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Accession No. G- 

Call No. 
Author j 

Title y\ oy^bi ,% eid MonXj'c.el/0 

TUi book should be returned on or before the date last marked below. 

In the 1840*8 


of a 


As Dictated to Charles Campbell 

In the 1840's by Isaac, one of 

Thomas Jefferson's Slaves 





The reminiscences printed here were 
taken down in the 1840*8 by Charles C^mp- 
bell, the Virginia historian, from the verlSal 
account of a slave who had lived at Monti- 
cello from 1775 until two years before Jef- 
fersori's death. They were first printed in 
1951 in a scholarly edition with introduc- 
tion and notes by Dr. Rayford W. Log^ri;' 
which was sold out within a year of its first 

The present popular edition is intended 
to meet the growing demand for this classic. 


Foreword 3 

Isaac Jefferson's Memoirs 7 

Notes 54 

Biographical Data concerning Isaac . . 63 

Biographical Data concerning Campbell 67 

Note on the Illustrations 69 

Bibliographical Note 73 

Index 77 

Colophon 87 


For acknowledgments and details concern- 
ing the illustrations, see pages 69-72. 

Isaac Jefferson frontispiece 

Jefferson's Life Mask . . . facing 16 

Jefferson's Polygraph . . . facing 27 

Linn Engraving of Jefferson . facing 41 

Monticello facing 50 


Monticello: his mother was named 
Usler 1 but nicknamed Queen, because 
her husband was named George and com- 
monly called King George. She was pastry- 
cook and washerwoman: stayed in the 
laundry. Isaac toated wood for her: made 
fire and so on. Mrs. Jefferson would come 
out there with a cookery book in her hand 
and read out of it to Isaac's mother how to 
make cakes, tarts and so on. 

Mrs. Jefferson was named Patsy Wayles, 8 
but when Mr. Jefferson married her she was 
the widow Skelton, widow of Batter 3 Skelton. 
Isaac was one year's child with Patsy Jeffer- 
son: she was suckled part of the time by 

Isaac's mother. Patsy married Thomas Mann 
Randolph. 4 Mr. Jefferson bought Isaac's 
mother from Col. William Fleming of 
Goochland. Isaac remembers John Nelson, 
an Englishman at work at Monticello: he 
was an inside worker, a finisher. The black- 
smith was Billy Ore; 5 the carriage-maker 
Davy Watson: he worked also for Colonel 
Carter of Blenheim, eight miles from Monti- 
cello. Monticello-house was pulled down in 
part and built up again some six or seven 
times. One time it was struck by lightning. 
It had a Franklin rod at one end. Old Master 
used to say, "If it hadn't been for that 
Franklin the whole house would have gone." 
They was forty years at work upon that house 
before Mr. Jefferson stopped building. 



ML. JEFFERSON came down to 
^illiamsburg in a phaeton made 
y Davy Watson. Billy Ore did the 
iron-work. 6 That phaeton was sent to Lon- 
don and the springs &c was gilded. This was 
when Mr. Jefferson was in Paris. Isaac re- 
members coming down to Williamsburg in 
a wagon at the time Mr. Jefferson was Gover- 
nor. He came down in the phaeton: his 
family with him in a coach and four. Bob 
Hemings drove the phaeton; Jim Hemings 
was a body-servant; Martin Hemings the 
butler. These three were brothers 7 : Mary 
Hemings and Sally, their Sisters. Jim and 
Bob bright mulattoes; Martin, darker. Jim 
and Martin rode on horseback. Bob went 

afterwards to live with old Dr. Strauss in 
Richmond and unfortunately had his hand 
shot off with a blunderbuss. Mary Hemings 
rode in the wagon. Sally Hemings' mother 
Betty was a bright mulatto woman, and Sally 
mighty near white: she was the youngest 
child. Folks said that these Hemingses was 
old Mr. Wayles' children. Sally was very 
handsome : long straight hair down her back. 
She was about eleven years old when Mr. 
Jefferson took her to France to wait on Miss 
Polly. She and Sally went out to France a 
year after Mr. Jefferson went. Patsy went 
with him at first, but she carried no maid 
with her. Harriet, one of Sally's daughters, 
was very handsome. Sally had a son named 
Madison, who learned to be a great fiddler. 
He has been in Petersburg twice: was here 
when the balloon went up the balloon that 
Beverly sent off. 

Mr. Jefferson drove faster in the phaeton 
than the wagon. When the wagon reached 
Williamsburg Mr. Jefferson was living in 
the College. 8 Isaac and the rest of the ser- 
vants stayed in the Assembly-house a long 
wooden building. Lord Botetourt's picture 9 
was there. The Assembly-house had a gallery 


on top running round to the College. There 
was a well there then: none there now. Some 
white people was living in one end of the 
house: a man named Douglas was there: 
they called him Parson Douglas. 10 Mr. Jeffer- 
son's room in the College was down stairs. A 
tailor named Giovanni, an Italian, lived 
there too: made clothes for Mr. Jefferson and 
his servants. Mrs. Jefferson was there with 
Patsy and Polly. 11 Mrs. Jefferson was small: 
she drawed from old Madam Byrd 18 several 
hundred people and then married a rich 
man. 13 Old Master had twelve quarters 
seated with black people: but mighty few 
come by him: he want rich himself only his 
larnin. Patsy Jefferson was tall like her 
father; Polly low like her mother and long- 
ways the handsomest: pretty lady jist like her 
mother: pity she died poor thingl She mar- 
ried John W. Eppes a handsome man, but 
had a hare-lip. 

Jupiter and John drove Mr. Jefferson's 
coach and four: one of em rode postilion: 
they rode postilion in them days. Travelling 
in the phaeton Mr. Jefferson used oftentimes 
to take the reins himself and drive. When- 
ever he wanted to travel fast he'd drive: 


would drive powerful hard himself. Jupiter 
and John wore caps and gilded bands. The 
names of the horses was Senegore, Gustavus, 
Otter, Remus, Romulus, and Caractacus, 
Mr. Jefferson's riding-horse. 


A^ER one year the Government 
was moved from Williamsburg to 
Richmond. Mr. Jefferson moved 
there with his servants, among em Isaac. It 
was cold weather when they moved up. Mr. 
Jefferson lived in a wooden house near 
where the Palace 14 stands now. Richmond 
was a small place then: not more than two 
brick houses in the town: all wooden houses 
what there was. At that time from where the 
Powhatan house now stands clear down to 
the Old Market was pretty much in pines. 
It was a wooden house shedded round like 
a barn on the hill, where the Assembly-men 
used to meet, near where the Capitol stands 
now. Old Mr. Wiley had a saddler-shop in 

the same house. Isaac knew Billy Wiley 
mighty well a saddler by trade: he was door- 
keeper at the Assembly. His wife was a baker 
and baked bread and ginger-cakes. Isaac 
would go into the bake-oven and make fire 
for. She had a great big bake oven. Isaac used 
to go way into the oven: when he came out 
Billy Wiley would chuck wood in. She some- 
times gave Isaac a loaf of bread or a cake. 
One time she went up to Monticello to see 
Mr. Jefferson. She saw Isaac there and gave 
him a ninepence and said, "This is the boy 
that made fires for me." Mr. Jefferson's 
family-servants then at the palace were Bob 
Hemings, Martin, Jim, house-servants; Jupi- 
ter and John, drivers; Mary Hemings and 
young Betty Hemings, seamstress and house- 
woman; Sukey, Jupiter's wife, the cook. 


THE day before the British 1 * came to 
Richmond Mr. Jefferson sent off his 
family in the carriage. Bob Hemings 
and Jim drove. When the British was ex- 
pected 16 Old Master kept the spy-glass and 
git up by the sky-light window to the top of 
the palace looking towards Williamsburg. 
Some other gentlemen went up with him, 
one of them old Mr. Marsdell: he owned 
where the basin is now and the basin-spring. 
Isaac used to fetch water from there up to 
the palace. The British reached Manchester 
about i o'clock. 17 Isaac larnt to beat drum 
about this time. Bob Anderson, a white 
man, was a blacksmith. Mat Anderson was 
a black man and worked with Bob. Bob was 

a fifer, Mat was a drummer. Mat bout that 
time was sort a-makin love to Mary Hemings. 
The soldiers at Richmond, in the camp at 
Bacon Quarter Branch, would come every 
two or three days to salute the Governor at 
the Palace, marching about there drumming 
and fifing. Bob Anderson would go into the 
house to drink; Mat went into the kitchen 
to see Mdry Hemings. He would take his 
drum with him into the kitchen and set it 
down there. Isaac would beat on it and Mat 
larnt him how to beat. 


Browere's life mask of Jefferson made in 1825, showing what Isaac's Old Master really 
looked like about the time Isaac left Momicello. See page 41, 


A soon as the British formed a line, 
three cannon was wheeled round 
all at once and fired three rounds. 
Till they fired, the Richmond people 
thought they was a company come from 
Petersburg to join them: some of em even 
hurraed when they see them coming: but 
that moment they fired every body knew it 
was the British. One of the cannon-balls 
knocked off the top of a butcher's house: he 
was named Daly, not far from the Governor's 
house. The butcher's wife screamed out and 
hollerd and her children too and all. In ten 
minutes not a white man was to be seen in 
Richmond: they ran as hard as they could 
stave to the camp at Bacon Quarter Branch. 

There was a monstrous hollering and 
screaming of women and children. Isaac was 
out in the yard: his mother ran out and cotch 
him up by the hand and carried him into the 
kitchen hollering. Mary Hemings, she 
jerked up her daughter the same way. Isaac 
run out again in a minute and his mother 
too: she was so skeered, she didn't know 
whether fo stay indoors or out. The British 
was dressed in red. Isaac saw them marching. 
The horsemen (Simcoe's cavalry) was with 
them: they come arter the artillery-men. 
They formed in line and marched up to the 
Palace with drums beating: it was an awful 
sight: seemed like the day of judgment was 
come. When they fired the cannon Old 
Master called out to John to fetch his horse 
Caractacus from the stable and rode off. 



