity than to our contempt. 

22 



338 MEMOIRS OF 

Thou asked if I were willing our correspondence should 
be published as thou could have it done. What I have 
written was not corrected and prepared for the public eye, 
but if thou desires to have it published, I give my consent 
upon the condition that it be published entire as it is, with- 
out addition or diminution, change or transposition, and 
that thou furnish me with a few entire copies as it comes 
from the press. And now my son, whom I have begotten 
into a lively zeal in defense of the doctrines of all evan- 
gelical churches, I charge thee to be careful that thy zeal 
be accompanied by knowledge, lest it be like endeavoring 
to sail upon the dry sands, but rather, keep thy barque 
upon its appropriate element; moreover, while the breeze 
of zeal is wafting thee along, be careful to cast the lead of 
knowledge, and thus assure thyself of the depth of the 
waters, so that thou be not driven upon the rocks, else thy 
zeal will prove neither profitable to thee nor instructing to 
others. 



[The following shows the thoughts of one who travailed 
with him in spirit.] 

My Dear Friend S. P. Gardner : 

As my peace of mind consists only in being obedient to 
that which is revealed to it by my Heavenly Father as his 
will concerning me, and my having an impression made 
upon my mind yesterday, so forcibly and remarkably that 
it was my duty to hand thee the enclosed amount (twenty 
dollars), and say to thee that I have believed it was thy 
duty to attend our Yearly Meeting, and encourage thee to 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 339 

attend to the impressioii thus made, — ^now this seemed 
very singular to me, and the impression came upon me in 
such a manner, and has since continued with me, that 
I feel I cannot leave for home without thus expressing my- 
self to thee. I want thee to come to my house, 1214 
Mount Vernon Street, or write to me and I will meet thee 
at the depot. In directing letters to me, please direct to 
my store. 

Please accept this from thy poor, weak, tried and 
tribulated brother, who is anxious and desirous to do what 
he believes to be his Father's will concerning him ; and 
the bearer, my brother John, can tell thee how he came to 
be the bearer. He is under deep baptisms and great men- 
tal suffering, so much so as to call forth my deepest heart- 
felt sympathy and prayer to God on hb behalf. 

Farewell, dear brother in the Lord ; this is the Lord's 
doings, and marvellous in mine eyes. 

Thy brother in bonds and afflictions, 



REPLY TO DR. HOLLAND'S SERMON, ** PUNISHMENT NOT 

ETERNAL." 

I am asked my opinion of the sermon. I think the 
Doctor has succeeded very well in exhibiting the imagin- 
ary but false attributes of Deity as held forth by many 
theologians and their followers. 

The picture of the Almighty as presented in the Scrip- 
tures of truth is a perfect panorama as viewed and con- 
templated by the human mind. First stages seem dark, 
harsh and mysterious; but the advancing stages grow 



340 MEMOIBS OF 

lighter, purer, higher, clearer; for example, on a certain 
occasion, the words of the disciples to Jesus were, * ' Lord, 
wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven 
and consume them even as Elias did?" (Luke 9: 54.) 
And let us remember the answer; but afterwards, in a 
more advanced state, the declaration was, '' Gk>d b love." 

Now we do not suppose that God on his part changed, 
but we may clearly see that the human heart did change, 
and consequently its view of Deity changed. The com- 
mon idea of God is very much modified as he becomes 
known in the Christian life; the vast power, the unlimited 
might, are not lessened, but softened down by the tender 
light of his love, according as we are prepared to receive 
him as he is. 

When we sin we know from certain experience that we 
do receive punbhment (unless we have hardened our- 
selves by resistance) ; the rod of chastisement is laid upon 
us, and now, if we repent and turn from the evil and 
choose the good, we shall be received again as was the 
"prodigal son," for the mercy of the Father is sure; but 
if we do not submit and repent and return, can we expect 
a mercy, a blessing, which is not even asked for? I see no 
reason why we should, since we have both the freedom and 
ability to avail ourselves of his goodness. We have only to 
choose, for if we find ourselves weak, we shall find him 
strong, and he haa promised to help according to his 
children's need. 

Listen to the conditions of life and happiness, and see 
how easy, how reasonable, how just. 

" Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they 
may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through 



BUKBERLAND P. GARDNER. 841 

the gates into the city " (Rev. 22 : 14). Does this mean 
anything ? If 83, our task is simply to be cleansed, and to 
keep ourselyeSy by his help, clean from the world's wicked- 
ness, or impurities, and thus certainly advancing the 
cause of universal happiness. But the next verse says: 

''For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whore- 
mongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever 
loveth and maketh a lie." 

Does not this clearly show a separation between the 
obedient and the disobedient, and is it not just, yea, merci- 
ful, that it should be so 7 — ^for the two classes cannot mingle 
together any more than fire and water can unite; the pres- 
ence of the one must destroy the other. If tares will grow 
with the wheat, there must be a separation at the time of 
harvest 

The proposition next entered might be : Considering 
the power and love of God, why does he permit these tares 
to h^ve a being, or why dL> he permit £ and then pun- 
ish the sinner ? 

Now let me ask you. Which would you prefer, to be 
responsible moral beings, or automatons ? If we were the 
latter, turned hither and thither like a machine at the will 
of an operator, we would have nothing to do and nothing 
to suffer, — (3od would be just. 

But we are not so constructed ; we are reasonable and 
responsible creatures. This being the case, it would be as 
impossible for the decree to pass that all should be saved, 
as for two mountains to exist in parallel proximity without 
a valley or gulf between them. 

Our freedom is given us with the words, " Choose ye 
which ye will, life and good or death and evil. ** No one 



342 MEMOIBS OF 

can be blamed but ourselves for the choice we make, yet 
by his mercy we have the greater power on the better side, 
for he is urging us by his spirit to come and be saved. He 
is freely offering his help of wisdom and strength as needed 
if we will but choose it, if we will ask it Therefore 
it would seem reasonable to us to believe that a soul may, of 
its own choice, stay out with the darkness of corruption, 
and yet no one but itself be responsible. 

Yet we have to manage only for this present life: here 
is our work, the future is in the hands of God, and all 
future conditions are in his power alone; the veil is drawn, 
the gates of eternity are closed to all until he sees fit that 
death shall open them to us; then we shall know as we are 
known, and see as we are seen. 

Ood has said to all of his creatures by an unchangeable 
law, " Thus far thou shalt go," and vain would be our 
struggle to go farther or see farther than he permits. 
''Things revealed belong to us and our children,'' yet we 
are persuaded and joyfully receive and believe the promise 
that it will be well with us in the future if we do our work 
aright in this present time ; but if we prefer death and evil 
now, we see no reasonable grounds for hope of return after 
we shall leave the field given us by his goodness, wherein 
to choose for ourselves; nor yet that another time of pro- 
bation will be given us. 



SUNDERLAND P. GABDNER. 343 



FROM A LADY IN ORLEANS CO., N. Y. 

Esteemed Friend : — ^Though we are personally un- 
known to each other, I must alwa3r8 hold thy memory in 
high esteem, if for no other reason than the great regard 
my father (E. A. ) always felt and expressed for thee ; and 
yet, but for the earnest solicitations of a firiend, I should 
not venture to trespass upon time already, no doubt, too 
much overburdened; and these questioning letters may 
have become so frequent as to be annoying. Two questions 
were given me to ask — "Of thy views of advancement 
after death,'' and "What is thy belief as regards future 
rewards and punishments? " — how far, if at all, thy views 
may correspond with those of Job Scott in the second 
volume of his works. 

If thy time and inclination give thee an opportunity to 
answer this letter, it will be gratefuUy received by 

A. L. A. H. 



REPLY. 

Thou requested my views in regard to advancement in 
a future state, also my belief concerning future rewards 
and punishments. I am free to answer thee according to 
my ability. 

As to my views of advancement after death, the com- 
mencement of man's life in this state of being is the com- 
mencement of eternity with him. Now, as the laws of 
nature which we see appear to run parallel to each other, 
perhaps we may use natural material things as symbols or 



344 MEMOIBS OF 

pictures of spiritual things; Jesus taught hy parables, thus 
showing that there was a likeness between natural and 
spiritual laws. Divine wisdom has so organized man, that 
by obeying the laws fixed in his being, his physical nature 
advances through various grades of influences and con- 
ditions, from a state of infancy to a state in which it be- 
comes a proper medium for that more important manhood, 
the spiritual man, created in the image of God. Now as 
we see the healthy physical man is constantly progressing 
until all his inherent faculties are fully developed, and as 
this body is used until its work as the organ of the soul is 
fully accomplished, may we not suppose that the soul also 
advances while there is anything for it to do ? and as we 
know the body, like all other machines, being of the earth 
earthy, returns to earth again, may we not suppose that 
the soul, on the other hand, being in the likeness and image 
of God, will, like him, continue to exist, though all things 
Inaterial shall have passed away ? 

The five senses which take cognizance of material things 
appear not to have the power of communing with or under- 
standing spiritual things, but, as before said, only constitute 
the organ of the soul, and like other materials must perish 
with the using ; the soul, however, which is the connecting 
link between God and His material creation, seems to have 
corresponding senses, and these can perceive and understand 
spiritual things ; and these alone being recipients of God's 
spirit, must alone be responsible to Him. The spirit more- 
over, having control over the body, is held responsible for 
the use made of the body. 

Again, in regard to advancement, we should hardly 
suppose that infants, " bal)es in Christ, " and the irrespon- 



SUNDERLAND F. GARDNER. 345 

Bible, will forever remain in the same state in which they 
enter Heaven, thus being deprived of the accessions of 
glory obtained by those who have arisen to virtuous and 
perfect lives, having kept the faith, fought a good fight and 
finished the cause; yea, the best of us, I think, have need 
of advancing higher than we do in this state. But in what 
manner this advancement is carried on we have no means of 
ascertaining, '' for it does not yet appear what we shall be," 
or if we shall be suddenly changed when we leave this house 
of clay in all things, having such power of vision and such 
grasp of intellect as shall make us know all things without 
labor. One thing is certain: he who made both soul and 
body, will do all things well. 

The theory which has been adopted by many, namely, 
that after death man progresses on by the same laws that 
govern him here, will bear questioning, for now we know 
he is a compound being and governed by compound in- 
fluences; but when the relation between soul and body is 
dissolved we know not what will be, — we cannot know by 
our natural senses what will be done by Him " who shall 
change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto 
his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is 
able even to subdue all things unto himself." It must, 
however, act under different circumstances and consequently 
in a different manner from what it does here. 

I can say in respect to the second query that I do be- 
lieve in future rewards and punishments; but in order to 
express my peculiar views on the subject I must be allowed 
to call them consequences and effects. If present rewards 
and punishments are, in a measure, of the same nature and 
from the same source as are those of the Aiture, we may 



346 MEMOIB8 OF 

form, perhaps, a rational idea of that future: and the 
reason why I prefer to saj consequenoes instead of rewards 
and punishments, is because I do not believe Grod to be 
capable or rather to be influenced by such passions as ours, 
for ours are corrupted by our disobedience; but that all 
His laws are so framed as to bring upon every condition 
its appropriate effects. Thus, God has given a law to 
every individual state, and light by which we may appre- 
hend every duty. This law and light is nothing short of 
His gift, or the work of the spirit of God in man, and is a 
present swift witness for the truth and against error. Now, 
by obeying this law, we feel approved at the bar of judg^ 
ment set in the soul, for by this obedience we are drawn 
nigh to God, are in unity with, or reconciled to Him, and 
consequently happy ; but if we transgress, we must of 
course experience condemnation, and until we return, we 
separate ourselves from God, and are necessarily miserable. 

Again, we are free agents : there are clearly two ways 
set before us, and we may choose which we will; whether it 
be life and good, or death and evil; and instead of God 
arbitrarily punishing us, as some suppose, we separate our- 
selves from Him and cast ourselves out of heaven by 
sinning according to our own will; or, on the other hand, 
we may if we choose unite ourselves to God by obedience 
or agreement with His laws; and receive the promised 
results, which are ''righteousness and peace and joy in the 
Holy Ghost." 

We know we are here for some purpose, and that pur- 
pose is, doubtless, probation ; and why should we have this 
probation, why have the opportunity of forming our own 
spiritual character as we please, and why even have a 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 347 

chance for repentance after having sinned, — why, I say, 
should all this be, if after death we may have a continua- 
tion of choice and reform ? If this were the case, why 
wrapped in this ''mortal coiP' at all? Nay, I believe 
when we cease to live here we also cease to choose a 
preparation for good or evil. '' As the tree falleth so it 
lieth," and we, instead of choosing, must then take the 
consequences. 

Let us look again at our present condition, the soul 
placed half way, as it were, between God and nature, free 
to follow on the one hand the animal lusts, and consenting 
to their unbridled rule, turning that which was designed 
for a blessing into a corruption and curse, or, on the other 
hand, capable of rising higher and higher in virtue and 
godliness, having light sufficient to know good from evil, 
and power sufficient to choose which we will; thus I be- 
lieve that the consequences of our choice here will rest 
upon us hereafter, without chance of change, unless it be 
from good to better or from bad to worse. 

Now thou clearly understands why I say, if a man dies 
in his sins he does not experience future unhappiness fit)m 
an arbitrary act of punishment from Deity, as I do not 
believe God acts from corrupted opposition as we do, for 
we feel a disposition of spite or revenge, He only a right- 
eous opposition to evil; but I do believe that some, yea 
many, die in their sins, and that the soul having once passed 
from the body cannot come back to reanimate it, and thus 
rectify the errors it consented to commit during its time 
of probation. Its stewardship has been taken away, and 
it cannot have a second trial. 

I would observe, however, with regard to the subjects 



348 MEMOiRd OF 

under consideration, I do not believe tbem to be matters 
which necessarily or profitably concern us now, otherwise 
than what ha^ been revealed to us by inspiration. We are 
placed here by Divine wisdom, and there is clearly a work 
for us to do, — a work that must be done here if at all : 
enough light is given us by which to do it, and the per- 
formance of it is the only way in which we can be profitably 
engaged: and when we sufier our minds to search after 
things which it has not pleased God to reveal to us, we find 
ourselves only left in confusion. 

I think the religious world has been wrong so far as it 
has appealed too much to the fears of man, and exhorted 
them to do right in order to * ' escape the wrath to come " 
by means of imagination, instead of simply giving them 
the word of Grod; that is enough. If we do right merely 
through fear (not reverence for God) it is no virtue in us, 
no love in us; and will God accept a heart devoid of these ? 
Nay, our business is not with what He is going to do with 
us after death, but with what He calls us to do here. 

It is a long time since I have read Job Scott, and as I 
do not own the work, I am unable to say if I agree with 
him or not, or how he treats the subjects before us. I 
have not drawn largely from the Scriptures, as I might 
have done, not because I do not value them highly, but 
rather because it is well for each of us to search them for 
himself. I have, however, tried to give thee my own 
views according to thy request. 

Thy fnend, 

SUNDEBLAVB P. GaSDKEB. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 349 



EXTRACT FROM A LETTER — ^DATE UNKNOWN. 

For several years past I have felt that Friends were re- 
miss in the charge of a judicious care on thy behalf, and 
had no doubt but thou felt it to be so. I mentioned the 
subject to some of the members, and found they viewed 
the case in the same way, but there was a state of things 
existing which had been the cause of delay; Friends could 
not be united in bringing the case of one without the other, 
hence it was not acted upon in either case. But whatever 
course was pursued, thou could only be safe in prayerfully 
abiding in a resigned and contrite state, the only safe one 
for any Christian traveler. That which is the chief 
essential for us to depend upon is higher than men or 
churches or their decrees, and our ground of hope rests up- 
on our following the '* true light " which adapts itself to 
every condition; although in following that light in the 
line of our duty the path is not always a smooth one. The 
best men that have ever lived have found their way has led 
through conditions figuratively represented by thorns, fire, 
water, and deep baptisms. None of these things, however, 
are designed to harm us, and if we abide in the patience 
we shall be enabled to come out of the ordeal stronger, and 
with the satisfaction of being renewedly prepared for a 
profitable advance. 

In the outward. elements there are sometimes pleasant 
calms, but at other times those very elements are roused 
into powerful action, warring against whatever comes in 
the way, and the air that has been so mild has gathered its 
forces and moves with such power that even the sturdy 



350 MEMOIRS OF 

trees of the forest fall before it; the great oak, unwilling 
like the reed to bend before the fury of the storm, is over- 
powered, and falls to rise no more. The reed, which seems 
to know its weakness, bends until the blast is past, when it 
regains its former uprightness, and lives on. 

May we not derive instruction from the works of nature T 

The most devoted children of God have sometimes found 
they must " tread the wine- press ' ' of experience and duty 
alone, which frequently brings trying drcumstanoes and 
deep baptisms. 

Paul found this to be true in his experience while en- 
deavoring to discharge his duty as a servant of God; sur- 
rounded by many perils, even the elements seemed leagued 
against him and ready to overwhelm him ; perils by sea, 
perils by land, and, hardest of all to bear, ''perils among 
false brethren." But he suffered none of these things to 
discourage him. 

Jesus, that sinless one, who was anointed to preach the 
Gospel to his nation, was opposed and persecuted by those 
whom he was endeavoring to lead into a better condition ; 
and finally, was brought to the cross because he reproved 
them for their sins; and although he could clearly see the 
result of his faithfulness as it should be poured out upon 
himself by the indignant Jews, he still persevered in the 
line of his duty. What was it that armed Jesus and Paul, 
and thousands of martyrs, with power and strength to make 
every sacrifice, even to the laying down of their natural 
lives, sealing their testimonies with their blood, in order to 
make known and spread abroad the truth of God for the 
salvation of the world, — what but the love of God that 
filled their own souls 7 Such love is stronger than deatL 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 351 

Anned with this, we are armed with the power of Grod; 
it makes us invincible to the shafts of our enemies: and 
standing upon the rock the mad waves of opposition can- 
not overcome us. 



352 MEMOIBS OF 



SERMONS AND ADDRESSES. 



[At a Meeting for Sufferings, representing Genesee 
Yearly Meeting of Friends, held at Farmington, 20th 
of Sixth month, 1846, the following Address, after receiv- 
ing the deliberate attention of this meeting, was approved, 
and directed to be printed for circulation. 

Extracted from the minutes, 

8. P. Gardner, Clerk.'\ 

address 

To the Yovih and Children of the Religious Society of 
Friends, within the compass of Oenesee Yearly Meeting : 

Beloved Young Friends : — 

The love that prompts me, connected with a desire for 
your best interest, and an impression of duty, constitute 
the reasons for thus addressing you. 

It is with deep-felt sorrow and anguish of feeling that 
I have for some time beheld a libertine spirit prevailing, 
and the pernicious examples set before the youth of the 
present day, even by those, in some instances, who have 
been considered as bright and shining lights in the firma- 
ment of virtue and truth. 

The moral and religious condition of the world must 
soon depend upon the virtue, intelligence, correct religious 
principles, and faithfulness of the present generation of 
youth. The precise state and character of things as now 
existing, are for the most part sustained by those who are 



8UKDERLAND P. GARDNER. 353 

upon the stage of active life. But it depends almost 
wholly upon the youth whether the present evils shall 
continue or be corrected in their own practice, for it is only 
by example they may be made instrumental to promote 
that improvement which is so much needed. I am aware 
that there is much, if we look abroad, that has a tendency 
to discourage; but this has undoubtedly been the case in 
every age, and will be, wherever the unsubjected human 
will has the ascendency over the more noble principle in 
man. 

Although my love extends universally to all the human 
fiimily, yet it is towards the youth connected with me, more 
particularly in social religious feUowship, that my mind 
seems to be at present drawn. We are making a high 
profession, and upon our faithfulness in carrying it out 
with fidelity, our welfare depends. The faithfulness of 
our predecessors or parents will not exonerate us from the 
performance of our duties as individuals, and vice versct^ 
their dereliction of duty should not discourage us from the 
performance of ours. 

It seems right for me to bring before you the great im- 
portance of your early seeking for the assistance of divine 
wisdom in all your actions, or rather, let that wisdom 
direct them. And as you confidentially put your trust in 
the arm of divine power, its operations will increase in 
such a manner as may indeed appear wonderful to you. 
Tou will find by experience it has many ofiSces to perform; 
it will set your states clearly in order, and bring to the 
light the works of darkness, and reprove and judge them. 
And although this dispensation may seem bitter, yet it is 
necessary for your good; and if you are faithful through 

28 



354 MEMOIRS OF 

this ministration, that which in the first place operated as 
a reprover, will then approve, and restore that which it 
took not away — even your peace. These baptisms are 
some of the offices of Christ; and as the soul submits to 
them, and suffers them to have their perfect work, it urill 
be brought up into that state, in which it can say in truth, 
'* Our Father who art in heaven." 

Your circumstances in this state of existence may be 
compared to a traveler upon a dusty highway, where it is 
difficult for him to pass without his garments becoming 
soiled. The state of things with which you are sur- 
rounded being such, that it will require a vigilant care to 
keep the contaminating influence of hurtful things from 
affecting you, and to preserve your spiritual garments un- 
spotted from the world. 

It is evident that there are at present unusual commo- 
tions and excitements prevailing in our land; and they are 
so various, and present so many different features, that 
unless our minds are with all sincerity of purpose centered 
in Him from whom we receive every good and perfect 
gift, there is great danger of our being drawn aside by 
some of them, and becoming entangled in the labyrinth of 
error. 

There is something in human nature, when not fully 
subjected to the circumscribing power of truth, that is 
prone to be active and easily excited, and not being willing 
to submit to the cross, carves out and marks a course of 
action for itself, and is almost ever ready to engage in any 
movement that is novel, or that proposes some great end in 
its designs. This restless disposition is the fruitful source 
whence most of the evil and confusions originate which are 



BUVDERLAND P. GARDNER. 355 

in the world. It is generally associated with an insatiable 
ambition, which manifests itself not only in the wars of 
nations, but produces most of the schisms and contentions 
among the professors of the Christian Religion. If you 
would be preserved from these inconsistencies, you must be 
willing to submit to the rectifying principle of the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ, which strikes at that root or disposition in 
man from which, when perverted, all evil proceeds. But 
as all in the heart is given up to the operation of this Gos- 
pel Power, all the affections and powers of the mind will 
become chastened and rectified, and then, instead of feel- 
ings of hardness, envy and hatred, nothing but love, 
benevolence and kind feelings will abound in you towards 
mankind. And wherefore? Because the soul being 
cleansed and filled with the love of our Heavenly Father, 
it produces emotions of love towards Him, as Supreme, and 
also towards all men. When this, my young friends, comes 
to be your experience, all warlike and contentious dis- 
positions will be controlled by the power of love; and when 
you come to this state, be not in haste to move in any 
thing. Beware of being prematurely drawn into action, 
lest you run in the activity of the creature, and the good 
work be marred upon the wheel. Be assured, that He who 
has begun it in you will carry it on in His own time, and 
perfect it in due season. And when it is perfected in His 
wisdom, as you abide in the patience, it will be made known 
to you with indubitable clearness what is required at your 
hands, and when and where it must be performed. 

Many there are who know these things by living ex- 
perience, but arrived at them only by the way of the cross 
of Christ And many there are who ran well for a while, 



356 MEMOIRS OF 

but not being willing to abide the full time necessary for 
their proving and regeneration, have turned aside firom the 
inward spiritual springs of life. These hold on to an out- 
ward form and profession, speaking of and blending those 
things which they once knew in the truth, with those which 
minister death. They are very active, and their time seems 
to be always ready, and by mixing some truth with error, 
are greatly calculated to deceive. This species of deception 
abundantly abounds in our day. 

Oh how have I mourned at beholding the devastation 
that this unruly and insubordinate spirit is making in our 
borders I It has caused the youth to stumble, the hands of 
the middle-aged to hang down through discouragement, 
and their feet to turn back in the day of trial, and the 
aged to tremble through fear. Therefore, my soul has 
yearned towards you with earnest solicitude, that you may 
unreservedly, and with full purpose of heart, dedicate the 
morning of your lives to Him, who, as a tender Father, 
will keep you as his own — ^preserve you from any thing that 
can hurt or destroy, and instruct you in the way of life and 
salvation. And as you become possessed of and strength- 
ened by this life, many important things will be unfolded 
to your minds in due succession. You will then see with 
more clearness the vast importance of a faithful attendance 
of our religious meetings, in which, though held in silence, 
if your minds are prayerfully directed to your Heavenly 
Father, you will experience your spiritual strength re- 
newed. 

How beautiful it is indeed to see the youth submit to 
the direction of the Law of Truth — ^to see them assemble 
for the purpose of worshipping that Being who alone is 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 357 

worthy, and to whom alone thanksgiving is due.; who, by 
the drawing of His love, first directed their spirits towards 
Himself. 

With what fervency of spirit the early Christians were 
imbued, with respect to assembling together with one accord 
in one place, for the purpose of having a closer inter- 
communication of soul in socially worshipping their 
Heavenly Benefactor, and through his blessing encourag- 
ing each other to patience and perseverance, under the 
trials and persecutions which they suffered for the Word's 
sake. 

It seems that lukewarmness or indifference in regard to 
the Christian Religion, increases in proportion to the 
removal of external impediments from the way. 

Our Society originated, grew stronger, and flourished 
under persecution, and the members were united in the 
strong bonds of mutual love and affection, which qualified 
them to deeply feel for each other, and made them willing 
to share in each other's sufferings. In this state, nothing 
but force or ill health kept them from their meetings. 

See what a noble example was set by the children and 
youth of those early Friends, who met with such cruel 
persecutions in consequence of their endeavors to discharge 
their several duties— in promoting truth and righteous- 
ness in the earth. Even when their parents were confined 
in prison, they faithfully assembled and kept up their 
religious meetings, so that instead of the fathers there were 
the faithful sons, and instead of the mothers were the 
pious and exemplary daughters. A perseverance in such 
faithfulness efiectually rolled back the floods of persecu- 
tion, and powerfully rebuked the strongholds of wicked- 



358 MEMOIRS OF 

ness in high places. And that little band was enabled to 
hold up Truth's testimonies in such a manner that most 
of the enlightened nations have derived benefit from their 
blessed example. And it is as necessary that a strict, 
uncompromising integrity be maintained by every individ- 
ual of you now, in dedicating your talents and your lives 
to the faithful support of those testimonies, as it ever was 
for any in any age of the world. The same necessity 
remains for the work of preparation being first perfected 
in your own hearts: the same necessity of being qualified 
by that Power which caused the bow of Joseph to abide in 
strength, and the same Power that calls you forth will 
direct your way. It will unfold to you the beauty and 
value of the Scriptures of Truth, and enable you rightly 
to appreciate them. Although in the first stages of your 
religious exercises they may seem to you aa sealed books, 
they however declare, that Divine wisdom is profitable to 
direct, and if you seek that faithfully, it will open the 
valuable truths of the Scriptures in the lines of your own 
experience, even unfold them in your minds with more 
certainty and clearness than can ever be received from the 
literary interpretations of men. And when they are thus 
opened and understood, an indubitable evidence is afforded, 
that you have come up, at least in measure, into the same 
state of experience as those who were inspired to write 
them; and thus you will be thoroughly furnished unto all 
good works, so far as example and precept are necessary. 
But a correct knowledge and understanding of the Script- 
ures will not alone do your work; you must be submissive 
to the same Power, be enlightened from the same source, 
and inspired by the same spirit that those were wlio wrote 



BVyDERLAND P. GARDNER. 859 

them; and they may then become to you valuable auxilia- 
ries in your religious exercises. 

Among the external evidences which show most clearly 
that some have faltered and finally turned away from the 
truth and sound doctrine, is their light estimation of the 
Scriptures, and a disbelief in immediate Divine revelation. 
The eye of the mind being firstly turned from the Light, 
darkness ensued ; in this state, walking by the light of the 
fire of their own kindling, they run into reasonings with- 
out wisdom, and come to conclusions not warranted by the 
Truth ; at the same time they fain would be esteemed as 
the greatest lights in the world. These sometimes succeed 
in deceiving some who design to be honest, and in drawing 
them into doubting and halting, until finally a wreck is 
made of all that had been gained. They are ever right 
in their own estimation, and disdain to listen to the whole- 
some restraints of discipline; and when they despair of 
controlling society, they endeavor to destroy it Such, my 
young friends, are the greatest enemies to the Church of 
Christ, and the greatest bar to a reformation among men, 
and to the establishing it upon a permanent foundation ; 
and are more dangerous than anything which, without 
cloak, exposes its deformity to our view. Hence you may 
perceive the vital importance of putting your trust in your 
Heavenly Father. Other teachers may deceive, if you 
put your trust in them, but His teaching will guard you 
against all deception; under it, nothing will be suffered to 
prevail against or harm you. This teaching will enable 
you to bear, not a nominal, but a full and efficient testi- 
mony against all evil, and consequently intemperance and 
slavery, those two great evils in our land, the effects of 



360 MEMOIBS OF 

which have paralyzed the physical, moral, and religious 
sensibilities of those under their influence. But some say 
it is folly to look for or expect any Divine Revelation to 
teach us what to do, or when or where to do it. But even 
these differ so widely among themselves, concerning the 
best method to attain the end desired, that to unite with 
them all we cannot, and maintain consistency. 

Nations war with each other— opposing force to force, 
in a murderous, vindictive spirit. But there are other wars, 
which, though not carried so far as to shed blood, yet the 
same ambitious warlike spirit may prompt to action — 
wrong may be wrongfully opposed, and war may be op- 
posed in a warlike spirit — a state of things which must be 
radically wrong, and dangerous to those who act under 
such influences. It may be asked then. Shall we be idle, 
fold our hands, and remain indifferent to the evils which 
threaten to overwhelm and stamp a blight upon our 
nadon ? I answer. No ! But there are things which should 
be first in order, and they should be perfected in their 
proper course; and that which is first in the order of 
Truth appears to be a subjection on our part without re- 
serve to the refining Power of Divine Love, which will 
cause all those warlike and destroying dispositions, which 
are so strongly set forth by the Prophet Isaiah, under the 
figures of the Wolf, the Leopard, the Bear, the Lion, and 
the Serpents, to be subjected in man. What then would 
be the consequence ? Why, the knowledge of the Lord 
would cover man's earthly nature, as the waters do the 
sea. And it is only when man comes to this state, that he 
is rightly qualified to act; and all those who become thus 
qualified, act with propriety; their aflectionsand sympathy 



BUNDERLAKD P. OABBNER. 861 

are not of the nature of those of the Lion, which is tender 
of its own young, while it takes the life of another to sus- 
tain it — a just figure of the love of the world. And man 
in an unr^enerate state is precisely in this predicament: 
under such circumstances he may act» but such actions are 
not in the order of Truth. He will zealously espouse a 
cause, and earnestly contend that the course that he is pur- 
suing is correct and from right authority; and then change, 
and as earnestly endeavor to sustain a different course. 
He traduces and reviles others because they do not think 
as he thinks, and act as he acts. Why all this instability ? 
Is it not because his spring of action is more from his own 
caprice or passion than from any infallible source ? 

The first little steps of experience, if taken in the order- 
ing of Divine Truth, are never contradicted by any subse- 
quent openings or experience, however great or extensive. 

Intemperance and slavery have a long time been raging 
evik; and our Society, in carrying out in practice the 
principles of the Christian religion, early found it neces- 
sary to commence the work of reform in these particulars 
within its own borders; and a blessing crowned the efibrts 
put forth, the world saw the effect, and acknowledged the 
value of the example. And not only a part of this, but 
other nations are becoming awakened to these subjects, 
and every encouragement consistent with good order should 
be given, and no obstacle should be thrown in the way. 
When we oppose a measure, we should be certain that we 
have good grounds for doing so; for it requires as good 
authority for opposing a cause as it does to favor or pro- 
mote it 

Now when your dispositions are corrected, and you are 



362 MEMOIBS OF 

prepared and fitted by the Most High for whatever work 
he sees best to call you to, you will then have the good 
reason for laboring which Jesus gave^ viz. : " My father 
worketh hitherto, and I work/' and all labor performed 
under such authority will be owned and crowned by it 
But those (although they may see the evil) who go to 
work without it, may learn a lesson from the sons of Sceva, 
who undertook to cast out an unclean spirit by the author- 
ity under which Paul preached, without knowing that 
authority to call and qualify them for the work. And 
does not the principal part of the confusions that distract 
poor Christendom proceed from the same source ? 

Although the evils spoken of may not be immediately 
done away, yet it may be our lot to be baptized into a sense 
of the state of the poor inebriate, and of those who are 
held in bonds of perpetual servitude to their fellow-men, 
their prison doors would be thrown open to us, and we 
could visit them, and ' * remember them that are in bonds 
as bound with them," and having this sense of their con- 
dition upon us, our prayers would ascend to the Most High 
on their behalf, and where there is a sincere and true 
desire for the attainment of any object, there is a corres- 
ponding effort co-operating therewith : this is one valuable 
end for which prayer is designed. When we arrive at this 
state of experience, there will be no halting, idleness, or fold- 
ing of hands, for all within the vineyard find enough to do. 

Far be it from me to discourage any from engaging in, 
or carrying on in a proper manner, any right work. What 
I desire is, that we know our work to be within our path 
of duty, and our path to be pointed out by the light of 
truth. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 863 

There are some in the middle and younger walks of 
life, for whom I feel a farther word to arise; those who 
feel the drawings of love to declare the glad tidings of the 
Oospel of Peace and Salvation to their fellow-men. This 
is the greatest and most important work to which man is 
called ; and none are qualified for it until they have exper- 
ienced the work of preparation perfected in themselves. It 
is the Lord's work, and He chooses, qualifies, and sends 
forth such vessels in His service as He sees best to employ 
in his own wisdom. Man, therefore, as man, can have 
nothing to do with electing or running, but to listen to the 
call of the Lord, and when he hears that call there should 
be no hesitation, but an answer like Samuel's of old, say- 
Jng, ** Speak, Lord, for thy servant heareth," and what he 
requires faithfully perform. Some, when under the quali- 
fying hand, because they cannot see the end and design of 
the present baptisms, become impatient and run to men 
for counseL 

Here great loss is frequently sustained. Those things 
relating to yourselves in this stage of experience should be 
kept as an esteemed jewel, and not be divulged only as the 
necessity for it opens in the life. (I trust every true 
minister of the Gospel can read this in the lines of his own 
experience.) And when it is the Father's pleasure to 
give you counsel, through the instrumentality of his 
servants, he will qualify them to speak appropriately to 
your states, and such trumpets will not give an uncertain 
sound. 

The sun in the heavens is a beautiful emblem of our 
Beneficent Creator. It bountifully sends forth its light 
and enlightens the heavenly bodies, and they reciprocally 



364 MEMOIRS OF 

reflect a portion of thiB light to each other. But the Yivi- 
fying principles of heat and life they cannot reflect; each 
must receive them immediately from the source whence they 
originate. So with us; instruments may be qualified by the 
Father to let his light shine through them, for the enlight- 
ening and mutual benefit of each other, but that life and 
power which only can sustain the soul, must come immed- 
iately from God alone; and it is to this source we look for 
this all-sustaining power, for all others will most assuredly 
fail. 

The valley of humility you will find to be your safest 
dwelling-place; for there the turbulent passions and will 
of man are least active. It is there where the Father in- 
structs his children ; it is there where you will be better 
prepared to hear and understand ; and it is there where 
the Heavenly dew will remain longest distilling upon the 
tender branch, by its not being exposed to the rudeness of 
the winds. Beware of anything that would bring you out 
of this state, and exalt you in the wisdom of the creature. 
Oh how many take their flight here, — ^many who have had 
beautiful gifts, by not keeping sufiiciently humble in them- 
selves, become obnoxious to the praise and adulation of 
men, and when the heart is opened to these, they take pos- 
session, dry up, and cause every green leaf to wither and 
die; such may be the most active, but death will follow in 
the train of their ministry. 

It is necessary that some should remain longer under 
the preparing hand than others. But whoever thou art 
that is so circumstanced, remember that " in quietness and 
in confidence shall be thy strength." Look not abroad, 
for thou will find that it is a work which must be wrought 



8UNDKRLAND P. GARDNER. 365 

wholly within thee, and by carefully and prayerfully turn- 
ing thy attention there, thou may be enabled to see that 
all has not been surrendered which the Truth calls for. It 
calls for the whole heart, for it will not make a comprom- 
ise, and consent to dwell in the heart as a tenant, in com- 
mon with the unsubjected will of man. 

You will experience some close baptisms, but these are 
necessary; firstly, for the bringing your own will and every 
motion of your nature into required subjection ; and sec- 
ondly, to give you a clear perception of the states of others, 
even of the spirits in prison, or those who are under the 
bonds of sin and corruption; whose states cannot be rightly 
and profitably administered to, but through the baptizing 
power of God by Christ, either mediately or immediately 
set forth. And by a submission to, and a co-operation 
with, thb spirit, a resurrection from the death produced 
by sin and transgression is efiected. '' He that hath ears 
to hear let him hear." 

I am aware that there is abundance set forth in this 
day, having a tendency to exalt the creature, professing to 
procure peace independent of the cross of Christ; but it 
18 a dangerous and delusive doctrine, admirably calculated 
to please those who are sowing to the flesh, and to keep 
them at ease in corruption. But if you firmly trust in the 
arm of Divine Power, it will enable you to distinguish 
between the precious and the vile, between that which is 
fit to be received, and that which should be rejected; in 
short between the Truth and error. 

The wolf-like nature, apparently in sheep's clothing, has 
gained entrance, and made death-like havoc in the fold, 
and what renders it doubly awfiil is, that some of those 



366 MEMOIRS OF 

who were looked to as watchmen, have facilitated the 
entrance of the enemy. 

But Buffer none of these things to discourage you. The 
greater the work, the greater the necessity for strength to 
perform it, for if you look to the right source for help, 
that part of the labor assigned to you, you will be enabled 
to perform to your own peace and the glory of God. If 
your hands are clean, no stain will be left upon what you 
handle. If persecution becomes your lot, let it be for 
righteousness' sake. 

To those who are yet children, I have a few words in 
love; many of you, dear children, feel now, in your tender 
years, powerful impressions of love at times imbuing your 
minds. These are the visitations of your Heavenly Fath- 
er's Holy Spirit, for the purpose of keeping you in a state 
of innocency and purity, and to guide your inexperienced 
feet in the paths of virtue and true wisdom. These im- 
pressions at times are so strong as to overbalance anything 
in you which would lead from the path of rectitude. Give 
heed to them, and let them have their perfect work in 
your tender minds, and you wUl be preserved from those 
hurtftd things into which many, by rejecting those heavenly 
visitations, have fallen. They will teach you obedience 
and just reverence to your parents, and qualify you to en- 
joy the society of your brothers and sisters, and all those 
in whom the evidence of virtue and loveliness is found. 
Your home then will increasingly become to you a place 
of pleasure, instruction, and mutual happiness. Oh what 
a comfort to rightly concerned parents, to behold their 
children growing up in the paths of rectitude I how it 
gladdens them in their declining years I I have not seen 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 367 

any who dedicated the morning of their days to their 
Heavenly Father, and justly reverenced their parents, take 
to improper practices in after years. But those who turn 
a deaf ear to the reproo& of Divine Instruction, and treat 
with neglect or contempt the counsel of their parents, will 
sooner or later reap the consequent bitter fruits. 

You no doubt have seen those whom you thought to be 
wicked, whose company you would shun on account of 
their vile conduct and examples. If you could trace back 
their lives, you would undoubtedly find in most instances 
that in childhood they had been disobedient to their parents, 
or had rejected good counsel. It is mostly the case that 
the foundation of an evil life and its consequent troubles 
are laid in childhood. Bo that you, though children, may 
see the great importance of doing right, and shunning 
every appearance of evil. If you depart from your duty, 
and are ever brought back into the path of piety, how your 
souls will grieve at the thought that any misstep or indis- 
cretion of yours should have been the cause of adding 
sorrow to the grey hairs of your parents. 

Remember young Samuel of old, who was dedicated 
or instructed, and given up by his mother to serve the Lord 
in his tender years; and he being faithful, was endued with 
wisdom, and became a prophet of the Most High. And 
your Heavenly Father has as great regard for all children 
as he had for him ; and if they were faithful, they would 
equally be received into his favor, and be clothed with his 
Holy Spirit. This is a noble example for children, and 
one great benefit of its being recorded is their encourage- 
ment. Pious children love to read this account of Samuel 
as well as other portions of the Scriptures, from which they 



368 HEMOIBS OF 

may reoeive much valuable instruction. Timothy was 
acquainted with the Scriptures when a child, and became a 
preacher of righteousness when young. Joseph, when but 
a child, was sold by his brethren and separated from his 
aged father; but he loved the Lord, and He preserved him, 
and made an instrument of him to save many people alive. 
And Jesus Christ, the blessed and faithful Son of Crod, 
said, " Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid 
them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven." Yes, 
it is your privilege to come unto Him, and all good children 
will love Him, and He will love them, and welcome them 
joyfully into His Heavenly Kingdom. 

With desires for your preservation in the truth, I re- 
main your friend and brother, 

Sunderland P. Gardner. 
Farmingtan, Ontario Co. , N. Y., First mo. 6, 1S46. 



[The following sermon was delivered extempore, by 
Sunderland P. Grardner, at the funeral of Damaris Hoag, 
Macedon Centre, N. Y., Eighth month 11th, 1860, and 
taken in shorthand by one present.] 

It was the declaration of the divinely enlightened and 
deeply experienced apostle John, that *' Every spirit that 
confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God : 
and every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is 
come in the flesh is not of God." 

I do not suppose that the confession *' that Jesus Christ 
is come in the flesh " is based upon a historical or tra- 
ditional knowledge derived from the Scriptures, for a great 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 369 

part of mankind from the commencement of the Christian 
era to the present day has had no knowledge of them, 
and of course no historical knowledge of the outward mani- 
festation of Jesus Christ to the Jews, but it would not do to 
say that none of those, who have not had the Scriptures, 
were the children of God, for Christ is ** the true light that 
enlighteneth every man that cometh into the world," and 
as many as are obedient to the will of Ood revealed by 
that light, love Him and work righteousness in "every 
nation, kindred, tongue and people," and are accepted. 
There are those who wrought righteousness before any of 
the Scriptures were written, and the existence of these 
writings does not exclude any from being righteous because 
they have no knowledge of them. For it is by works of 
righteousness, and not by words or profession merely, that 
we confess that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh : not his 
outward coming only, but his coming in a spiritual relation 
to the souls of men. 

" Know ye not, your own selves, how Jesus Christ is in 
you, except ye be reprobates. " His outward coming was 
more particularly to the Jews, to fulfil their law and to re- 
deem them that were under it, for the literal observance of 
that law never made the comers thereunto perfect as per- 
taining to the conscience, and why? Because God has 
never given any external thing to take precedence in point 
of importance over the Living Light in the conscience, for 
in that book is where He appears as a witness against every 
thing that iB evil, unjust or unholy, and although we may 
endeavor to hide what is recorded there, even from ourselves^ 
yet the time will come when that faithful record will be 
unfolded clearly to our view, and we shall be judged ac- 

24 



370 MEMOIRS OF 

cording to what is written there. Blessed, yea, thrice 
blessed are they, who are willing that all in their hearts 
opposed to truth should be brought to judgment — a present 
judgment, and bring their deeds to that light that giveth 
sight, that the sight may give sense, and the sense bring 
sorrow for sin. If we are patient under such a dispen- 
sation, it will lead us through the baptism of repentance. 

But what is repentance? Is it merely sorrowing for 
our sins, or shedding many tears under the sense of them ? 
No. These things alone do not constitute repentance: but 
it is a change of purpose, a ceasing to do evil, a radical 
reformation of life, a taking up the cross in ourselves against 
every impure desire, against everything that would injure 
us were we found in the practice of it. The cross lays no 
fiirther restraint. When we come to this state of experi- 
ence, we shall know the meaning of the declaration which 
Jesus made to his disciples, " Ye are the salt of the earth," 
and adding as an incentive to faithfulness, ' * But if the 
salt have lost its savor wherewith shall it be seasoned ? ' ' 

The disciple constituted a part of the church militant, 
and in their united efforts in bearing the testimonies of 
truth against the corruptions of the world, were likened to 
a city set on a hill, which city could not be hid. 

It appears to me that we, who are making a profession 
of religion of Christ, need to look to our calling and make 
ourselves sure that we are the salt of the earth, that others 
seeing our good works may have cause to glorify God, con- 
fessing by the righteousness of their own lives that Jesus 
Christ is come in the flesh in his spiritual relation to their 
souls. 

The disciples of Christ have conflicts and trials, often 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 871 

very severe: so had Jesus, but if they continue faithful 
with him, he will appoint unto them a kingdom. This 
attained, they will see that their trials and temptations 
have Jbeen useful to them, and that in their proving they have 
grown stronger and more firmly grounded in the truth. 

Thus man comes to understand the state shown to John 
which he describes as "A great wonder in Heaven: a 
woman clothed with the sun and the moon under her feet, 
and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. ' ' This is the 
highest figure that can possibly be drawn of anything 
known to man. Among rational beings, woman, when 
maintaining the place assigned her by creative Wisdom, 
occupies a position which man has not the ability to fill. 
GU)d has given to her peculiar qualities of mind, an exalted 
affection and tenderness of feeling, calculated to mould and 
instruct the young mind, bringing it along in innocence to 
maturity ; hence hers is an office of superior importance 
to the human family. 

Clothed with the sun. Here again is taken the highest 
and most glorious orb in our system to represent the 
garments with which this state is clothed. And what does 
this portray ? Evidently the light of God's spirit, which 
clothes the souls of his children wherever found ; and 
these constitute the church. 

The moon under her feet. Here again is taken one of 
the most beautiful and attractive of changeable images to 
represent the alluring things of time as being placed under 
the feet of the saints. Thus there can be no eclipse, no 
shadow of darkness, nothing to prevent the continual shin- 
ing of the Sun of Righteousness upon the faithful, re- 
deemed soul. 



372 MEMOIRS OF 

Upon her head a crown of twelve stars. Those stars 
represent the twelve apostles, who by taking up the cross 
were enabled to overcome evil, having their spirits clothed 
upon bj the spirit of Grod; under the direction of this 
power thej were sent forth witnessess to the important 
truth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, and the king- 
dom of Heaven is not afar off but at hand. Thus they 
occupy a prominent position as instruments in promul- 
gating and reflecting the gospel. The whole is a repre- 
sentation of the church triumphant, of which Jesus Christ 
is the head. He begins the work of regeneration by the 
moving of his love in our hearts, and if we are faithful, he 
continues his assistance until a victory is gained over all 
sin and temptation. 

