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Full text of "Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. Volume Fourth"


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MEMOIRS 



OF THE 



CALEDONIAN 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



VOLUME FOURTH. 



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MACLACHLAN & STEWART, EDINBURGH 
AND SIMPKIN & MARSHALL, LONDON. 

MDCCCXXIX. 



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V. NEILL, PKINTEB. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Committee for publishing the Transactions of 
The Caledonian Horticultural Society, are happy to 
be now able to present to its Members, and the Public, the 
Second Part of the Fourth Volume. This Part, or Half 
Volume, contains no fewer than fifty-four different com- 
munications, illustrated by Ten Engravings. Many of 
these Papers are written either by distinguished Amateur 
Horticulturists, or by Practical Gardeners of great expe- 
rience. That every paper should be equally interesting, 
is not surely to be expected. But, while it is to be distinct- 
ly understood, that the respective Authors alone, and not 
the Society, are to be held responsible for the contents of 
the Papers ; the Committee confidently trust that the pub- 
lication will, as a whole, prove generally acceptable and 
useful to horticulturists. 

Some of the communications, it will be remarked, are 
rather of an old date. This arose from circumstances be- 
yond the controul of the Committee ; particularly the long 
continued illness, and subsequent death, of one of their 
Secretaries Mr Thomas Dickson, in whose custody not a 
few of the MSS. happened to be placed. 

The Committee already possess ample materials for 
another Part or Half Volume ; and. in the course of it, 



IV ADVERTISEMENT. 

they hope to be able to overtake all communications, the 
publication of which is in arrear. Every thing, however, 
must depend on the sale of the Work indemnifying the 
expence of Paper, Printing, and Engraving. All Members 
are therefore earnestly requested to promote this object, by 
procuring their own copies without delay. 



CONTENTS. 



HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. 

Page 
Letter from Lord Sidmouth to the Earl of Hopetoun, 

intimating his Majesty's becoming Patron of the So- 
ciety, --___--- 1 

Additional List of Honorary Members, - - 2 

List of Ordinary Members from June 1819 to September 

1826, - 3-14 

List of Corresponding Members from June 1819 to 

September 1826, - - - - - 14-18 

Additional List of Foreign Members, - - - 19 

Office-bearers for 1826, - 20 

Detailed Account of Premiums awarded from 3d June 

1819 to 11th July 1822, - 21-43 

Address voted to the King on occasion of his visiting 

Scotland, - - --. - - - 44 

Detailed Account of Premiums awarded from 5th Sep- 
tember 1822 to 26th October 1826, - - 45-86 

Warrant for a Royal Charter of Incorporation to the 

Society, - - - - - - 87-93 

Charta, Societatem in corpus corporatum erigens, 94-100 

EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

Circular to the Members, and List of Shareholders, 101-109 
First Report of the Garden Committee, 5th March 

1825, and Ground- Plan of the Garden, - 109-121 

Second Report of the Garden Committee, 15th June 

1826, 122-130 

MEMOIRS. 

Account of a new Mode of Grafting Camellias, (with a 
Plate). By Professor Dunbar, ... 133 

Remarks on the French Methods of Cultivating the Peach- 
tree. By Mr John Smith, - - - - 138 



Il CONTENTS. 

On the Cultivation of certain Ornamental Plants in Flow- 
er-pots filled with Hypnum-mosses. By Mr John 
Street, Biel, - - - - - - 158 

On the Economical Arrangement of Fruit-trees in a small 
Garden. By Mr Dick, Ballindean, - _ 163 

Description of an Economical Pit for preserving Vege- 
tables and Salads during Winter, and raising Early 
Vegetables in the Spring, (with a Plate). By Mr 
Stewart, Valleyfield, - - - - - 173 

On the utility of employing Grass Sward in forwarding 
Early Crops of certain Vegetables. By Mr Bisset, 
Methv en Castle - - - * - - 180 

Observations regarding the Management of Oak Coppice- 
Woods, &c. (with a Plate). By Mr Hosie, Lynedoch, 189 

Account of an Improved Mode of Ventilating Hot- 
Houses. By Mr Tweedie, -*'__-, 200 

Queries relative to the Sowing, instead of Planting, of 
Forest Trees, - - 205 

Account of a simple and effectual method of destroying 
the Scaly Insect. By Mr Beattie, Scone, - 209 

Remarks on the Locust-tree recommended by Mr Cobbet, 
&c. By Mr Thomas Blaikie, -. 212 

On scraping off the Old Bark of Fruit-trees. By Mr T. 
Thomson, __..._. 220 

On the raising of Seedling Ranunculuses, &c. By Mr 
John Waterston, Paisley,' - 227 

Account of a Method of cultivating the Grape- Vine, (with 
a Plate). By Mr Ninian Niven, - 234 

On Mulching and Watering Fruit-tree Borders. Ry Mr 

Smith, Hopetoun, - -."_ "- ' - ' - 244 

Notice of some Forest and Ornamental Trees which] de- 
serve the attention of Scottish cultivators. By G. L. 
Meason, Esq. - - - - - 251 

Notice of the hardy Fruits of Upper Canada. By Mr T. 
Blair, - ______ 254 

Hints on Increasing the Warmth of Garden- Walls, &c. 
By Mr John Henderson, Brechin, - - 258 



CONTENTS 



OF 

PART II. 



Page 
On the raising of Mushrooms, and on the forcing of Rhubarb 

Stalks in the open air. By Mr James Stuart, 273 

On the ripening of Fruit by Artificial Heat, after being taken 

from the Tree. By Mr James Howison, - - 279 
On the raising of Mushrooms during the Winter Season. By 

Mr A. Kelly, - - - - 283 

On destroying Slugs (Limax cinereus and agrestis). By Mr 

Archibald Gorrie, ... - 289 

Account of a New Mode of Planting and Cultivating Fruit 
Trees, with a view to prevent Canker, and to procure 
well-ripened Fruit. By Mr Archibald Reid, - 292 

Observations on the Culture of Onions. By the late Dr A. 

Duncan, - 305 

Remarks, 1. On the Propagating of certain Plants by Cut- 
tings ; 2. On enuring of certain Plants to our Climate ; 
3. On the Grafting of Orange Trees. By Mr John 
Machray, - - - - - 310 

Description of an Improved Flower-pot, with an interior 

Moveable Bottom. By James Howison, Esq. - 317 

Remarks on some Species of Edible Gourds, and on the 
Modes of Dressing them for Table. By Mr Daniel 
Crichton, - - - - - 322 

On the Keeping of Apples. By Mr William Ogilvie, 326 

On preparing a Light Garden-Soil for Carrots and for Onions. 

By Mr Peter Campbell, ... 333 

On the Upright Training of Garden Rose-bushes, and of the 

Cydonia Japonica. By Mr John Dick, - 337 

Account of Oiled Paper- Frames for protecting the Blossom of 

Wall-Trees. By Mr Alexander Smith, - 342 



V1 CONTENTS. 

Page 
Notice of an Improved Mode of Glazing Hot-house Sashes. 

By John Robison, Esq. (Plate VI.) - . 34,8 

Account of Steam-Pits for the Culture of Melons, at Rock- 

ville, in East Lothian. By Mr Peter Dewar, (Plate VII.) 350 
Notice regarding the Ionian Melon and the Malta Melon. By 

Mr Daniel Crichton, - 354, 

Notice regarding the Cause of Canker, the Natural History 

of the Red Spider, &c. By Mr William Blair, 358 

Notice regarding Indian Saws. By John Robison, Esq. 

(Plate VIII.) ----- 362 

On the Utility of gathering Unripe Tomatoes, and maturing 
them on Shelves in Hot-houses. By Mr W. M c Mur- 
trie, - - - - - - 364 

Hints and Notices connected with Horticulture. By John 
Murray, Esq. ..... 370 

On the Gooseberry Caterpillars, and the application of Heat for 

their destruction. By Robert Thom, Esq. (Plate VIII.) 378 
On the Cultivation of Onions ; on Preparing Ground for Car- 
rots ; and on Destroying the Gooseberry Caterpillar. By 
Mr John Wallace, - 391 

Notice regarding the Scarificator figured in Plate VIII. fig. 5. 

By John Gordon, Esq. - - - 395 

Notice of an Improved Garden Hammer. By Mr John 

Dick. (Plate VIII.) .... 398 

Description of, and Directions for using, a New Preservative 
Frame for saving Wall Fruit from being destroyed by 
Wasps, Blue-flies, or Birds, when it is ripe ; and also for 
protecting the Blossom in spring from frost, and ensuring 
a crop of Fruit. By Mr John Dick, (Plate IX.) 400 

On the Cultivation of Strawberries. By Mr John Middle- 
ton, - - - - - - 408 

On Saving the Seeds of some Culinary Vegetables and Orna- 
mental Flowers in Scotland. By Alexander Hen- 
derson, Esq. ..... 416 

On Forcing of Sea-Cale, and on the Culture of Sicilian Broc- 
coli, &c. By Edmund Cartwright, Esq. - 418 
On Destroying Caterpillars. By Mr Alexander Wither- 

spoon, - - 421 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 

Hints on Transplanting of Onions ; on Canker in Fruit- Trees ; 

on Scottish Pears, &c. By Colonel Spens, - 425 

On the Formation of a Gardener's Library. By Mr James 

Smith, - 441 

On the Cultivation of Peaches and Nectarines on Flued 
Walls ; on Screening the Blossom of Wall- Trees by means 
of Nets and Ferns ; on Saving Peas and Beans from the 
attacks of Mice ; and on Destroying these Vermin. By 
Mr William Irving, - 446 

Hints on the Management of the Grape- Vine, particularly in 
Peach-Houses ; and on Propagating Vines by Layers and 
Cuttings. By Mr John Martin, - - 455 

Notice of a Hawthorn Hedge, damaged by iEcidium lacera- 

tum. By Mr William Don, - 459 

On the Curl in Potato, and on the Transplanting of Onions. 

By Mr Peter Lowe, - 462 

Some Account of the Fruits grown in Gourdiehill Orchard, 
Carse of Gowrie, with Remarks. By Patrick Ma- 
thew, Esq. - 467 

Account of a Collection of Gooseberry Bushes contained 
within an inclosure in the Nurseries at Perth. By Ar- 
chibald Turnbull, Esq. - - - 481 

Account of the mode of making various Liqueurs, &c. By 

Mr Lewis Pederana, - 486 

Account of Fruit- Trees trained to a Wall inclined to the 
Horizon, at an angle of about 10°, in a Garden at Por- 
tobello. By William Creelman, Esq. (Plate X.) 493 

Postscript to Dr William Howison's Paper on the Culi- 
nary Vegetables of the Russian Empire. By Dr Howi- 
son, ---___ 497 

On the kinds of Grape-vine best suited for Hot-walls in Scot- 
land. By Mr George Shiells, - - 500 
On the Use of Hop-Tops as a Culinary Vegetable ; and an 
Account of different Modes of Dressing Gourds for the 
Table. By Mr Lewis Pederana, - - 504 
On Heating Hot-Houses by Steam. By the Rev. James 

Armit age Rhodes. (Plate XL) - - 511 



Vlll CONTENTS. 



Paae 



Account of a mode of training Vines on the outside of the al- 
ternate Sashes of a Hot-House, by which means excellent 
Grapes were produced. By Mr James Macdonald. 
(Plates XII. and XIII.) 520 

Of the Disease in Turnips called Anbury, or Fingers and 

Toes, - - - - - - 529 

An Account of some Seedling Apples and Plums which have 

been raised at Coul, in Ross-shire, - - 554 

On Canker in Fruit- Trees depending on bad Subsoil. By Mi- 
Peter Campbell, - 559 

On the Germination of Seeds and subsequent Vegetation. By 

John Murray, Esq. - 564 

Account of the Mode of Culture adopted at Cunnoquhie, in 
raising Pine- Apples and Melons, in a Pit heated by 
Steam ; with a Description of the Pit and Steam Appa- 
ratus. By Mr Alexander Smith, - - 570 

Account of a Glazed House, adapted for the Culture of 
Peach-Trees, Grape-Vines, and Ornamental Plants. By 
Mr R. F. D. Livingston, - - - 576 

Account of a Mode of producing a steady and uniform Bot- 
tom-Heat in Pine-apple or Melon Pits, or in Stoves for 
Exotic Plants, by means of Steam introduced into a close 
chamber filled with water- worn stones. By Mr John 
Hay. (Plates XIV. and XV.) ... 582 



TO THE BINDER. 



In binding Parts I. and II. into One Volume, the Binder is requested 
to preserve the Contents of Part I. and prefix it to the Volume with the 
Contents of Part II. 



MEMOIRS 



OF THE 



CALEDONIAN 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



PATRON, 



LETTER from Lord Sidmouth to the late Earl of Hopetoun* 

My Lord, Whitehall, 14th August 1820. 

I have had the honour to receive, and to lay before The King, 
your Lordship's letter of the 22d of last month, in which you state, by 
the desire of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, of which your 
Lordship is President, that it is the Society's earnest wish that His Ma- 
jesty would be graciously pleased to honour the Society by becoming its 
Patron ; and I have great satisfaction in acquainting your Lordship, that 
His Majesty has most condescendingly consented to become the Patron 
of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, in compliance with its 
wishes expressed through your Lordship, as the President of the Society. 
I have the honour to be, 
My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 

Most obedient humble Servant, 

SIDMOUTH, 

Earl of Hopetoun, 

Hopetoun House, Edinburgh. 
VOL. IV. A 



2 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

September 7. 1820. 
His Royal Highness FREDERICK, DUKE of YORK. 
His Royal Highness WILLIAM HENRY, DUKE op CLA- 
RENCE. 

Letters of acceptance from Sir Herbert Tar/lor on the part of the Duke of 
York, and from John Barton, Esq. on tlie part of the Duke of Clarence, 
were laid before the Society on the above date. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

ELECTED SINCE 4TH MARCH 1819, 
(Continued from Vol. III. p. 26.) 



HONORARY. 

June 3. 1819. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Bridgewater. 

March 4. 1820. 
The Right Hon. Lord Erskine. 

June 1. 1820. 
The Right Hon. Lord Montagu, Ditton Park. 

December 5. 1822. 
The Right Hon. William Pitt, Lord Amherst, Governor- 
General of India, 
Robert Barclay, Esq. of Buryhill, Dorking, Surrey. 

March 13. 1823. 
The Right Hon. Robert Peel, His Majesty's Principal Se- 
cretary of State for the Home Department. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 3 

Semtember 2. 1824. 

Colonel Hardwick senior, Hon. East India Company's Service. 

December 2. 1824. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Dalhousie, Dalhousie Castle. 

December 2. 1825. 
The Right Hon. Lord Gilford, London. 
The Right Hon. Sir Samuel Shepherd, Lord Chief-Baron 
of Scotland. 



ORDINARY. 

June 3. 1819. 
His Grace Alexander, Duke of Gordon, Gordon Castle, 

Fochabers. 
Dr David Brewster, Sec. R. S. Ed. Allerly, Melrose. 
The Rev. Dr David Scott, Corstorphine. 
Robert N. Campbell, Esq. of Kailzie. 
Thomas Duncan, Esq. writer. 
Robert Thomson, Esq. Gilmour Place. 
Captain Andrew Thomson, R. N. Meadow Place. 

September 2. 1819. 
The Very Rev. Dr George Husband Baird, Principal of the 

University of Edinburgh, Forneth. 
Robert Gordon, Esq. Newington. 
James Robinson Scott, Esq. F. L. S. 
James Moncrieff, Esq. advocate. 
George Moncrieff, Esq, 
John Balfour, Esq. Hailes. 
John Haig, Esq. Bonnington. 
Thomas Buchanan, Esq. Pilrig Street. 
William Gardner, Esq. W. S; 



4 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

John Lindsay Donaldson, Esq. Edinburgh, 
John Smith, Esq. W. S. 
Mr John Tod, Goshan, Prestonpans. 
John Barclay Shiell, Esq. Edinburgh. 
Dr George Wilde, Edinburgh. 
James Johnstone, Esq. Edinburgh. 
George William Boyd, Esq. W. S. 
Mr James Sinclair, seedsman, Edinburgh. 
Charles Crossland Hay, Esq. Roslin Castle. 
Robert Purdie, Esq. Prince's Street. 
William Purves, Esq. merchant, Edinburgh. 
Dr William Graham, Edinburgh. 

December 2. 1819. 
Robert Andrew Wauch, Esq. of FoxhalL 
John Buchan Brodie, Esq. W. S. 
Alexander Scot, Esq. of Trinity, W. S. 
Alexander Macleod, Esq. of Muiravonside, 
William Berwick, Esq. Canongate. 
Robert Davidson, Esq. of Ravelrig. 
James Dallas, Esq. merchant, Edinburgh. 
The Rev. Henry Wastell, Newborough, Northumberland. 
John Barker, Esq. surgeon, Edinburgh. 
Archibald Duncan, Esq. writer, Edinburgh. 
William P. Williamson, Esq. merchant, Leith. 

March 4. 1820. 
The Right Hon. George, Earl of Dunmore, Dunmore Park, 
John Anderson, Esq. Bruntsfield Links. 
James Macbrair, Esq. of Tweedhill. 
Edward Robertson, Esq. St John's Hill. 
Dr Robert Graham, Regius Professor of Botany in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. 
John Gray, Esq. Deputy-Collector of Stamp-duties, Edin, 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Robert Buchan, Esq. painter, George Street. 
William Farquharson, Esq. of Monaltree. 
Robert Thom, Esq. Rothesay. 
William Tullis, Esq. Roxburgh Place. 
John Mackirday, Esq. of Birkwood. 
David Ramsay, Esq. writer to the Signet. 
William Grant, Esq. younger of Congalton. 

June 1. 1820. 
James Hunter, Esq. of Thurston. 
M. S. Nicolson, Esq. of Carnock. 
Dr John Aitken, surgeon, Edinburgh. 
David Clyne, Esq. S. S. C. 
Walter Graham, Esq Merchiston Lodge. 
William Spalding, Esq. writer, Edinburgh. 
John Ritchie, Esq. writer, Edinburgh. 

September 7. 1820. 

His Grace John, Duke of Atholl, Atholl House, Dnnkeld. 

Dr William Dyce, Professor of Midwifery, Aberdeen. 

Thomas Cranstoun, Esq. of Dewar. 

John Zeigler, Esq. Edinburgh. 

William Vertue, Esq. Edinburgh. 

John Henry Wishart, Esq. surgeon, Edinburgh. 

Dr Robertson Barclay of Caville, Fifeshire. 

December 7- 1820. 
Sir George Clerk, Bart. M. P. Penicuick. 
John Young, Esq. surgeon, Edinburgh. 
John Deuchar, Esq. Lecturer on Chemistry, Edinburgh. 
Peter Cathie, Esq. Fisherrow. 
Thomas Miller, Esq. younger of Glenlee. 
James Scott, Esq. accountant, Edinburgh. 
James Bartram, Esq. Pleasance, Edinburgh. ' 

William Turnbull junior, Esq. merchant, Edinburgh. 



6 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Alexander Stevenson, Esq. S. S. C. 
Mr Francis Davidson, confectioner, Edinburgh* 
Robert Kaye Greville, Esq. LL.D. Edinburgh. 
Robert Russell, Esq. Easter Invergordon-House. 
J. F. Clark, Esq. surgeon, Juniper-House. 

March 8. 1821. 
George Robertson, Esq. of the Register-Office, Edinburgh. 
William Clark, Esq. writer to the Signet, Edinburgh. 
John Druinmond, Esq. manufacturer, Edinburgh, 
Mr John Pettet, Saughton Hall. 

June 7. 1821. 
Daniel Vere, Esq. of Stonebyres. 
The Rev. Robert Clarke of Hexham. 
John Kerr, Esq. of Kerfield. 
James Aitken, Esq. merchant, Leith. 
Henry Raeburn, Esq. St Bernard's. 
Andrew Bogle, Esq. cashier, Royal Bank. 
John Stirling, Esq. accountant, Royal Bank, 

September 6. 1821. 
The Hon. General Lesslie Cuming, 
Major Lee Harvey of Castle-Semple. 
David Anderson, Esq. of Moredun. 
George Robertson Scott, Esq. of Benholm. 
J. W. Turner, Esq. Professor of Surgery to the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons. 
Francis Wilson, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
Peter Smellie, Esq. younger of Addiewell. 
Henry Raeburn junior, Esq. of St Bernard's. 
Alexander White, Esq. merchant, Leith. 
John Stark, Esq. printer, Edinburgh. 
Peter Macdowall, Esq. accountant, Edinburgh. 
John Morison, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 

I 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 7 

Samuel Wordsworth, Esq. Nottingham Place. 

Dr William Macdonald of Ballishare. 

John Thorburn, Esq. writer, Edinburgh. 

William Millar, Esq. Newington. 

Walter Marshall, Esq. Edinburgh. 

John Thorburn, Esq. Leith. 

William H. Playfair, Esq. architect, Edinburgh. 

Robert S. Ainslie, Esq. Inveresk. 

Charles Fleming, Esq. 16. Albany Street, Edinburgh. 

George Brown, Esq. writer, Edinburgh. 

Thomas Campbell, Esq. Argyll Square, Edinburgh. 

Robert Paul, Esq. accountant, Edinburgh. 

William Mitchell, Esq. Parson's Green, Edinburgh. 

Mr Charles Buchanan, gardener, Hailes, East Lothian, 

December 6. 1821. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Leven and Melville, Melville 

House. 
Leonard Horner, Esq. Edinburgh. 
Alexander Wight, Esq. banker. 
John Campbell, Esq. of Carbrook. 
Robert Miller, Esq. bookseller, Edinburgh. 
William Hall, Esq. wine-merchant, Edinburgh. 
Charles S. Macalister, Esq. of Kennox. 
Hart Anderson, Esq. merchant, Edinburgh. 
William Dennistoun, Esq. of Oakmount. 
William Bonar, Esq. banker, Edinburgh. 
John Young, Esq. George Street, Edinburgh. 
Charles Shaw, Esq. Merchant Court, Edinburgh. 
Mr John Craig, seed-agent, Leith. 
Mr Robert Turnbull, seedsman, Edinburgh. 

March 14. 1822. 
Thomas Allan, Esq. of Lauriston Castle. 
Claud Russell, Esq. accountant, Edinburgh, 



8 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

North Dalrymple, Esq. Campsie House, Musselburgh. 
The Rev. Edward Craig, Edinburgh. 
Dr John Mackintosh, Edinburgh. 
Andrew Sievwright, Esq. Gayfield Square. 
Charles Lawson, Esq. nurseryman, Edinburgh. 

June 13. 1822. 

The Right Hon. Archibald, Earl of Cassilis, Culzean Castle. 

The Rev. Andrew Brown, D. D. Professor of Rhetoric and 
Belles Lettres in the University of Edinburgh. 

Dr James Buchan, President of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians of Edinburgh. . 

William Currie, Esq. of Linthill. 

Andrew Gibson, Esq. Dean Park, Edinburgh. 

September 5. 1822. 
A. Murray Bartram, Esq. of Templebar, Peebles. 
William Lamont, Esq. of Knockdow. 
William Cuninghame Walker, Esq. of Dunnybank. 
James Jackson, Esq. Edinburgh. 
John Steedman, Esq. land-surveyor. 
Thomas Butler, Esq. druggist, Prince's Street. 
Hugh Austin, Esq. nurseryman, Glasgow. 
Mr A. Haig, baker, North College Street. 
Mr A. Galloway, wine-merchant, High Street. 
Mr J. Brash, secretary North British Fire-Office. 

December 5. 1822. 

John Tod, Esq. of Kirkhill, W. S. 
William Reid, Esq. bookseller, Leith. 
Robert More, Esq. Underwood. 
Eagle Henderson, Esq. younger of Press. 
William Jackson Hooker, Esq. LL.D. Professor of Botany 
in the University of Glasgow. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 
Samuel Aitken, Esq. bookseller, Edinburgh. 

March 13. 1823. 

William Hatelie, Esq. writer, Dewar Place. 
F. Lindsay Carnegie, Esq. of Kinblythmont. 
Alexander Fleming, Esq. W. S. Castle Street. 
James Wemyss, Esq. Hanover Street. 

June 12. 1823. 
The Hon. Lord Succoth, Park Place. 
A. J. Hamilton, Esq. younger of Dalzell. 
John Hay Mackenzie, Esq. of Newhall, Haddington. 
Andrew Snody, Esq. S. S. C. Leith Walk. 
Colin Macnab, Esq. Great King Street. 
David Freer, Esq. W. S. 
James Johnstone, Esq. of Alva. 

September 4. 1823. 
The Hon. Colonel John Ramsay, Kelly House, Arbroath. 
Colonel R. W. Duff of Fetteresso, Stonehaven. 
Sir Thomas Gibson Carmichael of Skirling, Bart. 
Lieut. James Lamont, R. N. 
David Blaikie, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
Robert Brown, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
Adam Fairholm, Esq. of Chapel. 
Graham Mercer, Esq. of Mavisbank. 
Edward Gilchrist, Esq. Edinburgh. 
Charles Wilson, Esq. solicitor-at-law, Edinburgh. 
John Hogg, Esq. City Chambers, Edinburgh. 
Alexander Stevenson, Esq. W. S. 
John Rae, Esq. Newington. 
Alexander Craig, Esq. surgeon, Edinburgh. 

December 4. 1823. 
Sir Alexander Keith of Ravelstone. 



10 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Admiral Sir Charles Philip Durham, K. C. B. of Fordel, 

Fifeshire. 
Rev. Dr John Inglis. 
Robert Mitchell, Esq. 

William Home Lizars, Esq. James's Square, Edinburgh. 
Alexander Hill, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
Mark Sprott, Esq. of Garnkirk. 
John Crawford, Esq. Newington. 
J. R. Skinner, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
Mr George Archibald, seedsman, Edinburgh. 
Mr David Macgibbon, Broughton Street, Edinburgh. 

March 11. 1824. 
Sir Walter Scott, Bart, of Abbotsford. 
John Barclay, M. D. Argyll Square, Edinburgh. 
Charles Oliphant, Esq. W. S. Castle Street, Edinburgh, 
George Dunlop, Esq. W. S. Beechwood. 
William Laidlaw, Esq. surgeon, Broughton Place, 
David Jardine, Esq. Canongate. 
Claud Muirhead, Esq. Heriot Row. 
Robert Strong junior, Esq. Leith. 
James Johnstone, Esq. younger of Alva, 

June 10. 1824. 

Dr W. P. Alison, Conjunct Professor of the Institutes of Me- 
dicine in the University of Edinburgh. 

John Wilson, Esq. Professor of Moral Philosophy in the 
University of Edinburgh. 

George Yule, Esq. Broughton Park. 

Joseph Grant, Esq. W. S. Argyll Square. 

Macduff Rhind, Esq. Marine Cottage, Pirniefield. 

William Clerk, Esq. advocate. 

James Douglas, Esq. Commercial Bank, Edinburgh. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 11 

September 2. 1824 — (X, B. Members elected at this meeting, and subse- 
quently, pay an admission-fee of Two Guineas, and Two Guineas 
annually, one to the Society and another to the Garden ; or com- 
pound for the former by a payment of Ten Guineas to the Society, 
and for the latter by purchasing a transferable share in the Gar- 
den.) 

George Ballingall, Esq. Professor of Military Surgery in the 

University of Edinburgh. 
Robert Brysson, Esq. South Bridge, Edinburgh. 
Aitken Megget, Esq. Edinburgh. 

December 2. 1824. 
Sir William Jardine, Bart, of Applegirth. 
Andrew Rutherfurd, Esq. advocate. 
James Keay of Snaigo, Esq. advocate. 
Captain Brown of Prinlaws. 
Dr John Macwhirter, physician, Edinburgh. 
Patrick Dudgeon, Esq. of East Craig, 
William Allan, Esq. of Glen. 

Walter Richard jun. Esq. Stamp-Office, Edinburgh. 
Robert Falkner, Esq. wine-merchant, Edinburgh. 
Charles Thomson, Esq. wine-merchant, Edinburgh. 

September 1. 1825. (First Meeting held under the Royal Charter.) 
The Right Hon. James, Earl of Lauderdale, Dunbar House- 
Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Bart, of Grange and Fountainhall. 
Walter Campbell, Esq. of Isla, M. P. 
James Balfour, Esq. of Whittingham. 
John Richardson, Esq. of Pitfour. 
William Marshall, Esq. jeweller, Edinburgh. 
Dr Samuel Hibbert, Wharton Place. 
William Keith, Esq. accountant. 
John Brown, Esq. Graham Street. 
John Cross, Esq. Gilmour Street. 
Captain James Hay, R. N of Belton by Dunbar. 



12 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Daniel Fisher, Esq. writer, Edinburgh. 

Dr Peter Smith, of Dunesk, Lasswade. 

John Broster, Esq. of Broche Hall, Chester. 

Andrew Moffat Wellwood, Esq. of Garvock, Dunfermline. 

George Houy, Esq. Courant Office, Edinburgh. 

William Oliphant, Esq. bookseller, Edinburgh. 

Sir James M. Riddell of Ardnamurchan, Bart. 

James Mackay, Esq. jeweller, Edinburgh. 

William Pattison, Esq. junior, merchant. 

John Hunter, Esq. Pitt Street. 

Mr John Reid junior, Rose Bank. 

John Robison, Esq. Coates Crescent. 

David Monro Binning, Esq. of Argatty. 

John Tait, Esq. younger of Pirn, W. S. 

W. D. Gillon, Esq. of Wallhouse 

The Hon. Lord Meadowbank, Meadowbank, Midlothian. 

John Henderson, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 

James Cockburn, Esq. Brighton Place, Portobello. 

James Boog, Esq. Portobello. 

C. S. Menteith, Esq. younger of Closeburn. 

Thomas Boultbee Parkins, Esq. Newland, Gloucestershire. 

John Cuninghame, Esq. of Duloch, advocate. 

Count Mercer de Flahault, Tulliallan House, Kincardine. 

James Burnside, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 

David Mackinlay, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 

Charles Hitchiner, Esq. Stobs Mills. 

William Home, Esq. Pitt Street, Edinburgh. 

December 1, 1825, 

The Right Hon. Charles, Lord Kinnaird, Rossie Priory. 
Sir Thomas Trowbridge, Bart. Rockville, Haddington. 
Sir John Connell, Knight, Judge- Admiral of Scotland. 
Thomas Hardy, Esq. surgeon, Duke Street. 
John Henderson, Esq. Exchequer-Office. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. IS 

Andrew Spalding, Esq. writer, East Broughton Place. 
John Blackwood, Esq. Clareraont Crescent. 
John Stenhouse, Esq. St Andrew Street. 
Robert Ritchie, Esq. India Street. 

The Very Rev. Principal Robert Haldane of St Mary's Col- 
lege, St Andrew's. 
Alexander Smith, Esq. of Inverarderan. 
Alexander Ross, Esq. merchant, Salisbury Road. 
James Anderson, Esq. Depute-clerk of Justiciary, Elm Row. 
Alexander Stewart, Esq. Saxe-Cobourg Place. 
Richard Alexander, Esq. wine-merchant, Edinburgh. 
Robert Hamilton, Esq. Scotland Street. 
Jacob Dixon junior, Esq. Dunbarton. 

March 2. 1826. 

Thomas Blackwood, Esq. West Newington Place. 
William Blackwood, Esq. Salisbury Road. 
Captain Andrew Barclay, Portobello. 
Dr Richard Maddock Hawley, Maryfield. 
Alexander Berwick, Esq. St John Street. 
Mathew Walker, Esq. Edinburgh. 
Robert Ramsay, Esq. Charlotte Square. 
The Rev. Thomas Brown, Dalkeith. 

June 1. 1826. 
Robert Reid, Esq. architect, Charlotte Square. 
Andrew Watson, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
Thomas Ferguson, Esq. W. S, Edinburgh. 
The Rev. Edward Ramsay, Darnaway Street. 
Thomas Duncan, Esq. of Grenada, Drummond Place. 

September 7- 1826. 
The Hon. Baron Clerk Rattray. 

The Hon. Baron Sir Patrick Murray, Bart, of Ochtertyre. 
The Right Rev. Bishop Sandford. 



14 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Henry Monteith, Esq. M. P. Carstairs, Lanark. 
Henry Duncan, Esq. Comely Green. 
Thomas Rymer, Esq. writer, Edinburgh. 
Alexander Kettle, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
James M. Melville, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
Thomas Sprott, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
George Joseph Bell, Esq. Professor of Scots Law in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. 
Miles A. Fletcher, Esq. advocate, Edinburgh. 
Thomas Maitland, Esq* younger of Dundrennan, 
Mr Thomas Cleghorn, seedsman, Edinburgh. 
George Watt, Esq. surgeon, Drummond Place. 
Alexander Robertson, Esq. W. S. Castle Street. 
Mark Sprott, Esq. of Riddel. 
John Sprott, Esq. Picardy Place. 
James Dunlop, Esq. W. S. Howe Street. 
W. H. Millar, Esq. of Craigentinny near Edinburgh. 



CORRESPONDING. 

June 3. 1819. 
William Bridgewater Page, Esq. nurseryman, Southampton. 
Mr William Fowlie, gardener to Thomas Freeman Heath-- 
cot, Esq. M. P. Embley near Runsey, Hants. 

December 2. 1819. 
Mr Ninian Lindsay, gardener to the Hon. Lord Hermand. 
John Wood, gardener and land-steward at Scarron near 

Newry, Ireland. 
Robert Loudon, gardener to Henry Monteith, Esq. of 

Carstairs. 
George Mill, gardener to Charles Stirling, Esq. of Cadder. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 15 

Mr Daniel Macnab, gardener to His Grace the Duke of Ar- 
gyll, Inverary. 

William Brown, gardener to Mr Alexander of Southbar. 

Donald Lindsay, gardener to Sir James Colquhoun, Bart, 
of Iiiiss, Rosedoe. 

John Veitch, gardener to George Robinson senior, Esq. 
Greenock. 

Adam Melrose, gardener to Sir Michael Shaw Stewart, 
Bart, of Ardgowan. 

Robert Reid, gardener to T. F. Kennedy, Esq. of Dal- 
quharson. 

Archibald Stewart, gardener to the Most Noble the Mar- 
quis of Londonderry, Mount Stewart. 

John Douglas, gardener to H. S. Stewart, Esq. of Phys- 
gil. 

William Cruickshanks, gardener to the Right Hon. Lady 
Blantyre, Lennoxlove. 

Thomas Kelly, gardener to Sir Robert Abercrombie 
Bart. Airthrie. 

March 4. 1820. 
Mr George Low, gardener to William Farquharson, Esq. 
Monaltree. 
John Cullen, gardener to R. Cuninghame, Esq. Clon- 

caird. 
George Foster, gardener to the Hon. Sir A. Hope of Luff- 

nessj Bart. 
Lachlan Campbell, gardener, Northbar, Glasgow. 

June 1. 1820. 
Mr William Pearson, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl of 
Hopetoun, Ormiston Hall. 
Hugh Ross, gardener to Lady Dundas of Beechwood. 
John Christie, gardener to Ebenezer Gilchrist, Esq. of 
Sunnyside. 



16 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Mr William Laidlaw, gardener to S. Anderson, Esq. of 
Moredun. 

Charles Mackintosh, gardener to the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Breadalbane, Taymouth Castle. 

James Muir, gardener to William Hay, Esq. Bonnington. 

John Kay, gardener to Mr Stuart, Windlestrawlee. 

Adam Birrie, gardener to John Cheyne, Esq. of Bon- 
nington Brae. 

September 7. 1820. 
Mr Andrew Pace, gardener to Sir John Dalrymple, Bart. 

Oxen ford Castle. 
James Webster, Sir George Cornwall's, Bart. Marlow 

Court, near Hereford. 
Alexander Forbes, gardener to the Hon. F. G. Howard, 

Levens, near Milnthorp, Westmoreland. 
David White, gardener to General Balfour, Whitehill, 

by Lass wade. 
William Melrose, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl 

of Morton, Dalmahoy. 
James Hislop, gardener to the Hon. Lord Meadowbank, 

Meadowbank. 
Archibald Kay, gardener to the Hon. Mrs Erskine, Am- 

mondell. 

December 7- 1820. 
Mr John C. Monro, nurseryman, Evanton, Navar. 

Thomas Henderson, gardener to the Hon. General Duff, 

Delgaty Castle. 
James Walker, nurseryman, Aberdeen. 
John Reynolds, gardener to John Beddulph, Esq. Led- 
bury, Herefordshire. 
Hugh Ramsay, gardener to James Smith, Esq. Craig- 
end, Strathblane. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 17 

Mr Daniel Cunninghame, gardener to Sir Hay Campbell, 

Bart. Garscube. 
Alexander Coutts, gardener to James Davidson, Esq. 

Colzium. 
Thomas Waldron, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl 

of Cassilis, Culzean Castle, Maybole. 
William Moffat, gardener to Peter Johnston, Esq. Carn- 

salloch. 

June 7. 1821. 

The Rev. J. M. Robertson, minister of Livingstone. 

December 6. 1821. 

Dr John Hunter, Professor of Humanity, St Andrew's. 

March 14. 1822. 

Mr Thomas Johnston, gardener at St Leonard's, St An- 
drew's. 
Duncan Macnaughton, gardener to Miss Moncrieff of Dal- 
honsie near Comrie. 

June 13. 1822. 

Hercules Scott, Esq. Professor of Moral Philosophy in the 
University and King's College, Aberdeen. 

Mr James Webster, gardener to John H. Maxwell, Esq. of 
Munches. 

December 5. 1822. 

Mr John Callender, gardener to the Right Hon. Lord Douglas, 
Both well Castle. 

June 12. 1823. 

Mr Charles Doig, gardener to W. Inglis, Esq. of Middleton. 
Thomas Berry, gardener to P. G. Skene, Esq. Halyards, 

VOL. IV. B 



18 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

September 4. 1823. 
Mr James Donaldson, gardener to Alexander Pringle, Esq. 
of Yair. 
Malcolm Carmichael, gardener to J. J. Hope Johnstone, 
Esq. of Raehills. 

December 4. 1823. 
Dr Francis George Probart, Lincolnshire. 

March 11. 1824. 

John Dunlop, Esq. of Whitemuirhall. 

September 2. 1824, 
Dr B. Macleod, Hon. East India Company's Service. 

September 1. 1825. 
Mr Thomas Drummond of Forfar, now on the North- wes 
American Expedition. 
John Ross, gardener to James Dundas, Esq. of Dundas 
Castle. 

March 2. 1826. 

George dimming Scott, Esq, Master of the Anglo-Mexican 

Mint at Guanaxuato. 
Mr Joseph Miller, gardener to Count Flahault, Tulliallan. 

June 2. 1826. 

Mr David Thomson, gardener to General Balfour of Balbir- 
nie, Fifeshire. 

September 7. 1826, 

Mr James Barnet, Superintendant of the Experimental Gar- 
den. 

Mr Thomas Stewart, gardener to Lieutenant-General Dur- 
ham at Largo. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 19 



FOREIGN. 

December 2. 1819- 
Mr A. F. Louis Schell, gardener to His Royal Highness the 
Grand Duke of Saxe- Weimar. 

March 8. 1821. 
Dr L. T. Frederick Colladon of Geneva. 

September 1. 1825. 
The Chevalier Masclet, French Consul for Scotland. 



b2 



( 20 ) 



OFFICE-BEARERS, 1826. 

President. 
The Right Hon. GEORGE, EARL of DUNMORE. 

Vice-Presidents, 

Dr Duncan sen. (Permanent.) Sir Henry Jardine, Knight. 
Sir John Hay, Bart. Lord Provost Trotter. 

Mr P. Neill, Secretary. Mr A. Dickson, Treasurer. 
Mr P. Syme, Painter. 

Council. 

Mr John Shanklie. The Rev. Dr Alex. Brunton- 

Mr James Stuart, Pinkie. Thomas Cranstoun, Esq. 

Mr Thomas Inglis, Barnton. George Bell, Esq. 

Mr William Wright. John Wauchope, Esq. 

Walter Dickson, Esq. Dr T. C. Hope. 

Mr Joseph Archibald. Dr Robert Graham. 

Committee for Prizes. 

Professor Dunbar, Convener. 
Mr James Walker. Duncan Cowan, Esq. 

Mr William Macnab- The Rev. Dr Andrew Brown. 

Mr John Boyd. The Rev. Dr David Ritchie. 

Alexander Henderson, Esq. John Leven, Esq. 

Garden Committee. 

Dr R. K. Greville. Mr William Macnab. 

Daniel Ellis, Esq. Mr John Hay. 

Dr John Yule. ; Mr John Linning, Garden Treus. 

Mr James Barnet, Superintendant of the Garden. 

The Vice-President of the day, is ex officio a Member of the Committee 
for Prizes. The Secretary and Treasurer are ex officio Members 
of all Committees, where their assistance is required. 



< 21 ) 
EXTRACTS 

FROM THE 

MINUTE-BOOK OF THE SOCIETY, 

IN AS FAR AS RELATES TO THE 

AWARDING OF PREMIUMS. 

Continued from Vol. III. p. 42. 



(The Societi/s Silver Medal is to be understood, unless where otherwise 
specified.) 



General Meeting, June 3. 1819. 
The Committee for Prizes reported, that several Me- 
lons had been examined, and that the best, in point of fla- 
vour, had been sent by Mr John Kyle, gardener to James 
Stirling, Esq. of Keir ; and the medal was accordingly as- 
signed to Mr Kyle. Only one parcel of seedling Tulips 
had been presented ; but these being of good quality or pro- 
mise, the medal was awarded to Mr Robert Elliot, gardener 
to Sir Thomas Gibson Carmichael, Rart, who transmitted 
them. A very fine collection of named sorts, or established 
flowers, having been exhibited, the flowers being particu- 
larly large and well formed ; it was agreed that an extra 
medal should be awarded to the cultivator, who proved to 
be Mr Alexander Forrester, gardener to David Falconar, 
Esq. of Carlowrie. The show of bouquets of border flowers 
was very fine. Some of the parcels being distinguished by 



22 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

characters of excellence quite peculiar and of great import- 
ance, the Committee recommended that three prizes should 
be given : The first to Mr John Street, gardener to the Hon. 
Mrs Hamilton Nisbet of Biel, for a collection of flowers 
and flowering shrubs, cultivated in the open borders at Biel, 
containing above twenty exotic species which have hither- 
to been considered in this country as greenhouse plants, 
and several of which had, for the first time in Britain, been 
tried in the open air at Biel ; the second to Messrs Dickson 
& Co. Leith Walk, for a bouquet containing sprigs of seve- 
ral rare exotic shrubs, which, though natives of warmer 
countries, have been so far naturalized that they have 
stood, without any protection but that of a wall, for some 
winters, in the Leith Walk Nurseries ; the third to Mr 
James Cunninghame, gardener at Comely Bank, for a 
bouquet which, though not in strict conformity with the 
Society's proposals, was extremely rich and beautiful, 
abounding with Cape heaths, and various species of roses. 
Mr Andrew Dickson presented to the Society, in name 
of Mr John Street, flower-gardener at Biel, a collection of 
seeds of tender exotics which ripened in the open air at 
Biel last autumn, and from which, in the course of two or 
three more generations, a more hardy progeny may be ex- 
pected, according to the doctrine promulgated by Sir Jo- 
seph Banks. 

Council Meeting, July 1. 1819- 
The Committee for Prizes having met, a specimen of 
the Early green-fleshed Ionian Melon from Minto Garden, 
was tasted, and being much approved of, and having been 
sent at the desire of the Committee, they agreed to recom- 
mend that an extra medal be awarded to Mr Daniel Crich- 
ton, gardener to Lord Minto, who practises the culture of 
this fine variety. 

1 



AWARDED IN 1819- 23 

Several fine collections of Ranunculuses were shewn ; 
and the Committee united in recommending that a medal 
should be awarded to Mr James Macdonald at Newing- 
ton, for the great excellence of his flowers. 

Two very superior collections of Roses were also dis- 
played, the one excelling in variety, and the other in the 
size and shape of the flowers. The Committee voted a 
medal for the former, which was ascertained to belong to 
Messrs J. and G. Dicksons, Broughton Nurseries. 

Council Meeting, August 5. 1819- 
The Committee for Prizes having met, Mr Shade pre- 
sented a collection of seedling Currants, Gooseberries, and 
Raspberries, raised at Pollock Garden by Mr Dugald 
Campbell, gardener to Sir John Maxwell, Bart. A white 
currant, marked No. 1. was remarkable for its sweetness, 
and a white gooseberry, marked No. 3. was distinguished 
for flavour. The Committee recommended the culture of 
these two, and desired the Secretary to request a plant of 
each for the use of the Society. Upon the whole, the 
Committee, regarding this communication as the most im- 
portant they have lately received, and as tending direct- 
ly to promote one of the principal objects of the Insti- 
tution, agreed to recommend that the Gold Medal, or a 
piece of plate of five guineas value, be awarded to Mr Du- 
gald Campbell. 

A superb collection of Carnations was also displayed, 
consisting partly of stage-flowers, and partly of seedlings ; 
and the Committee agreed that a medal should be assigned 
to the cultivators, who were found to be Messrs C. and J, 
Peacock, Stairwell Lodge. 

A bouquet of the rich and gorgeous flowers of Tigridia 
pavonia, raised in the open air by Mr Macnab, was shewn ; 
and the Committee agreed, that as this was a new and 



24 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

splendid acquisition to our gardens, a medal should be 
awarded to Mr Macnab for introducing it at Edinburgh. 

General Meeting, September 2. 1819. 
The Committee for Prizes which met this day reported, 
that a very fine show of Fruits had been submitted to their 
inspection ; and that, after a careful examination, they 
had determined that the prizes should be awarded as fol- 
lows : 

For the best Peaches from unflued walls, to Mr James 

Kirk, gardener to Lady Buchan Hepburn of Smea- 

ton. 
The best Peaches from flued walls, — to Mr George 

Shielis, gardener to the Right Hon. Lord Blan- 

tyre, Erskine-House. 
The best Nectarines; — to Mr David Ford, gardener to 

the Right Hon. the Earl of Haddington, Tyningham. 
The best Moorpark Apricots, — to Mr George Bain, 

gardener to Sir Hew Hamilton Dalrymple of North 

Berwick, Bart. 
The best three sorts of Plums (greengages excepted), 

— to Mr James Kirk at Smeaton. 
The best Greengages, — to Mr William Reid, gardener 

to Sir John Marjoribanks of Lees, Bart. 
The best retarded Gooseberries, — to Mr James Walker, 

overseer at Melville Castle. 
The best three sorts of Summer Pears, — to Mr George 

Kay, gardener at Restalrig. 
The finest Pine-apple, — to Mr George Taylor, gar- 
dener to the Right Hon. the Earl of Kinnoul, Dup- 

plin Castle. 
The finest Black Hamburgh Grapes, — to Mr John 

Kyle, gardener to James Stirling, Esq. of Kier. 



AWARDED IN 1819- 25 

The largest cluster of White Muscat Grapes, — to Mi- 
George Munro, gardener to William Hay, Esq. of 
Drummelzier, Dunse Castle. 

The finest Seedling Carnations from seeds sown in 
1817, — to Messrs C. and J. Peacock, Stanwell 
Lodge. 

For White Currant Wine, — to Miss Orr, Broughton 
Place. 

For Red Currant Wine, — to Mrs Marshall Gardiner, 
Few House. 

For Elder-flower Wine, — also to Mrs Marshall Gar- 
diner. 

Council Meeting, October 7. 1819- 
Some very fine specimens of the White French Cucum- 
ber, the largest of which exceeded 4 lb. in weight, were 
exhibited, and one tasted by the members present. The 
Committee agreed to recommend that the silver medal be 
awarded to Mr Thomas Inglis, gardener at Barnton, for 
his attention to the cultivation of this variety, which he 
has raised annually at Barnton for a number of years past. 
Specimens of the White Buerre Pear of excellent qua- 
lity, and large size, were presented by Mr John Mitchell, 
gardener, Moncrieff House. The Committee and Coun- 
cil, considering that this variety of pear is little known or 
cultivated in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, recommend 
that a medal be awarded to Mr Mitchell, and that he be 
requested to communicate to the Society any remarks on 
this pear, its culture, &c. 

Council Meeting, November 5. 1819. 
Specimens of Celosia cristata or cockscomb, of very un- 
common magnitude, were exhibited, sent from Tulliallan, 
the seat of Lord Keith, and raised by Mr Thomas Thomson, 



26 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

gardener there. The Secretary was directed to request an 
account of the mode of culture ; and the meeting agreed 
to recommend that the Society's silver medal be awarded 
to Mr Thomson. 

General Meeting, December 2. 1819- 
The Committee for Prizes which met this day reported, 
that a very considerable show of choice Apples and Pears 
had been submitted to them, and that they had determined 
that the prizes should be awarded as follows : 

For the best three sorts of Apples not generally cul- 
tivated in Scotland, but which have been found to 
ripen well, — to Mr James Kirk, gardener to Lady 
Buchan Hepburn of Smeaton. 
For the best three kinds of French Pears produced in 
Scotland, — to Mr Alexander Kelly, gardener to the 
Right Hon. the Earl of Moray. 
For the best six Achan Pears, — to Mr Mathew Frazer, 
gardener to the Duchess-Dowager of Roxburgh and 
Mr Manners at Broxmouth. 
The Committee further reported, that a communication of 
considerable importance had been received from Mr Robert 
Ingram, gardener at Torry, accompanied with specimens, 
shewing that the Gansefs Bergamot, when budded or graft- 
ed on the Swan-egg Pear-tree, yields fruit of greatly su- 
perior quality ; and they recommended that an extra me- 
dal should be awarded to Mr Ingram, which was agreed 
to. 

The Secretary reported from the Council, that the me- 
dal for the finest drawing of Scottish fruit had been as- 
signed to Miss Borthwick of Crookston : That the annual 
gold medal given for the most important communication 
printed in the Society's Memoirs, had been voted to Samuel 
Parkes, Esq. for his Essay on the Use of Sea-salt in Horticul- 



AWARDED IN 1820. 27 

ture : That the medal to gardeners for long and faithful 
service, had this year been given to Mr James Moffat, who 
has been for forty-eight years gardener to the family of 
Fordyce of Ayton : And, lastly, That the Council recom- 
mended that the Society's silver medal should be awarded 
to Mr Alexander Smith, gardener to Thomas Bruce, Esq. 
of Grangemuir, for his invention of paper-screens for pro- 
tecting the blossom of wall-trees from spring frosts. 

Council Meeting, February 3. 1820. 
A basket of fine fruit from Hailes Garden was exhibited, 
as a specimen of the result of heading down and regraft- 
ing some old and cankered fruit-trees only three years ago. 
The Council, considering the remarkable success of Mr 
John Clephane, the gardener, in this operation, by which 
so many years' enjoyment may be saved to the proprietors 
of gardens, recommended that the Society's silver medal 
be awarded for his encouragement. 

General Meeting, March 4. 1820. 

The Committee for Prizes, which met this day, reported, 

1. That several parcels of Brussels Sprouts had been 
examined ; and that the most genuine sort, having the ro- 
settes tender and well cabbaged, was found to belong to 
Mr James Arklie, gardener to Sir Thomas Trowbridge ; 
Bart, of Rockville, to whom accordingly the medal was as- 
signed. 

2. That two very excellent assortments of dessert apples 
had been submitted to the Committee ; and that, after a 
careful examination, and a fair consideration of all circum- 
stances, they had come to a resolution to recommend to 
the meeting to award a medal to each. On opening the 
sealed letters, the one parcel was ascertained to have been 
sent by Mr George Munro, gardener to Mr Hay of Drum- 



28 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

melzier, at Dunse Castle ; and the other to have been sent 
by Mr James Macdo-nald, gardener to his Grace the Duke 
of Buccleuch at Dalkeith Park. 

Council Meeting, April 6. 1820. 
The Secretary reported, that a very remarkable Shad- 
dock, and several fine specimens of Lemons, having been 
sent for inspection by the Earl of Wemyss, he had invited 
members to view these fruits at the shop of Messrs Dick- 
son and Co. Several gentlemen having expressed their 
opinion that a mark of the Society's approbation should 
be given to Mr Walter Henderson, gardener at Woodhall, 
who raised these specimens, the silver medal was accord- 
ingly voted to him. 

Council Meeting, April 27. 1820. 
There was this day a great display of Auriculas ; and 
the Committee recommended that three medals should be 
given. 1. For those from Mr Leven's garden at Burnt- 
island ; 2. For those from Sir Alexander Muir Macken- 
zie's garden at Delvine ; and, 3. For those from Mr Mac- 
donald's garden at Newington. 

General Meeting, June 1. 1820. 
The Secretary gave in the following report from a 
Committee appointed by the Council to visit certain gar- 
dens, the superintendants of which had intimated their in- 
tention of competing for the honorary gold medal offered 
by the Society to the gardener who should have his mas- 
ter's garden, being within ten miles of Edinburgh, in the 
best order in the first week of May : 

" In the beginning of May, the Committee visited eight 
gardens, all of which were in good order. They found con- 
siderable difficulty in coming to a decision as to the garden 



AWARDED IN 1820. 29 

which might be said to be in the best order, on account of" 
the very various circumstances which characterised the dif- 
ferent gardens, such as the extent of ground to be kept in 
order, — the number of hands employed, — the gardener 
having the care of hot-houses or not, &c. Upon the whole, 
they recommend, that the gold medal be awarded to Mr 
John Macnaughton, gardener to Colonel Wauchope of Ed- 
monstone ; but as the Committee was divided in opinion 
as to the comparative merit, in point of keeping, of Ed- 
monstone garden and that of Pinkie, they unanimously 
concur in recommending that an extra silver medal be 
awarded to Mr James Stewart, gardener to Sir John Hope, 
Bart, of Pinkie. They farther recommended, that the 
Society's silver medal be voted to Mr David Weigh ton, 
gardener to Thomas Williamson, Esq. of Lixmount, on 
account of his great merit in keeping the garden there in 
high order, almost wholly by his own exertions. - " 

The Committee of Prizes which met this day, reported, 

1. That the medal for the best Early Melon should be 
awarded to Mr George Dickson, gardener to Andrew 
Wauchope, Esq. of Niddry. 

2. That the medal for the best three kinds of Apples 
fit for the dessert at this season, should be given to Mr 
George Munro, gardener to William Hay, Esq. of Drum- 
melzier at Dunse Castle. 

3. That several small collections of very fine greenhouse 
plants, in pots, had been exhibited, and that the Commit- 
tee recommended that a first and second medal should be 
awarded ; and on opening the sealed letters, the first was 
found to be due to Mr William Tod, gardener to Profes- 
sor Dunbar at Rose Park ; and the second to Mr James 
Cunninghame, botanical nurseryman at Comely Bank, 



30 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

The Committee farther reported, that a great variety of 
Geraniums, raised from seed, at Biel, in East Lothian, 
were exhibited in full flower, and that some of them were 
remarkable for beauty and for copious flowering ; the 
Committee therefore recommend to the general meeting 
to award the Society's silver medal to Mr John Street, 
flower-gardener to the Hon. Mrs Hamilton Nisbet of Biel, 
the encouragement of seedling productions being an im- 
portant object of the Society. 

Council Meeting, July 6. 1820. 
Specimens of a Seedling Nectarine, raised at Woodhall 
by Mr William Henderson, were presented, and met with 
general approbation. The fruit was of good size, juicy, 
and of a rich sugary flavour, resembling the elruge ; and 
the tree was stated to be a free and copious bearer. The 
Council and Committee considering the production of a 
new nectarine of such excellent quality, and which pro- 
mises to improve as the tree advances in years, unanimous- 
ly agreed to recommend to the next general meeting to 
award the Society's silver medal, without prejudice to any 
future and further mark of approbation. 

General Meeting, Sept. 7. 1820. 
The Vice-President stated, that the Council of the So- 
ciety, with the view of giving both dignity and perma- 
nence to the Institution, had directed him, a short time 
ago, to write to the Earl of Hopetoun, their present Pre- 
sident, requesting that he would endeavour to obtain the 
consent of The King to become the Patron of the So- 
ciety, and that Lord Hopetoun had, within these few 
days, transmitted to him a letter from Lord Sidmouth, 
Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, in- 
forming him that His Majesty had condescendingly agreed 



AWARDED IN 1820. 31 

to become the Patron of the Caledonian Horticultural So- 
ciety ; and he further stated, that Lord Hopetoun had al- 
so transmitted letters from the Secretaries of their Royal 
Highnesses the Dukes of York and Clarence, accepting 
of the rank of Honorary Members of the Society, on 
the part of these Royal Dukes. The Society approved 
of these steps taken by the Council, for promoting the 
honour and interest of the Institution ; and they directed 
the Secretary to return grateful thanks to the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Hopetoun for his good offices in this busi- 
ness. 

A very great collection of fine fruit was this day sub- 
mitted to the Committee, After the most careful consi- 
deration, they reported that they had awarded the pre- 
miums as follows : 

For Peaches from unflued walls, — to Mr George Bain, 
gardener to Sir Hew Dalrymple, Bart. North Ber- 
wick House. 

For Peaches from flued walls, without glass, — to Mr 
George Dickson, gardener to A. Wauchope, Esq. of 
Niddry. 

For Nectarines, — to Mr George Shiells, gardener to 
the Right Hon. Lord Blantyre, Erskine House. 

For Moorpark Apricots, two medals, on account of two 
parcels being of such equal merit that the Commit- 
tee found difficulty in deciding betwixt them, — 
1. To Mr John Christie, gardener to Ebenezer Gil- 
christ, Esq. of Sunnyside ; 2. To Mr George Bain, 
North Berwick House. 

For the best three sorts of Plums, — to Mr David 
Lindsay, gardener to Sir James Colquhoun, Bart. 
Rosedoe. 

For the best Greengage Plums, — to Mr James Walker, 



32 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

gardener to the Right Hon. Lord Melville, at Mel- 
ville Castle. 
For the best retarded Gooseberries (the Red Warring- 
ton), — to Mr John Clephane, gardener to John Bal- 
four, Esq. Hailes. 
For the best three sorts of Summer Pears (Jargonelle 
or cuisse-madame, Summer Auchan, and Crawford), 
— to Mr John Kyle, gardener to James Stirling, 
Esq. of Keir. 
For the best specimen of Pine-apple (Queen), — to Mr 
David Ford, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl 
of Haddington, Tyningham. 
For Black Hamburgh Grapes, — to Mr William Wright, 
gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl of Rosebery, 
Dalmeny Park. 
For White Muscat Grapes, — to Mr John Clephane, 

gardener to John Balfour, Esq. Hailes. 
For Grizzly Frontignac Grapes, — to Mr George Brown, 
gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl of Lauderdale, 
Dunbar House. 
For the best three kinds of Summer Apples, — to Mr 
Alexander Forrester, gardener to David Falconar, 
Esq. of Carlowrie. 
For the finest Seedling Carnations, — to Mr David 
White, gardener to General Balfour, Whitehall, by 
Lass wade. 
The Committee farther reported, that several uncom- 
mon productions deserved special notice, and merited, in 
their opinion, extra medals, notwithstanding the great 
number of premiums already voted this day. In particu- 
lar, two new varieties of Seedling Peach were exhibited ; 
one from Edmonstone, the garden of Colonel Wauchope, 
and another (together with a seedling Nectarine), from the 
garden of Lord Lyndoch. Both were of excellent charac- 



AWARDED IN 1820. 33 

ter ; and as the production of seedling fruits is an import- 
ant object of the Society, the Committee had no hesitation 
in awarding an extra medal to Mr John Macnaughton, 
gardener at Edmondstone, and another to Mr Robert Ho- 
sie, gardener at Lyndoch. 

A very fine specimen of the variety called Blood Pine- 
apple, or Claret Pine-apple, was produced ; and as this is 
rare in Scotland, the Committee awarded an extra medal 
to Mr John Aiton, gardener to W. H. Nisbet, Esq. of 
Archerfield, who sent it. 

Some very large and beautiful specimens of Double- 
flowered Dahlias were exhibited ; and the Committee 
awarded an extra medal to the cultivator, Mr Alexander 
Stewart, gardener to Sir Robert Preston, Bart. Valleyfield. 

The Committee for trying Home-made Wines gave in 
the following report : 

" Edinburgh, 1th September 1820. 

" The Committee beg leave to report, that the best wine 
produced this day is that with the motto, " Never venture 
never win, 1 ' and which, upon opening the sealed letter, was 
ascertained to have been made by Mrs Mackinlay, Her- 
mitage. 

" The Committee recommend that an extra medal be given 
for Gooseberry Champagne, several excellent specimens of 
which were produced. If the Society approve of this re- 
commendation, the Committee suggest that the champagne 
made at Halyburton by M. Louis Petrard, merits the re- 
ward. 

" The Committee cannot conclude without observing, that 
a considerable improvement is observable, in their opinion, 
in the various wines produced, which are superior to what 
they have met with in former years." 



84 HONORARY PREMIUMS' 

A communication from Mr John Young, surgeon, ha- 
ving been read, announcing that he had delivered to Messrs 
Cheyne of the Apothecaries' Hall, Edinburgh, 30 lb. weight 
of Lactucarium, prepared this year, together with a certi- 
ficate from Messrs Cheyne that they had purchased the 
same, it was moved by Dr Duncan, and unanimously 
agreed to, that the Society's gold medal be awarded to Mr 
Young for his long continued and meritorious exertions 
in the preparation of this important medicine, by which 
he has greatly contributed toward it* general introduction 
into medical practice. 

Council Meeting, October 5. 1820. 

Specimens of the Hailes Seedling Plum were laid before 
the meeting ; and the fruit being approved of as a pro- 
mising standard plum, it was unanimously agreed that 
the Society's silver medal be awarded to Mr John Cle-- 
phane who raised it, 

Council Meeting, December I. 1820. 
Mr John Peacock, the Assistant-Secretary, stated, that 
the new Kinfauns Apple had remained in good preserva- 
tion till this time, so that it may be regarded as a keeping 
apple ; and a specimen having been again tried and univer- 
sally approved of, the Council were of opinion that the sil- 
ver medal should be awarded to Mr William Campbell, 
gardener to ihe Right Hon. Lord Gray, the raiser of this 
excellent seedling. 

General Meeting, December 7. 1820. 
The gold medal annually given by the Society for the 
communication of greatest importance received in the course 
of the preceding year, was presented to Dr William Howi- 



AWARD UD IN 1821. 35 

son, for his communications respecting fruits and vegetables 
cultivated in Russia. 

The Committee for Prizes reported, that several fine 
samples of fruit had this day been brought forward ; and 
that the medals ought to be awarded as follows : 

For the best three sorts of Apples, — to Mr Robert 
Reid, gardener to Sir Alexander Keith *of Ravel- 
stone. 
For the best Colmar, Chaumontelle, and j Crasanne 
Pears, — to Mr David Macewan, gardener to Sir 
James Hall, Bart. Dunglass. 
For some other very fine specimens of Pears, an ex- 
traordinary medal, — to Mr John Kyle, gardener to 
James Stirling, Esq. of Keir. 
For the best Achan Pears, from standards, — to Mr 
.James Stewart, gardener to Sir John Hope, Bart, of 
Pinkie. 

General Meeting, March 8. 1821. 
It was reported from the Council, that the medal for 
1820, to the head-gardener who should be found to have 
served for the longest period the same family with fidelity 
and attention, &c. ought to be awarded to Mr John Kyle, 
who had been chief gardener at Blair-Drummond for 42 
years. 

The Committee for Prizes reported, that premiums had 
been awarded as follows : 

For the best six heads of Cape Broccoli, — to Mr James 
Arklie, gardener to Sir Thomas Trowbridge, Bart, 
at Rockville. 
For the best six heads of Brussels Sprouts, — to Messrs 
Dicksons and Co. Leith Walk, who have procured 
from the seed a dwarfish but remarkably genuine 

c 2 



36 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

subvariety, the rosettes or sprouts being quite com- 
pact like cabbages in miniature. 
For the best six kinds of Apples fit for the dessert at 
this season, — to Mr John Macnaughton, gardener 
to Colonel Wauchope of Edmonstone. 

Committee Meeting, April 26. 1821. 

To-day there was a great display of Stage Auriculas and 
Polyanthuses, about 100 pots with choice auriculas being 
produced. After a careful examination, the Committee re- 
commended the awarding of the medals as follows : 

1. To Alexander Henderson, Esq. 99. High Street, for 

the finest Stage Auriculas. 

2. To John Linning, Esq. for a collection of very beau- 
tiful Auriculas. 

3. To Mr William Henderson, gardener to Sir Alex- 

ander Muir Mackenzie, Bart, at Delvine, for a col- 
lection of Auriculas, remarkable for the luxuriance 
of their growth, and for an account of his mode of 
cultivating the plant. 

4. To Mr Alexander Forrester, gardener to David Fal- 

conar, Esq. of Carlo wrie, for a remarkably large and 
curious seedling Auricula. 

5. To Messrs Dickson and Co. Waterloo Place, for the 

finest Stage Polyanthuses. 

6. To Mr David Anderson, Brown Street, Newington, 
for the best Seedling Polyanthuses. 

There was also exhibited a collection of the flowers of 
the Garden Hyacinth, which had been cultivated for seve- 
ral years in the Royal Botanic Garden here, and which, for 
health and luxuriance, were equal to those yearly imported 
from Haarlem. The Committee agreed in recommending 
the awarding of a medal to Mr William Macnab, the su- 
perintendant, for his successful culture of this fine flower. 



AWARDED IN 1821. 37 

The boast of the day still remains to be mentioned. This 
consisted in several fine plants of the Citrus tribe in flower 
and fruit. Instead of having their heads pruned into the 
shape of balls, these plants were of their native graceful 
forms. But to those unacquainted with the usual mode 
of culture of orange-trees, the surprise was not small when 
it was found that the largest plants (Seville and myrtle- 
leaved orange- trees, loaded with ripe and unripe fruit) were 
only four years from the bud or graft, and that a plant 
now in flower was a cutting little more than a year old. 
These specimens were from the garden at Woodhall, the 
seat of Colonel Campbell of Shawfield near Holytown, and 
were carried to town by two of the gardeners on a hand- 
barrow, covered with an awning. The Committee unani- 
mously voted the Society's medal to Mr Walter Hender- 
son, gardener at Woodhall, and desired the Secretary to 
write, requesting him to communicate a full account of his 
mode of cultivating the Citrus family, when the Committee 
would move the Society to bestow some further honorary 
mark of their approbation. They also authorised the Trea- 
surer to present half a guinea each to the gardeners who 
transported the plants so far in safety. 

General Meeting, June 7. 1821. 
The Committee for Prizes reported, that prizes had this 
day been awarded as follows : 

For the best Early Melon (Kew Cantelope), — to Mr 
John Kyle, gardener to James Stirling, Esq. of Keir. 
For the best Seedling Tulips, — to Mr Alexander For- 
rester, gardener to David Falconar, Esq. of.Car- 
lowrie. 
For very fine named Tulips, two prizes, — -1. To Mr 
Alexander Forrester, Carlowrie ; 2. To Mr James 
Macdonald, Newington. 



38 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

For the best Apples fit for the dessert at this season, 
— to John Ker, Esq. of Kerfield. 

General Meeting, September 6. 1821. 

The Committee for Prizes reported, that premiums were 
awarded as follows : 

For the best twelve Peaches (Gallande) produced with- 
out artificial heat in the open air, — to Mr James 
Arldie, gardener to Sir Thomas Trowbridge, Bart. 
Rockville. 

For the best twelve Peaches (Noblesse), from flued 
walls, without glass, — to Mr David Ford, gardener 
to the Right Hon. the "Earl of Haddington, Tyn- 
ingham. 

For the best twelve Nectarines from flued walls, without 
glass, — to Mr David Ford, Tyningham. 

For the best twelve Moorpark Apricots, — to Mr Tho- 
mas Spalding, gardener to Mr Macnab of Arthur- 
stone. 

For the best three sorts of Plums, six of each sort, viz. 
Orleans, Magnum-bonum, and Blue Gage, — to Mr 
William Reid, gardener to Sir John Marjori banks, 
Bart, of Lees. 

For the best twelve Green Gage Plums, — to Mr Philip 
Shilling-law, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl 
of Kinnoul, Duplin Castle. 

For the best Scots pint of retarded Gooseberries, — to 
Mr William Affleck, gardener to T. G. Wright, Esq. 
Duddingstone Cottage. 

For the best Pine-apple, — to Mr Alexander Muirhead, 
gardener to A. H. M. Belshes, Esq. of Invermay. 

For the best three bunches of Black Hamburgh Grapes, 
— to Mr Philip Shillinglaw, Dupplin Castle. 



AWARDED IN 1821. 3$ 

For the largest and heaviest bunch of White Muscat 
Grapes, — to Mr David Ford, Tyningham. 

For the best three sorts of Summer Apples, a dozen of 
each kind, — to John Ker, Esq. of Kerfield. 

Extra prize for Pine-apples, — to Mr James Simpson, 
gardener to Captain Wemyss, Wemyss Castle. 

Extra prize for Black Hamburgh Grapes, — to Mr Alex- 
ander Macdonald, gardener to George Ramsay, Esq. 
Tnchrye. 

For the best Home-made Wine, — to Mrs Husband 
Baird, near Dunfermline. 

Extra medal for Currant-Wine, — to Mrs Dr Duncan, 
Adam's Square. 

The 12th annual Dinner was afterwards served in Oman's 
Waterloo Tavern, George Bell, Esq. one of the Vice-Pre- 
sidents, in the chair. The Secretary of the Society, Mr 
Neill, being absent on a tour through France, on his health 
being given from the chair, Sir George Mackenzie, one 
of the Vice-Presidents, addressed the meeting, and after 
paying some compliments to Mr Neill, proposed that the 
Society should present him. with a piece of plate, of fifty 
guineas value, as a mark of their esteem, and of grati- 
tude for the services he had rendered to the Society. This 
proposal was received with acclamation. 

J. P. AssK Sec, 

General Meeting, December 5. 1821. 

The Committee for Prizes reported, 

1. That the medal offered for the best three sorts of 
Apples lately introduced, or not generally known in Scot- 
land, and which have been found to ripen well on standard 
or espalier trees, has been awarded to John Ker, Esq. of 
Kerfield ; and that two sorts of French apples, marked as 
having been introduced about thirty years ago by the late 



40 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

Lord Dundas into his garden at Kerse, deserve particular 
notice and commendation,. 

% They have to state, that, although the late season has 
in general proved unfavourable to the production of the 
finer kinds of Pears in Scotland, yet some parcels of con- 
siderable merit were submitted to the Committee, and that 
they judged it expedient to award two medals ; the first to 
Mr William Pearson, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl 
of Hopetoun, at Ormiston Hall ; and the second to Mr Peter 
Barnet, gardener to Robert Bruce, Esq. of Kennet, M. P. 

3. Several specimens of the John Monteith Pear were 
produced, and the Committee awarded the medal to Mr 
John Macnaughton, gardener to Colonel Wauchope of Ed- 
mondstone ; but they are of opinion that the cultivation of 
this old variety of pear is scarcely deserving of the farther 
encouragement of the Society. 

4. Two very promising Seedling Apples were produced 
to the Committee ; and the Society having intimated, in 
the Prize List, that the " silver medal will be awarded for 
every seedling apple of merit, produced subsequently to 
ISIS,' 1 they accordingly adjudged a medal, 1st, To Mr 
John Macnaughton, Edmonstone, for an apple from Ame- 
rican seed ; and, 2d, To Mr John Edwards, Luncarty, 
for a seedling of great promise. 

T^he Society having offered a medal to " the cultivator 
who shall produce to the Secretary or to the Committee 
he greatest number of specimens of the Iris in flower, with 
a communication stating the proper botanical and English 
names, also their manner of growth, culture, and manage- 
ment, the Committee beg leave to report, that this medal 
is due to David Falconar, Esq. of Carlowrie, who, by let- 
ter, requested that, if he should prove successful, the me- 
dal be awarded in name of his gardener Mr Alexander 
Forrester. 



AWARDED IN 1822. 41 

The Council of the Society which met this day farther 
recommended to the Society, that an extra medal should be 
awarded to Mr William Laidlaw, gardener to David An- 
derson, Esq. of Moredun, for several very large bunches of 
the White Muscat and Syrian Grape, produced in the 
finest condition at so late a period of the year. 

Council Meeting, January 10. 1822. 
The Secretary laid before the meeting the plan of a 
Flower-border, &c. for which a premium had been offered 
last year ; and although only one competitor had appeared, 
they were of opinion, that, as the plan had been approved 
of by those who had examined it, and must have cost the 
author much trouble and pains, not only the Society's sil- 
ver medal should be awarded, but two guineas in addition, 
or, in his option, a piece of plate of 3| guineas in value. 
The plan, &c. was found to be the work of Mr John 
Street, flower-gardener to the Hon. Mrs Hamilton Nisbet 
of Biel. 

General Meeting, Marchl4<. 1822. 
Upon report of the Committee for Prizes, two honorary 
medals were awarded as follows : 

For the three finest plants of Camellia Japonica, in full 
flower, — to Mr James Cunninghame, Comely Bank. 

For several very beatiful and rare Exotic Shrubs, in 
flower, — to Professor Dunbar, Rose Park, Trinity. 

For uncommonly large specimens of Seville Orange, 
produced in the Orangery at Valleyfield, and for 
splendid plants of Bletia Tarikervillice, in flower, — 
to Mr Alexander Stewart, gardener to Sir Robert 
Preston, Bart. 

For continued attention to the important object of na- 
turalising tender Exotic Shrubs, — to Mr John Welsh, 
gardener to George Robertson, Esq. Greenock. 



^2 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

For his success in restoring the vigour of imported 
Hyacinth Bulbs which had been forced in this coun- 
try, — to Mr John Street, flower-gardener to the Hon. 
Mrs Hamilton Nisbet of Biel. 

Committee Meeting, April 25. 1822. 

A very extensive and rich shew of stage auriculas took place, 
and the Committee felt considerable difficulty in coming to a 
decision, different collections possessing different excellencies; 
some being remarkable for the general strength of growth 
of the plants ; others for the great variety of flowers exhi- 
bited ; and others still for containing two or three very 
choice flowers. The Committee resolved, for this year, to 
adopt the principle of preferring the greatest variety and 
strongest growth ; but even then they felt unable to decide 
between two collections, and therefore awarded a medal 
for each. On opening the sealed letters, these collections 
were found to belong to Mr William Henderson, gardener 
to Sir Alexander Muir Mackenzie, Bart, of Delvine, and 
to Messrs Charles and John Peacock, nurserymen and flo- 
rists, Stanwell, Leith Walk. 

Two parcels of very promising Seedling Auriculas were 
also shewn ; and a medal awarded for one of these, which 
was found to belong to Mr James Macdonald, Newington. 

Two parcels of Seedling Polyanthuses having also been 
shewn, the Committee voted a medal for one of them, 
which proved to have been sent by Messrs Eagle and Hen- 
derson, of the Meadowbank Nurseries. 

General Meeting, June 13. 1822. 
Upon report from the Committee for Prizes, which met 
this day, the Society's silver medal was awarded, 
1. To Mr Hugh Austin, nurseryman, Glasgow, for the 
largest and finest collection of varieties of Scots Roses. 



AWARDED IN 1822. 43 

2. To Messrs Dicksons and Company, Edinburgh, for a 

collection of twelve beautiful Seedling Scots Roses, 
raised by them at the Leith Walk Nurseries. 

3. To Mr William Henderson, gardener to Sir Alexan- 

der Muir Mackenzie, Bart, of Delvine, for the best 
Early Melon (the Green-fleshed Ionian). 
Upon a report from the same Committee, a medal was also 
voted to Mr John Ross, gardener to his Grace the Duke 
of Atholl, for having, in May last, sent to the Society a 
specimen, in full flower, of the Bromelia nudicaulis, this 
being the first instance of this rare plant having flowered 
in Scotland. 

Committee Meeting, July 11. 1822. 

The Committee examined the exotic plants exhibited 
for competition, and decided that the medal for the four 
finest be awarded to a parcel containing Nerium splen- 
densjl. pi, Gladiolus cardinalis, Erica pulverulenta, and 
Crassula versicolor, and which was ascertained to belong 
to George Dunbar, Esq. Rose Park, Trinity. 

Some very rich and beautiful vineries of the garden Bal- 
sam (Impatiens Balsamina) were considered worthy of an 
extra medal, and were found to be sent by Mr William 
Macnab of the Royal Botanic Garden. 

General Meeting, August 10. 1822. 
Dr Duncan senior, First Vice-President in the chair. — '• 
Dr Duncan stated, that the only business of this meeting 
was to consider of the propriety of voting an address to 
His Majesty's King George the Fourth on occasion of his 
visiting Scotland ; and he produced and read the draft of 
a congratulatory address, which was unanimously agreed 
to, and the Right Hon. the Earl of Wemyss, President, 



44 ADDRESS TO THE KING. 

and Henry Jardine, Esq. Vice-President, were requested 
to carry the measure into effect. The following is a copy 
of the address : 

" To the King s Most Excellent Majesty. 
" May it please your Majesty, 

" We, your Majesty's faithful subjects, the President and 
Members of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, beg leave 
to approach the Throne with our sincere congratulations on your 
Majesty's first visit to the metropolis of Scotland. 

" Our Society, begun under your government as Regent of 
the British Empire, had the singular honour of being patronised 
by your Majesty soon after our first institution. Of this honour we 
gave a public acknowledgment, by dedicating to you, in conse- 
quence of your Royal permission, the first fruits of our literary 
labours. And we flatter ourselves, that the Memoirs of our So- 
ciety have had the effect of introducing into this country im- 
portant improvements in one of the most interesting, the most 
useful, and the most healthful of rural employments. 

" Scotland has long indeed been distinguished for skilful pro- 
fessional gardeners. But although much has been discovered, 
much yet remains to be discovered ; and we flatter ourselves with 
sanguine hopes, that your Majesty's reign will be distinguished 
to the latest ages by the progress of horticultural improve- 
ments. 

" Permit us, Sire, to conclude this congratulatory address, 
by uniting our earnest prayers with those of every other true 
Briton, that your Majesty's reign may be long, glorious, and 
eminently marked, by the progressive advancement of the arts 
of Peace. 

" May it please your Majesty, your Majesty's most faith- 
ful subjects, the President and Members of the Cale- 
donian Horticultural Society. 
" Signed in our name, and by our appointment, by 

" Charteris, Wemyss, & March, President" 

Edinburgh, ) 
Idth August 1822. J 



PREMIUMS AWARDED IN 1822. 45 

Memorandum.. — The above address was presented to the 
King, at the levee held at Holyroodhouse on Saturday 17th 
August, by the Earl of Wemyss, President, and Dr Duncan 
senior, First Vice-President of the Society ; and afterwards 
published in the Edinburgh Gazette of Friday, 23d August. 

A copy of the second volume of the Society's Memoirs, ele- 
gantly bound, was likewise transmitted to the King by the 
Earl of Wemyss, and receipt of it acknowledged in a letter 
to his Lordship from Mr Peel, Secretary of State for the Home 
Department. 

General Meeting, September 5. 1822. 
Upon report of the Committee for Prizes, premiums were 
awarded as follows : 

For the best Peaches from open walls, without artifi- 
cial heat, — to Mr John Mitchell, gardener to Sir 
David MoncriefF, Bart. Moncrieff House. 

Peaches from flued walls, without glass, — to Mr Tho- 
mas Inglis, gardener to the Hon. Mrs Ramsay, 
Barn ton. 

Nectarines from flued walls, without glass, to Mr Kin- 
mont, gardener to Miss Yeaman, Murie„ 

Moorpark Apricots, — to Mr John Clark, gardener to 
the Earl of Wemyss, Gosford. 

Best six sorts of Plums (Green Gages excepted), — to 
Mr Alexander Bisset, gardener to Colonel Smyth, 
Methven Castle. 

Best Green Gages, — to Mr John Kyle, gardener to 
Mr Stirling of Keir. 

Best Scots pint of retarded Gooseberries, — to Mr John 
Clephane, gardener to Mr Balfour, Hailes. 

Best six sorts of Summer Pears, — to Mr John Kyle, 
Keir. 

Pine-apples, — to Mr Philip Shillinglaw, gardener to the 
Earl of Kinnoul, Dupplin Castle. 



46 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

Largest Grapes (Gibraltar), — to Mr William Wright, 

gardener to the Earl of Rosebery, Dalmeny Park. 
Best six kinds of Summer Apples, — to Mr Thomas 
Dewar, gardener to the Earl of Wemyss, Queen Street. 
Finest Carnations, — to Mr David White, gardener to 

General Balfour, Whitehill. 
Finest Double Dahlias, — to Mr Alexander Forrester, 

gardener to David Falconar > Esq. of Carlowrie. 
Beautiful Seedling Dahlias, several of them double- 
flowered, — to Mr William Macnab, superintendant 
of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 
The greatest variety of Fruits, of good quality, pro- 
duced to the meeting, — to Mr Alexander Bisset, 
Methven Castle. 
A collection of Peaches and Nectarines of excellent 
quality (received some hours too late for the compe- 
tition on Wednesday the 4th), an extra medal, — to 
Mr James Young, gardener to James Richardson, 
Esq. of Pitfour. 
A new melon, raised at Barnton, near Edinburgh, was 
presented to the meeting. It was of an uncommon size, 
weighing 21 lb. 8 oz., and of fine flavour, bred between the 
Bassey Rock and Romana, and had received the name of 
" King George the Fourth's Melon.' 1 An extra medal was 
unanimously voted to Mr Thomas Inglis for this production. 

A number of different specimens of Home-made Wine 
having been examined by a select Committee, they report- 
ed, that two medals ought to be awarded for excellent 
wines, one to Mrs Stewart of Newton, near Doune, and 
another to Mrs Lambert, St Andrew's. 

Mr John Street, flower-gardener at Biel, having pre- 
sented a number of specimens of naturalized exotic plants, 
with packets of seeds saved, from them in the open air, it 



AWARDED IN 1822. 47 

was recommended to him to persevere in his experiments, 
and, in the mean time, the Society's silver medal was voted 
to him for his continued attention to this interesting de- 
partment of horticulture. 

Council Meeting, October 3. 1822. 

Mr Walter Dickson laid before the meeting some very 
admirable specimens of the finer French pears, &c. from the 
garden of the Earl of Wemyss at Gosford House. Thanks 
were voted to Lord Wemyss, and the silver medal was 
awarded to Mr John Clerk, his Lordship's gardener, for his 
great proficiency in the production of such fruits. 

The Secretary laid before the meeting specimens of the 
Canaan Apple, a seedling raised by Mr Alexander Adie, 
optician ; parent kinds not known. This new apple was 
found to possess such excellent qualities, that the Coun- 
cil agreed immediately to award the silver medal to Mr 
Adie for this production. 

Council Meeting, November 14. 1822. 

A bunch of Black Hamburgh Grapes, ripened against a 
flued wall, without glass, at Erskine-House Garden, under 
the care of Mr George Shiells, was exhibited and tasted. 
The berries were found to be thoroughly ripe, and of high 
flavour. Mr Shiells having made this experiment at the 
suggestion of the Council, and completely succeeded, the 
Council unanimously voted to him the Society's silver me- 
dal. 

General Meeting, December 5. 1822. 

The annual gold medal for the most important commu- 
nication received during the past year was awarded to Mr 
Walter Henderson, gardener, Woodhall, for his essay on 
the culture of the Citrus tribe, &c. 



48 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

The Committee for Prizes then gave in their report, 
bearing, that the medals for this day had been awarded as 
follows ; 

For the best three sorts of Apples not generally known 
in Scotland, &c— to Mr John Taylor, gardener to the 
Right Hon. the Earl of Dunmore, Dunmore Park. 
For the best Pears, — to Mr Andrew Pace, gardener to 
Sir John Dalrymple, Bart, at Oxenford Castle. 

Two very fine specimens of retarded Grapes having been 
presented, the Committee suggested that two prizes should 
be awarded, one to Mr John Kyle, gardener to James 
Stirling, Esq. of Keir ; and another to Mr John Clephane, 
gardener to John Balfour, Esq. Hailes. 

Some Seedling Pears of great promise having been sent 
from Dunmore Park, it was recommended that an extra 
medal should be awarded to Mr Taylor for their produc- 
tion. 

A Seedling Apple from Corstorphine Hill, from the 
seed of an American fruit, being thought to possess quali- 
ties which may render it desirable as a new orchard and 
market apple, a medal was voted to Mrs Keith, who raised 
it. 

Very excellent specimens of Citrons, bitter and sweet 
oranges and limes, having been sent from Valleyfield, it 
was recommended that an extra medal be awarded for their 
production to Mr Alexander Stewart, gardener to Sir Ro- 
bert Preston, Bart. 

The Committee further reported, that it would be pro- 
per to award two medals to head-gardeners for long ser- 
vice ; one to Mr Alexander Key, whose certificate, signed 
by Lord Glenlee, bore, that he had been gardener at Bar- 
skimming for 54 years ; and another to Mr William Reid, 
whose certificate by Lady Kinloch stated, that he had been 
gardener at Gilmerton for 52 years ; both having success- 



AWARDED IN 1823. 49 

fully exercised all the branches^of their profession, and con- 
ducted themselves with uniform propriety during these long 
periods. 

Council Meeting, January 10. 1823. 
Mr Archibald Gorrie's meteorological report for 1822, 
(kept at Annat garden, Errol), having been communicated 
to the meeting, they unanimously recommended that the 
silver medal be awarded to Mr Gorrie, for his zeal in meet- 
ing the wishes of the Society in this respect. 

Council Meeting, February 6. 1823. 

The Council unanimously approved of a recommenda- 
tion from the Committee of Prizes as to awarding to Ro- 
bert Johnston, Esq. the silver medal as a mark of approba- 
tion of his zeal in forwarding the objects of the Institution, 
in procuring a collection of the best apples of Canada from 
Montreal, with an offer of grafts when the Experimental 
Garden should be ready to receive them. 

The Council took into consideration a motion made by 
Mr Robert Smith, and seconded by Mr John Linning, 
relative to the propriety of the Society marking, by vo- 
ting a piece of plate, its high approbation of the valuable 
services of the Treasurer, Mr Andrew Dickson, for four- 
teen years past ; and unanimously agreed to recommend 
to the General Meeting in March next to present to Mr 
Dickson a piece of plate not exceeding fifty guineas in va- 
lue, with a suitable inscription. 

General Meeting, March 13. 1823. 

The minutes of last general meeting, and of the meet- 
ings of Council in January and February last, having 
been read, it was moved by Robert Smith, Esq. That the 

VOL. IV, D 



50 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

minutes be approved of, and particularly that the meeting 
give their hearty approbation to the proposal of bestowing 
on the Treasurer of the Society, Andrew Dickson, Esq. a 
mark of their high opinion of the zeal and fidelity with 
which he has discharged the duties of that important office 
for fourteen years past. This motion having been second- 
ed by Henry Jardine, Esq. was unanimously adopted, and 
the Council were instructed to carry into effect their vote 
in favour of Mr Dickson. 

The Committee for Prizes which met this day then re- 
ported, that prizes should be awarded as follows : 

For the best six kinds of Apples from standards or es- 
paliers, fit for the dessert at this season, two prizes ; 
— one to Mr John Macnaughton, gardener to John 
Wauchope, Esq. of Edmonstone ; and another to 
Mr James Culbert, gardener to John Ker, Esq. of 
Kerfield. 

For the best twelve roots of Scorzonera, — to Mr Da- 
vid Ford, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl of 
Haddington, Tyningham. 

For the best twelve roots of Salsify, — to Mr George 
Brown, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl of 
Lauderdale, Dunbar House. 
The Committee further recommended, that extra prizes 
should be awarded for the following productions : 

For beautiful specimens of Apples, some of them rare 
or new, and for excellent samples of the smooth Car- 
doon of Paris, — to Mr James Morison, gardener to 
William Grant, Esq. of Congalton. 

For several bunches of retarded and preserved Black 
Hamburgh Grapes, — to Mr John Clephane, gardener 
to John Balfour, Esq. Hailes. 

For specimens, in flower, of Hyacinths and Polyanthus- 



AWARDED IN 1823. 51 

narcissuses, restored to vigour, after having been 
forced in this country two years ago, and for a dwarf 
variety of Clove-carnation, — to Mr John Street, 
flower-gardener to the Hon. Mrs Hamilton Nisbet of 
Biel. 

Committee Meeting, May 7. 1823, 

(Delayed from 24th April on account of the lateness of the season.) 
To-day the display of Auriculas and Polyanthuses, both 
stage-flowers and seedlings, was more extensive and bril- 
liant than on any former occasion. 

For Stage- Auriculas, two prizes were awarded ; 1st, To 
Thomas Oliver, Esq. West Newington ; 2d, To Mr 
Alexander Forrester, gardener to David Falconar, 
Esq. of Carlowrie. 

For Seedling Auriculas, also two prizes : 1st, To Mr 
William Henderson, gardener to Sir Alexander 
Muir Mackenzie, Bart, of Delvine ; 2d, To Mr Da- 
vid Anderson, Brown Street. 

For Stage-Polyanthuses, — to Messrs Dickson and Co. 
of the Leith Walk Nurseries. 

For Seedling Polyanthuses, — to Messrs Dicksons. 

An extra medal to Mr Forrester at Carlowrie, for a 
peculiarly beautiful Seedling Polyanthus, having two 
dark colours. 

An extra medal to Mr Duncan Mackay, gardener to 
Robert Baird, Esq. of Newbyth, for specimens of 
very large and fine Mushrooms raised by him. 

General Meeting, June 12. 1823. 
The Committee for Prizes reported, that premiums 
ought to be awarded as follows : 

For the best twelve named Anemones, — to Messrs 
Dicksons and Co. Leith Walk. 

d 2 



52 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

For a collection of very fine named Tulips, — to James 
Macdonald, Esq. Newington. 

For the best Apples fit for the dessert at this season, — 
to Mr James Macdonald, gardener to his Grace the 
Duke of Buccleuch, Dalkeith. 

For specimens of a very promising Seedling Apple, — 
to Alexander Thomson, Esq. of Banchory, 2. Drum- 
mond Place. 

For the production of two undescribed ornamental 
plants (a new species of Calceolaria, and a new va- 
riety of Rhododendron Catawbiense), — to Mr Wil- 
liam Macnab, superintendant of the Royal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh. 

For his remarkable success in cultivating the finer Cape 
Heaths, magnificent specimens of which have at dif- 
ferent times been exhibited to the Society, — to Mr 
William Couper, gardener to George Dunbar, Esq. 
Rose Park, Trinity. 

Committee Meeting, June 30. 1823. 
The Committee unanimously agree in opinion, that the 
Secretary should write a letter to the Hon. the Barons of 
Exchequer, proposing that their Lordships should make 
the purchase of the ground for an Experimental Garden 
for the Crown, and should then grant a renewable lease to 
the Society ; and they approved of the draft of a letter to 
that purpose, of which the following is a copy : 

" My Lords, 

" The Society for the Improvement of Horticulture in Scot- 
land having been informed that the Lords Commissioners of his 
Majesty's Treasury had been pleased to grant the prayer of their 
petition for the loan of the sum of £4000, at 3i per cent., for the 
purpose of purchasing a piece of ground, consisting of eight 



AWARDED IN 1823. 58 

acres, in the neighbourhood of this city, to be occupied as an 
Experimental Horticultural Garden, and that] a warrant has 
been issued for paying the same accordingly, I am desired by 
the Committee of Management for the Society, respectfully to 
submit to your Lordships' consideration a plan which appears 
to them more eligible than the original one of their making 
the purchase. They would, with great submission, suggest, 
that, in place of the money being paid over to them, upon their 
granting a bond for the repayment of the sum, and of the 
regular payment of the interest at the rate of 3i per cent, 
in order that the Society might purchase the ground, — the 
ground should be purchased by your Lordships, for behoof of 
the Crown, and that then a renewable lease should be granted 
to the Society for payment of a stipulated rent equal to the in- 
terest of the purchase-money at 3^ per cent., and under all the 
conditions mentioned in the Royal Warrant for the money. 
This, with great deference, appears to the Society a more 
simple mode of obtaining the object, and certainly would afford 
a still better security to the Crown for the purchase. I am," 
&c. 

(Signed) " Pat. Neill, Sec. Cal. Hort. Soc." 

Committee Meeting, July 10. 1823. 

To-day there was a very fine display of rare exotic 
plants in flower-pots, and also of the flowers of Scots Roses, 
the competition in these last having been delayed from 
12th June, on account of the lateness of the season. 

The medal for the four finest exotics was awarded to 
Mr William Macnab, superintendant of the Royal Botanic 
Garden. The plants were Cactus speciosissimus, in full 
flower ; Lilium Japonicum, with two heads of flowers ; 
Fuchsia coccinea, forming a shrub ten feet high, covered 
with blossoms ; and Cuscuta americana, parasitical upon 
a plant of the garden balsam. 

The Committee agreed in voting an extra medal to Mr 



54 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

James Cuningham, Comely Bank, for several very fine Ge- 
raniums, and particularly for a very ornamental Seedling 
raised by him, and called Marchioness of Tweeddale. 

The medal for the largest and finest collection of varie- 
ties of Scots Roses was voted to Messrs Dickson and Co. 
Leith Walk. 

Messrs Charles and John Peacock having exhibited a 
very extensive and beautiful collection of 150 marked va- 
rieties of Garden Roses, including all the finer kinds, and 
also several sorts of Moss Roses, — double white, single 
red, Rose de Meaux mossed, &c. — the Committee unani- 
mously concurred in voting an extra medal to Messrs Pea- 
cock. 

Council Meeting, August 7. 1823. 
Mr Ninian Lindsay, gardener to the Hon. Lord Her- 
mandj sent, in compliance with a wish expressed by the 
Committee of Prizes, specimens of Carrots, Beets, Pota- 
toes, and Jerusalem Artichokes, of the crop of last year 
1822, preserved till this period in the mode formerly de- 
scribed by him, (earthed in a plantation where the soil was 
much exhausted). These specimens were considered as in 
a state of high preservation, and the silver medal was voted 
to Mr Lindsay. 

General Meeting, September 4. 1823. 
Upon a report from the Committee of Prizes, the silver 
medal was awarded as follows : 

For the best Peaches from open walls (Red Magdalene 

and Early Mignonne), without artificial heat, — to 

Mr David Ford, gardener to the Right Hon. the 

Earl of Haddington, Tyningham. 

The best Peaches from flued walls, without glass, — to 



AWARDED IN 1823. 55 

Mr John Kyle, gardener to James Stirling, Esq. of 

Keir, Dunblane. 
The best Nectarines (Vermash) from flued walls, — al- 
so to Mr John Kyle. 
For Moorpark Apricots, two prizes,— one to Mr James 

Kirk, gardener to Lady Hepburn at Smeaton, and 

another to Mr Thomas Inglis, gardener to the Hon, 

Mrs Ramsay of Barnton. 
For the best six sorts of Plums, — to Mr John Kyle at 

Keir. 
The best Green Gages, — to Mr William Reid, gar- 

dener to Sir John Marjoribanks, Bart, of Lees, 

Coldstream. 
The best Gooseberries (large Green-onion Gooseberry ) 5 

— to Mr James Morison, gardener to Captain Grant 

of Congalton. 
The best Pine-apples {Queen and New Providence), 

— to Mr Alexander Muirhead, gardener to Colonel 

Belshes of Invermay. 
The best Rock Cantelope Melon (Scarlet Cantelope), 

— also to Mr Alexander Muirhead. 
The finest Melon of any other variety (green-fleshed), 

— to Mr JohnMitchell, gardener to Sir David Mon- 

crieffe, Bart. Moncrieffe House. 
The finest bunches of the Gibraltar Grape, — to Mr 

James Macdonald, gardener to his Grace the Duke 

of Buccleuch and Queensberry, Dalkeith Park. 
The largest and finest bunches of the White Muscat of 

Alexandria, — to Mr William Wright, gardener to 

the Right Hon. the Earl of Rosebery, Dalmeny 

Park, Cramond. 
The largest Grapes of any other sort, — to Mr Duncan 

Macgregor, gardener at Hermitage Park, 



56 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

The best Summer Apples ; those from Dr tDuncanV 
garden St Leonard's Hill. 

For the greatest variety of Fruits of good quality, pro- 
duced by any one competitor, — to Mr David Ford 
at Tyningham, 

The finest Stage Carnations,— to Messrs Charles and 
John Peacock, Stanwell Lodge. 

For very fine Seedling Dahlias, two prizes ; one to Mr 
Alexander Forrester, gardener to David Falconar, 
Esq. of Carlowrie ; and another to Mr William Hen- 
derson, gardener to Sir Alexander Muir Mackenzie, 
Bart, of Delvine. 
The Committee unanimously recommended that extra 
medals should be awarded as follows : 

For a basket of Grapes, of the finest kinds, and evi- 
dently cultivated in the first style of excellence, — to 
Mr Philip Shillinglaw, gardener to the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Kinnoul, Dupplin Castle, 

For a rich assortment of Melons, — to Mr James Mac- 
donald, Dalkeith Park. 

For a new Seedling Melon of uncommon size and 
weight (21 lb. 12 oz.), and of good quality,— -to Mr 
Thomas Inglis, Barnton. 