ISAAC never see his Old Master arter dat 
for six months. When the British come 
in, an officer rode up and asked "Whar is 
the Governor?" Isaac's father (George) told 
him, "He's gone to the mountains." The 
officer said, "Whar is the keys of the house?" 
Isaac's father gave him the keys: Mr. Jeffer- 
son had left them with him. The officer said, 
"Whar is the silver?" Isaac's father told him, 
"It was all sent up to the mountains." The 
old man had put all the silver about the 
house in a bed-tick and hid it under a bed 
in the kitchen and saved it too and got his 
freedom by it. But he continued to sarve Mr. 
Jefferson and had forty pounds from Old 
Master and his wife. Isaac's mother had 

seven dollars a month for lifetime for wash- 
ing, ironing, and making pastry. The British 
sarcht the house but didn't disturb none of 
the furniture: but they plundered the wine- 
cellar, rolled the pipes out and stove em in, 
knockin the heads out. The bottles they 
broke the necks off with their swords, drank 
some, threw the balance away. The wine- 
cellar was full: Old Master had plenty of 
wine and rum the best: used to have Anti- 
gua rum, twelve years old. The British next 
went to the corn-crib and took all the corn 
out, strewed it in a line along the street to- 
wards where the Washington tavern 18 is now 
(1847) an d brought their horses and fed 
them on it: took the bridles off. The British 
said they didn't want anybody but the Gover- 
nor: didn't want to hurt him; only wanted to 
put a pair of silver handcuffs on him: had 
brought them along with them on purpose. 
While they was plunderin they took all of 
the meat out of the meat-house; cut it up, 
laid it out in parcels: every man took his 
ration and put it in his knapsack. When 
Isaac's mother found they was gwine to car 
him away she thought they was gwine to 
leave her. She was cryin and hollerin when 


one of the officers came on a horse and 
ordered us all to Hylton's. Then they 
marched off to Westham. Isaac heard the 
powder-magazine when it blew up like an 
earthquake. Next morning between eight 
and nine they marched to Tuckahoe, fifteen 
miles: took a good many colored people 
from Old Tom Mann Randolph. He was 
called "Tuckahoe Tom." Isaac has often 
been to Tuckahoe a low-built house but 
monstrous large. From Tuckahoe the British 
went to Daniel Hylton's. They carred off 
thirty people from Tuckahoe and some from 
Hylton's. When they come back to Rich- 
mond they took all Old Master's from his 
house: all of em had to walk except Daniel 
and Molly (children of Mary the pastry- 
cook) and Isaac. He was then big enough to 
beat the drum: but couldn't raise it off the 
ground: would hold it tilted over to one side 
and beat on it that way. 


THERE was about a dozen wagons 
along: they (the British) pressed the 
common wagons: four horses to a 
wagon: some black drivers, some white: 
every wagon guarded by ten men marching 

One of the officers give Isaac name Sambo: 
all the time feedin him: put a cocked hat on 
his head and a red coat on him and all 
laughed. Coat a monstrous great big thing: 
when Isaac was in it couldn't see nothin of 
it but the sleeves dangling down. He re- 
members crossing the river somewhere in a 
periauger [piragua]. And so the British 
carred them all down to Little York (York- 
town.) They marched straight through town 

and camped jist below back of the battle- 
field. Mr. Jefferson's people there was Jupi- 
ter, Sukey the cook, Usley (Isaac's mother), 
George (Isaac's father), Mary the seamstress, 
and children Molly, Daniel, Joe, Wormley, 
and Isaac. The British treated them mighty 
well, give em plenty of fresh meat and wheat 
bread. It was very sickly at York: great many 
colored people died there, but none of Mr. 
Jefferson's folks. Wallis (Cornwallis) had a 
cave dug and was hid in there. There was 
tremendous firing and smoke: seemed like 
heaven and earth was come together: every 
time the great guns fire Isaac jump up off 
the ground. Heard the wounded men hol- 
ler in. When the smoke blow off you see the 
dead men laying on the ground. General 
Washington brought all Mr. Jefferson's folks 
and about twenty of Tuckahoe Tom's (Tom 
Mann Randolph's) back to Richmond with 
him and sent word to Mr. Jefferson to send 
down to Richmond for his servants. Old 
Master sent down two wagons right away and 
all of em that was carred away went up back 
to Monticello. At that time Old Master and 
his family was at Poplar Forest, his place in 
Bedford. He stayed there after his arm was 

broke, when Caractacus threw him. Old 
Master was mightly pleased to see his people 
come back safe and sound 19 and to hear of 
the plate. 


MR. JEFFERSON was a tall strait- 
bodied man as ever you see, right 
square-shouldered: nary man in 
this town walked so straight as my Old 
Master: neat a built man as ever was seen in 
Vaginny, I reckon, or any place a straight- 
up man 20 : long face, high nose. 

Jefferson Randolph (Mr. Jefferson's 
grandson) nothing like him, except in 
height tall, like him: not built like him: 
Old Master was a straight-up man. Jefferson 
Randolph pretty much like his mother. Old 
Master wore Vaginny cloth and a red waist- 
coat, (all the gentlemen wore red waistcoats 
in dem days) and small clothes: arter dat he 
used to wear red breeches too. 81 Governor 

Page used to come up there to Monticello, 
wife and daughter wid him: drove four-in 
hand: servants John, Molly and a postilion. 
Patrick Henry visited Old Master: coach 
and two: his face for all the world like the 
images of Bonaparte: would stay a week or 
more. Mann Page used to be at Monticello 
a plain mild-looking man: his wife and 
daughter along with him. Dr. Thomas 
Walker lived about ten miles from Monti- 
cello a thin-faced man. John Walker" (of 
Belvoir), his brother, owned a great many 
black people. 

Jefferson's polfpapli, t |iat ta *' llis " cn PI in lwllillc '" 


OLD Master was never seen to come 
out before breakfast about 8 o'clock. 
If it was warm weather he wouldn't 
ride out till evening: studied upstairs till 
bell ring for dinner. When writing he had a 
copy in machine: while he was a-writin he 
wouldn't suffer nobody to come in his room: 
had a dumb-waiter: when he wanted any- 
thing he had nothin to do but turn a crank 
and the dumb-waiter would bring him water 
or fruit on a plate or anything he wanted. 
Old Master had abundance of books: some- 
times would have twenty of 'em down on the 
floor at once: read fust one, then tother. 
Isaac has often wondered how Old Master 
came to have such a mighty head: read so 

many of them books: and when they go to 
him to ax him anything, he go right straight 
to the book and tell you all about it. He 
talked French and Italian. Madzay* 5 talked 
with him: his place was called Colle. General 
Redhazel (Riedesel) stayed there. He (Maz- 
zei) lived at Monticello with Old Master 
some time': Didiot, a Frenchman, married 
his daughter Peggy: a heavy chunky looking 
woman mighty handsome. She had a 
daughter Frances and a son Francis: called 
the daughter Franky. Mazzei brought to 
Monticello Antonine, Jovanini, Francis, 
Modena, and Belligrini, all gardiners. My 
Old Master's garden was monstrous large: 
two rows of palings, all round ten feet high. 


MR. JEFFERSON had a clock in his 
kitchen at Monticello; never went 
into the kitchen except to wind up 
the clock. He never would have less than 
eight covers at dinner if nobody at table 
but himself: had from eight to thirty two 
covers for dinner: plenty of wine, best old 
Antigua rum and cider: very fond of wine 
and water. Isaac never heard of his being 
disguised in drink. He kept three fiddles: 
played in the arternoons and sometimes 
arter supper. This was in his early time. 
When he begin to git so old, he didn't play: 
kept a spinnet made mostly in shape of a 
harpsichord: his daughter played on it. Mr. 
Fauble, a Frenchman that lived at Mr. 

Walker's, a music-man, used to come to 
Monticello and tune it. There was a forte 
piano and a guitar there: never seed anybody 
play on them but the French people. Isaac 
never could git acquainted with them: could 
hardly larn their names. Mr. Jefferson al- 
ways singing when ridin or walkin: hardly 
see him ariywhar out doors but what he was 
a-singin: 24 had a fine clear voice, sung min- 
nits (minuets) and sich: fiddled in the par- 
lor. Old Master very kind to servants. 


THE fust year Mr. Jefferson was 
elected President, 25 he took Isaac on 
to Philadelphia: he was then about 
fifteen years old: travelled on horseback in 
company with a Frenchman named Joseph 
Rattiff and Jim Hemings, a body-servant. 
Fust day's journey they went from Monti- 
cello to old Nat Gordon's, on the Fredericks- 
burg road, next day to Fredericksburg, then 
to Georgetown, crossed the Potomac there, 
and so to Philadelphia: eight days a-goin. 
Had two ponies and Mr. Jefferson's tother 
riding-horse Odin. Mr. Jefferson went in the 
phaeton: Bob Hemings drove: changed 
horses on the road. When they got to Phila- 
delphia, Isaac stayed three days at Mr. 