Though glorious, yet we see that the stars occupy a 
subordinate position, for they are useful to us only as they 
reflect that which they receive; thus bearing witness to a 
greater light. Here we see the real value of the Scriptures 
of truth and of the truly anointed gospel ministry. The 
Scriptures testify of and direct us to the light of Gk)d which 
is ready to shine forth in our hearts, while a gospel ministry 
can go no farther than to warn and persuade men. Jesus 
and the apostles went no farther. Hence the Scriptures and 
the ministry, though valuable auxiliaries, are things for 
which we have no more need when that which is perfect 
is come and obeyed. '* But the anointing which ye have 
received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any 
man teach you but as the same anointing teacheth you of 
all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath 
taught you, ye shall abide in him. ' ' 

Whatever Jesus declared, I receive as coming from 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 373 

the highest authority, and he turned the attention of the 
people on several occasions away from himself unto God, 
as when he was addressed as *' Good Master/' he replied, 
** Why callest thou me good ? There is none good but one, 
that is God; " and, ''That which ye hear is not mine, but 
the Father's, who sent me;" ''The words that I speak 
unto you, I speak not of myself; but the Father that 
dwelleth in me. He doeth the works; " << I ascend unto my 
Father and your Father, to my God and your God: " and 
he is represented as continuing "all night in prayer to 
God." 

As I said before, I receive what he declared as from 
the highest authority, for the power of God which was in 
him took vocal sound and through him spake His will, 
and truth to the people. His life was in submission to 
God and an example to men, while his authority as a 
minister of the gospel was from the same source as that of 
other ministers of the same gospel. But whence was this 
authority ? Let him answer, " The spirit of the Lord is 
uponr me, because He hath anointed me to preach the gos- 
pel to the poor. He hath sent me to heal the broken- 
hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives and recover- 
ing of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are 
bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord. ' ' This 
he applied as being fulfilled in himself, which shows clearly 
how and for what purpose he was thus qualified. 

I now commend you to this same anointing power, " the 
grace of God that bringeth salvation and hath appeared 
unto all men, teaching us that denying ungodliness and 
worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly 
in this present world." If we attend to this grace, it will 



374 MEMOIRS OF 

bring salvation. We ought not to look without for that 
which can be found only within our own hearts, for the 
greatest good that we can know in this state of being is 
there to be found, and the greatest evil with which we are 
afflicted originates there : but if we keep our eye single to 
the light of truth, we shall be enabled to walk in the path 
of righteousness, which that light makes plain. This path 
will also be found not only more clear but less difficult as 
we advance, until we come to that state in which all figures 
and all changeable things occupy their proper places under 
our feet, and our souk in their triumph over sin are clothed 
with the light of the Sun of Righteousness. Is not this a 
state worth all the cost ? Is not the religion of Jesus, dear 
youth and children, worthy of your deepest devotion, 
worthy of all the sacrifice necessary to attain it ? 

Jesus Christ in his revelations to John concerning the 
church and things relating to individual experience, de- 
clared himself to be " Alpha and Omega, the beginning and 
the end, the first and the last.'' But what are we to under- 
stand from this? He takes the extremes of the Greek 
alphabet, in and within which are contained all the ele- 
ments of that language, a figure denoting that within him- 
self are contained all the principles of salvation. He be^qs 
the work by leading us to repentance, continues it by as- 
sisting our progress in reformation, and finishes it by giving 
us the victory over all sin. 

Jesus was particular in pointing out to his disciples how 
they should become ministers of the gospel, for he told them 
to tarry until they should become * ' endowed with Power 
from on high,*' which Power he called the Spirit of truth, 
which "should lead them into all truth." When this was 



J 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 375 

reoeived, or, in other words, when they were anointed for 
the purpose, they should go forth as that directed. He did 
not tell them that by and by there should be established 
theological seminaries or schools of divinity, where they 
might become qualified to preach, after the manner of 
teaching the sciences among men: no, for that which 
sustains the relation between the soul and the Creator can- 
not be reduced to a science. The religion of Jesus when 
it becomes ours is experimental, nor can it be learned 
save in the school of Christ, of which he is himself the head. 
With regard to the qualification for the Gospel minis- 
try, I know of no change by Divine authority, no change 
but that which has been made by man. But when in the 
third and fourth centuries the majority had ceased to 
depend upon that light and life in which the early Chris- 
tians rested, the church lost her garments of the sun, men 
perverted reason, learning supplanted revelation, and the 
result soon became manifest. Contentions about doctrine 
and articles of faith arose, sometimes one party prevailing 
and sometimes another, as each in turn got the assistance 
of the secular power, which by means of fire and sword 
forced the woman into the wilderness, leaving a form ¥rith- 
out life; the moon got the ascendency, and the real stars 
of the crown became Udden from the world. Very much 
of the state of religion in the succeeding ages originated in 
that dark era of the church, and has become modified only 
in degree by the various leaders of the different sects of a 
later day. The church is not composed of Friends, Meth- 
odists, Baptists, Presbyterians, Roman Catholics, or any 
other sect exclusively as such, but among them all and 
everywhere those who are obedient to the Father's will, and 



376 MEMOIRS OF 

are clothed with Hia spirit, constitute the sons and daugh- 
ters of God and members of the church of Christ. 

We are taught that we are laboring under disadvantages 
not originating in ourselves, and that because of the dis- 
obedience of our first parents, the seed of sin has been 
transmitted to us, their posterity. The Jews held the same 
doctrine, but mark the language of the Almighty through 
His prophets to them : ** What mean ye that ye use this 
proverb saying, The fathers have eaten sour grapes and the 
children's teeth are set on edge ? but as I live, saith the 
Lord Grod, ye shall not have occasion any more to use this 
proverb in Israel. Behold all souls are mine; as the soul 
of the father so also the soul of the son is mine : the soul 
that sinneth it shall die." Likewise through another 
prophet: *' In those days they shall say no more, The fathers 
have eaten a sour grape and the children's teeth are set on 
edge; but every one shall die for his own iniquity: every 
man that eateth the sour grape, his teeth shall be set on 
edge. * * * ' The son shall not bear the inquity of the father, 
neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son." 
Here we see that the doctrine of sin being original only in 
the first of the human race is set aside by the highest 
authority, and the contrary being taught by less authority 
cannot make it true ; yet in opposition to the commands 
of God, most of our modern religious teachers have taken 
this doctrine of original sin, and thrown it broadcast upon 
the world. Now the truth is clear : all that we have re- 
ceived from Adam is the outward man, which is of the 
earth earthy, but the spirit, that which is created after the 
image of Grod, and that alone which is accountable to 
Him, has no farther connection with Adam than that of 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 377 

having taken up its abode in the outward tabernacle during 
its [probation. Hence our spirits are not derived from 
Adam, and there can be no transmission of the leaven of 
sin to us; therefore sin must be original in every soul that 
sinneth, nor can the consequences be otherwise to that soul 
even though Adam had not sinned. 

Are any in doubt with regard to the origin of sin, or 
any who charge the stealing away of their hearts from God 
to an agency out of themselves? I think we need not 
necessarily be in the dark concerning these things, for they 
are not so mysterious in their nature but that all may 
comprehend them, if they will throw away tradition, and 
give the book of their own lives an unprejudiced perusal. 
Here we may see whence the evil comes; every propensity 
which God has implanted in our nature is good, and would 
remain so were we true to the light He gives us; nor would 
they produce other results than such as He intended in 
their creation ; the desire of gratification in pleasure in 
these is right if kept within the limits of the laws of our 
physical, moral, and spiritual being, but when any appe- 
tite or desire is carried beyond the limits set by these laws, 
the soul consenting, it becomes sin. 

Now, cannot every one of us who has sinned trace our 
errors back to the perversion or abuse of one or all of the 
gifts of God ? According to the declaration of James, 
''Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his 
own lusts." If there be any other source of sin, I have 
not known it. But there is a sense in which the sins of the 
fathers in many cases affect their posterity. "And the 
Lord passed by before him and proclaimed, The Lord, the 
Lord God, merciful and gracious, long suffering and abun- 



378 HEM0IB8 OF 

dant in goodness and truth." " Keeping mercy for thou- 
sands, forgiving iniquity, and transgression and sin, and 
that will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity 
of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth 
generation." But these are evidently physical sins, for 
it is to a great extent the sad experience of mankind that 
in consequence of the indiscretion of parents in regard to 
the laws of nature, physical and mental diseafies are trans- 
mitted to posterity, but no stain of soul. 

Many go so far as to say that Adam through his tnuuh 
gression brought death to the world T But what death ? 
That of these outward bodies ? If so, the very principles 
of nature must have acted under different laws than now, 
or these laws must have been governed by miracles, or 
could not have been followed by effect. These truths may 
be easily perceived by bringing the subject fearlessly to the 
light. If death could not have touched man, had Adam 
not sinned, the elements themselves must have been 
powerless with regard to the laws of their several natures ; 
fire could not consume, the waters could not drown, the 
earthquake could not swallow up, and the tornado must 
have been powerless to harm man's dwelling; nay, even 
the very laws of gravitation must have been suspended so 
that in falling to the earth he should not be broken. 

But it was said unto Adam, ** In the day thou eatest 
thereof thou shalt surely die." The fact, however, of his 
having lived physically hundreds of years after his trans- 
gression, proves that the death of the body was not the 
penalty intended. 

It is held by many that all that was lost by Adam was 
gained by Christ; but as man has been subject to death 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 379 

since the coining and suffering of Jesus the same as before, 
all has not been restored, or the death of the body was not 
the consequence of Adam's sin. But there was a death 
experienced by Adam in the day that he sinned as the 
effect of his disobedience, a death which every individual 
since has known who, like him, has sinned. 

When the soul has lost the covering of the Holy Spirit, 
it feels itself enveloped in darkness, and instead of peace, 
joy, and the light of God's countenance, death and remorse 
rest upon it The covering of fig-leaves will neither hide 
us from ourselves nor from the all-seeing eye of eternal 
wisdom; nay, it cannot conceal the fact of our spiritual 
nakedness, nor soothe the pain of the soul's hunger and 
thirst. We have left our Father's house, we can no longer 
partake of the tree of life; hence James tells us that "sin 
when finished bringeth forth death." 

Jesus, in his affectionate and instructive parable of the 
prodigal son, makes the subject sufficiently clear, and 
when the Father was represented as saying, " For this my 
son was dead and is alive again," it is evident that the 
death of the body was not alluded to, but a spiritual death 
from which this son had lately experienced a resurrection. 
He hungered after the bread which in his innocent state 
he had freely partaken of in his father*s house; but his 
return was hailed with great rejoicing. His father went 
forth to meet him while yet he was a great way off, the 
fatted calf was killed, and the best robe, a covering of the 
Father's love, was placed upon him. 

Cannot some who are now present measurably appre- 
ciate this parable from what they have known in their own 
experience ? The parent having prescribed just and equit- 



380 MEMOIRS OF 

able rules for the government of his household, finds that 
so long as those rules are observed, peace and contentment 
reign in the family circle; but when one of the members, 
refusing to be thus governed, takes a course resulting in 
his own injury, all are grieved ; and when he returns 
again and becomes obedient, they all rejoice with a joy 
which cannot be felt over those who had never gone astray. 
It is so measurably in the family, it is eminently so in the 
church, and I believe it is perfectly so in Heaven. ''I 
say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in Heaven over one 
sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine just 
persons which need no repentance;" 

Now we perceive in the case of the prodigal that no 
outward sacrifice was required to appease the father and 
reconcile him to his son, but that his gracious reception 
and welcome to the riches of the father's house were the re- 
sult of repentance and reformation of life. Now can ex- 
perience bear testimony to any other way of reconciliation 
with God ? No. All external things combined are insuf- 
ficient to redeem and save the soul. The subject of re- 
demption has been clothed with much of mystery, but the 
mystery is the work of man, belonging neither to truth 
nor the light of God. Truth is ever plain and simple 
when error is kept from it, and the very nature of light is 
to make truth manifest by taking away mystery and dis- 
pelling darkness. 

It is clear to my mind that if we were to depend less 
upon tradition and the teaching of men and more upon 
that great good which is to be truly and savingly known 
only in our own hearts, we should be at no loss in regard 
to the nature and means of man's redemption. It is a 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 381 

subject of experience, and those who are redeemed can 
bear witness to the simplicity of the work. ' ' The bread 
that I give is mj flesh, which I will give for the life of the 
world.' ' By the term bread he evidently meant the Spirit, 
the life of God which was in him, for he also said, " Ex- 
cept ye eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood 
ye have no life in you. " 

The Jews could not understand how these things could 
be, and called them " hard sayings." He therefore made 
this explanation : ''It is the spirit that quickeneth, the 
(my) flesh proflteth nothing. ' ' Here he makes it clear that 
he used the terms bread, flesh and blood as figures to repre- 
sent the life that was in him, which he would give for the 
life of the world; hence it was not the life, or flesh, or 
blood of the outward body, but the spirit of God that 
dwelt in him. And what is the life of the world which 
must be given in exchange? It is a life of sin, impurity of 
soul, envy, hatred, revenge, covetousness, idolatry, and all 
things which are opposed to that standard of righteousness 
exhibited in the life of Jesus. Now when we are willing 
to open our hearts and sufler this life to come in (for flesh 
and blood cannot enter the soul) it will cleanse, wash and 
purify the soul from all its defilements, becoming the re- 
newed circulating medium of life in the soul. Here we 
can see that man's redemption does not consist in or de- 
pend on anything external, visible or tangible, but simply 
upon giving up that which separates him from God ; his 
spirit must become purified by the baptism of fire and the 
Holy Ghost, and by the blood or life of Jesus Christ, 
which cleanseth from all sin. As I said before, redemp* 
tion is a thing of experience, and we who have sinned all 



882 MEMOIRS OF 

stand in need of it, for it is a work that must be done in 
each individual. 

We know the skillful physician applies his remedies di- 
rectly to the patient who is sick, and not to another per- 
son, in order to heal the one diseased, neither do men, 
when one has been convicted of crime, punish an inno- 
cent man, letting the criminal go free. No : the sense of 
justice which Grod has placed in all rational beings would 
cry out against it. Can man be more just than Grod ? 
He that hath ears to hear let him hear. 

The tastes and tendencies of the minds of men differ as 
widely from each other as do the shades of the bow in the 
cloud : some appear to be so evenly balanced in themselves 
that scarcely an effort is required in pursuing the right, 
while others seem almost enveloped in moral turpitude. 
To the latter the cross must indeed be very great as they 
seek to overcome the world, yet I cannot believe this to be 
the result of Adam's sin as its original type (for all are 
Adam's descendants), — ^rather the consequence of attending 
circumstances. These circumstances however do not afiect 
the soul to defile it until it ceases to depend upon its Crea- 
tor, consenting to the will of the flesh by which it separates 
itself from God. It turns away of its own choice and be- 
comes impure, to which state God cannot be reconciled. 
This state of corruption rests not upon children before they 
have sinned, though they have in their nature all they 
could receive from Adam. Impurity cannot enter into 
Heaven, yet Jesus said: ''Suffer little children to come 
unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of 
Heaven." ** Verily I say unto you, that except ye be con- 
verted and become as little children, ye cannot enter the 



8UNDEBLAND P. OABDNER. 383 

kingdom of Heaven." How this emphatic declaration of 
Jesus strikes against the absurd doctrine of infant perdition, 
a doctrine which has been held b j many zealous professors, 
but which like many other errors has come up with the 
smoke from the bottomless pit of man's imagination, the 
inexhaustible storehouse of the mysteries of Babylon. 
Children knowing no law can transgress none : and would it 
not contravene justice to make them responsible for wrong 
which they never did ? And the fact of their being in a 
state of acceptance with Ood, also makes it clear that 
every soul since Adam (for all have been children) has 
been in a state wherein his sin did not affect them. There- 
fore as about one-half the human race die in infancy, a 
state of Divine acceptance, and as Jesus made no exception, 
we may therefore safely conclude that none are or ever 
have been reprobated in consequence of Adam's transgres- 
sion or by any foreordination of God. 

The preparation of the heart in man te of the Lord, 
hence unless he prepares our hearts to do him reverence, 
no sacrifice will avail anything in his sight. What 
though we should carry out to the very letter the creeds 
that men have formed, what though we should obey every 
rule sanctioned by religious custom or untempered zeal, 
would God draw nigh to us for this ? Though our lips 
should move in prayer and our tongues should chant the 
prescribed songs of praise, yet our hearts might be far 
from Him. In this state we might act under an authority 
which we had not received from God, might utter precepts 
which we did not feel or teach doctrines which we did not 
understand; yea, if we should depend on a religion which 
we had learned only of men on the authority of tradition. 



384 MEMOIRS OF 

we might still be in an unregenerate state, warriors, 
covetous, idolatrous. But this is as far from the religion 
of Jesus as was the religion of the priest and Levite from 
that of the good Samaritan ; the former were religious 
traditionally, the latter experimentally, practically and 
effectually. 

There is a vast difference between a religion of the head 
and a religion of the heart; the latter was the religion of 
Paul, which he had learned in the school of Christ, the 
former that of the sons of Sceva, who when they at- 
tempted to cast out devils by Jesus, whom Paul preached, 
failed because the power which wrought through Paul was 
not in them. Their state truly represented a religion 
which may be practiced by a prescribed form without life, 
which above all other things has stood most in the way of 
the spread and success of the gospel of Jesus Christ, for 
as the body without the spirit is dead, so also faith without 
works is dead, and there is no true effectual faith but that 
which works by love to the purifying of the heart ; and 
when the heart is thus purified it has become an altar on 
which acceptable offerings may be made to God. 

I often feel in my poverty of spirit the necessity of 
bowing in prayer asking for Divine assistance, and it is 
clear to me that were our petitions rightly directed, we 
should be greatly benefited by the exercise; for our prayers 
are ever answered when they are put forth by the working 
of the Father's spirit in us; He alone knows what is best 
for us and what we stand in need of, before we ask Him. 
Is it not a reason why men are so little profited by the 
multitude of prayers daily offered, because they are too 
much the judges of their own wants and conditions, inde- 



BUXDERLAKD P. OARDXER. 385 

pendent of Divine direction, often seeking to accomplish 
selfish or unjustifiable ends? The prayers of the greatest 
saints could not be answered, however zealously put forth 
of carefiilly written, were they not in accordance with the 
Father's will ; even the prayer of Jesus, that faithAil son 
of God, that the cup might pass, was not granted for this 
reason. Will not the circumstances warrant us in supposing 
the following answer of the Father to his petition? — "Son, 
although thou hast not finished the work which I gave thee to 
do, yet I will give thee the strength that thou mayest 
maintain to the end the testimony that thou hast already 
borne. For this cause came thou into the world, to bear 
witness to the truth. Thou may not yet receive thy crown, 
lest there be no example left to the world of man's gaining 
the victory over the powers of darkness, therefore be thou 
^thful to the end, that through suffering thou may be 
made perfect and become the captain of salvation to all 
who will follow thee." 

Mark with what human submission the prayer of Jesus 
was offered: *' O my Father, if this cup may not pass 
except I drink it, Thy will be done." ** Thy will be done," 
the greatest evidence of a Christian on earth or of a saint 
in heaven. And I desire to encourage all classes as they 
feel the moving of the Father's spirit thereto to pour out 
the desire of their souls unto Him. And especially to you, 
dear youth and children, now in the days of your inno- 
cence and purity of spirit, I would say, Put your trust in 
the arm of Divine Power and Love which, as the Scrip- 
tures bear ample testimony, will be revealed in your own 
hearts, if you will receive it, that you may grow stronger 

and stronger in the truth, becoming instrumental in pre- 
ss 



386 MEMOIRS OF 

ducing the reformation so much needed in this our day; 
and should you dedicate the morning of your lives to the 
cause of righteousness, you will never have reason to 
regret the step, for in no other way than by obedience to 
the truth as declared in yourselves, can you become the 
disciples of Jesus Christ, and in no other way can you 
gain an entrance into the kingdom of Heaven but by over- 
coming as he overcame. And what is Heaven ? It is a 
state which may be measurably known in this life, consist- 
ing in ** Righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost," 
and to all who, holding out to the end, shall reach this 
state the promise will hold good, ' ' To him that overcometh 
will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also 
overcame and am set down with my Father in His throne." 
But remember, this great and encouraging promise is only 
made to those who overcome as he overcame. He that 
hath ears let him hear. 

If any of you, dear young men and young women, are 
conscious of having done wrong and still feel the efiects of 
your error resting upon you, be not discouraged nor cast 
down, for it is the nature of the office of the gospel of 
Christ to seek after those who have strayed from the path 
of rectitude, and extend to them the power of redeeming, 
restoring love. Such was the mission of Jesus. '*! am 
not come but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. " It 
is then in love and not in anger that he continues to ex- 
tend the hand of his merciful regard to us for our good. 
Men have given to our Heavenly Father a character 
which He does not possess. We are taught that He is 
angry with men because of sin, but is it so ? I see no evi- 
dence that He has ever manifested Himself in any charac- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 387 

ter oppoeed to love. But here some one seems to object, 
saying, He is a God of anger, for the Bible says, " God is 
angry with the wicked every day," to which I reply that 
if by anger there is meant the exercise of the passion as 
we use it, it asserts too much, for we know a being that is 
angry every day is an unhappy being, — ^that he must lose 
his dignity and alienate himself from that which is good, 
and every day would be making work for repentance; so 
we Bee that if God ia angry with the wicked every day. 
according to our acceptance of the term, He must have 
experienced more unhappiness than has any man since the 
transgression of Adam. But it is not true, — He b neither 
an angry nor revengeful being, and men have formed their 
judgment of Him from the state of their own hearts. 
Now I understand the expression that * * God is angry 
with the wicked every day," to mean simply this: He is 
himself a standard of Purity, Holiness, Truth, Love and 
Mercy, unchangeably the same ; and while we live up to this 
standard we are in a state of reconciliation with Him, but 
when we sin we separate ourselves from Him by our own 
choice. We see that as He is good and unchangeable. He 
cannot reconcile Himself to our corruption, and on the 
other hand a great change must be wrought in us if we 
would again become reconciled to Him after we have op- 
posed ourselves to His purity by becoming impure, to His 
holiness by becoming unholy, to His truth by choosing 
error, to His love by becoming hateful and hating one an- 
other, and to His mercy by becomiug unmerciful. And is it 
not as much to be expected that these opposing states should 
be unable to unite, as that fire and water should disagree ? 
— ^for when these opposing elements of nature are brought 



388 MEMOIBS OF 

together there is war, not in consequence of malignity, but 
because of the inherent difierences of their natures. Thus 
we see that our Heavenly Father is opposed to sin because 
purity cannot be reconciled with impurity, holiness with 
unholiness, nor truth with error : hence He is opposed to 
sin without anger, and is ever ready without revenge to 
assist the transgressor in recovering hb lost state. " He that 
hath ears to hear let him hear." 

There was a period in John's life, before he had an ex- 
perimental knowledge of the Father, when he supposed 
Him to be revengeful, and on one occasion when the 
people of a certain village refused to receive them, he 
queried with Jesus if they should call down fire from 
Heaven and destroy them. Now mark the answer of 
Jesus : * * Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of, 
for the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives but to 
save them." But through faithfulness to the unfolding of 
light in his own mind, John experienced a change of heart, 
and as the work of grace advanced he became possessed 
of the knowledge of the true nature of God ; and was 
qualified understandingly to bear the most important testi- 
mony ever borne by man, that * * God is love." Were men 
fully prepared to acknowledge this truth, and act under 
the influence of love, a reformation would soon pervade 
the nations of the earth ; oppression would cease, every un- 
just yoke would be broken, that the bruised captive might 
be set at liberty ; the sword would be beaten into plow- 
shares and the spears into pruning hooks ; nation would 
not lift up sword against nation, neither would they learn 
war any more. But, alas I these effects of love and the 
religion of Jesus are too little apparent; for the results of 



8UKDERLAND P. OABDKEB. 389 

the religion and works of men in a general way do not 
produce peace, quietness, nor assurance. The ambition of 
the so-called Christian nations is best satisfied when they 
have achieved a victory on the field of battle, over-reached 
in diplomacy or outgeneralled by strategy ; their highest 
glory to conquer. Thousands of human lives are annually 
sacrificed to the spirit of war and to the ambition of aspir- 
ing men, who, adding blasphemy to cruelty and wicked- 
ness, dare presume to invoke the assistance of a just God 
in their work of blood. 

Jesus said, "My servants cannot fight," and this 
nation, blest though it has been with liberty and a fruitful 
land, seems to have been most unmindful of its Christian 
duty; and except like Nineveh it repent and reform will 
soon be left to the consequences of its own wrongs. A dark 
cloud is gathering over the land, there is a confusion of 
tongues, men call evil good and good evil, and effects will 
follow their causes. " Men do not gather grapes of 
thorns, nor figs of thistles." 

The exercise of my mind now seems to be drawing to 
a close. I had nothing to lay before you when I took my 
seat in this meeting, but a calmness of feeling, a poverty 
of spirit was my clothing; in this state I prayerfully looked 
unto Him, who thus far has been my never-failing helper, 
and I now bid you all an affectionate farewell in the Lord. 

It is important that all classes be prepared to receive 
the final summons of the pale messenger, for none are 
exempt; the wheel of time, that in revolving has released 
our aged sister, will not cease to turn till one after another 
have all been dropped into the silent grave. Let us then, 
as rational and accountable beings, carefully examine our 



390 MEMOIB8 OF 

acoountfl page by page, so that if anything be found there 
which haa not the seal of truth, it may go to judgment, 
for the judgment seat is in every soul, and blessed are they 
who are willing that all things in their hearts bearing not 
that seal should be cast out We shall then be prepared to 
offer with grateful hearts praise, honor, and thanksgiving 
to Qod for giving us the victory through the assistance of 
His own spirit, known to us as ''Christ the power of God 
and the wisdom of God." We shall then be permitted to 
take our places as stars with the apostles of the Lamb, in 
the crown which is upon the head of the woman, the church 
triumphant, the church of Christ Amen and Amen. 



[Extracts from a sermon delivered at Hamburgh 
Quarterly Meeting, 1862.] 

It is a common saying among men that '* after a storm 
comes a calm," and as regards the outward elements the 
saying is true ; but why is it so ? Not because the elements 
which composed the storm exist no longer, but because 
these elements have resumed their equilibrium, so that no 
clouds are left in the atmosphere to obscure or obstruct the 
clear light of the sun, and the cheering influence of the 
sunlight may continue to rest upon us so long as the true 
balance of the atmosphere is preserved, for in this state no 
storm could ever occur. 

Now if we transfer this figure to man we shall find 
that it truly represents him in his normal condition, for, 
compound in his nature, he has all the elements of animate 
creation exhibited in the beasts of the field, the fowls of the 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 391 

air and the fishes of the sea on the one side, with an, im- 
material immortal spirit on the other, which last is the 
only sensible recipient of the Spirit of Qod, and is that 
alone which is accountable to Him. 

So long as man obeyed the commands of God, acting 
according to His laws, all his passions and propensities 
were in harmony, each performing the office designed for it 
by creative wisdom, all his elements were preserved in a 
true equilibrium, and man was in paradise; €k>d,ihe uni- 
versal sun of righteousness, continually enlightened him. 
Hence his condition of innocence and purity of souI» con- 
stantly advancing in the true understanding of natural 
and spiritual things, for truth would have been opened 
and developed in his mind just as fast as he was able to 
bear them in his advance in experience. He would also 
have had the privilege of using his every faculty and of 
availing himself of every blessing which God had created 
as applicable to his wants or necessary to his condition, 
without fear or without danger, for all had been pro- 
nounced ' * very good. * ' 

But he withdrew his dependence from its only safe 
foundation, and listened to the suggestions of his reason, 
abstracted from its s{Mritual guide, by which means he fell, 
losing all the love that had hitherto sustained him, and 
finding death in the error of his ways. The equilibrium 
of his state was lost by exercising some of his faculties 
out of their proper place, and hence that state of uncer- 
tainty and confusion in hh mind prefigured by the storm. 
He had himself turned from the light to darkness, and a 
loss of spiritual life ensued ; the calm, humble frame neces- 
sary for improvement was gone, and he had no power by 



392 MEMOIRS OF 

which he could retrieve it, for no power was capable of im- 
parting help but Him from whom all good was derived. 

Now it is clear to me that the condition of Adam be- 
fore he transgressed was precisely the same as is the allot- 
ment of all who come into the world, and that it is the 
privilege of all to retain that state in the same way in 
which Adam could have done so. When Jesus Christ 
came into the world on his outward mission he also stood 
in the same condition as did our first parents, but instead 
of doing as they did, he by trusting wholly to his Heavenly 
Father preserved a perfect balance in his whole nature, 
nor did he ever swerve from that humble, dependent and 
prayerful state which pleased the Father. In his humilia- 
tion his judgment was taken away, yet he had in his na- 
ture all the elements of universal man, for he was tempted 
in all points like as we are, which could not have been 
had not his nature been like ours. As the Jewish Messiah 
he was sent particularly to that people, and well would it 
have been for them had they received him and come to the 
substance to which the Bgures and emblems of their law 
pointed, for the first object of his mission was to redeem 
the Jews from '* statutes that were not good, and precepts 
by which they could not live,'' and this he essayed to do by 
turning their minds away from the mere literal observance 
of the outward law; for this purpose he was " made of a 
woman, made under the law to redeem them that were 
under the law." 

While that law was binding upon them they appeared 
clear as to the letter, but Jesus told them that their sin con- 
sisted in harboring the desire or will to do evil whether 
that desire resulted in action or not; thus he placed all 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 393 

men upon the same plane of accountability accurding to 
the talents given them. Diversity of talent does not, how- 
ever, confer an advantage of one over another relative to 
the souPs happiness, for he that improves his one talent 
properly will be as well satisfied with the result as will 
they be who have the two or the five; this is beautifully 
portrayed in the story of the Israelites gathering manna, 
for they that gathered much had nothing to spare, and they 
that gathered little had no lack, and thus all were satis- 
fied; as when people sit down to a well-furnished table all 
find wherewith to satiate their hunger, and though some 
require much more or much less than others, yet are not all 
equally satisfied ? 

I have said that the outward mission of Jesus was to 
redeem the Jews, but he was also a redeemer in another 
sense, for there was a power in him, far deeper than what 
was exhibited in external works, by which he was the uni- 
versal Saviour of men ; He was anointed with that Power 
which was the beginning of the creation of God, and which 
was called the Son of God because it was and is the Father's 
own spirit actively put forth ; by this power it was that 
Jesus wrought miracles, such as raising the dead, recover- 
ing of sight to the blind, etc.; but this light, life and power 
were not limited to him as a man nor to the era in which he 
came. 

The Grospel is the power of God unto salvation, and is 
therefore what all have stood in need of since the creation 
of man; it was preached to Adam and his immediate off- 
spring, and the effect of obedience to it was seen in the 
righteousness of Abel, while the consequence of a contrary 
course was witnessed in the rejection of Cain. 



394 MEMOIRS OF 

In vain shall we search the Scriptures for an instance 
of a purer Christian life than was that of Joseph, and 
whence came his perfection but by obeying the light of 
Christ that was in him ? He in his tender years was sold 
by his brethren to barbarians, for the passions of envy and 
jealousy had blinded their eyes and steeled their hearts 
against all natural affection or compassion; they exercised 
no brotherly love and felt no sympathy for his sorrows, but 
when in after years these same brethren were brought under 
his power, there was seen on his part no spirit of retalia- 
tion, no act of revenge, but rather the fruits of Irue Chris- 
tianity and charity. 

Now let him who claims that we have something better 
to guide and instruct us than had those who lived before the 
Scriptures were written, prove it by living a better life than 
did Joseph. Indeed he was far in advance of many of the 
votaries of religion of this day, for in the figure adopted by 
his father he was as a tree planted by a well whose branches 
ran over a wall I but alas for more modem Christians ! they 
have been engaged in too many instances for fifteen hun- 
dred years past in building the sectarian walls of prejudice 
so high that true Christian charity has hardly if at all been 
able to reach over them. 

' ' The hands of his arms were made strong by the hands 
of the mighty God of Jacob.' ' Have any among Christians 
found other sources of strength ? And it was declared that 
' ' the crown should be upon the head of him that was sep- 
arated from his brethren." Did Paul gain more? No; 
the gospel is and always has been preached in every crea- 
ture. When Noah was building the ark Christ preached 
to the spirits in prison, and what were they but sinners. 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 395 

difTering perhaps in nothing from those who are under the 
bonds of sin and corruption to-day ? And if Noah in those 
dajs was righteous, it was but the result of obedience to 
the universal light of Christ in him, which of course was 
not excluded fropi others; and the reason why they were 
not equally profited by it with him was because they were 
not equally faithful; the very reason of the great diversity 
in the spiritual condition of men now. In taking a review 
of the righteous so far as we have any knowledge of them, 
we shall see they were righteous in the same ratio in which 
they preserved a true balance in all the elements of their 
nature, the wolf not being permitted to make war upon 
the lamb nor the leopard upon the kid; no preponderance 
allowed on the side of the bear, or the lion, or any other 
bestial propensity; hence, nothing having the power to 
hurt or destroy, the soul, dependent as a little child upon 
the Father' swill, could lead and control all the probationary 
elements, while every one of them filled and fitted its proper 
place. Thus no desolating storm was known ; no clouds 
to obscure God's light and love, but the true government 
and the true calm of the spirit were realized. This brings a 
man to that state in which a '' change of heart," "regen- 
eration," or '' the new birth " is understood, and this ex- 
perience is of the highest importance to the children of 
men, for "except ye become regenerated or bom again ye 
cannot enter into the kingdom of Heaven." This being 
the case, have we not all vital interest in it ? How neces- 
sary then to know in what it consists, and as it now opens 
before the view of my mind I will spread it before you. 
It is simply the change of government to which we have 
already alluded. While man is under the government of his 



396 MEMOIB8 OF 

passionB and animal propensities, he is in that state pre- 
figured by Esau, serving a hard task-master, bowed under 
a heavy burden, bearing a yoke not easy to be borne. In 
this state man is a warrior, manifesting the feelings of 
jealousy, envy and hatred, fully exhibiting in his Ufe and 
actions the nature of the tresBury of his heart; from this 
state proceed all contentions and all unjust oppressions. 
Thus society loses its just equilibrium, the desolating storm 
breaks down, the moral barrien.. and man arrays himself 
against his fellow man, as is awfully the case now in our 
own land. 

The Gospel, however, brings him from under the sWiay 
of this perverted, desolating power into that of the Prince 
of Peace, and into the kingdom of Christ, which is not 
founded after the manner of establishing the kingdoms of 
men, by force and violence, but rather by persuasion and 
entreaty ; for when the heart is opened and yielded up to 
Him, He assumes the government ; and as there is a change 
in government there is a corresponding change in the con- 
dition of the various elements of man's nature. He now 
loves his Creator supremely, and his neighbor as himself, 
and more — ^he loves his enemy, which proves him to be a 
child of Ood and a joint heir with Christ Jesus, for such 
love was never felt by the unregenerat^. The soul has 
come under the influence of Divine love, and as the stream 
must be of the same nature as the fountain, he will witness 
the effect of righteousness to be joy and peace. Here his 
nature assumes its harmony, for the government has been 
transferred from self to Christ, "the wolf dwells with the 
lamb," etc. Now we see how simple and plain is regener- 
tion, and how necessary to the happiness of man. 



BUKDEBLAKD P. GARDNER. 897 

We have a striking exhibition of man under each 
government in the life of PauL He tells us that he was 
educated in the strictest and most orthodox sect amongst 
the Jews, and that he undertook to sustain his religion by 
persecution, and by forcibly suppressing anything that 
seemed likely to gain a place in opposition to what he had 
been taught. By his own confession he was exceedingly 
wroth with the Christians, exercising no human sympathy 
for them, for the powers of his animal nature, stimulated 
by an unsanctified zeal for his religion, made him ferocious 
and cruel; he was unbalanced, and hence exhibited the 
''^Ureful effects of the storm." But when he was met 
with in the way, and heard a voice that pierced his soul, 
saying, ** Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me ? " and when 
he had become sufficiently settled to realize his condition, he 
found he was no longer a strong man ; he felt a sense of 
his want and dependence; he prayed, and while he was yet 
in the street called Straight his sight was restored unto 
him. Now he confessed not with flesh and blood, but 
became obedient to the heavenly vision; he was no longer 
a persecutor, and why ? Because he had experienced a 
change of heart, he had become regenerated, a change of 
government had taken place. Christ began to reign in 
him, and as a result the true equilibrium of his nature was 
restored; that power whose voice could be heard above the 
tempest had said, ''Peace, be still," and the storm was 
laid, and there was a calm. 

Be entreated, my dear young friends, to give these 
things due consideration. Think upon them, and act upon 
them now in your early years before hurtful habits are formed 
or fixed upon you with a power not easily broken; for if in 



398 MEMOIBB OF 

the first part of your advance in life 70U choose the right 
course, you will grow stronger and stronger in the exercise of 
those virtues that constitute the jewels of heaven. Youth is 
theseason of life best adapted to attend to the just and neces- 
sary restraints of discipline, and although you may now 
anticipate lengthened years you cannot glorify Ghxi or 
profit yourselves or others only as you dedicate your lives 
to carrying out the true designs of your being, and if you 
are rightly concerned to do this, you will become qualified 
to perform all the duties of your several allotments in life. 
Your fathers are fast passing away ; seek therefore to honor 
them by being found worthy to fill their stations, and cany 
on the good work required in your own day. If this is 
truly your concern, you need not fear, for the light of 
truth will enlighten your path. 

I have passed through the period of youth, and am 
advancing from the active life of middle age. I therefore 
know the dangers along the path of the youthftil traveler; 
there are thorns in the way, and the serpent lurks near you 
with its venom, but trust in God, and your feet will be 
preserved; though you pass through the fire, it shall not 
kindle upon you, and through the waters they shall not 
overwhelm you. 

I now feel my mind brought into exercise for my sisters 
who are in the middle years of life, those who feel the re- 
sponsibility of their station. I am aware of the great 
consequences that a proper discharge of your duties involves 
to the human family and the cause of religion and virtue, 
and I may say to you, dear mothers, if you feel your in- 
ability to train those under your guardianship in the nur- 
ture and admonition of the Lord, prayerfuUy seek your 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 399 

Heavenly Father for strength and wisdom equal to the work 
of your day ; and you will find it of the utmost impor- 
tance that nothing be suffered to remain in your own heart 
which your best judgment tells you should be corrected in 
your children ; thus prepared you can labor availingly and 
hopefully expect success in giving the first lessons of in- 
struction to them. 

I am firm in the belief that the right first training of 
children is not generally understood or carried into practice. 
Parents are to a great extent accountable for the character 
of their offipring, as infancy and childhood are the periods 
in which impressions are indelibly made; in this season 
the mind is tender and passive and should be entirely under 
parental control. What can cause a mother's heart to 
be moved with such deep emotions of joy as to see her chil- 
dren's deportment give promise of future usefulness, piety 
and virtue ? She sees the travail of her soul and is satisfied ; 
she has successfully and gloriously fulfilled her mission! 

But be not discouraged, dear sisters, though some of 
you may not at present see the results of your soul's desire; 
let not your perseverance be relaxed, for your labor may 
prove like bread cast upon the waters, found again after 
many days. How often have a mother's prayers been an- 
swered by heaven, and her counsels recalled by an erring 
son or daughter, even after she has gone home ? 

I may again repeat that the minds of children are in a 
plastic state and easily impressed for good or evil. How 
important then that care should be taken to strengthen a 
tendency to stability and to the control of the passions, 
lest some of them become turbulent and act out of unity, 
thereby producing that state answering to the storm. 



400 MEMOIBB OF 



A SERMON AT CHESHIRE, N. T., 

SIXTH MOUTH, 1862. 

I have no doubt but that moet if not all of the large 
assembly present, believe in the compound nature of man; 
that is, that he is composed of the earthly tabernacle, of 
the animal mind, and of the spiritual mind or soul, which 
last is created in the image of Gk)d, and is the only part 
capable of receiving the Divine will or of being made 
accountable. 

Thus constituted, man was before he transgressed in a 
state of unity with (rod, standing in no need of a Re- 
deemer, because his nature was occupying its proper posi- 
tion, just as his Maker had designed, and was pronounced 
good. 

While in this condition his spirit conversed with 
Jehovah, because there was nothing to prevent the soul 
from receiving illuminations from the eternal source of 
light, and in this high and holy state man might have con- 
tinued to stand had he obeyed the laws that wisdom gave 
him. Innocent and pure as he was, this was possible for 
him, although susceptible through his lower nature to 
temptation; but, alas! forgetting his dependence on the 
Father, he undertook to acquire wisdom and knowledge 
and power and riches in a way not marked out by the All- 
wise. He fell, and how great was that fall I for behold, 
he brought death upon himself I — ^not of the body, but that 
death which is the effect of sin ; that death which sealed 
the sweet fountain of communion between himself and the 
Father; that death which has effectually closed the door to 
his former peaceful and happy state. Now he must needs 



8UND£BLAND P. QARDNEB. 401 

have a Redeemer; he must be rescued and delivered from 
the bondage of sin ; he must fight and fast, must watch 
and pray, must struggle under the cross, no matter how 
heavy it may be; for he cannot redeem himself or reinstate 
himself in his former position, and the Gospel has there- 
fore become to him a necessity. 

This Gk)epel, which was given to the world through 
Christ, the fulfilling of which will redeem men, is most 
beautifully presented before John's spiritual vision, and he 
describes it thus: ''And I saw another mighty angel come 
down from heaven, clothed with a cloud ; and a rainbow 
was upon his head, and his face was as it were the sun, and 
his feet as pillars of fire." This remarkable figure, as we 
shall see when we come to understand the substance to which 
it points, is most appropriately drawn. We know that in 
a sinful state darkness in a measure covers the soul; yea, 
darkness envelopes the truth, and hides it from us, as with 
a thick cloud, but when the face of the angel, " as it were 
the sun " — the light from Grod, — and his feet like pillars 
of fire, are perceived by us, the cloud b^^ to recede, and 
though we may be deeply pained as we become sensible of 
our condition, the " rainbow of promise " rises before us, 
assuring us that if we prayerfully choose the light and 
practice of truth, we shall be brought up from the dark- 
ness and death that had overshadowed us. 

But let us look again upon this rainbow; we see the 
natural bow embraces all the colors of the sun and holds 
them in its light, but that light falling upon the cloud has 
all its inherent properties prismatically brought out, thus 
presenting to view the seven primary colors. Now may 
not this figure remind us of what was once seen in pro- 

26 



390 MEMOIRS OF 

accounts page by page, so that if anything be found there 
which has not the seal of truth, it may go to judgment, 
for the judgment seat is in every soul, and blessed are they 
who are willing that all things in their hearts bearing not 
that seal should be cast out We shall then be prepared to 
offer with grateful hearts praise, honor, and thanksgiving 
to God for giving us the victory through the assistance of 
His own spirit, known to us as '' Christ the power of God 
and the wisdom of God." We shall then be permitted to 
take our places as stars with the apostles of the Lamb, in 
the crown which is upon the head of the woman, the church 
triumphant, the church of Christ. Amen and Amen. 



[Extracts from a sermon delivered at Hamburgh 
Quarterly Meeting, 1862.] 

It is a common saying among men that " after a storm 
comes a calm," and as regards the outward elements the 
saying is true; but why is it so ? Not because the elements 
which composed the storm exist no longer, but because 
these elements have resumed their equilibrium, so that no 
clouds are left in the atmosphere to obscure or obstruct the 
clear light of the sun, and the cheering influence of the 
sunlight may continue to rest upon us so long as the true 
balance of the atmosphere is preserved, for in this state no 
storm could ever occur. 

Now if we transfer this figure to man we shall find 
that it truly represents him in his normal condition, for, 
compound in his nature, he has aU the elements of animate 
creation exhibited in the beasts of the field, the fowls of the 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 391 

air and the fishes of the sea on the one side, with an, im- 
material immortal spirit on the other, which last is the 
only sensible recipient of the Spirit of Grod, and is thai 
alone which ia accountable to Him. 

So long as man obeyed the commands of Grod, acting 
according to His laws, all his passions and propensities 
were in harmony, each performing the office designed for it 
by creative wisdom, all his elements were preserved in a 
true equilibrium, and man was in paradise; Qod,the uni- 
versal sun of righteousness, continually enlightened him. 
Hence his condition of innocence and purity of soul^ con- 
stantly advancing in the true imderstanding of natural 
and spiritual things, for truth would have been opened 
and developed in his mind just as fast as he was able to 
bear them in his advance in experience. He would also 
have had the privilege of using his every faculty and of 
availing himself of every blessing which God had created 
as applicable to his wants or necessary to his condition, 
without fear or without danger, for all had been pro- 
nounced * * very good. * ' 

But he withdrew his dependence from its only safe 
foundation, and listened to the suggestions of his reason, 
abstracted from its spiritual guide, by which means he fell, 
losing all the love that had hitherto sustained him, and 
finding death in the error of his ways. The equilibrium 
of his state was lost by exercising some of his faculties 
out of their proper place, and hence that state of uncer- 
tainty and confusion in his mind prefigured by the storm. 
He had himself turned from the light to darkness, and a 
loss of spiritual life ensued; the calm, humble frame neces- 
sary for improvement was gone, and he had no power by 



404 MEMOIRS OF 

Deity and nothing," see how beautiful the gradation: — 
First, the earthly temple or body connected with and 
clinging to material nature, then the animal mind made 
to serve the present wants of the whole being, and lastly, 
the soul, the likeness and image of God, the responsible 
and crowning work of all, connected with and subeenrient 
only to the Deity. 

And here is the soul's probation placed in a medium 
position, capable on the one hand of looking up to and 
being instructed by its creator, and consequently of being 
virtuous and happy; while on the other hand it may 
descend downward to obeying the animal propensities, and 
becoming, as it sinks under their control, vicious and 
miserable; for we see that though all these propensities 
were created in wisdom and all are good in their proper 
places, yet it is only in their proper places that they are good. 
They were made to serve, not to control, and it is only 
when perverted that they become sin and slay their victims. 
Yea, they are a necessary part of our nature, made for a 
high and honorable use, and if we keep them under proper 
control they will prove, instead of snares to our feet, 
sources of comfort, help and strength. 

Man has an important work to perform ; he has a build* 
ing to erect, and that building, though formed of a variety 
of materials, must be so constructed that all the parts will 
be in perfect harmony with each other, each supporting 
and strengthening the whole, and the whole resting upon a 
secure foundation. 

This building, which God has set man to work upon 
for himself, must be upheld by the seven pillars alluded to 
by the prophet; now therefore let us examine these pillars 



BUNDEBLAND P. OARDNEB. 405 

more particularly, and consider the labor necessary in their 
construction. Although man was innocent and happy in 
his first estate, yet it is clear to me that, had he even re- 
tained it, he would not have been exempt from a d^ree of 
warfare, else he could not have obtained positive virtue; 
he would not have been forced to fight against lusts that 
had already become his masters, but he would have had to 
be prepared for every symptom of rebellion in his subjects 
or passions. 

But let us proceed to our building in order: first, there 
is that in man's nature which, as it were, forever lurks in 
the dark, like the wolf for its prey, striving to take us 
unawares, or ready to steal upon our grounds if but for a 
moment we forget to watch. If we allow this disposition 
to gain and keep the ascendency, innocency, so aptly rep- 
resented by the lamb, must fall; thus we sufier great loss 
in ourselves and fall into vice; but if, on the other hand, 
we keep on the alert, innocence is preserved, vice is slain, 
and the tamed wolf and the lamb may dwell together. 
Thus we have overcome the first beast and have erected 
the first pillar in our building, which pillar is virtue. 
'' The leopard shall lie down with the kid." 