For a Seedling Peach, of fine appearance and high pro- 
mise, raised by Mr Robert Hosie, gardener to the 
Right Hon. Lord Lyndoch, Lyndoch House. 

The Committee appointed to try the Home-made Wines 
reported, that a considerable variety of excellent wines was 
presented for competition, and that two kinds of wine ap- 
proached each other so nearly in excellence, that they 
found it extremely difficult to decide which of them ought 
to be preferred. In this dilemma they proposed that a 
medal be given to each. On opening the letters, one of 



AWARDED IN 1823. 57 

these wines was found to have been sent by the Rev. Les- 
lie Moodie, Inveresk ; the other by Miss Margaret Wright 
of Lawtown, neaT Perth. 

The Committee further reported, that although only 
one specimen of Scottish Cider was presented to them, yet 
that this was so excellent, that, before opening the letter 
accompanying it, they unanimously agreed to request the 
Society to award their gold medal, that this may operate 
as an inducement to others (especially in seasons, like the 
last; when apples are abundant in Scotland) to undertake 
the manufacture of an extremely elegant, healthful, and 
cheap beverage. This having been agreed to, the sealed 
letter was opened, and the cider found to have been sent 
by Mrs Fotheringham of Fotheringham, and to have been 
made by her butler Mr Robert Petticrew. 

Council and Committee Meeting, 
November 13. 1823. 

It was agreed that the gold medal be awarded to Mi- 
Francis George Probart of Lincolnshire, for his communi- 
cation describing an economical mode of collecting Lettuce- 
Opium, or Lactucarium as it has been denominated. 

The Council and Committee then made trial of sixteen 
different Seedling Apples, raised at Kinfauns by Mr Wil- 
liam Campbell, gardener to Lord Gray. They highly ap- 
proved of several of these, particularly one marked Camp- 
bell 1 s Pippin ; another marked 10, a very red firm apple, 
excellent for orchards, &c. It was unanimously agreed 
that the silver medal should be voted to Mr Campbell at 
this time. 

General Meeting, December 4. 1823. 

The Committee for Prizes which met this day reported, 
that medals had been awarded as follows : 



58 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

For the best three sorts of Apples which have been 
found to ripen well on standards or espaliers, — to 
Mr Alexander Forrester, gardener to David Falco- 
nar, Esq. of Carlowrie. 
For the best Pears produced in Scotland, — to Mr James 
Macdonald, gardener to his Grace the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch and Queensberry at Dalkeith. 
For the best Achan Pears, — to Mr James Stewart, gar- 
dener to Sir John Hope, Bart, of Pinkie. 
For the best three bunches of retarded Grapes (Black 
Hamburgh, Syrian, and Muscat), — to Mr Daniel 
Sinclair, gardener to James Donaldson, Esq. of 
Broughton Hall. 
The Committee farther reported, that they had thought 
it right to vote an extra medal for three uncommonly large 
and fine bunches of the Syrian Grape, sent to the meeting 
by Mr William Laidlaw, gardener to David Anderson, 
Esq. of Moredun. 

General Meeting, March 11. 1824. 

The report of the Committee of Prizes being called for, 
they reported, that a medal for the best six kinds of Apples 
from standards or espaliers, fit for the dessert at this sea- 
son, was awarded to Mr John Gibb, Prestonkirk ; and that 
the medal offered for the three finest specimens of Camel- 
lia in full flower, was due to Mr James Cuningham, Come- 
ly Bank. . 

The Committee further reported, that excellent speci- 
mens of forced Rhubarb stalks had this day been received 
from Hopetoun-House Garden, with a distinct account of 
the mode of culture ; and they unanimously recommended 
that, for this communication, an extra medal should be 
awarded to Mr James Smith, gardener to the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Hopetoun ; which was agreed to. 



AWAltDED IN 1824. 59 

Committee Meeting, April 29. 1824. 

Having inspected a very respectable collection of Stage 
Auriculas, sent by six different competitors, the Commit- 
tee determined that the medal was due to those exhibited 
by Mr Alexander Forrester, gardener to David Falconar, 
Esq. of Carlowrie, which were not only of excellent kinds, 
but particularly well grown. Some of the other collec- 
tions evinced the increasing taste for the cultivation of 
this fine flower. 

Several collections of Seedling Auriculas were also exa- 
mined, and a medal voted to James Macdonald, Esq. 
Newington, for the best. 

The prize for Stage Polyanthuses was unanimously 
awarded to Messrs Dickson and Co. Leith Walk Nurse- 
ries, who also produced the finest collection of Seedling 
Polyanthuses. 

General Meeting, June 10. 1824. 
The Committee for Prizes which had met this forenoon, 
reported, 

1. That five different specimens of Early Melon had 
been sent for competition ; that all of them were well 
grown, and evinced the skill of the cultivators ; and that 
the medal had been awarded to Mr William Henderson, 
gardener to Sir Alexander Muir Mackenzie, Bart, of Del- 
vine, for a specimen of the Green-fleshed Ionian. 

2. That five different parcels of Early Potatoes had 
been sent, of different sorts, and raised on different prin- 
ciples ; that the prize for the best, forwarded in a vinery, 
had been voted to Mr George Brown, gardener to the 
Right Hon. the Earl of Lauderdale, Dunbar House ; and 
that the Committee recommended the awarding an extra 
medal to Mr Robert Fairbairn, Belton House, for a fine 



60 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

specimen of Potatoes called the Adelphi Early, produced 
wholly in the open border. 

3. That the premium for the best Ranunculuses had 
been voted to Messrs Dicksons and Co. Leith Walk Nur- 
series. 

4. That two specimens of Dessert Apples of last year's 
crop were presented ; and that the medal had been as- 
signed for those preserved by Mr John Macnaughton, 
gardener to Colonel Wauchope of Edmondstone, 

The Committee further reported, that a collection of 
some of the finest species and varieties of Pelargonium ha- 
ving been exhibited to the meeting this day, by Mr James 
Cunninghame, Comely Bank, together with a new and 
beautiful variety, marked No. 14., raised by him from the 
seed, they were of opinion that it would be proper to re- 
ward the zeal of this cultivator by voting him the silver 
medal ; which they had accordingly done. 

Council Meeting, July 15. 1824. 

The Committee for Prizes reported, 

1. That only two parcels of Exotic plants in flower had 
been presented to-day, and that they had voted the medal 
to Mr William Macnab, a new species of Fuchsia (F. cle- 
cussata), raised at the Botanic Garden, appearing among 
his plants. 

2. That Mr John Street, flower-gardener to the Hon. 
Mrs Hamilton Nisbet at Biel, had exhibited a large col- 
lection of specimens of exotic plants, partially naturalized 
by him at Biel, many of them being raised from seeds 
ripened in the open air in the same garden ; and that the 
Committee judged it right to encourage the meritorious 
and persevering exertions of Mr Street, by again awarding 
to him an extra medal. 



AWARDED IN 1824. 61 

Council Meeting, August 5. 1824. 

The Council and Committee made trial of seven sorts 
of Seedling Gooseberries, sent by Mr Duncan Macgregor 
at Hermitage. No. 4. was considered as excellent, and 
the others as good berries. The silver medal was voted to 
Mr Macgregor for these seedlings. 

Having heard a report from Mr Andrew Dickson and 
the Secretary, as to a collection of specimens of Seedling 
Roses, raised at Kinfauns Garden, and sent by Mr Wil- 
liam Campbell, gardener to Lord Gray, the silver medal 
was unanimously voted to Mr Campbell. 

General Meeting, September % 1824. 

The Committee on Home-made Wines, gave in the fol- 
lowing report : 

" 1st September 1824. 

" The Committee appointed to examine the Home-made 
Wines beg leave to report to the Society, that twenty-four 
different varieties were submitted to them. Among these, 
several were excellent, and approached so near to eacli 
other, that the Committee found it difficult to award the 
medal. The most perfect wine, however, appearing to 
them to be that marked ' No. 45. ,' they adjudged the me- 
dal to Miss W. M. Johnstone, No. 27. James's Square, 
whose sealed letter bore that mark. 

" The other excellent Wines were particularly the fol- 
lowing : Five different kinds, with the motto " Se defen- 
dendo," made by the same person ; another with the motto, 
" If you don't like it, dont't tell ;" and another, with " All 
is not lost that's in peril ;" and the Committee beg leave to 
suggest, that it may be expedient to award a separate medal 
for each of these, not only as an encouragement to the 
competitors, but as an inducement to others to emulate 
their example, in cultivating the fruits of this country, and 



62 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

manufacturing carefully the most perfect wines from our 
own fruits. The two last named wines are intended to 
imitate mousseux Champaign, and are excellent of their 
kind. The Committee would recommend, in a particular 
manner, to the Society, the encouragement of this kind of 
wine, as, by due care, a very palateable and wholesome 
beverage for summer use may easily be prepared, at a 
small expence. 

"If the Society shall approve of the suggestion of the 
Committee, the extra or additional medals should be given 
to Mrs W. H. Roberts, Kenleith Cottage, Currie^ for the 
wines marked " Se defendendo ;"" to Mrs Stevenson, 
Broompark Cottage, Trinity, " If you don't like it, don't 
tell ;" and to Mrs Mackinlay, Royal Terrace, " All is not 
lost that's in peril. 11 

" In examining the other wines submitted to them, the 
Committee observed, that several of these were not fully 
fermented, and were much sweeter to the taste than wines 
intended for common use ought to be. This defect arises, 
in a great measure, from too great a quantity of sugar be- 
ing originally dissolved in the currant or gooseberry juice 
and water, — from too much water being added to the juice 
of the fruit, — from too strong pressure of the fruit, — some- 
times from too much water being added to the juice of the 
fruit, — and from the fermentation being prematurely stop- 
ped by the addition of alcohol. To remedy this, the 
Committee would suggest, that much less sugar (perhaps 
in many cases where the berries are well ripened and sac- 
charine, only one-half of the quantity usually added) be 
employed, — that the proportion of juice be considerably 
increased, — and that no spirits be added until the follow- 
ing spring, and then, if any, not more than a quart to ten 
gallons. 11 



AWARDED IN 1824. 63 

The Committee of Prizes gave in the following report : 
" The Committee for Prizes beg leave to report, that the 
quantity of Fruit sent in competition was as large as usual, 
and the quality in general very excellent, and that the 
prizes should be awarded as follows : 

For the best Peaches from open walls, without artifi- 
cial heat, — to Mr John Dick, gardener to William 
Trotter, Esq. of Ballendean. 

The best Peaches from flued walls, without glass, — to 
Mr Thomas Xnglis, gardener to the Hon. Mrs Ram- 
say of Barnton. 

The best Nectarines from flued walls, without glass, — 
also to Mr Inglis. 

The best Moorpark Apricots, — to A. M. Well wood, 
Esq. of Pitliver, Dunfermline. 

The best six sorts of Plums (Green Gages excepted), 
two prizes ; one to Mr James Arnot, gardener to 
James Moray, Esq. Abercairney ; and another to 
Mr Alexander Bisset, gardener to Colonel Smyth, 
Methven Castle. 

The best Green Gage Plums, — to Mr Alexander Reid, 
gardener to the Right Hon. Lord Viscount Kel- 
burne, Etal House. 

The best retarded Gooseberries (Hutchison's late War- 
rington), — to Mr Alexander Stuart, gardener, Bon- 
nington House. 

The best Pine-Apple (Queen), — to Mr James Simpson, 
gardener to Captain Wemyss, M. P. Wemyss Castle. 

The finest Rock Canteloup Melon, — to Mr Philip 
Shillinglaw, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl of 
Kinnoul, Dupplin Castle. 

The finest Melon of any other variety (Cephalonian), 
— to Mr George Brown, gardener to the Right Hon, 
the Earl of Lauderdale, Dunbar House. 



64 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

The best specimen of the Gibraltar Grape, — to Mr 
William Wright, gardener to the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Rosebery, Dalmeny Park. 
The two largest bunches of the White Muscat of Alex- 
andria, — to Mr Adam Melrose, gardener to Sir Mi- 
chael Shaw Stewart^ Bart. Ardgowan. 
The best Tokay Grape, — to Mr Daniel Sinclair, gar- 
dener to James Donaldson, Esq. Broughton Hall. 
The largest bunches of Grapes of any other sort 
(White Nice, but called Tokay, one bunch weigh- 
ing 48| oz. the other 40 oz.) — to Mr John Webster, 
gardener to the Hon. General Maitland, Manderston. 
The best six kinds of Summer Apples, two prizes ; 
one to Mr James Macdonald, gardener to his Grace 
the Duke of Buccleuch, Dalkeith Park ; and an- 
other to Mr Daniel Sinclair, gardener to James Do- 
naldson, Esq. Broughton Hall. 
For the greatest variety of Fruits of good quality, — to 
Mr John Macnaughton, gardener to Colonel Wauch- 
ope of Edmondstone. 
" The Committee further report, that the medal for the 
twelve finest Carnations is due to James Macdonald, Esq. 
Newington ; and they recommend that an extra medal be 
awarded for a collection of Seedling Carnations presented 
by Mr Duncan Macgregor, gardener, Hermitage, Leith. 

" A specimen of Nelumbium spec'tosum in full flower, 
having been presented, and this being a rare and difficult 
production, they recommend that an extra medal be award- 
ed to the cultivator, Mr Alexander Stewart, gardener to 
Sir Robert Preston, Bart. Valleyfield. 

" Excellent specimens of a variety of Onion, little known 
and seldom cultivated, called Flat Yellow, having been 
sent to the meeting, the Committee also recommend an ex- 
tra medal for this production to Mr Robert Fairbairn, 
gardener to Captain Hay of Belton." 



AWA11DED IN 1824. 65 

Council Meeting, November- 11. 1824 

Several collections of Seedling Apples were tried, and 
carefully compared. The Council were of opinion, that, 
in terms of the advertisement published last year, the gold 
medal ought now to be adjudged ; and they found that 
it was due to Mr William Campbell, gardener at Kin- 
fauns Castle, several of whose seedlings were both beauti- 
ful and excellent. 

The attention of the Council was attracted by the good 
qualities of an Autumn Apple from Dysart, remarkable 
for its sweetness and delicate flavour, and agreed that the 
silver medal should be awarded to Mr Andrew Duncan, 
Dysart, who raised it. 

The Secretary laid before the meeting a letter from 
John Traill Urquhart, Esq. accompanying some very fine 
and large specimens of Apples (particularly Manks Cod- 
lins), equal to any produced in the Lothians, produced in 
a new garden formed by him at Elsness, in the Island of 
Sanda, Orkney. The Committee voted to Mr Urquhart 
the Society's silver medal for thus promoting horticulture 
with success in the most northern parts of the British 
Islands. 

General Meeting, December 2. 1824 
Dr Duncan read a discourse, announcing that the Coun- 
cil had awarded the annual gold medal, for the most im- 
portant communication received during the year, to Mr 
William Macnab, for the Plan of the Experimental Gar- 
den then lying on the table. 

The Committee for Prizes reported, that prizes this day 
ought to be awarded as follows : 



66 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

For the best three sorts of Apples lately introduced, or 
not generally known, &c. — to Mr John Taylor, gar- 
dener to the Right Hon. the Earl of Dunmore, Dun- 
more Park. 
For the best six Newton Pippins, the produce of Scot- 
land, — to Mr David White, gardener to R. W. Ram- 
say, Esq. of Whitehill. 
For the best Pears produced in Scotland, two prizes ; 
1st, To Mr John Taylor, Dunmore Park, among 
whose pears was an excellent seedling one, raised at 
Dunmore, between the Brown Beurre and Chaumon- 
telle ; 2d, To Mr James Stuart, gardener to Sir John 
Hope, Bart, of Pinkie. 
For the best retarded Grapes, three prizes ; 1st, To Mr 
Alexander Stewart, gardener to Sir Robert Preston, 
Bart, of Valleyfield, for very fine and large bunches of 
the Syrian Grape; 2d, To Mr Thomas Inglis, gar- 
dener to Mrs Ramsay of Bamton, for excellent Black 
Hamburgh Grapes ; 3d, To Mr John Macnaughton, 
gardener to Colonel Wauchope of Edmondstone, for 
very fine Muscat of Alexandria Grapes, being the se- 
cond crop, and from plants growing between the flues. 
The Committee further reported, that an extra medal 
ought to be awarded to Mr George . Brown, gardener to 
the Right Hon. the Earl of Lauderdale, Dunbar House, 
for excellent specimens sent to the meeting, of varieties of 
several culinary vegetables which are little known or cul- 
tivated in Scotland, particularly the turnip-rooted parsnip, 
the celeriac, the knol-kohl, and the Guernsey potato. 

Council Meeting, December 9- 1824. 
The Council having considered a certificate by Lady 
Elizabeth Moncrieffe, and also a letter from Sir David 
Moncrieffe, Bart, bearing testimony to the faithful services 



AWARDED IN 1825. 67 

of Mr John Mitchell, as head-gardener at Moncrieff'e 
House for a period of more than thirty-two years, he ha- 
ving at the same time practised all the branches of garden- 
ing ; and having learned from the Secretary that it was on- 
ly in consequence of an accidental occurrence that Lady 
Elizabeth Moncreiffe's certificate had not been laid before 
the meeting on the 2d instant, unanimously agree in vo- 
ting to Mr Mitchell the silver medal offered for long and 
faithful service for this year. 

Council Meeting, February 3. 1825. 

The Secretary laid before the meeting a letter from Mr 
John Dick, gardener at Ballendean, communicated by 
William Trotter, Esq. regarding an improved fruit-wall 
hammer. The Council considering this hammer (calcu- 
lated, by means of a projecting guard, to save the twigs 
of peach-trees, in drawing nails in any direction), as a 
real, though simple improvement, agree to recommend to 
the Society to award to Mr Dick the silver medal for it. 

General Meeting, March 10. 1825. 
The Committee for Prizes which met this day reported 
that premiums were awarded as follows : 

For the best six crowns of Seacale, — to Mr James 
Smith, gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl of Hope- 
toun, Hopetoun House. No fewer than eight other 
competitors in this article appeared, and all the spe- 
cimens produced were well grown and well blanched ; 
proving the increased cultivation of sea-cale, and in- 
creased attention to its proper culture. 
For the three finest specimens of Camellia in full flowers^ 
three different varieties, — to Messrs Dicksons and 
Company, Leith Walk Nurseries. 

c 2 



68 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

For the five finest specimens of Erica, different species, 
— to Mr John Barclay, gardener to George Dunbar, 
Esq. Rose Park. 
For the three finest and rarest specimens of Exotic 
plants in flower (exclusive of the genera Camellia 
and Erica), — to Mr William Macnab, superintend- 
ant of the Royal Botanic Garden. 
For the greatest variety of spring flowers produced in 
the open border (exclusive of Anemones),- — to Mr 
Alexander Forrester, gardener to David Falconar, 
Esq. of Carlowrie. 
For the best six single Anemonies from the open bor- 
der, — to Mr Robert Lees, gardener to Miss Scott, 
Mount Lodge, Portobello. 
The Committee also recommended that an extra medal 
should be awarded to Mr James Stuart, gardener to Sir 
John Hope, Bart, of Pinkie, for excellent specimens of 
Rhubarb-stalks, forced in the open ground by means of 
tree-leaves and stable-litter, in the manner of sea-cale ; and 
also an extra medal to Mr John Street, flower-gardener to 
the Hon. Mrs Hamilton Nisbet of Biel, for a new mode of 
growing various plants and cuttings in moss or hypnum, 
the advantages of which consist in rendering the plants at 
once less liable to injury from overwatering, and also less 
susceptible of harm from water being neglected ; and in 
making them more fit for sending to great distances, the 
balls of moss, penetrated by the fibrous roots, remaining 
quite entire. 

Committee Meeting, April 28. 1825. 
The Committee proceeded to the examination of the col- 
lections of Auriculas and Polyanthuses, both stage plants 
and seedlings, produced in competition. They found that 



AWARDED IN 1825. 69 

the medal for Stage Auriculas was due for the flowers 
found to be sent by James Macdonald, Esq. Newington ; 
and that a medal for Seedling Auriculas was merited by a 
parcel of fine seedlings, which were found to be sent also 
by Mr Macdonald. For Stage Polyanthuses they award- 
ed the prize to Messrs Dicksons and Company, Leith Walk 
Nurseries ; and they voted a medal for a parcel of Seed- 
ling Polyanthuses found to be raised by Mr Charles Doig, 
gardener at Middleton House. 

General Meeting, June 9. 1825. 
The Committee for prizes which met this day reported, 
that the Society's silver medal offered for the " best Early 
Melon, with an account of the mode of culture, and the 
history of the variety ," was due to Mr John Middleton, 
gardener to Archibald Campbell, Esq. of Blythswood, by 
Renfrew ; and that the medal offered for the *' best double 
Stock" was due to Mr Alexander Dow, gardener to James 
Wyld, Esq. Bonnington Bank. 

General Meeting, September 1. 1825. 
The report of the Fruit Committee having been called 
for, the following was given in, read, and approved of : 

" 31st August 1825. 
" The Committee having carefully examined the speci- 
mens of Fruit sent in competition, beg leave to report, that 
premiums should be awarded as follows : 

For the greatest variety of Peaches from open walls 
(Royal George, Noblesse, and Newton), — to Mr 
Robert Lees, gardener to Miss Scott, Mount Lodge, 
Portobello. 
The best twelve Moorpark Apricots, — to Mr James 
Smith, gardener to the Right Hon, the Earl of Hope- 
ioun, Hopetoun House. 



70 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

The greatest variety of Plums, Green Gages excepted, 
(Sharpens Emperor, Imperial, Red Magnum, White 
Magnum, and Myrobalan),— to Mr Alexander 
Smith, gardener to George Paterson, .Esq. of Cu- 
noquhie. 

The best Green Gages, two dozen, — to Mr William 
Reid, gardener to Sir • John Marjoribanks, Bart, of 
Lees. 

The best Scots pint of retarded Gooseberries, — to Mr 
William Affleck, gardener to Thomas G. Wright, 
Esq. Duddingston Cottage. 

The best Queen Pine-apple, — to Mr John Mitchell, 
gardener to Sir David MoncreifFe, Bart. Moncreiffe 
House. 

For a Seedling Pine-apple of good quality, an extra 
medal, — to Mr Howe, gardener to the Right Hon. 
Lord Duncan, Camperdown, Dundee. 

The greatest variety of Melons, with their names, &c. 
— to Mr Thomas Inglis, gardener to the Hon. Mrs 
Ramsay of Barnton. 
For the best three bunches of White Frontignac Grapes, 
— to Mr George Munro, gardener to William Hay, 
Esq. Dunse Castle. 

The two largest and heaviest bunches of White Mus- 
cat of Alexandria, — to Mr James Macdonald, gar- 
dener to his Grace the Duke of Buccleuch and 
Queensberry, Dalkeith Park. 

The largest Grapes of any other sort (the Black Gib- 
raltar), two bunchs, — also to Mr Macdonald. 

For uncommonly fine Black Hamburgh Grapes, an ex- 
tra medal, — to Mr Philip Shillinglaw, gardener to 
the Right Honourable the Earl of Kinnoul, Dupplin 
Castle, 



AWARDED IN 1825. 71 

The best six kinds of Apples, a dozen of each kind,— 
to Mr Daniel Sinclair, gardener to James Donald- 
son, Esq. Broughton Hall. 
For a variety of fine Summer Apples, an extra medal, 
— to Mr Alexander Bisset, gardener to Colonel 
Smyth, Methven Castle. 

For excellent retarded May duke Cherries, — to Mr 
John Macnaughton, gardener to Colonel Wauchope 
of Edmonstone. 

For the greatest variety of Fruits of good quality, pro- 
duced by any one competitor, — to Mr Robert Ing- 
ram, gardener to Sir John Erskine, Bart, of Torne." 

The report of the Committee on Home-made Wines 
having been called for, the following was given in, read, 
and approved of: 

". 31st August 1825. 
" The Wine Committee report to the Society, That the 
medals distributed in former years seem to have induced 
a greater number of competitors than usual to come for- 
ward ; no less than thirty-seven different varieties of wine 
having been presented to them for examination. The qua- 
lity of the wines, too, seems to be improving materially, 
from year to year, not only in the champaign, both still 
and mousseux, from the unripe gooseberry, becoming more 
and more palateable ; but various attempts at imitating the 
drier Continental wines have succeeded beyond expecta- 
tion. On this account, although they are compelled, from 
the superiority of the wine, to award the first prize to that 
marked " Take a bumper, and try," found to belong to 
Mrs Roberts, Kenleith Cottage, being in their opinion the 
best wine ; yet they cannot resist recommending to the So- 
ciety to award an extra medal to Mrs Gait, Inveresk, for 
not only having produced very excellent gooseberry wine 



72 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

but also four others, all superior in their kind, particularly 
one marked *' Avignon ;" — another extra medal for a wine 
marked " Practice makes Perfection,'''' being the most pa- 
lateable currant wine, and found to belong to Mrs Mac- 
kinlay, Royal Terrace ; and likewise an extra medal for 
the wine marked " Bathurst Plains, 1 '' being perhaps the 
best dry home-made wine that has ever been presented, 
and found to belong to Miss Jameson, 21. Royal Circus. 

" The Committee cannot avoid stating, that a very ex- 
cellent wine was presented to them for competition, from 
the neighbourhood of Hull, to which, as it was not the 
produce of this country, they could not award a medal, 
which they regret exceedingly. 

" Upon the whole, the Committee are of opinion, that the 
wines produced upon this occasion are considerably supe- 
rior to those of former years, and that the public will de- 
rive benefit from the Society continuing to hold forth the 
same rewards for excellence of manufacture which it has 
hitherto done. 

" The Committee beg again to suggest, that a much 
smaller quantity of sugar ought to be added to the fruit 
than is generally done. And they cannot conclude with- 
out strongly recommending strongly to future competitors, 
to follow, as nearly as they can, the mode adopted by Mrs 
Roberts of Kenleith Cottage, who seems, from the speci- 
mens of five sorts of wine produced by her for competi- 
tion, to have established a method of preparing, upon 
scientific principles, a perfect wine of most excellent qua- 
lity ; the receipt and method of preparing which, may be 
seen in the Memoirs of the Society, No. XII. (Vol. III. 
p. 460.f 

Council Meeting, November 10. 1825. 
A collection of fine Pears, from the garden at Buchanan 



AWARDED IN 1825. 78 

House, was examined and tried ; and die size and excel- 
lence of the specimens of GanselPs Bergamot were such, 
that the meeting considered it right to award an extra me- 
dal of encouragement to Mr D. Montgomerie, the gar- 
dener there, with a vote of thanks for his promise of grafts, 
&c. to the Experimental Garden. 

Council Meeting, December 1. 1825. 

The Council having examined the different certificates 
produced this year by head-gardeners, who have served for 
long periods the same family, and exercised all the branches 
of the profession, to the satisfaction of their employers, 
found that the medal is due to Mr Thomas Pattison, head- 
gardener for forty-eight years to W. F. Campbell, Esq. of 
Islay, in the garden in that island. 

General Meeting, December 1. 1825. 

The following report was given in by the Committee of 
Prizes, and approved of: 

" The Committee report, that the prizes should this 
day be awarded as follows : 

For the best three sorts of Apples, lately introduced, 
or not generally known in Scotland, and which have 
been found to ripen well on standards or espaliers, 
at least two of each sort, with an account of the state 
of the trees, &c. Two parcels being judged equal in 
merit, the Committee recommend the awarding of 
two prizes ; one to Mr Thomas Inglis, gardener to 
Mrs Hamsay of Barnton ; and another to Mr James 
Simpson, gardener to Captain Wemyss at Wemyss 
Castle. 
For the best Pears produced in Scotland, three speci- 
mens of each kind, — to Mr John Macnaughton, 



74 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

gardener to John Wauchope, Esq. of Edmond- 
stone. 

For the best three bunches of retarded Grapes, with an 
account of the mode of retarding, and of the kinds 
best calculated for keeping, — to Mr John Clephane, 
gardener to John Balfour, Esq. Hailes. 

For the best swelled specimens of Celeriac, three roots 
to be produced, with an account of the mode of cul- 
ture, — to Mr George Brown, gardener to the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Lauderdale, Dunbar House. 

For the best three stems of Blanched Cardoons, — to 
Mr Thomas Liddel, gardener to the Hon. General 
Duff, East Warriston. 

For the greatest number of distinct varieties of Chry- 
santhemum Indicum in flower. There being two 
parcels, containing twenty varieties each, the Com- 
mittee recommend the awarding a premium for each 
of these collections ; and the sealed letters being 
opened, one was found to belong to Mr William Mac- 
nab of the Royal Botanic Garden, Inverleith ; and 
the other to belong to Mr Alexander Stewart, gar- 
dener to Sir Robert Preston, Bart, of Valleyfield, 
near Culross. ,, 

General Meeting, March 2. 1826. 
The Committee for Prizes gave in the following re- 
port : 

" 2d March 1826. 
'■' The Committee met this day, and beg leave to re- 
port, that medals should be awarded as follows : 

For the best Scots pint of Mushrooms, with an account 
of the mode of cultivation, — to Mr James Dods, gar- 
dener to John Warrender, Esq of Lochend House, 
Dunbar. 



AWARDED IN 1826. ?5 

An extra medal for a remarkable variety, the pileus ha- 
ving large scales pencilled with hair-brown lines, and 
the whole plant being very fleshy and tender, — to 
Mr William Reid, gardener to Sir John Marjori- 
banks, Bart, of Lees. 

For the best twenty-five forced Strawberries (Roseber- 
ry variety), — to Mr Malcolm Carmichael, gardener, 
at Raehills, to John Hope Johnstone, Esq. of An- 
nandale. 

For the best Apples, three sorts, three specimens of 
each, — to Mr William Oliver, gardener to the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Rosslyn, Dysart. 

An extra medal to Mr George Brown, gardener to the 
Right Hon. the Earl of Lauderdale, Dunbar House, 
for several remarkably fine Apples, of kinds little 
known here, the trees having been imported from 
France. 

For very excellent specimens of Camellia in full flower, 
six different varieties in flower-pots, — to Mr John 
Barclay, gardener to George Dunbar, Esq. Rose 
Park, Trinity. 

An extra medal for a beautiful seedling Camellia, — to 
Mr James Cunningham, botanical nurseryman at 
Comely Bank. 

For the five finest specimens of Erica, different species, 
— to Mr William Macnab, superintendant of the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Inverleith. 

For the best six Hyacinths, in pots or glasses, red 
blue, or white, two of each, — to Mr Robert Reid, 
gardener to Sir Alexander Keith at Ravelstone. 

Council Meeting, April 6. 1826. 
A prize having been offered for the greatest variety of 
Crocus produced to the meeting this day, two collections 



76 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

were examined ; one containing 80 varieties, and the other 
72. The medal was voted to the former, which was found 
to belong to Messrs Dicksons and Co. Leith Walk. The 
meeting regretted to find that in neither collection were the 
species distinguished. 

Committee Meeting, April 20. 1826. 

The Committee regretted to find, that the number of 
competitors or exhibitors, either in Auriculas or Polyan- 
thuses, was less than in some former years. 

They agreed, that a medal for very admirable Stage 

Auriculas should be awarded to those marked, 

" Nor fame I slight, nor for her favours call ; 
" She comes unlooked for, if she comes at all ;" 

which were found to belong to Thomas Oliver, Esq. Burnts- 
field Links. They likewise agreed that a medal for Seed- 
ling Auriculas should be awarded to Mr David Anderson, 
6. Brown Street ; but that it should be marked in the mi- 
nutes that some very excellent seedlings were produced by 
James Macdonald, Esq. Newington, which could not be 
placed in competition, on account of Mr Macdonald having 
gained the pi-ize for seedling auriculas last year. 

The Committee voted a medal for Stage Polyanthuses to 
Mr Alexander Forrester, gardener to David Falconar, 
Esq. of Carlowrie ; and a medal for Seedling Polyanthuses 
to James Macdonald, Esq. Newington. The Committee 
desired it to be marked, that some excellent Stage Polyan- 
thuses (believed to have been sent by Mr Hatelie) were ne- 
cessarily excluded from competition, on account of the re- 
gulations not having been complied with. 

The Committee having examined a number of varieties 
of Polyanthus-Narcissus, flowered in the open border at 
Biel, and also several seedlings of that flower likewise raised 
at Biel, were of opinion, that, although it would be irregu- 



AWAKDED IN 1826. 77 

lar in them, as a Committee, to vote a medal for a produc- 
tion not announced in the prize-list, yet that Mr John 
Street, gardener at Biel, deserves some remuneration for 
the great trouble he had taken in this matter, and there- 
fore agreed to recommend that the sum of one guinea be 
paid to him by the Treasurer of the Society. 

General Meeting, June 1. 1826. 

The report of the Committee of Prizes for this day ha- 
ving been called for, was given in and read as follows : 

" The best Early Melon in competition was a Rock 
Cantelope ; and on opening the sealed letter, it was found 
to have been raised by Mr John Macnaughton, gardener 
to John Wauchope, Esq. of Edmonstone, the seed sown 
1st March in small pots ; kept in the pine pit fifteen days; 
transplanted 16th March in the two-light pit frame for- 
merly described to the Society ; the soil, two parts brown 
turf mould, one part strong clay, one part rotten dung, 
one part pit sand, all well mixed. 

" Two parcels of Grapes were regarded as so nearly equal 
in merit, that the Committee felt it necessary to award two 
medals; 1st, For Black Hamburgh Grapes, found to be- 
long to Mr Thomas Inglis, gardener to the Hon. Mrs 
Ramsay of Barnton ; 2d, For Frontignac Grapes found to 
have been sent by Mr Robert Reid, gardener to Sir Alex- 
ander Keith of Ravelstone. 

" Several baskets of Early Peas appeared, and all of 
them were of excellent quality. The basket selected as 
the best were of the early frame kind, and found to have 
been raised by Mr James Arklie, gardener to Williani 
Grant, Esq. of Congalton. They were sown 26th Octo- 
ber at the bottom of a south aspected w r all, with a little 
light vegetable mould over them in the drill ; covered with 
a few spruce branches in the time of hard frost, and kept 



78 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

close up to the wall with straw ropes. Two pecks were 
pulled on the 18th May for the Lord High Commissioner's 
table, being the first produced. 

" The Secretary stated that he had received a letter 
from Mr Alexander Bisset, gardener to Colonel Smyth of 
Methven, describing a mode of forwarding early Peas, 
which had been practised by him for several years past. 
In January he sows them on pieces of old sward-turf re- 
versed, 9 or 10 inches long, by 5 or 6 broad ; places the 
turfs in a slight hot-bed, and in the middle of March plants 
out the entire turfs, loaded with the young pea plants, 4 or 
5 inches high. The Committee examined a box of Nash's 
early frame peas so raised, and found them riper than any 
sent in competition, evincing that they had been ready for 
table more than a fortnight ago, as stated in Mr Bisset's letter. 
Regarding this practice as a meritorious improvement, the 
Committee unanimously voted an extra medal, and desired 
the Secretary to request Mr Bisset to make it public 
through the medium of the Society's Memoirs. 

" Several parcels of Early Potatoes, raised without arti- 
ficial heat, were examined. The largest and finest were 
found to belong to Mr Inglis at Barnton, to whom the me- 
dal was accordingly adjudged. 

" Several competitors in double Anemones appeared. 
The best flowers were found to have been sent by Mr 
William Milne, gardener to Gilbert Innes, Esq. of Drum." 

Council Meeting, June 15. 1826. 
The Secretary having read to the Meeting a report by 
Mr Andrew Dickson and Mr John Hay, relative to the 
Frame for preserving wall-trees, invented by Mr John 
Dick, gardener to William Trotter, Esq. of Ballendean, 
and a model of which was sent to the Society some time 
ago ; and said report being highly favourable, they unani- 
1 



AWA11DED IN 1826. 79 

raously voted the Society's silver medal to Mr Dick, and 
direct that the frame be erected against a wall in the Gar- 
den, so as to be properly seen by the members. 

Having heard a report from the meeting of Garden 
Committee, held on 8th June current, relative to some 
remarkable clusters of cultivated Mushrooms sent from 
Pinkie House, and having also considered the merit of Mr 
James Stewart, the gardener there, in introducing the for- 
cing and blanching of Rhubarb-stalks in the open ground 
in the manner of sea-kale, the Council unanimously agree 
that the Society's silver medal be again awarded to Mr 
Stewart, and that he be requested to allow an account of 
his practice of forcing and blanching Rhubarb to be print- 
ed in the Memoirs. 

General Meeting, July 6. 1826. 

The following report from the Committee of Prizes, 
which met this day, was given in, read, and approved of: 

" The Committee having carefully examined the articles 
presented in competition this day, report, that the Society's 
silver medal should be awarded as follows : 

For the best eighteen Pinks, — to Thomas Oliver, Esq. 
Burntsfield Place ; with a request that he would be 
so good as furnish a plant of each sort, with its name, 
for the use of the Experimental Garden. 
For the best three Scots pints of Keen's new Seedling 
Strawberry, — to Mr James Arklie, gardener to Wil- 
liam Grant, Esq. of Congalton. 
For the best three Scots pints of Strawberries, three 
sorts, with their names, — to Mr James Bishop, gar- 
dener to George Mercer, Esq. Dryden by Lasswade. 
(The sorts were Roseberry, Methven Scarlet, and 
Bath Pine.) 
For the best Scots pint of any other Strawberry not 



80 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

generally cultivated,— to Mr James Simpson, gar- 
dener to James Wemyss, Esq. M. P. Wemyss Castle. 
(The kind was Keen's Imperial Pine.) 
For the best Cherries, three sorts, thirty of each, with 
their names, — to Mr John Macnaughton, gardener 
to John Wauchope, Esq. of Edmonstone. 

General Meeting, September 7. 1826. 
The report of the Fruit Committee, which met yester- 
day, was given in and read as follows : 

" 6th September 1826. 
" The Committee, after a very careful inspection and 
trial, which occupied more than four hours, beg leave to 
report, that prizes should be awarded as follows : 

For the greatest variety of Peaches (11 sorts), from 
open walls, — to Mr John Dick, gardener to the 
Right Hon. the Lord Provost at Ballendean, Inch- 
ture. 
For the greatest variety of Peaches (12 sorts), from 
flued walls, — to Mr Thomas Inglis, gardener to the 
Hon. Mrs Ramsay at Barnton, Edinburgh. 
For the greatest variety of Nectarines (10 sorts), from 
flued walls, but without any fire this season, — to Mr 
George Shiells, gardener to the Right Hon. Lord 
Blantyre, Erskine House. 
For the greatest variety of Plums (6 sorts), Green 
Gages excepted, — to Mr James Arnott, gardener to 
James Murray, Esq. Abercairney, Crieff. 
For the best six Green Gages, — to Mr John Hamilton, 
gardener to A. Compton, Esq. Carham Hall, Cold- 
stream. 
For the best six sorts of Summer Pears (Jargonelles 
excepted), — to Mr James Stewart, gardener to Sir 
John Hope, Bart, of Pinkie. 



AWARDED IN 1826. 81 

For the best six Jargonelle Pears, — to Mr William 
Oliver, gardener to the Right. Hon. the Earl of Ros- 
lyn, Dysart. 

For Queen Pine-apples, two prizes ; one to Mr Mal- 
colm Carmichael, gardener to J. J. Hope Johnstone, 
Esq. of Annandale, Raehills, by Moffat ; and another 
to Mr Phillip Shillinglaw, gardener to the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Kinnoul, Dupplin Castle, Perth. 

For an excellent Enville Pine-apple, — to Mr James 
Young, gardener to John Richardson, Esq. of Pit- 
four, Perth. 

For a Lemon Antigua Pine-apple, — to Mr Alexander 
Muirhead, gardener to Colonel Belshes of Invermay, 
Bridge of Earne. 

For the largest Rock Melon, — -to Mr James Macdo- 
nald, gardener to His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch 
at Dalkeith. 

For the largest Green-fleshed Melon, — to Mr James 
Stewart, gardener at Pinkie House, Musselburgh. 

For the best three bunches of White Frontignac Grape, 
— to Mr William Oliver, gardener at Dysart House, 
Dysart. 

For the two largest and heaviest bunches of White 
Muscat of Alexandria Grape, — to Mr John Mac- 
naughton, gardener to Colonel Wauchope of Ed- 
mondstone. 

For the largest and best swelled Grapes in general 
(Black Damascus), — to Mr Thomas Berry, gar- 
dener to P. G. Skene, Esq. of Pitlour, by Auchter- 
muchty. 

For the largest and heaviest bunches of Black Ham- 
burgh Grapes — to Mr Henry Frisel, gardener to 
John Veitch, Esq. of Olive Bank, by Musselburgh. 

VOL. IV, F 



82 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

For the best two sorts of Figs (Brown and Black 
Ischia), — to Mr William Pearson, gardener to the 
Countess-Dowager of Hopetoun, Ormiston Hall, 
Tranent. 
For the best six kinds of Summer Apples, — to Mr 
Alexander Bisset, gardener to Colonel Smyth of 
Methven Castle, by Perth. 
For the greatest variety of different Fruits of good qua- 
lity, produced by any one competitor (four sorts 
Peaches, six sorts Nectarines, six sorts Plums, four 
sorts Grapes, two Melons, twenty sorts Apples, and 
ten sorts Pears; in all fifty-two varieties of fruit), — 
to Mr James Arnott, gardener at Abercairney, by 
Crieff. 
44 The fruit was in general of excellent quality, and af- 
forded abundant evidence of the attention now paid to the 
higher branches of horticulture in this country. The Com- 
mittee regret that they were obliged to pass over several 
excellent specimens, in consequence of the competitors not 
complying with the rules of competition laid down and 
published, a strict adherence to which they have learned 
by experience is absolutely necessary. In particular, in this 
way, a most admirable display of apples from the Lord. 
Provost's garden at Ballendean, was unavoidably excluded 
from competition. 

'* Owing to the forwardness of the season, no Apricots 
nor Retarded Gooseberries could be expected at this meet- 
ing ; but several members of the Garden Committee, and 
of the Committee of Prizes, having concurred in stating, 
that a parcel of the largest and finest Moorpark Apricots 
they had ever seen had been presented about three weeks 
ago, it was agreed to recommend that a medal be awarded 
to Mr Alexander Wilson, gardener to Sir Hew Dalrymple 
Hamilton, Bart, at North Berwick House, who sent them, 



AWARDED IN 1826. 83 

" The Committee have now the satisfaction to add some 
pleasing proofs of the advancement of horticultural im- 
provement in the production, at this meeting, of two Seed- 
ling Peaches, a Seedling Grape-vine, two Seedling Apples, 
and a Seedling Pear. The Seedling Peaches were present- 
ed to the Committee by the Hon. Sir Alexander Hope, 
Bart, of LufFness, personally : he stated that they had 
been raised at the garden of his nephew the Earl of Hope- 
toun, by Mr James Smith, the gardener at Hopetoun 
House. One of the sorts (marked No. 4) was regarded as 
being of most excellent quality ; and the Committee unani- 
mously recommend that an extra medal be awarded to Mr 
Smith for this production, with a request that he will fur- 
nish the history of it, and communicate cuttings for the 
Experimental Garden. The bunch of Seedling Grape was 
likewise regarded as of very superior quality ; and the 
Committee were equally unanimous in recommending the 
awarding of an extra medal for it to Mr James Simpson, 
gardener to James Wemyss, Esq. M. P. Wemyss Castle, 
with a request that the Experimental Garden may be sup- 
plied with cuttings, when a glazed house shall be ready. 
The Seedling Apples were communicated by Mr George 
Bell of Leith, and Mr Finlay of Milneld ; and the Seed- 
ling Pear was from Ormiston Hall Garden. But on the 
merit of these apples and the pear the Committee delayed 
deciding, till farther particulars of their age and history 
should be learned. 

" The culture of the Tomato or Love-apple in Scotland 
seems to the Committee to deserve encouragement ; and 
six distinct varieties raised at Kennet Garden, and ripened 
in the open air, being produced to the meeting, the Com- 
mittee recommend the awarding an extra medal to Mr 
Peter Barnet, gardener to Robert Bruce, Esq. of Kennet, 
for his success in this branch of culture. 

f 2 



84 HONORARY PREMIUMS 

The report of the Wine Committee, which met yester- 
day, being then called for, was given in and read as fol- 
lows: 

" 6th September 1826. 

" The Wine Committee beg leave to report, That al- 
though the number of competitors for the prize medal is this 
year considerably less than it has been for some years past, 
yet that several of the Wines produced are excellent of their 
kinds, and at least equal to most of those formerly brought 
forward in competition. That which particularly attract- 
ed notice, and to which they consider the medal is due, is 
marked " Melville Island ;" the same competitor produ- 
cing another excellently prepared wine, marked " Cauca- 
sus." On opening the accompanying sealed letter, the 
Committee found, that the Melville Island Wine was pre- 
pared of White Currants and Refined Sugar, without spi- 
rits ; and the Caucasus Wine from a combination of White 
Currants and Raspberries ; by Mrs Patrick Torrie, Royal 
Circus, Edinburgh. 

" The Committee have also to report, that a Liqueur, 
prepared from Geans and Cherries, in imitation of the Swiss 
Kirschen-wasser, at Traquhair House, and transmitted to the 
Society by Lord Linton, through the hands of Old Provost 
Henderson, was this day produced ; and although no me- 
dal has been offered for Distilled Liqueurs, yet they beg 
leave to recommend that an extra medal be presented for 
this liqueur, to shew the anxious desire of the Society to 
encourage every manufacture connected with the produce 
of the garden.'"' 

The Secretary then read a communication from Mr 
George Shiells, gardener to the Right Hon. Lord Blan- 
tyre, Erskine House. Mr Shiells, finding that the Black 
Damascus Grape did not set freely, took some bunches of 



AWARDED IN 1826. 85 

the flowers of the Royal Muscadine, a free setting kind, 
and of which he had flowers to spare, and dusted the pol- 
len over the flowers of the Black Damascus, about eight 
days after these had expanded, and when the stigmata 
seemed crowned with globules. Those bunches of the 
Black Damascus so treated, set very freely ; while those 
not dusted with the Muscadine pollen, set only a few ber- 
ries in each bunch. Specimens of bunches of both kinds 
were presented at the meeting. The meeting, regarding 
this practice, whether altogether original or not, as deser- 
ving of attention and encouragement, unanimously voted 
an extra medal to Mr Shiells ; whose letter further proved 
that the practice was, on his part, the result of his own 
judgment and reflection. 

Council and Committee Meeting, 
October 5. 1826. 

Specimens of the third crop of a Seedling Pear, raised 
from the Green-yair impregnated with the Christie, were 
presented by Mr John Edwards at Luncarty. Consider- 
ing the remarkable drought which has prevailed, the fruit 
was of considerable size ; and although not a first rate 
pear, possessed an agreeable juice and flavour. The Coun- 
cil and Committee, anxious to encourage the production of 
new pears, agree that the silver medal be awarded to Mr 
Edwards for raising this Pear. 

Committee Meeting, October 26. 1826. 
A box of Seedling Apples raised, at Coul by Sir G. S. 
Mackenzie, was examined. No. 1., called the Tarvey Cod- 
lin (cross between the Manks Codlin and Nonpareil) was 
considered a very good and well-flavoured apple, but soft 
in the pulp. No. 2. the Kinellan, a beautiful fruit, of 
same parentage, was regarded as more juicy, but not so 



86 PREMIUMS AWARDED IN 1826. 

highly flavoured as No. 1. No. 3. the Contin Rennet, con- 
siderably resembling the Nonpareil, and altogether an ex- 
cellent apple. No. 4. Coul Blush Apple, a pretty fruit, 
but the specimens had been too long on the tree, and it was 
considered as not likely to prove a good keeper. Upon 
the whole, the Committee are of opinion, that all these four 
seedlings are well deserving of cultivation, and direct the 
Secretary to request of Sir George Mackenzie to favour 
the Society with grafts for the Experimental Garden ; but 
they particularly recommend Nos. 1. and 3. as two of the 
finest seedlings that have yet been submitted to them. 
They unanimously recommend that the Society's honorary 
silver medal be presented to Sir George Stuart Mackenzie, 
Bart, for these meritorious productions. 



( B7 ) 



WARRANT 



FOR 



A ROYAL CHARTER. 



UUR SOVEREIGN LORD, considering that an hum- 
ble Petition hath been presented to His Majesty, in the 
name of His Grace Alexander, Duke of Gordon, Pre- 
sident of the Caledonian Horticultural Society ; Andrew- 
Duncan, Doctor of Medicine ; James Home, Doctor 
of Medicine; John Archibald Murray, Esq. Advo- 
cate ; Sir John Hay, Bart, of Haystone and Smithfield, 
Vice-Presidents : and Henry Jardine, Esq, of Harwood ; 
Robert Graham, Doctor of Medicine, Regius Profes- 
sor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh ; Henry 
Cockburn, Esq. Advocate ; The Rev. Dr Alexander 
Brunton, Professor of Oriental Languages in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh ; Thomas Cranstoun, Esq. of 
Dewar ; and George Bell, Esq. Surgeon in Edinburgh, 
Council ; Andrew Dickson, Esq. Treasurer ; and Pa- 
trick Neill, Esq. Secretary of the said Society, for them- 
selves, and the other constituent members of the said So- 
ciety, setting forth, That, in the year 1809, the petition- 
ers had formed themselves into a Society for the Improve- 
ment of Horticulture, in all its branches : That their exer- 
tions had been productive of great benefit to the public i 
That having raised a considerable sum of money, as the 



88 WARRANT FOR ROYAL CHARTER. 

commencement of a fund for promoting that useful pur- 
pose, and having already received a distinguished mark of 
His Majesty's Royal Bounty, by a grant of a lease of ground 
for an Experimental Garden, in the neighbourhood of the 
metropolis of Scotland, they trusted that the object they 
had in view would still farther be deemed worthy of His 
Majesty's Royal Patronage and Protection, The petition- 
ers, therefore, humbly beseeched His Majesty to grant them 
a Royal Patent or Charter, for incorporating them, and 
such other persons as might afterwards be admitted mem- 
bers, into one body politic and corporate, for the purpose of 
the better management and security of their funds, under 
the title of The Caledonian Horticultural Socie- 
ty. The petitioners therefore prayed, That His Majesty 
might be pleased to grant a Charter, incorporating the pe- 
titioners, with such other persons as shall be admitted mem- 
bers, into a body corporate and politic, by the name and 
title above mentioned, with perpetual endurance and suc- 
cession, with powers to use a common seal, to sue and to be 
sued, purchase and enjoy property, real and personal, to 
make and frame by-laws for the government of the said 
Society, and with all other necessary and usual powers and 
privileges. And His Majesty being satisfied that the de- 
sign of the petitioners is laudable, and being desirous of 
promoting such improvement, does therefore ordain a char- 
ter to be passed and expede under the seal appointed by the 
Treaty of Union to be kept in Scotland in place of the Great 
Seal formerly used there, constituting, erecting, and incor- 
porating, as His Majesty, by his Prerogative royal, and 
special grace, for himself and his royal successors, hereby 
constitutes and incorporates the said petitioners, and the 
other persons who have already been admitted members 
of the said Society, and such persons as shall hereafter be 
admitted members thereof, agreeably to the rules of the 



WARRANT FOR ROYAL CHARTER. 89 

said Society, into one body corporate and politic, by the 
name of The Caledonian Horticultural Society, 
under which name they shall have perpetual succession, and 
a Common Seal ; and they, and their successors under the 
same name, shall be legally entitled, and capable to pur- 
chase and enjoy lands, tenements, and any other heritage in 
Scotland, not exceeding the yearly value of One Thousand 
Pounds Sterling, and to lend such sum or sums of money 
to any person or persons, and upon such security, as they 
shall think fit, and to hold goods and chattels, and to re- 
ceive and to hold donative for the purpose aforesaid : De- 
claring, that all charters, dispositions, and heritable se- 
curities, or other deeds affecting heritable property, to be 
granted to the said Society, shall be taken to it in its cor- 
porate name, that is, to " The Caledonian Horticul- 
tural Society ," without specifying the names either of the 
Presidents, or any of the Office-bearers or Constituent 
Members of the said Society ; and that any charters, dis- 
positions, or other deeds to be granted by the said So- 
ciety, shall be subscribed by one of the Vice-Presidents 
and the Secretary for the time being (who, along with the 
office-bearers of the said Society, shall be appointed, in 
terms of the by-laws and regulations thereof), after ha- 
ving obtained the consent of a quarterly meeting of said 
Society, such consent being entered in the minutes of 
sederunt of such meeting, and that all deeds so subscribed 
shall be equally valid and sufficient, as if the same had 
been signed by the whole constituent members of said So- 
ciety ; and, by the name and title aforesaid, to sue and 
be sued in all or any of His Majesty's Courts of Judica- 
ture, — and to have and use a common seal, and the same 
to change from time to time, as to the said Society shall 
seem expedient, and to make such by-laws, rules, and 
regulations, consistent with the laws of this realm, as may 



90 WARRANT FOR ROYAL CHARTER, 

best conduce to the foresaid purpose, and generally all 
other matters and things tending to forward the object of 
the said Society aforesaid, to do and execute, as fully and 
amply in every respect as any body corporate lawfully may 
do, and as if the said matters and things were herein par- 
ticularly set down : And for better accomplishing the ends 
foresaid, and for the better making and establishing a con- 
tinual succession of fit persons for managing the aifairs of 
the said Society, His Majesty hereby wills, ordains, and 
appoints, that, for the better rule and government of the 
said Society, and for the better direction, management, 
and execution of the business and concerns thereof, there 
shall be thenceforth for ever a President, four Vice-Pre- 
sidents, twelve Councillors, any three of whom shall be a 
quorum, for the purposes after mentioned ; a Secretary, 
and a Treasurer of the said Society ; to be elected in man- 
ner after mentioned : And we do hereby nominate and ap- 
point Alexander, Duke of Gordon, first President; 
Dr Andrew Duncan senior, James Home, John Ar- 
chibald Murray, and Sir John Hay, first Vice-Pre- 
sidents; Henry Jardine, Robert Graham, Henry 
Cockburn, The Reverend Alexander Brunton, Tho- 
mas Cranstoun, George Bell, Alexander Hen- 
derson, James Dickson, James Macdonald, John 
Shanklie, James Stuart, and Thomas Inclis, first 
Council ; Patrick Neill, first Secretary ; and Andrew 
Dickson, first Treasurer. And it is His Majesty's fur- 
ther will and pleasure, that the members of the said So- 
ciety, or any twelve or more of them, shall and may, on 
the first Thursday of December one thousand eight hun- 
dred and twenty-four, and also shall and may, on the 
first Thursday of December in every succeeding year, as- 
semble together, at the then last, or other usual place of 
meeting of the said Society, and proceed to put out and 



WARRANT FOR ROYAL CHARTER. 91 

remove any two members who shall have composed the 
Council of the preceding year, and shall, in like manner, 
elect two other persons from amongst the Ordinary Mem- 
bers of the said Society, to supply the places and offices of 
such two as may have been put out or removed ; and al- 
so, that the said Members, or any twelve or more of them, 
shall and may, at the time and manner aforesaid, elect 
from the members of the said Society, one President, four 
Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and Treasurer of the said So- 
ciety for the year ensuing ; and also shall and may, in case 
of the death of any of the members of the Council, or of 
the President, Vice-Presidents, Secretary, or Treasurer for 
the time being, within the space of two months next after 
such death or deaths, in like manner elect other persons, 
being members of the said Society, to supply the places 
and offices of such members of the said Council, or of the 
President, Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, or Secretary, so dy- 
ing ; and also, shall and may appoint such other persons 
to be officers of the said Society for the year ensuing, as 
they may think proper and necessary for the transacting 
and managing the business thereof. And His Majesty fur- 
ther wills and directs, that, from and after the date hereof, 
the members of the said Society, or any twelve or more of 
them, shall and may have power, from time to time, at four 
quarterly meetings, to be held on the first Thursday of 
March, June, September, and December, at the usual place 
of meeting, or at such other place as shall have been in 
that behalf appointed, by method of ballot, to elect such 
persons to be Ordinary, Honorary, Corresponding, or Fo- 
reign Members thereof, provided that no such Ordinary, 
Honorary, Corresponding, or Foreign Members shall be 
declared duly elected, unless two-thirds of the members 
present at the said meeting shall have voted for the same. 
And His Majesty further wills and directs, that the said 

2 



92 WARRANT FOR ROYAL CHARTER. 

Council hereby appointed, and the Council of the said So- 
ciety for the time being, or their quorum before mention- 
ed, all the members whereof having been first duly sum- 
moned to attend the meetings thereof, shall and may 
have power, according to the best of their judgment and 
discretion, to make and establish such by-laws as they 
shall deem useful and necessary for the regulation of the 
said Society, and of the estate, goods, and business there- 
of, and for fixing and determining the times and places 
of meeting of the said Society ; and also the times and 
places, and manner, of electing and appointing Ordinary, 
Honorary, Corresponding, and Foreign Members of the 
said Society, and all such subordinate officers, attendants, 
and servants, as shall be deemed necessary or useful for 
the said Society, and also, for filling up from time to time 
any vacancies which may happen, from death or otherwise, 
in any of the offices or appointments established for the 
execution of the business and concerns of the said Society ; 
aud also for regulating and ascertaining the qualifications 
of persons to be elected Ordinary, Honorary, Correspond- 
ing, or Foreign Members of the said Society respectively ; 
and also the sum or sums of money to be paid by them 
respectively, whether upon admission or otherwise, towards 
carrying on the business of the said Society, and such by- 
laws, from time to time, to alter or revoke, and make such 
new and other by-laws as they shall think more useful or 
expedient, so that the same be not repugnant to these pre- 
sents, nor to the laws of His Majesty's realm ; provided that 
no by-laws hereafter to be made, or alteration or repeal of 
any by-law which hereafter shall have been established by 
the said Council hereby appointed, or by the Council for 
the time being, of the said Society, shall be considered to 
have passed or be binding on the said Society, until such 
by-laws, or such alteration or repeal of any by-law, shall 



WARRANT FOR ROTAL CHARTER. 93 

have been read or published at the quarterly meeting pre- 
vious to the meeting at which the same shall be considered, 
and until the same shall have been confirmed at such 
meeting, twelve at least of the Ordinary Members of the 
said Society being then present ; and provided that no such 
by-laws, or alteration or repeal of any by-law, shall be 
deemed to pass in the affirmative, unless two-thirds of the 
Ordinary Members present at such meeting shall have 
voted for the same : And His Majesty doth further will 
and command, that this charter do pass the Seal appointed 
by the treaty of Union to be kept and used in Scotland, 
in place of the Great Seal thereof, without passing any 
other seal or register ; for the doing whereof, this shall 
be as well to the Director of His Majesty's Chancery for 
writing the same, as to the Lord Keeper of the Seal for 
causing the said Seal to be appended thereto, a sufficient 
Avarrant. Given at His Majesty's Court at Carlton House 
the 18th day of August 1824, in the fifth year of His Ma- 
jesty's reign. 

By His Majesty's command, 

(Signed) Rob. Peel. 



( 94 ) 

CHARTA 

SOCIETATEM INTUS MEMORATAM 

IN 

CORPUS CORPORATUM ET POLITICUM 

ERIGENS, 

1824. 



IjrEORGIUS Quartus, Dei gratia Britanniarum Rex, 
Fidei Defensor : Omnibus probis hominibus ad quos prae- 
sentes literae nostrae pervenerint, Salutem ; Quandoquidem 
Nos considerantes quod Petitio humilis Nobis oblata fue- 
rit nomine Alexandri, Ducis de Gordon, Societatis vo- 
catae in vulgari " The Caledonian Horticultural Society''' 
Praesidis ; Andrew Duncan, Medicinae Doctoris ; Jaco- 
bi Home, Medicinae Doctoris ; Joannis Archibaldi 
Murray, Armigeri, Advocati ; Domini Joannis Hay, 
Baronetti, de Haystone et Smithfield, Pro-Praesidum ; et 
Henrici Jardine, Armigeri, de Harwood ; Roberti 
Graham, Medicinae Doctoris, Regii Professoris Artis Bo- 
tanicae in Collegio Edinburgi; Henrici Cockburn, Ar- 
migeri, Advocati ; Reverendi Doctoris Alexandri Brun- 
ton, Linguae Orientalis in Collegio Edinburgi Professoris ; 
Thom^: Cranstoun, Armigeri, de Dewar ; et Georgii 
Bell, Armigeri, in Edinburgo Chirurgi^ Consiliariorum ; 
Andrew Dickson, Armigeri, Thesaurarii ; et Patricii 
Neill, Armigeri, ejusdem Societatis Secretarii, pro seip- 



ROYAL CHARTER. 95 

sis, et dictae Societatis caeteris sociis constitutis, enarrans, 
Quod, in anno Domini millesimo octingentesimo et nono, 
petitores in Societatem pro amelioratione Horticulturae in 
cunctis ejus partibus sese creavissent : Quod eorum cona- 
tus magno fuissent bono publico : Quod, summa monetae 
haud exigua qua initio cumuli pro isto utili proposito pro- 
movendo accumulata, et signo minime vulgari Nostras Re- 
giae Benignitatis jamjam recepto per concessionem loca- 
tionis terrae pro Horto Experimenti causa, in vicinitate ur- 
bis primariae Scotiae, crediderunt propositum per seipsis 
cogitatum adhuc ulterius dignum existimatum fore Nostro 
Regio Patronatu et Tutamine. Idcirco petitores Nobis 
supplicaverunt sibi concedere Literas Patentes seu Char- 
tam, sese et tales alios quales Socii postea admissi erunt 
incorporantem in unum corpus politicum et corporatum, 
eo ut eorum sors capitalis melius administrata esset et se- 
cura reddita, sub titulo Societatis in vulgari " The Cale- 
donian Horticultural Society!''' Petitores igitur supplica- 
verunt ut Nobis gratiose placuerit Chartam concedere, peti- 
tores, cum iis aliis qui Socii admittentur, incorporantem in 
corpus corporatum et politicum, per nomen et titulum su- 
pra memoratum, cum perpetua duratione et successione, 
cum potestatibus sigillo communi uti, causas agere et in 
jus train, proprietatem realem et personalem emere et frui, 
leges privatas pro ejusdem Societatis gubernatione ferre 
et sancire, cumque cunctis aliis potestatibus et privileges 
necessariis et consuetis. Nos enim certiores facti propo- 
situm petitorum laudabile esse, et cupientes istam insti- 
tutionem promovere, Igitur constituimus, ereximus, et in- 
corporavimus, sicuti Nos ex regia nostra praerogativa et 
gratia speciali, pro Nobis et regiis nostris successoribus, 
per hanc Chartam constituimus et incorporamus dictos 
petitores, et alios qui jamjam dictae Societatis socii admis- 
si fuerunt, et tales quales Socii ejusdem posthac admis- 



96 ROYAL CHARTER, 

si erunt, secundum regulas ejusdem Societatis, in Unum 
Corpus Corporatum et Politicum, per nomen in vulgari 
" The Caledonian Horticultural Society,' 1 '' sub quo nomi- 
ne perpetuam successionem, et sigillum commune habe- 
bunt ; et illi, et illorum successores sub eodem nomine ha- 
biles, et in lege capaces erunt terra, tenementa, et ulla 
alia heritagia in Scotia, annuum valorem millium libra- 
rum Sterbnensuim baud excedentia, emendi et possidendi, 
summam vel summas pecuniae ulli vel ullis mutuo dandi, 
et talem securitatem accipiendi ut sibi visum fuerit, et bo- 
na et res tenendi, et donativa pro propositis antedictis reci- 
piendi et tenendi : Declarato, Quod omnes chartae, disposi- 
tiones, et securitates haeretabiles, aliave scripta proprieta- 
tem haereditabilem afficientia, per eandem Societatem conce- 
denda, in ejus nomine corporate capta fuerint, id est, " The 
Caledonian Horticultural Society" nominibus vel proesi- 
dis, vel ullius munificum seu sociorum constitutorum ejus- 
dem Societatis baud specificatis ; et quod ullae cartas, dis- 
positiones, aliave scripta per dictam Societatem conceden- 
da per unum e Pro-Praesidibus et per Secretarium pro 
tempore existentem subscripta fuerint (qui una cum dic- 
tae Societatis munificibus secundum leges privatas et regu- 
las ejusdem nominati erunt), consensu Trimestris Conven- 
tus ejusdem Societatis primo obtento, eo consensu in actis 
consessus dicti conventus inserto, et quod cuncta scripta 
ita subscripta tarn valida et sufficientia erunt, quam si per 
totos socios constitutos dicta? Societatis subscripta fuerant ; 
et per nomen et titulum antedictum, causas agere et in jus 
trahi in omnibus vel ullis curiis nostris judicature, et si- 
gillum commune habere eodemque uti, idemque a tempo- 
re in tempus mutare, ut dictae Societati expediens visum 
fuerit, et eas leges privatas, regulas et regulationes, cum 
legibus hujus regni congruentes, quae prsedicto proposito 
maxime conducere possint, et generaliter omnia alia nego- 



ROYAL CHARTER. 97 

tia et res propositum Societatis antedictum promovere va- 
lentia, facere et exequi, aeque plenarie et ample in omni 
respectu ut ullum corpus corporatum legitime facere pos- 
sit, et ac si haec negotia et res in hac charta speciatinTenu- 
merata fuissent : Et ut haec consilia melius obtineri pos- 
sint, et ut successio perpetua eorum idoneorum pro rebus 
dictae Societatis administrandis fieri et stabiliri queat, Nos 
per hanc chartam volumus, ordinamus, et constituimus, 
Quod, pro meliore administratione et gubernatione dicta? 
Societatis, et pro meliore directione, regulatione, et execu- 
tione negotiorum et rerum ejusdem, quod isthinc pro per- 
petuo fuerint Praeses, quatuor Pro-Praesides, duodecim 
Consilarii, e quibus ulli tres numerus sufficiens vulgo " a 
quorum' 1 '' erunt, pro propositis postea memoratis, Secreta- 
rius, et Thesaurus dicta? Societatis, modo subtus memora- 
to eligendi : Et nos per hanc chartam nominamus et consti- 
tuimus Alexandrum, Ducem de Gordon, primum Prae- 
sidem, Doctorem And ream Duncan seniorem, Jacobum 
Home, Joannem Archibaldum Murray, et Dominum 
Joannem Hay, primos Pro-Praesides; Henuicum Jar- 
dine, Robertum Graham, Henricum Cockburn, Re- 
verendum Alexandrum Brunton, Thomam Cranstoun, 
Georgium Bell, Alexandrum Henderson, Jacobum 
Dickson, Jacobum Macdonald, Joannem Shanklie, 
Jacobum Stuart, et Thomam Inglis, primos Consilia- 
rios ; Patricium Neill, primum Secretarium ; et An- 
dream Dickson, primum Thesaurarium. Et alterius Nos- 
tra mens et voluntas est, ut Socii dictae Societatis, vel ex 
his ulli duodecim vel plures, primo die Jovis mensis De- 
cembris anni ab incarnatione Christi millesimi octingen- 
tesimi et ^gesimi quarti, etiamque primo die Jovis men- 
sis Decembris uniuscuj usque anni succedentis convene- 
rint et convenire possint, loco congressus dictae Societa- 
tis tunc ultimo seu alio consueto, et inceperint ullos 

VOL. IV. G 



98 ROYAL CHARTER. 

duos socios pro consilium anni praecedentis, confecerint, 
ejicere et removere ; et eodem modo, duos alios e so- 
ciis ordinariis dictae Societatis, elegerint, locos et officia eo- 
rum duorum qui ejecti et remoti fuerint succenturiare ; 
quoque ut dicti socii vel ulli ex iis duodecim vel plures, 
unum Praesidem, quatuor Pro-Praesides, Secretarium, et 
Thesaurarium, dicta? Societatis pro anno sequente, tempore 
et modo antedicto, eligerint et eligere possint ; et etiam in 
eventu mortis ullius e sociis Concilii, seu Praesidis, Pro- 
Praesidum, Secretarii, aut Thesaurarii pro tempore existen., 
intra spatium duorum mensium immediate post has mor- 
tem seu mortes, eodem modo alios socios dictaa Societatis 
existentes elegerint et eligere possint locos et officia isto- 
rum sociorum dicti Concilii, vel Presidis, Pro-Prassidum, 
Thesaurarii, vel Secretarii, ita morientium succenturiare; et 
etiam tales alios munifices dictae Societatis esse pro anno 
sequente quales proprios et necessarios putabunt pro ge- 
rendo et administrando negotio ejusdem, constituerint et 
constituere possint. Et Nos ulterius volumus et dirigi- 
mus, Quod, ab et post datam hujus chartae, sociis dictae So- 
cietatis, aut ullis ex his duodecim vel pluribus, fas sit et 
erit a tempore in tempus, apud quatuor tremestres conven- 
tus primo die Jovis mensium Martii, Junii, Septembris, et 
Decembris, tenendos loco congressus consueto, vel tali 
alio loco qualis pro eo proposito constitutus fuerit, modo 
sphaerulae suffragatoriae, eligere tales esse Ordinarios, Ho- 
norarios, Correspondentes, seu Peregrinos Socios ejusdem, 
proviso quod nulli tales Ordinarii, Honorarii, Correspon- 
dentes, seu Perigrini Socii debite electos esse declarati fue- 
rint, nisi duo tertii Sociorum praesentium in eo conventu 
pro his suffragia dederint. Et Nos ulterius volumus et 
dirigimus, Quod Concilio per praesentes constitute, et 
Concilio dictae Societatis pro tempore existendi, vel eorum 
numero sufficient! antea memorato, omnibus ejusdem so- 



KOYAL CHAIITER. 99 

ciis primo summonitis conventibus ejusdem astare, fas sit 
et erit, secundum eorum veram sententiam et prudentiam, 
tales leges privatas facere et stabilire quales idoneas puta- 
bunt et necessarias pro moderatione dictae Societatis, et 
status bonorum et negotii ejusdem, et pro constituendo et 
ordinando tempora locosque congressus dicta? Societatis ; 
quoque tempora, et locos, et methodum eligendi et ordi- 
nandi ejusdem Societatis Socios Ordinaries, Honorarios, 
Correspondentes, et Peregrinos, et cunctos tales officia- 
rios inferiores, asseclas, et servos quales necessarios, seu uti- 
les existimabuntur pro dicta Societate, etiamque pro suppe- 
ditando a tempore in tempus eas vacantias quae per mor- 
tem seu aliter, in ullis officiis vel institutis pro executione 
negotiorum et rerum dictae Societatis ordinatis contigerint ; 
et etiam pro regulando et expiscando facultates eorum 
qui electuri sunt Socii Ordinarii, Honorarii, Correspon- 
dentes ; seu Peregini, dictae Societatis respective ; etiamque 
summam et summas pecuniae per eos respective solvendas, 
vel apud admissionem vel aliter, commodi causa negotii 
hujus Societatis, et eas leges privatas, a tempore in tempus, 
mutare et abrogare, et tales novas et alias leges privatas 
facere quales magis utiles seu commodas putabunt, eo ut 
eaedem buic chartae, seu legibus nostri regni haud incon- 
gruentes sint ; Proviso quod nullae leges privatae posthac 
laturae, vel alteratio vel abrogatio ullius legis privatae 
quae posthac stabilita fuerit, per dictum Concilium per 
hanc cliartam constitutum, vel per Concilium pro tem- 
pore existens dictae Societatis, habitae fuerint quasi latae vel 
obligatoriae in dictam Societatem donee ista lex privata, 
vel ista alteratio seu abrogatio ullius legis privatae, perlec- 
ta seu promulgata fuerit, apud conventum trimestrem prae- 
cedentem, conventum in quo eodem animo cogitata erit, et 
donee eadem confirmata fuerit, tali conventu duodecim ad 
minimum Sociorum Ordinariorum dictae Societatis tunc 

g 2 



100 ROYAL CHARTER. 

astantibus ; et proviso quod nulla talis lex privata, seu al- 
teratio vel abrogatio ullius legis privatse, habita fuerit quasi 
lata affirmative, nisi duo tertii Sociorum Ordinariorum as- 
tantium dicto conventui pro eadem suffragia dederint. In 
cujus rei testimonium, Sigillum Nostrum perUnionis trac- 
tatum custodiens, et in Scotia vice et loco Magni Sigilli 
ejusdem utend. praesentibus appendi mandavimus. Apud 
Aulam Nostram apud Carlton House, decimo octavo die 
mensis Augusti anno Domini millesimo octogentesimo et 
vigesimo quarto, regnique Nostri anno quinto. 

Per signaturam manu S. D. N. Regis supra scriptam. 

Written to the Seal and registered the 14th day 
of October 1824, 

Thomas Miller, Sub. 

Sealed at Edinburgh the 14th 
day of October 1824, 

James S. Robertson, Dep. 
^80 Scots. 



< ioi ) 



DOCUMENTS 



REGARDING 



THE EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 



I. CIRCULAR to the Members. 

Sir, Edinburgh, Nov. 15. 1824. 

I take the liberty, at the desire of the Council and 
Garden-Committee of The Caledonian Horticultural 
Society, to transmit to you the following Statement re- 
garding the Experimental Garden, now in progress. I 
am instructed to ask your support, and that of your 
friends ; and, at the same time, have to request that you 
will be so good as intimate soon whether it is your plea- 
sure to become a Shareholder or an Annual Subscriber. 

I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

John Linning. 



The Caledonian Horticultural Society, from slen- 
der beginnings, has gradually risen in importance, — has 
greatly extended its connections, — and as, during several 



102 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

years, its usefulness has been rising into notice, it has ob- 
tained more and more of public approbation, and the num- 
ber of its members has greatly increased. Its efforts have 
been especially directed to the improvement of Horticul- 
ture, by rewarding superior excellence in practical gar- 
deners ; by exciting emulation among them ; by introdu- 
cing, through them, new vegetables j or by increasing the 
cultivation of such as appeared in the market only in small 
quantity, or had fallen into unmerited neglect. It has al- 
so, by means of its Memoirs, recorded and diffused import- 
ant knowledge, which would otherwise have been lost. 
The Society has, moreover, since the political state of Eu- 
rope would admit of it, sent a deputation of its members 
to the Continent to collect information, and to establish a 
correspondence with such Institutions and eminent private 
cultivators abroad, as were likely to add to its usefulness 
at home. It was at first incorporated under the Seal of 
the City of Edinburgh ; and a Royal Charter has since 
been procured. 

A favourite object of the Society, however, has till now 
been beyond its reach, the establishment of a Garden in 
which to deposit its acquisitions in fruit-trees, &c. — to in- 
crease them, to determine their value, and from which to 
distribute them to the public, without any chance of mis- 
take. 

The Society is proud to acknowledge the countenance 
of Government, who have at its request purchased a piece 
of ground, suited to the purpose, and have granted it to 
them on a long and renewable lease. It lies immediately 
to the southward of the New Royal Botanic Garden, so that 
these two establishments will go hand in hand in promoting 
a taste for Horticulture, and diffusing a knowledge of it in 
all its departments. They will form a distinguished orna- 



CIRCULAR LETTER. 103 

ment to the City of Edinburgh, and, as National Esta- 
blishments, they will doubtless merit national support. 

The funds of the Society, though competent to defray 
the yearly rent of the ground, are not sufficient for the 
formation of the Garden, nor for its maintenance when 
formed. It has therefore been resolved (at the General 
Meeting held 10th March 1824) to raise additional funds 
by the following means : 

1. By Subscriptions for shares of Twenty Guineas each. 

2. By charging every Ordinary Member, not being a 
Shareholder, with One Guinea yearly towards the funds of 
the Garden. 

3. By charging an Admission-fee of Two Guineas. 

4. By voluntary subscriptions. 

A large extra expenditure must almost immediately take 
place. The ground towards the southern boundary must 
be levelled ; — the Garden must be enclosed with walls, or 
other fences ; — water must be introduced from the pond 
in the Botanic Garden, or procured otherwise ; — a small 
Hot-house, Greenhouse, and several Pit-frames will be 
found indispensable ; — a Dwelling-house for the superin- 
tendant, or Head-gardener, must be built, together with 
an apartment for the use of the Council and Commit- 
tee ; and accommodation must be found for several work- 
men. A permanent fund must also be provided for pay- 
ing a suitable salary to an able superintendant, — for the 
wages of workmen, and for defraying many incidental ex- 
pences which must continually occur. 

The Garden will be the deposit of every new variety of 
Fruit, — of every new Vegetable which can be procured, 
and is likely to be of value in the horticulture or agricul- 



104 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

ture of the country, — and of rare plants calculated to be- 
come naturalised in Scotland. These acquisitions will be 
carefully distinguished, so as to prevent the possibility of 
confusion ; and as soon as a due stock is obtained, they 
will be distributed, under such regulations as may after- 
wards be passed by the Society. 

As the late Governor-General of Bengal the Marquis of 
Hastings, and a number of gentlemen residing in India, 
have subscribed Twenty Pounds each for shares of the 
Garden, and have, through Dr Wallich of Calcutta, re- 
mitted this money to Dr Yule of Edinburgh, (forming a 
fund now yielding interest in the Royal Bank), it has been 
agreed that these gentlemen shall be considered Sharehold- 
ers ; that, upon their becoming resident, they shall be en- 
titled to all the privileges, and subject to all the regula- 
tions, which affect Shareholders ; and that, while they con- 
tinue to reside abroad, they shall have the privilege of ap- 
pointing, by letter under their hand, any friend to enjoy 
the use of the garden. 



List of Subscribers in India. 

The Most Noble the Marquis of Hastings. 

The Marchioness of Hastings. 

Heirs of J. Adam, Esq. 

J. Calder, Esq. 

W. Chalmers, Esq. surgeon. 

D. Clark, Esq. 

Sir R. Colquhoun. 

A. Cohan, Esq. 

R. Cruttenden, Esq. 

L. H. Davidson, Esq. 



LIST OF SHAREHOLDERS. 105 

Lieutenant-Colonel A. Duncan. 

Captain A. Fortune. 

J. J. Gibson, Esq. surgeon. 

G. Govan, Esq, 

Captain C. Graham. 

George Grant, Esq. 

Colonel Hardwicke, Two Shares. 

Major P. Hay. 

J. Mackillop, Esq. 

B. Macleod, M. D. Two Shares. - 

Captain D. Macleod. 

Major R. Macpherson. 

J. Macwhirter, Esq. 

P. Maitland, Esq. Two Shares. 

E. Majoribanks, Esq. 

J. Melville, Esq. 

S. Nicolson, Esq. 

John Palmer, Esq. 

A. Robertson, Esq. 

R. P. Robertson, Esq. 

D. Scott, Esq. 

J. Smith, Esq. surgeon. 

W. H. Smoult, Esq. 

P. Steuart, Esq. 

Robert Stewart, Esq. 

J. Williamson, Esq. 

A. Wilson, Esq. 

James Young, Esq. 

List of Subscribers for Shares, at Twenty Guineas each. 

His Grace the Duke of Gordon. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Hopetoun, Two Shares. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Wemyss, Two Shares. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Lauderdale. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Dalhousie. 



106 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Dunmore. 

The Right Hon. Lord Melville. 

The Right Hon. Lord Gray. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Justice-Clerk. 

The Hon. Lord Pitmilly. 

Sir Archibald Campbell, Bart, of Succoth. 

Sir Thomas Carmichael, Bart, of Castlecraig. 

Sir George Clerk, of Penicuick, Bart. M. P. Two Shares. 

Sir Robert Dundas, Bart, of Beechwood. 

Sir William Fettes, Bart. 

Sir William Forbes, Bart, of Pitsligo. 

Lieut.-General the Hon. Sir Alexander Hope, G. C. B. Luff- 

ness. 
Sir John Hay, Bart, of Hayston. 
Sir John Hope, Bart, of Pinkie, Two Shares. 
Sir Henry Jardine of Harwood. 
Sir Alexander Keith of Ravelstone. 
Sir George S. Mackenzie, Bart, of Coul. 
Thomas Allan, Esq. of Lauriston Castle. 
David Anderson, Esq. 
John Balfour, Esq. Hailes. 
Heirs of Dr John Barclay, Edinburgh. 
William Bell, Esq. W. S. 
R. B. Blyth, Esq. Edinburgh. 
Andrew Bonar, Esq. of Kimmerghame. 
John Bonar, Esq. Warriston. 
William Bonar, Esq. banker. 
Rev. Dr Alexander Brunton. 
Dr James Buchan, Edinburgh. 
Robert Cadell, Esq. 
John Campbell, Esq. of Carbrook. 
Miss H. Carnegy. 
John Clapperton, Esq. Edinburgh. 
William Clark, Esq. Edinburgh. 
Duncan Cowan, Esq. Canongate. 



LIST OF SHAREHOLDERS. 107 

Rev. Edward Craig, A. M. 

James Gibson Craig, Esq. of Riccarton. 

General Leslie Cumming. 

W. Denniston, Esq. of Oakmount. 

Walter Dickson, Esq. of Redbraes. 

Andrew Dickson, Esq. of Alton. 

James Dickson, Esq. 

Mrs William Dundas. 

Robert Downie, Esq. of Appin, M. P. 

Patrick Dudgeon, Esq. of Eastcraig. 

Professor George Dunbar, Rosepark. 

Dr Andrew Duncan senior. 

Dr Andrew Duncan junior. 

Major John Duncan, Bengal Service. 

George Dunlop, Esq. W. S. 

Daniel Ellis, Esq. Inverleitb Row. 

Adam Fairholme, Esq. of Chapel. 

Dr Robert Graham, Professor of Botany, Edinburgh. 

Dr Robert Kaye Greville. 

Major Lee Harvey of Castlesemple. 

John Harvey, Esq. W. S. 

Charles Crossland Hay, Esq. 

Alexander Henderson, Esq. of Press. 

Alexander Henderson, Esq. of Eildon. 

Dr Thomas Charles Hope. 

James Howison, Esq. of Crossburn. 

James Hunter, Esq. of Thurston. 

John Inglis, Esq. of Redhall. 

Gilbert Innes, Esq. of Stow. 

James Jardine, Esq. Civil Engineer. 

James Johnston, Esq. of Alva. 

John Ker, Esq. of Kerfield. 

John Lauder, Esq. 

Charles Lawson, Esq. 

John Linning, Esq. Claremont Street. 



108 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

Edward Lothian, Esq. Edinburgh. 
Mr James Macdonald, Dalkeith Park. 
Aitken Megget, Esq. 
Robert Menzies, Esq. of Trinity House. 
Graeme Mercer, Esq. of Mavisbank. 
Robert Scott Moncrieffe, Esq. 
John Shank More, Esq. advocate. 
John Archibald Murray, Esq. 
James Nairne, Esq. of Claremont, Two Shares. 
Mr Patrick Neill, Canonmills. 
Charles Oliphant, Esq. W. S. 

Francis Rigby Brodbelt St Penoyer, Esq. of the Moor, Here- 
fordshire. 
John Richardson, Esq. 
Rev. Dr David Ritchie. 
William Robertson, Esq. 
George Robertson Scott, Esq. 
Claud Russell, Esq. Accountant. 
James Scott, Esq. Edinburgh. 
William Scott, Esq. 
John Smith, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
Robert Stevenson, Esq. Edinburgh. 
James Stuart, Esq. of Dunearn. 
John SAvinton, Esq. 

David Thomson, Esq. W. S. Edinburgh. 
William Trotter, Esq. of Ballendean. 
James Tytler, Esq. of Woodhouselee. 
Miss M. Viner, Inverleith Row. 
Andrew Waddell, Esq. Hermitage Hill, Leith. 
David Wardlaw, Esq. 
The Rev. Henry Wastell, of Newbrough. 
John Wauchope, Esq. of Edmondstone, Two Shares. 
Peter Wood, Esq. Leith. 
Thomas Guthrie Wright, Esq. 
James Wyld, Esq. Leith. 



FIRST REPORT, 1825. 109 

John Young, Esq. 

Dr John Yule, York Place. 

By a regulation passed 1st December 1825, the price of a Transfer- 
able Share to any person not a Member of the Society is fixed at 
Twenty -five pounds. 



II. FIRST REPORT of the Garden Com- 
mittee, 5th March 1825. 

Although the Caledonian Horticultural Society 
has been in existence for a period of fifteen years, it has 
not, till recently, become possessed of funds sufficient to 
encourage the formation of an Experimental Garden. Its 
efforts, therefore, have been chiefly employed in suggest- 
ing subjects of experimental research to practical gardeners, 
and in encouraging improved modes of culture, by a suit- 
able distribution of premiums for excellence in the various 
departments of Horticulture. These efforts have been emi- 
nently successful ; for, while they have largely contributed 
to spread abroad a general taste for horticultural pursuits, 
they have excited among practical men an active spirit of 
emulation and inquiry, and given increased facilities to the 
communication of intelligence, which cannot fail to be follow- 
ed by the happiest results. Scotland has always been pre- 
eminently distinguished for the knowledge and skill pos- 
sessed by her practical gardeners ; but it is only by provid- 
ing means for collecting to a focus the scattered rays of intel- 
ligence diffused among this class of her people, and blend- 
ing them with the science and accumulating experience of 

2 



110 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

the times we live in, that she can expect or hope to preserve 
this honourable distinction. 

The encouragement thus given to private exertion has 
not been confined to the improvement of our Fruits and 
Esculent Vegetables. Numerous prizes have been award- 
ed for the introduction of rare and beautiful Flowers, — 
for the adaptation to our climate of curious and delicate 
species, — for new and improved methods of cultivation, — 
and for models of various descriptions of implements con- 
nected with Horticulture. As the Society, in conducting 
experiments more immediately connected with vegetation, 
hopes to be able to lend its aid occasionally to the patriotic 
exertions of other bodies, particularly of the Highland So- 
ciety, among whose members it already reckons many of 
its warmest supporters. 

The practical benefits which have already resulted from 
the Society's labours are undeniable. It is well known, 
that the vegetables now brought to the Edinburgh market 
are not only in greater abundance, but of superior quality 
to those formerly exhibited : and the same may be observed 
of the common as well as of the finer fruits. The convic- 
tion thus afforded of the success of the Society's endea- 
vours has so far improved its means, as to encourage it to 
carry into effect the plan which it has long contemplated, 
of establishing an Experimental Garden, for the improve- 
ment of Horticulture in all its branches. 

The funds, however, in the hands of the Treasurer, will 
not suffice to organise the establishment in the manner 
most to be desired. The views, therefore, of the Society, 
as contained in the present report, are, in some instances, 
to be considered rather as prospective, than as about to be 
immediately realized, unless its resources be considerably 
augmented. It is, consequently, a matter of the highest 



FIRST REPORT, 1825. Ill 

importance to the Society, that all who are anxious for the 
prosperity of the Experimental Garden, or desire to be 
connected with it, should come forward at this period. It 
might then be placed at once upon a basis that would en- 
sure the most beneficial results to the art which it is des- 
tined to foster and improve. 

In July 1824, a piece of ground was purchased for the 
Crown by the Honourable the Barons of Exchequer, and 
granted by them to the Society, for an Experimental Gar- 
den, upon a long and renewable lease. 

This ground, containing eight Scotch or ten English 
acres, is situate on the north side of Edinburgh, and forms 
a part of the lands of Inverleith. It lies immediately to 
the southward of the Royal Botanic Garden, from which 
it is separated by the wall lately erected by the Society. 
It has an open aspect to the south and south-west ; is well 
sheltered to the north and north-west, by the Botanic Gar- 
den, and the woods of Inverleith ; and to the east and 
north-east, by the plantations around Warriston House. 
The soil on the east and south is in part a light loam, of 
excellent quality, resting on sand ; the remainder, and 
greater portion to the west and north, is deep, rich, and 
strong. Water for all purposes is derived in great abun- 
dance from the same source as that which supplies the Bo- 
tanic Garden. 

The operations for forming the Garden commenced in Au- 
gust 1824, by levelling the ground to a great extent on the 
south, in compliance with a stipulation in the lease. This 
measure, though attended with much labour and expence, 
will ultimately be of considerable benefit to the Garden, 
by forming a fine sloping bank along the extent of its south- 
ern boundary ; and from the judicious manner in which it 
has been executed, the whole of the vast quantity of soil 



112 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

and subsoil, which it was found necessary to remove, has 
been disposed of within the walls, and distributed so as 
greatly to improve the soil in some parts, and in others ad- 
vantageously to vary the surface line. In the course of these 
preliminary proceedings, a bed of excellent gravel was laid 
open, from which a quantity has been obtained sufficient to 
cover the greater part of the walks. These important ope- 
rations of levelling requiring uncommon accuracy and at- 
tention, have been executed much to the satisfaction of the 
Committee, under the direction of Mr Robert Niven, who 
had previously been employed under Mr Macnab, in works 
of a similar nature, during the formation of the Botanic 
Garden. 

The Committee agreed, after the various objects which 
the Society had in view had been fully discussed, that two 
of their own number should prepare a Plan for laying out the 
ground. This task chiefly devolved on Mr Macnab, and 
has been performed in a manner highly to the satisfaction 
of the Committee. The plan subsequently received the 
sanction of the Council. It has been engraved, and is ap- 
pended to this report ; and we have no doubt that it will 
obtain the general approbation of the Society. It has been 
drawn up with the most careful reference to the general 
features of the ground in regard to its aspects, and to the 
varying conditions and qualities of the soil : Those com- 
partments allotted to standard fruit-trees have been placed 
on the western side, where the soil is deepest, and best cal- 
culated to receive them ; and exterior to these, the Arbo- 
retum has been disposed in such a manner as to unite the 
purposes of shelter, ornament, and utility. 

In forming the various Walks, attention has been paid 
to combine beauty of design with the readiest communica- 
tion throughout all parts of the ground. The principal 
walk, which encircles the whole garden, may be particu- 



FIRST REPORT, 1825. 113 

larized here, as constituting, on one side, a splendid terrace- 
walk, of near 700 feet in length, commanding one of the 
finest views of Edinburgh on the south, and of the Bota- 
nic Garden on the north, bordered on each side by an ex- 
tensive collection of roses and evergreens. 

The principal entrance to the garden will be on the 
south side ; but from the state of the adjoining ground, it 
will not be in the Society's power to complete it for some 
time. A second entrance, which is already open, is ap- 
proached from Trinity road, and is on the east side. Im- 
mediately within this entrance will be placed the Garden- 
er's house and the Committee-room ; with an ornamental 
Flower Garden on the left. It is intended that the suite of 
Hot-houses, &c. shall be placed a little farther to the west, 
in the same line, and looking to the south ; and behind 
them the Framing department. Opposite to, and in front 
of, the Hot-houses, will be a garden dedicated to Florists' 
Flowers ; separated by a skreen of shrubs and evergreens 
from the Culinarium or Kitchen Garden, which forms a 
large square nearly in the centre of the ground. 

Following the central walk beyond the Hot-houses, we 
find, on the left hand, an inclosed compartment for experi- 
ments, and, on the right hand, a collection of stocks and 
seedling trees. We then enter immediately the large com- 
partments allotted for standard Fruit-trees, which are inter- 
sected from north to south by a raised belt, of a semicircu- 
lar form, to receive the inferior and more hardy species. 
These compartments, with a part of the Arboretum lying 
beyond them, occupy the whole western division of the 
Garden. 

Returning to the entrance, and proceeding along the 
north, or right-hand walk, we find the north-eastern angle 
appropriated to an enclosed space for select experiments ; 
and at a small distance in advance, on the opposite side, 

VOL. IV. H 



114 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

the department for American Shrubs, Aquatic and Rock 
plants. The fine Wall to the right of this walk separates 
the Horticultural from the Botanic Garden : it is 14 feet 
high, with a south aspect, and is variously constructed of 
stone and brick, with an express view to experiments. 

Recurring again to the entrance, and following the south 
or left hand walk, we observe, behind a small screen, a 
Slip running along the eastern wall, having a western as- 
pect, and destined as a nursery-wall for fruit-trees, with 
borders for raising seedling and herbaceous plants. On 
the opposite side of the walk are three compartments, for 
Annuals, Seedling Trees and Shrubs, and Graminece ; 
these are separated by a walk from a large triangular space 
dedicated to an ample collection of the most ornamental or 
otherwise interesting Perennial Plants. 

The fine sloping bank on the southern entrance to the 
garden has been exclusively appropriated to the cultiva- 
tion of Strawberries, and the smaller fruits. 

Although the objects that will chiefly claim attention in 
the Horticultural Garden are pretty well known, it may 
not be out of place shortly to enumerate them. It is pro- 
posed to cultivate the different varieties of fruits and es- 
culent vegetables, paying strict attention to the qualities 
and habits of each, and instituting comparative experiments 
on the modes of treatment and of culture to which they 
are usually subjected ; so as to obtain a knowledge of those 
which appear to be the best varieties, and, as far as may 
be, of the most appropriate methods of culture. Of the 
vegetable productions which belong not to the classes of 
fruits and esculents, a selection will be made according to 
their relative degrees of utility or beauty ; so as to exhibit 
specimens of the finer varieties, and of the modes of culture 
best adapted to the plants which adorn the shrubbery and 



FIRST REPORT, 1825. 115 

flower-garden. In every department also, new plants, and 
new and improved varieties of those already known, will 
be eagerly sought for ; and the Society flatters itself, that, 
by the extensive correspondence it has established with 
eminent Horticulturists both at home and abroad, it will 
be able to give early information of what is doing else- 
where, and submit to actual investigation the merits of any 
plants, or any new modes of culture, that may seem likely 
to advance this interesting department of knowledge. 

Buds, grafts, and seeds of the vegetables cultivated in 
the Garden, will be freely distributed to Proprietors and 
Subscribers, according to regulations hereafter to be made. 
But care will, at all times, be taken to avoid interference 
with what may be regarded as the proper business of the 
Public Nurseries : with the enlightened proprietors of these 
the most friendly intercourse will be kept up, which, it is 
not doubted, will prove equally beneficial to both. 

The whole Garden, except two small portions set apart 
for curious and select experiments, will be open to Pro- 
prietors, Subscribers and their friends, under regulations 
to be made by the Council and Garden Committee ; and 
will, it is believed, form a most attractive source of instruc- 
tion and recreation. Every plant will have its name at- 
tached to it ; and the time of flowering and ripening its 
seed, together with its various properties and qualities, will 
be carefully recorded. 

Such being the objects at which the Society aims in the 
establishment of this Garden, the Committee venture to 
recommend it to the enlightened liberality of their coun- 
trymen, as highly deserving encouragement and support. 
They beg to state, that a large outlay of money has already 
been made in enclosing and forming the ground ; and that 
to build the hot-houses and other offices essential to the es- 

h 2 



116 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

tablishment, a yet larger sum will be required. In all 
their operations, the Committee, acting under the advice 
and sanction of the Council, have proceeded with the ut- 
most regard to economy ; but it has also been their wish 
to execute what has been undertaken in the best and most 
satisfactory manner. In a few weeks, they trust, the en- 
closing walls will be completed, the principal walks formed, 
and the several compartments allotted for the different uses 
specified in the plan, distinctly marked out. They, there- 
fore, respectfully invite those who take an interest in the 
establishment, to visit the scene of their operations, and 
judge for themselves of the progress already made, and of 
what yet remains to be accomplished. In circumstances 
the most favourable, and with the most abundant resources, 
the formation of a garden is not the work of a day. Its 
productions, however much fostered by art, must owe their 
perfection to the silent, and not unfrequently the slow, ope- 
rations of nature. But these operations may often be great- 
ly accelerated by a judicious employment of the means 
which pecuniary resources supply; and, indeed, without 
such aid, many important objects, which the Society 
anxiously contemplates, cannot be accomplished. In be- 
half, therefore, of an establishment, destined to improve an 
art held always in the highest estimation in this part of the 
kingdom,— an establishment which will furnish a recreation 
at once so healthful and instructive, and contribute large- 
ly, it is hoped, to increase the amount of our domestic com- 
forts ; the Committee earnestly solicit the public patronage 
and support, and feel assured, that such solicitation will 
not be made in vain. 

Terms of Subscription. 
To this Report the Committee append the terms of Sub- 
scription, as they relate either to the Society and Garden 



FIRST REPORT, 1825. 117 

jointly, or to the Garden alone, with a statement of the 
privileges attaching to each class of Subscribers. By these 
terms it is proposed to raise the necessary funds in the 
following manner : 

1. By Subscriptions for Shares of Twenty Guineas each : 
every Share to become the absolute property of the holder, 
and be transferable in the same manner as any other per- 
sonal property, provided there be no good objection to the 
person in whose favour the transfer is proposed to be made, 
— and 'upon payment of Two Guineas by the person to 
whom the transfer is made, excepting legal representatives, 
who shall only be obliged to make up such legal title to 
the share as the Council shall approve of. — Shareholders 
to have personal access to the garden, and also their friends 
accompanying them, at all times when the garden is open ; 
likewise the privilege of giving Written Orders to Visitors, 
under such regulations as the Council may from time to 
time direct. 

2. By charging every Ordinary Member, not being a 
Shareholder, with One Guinea yearly towards the funds 
of the Garden : this contribution being, of course, volun- 
tary with former members, but compulsory upon all those 
admitted after the General Meeting in June 1824. — It 
will confer all the privileges belonging to a Shareholder, 
except the power of admitting visitors by written orders. 

3. By charging an admission-fee of Two Guineas upon 
every gentleman elected an Ordinary Member of the Hor- 
ticultural Society subsequently to June 1824. 