Jefferson's house: then he was bound pren- 
tice to one Bringhouse, a tinner: he lived in 
the direction of the Water-works. Isaac re- 
members seeing the image of a woman thar 
holding a goose in her hand the water 
spouting out of the goose's mouth. This was 
at the head of Market Street. Bringhouse was 
a short', mighty small, neat-made man: 
treated Isaac very well: went thar to larn the 
tinner's trade: fust week larnt to cut out and 
sodder: make little pepper-boxes and graters 
and sich, out of scraps of tin, so as not to 
waste any till he had larnt. Then to making 
cups. Every Sunday Isaac would go to the 
President's House large brick house, many 
windows: same house Ginral Washington 
lived in before when he was President. Old 
Master used to talk to me mighty free and ax 
me, "how you come on Isaac, larnin de tin- 
business?" As soon as he could make cups 
pretty well he carred three or four to show 
him. Isaac made four dozen pint-cups a day 
and larnt to tin copper and sheets (sheet- 
iron) make 'em tin. He lived four years 
with Old Bringhouse. One time Mr. Jeffer- 
son sent to Bringhouse to tin his copper- 
kittles and pans for kitchen use: Bringhouse 

sent Isaac and another prentice thar a white 
boy named Charles: can't think of his other 
name. Isaac was the only black boy in firing- 
house's shop. When Isaac carred the cups to 
his Old Master to show him, he was mightily 
pleased: said, "Isaac you are larnin mighty 
fast: I bleeve I must send you back to 
Vaginny to car on the tin-business. You is 
growin too big: no use for you to stay here 
no longer." 

Arter dat Mr. Jefferson sent Isaac back to 
Monticello to car on the tin-business thar. 
Old Master bought a sight of tin for the pur- 
pose. Mr. Jefferson had none of his family 
with him in Philadelphia. Polly his daughter 
stayed with her Aunt Patsy Carr: she lived 
seven or eight miles from Old Master's great 
house. Sam Carr was Mr. Jefferson's sister's 
child. There were three brothers of the 
Carrs Sam, Peter and Dabney. Patsy Jef- 
ferson, while her father was President in 
Philadelphia, stayed with Mrs. Eppes at 
Wintopoke: Mrs. Eppes was a sister of Mrs. 
Jefferson mightily like her sister. Frank 
Eppes was a big heavy man. 

Old Master's servants at Philadelphia was 
Bob and Jim Hemings; Joseph Rattiff, a 

Frenchman, the hostler. Mr. Jefferson used 
to ride out on horseback in Philadelphia. 
Isaac went back to Monticello. When the tin 
came they fixed up a shop. Jim Bringhouse 
came on to Monticello all the way with Old 
Master to fix up the shop and start Isaac to 
work: Jim Bringhouse stayed thar more than 
a month. 



ISAAC knew old Colonel (Archibald) 
Gary mighty well: as dry a looking man 
as ever you see in your life. He has given 
Isaac more whippings than he has fingers and 
toes. Mr. Jefferson used to set Isaac to open 
gates for Colonel Gary: there was three gates 
to open, the furst bout a mile from the 
house itother one three quarters; then the 
yard-gate, at the stable three hundred yards 
from the house. Isaac had to open the gates. 
Colonel Gary would write to Old Master 
what day he was coming. Whenever Isaac 
missed opening them gates in time, the 
Colonel soon as he git to the house, look 
about for him and whip him with his horse- 
whip. Old Master used to keep dinner for 


Colonel Gary. He was a tall thin-visaged 
man jist like Mr. Jefferson: he drove four- 
in-hand. The Colonel as soon as he git out of 
his carriage, walk right straight into the 
kitchen and ax de cooks what they hab for 
dinner? If they didn't have what he wanted, 
bleeged to wait dinner till it was cooked. 
Colonel Gary made freer at Monticello than 
he did at home: whip anybody: would stay 
several weeks: give servants money, some- 
times five or six dollars among 'em. Tucka- 
hoe Tom Randolph married Colonel Gary's 
daughter Nancy. The Colonel lived at 
Ampthill on the James River where Colonel 
Bob Temple lived arterwards. Edgehill was 
the seat of Tom Mann Randolph, father of 
Jefferson Randolph: it was three miles from 


ISAAC carred on the tin-business two 
years. It failed. He then carred on the 
nail-business at Monticello seven years: 
made money at that. Mr. Jefferson had the 
first (nail) cutting machine 'twas said, that 
ever was in Vaginny sent over from Eng- 
land: made wrought nails and cut-nails, to 
shingle and lathe: sold them out of the shop: 
got iron rods from Philadelphia by water: 
boated them up from Richmond to Milton, 
a small town on the Rivanna: wagoned 
from thar. 


THOMAS Mann Randolph had ten 
children. 556 Isaac lived with him fust 
and last twenty-six or seven years: 
treated him mighty well: one of the finest 
masters in Virginia: his a wife mighty peace- 
able woman: never holler for servant: make 
no fuss nor racket: pity she ever died! Tom 
Mann Randolph's eldest daughter Ann, a 
son named Jefferson, another James, and 
another Benjamin. Jefferson Randolph mar- 
ried Mr. Nicholas' 27 daughter (Anne). Billy 
Giles 28 courted Miss Polly, Old Master's 
daughter. Isaac one morning saw him talking 
to her in the garden, right back of the nail- 
factory shop: she was lookin on de ground: 
all at once she wheeled round and come off. 

That was the time she turned him off. Isaac 
never so sorry for a man in all his life: sorry 
because everybody thought that she was 
going to marry him. Mr. Giles give several 
dollars to the servants and when he went 
away dat time he never come back no more. 
His servant Arthur was a big man. Isaac 
wanted Mr. Giles to marry Miss Polly. 
Arthur always said that he was a mighty fine 
man: he was very rich: used to come to 
Monticello in a monstrous fine gig: mighty 
few gigs in dem days with plated mountins 
and harness. 



ELK Hill: Old Master had a small brick 
house there where he used to stay, 
about a mile from Elk Island on the 
North Side of the James River. The river 
forks there: one half runs one side of the 
island, tother the other side. When Mr. Jef- 
ferson was Governor, he used to stay thar a 
month or sich a matter and when he was at 
the mountain he would come and stay a 
month or so and then go back again. Blen- 
heim was a low large wooden house two 
storeys high, eight miles from Monticello. 
Old Colonel Carter lived thar: had a light 
red head like Mr. Jefferson. Isaac know'd 
him and every son he had. Didn't know his 

The Linn engraving of Jefferson that Isaac thought a poor 

likeness. See Isaac's comments on the page facing, and the 

life mask of Jefferson facing page 16. 

Mr. Jefferson used to hunt squirrels and 
partridges; kept five or six guns; oftentimes 
carred Isaac wid him: Old Master wouldn't 
shoot partridges settin: said "he wouldn't 
take advantage of em" would give 'em a 
chance for thar life: wouldn't shoot a hare 
settin, nuther; skeer him up fust. "My Old 
Master was as neat a hand as ever you see to 
make keys and locks and small chains, iron 
and brass;" he kept all kind of blacksmith 
and carpenter tools in a great case with 
shelves to it in his library, an upstairs room. 
Isaac went up thar constant: been up thar a 
thousand times; used to car coal up thar: 
Old Master had a couple of small bellowses 
up thar. 

The likeness of Mr. Jefferson (in Linn's 
Life of him) according to Isaac, is not much 
like him. "Old Master never dat handsome 
in dis world: dat likeness right between Old 
Master and Ginral Washington: Old Master 
was squar-shouldered." For amusement he 
would work sometimes in the garden for half 
an hour at a time in right good earnest in the 
cool of the evening: never know'd him to go 
out anywhar before breakfast. 


THE school at Monticello was in the 
out-chamber fifty yards off from the 
great house, on the same level. But 
the scholars went into the house to Old 
Master to git lessons, in the south end of the 
house called the South Octagon. Mrs. Skip- 
per (Skipwith) had two daughters thar: Mrs. 
Eppes, one. 

Mr. Jefferson's sister Polly married old 
Ned Boiling^ of Chesterfield, about ten 
miles from Petersburg. Isaac has been thar 
since his death: saw the old man's grave. Mr. 
John Bradley owns the place now. Isaac slept 
in the out-chamber where the scholars was: 
slept on the floor in a blanket: in the winter 
season git up in the mornin and make fire 

for them. From Monticello you can see 
mountains all round as far as the eye can 
reach: sometimes see it rainin down this 
course and the sun shining over the tops of 
the clouds. Willis' Mountain sometimes 
looked in the cloud like a great house with 
two chimnies to it: fifty miles from Monti- 



THAR was a sight of pictures at Monti- 
cello: pictures of Ginral Washington 
and the Marcus Lafayette. Isaac saw 
him fust in the old war in the mountain with 
Old Master; saw him agin the last time he 
was in Vaginny. He gave Isaac a guinea: 
Isaac saw him in the Capitol at Richmond 
and talked with him and made him sensible 
when he fust saw him in the old war. Thar 
was a large marble at Monticello with twelve 
angels cut on it that came from Heaven: all 
cut in marble. 

About the time when my Old Master be- 
gun to wear spectacles, he was took with a 
swellin in his legs: used to bathe 'em and 
bandage 'em: said it was settin too much: 


when he'd git up and walk it wouldn't hurt 
him. Isaac and John Hemings nursed him 
two months: had to car him about on a han- 
barrow. John Hemings 30 went to the carpen- 
ter's trade same year Isaac went to the black- 
smiths. Miss Lucy, Old Master's daughter, 
died quite a small child; died down the coun- 
try at Mrs. Eppes' or Mrs. Boiling's, one of 
her young aunts. Old Master was embassador 
to France at that time. He brought a great 
many clothes from France with him: a coat 
of blue cloth trimmed with gold lace; cloak 
trimmed so too: dar say it weighed fifty 
pounds: large buttons on the coat as big as 
half a dollar; cloth set in the button: edge 
shine like gold: in summer he war silk coat, 
pearl buttons. 

Colonel Jack Harvie 31 owned Belmont, 
jinin Monticello. Four as big men as any in 
Petersburg could git in his waistcoat: he 
owned Belvidere, near Richmond: the Col- 
onel died thar: monstrous big man. The 
washerwoman once buttoned his waistcoat 
on Isaac and three others. Mrs. Harvie was 
a little woman. 