One of the great errors of the human race from the 
firsts has been in its manner of building the second pillar, 
which is knowledge. Men have sought to obtain thb by 
their own unaided power and wisdom, and the diversity, 
contradiction, uncertainty, perplexity and confusion in the 
world, both scientific and religious, are but the fruits of 
this wrong action. Now this condition of things is fairly 
portrayed by the leopard, which is the second beast; for we 
see that while knowledge, especially religious knowledge. 



406 MEMOIRS OF 

obtained alone by human study and tradition, like the 
leopard's spots, may be admired for its beauty, the 
dissensions and self-reliance consequent upon such a course, 
like the cruel beast, neither spare nor pity. 

And now what constitutes the true and saving knowl- 
edge that is worthy to become a pillar to our building ? It 
is this : ' ' To know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ 
whom thou hast sent" This is a knowledge never gained 
in schools of theology; true divinity is to be learned only 
in the school of Christ, where he himself is teacher. And 
when we go to this source for instruction, and have gotten 
the right knowledge, ignorance, with all its train of evil 
dispositions, bigotry, envy, malice and persecution are cast 
out, the evil power of the second beast is slain, the leopard 
becomes harmless and lies down with the kid, and our 
second pillar, knowledge, is in its proper place. There is 
nothing of which we know or can conceive that haa done 
such dreadful and irreparable mischief to the human family 
as a false religious knowledge; see how the very faculties 
formed by the Almighty for the greatest good have beea 
perverted, and love and truth been made to groan under 
their misdirected power. 

During the crusades or ' ' holy wars " not less than five 
millions of human lives fell a sacrifice to the ''shedder of 
man's blood," and now we tremble to look back upon 
those who were broken upon the wheel, burned at the stake, 
sawn asunder, and in various other cruel ways were de- 
stroyed; all by the strength of this false, self-asserted 
knowledge. And what if I should say that all persecutions^ 
all wars waged to the desolaticm of so many places on this 
fair earth, had sprung from the same cause ? 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 407 

And when will mankind be willing to come to a saying 
knowledge of God ? when will they be willing to see the 
Father as he is, bj the light which he himself has shed 
abroad, that they might be saved ? 

And we may " add to our knowledge temperance." This 
is necessary for our whole being; for the physical in all its 
wants and callings, in eating, and drinking, and sleeping, 
and labor, and care; and for the mental, that we may not 
overwork its powers, thereby rendering it helpless or of 
less service to us; and finally, for the spiritual, for that is 
much influenced by the lower propensities, and is peculiarly 
liable to be driven to excess in one direction or another. 
Thus we frequently hear pastors lament the backsliding of 
some of their flock — ^the cause of which evil may, I think, 
too often be traced back to an intemperate anxiety which had 
excited a zeal outrunning knowledge. Such zeal cannot di- 
rect safely, and, like the sudden and fitful storm, soon 
swells into a foaming and roaring torrent, but, being ab- 
normal, as soon passes off* again, leaving the channel as 
dry and barren as before. 

Hence we see that it is particularly necessary to be 
temperate in all things relating to religion, and never 
should we let our feelings take latitude so far as to judge 
or condemn others who may not acknowledge our standard 
of doctrine for their faith. We should commence school- 
ing ourselves in this virtue as well as in the others while 
young, ere contrary habits are formed, and while the 
heart is more generous, tender and susceptible to Divine 
influences. It is said to be easy to train a young lion, but 
when we become fixed in an evil habit we find ourselves 
truly enough under the foot of the strong Hon ; but if we 



408 MEM0IB8 OF 

are properly trained in our youth, or if we have overcome 
all intemperance in ourselves, then shall we know the third 
beast is slain, — ^then shall we behold the calf, the young 
lion and the fatling together, and the little child, which is 
the pure spirit of dependence upon the Father's will, shall 
lead them. 

Here also we shall know our building to be strength- 
ened, for our third pillar will have been set. 

" The cow and the bear shall feed, and their young 
ones shall lie down together." The prophet could scarcely 
have found in animate nature a more appropriate figure by 
which to represent the misguided, selfish propensities of 
man than the bear. It is said that this animal is so in- 
tensely absorbed in gratifying its own appetite that it 
waits not even to kill the hapless thing it has caught, but 
gorges itself while its victim is still alive. Does not this 
aptly remind us of the perverted selfishness of man? 
When we see orphans robbed, widows made homeless, in- 
nocence betrayed, and the helpless trampled upon, do we 
not see the resemblance ? These and many more evils both 
public and private arise from the perversion of this one fac- 
ulty — acquisitiveness ; and yet this faculty, if governed by 
true wisdom, would prove a blessing not only to ourselves, 
but to all with whom we are connected. If we look into 
our own lives as individuals we shall see that we must 
have an interest in the matters and circumstances that 
surround us; we must exercise a proper care in order to 
provide things necessary for ourselves and our dependents 
if we have any ; but it must be a proper care, and not, 
while it brings comforts to our friends, cast darkness and 
death over the hearths of others. Truly and properly di- 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 409 

rected self-interest never made a man oovetous or idola- 
trous; it never made any man exclusive or monopolizing, 
for there is enough of good in this world for all to have a 
share and each to have enough. God has made his sun to 
shine upon the evil and the good, and his rain to fall upon 
the just and the unjust: therefore if we keep ourselves 
under proper government here "the cow and the bear 
shall feed, and their young ones shall lie down together " ; 
for the hurtful power of the fourth beast is slain, and our 
fourth pillar is builded. 

*' The lion shall eat straw like the ox. " Here is clearly 
set forth the strong self-will so characteristic of many men : 
for the lion is very powerful, even so as to be called the 
king of beasts, and he lives to maintain his supremacy 
over other animals, yet he is noble and dignified in appear- 
ance, nay, magnanimous. O my friends I are there not 
some of you in this assembly who will answer to this figure T 
Strong in your powers, therefore indomitable in your wills, 
determined to carry out your own designs though every 
thing eke be swept before you. I seem to hear the reply, 
*'Not so; do we not exercise a tender and fiitherly care 
over our companions and children, and do we not gener- 
ously distribute of our substance to the wants of others, in- 
somuch that our pastor has said that if we did not already 
belong to the church we ought to become members? Surely 
this does not look as if we had the nature of the beast" 
But) my friends, have we not already seen that the " king 
of beasts " is often magnanimous ? Does he not often scorn 
to take advantage of the weak, and does he not, true to the 
instincts of his nature, provide with care and tenderness for 
his young, though at the expense of the lives of other ani- 



410 MEMOIRS OF 

male? 80 then you are kind to your own> and in the 
sight of men administer of your abundance to the wants of 
others, and your pastor, who has an interest in the matter, 
approves you, — why should he not? But what about that 
grinding self-will,— does that ever humiliate the helpless or 
wrong the dependent ? Put yourselves in their places, and 
consider and be wise. 

And thus we see that though we may be noble, dignified 
and kind, yet unless there be a change of heart, the " new 
birth," and the man has ceased to be the warrior, the gos- 
pel has not taken efifect, and the beast still lives untamed. 
But if the cross that the gospel has set before us be taken 
np, this evil power of the beast will be slain, and instead of 
crushing and devouring flesh and blood, " the lion shall 
eat straw like the ox," yea, and the fifth pillar, which is 
godliness, shall be added to our building. 

But what is godliness ? It is goodness, a power derived 
firom (rod, for man as man, though he be the truest that 
ever lived, has never possessed goodness underived. Hear 
what Jesus said on that subject when addressed as " good 
master." '' Why callest thou me good ? there is but one 
good, that is God; " and I receive what Jesus declared as 
the word of Divine truth. But my friends, we shall find, if 
we overcome the beastly nature, (rod's goodness in a measure 
becomes our goodness, his power our power, his righteous- 
ness our righteousness, and his love our love. Then we 
shall indeed have slain the fifth beast and builded the fifth 
pillar. 

"The nursing child shall play upon the hole of the 
asp," and how shall this be brought about? How shall the 
deadly asp be deprived of his poison and subdued in his 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 411 

nature so that even an infant may approach him without 
danger ? We shall see. Is there not that, my hearers, 
too often in man's nature which would cause him to infuse, 
as it were, the very venom of death into the moral atmos- 
phere of his fellow-creatures? Behold the slanderers, 
always ready to bite and hurt, and when charged with 
malice, behold with what malignant zeal they attack their 
victims I with what relentless purpose do they follow the 
weak and unprotected I Such souls know nothing of hav- 
ing the sixth beast slain; they are not, they cannot be while 
thus minded, Christians. It is true they may belong 
to a church, they may follow its forms, they may be ap- 
proved and prominent for their talents, learning or wealth, 
but they are not Christ-like. They know not what it is to 
be filled with love till they can sing * * Glory to Grod in the 
highest and good- will to men." But when they come to 
that state in which they are willing to accept the principles 
Christ laid down, which call upon them to " deny themselves 
and take up their cross daily,' ' then they will become his 
disciples; then they will be prepared to carry out their 
intercourse with their fellow-men and women without 
learning ''to be idle" in the vineyard of the Lord — 
"wandering about from house to house, and not only idle, 
but tattlers also and busybodies, speaking things which 
they ought not," — and their tongues will cease to be 
unruly members, full of deadly poison. They will learn 
rather to govern their passions, and to keep their equilib- 
rium, becoming so harmless that the infant, the innocent, 
the weak, may approach them without danger. They will 
feel the lovingkindness of Grod, will be grateful for it, and 
will exercise toward their brethren that love which they 



412 MEMOIRS OF 

have felt and learned to prize, — ^yea, the sixth beast will be 
slain, and the sixth pillar, which is brotherly love, will be 
set in its place. 

'' The weaned child shall put his hand upon the cock- 
atrice's den." We now come to the highest faculty which 
God in his wisdom has bestowed upon man; the fieusulty 
which, if kept in its proper place, under the government 
of Divine truth, is one of the greatest of blessings, but 
which, if misdirected, becomes as great a curse. This is 
reason; and do we not perceive, my friends, in the work- 
ing of this faculty, when wrongly directed, some likeness 
to the serpent referred to :-— cunning, subtle, aspiring; 
not willing to acknowledge the true source from whence it 
sprung, nor mindful to own the supremacy of even Grod 
himself; self-sufficient, thinking by its violent hissing to 
drive away all else ? 

Thus indeed it is with many of our strong reasoners 
when they have suffered themselves to stray away into the 
broad road of independent thought, — ^independent of Him 
who gave them power to think. But, alas ! they have not 
got true freedom ; in Christ Jesus alone is true liberty to 
be found. 

I would not that any man should be bound by sects or 
creeds, — ^far otherwise; no normal human mind was ever 
made to be ruled by his fellow-men : but remember, my 
hearers, there is One greater than man; he hath power, 
and in him doth wisdom abound; in him is the foundation 
of all true and lasting knowledge. Let your reasoning 
powers then be submitted to Him who made them; let them 
be directed by His light, and they will not err, for ** a wise 
heart shall receive commandments, but a prating fool shall 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 413 

fall " (Prov. 10: 8). And when we shall have come into 
this state, looking to and trusting in God for all things, 
Divine wisdom will call unto us, saying, ''Come, let us 
reason together." Then we shall receive the " true light^'' 
and shall be able to view things as thej are. We shall not 
be misjudging that on which we look, and condemning 
others through our own blindness, but we shall rather be 
possessed of that feeling which is able to " hide a multi- 
tude of sins," even charity. And hear what the apostle 
says concerning this excellent acquisition: "Though I 
speak with the tongue of men and angels, and have not 
charity, I am become as sounding brass or a tinkling 
cymbal ; though I have the gift of prophecy, and under- 
stand all mysteries and all knowledge, and though I have 
all faith so that I could remove mountains (spiritual diffi- 
culties), and have not charity, I am nothing. And [now 
mark] " though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and 
though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, 
it profiteth me nothing. " 

But what does he say charity is? "Charity suffereth 
long, and b kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth 
not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseem- 
ly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh 
no evil, rejoioeth not in iniquity, but rejoioeth in the 
truth ; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all 
things, endureth all things ; charity never faileth." And 
this, my friends, is the gift, the crowning grace, which we 
shall receive of the Father when we have slain our last 
beast by that wisdom of humility which is given to those 
who ask ; this the material from which we must form our 
last pillar if we would that our temple shall be accepta- 



414 MEMOIRS OF 

ble unto Qod; this the oonsequenoe of letting onr own 
wisdom be led by that superior wisdom which never errs. 

And now, brethren, let us take a review of what has 
to some extent been considered. Can we not see in the 
goodness and wisdom of the whole work of God's pure 
Gospel, a harmony and beauty signally typified by the 
angel of John's vision ? " His feet, which were pillars of 
fire," have they not gone before until they have consumed 
what should be burned ? Has not the light in his coun- 
tenance been a guide and enlightenment to us ? and the 
rainbow about his head, does it not picture the blending 
loveliness of the whole work that Jesus Christ has 
wrought in the regenerated soul ? 

Again: '' Wisdom has mingled her wine." By this we 
see the proper equilibrium that has been attained, and that 
the table has been furnished by that bountiful hand which 
knows how to deal out according to the wants and needs 
of the children of men. Andnow can we not understand 
what an important warfare is to be accomplished, and how 
and where the work is to be done ? We see what the 
mission of the Gospel is, and how the Spirit of truth, as a 
teacher, brings to us salvation if we, on our part, are but 
obedient and faithful. 

There is nothing, my friends, primarily wrong in man*s 
nature; he is the handiwork of God, and his heart was 
never corrupt until he made it so by the voluntary com- 
mission of sin. But here one seems to object by saying, 
' * Man is tempted by a cunning arch-enemy that comes 
into his heart, and draws it away from God." I answer 
that all temptations arise in and through man's own 
nature; and that no being out of or independent of him- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 415 

self has the power of a saccessftil temptation, neither 
would Divine wisdom allow such a thing. 

I am well aware that these views contravene much that 
has been taught for centuries, and that men have by these 
teachings been kept in ignorance of the composition of 
their own being and of their relation to God their Creator; 
and though the views just set forth contradict so much of 
our traditional learning, and though they are themselves 
contradicted by so many ancient and clashing creeds, yet 
I dare believe they are not discordant with the grace of 
Grod that bringeth salvation. And it seems to me, brethren, 
that it is full time for this veil of false religion which has 
so long darkened our vision to be rent from our hearts, 
and that all the usefulness and practicality of Christianity 
should be made plain to our possible experience, — ^and ex- 
perience ever speaks the truth. 

But let us return to the subject of temptation. We 
said that (rod would not allow a dark and evil being to 
come and take man away from Himself, and cast the most 
noble and dignified of His earthly creatures into disgrace 
and misery. Let me appeal to the fathers and mothers 
present; you have tender, innocent, inexperienced child- 
ren, for whom your greatest concern is that they should 
come up to maturity in virtue and happiness; now, were 
you aware that an enemy was lurking around them and 
trying to approach them in order to accomplish their ruin 
and your dishonor, would you allow him by any means to 
accomplish his foul purpose, if you could prevent him ? 
And think you our Heavenly Father is less careful in re- 
gard to his childreui or is Ids arm shortened that it cannot 



416 ICEMOIBS OF 

save ? Thus it appears clear to me that there is no external 
cause of fear. 

But, says one, '' Thou says that all temptation springs 
from man's own nature, but we read of Jesus being taken 
up on the pinnacle of the temple, and upon a high moun- 
tain, and there tempted ; who was it that took him up to 
these places and tempted him ? How will you get around 
that ? " I answer that I do not wish to get around it, but 
choose to meet it just where it is, and as it is. Is it not 
written that he was tempted in all points like as we are ? 
That being the case, you may tell us what it was that 
tempted you if you have aspired to some high position in 
the church, even the thought to stand on "the pinnacle of 
the temple; " or if some of you have desired some high 
political honor or place, or wealth, or carnal glory of some 
kind. Surely you can tell how it seemed to you when 
you stood on the mountain of worldly aspirations and 
were tempted to sacrifice the spirit of Christian meekness 
and worship selfish ambition; did you not consider the 
kingdoms of the world and the glory of them f Who or 
what tempted you from the plane of humility ? " Oh, that 
was our natural ambition.'' Very true, and now you 
know just what it was that tempted Jesus, for if ' ' he was 
tempted in all points like as we are," we are tempted as he 
was. To me, the whole matter is very clear; it is no sin, 
it is no misfortune, to be tempted ; we may thus indeed be 
deeply proved, for if we put our trust in Qod as did He 
whose example we profess to follow, we shall be preserved 
and grow stronger under the trial. But do you not see, 
my friends, how it is that temptation springs only from oui* 
own nature? Consider, then, how that combativeness, 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 417 

alimentiveneas, acquisitiveness, or any other propensity, 
although proper in its place, may become excited or un- 
balanced, and thus induce immoral or eyen criminal 
thoughts and inclinations; how we are tempted to strike our 
neighbor, become intoxicated, or take a dishonest advantage 
in pecuniary matters, and, I may ask. Does not the tempta- 
tion rise in ourselves ? But are we obliged for one moment 
to yield to the temptation ? Do we not know wrong from 
right; or are we forced to become slaves to our passions? 
No ; for we have the power given us from Grod to govern 
ourselves in all things; moreover he has promised to make 
for us a way of escape if we be tried above what we are 
able ourselves to bear: the choice is our own. 

But again, some one seems to say, " There was Lucifer, 
an angel who fell from heaven." Very well, the language 
is, " How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of 
the morning I Thou that exaltest thyself to heaven, thou 
shalt be cast down to hell." But if we carefully read the 
context we shall see that it refers to the king of Babylon 
and to no one else. 

It has also been asserted that away back in eternity, be- 
fore man was organized, there was " war in heaven; " that 
" the dragon and his angels fought against Michael and 
his angels, and prevailed not, but were cast out.'' But 
when we look into the Revelation of Jesus Christ which 
God gave him to show unto his servants things that were 
'' shortly to come to pass," we see that these things had not 
transpired even in John's time, for John delivered the 
prophecy, and a prophecy speaks of things to come and 
not of things that are past, 

27 



418 MEMOIBS OF 

''Blessed is he that readeth and they that hear the 
words of this prophecy." 

We do not suppose there is or ever was war or discord 
in the state where the redeemed are, nor that any enter 
there who have not " oyeroome, and washed their robes and 
made them white in the blood of the Lamb;" and these 
are privileged to sit down with him in his throne. 

But what was the war in heaven, or to what does this 
figure properly refer? The heaven here spoken of, my 
friends, I believe refers to the false rest or dependence in- 
to which the unregenerate heart settles down, and it is well 
for us that we cannot find peace in this dangerous condition. 
" Behold I once more shake not only the earth but the 
heavens also ; " and that which can be shaken may be and 
should be removed, while that true assurance and peace 
which cannot be shaken will remain; this is what I under- 
stand by war in heaven. 

The unregenerate will of man, or "the dragon" witb 
his angels, — ^unbelief, vice, ignorance of God, intemperance, 
impatience, ungodliness, malice and hatred, — ^these are 
among the evil spirits that torment men while they have the 
power over them, and they will rise up and come into action 
as long as they can prevail, or until the beasts are slain« 
And who b Michael ? The will and love of God ; and his 
angels are virtue, knowledge, temperance, patience, godli- 
ness, brotherly kindness and charity; and Peter adds, "If 
these things be in you and abound, they make you that ye 
shall not be ignorant of our Lord Jesus Christ" 

Thus then, when the will of God is revealed iu man, 
being a swift witness against everything that is corrupt, 
and consequently against everything that can make him 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 419 

unhappy, the warfare commences, — ^the will of God against 
the perverted will of man, Michael against the dragon! 
And the struggle may be a severe one; for habits have 
been formed and cherished that are hard to part with, — 
habits which it would suit the whole distorted bias of man's 
nature to retain. But as his spiritual life cannot find the 
peace congenial to its wants in anything short of the at- 
tributes and especially the love of God, proffered by the 
Father on condition of obedience, if we obey and therefore 
feel that love, an evidence is furnished out of which springs 
our faith; a faith that overcomes the world, for it gives 
us the victory, and works by love to the purifying of the 
heart; this advances and increases, but never contracts it- 
self. 

Having this faith, therefore, we are prepared to go on 
with the war, and the angel of virtue shall cast out 
its opposite, vice; temperance shall slay intemperance, 
knowledge shall destroy ignorance, patience shall over- 
come impatience, godliness, brotherly kindness and charity 
shall also have the mastery over their opposites, and thus 
this great and glorious war shall be completed. The false 
heavens will be destroyed, and the true heavens which will 
abide forever will be covered with everlasting peace. 

But there is another kind of faith, a kind which re- 
joices in the first heavens and the first earth; a kind that 
is founded alone upon tradition and education ; a kind that 
is uncertain and can be overcome by the world ; a kind 
that can easily reconcile itself to the dragon and his angels. 
It can permit man to become a warrior and a persecutor; 
yea, and it is equal to the task of carrying out under one 
pretense or another all the evil dispositions found in the 



420 MEM0IB8 OF 

unregenerate heart, every propensitj of the seven beasts, 
still blasphemously daring to take upon itself a profesmon 
of the religion of Jesus Christ. 

Old Adam cares not how much religion is professed if 
he can get by the cross and keep his beasts alive. 

And, my friends, is not this the kind of faith most 
prevalent among Christian nations to-day? and do not 
these nations contravene almost all things truly called for 
by the gospel ? One of the prophets, when taking a view 
of the work of the grace of God, declared that *' Unto us a 
child is bom, unto us a son is given, and the government 
shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Won- 
derful, Counselor, The mighty Grod, The everlasting Father, 
The Prince of Peace." But where is the evidence of His 
reign amongst professors now ? — are they not contending 
and fighting just as they have been for more than fourteen 
hundred years? — struggling for forms and doctrines, for 
laws and governments, or whatever else presents itself to 
their notice ? And yet I say unto you, that so surely as 
Grod is one, so surely his people are one; for all real Chris- 
tians love one another. " By this do we know that we 
have passed from death unto life, because we love the 
brethren." And has a rational man ever been known to 
hurt or to slay one whom he loved ? But behold to-day's 
professors ! Passing by all antagonisms at home and else- 
where concerning doctrines, let us look upon the bloody 
battle-fields of our country, and what do we see ? Presby- 
terian with sword in hand arrayed against Presbyterian, 
Baptist against Baptist, Methodist against Methodist, 
Churchman against Churchman, Universalist against Uni- 
versalist. Catholic against Catholic, and, worst of all, con- 



6UNDSBLA.ND P. GARDNER. 421 

sidering their profession, Quaker against Quaker I If 
Christ's kingdom is not a kingdom of violence and blood, 
then I ask, How far is his reign acknowledged or spread 
among us ? 

''He that hath ears to hear, let him hear." 

' ' Whence came wars and fightings among you ? Come 
they not hence, even of your lusts that war in your 
members ? ' ' 

And is not the office of the gospel to correct such a 
state of things ? Most of our religious teachers say it is, 
and yet, strange inconsistency, how many of them seek to 
justify war and persuaide their fellow-men to go to the 
battle-field I 

If Jesus were now to appear among men as he once 
did in his outward form, and should call upon his nominal 
followers, and ask them whose religion they professed, with 
one voice they would exclaim, "Jesus Christ's;'' but 
should he ask them whose precepts they practiced, they 
would be constrained to answer " Moses'." 

And mothers, do you believe it to be the will of your 
Heavenly Father that the sons over whom you have spent 
so many toilsome and anxious hours, the sons over whom 
you have prayed in the silent watches of the night, should 
now go from you to be slaughtered ? Shall those who were 
naturally designed to be the stay and comfort of your de- 
clining years be required by Divine Providence to be 
offered up as victims on the altar of mortal strife, their 
flesh and blood fattening the fields and their bones bleach- 
ing upon the ground ? 

Nor is this all. When we look upon the more than 
desolate homes, the widows and the orphans, made so by 



422 MEMOIBS OF 

the cruel passions of men, can any of you believe these 
things are right and pleasing in the sight of a wise, just, 
and good God ? 

But when will they cease ? Not until the office of the 
angel of the Gospel is understood and allowed to be per- 
formed in the hearts of men ; not until the clouds of ignor- 
ance and sin are removed, and the sun of truth shines with 
its own cheerful brightness upon the earth. Then will the 
seven primary colors of its light be clearly seen ; the seven 
beasts will be slain, the seven pillars completed, and the 
seven cardinal virtues become the controlling principles of 
men. Then the precept,^ *' Do ye unto others as ye would 
they should do unto you," will be lived out, to the staying 
of the fountain of blood. 

But to return to the subject of fallen angels. I know 
nothing of disembodied or non-embodied spirits, but we all 
know something about poor fallen men and women. Now, 
as far as concerns the word "angel," we know that was a 
term used for " messenger "or * * minister " of the churches ; 
thus "the angel of the church of Sardis." 

Now let us find an example from the Scriptures of a 
"fallen angel;" and in simplicity of heart try to under- 
stand the meaning of the term ** devil." We all recollect 
reading how Jesus called his disciples to him that he might 
confer upon them a part of his spirit, and thus prepare 
them for the work they were to do. Judas was amongst 
the rest, and with the rest received hb lot and appoint- 
ment. But Judas fell, and became a devil; and how did 
he fall? Why, just by letting his acquisitiveness become 
excited until it developed into a " lust for gain/ ' when he 
was ready to sell his Master for thirty pieces of silver. 



BUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 423 

Jesus, knowing his condition even before it had become 
public, said to his disciples, '* Behold, I have chosen you 
twelve, and one of you is a devil. ' ' Thus we see one in- 
stance of an angel or minister falling and becoming a 
devil. Yet Judas repented him sore of his evil deed, and 
we may believe he was truly sorry, for before he committed 
the last dreadful act by trying to fly remorse through self- 
destruction, he returned the silver. But I fear there are 
some among us at the present day who have sold their 
Master for less than did Judas, and have not returned the 
price. 

I will mention another instance in which Jesus makes 
the matter very clear. You will recollect that on one 
occasion he queried with his disciples, '' Whom do men 
say that I am ? " They replied as they had heard. He 
then put the question directly, " But whom say ye that I 
am?" Peter replied, "Thou art the Christ of God." 
Jesus said, " Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jonah, for flesh and 
blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which 
is in heaven." 

This was while Peter depended upon the revelation of 
God for instruction, and he was indeed in a blessed state; 
but mark the change when he fell into a state of forgetful- 
ness, or selfish, creaturely love, allowing his human regard 
for his Master to go so far as to hinder the carrying out of 
the testimony of truth. When Jesus began to open to 
them what things he should suffer, Peter rebuked him, 
saying, "This shall not be done unto thee." What now 
was Jesus' reply? "Get thee behind me Satan; thou 
savorest not the things that be of God, but those that be 



424 MEM0IB8 OP 

of men." To those who believe Jesi;p to be correct, this 
must be conclusive. 

In regard to temptation, the apostle James is more clear 
than many of the early writers, for he has laid aside the 
figurative language of his day, and comes directly to the 
subject; and what does he say ? 

** Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of 
God, for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth 
he any man : but every man is tempted when he is drawn 
away of his own lusts and enticed; then when lust hath 
conceived it bringeth forth sin, and sin when it is finished 
bringeth forth death.' ' Now does not this testimony cor- 
respond with our experience ? or can any of us refer to a sin 
we ever committed , but that sin was referable to a perversion 
of some of the good gifts of Grod ? For instance, he has fixed 
in our nature a necessity for drink, manifested in the sensa- 
tion called thirst; this propensity is right and the desire ac- 
companying it proper, but if we unduly gratify or inflame it 
so far as to become intemperate, we violate the very law that 
was meant for our good, and thus commit sin^ And my 
friends, we may thus refer to any or all of our propensities, 
for from any or all of them, if we allow them to be misdi- 
rected, sin may be born, and death will be the consequence 
of unrepented sin. 

Now my friends, search the Scriptures, search them 
honestly and prayerfully, and see if these things are not so. 
You are under no necessity to go to your fellow-men to 
learn the meaning of what you read, or to learn the will 
of God concerning you, for all he requires of you is thai 
you will heed and obey what he himself is ready to make 
clear to your understanding. Do any present doubt this ? 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 425 

Let me ask if any of you would require a child or a ser- 
vant to obey a command that had not been made clear to 
his understanding? I trust not: and shall man be more 
just than God ? 

Let me repeat, all Qod requires of us is a ready and 
unfeigned obedience to his known laws and clear commands; 
this, my friends, has been the declared experience of mul- 
titudes who have trusted him« ' ' Wherefore seeing we also 
are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let 
us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily 
beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set 
before us, looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of 
our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured 
the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right 
hand of the throne of God." 

Even if iA the dark and benighted corners of the earth 
there be any to whom God has not revealed his will (which 
thing I doubt), or to whom he has not given sufficient light 
and ability to understand his will, be assured nothing will 
be required at their hands ; yet all over the world, both 
abroad and at home, the harvests are ripe, and where are 
the laborers ? Of those who may, but refuse to labor or to 
listen to the call for helpers, of those who have plenty to 
spare, much will be required. There is, no doubt, much 
poverty and darkness upon the earth, yet the '* true light 
that enlighteneth every man that cometh into the world ' ' 
will enter into every heart that is opened to its call, no 
matter where that heart may be, whether in a palace, a 
slum, a forest or a desert. Nevertheless we are required to 
render aid according to our ability to those whose circum- 
stances are not as happy as our own. Every individual 



426 MEMOIRS OF 

has that given him which is necessary and applicable to his 
own state if he will have an ear to hear what the Spirit 
saith unto him. 

One beautiful peculiarity of the gospel is, it has a 
language for all states and conditions, adapting itself to 
each ; to the pure it is strength ; to the repenting sinner, 
encouragement; it brings down the proud, and exalts the 
humble and despondent. But the query arises. How does 
the Son of Ood speak to us? we have never heard his voice. 

Have you never felt a peculiar consciousness of sin ? 
have you never felt that keen pain, that deep sorrow of the 
soul called conviction ? If you have you know the sensa- 
tion does not arise from the nature of the creature; nay, it 
is the voice of God in the soul, bearing a swift witness 
against wrong; it is the voice of God through his Son Jesus 
Christ who is '* knocking " at the door of your heart and 
desiring to ** take up his abode within." This is a beau- 
tiful figure of the working of the love of Grod in the soul : 
'' Know ye not brethren that except Jesus Christ be in you 
ye are reprobates." 

*' But," says some one, ''Jesus Christ cannot dwell in 
man." 

According to Paul he can. Paul knew just as well as 
we know that it was impossible for Jesus Christ with his 
outward body of flesh, blood and bones to dwell in the 
souls of men, but by the influence of his Spirit he does dwell 
in and become the light and life of the purified ; so Paul 
declared, * * I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me.' ' " In 
him was life, and the life was the light of men ;" and it is 
to this life of God in the soul that I now feel laid upon me 
to call your attention ; and you cannot obtain this precioos 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 427 

gift, my fnends, except as it is revealed to you of God 
through His Son, — ^you cannot get it from learned men, nor 
yet from the Scriptures. But again I would advise you to 
read the Scriptures and meditate upon them, for they con- 
tain a powerful testimony to '' the Light." Read them, 
not as ''the word of God," but as testifying of that word, 
which ''is quick, and power^l, and sharper than any 
two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of 
sjul and spirit and of the joints and marrow, and is a dis- 
cerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart." 

" In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was 
with God, and the Word was God ; the same was in the be- 
ginning with Gk)d." 

Now the Scriptures were not in the beginning with 
God, neither are they exclusively the words of God, al- 
though they in many places contain words which He gave 
to His servants to declare. 

The Bible should never be held up to the world as the 
pure and only " word of God," any more than many other 
things in religion as well as in " the Book " should be 
made to appear mysterious. We are assured that no 
Scripture is of private interpretation, therefore again I say, 
Bead them for yourselves, not as the Jews read them, 
thinking to find eternal life therein, but because they tes- 
tify of Him of whom ye may obtain life. 

To the youth I would especially recommend the study 
of the Bible. Bead it and see if it does not bear a complete 
testimony to this spiritual life, this Son of God in the soul, 
which will, if obeyed, become our Saviour and Redeemer, 
— ^yes, the Saviour of all who will come to Hira. 

Much loss has been sustained in matters of religion by 



428 MEMOlltS OP 

taking the figures of Scripture in a literal sense, and be 
assured that whenever this course is followed by our teach- 
ers it will have a tendency to confuse by keeping the mind 
of the people engaged in unprofitable outward observances) 
and in consequent ignorance of the real substance to which 
the figures point. Jesus told the people that except they 
ate the 'flesh and drank the blood of the Son of man they 
had no life in them. Now had this been taken literally, 
would it not have led into darkness rather than light ? 
but when he explained the real meaning of the simile to 
them, its beauty and applicability became apparent, and I 
believe we might all see, if we would but be silent before 
God, that '* it is the spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profit- 
eth nothing.'' And thus I believe that everything that 
fixes the mind upon outward forms as connected with re- 
ligion does in the same ratio turn it from the only true 
source of vital Chrbtianity, the truth of God revealed in 
the soul. It was declared that all outward forms used 
under the law were but a shadow of things to come; that 
the observance of these never made the comers thereunto 
perfect as pertained to the conscience, and we are told 
that all these ceremonies were abolished at the crucifixion, 
for they were " nailed to the cross." In other words, they 
were done away with when the Jews were redeemed from 
the law by Christ. 

And have the forms used by professors to-day any 
more of life and virtue in themselves than had those of the 
old law? Should we not rather take the precepts and 
examples of Jesus as an expression of what God calls for 
under the gospel ? and if so, how much evidence is there 
of real Christianity on the earth now ? If love is to be 



8UNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 429 

taken aa an evidence that men have passed from death unto 
life, where does love exhibit itself? If it is necessary that 
we should do unto others as we would that they should do 
unto us, where do we see the fulfillment of the command? 
Happily there are individual cases of pure, humble obedi- 
ence, but fellow-professors, how near is the whole lump to 
being leavened ? Look into and through many of the 
various churches of our land alone, and mark what a spirit 
of envy, jealousy, and accusation breathes in their midst ! 
Behold what a spirit of censoriousness is carried out by 
many professors toward those who differ with them on 
points of doctrine, even in those matters involving no 
particular or vital principle; and see what kind of bearing 
they present toward those termed " infidel, deist, or un- 
sound," treating with contempt those whom Christ came 
to save. They blame those who are rather to be pitied for 
the state of mind under which they are dwelling, and who, 
were these persecuting professors themselves right in heart, 
might meet with such honest, kindly sympathy and ad- 
vice as would open the way for them also to perceive the 
"true light." 

For what is a deist ? One who believes in but one God, 
and whose belief is founded on that evidence alone which 
nature furnishes. And now let me ask, Is not this belief 
as good and just and honest as one founded only on tradi- 
tion ? And is not many a deist just as good and just as 
honorable a member of society as many a professor? And 
wherein is he to be blamed if he has received no surer 
testimony, no higher revelation ! But, my friends, there 
is an evidence and there is a state far higher than either 
the deist or the traditionalist; the Christian state is better 



430 MEMOIRS OF 

than either. In the Christian or Christ-like state the 
mind is clear, the heart is pure, and the soul is raised above 
all the confusion of hardness or doubt, of uncharitableness 
or persecution. It has a full belief in God, accompanied, 
I might say preceded, by a saving knowledge of God re- 
vealed through Jesus Christ; the whole government of the 
will and of the passions has been changed from self 
and placed upon the shoulders of " The Wonderful, The 
Counselor," and may I ask, If this change is not accom- 
plished, what matters it how much belief a man has in 
God, or Christ, or the Scriptures — ^how much men know 
their duty if *' they do it not." 

And now, fellow-professors of every name, let us, I 
beseech you, prove ourselves; shall we be any better for 
crying ** Lord, Lord," if we do not his will? The Jews 
were semi-deists; they believed in God, but their evidence 
rested mostly in tradition; hence Jesus said, *' Ye believe 
in God, believe abo in me." His object was to bring 
thom to a true knowledge, for though they had expected a 
Messiah, their views were wholly outward, thinking to have 
their political kingdom established among the nations; and 
this they still believe. 

Job was a deist and an honest one, but when he came 
to be tried and his building proved, Divine wisdom having 
revealed itself, and brought him into a sight of the Chris- 
tian state, he was fain to cry out, * * I have heard of Thee 
by the hearing of the ear, but now mine eye seeth Thee ; 
wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes." 

Thus he saw that all the religion he had heaped up for 
himself sufRced him not until he had been proved, and 
had taken up the cross, becoming a partaker of the right- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 431 

eousness of God through Christ, the anointing power for 
righteousness. 

Thus he passed from the state of the deist to the state 
of the Christian. ''He that hath ears to hear, let him 
hear." 



CAUSE AND EFFECT. 

Every effect is the result of a cause equal to its produc- 
tion. This proposition we find true in universal exper- 
ience; and we also find something in the efiTect by which 
we may trace our way back to the cause ; hence, whatever 
state we find ourselves in, we may feel assured that there 
was or is an adequate reason for it. 

If it be our daily experience to receive the bread of life, 
— ^the food congenial to the soul's wants, — ^we may know 
that the seed from which such a harvest springs has been 
good ; but if, on the contrary, we fail to obtain the peace, 
joy, and quiet we crave, we certainly know there is a cause 
for our unhappy state. 

And where, my friends, do these causes for good or evil 
consequences lie but in our own actions, bom of our own 
free choice ? Nor need we charge any of the disadvanta- 
ges arising from sin to any other source save the wrong 
exercise of our own liberty, while we may know that the 
blessing on the Christian state is but the seal God has 
placed upon right endeavors. 

There was a time when the condition of the Israelites 
was expressed by the following language: '* By the rivers 
of Babylon there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we re- 



432 MEMOIRS OF 

membered Zion. Upon the willows in the midst thereof 
we hanged our harps. For there they that led us cig[>tive 
required of us songs, and they that wasted us required of us 
mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of Ziion. How shall 
we sing the Lord's song in a strange land?" This was 
truly a moumAil and humbling state for the poor Jew^, 
but how came they thus ? There must have been a cause 
for their trouble. When they were a happy and favored 
people, a law was given them by which they were required 
to live ; a law by which they might have Uved and remained 
a blessed and prosperous people: but they refused to obey. 
They forsook the God of their strength, and this was why 
they fell into a degrading and painful captivity. This was 
why they were wandering and weeping in a strange land; 
the cause was in their own choice, the unavoidable conse- 
quences had to be submitted to. 

Now, my friends, cannot we see in their history some- 
thing that reminds us of our own condition? We that 
have strayed fi-om or neglected the light of truth in our 
own souls, do we not, like them, find ourselves sitting by 
the rivers of Babylon, or, in other language, do we not find 
ourselves in a state of darkness and doubt, the noise of 
the waters around us, but not the music of our own sweet 
river of life ? and do we not remember Zion ? Do we not 
with mournful regrets look back to the days when we were 
in a better state, — ^that happy state of union and commun- 
ion with the Father which we have lost by our own folly ? 

We find it very easy when we look back upon the con- 
dition of the fallen Jews to trace their calamity to its 
true source. We see the end of their disobedience, and 
surely we ought to be able to see the cause of the oonse- 



8UKPERLAND P. GARDNER. 433 

quenoes that now rest upon us. Let us look into their 
history as into a mirror, for we maj be benefited by " be- 
holding ourselves as in a glaas." Let us Btudy their day 
of proving, and remember we too have our day of proba- 
tion. Let us consider their triak and the admonitions 
given them, and their stubborn refusal of instruction. We 
look upon the consequences as very natural and just, and 
yet do we not know that we too have been tried and re- 
proved ? and let us ask ourselves, Have we obeyed ? 

" Art thou in health, my brother? Art thou in health, 
my sister?" If not, be assured it is because you have 
violated the good and perfect laws which Grod has fixed in 
your spiritual being. You have been disobedient, you have 
refused instruction; else would you now possess that which 
Ood never fails to give to those who keep his command- 
ments. 

Neither have you hastened to make application to the 
true physician, the only-begotten of the Father, who is 
made to us the way, the truth and the life; for he will heal 
all who ask him, yea, he will stay the plague we have 
brought upon ourselves. 

And there is no other way of redemption : we cannot 
rescue ourselves. Our hope and our help lie in the good- 
ness, power and wisdom of God, and in the truth and love 
of '< him who knows no variableness or shadow of turning, " 
but whose will, as displayed to us, is alone for our benefit. 

He is not harmed or moved from his place by our sins; 
he is not dependent upon our services that his work may 
be done, but he would that we should walk humbly with 
him and obey him, for by this means alone can we be 
happy. His commandments are adapted exactly to our 

28 



434 MEMOIRS OF 

wantSy to our eveiy need, and are designed to asaist us in 
rising from a state of inexperience to an acquaintance with 
himself; but how little do we prize our privileges or profit 
by them ! Even of the Society of Friends, which has set it/> 
mark of profession so high, it may be asked, Is there in i: ^ 
work a corresponding practical effort ? As to the outward, 
we have been largely blessed in basket and in store; but 
has not the Giver been too much forgotten in the greatness 
of the gift ? Aa the blearings of timely dews and rains 
make more fruitful the land, we sink still deeper our stake 
of interest in the earth ; but have our heavenly riches in- 
creased in the same proportion as have our outward bless- 
ings been bestowed ? We have no continuing dty here, 
and that part of us which is created after the likeness of 
Grod must leave its earthly house; its probationary sojourn 
is but for a brief period, and even during this short stay it 
cannot be satisfactorily sustained by anything afibrded by 
the earth; we brought nothing into this world with us, 
neither can we carry anything out, therefore worldly riches 
avail us nothing only so far as they answer our necessary 
wants; and how must that soul be degraded as an intellec- 
tual and moral being whose deepest feeling and highest 
aim is to amass and hoard the glittering dross! — ^inferior 
even to those animals that entirely compass their time of 
labor by accumulating provisions for their real need; they 
have a purpose of utility in view, the necessity is upon 
them, and as they have no greater ability, they have no 
higher responsibility. But the man who gives him- 
self up to the slavery of parsimony, whose mark goes no 
higher than that which can be reached by dollars and cents, 
or carnal and sensual ambition, that man is truly an object 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 435 

of pity. He had the freedom of aspiration, the power of 
rising, the necessity for improvement, an incalculable in- 
terest at stake, and yet, what has he done ? Where are the 
talents that were entrusted to his care, and what will he 
render when they shall be called for ? Consider this, my 
friends, and pray that such an one may be awakened from 
his dangerous condition while it is called to-day: for though 
like one serpent-charmed his vbion may be a delightful 
one, it is a most dangerous one. Beings constituted as we 
are need something to sustain the soul, and we are to obtain 
this by ''seeking the kingdom of heaven and its righteous- 
ness; " then will the witness of Grod be fully revealed, and 
whatsoever is found in the heart opposed to the truth will 
be judged and cast out. We shall be brought to the 
baptism of repentance, our leprosy will be cleansed, our re- 
demption will be accomplished, and our spiritual condition 
will be like that of a little child, pure and depending upon 
our Father's love. Then will all things find their appro- 
priate place and use. 

A great reformation is necessary in this as well as in 
other nations boasting of their religious light, but there are 
many things standing in the way of this needed change. 
One very prominent obstacle in the way of Truth is the 
training of children in the traditions of men ; long before 
they are capable of judging of the correctness and fitness 
of things, and while their minds are tender and easily 
formed by parental and other influences, they receive im- 
pressions that are almost indelible; habits of thought and 
modes of reasoning are fixed, and certain principles are 
established, and woe to that child whose training has been 
erroneous. If the treasury of the mind is filled with thesQ 



436 MEMOIRS OF 

false traditions of men ; if the law of Moses is imprinted 
on their young hearts instead of the precepts of Jesus; if 
the clouded and absurd notions of fallen men instead of the 
enlightening and everlasting principles of truth be given 
for food for their immortal spirits, what condition can be 
more pitiable than theirs? — cramped by education, 
trammeled by surrounding opinions, bound by affection, 
weakened by fear, overwhelmed by doubts, and pained by 
the very light of truth which has been sent to liberate 
them ! — ^I say pained, because that is the word which most 
nearly describes the sensation when the light begins to 
dawn upon them. 

I have witnessed this struggle : the warfare between 
truth and error; yea, have felt it, and can bear testimony 
to its terrors. Some minds have been frightened at the 
first shock of battle, and have gladly sought refuge in the 
tenia of their fathers, where they have lain hidden and 
cringing, not daring to open the slightest crevice in their 
walls for the breath of life to enter, lest the light should 
also come with it ; other minds have by indecision been 
wrecked, or by fear been maddened ; hence many of our 
infidels and lunatics. Others have continued the struggle 
for light and for right until the truth that was in them has 
gained the ascendency, and they now stand aa ''living 
stones *' in the temple of God. 

But some one seems to object, saying: '* How can chil- 
dren, if taught, impressed, and fixed in wrong principles, 
be turned in after years ? Can the Ethiopian change his 
skin, or the leopard his spots ? Then may good come out 
of evil.*' To which I reply : It is morally impossible; but 
Pivine grace can prevaiL For an example of this we may 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 437 

refer to the case of Bt Paul. He had been taught in all 
the traditional religion of the past, and so zealous was he 
to maintain that way that he became dead to the claims of 
common humanity ; he seemed to have had no compassion for 
those who thought not as he did, but persecuted them even 
to death. Such was Saul under the influence of tradition 
and a wrongly-educated conscience ; but he was changed, 
as it were in the twinkUng of an eye, nor was it by his 
own strength nor by his own right arm that he was 
delivered. No, a higher power was manifested ; a brighter 
than nature's light humbled him to the ground; a greater 
than tradition's light was revealed to his spiritual vision; 
and he was made to know not only of the scales falling 
from his eyes, but also of those scales which a wrong edu- 
cation and misguided zeal had brought upon his reasoning 
powers falling off and revealing themselves to him. 

** But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which 
was preached of me is not after man ; for I neither received 
it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation 
of Jesus Christ" (Gal. 1: 11-12). 

Here we have exhibited before our minds a clear case 
of a man of great powers of mind, and with learning 
much above the medium class of his day, at one time bound 
as with strong chains, but finally made firee by the grace of 
God. 

But we remember all do not come into the light as 
quickly as did Paul. The work with him was severe and 
decisive, while many, and perhaps most, of those who en- 
gage in the warfare struggle long and painfully before they 
become released. He '' conferred not with flesh and blood/' 
but many of us either '' fear to come out from under the 



438 MEMOIRS OF 

shadows/' or are too weak in prayer and faith. This 
trouble arises chiefly, I believe, from wrong done through 
early training ; therefore how careful ought we to be with 
those placed under our influence; how great, how momen- 
tous the consequences of our conduct toward and before 
them! — ^and lest we should meet these consequences face to 
face in the future, let us consider what we do. Let us 
think before we act; and in training our youth, and in 
moving among men, let us endeavor to imprint on their 
minds only such principles as we know must agree with all 
truth. Let us teach them love, justice, charity, and the 
necessity of devoting their powers to Him who is the source 
of all good. Thus taught, they will have nothing to un- 
learn ; and when they shall have arrived at that state in 
which it pleases God to especially instruct them by his 
grace, they will be ready to move onward and upward in 
the march of truth ; but the confusion of tongues we often 
experience in ourselves is sadly confusing to the children, 
and they, though guiltless, must also mourn in captivity 
with us on the banks of the rivers of Babylon. Let us 
watch and pray. 