4. By soliciting Noblemen and Gentlemen who reside 
at a distance, and may be expected to patronise the under- 
taking, to become Shareholders on the terms proposed 
above ; or, at their option, to subscribe such other sum as 
they may incline towards its support : it being understood 
that such Subscribers shall have the privilege of personal 



118 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

access to the Garden when they happen to visit Edin- 
burgh, and a claim to a portion of such grafts, plants, or 
seeds, as may, from time to time, be distributed, in propor- 
tion to the amount of their subscriptions. 

It is requested that communications be addressed to Mr 
A. Dickson, Treasurer of the Society, Waterloo Place ; 
Mr Neill, Secretary, Canonmills ; or Mr J. Linning, 
Garden-Treasurer, Claremont Street. 



ILLUSTRATION OF THE ENGRAVED PLAN. 

AAAAAA, Orchards for Standard Apple, Pear, Plum, and 
Cherry Trees. — They occupy a space containing nearly 2 
Scottish,, or 2^ English acres, and are calculated to contain 
about 550 fruit-trees, at 12 feet apart every way. As the 
apple-trees, however, will mostly be trained en buisson, and 
many of the pear-trees en quenouille, 8 or 10 feet apart will 
generally be found sufficient : so that the number of trees 
may be greatly increased. It is here intended to form a col- 
lection of all the best varieties of hardy fruits, to be pro- 
cured in this country, and from the Continents of Europe 
and America : which will be brought with the utmost dili- 
gence into a bearing state, in order that the kinds may be 
proved, and the nomenclature fixed. We shall thus ascer- 
tain with precision those kinds best suited to the climate of 
Scotland ; grafts or buds of which will be subsequently dis- 
tributed to the Members. 

B, Central enclosed Experimental Garden. — A portion of ground 
enclosed by a holly hedge, with a door to be kept under lock 
and key for select experiments. 

CCCC, The Culinarium or Kitchen Garden, containing nearly an 
acre of ground. — Besides paying every attention to the more 



Hort.Ment . Vol. lVjt. 118 



p.-mr or THE H O F A 1, JB O T A JV I C G ^l It J 



pA 







ILLUSTiiATION OF THE PLAN. 119 

ordinary kinds worthy of cultivation, all the new or little 
known varieties of culinary vegetables will be fairly tried, 
in beds of considerable extent ; and the relative advantages 
of various modes of culture determined. A copious supply 
of water is conveyed to a cistern in the centre of this com- 
partment. 

DD, Compartments for an ample assortment of Stocks of diffe- 
rent kinds for grafting or budding : such as Paradise and 
Doucin Stocks for Apples ; Quince Stocks for Pears ; Plum 
and Almond Stocks for Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, and 
Plums ; and Guin and Mahaleb Stocks for Cherries. 

EEE, Nurseries for rearing Seedlings, Offsets, Cuttings, and 
Layers of the rarer trees and shrubs. 

FF, Principal Wall, with a south aspect, for the finer kinds of 
fruit trees : as Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, Cherries, Al- 
monds, the best French and Flemish Pears, Figs, Quinces, 
and hardy Grape- Vines, with an exemplification of the dif- 
ferent modes of training. This wall is in general 14 feet 
high : 402 feet are built of coursed freestone, 75 of coursed 
whinstone, and 210 are faced with brick. Three kinds of 
coping have also been adopted for different portions of the 
wall. The border in the front is 18 feet broad, and is 
formed in the most efficient manner, with a compost which 
has been long in preparation. Part of it has been laid with 
a bottom impenetrable to the roots of trees. On this bor- 
der, also, it is intended to raise the choicest annual esculent 
vegetables ; and in this warm situation, some of the rarer 
varieties may be expected to ripen their seed, and ultimate- 
ly become more hardy. 

GG, Walled Experimental Garden. — An enclosed space in the 
north-east angle of the ground, enjoying the advantage of 
walls, with south and west aspects, to which new or rare 
fruit-trees and delicate shrubs may be trained. Part of 
this enclosure is to be devoted to the naturalization of ten- 
der exotics. This, and the compartment B, will be kept 
locked, and under the immediate charge of the Society's 



120 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

Gardener, in whose presence they may be visited by the 
Members. 

HH, The East Slip : — having a wall 8 feet in height, with a 
west aspect, for new varieties of dwarf fruit-trees, and a 
nursery border for raising new plants from seed. 

I, Eastern Division of South Slip : — a fine border sloping to 
the south, well adapted for the cultivation of Strawberries ; 
and where the different species and varieties, at present in 
great confusion in Scotland, may be correctly ascertained 
and distinguished. 

K, Western Division of South Slip : — intended for a collec- 
tion of the small fruits, such as Gooseberries, Currants, 
and Raspberries. Those varieties which require a deeper 
and richer soil, and a more sheltered situation, will be com- 
modiously placed between the rows of trees in the lower di- 
vision of the Orchards. 

L, The site for the erection of a Hot-house for tropical fruits, 
and a few ornamental plants ; a Greenhouse, chiefly for the 
Citrus tribe, Chinese plants, &c. and Forcing Houses for 
late Peaches, Nectarines, Grape-vines, &c The plan of 
these houses is not yet prepared, and must be modified for 
the present in proportion to the extent of the Funds. The 
space allotted to them is 200 feet in length, by 25 in breadth, 
including back-sheds. In the front will be a border 12 feet 
in width. The aspect is a little to the eastward of south, 
so that the houses will face the sun about a quarter before 
11 o'clock. 

MM, The Framing Department, — 150 feet in length, by 100 
in width, for Ananas and Melon Pits, Cucumber and Gourd 
frames, with room also for different Earths, Composts, and 
Manures. 

N, Enclosure, sheltered by an evergreen hedge, for Greenhouse 
Shrubs, and other plants kept out of doors during the sum- 
mer months. 

OOOOOO, General Arboretum; for large trees and tall 
shrubs which produce dry capsules, and fruits little used 
as food ; so disposed around the Garden as at once to afford 



ILLUSTRATION OF THE PLAN. 121 

shelter, produce ornament, and serve the purpose of a scien- 
tific collection. 

PPP, Raised Belts. — The larger ones dividing the orchards are 
intended for middle-sized trees and shrubs producing small 
fruits, such as Guins, Mulberries, Medlars, Azeroles, Moun- 
tain-Ash, Crabs, Barberries, &c. The smaller belt, next 
to the stock department, is appropriated to a collection of 
Chesnuts, Walnuts, Filberts, Hazel and Cob nuts. These 
raised belts, formed at a trifling expence during the levell- 
ing of the ground, constitute a part of the Arboretum, and 
will eventually afford much shelter. 

Q, Compartments for a collection of the most ornamental sorts 
of Perennial Herbaceous Plants. 

R, Another compartment, destined for the cultivation of the 
most desirable Annuals, and for naturalizing the more ten- 
der exotic species. 

S,- A portion of ground set apart for receiving plants used in 
Agriculture ; as Grasses, Clovers, &c. ; where experiments 
may be tried at the suggestion of those interested in pro- 
moting the agriculture of the country. 

TT, American-Shrub Department, with prepared borders. Here 
also will be the Pond for aquatics, surrounded by a mass of 
Rock-work for alpine plants, &c. 

U, A space for plants with striped and variegated leaves. 

VV, Ornamental Flower-borders for Carnations, Pinks, Ranun- 
culuses, Anemones, Stocks, and other plants producing 
double flowers, as well as for Tulips, Hyacinths, Polyan- 
thus-Narcissus, &c. 

WW WW, The Rosary, forming a border on each side of the 
south terrace-walk through nearly its whole extent ; calcu- 
lated to contain a collection of all the known species and 
well marked varieties. 

X, Entrance from Trinity-road, with a cart- way into the frame- 
ground. 

Y, Site of the Gardener's house and Committee-room, with 
apartments for arranging and keeping seeds, &c. 



122 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

Z, South entrance to the Garden, (which cannot be formed till 
a road be carried along that part of the Inverleith estate). 

All the walks are to be laid with gravel found in the grounds, 
excepting those having a dark shade in the plan, and pass- 
ing through the arboretum, which are to be formed of grass. 



III. SECOND REPORT by the Garden Com- 
mittee, 15th June 1826. 

A period of more than a year has elapsed since the Gar- 
den Committee, acting under the direction of the Council, 
made their First Report. It was then stated, that the ope- 
rations of levelling, forming, and inclosing the ground, 
were in active progress ; and the Committee have now the 
satisfaction of reporting that they have been nearly com- 
pleted. The several portions of land allotted for the Ar- 
boretum, the Orchards, the Culinarium or Kitchen-Gar- 
den, the Flower-Garden, the Melon-Ground, and other 
smaller compartments, have, in different instances, been in- 
closed by raised belts of Trees and Shrubs, or by fences of 
Holly or Hornbean, which, in a short time, will contribute 
greatly to the purposes both of shelter and beauty. 

On every side the ground is now shut in either by walls 
or paling ; and, keeping in mind the experimental purposes 
of the Institution, the chief wall on the north side has been 
built of different materials, and with different forms of co- 
ping, with the view of ascertaining which mode of construc- 
tion may prove most advantageous for Fruit-Trees of va- 
rious descriptions. Water of good quality has been ob- 
tained, in great abundance, from the Botanic Garden ; and 
it is in contemplation to form the Pond for Aquatics, with 



SECOND REPORT, 1826. 123 

its appropriate Rock-work for Alpine plants, as soon as 
the more urgent operations of planting are completed. 
Since the former report, an excellent Dwelling-house, in 
the cottage style, from designs furnished by Mr Playfair, 
architect, has been built for the Superintendant or Head- 
gardener ; and estimates have been required for erecting a 
small Greenhouse and Hothouse, for the reception of such 
Exotic Fruits and Flowers as may be presented to the So- 
ciety. These glazed houses will be constructed with the 
view of forming hereafter a suitable portion of the more 
extended range described in the original plan. 

The Committee beg leave shortly to repeat, that the ob- 
jects which will chiefly claim attention in the Experimen- 
tal Garden, are the cultivation of the different varieties of 
Fruits and EsculentVegetables, paying strict attention to the 
qualities and habits of each, and instituting comparative 
experiments on the modes of culture to which they are 
usually subjected, so as to obtain a knowledge of the best 
varieties, and the most successful methods of culture. Spe- 
cimens of the finer varieties of plants which adorn the 
Shrubbery and Flower-garden will also be selected ; and, 
in every department of Horticulture, new plants, and new 
or improved varieties of those already known, will be 
sought for. By means of an extensive correspondence with 
eminent Horticulturists, both at home and abroad, it is 
hoped the Society will be able to collect, from different 
countries, many of their various products of Vegetables, 
Fruit-trees, Shrubs, and ornamental plants. Of these they 
will endeavour to naturalise the finer and more useful kinds 
to our soil and climate ; and they will communicate to the 
public, from time to time, the results of their experiments, 
so as to render their labours generally useful. 

Cuttings, and, as often as possible, rooted plants, of the 
various Fruit-trees cultivated in the Garden, will be freely 



124 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

distributed to Shareholders and Members, according to re- 
gulations hereafter to be made. Strawberry plants, and 
new or rare varieties of Culinary Vegetables, will in like 
manner be distributed. With the exception of two small 
portions, set apart for curious and select experiments, the 
whole garden will be open to the different classes of Mem- 
bers and their friends, under regulations to be made by 
the Council and Garden Committee. 

For conducting the operations and superintending the 
general business of the Garden, the Committee have the 
satisfaction to report, that the Council have engaged, as 
Head-gardener, Mr James Barnet, a young man of whose 
knowledge and zeal they entertain a high opinion. Mr 
Barnet is the son of a Scottish gardener, and received the 
first lessons in his art under his father, and subsequently 
under Mr Macnab, in the Royal Botanic Garden at Edin- 
burgh. Since then he has been employed in the Royal 
Gardens at Kew, and in the Garden of the London Hor- 
ticultural Society, where he held the office of Under-gar- 
dener, and had the management of the Fruit department. 
He was recommended to the Council by Mr Sabine, the 
Secretary to the London Society ; and is already well 
known to British horticulturists by his account of the dif- 
ferent varieties of Strawberries cultivated in the garden of 
the London Horticultural Society, and published in their 
Transactions. 

In reporting the progress made in the establishment of 
the garden, the Committee seize the opportunity of grate- 
fully acknowledging the aid they have received from Do- 
nations, of various kinds, made to the Society by many of 
its members, and by different amateurs of horticulture in 
various parts of the kingdom. The earliest contributor 
was Dr Duncan senior, the Father of the Society, who, in 
February 1825, sent a number of young fruit-trees from 



SECOND REPORT, 1826. 125 

his garden at St Leonard's. Their warmest acknowledg- 
ments are due to Dr Graham, the learned and liberal Pro- 
fessor of Botany in this University, through whom they 
received, in April 1825, from the Royal Botanic Garden, 
Inverleith, the greater part of the ornamental shrubs and 
trees, both evergreens and deciduous, with which the belts 
are planted. To Dr Hope, they are also deeply indebted 
for a large collection of shrubs and herbaceous plants, from 
the old Botanic Garden at Leith Walk. From Mr Mac 
donald, Dalkeith Park, they likewise received, in April 
1825, on the part of the Duke of Buccleuch, a liberal store 
of fine holly plants, and other evergreens, with young trees 
of nearly forty kinds of hardy fruits cultivated in HisGrace , s 
gardens. During the past spring of 1826. they have been 
greatly indebted to the London Horticultural Society for 
various contributions of Fruit-trees, of uncommon kinds, 
with a collection of the different ascertained kinds of Straw- 
berries, exceeding 50 sorts ; and they acknowledge, with 
gratitude, the liberal spirit which, on all occasions, Mr Sa- 
bine, the indefatigable Secretary of that magnificent insti- 
tution, has manifested to serve their infant establishment, 
and to keep up with them a correspondence, which, they 
trust, may hereafter prove mutually beneficial. 

Among; individuals for whose donations it has been their 
pleasing duty to offer thanks, the following may likewise 
be mentioned : Messrs William and James Wilson, nur- 
serymen, New York ; Professor Dunbar, Rose Park ; 
George Bell, Esq. ; the Right Hon. Sir John Sinclair, 
Bart. ; J. A. Murray, Esq. ; Lady Eleanor Butler and 
Miss Ponsonby, Plas Niewyd ; the Rev. John Smith) 
Whithorn ; the Chevalier Masclet, French Consul ; and 
Mr William Anderson, Chelsea Botanic Garden. The 
principal nurserymen at Edinburgh have also contributed, 
and have liberally promised further contributions when 



126 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

young trees of the different genera, species, and varieties, 
come to be required for the Arboretum. 

In connection with this branch of their report, the Com- 
mittee beg to express their warmest thanks to the Nobility 
and Gentry, who, not only as Members of the Society 
have aided their efforts, but encouraged their Gardeners to 
communicate such new methods of cultivation as experience 
may have suggested, and transmit such superior specimens 
of produce as their art may have supplied. The Memoirs 
of the Society bear ample testimony to the many valuable 
hints and improvements derived from this class of its cor- 
respondents ; and which are at once creditable to the skill 
of the Gardener, and to the liberal spirit of the Proprietor 
that fosters and encourages it. To this respectable class of 
its members, the Society looks for continued assistance ; 
and invites such intercourse and communication between 
them and the Superintendant of the Experimental Garden, 
as cannot fail to prove useful to both parties. In no way 
can the objects of the Society be more efficiently accom- 
plished, than in becoming, as it were, a centre towards 
which all the practical improvements made in its vicinity 
shall tend, and from which they may again be disseminated 
to fructify a wider circle. 

It will gratify the Society to learn, that not only have 
assistance and promise of support been received from kin- 
dred establishments and lovers of horticulture in these 
kingdoms ; but that a correspondence has been opened, 
and assistance zealously proffered, by similar establish- 
ments in various quarters of the globe. With the national 
establishment called the " Jardin des Plantes" at Paris, 
now under the direction of the celebrated M. Bosc, — with 
a Horticultural Society at New York, and with another si- 
milar establishment in New Holland, a correspondence has 

been already commenced : while many individuals, distin- 

l 



SECOND REPORT, 1826. 127 

guished for their love of natural science in general, and of 
Horticulture in particular, and who reside permanently in 
North and South America, and in our various Colonies in 
the East and West Indies, have liberally offered to aid our 
inquiries, and assist our endeavours to procure such va- 
luable and rare fruits and plants as their respective coun- 
tries may produce ; so that there is reason to hope the So- 
ciety will obtain early intelligence of whatever discoveries, 
in relation to horticulture, are made in almost every part 
of the world. 

But, though much has been already done, much yet re- 
mains to be accomplished. It is proposed to commence, as 
soon as funds can be obtained, the erection of a part of the 
Hot-houses, with suitable sheds, &c. ; but the funds of the 
Society fall short of the sum required to finish the entire 
range, with its Conservatory, Committee-room, and Dwell- 
ing-apartments for one or more labourers, as delineated in 
the Plan. To form the Pond also; to construct the Fra- 
ming department for pine-apple and melon pits, cucumber 
and gourd frames ; to purchase the necessary earths, com- 
posts, and manures ; to procure plants to stock various de- 
partments of the Garden ; and furnish many necessary 
utensils, &c. &c. will still demand a large expenditure, in 
addition to the annual charge for rent, salary, wages, and 
various incidental expences. 

It is the wish of the Society to defray the various charges 
for the necessary buildings, and for whatever may be deemed 
requisite for the permanent establishment of the Garden^ 
out of the sum obtained by contributions for Shares, and 
by donations of smaller amount ; and to devote the An- 
nual Subscriptions to the ordinary expences of the current 
year. 

The expence already incurred has necessarily been great ; 
and farther disbursements to a considerable amount will be 



128 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

found indispensable towards completing the formation of 
the Garden. To support the Garden in proper style will 
require numerous yearly subscriptions. It is therefore 
earnestly requested, that gentlemen, who wish the establish- 
ment to prosper, will lose no time in coming forward either 
as Shareholders or as Annual Subscribers. 

Having thus exhibited, for the information of the Socie- 
ty, an outline of what has been already done, or will speedi- 
ly be accomplished, the Committee regret to state, that, 
unless the funds be augmented, so as to complete the Hot- 
houses to the full extent of the plan, the Society will be 
compelled to relinquish many liberal offers of plants from va- 
rious parts of the globe, which their correspondents abroad 
have made them. They therefore earnestly solicit all their 
Fellow-Members to exert their influence with their connec- 
tions and friends to procure additional subscriptions. Scot- 
land has been always distinguished for the knowledge and 
skill possessed by her Practical Gardeners ; but she can 
preserve this distinction only by availing herself to the ut- 
most of the increasing intelligence in this department of 
art, so rapidly spreading through every civilized country. 
In France and Italy, public institutions for the improve- 
ment of Horticulture have long been established, and men 
of the greatest eminence in the natural sciences have been 
appointed to cultivate and teach its various branches. In 
our own country, the Horticultural Society of London is 
flourishing beyond all precedent. By the enlightened li- 
berality of the Nobility and Gentry of that portion of the 
empire, an annual revenue of several thousand pounds is 
collected and dispensed for the improvement and exten- 
sion of horticulture. Under its auspices, skilful persons 
are sent out to various countries, to collect and bring home 
whatever promises to enrich our horticultural stores. Even 



SECOND REPORT, 1826. 129 

the counties of England nearest to us (Northumberland 
and Durham) have lately established, and liberally patro- 
nized, an Horticultural Society, on an extensive scale ; and 
shall it be said that the Nobility, Gentry, and Public of Scot- 
land are less zealous for the improvement of an art, so well 
suited to the genius of her people, and in which they have hi- 
therto taken so decided a lead ? Nothing surely can be ex- 
pected so much to excite a spirit for improvement, and stimu- 
late the efforts of the practical gardener, as the knowledge 
that his skill and success are not confined within the walls 
that circumscribe his operations, but are made known to 
his fellow-labourers in the art, and even spread abroad, 
among the lovers of horticulture, through the most distant 
countries. At the present period, too, when most of the 
arts of life, hitherto conducted by handicraft and routine, 
are about to receive a new impulse, from the light let in 
upon them by the general establishment of Mechanics'' In- 
stitutions, it is most desirable that similar advantages should 
accrue to Horticulture, by a more general combination of 
principle with practice, of science with art, and of rational ex- 
periment with pre-established fact. Certainly, to its perfect 
cultivation, there is no art that demands a wider range of 
natural and experimental knowledge than the practice of 
Horticulture, nor any that holds forth greater prospects of 
improvement from the successful application of scientific 
principles. To the resident Public of Edinburgh, it may safe- 
ly be asserted, that few institutions can better deserve their 
patronage, or promise higher gratification. In a short time, 
this Garden, connected, as it is, in plan and situation, with 
the Botanic Garden, will become one of the chief orna- 
ments of the city ; while the facility of access to it, the 
commanding beauty of its site, and the ever-varying suc- 
cession of new objects it will continually offer to view, 

VOL. IV. I 



130 EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN. 

must afford that pure pleasure to which none are insen- 
sible, and from which many will derive the truest satisfac- 
tion and delight. 



MEMOIRS. 



I § 



MEMOIRS. 



I. 

Account of a new Mode of Grafting Camellias. 

By George Dunbar, Esq. Rose Park. 
(Read 10lh March 1825. J 

V_)y the exotic plants that have been introduced 
into this country during the last fifty years, none 
surpass in beauty and variety the genera Camellia 
and Erica. The former, it is well known, is a na- 
tive of China and Japan, and the latter of the Cape 
of Southern Africa. From twenty to thirty diffe- 
rent varieties of the Camellia have, within these 
few years, been brought from China ; and it is pro- 
bable that many more exist in that country, which 
have not yet become known to Europeans. 

The common method of multiplying the diffe- 
rent kinds, consists in inarching or grafting a double 



134 MR DUNBAR ON A NEW MODE 

upon a single, by bringing the two plants together, 
and joining two branches of each kind, having 
previously cut out an equal portion of the bark 
and wood of both, so as to make them unite ex- 
actly. But as this process is sometimes inconve- 
nient, and scarcely admits of more than one or two 
double shoots being grafted on a single at the same 
time, I have for several years practised a different 
method, by which almost any number of doubles 
may be grafted upon a large single stock, without 
the smallest inconvenience, and with little chance 
of failure. 

There are only two seasons of the year when Ca- 
mellias can be grafted with any chance of success, 
namely, the spring and autumn, because at these 
two periods they begin to make new growths. The 
month of April may be considered as the best sea- 
sou for grafting them, as the young shoots of both 
the double and single are then produced more vigo- 
rous than in the months of September and October, 
and, of course, are more likely to unite. They may, 
however, be brought into this state by artificial 
means ; and as it is of importance for every one 
who cultivates this most beautiful genus, to know 
the proper method of treatment, by which he may 
expect them to thrive best, and produce the great- 
est number of flowers, I shall state that which I 
have found most successful, before I explain my 
mode of grafting. 



OF GRAFTING CAMELLIAS. 135 

As the Camellia is a native of a much warmer 
climate than ours, it therefore requires a greater 
degree of heat than is even produced in a green- 
house, during the early summer months, to cause 
it to shoot out vigorously, and thoroughly ripen 
its flower-buds for the following flowering-season. 
In no situation do Camellias thrive better than in a 
vinery, under the shade of the vines, and partici- 
pating of all the heat which is usually given to a 
house of that description. They should be watered 
over head with a syringe twice or thrice a-week, to 
remove any dust that may have settled upon the 
leaves, and to refresh them. During this period, 
also, plenty of water should be given them, as the 
heat very soon exhales it from the pots. About 
the beginning of October, if the buds are well form- 
ed, they should be taken from the vinery to the 
greenhouse, and have as much air admitted to 
them as possible. In this state, their buds will 
gradually expand, and, when full blown, will re- 
main much longer, and appear much finer, than if 
the plants had been kept in a vinery or a stove. 
Great care must be taken to allow no water to reach 
the petals, as it completely deforms their beauty, 
and causes them to fall off prematurely. When 
the flowers have all disappeared, which in ordinary 
sized plants will generally happen about the month 
of March or the beginning of April, the plants 
ought then to be again removed to the vinery ; and 
the process of engrafting may be begun when the 



136 MR DUNBAR ON A NEW MODE 

young shoots in both the single and double begin 
to swell, which they seldom fail to do, after being 
about a week or a fortnight subjected to the heat of 
the vinery. 

It may be premised, that the branch of the single 
to be engrafted upon should be nearly of the same 
size as that of the double, because the adhesion first 
takes place in the bark of both, and if they do not 
correspond, they will not readily unite. Suppose a 
single consists of six branches, and a different va- 
riety of doubles is to be grafted upon each, the first 
thing to be attended to is, to select a clean, healthy 
shoot of last year's growth, from each double, about 
six or eight inches in length, and cut it off by a joint. 
The incision in the single should be as near the se- 
paration of the branches from the stem as possible, 
and should be about an inch and a half in length. 
The bark on the side cut should be entirely re- 
moved, with a small portion of the wood ; and the 
same must be done with the double, so that the in- 
cision in both may exactly correspond. It is also 
advisable to tongue them, as I have generally ob- 
served that the adhesion first takes place where the 
tongues unite. The incision in the double shoots 
should be made about an inch or an inch and a half 
above the under part, as nearly the whole of that 
portion of the wood is to be immersed in a small phial 
constantly filled with water, to keep it in a growing 
state. This phial must be tied firm to the branch 
of the single, to prevent it from falling off. When 



PLATE It. 



Ecrt.Xem,rol.W-p.l3" 




RjqUy-fK H.£i z cvrs . 



OF GRAFTING CAMELLIAS. 137 

the branch of the double is applied to the single, 
care must be taken that the bark of both correspond, 
and that the cuts are of equal length. They must 
then be bound as firm and close as possible with 
a string of matting, and some moss (hypnum) 
wrapped round, which should be kept constantly 
moist. The portion of the double below the junc- 
tion must then be immersed in the phial, and if 
this is kept constantly full of water, so as to pro- 
mote the growth of the double, the adhesion will 
take place in a month or six weeks. It is, however, 
advisable to allow the phial to remain some time 
longer, and not to remove the bandage till the 
double has made some growth. 

The sketches in the plate annexed exhibit the 
process in its different stages. 



Explanation of Plate II. 

a, a, a, a, Length of the incision in the single and double. 

b, b, Tongue of both. 

c, c, Incision of the double shoots above the under 

part. 

d, d, Phials filled with water. 

e, e, Strands of matting. 



138 MR SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHODS 



II. 



Remarks on the French Methods of Cultivating 
the Peach-tree. 

By Mr John Smith, formerly of Hopetoun House 
Garden. 

(Laid before the Society Qth June 1825.^) 

X HE influence of climate enters as an important 
element into every comparison of the productions of 
different countries. Hardly any two are precisely 
similar in this respect, and, consequently, there arise 
many variations, which confer advantages on one 
country, to which it may be impossible to attain in 
any other. Yet it is found that climate exerts more 
than its intrinsic influence. If, for instance, it is 
so unpropitious as to make the growth of any ar- 
ticle an uncertain speculation, there is neither com- 
petition in the market, nor emulation in the gar- 
den ; and every improvement which might thence 
arise, is effectually prevented. This is peculiarly 
true with regard to the Peach. In France, it is 
considered the surest of all fruit, and has therefore 
become an object of regular demand in the market. 
Whole districts and villages have devoted them- 
selves to its culture, in which the desire of gain has 
directed the gardener to natural pinciples of ma- 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TREES. 139 

nagement, — has rooted out old methods and old 
prejudices, — and generated a wish to excel, which, 
acting in a thousand nameless and extemporary ope- 
rations, seldom fails to arrive at its object. In Bri- 
tain, on the other hand, especially in this northern 
division of the island, peaches must be regarded as 
a precarious crop. We are generally content to 
get as many as we can, without anxiously enquir- 
ing whether we have more than our neighbours. 
In consequence of this, our general improvement in 
cultivation has been comparatively small ; and in 
this respect our peach trees form a striking contrast 
to strawberries, gooseberries, and certain culinary 
vegetables, in which we surpass the French in a 
higher degree than they do us in the peach, and 
for the same reason, namely, a more regular and ex- 
tensive demand for supply. 

But although climate thus tends directly and in- 
directly to obstruct our own advances in improve- 
ment, it does not seem necessarily to preclude us 
from availing ourselves of such as have been made 
by others. Our first care, indeed, ought to be the 
amelioration of our climate by hot- walls, and other 
expedients, exclusive of forcing houses. Much has 
not hitherto been effected in this way, and it is not 
to be doubted, that in the gardens of Montreuil we 
might gather many hints to aid us. But this must 
be the work of time. Meanwhile, we may have re- 
course to the French methods of pruning, as a thing 
more within our reach, and select and adopt what 



140 MR SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHODS 

seems most interesting, or worthy of imitation. If 
we are not deceived by the parade which in most 
of their horticultural works is made with physiolo- 
gical principles, their system of management is 
chiefly characterized by the attention which is paid 
to the theory of vegetation, and the peculiar growth 
of the tree. This, indeed, has been carried to an 
over degree of refinement by some physiologists, and, 
as it appears, without much injury ; for, when the 
philosopher becomes too subtle, he is invariably lost 
sight of by the simple operator. We would ear- 
nestly recommend such as are interested in this sub- 
ject to consult the works of Mozard and Du Petit 
Thouars, the Bon Jardinier, and especially the Po- 
mone Fran^aise of Count Lelieur, as we shall find 
it impossible, within our limits, to convey an idea 
of their many principles and observations with the 
requisite minuteness and precision. 

The French practice differs from ours in the fol- 
lowing particulars : 

I. In some of those subordinate operations which 
necessarily find a place in every system of manage- 
ment. 

II. In the form of the tree, and the re-produc- 
tion of bearing branches. 

I. The artificial extension of a tree upon a wall 
deprives it of its natural liberty, which it makes in- 
cessant efforts to regain, and thus gives rise to such 
operations as nailing, tying, pruning, disbudding, 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TREES. 141 

&c. which being indispensable, are found wherever 
wall-training is practised. But of the modifications 
of which these admit, the French have had recourse 
to many which are either entirely neglected, or but 
partially used in this country. 

The growth of large, spongy fore-right shoots, is 
generally very troublesome to the cultivator. These, 
after absorbing a considerable portion of the sap, 
and deranging its distribution, are usually removed 
in the summer pruning, or sometimes not till the 
winter. The French are careful to prevent their 
appearance, by picking out the buds, both before 
and behind the shoots, previous to their breaking. 
This operation is called ehourgeonnement a sec, 
and, as we shall afterwards see, is extensively ap- 
plied in some of the forms. 

The strength of young shoots, which, from their 
relative position, ought to be equal, varies frequent- 
ly with the size of the buds from which they sprung. 
It is of importance to correct this, especially in the 
early stages of training ; and it is effected by pinch- 
ing off the extreme points of the more vigorous 
shoots. Before these can again push out, they must 
have become to a certain degree ligneous, and have 
formed perfect wood-buds at their points. While 
this is taking place, the unmutilated weaker shoot 
acquires the necessary strength. 

In France, there are certain peculiarities in the 
summer pruning (ehourgeonnement), or, as it is 



142 Mil SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHODS 

sometimes called, disbudding, which merit atten- 
tion. 

It is known that such branches as are left loose, 
and capable of motion, grow more vigorously than 
those which are attached to the wall. From this 
has been derived a rule, which may appear suffi- 
ciently obvious, viz. to nail or tie in the stronger 
shoots first, and to leave the others to aquire vigour 
by agitation and the free access of air. This im- 
portant rule is applicable to all sorts of fruit trees, 
and implies that the summer pruning is not to be 
considered as finished in one operation, — an opinion 
which seems to obtain too generally amongst gar- 
deners. In stating this practice as an improvement 
of the French, it is fair to remark, that the fact up- 
on which it is founded has been observed by Mr 
Knight, and is the principle upon which he treats 
plants under glass ; but, as far as we are aware, he 
has not applied it to the training of wall-trees. 

An upright shoot is observed to grow more freely 
than one which is forcibly deflected from the perpen- 
dicular. In order, therefore, to reduce two shoots 
to an equality, we may elevate the weaker and de- 
press the stronger one. It is to be remarked, that 
this rule is applicable to shoots only when the trees 
are young, but that it always exerts an effective 
influence on the limbs or members of the tree. 

From the tendency of the sap to flow in a per- 
pendicular direction, it must be evident that the 
shoots on the upper side of an inclined branch will 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TUEES. 143 

always be more luxuriant than those on the lower. 
To obviate this inconvenience, the strongest shoots, 
as far as circumstances will admit, are preserved 
below, at the period of disbudding, while the weak- 
est only are retained above. By this means, the 
shoots on each side of an inclined branch, in some 
forms of training at least, can be kept in the most 
perfect equality. 

It is presumed that these operations will ap- 
pear trivial refinements to those who put little 
value on the regularity of a tree, and the equal 
distribution of its branches, or who entertain the 
fallacious notion that these qualities can be at any 
time obtained by a single application of the prun- 
ing-knife. But every experienced gardener must 
know, that a peach tree without regularity can nei- 
ther be productive nor long-lived, and that its 
branches are by no means reduced to an equal 
strength when cut back to equal lengths. The ope- 
rations which I have just detailed, are in fact of the 
utmost moment, since they enable us to maintain 
the equilibrium of the sap, — to husband the re- 
sources of the tree, and obviate the necessity of re- 
peated amputation, of which the peach-tree is ex- 
tremely impatient. They are, besides, of so easy 
application, and so little subject to perversion, that 
I cannot doubt that the adoption of them would 
contribute much to our success in the culture of 
this and other kinds of fruit. 



144 MR SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHODS 

II. The training of fruit trees on walls, though 
evidently an artificial operation, is not the work of 
arbitrary caprice. There are some limits which can- 
not be passed, without nullifying the purpose of all 
training, viz. the production of fruit. These arise 
from the peculiar growth of the tree, — its duration, 
the mode in which the fruit is produced, — and other 
circumstances' connected with the theory of vegeta- 
tion. Thus, in the peach, the tendency to divari- 
cate, and the growth of the fruit, not on spurs, but on 
the young wood, has introduced the semi-stellular or 
fan-training, at least in all cases in which its culture 
has been skilfully practised. Other limits, such as 
the equilibrium of the sap, and the greatest possible 
facility of reproducing fruit-branches, have restrict- 
ed the French to certain varieties of what has been 
called the open fan-training. All these modifica- 
tions proceed upon a principle which is much in- 
sisted on, viz. " the suppression of the direct chan- 
nel of the sap." Most fruit-trees, when left to 
themselves, form an upright stem or trunk, which 
conveys the nutritive juices from the roots to the 
upper extremities. This tendency shews itself even 
on walls, and hence apple and pear trees have been 
generally trained with central trunks. It is also 
observable in the peach-tree, although in a less de- 
gree ; and we consequently find Forsyth, and a few 
of his followers, training it with the upright stem, 
from which all the subordinate branches diverge at 
right angles. This the French condemn, alleging 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TREES. 145 

that the sap is wholly carried up to the superior 
members. They also proscribe the fan-training with 
a central limb (our common form), on the score of 
its being destructive of equilibrium *. They there- 
fore divide the tree into two equal portions, which 
they spread out diagonally, leaving the centre com- 
pletely open. It does not seem very evident that 
this arrangement is indispensable to maintain the 
equilibrium ; but it certainly facilitates it greatly, 
and, besides, it enables the cultivator to accommo- 
date the tree to low walls, and, by preventing con- 
fusion and irregularity, contributes much to ease 
and freedom in the operations of pruning and train- 
ing. 

1. The form of training which is most generally 
adopted in France, is that of Montreuil. It ap- 
pears to have been invented about the beginning of 
last century ; but it was scarcely known before 1755, 
when it was brought into notice by the Abbe Ro- 
ger Schabol, the most eminent French horticultu- 
rist of his time. According to the principle already 
mentioned, the tree is divided into two equal parts, 
in the form of the letter V. In order to effect 
this, two and sometimes four principal branches 
(mere-branches) are established, which constitute, 
as it were, the skeleton of the tree. The following 



* In the Bon Jardinier, some trees are described with cen- 
tral branches., which is a departure from the theory. They 
do not appear to be numerous in the French gardens. 

VOL. IV. K 



146 MR SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHODS 

sketch from the Bon Jardinier of a tree three years 
trained, will give an idea of the arrangement : 




In the case of the two mere-branches, they are at- 
tached to the wall at an angle of 45° ; but when there 
are four, the central angle is somewhat less. Al- 
though recommended in most French works, it is 
not advisable to fix the branches at first in so low a 
position as they are ultimately to occupy, since the 
branches in the centre will invariably get the start 
of the others, as has been experienced in certain at- 
tempts at imitation in this country. The other 
branches are all situated on these principal limbs, 
and diverge from them at angles varying with the 
age and vigour of the tree. Great care is taken to 
preserve them in due subordination to the leaders. 
The bearing shoots are treated pretty much as they 
are in this country. In the execution of the train- 
ing, the operations above described are more or less 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TREES. 147 

applied according to the intelligence of the cultiva- 
tor. For a more detailed account, the reader may 
be referred to the Horticultural Tour, p. 429. where, 
along with many other valuable remarks, will be 
found an interesting account of the Peach Gardens 
of Montreuil. 

2. The next form which we shall notice, and 
which is entitled at least to the praise of ingenuity, 
is that termed by Count Lelieur the form a la Du- 
moutier, from the name of its inventor. It is stated 
to be an improvement of the V of Montreuil, and 
to be distinguished from it and all others, in being 
less divaricated, — in having its principal members 
more strongly marked,— -and by the entire renova- 
tion of the bearing-shoots every year, which being 
cut down almost to their insertion, give a pinnated 
appearance to the branches. The following account 
is gathered from the Pomone Franqaise, a work of 
considerable merit, although, like every other French 
treatise on horticulture which I have seen, it patro- 
nises one mode of operation exclusively, and passes 
over all others in silence. It is worthy of notice, 
that some of Count Lelieur's figures are given in 
the Jardin Fruitier of Noisette, vol. i. and are said 
in the letter-press (which seems to have been pruned 
down to a series of insipid generalities in passing 
through the hands of a redacteur) to represent the 
common form of Montreuil. 

As is commonly practised, the stock (of almond 
or plum) is planted where the tree is destined to 



148 MR SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHOD'S 

grow, and in the following summer two buds, near- 
ly opposite to each other, are inserted. These pro- 
duce two shoots, the future 'mere-branches, which 
are trained (Fig. 2.) nearly in a vertical position, 
and ought to be as equal in strength as possible. 
At the first pruning, they are cut down to about 
15 or 18 inches in length, and the buds both before 
and behind are removed by ebourgeonnement a sec. 
The result of the second year's growth is the pro- 
longation of the mother-branches (a, Fig. 3.), 





:%-3 

and the addition of another branch (b) on the out- 
side of each. The following summer affords a third 
pair (c) ; and at the end of that season the tree has 
the appearance indicated by Fig. 3. During the 
fourth or fifth year, each of the branches a, 6, c, di- 
vides into two. Of these three, viz. a, b, c, (Fig. 4.) 
proceed in their original direction, while the others 
d, e, h, diverge, and become subordinate members. 
The next two seasons produce the remainder f, g, 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TREES. 



i4d 



&, I, m, which complete the developement of the 
tree. Every successive year brings the mother- 
shoots a lower, till they are inclined at about an 
angle of 25°. The annexed figure 




Tig- 4z 



is from a tree which in nine years covered a space 
of wall 42 feet long and 8 feet high. 

The points of the leading shoots are shortened 
every year to such an extent as circumstances re- 
quire. So much is symmetry studied, that Count 
Lelieur instructs us to ensure the equality of both 
sides by admeasurement ; and he assures us that this 
is always possible, if the tree has been properly ma- 
naged. In order to produce this, however, the most 
scrupulous attention is given to regularity, all the 
means of equalizing the branches are called into 
exercise, and even the lateral twigs, and those por- 



150 MR SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHODS 

tions of the shoots which are to be cut off in the 
pruning, are carefully arranged and manipulated. 

The pruning for fruit commences in the third 
year, and is performed with much exactness. As 
already noticed, the whole of the bearing wood, with 
perhaps a few exceptions, is renewed every year. 
The lateral shoots which appear during summer at 
the extremity of the leading branches, are cut back 
to a single eye, together with all other shoots which 
have no fruit-buds, and at the same time are feeble. 
When a shoot promises blossom, it is generally at 
some distance from the point of insertion into the 
old wood, and the intermediate space is covered 
by wood-buds. All the latter, therefore, which are 
between the old wood a and the blossom c (Fig. 5.)» 




except the lowest b, are carefully removed by e- 
bourgeonnement . This never fails to produce a 
shoot, the growth of which is favoured by destroy- 
ing the useless spray above the blossoms, and pinch- 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TREES. 151 

ing off the points of |hose which are necessary to 
perfect the fruit. This is termed the bourgeon de 
replacement. Barren shoots, when too vigorous to 
be cut down to their lowest eye, are treated exactly 
in the same manner. At the winter pruning, the 
branches which have borne fruit are cut down to the 
insertion of the replacing shoots, which, in their 
turn, are ebourgeonnee, bear fruit, and cut out 
like their predecessors. In cases where the blos- 
som has failed in setting, or the fruit in stoning, 
when the shoot is too weak to ripen the fruit which 
are upon it, or when the crop is very early, this ope- 
ration may be performed at any period in the course 
of the summer. It is then called Raprochement a 
vert. Occasionally, a very promising shoot which 
has already fruited, is suffered to remain. The re- 
placing shoot is cut back to its lowest eye ; or if it 
is vigorous, and there is room, it is made in the 
usual way to produce a substitute. In either case, 
a new replacing shoot is obtained, to which the whole 
is invariably shortened at the end of the second year. 
The branch thus treated is styled the branche de 
reserve. 

It is to be remarked, that the replacing shoot, 
and the branch of reserve, form a part of the Mon- 
treuil system of pruning for fruit, but less attention 
seems to be bestowed upon them, and the raproche- 
ment or cutting back is not so rigorously perform- 
ed ; for we find the fruit-branches passing into sub- 
ordinate members, while in the form we have just 



152 MR SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHODS 

now described, they remain ^single and undivided. 
It is obvious that these operations might be applied 
to any system of training, even by those who would 
hesitate to adopt one of the French forms in all its 
details. It is but justice to observe, that a near ap- 
proach to these operations has been made by Harri- 
son, in his excellent directions in this department of 
the culture of peaches. 

3. There is yet another variety of the Montreuil 
form, denominated a la Sieulie, with which the 
English reader is already acquainted through the 
medium of the Horticultural Tour, and which is 
noticed here, that it may not be confounded with 
the one last described. The tree is likewise formed 
upon two mother branches, which, being selected in 
the first summer, are permanently fixed at the in- 
clination of from 25° to 30°, leaving, consequently, 
a very large angle in the centre. These leading 
branches are never shortened. Late in the first au- 
tumn all the buds are removed except three, one of 
which is terminal, the other two at equal distances 
on opposite sides of the shoot, the one on the out- 
side being nearest the stem. The growth of the 
second summer lengthens the shoots in their origi- 
nal direction, and produces one from each of the re- 
served buds. At the beginning of the second win- 
ter, the leading shoots are again laid in at full 
length ; the side shoots are shortened about one- 
third ; and, as before, only three buds are allowed 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TREES. 



153 



to remain. After the lapse of another year, the tree 
has assumed the following appearance, Fig. 6. 




Mg-6 



Flg-7 



Fig. 7. represents a side shoot, after being shorten- 
ed and disbudded. The same process is continually 
repeated. The mother-branches grow on in a straight 
line, and those on the sides pass into subordinate 
members. 

This method proceeds upon] the position, that 
fruit-trees are more weakened than strengthened by 
pruning. Sieulle was led to this conclusion by ob- 
serving the effects of shears in topiary work. There 
is, however, but little analogy between clipping and 
pruning ; and in old trees, where the two leading 
shoots bear no proportion to the others which 
are annually shortened, the principle is virtually 
given up. It must be admitted, however, that the 
continual ebourgeonnement economises the force 
of the tree, by limiting the number of shoots, and 
preventing the appearance of those which grow only 



154 MR SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHODS 

to be cut off. A considerable diminution of labour 
is also gained in the busy period of summer. 

Under this mode of pruning, the quantity of blos- 
som is necessarily small, since only three double 
flower-buds at most are ever left on one shoot. This, 
however, obviates the necessity of thinning the crop, 
and is said to increase the size, and consequently 
the flavour of the fruit. In the invariable climate 
of France, it should seem, that the gardener may 
calculate on the setting of any given flower. 

This method of training has been warmly patro- 
nised by M. Du Petit-Thouars, who considers it as 
an exemplification and proof of some of his peculiar 
notions on vegetable functions. Other French hor- 
ticulturists object to it, on the ground that the low 
elevation of the mother-branches encourages the 
growth of the superior members, to the detriment 
of those below ; that the extreme exactness of dis- 
budding and pruning is apt to generate an over 
luxuriant habit ; or, at least, that it does not admit 
of modification, when such a circumstance— possible 
in every kind of training — accidentally occurs. The 
first allegation is said to be disproved by the trees 
of M. Sieulle himself; but we are not informed how 
the others are got rid of. 

After these details, it may be presumed that the 
reader will be disposed to agree with Thouin (An- 
nales du Museum), that the open fan-training ad- 
mits no of half knowledge in theory, and still less 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TREES. 155 

in practice. It cannot be supposed,, therefore, that 
in France it is generally practised such as we have 
described, or rather such as it appears in French 
works on gardening. But it is well to have an ele- 
vated beau ideal. We confessedly possess nothing 
of the same sort which will bear a comparison with 
it. In conclusion, as we have been considering the 
good points in the French practice, it may not be 
less beneficial to attend a little to the defects in our 
own. Our accusations, it is hoped, will not wear 
the air of disparagement, and will be understood to 
apply merely so far as the limited observation of the 
writer extends. 

The adaptation of stocks to soils has not been 
sufficiently studied in this country. In France, the 
Peach is budded on almonds in dry situations ; 
while such as are destined for heavy loams are in- 
serted on plums. It may also be noticed, that the 
French seldom venture peach trees on such clayey 
soils as we not unfrequently do. 

Instead of budding the tree on the spot on which 
it is to grow, or transplanting it when, in technical 
phrase, it is a maiden, that is one year old, we, in 
our impatience, have recourse to trees which have 
been trained in the nurseries. Such plants, by a 
rigorous application of the knife, are made to pro- 
duce an abundance of showy wood, and at the same 
time are so circumscribed, that they do not cover 
half as much wall as the French trees of the same 
age. The vegetable energy, thus confined within a 



156 MR SMITH ON THE FRENCH METHODS 

narrow space, is ready to burst forth, in whatever 
irregular manner chance may determine. 

The principal members, which form the skeleton 
of the tree, are seldom sufficiently distinguished 
from the other branches. Taking their origin chief- 
ly from the centre of the tree, they become too 
crowded, and they are further allowed to separate 
into an indefinite number of subdivisions. This de- 
fective arrangement, in general, and especially when 
combined with the foregoing circumstances, fails not 
to overthrow the equilibrium of the sap. 

Again, there is a want of distinction between the 
subordinate members and the bearing shoots. The 
latter too frequently pass into the former, and then, 
in the confusion which follows, amputation either 
of larger or smaller branches becomes necessary. 
This pernicious operation is quite indispensable in 
those methods of pruning recommended by Mr 
Knight and others, in which reversing and bending 
of the bearing-shoots are prominent features. 

In consequence of these irregularities, the repro- 
duction of fruit-branches is greatly impeded. Shoots 
preserved merely for fruit, or perhaps for no purpose 
at all, are allowed to grow on till they have attain- 
ed the length of several feet ; and as they frequently 
run parallel, within a few inches of each other, they 
are entirely naked, except perhaps at the points, 
where there may be two or three twigs, often too 
feeble to perfect the fruit which they produce. In 
such cases, the blossoms can neither be vigorous nor 
abundant. 



OF CULTIVATING PEACH-TREES. 157 

In stating these defects of the English system of 
Peach culture, we do not mean to derogate from the 
skill and intelligence of the enlightened part of our 
horticulturists. It is necessary, however, to state 
the disease in the worst form, that the remedy may- 
be more readily applied. It is not intended to re- 
commend as such the whole of any one of the French 
methods above described ; but I am persuaded that 
some benefit may be reaped from their consideration, 
in the way of practice, and perhaps still more in ac- 
quiring clearer notions of what peach training ought 
to be. The opinion of Mr Knight is indeed ad- 
verse to this. He thinks that our methods are al- 
ready too much Frenchified, and that in respect of 
excessive severity of pruning. In answer to this, it 
might, with deference, be shewn, that the French 
modes of pruning, in Finance itself, are far from 
being severe ; and perhaps it would not be difficult 
to resolve his objections into those made a little 
above, grounded, as we have seen, on faults of which, 
unfortunately, we have all the merit. But it is not 
becoming to reply to such a horticulturist as Mr 
Knight in any other way than by facts. Instead, 
therefore, of advising the general adoption of the 
French system, I would recommend it to the notice 
of our experimenters, whether public or private, to 
whom I am confident it will ultimately approve it- 
self, whenever it meets with a careful and candid 
examination. 



158 MR STREET ON THE CULTIVATION OF 



III. 

On the Cultivation of certain Ornamental Plants 
in Flower-pots filled with Hypnum-mosses. 

In a Letter from Mr John Street Flower-Gardener 
at Biel, to the Secretary. 

(Read June 9. 1825.) 

Sir, 

JLN compliance with your request, of date Mar. 11. 
18215, I now communicate some of the advantages 
which I apprehend arise from cultivating exotic 
plants in Mosses or Hypnums. I find that seve- 
ral species of exotic plants grow quite well in com- 
mon flower- pots filled with such mosses. They may 
be used with much advantage, especially for species 
which require large pots and much moisture ; for such 
pots, when filled with earth, so saturated with water, 
are rendered heavy to lift or carry about, and the 
pots are liable to break. I find that the Canna in- 
dica, Canna patens, Datura arborea, Agapan- 
thus umbellatus, Hydrangea hortensis, Eucomis 
punctata, Eucomis striata, Calla aithiopica, Eran- 
themum pulchellum, Abroma augusta, Herman- 
nia incisa, with several others, all most readily send 
forth roots in these mosses, and thrive well. Cut- 
tings of the Hydrangea readily strike root in the 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS IN HYPNUM-MOSS. 159 

moss, and soon form flowering plants. If manure 
is thought needful, it may be easily added, either 
as a fluid, or otherwise. 

Of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flore pleno, I planted 
some cuttings in pots filled with moss, and I was 
agreeably surprised to see how quickly these cuttings 
made strong roots. At the same time, I planted 
some cuttings of it in pots filled with suitable earth; 
and these had not made any roots after the lapse of 
a similar period, although otherwise treated alike. 
The plants in moss flowered in the autumn, and 
continued in bloom till the end of October. 

In January 1824, I placed some cuttings of 
Buddlea globosa in a pot filled with moss, and kept 
it in a shady place, under cover, without artificial 
heat : they soon made roots, and they produced 
flowers in the month of May 1825, in the same pots, 
though they had met with very hardy treatment. 

The yellow Crocus grows, and blows well in pots 
filled with moss ; and some other bulbs would per- 
haps also succeed. 

As a general remark, I may observe, that all or- 
namental plants which will grow in mosses in pots, 
are, when so grown, much better adapted for placing 
in sitting-rooms, or any apartments of the dwelling- 
house, as being much more cleanly. Earth is very 
apt to wash out of the pots in giving water, and to 
cause dirt in the stands ; with moss this cannot oc- 
cur. 

An additional advantage gained in cultivating 



160 MR STREET ON THE CULTIVATION OF 

plants in moss, was suggested at the meeting of the 
Society, viz. That plants might be sent to any dis- 
tance without pots, safer than in earth and pots ; 
the roots penetrating the moss, and forming balls, 
which would retain moisture for a great length of 
time. 

As to the kind of mosses to be used, I prefer 
those mosses which grow in plantations, because we 
find many bits of rotten spray and decayed foliage 
mingled with them ; and the addition of such sub- 
stances is very desirable. The species which I 
chiefly use are Hypnum proliferwn, prcelongum, 
parietinum, cuspidatum, squarrosum, and others 
which grow in damp woods. — Pull up the moss 
with its roots ; or, if the place of growth admit, 
cut it up with an inch of the surface vegetable 
mould adhering to it : or the moss wetted, may 
be rolled among vegetable earth, which will ad- 
here to it. Some plants grow well in the pure 
moss ; but many more will succed in moss mix- 
ed more or less with such earth. Among these 
I may particularize Disandra prostrata, Cinera- 
ria lanata, Cineraria popidifolia, and its varie- 
ties ; also some Pelargoniums. I might likewise 
mention Aster argophyllus and Gazania rigens 
as thriving well in moss and earth mixed. 

This leads me to advert to your offer of a medal 
" for a Flower-pot of Improved Construction, in 
regard to form, quality of materials, effectual drain- 
ing," &c. I think the use of mosses will greatly ob- 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS IN HYPNUM-MOSS. 161 

viate the difficulty arising from the imperfect form, 
&c. of flower-pots. 

For plants of very large growth, I use any kind of 
tubs, boxes, barrels, or even packing-cases which may 
have conveyed things from one place to another, 
and are then perhaps usually destroyed ; but in such 
packing-cases I find large plants grow well in moss. 
In fact, it is nothing to the plant whether the ves- 
sel be round or square, very compact and close, or 
porous and open ; and when moss is used, draining 
needs little to be thought of. 

Mr Salisbury, in his Treatise on Wall Fruit- 
trees, recommends protecting the blossoms of fruit 
with the long hypnum mosses in the cold change- 
able weather in spring : in this I concur, especially 
where they may be got near at hand. When they 
have served that purpose, they will answer well to 
raise plants in pots. They are also very useful to be 
laid about the roots of plants from which it may be 
required to keep out the drought of summer or the 
frost of winter. 

Nurserymen and amateur cultivators of exotic 
plants, who can get hypnum mosses near at hand, 
I presume may save some expence by using them, 
instead of driving carts several miles with fancy 
earths, which, when procured, may, after all, be im- 
proved with hypnum moss. Such moss, I think, 
possesses a power to some extent of regulating tem- 
perature, more than most kinds of earth ; that is, 
it resists extreme heat and extreme cold, and is not 

VOL. IV. l 



1 62 ON CULTIVATING PLANTS IN MOSS. 

apt to lose all moisture suddenly, while it discharges 
superfluity of moisture. It does not act like some 
rich eartlis y giving out all its virtues at first, but be- 
comes gradually richer in decay, when a fresh sup- 
ply may be added, in the same space of pot-room. 

Last year, I planted some early potatoes in hyp- 
num moss. The moss was laid in the trench, and 
the seed-tubers placed on it ; these were then cover- 
ed with another coat of moss, and, lastly, covered 
with earth, and the surface digged level as usual. 
The crop was fully as good, and as soon ready for 
use, as the same kind of tubers, planted at the same 
time and place in dung-litter. Although on a cold 
clay bottom, on a rising ground, much exposed, I 
gathered some sizable potatoes on the 10th of June. 
This leads me to imagine that hypnum mosses may 
be successfully applied in growing potatoes in heavy 
soils, or where the soil is already considered rich 
enough. 

I gathered a barrow- full of hypnum moss in the 
middle of December, and laid it in a corner under 
the north side of a wall : in a few days afterwards, 
it became rather warm ; so that I think it may be 
serviceable in forming hot-beds. The decomposi- 
tion will be very gradual, and the heat moderate and 
long continued. This may deserve investigation 
and trial. 

Biel, | 

10*7* April 1825. j 

(Medal voted to Mr Street. — See supra, p. 68.) 



( 163 ) 



IV. 



On the Economical Arrangement of Fruit-trees 
in a small Garden. 



In a Letter from Mr John Dick, Gardener, Ballindean, 
to the Secretary. 



(Read 10th December 181 9- ) 

Sir, 

JL am now to lay before the Horticultural Society 
a method, for obtaining a great deal of fruit from 
a small piece of ground. I have myself put it in 
practice, and it promises to give satisfaction in the 
highest degree. It will answer for apples, pears, 
cherries, and several kinds of plums. 

The method consists chiefly in having the trees 
planted and trained as espaliers, and in planting them 
in rows, in one plot of ground by themselves. 

1 shall here give a representation of a small plot 
of ground planted with apple-trees in the manner 
recommended. 



L 2 



164 MR DICK ON THE ECONOMICAL 



NORTH. 











b 


b 


3 b 


b 


a 


a 


a 


a 


3 h- 


b 


3 b 


6 


3 «s 


a 


3 a 


a 


b 


3 b 


b 


6 © 


a 


a 


a 


a 


3 b 


3 b 


3 b 


b © 



SOUTH. 



ARRANGEMENT OF FRUIT-TREES. 165 



Explanation of the Plan. 

At the letters a, a, a, axe placed trees upon crab stocks, 
at 20 feet distant, for the permanent or standing trees. 
These are planted upon the west side of the rails. 

At the letters b, b, b, are placed trees upon paradise 
stocks, at 15 feet distant, for temporary trees, or for giving 
fruit until the others meet together. These are planted 
upon the east side of the rails. 

The whole of the ground here represented is about 13 
falls. 



The distance between the rows of espalier trees 
is 8 feet ; and the height of the espalier-rails is 5 
feet. These are the proportions which will prevent 
any of the trees being shaded, until the season ar- 
rives that all the fruit will be gathered. 

The distance between the permanent trees, upon 
crab stocks, in the rows, is 20 feet ; and there are 
three of them to each row. There are four tempo- 
rary trees, upon the east side of the rails, upon pa- 
radise stocks: they are at 15 feet distance in the 
rows, and intended to give a supply of fruit until 
the permanent trees meet together. 

The above calculation is for apple or cherry 



166 MR DICK ON THE ECONOMICAL 

trees : however, a few feet more or less can be al- 
lowed, as there may be ground to spare. 

The rows should be made to run the length way 
from south to north ; and, by so doing, each side of 
the tree will, through the season, have the sun equal- 
ly divided, which is a very great object gained. If 
the garden or ground where the trees are plant- 
ed have a wall or shelter upon the north side, 
which is often the case, the north end of the espa- 
lier-rails should be as near the wall as it can be 
placed. I wish it to be understood, that there is a 
border at the foot of the wall, and a walk also, and 
it is the south side of the walk that I would have 
the north end of the espaliers to be near. In plant- 
ing the trees, the finest kinds should be planted up- 
on the north end of the rows, as the sun has more 
influence the nearer the wall. I could have given 
the strength of the sun at different distances from 
the wall ; but this is easily found, by placing three 
or more thermometers at different distances from 
the wall in a clear sunny day. 

Trees planted in this disposition shelter each 
other, and the ground between them can be easily 
manured along with slight crops of kitchen vege- 
tables, and rendered very useful ; whereas espaliers 
and standard trees upon borders are very often ne- 
glected, the borders being crowded with herbaceous 
plants or rose-bushes, which rob the roots of the 
trees. 

It will be observed what a number of trees can in 



ARRANGEMENT OF FRUIT-TREES. 16? 

this way be planted upon a very small piece of 
ground, where they can be kept in good order, and 
the ground about them still made very profitable. 
There may be 28 trees planted upon about J 3 falls 
of ground, which could not be done in any other 
method, to be of any use : besides, such fruit-tree 
quarters are very ornamental in any garden or in- 
closure. 

The trees can be supported with stakes, which 
will answer very well ; but if any choose to have a 
proper rail made, it will be still more ornamental. 
If the trees were planted above broad thin flag- 
stones, it would be of great use, their roots being 
thus kept from getting too deep into the subsoil. T 
have said nothing about the preparing of the ground, 
but leave that to every one to perform in the best 
manner he has in his power. I would recommend 
maiden trees to be planted, as they are most likely 
to give satisfaction. 

Standard fruit-trees, although kept low, are much 
shaken by the wind, and their fruit is not so good 
as that of the same kind produced on espaliers. I 
may add, that the fruit produced on these espaliers, 
is of higher flavour than that procured from wall- 
trees. Besides, several fine sorts of apples and pears 
will produce fruit upon espaliers, that will yield very 
little upon standards. 



168 



MR DICK ON THE ECONOMICAL 



P. S.— As some persons might be afraid of the 
sun's shadowing the espalier rows too much, I add 
a diagram, shewing the sun's height upon 23d Sep- 
tember, in this latitude of 56°. 






c 



t v 



■ i 



8 



I I I I I B 



At 12 o'clock noon, the sun is about 36° of altitude. 
AB is the distance between the rows, 8 feet, the 
scale being 5 feet to an inch : AC is the height of 
rails ; BD is the sun's altitude, 36° above the hori- 
zon AB, which thus gives sufficient sun until the 
fruit be gathered. 



Ballendean, 
Wth Nov. 1819. 



ARRANGEMENT OF FRUIT- TREES. 169 



Additional Communication, contained in a Letter 
from Mr Dick to the Secretary, dated 16th 
November 1826. 

(Read 1th December 1826. ) 

An compliance with your request, I now send you 
a sketch of the economical plantation of apple trees 
at Ballindean, upon a more extensive scale, and in an 
improved and more distinct style than the draught 
which I sent you to be laid before the Horticultu- 
ral Society in November 1819. 

The draught now sent f , I have laid down ma- 
thematically to a scale of five feet to an inch. The 
permanent trees are marked in their proper places 
thus * , and the temporary trees thus ■+■'. You re- 
quested a list of the varieties of apple trees thus 
planted at Ballindean; but in place of such list, 
the name is placed at the site of each tree. The 
letters ABCD mark out the extent of the piece of 
ground, and its length from east to west, and from 
south to north. As in the former plan, the trees 
upon crab stocks are to remain permanently, and 

t See Printed Plan. 



170 MR DICK ON THE ECONOMICAL 

the trees upon paradise stocks are intended for re- 
moval, as the others come to occupy their place. 

The distance between each row is 8 feet. The 
distance between the trees upon crab stocks is 18 
feet, tree from tree. The trees upon paradise stocks 
for removal are planted at 9 feet from the crab stocks. 
The trees upon paradise stocks will produce a good 
supply of fruit before the other trees upon crab 
stocks come to full bearing. Some may think the 
distance between the crab-stock trees too little. No 
doubt they would occupy a greater extent in course 
of time ; and the same distance is very proper for 
trees upon paradise stocks. My reason for having 
them so near to each other, is, that I never see old 
trees produce fruit so good as young trees, neither 
in size nor quality, and very often not so many in 
number, and it is easy for every gardener to keep 
a succession of young trees. 

In an arrangement of fruit such as the above, 
the ground between the rows is nearly as use- 
ful as without trees, and it will answer for any 
kitchen crop, pease and celery excepted. The bet- 
ter the garden is manured for vegetables, it is still 
in favour of the trees ; they will produce the finer 
fruit, both in size and quality. 

The height of the stakes at five feet (as in for- 
mer plan) is a proper height, when the distance be- 
tween the rows of trees is eight feet. If the stakes 
or rails be higher than five feet, the distance be- 
tween the rows must be greater in proportion, to 
keep the one row from shading the other. 



ARRANGEMENT OF FRUIT-TREES. 171 

The above method can be put in practice in a 
large garden, or in a small one, with equal advan- 
tage, in proportion to its extent. 

There are cherry trees, and plum trees, of sorts, 
planted in Ballindean garden upon the same me- 
thod as the apple trees. Pear trees may, with equal 
advantage, be planted upon the same method, only 
taking care to place them at the distance of 25 feet, 
tree from tree, in the rows. If the pear-trees be 
worked upon quince stocks, it will be in their fa- 
vour, particularly the strong growers. 

From this paper, and its accompanying draught, 
it will be seen, that the Horticultural Society can 
have planted in their Experimental Garden a very 
great number of different kinds of fruit trees upon 
a very small piece of ground ; and they need not be 
afraid of having their trouble amply repaid. The 
specimens of apples sent from Ballindean last Sep- 
tember to the Society's Festival, will in some re- 
spect give them an idea of the quality of fruit thus 
produced. 

I may mention, that even the farmers in this 
neighbourhood are practising this economical me- 
thod of planting fruit-trees, from seeing its good 
effects at Ballindean. 



Ballindean, ) 
I6tk Nov. 1826. j 



172 ARRANGEMENT OF FRUIT-TREES. 



Note by the Secretary. 

The specimens alluded to by Mr Dick, as sent 
to the Society's Festival last September, excited ge- 
neral admiration, being equal in size and colouring, 
and superior in flavour, to the generality of apples 
produced on wall-trees in Scotland. The season 
1826, no doubt, was remarkably favourable for es- 
palier-rail and standard apple-trees ; but the fruit 
produced in Mr Dick's economical compartment, 
has for several years maintained its high character. 
It may be proper to add, that, at a meeting of Coun- 
cil held on the 4th January 1827, the Society's Sil- 
ver Medal was voted to Mr Dick, for devising this 
advantageous mode of arranging dwarf fruit-trees in 
a garden. 



( 173 ) 



Description of an Economical Pit for preserving 
Vegetables and Salads during Winter, and 
raising Early Vegetables and Salads in the 
Spring. 

By Mr Alexander Stewart, Gardener to Sir Robert 
Preston, Bart. Valleyfield. 

In a Letter to the Secretary. 
(Read 10th December 1817 J 

Sir, 

X on these some years past, I have made use of 
straw-covers, laid over a temporary frame, to pro- 
tect our tender vegetables and salads. This I have 
done with a view to save our glass-frames, which are 
too often destroyed in the winter months, when used 
for that purpose. I have found the straw-covers to 
answer the purpose so well, that they have led 
me to the contruction of the pit I am about to de- 
scribe. 

The size of the pit made at Valleyfield, is one 
hundred feet in length, three feet and a half in 
breadth ; twenty-two inches deep in front ; three feet 
at the back, all inside measure, and below the sur- 
face. 



174 MR STEWART ON AN ECONOMICAL PIT 

The covers are made with wooden frames, filled 
with straw, in the following manner : — Take two 
pieces of wood, two inches thick, and four feet long, 
or according to the width of the pit : these form the 
sides : then take four pieces of wood five-eighths of 
an inch thick, three inches broad, and three feet 
long ; nail them across the two former pieces, one 
at each end, and the other two at equal distances ; 
then turn it upside down, and fill up the space with 
straw, laid as straight and close as possible ; nail on 
the upper side the same number of bars as on the 
lower side, which keeps the straw firm and tight. 
But in case of the above description not being suffi- 
cient, I shall send one of the covers, with a rough 
sketch of the pit, (Plate III.) 

At present, the pit is filled with Cape broccoli, 
cauliflower, lettuce, endive, and a few cauliflower 
plants. In the spring, I propose to raise early ra- 
dishes, lettuce, potatoes, French beans, cauliflower 
plants, celery, some of the half-hardy annuals, or 
any other vegetables that may require to be forward- 
ed : and during summer, I intend to fill the whole 
with cucumbers for pickling, tomatoes, or any other 
tender vegetables. But, for the satisfaction of the 
Society, should they think it worthy of their atten- 
tion, I shall keep a journal of the different crops 
that are protected through the winter, and of such 
also as are raised in the spring, so that they may be 
the better able to judge of its utility. 

My object is to protect the tender vegetables 



FOR PRESERVING VEGETABLES. 175 

which would otherwise be lost during the winter, 
and to forward them in the spring, with the least 
possible expence and labour, which has induced me 
to call it the Economical Pit. 

In this country, we seldom have a continuance 
of severe frost for more than a week or ten days 
at a time ; and, should it continue longer,, if the pit 
is properly attended to, that is, by giving it an extra 
covering with stable litter, or any other substance that 
is most convenient, so as to exclude the frost, there is 
little danger of the vegetables suffering during that 
time. When the weather is mild, it is necessary 
to give as much air as possible, by setting up the 
covers with proper tilts ; but in rainy weather, they 
must be lowered a little on the tilts, so as to pre^ 
vent the rain from beating in upon the plants. It 
will be necessary also to close the pit in every night, 
during winter and spring, until there be no longer 
risk from frost. 

The cost of the pit, as above described, does not 
exceed £4 Sterling. The sides are built with rough 
pieces of stone, from six to nine inches thick, and 
finished with a turf along the top, in place of a 
wall-plate : the pit is then filled with the decayed 
leaves of tree, or old tan, so as to raise it to a pro- 
per height, suitable for the plants or crop intended 
to be put into it. For lettuce or endive, I general- 
ly lay a thin covering of rich mould upon the top of 
the compost, to plant them in : the cauliflower and 
broccoli are planted in the leaf mould, and raised as 



176 MR STEWART ON AN ECONOMICAL PIT. 

high in the pit as the cover will allow. It is to be 
understood that the cauliflower, broccoli, and en- 
dive, for winter use, are lifted from the different 
quarters of the garden, and placed in the pit du- 
ring the months of .September and October, accord- 
ing to the season and other circumstances. In 
placing them in the pit, care must be taken to keep 
them as close together as possible in the rows, but 
at the same time to allow a small space between, to 
admit of a circulation of air, so as to prevent their 
damping off. Another necessary precaution, is ta- 
king off any decayed or yellow leaves that may ap- 
pear. 

I should not have troubled the Society with these 
observations this season ; but the advantages I have 
already experienced from the few covers over the 
frames above mentioned, make me desirous that it 
may be tried in other parts of the country, to prove 
its effects. Such a pit is within the reach of any 
possessor of a garden ; and is, I think, particularly 
adapted to the market gardener. I am, &c. 

Valley field, 1 
9Qth Nov. 1817. j 



Additional 



( 177 ) 



Additional particulars, communicated in a Lettef 
from Mr Stewart to the Secretary, dated 27th 
November 1818, 

j^VlGeeeably to the request of the Society, I now 
send you some further particulars regarding our 
vegetable pit. As it was cleared of the winter 
stock, that is, the Cape broccoli, cauliflower and 
lettuce, I began with a few early pease, beans, 
cauliflower, lettuce, radish, and potatoes. These 
were sown on the 18th of February ; the radishes 
were fit for table on the 18th of April ; the pota- 
toes on the 20th of May ; and the other vegetables 
in proportion. It must be observed, that there was 
no bottom-heat applied, and that the situation of 
the pit is high, and exposed to a cold current of air. 
Were the pit placed in a more favourable situation, 
I have no doubt they would have been much ear- 
lier ; but, as it is, they were full three weeks before 
the crops in our sheltered borders. In the begin- 
ning of April, as the remainder of the pit was 
cleared, we sowed celery, ten-week stocks, French 
and African marigolds, China Asters, and a few 
kidney beans, all of which were much earlier than 
those sown in the open borders, and made better 
plants than those raised under glass. When the 

VOL. IV. m 



178 MIL STEWART ON AN ECONOMICAL PIT 

spring crops had been cleared, they were succeed- 
ed by ridge cucumbers for pickling ; but the pit 
was first cleared to the bottom, and then filled with 
cut grass and litter, to cause a slight heat, suf- 
ficient to establish the young plants turned out. 
The whole of the crops so raised succeeded beyond 
my expectation ; and I have no doubt but that such 
a pit will give satisfaction to those who may think 
proper to give it a trial. It is obvious that thus the 
table may be supplied with the best tender vege- 
tables until the end of February, which otherwise 
must be protected under glass, or entirely lost. 

I have only farther to mention, that, since I 
wrote the first letter to you on the subject, we have 
made another pit of nearly the same size, and have 
continued to use both ever since, much to my satis- 
faction. They are in fact convenient for so many 
purposes, that it might be considered tedious in me 
to enumerate them. I shall, therefore, with the 
notice of one more, close the subject : Dahlias potted 
and set in these pits may be forwarded a foil month 
before turning them into the borders ; and of course 
other tender plants may be treated in the same 
way. In this place, I never consider it safe to risk 
our tender annuals in the common borders, until af- 
ter the first of June ; therefore, without such a con- 
venience, I should be much at a loss. 




Fi?.3. 




PLAT E HI. fort. Sec.Jfrm. 7JV. JT\ 

JECONi03IICAE, ~VJE&]ETABJLE TIT. 



Fuf. J. 



■t ■/ 



r,u-t 



FOR VEGETABLES. 179 



Explanation of Plate III. 

Fig. 1. The section of the pit covered. 

.Fig. 2. The section of the pit with the cover set up to the 

full extent, shewing a row of Endive. 
Fig. 3. Shews the upper side of four covers. 

A, A, The stone building on each side of the 

pit. 

B, B, The surface on each side of the pit. 

C, C, The earth. 

E, The tilt, with two notches to lower the co- 
ver on in wet weather. 

N. B. The cover sent to the Society has a piece of wood 
up the middle, which keeps the straw more firm, and 
will allow the covers to be made four feet wide. 



Note. — At a meeting of the Council held on 
1st February 1827, and upon a report from Mr 
Macnab and the Secretary, the Society's Silver Me- 
dal was voted to Mr Stewart for his Economical 
Vegetable Pit, as an improvement which has now 
stood the test of more than ten years. 



m 2 



180 MR BISSET ON FORWARDING 



VI. 

On the utility of employing Grass Turf or Sward f 
in forwarding Eaidy Crops of certain Vege-* 
tables. 

In a Letter from Mr Alexander Bisset, Gardener at 
Methven Castle, to the Secretary. 

( Read ~isl June 1826. *) 

Sir, 

_L now offer to your notice the promised commu- 
nication, relative to a new practice, which may be 
employed with advantage, in various cases, but more 
especially in promoting the early ripening of peas, 
potatoes, beans, &c. In order to afford an imme- 
diate proof of the advantages that may be derived 
therefrom, I take the opportunity to exhibit speci- 
mens of early summer peas, which were thus early 
brought to maturity by means of the mode of prac- 
tice above alluded to. They are already perhaps 
rather over ripe, and would have been in higher 
perfection for the table a fortnight ago. 



* At a General Meeting held on this date, the Society's 
Silver Medal was voted to Mr Bisset for this improved prac- 
tice. 



EARLY CROPS OF PEAS. 181 

It is allowed by those that are conversant in hor- 
ticulture, as well as by all who are acquainted with 
the nature or quality of soils, that grass-turf or 
sward, in a more or less decayed state, is highly 
conducive to the growth and health of plants. Hence 
it occurred to me some years ago, that turf might be 
employed upon a new principle, with advantage, in 
promoting the early production of a first crop of 
peas. I therefore took the first opportunity of put- 
ting my plan into execution ; and I have now the 
satisfaction to state, that, in the course ot] my prac- 
tice for several years past, I have done so with suc- 
cess. 

Early Peas, — In pursuing this mode of practice, 
for the purpose of forwarding early peas, it is neces- 
sary to have a quantity of well matted grass-turf or 
surface sward secured previous to the winter, so as 
to be in readiness, in the event of a fall of snow or 
severe frost happening at the time of sowing, which 
is about the middle or towards the end of January. 
The turfs may be cut in pieces of about nine or ten 
inches broad, and a foot or fifteen inches long, to be 
afterwards reduced in size. The tops of flues, and 
the borders of forcing-houses, may. be appropriated 
for the purpose of receiving these turfs, having the 
peas sown on them ; or framing-pits of any descrip- 
tion may very conveniently be used for the purpose, 
being generally unoccupied at this season of the 
year. The application of bottom heat will in this 



182 Mil BISSET ON FORWARDING 

case be found necessary, particularly if the winter 
be severe. In order to effect this, so as not to pro- 
duce an over-heat, I generally employ a mixture of 
stable-litter and tree leaves, such as may have been 
previously used in the forcing of sea-kale or aspara- 
gus. While the gentle fermentation of such a bed 
assists in keeping out frost, it will be found of evi- 
dent advantage in germinating and afterwards pro- 
moting the growth of the young peas. 

The beds being thus prepared, a quantity of the 
turf is then cut into pieces of about nine or ten 
inches long, and five or six inches broad. These 
are placed in a regular manner over the surface of 
the beds, grass-side downwards. If the turf be ta- 
ken from land of an inferior quality, it will be 
found of the utmost importance to add a little rich 
loam to the soil thereof, forming at the same time a 
shallow drill along the middle of each row of turf. 
A row of peas is then sown in a regular manner in 
each drill, and afterwards slightly covered with rich 
loam. 

While the peas advance in growth, their roots, 
it is evident, must penetrate and take possession of 
the turf; and the turfs and growing peas may toge- 
ther be lifted and removed to a south border, where 
the peas are to produce their crop, without the plants 
sustaining the least injury in being transplanted. 
This I regard as an improvement of the greatest im- 
portance. By the beginning or towards the middle 
of March, the pea plants on the turf will have reach- 



EARLY CROFS OF PEAS. 183 

ed to the height of five or six inches, and will there- 
fore, on account of the smallness of the space be- 
twixt the rows, require to be either wholly or par- 
tially removed to the south border, where they are 
to produce their crop. In general, it will be found 
of considerable advantage to remove in the first 
place every alternate row only, and to allow the re- 
maining part to advance in growth till they begin 
even to show their flowers. The pea plants, at that 
late period, may notwithstanding be removed to the 
place where they are to produce their crops with per- 
fect safety. By this means, the ripening of a crop 
of peas is more speedily promoted ; for the plants 
last removed afford the first supply for the table ; 
and a succession of young peas is thus obtained from 
the same sowing. At this early period of the sea- 
son, it will invariably be found necessary to use 
means for protecting the peas from frost, immediate- 
ly after being put out, especially if they are near the 
flowering state ; for this purpose, beech and spruce 
branches, or straw-ropes, may be employed with good 
effect. In adopting the mode of practice above de- 
scribed, young peas for the table may be had in abun- 
dant succession generally in the end of May, or, 
at all events, by the beginning of June, even after 
a very unfavourable winter, in every gentleman's 
garden throughout Scotland. 

But in order to ensure an early crop of peas, in 
this as well as in other similar cases, care must be 
taken to select a good early sort, otherwise all our 



184 MR BISSET ON FORWARDING 

additional labour and attention will in a great mea- 
sure be lost. The kind of pea which I consider the 
most valuable and best adapted for the mode of cul- 
ture here recommended, is Nash's early frame. 
The specimens which accompany this communica- 
tion are of that variety. This excellent pea is sold 
under the name above mentioned by Messrs Dick- 
son and Turnbull, seedsmen, Perth. I may add, 
that Bishop's early dwarf is much to be recom- 
mended as an early pea, and is also well suited for 
the same mode of culture. 

Early Potatoes. — Having thus given an account 
of my new practice in promoting the early ripening 
of peas, I consider that it would be altogether un- 
necessary to enter into a full detail of the practice, 
when employed for the purpose of forwarding early 
potatoes/it being similar to that employed for the peas 
in most respects. The only difference which may be 
particularly specified, is this : The turf for a potato 
crop is cut into pieces of about three or four inches 
square : these are placed in a close irregular manner 
over the surface of the beds ; and only one tuber 
or cutting planted in each piece of turf. This should 
be done about the middle of February ; and, by the 
time the potato plants have reached to the height 
of three or four inches, it will be found necessary to 
remove them to a sheltered and south-aspected bor- 
der, where they are to produce their crop. But it 
may here be observed, that, as the application of 



EARLY CROPS OF FRENCH BEAMS. 185 

bottom-heat is in this instance essentially necessary, 
another desirable point may, without any additional 
labour, be gained ; for, while the greater part of the 
potato plants may be removed with safety, and trans- 
planted into the open border, a part of the plants 
may be left in the pits, in such a manner as if they 
had been planted therein, for the express purpose of 
producing their crop. This being attended to, new 
potatoes may be had occasionally for the table, after 
the middle of April ; whilst a succession from the 
same plants may be afforded, by the middle or to- 
wards the end of May. 

Beans. — A similar mode of treatment to that 
employed for the potatoes, will be found applicable 
for the purpose of forwarding early crops of Common 
Beans and French Beans, particularly the latter. 
But it is requisite that three or four seeds be plant- 
ed in each piece of turf, and that the proper season 
for planting be taken into consideration, according 
to the nature of the crop. 

Early Cauliflower. — Turf may be employed with 
advantage upon the same principle, for the purpose 
of forwarding early cauliflower: and it may be men- 
tioned, that, with the exception of the cauliflower be- 
ing planted in the turf, the treatment is in every re- 
spect the same as that which is generally adopted in 
this part of the country for preserving cauliflower 
plants during winter. It is well known to every prac- 



186 MR BISSET ON FORWARDING 

tical gardener, that a compound of sward and surface 
soil in the process of decay, is peculiarly conducive to 
the growth and health of cauliflower plants ; and it 
is evident that turf may thus be employed with much 
facility and advantage, for the purpose of forward- 
ing^ early cauliflower, as in the following spring the 
plants may be allowed to remain under glass till 
they attain to a large size, and may nevertheless 
be removed and planted in the open border, without 
injury, or risk of checking their growth, as being 
completely established in the turf, which is moved 
along with the plants. 

Strawberries. — Upon the same principle, turf 
may be employed with advantage in the forcing of 
strawberries, by means of which the use of pots 
might be altogether dispensed with. This will be 
evident from the following description. At the 
proper season for planting the strawberries, let a 
small piece of ground be formed into beds about 
four feet wide, and a quantity of turf be taken and 
cut into pieces of about five or six inches square, 
which should be placed in a regular manner over 
the surface of the beds. A quantity of fresh loam, 
richly manured, should uniformly be applied to the 
surface of the turf, previous to planting. And in 
order to furnish large stools, four or five plants 
should be separately planted in each piece of turf. 
This may be done to best advantage in the early 
part of the spring season, with plants taken from 



EARLY CROPS OF STRAWBERRIES. 187 

the runners of the preceding year ; or, it may other- 
wise be accomplished with good effect in the end of 
summer, with plants selected from the runners pro- 
duced the same year. If due attention be paid to 
watering in dry weather, the plants will be found 
to grow vigorously, so that, by the end of the au- 
tumn season, their roots will be fully established in 
the turf, and they may therefore be removed to the 
forcing-pit with nearly as little injury done to them 
as if they had been planted in pots. It will be rea- 
dily perceived, that, in this case, the strawberry 
plants, with their roots in possession of the turf, 
must of necessity be planted in a ball of earth or 
decayed compost, prepared in the forcing-pit appro- 
priated for that purpose. In regard to the kind of 
strawberry fittest for our purpose, I may mention, 
that, among the various kinds that I have yet be- 
come acquainted with, I consider the roseberry the 
most valuable for the turf mode : though it can 
by no means be allowed to be the earliest, nor the 
best in point of flavour, yet it is a strawberry which 
invariably yields a plentiful crop even the first sea- 
son after planting, which, independent of its other 
properties, renders it a most appropriate strawberry 
for being forced. But it may nevertheless be stated, 
that all such kinds of strawberries as are capable of 
being forced with advantage in pots, may be done 
so likewise with turf ; for, if it be taken from a stiff 
soil, it will last for tw r o years ; and at the end of 
that period, it will still be found to possess its ad- 
hesive or binding properties. 



188 MR BISSET ON FORWARDING CROPS. 

Before concluding, allow me to remark, that the 
employment of turf upon the same principle, will be 
found of no little importance in the management 
of the flower-garden. By sowing and transplanting 
showy annuals of a half-hardy character on patches 
of turf, they may be forwarded at the commence- 
ment of summer by means of a little bottom heat, 
assisted with a covering of mats during the night ; 
and they may be removed and planted out in the 
flower-borders at any stage of growth, without re- 
ceiving the least check. The same practice maybe 
followed with the more tender kinds of stocks, wall- 
flowers, &c. by sowing or transplanting them at the 
proper season, and keeping them under shelter du- 
ring winter, which, in the following spring, may be 
removed and planted in the flower-borders with per- 
fect safety. I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

Alex. Bisset, 

Methven Castle, ) 
28th May 1826. j 



( 189 ) 



VII. 

Observations regarding the Management of Oak 
Coppice- Woods, fyc. 

By Mr Robert Hosie, Gardener to the Right Honourable 
Lord Lyndoch. 

(Read 1st June 1826 J 

JL he planting of oak for coppice-woods, in this 
country, has been carried on for these some years 
back, with great spirit, so much so, that there is a 
probability of its being over done ; however, it will 
always be in the power of the proprietors, if that 
should come to be the case, to let more shoot up for 
standards, to remain till they are fit for ship-building 
or other useful purposes, when they must always 
become valuable while the nation maintains its com- 
mercial greatness ; besides, no tree surpasses the oak 
in what is called picturesque effect, or adds more to 
the general beauty of a country. 

The sketches in the annexed engraving (Plate 
IV.), are meant to represent about an English acre 
each, with 432 plants, at 10 feet distance from one 
another. 



190 MR HOSIE ON THE MANAGEMENT 

Sketch 1st shews three groups of standards, con- 
taining altogether about 60 trees, left at the first 
cutting, at the original distance of 10 feet, and sup- 
posing them of 25 years' growth. 

Sketch 2d is meant to represent the same planta- 
tion, 50 years old, with the groups thinned out to 
half the number of the former. 

Sketch 3d supposes 75 years old, or third cutting, 
with 9 trees left ; and sketch 4th is 100 years, with 
only 4 remaining of the first planting ; but two new 
groups for standards are allowed to get up, contain- 
ing 25 trees ; which, of course, ought to have been 
training during the growth of that cutting ; and, at 
the next, another group may be left, when some, if 
not all, of the old standards can be taken away. 

Leaving standards in groups (instead of the same 
number regularly scattered over a wood), is by no 
means new, but probably was at first thought of, ra- 
ther to avoid the formality of regular distances, and 
with a view to picturesque effect, than from an idea 
of profit; but, for a coppice- wood, where a consider- 
able number of standards are wanted, the advantage 
is very obvious ; for instance, if 60 trees were left 
regularly over an English acre, the distance would 
be about 26 or 27 feet, which is too close for cop- 
pice-wood to thrive with that number of standards ; 
on the other hand, if 60 trees were left in groups, 
as represented, it would leave at least five-sixths of 
the acre perfectly clear : but the number left might 
depend upon the extent and form of the wood. The 



FLAT E IV. 



//,-/■/. Mem. Vol.ir. 



Fia.l. 



J-iq ■ 



; i|||||p4: 



. . ££££. . 









If,. 3. 



Fit/. 4. 






:%:::*. 



iL 4. 
- 4.1.- . . 







OF OAK COPPICE-WOODS, &C. 191 

thinning the groups at the age of 50 years, instead 
of leaving that number at 25 years, I think would 
ultimately pay better than if only 30 had been left ; 
as, in that case, with only that number, the coppice 
within them would be of little value, while the 
standards, if at the distance of 10 or 12 feet, at the 
age of 50 years, would greatly surpass in profit any 
thing that could be made of coppice-wood. I know 
it is thought by some that 10 or 12 feet is too great 
a distance to plant for coppice- wood : in a great mea- 
sure, this must depend upon the quality of the soil, 
or fitness to grow oak luxuriantly ; as I have reason 
to think that a poor soil, or one not of a nature to 
give a very weighty crop, would require to be planted 
thicker than one of the first quality. Probably 12 
feet might be the most advantageous distance for the 
latter ; but, in general, I should think 10 feet a very 
proper distance. This is about 450 plants to an 
English acre ; and I have no doubt but that, with 
an equal soil and situation, the produce would be 
better than if double that number had been planted, 
or even 700, which is about 8 feet apart, as recom- 
mended in a book lately published. It would no 
doubt require long experience and observation to say 
positively what would be the most advantageous dis- 
tance to plant at ; nor have I ever heard of it ha- 
ving been fairly tried : but, by reasoning from ana- 
logy we find, that, both in horticulture and agricul- 
ture, there is a certain distance that will produce 
the greatest weight of crop ; if too great, the ground 



192 MR HOSIE ON THE MANAGEMENT 

is not altogether occupied, and if too close, the 
plants are choked up for want of air. It is only by 
examining the distances in the most thriving plan- 
tations, that we can form any thing like a correct 
notion of the subject ; but, from any observations it 
has been in my power to make, I should certainly 
prefer 10 feet to 8 feet. Besides, the greater dis- 
tance leaves more room for underwood, such as ha- 
zel, &c. which, in some places, is found to be nearly 
as profitable as the oak. At the distance of five 
feet, the underwood would be thick enough at double 
the number of oak stools ; while, from 10 to 12 feet, 
you might have three times the number. 

In forming plantations in general, it has very 
justly been considered by proprietors, that lands, not 
adapted to tillage or pasturage, are the most bene- 
ficial both to themselves and the community at 
large for that purpose, although no doubt the better 
the soil and situation, the better they will thrive ; 
but it is found that oak will succeed tolerably well 
in a great variety of soils and situations, from bare 
moorish lands to rocky precipices. 

It has been recommended as a most advantageous 
way of rearing woods, to sow them at once upon the 
spot where they are ultimately to remain, particu- 
larly the oak, as it would not disturb what is called 
the tap root. Having tried that method, both with 
regard to oak and the pine tribe, it was found most 
decidedly not to be the most profitable way ; and, as 
to disturbing the tap root, it will be found, by who- 



OF OAK COPPICE-WOODS, &C. 193 

ever takes the trouble to examine, that it is only to 
a certain depth, and where the soil suits, that it takes 
a perpendicular direction, a horizontal one afterwards 
being: the most natural. As to the difference of ex- 
pence betwixt sowing and planting, let it be consi- 
dered that, within the compass of a few square yards, 
as many trees can be raised as would plant some 
acres, and at a trifling expence ; while, by sowing a 
large plantation at first, the extra expence of seed 
alone would nearly counterbalance that of planting, 
besides other disadvantages, such as the young plants 
being thrown out by the frost, particularly the pine 
tribe, and the loss of the growth of a year or two, 
which may be saved by planting stout plants. 

I have no doubt that, for an oak-wood, the most 
profitable way is to get stout plants, if possible, of 
two or three feet high at first planting ; but, in ma- 
king up an old plantation, if they are 4 or 5 feet 
high so much the better. 

I would by no means recommend the practice of 
pruning the roots and branches of young plants 
much before they are planted out ; if they are from 
1 to 3 feet high, very little pruning will do. It 
may be convenient to shorten a very long tap root, 
or cut off a lateral shoot that is unproportionably 
large for the size of the plant, which is all that will 
be of any use ; for pruning, at that size and age, 
can have no effect upon the future form of the tree, 
as some imagine. Whoever attends to the growth 
of young plantations must observe, that it rarely 

VOL. IV. n 



194 MR HOSIE ON THE MANAGEMENT 

happens that what is left for the leading shoot at 
first planting, ever becomes so. No doubt it is ne- 
cessary, with trees of a large size, to prune the 
branches considerably to prevent wind-waving ; and 
it will be found impracticable to plant them, with- 
out cutting the roots in some degree likewise ; but 
the more fibres that are left, in both young and old, 
the better. To form handsome trees in extensive 
woods, and without retarding their growth, in my 
judgment, pruning with a large knife, 7 or 8 years 
after they are planted, when they begin to grow vi- 
gorously, is the best way. At that time a leading 
shoot can be made sure of, and is perhaps all they 
would require. The stools of a coppice-wood can 
be pruned and thinned in the same way, by leav- 
ing two or three of the most vigorous stems upon a 
stool, and thinning their side branches. The great 
object in thinning coppice-stools, is to leave such 
strong shoots that none of the others that may after- 
wards spring from the same stool will ever be able 
to contend with them. The pruning of all the 
lateral branches, great and small, up to a certain 
height, as is practised by some, I think a bad plan ; 
it is not the way to form handsome trees, and in ge- 
neral gives such a check to their growth that they 
are some years before they recover. Indeed it re- 
quires a delicate hand to prune, without, in some 
degree, retarding their growth ; and it is very doubt- 
ful to me if the pine tribe ever should be pruned at 
all, unless in taking off the dead boughs ; but if 



OF OAK COPPICE-WOODS, &C. 195 

it is necessary to prune the live branches, they 
should not be cut too close to the stem at first, but 
left as snags, and cut close afterwards, when the sap 
is gone. If it is wished to form handsome trees of 
oak, or other deciduous sorts, in parks, where they 
are exposed to the winds, no doubt they will re- 
quire to be pruned oftener than those confined in a 
wood, but they should be pruned upon the same 
principles. 

It often happens, particularly at the first cutting 
of an oak-coppice, that a considerable number of the 
stools do not shoot the first year, and sometimes not 
even for two or three years afterwards, and these 
generally the healthiest of them. At first I thought 
this might be owing to the lateness in the season 
of cutting them, which no doubt, in some instances, 
may be the case ; but I found that this did not al- 
together account for it, as some, cut both early and 
late, lay dormant. It is easy to account for stinted 
stools not being so liable to push as healthy ones 
(although they seldom fail, if cut at the proper sea- 
son), as the shoots in the former are apt to form 
buds all over the bole, probably by the stoppage of 
the sap from disease, and of course are sure to 
shoot that season, if they be not very late indeed 
in cutting. As the loss of two or three years' 
growth, if the number of stools are considerable, 
must be of consequence, it would be very desir- 
able to find some way of preventing it. We 
find that trees which are deep planted are most 

N 2 



196 MR HOSIE ON THE MANAGEMENT 

liable to lie dormant, although this may also hap- 
pen with those that are shallow planted ; but deep 
planting may be considered as the main cause. 
Therefore, if care were taken to remove the earth 
from the roots for a little way round the stem, im- 
mediately after cutting, it would enable the shoots 
to get up. I have no doubt but that in general 
would answer the purpose. It can by no means be 
owing to the mode of cutting, as some may think, 
as it appears to me to be of no consequence by what 
tool the stems are cut, whether by an axe or a saw, 
so as they are cut low : as the young shoots generally 
spring from betwixt the angles of the large roots or 
fangs, so the lower down they come the better ; for, 
when they spring from the root itself, they produce 
the most luxuriant wood. As to what is called 
dressing the stools, I have every reason to think it 
is quite useless ; it is no doubt meant to prevent 
that part from rotting, which it will not do. In 
general, the part of the stool near the surface, or 
what is above ground, will decay long before next 
cutting, although, in some very few cases, where it 
is left high, and the shoots spring from the top, it 
may in some measure be preserved, although in an 
unsound state ; but I by no means think it a dis- 
advantage for that part of the stool that is above 
ground to rot soon, as in that case the new shoots 
will be sure to come from the roots. 

In soils and situations that will suit, it is gene- 
rally thought that larch is more profitable to plant 



OF OAK COPPICE-WOODS, &C. 197 

than oak ; but in very extensive woods it might an- 
swer to have both, — the larch in large masses and 
irregular groups upon the most elevated places, and 
the oak as the main body of the wood. It would cor- 
rect the formality of a regular plantation of larch or 
fir; as we find that plantations of the pine tribe, how- 
ever extensive, and whatever may be their height, if 
they be all planted about the same time, have no 
better effect in distant landscape than furze or 
broom. It is only by breaking them into detached 
masses and groups, leaving the spiral formed upon 
the highest places, and introducing oak, or other 
round topped trees, that the pine tribe can be made 
subservient to beauty. 

It has been the opinion of some, that, by attend- 
ing to the various colours of the leaves of the diffe- 
rent kinds of trees, they might be so arranged as to 
greatly vary the effect ; but I should think this but 
fanciful at best. It is well known, that it is not so 
much the different colours, as the lights and shades 
of a picture, that give the effect: a beautiful one 
may be drawn in Indian ink without any variety of 
colour : And the same may be said of a plantation : 
the trees may be all of one sort, and yet have a most 
picturesque appearance, by the lights and shadows 
they throw from their broken masses, irregular groups, 
and unequal heights, and likewise by means of the 
prominent points and recesses of the outline ; al- 
though it would be impossible to give the same 
beauty and cheerfulness, to a plantation composed 



198 MR HOSIE ON THE MANAGEMENT 

altogether of the evergreen pine-tribe, as could be 
given to one composed of oak; and it must be admit- 
ted, that, in the colour of some leaves, the contrast 
is so great that they do not associate well together. 
Probably, in a shrubbery, an arrangement upon the 
principle of the colour of foliage might have a 
good effect, where the point of view can never be at 
any great distance. 

Some attention of late has been paid to the plant- 
ing of hedge-rows. There can be no doubt, but that 
oak, in this country, is by far the best for that pur- 
pose, both for ultimate profit, and doing the least 
damage by their roots to the adjoining crops. Be- 
sides, no tree adds more to the beauty of the land- 
scape, than the oak does in that way, provided the 
trees be not made absolute hedge-rows : it requires 
but few to give the proper effect, and those very ir- 
regularly interspersed. Besides, when planted regular 
and thick, they will no doubt injure the corn crops, 
by preventing a due circulation of air. But there 
can be no exact rule laid down for the distance, as 
some situations will require more, and some less. 
The only rule, I think, upon a large estate is, to al- 
low enough for some to be cut yearly in succession, 
when they become valuable, and the stool to be then 
trained to one stem only, while others may be left 
to grow to a large size, and be then cut so as in no 
case to have a bad effect upon the general landscape. 
The size of the young oaks, when planted, may de- 
pend upon the age of the hedge ; an old hedge re- 



OF OAK COPPICE-WOODS, &C 199 

quiring taller plants than a young one. For a young 
hedge, oaks might do well at three feet high or so, 
to be planted along with it ; while an old hedge will 
require oaks six or seven feet in height, to put them 
beyond the reach of cattle. 

Hedge-row trees planted in the open and irregu- 
lar way recommended, if to a great extent, would 
give a lightness and beauty to the scenery of a coun- 
try, far superior to the formality of thick planted 
regular hedge-rows, and without doing any injury, 
by shading the crops or robbing the soil, while 
they would ultimately afford a fair profit to the pro- 
prietor. 