MR. JEFFERSON never had 
nothing to do with horse-racing or 
cock-fighting: bought two race- 
horses once, but not in their racing day: 
bought em arter done runnin. One was 
Brimmer, 3 * a pretty horse with two white 
feet: when he bought him he was in Phila- 
delphia: kept him thar. One day Joseph 
Rattiff the Frenchman was ridin him in 
the streets of Philadelphia: Brimmer got 
skeered; run agin shaft of a dray and got 
killed. Tother horse was Tarkill: 33 in his 
race-day they called him the Roane colt: 
only race-horse of a roane Isaac ever see: 
Old Master used him for a ridin-horse. Davy 
Watson and Billy were German soldiers: 


both workmen, both smoked pipes and both 
drinkers: drank whiskey; git drunk and sing: 
take a week at a time drinkin and singin. 
Colonel Goode of Chesterfield was a great 
racer: used to visit Mr. Jefferson; had a 
trainer named Pompey. 

Old Master had a great many rabbits: 
made chains for the old buck-rabbits to keep 
them from killin the young ones: had a 
rabbit-house (a warren) a long rock house: 
some of em white, some blue: they used to 
burrow under ground. Isaac expects thar is 
plenty of em bout dar yit: used to eat em at 
Monticello. Mr. Jefferson never danced nor 
played cards. He had dogs named Ceres, 
Bull, Armandy, and Claremont: most of em 
French dogs: he brought em over with him 
from France. Bull and Ceres were bull-dogs: 
he brought over Buzzy with him too: she 
pupped at sea: Armandy and Claremont, 
stump-tails, both black. 



JOHN BROCK, the overseer that lived 
next to the great-house, had gray hounds 
to hunt deer. Mr. Jefferson had a large 
park at Monticello: built in a sort of a 
flat on the side of the mountain. When the 
hunters run the deer down thar, they'd jump 
into the park and couldn't git out. When Old 
Master heard hunters in the park he used to 
go down thar wid his gun and order em out. 
The park was two or three miles round and 
fenced in with a high fence, twelve rails 
double-staked and ridered: kept up four or 
five years arter Old Master was gone. Isaac 
and his father (George) fed the deer at sun- 
up and sun-down: called em up and fed em 
wid corn: had holes all along the fence at the 


feedin-place: gave em salt, got right gentle: 
come up and eat out of your hand. 

No wild-cats at Monticello: some lower 
down at Buck Island: bears sometimes came 
on the plantation at Monticello: wolves so 
plenty that they had to build pens round 
black peoples' quarters and pen sheep in em 
to keep the wolves from catching them. But 
they killed five or six of a night in the 
winter season: come and steal in the pens 
in the night. When the snow was on the 
groun you could see the wolves in gangs 
runnin and howlin, same as a drove of hogs: 
made the deer run up to the feedin-place 
many a night. The feedin-place was right by 
the house whar Isaac stayed. They raised 
many sheep and goats at Monticello. 

The woods and mountains was often on 
fire: Isaac has gone out to help to put out the 
fire: everybody would turn out from Char- 
lottesville and everywhere: git in the woods 
and sometimes work all night fightin the fire. 



COLONEL GARY of Chesterfield 
schooled Old Master: he went to 
school to old Mr. Wayles. Old Mas- 
ter had six sisters: Polly married a Boiling; 
Patsy married old Dabney Carr in the low- 
grounds; one married William Skipwith; 
Nancy married old Hastings Marks. Old 
Master's brother, Mass Randall^ 4 was a 
mighty simple man: used to come out among 
black people, play the fiddle and dance half 
the night: hadn't much more sense than 
Isaac. Jack Eppes 55 that married Miss Polly 
lived at Mount Black 36 on James River and 
then at Edge Hill, then in Cumberland at 
Millbrooks. Isaac left Monticello four years 
before Mr. Jefferson died. 57 Tom Mann Ran- 

dolph, that married Mr. Jefferson's daugh- 
ter, wanted Isaac to build a threshing ma- 
chine at Varina. Old Henrico Court House 
was thar: pulled down now. Coxendale 
Island (Dutch Gap) jinin Varina was an 
Indian Situation: when fresh come, it 
washed up more Indian bones than ever you 
see. When Isaac was a boy there want more 
than ten houses at Jamestown. Charlottes- 
ville then not as big as Pocahontas' 8 is now. 
Mr. DeWitt kept tavern thar. 

Isaac knowed Ginral Redhazel;39 he stayed 
at Colle, Mr. Mazzei's place, two miles and 
a quarter from Monticello a long wood 
house built by Mazzei's servants. The ser- 
vants' house built of little saplins of oak and 
hickory instead of lathes: then plastered up: 
it seemed as if de folks in dem days hadn't 
sense enough to make lathes. The Italian 
people raised plenty of vegetables: cooked 
the most victuals of any people Isaac ever see. 

Mr. Jefferson bowed to everybody he 
meet: talked wid his arms folded. Gave the 
boys in the nail-factory a pound of meat a 
week, a dozen herrings, a quart of molasses 
and peck of meal. Give them that wukked 
the best a suit of red or blue: encouraged 

them mightily. Isaac calls him a mighty good 
master. There would be a great many car- 
riages at Monticello at a time, in particular 
when people was passing to the Springs. 

Isaac is now (1847) at Petersburg, Va., 
seventy large odd years old: bears his years 
well: is a blacksmith by trade and has his 
shop not far from Pocahontas bridge. He is 
quite pleased at the idea of having his life 
written and protests that every word of it is 
true; that is, of course, according to the best 
of his knowledge and belief. Isaac is rather 
tall, of strong frame, stoops a little, in color 
ebony: sensible, intelligent, pleasant: wears 
large circular iron-bound spectacles and a 
leather apron. A capital daguerrotype of him 
was taken by a Mr. Shew. Isaac was so much 
pleased with it that he had one taken of his 
wife, a large fat round-faced good-humoured 
looking black woman. My attention was first 
drawn to Isaac by Mr. Dandridge Spotswood, 
who had often heard him talk about Mr. 
Jefferson and Monticello. 

C. C. 

P. S. Isaac died a few years after these his 
recollections were taken down. He bore a 
good character. 



Except where so indicated by square brackets, the fol- 
lowing notes are Charles Campbell's. 

i. [Campbell inserts in the text the correct spelling in 
parentheses followed by a long note:] (Ursula*) *There 
was a work published in 1862 by C. Scribner, at New 
York, entitled: "The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson 
from entirely new materials with numerous facsimiles, 
edited by Rev. Hamilton W. Pierson, D.D., President of 
Cumberland College, Kentucky." This work consists of 
the reminiscenses of a Captain Edmund Bacon, who was 
overseer for Mr. Jefferson at Monticello for 20 years. The 
Captain's reminiscenses were taken down from his lips 
by Dr. Pierson. The Captain mentions Ursula among the 
house-servants and says: "She was Mrs. Randolph's nurse. 
She was a big fat woman. She took charge of all the 
children that were not in school. If there was any switch- 
ing to be done, she always did it. She used to be down 
at my house a great deal with those children. They used 
to be there so much that we often got tired of them: but 
we never said so. They were all very much attached to 
their nurse: they always called her 'Mammy.' " Isaac in 
1847, by his own estimate upwards of seventy years old, 
was a big fat robust black man. [For further facts about 
Ursula and other members of Isaac's immediate family, 
see the section immediately after these notes.] 


2. [Campbell's compressed note on Jefferson's wife is 
sounder in facts than it is in syntax:] Martha, youngest 
daughter of John Wayles, a native of Lancaster, England, 
a lawyer, who lived at "the Forest" in Charles City coun- 
ty, Va. He was married three times and dying in May 
1773 left three daughters, one of whom married Francis 
Eppes (Father of John W. Eppes who married Maria, 
daughter of Thomas Jefferson) , and the other Fulwar 
Skipwith. Mr. Jefferson inherited the Shadwell and 
Monticello estates. The portion that he acquired by 
marriage was encumbered with a (British) debt and re- 
sulted in a heavy loss. Martha Skelton was 23 years old 
in 1772 when she married Mr. Jefferson. [Mrs. Jefferson 
was, in fact, not the youngest daughter of John Wayles, 
but (except for a still-born twin) the oldest. She was, 
however, the youngest child of Wayles' first marriage. 
Jefferson wrote out the details of the Wayles genealogy 
on a blank leaf in his Prayer Book: see the 1952 Meriden 
Gravure facsimile.] 

3. [Campbell inserts the correct spelling:] (Bathurst) 

4. Sometime Governor of Virginia. 

5. [Campbell parenthetically inserts in the text the fol- 
lowing spelling:] (Orr?) 

6. Captain Bacon says: John Hemings made most of the 
wood-work and Joe Fosset made the iron-work. 

7. [A genealogical table of the Hemings family derived 
from the Farm Book is given on pages 56-57.] 