We might again refer to the condition of the children 
of Israel in captivity. Their thirst was not slaked as they 
sat by the strange waters, neither could they sing the 
Lord's song in a strange land; therefore they hanged their 
harps upon the willows. They realized their situation. 
The contrast was great between their former privileges and 
their present privations; their souls were borne down with 
sorrow, and yet they had hope. And thus it is now with 
us, and with all backsliders. We feel ourselves separated 
from the source of former spiritual enjoyments; we sing no 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 439 

more the Lord's song, but rather mourn and weep; and 
yet there is hope for us. Another state may be attained; 
we need not remain in captivity. Thanks be to Israel's 
God and to our God, he speaks through his only-begotten 
Bon to the captive, and if that voice is heard and obeyed, 
we may again resume our harps, may sing a new song, may 
drink of that water which Christ spake of, and which John 
saw, '' a river clear as crystal, proceeding from the throne 
of God and the Lamb." And now if our joy becomes 
too full for utterance our harps may rest upon the tree of 
life; yea, for there is a state in which we may only adore 
in silence. 

Great is the contrast between such a. state and the 
present condition of the many '* wanderen^ in a strange 
land," and yet it is within the reach of all who forsake 
their sins and begin to move in the right direction. It 
appears to me that there is darkness to tliose persons who 
come to the conclusion that the Scriptures are the princi- 
pal guide to men, or that the coming and suffering of Jesus 
have atoned for their sins, or released them from certain 
obligations and dangers incident to their state. The Bible 
is indeed a precious book, and its doctrines are pure and 
holy, yet it is not ''the Light," but, like John, points to 
that Light. If we view it in this manner it is of great use 
to us, and its study should occupy some of our most serious 
thoughts, yet we must not forget that it is only the testi- 
mony and not the substance of the Spirit; it is conse- 
quently a thing to be used, not worshipped ; respected for 
its usefulness, not idolized for its antiquity and origin. 
Again, in the coming and suffering of Jesus, what have we 
gained ? In point of labor nothing; in doctrine and knowl- 



440 MEBCOIttS OP 

edge much. We have his teachings, his examples, his 
promises; his precepts were exalted and his works agreed 
with them; he commanded us to be perfect, and showed 
us how to be so; he endured all things and suffered all 
things for truth's sake, and by this we learn what we may 
do and bear ; but are we by him excused in the least de- 
gree from wearing the yoke or bearing the cross ? Are 
our sins made any less crimson or our obedience more per- 
fect by the good that was in him? By no means; but 
rather by hb purity are our corruptions rendered more 
conspicuous and our remissness less excusable. Are we 
not to gird on our armor and fight the battle against evil 
in just the same manner and with the same devotion as if 
he had not ^ne through with the warfare before us ? If 
He is the captain of our salvation we must follow Him like 
true soldiers, never daring to lay down our arms under the 
delusion that he is going to deliver us from the enemy 
without our own exertions. Such an idea would be ooa- 
trary to his own teaching; he never bade us to idly wait^ 
but bade us work, and promised to be with us. He over- 
came the world, not for us, but for himself; he gave us the 
example and bade us follow him. ''To him that over- 
cometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I 
also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his 
throne " (Rev. 3: 21.) Now if we would truly be his fol- 
lowers we must grapple with the same difficulties and over- 
come in the same manner as did he. 

Indolence is excluded from the Christian life; we must 
labor if we would grow strong, we must exercise our &cul< 
ties in order to improve them, our lamps must always be 
trimmed and burning if we would not be surprised at the 



SirKDBRLAKD P. GAttDKEft. 441 

cry, ** Behold the bridegroom cometh; go je out to meet 
him." 

And here we may know what the effect of watchful- 
ness and obedience will be : — ^it will be the privilege of en- 
tering with the bridegroom into his chamber, or, in other 
words, of entering with Christ into a heavenly state. ' ' He 
that hath ears to hear, let him hear! " 

This is a sweet reward, a glorious recompense for well 
doing; but remember it comes in its fulness to those only 
who are perfect. 

But, objects some one, '' For any man to be perfect is 
impossible." My friends, if it is impossible then Jesus is 
unreasonable in his requirements, or the passage is a mis- 
translation which reads, '' Be ye also perfect, even as your 
Father in heaven is perfect." How is this ? Doubtless 
we all know that the Spirit visits us for our good, and on 
purpose for our reformation and final salvation. Even 
young children have felt its power, but what good do 
these visitations amount to us unless we hearken to the 
voice ? and if we should fully submit to its influence, 
would not such submission end in perfection ? Study your 
Bibles and consult your convictions; consider the com- 
mandments of God, the precepts of Jesus, and see what 
you would lack were all these things fully obeyed. 

The house which Peter describes as "being built of 
lively stones," if truly entered into (1 Pet. 2:6), and the 
additions he would have us make with all diligence (2 Pet. 
1: 5-7), if thoroughly attended to would bring us into 
a condition in which we should be neither idle nor unfruit- 
ful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. Attain to 
these, which you all know is possible, and you will know 



442 MEifoitts OT 

what it is to be perfect. Perfection in man, however, does 
not prohibit growth, but like the fruit tree, which, when it 
has come to bearing, is perfect in its kind, maj yet con- 
tinue to grow and bear fruit more abundantly. 

I said that the Spirit of truth visits every soul, and even 
young children have felt its influence. Now, if in the in- 
nocence of childhood we heed this voice, I believe we 
might live so as to go out of the world without having 
sinned. Strange as the thought may seem to you, is it not 
evidently true ? We know it is possible for us to obey the 
Spirit if we will, and if the Spirit is not quenched, its 
light will increase until it becomes the life of the soul. 

And to my dear young friends, you who are still in a 
state of innocence, I would say. It is yours to enjoy this 
greatest of all privileges through the whole of your pro- 
bationary state, for sin is not a necessity to man, and God 
stands ready, if you choose, to help you live without it. 
And I would that you should remember that no stain of 
wrong can break the peace of your souls, or separate you 
from the love of God, excepting that which you yourselves 
commit; for every individual that ever came into this 
world stands as wholly upon his own responsibility as if he 
were the only being in existence ; and as all come into the 
world having equal access to the universal grace of God, 
which, when obeyed, brings entire salvation, so if you, in 
your innocent state, obey the leadings of Qod's spirit with- 
out reserve, it will surely keep you from all sin. And all 
of you, even if you have stepped aside from the narrow 
path, may return ; and if now, in the morning of your days, 
you will dedicate your lives and your powers to your Heav- 
enly Father, who has so bountifully bestowed his blessings 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 443 

upon you, he will not fail to guard you to the end. And 
this would be but doing right; this would be placing good 
''causes'' and not evil ones in the beginning of your 
journey, the effects of which will always be satisfactory; 
and your works, proceeding from the principles of truth 
and righteousness, will always give evidence of the nature 
of the causes which produced them. 

If a reformation is ever witnessed in our Society, in our 
nation, in our world, it must depend in a great measure 
upon the faithfulness of the rising generation, and in order 
that it be effectually accomplished, that is, if the workers 
be &ithful, they will have to breast the strong current of 
customs, traditions, and zeal without knowledge so preval- 
ent in our day; and it will require nothing short of a 
measure of the light, life and power that was in Jesus to 
enable them to carry on successfully the great warfare 
against " wickedness in high places." "EQs servants we 
are to whom we render ourselves servants to obey." And 
if you obey the call of your Heavenly Father to live lives 
of virtue and holiness, you will rise superior to all the hin- 
drances and entanglements of sensual things, rise up even 
into the glorious liberty of the sons and daughters of God. 
But if, on the other hand, you suffer yourselves to be 
brought under bondage by disobedience, if you despise and 
neglect that which he has given you to be a cause for future 
blessings, the unavoidable consequence will be darkness, 
degradation and distress of soul. 

Knowing therefore, that for our own part, everything 
depends upon our own choice, I felt it right to persuade 
you, in the words as they arose in love, and to invite yo;i, 
my dear fellow-travellers of every class, to seek to make 



444 MEMOIRS OF 

those causes jours, the effects of which will be satis&ctoiy 
as well as lasting; for we are well persuaded that by the 
grace of God both cause and effect are in ourselves. 



SERMON. 

''As in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made 
aUve." This text I compare with those other words of the 
apostle: " The natural man receiveth not the things of the 
spirit of Grod, for they are foolishness unto him ; neither 
can he know them, for they are spiritually discerned." 

In reading the first proposition, the minds of many are 
turned toward an individual, — a man called Adam; and 
suppose that in consequence of his sin, a germ of physical 
death was planted in his system, which germ was to be 
transmitted to his descendants to the end of time; yea, that 
all succeeding generations have sinned and fallen and been 
condemned to death in consequence of that one act of dis- 
obedience. Can we realize in thought the idea ? — millions 
of human beings held responsible and suffering for what 
one man did before they were bom I Can we suppose for 
a moment that Divine justice falls so far below the plane 
of human equity ? 

But in following out the theory, we find that only a few 
generations passed when God saw that despite the punish- 
ment he had put upon Adam, the wickedness of man was 
great in the earth, and that every imagination of the 
thoughts of his heart was only evil continually; and it re- 
pented the Lord that He had made man on the earth, and 
it grieved Him at his heart. And the Lord said, "I will 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 445 

destroy man whom I have created from the face of the 
earth; both man and beast, and the creeping thing and the 
fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made 
them. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord." 

Just think of this, my friends, as it is taken literally 
by theologians to-day; then look out upon God's handi- 
work, and contemplate what your minds can grasp of His 
creation. View what you can observe of nature, from the 
'' creeping thing " or bursting bud up through space to the 
boundless fields of heaven, and consider, can such a Creator 
be short-sighted concerning any of the works of His 
hands? Has He done or will He be likely to do anything 
to repent of? or will he permit any mistake to take place 
that would grieve Him to the heart ? 

But to return to Noah, and trace the theological track 
men have laid out. The flood came; a few lives were 
saved, only enough to commence anew with every kind 
that had been created; but this plan of purification also 
failed. Men sinned again; nothing that the Omnipotent 
Creator had done was sufficient to control them. What 
was to be done ? Was God in a dilemma ? We will follow 
out the track. A plan — *' the great plan of redemption " 
— ^was brought to the work. Jesus, the Son of God, the 
anointed, tHe holy one, offered himself for a sacrifice to 
reconcile an angry God! — the guiltless for the guilty; the 
pure lamb must be offered up for the sins of the people. 
And God accepted the sacrifice; and thus was He helped 
out of the difficulty brought on by Hb own mistaken pro- 
ceedings; thus was He enabled to save a world that He 
loved; thus was His dignity maintained! And thus, my 
fiiends; W3S Adam's sin balanced for those who accept the 



446 MEMOIBS OF 

theory. And Jesus is considered a part of a triune God! 
Behold the blasphemy I Let us consider it well, my hear- 
ers, for it seems to me that the time has come when we 
should be able to analyze this trinitarian doctrine, and see 
if it has a foundation. Do we find one for it in the Scrip- 
tures ? See the declaration of the Lord through Isaiah 
44: 6, 7, 8: '' I am the first, and I am the last; and be- 
side me there is no Grod. And who, as I, shall call, and 
shall declare it, and set it in order for me, since I appointed 
the ancient people ? and the things that are coming, and 
shall come, let them show unto them. Fear ye not, neither 
be afraid: have not I told thee from that time, and have 
declared it ? ye are even my witnesses. Is there a God 
beside me? Yea, there is no God; I know not any." 

Also Jeremiah 9 : 23-24. " Thus saith the Lord, Let not 
the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty 
man glory in his might; let not the rich man glory in his 
riches: but let him that glorieth, glory in this, that he un- 
derstandeth and knoweth me, that I am the Lord, which 
exercise lovingkindness, judgment, and righteousness in 
the earth; for in these things I delight, saith the Lord.'' 

Also Jeremiah 10: 12. " He hath made the earth by 
his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, 
and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion." 
James says of God: '' The Father of lights, with whom is 
no variableness, neither shadow of turning." Paul says 
(Rom. 16: 27) : " To God only wise." And see throu^ 
all the Scriptures the declarations of prophets and apostles, 
holy men of God, who spake and wrote as they were in- 
spired by the Spirit of God. He is by them described as 
''omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, only wise, immu^ 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 447 

table, most high, perfect, just, gracious, merciful, none 
before him, none like him, none beside him/' How do 
these inspired declarations stand compared with the doc- 
trine of trinitarianism ? Turn to the Old Testament, turn 
to the New Testament; read and consider well, read them 
as they are and compare them, and may the Spirit help 
you in the understanding thereof. 

St. John tells us that " the Word was God; in him was 
life, and the life was the light of men." Mark: " In Gk>d 
was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light 
shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehendeth it 
not." Now do we receive the light from God, which was 
made for us. For John said, '' It was the true light that 
lighteth every man that cometh into the world." This 
light or wisdom of God is that by which the world was 
made. Yet the world knew not this light, and why ? Is 
it not because the world has hardened its heart and dark- 
ened its own vision against it ? If so, is it not because the 
systems and interpretations of uninspired men have led it 
astray ? Now search diligently this account of John's, and 
you will see that in the 10th verse of the 1st chapter the 
style becomes different, and '*that" is changed to **he," 
which we may understand simply as a personification. If 
you have any doubt of this, consult the original, either di- 
rectly or through those translators who are too well known 
to be doubted. Then you will see that as many as received 
the light, received with it the power to become the sons of 
God. Now note the pure spirituality of the 12th and 13th 
verses : 

''But as many as received him, to them gave he 
power (or privilege) to become the sons of God, even to 



448 MEMOIRS OF 

them that believe on his name; which were bom not of 
blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, 
but of 6od.'^ Also read, ''And the word was made flesh (or 
entered into the man) and dwelt among us, full of grace 
and truth." We understand that the words enclosed 
within the parenthesis have been added as explanatory or 
supplementary by later authors. Notice, John says, not 
one, but as "many," — therefore, all who will receive the 
light so freely offered them, will become the sons of Grod. 
Moreover this Word has often been made manifest in hu- 
man form to the world both before and after the time of 
Jesus, and often have these children of God been perse- 
cuted even unto death, because the world preferred the al- 
luring torch of its own lighting to the pure light of God's 
truth. 

Perhaps it was because they could not bear the search- 
ing of the Divine ray to enter their hearts that the fathers 
or founders of so-called "Orthodoxy" have built such a 
terrible stumbling-block for the people to fall upon ; but 
be that as it may, they certainly went as far astray from 
the teachings of the original Scriptures as they did from 
consistency. 

Now let us follow John a little farther, where he 
speaks so plainly that "he who runs may read." He 
states the words of Jesus thus : " Except a man be bom of 
water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom 
of God." Shall we take this literally? Can we not un- 
derstand that water is the type or symbol of cleansing. Be- 
ing bom of water, then, is to enter upon a new life by 
being cleansed and purified in heart. This is always the 
first step to be taken if the sinner would become a child 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 449 

of God. * * Wash you, make you clean ; put away the evil 
of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil, 
learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, 
judge the fatherless, plead for the widow. Come now, and 
let us reason together, salth the Lord; though your sins 
be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they 
be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.'' Thus must we 
be bom of water ; and the spirit will not fail to do its work 
in connection with our own. In other places you will read 
of baptism with water; also of the Holy Ghost and with 
fire. Now I understand all these sayings to refer directly 
to a spiritual condition, not to an outward ordinance for 
to-day, and I believe with the apostle that all these outward 
ordinances have been put away. These Scriptural teach- 
ings are all remarkably pure and lofty when taken as they 
are meant ; but when men try to cramp them into outward 
forms they become dead impossibilities. For instance, see 
the last chapter of Mark, where Jesus appeared unto the 
eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their 
hardness of heart. Commencing at the 15th verse you 
will find that, literally speaking, as we interpret words 
these things are impossible. How many of you that are 
believers can do the things spoken of in the 17th and 18th 
verses ? Or how could eleven men go into all the world, 
and preach the gospel to every creature ? But if we un- 
derstand that the power of the Christian religion is meant, 
we see it, or at least learn of its being fiilfiUed every day, 
and the work appears to be going on, reaching out and 
spreading its influence further and further toward all 
regions inhabited by man. And the "signs," spiritually 
regarded, are possible, and experimentally true; for the 

29 



450 MEMOIBS OF 

sincere believers can drive from their hearts all principles of 
evil, represented by devils; they can, if necessary, handle 
temptations, likened to ' ' deadly serpents," without being 
harmed. All true believers do speak with new tongues 
when they cease their idle or carnal conversation, and in its 
place speak the truth as it was in Jesus. They may have 
to listen to the evil conversation of the world, and if 
forced, as it were, to drink its deadly poison in, it shall 
not hurt them, for by the help of God they will not adopt 
it. They hear it but to deplore it, and not to take it into 
their hearts; and they will have power given them in visit- 
ing the sin-sick soul to do the work or say the word that 
shall heal them. A great and happy provision is this for 
the conditions of men; and found to be true in the exper- 
ience of earnest seekers after Light John's disposition 
had its use. He was "sent to make straight the way of 
the Lord." He was sent with water, the symbol of 
cleansing, and to tell the people that a greater work waa 
yet to follow, though not a greater prophet than he was to 
come; for Jesus said, Matt. 11: 11, ''Verily I say unto 
you. Among them that are bom of women there hath not 
arisen a greater than John the Baptist; notwithstanding, 
he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than 
he." 

It was so hard to teach the people spiritual truths; poo- 
sibly it was harder for individuals to put away their tradi- 
tions and open their hearts to God*s light than in our day, 
but the comparatively few who did become, in spite of Jew- 
ish law and Jewish influence, humble, even as the little 
child, were permitted to enter the kingdom, and being 
single-hearted received more strength and wisdom from 



BUNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 451 

their King, and were consequently greater than the great- 
est who clung to earth. 

But Jesus in his dispensation was greater, inasmuch as 
the spirit and life of a principle is greater than the form 
or shadow thereof; and when Jesus came he ''blotted out 
the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which 
was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it 
to his cross." It is clear enough to see that this is wholly 
figurative in its expression, for forms and ceremonies are 
not tangible things that can be literally nailed to a wooden 
cross, therefore if we understand by it that ordinances of 
men are to be blotted out and we are to take up the cross 
and follow him, our duty becomes easily understood. And 
if we will look upon these things in a spiritual sense, they 
have a grand and clear meaning, a meaning that must 
ring out to the world through all time, a meaning deep 
and important as the salvation of souls. And see how 
simple the truth is; we are to report and reform, wash our 
hands in innocency, cease to do evil and learn to do well 
on our own part, then will Grod create in us a new heart 
and we shall be ready to receive the "blood," or the work 
of the Spirit which imbues us with the "life of God," 
which will work upon us to the gradual but constant puri- 
fying of the mind, and will finally bring us into the perfect 
day. 

Jesus was sent to call men to a higher, an inward 
work, and it was clearly shown that these types and 
shadows were to be put away ; the world had advanced to 
a condition when it was to move up on a higher plane, just 
as children reach an age when toys and legends and nur- 
sery tales intended to lead their infant minds should be 



452 MEMOIRS OF 

put away, and larger books and stronger work be given 
tbem to do. 

Now let us consider the text, "As in Adam all die, 
80 in Christ shall all be made alive." 

We cannot take this literally and outwardly and make 
it agree with what is called the orthodox doctrine. Out- 
wardly we were never in Adam ; he does not as a man 
exist amongst us, and we cannot die in him. Neither can 
we take it figuratively in the old doctrine, because the 
Lord, who is above all the wisdom and words of men, hath 
said it shall not be so. ''As I live, saith the Lord, . . . 
Behold all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so 
also the soul of the son is mine; the soul that sinneth, it 
shall die.'' ''The son shall not bear the iniquity of the 
father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son." 
You will find this, with much more that is very pointed 
on the subject, in Ezekiel, and the doctrine of eternal 
justice and equality here laid down is the word of the Lord 
through His own anointed prophet, but the legend of 
man's fall by Adam's sin has its foundation, where? I 
think you will not find it in the Bible, nor yet in that 
sense of justice which God has given us with our reason. 
I believe the history of the creation as given in Genesis is 
a beautiful allegory, written in Eastern style, and contain- 
ing a lesson broad and deep, and inspired with more than 
human wisdom; it is divine. Let us contemplate this 
allegory as a delineation of human nature. 

Adam is that stronger nature in us which leads to reason 
and labor; Eve representing those propensities that please, 
or would persuade us to please, ourselves. Both parts of 
our nature are created by the same wise Maker, both useful 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 453 

and right in their places ; but when our love of pleasure 
persuades our reason to go astray, to do what we are not 
sanctioned by God's law to do, we sin, we fall, we are ac- 
cursed I Hard labor, temptation and anguish of soul are our 
lot, well represented by the thorns and thistles and labor 
and pain of the once happy pair when banished from Eden. 
Oh, do we not know this in our experience, and just in 
proportion as we have lost our innocence, just in propor- 
tion as we have transgressed the law of God ? 

Adam, therefore, considered as representing the natural 
man, with those powers in the improper exercise of which 
we fall, is a grand example for us to contemplate. Every 
tree that was good for food or pleasant to the sight was 
made to grow; all beasts of the field, fowls of the air and 
fish of the sea were given to be enjoyed by him, and finally 
Eve, the helpmate for profit and pleasure, was presented to 
him. And thus it is with us; all things proper for our 
good and pleasure are given freely by the goodness of God 
for our use, but not for us to abuse. 

We find in the garden, or in plain language we find 
in the dispositions of our minds, those natural and neces- 
sary propensities, all good, useful and pleasant in their 
places, represented by the trees in Eden ; and as Adam was 
there placed to cultivate and dress the garden, so we find 
the responsible consciousness placed ¥rithin us to watch 
and cultivate our natural gifts. Our nature, however good, 
may go astray; hence the breaking of the natural law and 
consequent sin. But when, as it were, '' in the cool of the 
day," or in the hours of quiet, serious recollection, the 
presence of God is felt to be near, if we have done wrong 
we feel like hiding ourselves from Him, but His voice will 



454 MEMOIRS OF 

be heard asking, " Where art thou ? " This disobedience 
of the law. however, is not necessary. It is true many 
unfortunates have inherited so much of moral poison, or 
imbibed so much of moral disease, almost unconsdouslj to 
themselves, that it seems a part of their nature, but these 
are exceptions to the rule as found in God's works, and 
must be rescued and helped as are the physically sick, who 
are exceptions also to the natural law, and need pecuUar care. 
The law of God is always just but unchangeable, and it 
must be obeyed; therefore it can be obeyed. 

Knowledge is good in its right place and using, but we 
should not seek to force it to our purpose by our own un- 
guided strength or desire. Gk>d will give us wisdom if we 
ask it, and then we shall know when, where and how to 
seek for knowledge; thus we shall be saved from partaking 
of the forbidden tree. Thus it is through all our nature; 
if there is a necessity we feel the want, and over against 
that want is placed an ample response, but not a call 
to sin. 

I believe, in regard to knowledge, the strong desire for 
obtaining it has often led men to go beyond the bounds of 
right, and by so doing they have often fallen into griev- 
ous errors; and for great lengths of time the students of 
nature who have wrought without Divine assistance have 
labored under perils and mistakes which might have been 
avoided if they had put themselves aside and sought wis- 
dom of Him who hath the key of true knowledge. '* If 
any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth 
liberally and upbraideth not." In this, as in aU other 
things, let us " labor with God." 

There is in the ten commandments a synopsis of man's 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 455 

necessities, and a divinity of truth which cannot be mis- 
understood ; for human necessity and experience have made 
them self-evident We cannot break one of them without 
degrading our human nature and incurring an unavoidable 
penalty. We have the noble gift of veneration ; need we 
worship idols ? We have the gift of speech; need we 
blaspheme ? We can labor with our hands and with our 
brains and get much good thereby, but shall we go beyond 
the law, and destroy brain and body by excess ? We have 
the loving care of parente to provide for us in our time of 
need; shall we dishonor them in our youth, or despise them 
in their grey hairs ? We may associate with our fellow- 
creatures, gaining both profit and pleasure thereby, but 
need we, by reason of this privilege, commit murder, arson 
or theft ? Need we covet what is not our own ? need we 
live licentiously, or bear false witness against our neighbor ? 
Thus we see the natural man, Adam, has every good and 
perfect gift vouchsafed him, yet he may not and need not 
break the commandments of God; and if he does he may 
be sure he will fall, and be banished from the garden of 
peace, while the flaming sword of condemnation will be 
presented to bar the way to rest and safety; and some seem 
to have fallen so low, and are so stupefied with sin, that their 
eyes are closed to this sword of conscience and truth, and 
they seem not to realize their condition or feel their danger; 
but even for such and for all there is still a chance for sal- 
vation. Where ? ''Return unto me and I will return unto 
you, saith the Lord." Grod delights not in the death of the 
wicked, but says to all as he said to Israel, ** Return unto 
the Lord thy Grod, for thou hast fallen by thine iniquity. 
Take with you words and turn to the Lord; say unto 



456 MEMOIRS OF 

him, Take awaj all iniquity and receive us graciously, 
neither will we say any more to the work of our hands, Ye 
are our gods; for in thee the fatherless findeth mercy. 
I will heal their backsliding, I will love them fireely, 
for mine anger [or opposition] is turned away from him " 
(Hosea 14: 1). 

Let fallen men try this, and they will find that '* as in 
Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive." To 
those who have allowed their good gifts to become perverted 
by the allurements of sin I would say. The voice of (xod 
still calls to you : " Turn ye, turn ye, why will ye die ! " 
Then turn, ask God to give you a spirit of repentance, 
humble yourselves, ask His help, cleanse your hands by a 
true and determined reformation; thus you will go through 
the first baptism. Then will you be ready to receive the 
"blood of Christ," by which you will be spiritually 
changed and healed and strengthened, and thus in ** Christ 
will you be made alive. " 

Now we have seen that all who die spiritually, die in 
Adam ; or, speaking without figure, the good gifts of the 
natural man become perverted from the use for which 
God intended them. The commandments are broken, the 
man has been tempted, and is fallen and dead. James 
says : " But every man is tempted when he is drawn away 
of his own lust and enticed; then when lust hath con- 
ceived, it bringeth forth sin, and sin when it is finished 
bringeth forth death. Do not err, my beloved brethren. 
Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and 
Cometh down from the Father of Light, with whom is no 
variableness, neither shadow of turning." It is well to 



8UKDERLAND P. GARDNER. 457 

read James carefiiUy, because he puts away the style of 
parable, and speaks in a language we can all understand. 

If a fallen man ceases to do evil and learns to do well, 
he will, according to the Father's own promise, be received 
by Him, and like the returning prodigal in the parable, 
will have the best robe put upon him, and will be feasted 
in the Father's house; and " there will be great rejoicing 
in Heaven over the one sinner that repenteth, over the lost 
that is found, over the dead that is alive again," — over 
the recondliation; for the Father has given His son, which 
is an emanation of His own spirit^ to work upon the re- 
formed one, thus reconciling him to Himself, — in other 
words, making him fit to unite with Himself in holiness; 
and he now receives " Christ within, the hope of glory," 
thus becoming imbued with ' * the Spirit of truth, which 
shall lead him into all truth." 

I feel thus to notice these terms, because to many they 
are mysterious in their expression; but now I will ask you 
to '* search the Scriptures," — ^ask Ood to help you to look 
at them with an eye single to the light Compare 
passage with passage; view them just as the writers in- 
tended them; avoid the mistakes of the translators; keep 
clear of the influence of tradition; and you will find the 
unreasonable and morally impossible removed out of your 
way, and the laws and works and promises of Ood will 
come before you in most beautiful harmony. You will 
find all injustice and cruelty absent fix)m God's plan, and 
you will find that the path to Heaven, though narrow, will 
be easy to walk in. It is true you will find it too narrow 
to admit of any shade of sin; too narrow for pride or envy 
or hatred or any weakness to enter; but wide enough for 



468 HEMOIB8 OF 

all who put on the strength God gives to those who ask, to 
walk in without let or hindrance, even if they carry with 
them every virtue and every grace. 

Physical death is of itself not 'designed as a punish- 
ment for spiritual sin; nor is it designed as an evil to man. 
If we have not done our work well, and are not properly 
clothed upon for the change, it is our individual loss. If 
the wicked meet death, he must go as he is, all unprepared, 
from his present condition out into the unknown, and to 
him untried future of eternity. His days of earthly pro- 
bation are ended ; the curtain closes upon him. We are 
not permitted to see more. He has gone in his sins, but 
physical death is not his punishment. This is a natural 
and necessary change that comes to all, both good and 
evil, animal and vegetable; change is written upon all 
alike. Nor should we confound the natural with the 
spiritual, thus misunderstanding the law of Divine wisdom. 

In regard to the great question of redemption, let us 
refer to the story of the prodigal son, of which was said 
by one who was accustomed to think: "Among all the 
parables which Christ delivered, this is a choice one; full 
of affection, and set forth with the fairest colors." See 
how clearly the whole history of redemption is here set 
forth. Those who have remained at home in the Father's 
house had nothing to do but to continue in their integrity, 
while those who have strayed away into the paths of sin 
must, if they would be redeemed, repent, return, and re- 
form their lives, offering the only sacrifice required or 
accepted of God. ''The sacrifices of God are a broken 
spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt 
not despise" (Ps. 51: 17). 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 459 

This is DO bloody code, no mutilation of bone or flesh, 
no shedding of blood by murderous hands, no necessity for 
help from Satan. 

O infamous thought I O inexcusable blasphemy I 
How dare men represent God as weak and cruel and un- 
equal in His ways before the seeking, hungering people? 
The repenting sinner has the sacrifice to make. If he 
would be restored he has a great work to do on his own 
part; he must take up the cross and bear it; he must re- 
form his habits, and submit his will to the will of Ood, 
and thus exchange his world of tran^ession, — ^his indul- 
gence in lust and sin, — ^for a pure life and the quickening 
spirit of the Father's love. Then will be fulfilled in him 
the promise which Jesus made concerning the spiritual sus- 
tenance of which he himself partook, as being given in 
exchange for the world's emptiness. Said he: ''I will give 
my flesh for the life of the world." 

Now the redeemed one will be able to labor with God. 
How, it may be asked, can men labor with God ? It is as 
necessary that we should labor with Gt)d in a spiritual 
sense as that we should do so in an outward sense if we 
would obtain our daily bread. In the outward world God 
Airnishes the earth and its atmosphere, the light and heat 
of the sun, the rain and dew, the seedtime and harvest, 
and the seed germ. He furnishes us with the judgment 
and strength to work. He furnishes all material, and 
doe£( all things which we cannot do ourselves. But we well 
know there is a work left for us to do also. We must dig 
material from the ground, or hew it &om the wood ; we 
must make for ourselves implements of labor, thus using 
brain and commanding muscle; we must cultivate our 



460 MEM0IB8 OF 

lands, and sow the seed and reap the harvest, and store the 
fruits; and in all this we should not lose sight of our de- 
pendence on Him. 

And let us view the spiritual parallel. We must ask 
for wisdom and strength, for if we truly ask we shall ob- 
tain. He gives commandments; we, in the humility of 
truth, must obey. He fiimishes the path of duty for each 
of us to walk in ; we must walk in that path, as He gives 
us the light. Now if we do these things in singleness of 
heart, we shall be saved, for God, who is able to do, has 
promised it. 

Redemption and salvation are two different things; 
we all need salvation, and we need it every day. All 
has been done for us in this direction that need be done, 
and all will be well if we do not fail on our own part; but 
salvation remains a matter of our own choice to-day as 
much as it ever was for any of the human family since the 
world began. "Choose ye this day, life and good or death 
and evil." This is Scripture doctrine. "Search the 
Scriptures ' ' for yourselves, and you will find this was the 
teaching of the Spirit through the prophets of God in the 
olden time, as you will find it is the teaching of Jesus and 
other inspired teachers of truth in later ages. I might say 
as did one long ago, "These are not my words, but the 
words of Him who sent me." 

But I dare appeal to every one present. Have you ever 
experienced any benefit, other than the strength gathered 
from example, because of the death sufiTered by Jesus on 
the cross ? has it otherwise assisted any of you to live a 
better life? has it resisted temptation or overcome the 
world for you ? As an example of consistency in bearing 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 461 

witness to the truth, it is strengthening and encouraging to 
all who contemplate the circumstances as they were; and 
he who stands firm and suffers even unto death to sustain a 
principle of truth that concerns all men, suffers and dies 
for the whole world. Jesus taught no such doctrine as the 
fall and death of man, or total depravity on account of the 
sin of Adam, — ^no more than did the messengers of God in 
the Old Testament times; nor did he teach that his own 
sufierings should redeem fallen men and restore them to 
Divine favor. You will observe that before he was cruci- 
fied he said to his Heavenly Father, '' Father, I have 
finished the work thou gavest me to do." And yet many 
of those who profess to teach men doctrines, virtually de- 
clare that Jesus did not know the truth of what he 
affirmed, or he spake falsely, for he had not yet been 
crucified, his blood had not been shed, consequently his 
greatest and most necessary work had not been done, — ^the 
world was not yet redeemed. O my friends, be careful 
that ye be not "blind leaders of the blind." 

Rightly-directed reason would decide that Jesus was 
right, knowing the truth of what he declared. Tradition 
would assert the opposite doctrine to be correct. 

There was a death experienced by Jesus which will save 
all men who have truly experienced it. '* In that he died, 
he died unto sin once.' ' Not on an outward cross, but by 
taking up the cross of Christ, or in other words, submit- 
ting to the restraints which the anointing power of truth 
lays upon all who would be the children of God and joint 
heirs of salvation. Thus they resist temptation and over- 
come the world, and thus they become dead to the aUure- 
ments of sin. When Pilate was questioning Jesus as to 



462 MEMOIBS OF 

who he was, he replied, "To this end was I bpm, and for 
this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness 
unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth mj 
voice," 

Did Jesus teach the doctrine of natural depravity when 
he said, "Suffer little children to come unto me, and for- 
bid them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven?" 
These few words destroy every vestige of authority in the 
name of Jesus, every grain of supposed foundation for 
transmitted spiritual corruption. We could not think of 
the kingdom of heaven as being composed of such as are 
corrupt, neither is heaven a state of death; "the kingdom 
of God is life and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost" 
And since we have all been children, we have all once been 
at home in the Father's house; have all once been in unity 
with our Creator. We might have retained this state, as 
did the elder son, or if by our own wills we have gone 
astray, we have the privilege of returning as did the 
younger brother, the prodigal son; but Heaven is the 
state God has prepared for the children of men, and those 
who obey His will will know no other. 

With the condition of innocence to commence with, we 
may grow in stature and in favor with God and man as 
did Jesus, until the law becomes developed in our hearts; 
then commences our responsibility for that which is com- 
mitted to our care. If we now choose the path of obed- 
ience, it will lead us on in the avenues of righteousness, 
which will make us permanent denizens of God's kingdom. 
In this case we shall need no redemption. But if we choose 
the wrong course we shall lose the blessing of Grod ; we 
shall fail, we shall die, we shall be lost in a strange coun- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 463 

try, we shall need redemption. Then muBt the sacrifice be 
made that alone can atone for our sins; the only offering 
which in such a case will be accepted by our Judge. 
** Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man 
his thoughts; and let him return unto the Lord, and he 
will have mercy upon him ; and to our God, for he will 
abundantly pardon" (Is. 55: 7). Also see Jeremiah 7*. 
22-23 : "For I spake not unto your fathers, nor com- 
manded them in the day that I brought them out of the 
land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices, but 
this thing commanded I them, saying. Obey my voice and 
I will be your God, and ye shall be my people: and walk 
ye in all the ways that I have commanded you, that it may 
be well unto you." And (Hosea 6:6): ''For I desired 
mercy and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more 
than burnt offerings." Also see Psalm 40: 6: "Sacrifice 
and offering thou didst not desire ; mine ears hast thou 
opened: burnt-offering and sin-offering hast thou not re- 
quired." Thus we see that in the time of David and the 
prophets, men taught by the Spirit could understand that 
burnt-offerings and bloody sacrifices were useless and un- 
acceptable to God, but in this advanced day many are led 
astray by, we are almost ready to say, an inexcusable 
ignorance, for God has not changed; therefore those who 
are taught by his Spirit must behold the same truths by the 
same light as have his servants heretofore. 

These matters are too serious to treat lightly or thought- 
lessly. We should search them out for ourselves, and seek 
to know His will, independently of all traditional influences. 
In Hebrews 9: 14 you will find: "How much more shall 
th^ blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered 



464 MEMOIBS OF 

himflelf without spot to God, purge your oonscienoe from 
dead works to serve the living Grod/' Confiider this 
passage as it really is, and we have this idea: How much 
more shall the blood or life of anointing, or power of anoint- 
ing, eta, purge your conscience from dead works to serve 
the living Gk>d. Also a passage which follows, chapter 
10: 5. The word *'body " in this verse is **ear " in the 
Hebrew. Thus we have : ' * Sacrifices and ofierings thou 
wouldst not, but thou hast opened my ears; in bumt-ofier- 
ings and sacrifices for sin thou' hast no pleasure. Then said 
I, lo, I come to do thy will, O God." " By the which 
will we are sanctified." Now there is a great difierence be- 
tween preparing a body to be sacrificed according to pagan 
rites, and preparing the ear to understand the will of Grod. 
" But the man, after he had offered one sacrifice for dns, 
forever sat down on the right hand of God.' * Now we 
have seen what this one sacrifice was, the sacrifice of self 
to the will of God ; and we have seen how a little mis- 
translating will change the grandest truths to something 
that will contradict even the words of (rod. Again we 
read: "As our hearts have been sprinkled from the stain 
of an evil conscience," alluding to the sprinkling by the 
blood of Christ. We know it is impossible for our hearts to 
be brought in contact with the blood of Jesus, but look 
upon it in the light of the Spirit, and we clearly see that 
the ''blood of Christ" is the living anointing principle 
impressed upon our living spirits. This is reasonable; 
this every experienced Christian knows to be true, and 
agrees with another passage in the same chapter : ' ' This is 
the covenant that I will make with them after those days, 
saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their hearts, and 



8UNDERLANP P. GARDNER. 465 

in their minds will I write them/' But it is time that 
figures and synonyms were better understood or exchanged 
for plainer language. 

I have stated that Jesus did not teach that sinners 
should be redeemed or saved by the shedding of his blood ; 
but he did not fail to clearly and distinctly set forth the 
way by which all might be saved, and if necessary re- 
deemed. The shepherd need not seek the sheep that have 
never strayed from his care. He said, '' I will give my 
flesh for the life of the world." Those who heard the ex- 
pression were surprised, as well they might have been, for 
they were not deeply experienced in spiritual things, and 
could not understand the figures which he used. Again he 
said, ' ' Except ye eat my flesh and drink my blood, ye 
have no life in you." Some were so discouraged by thb 
that they turned away and ' ' followed no more with him.' ' 
He intended to lead them up to a higher plane of thought, 
and away from a dependence upon material and changeable 
things, but when he saw that they comprehended him not, 
he explained by coming directly to the point, " It is the 
spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing." Can- 
not we see in this case how strong the figure, and yet how 
spiritual the reality ! By these lessons, not only the flesh 
and blood, but all rituals and creeds, are shown to be useless, 
and ready to pass away. None of these things can quicken 
or give life to the soul. Now if we will throw the figures 
aside and give his meaning according to his own explanation, 
we will find it corroborates what has already been said. 
He would give his flesh for the life of the world, and 
what is the life of the world ? It is the life of sin which 
we originate in ourselves by giving improper license to our 

80 



466 MEHOIBS OF 

passions, instead of keeping our hearts ^eith all diligence, 
out of n^hich are the issues of life and death. The heart 
becomes, instead of a home for virtue, a place where hatred, 
envy, injustice, unkindness and all evil lusts find room to 
work ; and instead of this wicked world or worldly con- 
dition they were offered the spirit or dispositioa possessed 
by Jesus. 

But ye who have experienced this change can tell us if 
man has no work to do in connection with the work of the 
Spirit in his own redemption from sin. The living' ChnstiBn 
will say that when he accepted the " lij^ht " he was 
obliged to reform, he was constrained to take up the cros, 
which, though not harsh or cruel, compelled him to obey 
the laws of God; thereby restraining him from all evil im- 
aginations and practices. If he were intemperate he must 
become temperate; he must love instead of hate, he must 
become patient, pure and charitable, he must strive to go 
onward to perfection; but he will tell you he had oAen- 
times to labor hard to accomplish this reformation. He 
can tell you that he did not rise out of the horrible pit 
until he had made the choice, and set his own powers to 
work in connection with 'the work of God for his own re- 
demption. Now, is it not clear to you that this is the 
truth ? Reason declares that the healing must be appli^cf 
where the disease is. Jesus taught and experience proves 
that the redeeming process must be carried on in the aoul 
that has sinned. 

To confirm the testimony of Jesus concerning this 
matter, we read that after he was taken from the sight of 
men, and had ascended into Heaven, he sent back a mes- 
sage to them; the circumstances make it clear that this 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 467 

deeply concerned the world; let us hear what it was: 
''To him that overcometh will I graut to sit with me in 
my throne, even as I also overcame and am set down with 
my Father in His throne." Mark, this great privilege, 
offered to all, depended upon their overcoming, even as he 
overcame; which was by taking up the cross and putting 
confidence in the Divine power, which was the Christ, the 
divinity in him, the same as that of which the apostle 
spake later, " Christ in you the hope of glory.' ' 

But, by a parity of reason, if the faith, hope and trust 
in the sufferings and death of Jesus were necessary for the 
redemption of mankind, would not this have been the bur- 
den of the message sent down from Heaven ? But no such 
assurance was given. 

Let us consider the Scripture statements concerning 
the crucifixion. " And behold the vail of the temple was 
rent in twain from the top to the bottom ; and the earth 
did quake and the rocks were rent," and darkness reigned. 
Now if Grod took notice of the occurrence in any visible or 
tangible manner, did not these appearances savor more 
of displeasure than of approbation? Had he justified 
the act, the outward evidence might have been a purer 
light instead of darkness; instead of an earthquake a great 
and grateful calm would have reigned throughout the ele- 
ments of nature, and the passions of men would have been 
harmonized to peace, and the earth would have realized a 
true Sabbath. The morning stars might have sung to- 
gether, and all the sons of God have shouted for joy I 
But let us turn to 1 Thess. 2:15, where Paul was speaking 
of the Jews, " Who both killed the Lord Jesus, and their 
own prophets, and have persecuted us; and they please not 



468 MEMOIRS OF 

God, and are contrary to all men." Did God ordain or 
require a thing to come to pass that would displease Him f 

I am aware that my work this evening has led into a 
field apparently not much traversed by theologians, and 
difiering materially from what many of you, as well as 
myself in earlier years, have been taught But let ua try 
to lay tradition by for a while, and think for ourselves. 
Obey the call of God to man, and come up higher. Said 
he: "Come, let us reason together," and His reasonable 
revelation of truth will enlighten our reason. Judge not, 
nor condemn hanShly, but, like the wise Bereans, examine 
whether these things are so. 

I have a few words for you, my dear friends. We are 
all aware that the laborers and burden-bearers of to-day 
must soon cease from their labor and lay their burdens 
down ; and how important it is that you who are to succeed 
them should be rightly qualified to advance the work of 
necessary reform, which some of the past generationa and 
many of the present have been and are engaged in. Kow 
before evil or hurtful habits have been fixed upon you, — 
for you are surrounded by a world of temptation, — ^look to 
your best interests. ''Seek ye first the kingdom of God 
and his righteousness," and all things necessary for your 
good shall be added unto you. Be careAil to commence 
right, for you must form your own character; no man can 
do this very important and lasting work for you, though 
men may report of you, good or evil. You will manifest 
by works the real intentions of your hearts. How impor- 
tant then that you should make for yourselves names and 
dispositions for which you need not be ashamed before men 
or angels, or in the presence of God. Do not make the 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 469 

mistake to suppose that if you lead righteous lives you 
must wear sackcloth and ashes, and go mourning on your 
way. Nothing of the kind is required in the Christian's 
walk. live in the truth, and it will make you free from 
every hurtful influence. If pride swells the bosom, sup- 
press the rising emotion; if riches increase, set not your 
hearts upon them And you can enjoy the blessings of 
Grod, rejoicing in them, and thanking the Giver of all good 
with a clear consdenoe. Nevertheless the pure and obed- 
ient child of God may expect to see some dark days; for 
''Man is born to trouble as the sparks fly upward." 
Sickness, disappointments, parting from our loved ones, 
will probably cause you days of sorrow. These come to all 
alike; but the Christian has a fountain to go to for con- 
solation that this world cannot provide. Yet I believe 
that if you live close enough to Divine wisdom you will 
be able to avoid the hurtful things. Sometimes your 
paths may seem nearly beset by venomous serpents, the 
floods may threaten, and the fire may approach your hid- 
ing place, but they will not be allowed to harm you if you 
keep your integrity, your faith in God. I know something 
of these things, and of the dangers which beset the youth- 
ftil traveler Zion ward, but watch and pray, ''pray with- 
out ceasing; " — that is, keep your desires to do right con- 
stantly alive, and the Lord will keep you; and you will 
be qualified to advance the testimonies of truth further 
than they have yet been carried. 

In conclusion I may say, that although I am far ad- 
vanced in years, my heart is young; health, life, and 
strength are daily renewed by that life and that strength 
that never grow old. Amen. 



470 MEMOIRS OF 

SERMON DELIVERED AT BICHMONDy nfI>£AKA. 

XUKTH MONTH 88TH, 1878. 

Mt mind has been impressed with the language of 
encouragement addressed to the Divinely-enlightened apos- 
tle John, when in the Spirit he was prepared to appreciate 
the revelation of God ; which was truly the Lord's daj of 
instruction to him, and through him to the churches. 

It was after Jesus was taken from the sight of men thai 
this great revelation was given to John, and when he thus 
came to see clearly what it was that sustained the relation 
between the churches and the Almighty he became as one 
dead. It was during this state that he heard the declara- 
tion, ''Fear not, ... I am he that liveth and was dead; 
and behold I am alive forevermore, Amen, and have the 
keys of hell and of death." 

Here was great encouragement to John, and not to 
him only, but to us also, if we are prepared to take a right 
view of it and are really seeking for that which alone can 
administer to the soul's life. 

I am aware that many believe the death here spoken 
of refers to the death of Jesus upon the outward cross; but 
to me it has a far different signification. It points to the 
visitation of the spirit of Gk>d to the Jews, when they were 
depending upon the letter of the law of Moses, in which 
they thought they had eternal life; nevertheless, just as 
long as they trusted in this, their highest interests were 
overlooked and the offer of Christ's Spirit was disregarded, 
being, so far as any good to them was concerned, utterly 
dead. And thus the letter ever kills but the Spirit giveth 
life. The Spirit, had it been suffered to work in them, 
would have brought forth the fruits of righteousness^ like 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 471 

leaven in the meal, — if the meal be in proper condition " a 
little leaven leaveneth the whole lump." Thus in the 
parable, the leaven hid in the three measures of meal 
evidently refers to the Spirit of God, the Gospel working in 
the hearts of those who are willing to receive and obey its 
teachings. Thus, not only the spiritual man which receives 
the life is benefited, but the whole man, moral and ph3rsi- 
cal as well, becomes impregnated and is brought . under 
obedience to the laws of life, and thus the whole lump 
becomes leavened; and thus He, the Christ, becomes alive 
forevermore in all them that receive Him. 