200 MR TWEEDIE ON AN IMPROVED MODE 



VIII. 

Account of an Improved Mode of Ventilating 
Hot-Houses. 

In a Letter from Mr John Tweedie, Gardener at 
Eglinton Castle, to the Secretary. 

(Read %d December 1824.) 

Sir, 

J- he advantages to be derived from my improved 
mode of ventilating are numerous. In the arti- 
cles labour and preservation of glass, the saving 
may safely be rated at from 30 to 40 per cent. 
A man or a boy may, with one hand, remove all 
the hatches in three or four seconds, though the 
house were two or three hundred feet long ; where- 
as, in moving the sashes in the common way, it 
would require a man, in some cases, from twenty 
minutes to half an hour each time, to perform the 
same operation. Besides, by moving such a large 
proportion of the roof, the weight and motion loosen 
and destroy more or less of the glass almost daily. 

Being limited by the construction of our old houses 
here (Eglinton Castle), in applying the above plan, 



OF VENTILATING HOT-HOUSES. 201 

its advantage has not been so completely evinced as 
it might be, when adopted on the first construction 
of a hot-house ; for, in the first erection of a hot- 
house roof, with ventilating hatches, a great propor- 
tion of the expence might be saved, not only in the 
appendages already mentioned, but the bearers, 
also, if not entirely excluded, might be constructed 
so as to have less shade, and have a much neater 
and lighter appearance. 

If the plan (PI. IV.), and these suggestions, are 
considered worthy of publicity in the Memoirs of 
the Caledonian Horticultural Society, you have my 
permission. — I am, &c. 



Eglinton 
1st October 1824 



• i 

B24. j 



It is observed by a late writer on Horticultural 
subjects, that the many various modes and struc- 
tures employed in practical gardening, particularly 
in the erection of forcing-houses, shew, that there is 
perhaps not so much as a single hot-bed properly 
constructed ; and we see, that, in every recent esta- 
blishment of that nature, there is always something 
new introduced by way of improvement. I have 
been for upwards of twenty years employed among 
hot-houses, to a considerable extent, both in Scot- 
land and in England ; and I have seen several me- 
thods employed for airing or ventilating them, few 
of which have ever been so general, or reckoned so 



202 MR TWEEDIE ON AN IMPROVED MODE 

convenient, as the sliding-sash. To me this last al- 
ways appeared a cumbrous and an expensive me- 
thod, far inferior to some more convenient and eco- 
nomical plan yet to be devised. In large houses, 
where the sashes are perhaps from ten to fifteen feet 
long, and from three to four feet broad, there are to 
be moved about forty superficial feet of sash, with 
its numerous appendages — two or three lines of 
cordage, spring-latches, plates, rollers, pulleys, sash- 
grooves, &c. to each sash ; and all this for the sake 
of giving, perhaps, only from half a foot to two feet 
of air- vent. Besides, some of this complicated appa- 
ratus is constantly getting into disrepair, and the 
ever-fluctuating extremes of heat and cold, damp and 
drought, incident to our climate, subject the whole 
plan to numerous objections. To obviate these de- 
fects, as far as possible, has long occupied my atten- 
tion ; and, after trying various methods, I have now 
fixed upon one, which, I think, will be found to 
unite convenience, neatness, and utility. 

Annexed (Plate IV. fig. 5.) is a plan of the 
ventilators, to which I here refer, and which I have 
for several years past employed at this place for 
hot-houses of various dimensions ; and I have inva- 
riably found them to answer my warmest expecta- 
tions. 

In the plan, where the ventilators are shewn in 
a half opened state, a represents one of the upright 
stiles, or door-posts, in the end or section of the 



OF VENTILATING HOT-HOUSES. 203 

hot-house ; in which are pierced several sockets, 
six inches distant. Into these sockets, an iron 
hand-pin, b, is introduced, regulating the whole ap- 
paratus, by being moved upwards or downwards, 
from socket to socket, by the hand, according to 
the various degrees of air-vent wanted. This iron 
pin is fixed to a cord, or chain, c, passing through 
the stile a, over the pulley d ; which cord, or chain, 
is fixed to an iron rod, e, e, having an axle-joint at 
the junction of each lever. The rod, when the 
hand-pin b is moved up or down, moves horizontally 
between the pulley d, and a pulley f, fixed to the 
corresponding stile at the other end of the house, 
by the action of a weight g, attached to the end of 
the rod by a cord or chain, passing over the pul- 
ley^ This horizontal rod e, e, in its motion, thus 
produced by the weight g, operates at every joint, 
as already mentioned, on bent levers h, which, 
being attached to hatches, k, lift them or lower 
them, so as to admit or exclude the air, as circum- 
stances may require. The upper end of the lever 
is fastened to the hatches by screw-nuts, in order 
that, by unscrewing them, the sashes may be freed 
from the levers, and removed at pleasure for repair. 
The hatches occupy the place of two, three, or four 
panes lengthwise, at the top of the sash, propor- 
tioned to the dimensions of the house, and are hin- 
ged upon one of the astragals, projecting both at 
the sides and the ends, to exclude the wet. 



2104 ON VENTILATING HOT-HOUSES. 

I may remark, that at first I employed iron-rods 
at e, e ; but, in houses more recently constructed, I 
have employed common jack-chains, in place of such 
rods ; the chain being much more easily fitted to 
the levers, and answering, in other respects, equally 
well. 



( 205 ) 



IX. 

Queries relative to the Sowing, instead of Plant- 
ing, of Forest Trees. 

In a Letter to the Secretary from Messrs Bishop, 
Beattie, and Mitchell. 

(Head 8th Dec. 1818.J 

Sir, 

JL he subject of the report from the Committee for 
experiments on the Naturalization of Plants, un- 
der our northern climate, as published in the 8th 
Number of the Society's Memoirs *, has been parti- 
cularly gratifying to a number of your correspon- 
dents in this part of the country, whose situations 
require them to be equally conversant in planting 
and rearing of timber, as in growing vegetables and 
maturing fruits. 

The very imperfect manner in which much plant- 
ing is executed, — the treatment of the plants, — the 
season of planting, — the soil and situation to which 
many different sorts are improperly subjected, — ad- 
mit of much to rectify, and in which many valuable 

* Vol. ii. p. 416. &c. 



206 QUERIES RELATIVE TO 

discoveries may still be made, equally beneficial to 
individuals as to the general good of the nation at 
large. 

The advantages that may yet accrue to the pub- 
lic, by the introduction and naturalization of diffe- 
rent plants into our country, none can presume to 
estimate ; neither may any imagine that the best 
method in rearing those valuable species already 
naturalized, or even those timber trees indigenous 
to our country, has been fully ascertained.^ 

It is therefore with pleasure that we have seen 
the subject taken up for investigation by your Com- 
mittee, under the auspices of so much talent and 
public patronage ; and we rejoice in the promise 
given to resume their labours at a future period, 
from whence we are led to anticipate very import- 
ant advantages, in rescuing from oblivion the result 
of many valuable experiments and accurate obser- 
vations, which may tend to establish a system of 
planting and rearing, on a sure and practical basis, 
supported only by well authenticated facts. 

The right that every one has to speculate in opi- 
nions, we are ready to allow : it is only when theo- 
ries are assumed as patterns for practice, that they 
become strange lights, and are apt to mislead the 
unwary ; nor are we altogether certain how far your 
Committee have not indulged themselves in this 
respect in their section on the tap-root, which has 
induced us to propose the following Queries, that 



SOWING AND PLANTING OF TREES. 207 

we may be put in possession of the only certain 
proofs, which can evince to us the superiority of the 
principle recommended ; and for the benefit of the 
public, we would be glad to be answered in some fu- 
ture Number of the Society's Memoirs. We are., 
&c. 

Tho s . Bishop. 

W M . Beattie. 

John Mitchell. 

Perth, ) 
9th Oct. 1818. j 



QUERIES. 

1. Has it been ascertained by accurate experi- 
ments, that the tap-root in timber trees has a ge- 
neral tendency to promote their vigour and growth, 
after the third and fourth year of their age ? 

2. Can instances be pointed out, to prove the 
advantage of raising timber, by sowing seeds where 
the trees are to remain, in preference to planting 
the same extent of ground with young trees, two or 
three years old, a year or two later, seeing the prac- 
tice of sowing muirs and waste lands with seeds of 
the Scots fir and larch has been long since attempt- 
ed in Scotland, but without the expected success ? 



208 ON THE TAP-ROOT. 

3. What proofs can be adduced to contradict the 
result of experiments made in Dean Forest, and 
ordered to be printed by the House of Commons 
in the year 1812, from which it appears, that the 
transplanting of Oak trees in particular, was fol- 
lowed with an excess of growth, far superior to that 
of others which were never transplanted, the cases of 
both being perfectly similar ? 

4. Wherefore should not the transplanting of 
trees, or stopping of the tap-root at a proper age, en- 
courage more the growth of roots in a horizontal 
direction, which have always a freer range to procure 
nourishment, and are more likely to be benefited by 
the influence of the sun and rains, than those which 
strike perpendicular into a sterile subsoil, and which 
are the soonest broken by violent winds, when the 
tree attains much height, as is very observable in 
larch and fir trees blown over, and which in many 
cases occasions the rot in such trees, which begins 
in the root, and proceeds upwards ? 



5th April 1827. 
The Council recommend these Queries as the 
subjects of communications, founded on experience, 
for which Medals will be awarded, according to the 
merits of such reports. 

Pat. Neill, Sec. 



( 209 ) 



X. 



Account of a simple and effectual method of de- 
stroying the Scaly Insect. 

By Mr William Beattie, Gardener to the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Mansfield at Scone. 

In a Letter to the Secretary. 
(Read 6tk September 1 826. ) 

Dear Sir, 

JL now send you an account of the method which I 
take to destroy the Scaly Insect, with which many 
of the trees here were infested. I am sorry that 1 
am not naturalist enough to give you the technical 
name of the insect. It may be the same with that 
described by Mr P. Barnet in the 2d Number *, or 
that described by Mr Thomson in the 7th Number f 
of the Society's Memoirs ; but in my experience, 
neither chamber-ley, nor soap-suds, with the addi- 
tion of soda, had any effect in destroying them ; 
and I had heard that Mr Scougall's clay-paint did 
not succeed in destroying them where it had been 
tried. I could see no other remedy, therefore, but 

* Vol. i. p. 182. + Vol. ii. p. 301. 

VOL. IV. O 



£10 MR BEATTIE ON THE SCALY INSECT. 

cutting down or grubbing up the trees, and plant- 
ing others in their place. 

Before, however, proceeding to cut down the trees, 
I thought of subjecting one tree (a green-gage plum) 
to an application of boiling water. Accordingly, on a 
mild day in the month of February, the tree was un- 
nailed from the wall, and, with a painter's soft brush, 
washed all over with boiling water (at least as nearly 
to boiling as it could be carried a short distance in a 
small water-pot). This washing was made over all 
parts of the tree, without any attempt to avoid the 
buds, or young wood : the tree was again nailed up 
to the wall, and allowed to remain. In the spring, 
it began to shew some blossom, and to send forth 
shoots, the same as the rest of the trees. I thus 
soon ascertained that it had suffered no injury from 
the boiling water ; but at this time I was not so 
sure that the scaly insects were destroyed. 

As the season advanced, I watched the growth of 
the shoots, to see if any of the insects had got on 
the young wood ; for usually in former seasons, by 
the time it was six inches long, it was covered with 
them, and by midsummer, commonly the fruit also 
was infested. But on the closest inspection, I could 
discover none of the scaly insect on either the wood 
or fruit. This gave me much pleasure ; and I now 
considered the experiment as likely to prove success- 
ful, as the tree, besides being freed of the insects, 
appeared healthy, and fully as luxuriant as formerly. 

The following winter, in mild weather, I had the 



MR BEATTIE ON THE SCALY INSECT. 211 

whole of the trees * on which the scaly insect was 
perceptible, washed with boiling water, and have 
now the satisfaction of seeing them all healthy. 
The efficacy and safety of this simple application, I 
therefore consider as established. I may mention, 
that a very intelligent friend of mine washed with 
the garden engine in frosty weather, and the trees 
sustained no injury. 

It was also my misfortune, like many others, to 
have the White Hug on the trees in the peach- 
houses here. On witnessing the success of thus 
washing those trees on the walls, in the following win- 
ter I had the trees in the peach-houses also washed, 
as well as the rafters and walls, in the same manner, 
and with the like success. I may add, that, as a 
preventive, I now wash them in this way every win- 
ter. The trees are now clean and healthy, they 
have never missed a crop, nor have been the least 
hurt by the operation. No one need, therefore, be 
afraid of injuring their trees by the application of 
boiling water in the way described. Several of my 
acquaintance have adopted it with the same success ; 
and I can recommend it with confidence to garden- 
ers in general. I am, &c. 

Scone, 
18$ July 1826. 



} 



* There were two golden pippin and one Ribston pippin 
apples, two Crasanne pears, and several green-gage plums. 
It was on the latter I first discovered the insects. 



O 2 



( 212 ) 



XI. 



Remarks on the Locust-tree recommended by Mr 
Cobbet, with Notices of other more desirable 
Forest and Ornamental Trees. 

In a Letter from Thomas Blaikie, Esq. to the Secretary, 
(Read 10th November 1825.) 

Dear Sir, 

X now take up the pen to trouble you with a few 
observations relative to a publication made by Mr 
Cobbet, concerning a tree which he calls the Lo- 
cust *, and the culture of which he eulogises with 
enthusiasm. He pretends that it surpasses all other 
trees, and recommends all gentlemen to " destroy the 



* I cannot find what is the etymology of Mr Cobbet's name 
Locust-tree. Mr Cobbet pleases to say that the tamarind is al- 
so a locust, and that the pod or fruit was eaten by John the 
Baptist. This is perhaps a new discovery. Some other com- 
mentators have supposed that it was the fruit of Ceratonia sili- 
qua, which is a native about that part of the country where St 
John preached. Still other commentators have regarded the 
wild locust as a sort of grasshopper, frequently eaten in that 
country. The name of acacia is more significative than locust, 
for the word acacia is originally Celtic, and signifies a sharp 
thorn or point, and those trees are well armed. 



MR BLAIKIE ON THE LOCUST-TREE. 213 

villanous Scots fir, and the infamous elm, and plant 
nothing but locust." He affirms that no man " in 
America" will dare to say that he ever saw a bit of 
the wood of this tree in a decayed state. How 
far this assertion regarding America may be true 
I cannot say ; but I can assure you I have seen 
the wood of the Robinia pseud-acacia in a rot- 
ten state in France ; and he admits that what 
they call in America the locust-tree, is nothing but 
the Robinia pseud-acacia of Linnaeus. This tree, 
I may mention, was introduced into France from 
America by John Robin, then demonstrator at the 
King's Botanic Gardens at Paris, and cultivated by 
him about the year 1600 ; and to perpetuate the 
memory of M. Robin, the introducer, the genus 
received the name of Robinia. Of this genus there 
are upwards of fifteen species known and cultivated in 
Europe. Several are natives of North America, es- 
pecially the R. pseud-acacia here recommended. 
This species I have seen cultivated, and have myself 
cultivated, for upwards of fifty years in France, and 
have seen it planted in almost all soils and situa- 
tions. If planted in a rich soil and. sheltered situa- 
tion, it will throw out prodigiously strong and luxu- 
riant branches, and form a large bushy head in a 
few years ; but it seldom forms a straight leading 
stem ; so that those forked bushy heads are subject 
to break or split off even by light gales, or some- 
times merely by the weight of their leaves. In this 
way those trees are generally disfigured, which has 



214 MR BLAIKIE ON THE LOCUST-TREE 

disgusted many people from planting them. I have 
examined some of the largest trees of this kind in 
France* -and compared them with other kinds of 
trees of the same age, and in the same plantations ; 
yet never could I find a fine, tall, straight tree of 
the Acacia once to be compared to a fine straight 
Pinus Larijc (larch-tree), or P. sylvestris (Scots 
fir), trees which Mr Cobbet so much despises. If 
the P. abies (spruce) and P.<picea (pitch-pine) were 
all destroyed, ^s he would wish, could Mr Cobbet 
make ship-masts of his locust-tree? This locust- 
tree seldom makes a straight stem twenty feet high, 
unless in a remarkably fine soil and sheltered situa- 
tion ; whereas I have seen larches, and many of the 
pine-trees, above 100 feet in height, and they will 
thrive in situations where the locust or acacia will 
not exist ; for I always observed, that, in open or 
exposed situations, it was broken by the wind and 
mostly destroyed, and that on dry soils it did not 
thrive. I would therefore advise gentlemen to be 
very cautious in planting locust-trees, or going to ex- 
tremes in destroying their other timber-trees, upon 
Mr Cobbet's recommendation. Some acacias, in 
plantations well sheltered, produce a very agreeable 
effect from the beauty of their foliage, and the fra- 
grance of their blossom, which nearly equals that of 
orange flowers : the leaves, however, come late in 
the spring, and fall with the first frost ; so that the 
tree is divested for a great part of the year of its 
verdure, and the flowers are but of short duration, 
seldom[lasting in beauty above a week. 



RECOMMENDED BY MR COBBET. 215 

In the year 1807, M. Francois de Neufchateu 
published a little book, entitled, " Lettre sur le 
Robinia connu sous le nom improper de Faux 
Acacia." In this book he speaks with enthusiasm 
of the acacia, recommends the planting of it in all 
soils and situations, and even the making hedges of 
it ; and he enlarges on the many uses the wood can 
be applied to. This high character enticed many 
people to plant acacias both in the gardens about 
Paris and in many avenues ; so that abundance of 
seeds of the acacia could be procured within a few 
leagues of Paris. Most of those I have seen are 
bushy, low, or broken trees, often disfigured, and 
not comparable to either elm or oak, or any of our 
common forest-trees. The branches are covered 
with strong prickles, so that where wood is want- 
ed (which is a great article in this country), the 
woodmen exclaim against that of this tree, as they 
cannot handle it without danger. Few people, 
therefore, at present think of planting the locust- 
tree. 

There is another species of the Robinia culti- 
vated about Paris under the name of Robinia 
spectabilis. This, I believe, is little known in Bri- 
tain. It is without prickles ; the flowers are nearly 
the same with those of the pseud- acacia, but 
somewhat larger, and a little reddish. This species 
is frequently grafted upon the pseud-acacia, and 
will thus make prodigious shoots. I saw one of 
those acacias in a gentleman's garden near Arpa- 



216 MB BLAIKIE ON THE LOCUST-TREE 

jon, which had been grafted upon the pseud-aca- 
cia in the month of April. The shoot in the month 
of September following measured 14 feet French 
measure, nearly equal to 15 feet English, and was 
tolerably strong in proportion. This was in a shel- 
tered situation. However, I have frequently seen 
this sort make shoots of from 8 to 10 feet the first 
year ; but this tree is, like the other, subject to 
split or break. 

Some years ago at Mere\>ille, the seat of M. de 
Laborde, a part of a hill had been planted accord- 
ing to the direction of some pretenders, with aca- 
cias, and great progress was anticipated. When I 
visited the spot, the only remains I could see of 
this plantation were a few straggling, half-dead 
bushes. Among the acacias had been introduced 
by chance or mistake, a plant of Ailanthus glan- 
dulosa, which had perfectly succeeded, and was now 
a fine straight tree. The soil was chalky and dry. 
The rest of the hill was planted with different sorts 
of pines and spruces, which were healthy, strong, 
and vigorous, and promised both pleasure and pro- 
fit to the proprietor ; whereas, if the hill had been 
wholly planted with acacias or locust, it would pro- 
bably have returned to its former barren state, and 
the proprietor would have spent both labour and 
money in vain. 

I lately examined some plantations of acacias in 
the park of Guisard, which had been planted by 
the Due d'Aumon about fifty years ago. The most 



RECOMMENDED BY MR COBBET. 217 

part of those trees were disfigured, the branches 
split or broken, and lying upon the other trees. 
Some of the trunks were decayed and rotten, and 
rather indicated a decaying than a durable tim- 
ber ; whereas, in the neighbourhood of those trees 
there were fine and healthy liriodendrons above 
60 feet high, and specimens of the platanus of 
the same age, with fine trunks. Some of these I 
measured two feet above the ground, and found to 
be 12 feet in circumference. Several other kinds of 
trees were healthy and vigorous, whereas the aca- 
cias could hardly be said to have become timber- 
trees. Those locust-trees could never serve to shel- 
ter any nobleman or gentleman's country seat, and 
it would certainly be throwing away money and 
time to plant them with such views in a northern 
climate. 

The Robinia viscosa is a fine flowering tree, and 
grows to a tolerable size, nearly as large as the 
other : it is not so subject to break as the two for- 
mer : the flowers are beautiful, of a red colour, but 
not so fragrant as those of the common acacia. This 
was introduced into France by M. Lemonier, and 
flowered for the first time in his garden at Versailles 
in 1789- These three species of acacia may be 
cultivated in sheltered situations, and amongst large 
growing trees. The Robinia hispida is a low grow- 
ing shrub, very beautiful when in flower, but very 
subject to break. All these four species of acacia 
are natives of North America. Their small roots 



218 MR BLAIKIE ON THE LOCUST-TREE. 

are sweet, and resemble in taste and smell the 
liquorice-root ; but I have not heard that the 
roots have been employed for any purpose. If, 
after what I have said, people will be led, with- 
out reason, to plant these locust-trees of Mr Cob- 
bet, I can easily furnish seeds in any quantity from 
this neighbourhood ; but if I recommended the sow- 
ing of such seeds, I should only deceive the coun- 
try. 

Another tree which Mr Cobbet speaks of with 
great enthusiasm, is the white oak, of which he says 
the whip-handles in America are made, being much 
tougher than whalebone, and exceedingly flexible, 
and bending in every direction. I may mention, 
that the whip-handles of the coachmen about Paris 
are made of the Celtis australis, and probably equal, 
if not surpass, his white oak in flexibility. They 
are known about Paris under the name of Per pig- 
nans, as the trees grow very plentifully about Per- 
pignan, and they are procured from thence. 

Allow me to add, that Mr Cobbet mentions ha- 
ving received the seeds of the Catalpa, which he 
calls a shrub, and ranks it with Althea f?mtex. 
Now the catalpa often grows to above 40 feet high ; 
and if the Althea frutex be, as it ought, the Hibis- 
cus syriacus, how happens Mr Cobbet to introduce 
it from America? He mentions likewise Platanus 
occidentalis, and I agree that this tree deserves 
to be cultivated much more than it is, as it is one 
of the finest and most beautiful trees, and grows to 



RECOMMENDED BY MR COBBET. 219 

an amazing size when planted on a moist soil. I 
saw several of these trees last autumn in the forest 
at Troy in Champagne, whose trunks were above 
100 feet straight, and which, being vigorous and 
flourishing, will probably come to a vast size if 
left to grow. I remember to have seen some ex- 
periments made with the wood of this tree by the 
unfortunate M. de Malesherbes, who was a great 
cultivator of all sorts of trees about forty years ago. 
When I was at his place he shewed me some cart- 
wheels he had made of platanus, and others of elm, 
of which last they are usually made in France. 
Those made of the platanus were placed with one 
of elm on the same cart, so that they should have 
the same work ; and the platanus had outlasted two 
of elm, and was still in good condition, and seemed 
likely to outlast the third. This was a clear proof 
of the goodness of the wood of this tree, which 
ought to be cultivated both for its beauty and uti- 
lity ; and if the soil is moist, they will grow to a 
large size, and become very ornamental. 

There is cultivated in France one sort of cherry- 
tree which multiplies very fast by suckers. With- 
out grafting, it produces very good cherries. This 
sort is in great request in this part of the country : 
the trees are dwarfish, but often produce great crops 
of fruit. It appears to be original, and deserving 
of attention. — I am, &c. 

St Germain en Laye, ) 
10th June 1825. j 



( 220 ) 



XII. 

On scraping off the Old Bark of Fruit- trees. # 

By the late Mr Thomas Thomson, Gardener. 

In a Letter to the Secretary. 

(Read 10th June 1817-) 

Sir, 

W hoever will examine fruit-trees that have 
been planted a number of years, and that have borne 
crops regularly, must observe that the bearing- 
branches of such trees are greatly exhausted, ha- 
ving lost their elasticity, the fruit being generally 
small, and even the leaves no longer having that 
healthy appearance that is to be seen in young 
trees. The visible decay in such trees does not ap- 
pear to be owing to any failure in the roots to form 
young radicles, to supply the waste of sap which is 
necessary to carry on the vegetable economy ; but 
seems rather to proceed from the small quantity of 



* See postscript to Mr Thomson's paper on the Scaly In- 
sect on fruit-trees, printed in the Memoirs of the Soeiety, 
vol. ii. p. 305. 



MR THOMSON ON SCRAPING OFF OLD BARK. 221 

inner bark that is formed annually, and the com- 
pressed state of the vessels, arising from the hard 
incumbent bark on the stem and large branches. 
For I have frequently selected trees that appeared 
far gone in a state of decay, and, by carefully head- 
ing them down, I always found that, in a few years, 
they formed fine fresh heads, the wood and fruit 
having all the good qualities of those of a young 
healthy tree. To apply manure to the roots of such 
trees, in hopes of renovating them, while the inner 
bark and vessels remain in a state of compression, 
can be of very little benefit ; for the access is cut 
off from those parts of the tree that stand in the 
greatest need of a fresh supply of sap, and until the 
sap-vessels and inner-bark are relieved, the tree 
will remain in a languishing condition. 

I have found from repeated experience, that scra- 
ping off the hard ligneous bark of old fruit-trees 
has the desired effect of removing the compression, 
and is useful also in stimulating the young radicles 
to imbibe a larger portion of sap, so that it ascends 
more copiously to the upper extremities of the tree, 
and accelerates the evolution of the buds. From 
several experiments I have made on leaves, espe- 
cially those of the vine, I am strongly impressed 
with an idea that the leaves decompose a certain 
portion of sap to mature the fruit ; for I repeated- 
ly found, that, if I deprived a vine-shoot of a cer- 
tain quantity of its leaves, it checked the fruit from 
swelling, and likewise rendered it of an inferior 



£22 MR THOMSON ON SCRAPING OFF 

flavour. I at the same time discovered, by a simple 
operation, that I could increase the leaves near the 
fruit to almost double their ordinary size, and that, 
when that was the case, the fruit was greatly im- 
proved in every respect. I am also of opinion, that 
the leaves are the means of increasing the inner- 
bark, and of course the alburnum ; and as these 
are the seat of the vital powers, it is reasonable to 
conclude, that, when so increased, assimilation will 
go on with greater facility. 

To corroborate what I have observed, several 
years ago I scraped off the outer-bark of two cra- 
sanne pear-trees. They were planted on a south 
aspect, and trained in the horizontal form. The 
stems of both trees were so close to the wall, that 
about three inches in breadth of the stem was left 
unscraped. The trees for some years had made 
very little wood, and the stems were covered with a 
hard scaly bark. The first year after scraping, they 
shewed evident signs of the great benefit of remo- 
ving the hard obdurate bark ; for that part of the 
stem that was scraped had swelled considerably 
higher than the unscraped part, and in a few years 
had covered a part of it, for, to all appearance, 
the unscraped part seemed to remain stationary. 
The trees made surprisingly fine wood ; many of 
the shoots were four feet in length. I frequently 
found, in taking off the outer bark of fruit trees, that 
if I happened to scrape one side, not going regular- 
ly round the stem, a fissure would take place a foot 



THE OLD BARK OF FRUIT-TREES. 223 

or two in length in the inner-bark ; and it was not 
uncommon to hear it cracking while going on with 
the operation. 

For upwards of twenty years I have practised 
scraping off the outer-bark of old fruit-trees, and of 
most kinds cultivated in this country, and on trees 
of various ages, and at different seasons. I would 
by no means recommend scraping off the bark of a 
young tree while it continues soft and green, for, 
from what I observed, I always found it injurious 
to the future growth of the tree. 

I look upon the spring and autumn as the best 
season for removing the outer-bark ; for notwith- 
standing the greatest care may be taken in scraping 
off the bark, it will sometimes happen that a wound 
will be made on the inner-bark ; and as the tree is 
then in a growing state, by applying a little plas- 
ter to it immediately before that the air-vessels 
shrink, it soon cicatrizes. I often found that a gra- 
nulation of new bark would take place all over the 
wound, which seemed to proceed from the air-ves- 
sels. 

In taking off the outer-bark in winter, the inner 
bark is liable to be injured to a certain depth, espe- 
cially if a frost should happen immediately after do- 
ing it. It is my humble opinion, that pruning of 
trees in winter is often attended with bad conse- 
quences, particularly in the more delicate sorts of 
fruit-trees. I have frequently seen very healthy 
trees that had been hard pruned in winter suffer very 



224 MR THOMSON ON SCRAPING OFF 

much from canker the season following, and the 
fruit is liable to become gummy. If a large branch 
should be cut off in winter, the upper part of the 
wound is likely to form a cicatrice the early part of 
the season, which is caused by the descent of the 
sap. But before that a convolution of the sap is 
formed, the cold and wet having pervaded the un- 
der part, it generally happens that the bark dies 
down for a good way, and, if not checked in time, 
carries the disease to a considerable extent, which is 
seldom the case if such a branch be cut while the 
tree is in a growing state. 

In order to prepare the tree for scraping, it is ne- 
cessary to remove the earth from the stem, so as to 
get as near to the root as possible. I then, with a 
sharp knife, begin close to the root, scraping off all 
the hard coating of scaly bark, going a little way 
into the soft bark below, keeping at an equal depth, 
that the bark that is left may appear as neat and 
smooth as possible. And when I have taken off 
all the bark from the stem and branches, as far as I 
judge requisite, I have ready at hand a quantity 
of clay, that has been previously dried and pounded 
into a fine powder, which, being mixed with water, 
so as to bring it into the nature of paint, then with 
a painter's brush I apply the mixture all over those 
parts that have been scraped, which not only takes 
off the unsightly appearance of the scraping, but 
defends the tender bark from the rays of the sun, 
and likewise from the weather. In a short time 



THE OLD BARK OF FRUIT-TREES. 225 

after the tree has set a-growing, the mixture falls 
off, leaving the bark below of a fine smooth ap- 
pearance. I am, &c. 

Nursery, ) 
Uth May 1817. ) 

P. S. — Since writing the above, I have been 
looking over some remarks that I had made on 
thinning and pruning of old forest-trees, &c. and 
there is one which, I trust, you will not think alto- 
gether unworthy of your notice. 

Having employed a hedger to cut over a strong 
healthy thorn-hedge, that enclosed a plantation of 
considerable extent, he had cut over a large portion 
of it early in autumn, but being called off to some 
other duties, the remainder was cut over in the win- 
ter and spring following. The whole was cut at 
two and a half feet from the ground, and all done 
by the same person. I happened to go the latter 
end of the summer to view the plantation, having 
thinned it out the preceding autumn, when I was 
much struck with the unequal growth of the hedge. 
At first I imputed it to something in the soil, but 
on examining it more minutely, I found that it was 
owing to the different seasons of cutting ; for the 
part that was cut in the autumn had made shoots 
four feet in length, while that which had been cut 
in winter had made very few shoots, and few of 
them more than a foot in length. The part that 

VOL. IV. p 



326 MR THOMSON ON SCRAPING OLD BARK, 

was cut in the spring was little inferior to what 
was done in the autumn. — A marked lesson how 
cautious one ought to be as to the season at which 
they prune the more delicate sorts of fruit-trees, 
many of which are foreign to this climate. 

T. T. 



( 227 ) 



XIII. 



On the raising of Seedling Ranunculuses, with 
an account of some fine ones exhibited to the 
Society on %%d June 1826. 

In a Letter from Mr John Waterston, Paisley, to 
James Macdonald, Esq. Newington. 

(Read 2d Nov. 182&) 

Dear Sir, 

It was fortunate that the box reached Edinburgh 
in good order, and that the flowers gave some satis- 
faction to you and friends. The intense heat, and 
continued dry weather, put it out of my power to 
send a great many of the finest sorts, particularly 
the beautiful red and whites, touched with the pen- 
cil of Nature in endless variety, spotted, mottled, 
laced, and what we term cherry-edged. It may be 
safely asserted, that the flowers wanted at least one- 
third of the size they reached last year. Had the 
season been more suitable, perhaps 100 distinct va- 
rieties, for the most part superior to those sent, 
could have been selected from the bed, and not 
been much missed ; for the bed was just one mass 

p 2 



228 MR WATERSTONE ON THE RAISING OF 

of bloom. I shall proceed to give some of the par- 
ticulars you desire. 

In the year 1821, the seed was saved chiefly 
from the following sorts of flowers, viz. 

1st, Fleming's fine Mottle, (or by some called 
Shaw's fine Mottle). This flower produced a greater 
number of beautiful seedlings than any of the others. 
In fact, the seedlings raised from it when in bloom 
for the first time, which was in 1824, more re- 
sembled a selection of fine stage-flowers than un- 
proven seedlings. 

2d, Louisette. This also produced some splen- 
did seedlings. 

3d, Two sorts known here by the name of Dun- 
can's Stripe and Hebe. The seeds of these two 
sorts put together, also produced a good many beau- 
tiful seedlings. 

4<th, A flower, of which I do not know the name. 
It is purple on grey. It produced a few choice 
sorts, among which is one which I have called Glo- 
ria Florum. This, for beauty, exceeds almost any 
thing I have ever seen in the ranunculus tribe. The 
ground is white, strongly edged with a purple co- 
lour, inclining to a rich blue, and it is a well built 
flower. 

5th, Alba maculata produced some elegant va- 
rieties. 

6th, Adam's Spot produced only secondary flow- 
ers, whilst an inferior sort, called here Shaw's YeU 



SEEDLING RANUNCULUSES. 229 

low Spot, produced some first-rate red and purple 
mottles, rosy and yellow grounded flowers. When 
they produce sorts so far superior and so totally 
different from the mother plant, I am apt to ascribe 
it in a great measure to their being grown near 
fine flowers, and within reach of their pollen. 

The seed was gathered about the end of July, and 
kept in the seed-vessel, with the stems attached, till 
about the middle of March following. This was the 
time of my sowing, but I think it might be done at 
the beginning of that month. I had some compost 
prepared in the preceding year for auriculas, the in- 
gredients of which originally were cows' dung, loam, 
sand, and moss, in about the usual proportions com- 
monly given to auriculas. To this mould I added 
an equal proportion of fresh sandy loam, taken from 
the bank of a river. These having been put toge- 
ther for a month or so, and frequently turned over, 
the soil passed through an ordinary sieve : the 
coarse parts were reserved for the bottom of the 
boxes, which were of wood, 18 inches long, 10 deep, 
and 12 broad, with holes bored in the bottom. 
About 2 inches of the bottom were covered with 
the refuse, then 6 inches of the sifted mould, which 
left 2 inches. I then took a watering-pot with a 
very fine rose, and completely saturated the earth 
in the boxes. I next put in about 1 j inches of the 
same mould, which was previously passed through 
a very fine sieve : the fine mould soon absorbed 
from beneath as much moisture as was necessary to 



230 MR WATERSTONE ON THE RAISING OF 

render it lit to receive the seed. When sown, the 
boxes were put into a small frame of two lights, up- 
on a bed of tanners' bark, containing not above two 
cart-loads. Not being acquainted with the manage- 
ment of frames with stable-dung, I rather preferred 
the bark, which I do think is better adapted to the 
raising of such seeds as those of ranunculus. I had 
a vessel made of tin-plate, which could contain 
about seven Scots pints of water. This was so 
placed in making up the bed, as that it should be 
covered about eight inches. To assist you in un- 
derstanding it, I will give you the form. 




A, A pipe for filling the vessel by means of a 

funnel. 

B, Small pipe for letting off the air. 

C, A pipe with a stop-cock for letting off the 

water. 

In the cold evenings this vessel was filled with 
boiling-hot water, so that, by care, the temperature 
could be kept up to nearly the heat during the day ; 
but, I confess, this was attended with considerable 
trouble. After placing the boxes in the frame, I 



SEEDLING RANUNCULUSES. 231 

kept on the lights. The seed soon began to swell 
with the moisture : in this state it may be ascer- 
tained easily whether or not it will successfully ve- 
getate. In some of the boxes I covered the seed 
very slightly at once ; with others I followed the 
plan recommended by Maddock, of covering by de- 
grees : both ways succeeded equally well. The si- 
tuation of the frame was such, that, by a high wall 
about 10 feet distance, it was shaded after about 
one o'clock p. m., till which time, when the sun- 
shine was strong, it was necessary to cover with 
mats. 

If the seed has been saved from tolerably double 
flowers, consequently it will not be very strong. The 
most precarious time is after these weak seeds have 
vegetated, to get them by gentle degrees accus- 
tomed to the air, in order to strengthen them, and 
make them more hardy. Unless great care be 
taken, they are apt to go off; that is, many of 
the tenderest of them die away on air being given. 
No fit opportunity should be lost to let them re- 
ceive soft showers of rain, by which they are much 
benefited. Great attention is necessary from the 
time of sowing, to see that they never receive a 
check from drought. 

I would particularly warn cultivators to beware 
of the soil which is used being clear of vermin. 
That in which I sowed had been lying over from 
the former year, and the fly, which comes from 
the common corn-grub, had, about the end of 



23% MR WATERSTONE ON THE RAISING OF 

summer or the beginning of autumn, laid its eggs in 
great abundance in the mould. After the plants 
were growing well, the young grubs commenced the 
cutting them down, so that many hundreds were 
lost, which, in all probability, would have proved 
valuable flowers. I would recommend, that all 
heaps of compost, for any similar purpose, should be 
covered during the time that these insects are de- 
positing their eggs. 

During the first year, the plants will require to 
be regularly kept moist, and shaded from the scorch- 
ing sun. At same time, they should receive as 
much air as possible, and when the leaves wither, 
the roots should be carefully lifted. This requires 
a good deal of attention, many of them being very 
small. They should be kept in a dry place till the 
ensuing month of February, and then planted one 
inch deep in fine soil, 

Thus I have given a faithful account of the plan 
pursued by me in the raising of the seedling ranun- 
culuses, however defective it may be. With re- 
gard to those sorts I sent, they are all seedlings of 
my own raising ; some of them had been twice 
bloomed before this year ; the greater part of those 
sent had bloomed last year but very weakly, from 
smallness of roots. Having gained a little more 
strength this year, they shewed to greater advan- 
tage. 



SEEDLING RANUNCULUSES. 



233 



Sorts of Seedling Ranunculuses sent to Edinburgh. 



No. 


Colour. 


14. 


White ground, mottled red, 


16. 


Do. do. purple-edged, 


19. 


Rose-coloured self, 


21. 


White ground, spotted red, 


23. 


Rose self, 


33. 


White ground, mottled red 




(faint), 


54. 


Do. do. laced & spot- 




ted red, 


57. 


Cream ground, purple-edged, 


71. 


White do. red spot, 


101. 


Do. do. dark red 




edged, 


110. 


Greyish mottle, 


115. 


Do. do. 


123. 


White ground, red spotted, 


130. 


Do. do. purple do. 


168. 


Do. do. purple-edged, 


177. 


Do. do. do. do. 


214. 


Do. do. red-mottled, 


121. 


Do. do. do. do. 


205. 


Do. do. do. do. 


136. 


Pure white self, 



Names. 
J Marshall Blucher ; raised from 
( Shaw's fine Mottle. 
Lord Byron ; from do. do. 

J Rose Magnificent; from Loui- 
( sette. 

Flora ; from do. 

Rose Unique ; from do. 
f Bragella ; from Duncan's 
\ Stripe or Hebe. 

f Shakespeare ; from mixed 
\ seed. 

Not yet named ; from do. 

Ullin ; from do. 
f Sir W. Scott ; from Shaw's 
\ fine Mottle. 

Spencer ; from Louisette. 
f Fuseli ; from Duncan's Stripe 
\ or Hebe. 

Addison ; from do. do. 
Tannahill: from do. do. 
Juno ; from mixed seed. 
Sir H. Raeburn ; from do. 
Not named ; from do. 

{Not named ; from Duncan's 
Stripe or Hebe. 

Not named ; from do. 

do. do. do. 



I am, &c> 



Paisley, ) 
9Qih Aug. 1826. j 



( 2Si< ) 



XIV. 

Account of a Method of cultivating the Grape- 
Vine. 

By Mr Ninian Niven, Gardener at Belladrum, near 
Inverness. 

(Bead 1st June 1826.^ 

X he more ordinary erections for the cultivation 
of the grape-vine are of such an expensive nature, 
that, in cases where economy is a consideration, 
and more particularly in those parts of Scotland 
where the expense of coal used in the forcing of 
grapes is material, the supply of this fruit must be 
either very limited, or it is entirely dispensed with. 
With a view to remedy this, I was induced to con- 
sider whether or not the vine might be cultivated 
on a different principle from that at present most 
generally practised in this country. With a view 
to this, in the winter of the year 1824, I reserved 
a few shoots of the prunings of a black Constan- 
tia vine, and, in the early spring of 1825, select- 
ed a few single eyes or buds from these shoots, 
planting them in a middle-sized pot, in a mixture 
of old vegetable mould and pit-sand, observing to 
cover with half an inch or so of pure sand, and 

2 



MR NIVEN ON CULTIVATING THE VINE. 235 

leaving the buds just visible on the surface, in the 
usual way of propagating from cuttings, and in this 
state allowing them to remain for two or three 
weeks in an airy temperate situation, I then had 
them removed to an early cucumber frame, and 
plunged in a moderate bottom heat. In a short 
time they began to grow, and, as soon as they were 
fairly rooted, I had them separated, and put into 
single pots, replugging them into a mild bottom 
heat, and keeping shifting as they advanced in 
growth, using little else than very old well-rotted 
stable-dung, with a small proportion of light soil. 
From this management, by the end of the season 
they produced shoots of well-ripened wood 24 feet 
in length ; after which time (latter end of Septem- 
ber) the plants were placed in an exposed situation, 
close to a south wall. I nailed up the shoots, to 
prevent them being blown about by the wind, and 
covered the pots, previous to the setting in of the 
winter, with a quantity of litter, so as to preserve 
the roots from the severe frosts. About Novem- 
ber the shoots were cut back to about 10 feet from 
the pot. Standing over winter in this state, they 
were, in the ensuing spring, set into an early for- 
cing-house, and some of them shewed not less than 
twenty-five bunches of grapes ; but I reduced this 
quantity to one-half, so as to enable the plants the 
better to mature their load. The fruit set ad- 
mirably, and ripened to a good size even in the 
plants in the pots, some of the bunches weighing a 



236 MR NIVEN ON A NEW METHOD OF 

pound and a half. With a view to cause the regu- 
lar breaking of the buds, the shoot of each plant 
was trained to three stakes, so as to describe a 
circle, thus — 




This at the same time rendered the plants more 
portable to any situation, as circumstances might 
require. One of the plants, turned out of the pot, 
and planted in a small fruiting pine-stove in the 
beginning of March, also shewed an equal quantity 
of fruit, and produced grapes of a very superior qua- 
lity both as to size and flavour, being fit for the des- 
sert by the latter end of June. 

Such being the result of these experiments, I am 
strongly induced to propose the following method 



CULTIVATING THE GRAPE-VINE. 237 

of fruiting the vine, for I consider the greatest dif- 
ficulty overcome by the uniform success attending 
these trials. 

What I propose, then, is simply this : To select 
a few shoots from the prunings of any vinery, where 
the wood has been well ripened, and from such sorts 
as are known to produce the best crops, and finest 
fruit, as the Black Hamburgh, Black Constantia, 
White Muscadine, White Sweetwater, St Peter's, 
or any such-like good bearers, as may suit the 
taste and experience of cultivators. The shoots 
should be cut into lengths, and stuck in by the 
heels in a sheltered situation, till about the month 
of February, when the buds should be selected, 
and put into a pot or pots, as already described. 
When once fairly set a-growing in a hot-bed, the 
growth may still be carried on in the spare room of 
any melon and cucumber frames at work. After 
the plants are separated, the shoots will soon ex- 
tend. It should be observed, in their outset, that 
only one shoot is allowed to be produced, the buds 
being very apt to push double. It is proper to 
keep pinching off all superfluous appendages that 
will naturally occur. 

As the young plants will now require to be trained 
in some situation where they may have a full run, 
I propose, as the best means of growing them to 
the extent required, to have a pit constructed for 
them. This pit should be laid out in two divisions, 
the one to be used for nursing, and the other for 



238 MR N1VEN ON A NEW METHOD OP 

fruiting, as in the management of pine-apples, only- 
having conductors of wood, in the form of a trellis, 
in the inside, at the distance of a foot or so from 
the glass, for training the shoots to, as they advance 
all along the length of the pit. These may be so 
constructed as to be lifted out altogether, as occa- 
sion may require. The plants should be placed at 
each end of the pit, and trained to pass each other 
in the middle, thus training two shoots upon each 
conductor, from east to west, the one stopping where 
the other starts. I consider that eight plants at each 
end, in a pit of the dimensions noted on the annexed 
plan (Plate V.), will be sufficient ; that is, sixteen 
plants in all. These may be expected to produce 
at least 300 bunches of grapes. But to return : — 
By the time the young plants are beginning to re- 
quire more room than the melon or cucumber frames 
will allow, it being understood that they have been 
shifted ^once or twice after the first potting, they 
must, previous to being set into the nursing-pit, be 
shifted for good and all, into the largest-sized pots 
(say twelve inches diameter), which will be found per- 
fectly sufficient to produce shoots of twenty or more 
feet in length, and proportionably strong, observing 
to pot, as already hinted, with well-rotted old dung, 
and a little fresh light soil, of a rich quality. This 
is all the management they will now require, ex- 
cepting judicious attention in airing, pruning, &c. 
and especially the giving regular and liberal sup- 
plies of water, both at root and over head. 



CULTIVATING THE GRAPE-VINE. 239 

The nursing-pit may be wrought altogether with 
tree leaves collected in autumn ; preferring those of 
the most hard and durable nature, as those of the 
oak, beech, &c. ; the pit being filled with leaves to 
within three feet or so of the sashes, and firmly 
packed. Two or three square boxes, without bot- 
toms, made of a single deal cut into four, so as to 
give, when nailed together, an enclosed space of 
about four feet square, will, by being placed on the 
surface of the leaves, in the middle of the pit, and 
filled with mould, produce an excellent crop of me- 
lons. The one will not in the least interfere with 
the other ; for, by the time the vines are meeting, 
the crop of melons will be nearly ripe, and the par- 
tial shade will benefit them. Thus, this little com- 
partment maybe made to answer two important 
ends, of the practicability of which I am fully satis- 
fied, having had occasion to adopt the above plan in 
the growing of melons last year, and with the most 
satisfactory results. 

Regarding the Fruiting Pit, I would advise by all 
means its having the advantage of a flue, so as to 
ripen the crop at an early season, if required, and al- 
so for the preservation of the fruit in damp weather. 
The plants having been well grown, and the wood 
properly ripened, and exposed to the winter, as al- 
ready observed, about the middle of February let the 
fruiting-pit be filled with leaves, as directed for the 
nursing one, and allowed to exhaust its first heat, 
before putting in the plants, which may be about 



£40 MR NIVEN ON A NEW METHOD OF 

the latter end of the month. The plants should 
be turned out of their pots, and plunged, or more 
properly planted, at each end among the leaves, ob- 
serving to have a quantity of half- decayed ones, of 
a close texture, all round the balls, treading all very 
firmly round about : this being done, and the shoots 
trained to their respective conductors, they are ready 
for forcing. 

If the weather be favourable and mild, very little 
fire-heat will be required for some time, as the heat 
arising from the leaves will be sufficient, with co- 
vering up at night, until the buds begin to break. 
Previous to this time, air should be admitted freely, 
let the weather be what it may, so as to ensure their 
regular breaking, — a point of great importance in 
all cases of early forcing. Whenever they indicate 
a general breaking, a moderate fire must be applied, 
and gradually increased to the proper temperature 
for the plant (from 65° to 75° Fahrenheit), till the 
advancing season shall render it unnecessary. At 
most, a few weeks of firing will, in ordinary seasons, 
be sufficient, and that at a very moderate expence, 
in comparison to that required in the heating of the 
common vinery, which, in any part of the kingdom 
where coals are expensive, is a material considera- 
tion. Supposing the forcing to have begun as above, 
the crop will be ready by the end of May, or begin- 
ning of June, if properly followed up. 

The same plants, if well managed, may be so 
trained as to produce a superior crop of fruit the se- 



CULTIVATING THE GRAPE-VINE. 241 

cond year ; but I would advise a renewal of the 
plants every third season, the better to ensure a suc- 
cession of crops, as the nourishment fron\the leaves 
will by this time be nearly exhausted, and require 
renewal. Fruit produced in this way would, I am 
confident, from what I have proved, be of a very 
superior quality to those of the common vinery. 
Without a trial, no one can form any just idea how 
well the vine repays these attentions. The plant 
being young, both in root and stem, partakes of the 
purest health, and in such a state must naturally 
produce the best of fruit. Those unacquainted with 
the nature of the vine, when told that a single bud 
may, with the greatest ease, be grown from twenty 
to thirty feet in one season, may, I am aware, be 
startled, and ready to question the truth of such an 
assertion ; but by every practical man who knows 
the nature of the plant, the thing will be at once 
admitted. In the outset of these experiments, I was 
far from anticipating the success of their results ; 
and it is only from these that I am thus led to pro- 
pose the present method, being perfectly satisfied 
that whoever adopts it will be fully repaid. 

The expence attending a middle-sized vinery is 
considerable ; and not only that, but from the plant- 
ing of the vines to the reaping of a crop, in many 
cases a considerable time elapses. I have, for my 
own part, seen vineries where not a single bunch of 
grapes was cut for three and even four years after 
planting. But supposing it only two years, at the 

VOL. IV. q 



242 MR NIVEN ON A NEW METHOD OF 

best, partial crops only can be expected for some suc- 
ceeding years. Added to this, the expence of erect- 
ing and of upholding, besides the frequent failures 
in the common vineries, are considerations of such 
importance, as to make any improvement in the me- 
thod of fruiting the vine very desirable. 

The expence of an ordinary-sized vinehouse will 
be, upon the least calculation, £100, besides having 
to wait so long before a fair crop can be expected ; 
whereas a complete erection on the proposed system, 
that will give an equal supply of fruit, and which 
would come into full bearing the very first season, 
may (at least in Inverness-shire) be finished for 
about £ 50, making the original cost only one-half y 
besides a very diminished expence in upholding. 

In this way, also, the sorts of grape may be al- 
tered at pleasure, without interfering in the least 
with the expectation of a crop ; for the principal 
management depends on the growing of the young 
plants, and which, with attention, will be found 
perfectly easy ; so that, unless some untoward cir- 
cumstance takes place in the management, a full 
crop may be always depended on. Moreover, the 
pits being out of employment in winter, will be 
found very useful for the accommodation of a few 
choice tender exotics, — a service also not the least 
desirable, when the taste of any lady or gentleman 
may incline that way. It may not be improper still 
to add, that, in the forcing of common grape-houses, 
the extensive, and I may even say unnecessary 



PLATE V. 

VIWJE JPITS 



Sort. SocMem . JolJ^p.'i 



,.._„ 




SE c Tioy 




K LEl'ATIOX 




CONDl'rrOJS 



CULTIVATING THE GRAPE-VINE. 243 

space, that requires to be heated, causes a great con- 
sumpt of fuel ; while the expence of fuel by the 
present method, will not exceed one-tenth part of 
what would be necessary under the old system. 

Before leaving the subject, I would also observe, 
that, in the growing of the vine, a moist heat is 
known to be of great importance throughout the most 
of the season : this it will enjoy, to a considerable ex- 
tent, in the method just proposed, from the length 
of time a well made up pit of leaves is capable of 
retaining its heat. I have known leaves keep such 
a heat for a whole twelvemonth, without being dis- 
turbed. 



Explanation of Plate V. 

a, a, On ground-plan, shews a passage along the back 
of the pit. 

b, b, b, Shews the position of melon boxes in the nursing- 
pit. 

The other parts of the Plate require no explanation. 

Note. — In the case of fruiting vines on plants for two 
years, the Nursing-pit will be sufficient to supply plants 
for two Fruiting pits. 



Q. 2 



zm 



xv. 

On Mulching and Watering Fruit-tree Borders, 

In a Letter from Mr James Smith, Gardener at 
Hopetoun House, to the Secretary. 

(Read 1st March 1 827 -J 

Sir, 

AN compliance with your request, I send you air 
account of the method of mulching and "watering 
the borders next the fruit-walls which is practised 
here. But, before doing so, allow me to make a few 
general observations. 

It is obviously a more difficult thing to obtain a 
supply of full-sized and well ripened wall-fruit, than 
the greatest abundance of orchard produce. The 
cultivator, therefore, if he would be successful, must 
submit to considerable labour and attention. In 
addition to what I am about to describe, it is ne- 
cessary that the borders be well prepared, and com- 
posed of soil which is the best that can be procured, 
and well adapted to the various kinds of fruit-trees. 
In selecting and preparing the soil, attention must 
be paid to the situation of the walls, since it is evi- 
dently expedient that borders having a considerable 



MR SMITH ON WATERING BORDERS. 245 

declivity, should be of a more retentive nature than 
those in low and flat situations. 

Further, it is to be remarked, that, even when 
the borders are of an excellent quality, large and 
frequent crops of culinary vegetables are extremely 
injurious to the adjoining wall- trees, which derive 
the whole of their nourishment from the border in 
front. Tempted as gardeners are by the facility of 
here raising early crops of pease, beans, &c. it is 
perhaps too much to expect that they will entirely 
forego the practice. But if they have any regard 
for fruit, they will be moderate, cropping only once 
a-year, and keeping the vegetables at some distance 
from the wall. 

Lastly, dry seasons have a powerful effect in pre- 
venting the swelling of the finer fruits, particular- 
ly in sloping situations, and on light or gravelly 
soils. This has been experienced for several years 
past, and especially in this last season (1826). At 
several places, where no remedy was applied, the 
drought proved so severe, that the finer fruits were 
much inferior in point of size. Many were gritty, 
and almost all ripened prematurely, and did not 
keep. 

Having premised these remarks, I shall now de- 
tail my method of mulching and watering fruit- 
trees, proceeding in the order in which the opera- 
tions occur. 

As soon as the trees have been pruned and nail- 
ed, or have got what is called their winter-dressing. 



246 MR SMITH ON MULCHING AND 

the borders are carefully digged over, aiid laid up 
in rather a rough state, to retain the moisture which 
falls at that season. To prevent any treading on 
the borders, a line of deals or thin planks, about se- 
ven or eight inches broad, is laid along the bottom 
of the wall, for occasionally walking on. As the 
season advances, and the borders become dry, the 
mulching takes place. Well rotted hot-bed dung, 
reserved in winter for this purpose, is laid on the 
border, beginning at the base of the wall, and extend- 
ing outward about eight feet. The dung is never 
laid on less than three or four inches thick, and slopes 
off in front, that it may not have an unsightly ap- 
pearance by terminating abruptly. Only one plank 
is removed at a time, the rest being reserved for wheel- 
ing upon, that the ground may be kept soft and un- 
broken. After the mulching is finished, and the 
dung properly levelled, the planks are replaced at a 
suitable distance from the wall, by way of a footpath. 
My reasons for preferring the best hot-bed dung 
are, that all seeds being destroyed by previous fer- 
mentation, it remains longer free from weeds, and 
that it is not so apt to be blown about by high winds 
as fresh litter. Besides being subjected to the in- 
fluence of the sun, and frequent watering, it is con- 
verted into a substance somewhat resembling peat- 
moss, of by no means a disagreeable appearance. 
The mulching is suffered to remain till the dry wea- 
ther is past, when it is removed, and the surface of 
the ground is hoed and raked smooth, to reflect the 



WATERING FRUIT-TREE BORDERS. 247 

rays of the sun, and to promote the maturity of the 
fruit, and the ripening of the flower-buds of the fol- 
lowing season. 

The principal use of mulching is the prevention 
or diminution of evaporation. The moisture upon 
which fruit-trees in dry years subsist, is solely the 
produce of the winter and spring rain, as must be 
known to every one who has observed to how small 
a depth the summer showers penetrate exposed and 
hardened soils. The case is even worse where there 
are crops of vegetables, as they extract the sap which 
is in the ground, and disperse the slight rains be- 
fore they reach the earth. I have seen a fruit-bor- 
der so exhausted and parched, by a crop of early 
peas or cauliflower, as to be scarcely capable of sup- 
porting any thing before the damps of autumn had 
restored it to somewhat of its proper tone. It is 
evident, that whatever prevents an excessive escape 
of moisture by evaporation, must prove very benefi- 
cial. 

In the course of the summer, the borders are fre- 
quently watered over the dung. This is generally 
done pretty freely, and in very dry seasons large 
quantities are applied. From what I have already 
said, this will perhaps be thought superfluous, as it 
may seem that the water will not subside far into 
the soil. But this is not the case, for the soil be- 
low the dung is soft, and comparatively damp, and 
therefore does not resist the fluid. But even upon 
the supposition that the water does not sink far in- 



248 MR SMITH ON MULCHING AND 

to the ground, the practice must be beneficial, since, 
by this means, the evaporation is confined in a great 
measure to the surface of the dung, whereas were 
the dung to become dry, it must arise from the soil 
below. 

My belief of the utility of mulching and water- 
ing does not rest on theoretical considerations mere- 
ly ; it has been amply confirmed by the experience 
of the last season (1826). In many gardens apri- 
cots were very diminutive ; here we had an uncom- 
monly abundant crop, and, notwithstanding the 
drought, the single fruit were perhaps one-third 
larger than those for which I obtained the Society's 
medal in 1825. I found the same treatment equal- 
ly beneficial when applied to the finer pears, such as 
Brown Beurre, Gansel's bergamotte, Crasanne, &e. 

I am fully satisfied, that the mildew on peach- 
trees may be prevented, or in a great measure kept 
under, by seasonable and copious waterings in the 
months of July and August. It is stated by Mr 
Harrison, that this disease is induced by the roots 
being in a dry condition, and the juices consequent- 
ly stagnant, while the air is charged with mois- 
ture. My own experience completely coincides 
with that of this ingenious horticulturist. I have 
no doubt that, whatever be the original cause of 
mildew *, that its ravages are greatly accelerated 



* It is to be regretted that none of our able cryptogamists 
have given a popular account of the natural history of mildew. 

If 



WATERING FRUIT-TREE BORDERS. 249 

by the circumstances mentioned. I do not mean 
to be understood to say, that waterings, however 
copious, will remove the disease when fairly esta- 
blished, but unquestionably they are an excellent 
preventive. The best method of applying water to 
the roots of peach as well as other fruit-trees, is 
over dung, since the mulching prevents the water 
from battering the soil, and running off during the 
operation. 

The practice of mulching and watering may ap- 
pear expensive and laborious, but it is amply compen- 
sated by the improvement of the fruit. Watering- 
is doubtless laborious in those gardens which are 
not properly furnished with water-pipes. Being 



If there is one, it is not accessible to gardeners. It is not ge- 
nerally known that mildew is a minute parasitical fungous 
plant, and hence we sometimes hear useless, and even absurd, 
remedies proposed for its cure. 

Note by the Editors, — Dr Greville, in his Flora Edinensis, 
p. 464., under Sporotrichum meter osporum, has given as stations 
for that minute plant, " Apple-trees, the hawthorn, peach- 
trees, &c. very common in spring and the beginning of sum- 
mer ;" and he has added, " To gardeners it is well known as 
a kind of mildew, or blight, and is commonly taken for an 
insect. The leaves of the peach-trees, even when protected 
by glass, are often attacked by it, nor does the fruit itself al- 
ways escape, in which case it frequently drops off. The 
leaves are more or less distorted by it. As its production is 
probably the result of a peculiar state of the atmosphere, 
there is little chance of any means being discovered for its 
prevention." 



250 MR SMITH ON WATERING BORDERS. 

fortunate at Hopetoun-House Garden in this re- 
spect, I find it an easy matter; indeed a single 
boy frequently performs the operation. As the water 
is poured upon the mulching, it can be done at any 
period of the day, when it is not required for any 
other purpose. 

HOPETOUN-HOUSE, ) 

15th Dec. 1826. j 



( 251 ) 



XVI. 

Notice of some Forest and Ornamental Trees 
which deserve the attention of Scottish cultiva- 
tors. 

In a Letter from Gilbert Laing Meason, Esq. to the 
Secretary. 

(Read 6lh September 1821 J 

Dear Sib, 

W hen I was in Paris in 1816, I had frequent 
conversations with Mr Andre Miehaux, author of 
the excellent work on American trees. From trials 
made in France of different trees and shrubs, he 
recommended several to the attention of gentlemen 
in Scotland. I shall note to you some of these. 

Betida papyracea. Paper Birch-tree. — This is 
the true Canadian Canoe Birch. The growth of 
this tree has been rapid near Paris, and the wood 
proves to be of excellent quality. It is also highly 
ornamental. It has not yet been known to get to 
a large size in Scotland, but it should be more fully 
tried. 

Fraocinus Americana. White American Ash. 
— This is a very valuable tree. It grows freely, 
very tall and upright, and is quicker in growth than 



252 MR MEASON ON FOREST TREES. 

the common ash. I measured some years ago a 
plank of white ash in a cabinet-maker's warehouse 
in Edinburgh, that was 3^- feet broad and 27 feet 
long, and without a knot. It seldom, however, at- 
tains a large size in Scotland ; and the young wood 
is apt to be injured in our winters. It ought to be 
more cultivated in warm and sheltered situations. 

Pinus Laricio. Pin du Corse, or Corsican Pine. 
— The first time I became acquainted with this 
tree, was on being shewn a very beautiful one in the 
Garden of Plants at Paris. It was first brought 
from Corsica ; but Monsieur Picot de la Peyrouse 
of Toulouse assured me, that he has found the same 
species in the Pyrenees. It is a very handsome 
tree, assuming more the habit of a deciduous forest 
tree, than of the pine or fir class. The wood is said 
to be good, and the growth is quick *. The young 
plants being somewhat tender, this species has been 
less attended to in Scotland than it should be. 

Hew Chinensis. Houx de la Chine, or Chinese 
Holly. — This is a quick growing evergreen, that 
appears suited for division-hedges in a flower-gar- 
den. The leaves are small, and without spines. I 
saw annual shoots of this tree 18 inches long, in 
the King's nursery at Paris. In Scotland, it would 
require the most sheltered situations, being here 
still regarded as a greenhouse plant. 



* A description of this species will be found in the Ap- 
pendix to the Horticultural Tour, &c. p. 552. 



MR MEASON ON FOREST TREES. 253 

Or me de Sibere, or Siberian Elm. — This is an 
excellent fast growing tree, possessing the quality 
of toughness in a degree superior perhaps to any 
other tree in Europe ; at least, from repeated trials, 
it has been found in France to be one of the tough- 
est and most elastic of woods. I have planted a few 
specimens, which thrive vigorously in a strong soil 
in Forfarshire. The tree grows to a considerable 
size, and is quite distinct from the Ulmus pumila, 
which is often called Siberian Elm in our nurseries. 

Bourgene de Canadie ? — An evergreen that has 
proved itself in France to form an excellent hedge, 

Juglans alba Americana, or White Walnut. 
— A fine tree, of much quicker growth than the 
Common Walnut. It has become in thirty years a 
large tree in the north of France. In Scotland, the 
young wood is apt to be injured during winter ; 
and the tree will succeed only in sheltered situa- 
tions. 

Tilleul argente de Constantinople. Turkish 
Lime. — A very fine tree ; when in flower it gives 
out a most delightful smell. This is probably the 
Tilia argentea of Waldstein and Kitaibel. 

I am, &c. 

4 

Ltndertis, ^ 
2Bth July 1821. j 



( 254 ) 

XVII. 

Notice of the hardy Fruits of Upper Canada. 

By Mr Thomas Blair. 

(Read 1st March 182 7 .) 

XJuring my residence in Upper Canada, I had 
frequent opportunities of seeing and admiring the 
profusion of fine fruit produced in that country : the 
apples in the orchards are particularly fine. 

Accustomed as I had been to see fruit-trees in 
general raised only from grafts or buds, I had no 
idea of the facility with which apple trees can be 
raised from seed, and in a very few years, in that 
fine climate, produce abundance of excellent fla- 
voured fruit. There are many of the trees, how- 
ever, that produce fruit fit only for cider, which are 
more valuable to the inhabitants than the finer 
sorts, as they can find a ready sale for their cider, 
which they could not do for the apples, were they 
ever so fine flavoured ; and, for that reason, they 
are at no trouble in selecting their seed from the 
finest kinds, or grafting or budding from them. 

The inhabitants of Lower Canada seem to have 
paid considerable attention to the cultivation of 



MR BLAIR ON THE FRUITS OF CANADA. 255 

fruit-trees for a length of time, as may be judged 
from the fine specimens of healthy old trees that 
are to be seen in their orchards. They cultivate 
several kinds of very fine apples, which have proba- 
bly been introduced from France, particularly the 
Pomme-grise, Bourassa, and Fameuse : they are al- 
so beginning to cultivate several kinds that have been 
raised from seed in the country, but, from the ap- 
pearance and flavour of most of them, there seems 
to have been but little care taken in selecting of 
the seeds from the fine old kinds. In my opinion, 
they ought to use every diligence in raising seed- 
lings from them, as I have little doubt but they 
will soon begin to degenerate, like many of the fine 
old kinds in Scotland and England ; and I have no 
doubt whatever, that, if proper care is taken in 
saving of the seeds, seedlings will be procured, so 
similar to the original in appearance and flavour, 
that the difference would not be easily detected. 

I was informed that the island of Montreal, about 
thirty years ago, was much famed for the quantity 
and excellent quality of its pears, but now there are 
very few of that fine fruit in the country : the old 
trees are fast disappearing, and the greater part of 
the young ones are in an unhealthy state ; and no 
person could assign any cause for this general decay 
of their pear trees. 

Apple trees I have frequently seen in an unheal- 
thy state, both in Upper Canada and the United 
States, where they had been planted on land that 



256 MR BLAIR ON THE HARDY FRUITS 

had been several years cleared or in cultivation ; 
whereas, on the contrary, when they are planted on 
ground newly cleared, and amongst the stumps and 
roots of forest trees, there they never refuse to grow, 
and that most luxuriantly, so that in a few years 
they become large trees much sooner than they 
would in the same space of time in Scotland : for 
that reason, most of the settlers that emigrate from 
Scotland to that country, are led into an error ; they 
generally commence raising apple trees from seed, 
and defer planting an orchard until the stumps and 
roots of the forest trees are nearly all decayed, and 
the land frequently ploughed ; whereas much time 
could be saved by planting the trees as soon as the 
land is cleared ; and trees can be purchased at a mo- 
derate expence from small nurseries, which are now 
pretty general in the country. 

The Kentish cherry succeeds better than any 
other that I have seen cultivated in any part of 
North America that I have visited : they produce 
fruit in great abundance, and certainly better fla- 
voured than in this country. They are propagated 
chiefly from suckers, which leads me to suppose that 
the original trees have been propagated from seeds 
imported from Europe. I have seen good crops of 
some other kinds in Kentucky and Virginia, viz. 
Blackhearts, Maydukes, &c. ; but there the trees 
are generally much injured by the intense heat of 
the sun : they are always grown as standards, with 
tall stems, and most kinds of cherry-trees grow very 



OF UPPER CANADA. 257 

erect ; from which circumstance, the foliage can 
yield no protection or shade to the stem or trunk of 
the tree ; they soon begin to gum on the side next 
the sun, and in a few years it will be completely de- 
cayed, except a small piece of wood and bark on the 
north side. This, however, could be easily reme- 
died, by shading the stem from the sun with boards 
or otherwise ; for I observed that the branches which 
were shaded from the sun by their own foliage, had 
sustained no injury from the above cause. 

Peach-trees succeed tolerably well in Lower Ca- 
nada on walls, with a little protection from mats in 
winter. In Upper Canada, particularly on the Nia- 
gara River, they succeed very well as standards. 
They grow with great rapidity, but very little at- 
tention is paid to them : they are all raised from 
seed, and many will produce blossoms, if not fruit, 
the third summer. A few are large and fine fla- 
voured fruit, and many tolerable. 

Quinces, on the Niagara River, produce generally 
a good crop. They are certainly a finer flavoured 
fruit than those produced in England, being free 
from the disagreeable smell that the English quinces 
have, and are esteemed the best fruit for preserving 
in that country. The trees are remarkably dwarf, 
which I suspect is owing to the method they have 
in propagating them, which is altogether from cut- 
tings, and these are generally branches of consider- 
able size, and planted in the spring. 

VOL. IV. R 



( 258 ) 



XVIII. 

Hints on Increasing the Warmth of Garden- 
Walls, by painting them Black ; with a De- 
scription of an improved mode of constructing 
Subdivision Walls in Gardens, §e. 

By Mr John Henderson, Den Nursery, Brechin *v 
(Read 1st June 1826.) 

Painting Walls black. — JLt has long been known,, 
that the ripening of wall-fruit may he assisted, by 
colouring the wall with black paint; but as few 
gardeners have yet availed themselves of this ad- 
vantage, it may not be uninteresting to the Society 
to lay before them what has fallen under my own 
observation on this subject, together with the result 



* The Horticultural Society of London having placed at 
the disposal of the Caledonian Horticultural Society one of 
their large Silver Medals yearly, " to be awarded to any per- 
son who, by his exhibitions, cultivation, or communications 
on horticultural subjects, shall appear to the Council of said 
Caledonian Horticultural Society to be most deserving of such 
testimony of merit within the year," the London Medal for 
1826 was voted to Mr Henderson for this communication, — 
P. N. Sec 



VIR HENDE11S0N ON PAINTING WALLS. 259 

of several experiments which I have lately made in 
a similar department of horticulture. 

The first black painted walls I ever saw, were in 
the gardens of the late Mr Shand of Arnhall, at 
The Burn. The scheme having been suggested to 
this gentleman, who was a zealous promoter of all 
kinds of rural improvements, he painted, with oil- 
paint, several patches of the walls of his gardens, 
on the different aspects, as a trial ; and one of these 
examples deserves to be particularly mentioned. In 
order more effectually to ascertain the merits of the 
painted walls, the wall was painted only behind the 
one-half of an apple tree, while the wall behind 
the other half was left in its ordinary condition. 
The effect was very striking. The leaves of that 
part of the tree against the unpainted wall were 
(like those of the other trees of the garden where 
the walls had not been painted) much destroyed by 
caterpillars in spring, and covered with red spiders 
during summer ; while the leaves on the other half 
of the tree were of a fine glossy green, and undis- 
turbed by insects of any kind ; and besides, the fruit 
on the half of the tree opposite to the painted wall, 
was more abundant, of a larger size, and better ripen- 
ed than that produced on the other half # . The suc- 



* Much of the benefit in this case may have depended on 
the painting of the wall with oil-paint having destroyed the 
insects, their ova and larvae, lodged about the wall: the 
branches, foliage, and flower-buds, having thus been rendered 

R 2 



260 MR HENDERSON- ON THE USE OF 

cess of these experiments being so flattering, the 
proprietor was induced to try the scheme on a larger 
scale ; and accordingly, next year, a wall, several 
hundred feet in length, was blackened, and the re- 
sult answered his expectations. I had an opportu- 
nity of witnessing these operations going on, and, 
from their very extraordinary effects, not only in 
improving the quality, and increasing the quantity 
of fruit, but also in contributing materially to the 
health and vigour of the trees, I was persuaded to 
make trial of the plan myself. 

Use of Coal-tar. — But as I considered oil-paint 
as rather too expensive for a rough stone wall, I 
made use of coal-tar instead of it, which can be got 
for a mere trifle at any coal gas-work, and which is 
fully as offensive to insects as oil-paint. My method 
of executing the work was this : — The tar was boil- 
ed over a stove placed near the spot, for the purpose 
of keeping it hot, while it was laid upon the wall 
with a coarse hair-brush. The trees being previously 
loosened from the wall, were, during the operation, 
fastened to a number of stakes placed in the bor- 
der, and covered with mats, to prevent any par- 
ticles of the boiling liquid approaching them. Af- 
ter the second coating was dry, as coal-tar is not 



healthy and clean, the fruit would naturally partake of the 
advantage. It is not easy, therefore, to estimate to what ex- 
tent colour here exerted influence.— <Sec. 



COAL-TAR IN PAINTING WALLS. 261 

of itself a jet-black, I added a coating of linseed-oil, 
which gave the wall a fine shining blackness. This 
may seem as expensive as using oil-paint at once, 
but it will be found far otherwise ; for the tar ha- 
ving in a manner smoothed the surface of the wall, 
comparatively little oil is necessary. I may add, 
that the painting of my wall with coal-tar has fully 
realized my expectations. The smell is at first of- 
fensive ; but this soon went off. 

Some may think that black walls would have a 
disagreeable appearance ; and, indeed, if the walls 
of a house were painted black, it must be allowed 
they would look rather gloomy ; but it is quite dif- 
ferent with the walls of a garden. However, they 
may at pleasure be tastefully relieved by white 
draughts, in the form of an ashlar building, which 
would give them something of the appearance of 
black marble. 



Improvement of old Garden-walls.— -There are 
a great many old garden-walls which have been built 
with clay in the heart, or perhaps without any mor- 
tar at all, excepting a little lime on the outsides, 
and which of course require very large nails, and 
in some places even plugs of wood to fasten the 
nails into. Such walls, I am aware, would not an- 
swer well for being blackened, as the continual tear- 
ing out of the lime would soon render them very 
ugly. They are certainly very unsuitable for any 
purpose, — no tree can be well trained upon them, — • 



262 MR HENDERSON ON THE IMPROVEMENT 

they are very apt to be overgrown with moss and 
lichens, — and, above all, they harbour great swarms 
of insects, forming, as they do, commodious deposi- 
tories for the eggs of the fruit-tree caterpillars, 
and the red spider. They have, therefore, it would 
appear, great need to be either thoroughly repaired 
or renewed. The former expedient, however, is sel- 
dom deemed practicable, and the latter is not at all 
times convenient. 

This seemingly great evil may nevertheless be 
remedied at a moderate expence (not the least im- 
portant consideration), by merely plastering over 
the walls with common plaster, and then attaching 
to the same a wire trellis, to which in future the 
trees are to be trained. This is by no means a cost- 
ly expedient, and on an old wall, I lately had the 
operation performed as follows : — Before the plaster 
was put on, a number of nails were driven into the 
wall, about three feet apart, in horizontal lines, 
which lines were about nine inches asunder. After 
the plaster was dry, a wire of a proper thickness was 
fastened to the first nail, and from it drawn very 
tightly, and twisted round the second, and so on 
with all the rest. The nails were then driven home, 
and the trellis was perfectly firm. The plaster may 
be mixed with smithy ashes, instead of sand, which I 
think renders it more durable, as I find, that, when 
prepared in this way, it is not so liable to be injured 
by frost. Such walls may be blackened in the way 
I have already described. It may be difficult to 



OF OLD GARDEN-WALLS. 263 

preserve the plaster on walls that are damp ; and 
many walls are so from the coping being too thin, 
and on that account loosened by the frost in winter. 
In such cases, an additional ridge of stones should 
be put on the top, and glazed over with Roman ce- 
ment ; or the joints of the coping may be filled with 
the same substance. 

Speaking of the coping of walls, I may also add, 
that it does not seem necessary that they should 
project more than an inch or two ; and any shelter 
which the tree might require when in blossom (since 
it is only then that such protection can be service- 
able), may be supplied by moveable boards, erected 
only at this season, and which boards may last for 
many years. 

Subdivision Watts in Gardens. — I farther take 
the liberty to solicit the Society's notice of a cheap 
and advantageous method of forming subdivision 
walls in gardens, which has lately occurred to me, 
and which, from an erection I have made to prove 
my theory, I am convinced will considerably facili- 
tate the ripening of fine fruits. 

These walls are constructed of lath and plaster, 
and stand at an angle of 55° from the horizon, 
sloping to the sun like the roof of a house. 

The circumstance that first suggested to me the 
idea that inclined walls are more susceptible of heat 
than perpendicular ones, was the following :— In 
front of an old hedge, which extended for a hundred 



264 MR HENDERSON ON SUBDIVISION 

yards along the head of a steep bank, looking to the 
south, I removed the earth to the depth of 9 or 10 
feet, thus forming a sloping earthen wall of the 
same height. This was always, I observed, much 
hotter than a stone-wall, which was doubtless to be 
attributed in some measure to the blackness of the 
earth, as well as to the position itself. Upon this 
wall I was in the custom of training fruit-trees ; 
and though they were placed there only for the 
purpose of training, and of course never allowed to 
remain longer than three years at most, I had tole- 
rable crops of cherries, which ripened always ten 
days earlier than against a perpendicular wall of the 
same aspect ; and any fruit produced by apple-trees 
during their short continuance on this wall, were of 
large size, and particularly well coloured and ripen- 
ed. This, together with the fact, that, whenever 
the sun's rays fall perpendicularly, there is always 
the strongest heat, as is the case in all tropical coun- 
tries, and on the front of steep hills, even under 
less favourable latitudes, induced me to think that 
inclined walls might be used with great advantage 
in gardens *. 

The wall which I have erected fronts nearly south, 
and inclines, as I have already mentioned, at an 



* The author is evidently not aware of the fact of inclined 
walls having been proposed about a hundred years ago by 
M. De Douilliers, but writes from his own observation and 
practice. — Sec. 



WALLS IN GARDENS. 



265 



angle of 55°, which seems to be about the proper 
angle for the aspect, (as doubtless the angle of such 
walls must be regulated according to their aspect). 
It is nine feet high, measuring the slope, and was 
constructed thus : — I got a number of rafters or 
joists made in the form of the adjoining figure, 




and of the proper angle ; and having sunk two rows 
of stones in the ground, at regular distances, I 
placed the feet of the rafters a a upon these stones, 
and fastened them to the same with iron-bats. I 
then covered the face of the rafters with lath, and 
gave it two coats of plaster, to which, when dry, I 
added two coats of coal-tar, and one of linseed- oil. 
As the last step, a wire-trellis was attached to it, 
for the training of the trees. Last spring some 
peaches and nectarines were planted against this 
wall, which have made very fine shoots, while the 
wood is excellently well ripened. 

The heat of the inclined wall surprises every 
one who examines it. When the heat of a stone- 



266 MR HENDERSON ON THE 

wall of the same aspect was 65° Fahrenheit, this 
was above 90°. In fact, it is so hot often, that it 
would almost burn the hand ; while, at the same 
time, the trees are not in the least injured by this 
high degree of heat, which may be accounted for by 
the constant shifting' of the heated air. In a warm 
sunny day, one may observe the hot air rising in 
beautiful undulations to the top of the wall. It 
will, however, be necessary, while the trees are in 
blossom, to shelter a wall of this kind with thin 
canvas, which may remain upon it day and night 
till the fruit is set ; for it is probable that the posi- 
tion of this wall may be as cold at night as that of 
a standard tree. But this can never detract from 
its claims, since we are aware that it is not so much 
the shelter of a wall, as the reflection of the sun's 
rays upon it, which brings fruit to perfection. 

These walls might be erected in gardens in many 
different ways. They would look very well in front 
of a hedge, and the space underneath might be used 
as a mushroom-house, a tool-shed, or a storehouse 
for culinary roots during winter. Banks of earth 
might even be thrown up, and after being paved 
with stone, and plastered, might be used as inclined 
walls. Steep terrace-banks might also answer the 
same purpose. 

Training of Fruit-trees. — The training and 
pruning of fruit-trees, would be a very proper ap- 
pendage to this communication, were it not too wide 



TRAINING OF FRUIT-TREES. 267 

a field to enter upon, after having trespassed so free- 
ly upon the Society's patience. But I would beg 
leave to say a few words upon one particular branch 
of the subject, from its being intimately connected 
with what I have already advanced. 

My great object is to improve the climate for 
fruit-trees ; and as this must be confessed to be a 
point of much importance, so it will be also admit- 
ted that we ought to be careful of spending unpro- 
fitably the heat we are already in possession of. By 
the mode of training too generally in use at present, 
however, the improvidence in this respect is very 
conspicuous. 

By a constant cutting off of breast-wood, espe- 
cially in pear trees and the fine apples, and of course 
a continual provoking of the tree to push out more, 
the spurs become soon of an enormous length, and 
consequently the fruit they produce must hang at a 
considerable distance from the wall. Now, it can 
be proved, by applying a thermometer, that, at the 
distance of several inches from the wall, the air is 
no hotter than the general air of the garden; and 
hence the evil of which I complain. It is not, in- 
deed, uncommon to see the spurs of an old tree stand- 
ing out like the teeth of a rake, or the bristled face 
of a cut hedge. Nor is it to be wondered at, that 
the fruit of such trees should be always small, and 
never well-flavoured. 

Importance of nailing Spurs close to the Wall. 
— I have now to state, that, by the simple expedient 



268 MR HENDERSON ON THE 

of nailing the spurs close to the walls, the finest 
fruit imaginable may be procured. To dress old 
trees in this manner, it will be necessary to take 
out every alternate branch, and then to twist round 
the whole length of the remaining ones, by begin- 
ning at the point of the branch, and nailing every 
spur close to the wall ; and, if possible, they should 
be turned down, that position being also thought, 
on good grounds, to stimulate the trees to fruitful- 
ness. A gentleman in my neighbourhood had two 
Nonpareil apple trees in this state. They had been 
trained horizontally, and the branches laid in about 
seven inches apart ; the spurs were about nine inches 
in length, and quite healthy. Agreeably to my 
suggestion, they were treated as above ; and the 
fruit was worth more (the gentleman informed me) 
the first year after the operation, than all that had 
ever grown on them before. It is now seven years 
since this was done, and they still continue very 
fruitful. A gardener in this quarter tried the same 
method of training two or three years ago. He 
afterwards brought me a sample of pears which had 
grown on the branches so managed, together with a 
few of those produced on the spurs standing out in 
their natural condition, and the superiority of the 
former over the latter, in size and flavour, was quite 
surprising. The kinds of pear trees were Auchans, 
St Germain's, and Brown Eeurre ; and the wall 
against which they were trained, was built of dark- 
coloured whinstone. 



TRAINING OF FRUIT-TREES. 269 

From all this, I am confirmed in my opinion, 
that it is owing neither to age, nor deficiency of soil, 
that many trees bear such small trifling fruit, but 
to an injudicious mode of training and pruning ; 
and, instead of complaining that the spurs of a tree 
are too old, I would consider it rather an advantage 
to have old spurs ; since the fruit of old trees, and 
of old wood, is sooner ripe, and much higher flavour- 
ed, than that of young ones, — provided always that 
it can be made to grow equally near the walls. 

In order to prevent young trees from running in- 
to a number of rough unmanageable spurs, the lead- 
ing branches should never be laid in closer than 
from one to two feet apart, and then the interme- 
diate spaces may be filled with bearing spurs, which, 
I once more repeat, ought to be always closely nailed 
to the wall. 

Den Nursery, Brechin, > 
5th January 1826. j 



P. S. Since writing the above, I have now to add 
the result of another year's experience, that of 1826, 
during the progress of which I have found no occa- 
sion to retract what has been advanced in the pre- 
ceding pages. I have had a crop of very fine No- 
blesse Peaches this season, on a perpendicular black- 
painted wall. They ripened very early, and were 
far superior in flavour to any I ever saw under glass, 

3 



270 POSTSCRIPT TO 

This might be partly owing to the uncommon warmth 
of the season, although there is no doubt that the 
blackening of the wall assisted greatly; since, in 
this part of the country, it is only in favourable 
seasons that even the Red Magdalenes can be 
brought to any perfection on open walls. But as it 
is only in opposition to plain stone-walls that the 
beneficial effects of painting can be properly exhi- 
bited, I may here mention, that, whenever I have 
made investigations upon the subject, there has al- 
ways been a marked difference in favour of painted 
walls. 

I find that oil-paint and coal-tar answer equally 
well for painting walls. Both seem to have the 
same effect in clearing the trees of insects ; but 
whether this particular advantage will be perma- 
nent, or only for a few seasons after painting, time 
only can determine. In the course of my experi- 
ments, I have tried both oil-paint and coal-tar : the 
latter is indeed the cheaper in the first purchase ; 
but its preparation is attended with a good deal of 
trouble, as it requires excessive boiling before all 
the aqueous particles can be separated from it, and 
till then it would not answer the purpose. 

As to the sloping wall alluded to in the foregoing 
paper, I would beg leave to add, that I have con- 
tinued to observe the extraordinary effect of the 
sun's rays upon it, and to contrast its heat with that 
of a perpendicular wall. The difference is generally 
about 20 degrees. The peach-trees which I planted 



mr Henderson's communication. 271 

against this wall, have ripened their shoots fully as 
well as I ever saw in a peach-house, and are covered 
with blossom-buds. A black Hamburgh grape-vine 
planted here in June 1825, has also made very fine 
wood, and, with the assistance of some shelter in the 
early part of the season, it will, I expect, bring its 
fruit to maturity. 

I may farther state, that I had a standard Haw- 
thoradean apple growing on a pretty steep bank, 
on which I formed a sloping wall, by paving with 
stones between the stem of the tree and the foot 
of the bank. To this wall I bent down and fas- 
tened the tree. The operation has improved both 
the size and colour of the fruit to an astonishing de- 
gree. And indeed every thing in the way of ana- 
logy seems to favour the idea of sloping walls. 
Every one who has made the experiment, is aware 
of the superiority of the fruit produced by trees 
trained on the roofs of houses, to that which grows 
on the front walls, even though all on the same 
tree ; and I have observed that, though not so soon 
in blossom, the fruit is generally ripe about a week 
earlier. 

It ought to be borne in mind, that, if such walls 
are erected of lath and plaster, the former should be 
much thicker than that generally used, so that it 
may not start by the intense heat ; and the latter 
should be put on early in the season, in order that 
it may be perfectly dry before the frost sets in, 
which would otherwise spoil it completely ; but, to 



272 POSTSCRIPT. 

obviate the risk of either of these contingencies, 
they could, at a comparatively trifling expence, be 
constructed entirely of wood, which would answer 
the purpose equally well. 

January 1827. 



( 273 ) 



XIX. 

On the raising of Mushrooms, and on the forcing 
of Rhubarb Stalks in the open air*. 

In a Letter from Mr James Stuart, Gardener to Sir 
John Hope, Baronet, at Pinkie House, Musselburgh, to 
the Secretary. 

{Read 6th July 1826.) 
Dear Sir, 

X our favour was duly received, and I return you 
many thanks for your kind attention in preserving 
the clusters of mushrooms for the inspection of the 
committee. In compliance with their request com- 
municated by you, I shall give an account of my 
mode of raising mushrooms, and of forcing rhubarb ; 
although I feel myself unable to do these subjects 



* On 15th June 1826, the Society's Silver Medal was award- 
ed to Mr Stuart, for introducing the forcing and blanching of 
rhubarb stalks in the open ground, in the manner of sea-cale ; 
and for some remarkable clusters of cultivated mushrooms exhi- 
bited to the meeting. 

P. N. Sec. 
VOL. IV. S 



&74 MR STEWART ON RAISING MUSHROOMS, 

the justice that is necessary to make them fully un- 
derstood. 

I generally form the base of the mushroom beds 
with rubbish of brickbats, lime, or ashes, to preserve 
the beds from damp. The bottom is made to slope 
from the wall ; being raised six inches high at the wall. 
The bed is made three feet broad, and the length is 
regulated at pleasure. Then, having procured a 
quantity of dung from a shed where cattle or horses 
have been kept for five or six months, preferring the 
dung that is dried moderately, I lay it five inches 
thick next the wall, and slope it off to one inch thick 
in front. Allow it to settle for eight days or so. 
If any thing like overheating or firing appears^ 
open up the bed, and let the heat go off. When 
the heat becomes moderate, lay the bed over, three 
or four inches thick, with fresh horse-droppings. 
Then tread it regularly over, and beat it well 
with the back of a spade. Then bore holes quite 
throughout to the rubbish, four inches in diameter, 
and at twelve inches apart ; and when all danger 
of burning is over, fill these holes half up with fresh 
droppings a little dried. Then spawn the bed with 
spawn from a dunghil, shed, or mill track. The 
spawn is placed in the middle of the hole, covering up 
the spawn with dry droppings. Spawn from old mush- 
room beds ought never to be used, because spawn 
ought always to be in a fresh vigorous state. Earth 
the bed immediately, if no danger of overheating 
is apprehended ; or earth it when the heat is mo- 



AND FORCING RHUBARB STALKS. 27% 

derate, three inches deep. I prefer light rotten 
wrackie earth *, mixed with one-third of droppings 
or rotten dung, moderately dried. Road earth ga- 
thered in dry weather, and mixed with horse drop- 
pings, will answer. 

Any other form of beds will answer, if made to 
throw off wet, like the roof of a house or hay stack. 
It is necessary always to guard against too much 
moisture when mushrooms are expected to appear. 

Cover the bed with hay of a soft nature, or with 
straw, and water it very lightly, as occasion requires, 
with soft seasoned water. 

The heat in the bed ought never to exceed 75° 
Fahr., when the thermometer is sunk six inches in- 
to it. 

It is only in spring and summer that a regular 
supply of mushrooms can be got from beds in the 
open ground. 

Rhubarb. — The wave-leaved rhubarb {Rheum 
undulatum) is the sort I generally grow. But I 
have found that the more common species, Rheum 
?*haponticum, comes a fortnight earlier than the 
wave-leaved ; so that this is best for forcing. I pre- 
fer planting it in March. Take off sets from old 
plants, with two or three eyes, and with five or six 
inches of the root. Prepare for the reception of the 



* That is, rotten couch-grass, or any other root-plants that far- 
mers gather off their fields and put into rot-heaps. 



276 MR STEWART ON 

offsets as follows :— Cut out a trench two feet wide^ 
and two deep ; lay the bottom of the trench with six 
inches of horse and cow dung, when rotten ; and dig 
it in a full spade depth ; then mix the earth that is 
dug out of the trench with dung, to enrich it ; filling 
it four inches above the level of the ordinary surface, 
to allow for subsidence or settling. Set the gar- 
den-line along the middle of the trench. Put in the 
plants, so as to be two inches covered over with earth, 
pressing it gently to them. The plants should be 
three feet apart. If a large quantity of stalks is re- 
quired, the distance between the rows ought to be 
four feet and a half The quantity of dung I give 
is one large wheel-barrow load to every three feet. 
I am well aware, that much larger rhubarb may be 
produced by using extraordinary quantities of ma- 
nure ; but the large stalks so procured are always 
coarse. The rhubarb stalks will be found fit for use 
in three months after the planting of the offsets, and 
they continue all the growing season. 

Forcing of the Stalks. — As rhubarb is a vegeta- 
ble that is now in much request, I have turned 
my attention to procure a supply of the stalks as 
long as possible. I begin to force, in the open 
ground, about the middle of December. I cover 
each plant with a box or earthen can, and each box 
or can has a cover for the top : the cans are about 
two feet in height, twenty-two inches in diameter at 
the bottom, and nine inches at the top. Fill up the 



FORCING RHUBARB STALKS. 277 

spaces with tree leaves, mixed with a little stable lit- 
ter, raising the fermentable matter about three inches 
above the height of the cans. If the weather is cold, 
it sometimes does not heat at that season of the year ; 
but a very small quantity of prepared dung wrought 
in among the leaves sets it to work ; it is then to be 
watched so as not to allow overheating, or so that 
the heat shall never exceed 75° Fahr. The heat is 
easily reduced, by slackening the dung around the 
cans ; or removing a few barrow loads, as may be 
necessary. Begin with covering in twelve plants ; 
in three weeks after, take in twelve more ; and in 
about three weeks, cover other twelve ; and these 
thirty-six stools will supply stalks till they come 
naturally. If the plants are in three rows, I take 
the middle row for the earliest ; for, when the rows 
on each side are covered, they act as linings to the 
middle row. When watering is required, I use 
soft- water, milk warm. 

In gathering, pull the stalks out of the sockets, 
and do not cut any. Blanched rhubarb is certainly 
the best, being more crisp and delicate, with suffi- 
cient flavour, and less of the peculiar aroma of rhu- 
barb. I am blanching it now by placing cans over 
it only. I intend to try retarding it, so as to have it 
late ; for I find it will not force to much advantage in 
the open air, so as to have it before the middle of 
January, although I have occasionally had the rha- 
ponticum from about New Year's day. The second 



278 ON FORCING RHUBARB. 

year after planting answers very well for forcing. 
I think twelve new plants ought to be planted every 
year, so as to have a succession. 

I have forced rhubarb in many other ways ; but 
what I state, is the way in which I have succeeded 
best. 

I consider rhubarb stalks as particularly worthy of 
attention, as they are always highly relished at the 
table in the winter and early spring months. I 
shall be glad if what I have said lead some abler 
practical gardener to give us a better account of their 
culture and blanching. And am, &c. 



Pinkie Garden, 
June 23. 1826. 



( 279 ) 



XX. 



On the Ripening of Fruit by Artificial Heat af- 
ter being taken from the Tree. 

In a Letter from James Howison, Esq. of Crossburn 
House, to the Secretary. 



(Read 10th June 1817. J 



Silt, 



JjJLay I beg the favour of your communicating to 
the Horticultural Society, at their next meeting, 
the following particulars, respecting the ripening of 
fruit by artificial heat, after being taken from the 
tree, that any of its members may have an opportu- 
nity of ascertaining its effects by experiment. 

My discovery of this circumstance was accidental, 
and occasioned by my being led, in 1815, to pull 
half the crops from a jargonelle and a moorfowl egg 
pear tree, some weeks before they could have been 
ripe, owing to the danger of their being stolen, from 
the exposed situation of the trees. The fruit was 
placed in the drawers of a book-case, standing in a 
room where a fire is constantly kept, and where 
the mercury generally ranges between 58° and 68° 
Fahr. during the twenty-four hours. At that time 
I had no view to any other advantage from this si- 



280 DR HOWISON ON THE RIPENING OF FKUIT 

tuation, than being the most convenient for keeping 
them. After ten or twelve clays, on opening the 
drawers into which the jargonelle pears had been 
placed, I observed some of them to have a ripe co- 
lour, which, on tasting, I was greatly surprised to 
find much superior in sweetness and flavour to any 
that had ever before grown in my garden, when ri- 
pened on the tree in the most favourable seasons. 

The moorfowl egg pears were nearly a month 
later, but with the same improvement, and both se- 
veral weeks sooner fit for the table, than if allowed 
to remain on the tree. 

When two pears of the same kind were given to 
any of my friends, the one ripened by artificial heat, 
and the other on the tree, they, from the difference 
of flavour, never failed in distinguishing them, and 
giving the preference to the former. Of this obser- 
vation I have since taken regular advantage, and 
have extended it to melons, one-half the crops of 
which never arrive, in frames, at sufficient maturity, 
to be of any use but for preserving. 

My success in this department, the following 
note, taken from my gardening memoranda, will 
explain : " 29th December 1815. — The last of the 
melons, which were gathered in the end of October, 
and supposed useless, were, after lying since that 
time on the wooden floor under the book-case, eaten 
this day, and found nearly as high flavoured and 
juicy as those ripened in the frames, although they 
had but little smell until cut open. N. B. In fu- 



AFTER REMOVAL FROM THE TREE. 281 

ture all melons the size of apples to be carefully 
preserved. The green melon the best for this pur- 
pose." 

Last year. 1816, the season was so unfavourable, 
that, in this high country, Upper Ward of Lanark- 
shire, none even of the wall pears arrived at their 
usual size : still, the fire heat had the effect of ren- 
dering them more eatable than any I tasted ripened 
on the tree, which I had an opportunity of doing 
in one of the warmest situations in Scotland. I 
have often observed, that the aroma from a few ap- 
ples put into a drawer amongst linen, if in a room 
where a fire was kept, was much greater than from 
as many dozen placed in a cold cellar. 

From the foregoing it would appear, that the or- 
ganic elaborations of the constituent parts of fruit 
are all finished in the early stage of their growth, 
or when arrived at their full size, and that their 
ripening is a process of chemical changes similar to 
fermentation, which, with a sufficient and regular ap- 
plication of heat, goes on, in some degree, indepen- 
dent of the living principle. 

From the effect of fire heat on unripe melons, I 
have hopes that many of the fruits of warmer cli- 
mates may be, by the same means, brought to a de- 
gree of perfection hitherto unattainable in this north- 
ern latitude from the heat of the sun alone. The 
degree of heat proper for each must be ascertained 
by future experience *. 

* From some observations I lately made in germinating seeds, 



282 ON ARTIFICIAL RIPENING OF FRUIT. 

On apples I have made no experiments ; for, ex- 
cept in seasons like the last, in this climate they ar- 
rive at sufficient maturity without any artificial aid. 
I must,, however, notice some particulars with regard 
to their keeping last winter, which I think deser- 
ving of farther observation. In the end of October 
1816, when my apples were gathered, even the 
Hawthorndeans were so green, that another month 
would have been insufficient to have rendered them 
ripe. How much then has been my surprise, that in 
no winter during these ten years have they been in 
so complete a state of preservation ; and even now, 
the 27th May, I have many codlins and Hawthorn- 
deans equally fresh and plump as when taken from 
the tree. The cause of this unexpected occurrence 
appears to me owing to the great quantity of un- 
converted acid contained in the unripe fruit ; a 
knowledge of the effects of which, if I am correct, 
may be turned to several useful purposes. I re- 
main, &c. 