A Chart of the Hemings Family 
Derived from Jefferson's Farm Book 

(This is a continuation of footnote 7) 




b. 1755 b, 1755 b, 1759 b, 1761 b, 1762 

b, 1765 

Still Listed by Freed in 

Freed in 

alive herself 1794,1 


when the through 

Farm Bool 1824, w ^ en 

ended in the Farm 

1824, Book ends, 


b. 1771 b, 1777 b, 1780 

b. 1795 

b. 1799 b. 1801 

b. 1781 b, 1777 b, 1783 b. 1785 b. 1787 
d. 1778 

f For details concerning the manumission of Robert and James Hemings, see 
Edwin M, Belts' edition of Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book, index under Slaves, 
The records of these manumissions may also be found in the Order Books of the 
Clerk of the Albemarle County Court. The Act of the General Assembly under 
which Jefferson freed these slaves may be found in the Virginia Code for 1794. 

b. ca. 1735 
d. 1807 











b. 1767 

b, 1769 

b. 1770 

k W3 

b * '775 

b. 1777 

Listed by 











when the 

with a 

when the 

with a 

1816, when 

Farm Book 

wife and 

Farm Book 


her name 

ended in 


ended in 

when the 





Farm Book 

from the 

when the 

ended in 

Farm Book, 

Farm Book 


ended in 




b. 1787 

b. 1798 

b, 1801 

b, 1805 

b, 1808 

* The 1824 list is not subdivided by family; thus while the fact of Peter and John 
being alive in 1824 is readily established, the absence of information concerning 
the names of their wives and children makes it impossible to say for certain which 
other members of their families were still alive, The latest record in the Farm 
Book of the families of Peter and John was for the year 1810, 


8. "Campbell identifies the College in a parenthetical 
insertion:] (of William and Mary) 

9. [Campbell parenthetically defines Isaac's word "pic- 
ture" as a:] (statue) [The statue of Lord Botetourt, 
colonial governor of Virginia from 1768 to 1770, still 
stands in the quadrangle of the College of William and 
Mary. There is a good picture of it facing page 130 in 
Malone's Jefferson the Virginian.] 

10. The Rev. William Douglas, in a school at Shadwell 
near Monticello, instructed Young Jefferson in the rudi- 
ments of Greek, Latin and French. [Douglas was a Scot- 
tish clergyman, whose pies Jefferson remembered as being 
moldy and whose instruction (except in the classics) he 
remembered as being excellent.] 

11. [Campbell parenthetically explains who Polly was:] 
(Maria) [i.e., Thomas Jefferson's daughter, later Mrs. 
John W. Eppes] 

12. Robert Beverley, the historian, married Ursula Byrd 
of Westover, from whom the Monticello Ursula may have 
derived her name. [For known biographical facts con- 
cerning Isaac's mother, see the data on Isaac's family 
immediately following this section.] 

13. [Campbell inserts the name in parentheses:] (Bathurst 

14. [Campbell parenthetically explains that the "Palace" 
was the:] (Governor's house) . Isaac's term has adhered to 
the Williamsburg governors' residence, but not to the 
Richmond one. 

15. [Campbell parenthetically indicates that the British 
were:] (under Arnold) 

16. [Campbell supplies the date:] (Jan. 6, 1781) 


17. They didn't come by way of Manchester. [For Isaac's 
slips in memory, or in reporting, see Logan page 5.] 

18. At East end of Grace St. now (1871) the Central 

19. [Campbell's parenthetical insertion at this point has 
been removed to these notes because the quotation seems 
clearly to have been his, not Isaac's:] (Although "All men 
by nature are free and equal.") 

20. Captain Bacon describes him as "Six feet two and a 
half inches high, well proportioned and straight as a gun- 
barrel. He was like a fine horse: he had no surplus flesh." 

i. Captain Bacon says: "He was always very neat in his 
dress: wore short breeches and bright shoe-buckles. When 
he rode on horseback he had a pair of overalls that he 
always put on." 

22. John Walker, member of Congress during the Revo- 

23. Philip Mazzei, an Italian, author of "Recherches Sur 
Les Etats-Unis," 3 volumes, published at Paris in 1788. 

24. Captain Bacon says: "When he was not talking he was 
nearly always humming some tune; or singing in a low 
tone to himself." 

25. [Isaac is wrong here. Jefferson went to Philadelphia 
in 1790 as Secretary of State. See also Footnote 17.] 

26. Thomas Mann Randolph's sons were Thomas Jeffer- 
son, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, Merriwether 
[sic] Lewis and George Wy the (Secretary of War of C. S.) , 
daughters Anne, Ellen, Virginia, Cornelia and Septimia. 
[Thomas Mann Randolph actually had twelve children, 
one of whom, the first Ellen Wayles Randolph, died 
within a year of her birth. The children are listed in 


Thomas Jefferson's Prayer Book in order of birth as fol- 
lows: Anne Gary, Thomas Jefferson, Ellen Wayles, Ellen 
Wayles, Cornelia, Virginia, Mary Jefferson, James, Benja- 
min, Lewis, Septimia, and George Wythe.] 

27. Wilson Gary Nicholas, sometime Governor of Vir- 

28. [In identifying William Branch Giles, Campbell gives 
the wrong middle initial:] William C. Giles, M. C., a 
celebrated debater. Sometime Governor of Virginia. He 
acquired the sobriquet of "Farmer Giles." 

29. John Boiling, of Cobbs in Chesterfield, married a 
sister [Mary] of Thomas Jefferson. [See Malone I, 38-9.] 

30. Captain Bacon in his reminiscences of Mr. Jefferson 
at Monticello says, "John Hemings was a carpenter. He 
was a first-rate workman, a very extra workman: he could 
make anything that was wanting in woodwork. He 
learned his trade with Dinsmore. John Hemings made 
most of the woodwork of Mr. Jefferson's fine carriage." 

31. He had command of the troops of Convention for a 

32. According to Captain Bacon, "Brimmer was a son of 
imported Knowlsby. He was a bay, but a shade darker 
than any of the others. He was a horse of fair size, full, 
but not quite as tall as Eagle. He was a good riding-horse 
and excellent for the harness. Mr. Jefferson broke all his 
horses to both ride and work. I bought Brimmer of 
General John H. Cocke of Fluvanna County." [Bacon's 
"Brimmer" is, of course, a corruption of "Bremo." See 
Betts, Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book, index under 

33. [Campbell inserts the correct spelling in the text:] 
(Tarquin?) [Jefferson purchased Tarquin in 1790 from 


William Fitzhugh and gave him to Thomas Mann Ran- 
dolph in 1793. See Betts, Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book, 
page 96.] 

34. [Campbell inserts the correct spelling:] (Randolph) 
[For details of Randolph Jefferson, see Mayo, Thomas 
Jefferson and His Unknown Brother.] 

35. [Campbell inserts the full name:] (John W. Eppes, 
M. C.) 

36. [Campbell guesses that this was:] (Mt. Blanc?) 

37. [Isaac is wrong here. The Farm Book indicates that 
Isaac was living at Monticello until at least 1824, when 
the book ended, which was only two years before Jeffer- 
son's death. See also footnote 17.] 

38. [Campbell describes Pocahontas as:] (a village on the 
Appomattox, opposite Petersburg) 

39. [Campbell gives the correct spelling in parentheses:] 
(Riedesel, commander of the German troops of Conven- 





Aside from Isaac's own reminiscences, the chief 
sources of information about him are in the 
writings, published and unpublished, of Thomas 
Jefferson. Chief of these is the Farm Book (a 
register of slaves: their births, deaths, food and 
clothing issues, their location on the plantations, 
etc.) kept by Jefferson sporadically from 1774 to 
1824. There is a break in the Farm Book from 
1801 to 1810, during and just after Jefferson's 
two terms as President. Notes about Isaac are also 
in the Book of Nail Manufacturing, and there are 
occasional mentions of him in the Account Books. 

The following data concerning Isaac all derive 
from the Jefferson manuscripts and are entirely 
independent of either Charles Campbell or Isaac's 
own reminiscences. 

Isaac was born at Monticello in December, 1775, 
although his birth date is twice incorrectly listed 


by Jefferson in later years as 1768. He was the son 
of Great George, who was born in 1730, was living 
at Monticello in 1774 when the Farm Book begins, 
and died at Monticello in 1799. Great George's 
wife, Isaac's mother, was Ursula, who was born in 
1738 and was bought by Jefferson from Fleming's 
estate on January 21, 1773. She died at Monticello 
in 1800. Isaac had three brothers: Little George 
and Bagwell, who came to Monticello in 1773 with 
Ursula when they were 14 and 5 years old respec- 
tively; and Archy, born at Monticello in 1773, 
who died before Isaac's birth. 

Isaac lived at Monticello during most of the 
years between 1775 and 1824. Although he says 
in his memoirs that he left Monticello four years 
before Jefferson died, it is clear from the Farm 
Book that he lived there at least until two years 
before Jefferson's death, when the Farm Book 
ends. Isaac first appears in the Farm Book at the 
time of his birth; his first listing as a smith is on 
Jefferson's slave roll in 1794, and some of the ac- 
counts of his products in the nail factory are 
available for 1796. In 1796 and 1797 he was living 
with Iris, a slave born at Monticello in the same 
year as Isaac. His name appears with hers and 
those of her two sons (Squire, born in 1793, and 
Joyce, "a boy" born in 1796) , so bracketed as to 
indicate that the children may both have been his. 
The names of Iris and her children disappear from 
the Farm Book in 1798, and Isaac then remained 


single until 1816, when his name was linked for 
two years with that of Suckey. Suckey was not an 
uncommon name among the Monticello slaves: 
there are seven listed in the Farm Book with 
specific birth dates between the years 1765 and 
1806, and several more without birth dates. Of 
these, two at least were still alive in 1824, an d 
scraps of additional information about each of 
them can be pieced together. Which Suckey was 
connected with Isaac, and what happened to the 
relationship in 1818, when one of the Suckeys was 
leased to Thomas Jefferson Randolph, remains in 
doubt. There is a reasonable probability that 
Isaac's "large fat round-faced good-humored look- 
ing black woman* * of the 1840*5 was not one of 
these Suckeys, but a successor. 

At some time during Isaac's life at Monticello, 
he became the property of Jefferson's son-in-law, 
Thomas Mann Randolph. Jefferson wrote to Ran- 
dolph on January 25, 1798, "You will of course 
take Isaac when you please/' and Jefferson's Ac- 
count Book for 1812 has these three equivocal 
entries concerning Isaac: 

Jan. 30. pd Samuel Grosse jailer of Bath county 
for TMRandolph 30. D[ollars]. for taking up & 
bringing Isaac home, on account. 