"And have the keys of hell and of death." What 
are we to understand by the keys ? The power that can 
set man free from the one and resurrect him from the 
other. The term translated hell in our version of the 
Scriptures is often rendered grave, but in this instance it 
refers to that state which is the effect of sin. David entered 
deeply into this condition, although, while he retained the 
innocency in which he was created, he was a man after 
God's own heart. When he trusted in God and not in his 
own strength, the gently distilling dew of heavenly love 
and the refreshing rain of Divine favor gave vigor and 
growth to his soul; but when he was placed on high among 
men he jrielded to the temptations surrounding imperial 
power and fell. Then came the result, anguish of soul — 
hell ! But this we can see was all his own doing; had he 
made a right choice after receiving such marked blessings 
from Grod, instead of setting up self in the wrong place, he 
would have been safe. But he did not, and consequently 
fell into a condition from which he could not redeem him- 
self, else he would not have borne the intensity of his 



472 MEMOIRS OF 

sufferings for an hour. How clearly his case represents 
the state of every wilful sinner. We may retain our 
primordial condition of Divine acceptance, if we choose, 
but when this is once lost we all know we cannot r^ain it 
by our own power. Like David we have sinned against 
the highest dispensation from Grod to man, for which there 
is no forgiveness; it is verily a sin unto death. It brings 
us doim into the lowest hell, and there we must remain 
until the Judge says it is enough; must suffer until we 
have paid the uttermost farthing, and then we may be set free. 
We frequently, however, from want of watchfulness, 
find ourselves in a drowsy state, as it were, and thus by 
weakness and forgetfulness fall into some error; but as this 
is not by consent of the heart, it is not impardonable. It 
is when our powers are awake and we willingly consent to 
sin against the Spirit of Truth that sin is finished; this is 
the sin unto death, ''Whosoever speaketh a word against 
the Son of man it shall be forgiven him.' ' Why ? Because 
men may be deceived in regard to external evidence when 
judging from the sight of the eye or the hearing of the ear, 
and thus form a wrong opinion; and since the Son of man 
is not the highest dispensation from God, this error from 
human weakness, this intellectual mistake, may be forgiven. 
" But whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall 
not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the 
world to come." And why ? Because the Holy Spirit is 
the highest dispensation to man, an expression of Ddty 
appealing directly to man's spiritual sense, and here there 
can be no mistake; no forgiveness need be expected here; 
the transgressor must suffer it out He must sufier until 
that which formed the fuel for his sin is utterly consumed. 



8UKDERLAND P. GARDNER. 473 

and his condition becomes refined like unto pure gold, so 
that the image of the assayer may be reflected in it; then 
it will be said, "It is enough; " then will it pass at par in 
heaven. 

David tells us how this was accomplished in his case. 
" I waited patiently for the Lord and He inclined unto me 
and heard my cry." Why did he cry unto the Lord but 
because of his intense suffering ? His soul had been con- 
demned before the judgment seat of Christ set in his own 
heart, and the sense of his condition was indeed like an 
intense fire. ''He brought me up, also, out of an horri- 
ble pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock, 
and established my going, and He hath put a new song 
into my mouth, even praise unto our God." This song he 
could not have sung in truth until that which fed the flame 
of his torment was all consumed. In this manner is the 
power represented by the key of hell brought to bear upon 
all who wilfuUy reject the Spirit. 

Long have we been taught to believe that the death of 
these bodies is the result of Adam's disobedience, and that 
the great disadvantage of being placed at a distance from 
God has followed as another consequence of that sin. 
This doctrine, though so broadly scattered, has no founda- 
tion in the truth. Adam being created in a state of 
innocency and purity throughout his whole nature, was, in 
common with all the other creations of God, not only good, 
but very good. For the purpose of giving him self-respon- 
sibility and probation, — a great and glorious gift indeed, 
that he might labor and grow strong and be profited 
thereby, — he was made susceptible to temptation, with a 
decided power of choice. His own election being clearly 



474 MEMOIRS OF 

set before him, he was made to understand that if he should 
disobey his Creator, he would immediately die. " In the 
day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die/' There was 
nothing temporal in this. Had the sin been temporal 
the death must have been temporal also, which was not the 
case, for we read that he lived several hundred years after 
his fall. Then how are we to understand it ? Clearly it 
was his soul's life that he should lose, so it must have been 
a soul sin that he committed. He disobeyed God's law, 
and spiritual death was the consequence; the death 
described by James, and which affected only himself. Thus 
I believe in original sin: it originated in the first sinner, 
and continues to originate independently m every soul that 
sins. In Adam's first state, while he was in acceptance with 
God, every power and propensity was filling its proper 
place in his being, but when he wilfully perverted them 
they became corrupt and he became shorn of his strength. 
Thus it is with us all, when we cease to be obedient, when 
we cease to trust Him and begin to depend on our strength, 
we become weak and corrupt, and our souls cease to become 
the proper recipients of Divine life; we lose the beautiful 
Eden of innocent life, and must henceforth earn what 
bread we have by the sweat of our brow, and instead of 
the garden of the heart being filled with plants producing 
plentiAilly, as fruits, the highest joys of life, and easy of 
cultivation, we have thorns and thistles to contend with. 
The tempter, improper lust, has been allowed to enter and 
obtain a foothold, and how soon has the beauty of purity 
faded, and every sweet become embittered. Here should 
have been found every needful moral virtue trained to 
healthful and proper growth, thus promoting the vital 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 475 

interests of man, accelerating his advancement to perfec- 
tion, and thereby glorifying his Creator. The fall has 
indeed been great, — do we not feel it so? 

But to return to the almost universal belief, that 
Adam's transgression brought death upon these bodies. 
Why, if this were so, it is clear that before Adam sinned 
the laws of nature must have been very differently consti- 
tuted from what they are now, else each must have been 
suspended from its action upon man. The element of fire 
could not bum him, the water could not drown him, the 
earthquake could not swallow him and the tornado must 
pass lightly over his dwelling lest it destroy him ; even the 
law of gravity must be inactive lest he should fall and be 
broken. Then must the whole creation be different in its 
requirements and conditions; for the planets and stars are 
bound by the law of gravity, so that if this law were an- 
nulled for one moment the world would be destroyed; the 
particles of our beautiful earth would separate and pass off 
like smoke into immensity. Thus the absurdity of the doc- 
trine of ''original sin" is clearly seen, no matter how or 
by whom originated. 

The death of these material bodies is far from being an 
enemy to man; how many of the truest and best, with their 
lamps filled and burning, look forward to the time of de- 
parture with joy, having the full assurance that they shall 
see as they are seen and shall receive the reward promised 
to all who are faithful to the end I But the path of faith- 
Ailness in this world, leading to such a result, is one which 
the eye of the eagle or the natural man hath not seen, nor 
the lion, the unregenerate man, walked in, nor is it a way 
in which any galley with oars propelled by the power of 



476 MEMOIRS OF 

human strength can pass. As strong bs is our love of life, 
and as many as are our attachments here, the change called 
death is feared only by those who are not prepared; for the 
good things of this earth can sustain only these mortal 
bodies, and though our ambition or industry may be 
crowned with success by the accumulation of wealth, and 
the treasures and honors of the world may be laid at our 
feet, yet the soul may be poor. Natural things cannot 
minister to its wants, the world cannot sustain it Being 
spiritual, it requires spiritual things to satisfy it, and these 
must come forth from the Father through Jesus Christy the 
Life and light from God. Though it is very evident that 
all sinners, as well as Adam, have found death in the error 
of their ways, yet the Jews believed as theologians now 
teach, that the fathers had eaten sour grapes, and 80 the 
children's teeth were set on edge. But this doctrine was 
doing a great injury to the people, because it charged their 
condition to a wrong source instead of showing them that 
their own disobedience was working out their destruction. 
Therefore, in order to set them right the Almighty said to 
them through His prophet, *' What mean ye, that ye use 
this proverb concerning the land of Israel, The fathers have 
eaten sour grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge? 
. . . Behold, all souls are mine .... the soul that 
sinneth, it shall die. But every one shall die for his own 
iniquity.' ' * * Every man that eateth the sour grape, his 
teeth shall be set on edge." Here is justice and a truth 
confirmed in the experience of every responsible human 
being; for who has ever felt the penalty of another's sin to 
rest upon his own soul ? 
' And this doctrine, coming as it does from the highest au- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 477 

thority, even God through His Prophet, ought to satisfy all 
who believe in the Bible or Divine inspiration. But here 
an objection arises in the minds of some because it is de- 
clared, ''I, the Lord thy God, am a jealous God, visiting 
the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third 
and fourth generation of them that hate me. " This, in re- 
gard to children, refers not to the stain of the soul, but to 
physical and mental difficulties that may be got rid of by 
proper obedience to the laws of God on the part of the chil- 
dren so circumstanced. Who of you believe that the soul 
of a helpless child is stained by the sins committed by its 
forefathers? But another objects, "Our fathers have 
sinned, and are not, and we have borne their iniquities." 
True, just as we now bear the iniquities of our fathers who 
brought slavery into the land: we suffer politically, not 
spiritually; and there now exists in our country in conse- 
quence of such wrong-doing a state very similar to that of 
the Jews at that time; and many of our Southern white 
population might say to-day, "Servants have ruled over 
us." 

I now come to the highest authority found in the New 
Testament, that of God through His anointed Son, Jesus, 
who said of Himself, ' ' To this end was I bom and for this 
cause came I into the world that I should bear witness un- 
to the truth." "As I hear so I speak;" and to His 
Father, "Thy word is truth." This gives us understand- 
ing of his mission, and in declaring the truth of God he 
said: " Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid 
them not, for such is the Kingdom of Heaven." "For 
their angels do always behold the face of their Father, 
which b in Heaven." So the spirits of children as they 



478 MEMOIRS OF 

come into this world are pure and acceptable in the Divine 
sight, else how could they be fit for the Kingdom of 
Heaven ? Death or spiritual stain could not have rested 
upon them from any source whatever, '* for the pure alone 
shall see God." This, then, being the condition of chil> 
dren, and we all having once been children, it is clear that 
we were once all in a state of acceptance, that we were all 
once free from sin, with no partition between our Heavenly 
Father and ourselves ; and I believe it was our privilege to 
have remained in this first mansion of our Father's house. 
It is when the law of Gk>d, accompanied by the true light 
that enlighteneth every man that cometh into the world, 
is developed in us, that our responsibility commences, and 
then we have our choice. If we choose the right, the result 
is peace and life, — ^if the wrong, misery and death. ** Be- 
hold, saith the Lord, two ways are this day set before you ; 
choose ye which ye will, life and good or death and eviL" 
Now observe that the important doctrine of Jesus as well 
as the direct expressions of the Almighty sweeps away in a 
few words all that dark, false doctrine of the fall and its ac- 
companying consequences, and makes clear the declaration: 
" As in Adam all die, so in Christ all are made alive." If 
we live in Adam's sins or disobey as Adam did, like him 
we shall die, but if we follow Christ, in Christ shall we be 
made alive. 

To take the ground of Adam's sin and salvation by the 
crucifixion of Jesus is to say that God is not perfect; that 
he was taken by surprise, and so was not onmiscient; or if 
He did understand the whole matter beforehand, where 
was his lovingkindness ? Would it not have been as easy to 
have given wisdom and strength to his creature man to 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 479 

overcome temptation, together with the power of choice, as 
to have brought about the dreadful plan He is said to have 
found out? Would a perfect Omniscience have been 
forced to send the son of his bosom, the third part of Deity, 
to suffer the penalty of man's sins, and thus appease Al- 
mighty wrath and preserve Almighty dignity ? This state 
of things would prove there was a great mistake in first cal- 
culations. And this is the doctrine held up by many pro- 
fessed teachers to be believed in by all who would be saved. 
I am concerned to be thus particular from an impression 
that there are those present who have adopted this faith, 
b jt have, at the same time, had doubts of its truth, and are 
dissatisfied with their position. To these I would say. Take 
not old traditions on which to build a system of faith, but 
be prayerful, watchful, and obedient to the truth revealed 
in your own hearts and it will set you free. 

Another error has long been the means of turning the 
mind:3 of the people away from the knowledge of the re- 
lation in which mankind stands toward Divinity. It is 
this, that Jesus was essentially above the standard of 
human nature. If this were true it would mar the beauty 
and defeat the object of his mission in the world. He came 
to set an example to men, but had his nature been higher 
than ours this example would have been worthless, as it 
would not have been parallel with our abilities, and his 
abilities would have been far above our necessities. If he 
were not essentially a man how could he have stood on the 
plane of human nature ? Here an objector interposes the 
common dogma, "He was God, or at least a part of the 
God-head." But Jesus said: ''A spirit hath not flesh 
and bones as ye see me have.'' The Scriptures say, '' He 



480 MEMOIBS OF 

grew in stature and in favor with God and man." Could 
this have been said of God ? •* He learned obedience bj 
the things which he suffered; " was it necessary for Divin- 
ity to learn obedience, — if so to whom ? " He was made 
perfect through suffering." Was not God perfect at all 
times? "Why callest thou me good; there is but one 
good, that is God." To the sons of Zebedee he said: '' Ye 
shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the 
baptism that I am baptized with, but to sit on my right 
hand and on my left is not mine to give, but it shall be 
given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father." 

'* It behooved him to be made in all things like the 
brethren." I dare not contradict these assertions, coming 
from where they do. It is also said in the Scriptures that 
he was made of the seed of David according to the flesh; 
if so, then also of the seed of Abraham and of Adam, and 
had a nature in common with them, a nature susceptible 
to temptation, or he could not have been tempted, and it 
is declared that he wfus tempted in all points like as we 
are. It requires like natures to be affected by like tempta- 
tions, but the Apostle. James, laying aside all figure of 
speech, said: " Let no man say when he is tempted, I am 
tempted of Gk>d, for Ghd cannot he tempted y neither tempt- 
eth He any man; but every man is tempted when he is 
drawn away of his own lusts and enticed." Jesus was 
tempted, but overcame ever^ drawing toward evil; thus he 
remained pure, thus he became perfect, setting an exam- 
ple for all to follow if they will. 

But James goes on to say : '' Lust when conceived bring- 
eth forth sin, and sin when finished bringeth forth death." 
Now this corresponds with the experience of every one that 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 481 

is tempted and sins by yielding to the temptation. Can we 
not look into our own hearts and our own histories and see 
that James is right? and that we are not drawn away by 
any being outside of ourselves; not drawn away by an 
invisible arch-enemy that fell from his estate in Heaven, 
and came down to earth, drawing a large portion of Ood's 
noblest creation after him; who beside Milton ever invented 
the idea of such a tempter? Where is the parent that 
would see the safety of his children menaced by a cunning, 
designing foe, and would permit that foe to remain near 
their dwelling if he had the power to prevent him ? Would 
he not say in a tone not to be mistaken, " Away! approach 
not the peace of my children, nor dare to tempt them from 
their allegiance and love to me." Would our Heavenly 
Father do less, especially as He can so well foresee all the 
consequences ? Rest not on this false delusion, but remem- 
ber, my friends, you are yourselves responsible for your 
own falL Christ holds for you the keys of life and of 
death, and He has opened the two paths before you, 
' ' Choose ye which ye will. " 

Here an objector says : " There is a devil, for he took 
Jesus up into an exceeding high mountain, and showed 
him all the kingdoms of the world." I answer that this 
earth being a globe in form there is no mountain upon it 
from which all the kingdoms of the world could be seen. 
But it might be urged, " The devil gave Jesus supernatural 
vision. " Then there was unnecessary labor performed, for if 
he gave Jesus supernatural vision a valley would have 
served for a position just as well as the highest mountain. 
Throwing aside the allegory, let us consider how many men 
and women have been taken up into an exceeding high 

81 



482 MEMOIRS OF 

mountain, even the mountain of selfish ambition, and have 
thence seen all the kingdoms of the world and the glory 
of them ? And how many have fallen down and wor- 
shipped; have prostrated all their powers that they might 
gain that for which they lusted? Caesar and Napoleon are 
not the only examples. 

But to return. The terms setting forth the temptations 
of Jesus are allegorical, and when we consider how we 
are tempted our experience seems to open to us the nature 
of his temptations and whence they sprang. For remem- 
ber " he was tempted in all things like as we are. " Ab to 
the divinity of Jesus it was from God in him. Jesus having 
never sinned, his soul was a fit recipient for the Father's 
spirit in the fulness of power. He was imbued with the 
Divine nature, and so might every one be if every one 
would live as he did and be fully obedient to God. " As 
many as are led by the spirit of God are the sons of God, 
heirs of Grod and joint-heirs with Jesus Christ" Is it 
not plain ? And again, that all the divinity in Jesus was 
derived from the Father, and was not independently with- 
in himself, is fully set forth by the prophet Isaiah when 
speaking prophetically of Bis coming, and of the line 
through which he should descend. " The spirit of the Lord 
shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom, the spirit of 
counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear 
of the Lord, and shall make him of quick understanding 
in the fear of the Lord." Human language cannot declare 
anything more clearly; and when Jesus came he confirmed 
all this by tiding the book, and reading the passage from 
one of the prophets: ''The spirit of the Lord is upon me, 
because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 483 

poor, he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach 
deliverance to the captive, and recovering of sight to 
the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach 
the acceptable year of the Lord; '' and returning the book 
to the one from whom he took it he continued: ' ' This day 
is this fulfilled," as much as to say, I am the one anointed. 
Jesus was the son of God, in that he was led by the Spirit 
of Grod. But he was not the only-begotten. The only- 
begotten son of God is the Life, Light, Power, and Wisdom 
ever emanating from God. This is that which He hath 
sent forth because of His love to the world, and whosoever 
believeth in and obeyeth this dispensation shall not perish, 
but have everlasting life. This is, indeed, the very Christ. 
Paul says, "We preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a 
stumbling-block and to the Greeks foolishness, but to them 
that are called, Christ the power of God and the wisdom 
of Grod. " Now Christ thus constituted cannot be separated 
from Grod, but is that by which He created the worlds, and 
was with Him before the worlds were formed ; the same 
that was with the children of Israel in their journeyings 
from the land of oppression, ** for all ate of that spiritual 
meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink : for they 
drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them : and that 
rock was Christ." The same preached the gospel to Abra- 
ham, and was before Abraham was. But Jesus was not 
bom until hundreds of years afterwards. Jesus when per- 
sonifying the Christ-spirit within him says: ** Before Abra- 
ham was I am." Jesus himself had his time and place, 
but God is a being whose center is everywhere and circum- 
ference nowhere. He is ever present throughout all His 
work, yet notwithstanding thits, is as personal to every man 



484 MEMOIBS OF 

in the revelation of Hib truth, in the shining of EBs light, 
in the teachings of His grace, as a man is in oonversing 
with his fellow; that is, in all cases where we are prepared 
to receive Him. The assertion that divinity suffered 
because of the sins of the world had its origin in the misun- 
derstandings of men, and is the natural ofl&pring of the 
smoke from the bottomless pit of theological inconsistencies. 
God was never shaken on his throne by the shock of Adam's 
transgression, nor was the equilibrium of his attributes dis- 
turbed because of the errors of humanity. " If thou be 
righteous what givest thou Him, or what receivest He at 
thy hand ? Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou art, 
and thy righteousness may profit the son of man.*' He is 
complete without us, and will He be flattered by our praises, 
or will He feel abased at our reproaches ? No, my friends, 
nor did He make a mistake in the organization of His 
creature man; but by placing him in a state of probation, 
and giving him laws by which he might live, if he would 
obey them, he conferred a great good upon him. If man 
obeyed all was well ; if he disobeyed he must suffer the 
penalty of his transgression. There could be no escape. 

But here an objector says: '* There is a way of escape 
from the consequences of our sins, for Jesus bore our sins 
for us." I reply that this expression is understood by all 
truly anointed ministers of Christ I dare appeal to them 
if they have not had seasons of suffering during which 
they were baptized into a sense of the spiritual states of the 
people, and have been brought to sit with them where they 
sat, to bear a sense of their sins, even to being baptized 
into that death which is the result of sin. ''Baptized 
for the dead." Jesus never taught men that because of his 



SUNDERLAND P. OARDNEB. 485 

suffering and crucifixion they should escape, but on the con- 
trary that they should suffer for their sins until the utter- 
most farthing was paid. Neither did he teach that by his 
obedience and overcoming the world men should be exon- 
erated from laboring and overcoming for themselves; but 
he held it forth as a necessity that they should do \his in 
order to insure the reward of well doing. Neither should 
they overcome by the spirit that points to the use of the 
sword after the manner of the governments of this world, 
but they should overcome the spirit of the world, its pride 
and inordinate selfishness, even as he overcame all things, 
and thus die to sin even as he died. And Jesus, highly 
anointed, tasted death for every man ; he felt the sting of 
dying to every kind of sin, felt every pang that any man can 
feel; thus proving that it is possible to bear and to 
triumph by and through the help of the God of our 
salvation. How plainly he sel forth our true position in 
the parable of the talents and of the laborers in the vine- 
yard I showing that each should receive his own proper 
reward. 

Thus the doctrine of imputation so long pressed upon 
man falls to the ground. Does any one doubt ? Let him 
who heard in the Spirit answer : '' To him that overcometh 
will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also 
overcame and am set down with my Father in His throne.'' 
This was a declaration given forth aft'^r Jesus was taken 
from the sight of men, when tbey could no longer hear his 
teaching by the natural ear. It was a message sent back 
across the line of separation between this and the higher 
state. But he sent no word to the effect that the high 
privilege of sitting with him would be given because he 



486 MEMOIRS OF 

had suffered on the cross. No, no, my friends; we must 
overcome even as he overcame. 

The doctrine of the fall of all mankind through Adam 
was a necessity with theologians as a plausible foundation 
for the false heaven of redemption through the death of 
Jesus and the shedding of his material blood, which doctrine is 
nowhere to be found in the New Testament We see that 
Jesus himself taught the reverse. Here an objector says: 
" You are wrong, the blood of His son cleanseth from all 
sin." True, indeed, but this is not material blood. Notice 
the active transitive verb *' cleanseth," present tense. Can 
it be the natural, material blood of Jesus, the office of 
which was finished centuries ago ? Can it be that which 
now cleanseth from all sin ? Can it, does it, enter into the 
heart of the sinner, to change his purpose, and wash his 
guilty soul from its self-incurred stains ? Or is rather the 
blood of God as spoken of by the Apostle ? Read Acts 
20 : 28. God is a spirit, and hath not physical blood, 
but He hath life, and this is often represented by the figure 
of blood, an appropriate figure, because blood represents 
life in everything. In this case it is the same spiritual life 
that was in Jesus, and is working now and ever has wrought 
and ever will work for the salvation of man so long as 
there is a man desiring and striving to be saved. This 
spiritual blood can come into every heart that chooses to 
be submissive to its power, and can cleanse and sanctify it 
by the grace of God. This blood can sprinkle the con- 
science from dead works, and all remedies must be applied 
to the seat of the disease if it would be successful. How 
easy to understand that physical life requires physical blood, 
and spiritual life requires spiritual blood ; and, my fnendsy 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 487 

can you not bear witness what kind of blood works upon 
your consciences ? Thus the grace of God that bringeth 
salvation is revealed to all, whether they will receive it or 
not. 

Again, the universal power represented by the figure 
of blood is made very plain in view of the multitude which 
no man could number. And it seems as if this statement 
alone were sufficient to open the understandings of men on 
this subject. It was declared that they had come through 
great tribulation from every nation, tongue and people, 
and had washed their robes white in the blood of the Lamb. 
Mark the universality, " from every people: " then, of course, 
from some where no historical account of Jesus had been 
known, and no Scriptural faith been called for. But these 
must have been obedient to the teachings of the Gospel; in 
other words, to the grace of God in the heart; and thus 
they were washed with the redeeming, purifying principle 
to which they had opened their hearts, and thus had be- 
come laborers together with God. 

The parable of the Prodigal Son, found in Luke 15, 
is to me a most beautiful representation of Grod's dealing 
with His children, and is calculated to give us deep in- 
struction. It clearly portrays the two classes of mankind — 
those who have sinned, and those who have lived without 
sin. To the yoimger son the father gave a portion of his 
goods, just as he gives to all of his children in their first 
start in life. Now, this son, like the most of us, thought to 
try his own strength and wisdom in the world. So he left 
the father's house and wandered away in by and forbidden 
paths until he had spent all that he had, and finally, to 
\eep from utter starvation, went to a citizen of the country, 



488 MEMOIRS OF 

and by him was set to feeding swine. Behold the fall ! 
And he would now fain partake of the husks which the 
Bwine did eat. But when he came to himself he began to 
consider that in his father's house was bread enough and to 
spare, and why should he perish with hunger? So he 
arose and went to his father, and confessed his sin and ac- 
knowledged his unworthiness, and begged to be allowed to 
take the humblest place in his father's gift, only that he 
might again be with him. And now, my friends, what 
did the father do? Did he wave him away, saying, 
''Nay, verily; thou hast transgressed my commandments 
and insulted my dignity; thou canst not return unless some 
one who is infinitely thy superior, and who has never 
broken my law, will come and suffer in thy place the 
penalty thou shouldst suffer, thus appeasing my wrath 
without compromising my dignity." Or did his brother 
or any other being, pure and sinless, come and mediate 
between the penitent son and angry father? Hear the 
statement of Jesus, and consider for yourselves. *' But 
when he was yet a great way off, his &ther saw him and 
had compassion on him, and ran and fell on his neck and 
kissed him. And the son said unto him. Father, I have 
sinned against heaven and in thy sight, and am no more 
worthy to be called thy son. But the &ther said to the 
servants, Bring forth the best robe and put it on him, and 
put a ring on his hand and shoes on his feet, and bring 
hither the fatted calf and kill it, and let us eat and be 
merry, for this my son was dead and is alive again, he was 
lost and is found. ' ' 

Thus, my friends, must we do if we would be at one 
with the Father. We must humble ourselves and confesB 



i 

J 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 489 

our sins, and lead a good and obedient life, for he hath 
declared that other sacrifice he would not have, save a 
broken and a contrite heart. How different is the char- 
acter of our Heavenly Father as given by His anointed son 
Jesus, from that which is given by learned theologians. 
But to return to the elder brother: — he, who had remained 
innocent, and had not left the father's house, looked on 
with surprise and indignation, and would not go in and 
partake of the feast, because it seemed to him that the 
prodigal was treated with undue respect. This feeling was 
natural enough, for as he said to the father: " Lo, these 
many years do I serve thee, neither tran8gre9sed I at any 
time thy commandment, and yet thou never gavest me a 
kid that I might make merry with my friends. But as soon 
as this thy son is come, which hath devoured thy living 
with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf." 
Some one here objects: '' That does not sound like a faith- 
Ail son or a Christian. He was angry." True; but may 
not one be angry and sin not? Let us look at it His 
was a very natural answer for an innocent son to make 
under the circumstances. It was not from a feeling of 
malice, but from lack of knowledge. He had not learned 
how the angels of heaven rejoice over one sinner that re- 
pents, more than over ninety-nine just persons. He had 
not learned what his brother felt by having experienced 
his trials and sufferings, his repentance and humility. Nor 
had he, as an anointed minister, been enabled to feel 
another's woe. He knew nothing of the hard labor his 
unfortunate brother had been obliged to perform ere he re- 
turned home; nor of his suffering unto death, as it were, 
for the sins he had committed; and since he did not know 



490 MEMOIRS OF 

the true condition of his brother, how could he underetand 
the position of his father ? But when the father replied in 
the mild, conciliatorj language of a wiser love: ''Son; 
thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine; it is meet 
that we should make merry and be glad, for this thy 
brother was dead and is alive again, was lost and is found," 
there was no indignant reply. The son was evidenUy 
satisfied. 

In regard to the Prodigal the key of death had done 
its work. It had overcome the power of death, and set the 
imprisoned free. This circumstance also opens to our un- 
derstanding the declaration of Jesus at the grave of Laz- 
arus, when personifying the power of God in himself. " I 
am the resurrection and the life; he that* believeth on me, 
although he were dead, yet shall he live [the prodigal's 
case], and he that liveth and believeth on me shall never 
die. ** This cannot refer to the death of the body, for it is 
appointed unto all men once to die. It rather refers to 
them that have never sinned. I desire that you should let 
your attention rest particularly on this parable, as it holds 
forth great instruction. It commences with the son in the 
first state of innocence and divine acceptance, and follows 
him in his fall through every possible condition of sin and 
poverty, of hunger and suffering, and finally of repent- 
ance and return, together with the father's reception of him. 
This alone is enough to sweep away every trace of depen- 
dence on anything for redemption and salvation save that 
which works by the grace of Ood in the heart. And what 
a display of the goodness of God toward His rational 
creation, to be not only salvation to the innocent, but ready 
redemption to all who seek to be saved; ever ready to 



SUNDERLAND P. OARDNKR. 491 

cue thoae who are lost in gin and death if they will but 
return to Him. 

Here some may say: '' What then was the purpose of 
Jesus coming into the world?" He was made of a 
woman, made under the law to redeem them that were un- 
der the law, fiilfiUing all of its moral obligations and 
replacing it by a better and purer code; placing Jews and 
Gentiles on the same foundation, even the law written in 
the hearty so that instead of the cold north wind of the 
precepts of Moses, which neither we nor our fathers could 
bear, the world might have the clear, mild sunshine of 
Goapel love and truth. He came to bear witness to the 
truth and to do the will of God, and after he had done 
this he said to his Father: " I have finished the work thou 
gavest me to do." 

His work was finished, but as he had borne important 
testimonies to the truth and against the empty and iniqui- 
tous works of the Jews, he must needs bear the consequence 
of their indignation or recant the words he had spoken, 
denying the doctrines he had come to teach. He chose the 
former, and thus suffered for principles relating to the 
vital interest of mankind; thus indeed suffering for all 
men. And what a lesson for every child of Gk>dl All have 
a work to do; all have a testimony and a cross to bear. 
And what an evidence of a crovm of victory will those have 
who can truly say like Jesus: ** I have finished the work 
thou gavest me to do;" and who, like him, stand firm 
even to the end for the cause that has been given into their 
hands ? 

And now, my friends, I feel my labors at this time to 
be drawing to a close. I feel to call upon every one to look 



492 MEMOIB8 OF 

to the inward teacher, the power of Grod, the true media- 
tor, who alone can redeem the soul from the bondage of sin 
and death; even that which sustained Jesus and made him 
the Son of Ood. The same that made him divine will fill 
us also with the light if we are attentive to its heavenly 
teachings. We need not be anxious about doctrines; a 
saving knowledge of Gk)d is not to be derived from an ob- 
servation of his outward laws; nor yet from the schools of 
Divinity (so-called), but from the school of Christ, of whidi 
he alone is the teacher. *' No man knoweth the Son but 
the Father, and no man knoweth the Father but the Scm, 
and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him." This 
Bevelator hath not flesh and blood, but is the only-begot- 
ten of God, the Light, Power, and Wisdom that is never 
separated from Gk)d, but " spreads undivided and operates 
unspent." 

And to my young friends I may say, Now is the season 
of life with you, in which you are commencing an impor- 
tant journey. The laws of your being are developing in 
your soul-life, and now is the time, before anything detri- 
mental to your peace has taken firm root, that you should 
carefully watch the garden given to your keeping. Now 
is the time to resist all evil growth by keeping every pro- 
pensity and passion within its proper limit Remember 
that all within itself is good and calculated for your happi- 
ness if used aright, and that each power properly directed 
and educated is but another help to your advancement 
heavenward. Improve the talents committed to your care, 
that you may be qualified for the great work that appean 
to be waiting for you — ^the wovk of elevating humanity, 
and turning the sword and the spear into implements of 



BUMDEBULKD P. GARDKEB. 493 

honest and honorable industry. 80 that instead of jealousy, 
hatred, and bloodshed, peace and love and the knowledge 
of the Lord may cover the earth. Improve all proper 
opportunities to gain knowledge. 

There are many things that, if rightly appreciated, 
will prove valuable helps to us. Among these are the 
Scriptures and a Gospel ministry. Jesus said to the Jews, 
' ' Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eter- 
nal life, and they are they which testify of me; but ye will 
not come unto me that ye may have life." Do not fall 
into the error that the Jews did; but, keeping the Scrip- 
tures where Jesus put them, — ^no higher, no lower, — ^re- 
member that their true value is in that they bear a testi- 
mony to the truth of Grod. Of themselves they have no 
life; they bear witness to the life. Gro to Him of whom 
they bear witness, and he will give you life. He will open 
the Scriptures to your understanding. live so that you 
will be sure to receive the great reward reserved for those 
who keep His commandments. Choose Him now for your 
portion, and death, when he comes, will not be to you the 
pale messenger of dread, the king of terrors, but an 
angel opening to you the door of 



494 MEMOIBS OF 

OPENING OF THE SEALS.* 

The work of the Grospel is gradual and successiTe in 
its developments, as witnessed in the unfolding and ever- 
increasing experience in the Christian life. 

I have been instructed in this meeting hj viewing the 
field in which have been exhibited before my mind the 
things that comprise man's compound being; embracing 
all his natural powers, propensities and passions, together 
with his intellectual, moral and spiritual nature. To bring 
all these into perfect harmony is man's great work in this 
state of existence. 

John saw in the right hand of Him that sat upon the 
Throne, a book written within, and on the back side, sealed 
with seven seals; he also saw a strong angel, proclaiming 
with a loud voice : " Who is worthy to open the book and 
loose the seals thereof? " And no man was found able 
to open the book. ''And I wept much," said John, " be- 
cause no man was found worthy to open and read the book, 
neither to look thereon; and one of the Elders saith unto 
me: 'Weep not I behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, 
the root of David, hath prevailed to open the book and to 
loose the seven seals thereof.' " 

I shall not undertake to find a solution of the opening 
of the seals by the allegorical figures and poetical language 
in which they were presented to the mind of John: for if 
designed to benefit mankind, or to convey useful instruction 
to the human mind, the subject must be brought home to 
the understanding and experience of man. Evidently it 
is the great work of the Gospel to open the seals as fast as 

* Senaon deliyered at PUlnfteld, Ohio, Ninth montii, 1878. 



8UNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 495 

we, in our advanoement in the knowledge of the truth, are 
prepared for the disclosure. 

The wise man saw this in prophetic vision, and declared 
it in his beautiful language: "Wisdom hath builded her 
house; she hath hewn out her seven pillars; she hath slain 
her beasts; she hath mingled her wine; she hath furnished 
her table." The Apostle Peter, taught by the grace of God 
and deep experience, learned what these pillars were, and 
understanding them, named them, and set them forth as 
the seven cardinal virtues: ** Virtue, knowledge, temper- 
ance, patience, godliness, brotherly kindne^ and charity." 
The prophet Isaiah brings the subject clearly home to Jesus 
as the one who, under the Gospel, by the Spirit of the 
Lord, by the blood of the lamb, that is, the anointing that 
was upon him, really experienced the opening of the seals 
in overcoming and subjecting all human passion in himself 
to the will of God. And what was the effect ? It brought 
all the animal nature of man under subjection to the spir- 
itual law. It brought the wolf to dwell with the lamb, the 
leopard to lie down with the kid, the calf, young lion and 
fatling together, so that a little child could lead them. It 
shows that a state is possible in which perfect harmony 
may reign throughout all of God's creation in man; all 
things being subjected to Himself, so that " the cow and the 
bear shall feed and their young ones shall lie down together, 
the lion shall eat straw like the ox, the nursing child shall 
play upon the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall 
put his hand upon the cockatrice's den, and nothing shall 
hurt or destroy upon God's holy mountain.' ' And as Jesus 
the anointed, who is called the Lion of the tribe of Judah, 
£U^ with his Heavenly Father's Spirit, became a partaker 



496 MEMOIRS OF 

of the Divine nature, he was obedient even through suffer- 
ing, and in consequence experienced an advancement firom 
one development to another in succession, until he saw the 
last seal opened and his warfare accomplished. He had 
overcome the world. In order to understand this fully we 
too must overcome the world; we too must become per- 
fect; our every power must be brought into harmony and 
under obedience to our Creator. Though our primordial 
state is in itself good, yet our Creator has implanted in us 
a desire to ascend up higher; a longing for greater attain- 
ments, of which virtue stands first. And he has made it 
possible for us to acquire this, for it came not into the world 
with us; but its possession is a proof of our advancement. 
But what is virtue? It is the successM resistance of 
temptation. The first state given us from God is one of 
pure innocence, represented by the figure of the lamb. 
And set over against this in the vwrldls the evil disposition 
represented by the wolf; and here commences our pro- 
bation, — here should begin our Gospel warfare. The wolf 
would make the lamb its prey, and would generally seek to 
do this under the cover of night, when the intended victim 
is supposed to be least upon its guard. But the Good 
Shepherd is ever upon the watch, so that if the lamb strays 
not out from the fold such invasions cannot be successfully 
made. Thus the office of the Divine nature in man, the 
work of the Spirit of Truth, is to assist the soul and give 
it power to conquer and control the beast and make it lie 
down with the lamb; or in other words, so schooling the 
moral nature that the innocence God gave us shall not be 
destroyed by the nature of the beast of prey. This victory 
obtained, the soul has advanced, the power of the first beast 



J 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 497 

ia slain, the foundation is laid for a useful, beautiful, and 
glorious super-structure to stand upon, and the first pillar 
in the Christian building, even virtuey is erected. This 
attainment is bj that fidth which is the result of obedience 
and attention to the evidence given of Grod to all who will 
seek it as a sure foundation. 

The work necessary to bring man to a possession of 
true knowledge is represented by the prophet as bringing the 
leopard to lie down with the kid. The leopard represents 
that spirit in the world which, ambitious of knowledge, 
starts out contrary to the Spirit of truth which leadeth into 
all truth, and grasping what it supposes to be the fruits of 
vrisdom, is egotistical, is reckless of its acts ; cares not for the 
rights of its fbllows; making a prey of others as it pleases, 
or tearing and trampling to death any who come in its 
way. Beautiful, smooth, and variegated in its exterior, it 
is a true representation of that religious knowledge and 
zeal which is, and always has been, ready to go out like 
the power represented under the second seal, with the sword 
to take peace from the earth. 

It labors not like the kid to gain its livelihood or knowl- 
edge by means of honest, proper and patient industry and 
humble waiting. The spots of the leopard aptly set forth 
the inconsistency of conduct in the votaries of thb spirit of 
false knowledge as well as the means they use in obtaining 
its treasures. If they wish to become acquainted with 
morality, they study it as a science, consult the treatise of 
another, and adopt it without knowing aught of its truth 
by their own experience. If they choose religion for their 
theme, they build their faith upon man's declarations, or 
draw a code from some professor of theology, knowing 

82 



498 MEMOIBS OF 

nothing of the truth whereof they assert so far as the soars 
interests are concerned, for they have sought it from a 
source whence true knowledge cannot be received. It 
is but the sayings and teachings of men, adopted by the 
natural man, who cannot perceive the things of the Spirit 
of God, for they are spiritually discerned; neither can he 
know them ; for they are foolishness to him. Yet, having 
embraced a system thus void of experience, and being 
ignorant of the cross, their heads being filled with con- 
ventional decisions for doctrines, they are like Saul before 
his conversion, ready to enlist all their powers to sustain 
them regardless of the means used. 

Now this spirit of worldly selfish knowledge must be 
cast under foot. The will of God must be obeyed, the 
spirit of truth evoked, the leopard must be subdued; and 
then the second seal will be opened, and they will hear the 
language addressed by Jesus to his Heavenly Father: 
''This is life eternal; that they might know Thee, the 
only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent." 
Then will the second pillar of the Christian edifice be 
raised, even the pillar of knowledge. 

" The cow and the bear shall feed and their young ones 
shall lie down together." The natures of the cow and the bear 
are here set in contrast. The cow, temperate and patient 
in her nature and useful to man, subsisting on the herb of 
the field; while the bear is savage and cruel, partaking of 
the flesh and blood of other animals as her favorite repasL 
She is here used to represent the inordinate selfishness and 
CO vetousness of some dispositions ; those having no regard for 
the rights or wants of others. It is an element strong for 
evil in the unregenerate man, and is manifested by his 



J 



SUNDERLAND P. GA.RDNEB. 499 

grasping all that he can get into his possession, without 
care as to the means used or the harm done to another, so 
that he has the power to accomplish the end desired; and 
many who feel strong enough to withstand the furious onset 
of the lion, are caught in the deceitful but no less fsttal 
embrace of the bear. Neither is this evil disposition con- 
fined to worldly interests alone; religion also has its share 
of votaries from this class, and out of this element have 
arisen most of the persecutions that have stained religion's 
name. It prompted Judas to betray his master; it pre- 
vailed in the Jews when they rejected Jesus and pleaded for 
his crucifixion. It was the governing spirit in the third 
and fourth centuries that gradually turned the church back 
from its purity to shake hands with the spirit of the world, 
and made it to become a persecutor in the name of con- 
science. It instituted the Inquisition; it kindled the fire at 
the stake to bum the martyrs; it led John Calvin to burn 
Servetus because of difference in doctrine ; it persecuted 
the Quakers in England and hung them in Boston, and 
the same spirit exhibits itself so far as it dares in the divi- 
sions and subdivisions of some of the churches of the 
present day. 

As God is one and undivided, so his truths are never 
contradictory. His church is also one, and his sheep one — 
over which there is but one shepherd. As he is without 
variableness or shadow of turning, so his truths are 
unchangeable in themselves and in the manner of their 
revelation. They are given to the soul as fresh and direct 
from the fountain as is the light and warmth of the sun to 
t^e earth. No conventional rules of faith, therefore, can 
apply to individuals of any generation or be obligatory on 



600 MEMOIRS OP 

them. Every man knows from his own sensatloiis whal 
are his conditions and wants better than any fellow-creature 
can know for him— especially in matters of conacience 
toward God. To suppose that God once revealed his truth 
and will to man, but does not continue to do the same now, 
according to his present wants, is as absurd as it would 
be to assert that the sun gave light to the earth a thousand 
years ago, but has since ceased to shine I None but the 
blind or demented could entertain such an idea. 

A high profession avails not, even though it draws nigh 
to Jesus with the lips; and though it proclaims the highest 
principle of truth, if the selfish spirit prevails, it is evident 
that the nature represented by the bear has control — a 
power springing from the treasury of an uniegenerate 
heart. But if the soul listens to and obeys the teachings 
of the grace of God, it will bring it to the cross of Christ, 
which will crucify or correct «e(f, and prepare the heart finr 
the reception of the love of God, in which there is neither 
fear nor partiality. This brings the diverse natures to 
harmonize, so that the cow and bear shall feed and their 
young ones lie down together. They will feel that there is 
enough for all, and each will be willing that others should 
share with them as a God-given privilege. Here they will 
learn the important but often unheeded truth that each 
has a right to his own opinion and doctrine; and no one 
will think of judging a man's conscience in God's stead. 
All professors of religion will examine into the motives 
which actuate them, and consider if what they would do is 
really called for at their hands, or if uncorrected self is not 
sometimes at the foundation, urging on toward the pinnacle 
of the temple, or to the acquisition of unnecessary wealth, 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 501 

or to gain the applause of men, instead of practicing right- 
eousness for righteousness' sake I 

Then will mankind witness the opening of the third and 
fourth seals, and the pillars of temperance and patience will 
be added to the House of Wisdom. 

" The lion shall eat straw like the ox." Here again are 

^^ brought into contrast two opposite natures; — ^the one said 

\, hj Solomon to be the strongest amongst the beasts of prey, 

' ' ' and turneth not for any;' ' the other one of the strongest 

and most useful of domestic animals. 

The lion, though so powerful, possesses certain traits of 
., magnanimity and nobility which make it truly the king 

of beasts; and while many other animals destroy from mere 
cruelty, or craving for blood, the lion kills only in self- 
defense, or for need of food. Yet he is the untamed lion 
still, and, bold and firm in his purpose, assaults with irre- 
sistible fury, ready to risk all on the issue. 

When this disposition predominates in a man, he is often 
called ''nature's nobleman," and wherever such an one is 
found, or whatever his allotment in life, he is sure to gain 
the ascendency over his fellow-men. His steadfastness of 
purpose and executive force give him power and promi- 
nence in all human afiairs; his energy and in some respects 
magnanimity draw around him admirers and followers, 
and his generosity gives him their confidence. If he is 
patriotic, men will put on him an earthly crown, — else he 
will take it on himself; and victory comes easily to him on 
account of the deference paid him by weaker minds. 
He will speak many things for which men will praise him, 
saying : "It is the voice of a Gk>d." If religion is pop- 
ular and to his taste, offering in its perquisites the lion's 



502 MEMOIRS OF 

share, he will avail himself of his position, Beizing upon 
the benefit; and while others make him the center of devo- 
tion, all is well. Says one : Men of this temperament do 
not need a change of heart; they are tenderly carefnl of 
their families; kind to their friends; honorable in their 
dealings with others; patriotic to their country, and often 
prominent in the church. Very true. And so the savage 
eagle sits as lightly on her downy eaglets as does the dove 
upon her callow young; yet she is the savage eagle still to 
all without the pale of her own selfish interests. So of the 
lion's disposition — beware I If men cease to contribute to 
his advancement, or fail to respect his dignity according to 
his own measure, he shows that he is the lion still, using 
his power for the destruction of his enemies if within his 
reach. Then it is seen that he has assumed a morality and 
professed a religion of which he really knows nothing from 
the experience of the heart. Then it appears that the axe 
has not been efiectual in removing the corrupt tree, but 
has only lopped off some of the branches, that the tree 
might be more symmetrical. The nature of the lion has not 
been changed to that of the useful and docile ox. 

Yet if this temperament, so prominent in many, is 
properly schooled by the cross, made gentle by the power 
of love, and true by the principles of justice, it becomes 
indeed a powerful instrument for good. If such a man 
ceases to depend upon his own strength, directed by his own 
will, and learns to obey that higher law, even the voice of 
God, he will see that the talents committed to his care arc 
designed for his own good and for the good of his fellows ; 
that they are the vineyard in which he is to labor, and that 
their careful cultivation and improvement should form his 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 503 

great life work. There is nothing in them to be destroyed. 
The Creator when He made them pronounced them good; 
they only need right directing. By this course the noble 
man will become the noblest work of God, — *'An honed 
man" By this course the power of the untamed beast will 
be slain and the government will be placed on the shoulders 
of the mighty Prince of Peace. Another seal will be 
opened and another pillar will be added to the building — 
even the pillar of Grodlineas. 

Men of the lion temperament, when partakers of the 
Divine nature, stand immovable. They have been found 
amongst the most faithful servants of God in all ages, and 
many of them have sealed their testimonies with their 
blood. 