Douglas, 
Zd June 1817. 



! 



hatching of Canary birds, and making of vinegar, I am convinced 
that the degrees of heat best suited for these purposes, are more 
limited, or will admit of less excess or diminution than we are ge- 
nerally aware of; and, that animals, like vegetables, by a well re- 
gulated application of that grand mover of nature, may be forced 
in their productions. I have, at present, May 27. 1817, a Ca- 
nary hen sitting on five eggs, which is her eleventh brood since the 
beginning of April 1816. 3 



( 283 ) 



XXI. 



On the raising of Mushrooms during the winter 
season. 

In a Letter from Mr A. Kelly, Gardener to the Right 
Hon. the Eai'l of Moray at Donibristle, to the Secretary. 

{Read 9th June 1818.) 

Sir, 

XX aving promised to communicate to you my me- 
thod of raising mushrooms during the winter season, 
1 shall now do so ; and, if you think proper, you 
may lay this letter before the Caledonian Horticul- 
tural Society. 

It may be proper first to mention, that the mush- 
room house that I have the charge of, is constructed 
somewhat agreeable to that introduced by Mr Isaac 
Oldacre in 1814, having shelves or boxes erected 
for the beds, in place of having them in pits, or on 
the floor of the house. But, as this plan is now 
generally known in the country, any further de- 
scription from me would be useless. I shall merely 
state the particulars of my practice in making and 
managing the beds, in the above shelves, by which 
1 have been enabled to obtain a good supply of ex- 
cellent mushrooms during the whole winter months. 



284 Mil KELLY ON RAISING MUSHROOMS 

Every practical horticulturist will readily allow 
that spawn of a good quality is very necessary to in- 
sure success in growing mushrooms. After I have 
procured this, I next proceed to collect dung at the 
stables, in the mornings, not suffering it to be car- 
ried to the dunghil, but removing it to a covered 
shed, and there spreading it out thin to dry. I conti- 
nue to do this until I have enough collected for the 
proposed extent of beds to be made, and I occasion- 
ally turn it, until it only retain moisture enough to 
cause a fermentation. I never found the dung to be 
too dry, providing it has not been allowed to heat. 
The kind of dung that I prefer is one-half horse 
droppings, and one-half short litter, from horses fed 
upon hay and oats, always avoiding dung of horses 
fed upon soft food. 

As soon as a sufficient quantity is prepared as 
above, I carry it to the mushroom house, and throw 
it into a heap to heat, sometimes mixing one fifth 
or sixth part of sheep or cow dung ; but, I have 
found beds, made of horse dung alone, prepared as 
above, to be equally productive, and the mushrooms 
of as good a flavour, therefore I have discontinued 
the use of sheep or cow dung in making mushroom 
beds. When the dung has been turned once or 
twice, and a good heat has come into it, I begin to 
make the beds, by throwing it into the shelves or 
boxes, and beating it as firm as possible. I allow 
the bed to be as high as the front of the shelf, or 
within an inch of the height of the front, the 



DURING THE WINTER SEASON. 285 

shelf being one foot deep; the bed is made perfect- 
ly level. During the process of making up the bed, 
the heat of the dung will abate ; but, by lighting a 
fire in the adjoining furnace for a short time, it will 
readily return : if it return strong, or become vio- 
lent, I bore holes quite through the bed, to let the 
heat escape, and admit air freely into the house. 
These holes, by being filled up to within three in- 
ches of the surface of the bed, answer for putting the 
spawn into. As soon as the heat becomes mild, I 
spawn the bed with pieces of spawn about the size 
of common plums, placing the pieces about nine in- 
ches or a foot distance from each other, and cover- 
ing them one inch below the surface of the bed. T 
have sometimes put on the mould directly after 
spawning, when there was no danger of the heat 
returning strong ; but, in general, I defer this un- 
til the spawn has spread itself through the dung, 
which I think answers better. 

1 have tried different kinds of mould for mush- 
room beds ; and what I have found to answer best 
is, lightish loam, mixed with a small proportion of 
horse droppings or road scrapings. I find road scrap- 
ings, when they can be got dry, and from roads where 
horses have frequented, to form an excellent compo- 
sition for covering mushroom beds. 

I put the mould on the beds one inch thick, beat- 
ing it firm and smooth. This finishes the bed to 
the height of the front of the shelf, or one foot 
deep. 



286 MR KELLY ON RAISING MUSHROOMS 

Thus having given you a detail of my way of 
preparing the dung, making up, and spawning the 
beds ; all that is now required until the mush- 
rooms begin to appear, is to keep a steady and re- 
gular degree of heat in the house, admitting air at 
all opportunities, and regulating according to the 
heat in the beds. I keep my house from 55° to 60° 
of Fahrenheit's thermometer. The mushrooms ge- 
nerally begin to appear in about three or four weeks 
after the mould is put on. If, at this time, the 
beds look very dry on the surface, I give a very mo- 
derate watering, with seasoned water, suited to the 
temperature of the house. If the spawn has ex- 
tended itself, and the bed is in good condition, the 
effects of this watering will soon be very visible, by 
sending up mushrooms in great numbers, and in 
large clusters, all over the bed. The admission of 
air into the house at this time is very beneficial : 
by admitting much air, the mushrooms will not ad- 
vance so rapidly in growth ; but they will be much 
firmer, and of higher flavour, than if kept close shut 
up. I use no covering for my beds. 

Watering of mushroom beds is a very delicate 
operation, and ought to be performed with caution, 
as the spawn will not long exist in the beds, if they 
are too moist; and the mushrooms will often go off 
after they are as large as peas : therefore, I keep my 
beds rather dry, not watering as they appear to want 
it, but according as I want a supply of mushrooms; for 
if the beds are in a good state, they will seldom fail 



DURING THE WINTER SEASON. 287 

to produce plenty, after a moderate watering is gi- 
ven. Upon the regulation of the watering depends 
the length of time that the beds will continue to 
produce. After my beds appear to be quite done 
bearing, and if there be any spawn remaining in 
them, I allow them to lie a considerable time quite 
dry, during which the spawn will extend itself a 
second time, and by applying a moderate watering, 
the bed will frequently again produce very good 
mushrooms. 

Thus I have endeavoured to give you the parti- 
culars of my mode of raising mushrooms. Al- 
though it may be said that little new is stated in it, 
yet to some it may be useful ; and I hope those 
who may have better methods will be induced by it 
to give their opinion upon the subject. 

This way of raising mushrooms, in shelves and 
boxes, has met with opposition from some ; but I 
think it has advantages over the common way of 
raising them in pits, or in ridge beds. First, any 
extent of beds required may, with the greatest con- 
venience, be set agoing at a time ; and far less ma- 
terials will be found to answer the purpose. But 
the greatest advantage that it possesses over the 
common practice, consists in the beds being elevat- 
ed above the floor of the house ; no damp can arise 
therefrom ; and the bottom of the shelves, being 
constructed with openings below, all superabundant 
moisture is readily drained off. Besides, these open- 
ings are very serviceable, by admitting the heated 



288 MR KELLY ON RAISING MUSHROOMS. 

air of the house to the under part of the heds ; 
which will be of good effect, after the fermenting 
heat of the dung is gone. An objection to this 
way of raising mushrooms may perhaps be advan- 
ced, that the beds being composed of a small body 
of dung, they will not continue to bear so long as 
those made after the common way ; but, in both 
cases, I think the continuation of their bearing de- 
pends very much upon the materials used, and the 
general management of the beds. Too much mois- 
ture and dampness being, in general, the destruc- 
tion of all mushroom beds, those made upon the 
floor of the house are more subject to this evil than 
those made upon the shelves ; and the circumstance 
of their being composed of a much larger body of 
dung, will of itself, when the beds begin to decay, 
raise a damp that will gradually ascend and destroy 
every particle of spawn. I am, &c. 

DONIBRISTLE, 1 

May 2. 1818. j 



{ 289 ) 



XXII. 

On destroying Slugs (Limax cinereus, and 
agrestis.) 

In a Letter from Mr Archibald Gorrie, Gardener to 
Kenneth Bruce Stuart, Esq. of Annat, to the Secre- 
tary. 

(Read 9th June 1818J 
Sir, 

X he rain which prevailed from the beginning to 
the middle of the present month (May) have called 
vast numbers of slugs into existence ; and the de- 
predations they commit are found to be commensu- 
rate with their numbers. The complaints at pre- 
sent on this subject are many, and but too well 
founded. On some fields of oats the braird has been 
partially devoured by them, and on others the plants 
have entirely disappeared. In the garden, where 
they are always troublesome, they have this season 
become formidable ; and where whole flower-pot- 
fuls are picked off every morning, they still con- 
tinue to increase, and to eat up the different varie- 
ties of the brassica tribe, and seedling plants of al- 
most every sort \ and even in some instances do 

VOL. IV. T 



290 MR GORR1E ON DESTROYING SLUGS. 

they ascend wall-trees, and attack their expanded 
blossom. 

It is almost universally known that quicklime 
dusted over slugs kills them instantaneously. Lime 
water, too, has been recommended for the same 
purpose ; but lime loses that caustic quality by 
which it destroys them, soon after it is laid on 
the ground, and consequently can afford only a 
transient protection to the plant which it sur- 
rounds. Lime-water is also liable to the same ob- 
jection ; so that if lime is applied in any shape for 
the destruction of slugs, it must be repeated almost 
daily to keep them under. 

It is not perhaps generally known that the urine 
of black-cattle, or the drainings of a cow-house, or 
of dunghils, destroy slugs, if poured on them. Such 
liquids also prevent the approach of others for a con- 
siderable time to the ground on which they are 
poured. 

This discovery, if it deserves the name, was made 
by accident last season ; and since that time I have 
found nothing further necessary to preserve my 
plants from slugs, than to pour a little of the drain- 
ings of the cow-house, diluted with about one-third 
of its quantity of water, over them once a fortnight. 
Every practical gardener will know that, in clear 
weather, the watering should be performed in the 
evening ; and that it may be done any time through- 
out the day, in damp or cloudy weather. If the 



MR GORRIE ON DESTROYING SLUGS. 291 

urine is applied without any mixture of water, it will 
the more effectually destroy the slugs ; but it may 
also be in danger of hurting the plants, unless ap- 
plied in the time of rain, when it will prove a protec- 
tion to the plant, and at the same time promote its 
growth. 

Your laying this short communication before 
the Horticultural Society at your convenience, will 
oblige yours, &c. 

Annat Garden, 1 
21st May 1818. \ 



t2 



292 MR REID ON THE ADVANTAGES OF 



XXIII. 

Account of a New Mode of Planting and Cul- 
tivating Fruit Trees, with a view to prevent 
Canker, and to procure well-ripened Fruit *. 

By Mr Archibald Reid, Gardener to the Hon. Robert 
Lindsay, at Balcarras, by Colingsburgh. 

(Read 2d Dec. 1824 and Zd Nov, 1827 .) 



A was entrusted with the management of the ex- 
tensive gardens and orchard at Balcarras in the end 
of the year 1812. The orchard contains about two 
Scots acres, and was stocked with upwards of 600 
trees ; I found these numerous fruit trees general- 
ly in a very unhealthy state, being much infected 
with canker. During the first season, I examined 
the soil, and found it consisted of a strong cold loam, 
of various sorts, and in general about three feet deep, 
on a subsoil of cold clay. I lifted a few of the trees 



* At a General Meeting of the Society, held 6th March 1828, 
it was resolved that the London Medal for 1827 should be award- 
ed to Mr Archibald Reid, for this communication, the advantages 
of the practice recommended having now been amply confirmed. 

P. N. Sec. 



SHALLOW PLANTING OF FRUIT TREES. 293 

most infected with the canker, in order to ascertain 
the situation and state of their roots, and found 
they had run generally to the depth of three feet, as 
the spots whereon they were planted had been paved 
with flags at that depth. The roots were clean and 
healthy, but few in number, mostly of a very large 
size, and had very few fibres. I am of opinion that 
the depth of the roots and the want of fibres, even 
in the most favourable soil, must have a tendency 
to injure the health of the tree, and to produce can- 
ker. I was induced, from the state of the roots 
being so deep, and the diseased state of the trees, to 
hope, that, if new trees were planted near the sur- 
face, the roots would become more fibrous, the trees 
more fruitful, and be less apt to canker. 

In 1813 I made some experiments, by covering se- 
veral thermometers, for about fourteen days, close in 
pits of various depths, in order to ascertain the de- 
grees of heat ; and found during the summer months 
the average heat at 6 inches to be 61° ; at 9 inches 
57° ; at 18 inches 50° ; and at 3 feet deep 44° Fahr. 
I therefore concluded, from these experiments, that 
if the roots could be retained near the surface, they 
would be in a more favourable situation than when 
allowed to run two feet or more down in the soil. In 
autumn 1813, a few of the diseased trees, of about 
ten years standing, were dug up and planted as near 
the surface as their roots would admit. These have 
continued ever since to improve, and are now bear- 
ing annually good crops, and are perfectly free of 



294 MR REID ON THE ADVANTAGES OF 

canker. But as there was little hope of these trees 
succeeding at the time of their removal, preparation 
was made for planting young trees, by collecting 
mould, composed one-half of decayed vegetables and 
tree leaves, and the other part of fresh loam, from 
the surface of old pasture ground, to which was add- 
ed one-fifth of sharp pit-sand ; all these parts were 
well mixed together, and after being properly de- 
composed and turned over, this compost was, during 
the following summer, carried into the orchard, and 
laid down in heaps of about three to four wheel bar- 
row loads to each tree. The ground having been 
previously trenched to about two feet deep, and the 
distances of the trees marked out, a stake of from 
three to four feet long was driven into the ground, 
about six inches north from the site intended for the 
stem of the tree, where a circle of six feet diameter 
was drawn, and the soil within it was removed to the 
depth of two inches. The place was then beat with 
a wooden rammer, and made as firm and smooth as 
possible, and of an equal depth all over. Before 
planting the tree, the roots were carefully examin- 
ed, and all bruised or broken parts cut off, leaving 
the slope upwards. The tree being placed at six in- 
ches south of the stake, one person held the stem 
fast, while I spread out the roots on the beaten sur- 
face of the circle, placing, if possible, the greater 
part of their extremities to the south ; the tree was 
then pressed gently down, in order to make the 
roots rest close on the surface. As soon as the roots 



SHALLOW PLANTING OF FllUIT TREES. 295 

were adjusted, a third person laid on the fine mould, 
which I carefully distributed among the roots, press - 
ing it with the hand till the roots were all covered. 
The remainder of the mould was then placedin a coni- 
cal form, from the extremity of the circle to the stem 
of the tree. The place was then covered over with 
a little half-rotten dung, and this last covered with 
the earth first thrown out of the circle. About two 
feet on each side of the stem the earth was flatten- 
ed, and left in this state *. The stem of the tree was 
then made fast to the stake with a hay band. If 
any of the large roots happen to be broken near the 
stem, before or during the operation of planting, as 
the new fibres of such roots are apt to force their 
way downwards, I always mark such trees, for the 
purpose of lifting and replacing after about four years 
standing, in order to give the fibres of the broken 
root a horizontal direction, if found necessary. 

In spring 1815, about eighty trees, of the usual 
size, were ordered from the nurseries, and planted as 
above mentioned ; but I found, from the large size of 
their roots, that a number of them were broken du- 
ring the operation of planting. To remedy this 
evil, a quantity of young trees were procured from 
the nurseries, only one year grafted ; these were 
planted, in the manner above described, in a plot 

* In the year 1808, I planted a considerable orchard on the 
same plan ; but as the ground was afterwards dug for vegetables, 
the plan did not succeed, owing to the roots being injured by the 
spade. 



296 MR REID ON THE ADVANTAGES OF 

prepared for the purpose, in rows three feet separate, 
and two feet distant in the row. They were allow- 
ed to remain three years in this state, and then 
transplanted as directed. I found, by this opera- 
tion, the roots abounded in fibres, and had acquired 
a horizontal direction according to my wish, and 
were easily removed to their new situations on a 
hand-barrow, the fibres retaining a great quantity 
of the soil when lifted. In pruning these young 
trees as ordered from the nurseries, I cut down their 
shoots to about six inches long, leaving only three 
shoots, the top bud on the north side being allowed 
to remain, so as to form an open head towards the 
south. When transplanted into the orchard, none 
of the young shoots were cut down ; only a few of 
the ill placed ones were cut out : for the shoots of the 
former season when allowed to remain whole, gene- 
rally produce blossom|buds, and upon these buds, or 
natural spurs, the best fruit is always produced ; but, 
on the contrary, were these shoots to be shortened, 
they would, in that case, produce few such buds, 
but, instead thereof, would send out a great quanti- 
ty of useless wood ; and the tree would not be in 
condition to produce much fruit, so long as the 
young shoots are cut down in this manner. 

As the trees acquire more wood from their age, 
the knife may be used more freely, always keeping 
the tree open towards the south, and the branches 
from crossing or rubbing upon each other. I ge- 
nerally keep them from nine inches to a foot sepa- 



SHALLOW PLANTING OF FRUIT TREES. 297 

rate, according to their sorts or state of growth, care- 
fully examining the tree for such buds or spurs as 
have been injured by pulling the fruit, or other ac- 
cidents, for if these are allowed to remain, they will 
in most cases produce canker. 

When trees are planted in the above manner, 
they do not grow to a great size, nor require to be 
planted at a great distance. I generally allow twelve 
feet square to each tree, and, as the ground cannot 
be used for vegetables owing to the roots being so 
near the surface, I keep the soil as clear of weeds as 
possible, particularly during the summer months, by 
using the Dutch hoe, as this instrument may be 
used with great expedition, without injuring the 
roots of the trees. I am of opinion, that breaking 
the surface by hoeing and raking in dry weather, 
promotes the health of the tree, as well as the fla- 
vour and timely ripening of the fruit. For raking, 
I use a wooden rake, as it is not so apt to tear up 
the young roots *. 

A top-dressing of rich compost is given once in 
three or four years, and laid on before winter. 

Those trees that have been planted and cultivat- 

* October 1827 — I am of opinion that the welfare of an 
orchard, placed on an unfavourable cold soil, does not depend 
merely on shallow planting, but relies very much on the treatment 
afterwards ; it is necessary to retain the roots in the situation first 
given to them. If the ground is ever dug for cropping after the 
trees are planted, the plan will not succeed ; but gooseberry-bushes 
do well amongst the trees without the ground being dug. 



£98 MR REID ON THE ADVANTAGES OF 

ed in the above manner, are more moderate in their 
growth, and easier kept within compass of pruning; 
the wood is of a firmer texture, and much less apt 
to canker; they are much more fruitful, and the fruit 
of finer quality, and about three weeks earlier ripen- 
ed than the fruit of the old trees that have been al- 
lowed to remain. This must be owing to the heat 
of the sun reaching their roots situate so near the 
surface, and thereby producing a more rapid vegeta- 
tion, and bringing both wood and fruit sooner to a 
state of maturity. 

I have been told by various classes of visitors, that 
by allowing such young trees to bear so great quan- 
tities of fruit, they would soon be worn out and de- 
cay. I allow this may be the case in some measure 
with trees planted and cultivated in the usual man- 
ner, by digging and raising kitchen vegetables among 
them, whereby the roots are forced to seek nourish- 
ment in the unfertile subsoil. The case of trees 
planted on the surface, and feeding among the rich 
warm particles of a fertile soil, must be far prefer- 
able indeed, where the roots are never injured by 
the spade, nor the action of the atmosphere ob- 
structed by crops of vegetables. Further, the young 
trees have hitherto done well, and at present have 
a very promising healthy appearance *. But even 



* October 1827. — Some of the old trees have been allowed 
to remain in their original state, and are sadly infected with can- 
ker, and their fruit of no use, as it does not ripen. The young 
trees continue healthy and vigorous. 



SHALLOW PLANTING OF FRUIT TREES. 299 

suppose they should decay, as remarked, at the age 
of fifteen or twenty years, it may be answered, that 
the fruit already produced by them is a sufficient 
inducement to continue the practice, by keeping up 
the succession from a nursery of young trees. It 
may be added, that those young trees have no ten- 
dency to canker except from broken buds or acci- 
dental bruises, which is of little consequence, as they 
are cut off during the pruning season ; but many of 
the old trees were much infected with the canker at 
six years old, and, when about nine years old, they 
were generally overrun with this disease, when the 
above new mode of planting was introduced. 

Although canker is produced from various causes, 
the principal cause, I think, is deep planting in any 
soil, as that method is generally attended with the 
production of unripe wood. 

In a strong deep soil, the growth is apt to be 
luxuriant, and the wood spongy with buds, neither 
of which are brought to maturity ; these are often 
destroyed by the vicissitudes of the weather during 
winter, and thereby canker commences, which sel- 
dom fails to destroy the branch where such buds 
exist. 

In a dry subsoil, the tree being deprived of nou- 
rishment, both from poverty of soil and want of 
moisture during the summer, vegetation often be- 
comes stationary, and, towards autumn, sometimes 
is succeeded by a new growth of wood, liable to the 
same disease as the former, 



300 MR REID ON THE ADVANTAGES OF 

A few of the old trees being left unremoved for 
the purpose of experiment with regard to the can- 
ker ; after twelve years experiment and observation 
on these old trees, I have been led to the above con- 
clusions respecting the causes of canker. Although, 
by great attention in pruning these old trees, and 
cutting out the canker, 1 have succeeded in preser- 
ving them up to this period (November 1824), their 
fruit is of inferior quality, and so late in ripening, 
that it makes a poor return for the great trouble ne- 
cessarily bestowed on them. 

As a confirmation of the above plan of plant- 
ing on the surface being preferable to the com- 
mon method, I have at present a great number of 
the branches of these young trees, regrafted with 
cions taken from the most diseased of the old trees, 
particularly the Hawthorndean apple and the Jargo- 
nelle * pear, and several other sorts, commonly sup- 
posed to be most subject to canker. All these new 
grafts are doing well, and have carried good crops for 
the last six years. 



* October 1827. — I allude to jargonelle trees planted against 
the wall, which were very much infected with canker, I now add, 
that I have about eighty standard pear trees of various sorts, about 
three years old, which produced a considerable quantity of fruit 
this year for their age, and appear as healthy as the standard apple 
trees. 



SHALLOW PLANTING OF FRUIT TREES. 301 



[This communication was accompanied with the 
following letter, addressed to the Secretary by the 
Hon. Robert Lindsay of Balcarras.] 

Sir, Balcarras, 29th Nov. 1824. 

This letter accompanies a paper written by my 
gardener, stating his observations on the disease 
called Canker in fruit-trees ; also the mode he 
adopted in planting out a new orchard of apple trees 
at Balcarras in Fife. Allow me to mention, that 
nothing could be more unfortunate than the soil 
chosen by my predecessors for the garden and or- 
chard at Balcarras : the elevation about 220 feet ; 
the soil a retentive clay, with a cold tilly bottom. 
The consequence was, that, for twenty years, I tried 
to establish an orchard without success. With the 
force of dung, the trees grew to a luxuriant size, 
but the wood cankered, and produced no fruit. Un- 
der these untoward circumstances, Archibald Reid, 
my gardener, proposed a new plan of replanting the 
trees, within a few inches of the surface, treading 
down the soil, to prevent the roots going down, thus 
forcing the smaller fibres to run horizontally along 
the ground. At the same time, he raised up some 
of the old diseased trees to the surface, carefully 
cutting out every particle of canker. The experi- 
ment completely succeeded ; and I have now the sa- 
tisfaction to inform you, that there is not a more 



302 MR REID ON THE ADVANTAGES OF 

productive orchard in Scotland than the one I now 
allude to, or one more deserving of the attention of 
those who have to work upon a cold bottom. For 
these advantages, I am indebted to the superior 
judgment of Archibald Reid, to whose statement I 
refer. 

Mr Andrew Dickson, treasurer of the Society, 
who has annually seen the progress of the work for 
the last twelve years, will give his testimony as to 
what he has seen, and fully confirm all that is here 
stated. I am, &c. 



[The following notice on the same subject is from 
Colonel Spens of Craigsanquhar, a distinguished 
amateur horticulturist.] 

Successful Mode of Planting Fruit- Trees at 
Balcarras, the seat of the Honourable Hobert 
Lindsay. 

The soil of the garden and orchard is on a cold 
wet retentive bottom, and the trees had been plant- 
ed in the usual way by digging a pretty deep pit 
for them ; the roots were consequently in an un- 
favourable situation, and far removed from the 
kindly influence of the sun. The fruit which the 
trees produced was therefore not good ; the trees 



SHALLOW PLANTING OF FRUIT TREES. 303 

were not productive, and they were sadly infected 
with canker, as is still very visible from some of the 
old ones which have been allowed to remain. To 
remedy these various evils, young trees have been 
planted in the following manner, which has been 
attended with the desired effect, they being now 
very productive, ripening their fruit more early than 
formerly, while it is also much better ; and they are 
hitherto free from canker, though they have now 
(1827) been planted eleven years. 

A circle is drawn on the surface of the ground, 
containing a space of about six feet, which is ren- 
dered smooth and hard by being beat with an in- 
strument similar to what paviours use in causeway- 
ing a street. Young trees which have only been 
transplanted a year or two are preferred, from their 
roots and fibres being more flexible and pliable. In 
the centre of the circle, and on the surface, the 
trees are placed, and held upright by an assistants 
The roots and fibres are carefully spread out and 
severed, and covered over with about six inches of 
fine mould, brought for that purpose on a wheel- 
barrow. The trees are fixed with a stake, until they 
acquire sufficient firmness in the ground to resist 
the effects of high winds. It is, however, to be re- 
marked, that ground occupied by trees in this man- 
ner soon ceases to admit of cultivation, and cannot 
be dug, from the injury this would create to the 
roots ; but perhaps it might be laid down with 
grass-seeds, and the surface might be occasionally 



304 SHALLOW PLANTING OF FRUIT TREES. 

enriched by the application of a proper top-dres- 
sing *. 

The trees thus planted at Balcarras have been 
selected with much judgment by the gardener, from 
the more hardy productive Clydesdale kinds, and 
they seem to be managed with much attention and 
skill. They are not permitted to become too luxu- 
riant, and they are so pruned as to admit the full in- 
fluence and benefit of the sun. 

* October 1827 I have tried grass, but it does not answer. 

The fruit of the trees become small, and are late in ripening ; and 
the trees become subject to moss. — A. R. 



( 305 ) 

XXIV. 

Observations on the Culture of Onions. 

Communicated in a Letter to the Secretary from An- 
drew Duncan sen. M-. D. and P., dated 1st Septem- 
ber 1818. 

(Read 8th September 1818. ) 

-Louring the course of the present summer, I have 
visited many gardens, particularly in the three Lo- 
thians and Fife. I have very generally found, that, 
almost every where, the crops of that excellent vege- 
table the onion were deplorably bad. This every 
gardener with whom I have conversed attributed to 
their being destroyed by the grub peculiar to onions. 
The same devastation has taken place in England ; 
insomuch that I am told peaches and onions are 
now sold in Covent Garden market at the same 
price. 

To the generation of this insect, the warm and 
dry weather which has prevailed this season has 
been particularly favourable, and therefore its rava- 
ges are not wonderful. But to this general destruc- 
tion of the onion, I have found one very remarkable 
exception. In the gardens at Dalkeith Park, which 
VOL. iv. u 



306 DR DUNCAN'S OBSERVATIONS 

I visited in conjunction with my worthy friends Pro- 
fessor Dunbar and Dr Andrew Brown, I have seen 
this year one of the finest crops of onions that I 
have ever beheld, during the course of a long life. 
This I have no doubt in ascribing to Mr Macdo- 
nald's superior mode of cultivating that vegetable. 

Mr Macdonald has this season been engaged in 
many experiments, with the view of improving the 
culture of onions, particularly for determining the 
comparative influence of different kinds of dung in 
promoting the growth of that vegetable. The re- 
sult of these experiments I would fain hope he will 
in due time communicate to the public. But the 
two particulars on which, in my opinion, the excel- 
lence of his onion crop principally depends, he has 
already made public through the medium of our 
Memoirs. 

In a paper, printed in our Memoirs, vol. i. p. Ill, 
et seq., he has recommended two different practices : 
1. The transplanting of onions ; and, 2. The defend- 
ing the plant against the grub by means of soot. 
For a particular account of these practices I must refer 
to the paper itself. I shall only observe, that, from 
the appearance of his crop, there was every reason to 
believe that his mode of applying soot is an effec- 
tual protection against the grub : For while, in 
other gardens, the grubs had made very great de- 
vastation, in his transplanted rows not a single blank 
was to be observed. The advantages of transplant- 
ing was no less manifest in the size which his 



ON THE CULTURE QF ONIONS. 307 

onions had acquired. To this plan of transplanting 
onions, Mr Macdonald was first led, from the very 
great improvement which transplantation makes on 
leeks. I am old enough to remember the period 
when transplanted leeks were very rarely to be met 
with in any garden. But such is the benefit result- 
ing from this process, that now almost no leeks are 
considered marketable which have not been reared 
in that manner. I do not despair of living long 
enough to see the transplanting of onions become as 
general ; for I am persuaded it will be attended 
with no less advantage. Indeed I am informed, on 
authority on which the most perfect reliance may be 
put, that the transplanting onions has been long 
the universal practice at some of our settlements in 
the East Indies. Dr P. Baird from Bombay, a 
worthy and intelligent member of our Society, in- 
forms me, that, at many different parts of the Ma- 
labar coast, onion plants for the purpose of being 
transferred to other gardens, are as currently sold 
as cabbage plants are in the Edinburgh market. I 
would therefore fain hope, that, by due attention to 
the plan which Mr Macdonald has recommended, 
the industrious gardener will not in future be sub- 
jected to the same calamity, with regard to onions, 
as has occurred during the present year. 

P. S. — As a postscript to my letter, I add an ex- 
tract of a letter from James Warre, Esq., dated- 

u 2 



308 DR DUNCAN'S OBSERVATIONS 

30. George Street, Hanover Square, London, 10th 
January 1818. 

" Observing in the newspaper of this morning, 
in the report of the proceedings of the Caledonian 
Horticultural Society, that Mr Macdonald of Dal- 
keith presented a basket oitrans'planted onions, that, 
for size and firmness, surpassed any other exhibited, 
I take the liberty, as a member of the Horticul- 
tural Society of London, very desirous of promoting 
the objects of both institutions, to offer to your 
honourable Society a sample of Portugal onion- 
seed, from Vianna, in the province of Minho, — the 
quality of onion most esteemed in that country. 

" The advantage of transplanting onions, to pro- 
mote their growth and size, as practised in Portu- 
gal, I frequently have submitted to gardeners here, 
and am happy to find that this process has been at- 
tended with success in a northern part of the em- 
pire. The practice in Portugal is, to sow the seed 
about the end of November or December, on a 
moderate hot-bed, covered with a few inches of 
rich good mould, in a warm situation, merely 
sheltered from their slight frosts by mats. When 
of about the size of a large swan's quill, or about 
April, they are transplanted on a rich light mould, 
well manured, with old rotten dung, the plants at 
the distance of about nine inches each way, gene- 
rally in beds, for the convenience of access, laying 
the plants flat, covering lightly the beard or root, 



ON THE CULTURE OF ONIONS. 309 

and part only of the bulb, with rich mould, well 
mixed with two-thirds of old rotten dung ; watering, 
if the weather is dry, until they have taken root ; 
subsequently occasionally breaking the earth by 
lightly hoeing, keeping them perfectly clean from 
weeds, watering frequently, according to the state 
of weather. There, they have frequently means to 
water by irrigation, when, upon rich soils, they can 
grow them to a great size, particularly when they 
let the water run through small heaps of dung, 
though, when that is practised, or much water 
given, the onions do not keep so long as others. 
When ripe, they draw them gently from the ground, 
give a twitch to the tops, and leave them to season 
on the ground for a few days, before housing, when 
they directly bind them into ropes with dry straw, 
not permitting them to sweat in a heap. Their 
preservation much depends upon the weather being 
dry and good when housed, and on their not being 
bruised." 

3 



( 310 ) 



XXV. 

Remarks, 1. On the propagating of certain Plants 
by cuttings ; 2. On enuring of certain Plants to 
our climate; 3. On the grafting of Orange- 
Trees. 

In a Letter from Mr John Machray, Errol, to the Secre- 
tary. 

{Read Zd February 1826.) 

Sir, 

X he following remarks on several subjects con- 
nected with horticulture, the result of long and suc- 
cessful experience, I now forward to you ; and should 
they appear of sufficient importance, I shall feel 
obliged by you laying them before the Society. 
There are many plants, that, from their hard tex- 
ture or peculiar organization, are very difficult to 
propagate by cuttings, but there are but compara- 
tively few that have not been found, under proper 
management, to produce those appendages which 
are requisite to promote the growth, and prolong 
the existence, of the species. Nature, indeed, em- 
ploys other means of propagation, but her hand- 
maid Art has proved successful in propagating 
many useful and ornamental vegetables, the seeds 



PROPAGATING BY CUTTINGS. 311 

of which cannot be easily obtained in a climate 
where they are not indigenous, — by laying, — by 
cuttings,— and by grafting. The approach which 
nature may have made to propagate the species by 
any of these methods, is very limited. The pro- 
cess of laying is the most obviously natural, next 
to the universal law of every tree yielding fruit 
" in which is the seed thereof after his kind." The 
mode of grafting, by which varieties are propagat- 
ed, may have first been adopted from the appear- 
ance of cross branches uniting, after long continued 
and severe pressure against each other ; but the 
origin of striking by cuttings is not so easily ac- 
counted for, nor shall that investigation be made 
the subject of the present inquiry. I shall confine 
myself, on this subject, to a description of the 
method I have long practised, in propagating cer- 
tain plants by cuttings* I shall next mention the 
success attending the exposure of certain plants to 
the action of the weather, in attempting to enure 
some of the natives of warmer countries to a climate 
which, according to meteorologists, gives a mean of 
47.2° Fahrenheit. I shall, lastly, take the liberty 
to state my mode of grafting orange-trees, with the 
attendant success. I am aware that a communica- 
tion on this last subject has already appeared in 
the Society's Memoirs. The rapid progress, how- 
ever, which this method of practice insures, con- 
vinces me that a description of it will not be alto- 
gether uninteresting. 



312 ON THE PROPAGATING OF 

1. Among the plants to which this paper is meant 
to excite attention, as raised by cuttings, are the 
Aster Argophyllus, Pyrus Japonica, Aucuba 
Japonica, the stripe-leaved Bramble, and the 
broad and the narrow leaved Myrtles. The com- 
post I use for such cuttings, is of an open nature, 
and at the same time contains as much nutritive 
matter as is requisite to communicate sufficient vi- 
gour to the young plants when rooted : it is made 
up of one-half light-brown loam, one-fourth vegeta- 
ble mould, and one-fourth river sand, well mixed, 
and put through a sieve. The time which I prefer 
for planting, is from the middle of August till the 
middle of September, when the shoots have acquired 
sufficient firmness. The place I choose for planting 
the cuttings, is in front of a north wall, a south as- 
pect, the hand-glasses to be about six inches from the 
north wall, and as near the west corner as to be 
within the shade of the west wall in the afternoon. 
After marking the space for the glass, I take out 
the natural border earth) to the depth of eight 
inches, and that space I fill with the above men- 
tioned compost, treacling it gently. I then put in 
the cuttings, prepared in the common way, with a 
small dibble. The cuttings are of last summer's 
growth, and from 4 to 6 inches long ; they are 
placed from 1^ to 2 inches apart from each other, 
according to the strength or size of the cuttings. 
I firm them well, and give a good watering. I then 
cover close up with the hand-glass, shade from hot 



CERTAIN PLANTS, BY CUTTINGS. 313 

sun iii the months of August, September, and Octo- 
ber; but I keep off the mats during the winter 
months, and put them on again in March. I continue 
to shade in time of hot sun till August, visit occa- 
sionally during that time, and give gentle waterings 
from the beginning of May. By the end of June, 
the cuttings will have struck root, and by the end 
of July they will have acquired from 6 inches to 
a foot of young wood. During this period, they 
will require more frequent watering and shading 
throughout the day. I may here observe, that no 
air is to be admitted to the cuttings from the time 
that they were planted till now, the end of July, 
except what was unavoidable during the time of 
watering. About the 12th of August they may be 
potted out ; and it will strengthen the plants to have 
a little air admitted every day, by little and little, 
for about a fortnight before potting. I formerly 
propagated that beautiful plant the Pyrus Japoni- 
ca, by cuttings of the roots ; but by this process 
comparatively few plants can be raised : It seems 
unnecessary, however, to enlarge regarding this 
plant, as it is now found to be most successfully and 
easily propagated by layers, 

2. I shall now notice a few of those plants which 
I think I have in some measure succeeded in enur- 
ing to our climate, or which I have been able to 
preserve in our open borders, by a little care and 
protection during winter. 



314 ON NATURALIZING PLANTS. 

The Aster Argophyllus I have growing against a 
south wall, where it has stood three years, and is 6 
feet in height ; it requires little or no protection in 
winter. — Myrtles grow here on the open walls, to 
the height of 10 feet. I cover them with a mat 
in winter. — -The Aucuba Japonica grows in the 
open borders, but is much improved in growth, and 
beauty of foliage, on an east or west wall. — Fuchsia 
coccinea succeeds in the same way, and grows here 
against a south wall, and is advanced to the height 
of 7 feet ; flowers richly from June till November. 
I cover in winter with mats. 

3. The stocks I use for orange-trees are from four 
to six years old. I prefer lemon stocks. The sea- 
son for grafting is early in March. The method I 
prefer is what is called slit-grafting, which will be 
easily understood by every practical gardener. I 
use no clay, but tie a little moist moss round the 
parts joined. I plunge the pots in which the 
grafted stocks are, into the tan-bed in the pine- 
stove, and give a good watering. I then cover 
closely with a hand-glass and shade from hot sun in 
the middle of the day. In ten days they will begin to ■ 
push, and will have acquired, in another fortnight, 
fully a foot of young wood : then air should be very 
gradually admitted ; and, in a few days, the moss and 
bandages should be removed, and the plants, after 
having the advantage of the hand-glass for a few days 
after uniting, may be removed when thought pro- 
per. By this method ninety-nine in a hundred will 



GRAFTING OF ORANGE-TREES. 315 

succeed. I have often had flowers on those plants 
the first season. 1 have also found those plants 
grafted, yield more flowers and fruit than plants 
that had been budded. I may also remark that, to 
secure or rather promote a growth in the stocks, be- 
fore grafting, I remove the pots containing the le- 
mon and orange stocks, from the greenhouse to the 
pine-stove, about eight or ten days before the ope- 
ration of grafting takes place. The process of vege- 
tation then goes forward ; the stocks and graft un- 
der the hand-glass join much sooner than those 
who have not witnessed that process might expect ; 
and I conceive, that, in this rapid junction and sub- 
sequent vigorous growth produced by the partial ex- 
clusion of air, the elevated temperature, and the ear- 
ly period of the season at which I graft, lies the 
principal merit of the process I recommend. You 
will likewise observe that, by this process, good 
orange plants may be obtained within a month from 
the time of grafting. The scions I use are short, 
only three buds above the tying, and in general of 
last year's growth. If this method of grafting is 
performed in a hot-bed, where pine-pits cannot be 
had, bell-glasses will be most convenient for cover- 
ing the stock and graft. 

The rapidity of growth obtained by the practice 
I have here described, compared with the result ob- 
tained by following the usual modes, will, I hope, 
justify me in submitting it to the public. The cul- 



316 GRAFTING OF ORANGE-TREES. 

tivator of orange plants will find many useful hints 
for the after-treatment of orange trees, in Mr Hen- 
derson's excellent communication in the 11th Num- 
ber of the Society's Memoirs, (vol. hi. p. 306, et seq). 
I am, &c. 



Errol Park, ) 
With January 1826. J 



( 317 ) 



XXVI. 

Description of an Improved Flower-pot, with an 
interior Moveable Bottom. 

In a Letter from James Howison, Esq. of Crossburn 
House to the Secretary. 

(Read 2d September 1824 J 

Sir, 

Accompanying this, you will receive a model 
for a new Garden Flower-pot, as also, one for a 
Shifting Stand, both of which, 1 hope, the Society 
will, in several respects, find superior to the utensils 
now in use for the same purposes *. 

My objections to the present garden flower-pots 
are, that their bottoms, in nineteen instances out of 
twenty, are little more than one-half the width of 
the top, although the bottom is the part the roots 
of plants principally occupy. From this cause, in 



* These models may be seen in the Council Room, at the Ex- 
perimental Garden, Inverleith. It may be right to notice, that the 
figures of the perforated false bottom in the margin are propor- 
tionally too small ; they should nearly fill the interior of the bottom 
of the flower-pott 



318 



MR HOWISON'S DESCRIPTION OF 




green-house shelves, where the pots contain plants 
with small heads, half the space occupied by a wide 
mouthed flower-pot is lost. To remedy this, it will 
be observed, that my flower-pot is almost a cylinder, 
or the taper towards the bottom is only sufficient 
to admit of the ball of earth 
which surrounds the root of 
the plant leaving the pot easi- 
ly, after being loosened by 
placing it on the shifting- 
stand, and that, instead of 
putting gravel into the pots, 
to prevent the water stagnating, I substitute a 
perforated false bottom, made of the same ma- 
terials as the pot (fig. 2.) : these false bottoms 
have the holes much wider in the 
lower than in the upper side (as 
is seen in the section, fig. 1), and 
this will, in a great measure, 
prevent the holes filling with 
earth. In pots sufficiently large 
for auriculas, polyanthuses, and all other flowers of 
that size, the holes in the upper side may be so mi- 
nute, as to prevent the possibility of worms entering 
through the bottoms of the pots while placed out in 
summer. The rim of my pots, in place of being round 
and projecting, is flattened ; by which means they 
can be ranged closer with less danger of chipping. 
In the largest sized pots, used for camellias and 
orange trees, the projecting rims ought to be continu- 



cjCAJD^ 




AN IMPROVED FLOWER-POT, &C. 319 

ed, as affording a firmer hold. The heads of such 
plants are generally too large to admit of the pots 
being placed close to one another. It was the diffi- 
culty I experienced in taking the large plants from 
their pots that led me to the use of the shifting- 
stand. 




Till I adopted this contrivance I knew of no 
other method than dragging the plants out by 
their stems, which often required a force which en- 
tirely separated the roots of the plant from the ball 
of earth. It is scarcely necessary to notice, that the 
false bottoms must be made strong in proportion to 
the size of the pots, so as to bear the pressure of the 
shifting stand, and as the perforations must also be 
larger, it may be necessary to place over these a lit- 
tle dried moss before the earth is put into the pot, 
to prevent their filling up. The false bottom pas- 
sing down the pot easily will serve as a gauge to as- 
certain that the mouth of the pot is larger than the 
bottom. I am, &c. 

Crossbuen House, ) 

28*7* August 1824. ) 



320 MR HOWISON'S DESCRIPTION OF 



Extract of a Letter from Mr Howison to the 
Secretary, dated Douglas, 20th September 
1824. 

I am glad the flower-pot shifting stand met with 
the approbation of the meeting generally. I should 
hope the objections noticed by you will not be found 
in practice so formidable as anticipated. I may al- 
lege, that, for several years, the moveable bottom and 
shifting stand have, in substance, been constantly 
used by me, from my placing in the bottom of each of 
my flower-pots a piece of slate or broken pot, of a size 
as nearly to cover the bottom as I could conveniently 
select. This I did with a view to its carrying up 
the earth and plant when placed on the pin of the 
stand, at the shifting season. I do not recollect an 
instance of the slate or shred breaking in the course 
of the operation. Should there be any fear of that, 
the moveable bottom might be made thicker in the 
centre (Fig. 1, which is a section of the bottom 
piece made thicker in the centre), which would do 
away all probability of its breaking. The hole in 
the bottom of the pot should be of considerable 
width, and the pin in the shifting stand so thick as 
exactly to fill the hole, by which the pressure will 
be more equally diffused. Where a great variety 
of flower-pots are in use, stands with larger and 
smaller pins will be necessary. 

I cannot easily conceive how the perforated bot- 



AN IMPROVED FLOWER-POT, &C. 321 

torn should be more liable to have the roots of plants 
penetrating it, than the broken shreds or gravel now 
in use. There are no holes near the centre, where 
the pin of the stand is applied, which serves two 
purposes,— that of giving strength to the bottom, 
and of preventing any roots penetrating where the 
pin comes in contact with it. 



Crossbum House, \5th March 1828. 

For these three years past I have used the new 
pots with great satisfaction in my green-house ; 
the Messrs Dickson, nurserymen and florists, Wa- 
terloo Place, having got a commission for a quanti- 
ty of pots of all sizes given them by me executed 
(at the pottery employed by them) in a very com- 
plete manner according to my plan. 



VOL. IV. 



( 322 ) 



XXVII. 

Remarks on some Species of Edible Gourds, and 
on the Modes of Dressing them for Table *. 

In a Letter to the Secretary from Mr Daniel Cmchton, 
dated Minto Garden, 19th November 1827. 

( Read 6th March 1828 J 



Sir, 



J. observe by the Caledonian Horticultural 
Society's Prize Schedule for 1827, that edible 
gourds form a subject thought worthy of considera- 



tion 



I have for a good number of years bypast been 
in the practice of cultivating the Vegetable Marrow, 
and several species of gourds, for culinary purposes • 



* At a meeting of the Council and Committee, held at the 
Experimental Garden 3d April 1828, " the meeting, considering 
that a medal was last year offered for the best communication on 
edible gourds, and being of opinion that the paper by Mr Daniel 
Crichton at Minto House, with the account of the mode of dress- 
ing gourds by Mr Desaurty, form a most deserving communica- 
tion, agree in voting to Mr Crichton the Society's silver medal." 



MR CRICHTON OX EDIBLE GOURDS. 323 

yet amongst the many varieties that have come un- 
der my observation, there is none that I have found 
so valuable as the variety called the Vegetable 
Cheese, or Cheese-Gourd, a large specimen of 
which I have sent to Messrs Dicksons and Com- 
pany, Waterloo Place, which weighed, when new 
cut, above one hundred weight. When ripe, the 
skin is very thin, and the eatable part much thicker 
than in any other gourd that I know of; and be- 
ing of a firm sweet substance, it is well adapted for 
culinary purposes I believe the vegetable marrow 
is in general cultivation. The vegetable cheese will 
do with the same culture ; and, like the vegetable 
marrow, it can be used for culinary purposes before 
it is ripe. With us the vegetable marrow is only 
used when about half grown. The vegetable cheese 
also answers very well when in a growing state, 
although much better for some purposes when ar- 
rived at maturity ; it is therefore held in more 
esteem with us. But it is a fact well known to us 
all, that they, as well as many other kinds of vege- 
tables that are cultivated to the highest state of per- 
fection by the gardener, are still much improved by 
coming through the hands of a judicious and expe- 
rienced cook. I therefore subjoin receipts for cook- 
ing the vegetable cheese and the vegetable marrow, 
as used at Minto by Monsieur Victor Desaurty, 
a cook eminent in his profession. 

X2 



324 MR CRICHTON ON EDIBLE GOURDS, 

To make Soup of the Cheese- Gourd. 

Take the fleshy part of the gourd, when ripe, 
and cut it into small pieces ; put it into a pan with a 
small bit of butter, set it upon a slow fire until it 
melt down to a pure ; then add milk in the propor- 
tion of half a gallon to four pounds of gourd ; let it 
boil a short time, with a little salt and sugar, enough 
to make it taste a little sweet ; then cut some slices 
of bread very thin, toast it very well, and cut them 
into small dice ; put them in a dish, and pour the 
pure over, and serve it up. 

Cheese-Gourd dressed in the Spanish way. 

When ripe, cut the fleshy part into slices about 
an inch thick, score it across into small dice, about 
half through one side of the slices ; scrape a little 
of the fat of bacon, and put into a sauce-pan, with 
a little parsley, shallots, and mushrooms chopt very 
small, adding a little salt and pepper ; put them up- 
on a slow fire to fry a little, and place this season- 
ing upon the cut sides of the gourd slices : put the 
whole into a quick oven, with a little melted butter 
or olive oil, and when baked a little, serve up the 
dish. 

To dress Vegetable Marrow. 

Take the fruit when about half grown, cut it 
lengthways through the middle, (if large cut into 
three or four slices), take off the outer-skin, cut in- 



AND ON DRESSING THEM FOR, TABLE. 325 

to small dice about half through one side of the 
slices ; then scrape a little of the fat of bacon, and 
put it into a sauce- pan with a little parsley, shallots, 
and mushrooms chopt very small, and let them fry 
a little ; then add about a table -spoonful of flour, 
with a little salt and pepper mixed all together ; 
then put the slices of the vegetable marrow into a 
stew-pan with a cover, and put the fried seasoning 
over the slices, and let them stew a little on a slow 
fire, with a little fire on the cover. When enough 
done, serve up. 

The cheese-gourd, when in a growing state, is 
also dressed in the same way as the vegetable mar- 
row, as in the receipt above given. 

When the value of the cheese-gourd is better 
known, I expect to hear of it being in general cul- 
tivation for culinary purposes, for the markets, and 
in many cottage gardens. 

Should you consider the above communication, 
or any part of it, of sufficient importance to be at- 
tended to, you may lay it before the Society. And 
I am, &c. 



( 326 ) 

XXVIIL 

On the Keeping of Apples *. 

In a Letter to the Secretary, from Mr William Oliver 
Gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl of RossLYN,dated 
Dysart House, 31st October 1827. 

(Read 6th March 1828.> 



Sir, 

■*- now comply with the request intimated in your 
letter to me of the 8th June last, although I be- 
lieve that the method I practise here in preserving 



* The Minutes of the General Meeting of the Society, held on 
7th June 1827, bear, that " A collection of dessert and baking 
apples, in the highest state of preservation, was laid before the 
meeting ; and the Committee unanimously agree, that an extra 
medal be awarded to Mr William Oliver, gardener to the Right 
Honourable the Earl of Rosslyn, at Dysart House, who produced 
them, with a request that be would communicate the names of the 
apples sent, and also a detailed account of his mode of preserving 
such fruit till this late season of the year." At the General Meet- 
ing of 6th March 1828, when Mr Oliver's communication was 
read, beautiful specimens of 35 kinds of dessert and orchard ap- 
ples, from the fruit-room at Dysart House, were placed on the 
table— P. N. Sec. 



Mil OLIVER ON KEEPING APPLES. 327 

apples is not peculiar, nor possessed, perhaps, of any 
superiority to merit the notice of the Society. 

My two fruit-rooms are not fitted up in the first 
style ; but I hope to be excused in dropping a few 
hints, by way of introduction, on fruit-rooms gene- 
rally ; — I think the subject is worthy of attention. 

The fruit- room ought to be placed in the most 
dry, cold, and shady situation that can be conve- 
niently selected. If free from wet, I would prefer 
the house to be sunk three or four feet in the ground, 
—but it must be perfectly dry. The size of the room, 
and number of shelves, will, of course, be regulated 
by the quantity of fruit to be deposited in it. The 
shelves should be of hard wood (beech or plane-tree), 
not of fir, about two feet wide, and ten inches asun- 
der. Last year (1826) I had experience of the bad 
effect of fir shelving, — the fruit kept on it tasting 
very much of the wood; whilst, in the same room, the 
fruit on the hardwood shelves retained all their native 
individuality of flavour. I see no need for fire being- 
used in fruit-rooms; for I have learned from expe- 
rience, (there being no fire-place in either of my 
rooms), that a little frost does not injure apples. 
The one room is in a situation a good deal exposed 
to frost, and I have sometimes had the apples in it 
absolutely frozen; yet evenhere they kept equally well 
with those in my other room, which, from being 
situated lower, has very seldom been affected by 
frost. There ought to be ventilators in the house, 



328 MR OLIVER ON KEEPING APPLES. 

as a good deal of air is necessary after the fruit is 
first gathered and stored. 

Assuming, then, that the room is well aired, clean, 
and dry, I shall now detail, in order, my mode of 
gathering, treating, and preserving the fruit. 

When the apples begin to drop freely, ladders of 
sufficient length to reach the top of the trees are 
provided ; as also shallow baskets for receiving the 
fruit, and conveying it to the fruit-room. In ga- 
thering the apples, the ripest only are taken. These 
are easily known, by raising them to the level of the 
foot-stalk ; if they part freely from the tree, they are 
laid carefully in the baskets, one after another, un- 
til the baskets be full. They are then conveyed to 
the fruit-room, and taken singly out of the baskets, 
and placed upon the shelves. The operation of ga- 
thering the fruit is repeated every three or four days 
until the whole is safely lodged in the fruit-room. 
I never make a clean sweep at once, for, when fa- 
vourable weather occurred, I have known the fruit 
that was left grow larger, and ripen as thoroughly 
as the first gathered. 

After the apples have been ten or twelve days 
on the shelves, the process of sweating is considered 
as accomplished. They are then wiped one by one 
with clean soft cloths ; by this means a kind of coat 
or shell is formed, which proves a safeguard to the 
fruit. The shelves are wiped at same time on both 
sides until quite dry. During the whole time the 



MR OLIVER ON KEEPING APPLES. 329 

apples are in sweat, plenty of air is admitted, if the 
weather is clear and dry ; but, if damp, the room is 
entirely shut up. I think it is when the apples are 
sweating that they imbibe the flavour of whatever 
materials they are laid upon ; and, if due attention 
is given to them at that time, there is little chance 
of their afterwards acquiring any bad taste. 

About the latter end of January another turn 
over is made among the apples. The shelves are 
again wiped, as is also any of the fruit that appears 
to be damp. After this time, the room is closely 
shut up, for I have found that the admission of 
much air after the end of January occasions the fruit 
to shrivel. The fruit is now handled as little as 
possible, and only wiped when to be sent to the ta- 
ble. 

All the time the fruit is in the room, it is care- 
fully looked over every four or five days, to see whe- 
ther any be spoiling. If there are, they are taken 
out, and the place they occupied wiped dry with a 
cloth. 

During the remainder of the season, at least un- 
til August, the apples are lifted two or three times, 
and the shelves wiped on both sides until dry. The 
apples are then laid carefully on the shelves again, 
care being taken that the hands are dry when hand- 
ling them, or that gloves be used, which is prefer- 
able at that advanced time of the year. 

It is to be carefully observed, that, when the ap- 
ples are frozen, no artificial means must be used to 



330 MR OLIVER ON KEEPING APPLES. 

thaw them ; and that, if they are affected by frost or 
damp, when in sweat, they will be materially in- 
jured. 

I have gathered apples, and laid them upon one 
another in large baskets in a vinery, kept up to 
about 60° F., for ten days or a fortnight. They were 
then covered with sweat. I had them wiped, con- 
veyed to the fruit-room, and laid on the shelves as 
already described. I have never found the flavour 
of apples treated in this way to be in the least im- 
paired. 

I have tried to keep them in pure dry sand ; also 
wrapped in paper, and packed in close boxes ; but 
have never found any of these methods turn out 
well. 

The names of the varieties of apples presented in 
June last are annexed. 

1. Gangee, from the Wall. 7. Red Cluster, from a Standard. 

2. Nonpareil, do. 8. Winter Pearmain, do. 

3. Newton Pippin, do. 9. Carlisle Codlin, do. 

4. Ribston Pippin, do. 10. Red Colvile, do. 

5. Gogar Pippin, from a 11. Yorkshire Green, do. 

Standard. 12. Lord Nelson, do. 

6.Woolbeding Stone-Pippin, do. 



At the General Meeting, 6th December 1827, the 
Society's Silver Medal was likewise awarded to Mr 
Oliver, for excellent orchard apples. The following 



MR OLIVER ON KEEPING APPLES. 331 

twelve were selected by Mr Oliver for competition ; 
and his account of the character of the trees, and 
quality of the fruits, is here given. 

1. Kirke's Lord Nelson. 

A strong spreading tree, has remarkable short fruit-spurs ; — 
flower buds reddish and pointed, closely formed round the 
leading shoots ; — fruit holds well, being short in the stalks ; — the 
tree bears well. 

2. Kirke's Scarlet Admirable. 
A handsome growing tree, — the leading shoots run rather 
naked, — fruit-spurs long, — flower-buds flattish and soft. The 
tree bears well. If the crop is light it is very showy ; but if 
heavy, the fruit has not such a high colour. 

3. Pile's Russet, or Nonpareil Russet. 

A fine, free, and handsome grower ; a great bearer, and falls 
soon into bearing ; — spurs shortish, — flower-buds short and 
flat, — fruit sets free, rather in clusters, resembling the Old 
Nonpareil ; — is a tenacious holder. 

4. Barcelona Pearmain. 

A strong and upright growing tree, — spurs very short, — 
flower-buds short, and a little pointed, — closely placed round 
the leading shoots ; — tree bears well, and fruit holds well. 

5. Woodstock Pippin. 
A strong spreading tree, resembling Kirke's Lord Nelson, 
only the flower-buds are flatter and lighter ; — spurs are short, 
and closely placed round the leading shoots. 

6. Potter's Large Apple. 

A spreading tree, — spurs short, — flower-buds rather long and 
pointed, — bears well. 

The above six sorts were grafts from England nine years ago. 



332 MR OLIVER ON ORCHARD APPLES. 

7- Woolbeding Stone-Pippin. 
An upright growing tree, a great bearer, and bears early ■ — 
short spurs, and the flower-buds closely placed round the lead- 
ing shoots. 

8. Red Cluster. 
A fine tree, — not a strong grower, — long spurs, — flower-buds 
oval, — bears well, — sets in clusters, — fruit keeps long. 

9. Gogar Pippin. 

Is a great bearer, but does not fall so soon into bearing as the 
most of those above described ; — sets free, and holds well. 

10. Winter Strawberry. 

A spreading growing tree, — the leading shoots run naked, — 
fruit-spurs projecting from the leaders, — flower-buds short, 
smooth, and reddish. 

These four sorts are from young trees planted seven years 
ago, in a soil from twenty-two inches to two feet thick, on a 
freestone bottom. 

11. Paradise Pippin. 

From an old tree, — bears remarkably well, — flower-buds 
small, short, and soft. 

12. Grey Leadington. 

Also from an old tree, fruit-spurs short, projecting from 
the leaders, — flower -buds soft. This does not appear to be an 
early bearer ; for I have two of the kind that were planted with 
the first ten sorts, and they do not yet begin to show the least 
symptoms of bearing. Trees, however, that are about twenty 
years old bear well. This sort is greatly famed by old horti- 
culturists ; .but from the above description, and the sample 
produced, is it a sort worth waiting on ? or has it not degene- 
rated ? 



( 233 ) 



XXIX. 

On preparing a Light Garden-Soil for Carrots 
and for Onions. 

In a Letter to the Secretary from Mr Peter Campbell, 
Gardener to James Hamilton, Esq. of Bangour, at 
Coalston, near Haddington. 

(Read 6th March 1828 J 



Sir, 
JL now communicate to you my mode of preparing 
a light sandy soil for carrots and onions, founded 
upon experience, which I hope you will have the 
goodness to read to the meeting of the Caledonian 
Horticultural Society 6th December. 

Carrots. — The first year that I came to Coals- 
ton, (1823), having got notice that there had been 
no carrots raised in the garden for ten years back 
that was worth taking notice of, owing to the soil 
not suiting that crop, I thought to prepare the soil 
for carrots by trenching a plot of ground to the 
depth of twenty inches. Thus I thought that I 
would be sure of a good crop of carrots, the ground 
not having been trenched for a number of years 
back. 



334 ON PREPARING A LIGHT SOIL 

Carrots sown on the said trenched ground in the 
beginning of April, produced a very fine braird, and 
did well till about the middle of July, when they 
were seized by small white maggots or worms, which 
infested the whole crop of carrots, and cut them al- 
most all off together. Although I tried soap-suds, 
with potass mixed in it, likewise salt water, and wa- 
ter mixed with soot, none of these proved of any ef- 
fect. 

In 1824, I thought it proper to sow carrots in 
part of three different plots, but they were all de- 
stroyed by the foresaid vermin. They pierce the car- 
rots into the heart, and immediately the branches or 
tops drop to the ground : if the plants survive, the 
roots form into fingers-and-toes, (as in the disease 
called anbury in turnips), and are good for no- 
thing. I tried quick-lime water upon these diffe- 
rent plots, by putting lime-shells in water until they 
were dissolved ; but this had no good effect. I now 
had recourse to another plan. In autumn I made 
up a compost of turf, taken off a sheep pasture, 
which had lain in grass for about twenty years ; ta- 
king care to take it off the places where the sheep 
lay most upon. I mixed this with lime-shells, in 
the proportion of two cart-loads of lime to six of 
turf. I trenched the plot I intended for carrots, in 
1825, to the depth of eighteen inches in February ; 
and about the end of March I got the ground com- 
pounded with the foresaid compost, at the rate of 
eighty cart-loads per acre, as near as I could calcu- 



FOR CARROTS AND ONIONS. 335 

late. With this management I have had as good 
crops of carrots for these three seasons past as could 
be wished for, and free of any insect. The compost 
may be easily obtained, by feeding sheep upon a 
small plot of ground with turnips 

It may, perhaps, be agreeable to the Society 
that I should here mention my mode of storing and 
preserving carrots. — I generally make it my study 
to have up my crop of carrots about the middle of 
October, if the weather is dry ; for carrots ought not 
to be taken up in damp weather ; as, if they are 
laid up damp, they are very ready to melt away like 
soap. I cut off about half an inch of the carrots 
along with the tops, so as to prevent them from 
springing ; as, when they spring, it takes away both 
the substance and flavour of| the carrots. I dig out 
a pit, to the size I want, about a foot below the sur- 
face of the ground, then build the carrots neatly up 
in the form of a cone, with the top ends out, with- 
out mixing any sand amongst them, or even straw 
on the outside of them, but covering the pit with 
earth, to the depth of twelve or fourteen inches. 
In spring 1818, I tried how long I could keep car- 
rots in this way : I took two dozen of the preserved 
carrots of crop 1817, and placed them in a pit two 
feet below the surface of the ground, and covered 
them. They were found perfectly good in March 
1819 ; they were, indeed, grown about two inches 
longer in the small ends of the carrots, but very ten- 
der and fine-flavoured ; there was not the least ap- 
pearance of any tops. 



336 SOIL FOR ONIONS. 

Onions. — I likewise communicate to you my mode 
of preparing a similar soil for onions. In 1823 I 
lost most part of my crop of onions by the maggots, 
and a rot or rust that they were seized with. Light 
soils are very much infested with this rust, and it 
attacks particularly spring sown onions. The me- 
thod I used for preserving my crop, both from the 
maggot and rot, or rust, was this: I made up both 
the sides of the onion beds, so as to prevent the wa- 
ter from running out upon the paths or alleys ; and 
having made up a very strong dose of quicklime 
water, with the shells dissolved or mixed down in 
the water, with this I watered the beds to that 
degree that the lime lay one-eighth part of an inch 
upon the beds. This saved all those that was not 
overrun, and destroyed all the maggots. In 1824, I 
made up a compost of turf of a sheep pasture, ta- 
king it off the places where the sheep lay most up- 
on; likewise lime-shells, and pigeon-dung, and bog- 
earth. The proportions in making up the compost 
are : Two cart-loads of lime-shells to four of turf ; 
one of pigeon-dung to two of bog-earth. I com- 
pounded the ground with it at the rate of seventy- 
five cart-loads per acre. Since I have used this 
compost, 1 have never seen a maggot amongst the 
onions, nor has one out of 500 been seized with the 
rot or rust. 

COALSTON, ) 

\Zth November 1827. f 



( 337 ) 



XXX 

On the Upright Training of Garden Rose-bushes, 
and of the Cydonia Japonica. 

In a Letter from Mr John Dick, Gardener at Ballindean, 
to the Secretary. 

(Read 6th March 1828; ) 

Dear Sir, 
J. beg to trouble you with a few remarks upon the 
training of garden rose-trees, and also that beautiful 
plant the Cydonia Japonica. 

I. With respect to garden rose-trees. 

The rose-tree is a very fine plant, when it is in 
blossom, and its admirers are very numerous. Rose 
plants have been trained various ways. Some are fond 
of them kept hooked down to the ground. By this 
method of training, the blossom is soon over, and the 
roses are very often destroyed by the earth being 
thrown up upon the flowers, after a heavy shower 
of rain ; and sometimes the flower-petals are soon 
injured bythe sun-beams in dry hot weather. I do not 
wish to depreciate any other person's ideas or his 

VOL. IV. y 



338 MR DICK ON THE UPRIGHT TRAINING OF 

mode of training roses, but shall merely mention 
what I have found, upon trial, to answer best in the 
situation where I am placed. 

After the rose-bushes are planted, and have stood 
for a year, I prune or cut them well down, which 
causes them to push out strong shoots. I then 
make choice of a strong shoot which is situated 
near the centre of the bush. I tie it up to a stake ; 
it will sometimes grow four and sometimes five 
feet high in a season, more or less, just as the plant 
is in strength. When I get the shoot as high in one 
year as I want it, I then stop its growth at the top. 
I keepdt always fast to the stake. At next winter's 
pruning, the bottom part of the bush is well cut 
down. This throws a deal of strength into the 
straight stem which is trained to the stake, and at 
the same time makes the bottom part of the bush 
throw out fine roses. There will some wood-buds 
break out upon the straight stem : I rub these near- 
ly all off, leaving only about four or five wood-buds 
at the top of the shoot, in order to remain and form 
branches there, where they will throw out very fine 
roses. These top branches remain to form the per- 
manent head of the rose-tree. When the top shoot, 
and the bottom part of the bush are both in full 
blossom, the whole makes a very fine appearance. 
Year after year, the upright shoot gets more 
strength, and becomes like a rose-tree, which in 
reality it is. The same simple mode of training is 
continued year after year with very little trouble. I 



GARDEN ROSE-BUSHES. 339 

find that rose-bushes throw out larger and finer 
flowers, by the above method of training, than any 
other that I have seen ; and the above method of 
training is within the reach of the humble cottager, 
as well as the highest nobleman. I may add that 
experience has taught me that it affords a longer 
continuance of flowers for the season upon tall stems, 
than when the common mode of budding garden roses 
upon transplanted wild roses, or briar shoots, is re- 
sorted to. When a quantity of rose-bushes so train- 
ed, are planted upon a sloping bank, in form like an 
amphitheatre, they have a very splendid appearance 
to the eye, when in flower. The above method is 
practised upon a bank at Ballindean, where there 
are 130 kinds of roses, and the effect is excellent. 
The moss rose, white Provence rose, Tuscany rose, 
and all the strong growing roses, are thus managed 
easily, and make fine plants in a short time. The 
Scots roses (Rosa spinosissima) make fine plants 
also, but it takes a year longer to get the stems up to 
the height wanted, their growth being slow and natu- 
rally humble. Any kind of garden roses can be 
budded upon the top of the upright stems, just as 
any person fancies to have different colours put to- 
gether. One great advantage is, that the buds are 
not so readily broken off as when placed upon a 
briar or wild rose stock. 

Those putting the above method of training rose- 
trees into practice, will find the effect of it fully to 
their mind in the end. 

y 2 



340 MR DICK ON THE UPRIGHT TRAINING OF 

II. I shall now lay before you the mode I have 
practised for training the Cydonia Japonica, for the 
last six years. 

The Cydonia Japonica is a plant which has a 
natural tendency to grow in a straggling manner, 
which led me to contrive a mode of training, in or- 
der to get the plant trained up to a straight stem 
and regular appearance. 

When I get the plants from the nursery, or ra- 
ther when I have struck them from cuttings, which 
is easily done, I plant them in flower-pots suited 
to the size of the roots. As soon as they begin to 
grow, and send up a straight stem, I train the stem 
up to a perpendicular stake. As the stem advances 
in height, I rub off the greater part of the buds 
from it, leaving only two or three at the top. This 
greatly strengthens the stem, and prevents any 
branches appearing about the bottom of the plant. 
The same method is continued year after year. 
When the plants need shifting that must of course 
be attended to. The plants will soon form fine 
strong stems. They may then be planted out in 
the open border, in good aspects and situations. 
Then the small buds for the flowers will begin to 
show themselves ; and the branches when they are 
wanted, must now be let come out, and they also 
will soon show plenty of flowers. The plants con- 
tinue a long time in blossom. If a few of the 
plants be kept in flower-pots, they will, after get- 
ting moderately strong, have a splendid appear- 



CYDONIA JAPONICA. 341 

ance in a green-house. I do not need to say any 
thing about training them against walls, as that is 
easily done. I have them at Ballindean against walls 
very beautiful plants ; and also trained upon fine wire 
railing, in front of Ballindean House, where the 
flowers are exceedingly rich. I give the above no- 
tice that any gentleman may try these plants trained 
upon an open railing of wood or wire without a wall. 
I think they will flower magnificently. 

I have no doubt but William Trotter, Esq. of 
Ballindean will avouch for the correctness of what I 
have stated in this paper, and any member of the 
Society travelling this way may see the practice here. 
I am, &c. 



Ballindean, ) 
3d March 1828. j 



342 MR SMITH ON OILED PAPER FRAMES 



XXXI. 

Account of Oiled Paper Frames for protecting 
the Blossom of Wall-Trees. 

In Letters from Mr Alexander Smith, Gardener to 
Thomas Bruce, Esq. at Grangemuir, to the Secretaries. 

To Mr T. Dickson. 

{Read 17 th September 1816.) 
Sir, 

I beg leave to send to you, for the information of 
the Caledonian Horticultural Society, an account 
of the construction of oiled paper frames, for pro- 
tecting fruit blossoms upon wall-trees, used by me 
at this place for the last four years, with good suc- 
cess. 

These frames may be made of any convenient 
size to answer the height of the wall. Those used 
by me are five feet by three ; the thickness of the 
wood inch and half square, having five cross bars 
mortised into the sides. Further to support the 
paper, each frame is wrought with strong pack 
thread, about nine inches square ; and the pack- 



FOR PROTECTING WALL-TREES. 343 

thread is fixed with white tacks. The frame thus 
constructed is covered with coarse writing paper, 
pasted to the wood and pack-thread with well made 
paste. The paper should not be drawn very tight 
when first put on, as it is apt to crack in hot sun- 
shine. When the paste is perfectly dry, a coating 
of boiled linseed oil is laid on both sides of the pa- 
per with a paint brush. 

These frames, when first finished, cost 3s. Ster- 
ling each. 

Various modes may be adopted for fixing the 
frames against the wall, but as yet our trees at 
Grangemuir do not fill the wall, and the following 
mode has been adopted, 

Temporary rafters are placed in the ground four 
inches deep, and two feet from the wall ; the top of 
the rafter leaning against it, is fixed with a strong 
nail. For the purpose of securing the frames to the 
rafters, small pieces of wood, four inches long, are 
nailed across each rafter, but sufficiently distant to 
admit, with ease, the sides of the frame between the 
piece of wood and the rafter, so as the frame may 
slip up and down as wanted ; which, with a nail 
slightly drove at the lower corners, keeps them per- 
fectly secure, while it admits of their being moved 
at pleasure. I have got made also six triangular 
frames to fit the spaces at the sides of the trees so 
covered, between the wall and front frames, which 
prevents much cold air from reaching the blossoms. 



344 Mil SMITH ON OILED PAPER FRAMES 

The number of frames here is twenty-two, which, at 

five feet by three, is = 330 1 c 

„ \ square reet. 

Side frames, - 42 ) 

372 in whole. 

I have never applied these frames till the blos- 
soms were pretty well out ; and can safely say, that, 
for the purpose of protecting the flowers and fruit 
from the effects of spring frosts and hail showers, I 
have found them to answer well. The garden here 
is new, without any natural protection, and the trees 
planted for this purpose, or as screens, are only now 
getting above the walls ; nevertheless, for the last 
three years, our peaches have ripened well, and 
proved of a most excellent flavour. 

Care must be taken to keep the frames from ver- 
min, particularly mice. Likewise they must be 
handled with care. All the repair they need is tri- 
fling ; and I do it myself, at times when out-door 
work cannot be done. 

Having stated these general remarks, I shall 
trouble you only with two particulars, which may be 
worthy of notice. ] st, Adjoining each other there 
are two green-gage plums : the first two years 
of using the frames they were applied to one of 
these trees, while the other was left to its fate. 
The covered tree produced two-thirds more fruit, 
which was finer, one-third larger, and likewise ear- 
lier. Last year and this I covered the other tree, 



FOR PROTECTING WALL-TREES. 345 

leaving the former to chance ; the result was, that 
the uncovered tree last year had twenty plums, 
while the covered tree had a good crop. This year 
the difference is equally great, which may be seen 
by any one who may choose to inspect the trees. 

2d, The other remark is upon a peach-tree, which, 
for the last three years, (from the advantage of these 
frames,) had always a fine crop, and this season the 
appearance of the same ; but one part of the tree 
was, this year, left to its fate, while the other part 
was covered as usual. The fruit set well on the 
whole tree ; but when they took their first swelling, 
the fruit on the part of the tree which was unco- 
vered, all dropt off, while on the part covered a 
good crop remains. 

Grangemuie, 1 

Aug. 29. 1816. } 



To Mr Neill. 
(Read 2d September 1819.) 
Sir, 

The Caledonian Horticultural Society, in the 
year 1816, requested information concerning frames 
covered with oil paper, used for preserving the blos- 
som of fruit trees from spring frosts. According to 
the advertisement in that year, I sent a description 
of the frames used in the garden at Grangemuir 
with good effect. As I have had three years more 
experience of them, I again take leave to inform the 



346 MR SMITH ON OILED PAPER FRAMES 

Society, that, among all the different methods used 
here for preserving blossom, these frames have 
given the most satisfaction. The trees they were 
applied on this season, are two peaches, each of them 
bearing a full crop ; one apricot, and a green-gage 
plum ; each of these promising also a very tolerable 
crop. I may here notice, that a green-gage stands 
next to the one covered with the paper frame : it 
had a great show of fine blossom, from which I ex- 
pected a crop without protection, but the great ap- 
pearance has dwindled away to a few stinted plums, 
while its next neighbour has, as already mentioned, 
a very tolerable crop, thus affording a proof of the 
good effects of the frames. As formerly mentioned, 
the size of the frames is three feet by five : they are 
made of inch and half plank, with cross bars, all 
mortised ; this is wrought on one side with good 
pack-thread about nine inches square, the pack- 
thread being fixed with small tacks ; after this the 
whole is covered over with coarse writing paper, 
which is made fast to the frame and twine with 
good paste ; and when all is fairly dry, a coat of lin- 
seed oil is laid over the whole with a small brush. 
It was found, by experience in the repairing, that a 
narrow slip of paper, pasted over the twine to the 
paper on the other side, is a good support. Like- 
wise, that if one ounce of fine white lead be well 
mixed in a pint of oil before using, it makes the 
paper more durable, and gives it more transparency. 
In applying the frames, a temporary rafter is made 



FOR PROTECTING WALL-TREES. 347 

fast at the top, with a nail driven into the wall, and 
the end of the rafter is sunk four inches in the ground 
two feet from the wall. The frames are kept fast at 
the upper end by a piece of wood four inches long 
and one inch square, being nailed crossways on each 
rafter, leaving space for the frame to slip up or down 
as may be wanted. This, with a double nail at each 
corner below, keeps them quite firm. For keep- 
ing off the cold air, where the frames terminate, I 
have six of triangular form I their size is seven feet 
long by two at the base ; one edge of these is fixed 
to the wall, and the other to the outmost rafter. 
The expence of keeping these frames in repair on 
an average is three shillings per year for oil and 
paper, and the repairs are done in bad weather when 
other work is stopt. 

Grangemttir, ^ 

Aug. 28. 1819- j 



At a meeting of the Society, 2d December 1819, the silver 
inedal was awarded to Mr Alexander Smith for the introduction 
of these oiled paper frames, for protecting the blossom of wall trees 
from spring frosts. 

P. N. Sec. 



( 34*8 ) 



XXXII. 

Notice of an Improved Mode of Glazing Hot- 
House Sashes. 

In a Letter from John Robison, Esq. to the Secretary. 
(Read *7th June 1827.) 
Dear Sir, 

A beg leave to submit, through you, to the Horti- 
cultural Society, a mode of glazing hot-house sashes, 
which appears to me to possess some advantages 
over any which I have yet noticed. 

The object of the proposed mode of cutting the 
glass is to prevent, as far as possible, the lodging of 
water in the overlaps ; and for this purpose I would 
suggest, that, instead of forming the panes into 
rectangles, as is usually done, they should be cut 
obliquely, as in Fig. 1. in the accompanying sketch, 
Plate VI ; by this means the water would be in- 
duced to run towards the bars, and would then be 
conducted by them to run off at the lower edge of 
the sash. 

I am aware that another plan has been partially 
adopted for this purpose, viz. by cutting the panes 
with convex and concave curved ends, such panes 
being sometimes fastened in the sashes as at Fig. 2, 



PT.ATT? VI. 



ZorlMcm.. Ycl.K-Ji-3^8, 



Fiq.l 



lig.Z 







11 



Fu>.3 



¥:. I 



IMPROVED MODE OF GLAJZING. 349 

but more generally as at Fig. 3. (of which Fig. 2. 
seems to answer best in practice, see Plate VI.) 
The cutting of glass in this way is troublesome and 
expensive, when the curve is made quick enough to 
have any considerable effect in leading the water off ; 
while any useful degree of obliquity may be given 
to the panes on the plan Fig. 1, without at all in- 
creasing either the difficulty or expence. I am, 
&c. 



9. Atholl Crescent, ) 
1th March 1827. j 



( 350 ) 



XXXIII. 

Account of Steam-Pits for the culture of Melons, 
at Rockville, in East Lothian. 

In a Letter to the Secretary, from Mr Peter Dewar, 
Gardener at Rockville., dated 4th September 1827. 

(Read 6th September 1827 J 

.s I have not heard of any communication having 
been made to you, of steam being applied to the 
growth of melons, I have sent you a rough drawing 
of two pits, with steam apparatus, at Rockville. 
They have been used for two seasons, and I have 
found them to answer remarkably well. Each pit 
is 21 feet within, and '22 feet over all in length ; and 
6 feet within, and 7 feet over all in width. I have 
never had it in my power to try steam with very 
early forcing: last year it was the 18th of June 
before I got the apparatus fitted up to try the expe- 
riment with one of the pits, the pits having been 
previously built, one of them for fire-heat, dung, or 
bark, the other for fermenting substances only. Ha- 
ving found it to answer, 1 had the boiler placed in 
the centre of the two pits this season, and wrought 



STEAM-PITS FOR THE CULTURE OF MELONS. 851 

them both with it. I am now convinced that, by 
steam, the heat can be kept better up, and more 
steady, than with dung ; for it frequently happens, 
where dung or short grass are scarce, that the crop 
is almost lost before a sufficient quantity of stuff 
can be collected to make linings ; whereas with 
steam I can raise the heat to any degree I wish in 
a few hours. The method I have adopted, is to lay 
the pipes two feet below the surface of the mould in 
the bed. The pipes are readily got at any pottery, 
being the same as those used to convey water under 
ground, and of 3 inch bore. They are bedded in 
sand; then covered with a foot of bark, or tree-leaves, ' 
and a foot of mould. I introduce two or three 
watch-sticks quite through the mould. Having 
turned on the steam, when 1 feel the points of the 
sticks getting a little warm, I judge that the heat 
is sufficient, and turn off the steam. 

It was suggested to me to make a vacuity or 
chamber all under the mould, and to fill the whole 
with steam ; but I did not approve of this, as it 
would require a boiler of more power, and it would 
be more expensive to keep up the steam in a large 
boiler. It farther appeared to me, that the heat 
would not be so regular as when confined in pipes, 
as the steam would be nearly all condensed before 
it could reach the opposite ends of the pits. 

The flue is carried through below the surface of 
the walk that goes round the pits, and runs back 
about 12 feet, where the stack of the chimney is 



352 STEAM-PITS FOE THE CULTURE OF MELONS. 

carried up amongst some bushes, on purpose to con- 
ceal it as much as possible. 

It was the 8th of May this season before I got 
the plants put out ; and, on that account, I have 
not found it necessary to use the steam oftener than 
once a week. 

I have sent you a specimen of the fruit thus pro- 
duced with steam *. I have cut some larger than 
the melon sent. 

I think such a steam-pit would be good for pine- 
apple plants. 

If you judge the above worth laying before the 
gentlemen at the meeting, I shall be truly happy if 
I have contributed any thing to the advancement of 
horticultural science. 

April 1828. 

Since I wrote you last September, I have had a 
winter as well as summer's trial by the steam ; and 
I think that every thing may be expected from it 
where bottom heat is wanted. 

I have added a course of pipes along the back 
and front of the pits, on the surface of the mould, 
as, in very cold nights, even although I had a 
good bottom heat, I felt the surface cold. But the 
surface-pipes have entirely removed this evil : it is 
only in very cold weather that they are wanted. I 

"• It was a canteloupe melon, and of good size and excellent 
flavour. 



PLATE .XK 
MYDewafs Steam Pits. 



Scrt-. Jfem . Vol. IV p. 352 




STEAM- PITS FOR THE CULTURE OF MELONS. 353 

find that the steam will go the round of the surface 
pipes in about 15 or 20 minutes, which is quite 
enough to keep every thing in the pits comfortably 
warm through the night. 

I am now perfectly convinced, although I have 
had no practice, that steam applied in the same way 
for bottom heat to pine-apple plants, would answer 
well ; even setting aside the saving of time and ma- 
terial ; for, whatever is found most convenient for 
plunging the pots in, would last for some years, as 
it would require no turning, except to the depth of 
the pots at the time of plunging. 

General Dalrymple, North Berwick, has got two 
pits fitted up with a steaming apparatus, on the 
same plan as those at Rockville. These pits are 
giving great satisfaction, and going on with every 
appearance of success. 



Explanation of Plate VII. 

A, a fire-flue, wrought at pleasure by a damper at 

B, by the fire from the boiler. 

C, D, Earthen pipes of 3 inch bore, for conducting the 

steam under the mould in the pits. 

E, The vent or chimney. 

F, The boiler. 

G, The cistern for supplying the boiler with water. The 

boiler is 3 feet long, 1 foot 6 inches wide, and 1 foot 
9 inches deep. The cistern is 2 feet long, 1 foot 6 
inches wide, and J foot 2 inches deep. 

H, A lead pipe for conveying the steam to the earthen 
pipes, 1± inch bore. 

I, A stop-cock, 

K, A valve for filling the boiler with water. 

VOL. IV. Z 



354 MR CRICHTON ON THE IONIAN MELON 



XXXIV 

Notice regarding the Ionian Melon and the 
Malta Melon. 



In a Letter to the Secretary from Mr Daniel Crichton, 
Gardener to the Right Hon. the Earl of Minto. 



(Read Zd August 1827 J 



Sir, 



X deferred answering your inquiries about the 
Ionian and Malta Melons, until I should have an 
opportunity of seeing the Honourable George El- 
liot, Captain of His Majesty's ship Vietory, who 
sent the seed to me by the Right Honourable the 
Dowager Countess of Minto. Understanding, how- 
ever, that he is not expected at Minto soon, your 
inquiries were forwarded to Portsmouth, and I now 
give you the substance of the Honourable Captain's 
answer. 

He mentions, that, when about to leave the sta- 
tion at Malta in the year 1804, he procured a quan- 



AND THE MALTA MELON. 355 

tity of the best melons he could find, as sea-store, 
and bought them as the farmers or gardeners from 
the interior were carrying them into the market at 
the city or fort. There were two sorts ; one of a 
longer oval shape than the other, or one oval and 
another nearly round. Both proved of excellent 
quality. The roundish sort were called " Winter 
Melons," and were particularly remarkable for keep- 
ing long : they proved good even in England, after 
a tedious passage from the Mediterranean, and after 
a six weeks quarantine before they could be landed. 
Both sorts are common in Malta, where the Captain 
thinks the best fruit in the world is to be found. 

It was in February 1805 that I received the two 
sorts of melon seeds that the Captain alludes to in 
his letter ; the one marked " Excellent Green Me- 
lon," and the other marked " Keeping or Winter 
Melon." Both parcels were wrapped in a piece of 
paper, on which was something about the Ionian 
Islands and Malta, and, to distinguish them from 
the other melons I then cultivated, I called one 
the Ionian, and the other the Malta melon. Such 
is the origin of these names. But you will observe, 
by the Honourable Captain Elliot's letter, that both 
kinds came from Malta, where they were brought 
from the interior to market. I have now cultivated 
both varieties for upwards of twenty years. 

Of the one generally called the Ionian Green- 
fleshed Melon, I sent a specimen to the Cale- 

z 2 



356 MR CRICHTON ON THE IONIAN MELON 

donian Horticultural Society a number of years 
ago, when it was justly appreciated by the So- 
ciety*. It was the melon the Captain alludes 
to as more oval-shaped. It has a very thin skin, 
often a little netted ; and, when well ripened, is 
more of a lemon colour than a green. It seems 
to delight in a moist high temperature ; weighs 
from two to five and six pounds, according to the 
season, strength of the bed, mould, &c. As I 
stated before, I grow them chiefly on beds made of 
stable-dung and leaves, made up in the ordinary 
way, — the strength of the beds to suit the time of 
the season they are made in. I have the first crop 
ripe, generally in the end of May and beginning of 
June. I consider it an excellent melon, and good 
bearer, either early or late in the season. 

The other sort, commonly called the Malta Me- 
lon, is also an excellent fruit, either for summer use, 
or for keeping : if grown late in the season, and cut 
before it is too ripe on the plant, it will keep many 
weeks. It is a round melon, the flesh more of an 
orange colour than the former, and high flavoured ; 
the skin hard, and a little netted; weighs about 
three or four pounds, and is a good bearer. This is 



* On 1st July 1819 the Society's Medal was voted to Mr 
Crichton, for having introduced into this country the culture of 
the Early Green-fleshed Ionian Melon. — See also communication 
by Mr Howison of Crossburn House, Hort. Mem. vol. iii. p, 209, 
et. seq. — P. N. Sec. 



AND THE MALTA MELON. 357 

the one the Captain alludes to, as the keeping or 
winter melon. 

I have only to add, that 1 consider these as two 
excellent sorts of melons ; indeed, they are almost the 
only kinds I now cultivate, the family likes them 
so much. I considered them, when I cultivated them 
first in 1805, new kinds, but, since then, I have 
given and sent seeds of them to many places of the 
United Kingdom. Others as well as the Honour- 
able Captain Elliot may have imported seeds of 
these melons, and others may have cultivated them 
before 1805, in this country; but I can say, that, 
before that period, I never did see or hear of any of 
their habit of growth and excellence of quality of 
fruit. 



Minto Garden 
June 26. 1827 



*} 



( 358 ) 



XXXV 



Notice regarding the Cause of Canker, the Na- 
tural History of the Red Spider, &f. 



In a Letter to the Secretary from Mr William Blair, 
Gardener at Mount Stuart. 



(Read 1st March 1827J 

Sir, 

X he Canker, as it is called, and the Red Spider, 
or Acarus, are evils which prevail most mischie- 
vously in this west part of Scotland. The canker 
is best known in its effects ; but it would be 
of great moment, if the cause could be under- 
stood and removed. It appears to me that it 
arises from an unfitness in both soil and climate. It 
is granted by most, that it prevails more of late 
years than formerly ; and the reason may be thus 
explained. General improvement of land is car- 
ried so far now, that the idea has seized many that 
the most sterile and useless pieces of land may be 
renovated and fertilized ; and from acting upon this 
principle, how many gardens do we not see placed 
on the most unfavourable spots of ground, the con- 



MR BLAIR ON THE CAUSE OF CANKER. 359 

venience of its situation being the only thing it can 
boast of? Now, although such gardens are fur- 
nished with forced soil to any depth, and trees made 
to grow to a superfluous luxuriance by the applica- 
tion of manure, still there is a want of fertility or 
richness necessary to health and fruitfulness, arising 
from a bad subsoil, united with a tainted atmo- 
sphere ; for, I consider that the unfriendly nature of 
the subsoil incorporates itself with the new soil, and 
sends its vapours through it into the immediate at- 
mosphere of the spot. Probably damps and vapours, 
arising from waste lands, and moors and morasses 
lying contiguous, are carried over the whole im- 
proved land. We know from experience, that, in 
the animal economy, bad air is more pernicious to 
life or health than the unwholesomeness of any 
other requisite of life ; and I believe it is not good 
for fruit-trees. Trees planted in such situations 
are made to grow only by the constant application 
of manure, and never attain that vigour or consist- 
ency which they display in better soils. It perhaps 
may never be ascertained how the roots of trees re- 
ceive immediate injury from the soil ; but it is be- 
yond dispute, that the atmosphere has its nature 
influenced by the surface which it covers. The best 
way, therefore, to prevent the canker, so much com- 
plained of, is, in my opinion, to form gardens only 
on naturally fertile soils. Where that cannot be done, 
the surrounding lands should previously be well 
drained and improved. 



360 MR BLAIR ON THE CAUSE OF CANKER. 

The red spider is generally found in warm shel- 
tered places. Those trees placed against walls are 
their favourite abodes ; it is there, or under the more 
genial cover of hot-houses, we find them. The cocci, 
or scales, as they are called, have long been con- 
sidered a separate tribe of perfect insects ; but I 
rather think they are but the winter cover of the 
embryo spider, and the different kinds of scale arise, 
I think, from being the cover of different species of 
spider. I think there are several species of them com- 
mon to the plantations of forest-trees. Young ash is 
much infested with them, and some kinds of willow. 
These, in the summer months, run everywhere. I 
once was struck with the appearance they made on 
an orange tree, which I had under my eye when they 
were flitting from their little habitations : the tree 
was very bad with scale, and they came out so thick, 
that some parts of the wood were covered with them. 
Some of their habitations I found empty ; in some 
I found them just coming out, where the one side 
was opened. At Kew Gardens I observed a large 
kind of coccus, about the size of a pepper-corn, on 
the vines, which produced a vast number of spider. 

At Possil, where I had the charge of the forcing, 
some of the peach-trees were in a ruinous state the 
first summer I was there, with scale and spider ; and 
though I applied the syringe three times a-week, it 
had no effect : but, through the course of the winter, 
I scraped off all the scale with the back of my knife, 
and then painted the bark of the stems and branches 



MB, BLAIR ON THE CAUSE OF CANKER. 36l 

wholly over with a mixture of tobacco liquor, sul- 
phur, and a little turpentine, which cleaned them so 
effectually, that not a scale or spider appeared next 
season, although no water was applied, but merely to 
moisten the foliage. The trees made excellent wood. 
I cannot say how they did after I left the place, but 
it appeared to me, that cleaning off the scale in win- 
ter was the effectual way of getting rid of the spider. 

Mount Stuart, Rothesay, 1 
\%ih February 1827. j 



( 362 ) 

XXXVI. 

Notice regarding Indian Saws. 

In a Letter from John Robison, Esq. to the Secretary. 
(Read 11th November ISM.) 

Dear Sir, 

In compliance with your request, I send you a 
sketch of the Indian saws, which appear well adapted 
for pruning fruit-trees, or cutting green wood of any 
kind. You will perceive that their sole advantage 
consists in their operating by a pull, instead of by a 
push ; as, in this way, if they have stiffness enough 
to carry them through the wood while not cut- 
ting, there can be no possibility of bending or break- 
ing them during the cutting stroke. 

Fig. 2. Plate VIII. is a blade four inches broad and 
eighteen inches long, fixed to a pole-handle of any 
required length ; the line of the teeth should be in- 
clined a few degrees from the line of the pole, to al- 
low of the saw cutting easily without any pressure 
on the handle. 

N: B. The softer the wood is which is to be cut, 
the less should be the degree of inclination. 



PL.ATE THE 



KorlMtm.. Vol.tt r p.36Z I 




MR ROBISON ON PRUNING SAWS. 363 

Fig. 1. Plate VIII, a hand-saw, of the same size 
as the other ; the gripe should be such as to bring 
the fore-finger and thumb of the right hand nearly 
in the line of the teeth. 

I have found a small saw of this kind about three- 
fourths of an inch broad and six inches long, (with 
the teeth rather distant, but very shallow), exceed- 
ingly useful in cutting out branches and stumps 
from trees nailed to walls, as, from its narrowness, it 
can be applied between the wood and the wall. I 
am, &c. 

16. Coates Crescent, 1 
25th Oct. 1824. ) 



( 364 ) 



XXXVII. 



On the Utility of gathering Unripe Tomatoes, 
and maturing them on Shelves in Hot-houses. 



By Mr W. McMurtrie, Gardener to the Right Honour- 
able*Lord Anson, Shugborough Gardens. In a Letter 
to the Secretary. 



(Read 5th April 1827.; 



Sir, 



.Having observed in one of the late numbers of 
The Gardener's Magazine, a quotation from the 
Caledonian Horticultural Society's proceedings, re- 
specting the Tomato ; and not having had an op- 
portunity of seeing the publication alluded to, to 
know whether the culture of it is such as I have 
practised myself with great success these ten years 
past, I am induced to send you a short account of 
my method, which I think, if not generally known, 
may be of some service to those who cultivate the 
tomato in your more severe climate. 

It would be superfluous to give a particular account 
of the first stages of rearing it, these being known 



ON GATHERING UNRIPE TOMATOES. 365 

to almost every gardener. I shall therefore proceed 
to state briefly, that, in March, I sow the seeds in a 
slight hot-bed ; and, when the plants are fit, I prick 
them out in large pots, for a short time, to acquire 
strength. I then plant two in a 32 pot ; and, in 
June, turn them out, with the balls entire, against 
a south wall, previously preparing a spadeful or two 
of rich vegetable mould to place them in, giving a lit- 
tle water to settle the roots, &c.-— all which is the 
practice of most gardeners. 

When the plants arrive to the height of two or 
three feet, T stop them, by pinching off the tops, 
having found that the fruit is much finer, and even 
more prolific, by so doing, than by permitting them 
to grow higher. 

I now come to the object I have principally in 
view in this communication. In Staffordshire, we 
find great difficulty in getting the fruit to ripen on 
the walls, and of course in Scotland it will be more 
so. By the method which I have practised with 
never-failing success these many years, it is a matter 
of complete indifference to me whether the fruit is 
ripened or not, provided it is swelled to a pretty 
good size. 

About the 20th of October, I generally cut the 
first gathering, taking all that may have ripened, 
and the best swelled green fruit. The latter I place 
in a stove or hot-house, either on a shelf or hung 
upon a string (having taken care, in cutting them, 
to leave part of the stem attached for that purpose.) 



366 MATURING UNRIPE TOMATOES. 

In three weeks or a month they ripen as well, ac- 
quire as fine a colour, and are as good in every re- 
spect, as if they had come to maturity out of doors. 
By the end of October, I make a second gathering, 
which is generally as late as we can expect with 
safety, the frost setting in mostly about that time, 
and I treat them in the same manner as described 
above. Those who have not the convenience of a 
stove or hot-house to ripen them in, will find that 
hanging them up in a warm kitchen or room will, 
in a great measure, answer the same purpose. 

The annual consumption in this family is about 
two bushels. I turn out about 40 pots (80 plants), 
which I find is generally sufficient for the supply. 
Until I practised the above method, I had great dif- 
ficulty in furnishing half the quantity required, even 
in the most favourable seasons. 

It is possible that this method may not be new to 
you, or that you may not think the article of suffi- 
cient importance to insert it entire. If so, you are 
welcome to curtail, as I have no other object than a 
desire to contribute my mite to the general stock of 
information in your valuable Transactions. 

Shugborough Gardens, | 
3d March 1827. j 



( 367 ) 



XXXVIII. 

On Budding the Peach upon the Apricot. 

In a Letter from Mr W. McMurtrie to the Secretary. 

(Read 5th April 1827. J 

Sir, 

Jl f you think the following plan of budding the 
peach upon the apricot will be serviceable to the 
members of your Society, I shall be very happy in 
having contributed it. I think that it might be 
practised with good effect in Scotland, where the se- 
verity of the climate almost precludes any hope of 
cultivating the peach-tree out of doors with regular 
success. Indeed, I believe it is seldom attempted 
except upon flued walls. The apricot, however, I 
am aware, succeeds very well in some situations, and 
I therefore would strongly recommend to gardeners 
to insert a few peach-buds into those trees. We are 
often, even in Staffordshire, liable to have peach-blos- 
som destroyed by the easterly winds, (although de- 



368 MR MACMURTHIE ON BUDDING THE 

fended by canvas in the usual way), which set in 
very generally in April and May. These winds 
seldom depart without leaving in their train that 
destructive insect the aphis or green fly, which fre- 
quently destroys the hopes of the gardener. 