Nov. 8 gave TMR's Isaac on finish[in]g the 
chimney of the Factory i. D[ollar]. h[ouse]h[ol]d 
exp[enses] i. D[ollar]. 

Dec. 21. Isaac for a truss for Abram. i. D[ollar]. 
h[ouse]h[ol]d expanses] 2.125 [Dollars].* 

The following genealogical table of Isaac's im- 
mediate family is derived from the Farm Book. 


b. 1730 b. 1738 


d. 2 Nov. 1799 d. i8oc 


: = IRIS 


GEORGE b. 1768 b. 1773 b. Dec 

biHKrt Still alive A Ii/lv 1>7^A Still aliv 
1759 when the Q ' J U V 1 /74 when th 

d. Tune 1799 Fa *<*>* Fa 

j / uu ended in ended 11 
1824. 1824. 
For his 

' !?75 b - 1?75 

e Disappears 
e from the 
3ok Farm Book 
i in 1798. 

to Minerva 
and a 
record of his 
see the 
Farm Book, r. , 
p. 30 and S Q U 
passim. b. i 
in i 


79s b. 1796 
ppears Disappears 
i the from the 
n Book Farm Book 
798. in i?98. 



* The dollar mark ($) had already come into use in 
some of the eastern states, but Jefferson was never to use 
this new-fangled annotation, at least in his account books. 
It will be noted that this 1812 entry was early enough for 
the so-called "bit" or 12 i/ 2 -cent piece to have a meaning. 
It survives today only in pairs as the quarter-dollar, or 
"two-bit" piece. 



Charles Campbell was born in Petersburg, Vir- 
ginia, on May i, 1807. After graduating from the 
College of New Jersey with a law degree, he began 
a career as a school teacher. In 1 842 he started his 
own school in Petersburg, and from 1855 to ^70 
served as principal of Anderson Seminary. 

Campbell was both an author and a collector of 
historical writings. Much of his collected manu- 
script material was lent to Bishop William Meade 
of Virginia, who used it in his two volumes on 
Old Churches and Families of Virginia. As an 
author, Campbell contributed regularly to The 
Southern Literary Messenger and to the Virginia 
Historical Register. His Introduction to the His- 
tory of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Vir- 
ginia was published in Richmond in 1847, t " ie 
date Campbell gives in the Memoirs for his inter- 
view with Isaac, and was republished in an en- 
larged edition at Philadelphia in 1860. Campbell 
was the author also of a Genealogy of the Spots- 
wood Family and editor of the Bland Papers and 
Some Materials to Serve for a Brief Memoir of 

John Daly Burk, Author of a History of Virginia. 

Campbell died in the Staunton Lunatic Asylum 
on July 11, 1876, after some years of invalidism. 
The Isaac Jefferson manuscript, however, was 
prepared for publication in 1871, several years be- 
fore Campbell's breakdown, and the manuscript 
itself indicates that Campbell was in full posses- 
sion of his mental powers at the time that he 
wrote it. 

Further information concerning Charles Camp- 
bell may be found in Rayford Logan's introduc- 
tion to the 1951 edition of Isaac's Memoirs and 
through the list of published biographical notices 
appended to Edward A. Wyatt's own sketch of 
Campbell in Virginia Imprint Series, No. 9: Pre- 
liminary Checklist for Petersburg, Richmond, 




The frontispiece is from a photograph of a 
daguerreotype, showing Isaac probably at the time 
he was working in Petersburg in the 1840*8. For 
Campbell's comments on it, see page 52. Taken 
by a Mr. Shew, probably in Petersburg, it was one 
of a pair: the daguerreotype of Isaac's wife made 
at the same time has apparently not survived. The 
picture is probably the earliest existing photo- 
graphic likeness of a slave. John T. Winterich in 
commenting on it said (in the Saturday Review, 
February 23, 1952, p. 13) "It gives one something 
of a shock to inspect a photograph of a man who 
accompanied our first Secretary of State to Phila- 
delphia in 1790." 

The daguerreotype is now in the Tracy W. Mc- 
Gregor Library at the University of Virginia. 


The plaster life mask of Jefferson was made by 
John H. I. Browere at Monticello in 1825, t ^ ie Y ear 
before Jefferson's death, and presumably within a 
twelvemonth of Isaac's departure. Jefferson de- 


scribed the ordeal of the mask making in a letter 
to James Madison, October 18, 1825: "Successive 
coats of thin grout plaistered on the naked head, 
and kept there an hour, would have been a severe 
trial of a young and hale person. He [Browere] 
suffered the plaister also to get so dry that separa- 
tion became difficult & even dangerous. He was 
obliged to use freely the mallet 8c chisel to break 
it into pieces and get off a piece at a time. These 
thumps of the mallet would have been sensible 
almost to a loggerhead. The family became 
alarmed, and he confused, till I was quite ex- 
hausted, and there became real danger that the 
ears would separate from the head sooner than 
from the plaister. I now bid adieu for ever to busts 
& even portraits/' For a view of the mask from 
another angle, see F. C. Rosenberger's Jefferson 
Reader, facing page 257. 

The life mask is now at the New York State 
Historical Association, and is reproduced here 
through the courtesy of Miss Mary E. Cunning- 
ham and the Association, 


Jefferson's polygraph was presented to the Uni- 
versity of Virginia in 1875 by Jefferson's grandson 
and is now on permanent loan to Monticello. The 
following letter accompanied Mr. Randolph's gift: 


June joth 1875 
Edge Hill 

The Honorable Board of Visitors of the University of Va. 


Allow me through your body to present to the Univer- 
sity the polygraph used [by] Mr. Jefferson for the last 
twenty years of his life. In retrieving [?] for publication 
many thousand of these letters, they [the polygraph 
copies] were found accurate facsimilies of his handwrit- 
ing; no error [occurring] except where the record pen 
was caught by some irregularity in the paper. When 
extricating itself with a spring, it missed a few letters, 
leaving space for them. 

Most respectfully 

Thos. J. Randolph, Sr. 

P.S. Copies from this polygraph remain perfect and un- 
faded when those made by the copying press are illegible. 

The photograph was made by Ralph Thompson. 


William Linn's Life of Thomas Jefferson was 
first published in 1834 and was republished in 
1839 and 1843. The frontispiece shown to Isaac 
by Campbell appeared in all three editions. It was 
engraved by Stephen H. Gimber from the Stuart 
portrait of Jefferson of 1823, which was in turn 
copied by Stuart from his earlier (ca. 1805) life 
portrait of Jefferson, showing the President in his 

early sixties. Gimber's engraving was, thus, a poor 
reproduction of a not too successful copy of a life 
portrait, representing Jefferson about twenty years 
younger than Isaac would have remembered him. 
For further details of the likenesses of Jefferson, 
see Fiske Kimball's The Life Portraits of Jefferson 
and Their Replicas, Philadelphia, 1944. 


This 1826 watercolor of Monticello, probably 
drawn by some immediate member of Jefferson's 
family, shows the southwest front of the house and 
gardens at about the time Isaac left there. It sur- 
vived as part of the Jefferson-Coolidge Papers and 
was reproduced in black and white through the 
courtesy of Mrs. T. Jefferson Coolidge by Francis 
Galley Gray in his Thomas Jefferson in 1814 (Bos- 
ton, 1924, between p. 20-21) and by Fiske Kimball 
in his Jefferson's Grounds and Gardens at Monti- 
cello (New York, 1926? p. 15) . The first reproduc- 
tion of the drawing in color (through the courtesy 
of George H. Gushing, Jr.) was in the Virginia 
Cavalcade (Vol. i, Spring 1952, p. 4) , published 
by the Virginia State Library. It is through the 
kindness of Mr. Randolph W. Church, Librarian 
of the Virginia State Library, that the color plates 
for this earliest known picture of Monticello are 
used here. 


The manuscript from which the text of the 
Memoirs is printed is in the Tracy W. McGregor 
Library at the University of Virginia. Campbell 
entitled it "Life of Isaac Jefferson of Petersburg, 
Virginia, Blacksmith, containing a full and faith- 
ful account of Monticello and the Family there, 
with notices of many of the distinguished charac- 
ters that visited there, with his Revolutionary ex- 
perience and travels, adventures, observations and 
opinions, the whole taken down from his own 
words." For detailed notes on its provenance and 
for a comparison with a similar manuscript at 
William and Mary, see the scholarly edition of 
1951 edited by Rayford W. Logan. In transcribing 
this same manuscript, Dr. Logan aimed at abso- 
lute literalness, preserving all spelling, capitaliza- 
tion, and punctuation exactly as it appeared in 
Campbell's manuscript. In the present edition, an 
attempt has been made to normalize the trans- 
cription, changing Campbell's punctuation, capi- 
talization, and spelling where necessary to make 
the narrative read more easily. Care was, however, 
taken to retain any original spelling that seemed 
to reflect Isaac's pronunciation. Some of Camp- 


bell's parenthetical insertions and all of his foot- 
notes have been placed at the end of Isaac's nar- 
rative. There are no omissions or suppressions 
from the text, and information derived from other 
sources is clearly indicated as such. 

The chief published primary documents are to 

be found in the Papers of Thomas Jefferson, edited 

by Julian P. Boyd (1950- ), and in Thomas 

Jefferson's Farm Book, edited by Edwin M. Betts 

0954) The chief unpublished primary sources 

(e.g., the Account Books and the Book of Nail 

Manufacturing) may all be consulted in photostat 

at the University of Virginia. 