" The tree of deepest root is found 
Least willing still to quit the ground.'' 

Jesus, armed with the power and wisdom of Grod, over- 
came the world ; passed through the suffering necessary to 
attain to perfection, and witnessed the loosing of all the 
seals in his own experience. Hence the figure: "The 
Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, hath pre- 
vailed to open the book and to loose the seven seals 
thereof." 

And this was by means of the anointing from God, 
which he will bestow on all of his willing and obedient ser- 
vants if they ask it, and thus they all may witness the 
opening of the book and the loosing of the seals thereof. 

The view presented in the opening of the sixth and 
seventh seals brings before us the field embracing the high- 
est gift of God to man, — ^namely, reason. The right use 
of this gift exalts him to the highest attainment, but when 



504 MEMOIRS OF 

perverted it sinks him to the lowest possible conditioii. 
' ' The nursing child shall play upon the hole of the asp, 
and the weaned child shall put his hand upon the cocka- 
trice's den. They shall not hurt or destroy in all my holy 
mountain '* (Is. 11 : 9). 

Now let us consider these states as set forth by the 
prophet in the figure of the serpents. Apparently the asp 
is harmless, and one who is untaught and inexperienced 
might not suspect its nature or be alarmed at its presence; 
there is nothing about it to warn one of its deadly power, 
and those who are bitten are said to die without pain. 
The term serpent, when used as a figure in the Scriptures, 
I understand to represent man's perverted reason, and the 
asp well indicates the direction of it which results in athe- 
ism. Some deny there really being such a state, but when 
we hear it avowed by individuals, and see that their con- 
duct corresponds with their profession, we cannot doubt its 
existence. Many instances of it have occurred amongst 
men, but for want of associated power they have failed to 
do much harm. There is, however, a case that comes to 
my mind, prominent in the history of France, which may 
serve as a sample of what would be the consequence were 
mankind generally to embrace this belief. 

Atheism had long existed, as it were, in the atmos- 
phere of that nation, though the miasma was but dimly 
perceived ; but the Revolution furnished an opportunity for 
it to exercise its power. It then publicly declared " there 
is no God," and ** death is an eternal sleep." Here ap- 
peared the soothing yet fatal poison of the asp. There 
was a total indifierence as to means or consequences; for as 
they believed not in the immortality of the soul, they de- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. . 506 

nied all moral responsibility. There was nothing to hope 
for, nothing to fear, either in the present or future, and so 
they seemed to die morally without pain. The spirit of 
their motto, ''The end justifies the means," was carried to 
the most horrid extremes; standing upon the platform of 
false reasoning, it carried them down to the chambers of 
death ; justice was overlooked, for with them it had no 
throne; and human sympathy was paralyzed. Those who 
claim that infidels are always moral, and no persecutors, 
will find nothing in this part of the history to strengthen 
their assertions. 

But when the wrong use of reason is corrected by the 
light of truth, and the cross is laid upon the destroying 
poison, the soul is quickened into active life, the subject is 
changed from a carnal warrior to a man of peace. Rea- 
son assumes her throne upon the foundation of true evi- 
dence. The sixth seal is broken and another pillar is 
raised — ^that of brotherly kindness. 

Yet the state we have considered, showing the fatal 
abuse of reason in one direction, is no more to be dreaded 
than the one set forth in the other and last figure — ^the 
cockatrice. This serpent, whether a myth or not, is here 
made use of to represent the perversion of reason in another 
direction, by suffering it to be warped by intemperate zeal, 
and that without knowledge in matters of religion. This fac- 
ulty of reason, which might do great good if rightly used, 
has always been productive of vital evil when abused. When 
men refuse the light which is the life of reason, and con- 
clude that they are the only favorites of heaven — ^that their 
doctrine must be the standard of faith for all to adopt un- 
less they would be marked as infidels and enemies to Grod 



506 MEMOIRS OF 

and fit subjects for persecution, it brings things to tlie con- 
dition alluded to by Jesus. Said he : '' The time cometh 
that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth Grod a 
service, and these things shall they do unto you because 
they have not known the Father nor me." Their hearts 
have become darkened, and in the obliquity of their intel- 
lect they are prompted to actions by their zeal, and th^ 
sense of feeling becomes seared by self, and a traditional 
conscience, as was the case with Saul when he '' verily 
thought he ought to do many things contrary to Jestis of 
Nazareth." This branch of the nature of the serpent was 
remarkably exhibited in the wars of the crusaders, during 
which thousands of human lives were sacrificed for the 
cause of religion and ''glory of the cross," in an endeavor 
to wrest from the possession of the infidels the Holy Sep- 
ulchre, which when gained was no more holy and no more 
useAil than any other. They, however, in their misdirected 
reason concluded otherwise; hence the cruel, relentless 
and exhausting wars that ensued in the name of the meek 
and unresisting Jesus. This spirit was no better, either in 
its means or its consequences, than was that which was 
manifested in the reign of terror in France. Yet when 
reason, rightly directed, tempers its zeal with knowledge, 
the desire to interfere with or injure others no longer 
exists; the power of the cockatrice is slain, and there is 
nothing left to hurt or destroy. 

The seventh seal is loosed^ and the most beautiful pillar 
of all in the Christian edifice — the crowning pillar of all — 
is raised, which is Charity. 

We have now considered the elements of the composi- 
tion of man's nature, causing the various temperaments 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 507 

represented by the prophet and illustrated by the different 
animal dispositions. I hope we have also justly considered 
the effect of these dispositions upon the heart of man, when 
they are permitted to take the government instead of be- 
ing led by the little child and ruled by the Prince of Peace. 
And we may be able to see how great and necessary the 
change, and how different the consequences when all these 
powers are brought each to fill its proper place in the light 
of truth. Thb is the work of the Gospel, which is the 
power of God unto salvation. This Gospel is by the Son 
of Grod that leads to experience, to knowledge, and to the 
loosing of all the seals relating to the welfare and happi- 
ness of man. This Gospel is dispensed to each individual 
according to his state and need, just as the natural sun 
shines for all, and as many as will come under its influ- 
ence. But it does not enable one to do the work for an- 
other. The rational faculty being the highest gift to man 
is, when perverted, the deepest curse; yet it is one of his 
own pronouncing. Reason when perverted becomes the 
serpent, which is more subtle than any beast of the field, 
and which is so happily introduced into the picture of the 
Garden of Eden. In the climate where the serpent reaches 
its perfection, its instinctive cunning enables it to make all 
the other beasts its prey. 80 likewise the reasoning faculty 
can lead all the other powers and propensities of man at 
its will. And how aptly is the serpent brought out by the 
prophet to represent this great power in man, who, not 
waiting for Divine direction, undertakes to work out a way 
for himself, and finds when too late, perhaps, that self- 
directed reason, like the subtle serpent, has led him whith- 
ersoever it listed. 



508 MEMOIRS OF 

Our first mother, by this uncontrolled reason, con- 
cluded that there was a better waj than to wait for the 
counsel of Grod, a better way than by the cross, a better 
way than by obedience. We have most of us gone in the 
same way, and so have many in every age of the world, but 
how often, how sadly has it been proved that this false 
reasoner was but the " father of lies." We may clearly see 
therefore, that instead of looking out of ourselves for a tempt- 
er, a devil, Satan, Lucifer, serpent, etc., we must come home 
to our own hearts to find the difficulty. " It is not that 
which entereth into a man that defileth him," but that 
which originates in and cometh out of the heart To bring 
before you a corroboration of what I have said, I feel it 
right to enter into an examination of that object of com- 
mon belief called the devil, and what it is ; what consti- 
tutes Satan or Lucifer, and who he was. I have already 
alluded to what is meant by the serpent in Scripture. Ever 
since the return of the Jews from captivity there has been 
a cloud hiding the truth to some extent from the minds of 
those who have been taught from the Jewish or Christian 
history, with regard not only to the source of temptation, 
but also concerning man's relation to God. Taking the 
allegory for the literal fact, they have understood that an 
angel rebelled in Heaven and was cast down to the earth, 
and that he took advantage of his exile to tempt and tor- 
ment men; that thus he has to a great extent thwarted the 
designs of God in organizing man, changing the Eden of 
the latter into a field of thorns; and further, has been the 
means of sending a vast number of souls to endless misery. 
But come with me, my friends, and let us see how the mat- 
ter stands when we take a rational view of the subject as 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNER. 509 

oonnected with experience. Jesus made some of these 
points plain. When he chose his disciples they were all 
unregenerate men; — ^their powers had not been properly 
schooled, they had not yet been educated by way of the 
cross. They had, in common with all men, self-interest; 
which was right in itoelf so far as was necessary to make 
provision for themselves and those under their care; but 
when this propensity became selfishness, covetousness, 
idolatry, then it became sin. This was the case with Judas, 
hence Jesus said : '' I have chosen you twelve, and one of 
you is a devil." Here is a positive explanation by the 
Master himself as to the devil, which was simply this: 
Judas had made the torong use of a good gift, hence he was 
a devil;. and thus was the door opened and the way made 
easy for his subsequent career and final tragical end. 

Here an objector says: " Judas was not a devil, but the 
devil entered into him." I answer, that is the historian's 
statement according to his own belief, but I prefer to re- 
ceive the simple statement of Jesus: '* Not that which en- 
tereth into a man defileth him; " and my friends, there are 
just as many such devils as there are covetous men and 
women, who part with their highest interests for the perish- 
able things of the world. 

Now let us consider the term /Satan. I will revert to 
but one instance, which is conclusive with me without refer- 
ring to Hebrew or Oreek. On a certain occasion Jesus 
queried of his disciples: '' Whom do men say that I, the 
Son of Man, am ? ' ' They answered : ' ' Some say John the 
Baptist, some Elias, and others Jeremias, or one of the 
prophets." Then he asked, " Whom say ye that I am ? " 
Peter answered, " Thou art Christ, the Son of the living 



510 MEMOIB8 OF 

God." Whereupou Jesus said, " Blessed art thou Simon 
son of Jonab, for flesh and blood hath not revealed this 
unto thee, but my Father which is in Heaven." Presently 
Jesus began to tell them of what should befall himself, 
when Peter, consulting his own natural feelings, rebuked 
him, sapng, ' * This shall not be unto thee." Mark the 
change I Jesus said unto him, ' ' Get thee behind me, Satan, 
thou art an ofiense unto me; for thou savorest not the things 
which be of God, but those that be of men." Peter was in 
a right state when he depended upon the revelation of 
Grod; but when, instead of this, he savored the things of 
men, he became for a time an adversary to the truth, a 
Saian according to Jesus' own explanation. 

Certain passages have been quoted from the Scripture 
and announced from the pulpit to prove the existence of an 
outward independent tempter, and that he was changed 
from the condition of one of the highest angels in Heaven 
to that of a devil. For instance: ' ' How art thou &llen 
from Heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning? How art 
thou cast down to the ground that didst weaken the nations 7 
For thou hast said in thy heart, I will ascend into Heaven, 
I will exalt my throne above the stars of God. They that 
see thee shall narrowly look upon thee and consider thee» 
saying, ' Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, 
that did shake kingdoms ? ' " Turn to Isaiah 14th, and 
read from 4th to 20th verses inclusive, and you will per- 
ceive that the king of Babylon is referred to as Lucn&r, 
who was only a poor, weak, fallen man. 

An objector seems to say, " There is such a being as Satan, 
for it is said he transformed himself into an angel of li^ht, 
and would deceive, if it were possible, the very elect." 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 611 

Well, that was just the case with Peter. What among men 
appears more like an angel of light than one who professes 
love and active kindness for his friend ? This was Peter's 
condition. He loved his master and felt a deep interest in 
his welfare; jet when he interposed these noble qualities in 
order to prevent Jesus from standing firm in his testimony 
to the end, he put them to a wrong use, and while he ap< 
peared as an angel of light to those judging from the out- 
side, to Jesus he was indeed a Satan. 

I have now, in as few words as I could, set before you 
a view of the compound nature of man, and the great work 
that is set before him to do. This work, we have seen, con- 
sists in bringing all the elements of his being under proper 
control, and thus using hb gifts for the glory of Gbd and 
his own best good. Nothing evil comes from the hand of 
the Creator — ^nothing to be destroyed. No work of God in 
nature is to be overlooked or despised. He has made no 
vessel to dishonor; but all, if kept in their proper depart- 
ments and order, are good. It is only when man essays 
to take the government and direction into his own hands 
that confusion and ruin follow. It is only then that th3 
beasts of prey make their appearance to hurt and destroy. 

The soul of man is placed, not as the poet said, " mid- 
way between Deity and nothing," for '* nothing" does not 
form a tangible point, but midway between Deity and the 
lower orders of creation. It is the point to which the ani- 
mal nature approximates from one side and Divine inspira- 
tion from the other. If the soul listens to the inspiration 
it receives power to govern the lower nature, but if it be- 
comes self-willed the pure light is diminished and the ani- 
mal powers will take control. " His servants ye are to whom 



612 MEMOIB8 OF 

70 render yourselves servants to obey." Here is the pcnnt 
where reason has its place in the human economy. Reason 
is the atmosphere of the soul, and as the atmosphere of the 
earth is the medium through which the sun's rays warm 
and enlighten the earth, so is the intellect the medium 
through which the spirit of truth and life works upon the 
soul of man. Without the medium between the sun and 
earth there could be no vegetation, no fruit; and where the 
medium is the most abundant and the sun's rays the most 
direct, there is the most of life and the richest growth. 
Thus when the reasoning powers are strong and kept clear 
and open as a medium for the free access of truth, the eoal 
grows strong and rich in power and wisdom ; but if from 
any cause or misdirection it is disabled, the soul sufiers a 
loss, as does the earth in case of the sun's influence being 
obscured by cold, untoward storms, and the condition is 
that represented by the parable of the talents hidden in the 
earth. 

Many are in doubt as to what constitutes the new birth 
— regeneration, or being bom of the spirit. In the opening 
of the seals it is made clear that it is simply bringing 
man's higher or spiritual nature from under the power of 
the animal nature to be governed by the truth, the Son of 
God, which is the quickening power of Divine life in the 
soul. 

Man is called to perfection by the Oospel, and its attain- 
ment is therefore possible. '' Be ye therefore perfect, even 
as your Father in heaven is perfect.' ' This perfection does 
not imply that man may become equal with God in the ex- 
tent of his attributes. He is perfect in his sphere a« GW. 
Yet there is a perfection possible to man. Nor does per- 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 613 

fection in man preclude his further growth, any more than 
in God it precludes his further work. We see that, 
however small a germ may be, in animate or inanimate 
nature, when it is kindled into life its tendency and strug- 
gle are constantly toward perfection, according to the laws 
adapted to its nature. Everything of which we may have 
knowledge, from the lowest organization to the highest, is 
limited only by its own perfection. If we plant a tree, 
and it flourish ever so well, we may be uncertain as to its 
variety until it has matured its first fruit We then know, 
it by its fruit It has arrived at the perfection of its kind; 
yet this does not preclude its striking its roots deeper 
into the ground, or its throwing its branches wider and 
higher. And man has attained his perfection when 
all his powers are brought into habitual and permanent 
harmony and charity, or perfect love has cast out all fear. 
This is the state realized at the loosing of the last seal in 
the book of human experience. 

The office of the living Word, or (Gospel, is to give men 
a knowledge of the truth concerning the things necessary 
for them to know and practice during their probation; and 
the same truths that were addressed to the churches through 
John are now directed to all who have ears to hear, and a 
preparation to hear must be our condition before we can be 
benefited by what is declared. 

While men are in the condition represented by the 
leopard, endeavoring to live upon others by trjmg to get 
that knowledge from men or traditions which can really 
only be received from God, adopting doctrines as their own 
of which they know nothing by experience, they have not 
an ear to hear, and therefore cannot be profited by what is 



614 MEMOIRS OF 

declared. Or if, like the selfish bear, they are grasping 
for all within their possible reach, right or wrong, devoting 
all their best powers to the accumulation of worldly wealth, 
or to reach the dome of fame, or in religion to ascend to 
the highest pinnacle of the temple, thinking thus to find 
happiness or food for the soul, their labor will be in vain. 
There is nothing in all these things congenial to the nature 
of the soul. 

Solomon found this true in his own experience, notwith- 
standing he succeeded in acquiring all his heart desired » 
far as earthly power, glory, and wisdom were concerned. 
He found that his soul was poor; the things of earth coald 
not satiate his wants; and when he contrasted the powers 
of the world with the result of obedience to truth, be ex- 
claimed of the former, " Vanity and vexation of spirit" 

I have said truth is revealed to us as fast as we are pre- 
pared to receive it. In the opening of the seventh seal 
John saw another mighty angel come down from heaven, 
clothed with a cloud, who cried with aloud voice, as when a 
lion roareth; and when he had cried, seven thunders uttered 
their voices; and when the seven thunders had uttered their 
voices, " I," said John, " was about to write, and I heard 
a voice from heaven saying unto me, * Seal up those things 
which the seven thunders uttered, and write them not.' " 

But do you suppose, my friends, these thunders were to 
remain forever sealed ? If so, so far as man is concerned, 
they might as well not have uttered their voices. Thev 
were not to be written, not to be committed to the letter, 
not to be declared by vocal sound, but to be spoken to the 
ear of the soul. They were to remain sealed until such a 
state of development and interest in the truth was brought 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 515 

about as should open the spiritual ear, and give the soul a 
willingness to practice what it should hear. Few were pre- 
pared to receive the truths declared by Jesus when on his 
mission of love to the Jews, and through them to the world. 
Hence he said unto them, * * I have many things to say 
unto you, but ye cannot bear them now." But because 
those many things were kept from them at that time, 
it does not follow that they were never to be revealed. 
They were clearly to be developed just as fast as mankind 
should be prepared to profit by the revelation of more and 
higher truths. So with the voices of the seven thunders. 
But what are we to understand by the term ? Sometimes 
a short expression serves as a key to open into an extensive 
field. Thus Jesus in giving names to his disciples gave to 
two of them the appellation of *' sons of thunder," be- 
cause of their peculiar gift in gaining and fixing the 
attention of their hearers. 

The voices of these thunders are designed to claim the 
attention of those prepared to hear, giving a consciotisness 
of all man's moral and spiritual duties. Faithful individ- 
uals have long since heard them and have manifested by 
their works that they understood them; and I apprehend 
they are now being unsealed to all who have ears to hear. 
They are heard and practically obeyed in the opening of 
the seven seals, each calling successively to the necessity of 
coming up higher; and when the last voice has been heard 
and obeyed, the humble, obedient servant may say in tri- 
umph, as Jesus did, '' The prince of this world oometh and 
findeth nothing in me." The world being overcome, there 
is no longer anything for temptation to reach ; and the 
faithful, though their paths in this world have led through 



616 IIEMOIBS OF 

fieiy ordeals, have finally seen the travail of their souls, 
and have been satisfied. 

Many of the old reformers heard the voices, though in- 
distinctly, and therefore only essayed to lop off the branches 
of the corrupt tree, leaving the root with its accumulating 
strength to spring up afresh and bear more fruit The 
work did not go deep enough ; the power was not raised in- 
to life that could * ' beat the sword into the plowshare and 
the spear into the pruning-hook/' They failed in making 
it clear that the heart needed cultivation, and that love was 
the only power that could do it. 

In the seventeenth century many individuals heard the 
voice still more distinctly, speaking directly to their indi- 
vidual states; and as they obeyed the call they were led 
to the cross, and thus to a regeneration which should bring 
man's spiritual life from under the government of the 
animal nature to the government of Christ. The voices 
reiterated to them the commands of Jesus, and thus they 
were called upon to bear a testimony against war and oaths, 
a system of hireling ministry, intemperance, slavery, etc 
Hence the origin of the Society of Friends. 

The false interpretations and explanations of the Scrip- 
tures have been for many ages back the means of limiting 
their usefulness, and of preventing the advancement of 
man to a higher civilization. They have often obstructed 
the way to an experimental knowledge of the Christian 
religion ; hence so little general progression, except where 
individuals have listened to the unsealing of the voices 
addressed to the souFs ear giving a conviction of right 
For fifteen hundred years men have contended about what 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 517 

they gathered from the letter, while the witnesses, Truth 
and Reason, lay dead in the streets. 

It cannot please God for man to prostrate himself in 
the dust before him for fear, as the heathen do before 
their idols; for Qoi is love, and they that dwell in him 
dwell in love. Love is the life of union between the 
soul and its Creator, in which union there is no fear. 

We are not under the necessity of going back to seek 
through Paul or any other man for our rule of life or 
measure of duty and faith, for the fountain of God's in- 
spiration is not exhausted. He can as well give to vs an 
understanding of the laws of our being and of his will 
concerning us (and these ever run parallel with each other) 
as he could have inspired his servants of the past. Yet, 
when historical truths are presented to us, we may profit by 
them. They encourage us; they strengthen us; they fur- 
nish food for thought and meditation; but they cannot sus- 
tain the soul; that requires spiritual nourishment; it is the 
Spirit only that giveth life. 

In the great work of opening the seals, we shall find 
there is no undue excitement of the passions of men. 
Though the mighty voices of the thunders are deep and 
full of power, a solenm calmness reigns over those who are 
prepared to hear them. The call and the work to be done 
are of great importance, and require attention, not distrac- 
tion. The Grospel addresses itself to the cool and collected 
judgment rather than to excited feelings. The first thun- 
der utters its ''voice " and the call is to virtue. No in- 
dividual, no nation can long continue to exist without 
obedience to this. While virtue is in the ascendency, the 
individual or the people possessing it will stand up in the 



518 MEMOIBS OF 

glory of righteouBness; but, if yioe prevails, they mugtfUl 
into moumfiil and disgraceful decay, as did the Greeks, 
the Romans and the Jews. The call is loud. "He that 
hath ears to hear, let him hear." 

Another yoice is being unsealed, speaking in a language 
not to be misunderstood. It calls us to lay hold of wisdom, 
to strive to gain knowledge, to right the wrongs of humanity 
done through ignorance. It speaks, among other things, 
of the position which woman should sustain in the human 
family. She has held, among civilized nations, her proper 
place in the heart, but not in the head. This voice saya^ 
Came up higher; but it cannot be obeyed until male and 
female are recognized one in law as they are one in Christ 
The conventional rules of the world have long kept woman 
in the background of both civil and religious life, thus 
hindering her from doing the whole of her work ; and this, 
among Christians, partly because Paul said he suffered not 
a woman to speak in church. Thus she has been treated, 
in both Church and State, as if she were not a fit com- 
panion for man. The advancement of the human race, 
however, in virtue and useful knowledge, will be in propor- 
tion to the education woman receives and the place she 
occupies in science and art, in law and religion. It is 
generally observed that the most talented and worthy men 
are the sons of women of independent and often of culti- 
vated thought. 

God has himself given to woman the most important 
office that can be received by humanity — ^that of mother. 
He has given to her keeping a trust second to no other — 
that of molding and directing the mind in its development. 
Her influence is greater than that of a prince, for in this 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 519 

respect she rules the world. As she stands high in the 
order of the creations of God, so is her power great in the 
advancement of her race. 8he can develop it into the 
highest capabilities of its nature; or, if she falls, her influ- 
ence is proportionally great in the destruction of her fellow- 
creatures. While she maintains her proper moral bearing, 
she is the standard of virtue and loveliness; and because 
she is thus high, she seems to be more dangerously wounded 
if she falls. 

This second voice has long been sounding in the world, 
and but few among men have heard it distinctly. Many 
women have understood it, but the rigid rules of custom 
have prevented the majority from obeying. 

The revelator chose woman as his figure in the highest 
flight of poetry conceivable by man. " I saw, ' ' said John, 
"a great wonder in heaven, — ^a woman clothed with the 
sun, the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown 
of twelve stars.' ' Thus she is represented as the perfection 
of moral purity, clothed upon and adorned with the choicest 
drapery of heaven, with the moon — that which is change- 
able — under her feet. Poetry can ascend no higher; the 
Church can have no more beautiful emblem, the true 
woman no greater praise. 

Then keep silence, O Earth, and let this voice be 
heard I Let woman take her proper place in all things, 
founded upon virtue, rising in knowledge, and spreading 
her pure light as is spread the light of the sun. Let the 
voice be heard, and let knowledge be welcomed and invited 
until it has covered the earth as with a garment; and in 
doing this it is necessary that we should put on the armor 
of Grod, and fight against ignorance as a mortal enemy to 



520 MEMOIRS OF 

our peace. We must diligently seek wifidom, and, when 
we have found it, keep it close to our hearts. It is rightto 
desire this, and wrong to neglect it; and we know of whom 
to seek if we lack. Grod, however, will never make Ctg 
talents into ten for us, if we fail to improve that whidi 
has already been committed to our care. 

There is great encouragement as to the ultimate advance- 
ment of general humanity in all that is useful, moral, and 
good. Its course is onward, for the Divine nature in man 
LB continually striving to draw him nearer to the true 
center of all good ; and in proportion as he approzimatea 
this, will he leave the false and the useless behind. 

The third voice is proclaiming in a strong appeal, 
coming up from the depths of human suffering and neces- 
sity, *' Be temperate." Intemperance has long slain more 
victims than famine and the sword, and to a great extent 
has been the cause of degeneracy to the human race. 
Where it prevails, it has degraded its votaries below the 
lower animals; it has filled prisons and almshouses; it has 
made widows and orphans; it has blighted homes that had 
else been prosperous and happy. It has been very fraitfiil 
of evil; and many are becoming prepared to hear the voice 
clearly, and to see that it is necessary to work in obedience 
to it. Yet the laborer, if sudden success attend his efforts, 
must not be filled with "zeal without knowledge," lestt 
reaction take place, and the loss be greater than the gain- 
We must be careAil in this great work, not hastening to lop 
off the branches of one tree that we may pass on to tb« 
next ; but let us work calmly, fervently, tJioroughb/, 
destroying the uttermost root as we proceed, so that tiie 



J 



HUNDERLikND P. GARDNER. 521 

evil may be fully conquered. ''Be ye temperate in all 
things." 

Another yoioe has been uttered, calling us to paiienoe. 
No great and glorious work is done unless we have taken 
this spirit to ourselves. The gentle yet effective work of 
Truth does not excite the passions. It works like leaven 
in the meal, proceeding in silence until its labor is com- 
pleted ; like the power of the sun, deep in its effects, glori- 
ous in its appearance, yet noiseless and never-tiring in its 
action ; so gentle in its work that it moves not the leaf it 
has caused to burst forth — ^the leaf which the slightest 
breeze would make to tremble. Yet it penetrates the 
heart of stone; it expands iron; it li^ the water from the 
ocean, and prepares it to balance in the air, and to pass 
on until distilled in welcome showers over the thirsting 
ground. It holds the planets in their courses by its 
mighty power, thus producing the changing seasons, with 
their attendant blessings; and, though it does not originate 
life, it quickens it to more abundance. How well it sym- 
bolizes the powerful yet patient work of the Spirit of Truth 
in the souls of men. The voice is not heard in the street, 
not committed to the letter, but is heard in the soul, giving 
a consciousness of individual duty and the strength to per- 
form the work. And how clearly this voice tells us to do 
our work steadily, quietly, patiently to the end. 

And the fifth voice is declaring, in substance, that the 
confusion and darkness likened to the smoke of the bottom- 
less pit are poured out upon the world because men neglect 
practical righteousness to contend about abstract and 
unnecessary doctrines which do not really enter into the 
Christian experience. In the opening of the seals our 



522 1CEMOIB8 OF 

proper work is foand in the living present, not in the dead 
past, just as certainly as God, who is our life, is a present, 
living God. The religious element in the world has here- 
tofore, to a great extent, imitated the Roman soldiers, who 
after they had crucified Jesus disputed about his garments, 
without regarding the body that had been clothed with 
them. This will not do for us. We must listen to the 
voice; we must come up to the true standard of godliness; 
we must be faithfully alive to our present duty ; we must 
do the work given out to us, for " behold the fields are 
already ripe unto harvest.' * 

Another voice is being unsealed, and has long been 
heard by some who were prepared to listen — the voice of 
brotherly kindness calling upon men to consider the incon- 
sistency and sinfulness of war. Jesus said his servants 
could not fight. Then how contrary is the spirit of war to 
the spirit of Christ, to the spirit of humanity! God 
never made the fair fields of earth to be steeped with the 
blood of men slain by their fellows. He never designed a 
parent's heart to be rent in anguish for the son cut down 
in the glory of his life on the battle-ground. Such things 
are not by the command of the great All-Father, and the 
world is beginning to hear this voice of his thunder. The 
true feelings and dignity of men are beginning to prevail, 
as has been lately shown in the example of two great na- 
tions entering into a treaty for the settlement of differences 
by friendly arbitration, instead of an appeal to arms. The 
sword may conquer, but it never makes true peace; and 
we repeat the idea, the Christian cannot fight, for the best 
evidence we can give that we love God, is to love our fd- 
low-men. 



8Uin>£RLAND P. GARDNER. 523 

In all of our social relations, brotherly kindness is the 
key that most successfully gains an entrance into the hearts 
of our fellow-men. Instead of a frown for the erring, its 
call is, " Come home, my brother;" instead of passing 
upon this side or that of the wounded and fidlen, with 
cold, inhuman indifference, it approaches him with sympa- 
thy, and essays to bind up his wounds. 

Another, the seventh and last thunder, b uttering its 
Yoice, and the world seems to be waking up to the language 
of Charity, addressed to all so plainly. It is calling the 
attention of men to the fact that, although they may not 
all see the works and ways of God from the same spiritual 
angle, for they may not all be placed upon the same stand- 
point, this should never awaken feelings destructive of love, 
of charity toward each other. Honest belief arises from 
honest conviction, and this is a thing that lies between the 
soul and its Creator. A man is accountable to none but 
God for his soul's work. This voice is calling upon the 
professors of the Christian name to consider if God is par- 
tial in the dispensations of his favors; or if Christ, the head 
of the Church, is divided in himself; or if he does not con- 
tinue to be one, and his flock one. It is true, he may have 
many sheep in difierent folds, but do they not all know 
his voice 7 Are they not all one in Christ ? ''And other 
sheep I have/' said Jesus, "which are not of this fold. 
Them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice, and 
there shall be one fold and one shepherd." Where, then, 
is the cause for a lack of charity? Surely not in the ways 
of God. But» as we have said, the Christian world seems 
waking up to this voice. Hence the Evangelical Alliance, 
which, though not coming up fully to the call, shows that 



524 MEMOIB8 OF 

many are becoming better prepared to hear. And tlie 
voice is declaring that this final and crowning' victorj in 
man's great warfare will result in the highest attamment 
possible to him — ^that of the soul being brought to dwell in 
its true element, love ; brought to love God with mil his 
heart and his neighbor as himself. Thus he will live in 
God and God in him, for "God is love." Under the in- 
fluence of this great and perfect love, man will know that 
he has passed from death unto life, for love is stronger than 
death. He can then sufier with and for others, filling ac- 
cording to his measure the afflictions of Christ which are 
jet behind, for his body's sake, the Church; and for the 
interest of universal man. The prevalence of this spirit 
disarms the warrior, stills the tongue of the slanderer, and 
strikes the persecutor down to the state of the humble 
Christian. 

In the experimental opening of the seals, we attain to 
that state which was so well prefigured by Jesus walking 
on the waters ; for, when we shall have properly educated 
all of our powers, propensities, and passions, and have 
brought them under perfect control, we can rise above and 
walk upon the unstable elements of our perverted disposi- 
tions, so truly represented by the ra^ng sea. A proper 
control of self brings a calm. This victory is not gained 
but by way of the cross ; yet may we not glory in a cross 
that leads to such a victory! 

Thus, " Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn 
out her seven pillars, she hath slain her beasts, she hath 
mingled her wine, she hath furnished her table, ' ' and men 
may partake thereof. 

To our faith let us add virtue, knowledge, temperance, 



BX7NDERLAND P. GARDNER. 625 

patience, godliness, brotherly kindness, and charity, which 
is the crowning work of all. 

Then the wolf will dwell with the lamb, the leopard 
will lie down with the kid, the calf, young lion, and fatling 
together, so that a little child may lead them. The cow 
and the bear shall feed, and their young ones shall lie 
down together; the lion shall eat straw like the ox; the 
nursing child shall play upon the hole of the asp, and the 
weaned child shall put his hand upon the cockatrice's den, 
and nothing shall hurt or destroy in all God's holy mount- 
ain; for the knowledge and spirit of the Lord will cover 
all of man's nature as the waters cover the sea. 

And all this will be accomplished by the help of the 
spirit of ¥risdom, "the lion of the tribe of Judah;" and 
man, when this work has been revealed and submitted to 
in his heart, has arrived at the perfection alluded to by 
Jesus. Having all the chords of his nature brought into 
harmony, he understands what is meant by the " harps of 
Ood." No passion rebels against the peace of the whole ; 
buty as the attributes of the Almighty harmonize in himself, 
each agreeing with all, even so is man brought to his true 
equilibrium, his true perfection. 



626 MEMOIRS OF 

SERMON AT ALBANY, N. T. 

nSST-DAT MOBIIINO, 8X00ND MOVTH 0TB, 1876. 

Said Jesus to the Jews, " Ye believe in God, believe 
also in me. ' ' He knew that their belief was a traditional and 
therefore a dead belief; he himself was full of the life of 
the Spirit of God, and desired that they too should have 
the same life in them, as nothing else could bring them to 
a saving knowledge of Grod ; nothing else was sufficient to 
produce in them that true faith which brings its own evi- 
dence. They believed, so far as history could give them 
ground, but this could not raise them above the external, 
it could not minister to the wants of the soul. It was 
Jesus' work, therefore, to declare to them that if they 
would be benefited by a belief, it must be founded apoo 
knowledge. " This is life eternal, that they might kM\e 
thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast 
sent." 

They must know of the revelation of God by the mani- 
festation of him in the flesh, not alone in Jesus, but in their 
own souls; and this experimental knowledge is necessary 
to every rational individual if he would be raised above 
the letter which kills, into that spiritual life that wtf 
revealed in Jesus Christ. 

This having been the case then, as now, we can see 
why Jesus called them to the necessity of believing in Hun, 
in whom was clearly manifested the power and wisdom of 
God, and as did Jesus, so might all others through obedi- 
ence to the same life, light and power, become the sons of 
God. To-day this present, living, active spirit is offered 
to all; " To-day, if ye will hear my voice, harden not yoor 
hearts." 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNEB. 527 

There is something observable in all the people of whom 
we have any knowledge, that indicates a cognizance of 
Grod;, all seem to have the germ implanted in themselves 
which if allowed to grow would spring up and become a 
living truth within them, and the few amongst all nations 
who take up the cross against their besetments, and are 
obedient according to the light given them, do partake of 
the pure waters of the living fountain. Hence there have 
been some amongst all who have proved themselves to be 
the children of the Father in heaven. The aborigines of 
our own land have a knowledge of and a belief in the 
Great Spirit, and have their manner of worshipping him. 
And some amongst them have shown that they were true 
worshippers by utterly refusing to join in works of cruelty 
and blood, but the greater number, like the majority in 
other nations, preferred to walk in the broad road to evi]. 
This only proves that while God is just, and consequently 
impartial, giving to all sufficient light by which to walk 
if they will mind it, man too often chooses to turn aside 
and obey the lusts of the flesh to his own destruction. 

God never changes; his purity and truth are ever the 
same; but man has sought out many inventions, many 
waya by which to lengthen out his own shortcomings. 
He has sought to bring down this holy spirit-worship to a 
level with liimself; and hence the world is full of forms 
and creeds by which it cannot live. I say by which it 
cannot live, for if it can find life in them, why is it that, 
while millions join so heartily in them, so few are found 
who really have the spirit of the living truth ? 

There is no excuse to be found for ignorance in our 
duty toward God and toward our fellow-men; for God has 



628 MEMOIRS OF 

given, is giving, and will ^ve sufficient knowledge to all 
who ask and will accept it of Him. He knows die 
heart, and the simple desire for good will be heard and 
blessed of Him, if this desire is continued in; but if, at 
temptation's call, man runs to the right or the left, as 
seems good to him, and contrary to the admonitions of the 
Spirit \)f truth, whether he be Greek or Jew, bond or free, 
it cannot be expected that he will grow in grace. 

Humanity cannot originate a religion that will save 
men. That true and saving faith which is bom in the 
willing heart is begotten of God, and does not run paral- 
lel with man's plans and common desires. It does not 
put the work of multitudes upon one, nor does it put the 
work of one upon another; but each one who woald 
inherit eternal life must for himself obey the command- 
ments; must for himself take up his cross, following Chriat 
to a perfect sacrifice of selfishness, and become obedient to 
the living God. Then he will receive that living &ith 
which works by love to the purifying of the hearty which 
is victory over the world. 

Such is the Christian state. Christ is the teacher, the 
counselor and the guide; " Christ in us the hope of glory.** 
But in this life the Christian must be in constant war&re 
—ever watching, ever praying, ever striving against evilf 
and overcoming by the power of God. He is never at 
ease in Zion so long as he feels an impure thing in his 
heart; his desires are right and his motives are just, for 
the religion of Jesus Christ is the religion of truth. ^ 
does not find its bread and wine in creeds, for the work of 
God for man's spiritual development and advancement is 
performed in man and not outside of him. The deeiie for 



8UNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 529 

knowledge, and consequent observanoe of God's laws both 
physical and spiritual, does its work in the sacred cham- 
bers of the heart and brain of the individual man. The 
Greater is the expounder, and let not man dare in his own 
strength and with unholy hands to interfere with the work 
of Grod. Nor need we say, Oh, if we knew the will of God 
we would run to do it The commandment is in our own 
hearts, the law is open before us; let each one of us obey 
what is given to us as individuals, though it be but small 
duties, only the little works of charity and love. Grod is 
faithful, and if we are obedient He will give us the knowl- 
edge we need. 

The Son of God is the light of Divine truth, and is 
given for the enlightenment of all if they will accept it 
Our Creator is not partial in bestowing favors on the 
workmanship of his hands. The means for man's salva- 
tion^-or if he has sinned, for his redemption — is freely 
offered ; and all who will receive and be faithful will be 
equally benefited by them. Light shines upon the path 
of the way-faring man, for there is a path ordered for him 
of the Lord, and he need not err therein, even though he 
be ignorant of the world's wisdom, so long as he minds the 
Ugkt. Here an objector says, ''The means offered by 
which God becomes reconciled to man is the blood of Jesus 
shed on Calvary." I reply. No external sacrifice could 
change the condition of man's heart, therefore it could not 
reconcile God to man ; for He will receive nothing but the 
" broken and contrite spirit " from the sinner, and the pure 
in heart are always accepted of Him. Nor will outward 
sacrifices reconcile the impure heart to serve a pure and 
living God; therefore, taking God's own revealed will for 



530 MEK0IB8 OF 

authority, we must look carefullj for the source and min- 
ner of our salvation. 

Do you suppose that the death of Jesus upon the cm 
gave pleasure to a merciAil God ? No attribute of lu 
required such a sacrifice. He was not a waywa rd, and 
tyrant, whom naught but revenge and answering angoisb 
could appease; and that inflicted not on the guilty. He 
was not the maker and the ruler of the univeiBe without 
power to govern his own works; He was not the persecutor 
— ^He was not the judge without love and justioe in his 
heart Nay — ^but He was God, in whom is no variable- 
ness nor shadow of turning, and his own words ha?e 
declared how He may be reconciled to man, and how mBa 
may be saved. 

God is reconciled to man by the death of all self-will 
in man, by the entire sacrifice of self to God, — ^that is, b? 
dedicating all his powers and afiections to his Creator, 
knowing that God knoweth best — ^willing that God's wiO 
should be done. 

And man, by watching and prapng, by fitting bjA 
by fighting against temptation, may become strong aad 
pure, overcoming even as Jesus overcame. This ia the 
death of Christ by which we are reconciled — the li& of 
Christ by which we are saved. 

The apostle said that the Jews killed Jesus and pleased 
not QoA ; and God sajrs to man: " Come unto me, and I 
will come unto you." Jesus says, "If ye would enter 
into eternal life keep the commandments." He abo 
says, "To him that overoometh will I grant to at witlt 
me on my throne even as I overcame and am set down witk 
my Father on his throne." And many such invitatioDfi» 



BUKDERLAKD P. OARDKEB. 631 

directions and advices were given from God through his 
servants, hj which, as well as by immediate revelation, the 
way is made clear for us if we will walk therein. But 
where, my friends, will you find anything in the Scriptures 
that, if cleared from the smoke of tradition, will give the 
slightest authority to the commonly-received doctrine of 
vicarious atonement ? 

We should be cautious how we receive doctrines that 
are contrary to the words of God, for they only serve to 
bring discord and unbelief to the struggling soul. Every 
thing opposed to the truth brings confusion and darkness. 
"Search the Scriptures," therefore, for yourselves; not 
going to man for instruction, but rather going to Him from 
whom ye may/>btain life ; and there, in the spirit of hum- 
ble prayer, get wisdom. 

Jesus sufiered all the Christian warfare for himself; 
we must follow him. He depended upon God for strength 
and wisdom ; we must do the same. Thus we follow him 
by way of the cross ; thus are we washed in the blood of 
Christ ; that is, the life or anointing spirit of God. Only 
by overcoming can we be made partakers of the promise, 
** He that overcometh shall inherit all things, and I will 
be his God, and he shall be my son." In this great and 
glorious promise, nothing is said about the death of Jesus 
upon the cross; but as Jesus overcame and finished the 
work his Father gave him to do before the crucifixion of 
his body, so must we overcome, by finishing the work 
given us to do, before we can, like him, inherit all things, 
and be acknowledged the sons of God. 

The Jews claimed too much when they thought them- 
selves the exclusive fiftvorites of heaven; the love of GKxi 



632 MEMOIRS OF 

was not alone confined to them ; the windows of Divine 
favor were equally open to the Gentiles. 

''For the Gentiles, who have not the law (of Mosee), 
but do by nature the things in the law, are a law unto 
themselves, showing the work of the law written in th&r 
hearts.' ' And what was the result of obedience to this in- 
ward law? It was righteousness; it was light. All that 
was required of them was obedience to the light which God 
had ^ven them, and from which originated th^ faith. 
But the Jews who sought after righteousness attained nol 
unto it, because they sought it only by the works of the 
law, which being without the living faith from God, were 
only outward and dead. Jesus was with the Jews about 
thirty-three years, and was then taken frotn among men, 
but the spirit with which he was anointed, and which he 
frequently personified, is now and ever has been visiting 
the children of men. It is with us for the same purpose 
that it was with Israel, when ''they all ate of the same 
spiritual meat and drank of the same spiritual rock, and 
that rock was Christ" The same was with Noah, and 
preached to the spirits in prison, that is, preached through 
him to sinners. 

The Christ of God was never that which oould be put 
to death by man; if so, man could have nothing to hope 
for, nothing to fear. But the apostle says, "Christ the 
power of God and the wisdom of God.*' Now these attri- 
butes cannot be separated from the only wise God so as to 
become a second individuality ; neither can the living love 
of God, the Holy Spirit that works upon the straying hu- 
man heart, to win it back to the Father, be separated from 
himself and become another individuality. God is perfect^ 



SUNDERLAND P. QABDNEB. 633 

all in all, therefore love, wisdom and power were never, 
on any account, separated from the fountain. "Beside 
me there is no other God." 

Cannot any rational mind perceive that these qualities 
of Qodf power and wisdom, which according to the apostle 
constituted Christ, could not be put to death by man? 
Man has no power to destroy anything higher than him- 
self. He may reject the visitation of the spirit of Christ; 
he may reject the light; he may refuse to be benefited by 
Grod's mercy: but he cannot destroy these. Rejecting 
Christ does not put him to death, shutting our eyes to the 
light does not quench the fountain of light; refusing to be 
benefited by Grod's proffered love and mercy does not pre- 
vent them from continually emanating from Him for all 
who will receive them, any more than a passing cloud pre- 
vents the sun from being ever the same in all the qualities 
of its nature. 

But this light of Qod is not addressed to the outward 
senses of the natural man, "for eye hath not seen nor ear 
heard, neither hath entered into the heart of man the things 
which God hath in store for them that love Him.' ' But He 
reveals them to the willing and obedient spirit just as fast 
as it can be profited by them. "The spirit searcheth all 
things, yea the deep things of Gk)d." 

Nor is it anything new with us if we cannot understand 
all things at once; the disciples of Jesus considered many 
of his sajrings as dark and hard to be understood. At one 
time, speaking the words of the Spirit, he said : "I am the 
living bread which came down from heaven; if any man 
eat of this bread he shall live forever, and the bread which 
I shall give him is my flesh, which I will give for the life 



534 MEMOIRS OF 

of the world." The hearers saw nothing in these words 
but darkness, and he added, " Except ye eat the flesh of 
the Bon of man and drink his blood ye have no life in 
you." Even the disciples murmured at this, — it was too 
deep, too spiritual for their understanding in the then in- 
&nt state of their experience. Therefore Jesus explained 
his words by saying, " It is the spirit that quickeneth, the 
flesh profiteth nothing." 

Such sayings and explanations of Jesus give us the key 
by which to unlock and look into the meaning of many 
things spoken in the Scriptures bearing the appearance of 
flesh, but in their meaning gpiritual; therefore, we shoold 
be cautious how we receive or interpret apparently myste- 
rious sayings in the Bible, for many of the most pure and 
exalted teachings of that book have been misinterpreted by 
reason of the natural man's efibrt to expound what only 
the spiritual man could understand by the spirit of inspira- 
tion. 

What then is the life of the world for wMch in ex- 
change we may receive the heavenly bread ? It is self-ex- 
altation, pride, covetousness, envy, malice, unkindness, 
and whatsoever defiles the man and occupies the heart to 
the exclusion of good. And when we desire to have these 
dispositions cease to live in us, the spirit of God will cast 
them out, and give us in their stead the bread of heaven, 
which is true life, and in every respect the opposite of this 
'* life of the world." 

This is just the change and just the sacrifice to be made, 
and includes all the redemption needed by man, for when 
this is accomplished the old man is put ofi", the heart is re- 
newed, and we stand in our proper place before oar Grea- 



SUNDERLAND P. OABDNEB. 635 

tor. Thifl IB the kind of sacrifioe and atonement spoken of 
in the Bible, and brought before our view by appropriate 
and often beautiful figures. 

"And what agreement hath the temple of God with 
idols ? for ye are the temple of the living God, and God 
hath said : I will dwell in them and walk in them, and I 
will be their God and they shall be my people. Wherefore 
come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the 
Lord, and touch not the unclean thing, and I will receive 
you, and will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my 
sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty." 

What can be clearer or more to the point concerning 
our being received of God ? and yet m this case as in other 
teachings and invitations not one word is said to indicate 
that our salvation depends upon any sacrifice or atonement 
made by another. And what reason have we to think that 
the life or death of Jesus of Nazareth will benefit us, only 
as we learn his teachings and follow his example ? 

The parallel, and I might say foundation doctrine of 
vicarious atonement, is that of original sin. The story of 
Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden has been formed 
into a dogma of the church and a kind of dead line over 
which no man might pass and Uve. 