From repeated visitations of this kind upon my 
peach walls, it occurred to me to try the peach upon 
the apricot trees, (which, at Shugborough, are all of 
the Moorpark kind), and I am glad to state, that 
the expedient seems to answer my fullest expecta- 
tions. In 1824, I inserted a quantity of buds, 
which took readily, and the next season made fine 
strong healthy wood, and, in 1826, produced fruit 
far superior to that on the peach trees. I am not 
prepared to say from what cause ; I only speak to 
the fact ; and it is evident, at all events, that they 
agree well together. The young wood looks un- 
commonly well now, more vigorous and likely than 
that on the peach trees ; and I form the highest 
hopes from its appearance. In consequence of the 
successful result of the experiment, I budded more 
extensively last season. I prefer budding upon the 
young wood of the same year, as I find that the buds 
take more freely, and the wound heals over sooner 
than if the operation were performed upon older 
wood. 

At the same time (1824), I put in a quantity of 
nectarine buds upon my plum trees, on a west as- 
pect, considering the nectarine of a hardier nature ; 
but they did not succeed well: they took well enough, 



PEACH UPON THE APRICOT. 369 

but the wood they made was weak and unkind ; so 
I have not attempted it again. As the nectarine 
is hardier than the peach, it may perhaps suc- 
ceed,even better in the north, and there is no doubt 
but that it will take as readily as the peach upon 
the apricot. I am, &c. 



9.6th April 1828. 
I have only to say in addition, that my expecta- 
tions from the peaches worked upon the apricot-trees 
were fully realised last season (1827). The fruit 
was larger and finer than that on the peach-trees ; 
which confirms me in the opinion that the practice 
will be of utility. 

Shugboeough Gardens, ) 
5th March 1827. J 



VOL. IV. A a 



370 MR MURRAY'S HINTS AND NOTICES 



XXXIX. 

Hints and Notices connected with Horticulture. 

By John Mubray, Esq. F. L. S., &c. 

(Read 7th June 1821 J 

1. On uniformity of Insular Climate. 

X have briefly treated of this subject in the An- 
nals of Philosophy, with reference to Dr MacCul- 
loch's paper on the naturalization of tender exotics. 
Dr MacCulloch singles out Guernsey as an appro- 
priate nursery for intertropical plants, from which 
seeds might be ultimately obtained, — the embryons 
of a race sufficiently hardy for our more frigid clime. 

The transitions in this country are sudden and 
extreme, so that the change from the uniformity of 
insular climate to the very variable one of Great 
Britain, might operate as fatally as that from an in- 
tertropical clime to the British shores. 

The refined speculations on the distribution of 
heat over the globe, in connection with isothermal 



CONNECTED AVITH HORTICULTURE. 371 

lines, by Baron de Humboldt, serve, certainly, to 
solve many interesting problems in vegetable phy- 
siology, and satisfactorily account, in some instances, 
for the luxuriance of plants far removed from their 
indigenous soil, — phenomena, in which we see exo- 
tics that have been plucked from the tropics bloom 
in exalted latitudes. Still, however, the uniformity 
of insular climate comes in for its full share in the 
estimate; and it proceeds from a cause which may, 
I think, be explained ; and this I have endeavoured 
to do in another place. 

The ocean preserves an uniform temperature un- 
known to inland countries ; and the difference in its 
waters, between the summer and brumal months, 
will not exceed 3° or 4° Fahrenheit. Small islands 
will especially participate in this uniformity ; for 
the air incumbent on the bosom of the great deep, 
will receive the impress of its temperature from that 
on which it constantly reposes and is in contact ; 
and this again, blending with that over the islet, 
will maintain an equilibrium of temperature, and 
protect it from sudden vicissitudes. 

The following statement of the range of the ther- 
mometer, kept at the Bell Rock Light-house, and 
which I obtained from thence, will go far to corro- 
borate my opinion. The period is from 28th July 
to 10th August last inclusive, registered each day 
at 8 o'clock a. m. 

a a 2 



372 MR MURRAY'S HINTS AND NOTICES 



1820. 




1820. 






July 28. 


58° Fahr. 


Aug. 


4. 


61° Fahr. 


29. 


58 




5. 


56 


30. 


62 




6. 


56 


31. 


m 




7. 


56 


Aug. 1. 


51 




8. 


59 



2. 57 9. 52 

3. 60 10. 58 

2. Camellia Japonica. 

1 am not aware that the Caledonian Horticultu- 
ral Society is possessed of a single recorded in- 
stance of the naturalization of this beautiful plant. 
Even at Naples, where the cotton is cultivated 
in the open fields, I was surprised to find in the 
Botanic Garden of that city the Camellia Japo- 
nica confined to the conservatory, the associate of 
the Coffcea and Musa. Perhaps its rarity there 
may occasion its imprisonment, for two or three 
dollars was the price set on a small plant. The 
single-flowered, however, was permitted to remain 
in the open garden. The camellia is doubtless as 
hardy as the Aucuba and Corchorus. Near to 
Inverness, in a garden the property of Mr Welsh, 
the Camellia Japonica withstood the severity of the 
climate, and flowered beautifully in 1819 and 1820. 
The plant has had no protection or covering what- 
ever. 1 was informed that the plant, when 18 inches 
high, was purchased in the spring of 1818, and 
plunged with its pot into the soil. It was prima- 
rily intended to remove it into the house, but being 



CONNECTED WITH HORTICULTURE. 373 

negligently exposed to a smart frost toward winter, 
it was not done, seeing it did not apparently suffer 
thereby. This plant has grown ever since on the 
face of a dry sandy bank, with an aspect to the 
south-west, and an inclination of about 45°, being 
well sheltered from the north and east. It is the 
double-red variety, and now exceeds two feet in al- 
titude. The garden is nearly a mile from the sea. 
I have long been of opinion, that in our endea- 
vours to inure exotics to the severity of our winters, 
we begin at the wrong end. The summer is even 
advanced before such plants are brought out of the 
greenhouse or conservatory. Now, it seems clear 
to me, that spring is the most proper season, and 
that too as early as possible, otherwise the sap re- 
ceives an unnatural check, which ill fits it to ma- 
ture a structure calculated to resist the winter's 
storm. But if the sap receives its first momentum, 
where the plant is destined to stand, the ascent and 
descent of the sap will be regulated by the same 
ambient medium, and it will adjust itself to the 
new circumstances in which it is placed. The sap 
will thus be perfected in unison with the declension 
of the season, and the bark and buds be properly 
encased, and fenced against the frosts and the 
storms of the brumal months. As far, too, as my 
own observations go, plants so destined should never 
be too small. 



374 Mil MURRAY'S HINTS AND NOTICES 

3. Preservation of Fruits. 

The high state of preservation in which grapes 
were introduced at table in the north of Italy, even 
in the month of January, induced me to inquire in- 
to the mode adopted for this end. 

Professor Giobert of Turin accordingly informed 
me, that the grapes detached from the vine in dry 
weather, and freed from such as were bruised or 
spoiled, were placed gently, stratum super stratum, 
in a box, to the amount of three or four layers, with 
interposited thin beds of peach leaves. The boxes 
thus replenished and shut close, are placed on shelves 
in a dry airy room. 

No doubt any kind of leaves, not succulent, would 
do equally well, as for instance those of the oak or 
Spanish chesnut. If the preservative property ob- 
tains in an astringent principle, some powdered oak 
bark might be advantageously used, or if in one an- 
tiseptic, powdered charcoal might be employed with 
success ; and why not try the experiment of dipping 
the apple, pear, &c. in pyrolignous acid ? In this 
way grapes of the preceding year's growth are pre- 
sented at table in a condition to vie in beauty and 
flavour with those brought immediately from the 
vineyard. I was elsewhere informed that peaches 
and nectarines, wrapped up in some absorbent of 
moisture, and excluded from air, &c. were preserved 
to a lengthened period. 



CONNECTED WITH HORTICULTURE. 375 



4. Fruits in Domestic Wines. 

Malic, citric, and other acids, obtain in the goose- 
berry, &c. used in domestic wines, and form mate- 
rial obstacles to success. It is therefore an object 
worthy of inquiry, how far changes operate in ma- 
ture fruits toward a modification of the acid prin- 
ciple. In the south of Italy, the Italians suspend 
the bunches of grapes to the ceiling of rooms and 
in out-sheds, and the taste acquired is sweeter than 
before, in which, too, the flavour of the raisin pre- 
dominates. If ripe gooseberries or currants be per- 
mitted to remain pendent on the bush, additional 
saccharine matter seems to be elaborated, and the 
fruit becomes much sweeter. At Montefriascone, 
where the Tuscans are famous for their sweet 
wines in imitation of Malaga, the grapes depend in 
bunches for some time under convenient sheds, be- 
fore they are expressed, in order that they may ac- 
quire the sweetness requisite ; and may not a similar 
plan be followed with our domestic fruits ? 

5. On Wall Trees. 

There are both advantages and disadvantages at- 
tendant on wall trees. 

In the London Horticultural Transactions, Mr 
Knight has favoured us with some excellent hints, 
which we would do well to profit by. These are 
characterised by all the sagacity and acuteness which 
so essentially distinguish this eminent master in ve- 
getable physiology. 



376 MR MURRAY'S HINTS AND NOTICES 

By detaching the tree, as far as it could be con- 
veniently done, from the wall, and so fixing it till 
an advanced stage of the bud, Mr Knight obtained 
from its seeds a hardier offspring than the parent ; 
and the principle on which the plan was adopted 
is certainly a legitimate inference, clearly founded 
on experience and analogy. 

I feel persuaded, from observations somewhat 
extended, that it would be well could we so ad- 
just our trees to the wall, as to make removal 
during winter and early spring frosts practicable. 
We would thus be able to triumph over the destruc- 
tive ravages of frosts on the early blossom, and also 
clear away the chrysalids and ova of insects, with 
decaying leaves, and other causes and sources of in- 
jury. To prevent the friction and destruction oc- 
casioned by winds, the trees might be securely fas- 
tened forward to temporary stakes. By such means 
the tree, when re-affixed to the wall, would receive 
an instant and extraordinary and continued stimu- 
lus. We have only to refer to the rich stores of a 
short but vigorous Canadian summer. I am much 
deceived if this be a difficult task, provided we use 
the structure of the nail described in a former num- 
ber of the Caledonian Horticultural Memoirs * 

It was only last year that I remember to have 
seen in the gardens of the Earl of Mansfield, at 
Scone, a fruit-tree posited in an angle, — an ample 

* Vol. iii. p. HO. 



CONNECTED WITH HORTICULTURE. 377 

lesson for our instruction. One half of the branches 
emerging from the trunk overspread a wall with a 
southern exposure, and the remaining half one with 
an exposure to the east. The early frosts having 
destroyed the blossom of the former, it was entirely 
denuded of fruit, whereas in the latter the fruit was 
unusually abundant. I have witnessed similar phe- 
nomena, where a tree exposed to the south had the 
terminations of its branches trained over the wall, 
thereby acquiring a northern aspect. 

In the north of Italy, as in Piedmont, &c. it is 
usual to detach the vines from their upright poles, 
and lay them prostrate on the ground, placing on 
them a sod, or a portion of earth, to prevent their 
being agitated or broken by winds. The snow man- 
tles them with its woolly coverlet, and over their 
slender and delicate stems frosts have no power. 

Hull, \ 

May 25. 1821. i 



378 MR THOM ON THE DESTRUCTION OF 



XL. 

On the Gooseberry Caterpillars, and the applica- 
tion of Heat for their destruction. 



By Robert Thom, Esq. Rothesay. 
(Read 7th December 1820J 

LN 1819, the green caterpillar being very numer- 
ous on my goosberry bushes, (notwithstanding that 
the ground had been carefully trenched down in 
winter), I resolved to find if possible some more ef- 
ficient method of destroying them. To accomplish 
this with more certainty, I contrived a set of expe- 
riments, by which I traced their natural history 
through all their stages for upwards of sixteen 
months. 

The proper limits of this paper will prevent any 
detail, or even enumeration of these experiments : 
I shall therefore only state the result of a few that 
seem to bear most materially upon the subject. 

In the first place let me premise, that instead of 
one brood in the season, as described by all former 
writers on the subject, there are often four or five 
distinct generations ; and that two flies, coming up 



THE GOOSEBERRY CATERPILLAR. 379 

in the spring, may in that season produce above 
sixty millions of caterpillars ! 

During the whole of last spring and summer a re- 
gular succession of these pupae were confined in pots, 
filled with earth, and placed in the garden, so as to 
have the same exposure as those that went into the 
earth beside the bushes. Various ingredients were 
put into these pots with the view of killing the pu- 
pae ; but to no purpose : the flies still continued to 
come up at the usual periods till the 26th of June, 
when all at once they ceased ; nor did any that 
were in the pupae state in these pots ever come up 
afterwards. 

Suspecting that the great heat of the weather at 
this time either killed them, or delayed their go- 
ming up, I placed a pot containing pupae, (that had 
just gone down in the shade), in a cool cellar, and 
at the usual period the flies came up. 

I then took a number of pots, (filled with earth), 
containing pupae fully incrusted ; upon some of 
which I poured boiling water ; upon some, unslacked 
lime, pounded to the size of small peas, was put, 
and mixed with the earth two inches deep ; others 
were allowed to remain as they were. Flies from 
the last came up at the usual time ; but those that 
received the lime or the hot water never produced 
flies. This was repeated several times, and always 
with the same result. 

In winter, therefore, when all these insects are in 



380 MR THOM ON THE DESTRUCTION OF 

the pupae state, I would advise cultivators to lift 
about two inches deep from the surface of the soil 
in the gooseberry plots, then to spread on hot lime, 
pounded as before noticed, about three times as 
thick as ordinary liming, and return the lifted soil 
over the lime, keeping still the old surface uppermost, 
and clapping the soil gently down with the back of 
the spade. Great care must be taken that the lime 
is unslacked, and regularly spread, as it is merely 
the heat produced by slacking that kills them. 
If the lime is too much for the soil it may be ex- 
changed in the spring by soil from another plot. 

When boiling-hot water is used, it should be put 
on when the soil is quite dry, and precisely in the 
same way as the lime ; lifting the soil to the same 
depth, and returning it in the same manner, as soon 
as the water is poured on. 

In this way the pupge will be all above the hot 
water or lime, and thereby receive the full effect of 
the heat as it passes upwards. 

Where there is great space between the bushes, 
some lime or water may be spared, by burying the 
surface-soil at least a foot deep, and tramping it firm- 
ly down in the bottom of the trench : but near the 
bushes this cannot be done for the roots, as the pu- 
pae frequently attach themselves to the under-sides of 
these ; and hence though trenching down the sur- 
face-soil does destroy a part, it can never destroy the 
whole : and I have even seen a fly come up when the 
pupa had been buried eight inches deep, and the earth 



THE GOOSEBERRY CATERPILLAR. 381 

pressed down upon it. — As to the removal of the 
soil it is quite useless, as the fly easily finds its way 
back to the hushes. 

As heat appeared to be the only agent fatal to 
these insects in the pupa state, I next tried its ef- 
fects upon them in the caterpillar state ; and found 
that water, heated to 140° Fahr., and thrown forci- 
bly upon them through the rose of a watering-pot, 
kills them ; and without injuring the tenderest 
leaves on the bushes. But care must be taken to 
have the water nearly at that temperature ; as, if five 
degrees lower, it will scarcely kill the larvae ; and if 
more than five higher, it will injure the bushes : So 
nearly does the vitality of the caterpillar coincide 
with that of the leaf on which it feeds. 

But water thrown upon them in this way even as 
low as 120° makes them drop instantly from the 
bush ; and I would therefore recommend to begin- 
ners to use the water at this temperature, a cloth 
being spread under the bush, to collect them for 
destruction, as afterwards mentioned. 

Of all the other things that have been recom- 
mended, and many more that I have tried, none 
kills the caterpillar without injuring the bushes. 
Here, as usual, the simplest of all agents is the 
most powerful. 

I have contrived a very simple apparatus, (Plate 
VIII. fig. 3.), by which water is thrown with force 
upon the under-sides of the leaves ; and by which 



382 MR THOM ON THE DESTRUCTION OF 

one person, if supplied with hot water, will go over a 
hundred bushes in the hour, and not leave a single 
living caterpillar on one of them. 

From a great variety of experiments, I found that 
the duration of life of the insect varied considerably, 
according to circumstances, in all its stages, except 
in the fly state, which appears to be uniformly from 
nine to eleven days. In this state it seems to take 
no food. It generally lays most of its ova on the 
second, third, and fourth days, but sometimes con- 
tinues to lay a few till the seventh or eighth day. 
Under the most favourable circumstances the ova 
are hatched in seven days ; the life of the caterpil- 
lar is fifteen days, of the pupae eighteen days. In 
the most favourable weather for that purpose, there- 
fore, a new generation is produced every forty-two 
days, namely, four days for the fly to lay its eggs, 
seven days for these to hatch, fourteen days in the 
caterpillar, and seventeen in the pupa state ; and 
as the first flies for the season generally come up 
about the beginning of April, and continue to come 
up, if the weather is fine, as late as the end of Oc- 
tober, there may be five distinct generations in one 
season. They are, however, subject to many inci- 
dents, and therefore seldom more than two genera- 
tions, of any considerable extent, appear in one 
season. 

They are generally said to be extremely vora- 
cious, but this is owing to their great numbers ; for, 



THE GOOSEBERRY CATERPILLAR. 383 

upon an average, each caterpillar barely eats one 
leaf during its whole life, the female eating more 
than double of what the male eats. For the first 
five or six days they eat very little, each at that 
time having made only a small hole in the leaf, of 
about one- tenth of an inch diameter. It is in the 
last four or five days that they make the havoc on 
the bushes ; and the damage is therefore nearly all 
done before it is discovered. Those who look pro- 
perly after them, however, have time enough to pre- 
vent it, by destroying them while young. When 
just emerging from the ova, they are extremely 
helpless, and easily destroyed. A heavy shower, or 
blast of wind, will then throw them to the ground, 
where they perish. This is the weak period in their 
existence, and probably at this stage nine-tenths of 
the whole perish upon the average of years ; and 
hence it is only in particular seasons that we hear 
much of them. Calm, mild, but rather moist and 
cloudy weather, is most favourable for them at this 
stage ; but after they are a few days old, no weather 
will kill them, although favourable weather brings 
them sooner to maturity. 

The insect is male and female, but the ova of the 
female produce caterpillars, even when the male and 
female flies are kept separate. How long this off- 
spring would continue to breed has not been ascer- 
tained ; but by following up the experiments it 
might be very easily done. There is some reason to 
suspect that there is a connection between the male 



384 MR THOM ON THE DESTRUCTION OF 

and female caterpillars ; for I have frequently ob- 
served them twisted together for some time after 
they had ceased eating, and a little before they cast 
their skins to go into the pupa state. By a little 
more attention this may be fully ascertained. 

A male and female fly are herewith sent. The 
female is brighter in the colours, and much larger 
than the male, particularly in the abdomen. The 
body of the fly is barely half an inch in length ; its 
head and thorax of a fine purple, and its neck and 
abdomen a bright orange colour. It has two anten- 
nas, about three-eighths of an inch long, with which 
it seems to feel its way ; four wings (the one resting 
over the other), very thin and transparent, except a 
dark spot near the extremity of each incumbent 
wing. 

A few of the experiments, and a description of 
the apparatus for destroying the caterpillar, follow. 

July 27- 1819. — Collected a number of the green 
gooseberry caterpillar from the bushes, and put 
them into a tumbler, along with fresh leaves from 
bushes, changed twice a- day. The tumbler was co- 
vered with a piece of gauze, or of tin-plate, perfora- 
ted with small holes, to admit air and prevent the 
escape of the caterpillars. 

They continued to feed on these leaves for two 
days, when one of them began to appear restless, 
and run up and down the sides of the tumbler. In 
a little it laid itself down on the bottom of the 



THE GOOSEBERRY CATERPILLAR. 385 

tumbler, on its side, with the body a little curved, 
moving its limbs and body in an indolent manner, 
like a dog basking in the sun. In a minute or so 
I observed the head of the insect change from a 
greenish to a yellowish-white, and nearly transpa- 
rent. By slow degrees the light transparent colour 
moved from the head down the body, till the dark- 
greenish colour was entirely gone, and the whole 
had assumed a whitish-yellow, the head, and a little 
at the other end, being rather of a deeper yellow 
than the rest. In a word, it had thus shoved off its 
outer skin, which now lay empty behind it. The 
whole time occupied in this operation might be 
from five to six minutes. For some time after this 
it appeared fatigued, and lay quite motionless; then 
began to move about, at first very slowly, but by 
degrees faster and faster, till at length it moved 
with an agility that it had never before exhibited. 
From its restless manner I suspected it wanted 
something which it could not find. At last, ap- 
pearing tired, it crept under some of the leaves, to 
which it attached itself in a somewhat curved posi- 
tion. In the course of a day it had glued itself to 
the leaf, became only about half its former length, 
and twice the thickness, beginning to be covered 
with a new coat, dark where it joined the leaf, and 
lighter as it rose upon its body. In two days the 
whole was covered with this dark crust, which I after- 
wards found to be extremely tough, so much so, that 

VOL. IV. b b 



386 MR THOM ON THE DESTRUCTION OF 

it required considerable force to tear it asunder. 
I then put a quantity of earth into another tumbler, 
with leaves, and the remaining caterpillars above it ; 
and in two days more they had all undergone the 
process above described ; but with this difference, 
that instead of attaching themselves to a gooseberry 
leaf, they buried themselves in the earth. Some- 
times, however, they would lie under a leaf for near- 
ly a whole day after they had thrown off the coat, 
but they all went down ultimately. In going into 
the earth, they used their paws like a mole ; which, 
on examination by a microscope, I found well adapted 
for that purpose. The last of them went into the 
earth, on the 1st of August ; and the first fly came 
up on the 22d, having been three weeks in the pu- 
pa state. 

On the 2d of September another came up ; after 
this no more came up till the 1st of May following, 
when a third came up, and on the 17th a fourth came 
up. This proves that they may remain under 
ground from three weeks to nearly ten months, 
according to the weather and other circumstances. 
The fly that appeared on the first of May was put 
upon a twig of a gooseberry bush, stuck into earth 
in a flower-pot, and covered so as to prevent escape, 
but admit light and air. On the 10th it died, 
after having laid 120 eggs on the leaves of the twig. 
By watering the earth in the flower-pot, the twig 
took root and the leaves kept quite fresh, and the 
young caterpillars came into life from the 15th to 



THE GOOSEBERRY CATERPILLAR. 387 

the 20th. Those that came into life on the 15th 
were at their full size on the 28th, and went into 
the pupa state on the 31st. 

August 6. — Having observed that a part of the 
caterpillars as well as the flies were much smaller 
than the others, I suspected that the one sort 
were males and the other females. To ascertain 
this, a number of the small caterpillars were put 
by themselves into a flower-pot, in which grew a 
small gooseberry bush, on which they fed ; and then 
went into the pupa state there. In due time small 
flies came up ; and were prevented from escaping, 
(which they frequently attempted) by a gauze cover- 
ing. In nine days they all died without laying any 
eggs. The same thing was done with the larger 
sort of caterpillars, and in due time large flies came 
up, which were similarly confined ; they immediate- 
ly began to lay eggs, and in three days each had 
laid about 140 eggs. On the tenth day they all died, 
after having laid about 160 eggs each. In nine 
days after the first eggs were laid, the first caterpil- 
lars came to life ; they fed upon the leaves for from 
sixteen to twenty days, and then went into the pu- 
pa state. Similar experiments were often repeated, 
and always with the same result ; which proved that 
the insect is male and female, but that the eggs of 
the female produce caterpillars, although kept from 
any connection with the male in the fly state. 

b b 2 



388 MR THOM ON THE DESTRUCTION OF 

August %4>. — Confined a male fly and a female 
fly together, that had just come up, by putting 
them into a large tumbler, in which was a twig of a 
gooseberry bush, and covered with gauze. The 
male immediately began to follow the female up 
and down the sides of the tumbler, and from branch 
to branch of the little bush ; and whenever he touch- 
ed her with his antennae, he turned round his poste- 
rior end to hers': for a while she seemed shy and made 
off, but in the course of five or six minutes she stood 
still, when the male placed his posterior end under 
hers, and in this state fell to the bottom of the 
tumbler, and continued to stick so for about a mi- 
nute. In a little after this, I put in another male 
fly beside them ; and when the two males met, it was 
always in rather a hostile attitude, but the one almost 
instantly fled from the other. I observed them for 
about an hour after this, but none of the males 
seemed to pay farther court to the female. The 
male flies are much more lively, and move about 
much more than the females ; the last, indeed, seem 
never to move farther than is necessary from one leaf 
to another in laying the eggs, and that done, they 
sleep quietly away. Hence few have ever seen this fly. 

August 24. — To ascertain what one caterpillar 
eats ; as soon as the caterpillars came into life, 
they were all destroyed but six, one on each leaf. 
Then, as soon as they could be removed with safety, 
and when each had only made a hole about one-tenth 



THE GOOSEBERRY CATERPILLAR. 389 

of an inch diameter in its leaf), each was put into 
a separate pot, into which grew a very small goose- 
berry bush ; — a small twig with a few leaves that 
had taken root there. They continued to feed, and 
thrive well for the usual time, when they went in- 
to the pupa state. The largest females had each 
eaten fully one and a half leaves, the smaller ones 
rather less ; upon an average one and a half leaves 
for each female, and only about half a leaf for each 
male. This was often repeated, and the result always 
very nearly the same. 



Rothesay, ^ 
5th September 1820. j 



Explanation of the Figure, Plate VIII. Fig. 8. 

A, A tin vessel, one foot diameter and same depth, standing on 
three legs, fully four feet high from the ground to the 
bottom of the vessel. 

A B, A tin pipe (communicating with the tin vessel) 2 inches 
wide at A, and 1^ at B. 

B C, A leathern tube of 1^ inch bore, screwed upon that pipe 
at B, having a stop-cock of same bore at C, and a rose, 
like that of a watering-pot at D, but nearly flat in front, 
so as not to spread the water too much. The size of 
the rose must be such as not to pass the water quite so 
fast as it comes ; otherwise, from want of pressure, the 
water would not be thrown with sufficient force upon 
the caterpillars. 



390 MR THOM ON THE CATERPILLAR. 

Having placed this apparatus near the bush, fill it with water 
heated to 140° : then with one hand open the stop-cock, 
and with the other direct the jet upon the caterpillars. 

A forcing pump or any apparatus that will throw the water 
forcibly upon the under sides of the leaves, where the cater- 
pillars feed, will answer the same purpose ; but the water 
must be thrown pretty forcibly, as the caterpillars on one 
leaf are sheltered by the intervention of other leaves ; and, 
therefore, it is necessary to give each branch a smart shake 
immediately on its being struck by the water, as this brings 
all the caterpillars to the ground, even if not quite killed. 
On this account a cloth, (or something like a large sieve), 
in two halves, should be spread upon the ground under the 
busb, by which means the caterpillars are easily collected 
and destroyed : for, otherwise, some of them, from being 
sheltered by intervening leaves, would recover and regain 
the bush. 

Might not the pupae be destroyed in the ground by laying 
horse-dung over the surface, or any thing else that would 
ferment and produce heat? If the ground were pared 
about 1| inch deep, and turned upside down before this 
was done, probably it would assist. Even a whole winter's 
season might destroy them if thus exposed to the weather, 
for they are very careful, not only to bury themselves in 
the ground, but always under the shelter of the bush upon 
which they feed : — Or, might not the larvae be destroyed 
by steam, instead of hot water ; the bush being covered by 
something like an umbrella, with the bulb of a thermome- 
ter below, and the stem above, to indicate the proper tem- 
perature ? The steam could easily be produced by an ap- 
paratus contrived for the purpose, so light as to be moved 
from bush to bush by one person. Might not the effect of 
this be tried in greenhouses and vineries ? 



MR WALLACE ON ONIONS, &C. 391 



XLL 

On the Cultivation of Onions ; on Preparing 
Ground for Carrots ; and on Destroying the 
Gooseberry Caterpillar. 



In a Letter from Mr John Wallace, Gardener at Bal- 
lechin, to the Secretary. 

(Read 8th March 1815 J 

Sir, 

jTjlS the cultivation of Onions is a matter of consi- 
derable importance, I beg leave to lay before the 
Society the method which I have pursued for seve- 
ral years past, having had the pleasure to find my 
crop of them never fail to answer expectation. I 
shall also state the method I used with my car- 
rot-ground, and which has seldom failed to answer 
well. If you think the communication of any con- 
sequence to the Horticultural Society, please pre- 
sent it. 

Onions. — The garden here is of a light soil, and 
for some years after my coming to this place, I al- 
ways digged my onion ground twice a-year, viz. in 
autumn and spring, giving a good coating of dung 



.392 MR WALLACE ON THE 

in harvest, and a light one in spring, before sowing 
the seed. My crop of onions did not answer my 
expectations, and, besides, it was infested with the 
maggot. 1 followed this course for two or three years, 
and found the onions turning worse and worse every 
succeeding season. I then determined to alter my 
plan ; and, in the end of autumn, when the onions 
were taken up, 1 only raked the ground, and 
cleaned it of weeds, but did not dig it. In the 
spring, when the season of sowing came, I gave the 
ground a moderate coat of well-rotted cow-dung, as 
free of straw as I could, and then digged the 
ground half-spade deep, and pretty rough, on which 
I sowed the seed ; and that year I had the satisfac- 
tion to find that the crop exceeded my most san- 
guine hopes, for the beds were a perfect sole of 
onions, and many of them exceeding large, measur- 
ing from ten to fourteen inches in circumference. 
The crop was entirely free of the maggot, I have 
followed the same method for the last four years, 
and the result is constantly the same ; for last year 
(1818) the crop of onions failed in most places, so 
far as I have heard ; but mine answered the same 
as usual, being indeed rather thinner, but very 
large and perfectly sound. They were seen by 
Mr Stewart of Dalguise, a member of this Society. 
All the reason that I can assign for this is, that I 
find light and dry soils are rather hurt than benefit- 
ed by too much labour and pulverising the ground ; 
and I was led at first to adopt this method, from 



CULTIVATION OF ONIONS. 393 

observing that such of the tenants in my neighbour- 
hood, as gave repeated ploughings to their bear 
land, had seldom but a very poor crop after it. 

I should have mentioned, that I always take care 
to keep all the chimney soot I can get, in a barrel or 
tub ready for use ; and when I sow the seed, I spread 
a thin covering of soot on the beds, along with the 
seed, and then rake over the whole. The employ- 
ment of the soot is probably a thing of great im- 
portance in preventing the attacks of wire-worm or 
maggots. The quantity of ground I have yearly 
under onions, is never less than forty, and sometimes 
fifty falls. 

Carrots. — With regard to my crops of carrots, I 
had often been disappointed in them, till 1 thought 
of trenching the ground. This I do only a few days 
before sowing, to the depth of eighteen or twenty 
inches ; after this I level the ground, and give it a 
coat of rotten cow-dung, and then dig half-spade 
deep, on which I sow the carrots. Ever since I 
adopted this plan, the crop has answered to my 
mind ; the carrots are large, and free of maggot. 
When I sow the seed, I give the ground a very 
thin covering of dry soot and hot lime, and I change 
the ground for them every year. The time I sow 
them for my general crop is from the 20th of April 
to the 1st of May ; and I always find it to be much 
in their favour to thin them to their proper dis- 
tance at giving the first weeding. 



394 GOOSEBERRY CATERPILLAR. 

Gooseberry Caterpillar. — I may here add, that 
I have seen several methods of destroying the cater- 
pillar on gooseberry bushes, &c. I have tried some 
of them, which I found answer tolerably well ; but 
some years ago I was infested with them to a very 
high degree, and they seemed to put me at defiance. 
There happened to be a quantity of quicklime at 
hand ; I took about six pecks of it, and put it in a 
large stand full of water, where I let it continue 
some time (about six hours) ; and then, about mid- 
day, when the sun shone strong, I took a watering- 
pot, and watered all the bushes (the top of them) 
with the infusion. The next day I found but very 
little impression from this first watering ; however, 
I gave them a second dose about mid-day (always 
when the sun shone strongly) ; and on the third day, 
gave them another of the same kind. On the day 
following this third dose, not one caterpillar could 
be found on any bush in the garden, they lying in 
crowds dead below the bushes. Whenever they ap- 
pear, I always use the same method, and the success 
is constantly the same. I do not find that the fo- 
liage of the gooseberry bushes is injured by the ap- 
plication. 

Ballechin, by Logierat, ) 
26th September 1814. j 



( 395 ) 



XLII. 



Notice regarding the Scarificator figured in 
Plate Kill. fig. 5. 



In a Letter from John Gordon, Esq. to the Right Ho- 
nourable Sir John Sinclair, Bart. 



(Communicated to the Caledonian Horticultural Society, 
and read 3d February 1825.) 



Sir, 

JuLaving been in the way of planting for the 
greatest part of my lifetime, both in England and 
Scotland, I take the liberty of submitting to you a 
simple instrument for scoring or slitting the bark of 
trees. 

I have uniformly found the greatest benefit arise 
from cutting or slitting the rind of fruit-trees when 
hide-bound, or any way in a stagnated seat. This 
is often done on the stem of the tree ; but is of little 
use unless carefully done down to the surface of the 
ground, or rather below, and likewise a little along 
the horizontal branches. I have often seen trees 



396 MR GORDON ON THE SCARIFICATOR. 

carefully done in this way, in blossom several days 
before those not cut at all. By using a proper instru- 
ment the slitting may be done in less than a minute 
per tree ; and the tree will want no more relief for 
some years. 

I have often seen great service done also to forest 
trees by a similar practice. In the New Forest in 
Hampshire, an active workman employed by the 
late Lord Glenbervie was able to score or slit 3000 
forest trees in a day ! Let the benefit to each tree 
be ever so small, this labour must pay well. 

I have therefore sent a small instrument which I 
made for the purpose. It will be found far before 
the knife. It is made so as to penetrate the bark 
to a certain depth, and no farther. The one side 
with the deeper blade, is for the stems of large trees, 
and the other with the shallower blade is for the up- 
per branches, or for young trees. It is evident that 
this implement can be used with more freedom than 
the garden knife, as the operator has not to think 
about the depth of his cut, or the force exerted. Even 
in careful hands, the knife often slips over, and at 
other times it cuts too deep. 

Allow me to mention in regard to fruit-trees, 
that I have at this time on the Ayrshire coast some 
thousands of all sorts of fruit-trees in progress in the 
nursery, without any tap roots at all. This I find 
can very easily be accomplished in light kindly 
soils. Fruit-trees should never be planted with 



MR GORDON ON THE SCARIFICATOR. 397 

long tap roots ; for such are a long time before they 
do any good, and they soon begin to decay. The 
roots should be small and horizontal, that every one 
may go in search of nourishment near the surface, 
around the tree. 

Hamilton, ) 

10^ January 1825. i 



( 398 ) 

XLIII. 

Notice of an Improved Garden Hammer. 

In a Letter to the Secretary, from Mr John Dick, Gar- 
dener at Ballindean. 

(Read 3d February 1825 J 
See Plate VIII. Fig. 6. 

Sir, 

JL beg leave to send to the Horticultural Society, 
by the favour of William Trotter, Esq. of Ballin- 
dean, an improved garden hammer. This ham- 
mer, you will observe, has a stud or guard pro- 
jecting from the head in the direction of the han- 
dle, but somewhat nearer to the face of the ham- 
mer than the handle is. I find this projecting 
stud to be of great importance in working on a 
fruit-wall close set with branches and twigs, es- 
pecially among the bearing twigs and young wood 
of peach-trees. It serves as a fulcrum ; and ena- 
bles me to draw the nails in every direction, with- 
out the risk of bruising the adjacent twig, which 
can lie snug between the claws and the stud. 
A very little practice will make any gardener fami- 
liar with the use of this hammer, and he will soon 
feel its advantages. I am, &c. 



Ballindean 

\5th January 



5AN, 1 

1825. j 



IMPROVED GARDEN HAMMER. 399 



At a Council Meeting, held on the 3d of Fe- 
bruary 1 825, the Society's Silver Medal was award- 
ed to Mr Dick for his useful garden inventions : 
particularly for this fruit-wall hammer, as a real, 
though simple, improvement on that implement ; 
and for his barrow and tub for wheeling water from 
one part of a garden to another. 

Y.Tt.Sec. 



( 400 ) 

XLIV. 

Description of and directions for using, a New 
Preservative Frame for saving Wall Fruit 
from being destroyed by wasps, blue-flies, or 
birds, when it is ripe ; and also for protecting 
the blossom in spring from frost, and ensur- 
ing a crop of fruit. 

By Mr John Dick, Gardener to William Trotter, Esq. 
of Ballindean, Lord Provost of Edinburgh. 

( Read 6th April 1826. ) 

See Plate TX. 

X he wooden frame is put together at the four 
corners, and is fastened with pins N N N N to keep 
it square. There are two iron holdfasts, put into 
the wall for each side of the frame, which keep it 
quite steady to the wall. The facings in front of the 
frame are represented by A A A A. The front of 
the frame has a chack round it, with a piece of 
strong wire, BBBB, which goes along the top 
chack and also the bottom chack. Therings upon the 
cloth screen are put upon the wire in the^ chacks. 
The front facing upon the bottom chack folds down, 
C C, to let the screen be put into the chacks, and 
is then folded up and fastened. Then the wire, with 
the thumb-screws upon it, is screwed up, to tighten 



FOR WALL FRUIT. 401 

the wire, for the cloth screen to run upon. The two 
stenters upon the sides of the cloth, are fastened 
with hooks and eyes, to keep it fast. Then the cloth 
screen will move from side to side as it may be 
wanted ; and when the screen is required to stand 
open for any time, the cloth is tied with two strings 
at whatever side it is at, to keep it from being blown 
about with the wind. There is a narrow piece of 
cloth, DDDD, bound round with tape, and loops 
upon the sides. The one side has two loops, the 
other several, which are put upon nails in the 
walls. The two loops are hung upon two small 
pins E E, that are put into two holes in the bot- 
tom of the frame, just by the side of the chacks ; 
and the other two corners of the cloth are put 
upon a nail FF at the sides of the frame. Then 
the narrow cloth forms a bag, to receive the fruit 
that may drop, at the same time keeping the fruit 
from being destroyed by its fall. This is chiefly use- 
ful for peaches, plums, and apricots, but may be 
used for pears and apples. Cherries are not so ready 
to drop from the trees when ripe as other fruit are. 

I shall now point out the method for using the 
frames, for preserving the blossom from frost in spring. 
The frame is put as close upon the trees as possible, 
only not to hurt them. If the trees have long 
old spurs upon them, a spur or two may be taken 
off, where the frame comes upon them, to let it 
go close to the trees ; and there is a circular hole 
taken out of the bottom part of the frame, which is 

vol. iv. c c 



402 MR DICK ON A PRESERVATIVE FRAME 

put upon the stem of the tree at the bottom or top, 
according to the size of the tree ; this lets the frame 
be close fitted to the tree. The time for putting 
the frame upon the trees in spring is a little be- 
fore the flower-buds open ; but this must be left to 
the judgment of the gardener or manager, and it 
also depends on the situation of the place, whether it 
is a late or early situation. In fine days the screen 
can be open for the best part of the day, when there 
is no frost flying about ; but although the screen were 
not opened throughout the day at all, the trees will 
not be hurt in the least degree, because the cloth is 
so thin that it will admit plenty of sun and air. The 
time for taking off the frame again, is when the fruit 
is fully set, and of a size to stand the weather. As 
peach trees and plum trees are very often attacked 
with the green fly in the spring, before the fruit is 
fully set, the screen will shift from side to side, so 
as to let the trees be washed with whatever the 
gardener knows will destroy the green flies, before 
that the frame be taken off altogether from spring 
use. 

I shall now inform you how the wasps and birds 
of all kinds, and the flies, are kept from the fruit 
when it is ripe. The frame is put upon the trees 
for preserving the fruit, in the same way as it is put 
upon the trees in spring, for protecting the blos- 
som ; and when it is fully fixed to the wall, there is 
a little clean moss or fog, taken and put in between 
the edge of the frame and the wall, in as close a 
manner as it can be, not to leave any holes where the 



FOR WALL FRUIT. 403 

wasps or flies could get in between the wall and the 
frame ; for they cannot get in by the chacks or the 
screen. All the time that the fruit is upon the 
trees when ripening, at this season, the trees will not 
be hurt, either by the moss or the frame ; and if a 
lady or gentleman wants to pull a few fruit at any 
time, that can be done very easily ; as the screen 
shifts so quick, that if there are any wasps flying 
about, they can be drove out in a moment of time, 
and the screen shut again. If cherries, or any 
other fruit, are wanted to hang upon the trees, it can 
be kept on them as long as may be thought neces- 
sary. The frame is made to slope a little at the top, 
to let the rain, or the hail, in spring run off it ; and 
the bottom chack in front, has a few small holes, to 
let the rain run through it in time of a shower. 

I shall now give a few hints how the frame may 
be enlarged to any size wanted. As the model sent 
has all the iron and wood work that is necessary, 
for a much larger frame, the size of the wire, with 
thumb-screws upon its ends, can be lengthened to bear 
other three breadths of the cloth ; and wire one size 
thicker will carry eight breadths of the cloth, which 
will be nearly twenty-four feet in length ; therefore, 
a much larger frame can be made, with a deal of less 
expence in proportion, than a small one, as a very 
little more workmanship does, and a little more ma- 
terial does also. 

The frame should be put upon the wall a little 

below the coping, at the top of the wall, and twenty 

c c 2 



404 MR DICK ON A PRESERVATIVE FRAME 

inches is sufficiently near the bottom of the wall, 
as there is not much fruit below that height from 
the ground ; but it can be put higher or lower as the 
trees require it, or as the proprietor may judge fit. 

The wooden part of the frame should be well 
painted with white-lead, and it will last a number 
of years, and the iron holdfasts may remain in the 
walls. The cloth-screen, when taken outof the frame, 
when it is not in use, should be kept in a dry room, 
from rats or mice, as they are fond to cut it ; and a 
little camphor should be sprinkled among the cloth, 
to keep the moths from destroying it. If it be 
well taken care of, the cloth will last for seven or 
eight years : suitable cloth can be got for 5d. per 
yard, at the present time. 

I have stated every thing plainly, respecting the 
model ; and, if the above directions be properly at- 
tended to, the result will be satisfactory and success- 
ful. Any gentleman who may put it in practice, 
will, in the end, be amply rewarded for his trouble. 
And I now, from full confidence and experience, 
lay the model before the Caledonian Horticultural 
Society. 

To Patrick Neill, Esq. Sec. Cal. Hort. Soc. 

Dear Sir, 
I beg you will have the goodness to lay this pa- 
per, with the accompanying model, before the So- 



FOR WALL FRUIT. 405 

ciety for their investigation. I am, with the utmost 
respect, &c. 

John Dick. 
Ballindean, ) 

30th January 1826. j 



"N. B. — The model is made of such size that it 
can be made use of for trial and experiment. The 
total expence of such a frame is L. I, 12s. 



At a Meeting of the Council, held 6th April 
1826, a remit was made to Messrs Andrew Dick- 
son and John Hay, to examine Mr Dick's wall- 
tree frame, and to report their opinion. At a meet- 
ing of Council held 15th June 1826, the following 
report was given in. 

Edinburgh, 1st June 1826. 

Agreeably to the remit made to us by 
the Council, we this day examined the frame with a 
canvas screen, for protecting fruit trees when in blos- 
som, and the fruit when ripe, invented by Mr John 
Dick, gardener to William Trotter, Esq. of Bal- 
lindean ; and we beg leave to report, that, in our 
opinion, the frame will be found of great service in 
protecting fruit-trees when in blossom, and will most 



406 MR DICK ON A PRESERVATIVE FRAME 

effectually secure the fruit when ripe from the ra- 
vages of birds, wasps, and flies. The facility 
with which it can be opened and shut adds much to 
its merit ; and we humbly suggest that Mr Dick 
should have some suitable mark of the Society's ap- 
probation of his invention. That its properties may 
be seen, we would advise that the frame be put up 
in the Society's Garden, where it may be examined 
in all its details. 

(Signed) And. Dickson. 

John Hay. 

The Society's silver Medal was accordingly award- 
ed to Mr John Dick, and the frame was erected 
against a wail in the Experimental Garden at In- 
verleith, for general inspection, 

P. N. Sec. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 

AAA A' — Facings in the front of the frame. 
B B B B — The check and wire. 

C C — The bottom part of the facing folded down. 
D D D D — Narrow piece of clotb, to hold the fruit that may fall. 
E E — The two wooden pins of ditto. 
F F — Nails to tuck up the ends of ditto. 
G G — A section of the frame. 
H H H H — Thumb-screws for tightening the wire, should it bag. 
III I — Hooks to fasten on the facings. 
K K K— The cloth. 



PLATE IX 



CaZ.Eort Soc.Menv.Vol.Wp.400 




FOR WALL-FRUIT. 407 

L L L — The seams of the cloth strengthened with tape. 

M — Space shewing where the cloth has been drawn back. 
N N N N — The ends of the frame put up and down through the 
top and bottom of the frame, which are fixed with 
an iron or wooden pin. 
O O O — The rain that runs off the top or stop of the frame 
may wet and rot the cloth : it might prevent this, 
if the frame was made a little higher at one end, 
and a small grove or spout cut out of the front of 
the top, as seen at O O O, to let the rain run off 
at the lower end. 



( 408 ) 



XLV 



On the Cultivation of Strawberries. 

By Mr John Middleton, Gardener at Tillychevvan. In 
a Letter to the late Mr T. Dickson, Secretary. 

(Read 13th December 181 4. J 

Sir, 

Xn compliance with the resolution of the Society, 
which requires that every person whom it honours 
with the distinction of being a corresponding member 
of the institution, should contribute something to the 
general stock of horticultural information, I take 
up my pen, in order to add my mite, by giving some 
account of my method of cultivating the straw- 
berry. 

I begin by giving a short description of a few of 
the principal varieties which I have seen cultivated 
in Scotland. The first is the Virginian or Scarlet, 
and which is pretty generally considered as the best 
flavoured sort. The second I name is the Red Al- 
pine, which sort, I think, comes nearest to the Vir- 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF STRAWBERRIES. 409 

ginian in point of flavour. It is also the latest straw- 
berry we have, at least it continues longest in fruit : 
for I have observed, that even when planted in a 
northern exposure, its fruit begins to ripen as soon as 
that of the other large kinds ; and in a warmer situa- 
tion, and when it is#not shaded, in a few days after 
the Virginian. The next variety, and which I look 
upon as holding the third place in point of flavour, 
is the Surinam or Pine ; its foliage is not very dif- 
ferent in appearance from that of the other large 
sorts, but its fruit is of a deep red colour. It is a 
good bearer, a little earlier than the other large 
kinds, and I think excels them considerably in 
richness of flavour. The fourth variety I men- 
tion, is that known by the name of the Chili, 
of which there is one variety with white fruit; 
and another with red fruit ; and a third, lately 
introduced into this quarter, with several other new 
sorts, by Mr Thomson, gardener at Erskine House, 
which is of a more dwarfish growth than the other 
two. The fruit of this is also red, and it seems to 
be a good bearer. I believe it is generally known, 
that this kind, notwithstanding its name, is not in- 
digenous to Chili, but to the Carolinas, from whence 
it ought to take its name. There is, however, a straw- 
berry a native of Chili, of the dioecious kind, of 
which the female plant only has been introduced in- 
to Europe, the fruit of which is said to grow to the 
size of a pullet's egg. It requires to be planted 
among hautboys to make it produce fruit ; its own 



410 ON THE CULTIVATION OF STRAWBERRIES. 

male plant, as observed above, having, as far as I 
have heard, never been introduced. I remember 
having read that the French Academy gave instruc- 
tions to the botanist who accompanied the unfortu- 
nate La Peyrouse, to endeavour, when at Chili, 
to procure the male plant of this variety. 

The above named sorts (except the last) being 
those I have been most in the habit of cultivating, 
I proceed to offer a few remarks on the soils best 
adapted to their successful cultivation. A strong 
soil, inclining to clay, answers best for the Vir- 
ginian and Alpine; but the large sorts flourish 
on soils of a lighter consistency. That strong 
soils answer strawberries best in general, is, I be- 
lieve, pretty commonly allowed ; yet I can say, 
from experience, that I have had a poor crop of the 
Carolina sort on a border made up of very strong 
soil for pear trees ; whilst, on a part of the same 
ground, planted with Virginian strawberries, the 
crop was excellent; and the crop of Carolinas, on 
light land, in the same garden, was amazingly abun- 
dant. 

As to situation, I always prefer that which is 
open and airy, except for the Alpine kinds, which a 
northern shaded border has not only the effect of 
preserving till a later period of the season, but it 
ensures a heavier crop. In shady situations, how- 
ever, their flavour is rather inferior, and they pro- 
duce very good crops in open exposures, 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF STRAWBEltRIES. 411 

In regard to the management of the plants for a 
crop, I follow the ordinary method of planting in 
rows, of from 20 to 30 inches asunder, according to 
the kind. Every gardener knows, that another 
part of the same mode is, to cut over the plants in 
the month of October, in order to make them push 
anew, and cover themselves, as it is termed, before 
winter : this part of the management I have been 
induced, from experience of its bad effects, to omit. 
I was at first led to this change, from observing, 
that a plot of strawberries, which, through the hurry 
of business, I did not get dressed in autumn, pro- 
duced very well next season : it immediately occur- 
red to me, and in the same sentiment I now write 
this, that strawberries, and in general any herba- 
ceous plants resembling them in habit, must be verj 
much weakened by being made to produce two crops 
of foliage in one season. The winter residences of 
the shoots, which are to come forth next spring, 
must be thrown open, and the whole plants consider- 
ably weakened by being forced to exert themselves 
in sending out a numerous and weakly set of autum- 
nal leaves, and by these means a very sensible ef- 
fect must be produced on the crop. I therefore make 
it a rule, after the crop is gathered, to cut away all 
the runners, and to clear the beds of all weeds, but 
I never touch the bodies of the plants in the way 
of cutting. I observe, that, during winter, the shoots 
of next year are seen strong and healthy, under the 



41 £ ON THE CULTIVATION OF STRAWBERRIES. 

shelter of the decayed foliage, from which they no 
doubt receive much protection. 

For the following direction, I have to acknowledge 
my obligation to Mr Lang, gardener at Balloch 
Castle, for whose abilities as a gardener I feel the 
highest respect ; it is, — never to dig betwixt the rows 
of strawberries in autumn. Such a practice, he very 
properly remarks, by cutting large quantities of the 
fibres at that season, must have the effect of injur- 
ing the plants almost as much as if they were trans- 
planted. The new made wounds are, by the ground 
being opened, exposed to the action of the frost, 
and the plants will, by this treatment, be kept in a 
weak and languishing state during the whole of next 
season. The only necessary operation, therefore, is, 
to give the whole ground a complete hoeing after 
the runners are cut off, to clear away the weeds ; 
and if the alleys on the out sides of the plots are 
dug, to cast a small quantity of loose earth on the 
whole ground, which will give it the appearance 
of being newly dressed. I have found, I think, 
great benefit from wheeling on, during frost, a quan- 
tity of well rotted dung, and pointing in the same, 
in the months of March or April, when the plants 
should receive their spring dressing, which must, 
of course, consist in cutting off the old haulm, 
clearing the bushes of any weeds which may then 
appear, and digging the whole ground betwixt them. 
It must be obvious, that cutting a few of the roots 
at this season will in no degree retard the growth of 



OK THE CULTIVATION OF STRAWBERRIES. 413 

the plants, but by the additional quantity of fibres 
produced in consequence of any incisions which may 
be made, will materially promote the same. 

Such, Sir, are the few remarks on strawberry cul- 
ture which I have to lay before you. I am well 
aware that they contain but little that can be call- 
ed new, and that the subject is handled in a man- 
ner which will perhaps appear to men of extensive 
practice, to be narrow and restricted : but as we 
every day, at least in this quarter, see instances of 
gardens, some of them of no small dimensions, where 
the strawberry crop is very indifferent, and some- 
times where there is no crop at all ; and as this fail- 
ure is certainly to be attributed in no small degree 
to bad management, I hope the candid inquirer will 
not consider my paper as wholly useless. The prin- 
cipal object I have kept in view has been, to give a 
recital of such facts as have come within my own 
observation, observing an entire silence on those 
branches of the subject on which, from want of ex- 
perience, or want of success, I have not been able to 
suggest any thing either interesting or instructive. 
For the first of these reasons, I omit saying any 
thing on a method I have heard mentioned, of ob- 
taining Virginian strawberries at a late season, by 
cutting them over previous to their coming in flower; 
and, for the second, I do not mention the Hautboy 
strawberry, and the many new sorts which are every 
year coming in. I have cultivated the Hautboy, 



414 ON THE CULTIVATION OF STRAWBERRIES. 

but with inferior success compared with the other 
sorts, and I have had some of the new kinds, and 
have always thought them inferior to those I have 
been describing. I am, &c. 

As I find that the Red Alpine is not generally 
known to gardeners, I may mention what I know of 
its history. It had been procured in London by 
the late John Stirling, Esq. of Tillychewan, along 
with several other sorts of the same fruit about 
twenty-six years ago; I found it in a neglected state 
when I went there, but I was not aware that it was 
a variety different from other red alpines, until 1 
came to Blythswood, seven years ago ; I was struck 
with the wretched appearance of the Alpine Straw- 
berries growing then at this place, and procured 
from my successor at Tillychewan, plants of the red 
alpine of that place ; the abundance of the crop, 
and the flavour of the fruit, attracted universal no- 
tice ; and as our family is visited by gentry from 
many parts of the country, a bundle of our alpines 
formed part of the luggage of many on their return 
from the hospitable mansion of Blythswood ; from 
this circumstance I should think their merit or de- 
merit might be by this time well ascertained; but I 
also gave to Mr Barnet a parcel of the same plants 
last year in the month of April, and you will of 
course have the means of becoming perfectly ac- 
quainted with their qualities. 

In the autumn of 1826, I collected some seeds 
of the above fruit, which I sowed directly, — a good 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF STRAWBERRIES. 415 

number came up the same season. I have them at 
present shewing fruit in great plenty; and they are 
decidedly the most forward of any strawberries we 
have at this place. 



Since Mr Middleton wrote, several excellent new kinds of 
strawberry have been introduced ; particularly, the Roseherry of 
Aberdeen; Keen's Imperial; Keen's Seedling; the Downton; 
the Grove-end Scarlet, American Scarlet, and Bostock, In the 
Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, vol. v. 
Mr Barnet (now of the Experimental Garden at Edinburgh) has 
described and classified all the different sorts cultivated in Eng- 
land. Edit. 



( 416 ) 



XLVI. 

On Saving the Seeds of some Culinary Vegeta- 
bles and Ornamental Flowers in Scotland. 

In a Letter to the Secretary, from the late Alex. Hender- 
son, Esq. dated 7th December 18J 8. 

(Read Uh March 1819.) 

A have often thought the seedsmen in this coun- 
try might save several varieties of seeds, that we are 
accustomed to import from the Continent, particu- 
larly the Early White flat Dutch Turnip, and 
Yellow Garden Turnip : — the latter I have often 
tried with success ; but not the white till this sea- 
son. In spring 1817, I had prepared, in my nur- 
series, Leith Walk, a large quarter of ground for 
sowing birch and alder seeds ; they were sown, 
but did not succeed, either from the dry season, 
or the seed being bad in quality. I then resolved 
to sow the whole, in June, with early white turnip, 
which I had imported from Rotterdam. The crop 
succeeded very well. I did not sow earlier than 
June, as the turnips are more liable to be injured by 
autumnal frosts when large. I had each bulb care- 
fully examined, and did not find a dozen of what 



ON SAVING SEEDS IN SCOTLAND. 417 

are technically called rogues, in the whole extent. 
I planted them for producing seed this year (1818). 
When in flower, they promised a very weighty crop ; 
the flowers set well; but, although 1 kept a herd to pro- 
tect the seed from birds, yet they destroyed a great 
deal. I sometimes found the herd fast asleep, and 
hundreds of birds devouring the seed ; yet, after all, 
I had a great reversion. The ground measured 142 
falls, which is considerably under an acre. I calcu- 
lated that I would save about 15 cwt. ; it, however, 
turned out much more. The plants were cut over 
the last week of July, and allowed to lie in lines 
upon the ground for about eight days, then laid 
upon sheets of canvas, and thrashed out upon the 
spot. The seed 4 was spread on an airy loft, and 
turned daily for a month ; it was then completely 
dry, and weighed off. The nett produce was 5 lb. 
short of 24 cwt., or 2,683 lb., which, if sold at the 
prices asked by the London seedsmen this season, 
of 140s. per cwt., would bring about L. 168, being 
an excellent return for two years of that extent 
of ground. The duty on this seed alone would have 
come to more than L. 100, at the garden-seed duty 
of 9d. per pound. 

I saved this season about 200 lb. mignonette ; 
I have seen this seed at a guinea per pound. I 
should, however, be satisfied with less than the half. 
I am, &c. 

VOL iv. d d 



( 418 ) 



XLVII. 

On Forcing of Sea-Cale, and on the Culture of 
Sicilian Broccoli, fyc. 

In a Letter to the Secretary, from Edmund Cartwrigh u\ 
Esq. 

(Read 9th June 1818.) 

Sir, 

JlN the hope of being able to promote, in some 
small degree at least, the views of your Society, I 
beg leave to offer, to their notice, an improved me- 
thod of forcing Sea-Kale, — a subject to which their 
attention, I observe, has more than once been di- 
rected. The method which I have practised with 
invariable success, for these six or seven years past, 
is simply this : As soon as the leaves begin to de- 
cay, which is usually about the latter end of Octo- 
ber, the roots intended for forcing are taken up and 
transplanted into boxes of common earth, not too 
wet, and then placed in a dark cellar, out of the 
reach of frost. The plants may be expected to come 
into use in about six or eight weeks. If three or 
four boxes follow in succession, at intervals of a 
month, there will be a regular supply through the 
winter, as each box will admit of being cut twice. 
As the roots may be planted close to each other, 
they will occupy very little space. A box, eighteen 



ON FORCING SEA-CALE. 419 

inches square, will commodiously hold at least 
eight roots. It is needless to observe, that the 
larger the crown, and the stronger the root, the 
finer will be the produce. The darkness necessarily 
produces blanching or etiolation. 

Immediately after the second cutting, the roots 
are removed into the open ground, there to remain 
till they have recovered themselves, and are ready 
for a renewal of the operation. 

Sicilian Broccoli. — A friend of mine, who vi- 
sited Sicily in the year 1815, brought from thence 
some broccoli seed, of a particularly good kind, that 
had not been before introduced into this island. 
Knowing that my amusements were now chiefly 
confined to a small experimental farm, and to my 
garden, he had the goodness to send some of it to 
me. In the subsequent spring (1816) I sowed it at 
three different periods, namely, the beginning of 
April, the middle of May, and the latter end of 
July. The first sowing ran to seed, without form- 
ing even the appearance of a head ; and, as the pro- 
duce of the second sowing was scarcely much better, 
I had little encouragement to pay attention to the 
plants of the last sowing. I therefore reserved only 
twenty of them to stand through the winter, which 
they all did exceedingly well ; and, in the following 
spring, some of them produced very noble heads, 
one seven inches diameter, and another eight. But 
the general habit of the plant seemed to be to throw 
5 d d 2 



420 ON THE SICILIAN BROCCOLI. 

out side shoots, each bearing a small head, rather 
than to produce an individual stem, terminating in 
one large head. But in whichever way the broccoli 
is produced, whether from side shoots or from a sin- 
gle stem, it is decidedly superior to every other va- 
riety of its tribe that has yet fallen under my obser- 
vation. 

It is probable that, in its native climate, little 
attention is paid to the selecting the best plants for 
seed. Were this duly attended to, there is no 
doubt but that in time it would improve in the uni- 
formity of its growth, and possibly in other proper- 
ties, but scarcely in its good quality, for that is al- 
ready most excellent. 



sn House, J 
je, Kent, V 
n71818. j 



Hoixanden House, 
Towbridge, 

25th Apri 



( 421 ) 



XL VIII. 

On Destroying Caterpillars. 

In a Letter from Mr Alexander Witherspoon, Had- 
dington, to Lewis Gordon, Esq., Depute-Secretary of 
the Highland Society. 

{Communicated by the Highland Society, and read 23d 
May 1815.) 

A Have a small garden which is close to this town, 
of course cannot be very well aired. In it there are a 
few rows of gooseberry bushes. I have nothing of what 
can be called nicety in the management of my gar- 
den ; but, being a lover of gooseberries, and know- 
ing the depredations committed by the caterpillar, 
I have kept a good look out in the spring, when 
the buds were shooting forth, and by one means or 
other, although attended with much labour, kept the 
bushes tolerably free, although not altogether exempt 
from that destructive creature. At one time I was 
at the pains to pick off the caterpillars by the hand ; 
at other times to strike the lower part of the bran- 
ches, thereby making them spin themselves down 
to tbe ground, and then by raking and stirring the 



422 ON DESTROYING CATEKPILLAES. 

surface of the ground, to kill them. I occasionally 
likewise used tobacco-liquor. 1 believe these are 
the ways mostly in repute to keep these creatures 
under. What I am going to communicate, will, 
with little labour, be found superior to these labo- 
rious methods. After last fruit-season I observed, 
in one of my rows of bushes, much destruction of 
the leaves. On taking a nearer look, I saw it was 
by a most numerous swarm of caterpillars, of very 
small size. It is when any thing is thus in excess 
that its peculiarities are best discovered : from ap- 
pearance I conjectured these were the succeeding 
race to those of last spring, and likely to be the 
depredators in the spring ensuing ; and, if so, that 
nature would have instructed them in some method 
of self-preservation. This sort of caterpillar does not 
appear on the bushes in winter as they did in sum- 
mer. Reflecting on this subject, it therefore appear- 
ed evident, that either those creatures, in this case 
where I had seen them so numerous, were, by too 
much forwardness, an exception to the general eco- 
nomy, or that they were not ; if the former, then 
they would die and fall off; and, if the latter, that 
they would have a retreat into which they retired 
during the winter; in this retreat, if easily dis- 
covered, it would be an easy matter to kill them : 

to know the economy of those creatures would be, 

I trusted, the same as to know the cure. 

By careful observation, I found that they in- 
stinctively retire to the lower parts of the bushes, 



ON DESTROYING CATERPILLARS. 423 

where they live through the winter in a torpid state, 
without food, in clusters or groups, principally un- 
der chopped leaves, which are wove or bound to the 
creatures, and to the branches, by a fine silken 
thread, which, like the spider, those creatures have 
the power of working from their bowels ; they are 
likewise found bound together by the same thread, 
but without such covering of leaves, on the under 
side of the horizontal and angular branches, where 
the branches divide, and especially near any rough 
or knotty part, which serves them for shelter and 
covering. 

I find such numbers collected in these retreats, 
that it appears few have died this winter (1814-15), 
though it is now January. Those creatures are 
torpid, but that seems their natural state at this 
time ; for, upon being brought into the house, as I 
have done with some thousands, they became lively 
immediately, and would creep off, were they not 
confined ; they seem as if they could live for a long 
time without food, even in this more lively state. 

From what I have observed, I would infer that 
those creatures come forth from the egg while it is 
yet summer heat ; that they spread over the bushes 
among the leaves, but being very minute, are not 
generally observed till near the close of the season ; 
at which time, like the swallow, which seeks a bet- 
ter climate, they all move in quest of shelter and a 
place of safety, where they may lodge till the warm 
weather and tender bud invite them forth in the 



424 ON DESTROYING CATERPILLARS. 

spring, from which time, till they come forth flies, 
their changes are well known, and not important, 
at least not so to our present subject. What I pro- 
pose is, to kill them while in their retreat,, which 
may be at this time easily done by various means ; 
and I have found nothing better than to besmear 
the parts with tar. I am certain enough of their 
destruction on standard bushes, but on walls there 
will be some difficulty, as the vermin get under loose 
pieces of lime and stones ; however, as we are certain 
as to the stage they are in at this time, these can be 
traced out. I am, &c. 



Haddington, 
JanuarylO. 1815. 



} 



( 425 ) 



XLIX. 

Hints on Transplanting of Onions ; on Canker 
in Fruit-Trees ; on Scottish Pears, fyc. 

By Colonel Spens of Craigsanquhar. 
(Read 6th June 1815.) 



Transplanting of Onions. — A hough the onion 
and the leek may be nearly related, and though in 
general the mode of cultivating them, and the uses 
to which they are applied, are pretty similar, yet 
perhaps there is one essential circumstance in which 
they differ very materially, and which may require to 
be taken into consideration. The onion is cultivated 
with the intention of ripening the bulb so thoroughly, 
that, when taken up in autumn, it may be stored, 
and preserved in a sound state for many months. 
The leek, on the contrary, transplanted about the 
month of June, from a seed-bed, usually remains in 
the ground always, and is only taken up when 
wanted. 

Mr Macdonald, gardener to his Grace the Duke 
of Buccleuch and Queen sbery, has given the So- 
ciety satisfactory proofs, very creditable to himself, 



426 ON TRANSPLANTING ONIONS. 

that, in some stations at least, the onion may be 
transplanted from seed-beds, sown in spring, with 
very great advantage. Doubts, however, may be 
entertained, how far this mode of cultivating the 
onion may answer in general, from the frequent dif- 
ficulty of getting the seed sown sufficiently early in 
the spring, to admit of the plants being put out, so 
as to afford the reasonable hope of bringing the 
bulb to full maturity that season. 

At Craigsanquhar, the onion-seed is sown as early 
in the spring as the state of the weather and ground 
will permit *, and yet though I have had it much 
at heart ever since I saw Mr Macdonald's observa- 
tions, I have never been able, according to my gar- 
dener's ideas, to get it in soon enough to allow us to 
make the experiment with any prospect of success, 
till the present year (1814). 

It is true that we are considerably above the level 
of the sea, from which, in a direct line, we may be 
at least three, if not four, miles distant ; that, with 
us, vegetation during the spring does not proceed 
rapidly ; and that none of our garden crops are early, 
though in general sure and abundant ; and that, 
agreeably to the opinion of my gardener, the onions 
from the seed-bed would not be large enough to 

* In 1812 it was sown 13th February; in 1813, 3d March; 
in 1814, 22d February, and in 1815, 28th February. On the 
27th May 1815 we transplanted onions from the beds sown on 
the 28th of February. The season was very favourable; and the 
onions grew to a very large size. 



ON TRANSPLANTING ONIONS. 427 

transplant before the end of May, or perhaps the 
beginning of June. 

However, that Mr Macdonald's mode ought to be 
attempted whenever there is a fair chance of success, 
may very readily be admitted ; and if difficulties and 
objections are here started with respect to the proba- 
bility of its answering in general in Scotland, they 
are only brought forward with the hope that they 
may be duly considered and removed. 

Mr Macdonald has it in his power to transplant 
his onions in the end of April or beginning of May,* 
and this, too, in a climate reckoned, I believe, good 
and early ; but it may be questioned how far the ex- 
periment would prove successful in places every way 
less favourably situated, and w T here the plants could 
not be put out till towards the end of May, or be- 
ginning of June. Perhaps, however, they are sooner 
large enough to transplant than people in general 
may be aware of; upon which point Mr Macdonald 
will be able to give satisfactory information. 

Should it be found that Mr Macdonald's mode 
will not answer in general, might not the Society, 
upon due consideration, recommend the one detailed 
by Mr Knight, in the Transactions of the Horti- 
cultural Society of London, page 157, volume 1st, 
which removes the objections here stated f? 

* Mr Macdonald generally raises a few potfuls of seedling 
onions in a stove or forcing- house, so as to have them sufficiently 

early for planting out Sec. 

-|- Mr Knight remarks, that " the onion, in the South of Europe, 



428 CANKER IN FRUIT-TREES. 

What is termed the Winter Onion, usually sown 
in August, though it does not attain a very large 
size, yet, if allowed to remain in the ground until 
the crop sown in spring is taken up, ripens so well, 
that it keeps much hetter and longer, and is there- 
fore very useful. 



acquires a much larger size during the long and warm summers 
of Spain and Portugal, in a single season, than in the colder cli- 
mate of England ; but, under the following mode of culture, which 
I have long practised, two summers in England produce nearly 
the effect of one in Spain or Portugal, and the onion assumes near- 
ly the form and size of those thence imported. — Seeds of the Spa- 
nish or Portugal Onion are sown at the usual period in the spring, 
very thickly, and in poor soil ; generally under the shade of a fruit 
tree ; and in such situations the bulbs in the autumn are rarely 
found much to exceed the size of a large pea. These are then 
' taken from the ground, and preserved till the succeeding spring, 
when they are planted at equal distances from each other, and they 
afford plants which differ from those raised immediately from seed 
only iu possessing much greater strength and vigour, owing to the 
quantity of previously generated sap being much greater in the 
bulb, than in the seed. The bulbs, thus raised, often exceed con- 
siderably five inches in diameter, and being more mature, they are 
with more certainty preserved, in a state of perfect soundness, 
through the winter, than those raised from seed in a single season. 
The same effects are, in some measure, produced by sowing the 
seeds in August, as is often done ; but the crops often perish du- 
ring the winter, and the ground becomes compressed and sodden- 
ed (to use an antiquated term) by the winter rains ; and I have, in 
consequence, always found that any given weight of this plant 
may be obtained, with less expense to the grower, by the mode of 
culture I recommend, than by any other which I have seen prac- 
tised." 



CANKER IN FRUIT-TREES. 429 

The Society has properly enough offered prizes for 
the best mode of cultivating the onion ; but in this 
many people are more successful than in preserving 
the crop after it is taken up. It might therefore 
prove beneficial, were prizes also offered for the 
best account of the preparatory means to be used a 
short time previous to taking up the crop, and after 
it is out of the ground, so as to put it in a proper 
state, to remain in store, without spoiling. 

Canker in Fruit- Trees. — The increasing mis- 
chief produced by canker, is a subject to which 
I take the liberty of requesting the particular 
attention of the Society, from the conviction of its 
great importance. I venture to suggest the ex- 
amination and inspection of gardens, in which it 
might be found very prevalent, by committees ap- 
pointed for that special purpose. This disease is, 
I believe, frequently mentioned by authors, yet 
I do not know that it has been taken notice of 
in any work exclusively devoted to the sub- 
ject, except, perhaps, in a Treatise by Mr Patrick 
Lyon, on the Barrenness of Fruit-Trees, in which 
he generally ascribes it to their being bark-bound, 
though sometimes also to insects, and to superabun- 
dant blossoms. To collect, therefore, under one 
view, all that may have been written upon this dis- 
ease by authors of merit, in order to endeavour to 
ascertain all the causes producing it, and to form 
upon this knowledge some regular system of preven- 



430 CANKER IN FHUIT-TltEES. 

tion or cure, founded on rational principles, might 
lead to good consequences. I conceive it an ob- 
ject of the most serious importance, and hope that 
it may engage the attention, and call forth the ob- 
servations of men of science and of experience. 

Speaking of the varieties of the apple-tree, which 
have been long cultivated in England, Mr Knight, 
among other things, says, — " The canker, however, 
which constitutes their most fatal disease, often ari- 
ses from other causes. It is always found in those 
varieties which have been long in cultivation, and 
in these it annually becomes more destructive, and 
evidently arises from the age of the variety ; but it 
often appears hereditary. A gravelly or wet soil, a 
cold preceding summer, or a high exposed situation, 
add much to its virulence. It is most fatal to young 
free-growing trees of old varieties ; and I have often 
seen the strong shoots of these totally destroyed by 
it, when the old trees growing in the same orchard, 
and from which the grafts had been taken, were 
nearly free from the disease. The latter had ceased 
to grow larger, but continued to bear well, not being 
very old kinds of fruit. The young stocks, by af- 
fording the grafts a preternatural abundance of nou- 
rishment, seemed, in this instance, to have brought 
on the disease ; and I have always found, that trans- 
planting, or a heavy crop of fruit, which checked 
the growth of the tree, diminished its disposition to 
canker. In middle-aged trees of very old kinds, a 
succession of young shoots is annually produced by 



CANKEll IN FRUIT-TREES. 431 

the vigour of the stock, and destroyed again in the 
succeeding winter ; the quantity of fruit these pro- 
duce is in consequence very small. In this disease 
something more than a mere extinction of vegetable 
life appears to take place. The internal bark bears 
marks of something similar to erosion, and this I 
believed formerly to be the original seat of the dis- 
ease ; but subsequent observation has satisfied me 
that canker is a disease of the wood, and not of 
the bark. It does not appear to me to be even a 
primary or merely local disease, but to arise from 
the morbid habit of the plant, and to be incurable 
by any topical application." 

If canker (as perhaps it often may) proceeds 
from insects, or from the trees being bark-bound, 
Mr Lyon's cure, the removing of the outer bark, 
may probably prove effectual. I have tried this 
operation on six different standard trees, and can at 
least say, that hitherto they have not suffered by it, 
as was apprehended. But as these trees had not 
arrived at a bearing state, my experiment cannot be 
reckoned complete. I freely confess, that when I 
first read Mr Lyon's book, I was apprehensive that 
the remedy proposed by him was likely to prove as 
fatal as the disease ; but I conquered my prejudices, 
and determined to make the experiment ; and hi- 
therto I certainly have no reason to repent my ha- 
ving tried it ; — on the contrary, I am inclined to 
believe, that it will often do good, and think that I 
have had already encouragement to persevere in it. 



432 CANKER IN FRUIT-TREES. 

and would therefore recommend the attempt to 
others. After carefully reading Mr Lyon's treatise, 
I perused other books on fruit-trees, in the hope 
that I might meet with remarks in favour of his 
mode, and I do not think I have been altogether 
disappointed. 

Mr Bueknall, in " The Orchardist," remarks : — 
" The bark of trees, properly considered, consists of 
three divisions ; the outer rough, the middle soft 
and spongy, the inner a whitish rind, being that 
which joins the bark to the wood ; and this last is 
supposed to contain the liquid sap. It is constantly 
observed, that, when the stem of the tree grows too 
fast for the bark, it causes blotches and lacerations ; 
which evil is properly avoided, by scoring the bark 
with a sharp knife ; but care should be taken not to 
cut through the whitish rind before mentioned ; for 
that heals very difficultly, generally ulcerates, and 
by being cut through, gives the insects an opportu- 
nity "of getting between the wood and the bark, 
where they are very destructive." 

Scoring the bark, no doubt, frequently does good. 
I should, however, apprehend, that where Mr Lyon's 
mode can be followed, it will prove more effectual, 
both in removing the stricture of the bark, and in 
depriving insects of shelter to lodge in. 

Mr Knight says, — " When old trees are to be re- 
grafted, the scions of a very young and hardy variety, 
of extremely vigorous growth, should be selected ; 
and the grafts should be inserted in the large 






CANKER IN FRUIT-TREES. 433 

branches, at some distance from the trunk ; and 
never, where it can be avoided, in the principal stem 
itself. Large scions should be used ; for these take 
a deeper and firmer hold of the stock than the small. 
The thick covering of lifeless external bark, 
should, at the same time, or in the succeeding win- 
ter, be totally pared off, care being taken thai the 
internal bark be not any where cut through. 
The effects of this operation will be found extremely 
beneficial to the tree in its future growth." 

" In an old tree," he adds, " which has a thick 
covering of rigid unexpansible bark, the descent of 
the sap must be greatly impeded in its passage ; 
but nature is ever full of resources and expedients ; 
and the motion given to the trunk and branches by 
the winds, evidently tends, like the voluntary mo- 
tion of the limbs of animals, to accelerate that circu- 
lation which it does not create. This motion is 
wholly lost by the grafted tree, when it has been 
deprived of its branches ; the sap, in consequence, 
stagnates under the rigid cincture of the external 
bark, and the death of the tree is the natural conse- 
quence. The growth in the trunks of some very 
old trees, which had been grafted five years, and 
were deprived of their external bark in the winter 
of 1801, was perfectly astonishing in the succeeding 
season, and exceeded that of the five preceding 
years in the aggregate." 

If the disease be certainly prevalent in the old 
varieties of trees long cultivated in Britain, those 

VOL. IV. e e 



434 CANKER IN FRUIT TREES. 

kinds should be proscribed, because, with respect to 
them, the evil is past remedy ; and every exertion 
should be persevered in to raise and introduce new 
sorts from seed or otherwise. When there is reason 
to suppose, from certain circumstances, that it pro- 
ceeds from other causes, experiments should be in- 
stituted applicable to the particular case ; and the 
result be recorded with correctness. Our late secre- 
tary, Mr Nicol, says, — " If there be any specific for 
the cure of the canker, other than the preparation 
of a good and kindly soil, lying on a comfortable 
bottom, (see the section on soils,) it is this unction, 
(soft soap, 2 lb. ; flowers of sulphur, 2 lb. ; leaf, or 
roll tobacco, 2 lb. ; nux vomica, four ounces ; and 
turpentine an English gill, boiled in eight gal- 
lons of soft or river water to six ; to be used milk- 
warm), as it contains the two ingredients thought 
most efficacious for its destruction, viz. soap and 
sulphur." 

" In pruning, the medication," says Mr Bucknall, 
(half an ounce of corrosive sublimate reduced to fine 
powder, and dissolved in a glassful of spirits, or 
the same quantity of spirit of hartshorn, or of sal 
ammoniac, put into a three-pint earthen pipkin, to 
be filled by degrees with common tar, and the ingre- 
dients properly mixed and incorporated) " ought never 
to be omitted ; for, from experience, the mercury is 
found to be so strongly operative in removing the 
baneful effects of canker in the more delicate fruit- 
trees, that it must be presumed to enter into the 



CANKER IN FRUIT TREES. 435 

economy of the plant, giving a smoothness to the 
bark, and freeness of growth : proofs of which will 
be produced to the Society for the Encouragement 
of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, in a few 
years, by persons who have attentively considered 
the subject." 

I have seen it mentioned, that Dr Darwin re- 
commended a mixture of white lead and boiled oil, 
with the addition of sublimate of mercury, as a use- 
ful remedy ; but the proportions of these different 
ingredients were not stated, and I am not in pos- 
session of his works. 

Several papers on the canker have been fur- 
nished by members of our Society : By Mr David 
Weighton, gardener, Melville House, Fyfe, p. 131 ; 
Mr James Smith, gardener at Ormiston Hall, 
p. 221 ; Mr James Smith of Glasgow, p. 333 ; 
and by Mr Edward Sang, nurseryman, Kirkcaldy, 
p. 336 of our Memoirs, Vol. I. 

Various are the causes said to bring on this deso- 
lating disease. Bad or wet soil and subsoil, — ex- 
posure to cold bleak winds, in high situations parti- 
cularly, — stricture of the bark, — frost in spring, 
checking the circulation of the sap,— external inju- 
ries of different kinds, — insects lodging in the 
cracks, and under the old bark, — the infirmities of 
decrepid old age, in those varieties long cultivated 
in Britain, — improper stocks, or improper grafting. 
Though others seem to be of a different opinion, 
yet Mr Knight thinks, that no topical application 

E e 2 



436 CANKER IN FRUIT TREES. 

will do any good, and that the disease is not of the 
bark, but of the wood ; and I am inclined to be- 
lieve that this may frequently be the case ; for on 
removing cankered branches, I have often remark- 
ed, that the very heart was infected and discolour- 
ed, and the wood under all the three different barks 
rotten or diseased ; and that it often proceeds from 
the infirmities of decrepid old age, in those varieties 
long cultivated in this island, I am also convinced 
of, from its being so very destructive to young trees 
in new gardens, in many of which it is very preva- 
lent, where these old kinds are found. 

I am sensible that I have not been able to of- 
fer any information, or any thing new on the sub- 
ject of this most destructive discouraging malady, 
which often destroys the hopes of the horticulturist 
in their very beginning ; but having, in many places, 
witnessed its ravages, I have wished, in a parti- 
cular manner, to call the attention of the Society 
to it, under the impression that it is of the utmost 
moment, meriting, from its importance, the most 
serious consideration. 

Probably it may be difficult for the Society 
to fall upon any more general mode of pro- 
moting the views of the institution than by offer- 
ing prizes for the best articles, of different kinds, 
produced in competition. Yet it certainly may fre- 
quently happen, that gardeners may, in this manner, 
obtain premiums for certain fruits, vegtables, and 
flowers owing to a favoured soil and situation, or 



CANKER IN FRUIT TREES. 437 

from paying more than ordinary attention to the ar- 
ticles which they mean to produce, when, perhaps, 
at the same time, neither remarkable skill nor atten- 
tion are to be discovered in the general arrange- 
ment of their gardens # . 

In regard to pears we ought to correct a common 
error, of attempting the finer, more delicate sorts, 
where they never were intended to be. " Our 
regard to truth (says Dr Gibson) obliges us to 
declare, that in cold and bad seasons several 
pears, of French extract, do not acquire their pro- 
per degree of perfection, though those that are 
proper to Scotland become perfectly good. Winter 
thorns, ambrets, and 1'Eschasseries, are, in some 
years, good for little ; when briar-bushes, swans' 
eggs, and auchans, are excellent in their kinds." 

" In Scotland, pear trees generally thrive and 
bear well. We have many kinds unknown to our 
neighbours, and even to our nurserymen. What 
folly is it to send to England or France for pear 
trees, when our own kinds equal, if not excel, their 
choicest ones in goodness ? I know that, in opposi- 
tion to the above, it is alleged by several of our 
planters, that our best fruits are only English and 
French kinds disguised under Scots names. This 
is true with regard to a few of them. I thought it 

* The Society has, for several years past, annually offered a 
medal for the hest communication on those diseases of fruit trees 
generally denominated Canker. — Sec. 



438 CANKER IN FllUIT TREES. 

more generally true than I find it on experience ; 
and if these gentlemen will make a careful scrutiny 
of the kinds as I have done, and compare them 
with the fruit that are described in the English 
and French lists of pears, they will be convinced 
that many of our pears are originally Scots kinds." 

It is much to be regretted that Dr Gibson did 
not particularly name and describe all the valuable 
pears which he reckoned Scotch, and certainly it is 
a pity if they cannot be recovered, more especially 
if they were of the winter kind, as those which he 
does describe were. He wrote from his experience 
in Clydesdale, where the Society might circulate 
such queries, " What are the different kinds of win- 
ter pears cultivated in your orchard ? are they sure 
and great bearers ?" &c, 

At first, and for several years, I had my best wall 
covered with peach and nectarine trees, but on find- 
ing this an unprofitable concern, I removed them 
and endeavoured to replace them with late French 
pear-trees, most highly recommended as sure and 
great bearers ; but in this I am likely to be disap- 
pointed, having reason to apprehend, that the nur- 
seryman in London, to whom I applied for them, 
has not sent me exactly those sorts which I ordered. 
Though I have been anxious to try the late 
French pears, yet as, upon the whole, I am inclin- 
ed to believe, that in general the Scotch will suc- 
ceed much better, so I have given situations, on 
some of my best aspected walls, to the .Auchans, 



CANKER IN FRUIT TREES. 439 

Biiar-Bushes, Swan and Moorfowl Eggs, regret- 
ting much that I cannot add to this limited list. 
I know that several of the above do very well as 
standards, but in a bad season these might fail, 
when those against a wall would probably succeed. 
I have also in vain endeavoured to procure from 
London the Red Doyenne Pear, so much recom- 
mended for our northern climate in the Transactions 
of the Horticultural Society of London, p. 230, 
vol. i. and the true St Germain's, mentioned in 
p. 226 of the same work. The difficulty and un- 
certainty of procuring the kinds wanted, especially 
when a comparative experiment is meant to be made 
with them, is discouraging, and leads me to suggest 
to the Society the expediency of establishing a cor- 
respondence, both in London and abroad, either 
with institutions similar to our own, or with nursery- 
men of character and reputation to whom applica- 
tion may be made for trees or scions*. 

The Ribston Pippen, an excellent apple, highly 
extolled by our late Secretary Mr Nicol, is by some 

* Since the formation of the Experimental Garden at Inver- 
leith, this difficulty has heen ohviated to a considerable extent. 
From the Garden of the Horticultural Society of London, and from 
the Jardin des Plantes, the Edinburgh garden has experienced the 
utmost liberality, grafts of all the rarer varieties of French pears 
having been received from these establishments. Shareholders and 
Members of the Horticultural Society who subscribe towards the 
garden, are entitled to receive plants and grafts as far as they can 
be spared. — Edit. 



440 CANKER IN FRUIT TREES. 

recommended as an orchard tree, while others sus- 
pect that it will not generally answer in Scotland. 
I am inclined to be of this last opinion, "for here 
hitherto standard trees of that kind, though ap- 
parently healthy, and though blossoming yearly, 
have never done any good, never having produced a 
single apple. Yet a tree of the same kind and age, 
planted against a wall, with a bad aspect (somewhat 
in the north of east), which gets very little sun, bears 
well, and ripens its fruit. This is a circumstance 
that may be worthy of remark. 

P.S.— 22d July 1828. There are two or three 
standard Ribston Pippen trees here on Paradise 
stocks, which for two or three years past have pro- 
duced pretty well, and have ripened their fruit, 
though many of the branches are sadly cankered. 



( 441 ) 



L. 

On the Formation of a Gardener's Library. 

In a Letter to the Secretary from Mr James Smith, dated 
Hopetoun House Garden, 18th March 1826. 

(Read 6th April 1826.) 

Sir, 

JL our love of horticulture, and the interest which 
you have always shewn for its progress in Scotland, 
are a sufficient excuse for the liberty which I now 
take in addressing you on the subject of books con- 
nected with the science. On the general topic of 
a library for the Horticultural Society, it would be 
presumption in me to speak, especially as so many 
of the resident members are much better qualified 
than I am, and I have no doubt not less willing, to 
throw out any hints that may be necessary. Yet 
there is one point on which I feel myself entitled 
to say something. 

A gardener's library is seldom either extensive 
or select. If he reads at all, he must content him- 
self with what his limited means can procure. Of 



442 MR SMITH ON THE FORMATION OF 

course expensive works are out of the question ; and 
botanical engravings he never sees, but by chance ; 
yet in some respects it is important that he should 
see them. Some showy plants are so easily propa- 
gated, that they require only to be known to be 
widely diffused through our gardens, and in general 
the better known a plant is, the more likely it is to 
be preserved and cultivated. It appears to me, 
therefore, that the Society would advance the inte- 
rests of gardening, by purchasing a selection of the 
best botanical engravings, to be exhibited on the 
table of the council-room, since you have now got one, 
for the inspection of members. The country gardener, 
in visiting the Experimental Garden, which he will 
always be eager to do, would have an opportunity of 
acquiring the names of plants which he might al- 
ready possess, and seeing many others, which on 
first sight he would become desirous of having. It 
is well remarked by Mr Loudon, that the provincial 
situation of gardeners is the principal check on the 
cultivation of the beautiful tribes of American 
shrubs, which are much more common in the villas 
of citizens in the neighbourhood of London, than in 
the gardens of noblemen at a distance. The same 
observation may be applied to most other plants. 
The time of the gardener's periodical visit to town 
may be in winter, or when there is nothing in 
flower ; but the bloom of the Floras I am now re- 
commending is permanent, and they present almost 



A GARDENER'S LIBRARY. 443 

at one glance the varied, and sometimes the casual, 
decorations of many summers. Of course you are 
much better acquainted than I am, with the utility 
of such works to men of science ; I merely wish to 
point out their scarcely less utility to practical men. 
In proof of this you need only be referred to Dr 
Hooker's Exotic Flora. The splendour of the sub- 
jects of this excellent work connect it nearly as inti- 
mately with the flower-garden, as its accurate dissec- 
tions and beautiful delineations with the science of 
botany. 

What has now been said applies, and perhaps 
with greater force, to engravings of fruits. The 
botanist can discover the name of his plant from de- 
scription merely ; but there are no such accurate 
descriptions of fruit at present, and the gardener is 
further bewildered by local synonyms. It will in- 
deed be the business of the Experimental Garden to 
effect the necessary reform in this department ; and 
I wish it complete and speedy success. But in the 
mean time it is desirable to possess such works ; as, 
among other benefits, they will contribute materially 
to produce the reform. Last autumn I succeeded 
in ripening two German apples for the first time, 
I believe, in this country. Being anxious to ascer- 
tain the correctness of their names, I sent some 
specimens to Edinburgh and London, when I was 
assured that I had got the genuine double Burs- 
dorffer, but no information was received respecting 



444 MR SMITH ON THE FORMATION OF 

the other. I wished to have access to the Pomona 
of Diel, which you mention with commendation in 
your valuable Tour, but failed ; and, indeed, from 
subsequent inquiries, it seems probable that there 
is not even one stray copy of it in Scotland. 

I am not much acquainted with the book trade, 
but have been told that engravings of flowers and 
fruits do not frequently remunerate their authors. 
This is much to be regretted, considering their va- 
lue. It is to be wished that wealthy amateurs 
would make a point of purchasing such publications, 
and the Horticultural Society could not do better 
than set them an example. I am not sure that any 
part of the money which is yearly distributed in 
prizes would be better bestowed. 

I have to apologise for troubling you at so great 
length on a subject which I suppose you will think 
too clear to need illustration ; and am, &c. 



The formation of such a Library, as here recommended 
by our esteemed correspondent, had long been contem- 
plated by the Society. A foundation has been laid for 
it by the purchase of Bradshaw's Pomologia Britannica, 
Sinclair's Hortus Gramineus Woburnensis, and some other 
works. There has lately been added to the Library a set 
of Curtis's Botanical Magazine, in 40 volumes; and the 
continuation of this valuable Work by Dr Hooker, — 
the Botanical Register, by Mr Lindley,— the Tomolo- 



A gardener's library. 445 

gical Magazine, under the direction of the leading mem- 
bers of the London Horticultural Society ; — the British 
Flower Garden, the Flora Australasica, and the Florist's 
Guide, by Mr Sweet, are received monthly, as published, 
and lie for inspection of members on the table in the 
Council-Room at the Experimental Garden. 

Several excellent Horticultural Works have been present- 
ed to the Library by members of the Society. Among 
these may be mentioned, Noisette's Jardin Fruitier, 3 vols. 
4to., with Plates ; Hitt on Fruit-Trees ; Lawrence's 
Clergyman's Recreation, &c. 

Members are respectfully reminded, that they will very 
effectually promote the object in view, by presenting to the 
Library such spare copies of horticultural and botanical 
works as they happen to possess, or which they are willing 
to part with, 

P. N. See. 



( 446 ) 



LI. 



On the Cultivation of Peaches and Nectarines on 
Fined Walls ; on Screening the Blossom of 
Wall-Trees by means of Nets and Ferns; 
on Saving Peas and Beans from the attacks 
of Mice ; and, on Destroying these Vermin. 

By Mr William Irving, Gardener to Sir John C. Swin- 
burn, Bart, of Capheaton ; communicated to the late 
Mr Thomas Dickson, Secretary. 

(Read \Uh June 181 4 J 



1. On the Cultivation of Peaches arid Necta- 
rines on Fined Walls, with the aid of Canvas 
Screens. — Our flued walls are built in the common 
way, twelve feet high, with three turns or levels, 
forty feet each in length, with a handsome trellis, 
the height of the first flue, to save the trees from 
being scorched by the heat of the fire : this allows 
a considerable deal of more fire without hurting the 
trees. 

Our borders are composed of eighteen inches of 
the natural soil, which is strong clay, and eighteen 



PEACH AND NECTARINE TREES. 447 

inches of light soil from the fields, over a bottom of 
six inches of stones and lime-rubbish, all beat and 
smoothed together ; the manure employed is stable- 
dung, soot, and vegetable mould. Such are the 
materials that our fruit-tree borders consist of, and 
they do well. 

I planted the trees at double thickness at first ; I 
trained them, the one fan, and the other horizontal, 
alternately. Afterwards I was so pleased with the 
horizontal training, that I cut down the fan-trained 
trees, and gave space to the horizontal ones ; for we 
thought the fruit on the horizontal trained trees 
was larger and better flavoured. But, after all, I 
prefer the fan-training, for handsome and easy re- 
gulating of the trees. As soon as a tree comes into 
a bearing state, it will bear in whatever position the 
branches are laid, providing they have proper space 
to ripen their wood, which they ought at all times 
to have. 

My method of pruning is, to unnail most of the 
tree, and cut out all the wood that is most worn 
out by last year's crop. I shorten such shoots as 
are wanted for new wood, and such as have not ripen- 
ed their shoots to the point. All that have ripened 
their shoots to the point, I lay in at full length, 
allowing them a proper distance, which adds greatly 
to the health and vigour of the tree, and likewise 
to the size and flavour of the fruit. I then nail 
them all neatly to the wall, with new shreds ; I 
save all the old shreds, and boil them, and lav them 



448 ON THE CULTIVATION OF 

aside for summer nailing. When all is finished, I 
wash the trees and walls all over with the following 
wash :-~Two lb. flowers of sulphur, one lb. soft- 
soap, and a few pints soft water. Boil the mixture 
slowly for some time, to mix the strength of the 
sulphur into the liquid ; take a tub (which should 
be kept for the purpose), fill it nearly full of soap- 
suds, and then put in a tolerable quantity of the 
boiled mixture, making all milk- warm. Begin- 
ning at the one end of the wall, wash every 
part of the trees and wall with a squirt, standing 
straight before the wall, so that the liquid may re- 
bound on the back part of the tree, and enter the 
nail-holes and every crevice in the wall. It is pro- 
per to stir the liquid all the time of washing, to 
keep the sulphur mixed, otherwise it will settle 
to the bottom ; this wash becomes like a varnish on 
the trees. As soon as the sun shines on the trees and 
wall, the sulphur smells so strong that it clears all 
insects from the trees and wall ; the soap prevents 
the sulphur from being washed off the trees readily. 
I wash frequently with soft-water ; and sometimes 
with soap-suds, but not when the trees are tender, 
nor when the fruit is swelling, as it would taint the 
fruit. The winter is the best time for washing 
with soap-suds. 

Such is my mode of overcoming insects that breed 
on fruit-trees, and I am happy to state that I have 
had my trees inspected by several competent judges, 
when there was not an insect to be seen on them, 



TEACHES AND NECTARINES. 449 

and the trees were found in a perfect state of health. 
The red spider does make its appearance in the time 
of the ripening of the fruit, but never does us much 
hurt. We are obliged to give over washing as soon 
as the fruit is swelling, the garden at Capheaton 
stands so high and cold. 

I never see the smallest appearance of the mildew 
on my trees, although an old hedge, about eigh- 
teen feet north of the garden- wall, is affected every 
season with the mildew, and especially some crab- 
apple trees in it. 

When the flowers begin to open, I put on the 
canvas, pulls it up at night, and lets its down all the 
day, except when the weather is wet or cold ; in 
such weather the canvas remains all day upon the 
trees. I light fires every night in the evening, from 
the time the flower begins to open until the fruit is 
all stoned. I find by practice that peaches and nec- 
tarines set best in a moderate heat, with plenty of 
fresh air. As soon as the weather is fine, which 
seldom happens here before the middle of June, 
I remove all the covering and fire-heat. I never 
again light a fire, unless at the time of the fruit 
ripening, and then only when the weather is wet ; 
for the sun at that season is strong, and the fire- 
heat stops the dew from falling on the fruit ; but mo- 
derate dew adds to the flavour of it. As soon as the 
fruit is all off, I wash the trees with soap-suds, and 
if the wood is not ripened, I light fires to ripen it. 
VOL. IV. F f 



4#0 ON SCREENING THE 

Our canvas screens are made very neatly: they are 
all joined together with a wall-plate at top, and ano- 
ther at bottom, and the rafters are all mortised in- 
to them ; these rest on spikes of wood driven into 
the border, and the sheets are lashed to small beams 
at top and bottom. They are twenty feet long, 
draw up with pulleys, and are lashed together with 
small cord, which makes a handsome cover, almost 
as good as glass. It has been very much admired 
by several gentlemen, who got models from it. 

2. On Screening the Blossoms of Fruit-Trees 
with Nets and Fern, to save the Blossom from 
Frost and bleak Winds. — About the month of 
September, I gather a quantity of long fern. My 
method of preparing it is this : I cut the fern with 
a knife and bind it up in handfuls with a strand of 
grass, taking care to lay one handful above another 
as flat as possible. I then lay the bundles on a dry 
airy loft floor, placing one bundle alongside the 
other, and turning them over every other day until 
they be dried. I then lay them up in pile, taking 
care that they are always kept on their flat side, 
otherwise they will not work neat in the cover- 
ing. I provide some poles in the young planta- 
tions, dress them, and sharpen them at the thickest 
end ; then lay them aside, until they be wanted. 
I furnish myself with some sheet or large-meshed 
nets ; they are the cheapest and best for this sort of 
covering. As soon as the blossoms begin to ex- 



BLOSSOMS OF FRUIT-TREES. 451 

pand, I place my poles about four feet apart, and 
eighteen inches from the wall at bottom, thrusting 
the sharp end into the ground, and resting the 
other end against the coping ; then drawing the net 
over them, fastens it at top to the coping, and at 
bottom with strands of bass, round the poles. We 
then begin at the under part of the net, and tuck 
in the fern, putting the root end in at one mesh and 
out at the other, with the top of the fern down- 
wards, all in lines as if slating, as thin as merely to 
touch one another, but allowing them to be a little 
thicker or closer at the top of the wall. When the 
fern is all in, I hang another net over the whole, 
and then make all fast to the poles at different 
places, with strands of bass. To prevent the wind 
from displacing the fern, all must be done when the 
weather is calm ; for wind would be troublesome. 
This mode may appear, to some, tedious ; but those 
who try it will find, after a short practice, that it 
is an easy operation. Nothing more is wanted, 
until the fruit is all set, and the weather fine ; then 
I take off the upper net, and remove all the fern ; 
but I hang on the nets again for some days, to har- 
den the trees gradually. Then, taking the oppor- 
tunity of fine soft weather, we remove the whole : this 
ought never to be done when it is very cold, nor in 
broad sunshine, for, at such times, sudden exposure 
would hurt the trees and the young fruit. I have 
made use of this covering for these thirteen years past, 
with great success, finding it a safeguard against al- 

F f2 



452 SAVING PEAS AND BEANS FROM MICE. 

most all sorts of unfavourable weather. When the 
fern is wet, it expands itself; when it dries with the 
sun, it contracts ; so that it then makes but little 
shed. I now stick on the fern, and make a close co- 
ver, in a snowy night. 