Readers interested in the background of Isaac 
Jefferson's life are referred especially to the Betts 
edition of Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book (Prince- 
ton) , to Bernard Mayo's Jefferson Himself, to 
Francis C. Rosenberger's anthology, The Jefferson 
Reader (Button) , and to two older biographies 
of Thomas Jefferson: Sarah Randolph's Domestic 
Life (1871) and Henry S. Randall's Life (1858) . 
The current standard biographies of Jefferson are: 
Dumas Malone's (Little, Brown), Gilbert 
Chinard's (Little, Brown) , and Marie Kimball's 
(Coward-McCann) . 




Ampthill, 36 

Anderson, Bob, 15-16 

Anderson, Mat, 15-16 

Antigua rum, 30, 29 

Antonine (Italian garden- 
er) , 28 

Archy (slave, Isaac's bro- 
ther) , 64, 66 

Armandy (dog) , 47 

Arnold, Benedict, 58 

Arthur (slave of William 
Giles) , 39 

Artillery, 18 

Assembly-House, 1011 

Bacon, Edmund, 54, 59, 60 
Bacon Quarter Branch, 16- 


Bagwell (slave, Isaac's bro- 
ther) , 64, 66 

Bakery in Richmond, 14 

Balloon, 10 

Bears, 49 

Bedford County, Va., 23 

Belligrini (Italian garden- 
er) , 28 * 

Bellows, 41 

Belmont, 45 

Belvidere, 45 

Belvoir, 26 

Betts, Edwin M., 56, 60, 62, 


Beverley, Robert, 58 

Beverly (Petersburg bal- 
loonist) , 10 

Blacksmiths, 8, 15, 41, 45 

Blenheim, 8, 40 

Boiling, John, 42 

Boiling, Mrs. John, see 
Mary Jefferson 

Boiling, Ned (i.e., John), 


Books, 27-28 

Botetourt, Norborne Berke- 
ley, Baron de, 10 

Boyd, Julian P., 74 

Bradley, John, 42 

Bread baking, 14 

Bremo (horse), see Brim- 

Brimmer (horse) , 46 

Bringhouse, James, 32-34 

British invasion of Rich- 
mond, 15-21 

British march to Yorktown, 

Brock, John, 48 

Browere, John H. I., 69-70 

Buck Island, 49 

Building materials, 51 

Bull (dog) , 47 


Butchers, see Daly 
Butlers, see Martin Hem- 

Buzzy (dog), 47 
Byrd, Ursula, 14 

Campbell, Charles, 3, 67-68, 


Capitol (Richmond), 13 
Caractacus (horse), 12, 18, 

Card playing, 47 

Carpenters, 41, 45 

Carr, Dabney, 33, 50 

Carr, Mrs. Dabney, see 
Martha Jefferson 

Carr, Patsy, see Martha 

Carr, Peter, 33 

Carr, Sam (brother-in-law 
of Martha Jefferson 
Carr), 33 

Carr, Sam (son of Martha 
Jefferson Carr), 33 

Carriages and carriage- 
makers, 8-12, 39, 52, 60; 
see also Phaetons, Wag- 

Carter, Col. Edward, 8, 40 

Gary, Archibald, 35-36, 50 

Gary, Nancy, 36 

Cavalry, 18 

Central Hotel (Richmond), 

Ceres (dog) , 47 

Charles (white boy), 33 
Charles City County, Va., 


Charlottesville, Va., 51 

Chesterfield, 42, 47 

Chinard, Gilbert, 74 

Church, Randolph W., 72 

Cider, 29 

Claremont (dog), 47 

Clock, 29 

Clothing, 11, 25, 45 

Coal, 41 

Coaches, see Carriages 

Cock-fighting, 46 

Cocke, John H., 60 

Cooking, 14 

Coolidge, Mrs. T. Jeffer- 
son, 12 

Colle, 28, 51 

Copying machine, 27 

Cornwallis, Charles, first 
Marquis, 23 

Coxendale Island, Va., 51 

Cumberland County, Va., 

Cunningham, Mary E., 70 

Cups, 32 

Gushing, George H., 72 

Daguerreotypes, 52, 69, fac- 
ing titlepage 
Daly (Richmond butcher) , 


Dancing, 47 

Daniel (slave), 21, 23, 56 

Deer, 48 

DeWitt (Charlottesville 

tavern keeper), 51 
Didiot (Frenchman, mar- 

ried Mazzei's daughter), 

Didiot, Frances, 28 

Didiot, Francis, 28 
Dinsmore, James, 60 
Dogs, 47 

Doorkeeper of Assembly, 14 
Douglas, Rev. William, 11 
Drinking, 20, 29, 47 
Drums, 15-16 
Dumb-waiter, 27 
Dutch Gap, Va., 51 

Eagle (horse), 60 
Edgehill, 36, 50 
Elk Hill, 40 
Elk Island, 40 
Eppes, Francis, 33, 35 
Eppes, Mrs. Francis, 33, 42, 

Eppes, Frank, see Francis 

Eppes, John Wayles, 11, 50, 


Eppes, Mrs. John Wayles, 
see Maria Jefferson 

Fauble (French music- 
man), 29 
Fences, 48 
Fiddles and Fiddlers, 10, 


Fifers, see Bob Anderson 
Finishers, see John Nelson 
Fires and firefighting, 49 
Fitzhugh, William, 61 

Fleming, Col. William, 8, 


Fluvanna County, Va., 60 
"Forest," Charles City 

County, Va., 55 
Fosset, Joe, 55 
Francis (Italian gardener) , 


Franklin rod, 8 
Fredericksburg, Va., 31 
French people, 30 

Gardeners, 28 

Gates, 35 

George, Great (or King 
George, slave, Isaac's 
father) , 7, 19, 23, 48, 64, 

George, Little (slave, 
Isaac's brother), 64, 66 

Georgetown, 31 

German soldiers, 46; see al- 
so Riedesel 

Giannini, see Jovanini 

Gigs, 39; see also Carriages 

Giles, William B., 38-39 

Gimber, Stephen H., 71 

Ginger-cakes, 14 

Giovanni (Williamsburg 
tailor), 11 

Giovannini, see Jovanini 

Goats, 49 

Goochland, 8 

Goode, Col. Francis, 47 

Gordon, Nat, 31 

Governor's House (Rich- 
mond) , 18, 58 


Gray, Francis Galley, 73 
Great George, see George 
Grosse, Samuel, 65 
Guitar, 30 
Gustavus (horse), 12 

Handcuffs, 20 
Hare, 41; see also Rabbits 
Harpsichord, 29 
Harvie, Jack, 45 
Harvie, Mrs. Jack, 45 
Hemings, Betty (mother 

and daughter) , 10, 14, 56 
Hemings, Bob, see Robert 


Hemings, Harriet, 10, 57 
Hemings, James (Jim), 9, 

*4> 1 5> 3 1 * 33* 5 6 
Hemings, John, 45, 55, 57 

Hemings, Madison, 10, 57 
Hemings, Martin, 9, 14, 56 
Hemings, Mary, 9-10, 14, 

16, 18, 21, 23,56 
Hemings, Robert (Bob) , 

9-10, 14-15, 33, 56 
Hemings, Sally, 9-10, 57 
Hemings family, 55-57 
Henrico Court House, Va., 


Henry, Patrick, 26 

Herring, 51 

Horse-racing, 46-47 

Horses, 12, 18, 24, 31, 46, 
60; see also names of 
horses, e.g., Caractacus 

Hostlers, see Joseph Rattiff 

Hounds, see Dogs 

House-servants, see Serv- 
ants and Slaves 
Hunting, 41, 48 
Hylton, Daniel, 21 

Indian remains, 51 
Iris (slave) , 64, 66 
Iron work, 9 
Ironing, 20 

Isaac, see Isaac Jefferson 
Italians, 28, 51 

Jamestown, Va., 51 
Jefferson, Anna Scott (called 
Nancy, Thomas Jeffer- 
son's sister; i.e., Mrs. 
Hastings Marks) , 50 
Jefferson, Isaac 
apprenticed, 32 
biographical sketch, 63- 


birth, 7 

blacksmith shop, 52 
captured by British, 20- 


carries on tin business, 37 
daguerreotype of, facing 

titlepage, 52, 69 
death, 52 
description of, 52 
drum beating, 15-16, 21 
genealogical table of im- 
mediate family, 66 
Monticello, Isaac returns 
to, 33; Isaac leaves, 50 
parentage, 7; see also 


genealogical table 
Philadelphia, 31-33 
Randolph, Thomas 

Mann, Jr., ownership 
of Isaac, 38, 65-66 
whipped, 35 
York town, 23 
Jefferson, Mrs. Isaac, 52, 69 
Jefferson, Lucy (Thomas 
Jefferson's daughter) , 45 
Jefferson, Maria (called 
Polly, Thomas Jefferson's 
daughter; i.e., Mrs. John 
W. Eppes), 10-11, 33, 38- 

39> 5> 55 
Jefferson, Martha (called 

Patsy, Thomas Jefferson's 
daughter; i.e., Mrs. 
Thomas Mann Ran- 
dolph, Jr.), 7-8, 10, 11, 
33> 38 

Jefferson, Martha (called 
Patsy, Thomas Jefferson's 
sister; i.e., Mrs. Dabney 
Carr) , 33, 50 

Jefferson, Martha (called 
Patsy, Thomas Jefferson's 
wife) , see Mrs. Thomas 

Jefferson, Mary (called 
Polly, Thomas Jefferson's 
sister; i.e., Mrs. John 
Boiling) , 42, 45, 50 