But let us look at this for ourselves, my friends, trust- 
ing only to the spirit of truth for our help in understanding 
it To me it is a beautiful allegory. The garden was of 
the creation of God, and was good in all particulars. Adam 
was placed within it to dress and keep it ; Eve was given 
him for a companion, that he might have pleasant help 
and sympathy. And what is all this a figure of? The 
garden was the heart of man, the plants within it, the 



536 MEMOIS8 OF 

natural powen and propensities, all good in their Dormsl 
state, as coming fresh from the hand of Grod, and all hav- 
ing their proper uses, represented by their fruits and seeds. 

Adam was the spiritual man, placed within it to cnhi- 
yate and keep it, that is to cultivate and keep the heart 

Eve is a figure of the pleaeing and pure auctions and 
the powers of imagery allowed in man's composition sa a 
help and solace through his life's work. 

The tree of knowledge of good and evil represents that 
strong desire for knowledge always growing in beauty be- 
fore the intelligent mind of man, and here his danger ap- 
pears. Man is forbidden to eat of the fruit of this tree^ 
though all the other plants are freely given to his hand. 
Why ? God in His ?nsdom saw it best to reserve the direc- 
tion of man's intelligence to himself. And this will of 
Qod should needs govern the will of man, which thing we 
know in our own experience. Who is safe without the 
guidance of God ? or what experienced Christian^ who best 
understands it, would venture on any field of thought or 
action without first seeking instruction from the All -wise ? 
And the Creator having in His wisdom thought best to di- 
rect his creatures in all things where a higher knowledge 
was required, forbade him to seize upon knowledge in his 
own strength. The subtilty of misdirected reason, repre- 
sented by the serpent, persuaded the man through his 
lighter or more imaginative nature that it would be safe 
for him to eat of the fruit, and that so doing would not 
bring death upon him. For the promise was, ^' In the 
day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. " Now comes 
in an evidence that it was an allegory. For he ate of it 
and did not die in ek literal sense. But what did occur to 



SUNDERLAND P. OARDNEB. 537 

liim 7 He had disobeyed his Creator and did die in a spir- 
itual sense. A curse was pronounced: ''Cursed is the 
ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the 
days of thy life; thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to 
thee, and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 

The soil of the earth was not cursed, for this is good, 
and only waits for the hand of industry to be laid upon it, 
when it will respond in rich abundance for the benefit of 
man. God has not refused to do his part. Soil, seed, sun- 
shine and shower, dew and atmosphere are all plentifully 
given, and it is ingratitude in man to say a curse is given 
with all this. But let us look into our own experience. 
Adam, like every sinner since his time, was driven out of 
the happy state of innocence and unity with the Father, 
and the flaming sword of the consciousness of guilt would 
not allow him to re-enter the garden of rest. What was 
left for him to do? The soil of the now sin-corrupted 
heart was hard to till and keep. The thistles and thorns of 
unbelief, remorse, unrest, sprang up plentifully, and if he 
would keep down the weeds of evil thoughts and tempta- 
tions he must labor hard, and eat his bread in the sweat 
of his brow. Oh, how many of us have experienced this T 
Let him who has known God, and fallen from his first 
standing, answer. When the spirit is disobedient, and 
partakes of a forbidden fruit, endeavoring to take to itself 
that power of direction which is reserved by the Almighty 
to himself, it fails: — ^it falls, and terrible is its fall. The 
ground of the heart is then cursed. 

And thus in every particular of the glowing picture do 
we not see the history and consequence of sin ? Do we not 
see the representation of our own experience, the experi- 



538 MEMOIRS OF 

ence of every disobedient human heart, in startling realitj? 
A marvelouslj true picture of our conditions, and coose- 
quently a very instructive one, if we will receive it 

This allegory is what has been taken for ages pasi to 
prove a doctrine alike offensive to Grod and hurtful to man 
— the doctrine of imputed sin. How dare religious teach- 
ers and men of thought and learning promulgate such a 
doctrine, when the Almighty had so strongly denounced it? 
"Behold all souls are mine, saith the Lord; as the soul of 
the father, so also the soul of the son is mine; the soul that 
sinneth, it shall die." 

But the spiritual man, made in the image of God, be- 
ing placed in the garden of the heart, is to cultivate the 
powers and qualities Gk)d has given it for good. This he 
can do, or it would not have been required of him; and he 
can by proper care prevent the growth of injurious or use- 
less things, so that all the ground may remain good and 
ready to receive the good seed which shall spring up and 
perchance bear an hundredfold of those excellent virtues 
which adorn a Christian life. 

Let us take God's declarations as truths, though thej 
should stamp every doctrine of man's invention as ftlae. 
And since God declares that He did not impute either the 
sin or the righteousness of one to another, I believe it; and 
I believe that when he gave man the power of choice for 
good or evil, and constantly offered to help him to the 
good and promised to receive him if he would come unto 
him. He meant it. But since I find nothing in the Scrip- 
tures, nor in experience, nor in revelation that proves the 
doctrine of original sin or that of vicarious atonement, » 
taught by the prevtdling religion, I do not receive them. I 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 539 

do not believe that the sin of Adam or the righteousness 
of Jesus is imputed to us any more than I could believe 
that clothing a lamb with a leopard's skin would change 
its innocent nature, or putting a white robe upon an Ethi- 
opian would change the color of his skin. Sin originates in 
every responsible mind at the moment it disobeys, and 
every soul that so sins must suffer the effects which sin, if 
continued in until finished, brings,— death. 

This view will undoubtedly appear very strange to some, 
and especially to those who are depending upon tradition, 
or the doctrines and commandments of men. But search 
ye the Scriptures for yourselves, ' ' prove all things and hold 
fast that which is good.'' Time was when prison, sword 
and fagot were brought into requisition to force men into a 
given standard of belief; that time, we trust, has passed 
away forever in our land, and man, made in the image of 
his Creator, is free 1 But oh ! had the votaries of religion 
in times past observed that great precept of Jesus, "Do 
unto others as ye would that they should do unto you " — 
injustice, cruelty and tyranny had not been known among 
them ; the name of God would not have been blasphemed, 
nor the love of Jesus insulted by the self-righteous hypo- 
crite who sought to grasp a power not his own, and to rule 
over God's heritage. 

This precept of Jesus, which was according to the law 
and the prophets, if carried out by men to-day would do 
away with all slavery, all persecution, bad government and 
war. But profession alone will not do. Even though 
many should cry unto him, Lord, Lord, He will say unto 
them. Depart from me, I know you not. We must keep 
his sayings, we must do his bidding; we must not dare to 



540 MEMOIB8 OF 

withhold a part of the price if we would insure the bleesng. 
If we are truly Ghrifltians, the work of Christ will readi 
down into our hearts, and we will be just to our fellow- 
men; we cannot harbor hatred or malice or any other 
evil and be benefited bj covering this dreadful state by a 
profession of religion. 

" Why call ye me Lord, and do not the things which 1 
say?" 

Many men have tried to satisfy all their wants from an 
earthly fountain, but they have labored in vain. Men of 
highly cultivated intellects have endeavored to satiate thdr 
longings in the fields of science; ambitious men have tried 
the laurels won in war; some have trusted to the power of 
gold, and some have lived in the lawless gratification of 
their passions. But all have failed; and Solomon, who 
could summon all the advantages of his day by which to 
prove these things, cried out at the last, *' Vanity of vanity 
and vexation of spirit." 

The material life is sustained by material things, but 
the soul-life must be sustained by the bread from heaven. 
Hence Jesus declared, when speaking from the Christ with- 
in him, *^ I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me 
shall never hunger, and he that believeth on me shall never 
thirst.' ' He was obedient to the Father, and his soul was 
sustained by the power of God; and if we, like him, de- 
pend upon this, we shall, like him, be preserved and en- 
abled to overcome the world. To the young I can say. 
The love of God visits us in our early years, making strong 
impressions upon the tender mind of youth and childhood; 
and if the young heart will permit itself to be filled with 
this beautiful spirit, there will be no room left for its op- 



' 



SUNDERLAND P. OARDNEB. 541 

posite. It will control and bring into their proper places 
all the natural powers of man, so that jou will know that 
all the work of God's hand is good, and will, if left to his 
guidance, remain so. Sin came not into the world until 
man made a wrong use of the good that was given him; 
the fault was not therefore in the gift, but in the abuse of 
it We know that a razor is a useful instrument; but some 
have used it to commit suicide. This is a wrong use of a 
useful instrument This example may serve to show you 
that while all the works of God are good if properly used, 
man, by his disobedience to his Creator, has fallen, and may 
continue to fall. 

We stand upon safe ground so long as we stand where 
our Father has placed us, but as this is a state of proba- 
tion, we may expect to be tried and proved. Much may 
arise in our minds and before us which should be suppressed. 
When tempted, if we are true, we shall resist the tempta- 
tion as Jesus did, for he was tempted in all points like as 
we are, and we may overcome by the help of the same 
power that assisted him, if we look to it as our only ark of 
safety. " Be ye perfect, even as your Father in heaven is 
perfect." If this were not possible, God would not have 
iuiitructcd Jesus to say so. Behold the exalted nature of 
that righteousness which will lead to perfection. It is of a 
higher character than the perfection of Job, though his 
works were good so far as they extended, and proceeded 
from a sincere heart and an endeavor to please God so far as 
he had learned; but it pleased Qod to lead him into a 
higher state, through the baptisms he suffered, even 
until he could see himself as he was, and could see the hand 
of Chd in his works. Then he was raised from a depen- 



642 MEM0IB8 OF 

denoe upon all earthly things, and thus entered into the 
Christian state. And the greater light enabled him to bear 
this important testimony to the truth: " I have heard of 
thee by the hearing of the ear, but now mine eye seeth 
thee; wherefore I abhor myself and repent in dust and 
ashes." 

** Ye believe in God, believe also in me." Believe in 
God as revealed in Christ, and the spirit of truth will bring 
us into an acquaintance with ourselves and our duty to Grod 
and man. It will lead us into all truth, and cany us be- 
yond and above a dependence upon outward testimony to 
an experimental knowledge of " Christ within, the hope of 
glory.' ' Then we too can say, " We have heard of thee by 
the hearing of the ear, but now our eyes see thee." 



SERMON AT ALBANY, N. Y. 

FIBST-DAY BVXXmvO, 8BG0ND MOUTH 6TH, 1876. 

We find it written that while shepherds watched their 
flocks by night, the angel of the Lord said unto them, 
*' Fear not, for behold I bring unto you good tidings of 
great joy which shall be to all people. For unto you is 
born this day in the city of David, a Saviour, which is 
Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; ye 
shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in 
a manger. And suddenly there was with the angel a multi- 
tude of the heavenly host, praising God and saying. Glory 
to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good-will to 



men." 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 543 

What a happy, what a glorious day would this day of 
advent have been to the Jews had they ' understood the 
character and mission of their promised Messiah. But they 
had wrongly read the prophecies concerning him, and 
therefore supposed he was to come as an earthly prince, a 
hero, a conqueror; who was to restore them to all their 
ancient political glory, and take the throne of David as a 
mighty king. 

Had Jesus proved Bach a one, directing his wisdom and 
energies to that end, according to the conduct of former 
kings, carrying out the law of retcdiation which was fos- 
tered and strengthened by their institutions, they would 
have been prepared to receive him, and would no doubt 
have followed him, if need be, through seas of blood to 
glorious victory or honorable death. But his character 
and work when developed, as well as his humble advent, 
were so different from what they had expected, that, 
wounded in pride and disappointed in hope, they madly 
rejected him. 

He was sent as a Saviour in a two-fold sense; first to 
the Jews, made of a woman, made under the law, to re- 
deem them that were undw the law, to release them from 
customs and traditions which had a tendency to turn their 
minds out and away from the true light of ancient Israel. 
The law, which in its purity was founded upon the gospel, 
had become dead works to them, because they had not 
kept the covenant, but had lived outwardly in their own 
strength. 

" He came unto his own and his own received him not, 
but as many as received him, to them gave he power to 
become the sons of Gk)d." In other words, he declared to 



544 MEMOIRS OF 

them the truth, and they as a whole received it not, but as 
many as did receive it, found it accompanied with a power 
that enabled them to become the sons of God; for as manj 
as are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God. He 
showed them how to fulfill all moral obligations by depend- 
ing upon a higher law than that of man's, even that of 
grace and truth, which is just the state designed by the 
gospel, not only for the Jews, but for the whole human 
family. 

I have said he was a Saviour in a two-fold sense. He 
was one to the Jews personally and visibly, — in God*s 
stead, for Qod spake through him to them. Outwardly he 
was not sent save to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, 
and was with them but a few years when he was taken 
from the sight of men. But, in another sense, he is the 
universal Saviour and Redeemer. In this, however, lus 
office is wholly spiritual; no matter by how many names it 
may be called, or by how many figures it may be repre- 
sented, they all point to that one work which can be done 
nowhere but in man. 

I am aware that this view contravenes the plans some 
have formed for Jehovah, by which He is to save man ; bat 
if what we can know of God is manifest in man, it is evi- 
dent that the preparation of the temple in which he is to 
dwell and reign must be made where the temple is. One 
important reason why there is no more evidence of salva- 
tion and redemption in the world is, that instead of obey- 
ing the Spirit of Truth, which was to be sent to lead us into 
all truth, people are looking back to that which concern? 
them not, but was given to the Jews centuries ago. Our 
help and hope lie nearer to us than old Jerusalem ; all that 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 545 

relates to our salvation must be known in our own exper- 
ience. 

Such a Saviour and Redeemer then is Jesus Christ; 
not the visible flesh and blood, for that we know is not 
here, and we know nothing of it save by history. Said 
Paul, " Although we have known Christ after the flesh, 
yet know we him no more." And it is well that it should 
be so. He went from the sight of his disciples, when he 
had finished his outward work for them, that they might 
cease to depend upon him as an outward strength, and 
that they might be able to receive the comforter which he 
would pray the Father to send them. And is it not equally 
necessary for us to cease to depend upon the outward ? 
We must give ourselves up to his guidance, and in the 
simplicity of truth know what we worship, else we stand 
as did the Athenians when they gave homage to " the un- 
known God; " and if our knowledge is merely historical 
or traditional, where do we stand in advance of that people ? 

Some may query. How shall we know God? "We 
cannot by searching find out God. " Seek Him and He will 
be found of you. He will reveal himself to your souls, 
and then you will know him in truth. We cannot see the 
sun except through the medium of its own light. And so 
with the great I am. We see Him through the medium of 
his own light which He reveals to us; and this is the only 
way. The Son of God is the emanation of his glory. 

Now what can be more beautiful in thought, or more 
true to the spirit of reason and inspiration ? The Son of 
Qod, the emanation from the Father's own glory, Christ 
the power and wisdom of God, — ^this is what reveals him to 
lis. This is what gives power and wisdom to all who are 

80 



546 MEMOIRS OF 

the Sons of God, and thb is what is offered uniTersallj to 
man, if he will receive it. 

When we ask anything in the name of Jesus, we aJwajs 
associate the idea of the Spirit with it, as that which alone 
can help; the name without the power is nothing. 

The outward man Jesus was the holj instrument 
through which God wrought; thus he declared, ''Of mine 
own self I can do nothing," which condition could not 
appl J to Divinity. But as an instrument, much was done 
through him, and that living, active power which was in 
him, and taught him, was Christ; Jesus, being a subms- 
sive instrument, united in the work with the whole power 
of his life; hence he declared, "My Father worketh 
hitherto and I work." He wrought with the Father and 
the Father in him; hence he declared, '' I and mj Father 
are one." The Father was greater than he because the 
teacher is above the scholar; and the power that moves all 
is greater than that which is moved. 

It pleases the Father to show to the world in the pexson 
and example of Jesus just what was required of men if 
they would rise into that perfection for which they were 
designed; what would be the effect of obedience to the 
gospel which is preached in every creature. It would set 
man free from the government of his animal passions and 
preferences, and bring him to depend upon the inspiring 
wisdom of God. Then no propensity would need to be de- 
stroyed, but all and every one would be properly developei 
in purity, and useful in its place. 

Now this *' power and wisdom " with which Jesus and 
all the true servants of God have been anointed, has Dever 
changed, and (laying aside all figures, which somelimeB 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 547 

mislead) will bring all who will receive it to do in effect the 
same work that Jesus did, — ^that of overcoming the world. 

The victory which he gained we also may gain by the 
same grace, and so become children of Grod, hence heirs 
of God and joint-heirs with Jesus Christ. 

Words will not do this for us, nor professions, nor doc- 
trines, nor outward fasting, nor outward praying; but we 
must realize the work being done in our wills and affec- 
tions, until all is sanctified to the truth; then we shall 
become new creatures. 

And what are we to understand by the term ' ' new 
creatures ? " It is fully explained in the experience of Paul. 
He was zealously engaged in maintaining the religion in 
which he had been instructed, in all the traditions of the 
&ther8. His conscienoe was educated by his instructors; 
therefore bis condition was that in which his passions had 
full sway; and he was " exceedingly mad " against those 
who did not feel as he felt, think as he thought, believe as 
he believed, and do as he did. He had no love, no pity 
for those who did not walk in the same path with himself.' 
He knew nothing of brotherly kindness so long as he was 
ruled by this unregenerate disposition, but when met with 
a light that gave him a sight of himself, the sight brought 
conviction and remorse. ' ' Minding the light ' ' led to re- 
form ; then he conferred not with flesh and blood, or the 
will of the unsanctified creature, but became obedient to 
the heavenly vision. And as he ceased to depend upon the 
authority of men for religion, and came to lean upon the 
Father's love and counsel, it brought him to love his fellow 
creatures instead of hate them, and to suffer wrong in- 
stead of doing it. He had become a new creature, he had 



548 MEMOIRS OF 

entered into that path of life in every advancing step of 
which he could say " By the grace of Qod, I am what I 
am." 

The great light revealed to Paul was not for him alone; 
it will visit all others who will open their minds to it^ and 
by it they will be enabled to see the laws written in their 
hearts, by which they may become acquainted with their 
duty to Ood. It will prove a justifier when they obey, 
and a reprover when they err; so that "every one shall 
not say to his neighbor, Know ye the Lord; for all ahall 
know Him from the least to the greatest." 

This is set forth by the apostle in other words: " Know 
ye not, brethren, that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be 
reprobate ? " You see this is perfectly spiritual^ for flesh 
and blood cannot dwell in the soul ; and as in this, so in 
other cases, we may consider the work as spiritual and not 
material. 

The soul cannot be at peace while in a state of trans- 
gression. Sin in the soul may be likened to disease in the 
body; when impurities that contain the germ of disease 
enter into the blood, the means used to remove them must 
correspond to the circumstances; and the remedy must be 
applied immediately to the individual that is sick, or noth- 
ing will be gained. So with the transgressor the remedy 
for his soul's sickness must be applied where the disease s; 
it must be something that can work in the soul, and with 
a power proportioned to the difficulty. 

The means used to effect this work may be represented 
by difierent figures, but they all refer to the same ihing< — 
the cleansing of the heart. The prophet set it forth thus: 
y Every battle of the warrior is with confijsed noiae and 



fiUKDERLAND P. GARDNER. 549 

gannents rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning 
and with fuel of fire." Bin is the fuel, but where is the 
fire ? We are told that Ood is a consuming fire; and He 
will consume, in the willing and the penitent ones, all that 
is opposed to his own nature, or hurtful to man ; and the 
intensity of the fire will be in proportion to the evil in the 
heart, and as elementary fire ceases to bum when the fuel 
is exhausted, so will the fire cease to burn in the soul when 
the cause for it is gone; when the will no longer chooses to 
an, and the desire for wrong is removed. 

When this is accomplished, redemption has done its 
perfect work, the chaff is consumed, and the wheat is 
gathered into the gamer; the man Lj a new creature. 

We will refer to another figure representing the same 
work, and one which our sisters can well understand. The 
spirit of the Lord, in his coming to purify, is likened not 
only to the refiner's fire, but io fuller's soap. In cleansing 
a soiled garment, you well know that the cleansing power 
must be applied where the soil is, the work must be pres- 
ent and active, and when the garment is finally pure, noth- 
ing remains but to keep it so. Thus with the soul ; it needs 
to be washed and made white in '' the blood of the Lamb/' 
But this blood must be spiritual, or it cannot be applied to 
the soul that sins: it must be an actual work of experience 
within the sinner's heart, and not the looking back and 
trusting to something that took place long before he was 
bom, in a land he had never perhaps seen. 

We are under no necessity of turning our minds toward 
Jemsalem for the place and date of our redemption ; we 
have no authority in the Bible for doing so, nor yet in ex- 
perience. We cannot be redeemed by any other power 



550 1CEMOIB8 OF 

than the power of God, which enters into the soul-life for 
that purpose; and then we must make use of the means 
afforded, or our redemption will not be consummated. 

It is often urged upon us with great emphasis that we 
must believe, and some tell us that all depends upon oar 
belief; and some even go so far as to lay down the platform 
for us on which we are to build our faith, and call us infi> 
dels if we do not follow the pattern they have set for us. 
Now this egotism, superstition, or whatever it may be 
that tempts them to such mismanagement, has done abun- 
dance of evil in the world. This course has not only been 
the instigation of persecution, but it has led to false pro- 
fession, than which nothing is more deadening to religious 
society. 

Know ye not that faith is the gift of God and belief is 
the fruit of evidence ? Neither the one nor the other can 
be imposed on man by his fellow-men, nor conferred by 
one upon another. All men of sound mind know that they 
cannot believe that of which they have no proof ; therefore 
they are not responsible for their belief any more than th^ 
are for their nationality, circumstances deciding both ; and 
no coercion or external force or blame can change them. 
Belief refers to outward things; but faith has its promise 
within the soul. It is, as I have already said, the gift of 
God, and is sure to be produced in the pure hearts of bis 
children as they have need of it. It may be at first as a 
grain of mustard ; but it will, if properly guarded, 'spring 
up eventually, and become a tree in strength and beauty. 
This &ith will never deceive us, since God is the light and 
life of it But it cannot live in the heart where pride and 
worldly wisdom are allowed to govern ; neither will it thrive 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNEB. 651 

where any of the perverted passions bear sway. But it is 
the Christian's duty to "give all diligence, that he may 
add to his faith virtue; and to virtue knowledge; and to 
knowledge temperance; and to temperance patience; and 
to patience godliness; and to godliness brotherly kindness; 
and to brotherly kindness charity. For if these things be 
in you and abound, they make you that you shall be neither 
idle nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus 
Christ." All religious belief and all faith which has not 
its origin in the obedient soul as the work of God is but 
the outgrowth of the wild and airy imaginations of men. 
This kind has unfortunately become, to a considerable ex- 
tent, incorporated into the various religious systems, and 
has never failed to be the fruitful source of contradiction, 
confusion and persecution in the name of religion. 

Here one seems to ask, How shall we know true faith ? 
As we know the nature of a fountain by the stream that 
proceeds from it. As we know a tree by its fruit, true 
faith is known by the works proceeding from it; if they 
be pure and unselfish, the faith must be the same; if they 
are always righteous, we know the faith is a living one. 
** Faith without works is dead." 

The doubting often say, "Lord, increase our faith," 
which is but a prayer for more evidence; but this increases 
according to our obedience. A duty — ^it may be a small 
one — is presented before us, and sufficient light and strength 
are given us to perform it; if we are obedient to this require- 
ment, evidence will be given us in our soul's inner life for 
a greater faith. And thus we may advance until that 
wbkh was a smaU seed at first wiU g^w up to perfection of 
strength and form, bearing fruit that shall be owned by 



552 MEMOIRS OF 

him who planted it. This may find a beautifiil analogy in 
the vegetable world. First the seed planted in good ground, 
then the blade, then the ear, then the full com in the ear, 
at last arriyed in the perfection of grain. And yet the 
growth has been a gradual work ; thus with faith and fdl 
Christian adyancement. Nothing is gained suddenly, but 
is of a gradual growth, in all the works of God ; and as the 
soil and the care with which the vegetable plant is attended 
have much to do with its growth and perfection, so also 
will the watchfulness of the soul have much to do with the 
perfection of the good seed planted in its bosom. 

Nor do men become sinners at once. It is the little 
foxes that spoil the vines. Men leave the right path at 
first perhaps but by a slight angle, but the longer thej 
continue in that line the further they go from the right 

And so we need not expect to overcome all evil within 
us suddenly. We may be faithful in all the work, spiritoal 
and temporal, called for at our hands, faithful in watching 
and in waiting, but there is a life work before us, and we 
must be faithful to the end. Jesus learned obedience by 
the things which he sufiered ; and we understand the tenns. 
We too must learn successively that which we are capable 
of receiving. It was said of Jesus that he was made per- 
feet through suffering, just what we must experience if ^ 
would become perfect. Experience tells that it costs us a 
struggle to overcome. We must suffer, and oftentimes 
severely, in laying by those things that are hurtful but dear 
to us ; and the suffering is according to the strength of the 
inclination to the wroug. My young friends can under- 
staud this. Are you called on by the spirit of Truth to 
lay aside inordinate ambition, vanity and the unprofitable 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 553 

or injurious amusements of the world ? It will cause you 
a struggle; you will learn obedience by the things which 
you suffer. Yes I it will cost some of you a severe conflict, 
but the victory, if won, is far more glorious. When you 
see the tendency of the world is to go into extravagant 
and wasteful fashions, you will find it hard to go against 
the current, even though there is nothing in these things 
that feeds the most noble part of your being; even though 
your friends in some cases must lose by it, while aspiring 
and unprincipled fashion-mongers take the hard earnings 
of the country with which to build themselves up into pro- 
digious overgrowth of wealth; even though your country 
itself almost staggers beneath the load of useless luxury, 
appropriated by the selfish pride and weakness of her chil- 
dren ; even though the longing eyes and the outstretched 
hands of starving children, starving in mind and body, 
beg your assistance, that they too may live and rise into a 
manhood and womanhood that you will not blush to call 
American. All these, with countless unnamed miseries, are 
brought into the world by reason of the more favored ones 
of the time deviating from the path of duty. I say all 
these considerations will scarcely give you strength to com- 
mence the warfare. You think at first that you will go 
but a little way, just far enough, perhaps, to avoid being 
singular, but if this take you out of the line of your duty, 
beware, lest, like Bamson, you become shorn of your 
strength while you slumber. 

But if you take to yourselves a fixed principle of right, 
denying yourselves all hurtful things, though the cross may 
at first be heavy, you will, by the grace of Ood, come off 



564 MEMOIBS OF 

oonqueron I You will grow stronger and stronger, until 
all such vanities will lie under jour feet. 

This path of self-denial is just the path that Jesus 
trod, for "he was tempted in all points like as we are.'' 
And it was by this suffering, under the leading hand of 
God, that every power was brought to harmonize in a con- 
tinued desire to do the will of God. This state may be 
attained by us if we will follow in his steps. Jesus, throu^ 
his obedience, became prepared to receive the Chnst-epirit 
or the anointing power of God, and thus become a true 
minister of the Gospel. He was eminently prepared to 
give forth such instruction as nothing short of the spirit of 
God could give. 

The great wisdom of God was conspicuous in all this ; 
his work is a mighty one; his servants must be pure. Jesus 
was pure when he came into the world, and so is every 
infant as he comes from the hands of its Creator; but Ae, 
though ''made in all points like unto his brethren,'* re- 
mained pure. He broke no law; he disobeyed no com- 
mand ; but it b evident he did not remain in this state 
without an effort and a struggle. He fasted and was 
tempted; the opportunity to gratify all worldly ambition 
was offered him, but he rejected it; then the angeb of God 
came and ministered unto him. Was not that victory 
worth all he had suffered thus far ? But his work was not 
done; on he went, step by step, overcoming temptations as 
they were presented before him, and doing in every par- 
ticular God's holy will, sometimes not without suffering ex- 
treme anguish; putting self and all its dear desires under 
foot, whenever they came in the way of truth; until the 
hour came when he could say : '' I have glorified thee on 



SUKBESLAND P. GARDNER. 555 

earthy I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do." 
Here was the final victory; he had done his work; he had 
won his crown. Oh, how well that he had gained this 
victory ere the malignant spirit of the times had finished 
its bloody design I But he submitted ; he who had pro- 
claimed to others, ** I say unto you that ye resist not evil," 
sealed his testimony to the truth of God by meekly sub- 
mitting his body to the cruel tortures of his maddened foes. 
He who had so recently cried, " O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 
thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are 
sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy chil- 
dren together, . . . but ye would not ", — ^himself was 
killed by them. 

But he had been used as an instrument in the hand of 
liis Heavenly Father, to kindle a fire upon the earth which 
is destined to bum and to throw out its light in broader and 
brighter rays, until the world shall bow before the glory. 
Oh that the work might be hastened on. Heaven and 
earth shall pass away, but his word shall not pass away. 
All false heavens, all earthly governments founded in in- 
justice and cemented with blood, must pass away, but truth 
can never be destroyed. " Thy word is truth.' * 

The work, however, cannot be hastened on in any other 
way than by obedience to the Father's will. The com- 
mandments of God, the precepts of Jesus Christ, must be 
obeyed, must become the daily study and practice of our 
UveB, else how is God'a kingdom to come and his will to 
be done on earth as it is in heaven ? Wars must cease, 
but wiU this be until we have learned the Christian way of 
not resisting evil? until we have learned to do unto 
others as we would have them do unto us ? until we have 



566 HEMOtttS OF 

learned what the nations have been so slow in undoBtui' 
ing ; "Mj kingdom is not of this world, else would mj 
servants fight " ? 

An obedience to the truth would end all tTnnnj, 
insult, cruelty, revenge, pride, covetouaneas, and ererr 
evil that makes the earth to groan and grope in darknea 
and pain. Peace on earth will prevul just so fiur asii|^t- 
eousness leads the way, and it does its work just in propor- 
tion as the will of God is done in us. Bat the fiie L« 
kindled, and many have by its light been enabled to eee 
that there is no royal road to man's best good, but tbatsS 
who will enter into life must begin at the same point, 
must commence in humility, even like that of a litdeehiU; 
and that by keeping in the path pointed out to them bj the 
spirit which leadeth into all truth, they may beo(mleimpo^ 
tant pillars in the house of Ood. They must be true K^ 
vants, and be washed in that blood without the sheddii^ 
of which in their hearts there is no remission, and then in 
th^r purity they shall wear the diadem, upon which is 
written, "Holiness to the Lord;" and under this dedicating 
power they shall work for the needed reforms untO truth 
shall reign triumphant. 

The church of God is composed of those who are poi^ 
in heart, and whose righteousness exceeds the righteousness 
of the scribes and Pharisees. Name and title is of n<7 
account, but those who love God and work righteousneas 
are accepted of him. 

The Friends' Society, as such, originated at a time 
when the testimonies of truth had so fallen in the fifcreet?' 
and unrighteousness was so exalted in high places, that a 
peculiar people seemed needed for the work of reformatiaD« 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 557 

— a people who would dare and do all that was neceesary in 
order that the truth might be promoted, and the waj be 
prepared for the work of the Lord. And they were peculiar 
in declaring that the worship of Ood did not consist in 
ceremonies and forms, nor could it be limited to places 
consecrated by men, but that it must be in spirit and in 
truth. They also declared that the true minister must 
receive power firom the Holy Ghost, without the anointing 
of which he had no authority. And they were against 
hiring ministers, believing the gospel to be free, and that 
the servant would receive his reward from Him that sent 
hiuL Nevertheless their needs might be administered to 
according to necessity, as the brethren were able. Nor did 
they believe that educating them in the schools of divinity 
had any power to make them the ministers of Christ 

They were peculiar in obeying the command against 
taking oaths, and in using the language of truth in their 
address to men. 

They were peculiar in their practical and public testi- 
mony against war, believing that the servants of Christ 
could not fight, nor did they retaliate upon their persecu- 
tors, rendering evil for evil. They were peculiar in their 
simplicity of dress, and in bearing a testimony against 
every kind of oppression, and intemperance, and injustice, 
and pride, vain customs, tale-bearing and detraction. And 
I may here say, they cannot lay aside any of these pecu- 
liarities and remain Friends. 

The church is looked upon as the great instrument to 
work for God in the present time, but to-day how great a 
reformation is needed at many points where they profess to 
be a part of the holy institution. When we look upon the 



558 MEMOIB8 OF 

splendid church edifices, costing their thousands lor » 
needed grandeur, when we look upon the memben td 
even the ministers made prominent to the ejes of thewU 
by their display of dress and acoompanimentSy how vooH 
the meek and suffering Jesus appear in their midst?— be 
who bore the seamless garment, and had not where to ky 
his head ! Now this wealth of expenditure, so soog^^ 
after, so applauded in the world, must have an ol^ 
And what is this object? Is it for God ? He needsit nat 
" The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof." 

Is it for the good of man? Whom does it benefit? 
Certainly not the widow and the fatherless, nor the po« 
found in the street perishing for food, nor the drunkard fl 
his wretched home, nor the criminal in his cell, nor tM 
heathen whose general ignorance needs a teacher, nor toe 
isolated inhabitants of our land, found in far-off localiti« 
without meetings or schools or even the Bible. Jfortsii 
helping the proud heart to become humble before God fe 
it in any way doing the will of God, or will it bring Josn 
into a condition to give glory to God in the highest ? 

Think of these things, my young friends, and cho^ 
ye which ye will serve. The upward progress or downward 
march of the next few years depend upon you and ii^J* 
of your age in the world. But this world does not alwftj* 
last with us; and every one shall be judged according ^ 
the deeds done in the body; nor shall we be judged by the 
sight of the eye nor the hearing of the ear, bs io ^ 
world, where appearances often condemn the innocent and 
excuse the guilty; but God, the righteous judge of aW ^ 
earth, will not be deceived. He will judge aright 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 559 

Now in that love that knows no bounds I bid you all 
farewell. May the grace of God be in you and abound. 

I thank you for your kind attention, and for the wel- 
come you have extended to us, to occupy so large a portion 
of the time of your meeting, and should any of you ever 
visit our country, we will gladly reciprocate your kindness. 



SERMON DELIVERED AT PHILADELPHIA, 

FOTH MOITTH IOTH, 1886 (MOKXIKO.) 

The Apostle Paul declared to the Corinthians ; " I will 
come to visions and revelations of the Lord. I knew a 
man in Christ above fourteen years ago (whether in the 
body, I cannot tell ; or whether out of the body, I cannot 
tell ; Grod knoweth) : such an one was caught up to the third 
heaven. And he heard unspeakable words which it is not 
lawful for a man to utter." 

This brings into view three .degrees of experience, the 
attainment of which is possible for the children of men. 
When we come to consider this in a proper lights the ^ 
mystery with regard to it passes away, and the opening of 
our experiences, as they succeed each other step by step, 
serves as a key to bring to our understanding what is 
meant by these three heavens. 

The first heaven is that condition in which we all come 
into this world ; it is a heaven which we inherit immedi- 
ately from our Heavenly Father : instead of being, as it 
were, corrupted by the transgression of Adam, or from 
any other source, we find ourselves pure and innocent. 



560 MEM0IB8 OF 

I know there are those who teach an opposite Tiew, bat 
we find by experience that there is no corruption, nothing 
in the condition of man as he comes into this world tint 
serves as a partition to separate his soul from God. I an 
aware that this contravenes the doctrine which has loDf 
been taught, to the great harm of mankind, that be<»a» 
Adam transgressed all succeeding generations were broagb 
down to disadvantage and death. 

We find that our experience corresponds with the t^ 
monj of our Heavenly Father, through His Son Jesos 
Christ, whom He hath anointed to declare His truth to 
men, who himself declared, ''To this end was I born, and 
for this purpose came I into the world, that I might bear 
witness to the truth ; " and in bearing this witness he said, 
''Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them 
not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven." 

When these come from the hands of our Heavenlr 
Father they are in the first heaven. This being the case, 
we can clearly perceive that heaven is not a state of sepa- 
ration from our Heavenly Father, but it is brought forth 
by the life and power of Grod. Their condition, then, 
being a heavenly state, we say this is the first heaven. I 
may here remark that our Heavenly Father has never 
made any other condition for the souls of men but heav«L 

From this first condition we pass along until the develop 
ment of the law of God becomes clear to our spiritual lifr, 
and at this period our responsibility commences, and if we 
choose the right we retain our heavenly state throughout 
our probation in this life. On the other hand, if we leave 
the right, and choose the wrong, we lose this heaventj 
state, and we do tbi? always by our pwQ olectioii and 



BUNDEBLAKD P. GARDNEB. 561 

chbioe. Our Heavenly Father does not take it away from 
us, and if we choose the right we shall remain in the king- 
dom of heaven. We shall see clearly what we are called 
upon to do. Here, then, comes in. the work on our part, 
which if we faithfully carry out we retain our birthright 
from our Heavenly Father, who never created anything 
wrong, never brought forth anything sinfiil ; and man 
never had anything sinful in him until he transgressed the 
law of Divine life in his own soul. 

Here, then, we see that when we come to that which 
we call the great work of moral righteousness, we can, if 
we do our own work faithfully, become instrumental for 
good, working together with our Father in all things, mak- 
ing a proper use of the blessings which He besto¥^ upon 
us, and thus we become successAil in creating or forming 
the second heaven. 

Now, this was what Jesus came to teach man that he 
should do to inherit eternal Ufe. You can perceive by 
reading his precepts — ^by reading what we call the Sermon 
on the Mount — ^that he presents moral lessons ; he calls 
man to that which he may appreciate and understand, for 
our Heavenly Father has ever given sufScient light to do 
all the work that is required of us. He is never behind- 
hand in doing His part of the work. 

There is no work that we are called to do but can 
be done. Our work is to procure that which we stand in 
need of for all our daily subsistence. 

This is literally so, as far, even, as that which sustains 
the body from day to day. Our Heavenly Father under- 
stands that we need these things, and He assists us in pro- 
curing them. He gives us the earth, and the light and 



562 MEM0IB8 OF 

heat of the sun, and the rains and the dews. Theseare 
His part of the work ; but He will not sow the fidds, He 
will not plow them, nor cultivate them, nor gather in die 
harvest. These are our parts of the work, and if we nub 
proper use of the means which he has placed in our mdi 
we shall be able to procure our daily sustenance. 

The same is true of the food for our soul nataro— oor 
salvation and redemption. We must work ; for nothing is 
obtained where there is no sacrifice or labor, and God in- 
spires us to do that which Lb right for us to do. We mast 
be instrumental in doing all that we can do for the good of 
ourselves and our fellow-men. It was this that JeBiu was 
anointed to do when he declared the truths to the people in 
his day. All his teachings and precepts had this direction 
— ^to call them to moral righteousness. He taught them 
that they must be faithful in doing all the work that wie 
properly set before them. The sum and subetance were 
expressed in a very few words: ''AH things whatsoever jt 
would that men should do unto you, do ye also likewise 
unto them." 

This is the substance of the law and the propbeto. 
All that was valuable in the law, all the subetance of tbe 
teachings of the prophets, was to point and direct to tbis* 

He declared the truth of God, but we see that the pro- 
fessors of the Christian religion, notwithstanding aU tlier 
high professions, notwithstanding the preaching of lookiif 
to Jesus as the Saviour and Redeemer, have not done f* 
the children of men what they should have done. 

We all know that Christianity has joined with tk 
powers of the world in waging war, in making preparation 
for destroying each other. We see that the professors of 









SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 563 

religion have entered into an agreement with the political 
part of the nations, and they are also arrayed against each 
other, and each side in time of war has engaged men to 
teach religion and to pray for the success of their arms. 

We see how little the teachings of the Spirit of Grod, 
through His Son Jesus Christ, have done even for those 
who are professing to be his followers. True religion 
would change the entire condition of things if we would 
accept the principle of doing unto others as we would have 
them do to us; it would do away with all war, man would 
no longer slay his brother man; it would make peace in 
neighborhoods, there would be no contention nor strife in 
the world, no more speaking against each other, or doing 
anything which they would not have others do to them. 

There is no mystery about the religion of Jesus; it can 
be comprehended and understood by all. He denied the 
rightfulness of war, and declared that his servants could 
not fight; and it remains to be true, whatever men may 
declare to the contrary, that his servants cannot fight, and 
they who do fight are not his disciples. 

This is the sum and substance of the religion which 
Jesus Christ taught, though it was not new. In order that 
it may come into the heart of man it must have a right 
root to bring forth the plant; and that is simply the revel- 
ation of Grod, the light of truth, or the law of God, speak- 
ing after the manner of men, written upon the tablet of 
the heart, having no reference, however, to the fleshly 
heart of man; but aa this throws the life-blood or living 
principle to all parts of the outward system, so this divine 
principle sends its power all over the soul. We have given 
to us by this power sufficient knowledge to enable us to 



564 MEMOIB8 OF 

perform all our duties, and we may pafis on step bj step 
into higher conditions, until we attain to that which tbe 
apostle speaks of as the third heaven, the perfection oftiaX 
righteousness which is brought about by the operation of 
the Divine light in the souls of the children of men. Oar 
Heavenly Father has never placed Himself in the attitude 
of anger towards any of His children, even the very worst 
of them. His action is not based upon the principles of 
the law of Moses. That law was the kx taltonis. It is i 
great mistake to suppose that our Heavenly Father makes 
use of any such means for carrying forward his work. It 
was their own hearts that led men to judge their Heaveolj 
Father, and they gave Him a character in accordance with 
their own* feelings. They said he was a jealous God, an 
angry Ood; they said he was disappointed in regard to the 
Creation, so much so that he destroyed most of the people, 
and that he had to form a plan in order to be relieved <f 
the great mistake which He had made; and they declared 
that He repented Himself because He had made dazl 
But if we look into our own hearts we shall see that it is 
only when we have done wrong and have become trans- 
gressors of the Divine law that we are reproved for diat 
wrong, but never in anger. When we do right we feel 
justified, we feel comfortable and happy within ourselves, 
and this is simply the approval of our Heavenly Father. 
He speaks to us with a voice that we can understand, not 
by vocal sounds but by impressions upon our spirits. We 
all know this to be true. 

It comes from that being which is Love, and being un- 
changeable, it has ever remained love, and every manifes- 
tation that has been made to man has been in love and not 



SUNDERLAND P. QARDNER. 565 

in anger. It is to this principle of Divine love in the soul 
I feel to call our attention. We all have desires for the 
right, we are all looking for that which will give us right 
direction, for that which will lay a foundation upon which 
we can safely build. We have evidence of this before us 
now in this large assembly ; perhaps not one would have 
been here, had there not been something of this working 
of the Divine power in the soul. We are all looking for 
the revelations of our Heavenly Father; for that which 
will lead and sustain us in the right course. No external 
thing can give any aid, any profit, except to direct us to 
this inward power in the soul of man. This is true of the 
Scriptures; in themselves they can only bear testimony to 
it. Jesus made this point clear in regard to them when he 
said, *' Ye search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye 
have eternal life, and they are they which testify of me, 
and ye will not come to*me that ye might have life." Now, 
in making use of the term me, he did not mean himself as 
a man visible before them, but he personified the spirit of 
the Father, that very spirit which is in all men, giving 
them eternal life ; for he knew he should be with them but 
a short time, he knew that he would be taken away from 
that body, but he knew that this would be with them al- 
ways, even unto the end of the world. 

Paul declares : ' ' We have known Christ after the flesh, 
but henceforth we shall know him no more aft;er the flesh.*' 
Outward things can go no further than to point to the sub- 
stance in our own hearts. It is to this Christ, which ever 
-was co-existent with the Father, (as he declared, "before 
Abraham was I am)," — it was to the revelation of God's 
power in the hearts of the children of men that Jesus re- 



566 MEMOIRS OF 

ferred, for he said, '* Lo, I am with you always, even 
unto the end of the world." It was not the outward maa 
that walked up and down in Judea, but the spirit and 
power of Ood, that is always with man; this is the Chrk 
of God. 

Paul said, " We preach Christ and him crucified, unto 
the Jews a stumbling-block, and unto the Greeks fooli^- 
ness, but unto them which are called, both Je^ and 
Greeks, the power of God and the wisdom of God." 

Here, then, when we get a full understanding of th» 
declaration, and have it clear in our minds, we can see 
that the Christ of God is the sum of the two attributes of 
His wisdom and power; these are His attributes, andH« 
works in the hearts of the children of men with them, and 
it is nothing short of our Heavenly Father that is ChiiA 
in us the hope of glory. We deny that this Christ cooH 
be crucified on an outward cross. There was a death of 
Christ that b profitable to us as an example in that he died 
unto sin inwardly, that he might live unto life eternal ; bat 
it is not the death of the outward body, but the death 
to everything that rises up in controversy with Grod, that 
will bring all our passions and propensities into their proper 
places to fill their allotment. This is the cross of Christ, 
and it is not designed to be harsh or cruel; but it is to lay a 
proper restraint upon everything that would harm as» it is 
that which is necessary to guard us and keep all our pas- 
sions from sin. These passions are all pure in themsek^; 
it is the abuse of them that brings forth sin, and under the 
restraining power of the love of God we are made to ^ 
our responsibility. 

Our will and our reason are all right; all these thin^ 



fiUNDERLAKD P. GARDNER. 667 

are from Grod, and they were designed by our Heavenly 
Father for the good of His children, to provide for their 
needs, each having a specific purpose to fulfill. 

But if we cease to watch over these, if we neglect the 
care of these, a door is opened through which sin enters 
into the world. Not through temptation, for if we stand 
on the right ground sin cannot throw us down. There is 
no outward being that can injure us if we keep on a true 
foundation. There is not one of us who has ever heard 
such a being speaking to us and drawing our hearts away 
from Grod. We have found in our experience this great 
and important truth that sin never entered in in any other 
way than through the abuse of some blessing which Grod 
has given us. We cannot refer to one single wrong but 
we may trace it to something that was good which our 
Heavenly Father has bestowed upon us. 

The apostle James said, '' Let no man say when he is 
tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted 
with evil, neither tempteth he any man. But every man 
is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lusts and 
enticed." Sin comes in when we suffer our animal powers 
to take the lead and govern us; they are blind, they are 
not to be trusted of themselves, and when they go beyond 
a proper point, there is where sin comes in : there is where 
we are called to be on our guard ; reason and the will are 
placed over them; this is the part in man that causes him 
to be responsible. Reason is the highest power in man, 
and when it is enlightened by the Divine Spirit it is in- 
tended to govern all the passions and propensities of the 
rational soul. When the man thus stands right all his 
powers are in harmony, and he may sing on the harp of 



668 MEMOIBS OF 

Qod. I undentand that all the attributes which oor 
Heavenly Father has given are good, that man is per- 
fect in this sphere, and if he keeps hia place he maj 
bring all his passions to act together in harmonj, and there 
will be no discord, no sin there. In bringing about this 
work we come into a condition that we have wrought to- 
gether with Grod. We have overcome, we have gained the 
ascendency and we have come into the second heavoL 
This is a matter of experience, and we can all attain to it, 
and if we do not it is because there has been a n^Iect 
on our own part There rests a great responsibility upon 
us for the right use of our reason, for this should always 
be brought into the work. I have heard some tell us that 
we should not use our reason. Some would have us go to 
the Scriptures, and depend upon them alone ; and dedaie 
that we must not depend upon reason. 