Jefferson, Nancy, see Anna 
Scott Jefferson 

Jefferson, Patsy, see the 
three Martha Jeffersons 

Jefferson, Polly, see Maria 

and Mary Jefferson 
Jefferson, Randolph, 50 
Jefferson, Thomas 

Ambassador to France, 


amusements, 41 

books, 27-28 

bowing habits, 51 

card playing, 47 

clock, 29 

clothes, 11, 25, 45 

copying machine, 27 

dancing, 47 

description of, 25, 41, 59 

dining habits, 29 

dogs, 47 

drinking habits, 29 

driving habits, 10-12 

dumb-waiter, 27 

Elk Hill, 40 

eyesight, 44 

France, 9-10 

governor, 9, 40 

guns, 41 

habits, 10-12, 27-30, 41, 

47> 5*-52 
horses, 12, 46 
hunting, 41, 48 
illness, 44-45 
language skill, 28 
manuscripts cited 

Account Books, 63, 65- 


Book of Nail Manufac- 
turing, 63, 74 
Farm Book, 55, 57, 61, 

music and musical instru- 


ments, 29-30 
portraits, 41, 69-70, 71-72, 

facing 16, 41 
Prayer Book, 35, 60 
President (i.e., Secretary 

of State), 31-34, 59 
Richmond, 13-21 
singing, 30 
skill at making keys and 

locks, 41 

slaves, number of, 11 
slaves returned by Wash- 
ington, 23 
spectacles, 44 
violin, 29 

William and Mary resi- 
dence, 10-11 
Williamsburg, 9 
wine cellar, 20 
Jefferson, Mrs. Thomas 
(called Patsy, wife of 
Thomas Jefferson, ne 
Martha Wayles, first mar- 
ried Bathurst Skelton) , 

Joe (slave) , 23 

John (slave, coachman) , 
11-12, 14, 18 

John (slave of Gov. Page) , 

Jovanini (Italian gardener. 
Jefferson spelled the 
name Giovannini; the 
present generation in 
Charlottesville spell it 
Giannini with varia- 
tions) , 28 

Joyce (slave) , 64, 66 

Jupiter (slave), 11-12, 14, 

Keys and locks, 41 
Kimball, Fiske, 72 
Kimball, Marie, 74 
King George (slave) , see 

Knowlsby (horse) , 60 

Lafayette, M. J. etc., Mar- 
quis de, 44 

Laths, 51 

Lightning, 8 

Linn, William, 41, 71-72 

Little York, see Yorktown 

Locks and keys, 41 

Logan, Rayford W., 3, 59, 

Madison (slave) , see Madi- 
son Hemings 

Maids, 10; see also Slaves 
and Servants 

Malone, Dumas, 58, 74 

Manchester, Va., 15 

Marks, Hastings, 50 

Marks, Mrs. Hastings, see 
Anna Scott Jefferson 

Marsdell, Mr. (of Rich- 
mond) , 15 

Mary (slave, pastry-cook 
and seamstress) , see 
Mary Hemings 

Mayo, Bernard, 34, 74 

Mazzei, Peggy, 28 

Mazzei, Philip, 28, 51 

Millbrooks, 50 

Milton, Va., 37 

Modena (Italian garden- 
er) , 28 

Molasses, 51 

Molly (slave) , 21, 23, 56 

Molly (slave of Gov. 
Page), 26 

building of, 8 
carriages at, see Carriages 
Gary, Archibald, visits, 

clock, 29 

deer and deer park, 48 
dinners at, 29 
dogs, 47 

dumb-waiter, 27 
fences, 28, 48 
gardens, 28 
gates, 35 
Giles, William, visits, 38- 

Henry, Patrick, visits, 26 

Isaac born at, 7 
kitchen, 29 
library, 27, 41 
livestock, 49 
marble statuary, 44 
Mazzei's stay, 28 
music, 29-30 
nail factory, 37, 51 
Page, John, visits, 26 
Page, Mann, visits, 26 
pictures, 44 
rabbits, 47 

school, 42 

silver from, 19, 24 

slave quarters, 49 

stable (300 yards from 
house) , 35 

tinshop, 33-34 

tools, blacksmiths', car- 
penters', etc., 41 

view from, 43 

visitors to, 25-26, 28, 35- 

3 6 > 3 8 -39 

wild animals around, 49 
watercolor of, 72, facing 

wood-finishing, 8 

Mount Black or Blanc, 50 
Mulattoes, 9-10 
Music, 16, 29-30 

Nail business, 37, 51 

Nelson, John, 8 

New York State Historical 

Association, 70 
Nicholas, Anne, 38 
Nicholas, Wilson Gary, 38 

Odin (horse) , 31 

Old Market (Richmond), 


Ore, Billy, 8-9 
Otter (horse) , 12 

Palace (Richmond), 13 
Page, Gov. John, 26 
Page, Mann, 26 

Partridges, 41 

Pastry, 20 

Pelligrini, see Belligrini 

Petersburg, Va., 10, 17 

Phaetons, 9-12, 31; see also 

Carriages, Wagons 
Philadelphia, 31-34 
Pianoforte, 30 
Pierson, Hamilton W., 54 
Pipe smoking, 47 
Piragua, 22 
Pocahontas, Va., 51 
Pocahontas Bridge, 52 
Polygraph, 27, 70-71, facing 

Pompey (Col. Goode's 

horse trainer) , 47 
Poplar Forest, 23 
Postillion, 11 
Potomac, 31 
Powder-magazine, 21 
Powhatan House, 13 
Prayer Book, 55, 60 

Queen (slave), 7; see 

Rabbits, 41, 47 
Racing, 46-47 
Randall, Henry S., 74 
Randolph, Anne Gary, 38, 

Randolph, Benjamin Fran- 

klin, 38, 59-60 
Randolph, Cornelia, 59-60 
Randolph, Ellen Wayles, 

Randolph, George Wythe, 

59- 6 o 
Randolph, James Madison, 

38, 59-60 

Randolph, Jefferson, see 
Thomas Jefferson Ran- 
Randolph, Mary Jefferson, 

Randolph, Meriwether 

Lewis, 59-60 
Randolph, Sarah, 74 
Randolph, Septima, 59-60 
Randolph, Thomas Jeffer- 
son (called Jefferson 
Randolph), 25, 36, 38, 
59-60, 65, 70-71 
Randolph, Thomas Mann, 
ST. (called Tuckahoe 
Tom), 21, 23, 36 
Randolph, Thomas Mann, 
Jr., 8, 36, 38, 50-51, 61,65 
Randolph, Mrs. Thomas 
Mann, see Marth Jeffer- 

Randolph, Virginia, 59-60 
Rattiff, Joseph, 31, 33, 46 
Remus (horse) , 1 2 
Richmond, Va., 13-21 
Riding horse, 11; see also 

Riedesel, Friedrich Adolf, 

Freiherr von, 28, 51 
Romulus (horse), 12 
Rosenberger, Francis C., 

7^ 74 
Rum, 20, 29 

Saddlers, 13-14 

School at Monticello, 42 

Seamstress, see Betty Hem- 

Senegore (horse) , 12 

Servants, 13; see names of 
servants, e.g., the Hem- 
ings family; see also 
under Slaves 

Shadwell, 55 

Sheep, 49 

Shew, Mr. (daguerreo- 
typist,) 52, 69 

Silver, 19, 24 

Simcoe, Col. J. G., 18 

Skelton, Bathurst, 7, 58 

Skelton, Mrs. Bathurst, see 
Mrs. Thomas Jefferson 

Skipper, Mrs., see Mrs. 
Fulwar Skipwith 

Skipwith, Fulwar, 55 

Skipwith, Mrs. Fulwar, 42 

Skipwith, William, 50 

Slaves, 9-11, 14; see also 
under the names of 
slaves, especially Isaac 
Jefferson, Great George, 
the Hemings family, 
Ursula. For slave wages, 
see 19-20, 51-52 

Smoking, 47 

Spectacles, 44, 52 

Spinnet, 29 

Spotswood, Dandridge, 52 

Spy-glass, 15 

Squire (slave) , 64, 66 

Squirrels, 41 

Strauss, Dr. (of Rich- 

mond) , 10 
Stuart, Gilbert, 71 
Sukey (slave, the cook), 

*4 23 
Sukey (slave, Isaac's wife?) , 


Tailors, see Giovanni 
Tar kill (horse) , 46 
Tarquin (horse), see Tar- 

Tavern in Charlottesville, 

Va., 51 

Temple, Bob, 36 
Thompson, Ralph, 71 
Threshing machine, 51 
Tin business, 33-34, 37 
Tinner, see James firing- 

Tuckahoe, 21 
Tuckahoe Tom, see 
Thomas Mann Ran- 
dolph, Sr. 

Ursula (slave, called 
Queen, Isaac's mother), 
7-8, 19-20, 23, 54, 58, 64, 

Usley, see Ursula 

Varina, 51 
Violins, see Fiddles 
Virginia Cavalcade, 72 
Virginia State Library, 72 

Wagons, 9, 22; see also Car- 
riages, Phaetons 

Waistcoats, 25; see also 

Walker, John, 26 

Walker, Dr. Thomas, 26, 30 

Washing, 20 

Washington, George, 23, 

Washington Tavern, 20 

Water-works (Philadel- 
phia), 32 

Watson, Billy, 46 

Watson, Davy, 8-9, 46 

Wayles, Martha, see Mrs. 
Thomas Jefferson 

Wayles, John, 10, 50, 55 

Westham, 21 

Westover, 58 

Whippings, 35 

Wild-cats, 49 

Wiley, Mr. (Richmond 
saddler-shop owner), 13- 
14; see also Billy Wiley, 
his son? 

Wiley, Mrs., 14 

Wiley, Billy, 14 

William and Mary College, 
10-11, 58, 73 

Williamsburg, Va., 9-14 

Willis* Mountain, 43 

Wine, 20, 29 

Winterich, John T., 69 

Wintopoke, 33 

Wolves, 49 

Wood-work, 8, 60 

Wormley (slave) , 23 

Wyatt, Edward A., 68 

York, Little, see Yorktown 
Yorktown, Va., 22-23