But our Heavenly Father did not give us reason^ the 
noblest gift that He has bestowed upon us, without intend- 
ing that we should use it. Through the mouth of one of 
his prophets, he says: "Come, let us reason together;*' 
and as we are willing to come before Him and hear what 
He has to say to us, by what is called the Christ of Gkxl, 
he will lead us, and by His inspiration enlightening oar 
reason we shall be saved. Our reason must be brought 
to the light and then all will be right, but if we turn away 
from the light, our reason will bring us into the condition 
which was called the serpent; whenever we allow self-in- 
terest to take too much control it becomes a serpent, and 
this has deceived millions of mankind ; the greatest intel- 
lects, those having the greatest talents, have frequently taken 
this course, and it has ever proved a failure. 



SUNDERLAKD P. GARDNER. 669 

Now when we come to this great moral work of right- 
eousness that is formed in us, we can understand the parables 
of Jesus: there is one in which he spoke of a certain man 
who was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell 
among thieves, who beat him and robbed him and left him 
half dead, and the priest and the Levite passed by on the 
other side; but as a Samaritan journeyed that way, he took 
compassion upon him. What was the moral condition of 
the first of these ? They filled a place in the church, but 
they had not this moral righteousness that made the second 

heaven. 

Again, Jesus divides the human family into two classes, 

and to one of these he said, ' ' Come ye blessed of my 
Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the 
foundation of the world: for I was an hungered and ye 
gave me meat: I was thirsty and ye gave me drink: I was 
a stranger and ye took me in: naked and ye clothed me: 
I was sick and ye visited me." And they said, " When 
saw we thee an hungered and fed thee, thirsty and gave 
thee drink ? " etc Then he said, " Inasmuch as ye did it 
unto the least of these, ye did it unto me." Then shall he 
say unto them on the left hand, " Depart from me; inas- 
much as ye did not do it unto one of the least of these." 

We can see the great force of the moral teachings of 
Jesus; it becomes clear then why he should separate them 
because they had not sympathy with the afflicted and down- 
trodden. Now we can see why the first party was right 
and the other was wrong, and right and wrong cannot 
unite, can never come together any more than fire and 
water, — ^for the fire will dispel the water or the water will 
quench the fire and put it out ; — so it is in regard to right 



576 MEMOtRB OF 

and wrong. This is clearly set forth in this, so that all cu 
understand the reason why such as these could not be 
united, but must be separated. 

As the priest and the Levite could have no symptAj 
with the afflicted, therefore they would be on the left hud. 
I do not speak with a view of reflecting upon any men or 
their calling, but I speak to show that men may bold 
places in the Church and be entirely void of that religion 
which Jesus came to teach. I do not accuse any minister 
or priest; but I want us to see the object of the instnictioD 
of Jesus Christ, and as we come to understand this it vill 
do away with all mystery with regard to religion. There 
is no mystery in the religion of Jesus Christ, but it is a 
matter that deeply concerns the children of men, and m 
shall find that whatsoever Gk>d calls for at the hands of hb 
children. He brings it down clearly before them; then, and 
not till then, are we held responsible by our Heavenlj 
Father. Every parent brings his requirements down to 
the capacity of his children before he holds them responsihle. 
So, too, our Heavenly Father makes it plain to us; and the 
reason that religion is so much in the dark is because men 
have neglected to look to the right source, have been look- 
ing to the traditions of former ages, looking to the Bible tf 
the Word of God. This is wrong ; there is a great deal thst 
is very valuable in the Scriptures, and that may be a great 
encouragement to us, but we must go to that source and 
foundation which existed before the Scriptures were written, 
and that is our Heavenly Father, and His word still con- 
tinues to be for our instruction. "Thy word is truth," 
said Jesus. He had no reference to any writing, but to the 
Word of God which is revealed to every individual. He 



SUKDERLAKI) P. GARDNER. 671 

Speaks to the soul directly, and it needs no translation. 
There is where we shall find the truth that will enable us 
to live out in this life the religion of Jesus Christ. This 
will enable us to enter into the third heaven, where we 
shall hear things that cannot be uttered. Here, my friends, 
we come to experience a condition wherein our spirit is 
united with our Heavenly Father, and we have a sense and 
feeling of things that words have no power to utter. Here 
is the third heaven. We have passed from the first heaven 
of our infantile life and have gone above the second heaven 
of moral righteousness through the works of our own hands, 
and have entered into the third heaven, in which we 
have overcome and have passed from these into that con- 
dition where we have continual fellowship with the Father 
and with His Son, Jesus Christ, and then we have the vic- 
tory over all that can harm or destroy. 



SERMON DELIVERED AT PHILADELPHIA, 

FIFTH MONTH 10, 1885 (▲FTERNOOH.) 

Had I not believed that the windows of heaven are 
equally opened to all the children of men, I should not 
have left my home on a religious account I cannot per- 
ceive that there is any partiality on the part of our Heav- 
enly Father ; but that his call is to all to obey his will. 
He says, emphatically: '' Come unto me, all ye ends of the 
earth, and be saved." This call implies the fact that all 
can come, for if that cannot be, it were superfluous to make 
it. He says, ''Ye have that already which will save 



672 ICBMOIRB OF 

you ; " and we know, my friends, that we have not hr to 
go in order to find him who is the Saviour, for he declaied 
on this wise to men : '' I am Ood, and bedde me there is 
none else : beside me there is no Saviour. I am (jod and 
not man." ' So that none need conclude, because ther 
have in this day what they call a great deal of light, that 
they have higher privUeges in comparison with othera,-^hat 
they alone will be saved. Our Heavenly Father fumisbes 
to all, wherever they are and whoever they axe, the 
means, which, if they will make proper use of them, are 
sufficient to accomplish all that is necessary for their 
salvation. 

We see how clearly this is set forth in what John saw 
when he declared : ''I beheld a great multitude, which no 
man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and peo- 
ple, and tongues, who stood before the throne and before 
the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their 
hands. . . . And one of the elders answered, saying. These 
are they who have come out of great tribulation, and have 
washed their robes and made them white in the blood of 
the Lamb." 

Thus is clearly set forth the fact that our Heavenly 
Father has furnished all the means that we need for our 
salvation. 

Historical evidence does not give us a knowledge of 
God ; the testimony of others is not clear evidence to us of 
the truthfulness of it. We must know him in a difierent 
manner and from different evidence. We can truly know 
him only from the evidence which he furnishes, and this 
evidence is manifested within us. Here, then, is where he 
furnishes that which is in the figure called the blood of the 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 673 

Lamb. The outward blood has no power to cleanse any- 
one ; it is the life and power of God that was represented 
bj the term blood. Jesus put no stress upon the flesh. I 
know there has been an idea put forth that it is necessary 
to have faith in the outward blood, thus taking too 
literally the saying of Jesus: ''Except ye eat my flesh 
and drink my blood ye have no life in you." But 
this manifestly refers to the spiritual flesh and blood. 
When he spake these words many were discouraged 
because they could not understand such teachings, and 
they followed him no longer ; and when he saw their 
want of spiritual understanding he said unto them : ' ' It is 
the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing." 
I understand the blood to be a symbol of the life and power 
of Grod, and those who make proper use of this can wash 
and be clean. This I understand, my friends, to refer 
to our character. If we make use of this Spirit, if we 
are obedient to it, if we know it to be the quickening 
power of Divine love operating in us, it will always result 
in the cultivation and formation of the right kind of char- 
acter. Men may give us a reputation which may not be 
at all applicable to us ; they may speak the truth or not 
about us ; but we must make our true characters for our- 
selves, and if we find ourselves not right we can make use 
of that which will assist us in making a right character by 
being obedient to this quickening spirit that giveth life. 
It was upon this that Jesus always laid stress, and never 
upon material blood. It always has been and always will 
be the life of Grod, and of his son Jesus Christ, that cleanses 
us from all sins ; it will cleanse us from all that b sinful, 
it will purify us, and our robes will become, as it were, 



674 MEMOIB8 OP 

white. Then we will have the eyidence of victory over all 
wrong and all sin, and then we can sing a new eong. Now 
we see how plain and how clear this is, but it must be 
an experimental matter with each one of us ; for it remains 
to be true that no man can save his brother, or give to 
God a ransom for his soul. For every man must improve 
the talents given him, and we are judged every day and 
every hour in regard to the use of the talents which we hare. 

There are some who teach that there is to be a great 
judgment day ; that we have to wait thousands of years 
till the last trump shall sound, and all nations shall be 
gathered together at an appointed day of final judgment 
If we look into our own souls we shall see that this is not 
so, that there can be no such thing. The Grospel of Jesus 
Christ does not teach any such thing. The Gospel of 
Jesus Christ is simply the truth. Jesus said to he 
Heavenly Father, " Thy word is truth ; ' ' and that truth 
reveals itself just according to our state and condition. 

John said he saw an angel flying in the midst of the 
heavens, having the everlasting Gospel to preach unto 
them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and 
kindred, and tongue, and all people, saying with a loud 
voice, " Fear God and give glory to Him, for the hour of 
His judgment is come.*' Now, my friends, what a blessed 
thing it is that ** the hour of His judgment has oome" 
unto us, wherever we are, no matter what may be our con- 
dition. If we are true to ourselves and enter in and ex- 
amine our own souls, we may all know how our case stands 
with our Heavenly Father, and with 'Hhe Son and sent 
of God." It becomes us thus to make an examination, 
and bring the subject home to ourselves. It is withia our 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 575 

own spirits that we must become savingly acquainted with 
Grod. When we thus become acquainted with our Heav- 
enly Father, we shall find everything within us regulated 
by His power and brought into order and harmony. We 
may observe the order of the heavenly bodies in the out- 
ward universe — ^how they move in perfect harmony. We 
see that the seasons follow each other in exact order, and 
we may find many lessons in the outward creation. When 
we look around us and observe all this order, and har- 
mony, and beauty, we may see the evidences of the Power 
that wrought all these things. But this does not bring us 
to be Christians, it does not bring us to a real acquaintance 
with God. We ' find there is a law which is adapted to 
our states and conditions, which comes first to us, and 
which must be obeyed before we come to that which is 
higher. 

The Jews were under the law of Moses, and this law 
could not bring a man any further than the outward taber- 
nacle. Its object was to regulate their lives, and it is the 
same to-day. God does not condemn man for being un- 
der the law, but He calls him to come up higher. Jesus 
said: "Ye believe in God, believe also in me." He re- 
ferred to the Spirit revealed through him. 

The Deist does not believe that God reveals His laws 
in any other way than through the outward creation, but 
the teachings of Jesus went further. He showed that the 
Father did reveal Himself in man. He taught a condi- 
tion which is above and beyond the deiatical state, — the 
Divine Spirit which the Father revealed in them, which 
alone would make them Christians. I know that many 
of the professors of Christianity have persecuted the Deists. 



676 MEMOIRS OF 

I have no such feeling towards them; I imderstand that 
they have not come to the knowledge of God within them- 
selves. There are others whose knowledge does not extend 
further than the teachings of the Scriptures, but if that is 
all the knowledge they have it does not bring them any 
further than to the outward court. 

We can know God only as He reveals Himself in our 
hearts. I have no doubt most of us know this. It is de- 
clared that "God is love, and they that dwell in God 
dwell in love, and God dwells in them." There is where 
He reasons with us; there b where He justifies us for 
right,' and reproves us for wrong. There we find the 
judgment seat, and we must bring not only all our deeds, 
but all our motives of action to the judgment seat within 
us. This is my idea of the practical character of the re- 
ligion which Jesus taught, and I verily believe that this 
religion is true. It was founded upon the precepts which 
his Father taught him. We are not to be saved by his 
death, but if we follow the example of his life, we shall be 
saved by the same power that was in him, and that enabled 
him to bear all things and to suffer the death upon the 
cross. He set a blessed example for us, and if we take the 
same course we shall do as he did, — ^go about doing good to 
the bodies and souls of men. He did not clum that he 
could do anything for us. There was another death that 
was far more important than that upon the outward cross; 
it was the death to all in himself that would lead him to 
disobey his Father, and that is the death that we should 
all come to experience. He set this forth plainly when he 
said he had gained the victory over every feeling that 
would interfere with his perfect obedience to his Father. 



SUNDERLAND P. QABDNEB. 577 

He could then call upon his disciples to take up their cross 
daily and follow him. The disciples were his scholars; 
they were under his teaching, and he carried them along 
just so far as outward instruction could lead them, and 
then he told them : "It is expedient for you that I go 
away, for if I go not away the Comforter will not come.' ' 
Why wa3 this so ? Why was it necessary that he should 
leave them, or the Comforter would not come ? It was 
because they were leaning upon him, they were depending 
wholly upon an external teacher. He knew well that as a 
man he was not to be the final Teacher, but the salvation 
was to come from a higher source, and while they were de- 
pending upon an outward teacher, they could not reach 
this. It was necessary therefore that everything of an 
outward and material character should be removed ; that 
our dependence upon these shall be taken away before we 
can receive our teacher within us. The teaching of Jesus 
was outward, and by parables which were symbolical and 
intended to convey a spiritual meaning. But when he was 
about to leave them, he said unto them: " Tarry ye at 
Jerusalem until ye are endued with power from on high." 
Jerusalem signifies a quiet habitation, and here was to 
be found the teacher that they were to wait for, and not to 
be dependent upon anything of an outward character. He 
was taken away from them that they might find the true 
teacher, God himself ; and when we come to be acquainted 
with this teacher within us, and when we come to know 
thisy all desire to look to or depend upon anything of an 
external nature is taken away from us, and we are ever 
willing to look to this Divine teacher, this word from the 
Father which comes to all, and is applicable to all the con- 

87 



578 HEMOIKS OF 

ditions in which the human family are found. Itspeabooi 
by any vocal sound, hut it speaks directly to us by iin[»«^ 
sion. It speaks to us, even as the prophet said udId 
David, " Thou art the man." 

Jesus referred to the great care of the Universal Father 
for his flock, in the parable of the lost sheep: '' If a mu 
have a hundred sheep and one of them be gone astray, 
doth he not leave the ninety and nine and goeth into the 
mountains and seeketh that which is gone astray ? '' Hi^ 
shepherd was not satisfied until he had found it. 

There was no anger manifested toward that sheep tint 
had strayed away. It was lost, and was out of its place, 
and it was sought after and was found, and " he rejoiced 
more over that sheep than over the ninety and nine whid 
went not astray," because it was restored to the flock. 

Again a woman lost some silver, and she was oob- 
oerned about it ; she swept her house and found it Tbe 
desire was to find that which was lost that it might be it- 
stored, not for the intrinsic value of the silver. Nov see 
how beautifully here is set forth the condition of a mas 
that strays away from the path of rectitude; — ^no matter how 
far he may have strayed the Father sees that which isvor- 
thy of being restored, that he may fill his allotted place. 
When the sheep was sought after and found there was do 
idea of redemption, — ^it only needed restoring to its proper 
place. So with the silver, — ^there was no redemption, ititf 
restoration to its original place. 

To my mind it is very plain, in looking over the New 
Testament, that the doctrine of redemption and salvatioD 
by the shedding of the blood of Jesus Christ is not found 
among the teachings there. He says nothing about this; 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 679 

he declared that he came to bear witness to the truth, as 
his Father gave it to him for mankind. He never could 
have borne witness to the truth but as his Father saw fit 
to reveal it to him. 

He never declared that mankind suffered anything be- 
cause of the sins of Adam. That dark doctrine among 
men must have come from some other source and not from 
him. 

His Father sent him into the world to declare His truth 
to man, and He never told him to say that, because of his 
suffering, his crucifixion, and the shedding of his material 
blood, mankind could be restored from that condition into 
which they had fallen because of the transgression of 
Adam. 

I do not know where this doctrine came from, but it is 
not to be found in anything that Jesus left. He declared 
that he came to do the will of His Heavenly Father, and 
to finish the work that he gave him to do, and before he 
was crucified, before his blood was shed, he declared, "I 
hsLve finished the work which thou gavest me to do." 

He suffered mart3rrdom for the cause of righteousness, 
and for bearing faithfully the testimonies his Father gave 
him to bear to the world, and because he bore these testi- 
monies against the wickedness and wrong that was in the 
world, the wicked Jews put him to death. There is a doc- 
trine among men that God had foreordained that Jesus 
should come into the world, suffer persecution, and be cru- 
cified by wicked men. Did not Jesus know the mission 
that the Father had given to him and the work that he 
was to do, and was he mistaken when he declared that the 
work was finished ? 



680 MEMOIBB OF 

It is true he spoke of his blood and his flesh, bat it 
was only a figure representing the Spirit, which he de- 
clared quiekeneth and giveth life. That to which he con- 
stantly directed man was the Spirit. We see how the 
world of mankind for ages has been imposed upon. We 
hear men making the declaration so freely, "Our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ." Do we suppose there ever 
was more than one Christ 7 He is spoken of in the Script- 
ures as the rock that followed Israel, and that rock was 
Christ ; and this was many years before Jesus was bom. 

This Christ of God, "the wisdom of God, and the 
power of God," has ever been with man since the creation, 
and is the only Saviour of man. I know there are those 
who uphold the idea of Jesus being our Saviour and our 
Redeemer, but if we turn into our own hearts we may 
become acquainted with Christ, that power of God which 
was in Jesus. Paul declared, " Know ye not that except 
Jesus Christ be in you ye are reprobates.' ' Now we all 
know that a man cannot enter into us, and Paul meant 
that the spirit which was in Jesus would become our 
leader, our director and our Saviour, and when this spirit 
has entered into our hearts, we look no more after the 
flesh, but we realize that we have a spiritual relation with 
the Father through the Son, the Christ of God, no matter 
by what name he may be called, — ^the power of Gkxl, the 
wisdom of God, or Jesus Christ, — ^keeping the Spirit always 
in view; it then acts as a divine power, a quickening life in 
our hearts. 

It is to this ** grace of God " that I feel called upon 
to turn the attention of mankind, for I fear sometimes men 
are disposed to make an idol of the Scriptures by putting 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 581 

their dependence upon them. We should never depend 
upon anything short of the spiritual power of God. We 
must go beyond the Scriptures, and become acquainted 
with that which was before them, and when we come to a 
knowledge of this we shall know that our Heavenly Father 
never created anything wrong. He never placed anything 
sinful in the hearts of the children of men. AU the sin 
that has ever been in the world has come from the perver- 
sion of that which is good. The passions and propensi- 
ties which, when turned into a wrong channel, produce 
evil and sin, are all good in themselves when kept in their 
proper places: and in order to keep these just where they 
should be, we must come to an experimental knowledge of 
this indwelling Spirit; we must ever be led and guided by 
that which is called in the Scriptures " the grace of God that 
bringeth salvation ;" and when we come under the influence 
of this we shall find that it will teach us, ''that denying 
ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, 
righteously, and godly in this present world." See how 
dear these Scriptures are, how very valuable they are: 
they need no further proof than that they corroborate the 
Divine truth as it is revealed in our own souls. 

Do not understand me, my friends, as undervaluing 
them; they turn our attention to something higher than 
themselves whenever we read them properly, but if we do 
not, we simply rest in the outward testimony. But if we 
turn inward with full purpose of heart, we shall find that 
our Heavenly Father is very near to us, and it is to this 
that I feel, on this occasion, to call your attention. All that 
we stand in need of is the manifestation of God within our 
souls. We do not have to buy this; we do not have to 



682 MEMOIRS OP 

engage othen to instnict us in it We hjtve no neoeaitj 
to ha^e any man teach us the truth, for Grod teaches  
that which is truth and no lie, and Grod is ever ready to 
reveal himself and his Christ in our aoals, and this is tlm 
which will save and restore that which is lost. It is to tkb 
fountain of Divine love within us that I feel to oonuDod 
you with my own souL 



SERMON DELIVERED AT PHIUU[>£LPSIAy 

FIVTH MOKTH IOTH, 1885 (■VXHIHa) 

** Other foundation can no man lay than that which ii 
laid, which is Jesus Christ. But if any man boildeth 
upon the foundation gold, silver, precious stones^ wood, 
hay, stubble; each man's work shall be made manliest, for 
the day shall declare it, because it is revealed in fire ; and 
the fire itself shall prove each man's work, of what sort it 
is. If any man's work abide which he built thereon, he 
shall receive a reward. If any man's work shall be burned, 
he shall sufier loss, but he himself shall be saved; yet so 
as through fire." Here is set forth the idea of building 
upon a foundation, and we would all admit at onoe thai 
every building should have a foundation on which to 
stand. The Christian religion is founded upon the power 
that was in Jesus Christ, not that which is changeable, 
but that which has been from the beginning. Now every 
building must be where its foundation is. The foundation, 
so far as we are concerned here in this state of being, most 
be within ourselves, and does not depend upon a creed or 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 583 

confession of faith, but it must be an experimental knowl- 
edge revealed in the secret of our own hearts; then it will 
stand sure and steadfast as a foundation, for it is nothing 
else but the Spirit of Ood in the souls of the children of 
men. Here it is, my friends, that we make the true con- 
fession that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh. The Apos- 
tle declared that "every spirit which confesseth that Jesus 
Christ is come in the flesh, is of God ; and every spirit 
which confesseth not Jesus, is not of Qod." 

How shall we confess that Jesus Christ has come in 
the flesh? Not simply by an expression of words; not 
simply from history. We must confess it by righteous 
and upright lives; by that which springs forth and grows 
in our lives, giving evidence that the Bpirit of Christ has 
come into our hearts, and taken up its abode there. Jesus 
of Nazareth was not the only manifestation of Christ, and 
to confess him as such will not benefit any one. It is only 
as the Christ is manifest in our flesh, controlling it and 
bringing it under the power of Ood, that we are blessed in 
spirit 

This power acts only in the individual in which it is 
placed. Jesus showed, so far as he himself made confes- 
sion, the indwelling Spirit of the Father in him. His 
whole life exhibited the evidence of this indwelling Spirit. 
He never claimed anything original in himself, but he de- 
clared, ''My doctrine is not mine, but His who sent me.'' 
" If any man will do His will, he shall know of the doc- 
trine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself " 
Here is a point of real interest and value to us, for 
when we come individually to do the will of God, it will 
bring us into that condition that we shall be led by the 



584 MEMOIB8 OF 

Spirit of God, and it will make manifest the trutb of die 
religion of Jesus Christ, and this is all the doctrine thai 
we really stand in need of. When this becomes our expe- 
rience, and we know wherein the heart is patting its trust 
in the Divine power, we shall know whether it be the doc- 
trine which proceeds from the truth, or whether it be that 
which originated in man. Now we can see clearly that we 
need very few doctrines if our hearts are filled with love; 
but in regard to our religion, if we only adopt the doctrines 
held by those who lived before us, we know them only by 
hearsay or tradition. 

When we come to have our doctrines evidenced by the 
Spirit of Gk)d, we know them to be true. Jesus did not 
declare any doctrine as original with himself, or that he 
was the first one that discovered it He said, " As I hear, 
I speak," putting all his confidence in the Father; and all 
the truths which he uttered originated in the condition in 
which he stood in relation to his Father. It was the 
Father's anointing power that gave him the qualification to 
preach. I know that some may say, " Why was it neces- 
sary for him to receive anything from another ? " for we 
are told by some that he was God. Some churches have 
decreed that there are three individualities in the Godhead: 
' ' God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost;" 
but my friends the decree of a Church does not make a 
dogma true. Jesus never declared that he vras God. Our 
Heavenly Father represented himself as the one and only 
true God. '' I am God, and beside me there is no Saviour.*' 
Jesus set forth the way in which he and all other ministers 
are to be qualified to become ministers of the gospel. On 
a certain occasion he went into a synagogue on the Sabbath- 



SUNDEBLAND P. GARDNER. 585 

day as was his custom, and stood up to read, and there 
was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Isaiah, 
and he read : ' ' The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because 
He hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; He 
hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliver- 
ance to the captive, and recovering of sight to the blind; 
to set at liberty them that are bruised, the opening of the 
prison to them that are bound, and to preach the acceptable 
year of the Lord." ''And he began to say unto them. 
This day is this Scripture fulfilled." 

He was thus qualified to preach the gospel, and this is 
the only source by which any gospel minister can ever be 
qualified, and we, on our part, must make use of that which 
ia given to us, for if, instead of putting our confidence in 
this anointing power we build up a system of creeds and 
confessions of faith, they are no better than wood, hay, or 
stubble, which, when tried by fire, will be burned up. 

These works thus brought forth by men in their own 
wills are standing in the way of truth and righteousness; 
but behold the time cometh when the Lord will rise " and 
shake terribly the earth," and all that may be shaken. 
" In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver, and his 
idols of gold which they made, each one for himself to 
worship, to the moles and to the bats.'' 

Now, my friends, there is a great deal that men have 
adopted, and in which they are trusting, so that they have 
become their heavens, — ^their rest For instance, to bring 
the point clearly before us, they declare that if they will 
but believe that Jesus Christ came into the world to sufler 
death, — to be crucified upon the cross, — and to be 



586 MEMOIB8 OF 

from the dead ; — if they will onl j believe this, thej inll be 
Bayed, and except they believe this thej cannot be sared. 

Some dedare that Jesus came into the world ibre- 
ordained to die for us, — that God could not be reoondled 
until an innocent son was put to death ; and that we miat 
believe this or we cannot be saved. Inconsistent as this 
doctrine seems to be, it is the foundation on which wasj 
are building, and they are laboring eamestlj in that wbidi 
they call the proselyting process to bring people into the 
Church, telling them that when they profess to believe in 
Jesus they are saved at once. 

It seems right for me now as I am here with you to 
look into this matter and see how it stands. It is inferred 
that God foreordained all these things, and that He wooU 
only be reconciled to the human family if they were thos 
fulfilled. 

If He foreordained these things He must have known 
all the circumstances necessary to bring them about He 
knew that some one must betray Jesus, and as a righteous 
man would not do this, a wicked man must have been fore- 
ordained for it, — ^a devil. Jesus said : ' ' I have chosen yoo 
twelve, and one of you is a devil." 

If all this was foreordained Judas was as much a part 
of the plan as any other person, and if his act was necee* 
sary for the salvation of man, we can place no blame upon 
him. Yet it was said that darkness covered the earth, and 
the vail of the Temple was rent in twain. This would not 
seem to indicate the pleasure of our Heavenly Father. 
Don't be alarmed, my friends; let us examine it The 
Apostle Paul speaks of the killing of the Lord Jesus as 
one of the most wicked acts. If it had been foreordained 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 587 

would God have been displeased with the Jews because they 
did it ? If it was necessary for the redemption of the world 
of mankind, it would have caused rejoicing instead of 
darkness and the rending of the vail of the Temple. 

Why has the name of Judas when execrated by all who 
knew of him, and why applied to traitors even to this day ? 

Jesus never mentioned any case in which man had lost 
by the fall of Adam. One of the prophets says: "In 
those days they shall say no more. The fathers have eaten 
sour grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge, but 
every one shall die for his own iniquity ; every man that 
eateth the sour grapes, his teeth shall be set on edge." 
** Behold all souls are mine; as the soul of the father so 
also the soul of the son is mine; the soul that sinneth it 
shall die ; the son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, 
neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son; the 
righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the 
wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him." 

Here is clearly set forth a truth which we know by our 
experience to be rational. Those who look for Christ in 
their own souls are the only ones that are saved. We must 
come home to that field in which we are to labor, the gar- 
den of Eden within ourselves, for the account we have of 
the garden of Eden is a beautiful figure, representing the 
spiritual man placed in a garden. We find that in our 
human nature there are trees and animals of all kinds to 
be cared for and cultivated, and this is the great work of 
man. A poet has said: " Know thou thyself, presume not 
God to scan; the proper study of mankind is man." 

When we enter into an examination of our own hearts 
we find as the clouds are removed that there is a light from 



588 MEMOIB8 OP 

our Heavenly Father which illuminateB the soul, and ^ 
he has marked out a path for each one of us to walk ia, 
wherein we need not the wisdom of this world to guides; 
yet the knowledge of the sdentist will not be in the m 
if kept in its proper place. 

All knowledge will be an advantage to us if we \xt^ 
our eyes single to the light within, for we shall find dui 
righteousness is the first and supreme thing, and all o(hs 
things will follow in a secondary manner, and by oang 
these things as they should be used we maj safely study all 
the sciences. Let me say here that notwithstanding oar 
Heavenly Father has given us powers of inirestigation, mm 
has never originated anything in himself; he simply dis- 
covers the workings of the Divine law; so it is with all 
things pertaining to truth, — ^we only discover the laws aiMi 
rules by which they act 

There is nothing that our Heavenly Father lays a re- 
straint upon in the human mind. He has given us M 
liberty for the exercise of all our powers in the riglit 
direction, and he is ever ready to show us what this is. B 
is our duty to make a proper use of the talents which be 
has given us, and if we do this we shall be found walking 
in the right path, making improvements at all times. We 
cannot add to our Heavenly Father; such is his goodness, 
such is his love to his rational creatures, that He is con- 
stantly drawing his children by his own Spirit nearer to 
him, so that all may come to feel his love to cover th^ 
souls, which is the best garment that he can bestow upon 
them. 

Ood was spoken of in former times as being angry witb 
the wicked every day. I think this is not so, and it is 



SUNDERIANP P. GABDNEB. 689 

wrong to Bsy that God ever gets angry; it is wrong to say 
that Grod is a God of vengeance. The kingdom of Grod is in 
man, — ^not far away from him. Man dwells in this kingdom 
when he obeys the divine law, and when he becomes an in- 
habitant thereof he is prepared rightly to use all the things 
of this world. They are secondary things, but we stand 
in need of them, and if we use them rightly they will 
always be a blessing to us. 

The possession of great wealth will not necessarily ex- 
clude a man from the Kingdom of Heaven. When the 
young man came to Jesus saying, '' Good Master, what 
good thing shaU I do that I may have eternal life?" 
and Jesus referred him to the moral law, the young man 
said, '* All these things have I kept from my youth up. 
What lack I yet ? " He would not have asked this ques- 
tion if he had been satisfied; but there was something still 
wanting, therefore he came to the Master because he did 
not understand what was needed. But we see that it was 
necessary for him to separate himself from his idols. Jesus 
could see the condition of hb heart; he saw what it was that 
made him uneasv and dissatisfied with himself, and said to 
him, " Go and sell what thou hast and give to the poor, 
and come and follow me." But he was not willing to take 
up that cross ; so he went away sorrowful, for he had great 
poflBessions. 

''Then said Jesus unto his disciples. Verily I say unto 
you, that a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom 
of heaven. It is easier for a camel to go through the eye 
of a needle, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of 
Grod." This is pretty plain language, but I believe he is a 
''rich man" who places his supreme enjoyment upon 



590 MEMOIRS OF 

wealth or anything of an outward nature : such an one is not 
in a condition of righteousness, joy and peace in the Holj 
Spirit On the other hand, a man may h^ve a vast deal of 
wealth, if his heart is not truly absorbed with it, — if be 
holds it in trust ready to relieve and assist those who hsT% 
need of it : — ^when such a one looks to his Heavenly Father 
for direction, his riches will not prevent him £rom enjojisf 
the kingdom of heaven. Agab, a man may have butveiT 
little of this world's goods, but if his whole heart is devoted 
to that above everything else, he is the ** rich man " wlio 
cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven." 

I know many religious teachers have undertaken to 
avoid this difficulty for the rich man by sayings that Jesus 
referred to a narrow pass in the mountains of Judea called 
the * ' eye of a needle. ' ' I have no such view, but I belierc 
that wealth gotten by honesty, and held in a proper manner, 
is not that ''gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay or 
stubble" that if any man build upon he must sufier loss by 
fire. 

I am aware that I speak differently from what hasbeeo 
taught. It is said that man will be saved by fire. Wfaflt 
do we understand by fire ? Certainly not the elementary fire 
that we find in the outward and material world; but there is 
another fire, and an important one for us to be acquainted 
with. The Scriptures tell us that ' * God is a consuming fire," 
but not in an elementary way, to consume the things of the 
earth ; His fire is His love, and it burns in our souls, cauaog 
those who have strayed from the path of rectitude to retoni; 
it burns up everything that is not good within us. It is his love 
working in our hearts, and is sometimes called an aroused 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 591 

conscience; and it will, as it were, bum everything that 
should be consumed, and cause it to pass away. 

This fire works by love to the purifying of the heart, 
and is the fire by which a man shall be saved. If he sub- 
mit to the operation of that power, it will bring him to 
stand in the position in which Paul stood after he had been 
met by the way as he was going to Damascus. He was 
trying to build upon the foundation of the religion of 
Moses. He was sincere in his work of endeavoring to de- 
stroy everything that stood in the way of that religion. 
But he " was met by a light above the brightness of the 
sun." The light of the outward sun is very important, 
but it never showed a man the condition of his heart; and 
when he came to see, by that light, his condition, it smote 
him to the ground, and he who had been a strong man 
became weak ; when he submitted to this he was entirely 
changed. Instead of entering into controversy, he s^d, 
"Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ?" And he after- 
ward declared, '' When it pleased God to reveal his son in 
me, immediately I yielded to the heavenly vision." He 
"conferred not with flesh and blood." 

He had been sincere, but he was brought now to see 
his real condition, and he declared, ' ' When I am weak, 
then am I strong." When he turned to the voice of the 
Son of Ood and obeyed him he became strong, not in his 
own strength but in the wisdom and power of God. There 
is nothing contradictory in the declaration that when he 
was weak, as to the exercise of his own powers as a man, 
he was strong in spirit. 

Perhaps there are but few instances so clearly defined 
with regard to that important change by which he became 



692 MEMonts OF 

a minister of the Groepel. He did not say that he had re- 
ceived it from man, but he declared it was bj the revela- 
tion of Christ in his own heart. This revelation of the 
Spirit of Christ is what showed him his condition. It was 
the same that was spoken of in the Scriptures thus: ''God 
so loved the world that He gave His onlj-begotten Son, 
that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but 
have everlasting life." 

This does not refer to the outward man, because the 
outward man could not be revealed in man, but the reve- 
lation of Qod in our hearts is the only-begotten Son of 
God. 

Jesus was a son of God in this, that '' as many as are 
led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God." This is 
Scripture language, and we shall find it to coincide with 
our reason, and reason is the highest natural gift of God 
to man, but reason must be brought to act under the influ- 
ence and direction of Divine truth, and then it comea to 
the very point that Jesus taught in the Sermon on the 
Mount 

Reason would say that we should do unto others as we 
would have them do to us. I would not say that this 
expression originated with Jesus, for other men had spoken 
of the same thing. It does not take any credit away from 
him, however, because others had been inspired with simi- 
lar truths. God never withholds any truth from His 
children when they are prepared to receive it. He reveals 
Himself to mankind everywhere according to their con- 
dition and capability of receiving truth, and if they are 
obedient to it, it will lead them to mansions of eternal rest 
This was clearly set forth in the vision that John saw when 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 603 

he "beheld a great multitude, which no man could number, 
of all nations, and kindreds, and peoples, and tongues, who 
had come out of great tribulation, and had washed their 
robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb." I 
do not understand this to mean outward blood, it is simply 
the Spirit of God; for it is the spirit that quickeneth, and 
that quickening spirit is represented in the figure of the 
** blood of the Lamb," which men may use to wash their 
rohes and make them white. Robes are a figure of that 
which will enable us to enjoy the privileges which our 
Heavenly Father bestows upon His children. God is 
love, and there never was any manifestation of anger on 
His part ; for if any of us have left that condition of inno- 
cency in which we were created by our Heavenly Father, 
we shall find that that which causes us to feel dissatisfied and 
to dedre to return is the love of God. When we come to 
learn that Grod is love we shall know that He cannot be 
angiy and revengeful. The most important lesson that we 
can learn is to become acquainted with ourselves, to under- 
stand all our powers, passions and propensities ; — then we 
become better acquainted with Grod ; then we realize that 
we never originated one &culty, one propensity. We 
know that these must have been formed by a superior 
power. This study would instruct man with regard to the 
Supreme Being and His works. It seems very strange 
that anyone could come to the conclusion in his own mind 
that there is no Supreme Being. This is a very low view 
of things. .There is that which cries out in the very soul 
of those who wish to be honest, against this idea, that gives 
uneasiness to those who attempt to form any such conclu- 
sion or belief. We may try to suppress these feelings, and 



694 MEH0IB8 OF 

to hide ourselves iu the garden among the trees, but the 
voice of the Lord God will be found walking there in tbe 
garden. The tree of life is there. Now this tree of life his 
long been held by many as an outward tree. There is bat 
one tree of life, and that is not an outward and visible one. 
The tree of life is nothing short of the Spirit of God in tbe 
midst of the garden of the soul. How true is the expres- 
sion that God is within us. " And he showed me a pure 
river of water of life, clear as cr3rBtal, proceeding out of 
the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the midst of tbe 
street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the ' 
tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and 
yielded her fruit every month : and the leaves of the tree 
were for the healing of the nations." 

The twelve manner of fruits represent the various car- 
dinal virtues that we may possess now in our own tima 
The Apostle Peter presented the same thought in regard to 
the Divine power revealed in us, showing that the Divine 
Father requires no faith without giving us evidence, and 
if we look to Him we shall be enabled to " add to our faith, 
virtue; and to virtue, knowledge; and to knowledge, tem- 
perance; to temperance, patience; and to patience, godli- 
ness; and to godliness, brotherly kindness; and to brotherly 
kindness, charity," or in other words, love. " For if these 
things be in you, and abound, they will make you that yoa 
shall be neither barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. " This shows clearly that true £uth 
is of that nature "which works by love to the purifying 
of the heart, " and which gives us a victory over the world. 

We then understand the nature and the reality of the 
fruit produced by the tree of life. And as we come to 



SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER 595 

feed upon this fruit, it will be to the soul an anchor; and 
our trusty our faith, will produce works that will give evi- 
dence of its reality. 

As "a body without a spirit is dead, so are works 
without faith." Works are the only clear evidence which 
man can give of his faith. This is that true faith that 
will always strengthen and support us, and whatever trials 
or disappointments may come it will prove an anchor to us, 
and will keep us in the patience; it will bring us into that 
condition that we can fill up our measure of brotherly kind- 
ness and charity in the world ; and here, my friends, we 
shall give evidence that we are walking in the love of God, 
and laboring as Christ labored, that we may attain to the 
same victory over all transgression. 

In the vision of John, Jesus said unto him, '' To him 
that overcometh will I grant to sit with me on my throne, 
even as I have overcome and am set down with my Father 
on his throne." I suppose you will all admit that if 
Heaven deemed it right that a message should be sent back 
to the world, there was no one more appropriate than Jesus 
to bring it to John. 

We know that the throne of Grod is in the human soul, 
and when we overcome all that is in opposition to Him 
there, we too may sit down with him upon His throne. 

It is very plain and clear that if there were anything 
more important than that of overcoming, in order to be 
saved, if it were necessary to believe in the outward blood 
of Jesus Christ and the doctrines now considered essential 
by many, there would have been a message from heaven to 
that effect, but no such message was given. It was " to 
him that overcometh I will grant to sit with me in my 



596 MBMOIB8 OF 

kingdom, even as I have overcome and am set down vitii 
my Father in His kingdom." 

Now, my friends, I have spoken that wMch has come 
before me, not one word of which I had when I sat down. 
If it does not correspond with the evidence of Divine 
truth in your own hearts, I leave it with you. I dedare 
nothing for truth that I have not a pretty certain evidence 
from my Heavenly Father is true. I have endeavored to 
go to Him all my life. When I was a little lad I used to 
retire in the shades of the evening to solitary places alone, 
and pour out my feelings to my Heavenly Father ia 
prayer. I could not become an atheist, or an infidel, with 
regard to the existence of a kind and loving Heavenly 
Father, for I had the evidence of this constantly with me 
then, as all through a long life, nor was I ever rebuked by 
my Heavenly Father in anger: it was always in love, to 
restrain me, and restore me again to Himself. 

God could not restore any one by anger. It is the h>ve 
of our Heavenly Father that is leading us back to Hun- 
self. Oh, my young friends, I want you to receive the 
love of God in your hearts now in the morning of your 
lives; yield yourselves obedient to all His requirings, and 
if you make this resolution now, you will be safe. Although 
you may meet with trials, and your path through li& may 
be apparently beset with thorns, by that which may be 
compared to the serpent, if you keep your eyes steadily to 
the truth you will be preserved ; you will not be harmed 
by that which is around you in the world, the fire will not 
kindle upon you, your habits will become stronger for 
good, and you will become steadfast for the truth. 

We have the right ground, and if we make the right 



SUNDERLAND P. OARDNEB. 597 

use of it the love of the Father will guard and preserve 
us. And now, my friends, I have extended my expressions 
far beyond what I intended, but my heart is full of love 
for all, and I feel to bid an affectionate farewell to every 
class, — the children, the middle-aged, and those who, like 
myself, are far advanced : and I hope that we shall all be 
prepared to meet the call of the pale messenger when he 
comes: that we shall be ready, like a shock of corn Ailly 
ripe, to be gathered to that beautiful home " where the 
wicked cease from troubling, and the weary soul shall find 
rest" Amen. 



SERMON DELIVERED AT PHILADELPHIA. 
rara month 12, 1886 (KvxinNo). 

''He that soweth to the flesh, shall of the flesh reap 
corruption ; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the 
Spirit reap life everlasting." This expresses to us, my 
friends, that man cannot possibly dispense or receive that 
which is good so far as he himself is concerned. Man is 
constituted like other animal beings; he has a nature like 
them, passions and propensities like them; yet did not form 
any of these himself, — ^the great All- Wise Father created 
them, and placed them in him. When we awaken to con- 
sciousness, after we come into this world, we find ourselves 
in the possession of these passions, propensities, and 
powers. We find them in us, and know of a certainty that 
we did not create one of them; that they were not placed 
there by our own choice or election, and if these animal 



598 MEMOIRS OF 

bodies were all there is that goes to make up the oompoimi 
nature of man, there could be do more responsibility on 
the part of man than there is in the animai creation bebv 
him. Paul said, " The natural man receiveth not the tiiingi 
of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness unto him: 
neither can he know them, because they are spirituaUj 
discerned." It is only the Spirit that can discern spiritual 
things. 

Therefore in the human economy there must be some- 
thing placed that can discern spiritual things, or he still 
would not be accountable. That which enlightens nad 
instructs man is that which is placed by our Heavenly 
Father, in his wisdom, over the natural man. God ha& 
given to man reason or understanding, and thus placed him 
in a condition to receive instruction from that which Js 
higher than himself. 

For this purpose it was designed that reason should be 
placed in man, that he should fill his place and allotment 
in life. Now although our passions and propensities me 
all good when kept in their proper places, as they come 
from an All- Wise Creator, who never made anything 
wrong, or placed anything wrong in man, yet he hath so 
arranged these that they are blind, — they have no reason: 
and therefore there is that which has reason, has judg- 
ment, that is placed in man to control and direct them, and 
he therefore becomes responsible for every action. Thb 
then that God has placed in man stands higher than any- 
thing else in man's nature, because it can receive inspira- 
tion. This therefore which receives the inspiration of oar 
Heavenly Father is what we call the soul or spirit. This 
is that which we believe is immortal, because it is the means 






SUNDERLAND P. GARDNER. 599 

by which Ood oommunicates with man. We have read 
and heard a great deal of our Heavenly Father, but neither 
history nor hearsay can give us a saving knowledge of 
God; a man may search from his early life to the close 
thereof, and he cannot find God by any outward means, 
but he need not go without a knowledge of his Creator, 
for He reveals Himself in the souls of men. This b that 
which gives us a consciousness of right and wrong. 

We know this in our own experience; we know that 
when we do right we feel justified and satisfied with our 
actions. On the other hand, when we do wrong, we feel 
that which gives us uneasiness; there is something within 
us that bears a strong and clear testimony against wrong, 
and it will continue to bear that testimony just so long as 
we continue to do wrong. 

Now, my friends, that which speaks in us is our 
Heavenly Father's Spirit, and we need not depend upon 
any external thing to direct us in the course which it is 
designed we should pursue in life. 

That which instructs us is altogether sufficient, and we 
are not required to go to our neighbor or our brother to in- 
quire concerning the Lord, for under the dispensation in 
which we live the covenant of God is that ' ' I will put my 
Spirit in them, and every one shall know me from the least 
of them to the greatest. ' ' This revelation of our Heavenly 
Father to us is that which instructs us from the time that 
we become so far developed that we can discern spiritual 
things. He begins then to write his lessons on the tablets 
of our hearts, and He is ever with us. While therefore we 
caimot know the Lord from external circumstances, yet we 
may all know Him. * * He is that light that enlighteneth 



600 M£MOIB8 OF 

every man that oomeih into the world." No cme can hcfc 
an excuse for being lost, if we walk according to the best 
light that we have, and I believe we are all anxiooB to be 
saved, and whatever may be our present condition and ex- 
perience we all hope that by and by we shall attain to a 
better and higher state. 

We all feel something, however much we may sbugg^ 
against it, that makes us uneasy when we do wrong. We nek 
rest and cannot find it until we come to submit to the re- 
quirings of that which shines in our hearts, which is called 
the Son of God, or Jesus Christ. It is called the Word 
of God, the Truth of God. Here, my friends, is that whidi 
we stand in need of becoming acquainted with. 

There are those who call the Bible the Word of God, 
but it is no outward book, — ^it is not that which coma 
from outward observation concerning things in nature, bat 
it is that which is revealed in every spirit. Jesus said to 
his Heavenly Father, " Thy word is Truth." 

Thus it is clearly shown what Jesus meant to instruct 
man constituted the word of God. 

Here then we see that this truth is not partial ; it speaks 
a language according to our conditions, and if each one 
would obey that which is revealed to him, although there 
is a great variety of talents and conditions, which is all 
right, it would produce no disharmony in the human fiunilj, 
each would fulfill the mission which was called for at his 
hand ; each would fill his measure of duty, so each mi^t 
go on, although called in difiTerent directions and to difier- 
ent kinds of work; yet there would be harmony in all thb 
variety. This was clearly set forth in the account we have 
when Jesus was transfigured. AfUr the doud had passed 



SUNDEBLAND P. GARDNEB. 601 

away, Peter eaid to Jesus: " It is good for us to be here; 
if thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles, one for 
thee, one for Moses, and one for Eiias." Here we see he 
was willing to include Jesus with the rest, but he wished to 
perpetuate Moses and Elias, or the prophets. He wished 
to perpetuate the mission of John the Baptist, and John's 
mission was simply an outward one, to call men to a con- 
dition of repentance, preparatory to receiving God in their 
hearts. 

Now we can perceive how it was in regard to the var- 
iety which he ¥rished to continue, the three dispensations; 
but there was only one thing that they could turn to, and 
that was Jesus, the Son of God, in whom was the Spirit 
of the Father. He was sent as a Saviour to that people. 
He had come to bring to their view immortality, to show 
that we are not to be dependent upon the outward law. 
He called them to come out from under the law and con- 
sult that which was manifested in their own h^rts, and 
obey all that it required of them. 

Jesus said: ''Ye have heard thou shalt love thy neigh- 
bor and hate thine enemy, '' but he reversed this: — ' ' Thou 
shalt love thine enemy.'' He said that they should put 
no trust in any external thing whatever. 

The law could take no knowledge of the state of the 
heart; if a man desired in