3. Method of Saving Peas or Beans from the 
attacks of Mice. — When the peas or beans are 
sown or planted, in the common way, I provide my- 
self with a quantity of the tops, or last year's shoots 
of whins, which I clip off with the garden-shears : 
these I lay into the drills above the seed, so close, 
that each branchlet or shoot is touching another : I 
then cover the drills with a little earth, and press 
them gently with the foot. I next draw on the re- 
mainder of the earth with the hoe, somewhat ridge- 
ways. As soon as the plants make their appear- 
ance above ground, I draw a little earth over them. 
As the whins keep the earth open about the plants, 
they are the better to be thus covered over, as soon 
as they make their appearance. I have practised 
this method for fifteen years with perfect success ; 
the mice never touching the peas or beans, seeming- 
ly from dislike to the whins. I may here remark, 
that it is a good method to stick peas as soon as 
they make their appearance above ground ; for the 
peas are thus in less danger of being broken by the 
sticking, and by means of the sticks they derive some 
shelter from the frosts and bleak winds. 



ON CATCHING MICE. 453 



4. Cheap Method of catching Mice. — I have 
' been so much distressed with that little but trou- 
blesome animal the mouse, that I have taken many 
methods to destroy it. At last I contrived the fol- 
lowing mode : I placed a quantity of bell-glasses in 
the garden, sinking them level with the earth, and 
filled them half full of water. I then put a little 
oatmeal over the water in the glass, and also a little 
of the meal over the earth about the outside of the 
glass, to decoy them to a watery grave. This mode 
proved very effectual, as I daily found numbers 
drowned in the glasses. I was so pleased to find 
that I was likely to get the better of my enemies, 
that I placed glasses, prepared as above, all round 
the garden, in different places, where the mice haunt- 
ed, and caught them in great quantities. The mice 
are bred, for the most part,* on the outside of gar- 
dens, and come? in for their provisions. We have 
found this mode so effectual and expeditious, that 
we have placed similar glasses in our granaries here, 
and we find them as effectual there as in the gar- 
den. It must be observed that, in winter, frost will 
freeze the water in the glasses and burst them ; they 
must therefore be covered from the frost, but so as 
to allow room for the mice to go under, as they will 
catch best in time of frost. Before I fell on this 
method, the mice sometimes devoured all my cauli- 
flower plants in the frames ; they barked the wall- 
tress ; and even spoiled broccoli in the open ground. 



454 ON CATCHING MICE. 

At this present time there is not an article troubled 
by them in our garden. But, in our neighbourhood, 
where this remedy has not been resorted to, the 
cauliflower plants in the frames, and carnations, let- 
tuces, &c. &c. are very much damaged by them. 

Capheaton, ) 
2d June 1814, J 



1 455 ) 



LII. 

Hints on the Management of the Grape-Vine, 
particularly in Peach-Houses ; and on propa- 
gating Vines by Layers and Cuttings. 

By Mr John Martin, Gardener at Kirkton Hill. In 
a Letter to the Secretary. 

(Read 8th March 1814J 

j\.S it is allowed, among gardeners, that grape- 
vines thrive in some places better than in others, and 
as this depends not a little on management, I shall 
here give a few hints regarding my mode of treat- 
ment. 

Where I was formerly head-gardener, we had 
two divisions, forming a range 100 feet long. Both 
the houses contained vines and peaches. The vines 
had never done well, as the peaches were preferred ; 
but I determined to try to do justice to both. I 
was a little disappointed the first season, by reason 
of the leaves having been forced off from the vines 
the year before, and the plants thus weakened. I 
determined to do something for strengthening the 
plants. I prepared a compost of good light soil, rotten 



4t5i5 MANAGEMENT OF THE GRAPE-VINE. 

leaves, cow-dung, and lime, and, having opportunity, 
some bullock's blood was likewise used. When I 
had all prepared, I removed all the old soil at the 
distance of five feet from the main stems outwards, 
very carefully moving the roots. At the length of 
twenty feet, I found the roots among unkind gravel- 
ly stuff. I put in the compost already described, 
and applied it all around the roots with the fingers. 
I had in return next season from sixty to seventy 
bunches of grapes on the rafters, without shading 
the peaches in any degree. 

I must remark here, that vines do not answer in 
a small peach-house ; while both may do well where 
the house is large. 

There is another evil that attends vines in a peach- 
house ; the taking off the leaves of the vines to let 
in sun-light to ripen the peaches, and to give them 
a better flavour. I always shed the leaves below 
the fruit, and this practice has always given me good 
satisfaction for the next crop. I never take off the 
leaves after the crop is gathered, but allow them to 
drop off of their own accord. 

I water the border thrice a week with cow-urine 
and soap-suds, for about a month before I begin to 
force, and I apply the liquid not in small quan- 
tities. I find that it affords great nourishment, and 
causes the production of good and large bunches. 

Any one that is curious to have vines in pots full 
grown, should, at the time of pruning, take the 
stem through the hole in the bottom of the pot, and 



MANAGEMENT OF THE GRAPE-VINE. 457 

lay the rest of the vine from the bottom of the pot 
in the ground. They thus shoot much sooner. 
For such purposes, I take the old shoots that are to 
be cut out that season. For the pots I use the same 
compost as for the border. I always keep rotten 
dung about the pots, as it makes the vines strike 
much sooner, than keeping the pots dry. I have 
had twenty-six good bunches in a pot, and could 
have had more but for thinning. When the fruit 
is at maturity, I cut the old branch by the bottom 
of the pot, and remove the plant at pleasure for or- 
nament. 

I have tried different times whether layers or 
cuttings would become the best plants, and I find 
the cuttings always to have the preference. The 
layers I find stand stationary, in a manner, for 
two years. The reason for that is, they have more 
head than root ; the scanty root cannot make such 
a large head push regularly, and the plant must 
strike more roots before it can push to perfection. 
Time is lost and expence incurred. Let no gen- 
tleman think of planting his grape-house with lay- 
ers : I have often seen the ordinary vines that were 
struck in a nursery turn to the best account. 

My method of preparing young vines for a house, 
if they are in pots, is this : I take them and shift 
them, and cut some of the old roots from them. 
For soil, I use a little black light-earth, and rotten 
leaves, that have been rotten below dung for a year, 
with some cow-dung, and a small quantity of lime, 



458 MANAGEMENT OF THE GRAPE-VINE. 

all well mixed together. After they are shifted, 1 
let them stand for three weeks in a shed ; and in 
the course of that time I prepare a hot-bed, made 
up on purpose for them, with tan and horse-dung, as 
the tan keeps the steadiest heat, and one foot of rot- 
ten leaves on the top of the bed, for plunging the 
pots among the rotten leaves to the brim. When 
they are to be planted in any old house, I take out 
the old soil where the former plants were, and make 
it up with the new soil already described. When 
the shoots come to the length of two feet, those that 
were in the hot-bed are planted in the border, not 
too deep. I prefer planting them in the month of 
May. This is the best season, as the plants never 
get a check by removing them, and they push faster 
than at any other time. 

I have found that the vines, when not deep plant- 
ed, do best, as they search for the soil themselves. 

I have often taken notice, that, in some sorts of 
vines, the foliage turns brown, just as if it had 
got a little frost. Such vines are generally on a 
clay soil, or on a bottom that does not let the roots 
push freeely, so causing a stagnation of the sap. 

Kirkton Hill, \ 
Uh March 1814. J 



( 459 ) 



LIII. 

Notice of a Hawthorn Hedge, damaged by JEci- 
dium laceratum. 

In a Letter to the Secretary from Mr William Don, Hull. 

(ReadUth June 181 4 J 

Sir, 

x beg leave to lay before the Caledonian Horticul- 
tural Society some observations on a disease which 
has, during the last year, made its appearance on 
part of the young hawthorn plants composing the 
hedge which, on three sides, surrounds the Hull 
Botanic Garden. 

The hedge was planted in February 1812, with 
healthy quick-wood, that had been two years in the 
seed-bed and two years transplanted. In the sum- 
mer of the same year, I observed, on one or two of 
the shoots, a singular brown swelling ; but at that 
time I paid no particular attention to the subject. 
Last year, however, towards the latter end of June, 
one of the subscribers to the garden brought me several 
similar protuberances, which had caught the observa- 
tion of a little girl who was walking with him ; and, 



460 ON A HAWTHORN HEDGE, 

on examination, we found that the whole hedge, for 
about a hundred yards in length, on the west side of 
the garden, was infested with similar protuberances, 
which distorted almost every shoot ; and that, appa- 
rently in consequence of the disease, the growth of 
the hedge was in that part greatly stinted, and the 
infected plants had a very sickly appearance. 

Those protuberances, for the most part, occur in 
the middle of a young shoot, but sometimes towards 
the end, and vary in number from one to three, or 
more, on each shoot, Frequently, even the leaves 
are similarly affected. Their most usual shape is 
oval ; but they are often singularly curled and dis- 
torted. In size they vary from that of a bean to 
that of a walnut. Exteriorly they are sometimes 
smooth, but commonly present a brown shaggy ap- 
pearance, which, when examined with a magnifying 
glass, is found to arise from numerous minute and 
thickly set orifices, each surrounded with many 
leaves, and containing a brown powder, which at one 
time was so abundant as to make a visible cloud 
when the hedge was shaken. Interiorly they are 
solid, but of a less consistent and more brittle sub- 
stance than the rest of the shoot, without any ap- 
pearance of being inhabited by insects of any de- 
scription. 

With respect to the nature of these protuberances, 
there seemed every reason, from the brown powder, 
to believe them to be fungi of some kind ; and I am 
informed by the gentleman above alluded to, that, 
having sent specimens to Mr Sowerby, that celebra- 



DAMAGED BY JECIDIUM LACERATTJM. 461 

ted artist and botanist stated them to be JEcidium 
laceratum of his English Fungi, table 318, adding, 
that " JE. ccmcettatum, (t. 409. of the same work), 
attacks pear-trees, and often prevents valuable crops." 

Though I have made diligent inquiry, I have not 
met with any one who has before observed the dis- 
ease in this neighbourhood; and, what is remarkable, 
though the quick-wood was all from the same nur- 
sery, and planted at the same time, it is entirely 
confined to the hedge on the west side of the gar- 
den, and chiefly to about 100 yards in the middle of 
it. On the east and south hedge, I have never dis- 
covered a single protuberance. 

Any disease attacking a plant so important both 
to the agriculturist and the horticulturist, as the 
hawthorn, is deserving attention ; and that the one 
in question may become of serious moment, is proved 
both by the dwarfish growth of the hedge, which it 
has attacked, and the fact that, at present, every one 
of the shoots seems to have died down to the lowest 
protuberance. 

Botanic-Garden, Hull, 1 
21^ February 1814. } 



( 462 ) 



LIV. 

On the Curl in Potato, and on the transplanting 
of Onions. 

By Mr Peter Lowe, Gardener at Torwoodlee. 

(Read March 8. 181 5. J 



Curl Disease.— JO. av tng read the Memoirs of 
the Horticultural Society as to the curl in po- 
tatoes, and differing from some that have writ- 
ten on that subject, I beg leave to offer my opinion, 
if it is of any use to be known or thought worth 
notice. 

Potatoes that are intended for seed, I recom- 
mend to keep free from wet or damp, either in house 
or in pits : I prefer keeping them in pits, by laying 
them just on the surface of the ground, (it being 
smoothed before), laying them as steep and high as 
possible they will lie by building them carefully : 
put a good covering of straw, or of ferns, such as are 
usually in the country called brakens, and above 



MR LOWE ON THE CURL IN POTATO. 465 

sufficient earth to keep out the frost ; beating all well 
together with the back of a spade or shovel. The 
pits ought to be looked after to see they do not crack 
on the top, and to notice that mice or rats do not 
make holes so as to let in wet. This method I prefer 
to housing potatoes. I do not approve of either put- 
ting long dung or the haulm or shaws of potatoes 
on the pit, after it is finished ; rather add more earth; 
because the other sort of covering admits wet, and 
stops the seeing of mice or rat holes. 

When the potatoes are taken out of the pits, if 
they are wet, separate them from those that are dry ; 
I mean if intended for seed, for those that are wet 
are, I think, more apt to curl. 

Generally at the root end of the potato, or what 
Mr Thomas Dickson calls the waxy end, almost 
close by the feeding- string, there is an eye which 
cut by itself mostly produces a curl, unless it has 
another eye in the cut or set, which other eye ge- 
nerally springs first, and stops the former from grow- 
ing ; except in the foresaid cut, I recommend only 
one eye. By attention to this, this season I could 
have shewn a whole break, and scarcely a curl in 
the whole break : they were early potatoes, which 
are more given to curl than the late sorts. 

I differ from my friend Mr Dickson ; for I main- 
tain that the ripe end is not given to curl ; whereas 
the root or waxy end, as he names it, is the only part 
of the potato that is apt to curl, unless it was a 
curl potato before. 



464 MR LOWE ON THE CURL IN POTATO. 

I cannot help differing from Mr Crichton as to 
the advantage of having potatoes long cut before 
planting. This last spring I planted some three 
weeks after being cut, and knew no difference be- 
tween them and those that were planted sooner after 
being cut. I prefer them being cut two or three 
days before they are planted, so that the cut may 
gather a crust on it : in that case it is not so apt to 
rot in the ground if it is exposed to wet, or if a wet 
spring follow after the potatoes are planted. 

In taking potatoes intended for seed out of the 
ground, particular care should be taken to sepa- 
rate those affected with curl. A person that is 
acquainted with potatoes may easily distinguish the 
one from the other, although the shaw or stem should 
be withered The curled ones are of a much darker 
yellow, small, of a crabbed look, and few at a stem. 

I do not say that the foresaid hints will afford a 
perfect cure or a constant preventive ; I only say they 
may prove a mean towards it. 

As to getting of seed from cold or late places for 
a change, this is not thought of in the part of the 
country I reside in. We prefer seed from a lower 
climate, such as Melrose, or that quarter ; but in 
particular from Langholm or thereabouts ; but sel- 
dom or never from the upper part of Galawater. 
This preference must be founded in experience of 
the advantage '*. 

* Since this paper was originally written, the practice has, in 
some measure, altered. Last year we got our seed potatoes from 



MR LOWE ON THE CURL IN POTATO. 465 

Too deep planting, I am convinced, promotes the 
curl. Curled plants 1 have generally found to have 
been set nine or ten inches below ground, instead of 
four or five. 

I have found that wet in winter encouraged the 
curl. About ten years ago, I had a particular kind 
of potato that I wished for seed. I had them in a 
house secure from frost, where, however, there were 
some rabbits which wet them very much ; I believe 
there was more than the half curled. Here, how- 
ever, the wet was of a peculiar nature. There- 
after for two or three seasons I had them pitted, (I 
mean the seed-stock to be planted out for the use of 
my own family), a short distance from my house, 
where there had been sticks laid up for fuel for a 
number of years ; the rubbish or small half rotten 
twigs were good for keeping off the frost, but readily 
admitted wet : my potatoes were more affected with 
curl than those of my neighbours, for all the care I 
took in selecting the seed. 

For some years I have got them pitted in the 
open land along with Mr Pringle's ; and now I am 
as free of the disorder as any in the place. 

Besides, in the seed I kept of early ones for the 
garden, whenever they were wet, I observed they 
were more given to curl than those that were taken 
dry out of the pit. So now I make it my particu- 

Caddenhead, a sheep-farm west of Gala water, much of it cold and 
mossy soil. Sept. 1828. — P. L. 

VOL. IV. G g 



466 MR LOWE ON TRANSPLANTING ONIONS. 

lar care to keep them as dry through winter as pos- 
sible. 

Transplanting of Onions.— In the end of July 
1812, I sowed what is termed by gardeners winter 
onions. The following spring they were too thick. 
In April 1813, I planted out a good part of them : 
they succeeded well ; they were not indeed large, but 
a good middle-sized keeping onion. They kept 
through the year much better than any other I had. 
A sample of them is sent along with this, and it is 
now December 1814. I am apt to think that 
treating onions so, would be a more certain method 
than the usual practice. 

TORWOODLEE, ) 

Dec. 16. 1814. i 



( 467 ) 



LV. 



Some Account of the Fruits grow?/, in Gourdie- 
liill Orchard, Carse of Gowrie, with Remarks. 

In a Letter from Patrick Matthew, Esq. to the Secre- 
tary, dated 3d December ] 827. 

Dear Sir, 

W hen 1 saw you some weeks ago at Canonmills, 
I felt most grateful for your attentions. You ha- 
ving expressed a wish for grafts of the best Carse of 
Gowrie fruits, for the Experimental Garden, I 
thought I would repay my obligations most accept- 
ably, and shew the respect I felt towards the esta- 
blishment, by sending specimens of our best keeping 
apples, accompanied with short notices of their qua- 
lity, &c, from which you will better be enabled to 
judge what sorts you would require for the garden. 
I have, therefore, sent a selection of our best Carse 
of Gowrie fruits. Grafts of any of them I shall af- 
terwards send as you may desire *. 

I have succeeded in making out the local names 

* A considerable collection of grafts of the most select kinds 
has accordingly been received at the Experimental Garden, In- 

verleith P. N., Sec. 

% Gg2 



168 ACCOUNT OF GOURDIE-HTLL ORCHARD. 

of most of the fruits, and their synonymes ; but 
a portion still remains (a considerable part of which 
belongs exclusively to my own orchard) for which no 
names could be traced. I have, therefore, in such 
cases, been necessitated, for the convenience of re- 
ference, to make drafts on my own invention. 

When I shewed this selection to my friend Mr 
Gorrie, he told me that your Society give honorary 
prizes for what they deem best, and that he thought 
some of these stood a chance of being reckoned so. 
I have, therefore, made one parcel of six sorts, 
" not generally known;" and another for twelve " best 
(estimating by value of production) orchard apples," 
for competition. If you think them worth being 
presented for your shew on 6th December, please 
do me the favour to forward them to the meeting 
on that day *. 

I have examined a considerable number of varie- 
ties of Winter Pears peculiar to this district ; but 
they are, with a very few exceptions, of such bad 
quality that I did not think they merited to be more 
generally known, at least for being used raw, or in 
their natural state. I present several of the more 
interesting. 

* In the year 1827, the Society's Silver Medal having been of- 
fered for the best six sorts of Orchard Apples, not generally known 
in Scotland ; the Medal was (7th December 1827) awarded to Mi- 
Matthew for the six first mentioned, viz. Ben Lomond, White Ful- 
wood, Fair Circassian, Bonnie Bride, Green Virgin, and Scottish 
Chief ; the specimens being beautiful, and the quality proving 
excellent. — P. N. Sec. 



REMARKS ON CAUSE OF GOWRIE FRUITS. 469 

I also forward to you two supposed specimens of 
modification of apples, resulting from the mixture of 
juices from the stock and graft. No. 75 is a mo- 
dification of No. 74, the Tower of Glammis ; and 
No. 76 a modification of the Early Gowrie * , which 
it much resembles, but is a month later in ripening. 
These supposed varieties are produced by springing 
shoots from the point of union, or near it, of the 
stock and graft in old trees, where time may have 
operated to mingle the qualities of both. This prin- 
ciple of forming new varieties and hybrids by the 
commixing of the sap, seems applicable to plants in 
general, possibly as much so as the known process 
of mixing the germs of different varieties in the 
flower, i. e. applying the pollen of one sort to the 
stigma of another sort. These two unbegotten va- 
rieties have nothing interesting but their origin, 
only a peculiar luxuriance of vegetation and back- 
wardness to come to flower-buds, when continued by 
grafting. 

After leaving you, I visited Clydesdale. The 
cheapness of ground, and genialness of climate there, 
overbalance the expence of carriage to Edinburgh f . 
Clydesdale is but an infant settlement of fruit-trees 
compared with the Carse of Gowrie ; and, from its 

* Specimens were sent to the Society, and, from the mixed 
nature of the resemblance of the apples taken from the upper and 
lower parts of the same tree, there appeared a probability of their 
being modifications. — P. N. Sec. 

f This alludes to a proposed large orchard, near Edinburgh, 
for its supply. 



470 CAUSE OF GOWRIE FllUITS. 

modernness, has generally a more profitable selec- 
tion, but not nearly the number of varieties. I 
would recommend to your notice these varieties of 
Clydesdale : Tarn Montgomery, Early Marigold, 
Transparent, Golden Munday, Craigton Pippin, 
Bankie's Apple, Sovereign, Rock Apple or Flet- 
cher's Seedling, Early Fulwood ; and of late fruit, 
Ayrshire Pippin, Red Cluster, Dunside, Ayrshire 
Carpandy. — Of Pears, Pear- Iron, Winter Berga- 
mot, Vicar, Grey Honey. — Of the Apples, I con- 
sider the Red Cluster as the most valuable ; of the 
Pears, the Pear-Iron. Clydesdale is a diluvial 
country of gravel, sand, and till, with an admixture 
of fragments of coal ; in its general constitution 
much resembling some of our Highland valleys, ha- 
ving only in addition the coaly fragments, and 
more alumina. Diluvial gravel is most interesting 
to the geologist or miner, giving indices of every mi- 
neral within the field of its collection. 



LIST OF SEVENTY-SEVEN SORTS OF WlNTER APPLES, AND 
FIVE SORTS OF WlNTER PeARS, CULTIVATED, WITH TWO 
OR THREE EXCEPTIONS, IN THE ORCHARD AT GOURDIE- 
HILL, CARSE OF GOWRIE ; THE WHOLE FROM STANDARD 
TREES. 

APPLES. 

1. Ben Lomond, fruit of good quality ; tree bears steadily, has 
long slender twigs, is of middle size, leaves large, and of 
uncommon figure ; a rare variety. 



CARSE OF GOWRIE FRUITS. 471 

2. White Fidtoood, fruit of most excellent quality, especially 
the coloured variety ; keeps well, tree middle size, with 
a large leaf : sometimes the points of the branches die ; 
bears steadily fair crops, but not heavy loads. 

S. Fair Circassian, tree a good bearer, pretty large and healthy ; 
fruit keeps well, and of very good quality when kept ; a 
rare variety. 

4. Bonnie Bride, tree a good bearer, middle size, and healthy ; 

fruit of excellent quality ; a rare variety. 

5. Green Virgin, tree an excellent bearer ; bears when young ; 

fruit keeps well, is of good quality, and of a fine yellow 
when kept. This is one of the most valuable apples in the 
Carse of Gowrie, but known only in Gourdiehill orchard ; 
tree healthy, middle sized. 

6. Scottish Chief, tree an excellent bearer, healthy, middle sized; 

branches very pendent ; fruit of good quality. I believe 
only at Gourdiehill. 

7. Winter Redstreak, tree a good bearer, middle size, and 

healthy ; most excellent and valuable fruit. This is the 
CamFnethan Pippin of Clydesdale, and is sometimes named 
Watch Apple. There are several subvarieties of this fruit. 

8. Green Langlast, tree a most excellent bearer ; fruit of capital 

quality when kept ; tree middle size, bears young. The 
Green Virgin, the Standard, and Green Langlast, may be 
reckoned the most profitable winter apples in this district. 

9. Green Fultvood, tree a good bearer ; bears young ; middle 

sized ; points of twig apt to die in old trees ; fruit of good 
quality, and will keep exposed to the air till July with- 
out a wrinkle. 

10. Monstrous Leadington or Green Codlin, tree a good bearer, 

healthy, and rather large ; fruit keeps well, and is very 
valuable for kitchen use. Not a common variety. 

11. Red Wine, tree a good bearer, middle sized, becomes much 

knotted when old, and rather unhealthy ; a very valuable 
market apple. 



472 CAUSE OF GOAVRIE FRUITS. 

12. Scotsman, tree an excellent bearer, and bears when young ; 

fruit of good quality, keeps well ; a rare variety. 

13. Standard, tree a most excellent bearer, and bears young; 

fruit much esteemed, gets a beautiful golden colour when 
well ripened ; tree middle sized, with very black wood, 
woolly leaves, and extremely thick bark ; a rare variety. 

14. Flat Anderson, tree an excellent bearer ; fruit of capital qua- 

lity ; tree middle size and healthy ; rare ; only one tree at 
Gourdiehill. 

15. Baudrons, tree an excellent bearer; fruit keeps well, and is 

of good quality, with much acid, excellent for tarts ; tree 
middle size, and healthy ; rare, and, it is believed, only at 
Gourdiehill. 

16. Fame, not a eommon variety. 

17. Winter Courtpendu, fruit of good quality, and very hand- 

some ; tree bears well, and is of middle size. 

18. Red Fuhvood, large, spreading, graceful tree, full of leaf and 

vigour, the giant of the Carse of Gowrie orchards ; bears 
very great loads of fruit every second year ; fruit beautiful. 

19. Wood Nymph, a very large fruit. 

20" Wallace Wight, quality good, keeps well ; tree rare in the 
Carse. 

21. Daisy, very beautiful small sweet fruit ; not common. 

22. Maclean, tree gets diseased when old ; requires to be plant- 

ed in ground new to fruit trees ; fruit keeps well, of excel- 
lent quality, and weighs extremely heavy. 

23. Margil, tree a shy bearer, but most excellent fruit. Would 

need a wall. Sometimes called Small Ribston. 

24. Redcoat, a rare sort ; very pretty. 

25. Blade Bess or Fox- Whelp, tree a good bearer ; fruit keeps 

very long. 

26. Lady Finger, sometimes called Paradise Pippin, the Egg 

Apple of Clydesdale ; tree bears well when in high cul- 
ture ; fruit of good quality, very pretty, and keeps well. 

27. Sweet Pintstoup, tree a good bearer, but not common. 



CAUSE OF GOWR1E FRUITS. 473 

28. Jack Cade, fruit very acid, would do for cider, or for giving 

pungency to tarts. 

29. Red Aisle, a rare kind ; inferior bearer, but pretty. 

30. My Joe Janet, tree a good bearer ; fruit of fine quality. 

31. White Bogmiln, a rare sort ; large, fair quality. 

32. Serjeant, tree beautiful, upright growing, and large, not com- 

mon. 

33. Rose Apple, tree a good bearer ; a valuable variety. 

34. Friar Grey, a rare sort. 

35. White Wine, tree a good bearer. 

36. Sweet Russet, not usual. 

37. Ribston, tree a shy bearer, and unhealthy ; fruit excellent. 

Would need a wall here, or espalier training. 

38. King Robert, tree a good bearer, but not common. 

39. Grey Leadington, tree a fair bearer ; fruit of excellent qua- 

lity. 

40. Scarlet Golden Pippin, fruit of very best quality ; tree bears 

moderately well. 

41. Red Langlast, tree a great bearer, middle sized ; good qua- 

lity of fruit. 

42. Tulip, tree a good bearer ; only one tree known in the Carse. 

43. Rosalind, only one tree known, and it is very old. 

44. Clouded Scarlet, a rare sort, very beautiful ; tree bears well. 

45. Golden Rennet or Courtpendu, tree a moderate bearer. 

46. Paradise Apple or Lemon Pippin, an excellent fruit, keeps 

well ; tree is productive only in a moist rich soil. 

47. Gourdiehill Scarlet, tree bears moderately ; a rare sort. 

48. Poiu Captain, tree a good bearer ; fruit of good quality ; 

sometimes named La Fameuse. 

49. Winter Scarlet, tree a good bearer ; fruit keeps well ; not 

common. 

50. Bogmiln Favourite, fruit of excellent quality ; not common. 

51. Rival, excellent quality, keeps well ; good bearer. 

52. Miss Baillie, a very sweet apple. 

53. Shagreen, tree an excellent bearer ; fruit keeps well. 



CAUSE OF GOWltlE FRUITS. 



54. Winter Ruby, tree bears well ; not common. 

55. Hebe, tree a good bearer. 

56. Maiden, tree an excellent bearer ; fruit very acid, but one of 

the best kitchen apples that grows ; does not keep well. A 
seedling raised by Mr Brown of Perth. 

57. Scarlet Leadington. 

58. Twin Wine, tree a good bearer ; fruit very beautiful, and 

sometimes twined together. 

59. Maggy Duncan, tree an excellent bearer ; a valuable orchard 

apple, though not commonly cultivated; fruit very sweet. 

60. St Patrick, tree a good bearer ; not common. 

61. Mermaid, fruit keeps well, and of good quality ; not common. 

62. Bauldy Beard, tree a good bearer ; not common. 

63. Macbeth, tree a good bearer ; rare. 

64. Green Erin, fruit keeps well, and of excellent quality. 

65. Carse Red Streak, tree a moderate bearer ; fruit very beau- 

tiful. 

66. Bonner, tree an excellent bearer ; a fine autumn apple. 

67. Monk, tree a good bearer ; rare. 

68. Bogmiln Beauty. 

69. Seaside Leadington. 

70. Stone Pippin, tree an excellent bearer ; fruit keeps well ; 

beautiful small tree. 

71. Thickset, an uncommonly great bearer; quality good. 

72. Tulip Wine, inferior in quality to the Green Wine. 

73. Green Wine, fruit of excellent quality ; tree bears well, but 

sickly when old. 

74. Tower of Glammis, tree a good bearer when in high culture ; 

fruit of good quality, and excellently suited for baking; in 
Clydesdale called the Gowrie. 

75. Modified Tower of Glammis. 

76. Modified Early Gowrie. 

77. Gogar Pippin, tree a good bearer ; fruit of good quality, 

and keeps well ; small upright tree. 

Many other good late sorts exist in Gourdiehill Orchard. Of 



CAUSE OF GOWRIE FRUITS. 475 

these, some have not fruited this season, others are unnamed, or 
have not their names ascertained, or their qualities fully deter- 
mined. There are also many varieties of earlier fruits, which of 
course are at present omitted. 

PEARS. 

1. Seaside Bergamot, small and close growing tree; fruit large, 

late, and of good quality. 

2. Grey Achan of Bogmiln, one of the hest winter pears in the 

Carse of Gowrie, as good as the Black Achan, and trebly 
more productive ; know only one tree of good size in the 
Carse ; fruit small. 

3. Paundie Bergamot, tree good bearer ; fruit large, handsome, 

and good. 

4. Pear Duncan, tree one of the best bearers known ; a few 

years ago existed only at Gourdiehill, but is now cultivated 
in different orchards ; highly saccharine, but dry, and slight- 
ly styptic. 

5. Yellow Youte, handsome, ordinary quality. 



Additional Remarks by Mr Matthew. 

Of the many varieties of apples I have cultivat- 
ed, I consider the Scarlet Golden Pippin as per- 
haps the most valuable and the handsomest fruit. 
It ripens well on standards. As far as my expe- 
rience reaches, the tree is healthy, gives fair and re- 
gular product, and comes soon to bearing. Proba- 
bly it is a seedling from the Golden Pippin. We 
have only one old tree in this place. 

I remember of mentioning to you a suspicion 1 
had of modification, resulting from the admixture 



476 CARSE OF GOWB.IE. FRUITS. 

of stock and graft in old trees, which is visible in 
the shoots sprung at, or near to, the point of junc- 
tion, occasioned probably by the proper juice for the 
new deposit of wood in the stock being assimilized 
by the leaves of the graft, and thence partaking 
something of its peculiarities, or stamp of life. 
Those I have examined were sprung so immediate- 
ly upon the point of junction, that I could not as- 
certain whether they belonged to graft or stock ; if 
to the former, the thing is beyond dispute, but if, 
as I rather think, to the latter, we have only pro- 
babilities from similitude to deduce from, as there 
are no means of ascertaining what the original stocks 
were. Should the modification be of the latter, it 
is likely the change may extend to the furthest 
roots. I have some collateral proof which bears up- 
on this ; e. g. among trees grafted four or five years 
previous (rows of each kind) upon similar crab- 
stocks, the roots of one kind will have struck down 
very deep and strong, and another be more fibrous 
and superficially extended. The crabs on which 
the Eve or Irish Pitcher had been ingrafted uni- 
formly struck the deepest roots. 

I have also observed in young fruit trees, origi- 
nally grafted a few inches above ground, and work- 
ed over again with another kind about six feet up, 
that the shoots which arose from the second work- 
ing partook slightly of the habit and gait of the 
first. 

I am aware, when the stock is at first diffc- 



CARSE OF GOAVRIE FRUITS. 477 

rent from the graft, in freeness of growth, thickness 
of bark, or in liability to be affected by cold or in- 
juries, that these differences will be continued to old 
age, at least that they will not entirely disappear, 
but remain marked ; and that a thorny sprout will 
arise from the root of an old mild-growing grafted 
top. All this rather militates against the supposi- 
tion that the stock is affected : but, from the cases 
which have come under my notice (five in number) 
all having the fruit bearing a marked similitude to 
those of the top of the tree, at same time evidently 
differing, and also the leaves bearing some resem- 
blance, we are obliged to give it some portion of 
credence. If they be not affected as above suppos- 
ed, it is certainly a curious coincidence. I have ob- 
served wartiness and canker, where the soil was not 
the disposing cause, sometimes transmitted to the 
graft from the stock. The several varieties of the 
same kind of apple, differing a little in taste, colour, 
figure, &c. most probably arise from something con- 
nected with this kind of modification. 

There is a curious circumstance attending these 
new varieties, that most of them are destitute of 
seed. The same takes place (viz. a defect in form- 
ing seed) when the pear and apple have their juices 
slightly commixed by their stems being led up some 
distance in conjunction. — This fact, resulting from 
apple and pear juices commixing, is from an expe- 
riment by Mr Gorrie, Rait Garden, 

Nov. 1828. 3 



( 478 ) 



LVI. 

On the means of renovating Plantations of As- 
paragus, and on the utility of Top-Dressings. 

In a Letter from Mr Daniel Robertson to the late 
Mr T. Dickson, Secretary. 

(Read 11th September 1816.) 

Sir, 

XN May 1813, I found the asparagus quarter here 
very much exhausted, by reason of the ground be- 
ing too coarse and poor, and the shoots having been 
too severely cut in former years. Having a quantity 
of furnace-ashes, which had lain by for some years, 
I sifted these and mixed them up with a small por- 
tion of vegetable earth formed from tree- leaves. 
In August following I sifted both together, and 
laid the soil into a heap until the latter end of Oc- 
tober, when about to dress in the asparagus quarter 
for winter. I then began at the one side of the 
quarters, and with a grape lifted the surface clean 
from off the crown of the plant ; and from between 
the rows, (for my asparagus was planted in rows), 



CULTURE OF ASPARAGUS. 479 

took away from six to nine inches of the old soil, 
or at least as much as I could conveniently manage 
without injuring the plants. The vacuities thus 
made, I filled up as I came along with the prepared 
compost of ashes and rotted leaves, and above the 
rows this compost stood about four inches thick 
when the operation was finished. On the approach 
of severe winter weather, I covered up the quarter 
with stable dung as I had formerly done ; and over 
the covering I frequently, during winter, poured as 
much of the drainings of the dunghill as I could pos- 
sibly collect. The following season the asparagus 
plants were not only much stronger, but produced a 
great many more shoots; and for these two last years, 
particularly the last, the shoots have been the best I 
ever beheld, both in size, quantity, and quality ; in- 
somuch, that from four to five inches of a shoot were 
as tender and palatable as one inch of common as- 
paragus. 

I must here observe, that, in October 1815, when 
preparing to repeat to some extent the former appli- 
cation of ashes and tree-leaves, I found from the bot- 
tom of the compound to the very surface, one mass 
of fibres, the roots having spread in every direction, 
and even come upwards. I am convinced that top- 
dressing is as essential to asparagus as the preparation 
of the ground for its reception either at the time of 
sowing or planting. 

I would farther observe, that, where the soil is 
poor and too light to be lifted in October, this may 



480 CULTURE OF ASPARAGUS. 

be done in November, or early in December, or with 
equal propriety at the approach of slight frost, ha- 
ving the compound ready, and covering it over with 
litter at the same time that the quarter is covered. 
The top-dressing compost might be thus composed: 
one-fourth sandy peat-moss, from the surface of a 
dry heath ; one -fourth furnace ashes well sifted ; and 
one- fourth vegetable mould formed from tree leaves ; 
one-fourth well rotten stable dung, with a small por- 
tion of quicklime ; all well mixed and prepared. I 
am, &c. 



Walkenshaw, 
August 1816. 



( 481 > 



LVII. 

Account of a collection of Gooseberry Bushes con- 
tained within an inclosure in the Nurseries at 
Perth. 

In a Letter from Archibald Turnbull, Esq. 
to the Secretary. 

(Read c 20tk April 1826,> 

Dear Sir, 

JL ou may make use of our list of gooseberries if you 
think proper to put it in your Society Memoirs. The 
inclosure where we have our gooseberries is nearly a 
quarter of an acre. I am so much hurried, that I 
have no time at present to give a general descrip- 
tion. 



RED. 

Ackerman's Admiral Rodney- Black Eagle. 
Alexander. Mulatto. 

Andrew's Esteem. Brandret's Don Quixotte. 

Aston's Red Globe. Captain. 

Black Conqueror. Cartwright's Conqueror. 

VOL. IV. H h 



482 



COLLECTION OF GOOSEBERRIES. 



Cheshire Hero. 
Clark's Red Seedling. 
Cragg's Scarlet Drop. 
Dickenson's Soph. 
Duke of Cumberland. 
Fair Maid. 
Gill's Seedling. 
Great Lincoln Tap. 
Gregory's Perfection. 
Supreme. 
Conqueror. 
Captain. 
Colonel. 
Hamburgh. 
Hamson's Czar. 
High Sheriff of Lancashire. 
Halton's Red Date. 

Barley Sugar. 
Great Czar. 
Jackson's Slim. 

Royal Hero. 
Jarrott's Achilles. 
Ironmonger, Early. 

Late. 
Kenyon's Black Virgin. 
Large Murrey. 
Late Damson. 
Layforth's Seedling. 
Little John. 

Livesey's Duke William. 
Lamax's Victory. 
Maddock's Favourite. 
Master Tup. 
Mather's Early Red. 

Alexander the Great. 
Blackmoor Lady. 
Nero. 
Nonpareil. 
Nutmeg, Early. 
Pemberton's Earl of Derby. 
Pendleton's Great Mogul. 



Pendleton's Matchless, 
Raphael's Crispin. 
Beauty. 
Red Walnut. 

Champaigne. 

Rambullian. 
Red Robin. 
Richmond's Rasp. 
Rider's Old England. 
Royal George. 
Shepley's Black Prince. 
Shuffleton's Pumpion. 
Stranger. 
Stumps. 
Thorp's Rumbo. 

Master Tup. 
Glory of England. 
Tillotson's Seedling. 
Tom of Lincoln. 
Tom of Lincoln's Son. 
Warrington Hedgehog. 

Red. 
Worthington's Conqueror. 
Hero. 
Nonsuch. 
Steel's Diana. 
Chadwick's Shepherd. 
Walker's Bank of England. 
Vailant's Fencible. 
Small's Rough Red. 
Sandyford's British Flag. 
Eckerley's Jolly Painter. 
Greenhalge's Jolly Minor. 
Brotherton's Overall. 
Collin's British Hero. 
Knight's Marquis of Stafford. 
Hermut's Fame. 
Hargrave's Glory. 
Leigh's Sir J. B. Warren. 
Wood's Glory. 
Brotherton's Pastime. 



COLLECTION OF GOOSEBERRIES. 



483 



Derbyshire Prince of Wales. 
Leigh's Rifleman. 
Chadwick's Sportsman. 
Greave's Smolensko. 
Milln's RadclifF Ringer. 
Fisher's Conqueror. 
Horrock's Nonsuch. 
Milin's Crown Bob. 
Greave's Bloodhound. 
Pollit's Red Ocean. 
Hopley's Jubilee. 



Sander's Cheshire Lass. 
Sledon's Lord Collingwood. 
Brundrett's Atlas. 
Yates' Earl of Moira. 
Rothwell's British Lion. 
Allan's Battle of the Nile. 
Duke of Bedford. 
Speachley's Yeaxley Hero. 
Hartshorn's Lancashire Lad. 
Knight's Warrior. 
Smolensko. 



WHITE AND GREEN. 



Anthony's Triumph. 

Bangor. 

Blackly's green Chesnut. 

Boardmen's green Oak. 

Calderbank's White. 

Chrystal. 

Coice's Diogenes. 

Crawfurd's Seedling. 

Frontigniac. 

Green Chance. 

Walnut. 

Gascoigne. 

Fig. 

Tiger. 

Globe. 
Gregory's Silver Drop. 

Highland King. 
Highland Queen. 
Haslam's Greengage. 
Hercules. 

Halam's Dumpling. 
Hawley's Lord Wellington. 
Jackson's Old Britain. 

White Throat. 
Marlborough Green. 
Mather's White Mogul. 
Miss Bold. 
Monk's Green Joseph. 



Nickson's White Heart. 
Neill's White Rose. 
Piatt's White. 
Redford's White Lily. 
Rider's Triumphant. 

Sugar-loaf. 
Rawlinson's Royal George. 
Royal White. 

Hero. 
Shaw's Hedge-Hog. 
Shuffleton's Beauty. 
Sweet Amber. 
Tailor's Rainbow. 
Trial. 
White Belmount. 

Gascoigne. 

Mogul. 

Orleans. 

Rasp. 

Royal. 

Walnut. 
Worthington's Golden Fleece. 

Royal George. 
Worthington's White Chance. 

White Lily. 
Wriglie's Melon. 
Collin's Favourite. 

Hh 2 



484 



COLLECTION OF GOOSEBERRIES. 



Weedharn's Delight. 
Moor's White Bear. 
Howard. 

Clough's Volunteer. 
Woodward's White Smith. 
Digglie's Green Corduroy. 
Mrs Clark. 
Edward's Jolly Tar. 
Broadman's Lively. 
Hopely's Shanon. 
Andrew's Dreadnought. 
Saunders's Cheshire Lass. 
Halton's Blunderbuss. 
Edward's Jolly Carpenter. 
Horsefield's Highlander. 
Smith's Mask. 
Haywood's Mount of Snow. 
Holt's Fair Play. 
Hill's Jupiter. 
Leigh's Defiance. 
Bradshaw's Cheshire Hero. 
Boardman's Jingling Johnny. 
Hall's Conqueror. 



Wood's Duchess. 
Yates' Winter. 
Brundrit's White Rock. 
Broadman's Transparent, 
Allan's Glory of Radclift". 

Jubilee. 
Forbes' Swallow. 
Crompton's Trial. 
Derbyshire Winter. 
Cheshire Lass. 
Greenwood. 

Waddington's Pendlehill. 
Brigg's Independent. 
Wellington's Glory. 
Wolstenholm's Leader. 
Green's Ocean. 
Spitsburgh's Lord Warden. 
Prince of Orange. 
Beaumount's Smiling Beauty. 
Cowsel's Great Britain. 
White Lion. 

Hamnet's Northern Hero. 
Sampson's Queen Anne. 



YELLOW. 



Andrew's Golden Griffen. 

Cheedle's Golden Lion. 

Globe Amber. 

Goliath. 

Goliath's Champion. 

Jackson's Goldfinch. 

Golden Orange. 
Jay Wing. 

Pendelton's Nonsuch. 
Robin Hood. 
Sampson. 
Speedwell. 

Stirrup's Golden Primrose. 
Thorp's Lamb. 



Yeald's White Scarlet. 
Yellow Ball. 

Champaigne. 

Rambullian. 
"Vailant's Oldham. 
Taylor's Morning Star. 
Chadwick's Hero. 
Lord's Golden Dragon. 
Caldwell's Golden. 
Bell's Golden Farmer. 
Weedharn's Good Intent. 
Forbes' Golden Cham. 
Nelson's Waves. 
Hopley's Cheshire Cheese. 



COLLECTION OF GOOSEBERRIES. 



485 



Ville de Paris. 
Aitkenson's Free Ranger. 
Hill's Royal Sovereign. 
Hall's Golden Gourd. 
Braid's Glory. 



Davenport's Jolly Hatter. 
Bamford's Golden Purse. 
Chadderton's Golden Shepherd. 
Gorton's Viper., 
Jackson's Golden Drop. 



There is not a bad sort in the collection. We have 
many other new kinds, which we have not as yet 
been able to prove ; and we are always adding to 
the number, as new approved kinds appear. I am, 
&c. 



Perth, 
Sth March 1826. 



{ 486 ) 



LVIIL 

Account of the mode of making various Li- 
queurs, <§c. 

In a Letter from Mr Lewis Pederana to the Secretary. 

(Read 6th December 1827.) 

Sir, 

JL received yours, requesting me to become 
author, by giving you a detail of my method of ma- 
nufacturing liqueurs, which, I dare to say, you will 
find remarkable, if not original. These liqueurs, 
and the modes of making them, are, in a great mea- 
sure, of my own invention ; and, by many who have 
tasted the liqueurs, they have been pronounced ex- 
cellent. If you think the receipts of the least advan- 
tage to the public, or worthy of a place in your So- 
ciety's Memoirs, I will feel satisfied. 

In the spiritous mixtures of my wines and li- 
queurs, I make use of a peculiar kind of home-dis- 
tilled spirit, which I am pleased to term Brandy ; 
an account of the manufacture of which I will give 
you in the first place. 



ON MAKING HOME-BRANDY. 487 

Mode of making Home-Brandy. — Take twen- 
ty pints of fully ripe gooseberries, and twenty pints 
of white or red currants, bruise them, and mix with 
twenty pints of soft water, and two gallons of Port 
wine ; and, if you choose to make the brandy of 
Scotch production, instead of Port wine make use 
of whisky ; but the Port wine is preferable, as it 
gives the flavour of French brandy. Put these in- 
gredients into any open vessel to ferment for a fort- 
night ; then put the mixture through a press, or 
cloth of any kind, that will exclude the refuse ; dis- 
til this liquid twice, and you will have the brandy 
colourless. From every twenty pints of the mix- 
ture you may draw ten pints of good brandy. I 
need scarcely add, that, to colour it, a little brown 
sugar burned may be made use of. This spirit, in 
the manufacture of liqueurs, I have found superior 
to mixing with other spirits *. 

Mode of making Gooseberry Wine. — Take 
forty pints of fully ripe white or yellow gooseberries ; 
bruise them well ; add twenty pints of soft water, and 
60 lb. of loaf sugar. Put them whole into any open 
vessel, say a cask without the end ; stir them toge- 
ther, until the sugar be entirely dissolved. Let the 
whole ferment for a fortnight, and the refuse will 



* A specimen of Mr Pederana's Home-Brandy was sent to 
the Society in September 1828, and highly approved of. 

P. N. Sec. 



488 ON MAKING LIQUEURS. 

separate : then make a perforation or hole within 
two inches of the bottom ; draw off the liquid, which 
you will find as pure as water ; put the liquid so 
drawn off into a cask large enough to admit of 
the spirits, and to every twenty pints of wine add 
three pints of the distilled spirit or brandy : let it 
stand in the cask for five or six months, then bot- 
tle it ; and, in half a year, you will find it similar to 
Mossellas, and far preferable to many of the sweet- 
made wines. 

Mode of making Creme de Rose. — Put four 
pounds moss-rose buds into ten pints of good whisky; 
let them stand for six weeks, shaking them twice 
every week ; then squeeze the rose-leaves from the 
spirits : put the leaves thus squeezed into six pints 
of water ; wash them well, and squeeze the liquid 
into the spirits : pass them through the still once, 
and, if it is not strong enough, put it through 
again : then take a preserving pan, put into it six 
pounds of bruised loaf sugar, two quarts of water, and 
the white of an egg, beat up to a froth ; mix them 
thoroughly ; put it over a stove fire, taking off the 
scum as it rises, until it become quite clear : then let 
it boil slowly, until reduced to a pretty thick shrub, 
taking care not to boil it so long as to colour the 
sugar ; pass your shrub through a jelly-bag, and put 
it into any open earthen vessel to cool; then, to every 
quart of shrub thus prepared, put a quart of spirit of 
rose, mix them well together, and, if clear enough, 



ON MAKING LIQUEURS. 489 

bottle it ; if not, pass it through the jelly- bag till 
it becomes so, and you will have Creme de Rose. 

Mode of making Creme de Moka. — Take a 
pound of the best Mocha coffee, ground, put it into 
four pints of water, let it boil in a goblet or pan, 
over a slow fire, for ten minutes, to draw out the 
essence ; then pass it through a flannel bag. Then 
put it into a small still, with a pint of gooseberry 
brandy ; pass it until it becomes strong enough ; 
make a shrub for it as for Creme de Rose, and, 
when cold, mix in the same proportion, and you will 
have Creme de Moka. 

Mode of making Kirschwasser. — Take any quan- 
tity of full ripe geans and cherries, and, in a mortar 
or wooden tub, bruise kernel and pulps. To every 
twenty pints of bruised fruit add five pints of water, 
and two pints of gooseberry brandy ; mix them, and 
let it ferment for a fortnight ; squeeze out the liquid, 
put the refuse under a press, to express the remain- 
der, which is the best; then put the whole into a 
still, pass it twice, and, if it is not strong enough, 
again, and you will have it as good as Swiss Kirsch- 
wasser. 

Mode of making Cassi.—Take two pints of rasp- 
berries, two pints of black currants, two pints of red 
currants, two pints of water, and twenty pounds of 
brown sugar ; put them into a preserving pan, with- 



490 ON MAKING LIQUEURS. 

out bruising ; let them boil for half an hour, taking 
off the scum as it rises ; then put it into any earthen 
vessel, until next day, or till cold ; then add four 
pints of gooseberry-brandy, and, after being mixed, 
put it into a cask or large jar, for six weeks : then 
pass it through your jelly-bag, when you will find 
it clear as claret ; bottle it, and in six months it 
will be perfect. 

Mode of making Nonpareil. — Take a full ripe 
pine -apple, and pare off the outside skin ; bruise it 
in a mortar, add one and a half dozen of sharp 
ripe, white magnum-bonum plums, and one dozen of 
jargonelle pears, in the same state, quartered ; then 
to every four pounds of fruit add six pounds of loaf- 
sugar, and three English pints of water. Put the 
whole into a preserving pan, and boil them for three 
quarters of an hour, taking off the scum as it rises : 
then put it into a can or jar until cold, add three 
quarts of gooseberry-brandy* and let it stand for 
six weeks ; then pass it through your jelly-bag, and 
you will have the above fine liqueur. . 

Mode of making Admirable. — Take the outside 
skin from two dozen of full ripe peaches, quarter 
them, and take out the stones ; add to this the 
pulp of two dozen of ripe greengage plums, and 
one dozen of white magnum plums; then to every 
four pounds of fruit add six pounds of sugar, and 
two quarts of water ; put the whole over a slow fire 



ON MAKING LIQUEURS. 491 

for half an hour, taking off the scum ; cool it as 
formerly, and mix with spirits in the same propor- 
tion. The liqueur which results will be found to de- 
serve the name of Admirable. 

Mode of' making Sublime de Variete. — Take 
equal quantities of Noyau, Creme de Rose, and Ad- 
mirable ; mix them through a silk sieve, then bot- 
tle, and you will have an excellent variety. 

Halyburton House, \ 
16th October 1827. j" 

The still which I have made use of in the manu- 
facture of the before mentioned liqueurs, being of 
peculiar construction, I send a sketch,- — See next 
page. 



ON MAKING LIQUEURS 




A, B, C, D, Tin iron-stand for the cold water, and fit- 
ting closely on 

E, F, Gr, H, the copper or boiling-pan, 
I, J, K, condenser, 

L, M, J, K, receiver of condensed spirits, 
K, N, rod for conducting off the spirits, 
O, cock for shifting water in the stand. 

2 



( 493 ) 



LIX. 

Account of Fruit-Trees trained to a Wall inclined 
to the Horizon, at an angle of about 10°, in a 
Garden at Portobello. 

In a Letter from William Cueelman, Esq. to the 
Secretary. 

{Read 6tk November 1828.) 
SlK, 

jVlY garden at Portobello being of an uneven sur- 
face, I was induced to take advantage of a rising 
piece of ground in it near the centre, and form two 
sloping or almost horizontal walls, of a circular 
shape. The whole will best be understood by the plan 
and section which you requested me to furnish you 
with. (See Plate X). Should you approve of this 
sketch, and consider it to be of the least use, you are 
welcome to present it to the Horticultural Society. 
It will be observed that the circle is formed in- 
to two terraces, one above another, with a walk 
between, somewhat more than three feet broad. The 
soil under this walk, as well as under the lower walk, 
which is five feet broad, was prepared or enriched for 
the reception of the roots of the trees. The fruit-trees 



494 HORIZONTAL WALLS. 

are planted at proper distances, or about ten or 
twelve feet apart. They are of different kinds, 
apples, pears, and peaches. The walls (if they may 
be so called), are formed merely of bricks, laid flat 
on the surface of the ground, without any lime. 
The ground slopes at an angle of about 10*, and the 
wall is inclined to the surface, also at an angle of 
about 10° ; L e. the bricks are raised some inches 
at the upper or back part. These almost flat walls 
are seven feet wide, the bricks are very hard burnt, 
having, indeed, been rejected at my brick-work on 
account of this quality. The trees are now four 
years old, and are singularly productive, especially 
the apple-trees. The apples are of uncommon size : 
this, I think, is owing to the sun's rays being ear- 
lier received, and retained to a later hour, than on 
perpendicular walls. The bricks lying on their bed 
get more heated than in upright walls, and by this 
means contribute more to the size and quality of 
the fruit. No vermin has yet appeared on these 
trees. It is evident that they must be much more 
sheltered from storms of wind than those trained to 
upright walls. 

The appearance of these walls is rather ornamen- 
tal than offensive to the eye. They are finished by 
a coping of a particular kind of composition-brick, 
made on purpose to suit the walls. 

The apple-trees, especially the Ribston Pippin 
and Scarlet Nonsuch, bore uncommon crops this 
year. Two of these young trees, measuring toge- 



HORIZONTAL WALLS. 495 

ther in extension twenty-three feet in breadth, and 
five and a half feet wide, on the flat walls, produ- 
ced together this season 230 large apples. This 
was much more than double the quantity found on 
any two trees of a similar size on the upright walls in 
the same garden. The fruit was likewise of a su- 
perior size and quality to those produced upon 
the upright walls ; the apples measuring generally 
from ten inches to one foot in circumference. It 
has been mentioned that the trees are planted at 
about ten or twelve feet asunder : the present 
breadth of the walls is seven feet ; but as the trees 
increase, the walls may be extended in breadth, par- 
ticularly the inner circle, agreeably to the extent of 
the ground. I am, &c. 



PORTOBELLO, 1 

1st Nov. 1828. j 



496 



HORIZONTAL WALLS. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE X. 

a. Central space covered with grass sward ; 25 feet in diameter. 
b b. Inner inclined wall, 1 10 feet in length, and having twelve 

trees trained to it. 
c c. Outer inclined wall, 140 feet in length, and having fifteen 
trees trained to it. 
The white spaces represent the walks, which are five feet 

wide, and laid with gravel. 
The section was taken near the middle of the walls. 



List of the Trees as marked on the Engraving. 



1. Melville Pippin. 

2. Nonsuch do. 

3. Ribston Pippin. 

4. Scarlet Nonsuch. 

5. Ribston Pippin. 

6. Do. do. 

7. Jargonelle Pear. 

8. St Germain Pear. 

9. Do. do. 

10. Do. do. 

11. Do. do. 

12. Longueville Pear. 

13. Ribston Pippin. 

14. White Hawthorndean. 



15. German Nonsuch. 

16. Scarlet Nonsuch. 

17. Ribston Pippin. 

18. Auchan Pear. 

19. Crasanne Pear. 

20. Mayduke Cherry. 

21. Black Heart Cherry. 

22. Wellington Apple. 

23. Yorkshire Greening Apple. 

24. Moorpark Apricot. 

25. Magdalene Peach. 

26. Royal George Peach. 

27. Hawthorndean Apple. 



fLATE X 



Sort. Memoirs Vol./l '/>. ■/ 



Inclined Walls of M". CnnEZMAXS frardeivFarrtobello 
Upper Garden 




Jjower Garden 



( 497 ) 



LX. 

Postscript to Dr William Howison's Paper on 
the Culinary Vegetables of the Russian Em- 
pire. 

Communicated by Dr Howison, and read 7th June 1827. 



Russian Cucumber. — A he following receipt for 
salting cucumbers I received from John Booker, 
Esq. British Vice-Consul at Cronstadt, and its ac- 
curacy may be depended on. 

Wash the cucumbers clean, put them into a keg, 
pour a pickle of salt and water upon them, till the 
keg is full. The general quantity of salt is about 
four ounces and a half to each gallon of water. 

The universal seasoning is dill-tops, before the 
seeds are ripe, with black currant and oak leaves. 
People of more refined taste add some garlic, horse- 
radish, and even sweet herbs ; but the last very sel- 
dom. 

The keg must be hermetically secured to exclude 
the air, and must not be too large, as the sooner 
used after being opened, the finer are the cucum- 
bers. 

vol. iv. i i 






498 RUSSIAN MODE 

Russian Method of preserving Culinary Vegeta- 
bles through the Winter. 

Cabbages are preserved in the gardens (set close 
together to save room), by building a roof over them 
of old boards, covering them with the old dung of 
the hot-beds, or the cleanings of the gardens, and 
then shovelling over all the earth from the adjacent 
beds. If the ground is dry, and it is possible to dig 
downwards, the house, if so I may call it, will be 
warmer ; but the best situation is the brow of a 
hillock. Two tubes or chimneys are adapted to 
let out the confined air, when it thaws, or towards 
spring. 

Leeks, celery, in short all similar vegetables, may 
be preserved in the same way. 

The chimney must be stuffed up when it freezes. 

An arrangement of this kind would do well in 
some of the northern parts of Scotland, where there 
is plenty of whin, broom, or heather, to make a co- 
vering, and where the frosts are never remarkably 
severe. 

The following is the mode of preserving French 
beans, parsley, celery-leaves, and spinage, through 
the winter : 

Gather the leaves or beans without washing them, 
put them into a barrel without a head, alternate lay- 
ers of vegetables and salt. Then put a board upon 



OF PRESERVING VEGETABLES. 499 

the vegetables, and a weight upon the board, which 
will now be covered with the juice of the vegetables. 
When wanted for use, take out the quantity re- 
quired, and wash it carefully, retaining the board 
and weight. The best weight is a clean water- 
worn stone, tolerably heavy. The watery juice to- 
ward the board excludes the action of the air, and 
prevents putrefaction. 

Parsley, celery, and spinage-leaves, carefully dried, 
and kept from moisture, are excellent for soups, &c. 



9. Njcolson Square, 
June 1827. 



liS 



500 KINDS OF GRAPE-VINE BEST SUITED 



LXI. 

On the hinds of Grape-vine best suited for Hot- 
walls in Scotland. 

In a Letter from Mr George Shiells to the Secretary, 

(Read M November 1827.) 

Sir, 

W ith reference to the Society's circular respecting 
the kinds of grapes best suited for hot- walls in Scot- 
land, I beg to remark, that, after seven years' expe- 
rience, I am of opinion that the White Muscadine 
and Black Hamburgh grapes are most deserving of 
a flued wall. Next to these, I would prefer the early 
July black cluster, and currant vines, being good 
bearers, and hardy trees ; and the wood and fruit of 
these sorts ripening with less artificial assistance 
than any other I have yet tried. 

Some young plants placed upon the apricot divi- 
sion of the flued wall, produced this season a few 
clusters of fruit which attained a tolerable degree of 
maturity, without any particular attention being 
paid to them, and without any assistance except 



FOR HOT WALLS IN SCOTLAND. 501 

that arising from a little fire-heat, applied in the 
autumn, for the purpose of ripening the young 
wood of the apricot trees. From what I know of 
the Frankindale grape, 1 am persuaded it also would 
do well ; but I have not yet proved it. 

I have this season altered my mode of treating 
the vines on the flued wall, by which I have been 
able to obtain a more abundant crop. Instead of 
applying fire to them in the spring, as formerly, I 
left them unnailed and projecting from the wall, 
until the month of May. At this time the clusters 
began to appear. I then had the vines nailed to 
the wall, and protected at night by a screen drawn 
over them. No fire-heat was applied until the be- 
ginning of July, when a little was given in the even- 
ing ; and in wet or cloudy weather, it was continued 
throughout the day, to protect the flowers, and pro- 
mote the setting of the fruit. The screen was also 
continued during the night, until the latter end of 
the month of July. The fruit being then all fair- 
ly set, the screen was laid aside until October, 
when it was again put up at night to protect from 
frost. The fire was continued until the fruit and 
wood were ripened, on which depends much of the 
success of the following year. 

I am partial to the black Hamburgh vine ; for, 
besides being an abundant bearer, and producing 
handsome clusters, it is hardier both in wood and 
fruit, than some others. The bunches hang longer, 
without the berries shrivelling ; and they are less 



502 GRAPE-VINES BEST SUITED 

liable to be injured by the beating rain and wind in 
autumn than most other sorts. 

The fruit now sent was produced under many 
disadvantages : in particular, it was shaded from the 
sun from the latter end of September, by a belt of 
tall forest trees in front ; and the space of wall 
allotted for one furnace, viz. 45 feet by 15, I consi- 
der too large for grapes. Add to this, that the pre- 
sent season has been an unfavourable one for ripen- 
ing late fruits ; and their progress was still farther 
retarded by my having unfortunately left too heavy 
a crop on the vines. Notwithstanding all these dis- 
advantages, however, some of our Muscadine grapes 
were ripe as early as the beginning of October. 

I herewith send specimens of all the different 
kinds of grapes which I tried on a flued wall ; but 
the best and ripest were gathered occasionally as- 
they were wanted. 

A flued wall of the most approved construction 
has recently been put up in the new garden here, 
the vine division of which embraces all the above 
varieties of grapes. To these I intend to add the 
Sweet-water and Black Muscadine, these being 
planted in a well prepared border ; and, from the 
superior construction of the wall, which is well suit- 
ed for equalizing the heat over the whole surface, 
and being in sheltered situations, with an open ex- 
posure, the vines have every chance to succeed, and, 
I expect, bear fruit superior to that produced in the 
old garden. With such a selection of the most ap- 
proved kinds of grapes for the open air, upon rather 



FOR HOT WALLS IN SCOTLAND. 503 

an extensive scale, and under such favourable cir- 
cumstances, I hope I shall soon be able to give you 
a more accurate description of the comparative me- 
rit of the different kinds. 



At a Meeting of Council and Committee, held on 2d No- 
vember 1827, the Society's Silver Medal was awarded to Mr 
Shiells for this communication, accompanied with excellent 
specimens of the different kinds of grapes ripened against 
the flued wall at Erskine House Gardens. The black 
Hamburgh grapes were decidedly the best. 

P. N. Sec. 



Erskine Garden, 1 
October 31. 1827. j 



( 504 ) 



LXII. 

On the Use of Hop- Tops as a Culinary Vege- 
table ; and an Account of different Modes of 
Dressing Gourds for the Table, 

In a Letter to the Secretary from Mr Lewis Pederana. 
Haly burton House. 

{Read 18tk September 1828.) 

Sir, 

observing in your schedule a notice desiring an 
account of any new or improved vegetables, and 
particularly the modes of cooking and preparing the 
gourd, and its varieties, I now submit for your in- 
spection, first, a few hints respecting an excellent, 
wholesome, and very valuable culinary vegetable, 
when rightly managed and prepared ; and I shall, se- 
condly, describe several modes of dressing gourds for 
the table. 

The culinary vegetable alluded to, consists of the 
tops of that well-known plant the Mop. They form 
an excellent substitute for asparagus, when aspara- 
gus is out of season ; and they may be had the whole 



ON HOP-TOPS. 505 

year round. Hop-tops also form an admirable in- 
gredient for a variety of dishes, such as soups, om- 
lets, &c. Long experience in the practice of cook- 
ery, both in this and in my native country, for up- 
wards of forty years, makes me bold in recommend- 
ing hop-tops. I was for some time in the kitchen 
of the King of Sardinia, where the art was practised 
in all its branches. I was afterwards thirty-four 
years with the Hon. D. F. Halyburton, as cook 
and house-steward. He being of delicate constitu- 
tion, and eating no sort of animal food whatsoever, 
I was, on his account, obliged to study varieties of 
vegetable dishes. Hop-tops formed one on which 
I by chance stumbled, and of which he very highly 
approved, finding it agreeable and very wholesome. 
I shall now give you a description of some of my 
modes of cooking and preparing gourds, which, if 
more fully known and understood, might add to the 
substantial enjoyment of a great number of persons 
who possess gardens, however small those gardens 
may be. 

Of cooking Potiron Gourd, when fresh and 
full-swelled. 

Cut the gourd into slices, and, after paring off the 
skin, put the slices into a panful of gravy, and, on the 
fire, boil them down to rag ; then pass them through 
a hair-sieve, and season with white pepper and a 
little salt ; put over the fire again, and boil slowly 
for half an hour. Then, in a tureen, put a handful 



506 ON VARIOUS MODES OF 

of grated Parmezan cheese, upon which pour the 
soup ; mix them well together, then serve up. It 
will form an excellent dish, and give great satisfac- 
tion. 

On Frying any kind of Gourd. 

Slice them thinly half an inch broad, and eight 
inches long ; put them, so sliced, into a sieve or ca- 
lender ; sprinkle a little salt over them, and let them 
drop for three or four hours to drain the juice ; then 
put them on a cloth to dry ; and, when a little dry, 
sprinkle some flour ; and, a few minutes before din- 
ner, fry them in hogs-lard, until they get brown 
and crisp; then serve them up. When scant of other 
vegetables, this will supply a good dish. 



To make a Soup of Gourds, similar to Soupe a 
Loraine. 

When the gourds are young and tender, slice 
them as above, for gravy soup ; take two quarts of 
new milk ; put the milk and gourd, so sliced, into a 
stew-pan ; and, on the fire, boil them so as they 
will pass through a sieve ; then, if too thick, add a 
little more milk ; boil slowly over the fire for half 
an hour ; then, just before using, take a mu^chkin 
of fresh cream, and the yolks of six eggs ; mix them 
all well for a few minutes over the fire ; then season 
with nutmeg, and serve up. 



DRESSING GOURDS FOR THE TABLE. 507 



To make Maigre Soup of Gourds. 

Take a dozen of fish-heads, and, if you are boiling 
fish, keep the liquor ; put all the heads into it, with 
a small bunch of celery, parsley, and onions, with a 
carrot and turnip sliced ; let them boil down to rag ; 
then pass through a sieve ; add a small quantity of 
the gourd, sliced as before ; put them over the fire 
and boil, so as the soup may pass through the sieve 
again ; put it into your pan ; and, on the fire, season 
with it a little Cayenne and white pepper, and you 
will have a very fine soup, equal to gravy soup. 



To make Soup of Gourd Tops. 

Take a quantity of fresh tops of the shoots or 
stems ; cut them in short pieces ; parboil them, and 
drain ; then, half an hour before dinner, put them 
in a stew-pan full of gravy, over the fire, and boil 
them slowly for half an hour ; put in a few dice of 
toasted bread, and you will find this an excellent 
dish. 

A?wther useful dish with Gourd Tops. 

Collect enough to make your dish ; give them a 
half blanch, then put them in a sieve or drainer, 
with a sprinkling of salt ; after the first course 
goes up, lay them in a good batter, fry them in 
hogs-lard, and serve them up. 



508 ON VARIOUS MODES OF 

A good dish with newly set Gowds. 

Gather a dozen of very young gourds when 
thoroughly set ; take out the pulp from one end 
with the turnip-cutter ; give them a parboil ; fill 
the shells with good forced meat, such as you would 
put in pates ; take 2 oz. of fresh butter, and a lit- 
tle flour ; put the butter and flour in a stew-pau, 
and dissolve them on the fire ; then add some gravy, 
and make pretty thick with the yolks of two eggs, 
and a little Harvey sauce. This will form as fine 
a corner dish as can be produced at table. 

To preserve any kind of Gourd. 

Cut off the top and bottom of the gourd ; then 
cut it in rings, and pare off the skin, and, in thin 
slices, cut the rings longitudinally ; dry them in the 
kitchen, on sticks, or on the screen ; when dry they 
will keep for years ; when you wish to use them, 
steep in milk- warm water for three or four hours ; 
then dry them on a cloth ; when dry put them in a 
sieve or drainer, and sprinkle some flour over them ; 
sift out the flour ; then fry them in hot hogs-lard. 
This makes an admirable second course dish. 



DRESSING GOURDS FOR THE TABLE. 509 



Additional Communication from Mr Lewis Pe- 
derana, dated Halyburton House, 9tk Oc- 
tober 1828. 

To the Secretary. 

Sir, 

Having sent you, some time ago, some of my 
receipts for cooking gourds, I hope you will not 
think me troublesome if I send you two more. 

1. Take young gourds, the size of cucumbers, 
cut them longitudinally in four ; clear them of any 
pulp ; if very tender, give only a parboil, and if 
hard, blanch them with a little salt ; then take 2 
ounces of fresh butter, and a table-spoonful of flour, 
which brown in a stew-pan, and pour on good gravy 
until pretty thick ; put the gourds in this mixture ; 
season them with white pepper and a little salt ; 
and serve up. This makes an excellent centre 
or corner dish for the second course. 

2. Take young gourds, as above, and likewise bat- 
ter and flour as above ; dissolve the batter in a stew- 
pan, but do not brown it ; then take three yolks of 
eggs mixed well with half a mutchkin of cream, and 
half a mutchkin of sweet milk. Stir this before the 
fire until it becomes thick as custard ; if not thick 
enough, add one or two yolks of eggs more ; season 
it well with pepper and nutmeg ; then put it neatly 

3 



510 DRESSING GOURDS FOR THE TABLE. 

on the dish, with all the sauce ; strew over it a 
handful of grated Parmezan cheese ; then put it in 
the oven to brown, or salamander it. This dish is 
one of the best of vegetable luxuries, and will defy 
the person who eats, to say of what it is made, un- 
less he has previously known it. This is likewise a 
second course dish, and may be placed opposite the 
above. 



( 511 ) 



LXIII. 

On heating Hot- Houses by Steam. 



In a Letter from the Reverend James Aemitage Rhodes, 
to the Right Honourable Sir John Sinclair, Bart, 
dated Horsforth Hall, near Leeds, 22d September 1825. 



(Read 1th December 1826.) 

JLn endeavouring to explain the mode of heating 
hot-houses by steam, I shall first state what were 
the difficulties which induced me to adopt that plan. 
The hot-houses here were formerly heated on the 
usual plan, byfires and flues. We have one pine-stove 
sixty feet long, one thirty, and one forty ; all in the 
same line, and contiguous to one another. They 
have been built about twenty years ; the flues 
had become shaken, and did not well retain the 
heated air and smoke. The consequence was, that 
the cavities between the flue and the front wall 
could not be used, and the air-vents were stopped 
up. By this means the front border got too much 
heated, and the roots of the vines were injured. 
The vines were made to push irregularly, and the 



512 HEATING HOT-HOUSES BY STEAM. 

tender shoots were often spoiled by smoke and sul- 
phureous vapour- 
To remedy these evils I adopted this steam plan. 
I saw several hot-houses in London heated with 
metal pipes ; iron or copper. But metal, I found, 
transmitted the heat too rapidly. I therefore have 
employed stone-flues, with only small subsidiary 
metal pipes. Lest the plan should fail, I left the 
flues and fire-places untouched, so that I could re- 
vert again to the old method without trouble or loss 
of time. 

I provided as follows : I procured a boiler ten feet 
long, four feet wide, and five feet deep, with the 
usual appendages of safety-valve, supply-pipe, &c. 
This is heated by a furnace constructed upon the 
principles of Count Rumford. Underneath the walks 
in the houses there is a flue for the steam to pass 
along ; this flue is formed by putting flags upon the 
former flags, with a line of bricks between, thus 
leaving a space equal to the thickness of a brick, or 
about three inches, for the steam to pass. The 
same is done under the pine pits ; and, by this mean, 
the bark can be excited to new heat, and can be 
heated or cooled at pleasure, as there is a pipe ex- 
pressly to heat each pit, with a cock to stop the 
steam, and an escape-pipe to let it off, if required. 

The principal distinction is the employment of 
stone-flues, as the medium for conveying steam; 
but, as already noticed, under the stone we have 
small cast-iron pipes of different lengths, such as are 



HEATING HOT-HOUSES BY STEAM. 



513 



used by Oil Gas Companies, (with joints screwed 
together) to distribute the steam more rapidly and 
equally through the whole length of the steam-flue, 
as thus : 




For our houses, in an average winter day, four 
bushels of coals will keep the heat requisite for 
pines for twenty-four hours. We have only one fire 
to attend to, and that will keep in, and not require 
any attention, from ten at night to seven in the 
morning, in the severest weather. 

The advantages are uniformity and purity of heat, 
economy of fuel, of labour and expence ; security 
from smoke or noxious vapour ; and general cleanli- 
ness and salubrity of air in the houses. We have 
adopted the plan about three years, and, in the last 
season, have got at the meetings of the Yorkshire 
Horticultural Society many prizes for the fruit pro- 
duced in these houses. 

We have closed up our fire-flues, and we have no 
prospect of ever wanting them again. To evince 
the economy of labour and expence, I may repeat 
that we have one fire instead of seven or eight ; and 
we burn three bushels of coals only instead of four- 
teen or sixteen, in the course of the twenty-four 
hours of a winter's day and night. 

vol. iv. k k 



514 HEATING HOT-HOUSES BY STEAM. 

If we had new houses to erect, I think the expence 
would not be greater than on the old plan ; as the 
cost of the boiler, about L. 80, would be saved in the 
difference between the expence of fire-flues and 
flues for steam. But even if this were not so, it 
would be well worth any increased expence, because 
hot-houses are places of luxury ; and the difference 
between the pleasure of being in a hot-house heated 
by steam in this method, and one heated by fire- 
flues, especially to those who have tender lungs, is 
very great indeed. The health of vegetation, in the 
steam houses, is proportionally improved. 



Additional Particidars, communicated 23d No- 
vember 1826, in answer to Queries by Mr 
Neill, Secretary. 

I will answer Mr Neill's inquiries most cheer- 
fully. The steam is conveyed to each hot-house in 
one cast-iron pipe of three inches diameter in the 
bore. When it has got down to the front walk, the 
pipe has a flange, to which is screwed on a sort of tri- 
dent, having three pipes and three holes : into these 
are screwed three pieces of pipe, such as are used for 
conveying gas in the streets, of cast-iron, of one and 
a-half inches diameter in the bore. 

These pipes deliver the steam in three different 



HEATING HOT-HOUSES BY STEAM. 515 

parts of the front walk ; the first at a yard or two off 
the end next the steam-pipe ; the second nearly in 
the middle ; and the third at three-fourths of the 
length. The whole length is sixty-five feet. 

The object of this plan, is to diffuse the steam more 
equally and gently than it would be done, if it were 
suffered to escape at once at the large orifice of the 
main pipe. The same plan is adopted for heating the 
pine-pit. The steam-flue under the walk, however, 
has no connection with the pine-pit ; but is separat- 
ed totally from it ; because that Hue is used daily, 
whereas we have only recourse to the flue under the 
pine-pit, (or more properly the false ^floor), when 
the fermentation of the tan is languid. 

The large pipe, therefore, is for conveyance ; the 
small ones are for diffusion. 

The distribution of the steam is quite uniform 
throughout the flue, in consequence of the unequal 
length of the pipes. The quantity admitted can 
be regulated by a cock on the main pipe. 

The pipes are all of iron. Lead is improper, as 
it curls, twists, and bursts. 

The breadth of the flue is two feet and one and 
a half inches. 

It is the full breadth of the walk, except the 
spaces occupied by the bricks, which support the 
stone cover on which we walk. 

The pine- pit is constructed of thick and high 
flags sunk in the ground ; the bottom of the flue is 
flagged against these perpendicular stones. The 

Kk2 



516 HEATING HOT-HOUSES BY STEAM. 

bricks are placed upon the bottom, and cemented^ 
so that no connection for steam exists between the 
flue and the hollow floor of the pine-pit. The front 
flue is laid upon a very gentle descent, the end at 
which the steam enters being the highest. The con- 
densed vapour runs to the lower end, where there is 
a pipe plunged in water in the drain. By this pipe it 
passes, causes the vessel to overflow; and escapes down 
the drain without any loss of steam. The flue 
passes all round the house ; that is, all the walks are 
hollow, so that, if the front flue is full, the steam 
proceeds up the end, and along the back walk* 
which is two feet six inches wide. The back walk 
is seldom much affected by the steam, because a 
moderate quantity in the front is sufficient ; but, 
as it is unconfined, in severe weather, when more 
steam is generated, we have the back walk warmed 
by the steam passing along it. We consider this 
immaterial, except as it tends to keep the tan warm 
all around, by which its heat is retained more regu- 
larl) throughout the pit ; for, as it is large, contain- 
ing frequently from 400 to 500 pines, unless the 
bark be of equal age, it would not heat equally. 

Attention is necessary to the quality of stone, as 
that which is of a porous or clayey nature becomes 
damp. A stone also composed of open layers, loosely 
connected, is objectionable, as it is apt to come off in 
large pieces, and to render the face unequal and ir- 
regular, 



HEATING HOT-HOTJSES BY STEAM. 517 

If any one object to the additional expence of 
three small pipes, I have no doubt one large one 
would answer equally well, if it had holes drilled 
into the side of it, at different intervals, through 
which part of the steam would escape on its pro- 
gress towards the end. 

The thing to be avoided, is the violent rush and 
heat which would take place if the steam came at 
once out of the large pipe. 

I wish it to be understood, that I do not parti- 
cularly recommend my plan of having the steam 
below the walks ; but, under my circumstances, 
that was the only plan I could adopt, as I had al- 
ready houses constructed on the old plan, which 
construction I was desirous not to alter. 

My fire-places, smoke-flues, &c. remain to this 
hour quite entire ; but they have not been used for 
six or seven years. 

It is probable that if I were to build new houses, 
I might make walks without steam under them ; as 
they are hot to the feet of the gardener in the winter 
nights (not so hot as to be painful however), and 
are wet when he is steaming the houses, as water 
is poured upon the hot walk to generate steam for 
that purpose. 

We never allow any escape of steam into the 
house from the pipe, as it would be too violent, too 
hot, and too local. 

In the other mode, we can produce the finest, 
most gentle, and most perfect dew ; and can render 



518 HEATING HOT-HOUSES BY STEAM. 

the houses so misty, that, no object can be seen at the 
distance of a few arms length. 

The result of the whole is, that we have the finest 
pines and grapes. 

But this, of course, depends upon the gardener 
also ; because no plan of heating, however complete, 
can dispense with the necessity of constant atten- 
tion, vigilance and skill. 

I will only add, that, by this means, the air of the 
hot-houses is perfectly pure and agreeable, as it is 
free from all vapour from coals or fire-flues. The 
furnace is fitted up on the plan of Count Rumford, 
with double doors and regulating air- slide, and the 
boiler is set with a wheel-flue capable of heating it 
with the smallest quantity of fuel. 

This, as far as I know, is the best plan of econo- 
mising coal, and producing the least possible quan 
tity of smoke. 



HOESEFORTH HaLL, "| 

23fZ November 1826. | 



FIFE PIT . 




HEATING HOT-HOUSES BY STEAM. 519 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 

Fig. I. Pine-pit, having a hollow bottom, and pipes similar to 
those in the walk, but not represented, to avoid con- 
fusion. 
A representation of the mode of diffusing steam equally 
through the front flue of a hot-house. The stone cover 
supposed to be taken off. The whole flue is 63 feet 
long. 
Pipe 1. is 1 yard long. 

2. is 9 yards long, 

3. is 14 yards long. 

The trident is 4 feet from the end of the flue. 

The paper does not admit of the drawing being made 

by a scale, it is merely intended to shew how the 

pipes are attached to the main pipe. 

Fig. 2. Cross section. 

a Old fire-flue, left lest the steam should at any time 

fail. 
b b Line of bricks, for supporting the flagstone c. 

Upright flags introduced between the line of bricks 

and the old flues, would prevent any shrinking in 

the brick-work. 
d Space through which the steam and steam-pipes 

pass. 
e Tan-bed in which the pine-apple pots are plunged. 
f Hollow space below the tan-bed, which may be 

filled with steam when required. 



( 520 



LXIV. 



Account of a mode of training Vines on the out- 
side of the alternate sashes of a hot-house, by 
which means excellent Grapes were produced. 



In a Letter from Mr James Macdonald, Dalkeith Park, 
to the Secretary. 

(Read 1th Dec. 1826, and Uh Jan. 1827J 

Dear Sir, 

X send you three bunches of Black Hamburgh 
Grapes from the open air, without the assistance of 
any artificial heat whatever, but trained over the 
sashes of a glazed house. Good as these are, they are 
nothing like some of the samples thus produced, 
either for size or quality. Fine specimens of the 
grapes have been taken to London, and different 
parts of England as well as of Scotland, as rarities 
produced in our northern climate. I may safely say, 
that not less than from 30 to 40 pounds weight 
have thus been sent away as samples, and yet I think 
I shall have a regular supply for the table till spring. 



GRAPES IN OPEN AIR. 521 

I would not have troubled the Caledonian Horticul- 
tural Society with them ; but perhaps nothing of the 
kind has been produced before, from the open air, 
at this time of the year. I am, &c. 

Dalkeith Park, ) 
Dec. 6. 1826. ) 



The bunches of Black Hamburgh grapes which accom- 
panied this communication, were well swelled, and of the 
richest flavour, the summer and autumn of 1826 having 
been peculiarly favourable ; and the General Meeting, 7th 
December 1826, voted an extra medal to Mr Macdonald, 
and desired the Secretary to request for information re- 
garding the practice. In answer to his inquiries, the fol- 
lowing additional communication was received from Mr 
Macdonald. 



522 TRAINING OF GRAPE-VINES ON 



Additional Information. 



Letter from Mr Macdonald to the Secretary, dated Dal- 
keith Park, 22d December 1826. 



Dear Sir, 

J. have to acknowledge yours of the 12th instant, 
wishing to know the mode in which the grapes were 
grown in the open air at Dalkeith ; and I shall be 
most happy to communicate the whole process prac- 
tised here. 

The vines have been planted about fifteen years, 
out-side of a small stove for the cultivation of tropical 
plants. The vines have generally been brought into 
the stove every spring, and trained up to the rafters, 
to produce their fruit ; and in the autumn, when the 
fruit was mature and cut, the vines were turned out 
to the open air to winter. 

But for these two or three years past, in the 
spring, when the vines were introduced into the 
house for a crop, I left some of the short wood on 
the vines outside in the open air ; and I found that 
they matured their fruit every year, equal, both as 
to size and quality, to those within the house. This 
year (1826) all the rafters in the stove being cover- 
ed, with choice ornamental creepers, I was induced 
to make a trial of my whole vines in the open air 



OUTSIDE OF HOT-HOUSE SASHES. 523 

out-side. Accordingly, in the spring, when the buds 
began to swell, I laid the whole vines down on the 
ground ; and to preserve them from the spring frosts, 
I covered them over with mats and spruce-fir 
boughs, till the end of May, I then trained all the 
shortest vines on the front ashlar-wall, which is 
about two and one-half feet high, filling in as many 
as it could contain. 

I then took the longer shoots, and trained them up 
the front upright rafters, keeping the upright front 
glass clear. I next procured some very thin laths, 
and tacked them on each alternate fixed light on 
the sloping roof, so as not to prevent the running 
lights from giving the usual air for the house and 
plants. We tied the vines to the laths as we went 
along. They remained in this state till the end of 
August ; when I found that those vines on the 
sloping glass were not making such progress as those 
on the front ashlar building, or on the front upright 
rafters, the fruit not swelling equally well. With 
a view to remedy this, I, and one of my young men, 
got a few blocks of wood, five inches high, and one 
and one-half inch in width, and nailed them upright 
on the centre of the long rafter, two feet three inches 
apart, on each alternate light ; we got long laths, 
and stretched them along these blocks, in the direc- 
tion and according to the slope of the sashes, nailing 
the laths to the blocks. Then we began at the bot- 
tom of the light, and got some small laths to reach 
across the light. We nailed on stretchers on the 
top of the laths, and then lifted up the vines and 



524 TRAINING OF GRAPE-VINES ON 

grapes, on the top cross stretchers, tying and regula- 
ting them as we proceeded. The cross laths are 
placed about eighteen inches asunder ; thus placing 
them about seven inches above the rafter, and about 
ten inches above the glass. This finished the ope- 
ration. 

In a short time, the progress made by the grapes 
in swelling was quite visible^; and, at the same dis- 
tance from the glass, they remained till ripened in 
October and November. 

The kind of grapes are Black Hamburgh, Black 
Burgundy, Green Chasselas, White Constantia, 
White Muscat of Alexandria, and Black Gibraltar. 
The three last mentioned, being the most tender, 
were unfortunately placed on the north end of the 
stove, where they had nothing but the afternoon sun : 
nevertheless, several gentlemen who tasted them, 
declared them excellent, both for size and flavour. 
I have no need to mention any thing with regard 
to the general quality of the grapes, or the prolific 
state of the vines as to bunches ; both have been 
witnessed by hundreds, and by many good judges. 

A serious difficulty was to secure the fruit from 
wasps and birds, both of which are very abundant 
and destructive at Dalkeith. I got some catgut at 
3^d. per yard, and taking 2|- breadths, had them 
sewed together : this breadth covered the width of 
one light ; we then tacked the catgut close on each 
side of the lights, so as to prevent even wasps from 
getting under it. This proved quite effectual ; and 



i:la.te xn 



Ear', Memoirs V lJVp,52S 




W H Lizai-s Sc, 



PliATE xm_ 



'.Earth Memoirs VoWp.Szi 




VlZZizars Sc , 



OUTSIDE OF HOT-HOUSE SASHES. 525 

the catgut cover as well as the laths, &c, will an- 
swer the same purpose for years to come, if re- 
quired. 

The accompanying sketches (Plates XII. and 
XIII.), are but roughly executed ; but they may 
perhaps tend to make the description better under- 
stood ; so that, upon the whole, a pretty accurate 
idea of the practice may be formed. I am, &c. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIL 

a a Shew the vines trained on the alternate lights, and also 

on the ashlar. 
b b Blocks. On the tops of the blocks are long laths, stretching 

from the top to the bottom of the sloping sashes ; and 

on these, again, are cross laths. 
c c Upright front lights. 
del sloping lights. 



PLATE XIII. 

Fig. I. Vine as trained on sloping sash. 

2. Section of the same. 

3. End view of the hot-house. 



( 526 ) 



LXV. 

Another Hit at the Cater pillars. 

In a Letter from Mr Machray, at Annat, to the 
Secretary. 

(Read 5th June 1828.) 

Sir, 

INI otwithstanding the many receipts which 
have been given, holding forth immediate destruction 
to the whole caterpillar tribes, they, in many in- 
stances, still maintain their ground, and continue 
their voracious depredations. Having formerly 
voted the gooseberry caterpillars to perdition, with 
the application of soap-suds and tobacco, (Caledo- 
nian Horticultural Society's Memoirs, vol. i. page 
272.), I now endeavour to seal the destruction of 
such as infest and destroy the foliage of apple-trees. 
Considering that prevention is better than cure, I 
have, by the following means, prevented them from 
reaching that foliage, which the parent, by natural in- 
stinct, had intended should supply her larvae, when 
they emerged from the chrysalis state, at the root of 
the apple-tree. Where the tree was covered with 



ANOTHER HIT AT THE CATERPILLARS. 527 



mossy, scabrous bark, judging it might be possible some 
of the eggs had been lodged in the crannies, I rubbed 
off the moss and scabrous part of the bark, and in 
place of rinzing with tar, as had been recommended 
by some old horticulturists, I thought of insulating 
the trees with water. For this purpose, I got 
strong clay in January, and beat it up with one-fourth 
of its bulk of horse-droppings in the same manner 
as grafting clay, a process familiar to every gardener ; 
after it is properly beat up, it is laid in a heap in a 
back shade, and covered up from frost and drought, 
where it acquires additional toughness. In the be- 
ginning of March, when it is time to apply it, I re- 
moved a little earth from around the stem of the 
tree, sufficient to admit clay to form a cup four 
inches wide, by three inches deep, as represented by 
the following section. 



Ground 




Level. 



The circular canal thus formed is to be filled with 
water. 



528 ANOTHER HIT AT THE CATERPILLARS. 

The clay should be at least three inches thick, to 
prevent the water from escaping. The water should 
be renewed in the evening, as often as it is nearly 
evaporated, and the person supplying it should ob- 
serve if there are any cracks in the clay, which he 
can easily fill up or mend. 

The clay basin should be kept full of water from 
the beginning of March till the end of June, during 
which time, numbers of the young caterpillars will be 
observed attempting to cross, and many will be found 
drowned. When they are very numerous, they may 
be occasionally swept off the clay and destroyed. 

I communicated this method to P. Mathew, Esq. 
of Gourdiehill, a most zealous orchardist, that he 
might give the experiment a fair trial, upon a scale 
as large as I proposed doing the present season, as 
circumstances (which it is unnecessary here to men- 
tion) prevented the execution of that experiment 
by myself. I shall only add, that those who will 
give this scheme a fair trial, will find it less trouble- 
some than they may at first sight suppose. The ex- 
pence is only in the labour, and though regular and 
careful attention is absolutely requisite, to prevent 
the marauders ascending, the labour and care are 
amply repaid by the absence of such destructive ver- 
min. 1 am, &c. 

Annat, ) 
Mth March 1828. j 



( 529 



LXVI. 



Of the Disease in Turnips called Anbury r , or 
Fingers and Toes. 



AT the General Meeting of the Caledonian Horticultural 
Society, held on the 2d September 1819, it was mentioned 
by George Bell, Esq. that the disease in Turnips called 
in this country Fingers and Toes, and in some parts of 
England Anbury, had this year prevailed very generally 
in several of the principal agricultural counties ; and it was 
proposed that the Society should endeavour to procure 
correct information regarding that disease, and, if possible, 
the means of obviating its progress. The Secretary, there- 
fore, prepared the following Queries, and addressed them 
to various gentlemen, who were understood to take a par- 
ticular interest in rural affairs. 

For how many years has the disease in turnips called Fingers and 
Toes been known in your district ? 

Have you any reason to think that it made its appearance first from 
the south ; or from that district near Hull called Holderness ? 

Has it greatly affected the turnip crop in your neighbourhood this 
season (1819) ? 

When the disease has appeared in a field, have you observed whether 
it spreads over the whole, or in patches, or in the course of entire 
drills, or whether it be interrupted ? 

At what point of the growth of the turnip does the disease first ap- 
pear ; and by what symptoms on the foliage, or otherwise, is the ex= 
VOL. IV. L 1 



530 QUERTES RESPECTING 

istence of disease in the bulb indicated ? How does it generally ter- 
minate ? 

What is your opinion as to the cause of the disease ? Does it appear to 
have resulted from the nature of the season or climate ; or has it 
any connection with the quality of the soil, as to newness, or manu- 
ring ? Is it immediately caused by an insect depositing its egg, and 
a grub or caterpillar forming its nidus, in the bulb ; has the progress 
of the larva been traced, so as to ascertain the species of insect ; or 
does it result merely from a puncture made by some insect, without 
eggs being deposited ? 

Has any remedy been proposed or tried for this disease, and with what 
success ? 

Has the disease appeared in turnips raised on land newly limed ? Has 
it occurred in crops raised on land recently broken up from pasture, 
or in land which has not before been cropped with turnips ? Or does 
it occur most frequently in fields which have repeatedly been under 
turnip crop ? 

Does the disease equally affect all the kinds or varieties of turnip 
usually cultivated, or what particular varieties are more subject to 
it than others ? 

How does it affect the turnip as an article of food for cattle ? 

In cases where the disease has appeared, has the history of the seed 
employed been accurately examined ^ for instance, whether it has 
been raised in a garden in the immediate neighbourhood of other 
plants of the Brassica or Cabbage genus, or in fields near which the 
wild mustard and wild radish abound ? 

Has it been ascertained, whether the seed yielded by a plant affected 
with the Anbury, affords turnips of regular shape, or with misshapen 
and diseased bulbs. 

A description of any remarkable example of the disease that may fall 
under notice, with some account of the progressive formation of the 
excrescence, its duration, its texture, its tendency to putrescence, its 

' smell, and other characters, will be desirable. 

Several communications were received in answer to the 
queries so circulated. The most important and satisfactory 
were those which follow. 



ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 53 L 

1. Letter from Mr George Sinclair, F. L. S., 
Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire*, to Mr Neill, 
Secretary. 

Sir, 

a now send the details of the observations and 
facts which have come under my notice, respecting 
the inquiries contained in your circular of the 20th 
of September last, regarding the disease of Turnips 
called Anbury, or Fingers and Toes. If they should 
be considered of any utility by the Society, in this 
important investigation, it will afford me much plea- 
sure. 

This disease, which is common to the different 
species and varieties of Brassica Rapa, B. oleracea, 
and to the B. Napus, has been observed in the field- 
crops of turnips, cultivated in this district for seve- 
ral years. It is a general opinion that it has been 
more prevalent and injurious to the field-crops of 
turnips this season, than -in any preceding year. 
Should it increase much beyond its present extent, 
as an enemy to the turnip crop, it is feared it will 
be found more fatal than the effects of the Beetle 
(Chrysomela saltatoria), the Fly (Aphides), or the 
Black Canker (Tenthredo Scrophuiarise). 

No reasons have offered themselves here to ren- 
der it probable that the disease originated in any 

* Now of New Cross, Surrey. 

l1 2 



532 MR GEORGE SINCLAIR ON 

particular district. I have observed the galls or tu- 
bercles on turnips, ever since I had any knowledge 
of the culture of the plant, and these excrescences 
will be found to be the disease in its mildest state : 
therefore^ until proofs are obtained, that the insect, 
which is the immediate cause of these excrescences, 
feeds and propagates on other species of plants, it 
may be considered as highly probable that this dis- 
ease is as old as the turnip plant, and with it had 
its origin. Exciting causes, such as unfavourable 
seasons, soils, manures, culture, and to which may 
be added a less extended cultivation and interest in 
its success, seem only to have been wanting to ren- 
der the effects of this disease equally striking for- 
merly, as it is at the present day. 

The effects of the disease are visible on plants 
about seven weeks old, but this is the earliest period 
of its progress observed by me. 

The malady is first indicated by a want of natu- 
ral vigour in the leaves ; for, although the leaves of 
a diseased root happen to be larger in all respects 
than those of a sound plant, yet, whenever the rays 
of a mid-day sun fall upon them, they flag or de- 
cline from their natural posture in a flaccid state. 
The extent and direction of the disease in a field 
can by this symptom be traced with ease and cer- 
tainty. When the leaves are thus enfeebled, they 
are generally attacked by a minute species of Aca- 
rus, whose delicate web tinctures the leaf with a 
bluish-white appearance. 



ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 533 

Whether the crops were cultivated in ridges, in 
rows, or sown broadcast, I have invariably observed 
the disease to spread in patches in an irregular man- 
ner over the field, proceeding, however, from the 
low lying points ; or, when the land was a general 
level, the disease appeared to begin, or at least ra- 
ged with most violence at the most sheltered parts, 
or those contiguous to covers or plantations. Local 
hollows, even at the summit of rising grounds, I 
have observed affected, when the surrounding plants 
were sound. When a plant, which exhibits the 
above symptoms, is taken out of the ground, one 
or more galls are perceptible : these in time become 
large excrescences, which, when opened, shew a small 
grub or larva of an insect, which is furnished with 
two eyes, mandibles, and jaws. This larva, in very 
young plants, has the appearance of a minute glo- 
bule of water, and is not to be distinguished by the 
naked eye. As soon as the insect is prepared to 
leave its nidus, the root, or that portion of it form- 
ed into galls, begins to putrify. The excrescence 
becomes soft and spongy, the rind bursts, and a fe- 
tid smell, peculiar to decomposing vegetable matter, 
exhales from it. Partridges appear to be very fond 
of the larva. Whenever they are seen to congregate 
among affected turnips, the galls are found perforat- 
ed, and the insect taken out. Several insects are now 
attracted to the putrify ing mass. A species of musca 
deposits its eggs on the surface. The larvse bur- 
row in the mass; these are followed by different 



534 Mil GEOttGE SINCLAIR ON 

species of Staphylinus, Psederus, &c. The fomer of 
these seem to live on the larvae of the musca, for 
two of these lived three months, while supplied with 
these larva?, but died soon after the supply was dis- 
continued. They did not appear to touch the mat- 
ter of the turnip, on which the larva of the fly lived. 
Under these circumstances, when moist weather oc- 
curs, the- mass affected soon wastes away, and fre- 
quently a large root is found a mere shell. The 
larva? are found solitary : how great a number soever 
inhabits a root, every individual occupies a distinct 
cell. It appears to be a species of the Cynips of 
Linnaeus, and the Diploleparise of Leach, Geoffroy, 
&c. * In the head, mandibles, jaws,&c. it is similar 
to the larvae which live on the root of the cauli- 
flower, broccoli, and other varieties of Brassica Na- 
pus and oleracea. The colour of the larva varies 
according to the colour of the root. It is white in 
the common field globe-turnip, and in cauliflower ; 
yellow in the root of rape, and Swedish turnip, 
Scotch yellow, &c. The latter appear to be less 

* Roots affected with the disease were planted in a soil prepared 
by boilingin water, so as to destroy every species of insect and eggs 
of insects. Planted in a pot, and protected by gauze to prevent 
the escape of the insects, the roots continued until April, when 
two perfect insects were found to have eaten their way out of 
two of the larger Anburies. They were dead when found. The 
characters appeared to agree with those of the above ; and the 
colour was nearly a perfect black. This insect I had never seen 
before. 



ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 535 

subject to the disease than the white globe and tan- 
kard varieties. In two instances where I collected 
specimens of severely affected roots, and also of the 
soil, for chemical examination, I found the roots 
had been in contact with a portion of tree leaves., 
which probably had come with the manure ; but, 
in other instances, I found roots equally diseased, to 
which no manure had been applied. In some ex- 
periments instituted by his Grace the Duke of Bed- 
ford, which I have had the honour to conduct, on 
the nature of salt as a manure, simple, and com- 
bined with other substances, as stable-dung in dif- 
ferent states, lime, soot, oil-cake, &c. applied in 
different modes, and in various proportions, to soils 
differing essentially from each other in their natu- 
ral properties, as loams, siliceous sandy soils, clayey 
soils, peats and heath or moor soils, for the growth 
of the different useful species of agricultural plants ; 
the results, as immediately regards this particular 
affection of turnips, have not been so decisive in fa- 
vour of salt or lime as I had anticipated ; for the dis- 
ease appeared in every case, though in different 
degrees. Combinations of salt and lime were evi- 
dently the most effectual, as no instance occurred of 
the bulb being affected below the surface of the soih 
That portion of it, however, which was above the 
surface, was affected with galls, the same as in the 
bulbs grown on soils of the same nature, to which 
no application of manure had been applied. On a 
space of the same soil, to which salt simply had 



536 MR GEORGE SINCLAIR ON 

been applied the preceding spring, and from which 
time the soil remained fallow, the crop was good. 
One plant in ten, however, was affected with the 
disease below the surface, as well as above it. The 
salt, in this instance, had been applied at the rate 
of 86 bushels per acre, and mixed with the surface 
four inches deep. It was applied in the first week 
of May 1818. On one portion of it barley and 
turnips were sown, but they did not vegetate, the 
dose being too great. The season following, how- 
ever, the crops were good. On the same soil lime 
was applied at the rate of 120 bushels per acre, and 
the disease was not less general than in the former 
case. Lime was applied to a clayey loam, and to 
siliceous sandy soils, at the rate of 120 bushels per 
acre to 25, and salt from 86 bushels to 5 per acre, 
but without any decisive effects in the prevention 
of this disease of turnips. The maximum and mi- 
nimum of salt was here nearly ascertained. In 
every distinct soil the quantities applied were the 
same, and the trials made under the same cir- 
cumstances. With regard to the mode of apply- 
ing salt and lime for turnips, that of mixing it with 
the soil, previous to sowing the seed, or applying it 
to the surface after sowing, proved best ; for, when 
salt or lime are mixed and deposited with the seed, 
vegetation is retarded from two to twelve days, and 
more, beyond the natural period. This fact was 
proved on the seed of eight different species of 
plants, sown on four different kinds of soil. How- 



ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 537 

ever beneficial, therefore, salt or lime, in other re- 
spects, are to the soil (a subject not within the pre- 
sent inquiry), and, though they seem, when combi- 
ned, to modify this disease, yet it appears they are 
not, either in a simple or combined state, a specific 
remedy for this disease in turnips. 

Inert or barren peat-moss was submitted to ex- 
periment. 400 grains of this soil consisted of, 

Fine pure siliceous sand, - - 29 

Inert vegetable matter, destructible by fire, - 289 

Soluble vegetable matter, with sulphate of potash, 1 1 

Alumina, or pure matter of clay, - - 14 

Oxide of iron, 30 
Gypsum, - - - - -12 

Sulphate of iron, or green vitriol, - - 10 

Loss, .... 5 

400 

This soil, in its natural state, is absolutely bar- 
ren. Slugs and worms die, when placed in the wa- 
ter that passes through it. In one instance, salt 
simply was applied, at the rate of 171 bushels per 
acre ; another portion was manured with lime, at 
the rate of 1220 bushels per acre ; to another space 
a mixture of these substances was applied, in the 
proportion of salt 171, and lime 1220. In the first 
of these, vegetation did not take place. In the se- 
cond, a sufficiency of plants were produced, but the 
bulbs were small, and not well formed. The mix- 
ture of salt and lime was the most effectual applica- 



538 MR GEORGE SINCLAIR ON 

tion. Every seed appeared to have vegetated, and 
grew well, till a course of dry weather checked their 
growth : afterwards, when much wet weather suc- 
ceeded, the principal part of the bulbs decayed, the 
tap root becoming affected first. In the crop of 
the limed space, one plant in ten was affected with 
the Anbury disease ; in that which received the 
mixture of salt and lime one plant in twelve was 
affected. In examining the soil taken from the 
spots of a field where the roots were severely dis- 
eased, I could not find any difference in the num- 
ber or proportions of the constituent parts, from 
those of the soil where the plants were sound and 
healthy, only that the former contained more mois- 
ture, the water of absorption in the latter being to 
that of the former as eight to ten nearly. Mi- 
Overman of Maulden, a most intelligent and exten- 
sive grower of turnips, pointed out to me a portion 
of one of his fields of turnips, where a road had for- 
merly been. The disease was here general, and the 
whole line and space formerly occupied by the road 
could be clearly distinguished from the rest of the 
field, where the disease was only found in distant 
patches. A portion of the land which immediately 
adjoined to the site of the old road on one side, had 
been under tillage for a long series of years. On 
this space, consisting of several acres, an instance of 
the disease was scarcely to be found. In other cases 
I have witnessed the reverse of this, where the 
lands which had been the longest term of years mi- 



ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 539 

der the alternate course of husbandry, were the most 
affected with this malady, and the crops of turnips 
on lands recently broke up from permanent pas- 
ture scarcely affected by it, the soils, mode of cul- 
ture, &c. being alike. The half of a large field in 
this gentleman's farm had a strong dressing of clay ; 
the soil was a light siliceous sand, containing a no- 
table portion of oxide of iron. The clay approach- 
ed to the nature of marl, in regard to the quantity 
of carbonate of lime which entered into its composi- 
tion. The number of bulbs affected with galls on 
the clayed land was greatly inferior to the number 
affected on the portion where no clay had been ap- 
plied. These facts, joined to observations unneces- 
sary to bring forward here, render it extremely pro- 
bable that the cause of the disease cannot be traced 
to the nature of the soil, manure, or mode of cul- 
ture, although it may be encouraged and fostered 
by them from circumstances connected with unfa- 
vourable weather and unskilful management. 

I have procured seed from roots perfectly free 
from this disease, sowed in a situation excluded from 
the neighbourhood of any other species or variety of 
brassica, which, when sown on land that, to my 
knowledge, never was sown with turnip-seed before, 
and on old garden land, in both cases produced 
bulbs more or less affected by this disease. Whe- 
ther the reverse of this takes place, I have not had 
an opportunity to obtain satisfactory proofs ; and, 
until the minute particulars of the economy or na- 



540 MR GEORGE SINCLAIR ON 

tural habits of the insect, which is doubtless the im- 
mediate cause of the disease, is intimately known, 
it will be difficult to proceed in devising any plan 
of prevention with a hope of certainty of success. 
One point is clear and evident, that, whatever in- 
creases the vigour and rapid growth of the turnip 
plant in its early stages of growth, checks with con- 
siderable force the progress and bad effects of this 
formidable disease. I divided a perfect and fine 
grown turnip, in order to obtain some information 
of the form and disposition of the cellular texture, 
and the compressed air-vessels, as they appear in a 
healthy state, opposed to that severely affected 
with the Anbury. On passing a glass over the 
inner surface of this healthy root, I found one 
of the larvae situated in the second circle of air- 
vessels next to the centre of the bulb, without the 
smallest indication of any passage to the outer sur- 
face. The insect was too small to be seen with the 
naked eye. It had been deposited there in the egg 
state at a very early stage of the growth of the 
plant. The vigour and rapid growth of the bulb 
had been probably, in this instance, superior to the 
poisonous nature of the grub ; for it is difficult to 
conceive, without some such power or agency, so 
soft and slender a body as the insect actually ap- 
pears to be, while in infancy, should be able to re- 
sist the powerful pressure caused by the growth of 
the plant, which is, in that part immediately sur- 
rounding the worm, increased much beyond its na- 



ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 541 

tural state, from the irritation of the wounded air- 
vessels causing a preternatural flow of the sap to 
that point. It is worthy of remark, that no trace 
of excrement is apparent in the cells even of grubs 
which have nearly attained to their full size, though 
a considerable vacuity surrounds them. A bulb, 
which had one of the galls cut away, was placed in 
a warm, moist situation, out of the soil, and, in the 
space of three weeks, fresh substance of the root was 
formed from the upper lip of the wound, of the 
thickness of one-fifth of an inch, so powerful was the 
effort of nature to replace the part after the poison- 
ous matter was removed. 

This disease appears to lessen the nutritive powers 
of the turnip, in various degrees, according to its 
violence. 

875 grains of a perfectly sound root of the white 

globe turnip afforded of nutritive matter, - 46 grains 

875 of a root slightly affected, - 40 

875 of a root wholly diseased afforded only, - 18 

The nutritive matter of the healthy root consisted, 

of mucilage, - - - - 8 

Saccharine matter, - - - 35 

Gluten, or matter coagulated by heat below 130°, 3 



46 



The nutritive matter of the slightly diseased root 

gave mucilage, ... 9 

Saccharine matter, - - .- - 30 

Gluten, or albumen, - ".'.•" \ 



40 



542 MR ARTHUR YOUNG ON 

The nutritive matter from the severely affected 

root appeared to consist of mucilage, - 10 

Matter analogous to gluten or albumen, - 8 * 

The insoluble portion of the healthy root consist- 
ed of vegetable fibre ; that of the severely affected 
root consisted of vegetable fibre, in an indurated 
granular state, containing matter nearly soluble in 
a large quantity of boiling-water, and separated 
from the fibre by pouring it off while in a state of 
suspension. This substance possessed a disagree- 
able smell, similar to that of putrifying vegetable 
matter. It seems highly probable, therefore, that 
the nutritive qualities of the turnip are greatly les- 
sened by this disease ; and that it must be hurtful 
to the health of sheep and cattle which feed on the 
roots affected by it. 

Woburn Abbey, 1 
Dec. 1. 1819- j 



2. From the late Arthur Young, Esq. dated 
Bradfield Hall, Bury St Edmond's, 7th Oc 
tober 1819. 

To my knowledge, the disease in turnips called 
fingers and toes has been known in Suffolk above 

* It is highly probable that the remains of the animal matter of 
the larvse in the diseased root afforded this additional quantity of 
albumen. 



ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 543 

fifty years ; and, I am informed, it was known long 
before that period. But I am quite unacquainted 
with the districts in which it first appeared. 

I have not heard that this distemper has been 
particularly noted in the present season (1819.) 

In all the observations which I have made on this 
distemper, it ever appeared so scattered as not to 
admit any generally operating cause, perhaps not 
more than a plant or two upon an acre of land ; 
very rarely indeed in any continuity of effect. 

In the remarks which have come to my know- 
ledge, the disease has not appeared till the bulb of 
the root has been somewhat advanced. I do not re- 
collect any appearance in the plants, at an early 
growth, indicative of the distemper ; the termination 
of the disease is the reduction of the plant in size 
and value. 

I have no idea as to the cause, for it sometimes 
comes so very thinly scattered in a crop as seeming- 
ly to authorise the supposition that the seed was 
not affected. The only remark that has been made 
here> relative to soil, is, that it comes more upon 
light sandy lands than upon other soils, and rarely 
when the sowing is late. 

I never heard of the application of any remedy. 

The disease has appeared on land that was never 
limed at all, in the memory of man. There is very 
little arable in this county (Suffolk) from old grass, 
it being prohibited in all leases. 

I cannot learn that any satisfactory observations 



544 MESSRS MACDOUGALL ON 

have been made relative to variations according to 
the sort of turnip. 

The number of plants in a whole field affected by 
this disease is so small, that it is impossible that 
cattle should have been hurt by eating the distem- 
pered turnips. I have known a field of several acres 
with only one or two of these anburied plants to be 
found in it. 

No remarks have been reported to me sufficiently 
minute to ascertain any connection between the seed 
sown, and the distempered plants arising ; but in a 
multitude of cases the number affected is so few that 
it is not easy to suppose it derived from the seed. 



3. From Messrs D. and A. Macdougall, Cess- 
furd, by Kelso, Roxburghshire, dated 22d Oc- 
tober 1819- 

We offer the following answers to the queries 
proposed by the Caledonian Horticultural Society, 
in regard to the disease of Anbury, or " fingers and 
toes," in Turnip. 

The disease has been known in this neighbour- 
hood for nearly twenty years. It seems to have ori- 
ginated in the district, without any connection with 
any other whatever. It has greatly, indeed more 
than in any other district, injured the turnip-crop 
upon Harelwater, in Roxburghshire. In several in- 
stances, the whole field has been totally destroyed ; 



ON ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 545 

in others, only in patches ; but never following the 
drills, so as to convince that it is caused by the seed, 
manure, or treatment of the land. 

The turnip is attacked at a very early stage, even 
before hoeing in some cases, and in others not till 
the crop has completely covered the ground : in 
either case, the leaves immediately droop, and, if 
the weather is dry, the plant entirely loses its 
growth, and dies. If it is moist, it may not have 
much the appearance of the disease ; and by putting 
out new fibres above the affected part, it in some 
measure recovers its vigour, and, although still dis- 
eased, attains to a good size ; but invariably part of 
the root is in a state of putrescence, and, if exposed 
to the frost in winter, becomes entirely rotten. 

We think the disease originates in the bite of 
some insect upon the fibres, more than the effect of 
either soil, season or climate, although the lands in 
a low situation are most affected by it ; the excres- 
cences are frequently so perfectly sound, as not to 
have the smallest appearance of animalcule seen in 
them with a microscope. In a short time they cer* 
tainly are full of insects and worms ; but we think 
the diseased state of the turnip produces them, and 
consider it to be first caused by a puncture, without 
any eggs being deposited in the turnip. Number- 
less remedies have been tried without any satisfac- 
tory result. The disease has appeared on all de- 
scriptions of land under every kind of management, 
— newly cultivated land, new-limed — old pasture 
vol. iv. m m 



546 MESSRS D. AND A. MACDOUGALL 

land, new-limed — crofts, limed and without lime, 
dunged, and without it. 

We know no kind of turnip that is not occasion- 
ally affected by the disease. The Swedish turnip, 
from having a greater number of fibres, continues to 
grow after it is attacked; and, being of a much 
harder nature, is not so readily injured by the win- 
ter's frosts. 

The turnip by the disease loses almost all its feed- 
ing qualities, and becomes very disagreeable both to 
cattle and sheep. 

The disease has appeared in turnips grown from 
seed, raised under every circumstance ; and we are 
convinced it is not the effect of the seed, as even 
the Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis), and runches 
(Raphanus Raphanistrum), seem to be attacked 
by it, their roots distorted, and their leaves droop- 
ing. 

We know of no seed raised from diseased plants 
having been used ; but cannot think it would affect 
the shape of the turnip, as many of those affected 
by the disease retain the same round shape which is 
found in the sound turnip. 

It would be useless to attempt a description of 
the various appearances of the diseased turnip, as 
the gentlemen of the Society could form no idea of 
the matter from such a description — and can see 
the disease in every stage and appearance, by having 
specimens of the turnip sent to them, from the first 
formation of the tubercles, about the size of a small 



ON ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 547 

pea, until the turnip becomes completely putrescent. 
— In writing answers to the queries of the Society, 
it may perhaps be expected to see a detailed account 
of the remedies used for the prevention of the dis- 
ease. They were principally, using different kinds of 
manures, and pickling the seed before sowing. It 
has been asserted that marl is a remedy ; but that 
can only be obtained in a few situations ; and it 
certainly loses its effect in a short time, as many 
farms in this neighbouihood were marled not many 
years since, and are now liable to the disease. That 
the disease is occasioned by the deposite of eggs, 
seems to be confirmed by a circumstance that takes 
place here, of affected turnip having been carted to 
a part of a stubble-field, and given to some calves, 
which were confined by a railing ; the other parts 
of the field were free from disease, and that where 
the diseased turnip was laid was completely covered 
with it. 



4. From the Reverend George Jenyns, Pre- 
bendary of Ely, 

I have been honoured with your letter from Sir 
John Sinclair, Baronet, requesting any informa- 
tion that I can give you upon the subject of a dis- 
ease in turnips, called in Scotland Fingers and 
Toes, and with us the Anbury. I will endeavour 

M m 21 



548 REV. GEORGE JENYNS 

to answer the different queries inclosed in your let- 
ter, to the best of my judgment in matters of that 
kind. 

First, then, the disease in turnips called Anbu-< 
ry, has been known in the eastern part of the king- 
dom as far back as forty years, to my own know- 
ledge. It prevails generally this season to a great 
extent. 

From whence it first made its appearance in this 
district I am not able to say, nor can I obtain any 
information upon the subject which can be depend- 
ed upon. 

The disease has prevailed this season (1819), be- 
yond any other within my memory, not only in my 
own neighbourhood, but also in many parts of Nor- 
folk, where I have very lately been. 

The disease does not appear to be in patches, but 
to extend itself generally over the whole field. 
The turnip least affected is that which with us is 
called the Pudding Turnip, (a long turnip, two 
parts of three above the soil), This species, both 
white and blue, seems to have escaped the effects of 
it more than any other. 

The disease attacks the turnips at different pe- 
riods of their growth ; but I think chiefly when they 
are young. It is observed in the foliage of the tur- 
nip very soon after it is affected. The leaves and 
the heart of the turnip curl up, and change colour 
to a yellowish tint, and at last fall off; and the tur- 
nip rots immediately ; this does not happen in all 
cases. 



ON ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 549 

It is a commonly received opinion in this part of 
England, that the disease occurs chiefly in a hot 
and dry season, such as have been experienced last 
year and this, more particularly to those turnips 
which were sown early. I do not believe that the 
quality of the soil, or manure, or newness, have any 
thing to do with it. I conceive it to be caused by a 
grub forming its nidus in the bulb ; I have not tra- 
ced the progress of the larva, so as to ascertain the 
species of insect, but a small maggot or grub is vi- 
sible in every excrescence upon the turnip which I 
have examined ; in some instances three or four very 
near together in the same lump. If it results from 
the puncture made by some insects, eggs must be 
deposited at the same time. 

I know of no remedy which has been tried to pre- 
vent this disease in the turnips. 

Being in Norfolk a few weeks since, I had the 
curiosity to observe the turnips raised after a wheat 
crop, and those sown upon an oat-stubble, from a 
common very lately enclosed, and of course pared and 
burnt for the oats. I evidently saw that the dis- 
ease had not prevailed upon the common so much as 
on the old tilled land. This might have been acci- 
dental. But so it is, that the crop of Swedish turnips 
this year throw out the same excrescence as the 
common turnip, but contains in those excrescences 
several large grubs, very different from those in the 
common turnip. This disease has stopped their 



550 REV. GEORGE JENYNS 

growth ; but the Swedish do not rot in consequence 
of it, as the others do. 

1 much fear that this disease will materially af- 
fect the turnip as an article of food. 

Turnips affected with the anbury are twisted, and 
curled about into all sorts of shapes, where the dis- 
ease has attacked them early ; where it has been la- 
ter in its appearance, the turnip is not mishapen. 
They are now rotting in this country very fast in- 
deed, and I do not think that there will be many 
remaining after Christmas. 



5, Letter from the Right Honourable Sir John 
Sinclair, Bart, to the Secretary. 

Sir, 

JL have found some notes on the subject of your 
inquiries respecting the disease called " Fingers 
and Toes? to which the turnip crop is liable in 
some parts of the kingdom. I understand that the 
root of the cabbage tribe of plants is liable to a dis 
temper somewhat similar, which is known under the 
name of " The Club." It is supposed to be occa- 
sioned by an insect, which eats into the root ; and 
it has been remarked, that those plants which have 
long dung deposited under them, are the most lia- 
ble to it. The only remedy that has hitherto been 



ON ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 551 

successfully used against this disease, is a liquid 
made with the following articles : 

1 peck of lime, "J 

1 peck of soot, To a la, S e tub of watei ' vvhich 

1 lb. soft soap, I shou,d stand tweDt y- four hours 

£ lb. shag tobacco, after the in g r edients are put into 

it, before it is used. 



\ lb salt, 



J 



A small quantity, poured from a water-pot, round 
the roots of each plant, has been found useful in de- 
stroying the insect, if applied early, that is to say, 
before it has eat its way deep into the root. 

The success of this plan with cabbages, has given 
rise to the idea that a composition somewhat of a 
similar nature, might be of service in the culture of 
turnips. It would be impracticable to apply it to 
turnips in the same manner, namely, to each plant ; 
but where the manure is placed under the crop, 
according to the drill system, the dung might be 
watered with the liquid above proposed, before the 
manure is covered ; or the lime, soot, and salt might 
be mixed with the dung, in different proportions, so 
as to ascertain whether it is practicable, by such 
means, to prevent the disease. 

I hope that some public spirited farmers will try 
this plan, in various modes, by way of experiment ; 
and will publish the results for the information and 
benefit of the public. 

The following communication is by the Editor 
of the " Farmer's Journal" : 



552 SIR JOHN SINCLAIR, BART. 

" We have observed the disease called Anbury* 
(or Ambury), only in very dry seasons, to any mis- 
chievous extent, and chiefly on sandy, or other thir- 
sty and light soils. It seizes the crop soon after the 
bulbs begin to swell, and prevails in proportion to 
the drought, because the growth of the plant is slow ; 
if the drought continue, the leaves turn purple, 
then shrivel, and the plants die off at the root : thus 
whole crops have been nearly destroyed, but timely 
and plentiful rains would, in part, arrest the pro- 
gress of the disease, and restore the crop. 

" It is doubtless occasioned by insects ; perhaps 
piercing the roots near the surface, and depositing 
their eggs, which, as in multitudes of other cases, 
produce knobs, and intercept the ascent of the vege- 
table nutriment (sap). If, when the disease has ta- 
ken place, plentiful rains ensue, the bulbs put out 
other roots (or, more properly speaking, other fibres 
enlarge) to supply the place of those which are 
wounded. 

" There is another disease (if it be not the same) 
which attacks Swedish turnips, and cole (or rape) in 
fen countries, every year more or less, and every 
crop in a greater or less degree. It shews itself in 
knobs on the bottoms of the turnips, and on the up- 
per part of the roots of the cole, each knob contain- 

* The word is borrowed from farriery. Anbury is a name 
given to small knots or excrescences, warts or wens, on the legs 
or flanks of horses. They are generally small, and rather loose 
at the root, being seated in the skin. 



ON ANBURY IN TURNIPS. 553 

ing a small white maggot ; the knobs are often very 
numerous and joined together, the ascending cau- 
deoc of the cole root being surrounded with them ; 
and if great drought continue, the plants turn purple, 
then yellow, and apparently die ; but timely rains 
will check the evil, and, in some degree, restore the 
crop. We should have thought that these had 
been the larvce of the Jenny Spinners, which af- 
terwards become the common blue grub, but we have 
generally observed this disease at an earlier period 
than that in which those insects deposit their eggs. 
Fresh burnt land is by no means exempt from this 
attack, and we believe burning the stubbles could 
not prevent it, because, in either case, it appears to 
be caused by au insect on the wing. Salt is cer- 
tainly the best hope of prevention, because it is very 
inimical to all reptiles of the insect tribe, together 
with slugs, &c." 



( 554 ) 



LXVII. 



An Account of some Seedling Apples and Plums 
which have been raised at Coul, in Ross-shire. 



In a Letter from Sir George Stuart Mackenzie, 
Baronet, to the Secretary. 

(Read 26th October 1826. ) 



X he Kinellan Apple, the Tarvey Codlin, the 
Kerkan Apple, and the Achmore Apple (the last 
not yet exhibited), sprang from seeds taken out of 
one apple, the produce of a blossom of the Manx 
Codlin, impregnated by the pollen of the Non- 
pareil. 

The Kinellan is a large and handsome fruit, the 
tree a great bearer. The consistence of the flesh 
is melting, and much like that of the nonsuch. The 
flavour is good, and sharpened by acid, which ren- 
ders this a very excellent kitchen- apple, and it keeps 
well till April. The fruit- of this and the two next 
(the third has not yet borne a full crop) is remark- 



COUL SEEDLING APPLES, &C. 555 

able for the firmness with which it adheres to the 
tree ; a quality of a valuable kind in a country sub- 
ject to storms in autumn. 

The Tarvey Codlin is early in season; it possesses 
a high and agreeable flavour ; but though it keeps 
long, the flavour disappears after a month or six 
weeks, though sometimes it is retained longer. It 
is rather a large fruit and handsome, and the tree a 
good, but not abundant, bearer. 

The Kerkan Apple is a small fruit, and from 
its mildness and juiciness, is Well suited to the des- 
sert. The tree is an extraordinary great bearer. 
In flavour, the fruit resembles a good deal the Lon- 
don Pippin. Its best season is November, but it 
keeps for several months well. 

Of the Achmore Apple it can only be said that 
it promises well, its qualities not having yet been 
ascertained. 

The Contin Reinette has been much admired as 
a dessert fruit, and the tree has proved a good and 
sure bearer. There is something in the blossom- 
buds that renders them attractive to bulfinches, 
which generally save the trouble of thinning. The 
buds, at the extremities of the branches, are almost 
always fruit-buds. The tree is of slender growth; 
and the fruit-buds differ from those of most other 



556 COUL SEEDLING 

apple-trees, in being slightly set on, and shaped like 
an egg, the obtuse end next the branch, but rather 
more sharply pointed than an egg. The season of 
the fruit is November and December. It is a very 
pretty apple. 

The Coul Blush Apple is a most beautiful fruit, 
much resembling in its general appearance the 
Hawthorndean ; and being of a better flavour, it 
may perhaps become the substitute of that old va- 
riety, which seems to be wearing out. Its size and 
beauty render it a very desirable fruit for the mar- 
ket. The tree is of strong upright growth. Fruit 
keeps till February. 

The Sweet Topaz Apple is remarkable, as be- 
ing entirely destitute of acid in all stages of its 
growth. When ripe, it is very saccharine, and has a 
pleasant flavour. It will probably find a place in 
almost every garden, on account of its remarkable 
sweetness, and as promising to be of much use in cider- 
making. It is rather a large and very pretty fruit, 
and keeps two or three months ; but it is best at the 
time it is gathered. 

The Coul Orleans Plum resembles very much 
in appearance the Red Magnum Bonum. It is cer- 
tainly not inferior to the Old Orleans, and is rather 
a better fruit on the whole. It bears most abund - 

3 



APPLES AND PLUMS, &C. 557 

antly, and for the market gardener no plum can sur- 
pass it, being quite hardy. 

The Coul Black Ball is a small round plum, of 
a deep blue colour in the skin, with a green flesh. 
It bears well, and is a very sweet fruit ; also hardy. 

The Achmore Plum is very like the Old Mag- 
num Bonum, but not quite so large, and bears well ; 
and is harder than the Magnum. 

When seedling fruit raised in Scotland are really 
good, and especially when found to ripen well on 
standards so far north as Coul, the latitude of which 
place is 57° 34/ 54/'.5, they should be preferred to 
others of a southern origin, which are less suitable 
to our climate. The trees carrying the fruit de- 
scribed above, are all healthy and hardy. 

There is a gooseberry of great merit at the same 
place, produced from seed live or six years ago, cal- 
led the Rob Roy. It is pale red when ripe ; and 
indeed appears, when it is in perfection, like a half 
ripe red gooseberry. It is early ; and has been 
ranked among the select sorts in the catalogue of 
the London Horticultural Society. 

Except the two last mentioned plums, all these 
new fruits have been sent to the Experimental 
Garden of Edinburgh ; but as the trees are young, 



558 COUL SEEDLINGS, 

grafts cannot yet be taken from them. Application 
for them from the original trees, made through the 
Secretary, will, however, be attended to. 



Additional Communication. 

Having sent my seedling apples to London, it 
may be some satisfaction to you to know, that the 
Contin Reinette has been deemed the best, as it 
was by your Committee. The words are, alluding 
to the whole collection, besides the seedlings, "As 
specimens of fruit ripened in Ross-shire, they were of 
a very remarkable character. The Tarvey Codlin, 
Coul Blush, Kinellan Apple, and Contin Reinette, 
and the Cambusnethan Pippin, were fruit of extra- 
ordinary beauty, and possessing the rare merit of 
hanging on the tree, notwithstanding the high 
autumnal winds to which they are exposed in the 
high northern latitude of the country in which 
they are cultivated. The Cambusnethan Pippin, 
and Contin Reinette, proved, on being tasted, to 
be table fruit of the highest excellence, especially 
the last mentioned sort." I think you should add 
this to your own report, as confirming your judg- 
ment. I am, &c. 

Coul, 
1st December 1826. 



. 



( 559 ) 



LXVIII. 



On Canker in Fruit- Trees depending on bad 
Subsoil. 



In a Letter from Mr Peter Campbell, Gardener at 
Coalston, to the Secretary. 



{Read 4>th December 1828.) 



Sir, 



X observe by the Caledonian Horticultural So- 
ciety's prize schedule for 1828, they wish a commu- 
nication ascertaining what the canker in the bark of 
fruit trees proceeds from. 

That disease, as far as I can think, is owing to a 
stintedness that takes place in the trees from a bad 
subsoil, and the ground not being properly prepared 
before the fruit trees are planted. An experiment I 
have tried, proves to be an effectual cure for that dis- 
ease, as far as I have experienced as yet ; for the trees 
I have tried this experiment upon, are at present as 
healthy fruit trees as in East Lothian, making fine 
young wood, and at the same time producing good 
fruit, and very abundant crops at Coalston. There 
were upwards of seventy espalier fruit-trees taken 



560 ON CANKER IN FRUIT-TREES. 

out for the canker, that had entirely given up bear^> 
ing ; and twelve of them had only been about twelve 
years planted. There were two trees of the Royal 
Pearmain Apple that I had a great anxiety to save, 
and these two trees let me into the secret where the 
disease proceeded from. 

In January 1824, by examining the trees, I found 
that most part of the standard and wall fruit-trees, 
as well as the espalier trees, were going entirely to 
ruin by the canker, and all growing over with moss 
or lichen, some of it measuring four inches in 
length. Taking into consideration how to rescue 
them from that unhealthy state, I thought it pro- 
per to examine what the subsoil was where the 
trees were planted, that were most given to can- 
ker, and I found it to be of a sandy nature. By 
examining farther, there appeared some small parti- 
cles of clay of a reddish colour, but not above the 
twentieth part of clay that there was of sand. It 
is to be observed, that amongst these there were 
veins of black sand, about eighteen inches below 
the surface, as black as ink. The only reason I can 
give for these veins being so very black is, that the 
part of the garden where the trees are that were 
most given to canker, was formerly a bog, and full of 
springs or spouts. By examining the roots that went 
down into these veins of black sand, I found them 
to be quite of a different appearance from the other 
roots, and even some parts of the same root quite 
swelled and overgrown, compared with the other 



ON CANKER IN FRUIT-TREES. 561 

parts of the same root, so that the root had more the 
appearance of a tuberous than a fibrous root. I then 
examined the bark of the same sort of roots, which 
I found quite equal in thickness ; but by examining 
the inner part of the wood of the root, I found, 
in the thick part of the root, near the heart, on one 
side of it, about one-fourth part of the wood of an 
iron colour and very hard, compared with the wood 
that was of a natural colour. 

I then thought that the only means to improve 
these trees, and get them into a healthy state, was, 
in the first place, by commencing to get the mould 
cleared awav from the roots with care, so as not to 
injure the roots ; first to the distance of three feet 
out from the trunk of the trees all round, clearing 
all the mould that distance out, and even below the 
trunk of the tree, to the depth of one foot six inches 
below the under part of the trunk ; however, the 
depth I made greater or less as was required, accord- 
ing to the state the roots were in. I cut the tap roots 
that went right down. I then made two ruts op- 
posite each other, as low as the under part of the 
trunk, so as to place a beam of wood across below 
the trunk, and to prevent it from sitting down or 
sinking, owing to its being 30 much hollowed out 
below. I then cut off all the roots I thought dis- 
eased, and cleared the mould out another foot dis- 
tance, which was four feet out from the trunk all 
round. Having no flags, I floored the pit I made be- 
low the roots with bricks and large slates laid close 
vol. iv, N n 



56% ON CANKER IN FRUIT-TREES. 

together, so as to prevent the roots from entering in- 
to the black sand again, and formed the flooring of 
a concave form rather than even or level, so as to 
make the roots or young fibres incline upwards, 
which is a great means to prevent the roots from en- 
tering so soon into the subsoil. I mixed good 
mould with very rotten cow-dung, and filled up the 
pit with it, at the same time beating in every course 
below the trunk of the tree, with the end of a beater 
made for that purpose, so as to prevent the tree from 
sliding down too hard on the beam of wood. 

This operation, if possible, should be avoided in 
high winds, particularly in dressing the roots of 
standard trees, as the wind playing on the tops of 
the trees in the loose state they require to be in, 
might be a means of injuring the roots. 

The second operation is the pruning of the tops 
of the trees. I commenced on one side of the trees, 
and pruned regularly round, cutting off all the 
cankers, not leaving one branch or bit of wood that 
had a canker in it on any of the trees. In some 
of the trees, I pruned two-thirds of the wood, others 
I pruned, leaving only one-fifth part of the wood, 
which operation was executed according to the state 
the tree was in. 

By this treatment, the trees are become quite 
healthy and free of any moss or lichen, and not the 
least appearance of a canker, where formerly every 
year's growth cankered the second year, and had done 
so as far as I could observe, by numbering the 



ON CANKER IN FRUIT-TREES. 56*3 

growths or shoots, for ten years back. I have done 
espalier, wall and standard apple trees in the mode 
before stated ; and I shall send specimens of the 
Dutch Codlin off a standard, Royal Pearmain off 
an espalier, Paradise Pippin and Summer Straw- 
berry off the wall, both on a north aspect. It is to 
be observed, that all the trees (excepting the Royal 
Pearmain) are above forty years old. 

Should you consider the above communication of 
sufficient importance to be attended to, I hope you 
will have the goodness as to lay it before the Gene- 
ral Meeting of the Caledonian Horticultural So- 
ciety, in the beginning of December. I am, &c. 



COALSTON, ) 

9Qth Nov. 1828. J 



N n 2 



( 564 ) 



LXIX, 

On the Germination of Seeds and subsequent 
Vegetation. 

In a Letter from John Murray, Esq. F, L. S. to the 

Secretary. 



i (Read 1th June 1827.) 

Dear Sir, 

A trust the following detail of some experiments 
on the germination of seeds and subsequent vegeta- 
tion, may not be unacceptable, or void of practical 
value. If you should be of this opinion, be so good 
.as to submit the communication to the Caledonian 
Horticultural Society. 

Mustard and cress seed were sown on black 
woollen cloth, kept constantly wet. The germina- 
tion was tardy, the growth exceedingly dwarfish, 
and the vegetation altogether sickly. Seeds from 
the same packets, grown on patches of white and 
of red woollen cloth, were luxuriant and beauti- 
ful. The comparative temperatures of the several 
pieces were, black 48° 5' Fahr., white 48° 5' Fahr., 
ed 49° 5' Fahr. The difference of temperature 



ON THE GERMINATION OF SEEDS. 565 

might occur from the evaporation being modified 
by the colour and texture of the cloth, or the com- 
parative degree of evaporation proceeding from an 
inequability in the supply of water : the retardation 
and final suspension of the vegetation are no doubt 
to be ascribed to the iron, the base of the colouring 
matter in black. 

Mustard and cress seeds were sown in powdered 
alum, sulphate of iron, sulphate of soda, sulphate of 
magnesia, muriate of soda, and muriate of lime, in 
small glass capsules, and duly watered, with the 
exception of the last, which being a deliquescent 
salt, did not require it ; two cress seeds only germi- 
nated in the powdered alum, but vegetation was 
not declared in the others. 

Mustard and cress seeds were partially .roasted, 
by being projected on ignited iron, yet a great por- 
tion of them afterwards grew on wetted flannel. 
Seeds were likewise submitted to the action of boil- 
ing water, and the temperature suddenly reduced : 
all these grew. Hence some seeds can sustain an 
elevated temperature without the destruction of their 
vitality. 

Peas and beans, with boiling water poured on 
them, and suffered gradually to cool, sprouted in a 
few hours, and grew remarkably well, having been 
transferred, when cold, to wetted flannel : this ex- 
periment furnishes a very easy method of ascertain- 
ing, in a sufficiently prompt way, whether the vege- 
tative power is suspended, by age or other causes. 



566 ON THE GERMINATION OF SEEDS, 

T put sprung peas into alcohol, of specific gravity 
.812, but little progress was made in ten days : those 
placed in naphtha and ammonia decayed. Peas in- 
troduced into alcohol, naphtha, and sulphuric ether, 
exhibited no evolution of incipient germination. 

Mustard and cress seeds were sown in iodine, 
dilute sulphuric acid, dilute muriatic acid, and di- 
lute nitric acid, chlorate of potassa, hydriodate of 
potassa, muriate of iron, sulphate of iron, and caus- 
tic potassa ; they gave no evidences of germination 
whatever, though they were regularly supplied with 
water. 

Cress sown on carbonate of magnesia, and atten- 
tively watered, germinated freely : hence there must 
be some error with the late Mr Tenant's conclusion, 
as this experiment is completely opposed to his de- 
ductions. It is one of first rate importance, as many 
farmers have been induced, from Mr Tenant's ex- 
periment, to discard magnesian limestone as inju- 
rious to vegetation, though they had a supply of it 
at hand, and bring from a distance lime-stone of a 
different character. 

Mustard germinated freely in the tincture of io- 
dine, and the vegetation was fine. 

Tufts of mustard and cress, growing on different 
parcels of sponge, were placed in capsules with the 
following solutions : 

Sulphate of iron (copperas) ; vegetation here fell 
the Jirst victim. 



AND SUBSEQUENT VEGETATION. 567 

Sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) ; this fell the se- 
cond in succession. 

Acetate of lead (sugar of lead) ; this fell the 
third. 

Muriate of mercury (corrosive sublimate), was the 
last survivor. 

Some younger plants, though nearer the surface, 
sustained the green colour after the tallest had fal- 
len, but cress seemed to be the last to suffer. The 
vegetable matter in each instance was duly tested 
by the necessary reagents. That with sulphate of 
iron, after the stems had been macerated with dis- 
tilled water, became decidedly blue with hydro- 
cyanate of potassa ; that with muriate of mercury 
was rather equivocal on being examined by caustic 
potassa. In the specimen destroyed by sulphate of 
copper, the lower parts of the stems, and transverse 
portions, where they were cut, became of a violet 
tint with ammonia. The vegetable matter that 
had been destroyed by acetate of lead, tested with 
hydriodate of potassa, was not appreciable ; but on 
being crushed in solution of chromate of potassa, the 
capillary vessels were beautifully dyed by the new 
formed chromate of lead. 

These last experiments prove that vegetation is 
affected by the metallic poisons, sulphate of copper, 
acetate of lead, and corrosive sublimate, and perish 
under their influence. They also prove that ferru- 
ginous matter holds the first rank in these deadly 



568 ON THE GERMINATION OF SEEDS, 

poisons ; and, in this respect, there is a difference 
between animal and vegetable life. When iron ob- 
tains in any soil, there is an enemy to contend with, 
and sand and lime, in due proportions, appear to me 
to be the only remedy ; the lime decomposing the 
salt of iron, and the silica combining, in the charac- 
ter of an acid, with the oxide thus separated : such a 
combination we find in the baths of Lucca, &c. The 
experiments also shew the comparative fatality, and 
yielddecided evidence of the passage of the substances 
into the system of vegetable being ; and, of necessi- 
ty, their consequent absorption by the roots; the 
young stems having been always cut above the sur- 
face the sponge, and apart from the roots. It is 
not, therefore, the mere root that is affected, but 
the entire plant in its higher organization. 

Tufts of vegetation, similar to those already de- 
scribed, were placed in capsules with the following 
solutions : dilute nitric acid, hydriodate of potassa, 
and chlorate of potassa. These are arranged in their 
relative order as to their comparative permanence, 
the tuft placed in dilute nitric acid having fallen 
first, and that in chlorate of potassa remaining long- 
est unaffected. The stems of that with nitric acid, 
slightly reddened litmus paper, when macerated in 
distilled water ; that in hydriodate of potassa gave 
an abundant yellow precipitate, with acetate of lead ; 
and that from chlorate of potassa deflagrated like 
nitre, on an ignited disc of platinum. 

I would not, however, be supposed as inferring 



AND SUBSEQUENT VEGETATION. 569 

from the last experiment, that, though chlorate 
of potassa does in quantity injure vegetation, when 
thus applied to the roots, a small portion in so- 
lution might not occasionally be beneficial, and 
act, in some plants at least, as a stimulus to vege^ 
tation. Last season, when all my carnations 
seemed rapidly proceeding to destruction, in conse- 
quence of the arid summer (1826), and many had 
already perished, I succeeded, by a few waterings 
with solution of nitre (an analogous salt), not only 
to save the remainder, but to impart to them a 
beautiful luxuriance and growth. The effect was 
very manifest, and remarkably prompt; and I now 
possess a hundred very beautiful plants. 

Edinburgh, 
Z&h April 1827. 



( 570 ) 



LXX. 



Account of the Mode of Culture adopted at Cun- 
noquhie, in raising Pine-Apples and Melons, 
in a Pit heated by Steam ; with a Description 
of the Pit and Steam Apparatus. 

Communicated by Mr Alexander Smith, Gardener to 
Colonel George Paterson of Cunnoquhie. 

(Read Uh December 1828J 

X he Caledonian Horticultural Society having ap- 
proved of the fruits raised at Cunnoquhie, and ex- 
pressed a wish to have an account of the method of 
culture, the following is submitted to their atten- 
tion. 

It may be proper however to premise a short de- 
scription of the Pit and of the Steam Apparatus. 

The pit was erected in 1824, on a plan furnished 
by Mr John Hay, planner, Edinburgh, founded on 
a principle of heating, devised by Mr Hay more than 
twenty years ago. The pit is built of brick; it is thirty 



CUNNOQUHIE STEAM-TIT. 571 

feet long, by nine broad, and about five high ; and is 
divided into two parts; one of which, consisting of four 
lights or sashes, is appropriated to melon culture; the 
other, of five lights, to that of pine-apples. Another 
smaller building, erected in front of the former, and 
on lower ground, contains the apparatus for prepar- 
ing steam. This consists of a cast-iron furnace, with 
a copper boiler, capable of containing about sixty gal- 
lons of water, and communicating by a pipe and 
stop-cock, with a large tube, which lies length- 
ways in the floor of the pit. There is also, besides 
the boiler, a cistern, communicating by a ball-cock 
with another at a distance, and keeping by that 
means an equal supply of water, to replace what is 
given off in the steam. 

The large iron-pipe, which receives the steam 
from the boiler, is perforated at certain distances,, 
(2 feet), with holes for diffusing the vapour through 
the pit. It is surrounded by a layer of small water- 
worn stones or pebbles, with which the floor of 
the pit is filled to the depth of two feet. Over these 
is placed a cover of Arbroath pavement about 
three inches thick, supported on brick pillars, and ex- 
tending on each side nearly to the outer wall. In- 
tervals are left between the edge of the pavement 
and the wall, in order to allow the steam to com- 
municate with flues which are filled, like the 
bottom of the floor, with small round stones. At 
short distances, on the top of these flues, are fixed 
small iron tubes with caps which are removable 



572 CUNNOQUHIE STEAM-PIT, 

at pleasure, and admit or exclude the steam of the 
flues and floor from the atmosphere of the pit, as 
occasion may require. The outer wall, on each side, 
adjacent to the flues, is built double, with a small 
interval between the parts, which prevents unne- 
cessary waste of heat, and allows any heated air or 
steam which may escape through the interstices of 
the bricks to pass into the atmosphere of the pit. 
It should be mentioned, that though, for simplicity, 
the frame is described above as single, yet there 
are, as has been stated, two parts ; one for melons, 
and another for pines ; in each of which the steam, 
by means of distinct stop-cocks at the boiler, may 
be admitted or excluded separately ; the tube be- 
ing for that purpose in two separate pieces. 

Mode of Culture for Pine-Apples. 
Soil. — The soil which is used for repotting the 
plants for fruiting, is one-half loam, one-fourth ve- 
getable mould, and one-fourth hogs' dung. These 
are well mixed with the spade, but not made fine or 
sifted. The pots are placed on a layer of cinders 
four inches deep, which lies next the Arbroath 
pavement ; and they are plunged as high as their 
edges in good tan-bark. They are never moved, ex- 
cept for repotting. 

Temperature. — In winter, the temperature of 
the atmosphere of the pit is kept at 50° or 55° of 
Fahr. ; the steam required to produce this effect is 



CUNN0QUH1E STEAM-PIT, 57$ 

about one and a half hour in twenty-four. The va- 
pour is not at this period admitted among the plants, 
the caps of the flues being kept uniformly shut. 
This treatment is continued till about February. 

About February, the temperature is raised to 
70° during night, and about 65° in the morning. 
The steam-caps of the flues are sometimes taken off 
towards morning, admitting to the plants what va- 
pour may have remained in the pit over night. 

In May, or when the flowering is over, the steam 
is frequently admitted to the atmosphere of the pit 
through the whole night. This seems to destroy 
insects, and to keep the foliage of the plant in a 
state of fresh and healthy verdure. The tempera- 
ture is now about 75° or 80° degrees, and steam is 
applied when artificial heat is necessary to maintain 
that degree of heat, which, in very warm weather, is 
only about once or twice a week. 

In autumn, while the fruit is ripening, steam 
is only applied once in forty-eight hours ; and the 
temperature of the pit is kept nearly at 65° or 70°. 
We have fruit generally from the plants in their 
second year. 

In all cases, fire is applied to the boiler about six 
o'clock in the evening, and steam is procured a little 
before seven. The quantity of fuel used has not 
been exactly ascertained; but from the construction of 
the furnace, with flues round the boiler, &c. every 
economy of heat is practicable, and the quantity of 
coals used is the less. Those which are employed 



574 CUNNOQUHIE STEAM-PIT. 

being generally the refuse left from other purposes, 
less attention was paid to taking any account of 
the quantity. 

In the season .1826, by the above mode of culture, 
we had nearly twenty pine apples; one of them, a 
Queen Pine, weighed four and a-half pounds*. And 
the result of the whole experiment is so satisfactory, 
that Colonel Paterson intends this season to have a 
considerable enlargement of the pit on the same plan. 

Mode of Culture for Melons. 

The soil used for melons, is four parts strong brown 
loam; two parts light loam ; one part vegetable mould; 
and one part rotten dung. These substances having 
been intimately mixed, are put into the frame above 
a layer of cinders four inches thick, which is to be 
placed next the pavement. When the plants are 
put in, steam is to be applied once in forty-eight 
hours, one and a half hours at a time. A very little 
watering is necessary, till the fruit be set ; after 
which it is to be applied more freely. From 
the time when the plants appear, to the setting of 
the fruit, the heat is kept near 60° ; and afterwards 
about 65°. In warm weather, steam is required on- 
ly about once a week. 



* Specimens of the pine-apples and melons raised in the Cun- 
noquhie pit, were exhibited to the Committee of the Society, 2d 
October 1828, and greatly admired, P. N. Sec. 



CUNNOQUHIE STEAM-PTT. 575 

In the season 1826, from seven lights or sashes, 
we had seventy-six large melons, cut from the pit ; 
one of them weighing ten pounds. It may be men- 
tioned, that during the winter season, when the pit 
is not in use for melons, it may be employed to raise 
early crops of potatoes, asparagus, sea-cale, or small 
sallads # . 



CUNNOQUHIE, 

2£d Oct. 1828. 



* The Society's Silver Medal was, 5th March 1829, awarded 
to Mr Alexander Smith, for this communication, and for the fine 
specimens of fruit sent to the Society in Octoher last, evincing 
excellent culture on the part of Mr Smith. P. N. Sec. 



( 576 ) 



LXXL 

Account of a Glazed House, adapted Jo?* the 
Culture of Peach-trees, Grape-vines, and Or- 
namental Plants. 

By Mr R. F. D. Livingston, Planner. 
(Read 5th March 1 829.) 

A he favourable manner in which the Horticul- 
tural Society were pleased to receive the section-plan 
of a greenhouse, or hot-house, designed by me for 
James Smith, Esq. of Smith's Place, Leith Walk, 
and exhibited at the last .Quarterly Meeting of the 
Society, induces me to draw up a few remarks con- 
nected with the utility and management of the 
house. 

The house is forty feet long, by sixteen wide. It is 
. heated by one furnace, situated at the east end. The 
first course of heat is carried immediately under the 
pavement to the front flue, by ascending into which, 
it rises one foot in the angle, two feet from the front, 
and the same from the end walls. It is carried 
along this flue thirty-six feet, descends under the 
pavement at the west end, and again rises two feet 



ACCOUNT OF A GLAZED HOT-HOUSE, &C. 577 

perpendicularly into the back flue, five feet from 
the end wall, and four from the front flue. This 
part of the flue is thirty feet long, and descends in 
like manner under the pavement at the east end, 
through which it passes into the chimney situated 
immediately over the furnace. It thus makes a cir- 
cuit of one hundred feet, chiefly round the front 
half of the house. By this arrangement of the 
flues, I considered that the house would be much 
more easily heated, and kept in a more regular tem- 
perature, than by the ordinary methods ; and during 
the late severe frosts (January 1829), which have 
been sufficient for a fair trial, the design has proved 
efficient even beyond my expectation. 

The stage occupies a space of thirty feet by eight, 
leaving a space of five feet at each end, which, by a 
partition of ornamental lattice-work, the full height 
of the glass and width of the stage, forms these 
spaces at each end into two very neat lobbies. These 
are appropriated to the growth of the finer sorts of 
climbing plants ; and the stage is capable of con- 
taining from 800 to 1000 plants in pots. 

The peach-trellis occupies the whole length of 
the house, and contains a surface of about 280 
square feet, to which the trees are trained. The 
front wall is arched, and a prepared peach-border is 
made for the roots, two feet wide inside, and eight 
feet wide outside, and four feet deep. 

A shelf of eight inches width is erected imme- 
diately under the sloping rafters in front, princi- 
VOL, iv, o o 



578 ACCOUNT OF A GLAZED HOT-HOUSE, 

pally for the purpose of holding strawberry-pots, 
the fruit of which may be brought to perfection here 
at an early season, with very little trouble. At 
other times, the shelf may be useful in holding Cape 
bulbs, seedlings, and other dwarf plants. 

In forming the vine-border, I have departed from 
the usual course, and have placed it at the back-wall 
of the house. It is a well known fact, that the 
vine-border should be entirely given up for that 
purpose, without even producing the slightest an- 
nual plant on its surface, and that it should be in- 
accessible to over-abundant quantities of water, at 
all seasons, but more particularly in the early part 
of the flowering and fruit-setting time ; in a word, 
that they should be so situate, as the industrious 
gardener may only apply such waterings, and in such 
quantities, as may seem proper and reasonable to 
regulate his successful endeavours in producing a 
superior fructification. From the extreme delicacy of 
the vine at particular seasons, a dry situation must 
be considered the best, and, to obtain which, the 
judicious gardener forms the vine-border into a 
sloping bank in front of the vinery. In the pre- 
sent design, 1 beg leave to submit, that the for- 
mer difficulties are obviated, and that the main end 
is obtained, by forming the vine-border entirely un- 
der cover of the house. By this plan of having the 
vine-border at the back of the house, I gain the site 
in front for a peach-border, without the vines in 
anywise interfering with the growth of the peach- 



FOR THE CULTURE OF PEACH-TREES, c|c. 579 

trees ; and as vines seldom produce any fruit below 
the top of the upright rafters, which is the only 
space occupied by the peach-trees, it is thereby 
shown that the space occupied by them is entirely 
gained in this off the usual arrangement of hot- 
houses. 

At the letter D in the plan, is observed the pave- 
ment of the gangway, which allows a space of three 
feet between the back flue and peach-trellis, elevat- 
ed eighteen inches above the level of the lobbies, and 
the same length of the back flue and stage, thus 
affording an easy command over the stage and peach- 
trellis, and ascended by two steps at each end. 

Supposing the house to be now filled with the 
proper quantity of vines, peaches, and greenhouse 
plants ; in the autumn, as soon as the vines were 
ripe, they should be let out of the house, by sliding 
down the lights, one at a time, in the fore part of a 
mild day, and the vines fastened carefully to the 
back wall, there to remain during the winter, or until 
the time of forcing arrives, when they may be taken 
in again, observing the same caution as before. The 
usual progressive degrees of heat are then to be at- 
tended to, as in the ordinary mode of peach forcing ', 
which is the principal object here to be attended to ; 
and such will perfectly suit the vines. I would re- 
commend the 1st of March as the best time to com- 
mence this work. 

By the same progressive stages of temperature, 
the ornamental plants will flourish and produce early 

o o % 



580 ACCOUNT OF A GLAZED HOT-HOUSE, 

flowers, which may either remain in the greenhouse, 
or be successively removed to decorate the drawing- 
room, &c. About the middle of May the plants 
will be turned out for the summer, and the stage 
may then be appropriated to dwarf-vines, in pots, 
figs, balsams, and other tender annual plants. 



FOR THE CULTURE OP PEACH-TREES, &C. 581 

Section Plan of the Greenhouse, at Smith's Place, Leith Walk. 



Ground 




Level. 



A Stage for plants. 

B Arched wall for support of 6tage. 

C Arched wall and back flue. 

D Raised walk or gangway, in front of stage. 

E Arched wall for support of walk. 

F Arched wall and front flue. 

G Peach trellis. 

H Stone for support of peach trellis. 

J Made border for vines ; it is fourteen feet wide, five feet 
deep at back, and three at front : here the vines are 
planted against the back wall, and trained down the 
rafters, one branch to each, on the spur mode of pruning. 

K Peach border. 

L Front shelf, for forcing strawberries, &c. 



( 582 ) 



LXXIL 



Account of a mode of producing a steady and 
uniform Bottom-Heat in Pine-apple or Melon 
Pits, or in Stoves for Exotic Plants, by means 
of Steam introduced into a close chamber filed 
with water-worn stones. 



In a Letter from Mr John Hay, Planner, Edinburgh, to 
Mr Neilt,, Secretary. 

(Read 5th March 1829. J 

JLLaving for many years back paid considerable 
attention to the heating of hot-houses by steam, and 
more particularly to the application of it, for the 
purpose of obtaining bottom heat, for the culture of 
the pine-apple and melon, and other tender plants, 
in a more economical and effective manner than has 
been hitherto practised, I am again induced to lay 
before the Caledonian Horticultural Society the re- 
sult of my farther experience and improvements in 
the construction of such buildings. 

In the year 1820, I communicated to the Society 
a paper on this subject, which is printed in the 



MR HAY'S STEAM-PIT. 583 

third volume of their Memoirs. In that paper I 
stated the origin of the idea, which first occurred to 
me ahout the year 1794, when employed in erect- 
ing the hot-houses in the gardens at Prestonhall, 
and pointed out the manner in which it was ap- 
plied, and its results. I also entered into the de- 
scription of a set of steam pine-pits at Bargany and 
Castle Semple, in which the same principle is adopted 
in a more improved form, and attended with ample 
success. But what I have principally in view in the 
present communication is, to describe a further im- 
provement in their construction, the result of which 
promises to be of considerable utility, especially in 
the hands of intelligent and enquiring horticultu- 
rists. 

In the year 1807 s I had the honour to be con- 
sulted by his Grace the late Duke of Northumber- 
land, with a view to rebuilding the hot-houses at 
Alnwick Castle, which then chiefly consisted of grape 
and pine houses, and was desired by his Grace to 
furnish him with plans for executing the work on 
the most approved principles. His Grace directed 
me to provide for the heating of one of the pine- 
stoves by steam, as he had seen an attempt of this 
kind made in Scotland a number of years before \ 
the particular place was not mentioned. The 
Duke's desire to have one of his pine-stoves con- 
structed, with a view to attain this object, led me to 
consider the subject attentively. It occurred to me 
that a close chamber below the pit filled with stones 



684 ACCOUNT OF 

and heated by steam introduced among them, from a 
boiler placed at a short distance, would answer the 
purpose ; and in this manner one of the stoves was 
accordingly designed and executed. But the pit 
was of large dimensions ; and the steam- pipe, which 
had also to supply other two houses, being only two 
inches bore, was found insufficient to give out the por- 
tion of steam necessary fully to effect the heating of 
the mass of stones under the pine-pit. The ap- 
paratus in this case, not being quite perfect, the 
use of it was not long continued. I did not, 
however, lose sight of this principle ; and accord- 
ingly in 1818, in erecting pine-stoves at Castle 
Semple, small pits were built in front of them, in one 
of which an improved steam chamber was con- 
structed, furnished with a boiler and proper pipes 
and apparatus for heating it, in every respect the 
same as I have more recently applied them. Near- 
ly about the same time, I was requested by Sir 
Hew Dalrymple Hamilton, to give him advice re- 
garding the improvement of his pine-stoves at Bar- 
gany, which were not doing well, and particularly to 
obviate the great difficulty and expence of obtaining 
tanner's bark. To accomplish this, I had no hesi- 
tation in adopting the very same plan I was then 
putting into execution at Castle Semple. I could 
depend on Mr Dodds, the gardener at Bargany, pay- 
ing due attention to the subject, and giving me an 
accurate report of its utility ; after a year and a-half's 
trial, he accordingly wrote me his opinion, which is 



MR hay's steam pit. 585 

published at length in the Memoirs, in the paper 
already alluded to. This report satisfied me of what 
the chamber itself would do, without the adjunct of 
stones. 

In prosecution of the object which I had all along- 
had in view, about the end of the year 1820, 1 caused 
the chamber of the steam-pit, which I had erected 
at Castle Semple two years before, to be filled with 
stones, those of the larger size below, and the smaller 
above. About this time I entertained the idea, 
and suggested it to the late Mr Harvey, that 
in such pits prepared with suitable compost, the 
pine-apple might be cultivated in the earth with- 
out pots as in the West Indies, by growing the 
plants for one year in the pit, and bringing them to 
fruit in the next, and so on alternately. With this 
in view, experiments were instituted to ascertain the 
difference of temperature communicated to the soil 
above, by the chamber without stones, and by the 
chamber with stones, and its duration. The result 
was decidedly in favour of the latter method, as 
it was found to retain the heat much longer than 
the other, as indicated by the steam-pit thermome- 
ter. So far I was satisfied with the application of 
the principle which I had long had in view ; and 
in order further to try its effects, I caused the gar- 
dener to make up a bed of suitable compost in a 
part of the pit, and desired him to plant in it some 
of the smallest pine-apple plants he had, such as the 
suckers from the bottom of the fruit, only a few 



586 ACCOUNT OF 

inches high. On my return to Castle Semple, the 
following autumn, I was surprised to find that the 
plants had made far greater progress than I ex- 
pected, being more than double the size their treat- 
ment by the old method warranted me to look for. 
I may here observe, that, if the plants will grow 
freely under this treatment in such pits, I have 
strong hopes that, by keeping the fruiting plants 
under a moderate degree of bottom heat during the 
winter months, and raising it considerably higher 
in spring, they would start regularly into fruit ; and 
if this were found to be the result in practice, the 
views I originally entertained on this point would 
be realized. I now became fully convinced of the 
value and importance of this method of applying 
heat for the cultivation of Ananas, and resolved 
thereafter to adopt it in all practicable cases. It is 
but justice here to say, that, to the late and present 
proprietors of Castle Semple, the merit is due of se- 
conding my views, and risking the expence of bring- 
ing this mode of heating to some degree of perfec- 
tion. 

More than six years ago, I proposed to Major 
Harvey to heat the fruiting-pit in the pine-stove in 
the same manner ; and the cast-iron pipes and flags 
were consequently ordered, and sent to Castle Sem- 
ple ; but before the proper season for doing the work 
arrived,, he had turned his thoughts towards making 
a new garden, and removing the old one. This in 
the mean time put a stop to the work, and the pipes 



MR hay's steam-pit. 587 

and other tilings prepared for the purpose were laid 
aside ; however, these and others have been since 
made use of in heating, on the principle originally con- 
templated, above sixty feet of pine-pits now erected 
at Castle Semple. The pine-stoves there have now 
been in operation for two years and a-half, with the 
most complete success. In a letter from Mr Lauder, 
the gardener, lately received, in answer to some 
queries I had proposed to him, he states, that the 
pines are as successful in the steam-pits as in those 
wrought with leaves, and with only one- tenth part 
of the expence ; as, in the one case, the plants ne- 
ver require to be removed during the whole year for 
the purpose of renewing the heat, while, in the 
other case, viz. the pits wrought with leaves, they 
require, he says, to be turned over, and new leaves 
added five times in the year ; and it takes seven 
men,for two days each time, to perform this operation, 
that is, on the two pits. He states, also, that it is 
his intention this spring, (1829), as I recommended 
two years ago, to plant one-half of one of the steam- 
pits with plants, not in pots, but in a bed of soil made 
up for them, and to fruit them the summer after the 
next. The steam, he says, is admitted into the 
chamber among the stones only an hour and a half in 
every forty-eight, which he finds to be quite sufficient 
to keep up the bottom heat as high as is necessary. 
During the winter, he has not admitted the steam 
for so long a period, having only kept the heat to the 
bottom of the pots from 75° to 80* ; but now, as he 



588 ACCOUNT OF 

wishes to start the plants into fruit, he intends to 
raise it to 90°. Each of the steam-pits is furnished 
with a thermometer, the same as represented in 
Plate XIV. Fig. 3. 

The boiler at the stoves is three feet six inches 
long, and two feet six inches wide. Ten inches 
depth of water are always allowed to remain in it. 
It is prepared for four pipes, one for every pit, two 
of which only are as yet applied. The smoke from 
the boiler-flue enters a horizontal flue within the 
stoves, and goes more than half way round each ; 
and as the flues have dampers, it may be turned 
into any of them at pleasure, so that no heat is lost. 
With regard to the expence of fuel for this boiler, 
Mr Lauder, in a report he made to me lately, 
states that it is only necessary to apply the steam 
to the pits once in every forty-eight hours, or 182 
times for the whole year, the same for summer as 
for winter ; but for three months in summer eleven 
times may be deducted, making the number of times 
that fire may be used 171. It requires an hour of 
fire to raise the steam in the boiler. The steam is 
applied to each pit an hour and a half, being four 
hours of fire each time. It takes one and a half 
imperial stones of coals every hour to keep up the 
steam, or 84 lb. for each period of four hours : this 
multiplied by 171, the number of times the steam 
is required during the year, gives 128^ cwt., which 
at Sid, comes to L. 1 : 4 : 01, the cost of coals for one 



MR hay's steam-pit. 589 

year. Mr Lauder calculates the coals at half price, 
being the refuse of those that are used at the house. 

One of the chief advantages of heating by steam 
is, that the plants never require to be removed out 
of the house ; and, therefore, the fruit is not in dan- 
ger of being checked while swelling. When shift- 
ing is necessary, that can be done within the house, 
and the plants can be repotted one by one, and im- 
mediately restored to the places they were taken 
from, without being exposed to a lower temperature. 
But ananas cultivated by the usual method in leaf 
and bark beds, are subjected to many disadvantages, 
to which they are not liable in a bed heated by steam. 
For instance, before the heat of the bark-beds can 
be renewed, the plants must be all taken out of the 
pits, perhaps carried to some distance, and stand 
twelve or fifteen hours in a cold shed ; and thus 
the plants, if in fruit, often receive a check which 
sometimes prevents the fruit from swelling off. 

In the year 1824, Colonel Paterson of Cunno- 
quhie applied to me to give him plans of a set of 
pits in which melons could be cultivated without 
having recourse to stable dung. These were given 
and executed solely for the growth of melons. When 
they were finished, I was asked whether the pine- 
apple would grow and fruit in them also. It was 
stated, that the application of the principle was the 
same for them both, and that the one would succeed 
as well as the other : but as the pits, in this instance, 
were designed for melons only, there would not be 



590 ACCOUNT OF 

head-room enough for pine-apple plants, unless the 
pots were plunged as low in the pit as possible. The 
trial was made, and melons and pine-apples were 
both grown in the original pits. The success of 
the Colonel's gardener, Mr Smith, as a cultivator 
of these fruits by means of steam, has been already 
made known to the Society, and specimens of the 
produce of these steam-pits exhibited. The Colonel 
was so highly satisfied with the result, that he con- 
sulted me, in July last, about making such alter- 
ations on his pits as would enable him to grow pines 
regularly, and also about making additions for 
growing melons. The plan and sections now laid 
before the Society are the westmost divisions of his 
melon and pine pits, as they now stand finished and 
improved. The other two divisions are now erect- 
ing at Cunnoquhie. 

Melon-pits, on the same principle, were put up 
by me some years ago for William Younger, Esq. 
of Craigielands, in Dumfriesshire ; and I have made 
plans of others for a gentleman in a different part 
of the country, which are not yet executed, but in 
which some improvements have been introduced. 
The plans now presented have been made to em- 
brace these improvements ; all which are described 
in the explanation of the plates. 

Edinburgh, ) 
Uh March 1829. J 



More 1 Memoirs Vol. IV p. 







MR hay's steam-pit. 591 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XIV. & XV. 

(The same letters of reference apply to the correspond- 
ing parts both in the ground plan and the section.) 

ABCD, The external walls of the pits, built of droved 
ashler, 8 inches thick. In the upper course of ash- 
ler on both sides, are gutters for carrying off the rain- 
water from the roof sashes. The drawing is 10 feet 
over the walls. 

E, An elevated walk with steps, on which the gardener 
may stand with ease, and do any work in the pits. 
F, a step for the same purpose. G, a paved or 
gravelled walk, 

HIKL, Wall of steam-chamber 4£ inches thick, of square 
stock bricks, closely jointed with Roman cement. 

a a, Open space 1 \ inch, between the inside of the external 
wall and that of the steam-chamber, the projecting 
parts b in the section being the ends of bricks built 
out of the walls of the chamber in an irregular man- 
ner, so as to touch the outer wall, for the purpose of 
strengthening the inner one ; but these must not be 
so numerous as to prevent the heat from rising and 
diffusing itself freely through the pits. 

c c, Brick pillars, 9 inches square, supporting the cover of 
the steam-chamber, &c. 

dd, Pieces of rough flags, 6 or 7 inches broad, and 3 thick, 
lintelling over the open space between the brick pil- 
lars, and supporting the inner wall of the steam-flue 
ee. This wall is 3 inches thick, built of stock-bricks, 
and closely jointed with Roman cement. The depth 
of the plant pit is 20 inches. 

ff, A course of bricks, 9 inches broad, for the seat of 
the steam-pipes. On each side of this is a gutter 3 



592 ACCOUNT OF 

inches broad, and the same in depth ; the floor of the 
steam-chamber has a rise of 3 inches on both sides, 
from the edge of the gutters to the outer walls ; and 
is paved with hard common bricks laid in lime. The 
upper bed of the lintel dd is 2 feet 10 inches in 
height, above the floor of the pit at the wall. 

MNO, Cast-iron steam-pipes, of 3 inches bore (in some 
cases they are 3i inches), on the opposite sides of 
which, a line of half-inch holes g g, are bored at 2 
feet distance from each other, in quincunx order: 
there is thus one hole for every foot of pipe in length. 

hhh, Cisterns cut out of solid stone, 6 inches square, 
and 6 deep, having grooves fth inch deep on the 
top of the opposite edges at the gutters. As 
the ground on which the pits are built falls from 
east to west, the condensed steam in the east division 
of pipes returns into the boiler ; but as on the west 
it cannot do so, pieces of pipe f ths inch bore, and 
4 inches in length, are cast on the under side of the 
steam-pipe at h h h, in the west division. The con- 
densed steam passes through these pipes into the cis- 
terns, and flows over into the gutter, as does also the 
condensed steam from the chamber, and is carried 
off by the small drains i i. 

k k, Cast-iron rollers in frames, on which the pipes rest, the 
under part of the pipes being 2\ inches above the 
brick seat. 

1 1, Figs. 1. and % Plate XIV, Slide valves or cocks, by which 
the steam is admitted at pleasure into 'the pipes of the 
melon pit. The draw-rod passes through an oblong 
opening in the cover m, which is of polished Arbroath 
pavement, and the opening is covered over with an 
oblong piece of brass about fths inch thick, secured 



MR hay's steam-pit. 593 

to the stones by bats and screws. This piece of brass 
has also an oblong opening, through which the rod of 
the valve passes to the outside of the plant-pit, and is 
of such length as to allow for the elongation of the 
iron-pipes when heating, and their contraction in be- 
coming cold. On the surface of this piece of brass is 
placed another, furnished with a stuffing box, through 
which the rod passes and keeps it in its place. Both 
are fitted close to each other, and kept down by a 
leaden weight, and thus the escape of steam from 
the chamber below into the atmosphere of the pit is 
prevented. After this simple apparatus has been ad- 
justed, the cross handle of the rod is fixed on with a 
screwed nut *. 
n A stuffing box made of two pieces of sandstone batted 
together, with a circular cast-iron cover bolted to the 
stones; the box is stuffed with lint and a little tallow to 
prevent the heat and steam from passing from the one 
pit into the other. The pipes being laid, small brick 
pillars oo are built on each side about 5 inches higher 
than the upper side of the steam pipe. These pillars 
support pieces of rough flags p in the section, crossing 
the'pipes with openings left between each piece. The 
pillars must be so placed that they shall not intercept 
the steam issuing from the blow holes. This cover pre- 

* This valve is not conveniently placed. Had it been at first re- 
quired to have pits for the culture both of the pine-apple and melon, 
I would have placed the pine-pits where they now stand, with some 
difference in their construction more suitable for the culture of the pine- 
apple; and I would have placed the melon -pits on the right and left of the 
furnace house, as at PP in the ground plan, jand at Q in the section. 
All the valves, in this case, would have been in the inside of the fur- 
nace house. 

VOL. IV. P D 



594 ACCOUNT OF 

vents any pressure of the stones upon the pipes. Were 
this not attended to, the repeated motion of the pipes 
among the stones, in expanding or contracting, would 
soon shake or rend the whole building. The three 
first layers of stones at the bottom of the steam- 
chamber are 4| to 4 inches in diameter ; they are then 
gradually reduced from 4 to 3^ 3 to 2§, and 2 inches; 
the layers near the top are about the size of hen's eggs, 
those above about the size of pigeon's eggs, and the 
levelling rows at the top that of large marbles *. 

The covers r of the steam-chamber are of Arbroath 
pavement, 2| inches thick, half checked on each 
other, and laid down so as to rest upon the top of the 
pillars cc, pressing gently on the small stones below, 
and closely jointed with Roman cement. Where 
proper flags cannot be procured, some of these pits 
have been covered with checked bricks made of fire- 
clay, 18 by 9 inches, and laid on cast-iron rafters. 

The covers of the steam-flues RR are laid in the same 
manner, they are 2| inches thick, and let into the 
sides of the flues with a half-inch check. 
ss. Cast-iron steam tubes with lifting covers, the tubes are 
21 inches diameter by the same in height. On the 
bottom of the tubes, a square piece is cast, which is 
sunk into the top of the cover of the steam-flue, and 
fixed with lead. By lifting the covers of the tubes, 
the steam, which is greatly modified before it reaches 
them, will emit a moist heat to the plants, and even 

• Some of these pits, and plant and pine-stoves, have been filled with 
stones picked from the beds of rivers, some with stones gathered from the 
sea-beach, some with stones taken from the ground and washed clean : 
and others with whin-stone broken to the proper sizes. 



MR hay's steam-pit. 595 

raise the temperature ; and, by replacing the covers, 
the heat will be immediately withdrawn. 

S Represents about 4 inches of furnace ashes. 

tt. A movable piece of wood to raise the bed of earth for 
the plants near the glass, if required. 

T, Boiler with gauge cocks and safety valves, &c. 

uu, The alarm pipe dipping in the boiler a little below 
the lowest guage-cock. Should any accident pre- 
vent the regular supply of the boiler with water, as 
soon as it has evaporated to this level, the steam 
rushes up the pipe, producing a loud whistling noise, 
and giving notice to the gardener, that his attendance 
is required to the boiler. 

U, Feeding cistern with hydrostatic balance and valves. 
I may mention here, that steam at a moderate pres- 
sure of from 1 to 2 pounds per square inch, is, in 
my opinion, better adapted for the purposes intend- 
ed by these pits than steam at a higher pressure. 

V, Cistern and ball-cock for supplying the boiler, having 
a waste-pipe, about fth inch higher than the water 
stands in the boiler, with a cock which drains both 
the cistern and the boiler, when it is necessary to 
clean them. It was first designed to supply the boiler 
of the steam-pits at Cunnoquhie, by a feeding ap- 
paratus ; but it was afterwards thought that the 
gardener would manage it with more ease, if it were 
supplied with water from a small cistern connected 
with it on the same level, and the cistern fed by a 
properly constructed cock and half globular ball, the 
steam being thus blown upon the stones in the steam- 
chamber at the atmospheric pressure. 
U, on the ground plan, Slide valves or cocks. The case of 
the valve is of cast-iron, with a brass slide fitted into 

P p 2 



'59& ACCOUNT OF 

the inside, and a stuffing box, and cross headed 
handles. These valves admit the steam into either of 
the pipes at pleasure., or into both at the same time ; 
and when this is the case, that there may be a sufficient 
supply of steam for both, the bore of the pipe X is 
made 4 inches. 

The furnace being finished, and the pipes laid, the pas- 
sages for the pipes into the pits WW, are firmly stuf- 
fed with dried moss, and two pieces of stone are pre- 
pared to fit the circumference of the pipes, leaving no 
more than room for their expansion. These being 
put in, the openings left for introducing the pipes are 
built up. 

The section of that part of the pits to be used for the 
culture of pine-apples is 10 inches higher, both on 
the south and north, than that for melons. The 
glass-roof consists of two sashes, with a ridge-tree be- 
tween them If inch thick, to which the rafters are 
fixed, and the upper ends of the sash-stiles hinged. 
The hinge crosses the top of the ridge at the height 
of the sash, having a joint on each side with move- 
able pins ; the middle part is screwed to the ridge, 
and the tails to the middle of the sash-stiles, before 
the cope or upper part of the ridge-tree is fixed on. 
The front or south sash is made more than double the 
length of the north one, that the influence of the 
sun's rays may reach the back of the plant-pit. The 
sashes are 3 feet 2 inches broad. 

The rafters are 1 * inch thick between the sashes, and 
continue at this thickness for fully ^th inch above the 
stiles of the sashes. They are then reduced on both 
sides fths of an inch, the remainder being fths inch 
thick, and l|th inch high, with a cope on the 



ME hay's steam-pit. 597 

top of it, which is mitred into the cope of the ridge- 
tree. This forms a place for receiving wooden-shut- 
ters to cover the glass at night in winter. To the 
under part of the rafters, at the height of the wall- 
plates (which are 2 by 4§ inches), are nailed pieces 
of deal If th inch thick, and broader than the rafters 
by 1 inch on each side. At the bottom these are 
checked into the wall plates ; and, together with the 
wall-plates, form the rest for the under side of the 
sashes. On each side of the rafters, near the bottom, 
and to the edge of the sash-rest, an iron-stay is 
screwed, having a hook at the upper end, and mo- 
ving on the screw-nail with which it is fixed. An 
iron eye is screwed into the edge of the rest for 
the hook to enter. On the under side of each sash- 
stile other eyes are screwed, and so placed that, when 
the sashes are opened, and the end hooks of the 
stays placed in them, the gardener may have head- 
room to do any work in the pits. All the sashes at 
the bottom are furnished with iron-handles. Air is 
given by tilts in the common way. 
It will be found that there is a sufficient degree of bot- 
torn heat in the plant-pits, either for the culture of 
Ananas or Melons, and other plants, the flags at the 
bottom r, and the sides e e of the plant-pits being all 
in contact with a mass of heated matter, which is ex- 
cluded from the action of the external air. It will 
also be seen that there is a sufficient degree of heat 
for the atmosphere of the pits. Take, for instance, 
the end division or melon-pit : the depth of the 
steam-chamber is 3 feet, the plant-pit is 1 foot 8 inch- 
es, and the breadth of the cover of the flue is 1 foot 
2 inches, making together 5 feet 10 inches ; the 
length of the chamber-wall on both sides is 9 feet 



598 ACCOUNT OF 

6 inches, together equal to 19 feet. This multiplied 
by 5 feet 10 inches, gives 111 superficial feet nearly. 
The end of the chamber-wall is 8 feet 4 inches, 
which, multiplied by 3 feet, the depth of the cham- 
ber, gives 25 feet; both together making nearly 
136 square feet of surface in close contact with a 
mass of stones heated to about 170°. But should 
this be found to give out too little heat, a considera- 
ble increase may be obtained by making the steam- 
flue return on each end of the pits as some of them 
have been built ; or, if a drier and greater degree 
of heat be required than that given out by the brick- 
wall of the chamber, this may be easily accom- 
plished by constructing the chamber-wall either of 
Arbroath pavement, or the kind found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Dundee, which is still better adapted for 
the purpose, as it is not only very hard and imper- 
vious to moisture, but may be got of any suitable 
dimensions. In constructing the chamber of these 
materials, two flags, of 4 feet 10 inches long, and 3| 
inches thick, may be set up on end, the height of the 
chamber and flue, and two others of any length, laid 
horizontally between them, and so on till the chamber 
is competed. They will require no other work than 
to be properly joggled into one another, and jointed 
with Roman cement. This will give out more heat 
and less moisture than the brick-walls, but will not 
retain the heat so long. The open space a a, round 
the pits, must be kept clear of rubbish, which may 
be done by the covers of the steam-flue being made 
broad enough to cover it, and neat oblong cast-iron 
lifting ventilators, in frames^ 10 inches long and 2|th 
inches broad, inserted at every foot distance, into the 
cover of the flue above the open space. In this man- 



MR hay's steam-pit. 599 

ner, the heat from the sides of the chamber may then 
be given or withheld at pleasure *. 
It is of importance, in the management of steam-pits, 
to have a thermometer so constructed as to render 
it easy to ascertain the temperature at the bottom of 
the earth, or pots, in the plant-pit. An instrument 
adapted for this purpose is represented in Plate XIV. 
Fig. 3., the ball and stem are protected by a brass 
case, the upper part of which is composed of two 
tubes, cut open wide enough to shew the scale ; the 
outer one turns round by the hand, and incloses the 
scale, to protect it when the plants are watered with 
the syringe. 
By comparing the length of the pits at Cunnoquhie with 
those at Castle Semple, it will be seen from Mr 
Smith's communication to the Society, and from Mr 
Lauder's report to me, noticed above, that, at the 
former place, 30 feet of pits, in two divisions, take 3 
hours of steam in every 24 hours to raise the tempe- 
rature to the height required ; but, at the latter 
place, above 60 feet of pits, nearly 1 foot broader, 
take only 3 hours of steam in every 48, although, at 
both places, the steam from the boiler is admitted 
into the steam-chamber at the same pressure. The 
reason of this difference is, that the pits at Cunno- 
quhie have only 2 feet depth of stones, while those at 
Castle Semple have 3 feet. 
The nearer that these pits are built upon a level, the 
more nearly will the heat be equalised both in their 
chambers and atmospheres. 

* A house of considerable dimensions, properly constructed, will be 
found to require very little more heat, if any, to keep it at a proper tem- 
perature than that given out by the steanuchamber wall. 



( 600 ) 



The General Meeting, held on the 5th March 1829, 
having heard a communication from Mr John Hay, Plan- 
ner, relative to the application of steam in a close chamber, 
filled with rounded stones, for affording bottom heat in pine- 
apple and melon pits, and having examined plans furnished 
by him, unanimously agreed in awarding to Mr Hay the 
London Medal for 1828. 

P. N. Sec, 



( 601 ) 



INDEX. 



( 603 ) 



INDEX. 



Page 

Acclimatation of plants, hints on the, . . 313 
Address voted to the King, on occasion of his Majesty's 

visit to Edinburgh, .... 43 

^Ecidium laceratum infecting a hawthorn hedge, . 459 

Anbury disease in turnips, account of the, . . 529 

Apples, on the keeping of, . . . . 326 

account of a select collection from Dysart House, 331 

list of, cultivated in a Carse of Gowrie orchard, 470 

Apricot-tree, advantages of budding the peach upon, 367 

Ash, white American, notice regarding the, . . 251 

Asparagus, on renovating plantations of, . . 478 

B 

Balcarras Orchard, account of, ... 292 
Ballindean, plan of the arrangement of fruit-trees in the gar- 
den at, . . . . 168 
Bark, old, of fruit-trees, on removing the, . . 220 
Beattie, Mr William, on destroying the scaly insect, . 209 
Bisset, Mr Alexander, on the use of grass-sward for forward- 
ing early crops of peas, &c. . . . 180 
Black walls in gardens, on the advantage of, . . 258 
Blaikie, Mr Thomas, on the locust-tree, &c. . . 212 
Blair, Mr Thomas, on the hardy fruits of Upper Canada, 254 
— — Mr William, on the cause of canker, &c. . . 358 
Blight, notice regarding the, . . . . 249 



604 INDEX. 

Blossom of wall-trees, account of Mr Smith's screens for 

protecting, . . .342 

Mr Dick's frame for protecting, 400 

Mr Irving's screens of net-work and 

ferns, . . „ . . . 450 

Boiling-hot water used for destroying insects on wall-trees, 210 
Borders, fruit-tree, on the mulching and watering of . 244 

Brandy, home-made, manufacture of, . . . 487 

Broccoli, Sicilian, on the culture of, . . 419 



Camellia, account of a new mode of grafting the, . 133 

Campbell, Mr Peter, on preparing soil for carrots and onions, 333 

on canker in fruit-trees, . . 559 

Canada, Upper, notices regarding the hardy fruits of, . 254 
Canker, on preventing, by shallow planting, . 292 — 304 

> on the cause of, in fruit-trees, by Mr Blair, . 358 

on the nature of, by Colonel Spens, » . 429 

depending on bad subsoil, notice regarding, . 559 

Carrots, on the proper soil for, , . . 333 

, on preparing ground for, . . . 393 

Carse of Gowrie orchard fruits, . . . 470 

Carta erigens Societatem in corpus corporatum et politi- 

cum, .' . ,•:;.*• 94—100 

Cart wright, Mr Edmond, on the forcing of sea-cale, &c. 419 

Cassi liqueur, mode of making, . . . 489 

Caterpillar, gooseberry, on destroying by means of heat, 378 

i on destroying by means of quicklime, 394 

on destroying,. . . 421 

fruit-tree, on destroying, , , . 526 

Celtis australis, notice regarding the, . . .218 

Charter of the Society, warrant for, . . 87 — 93 

Cheese-gourd, receipt for dressing, , , , 324 

Cider, Scottish, medal awarded for, . , ,57 

Circular training of grape vines, . , . 236 



INDEX. 60.5 

Citrus, genus, fine specimens of the, from Woodhall, . 37 

Climate, insular, on the uniformity of, . . 370 

Coal-tar used for painting garden-walls black, . . 260 

Coppice-woods, on the management of, . . 194 

Corsican pine, notice regarding the, . . . 252 
Coul, seedling apples raised at, by Sir G. S. Mackenzie, 85, 554 
Creelman, Mr William, account of his garden with inclined 

walls, ...... 493 

Creme de Rose Liqueur, mode of making, . , 488 

de Moka, mode of making, . . . 489 

Crichton, Mr Daniel, on edible gourds, . . 323 

on the Ionian and the Malta melons, 354 

Cucumber, Russian, mode of pickling, . . 497 

Cunnoquhie pine-pits described, . . . 570 

Curl in Potato, remarks on, . . ... 462 

Cuttings, on propagating plants by means of, . . 312 

Cydonia japonica, on the upright training of, . . 340 

D 

Desaurty, Mr Victor, on dressing gourds for the table, 324 

Dewar, Mr Peter, account of steam-pits for the culture of 

melons, ...... 350 

Dick, Mr John, on the economical arrangement of fruit-trees 

in a garden, . . ] 63 

on the upright training of rose bushes, &c. 337 

account of an improved garden hammer, 398 

account of a frame for protecting blossom 

and fruit of wall -trees, .... 400 
Dickson, Mr A., Treasurer to the Society, piece of plate 

voted to him for his important services, . . 49 

Don, Mr William, notice of a hawthorn hedge affected by a 

parasitical plant, ..... 459 
Dunbar, Professor, on grafting camellias, . . 133 

Duncan, Dr Andrew, senior, observations on the culture of 

onions, . . ■ • ' « 305 



606 INDEX, 

E 

Elm, Siberian, notice regarding the, . . . 253 

Experimental Garden, circular letter regarding the, - 101 

F 

Fingers and toes, disease in turnips so called, account of, 529 

Flower- pot, description and sketch of an improved, . 317 

Flued walls, on the cultivation of peaches, &c. against, 446 
Forest- trees, on the supposed advantages of sowing instead 

of planting, .... 205 

: notice of some which deserve the attention of 

Scottish cultivators, . . . .251 

Frame for saving wall-fruit, account of a, . . 400 

Frames, oiled paper, for protecting blossom, . . 342 

Fruit-trees, economical arrangement of, in a small garden, 163 

on the training of, ... 267 

on scraping off the old bark of, . . 220 

borders, on the mulching and watering of, . 244 

. on canker in, . . . . 559 

Fruits, hardy, of Upper Canada, notice of the, . . 254 

on the preservation of, . . 374 

used for making domestic wines, . . 375 

Fruit-room, notice of a, . . . . 327 

. frame for protecting from wasps, &c. . . 400 

G 

Gardens near Edinburgh, visitation of, by a Committee of 
the Society, ..... 28 

Garden, Experimental, letter from the Society to the Hon. 
Barons of Exchequer, requesting them 
to purchase ground, . . 52 

» various documents regarding, 101 — 130 

plan and description of, . . 118 



INDEX. 607 

Garden Committee, first report of the, . 109 — 121 

■ second report of the, . 122 — 130 

Gardener's Library, on the formation of a, . . Ml 

Germination of seeds, remarks on the, . . 564 

Glazing hot-houses, notice of an improved method of, . 348 

Gooseberry caterpillar, on the natural history of, &c. . 378 

bushes, list of the best kinds, . . . 48 1 

wine, mode of making, . ■ . . 487 

seedling, called Rob Roy, account of, . 557 

Gordon, Mr John, account of the implement called Scarifi- 
cator, . . . . . . . 395 

Gome, Mr Archibald, on destroying slugs, . . 289 

Gourdiehill Orchard, account of fruits cultivated in, 467 — 477 
Gourds, edible, account of, and of the mode of dressing, 322 

various modes of dressing, . . . 505 

Gowrie, Carse of, orchard-fruits cultivated in the, 470, &c. 

Grape-vines, shy setters dusted with the pollen of free 

setters, . . . • . . . 85 

trained on the outside of the sashes of a plant 

stove, .... 520 
account of a method of cultivating at Bella- 
drum, .... 234—243 

on the management of, in peach-houses, . 455 

on the kinds best suited for flued-walls in 

Scotland, . • • 500 

. H 
Hammer, notice of an improved one for nailing-in wall-trees, 398 
Hawthorn-hedges, notice of a disease affecting, . 459 

Hay, Mr John, inventor of method of heating, by introducing 

steam into a chamber filled with loose stones, 583 

London Medal for 1828, awarded to him, 600 

Heat, applied for the destruction of the gooseberry caterpillar, 378 
Hedge-row trees, notices regarding, . . 198 



608 INDEX. 

Henderson, Mr John, Brechin, on improving garden-walls, 

&c, - 258—272 

Henderson, Mr Alexander, on saving of seeds in Scotland, 416 
History of the Society from June 1819, to Oct. 1826, 21—86 
Holly, Chinese, notice l'egarding the, . „ 252 

Hop-tops used as a substitute for asparagus, . 504 

Hopetoun House Garden, mulching of fruit-tree borders at, 244 
Horticulture, hints and notices connected with, by Mr John 

Murray, . . . . . 370, &c. 

Hosie, Mr Robert, on the management of oak coppice 

woods, ■ . . . . . 189—199 

Hot-houses, improved mode of ventilating, . 200 

Hot-walls, on the grape-vines best suited for, in Scotland, 500 
Hot-houses, on heating by means of steam, . 511 

planned for peach-trees and grape-vines, 577 

Howison, Mr James, on ripening fruit by artificial heat, 279 

account of an improved flower-pot, 3 1 7 

Howison, Dr William, on the Russian cucumber, &c. 497 

I 

India, list of subscribers to the Experimental Garden from, 1 04 
Indian saws, notice regarding, . . . 362 

Insects on fruit-trees, destroyed by means of boiling hot wa- 
ter, ...... 210 

Insular climate, on the uniformity of, . . 370 

Ionian melon, notice regarding the, . . . 354 

Irving, Mr William, on the cultivation of [peaches, &c. on 

flued walls, . . . . 446 — 454 

J 
Jenyns, Rev. George, on anbury in turnips, . . 547 

K 

Kelly, Mr A. on raising mushrooms during winter, . 283 
Key, Mr Alexander, gardener at Barskimming, honorary 
medal awarded to him, . . . .48 



INDEX. 609 

King, The, becomes Patron of the Society, . . 31 

Kirschenwasser, imitation of, ... 84 

mode of making, . . . 489 

Kyle, Mr John, at Blair Drummond, honorary medal award- 
ed to him, December 1820, ... 35 



Lactucarium, premium awarded for manufacturing, 34 
Library, gardener's, on the formation of a, . 441 
Liqueurs, account of the mode of making various, 486 
Livingston, Mr R. F. D. account of a hot-house for peach- 
trees and grape-vines, . ■ . . . 576 
Locust-tree of Cobbet, remarks on the, . . 212 
London Medal for 1826, awarded to Mr John Henderson, 258 

for 1827, to Mr Archibald Reid, . 292 

for 1828, to Mr John Hay, . . 600 

Lowe, Mr Peter, on the curl in potatoes, &c. - 462 

M 
Macdonald, Mr James, on training grape-vines on the out- 
side of the sashes of a plant-stove, . . 520 
Macdougal, Messrs, on the anbury of turnips, . 544 
Machray, Mr John, on grafting of orange-trees, &c, 310—316 

on destroying caterpillars, . . 526 

Mackenzie, Sir G. S. notice of seedling apples raised by him, 85 

farther account of, . . . 554 

Malta Melon, notice regarding the, . . . 356 

Macmurtrie, Mr W., on the artificial ripening of immature 

tomatoes, . . 364 

■ on the advantages of budding the peach 

upon the apricot, . . . . 357 

Marrow, vegetable, receipt for dressing, . . 334 

Martin, Mr John, on grape-vines, . . . 455 

Matthew, Mr Patrick, account of Gourdiehill Orchard, 467 

VOL. IV. q « 



610 INDEX. 

Meason, Gilbert Laing, Esq. on some forest and ornamental 

trees, deserving the attention of Scottish cultivators, 251 

Melons, Ionian and Malta, notices regarding, . . 354 

account of steam-pits for the culture of, . 350 

■ description of the pit at Cunnoquhie, . 57 1 

Members of the Society, List of, elected from 4th March 

1819 to 7th September 1826, . . . 3—14 

Mice, on saving peas and beans from the attacks of, 452 

Middleton, Mr John, on the cultivation of strawberries, 400 

Mildew, notice regarding the, . . . 249 

Mitchell, Mr John, gardener at Moncrieffe House, honorary 

medal voted to, .... 67 

Moffat, Mr James, gardener at Ayton, honorary medal award- 
ed to him, December 18 J 9, ... 27 
Moss or hypnum, cultivation of plants in, . » 158 
Murray, Mr John, hints and notices connected with horti- 
culture, . . . . . 370—377 

on germination and vegetation, 564 

Mushrooms, on the raising of, . 273 
on raising, during winter, . . 283 

N 

Naturalization of exotic plants at Biel, . . 22, 60 

Nectarine, seedling, from Woodhall, . . 30 

Nectarines, on the cultivation of, against flued walls, . 446 
Neill, Mr. P., Secretary, piece of plate voted to him during 

his absence abroad, . . . . 39 

Niven, Mr Ninian, on the cultivation of the grape-vine, 234 

Nonpareille liqueur, mode of making, . . 490 

O 

Oak coppice- woods, on the management of, . . 189 

Office-bearers of the Society 1826, ... 20 

Oliver, Mr William, on the keeping of apples, . 326 

Onions, observations on the culture of, by Dr Duncan sen-, 305 



INDEX. 611 



Onions, on preparing a soil for, 

on the cultivation of, 

on the transplanting of, by Colonel Spens, 

on the transplanting of, by Mr Lowe, 

Orange-trees, on the grafting of, 

Orchard fruits, list of, in the Carse of Gowrie, 



336 
391 
425 
466 
314 
470 



Paper birch-tree, notice regarding the, . • 251 

Paterson, Colonel George, account of steam-pits at Cunno- 
quhie, ...... 570 

Peach tree, account of the French methods of cultivating 
the, ...... 138 

Montreuil method, .... 145 

A la Dumoutier, . . . .147 

A la Sieulle, . . . .152 

— on budding of, on the apricot -tree, . . 367 

on the cultivation of, against flued walls, . 446 

Peach-house planned also for grape-vines, . . 577 

Pears, Scottish, notice of, . . . . 437 

orchard, list of some Scottish, . . . 475 

Peas, early, forwarded by sowing on grass-sward, . 181 

Pederana, M. Lewis, on making liqueurs, . 486 — 491 

on dressing gourds for the table, 505 — 510 

Perth Nurseries, account of an inclosed collection of goose- 
berry bushes in, . . . . . 481 

Pine-apples, culture of, in steam-pits at Cunnoquhie, 572 

Pin us Laricio, notice regarding the, . . . 252 

Pit, economical, for preserving vegetables during winter, &c, 173 

- for grape-vines, described and figured, . . 238 
Platanus occidentalis, notice regarding, . . 218 
Plums, seedling, raised at Coul, account of, . . 557 
Portobello, account of inclined walls in a garden at, . 493 
Potatoes, early, means of forwarding, . . 184 

Potiron gourd, mode of dressing for table, . , 505 



612 



INDEX. 



Q 



Quicklime used for destroying gooseberry caterpillar. 



394 



R 
Ranunculuses, seedling, on the raising of, . . 227 

Red Spider, on the natural history of the, . . 360 

Reid, Mr William, gardener at Gilmerton, honorary medal 

awarded to, . 48 

Mr Archibald, on preventing canker, &c. 292 

Rhodes, Rev. James Armitage, on heating hot-houses by 
steam, ... . . . 511 — 519 

Rhubarb-stalks, on the forcing of, . . 273 

Robertson, Mr Daniel, on renovating asparagus beds, 478 

Robinia pseudacacia, notices regarding the, . . 213 

spectabilis noticed, . . • , 215 

viscosa and hybrida, noticed, . . 217 

Robison, John, Esq., account of an improved mode of glaz- 
ing hot-house sashes, .... 348 

notice of Indian saws, . . 362 

Rose-bush, on the upright training of, , . 337 



S 
Saws, Indian, notice regarding, . . . 362 

Scaly insect, on a method of destroying the, . . 209 

Scarificator, figure and description of the, . . 395 

Sea-cale, on the forcing of, . . . .418 

Seeds, on the saving of, in Scotland, . . ■ 416 

Seedling fruits, notice of several, ... 83 

Shareholders in the Experimental Garden, list of original, 105 
Shiells, Mr George, on grape-vines best suited for hot-walls 

in Scotland, . . . • .500 

Sinclair, Right Hon. Sir John, on Anbury in turnips, . 550 

Sinclair, Mr George, on the Anbury of turnips, . 53 1 



INDEX. 613 

Sloping of subdivision walls in gardens recommended, . 265 

Slugs, on destroying, .... 289 

Smith, Mr James, on the mulching and watering of fruit-tree 

borders, ..... 244—250 

on the formation of a gardener's library, - 441 

Mr John, on the French method of cultivating the 

peach-tree, ..... 138 — 157 
Mr Alexander, account of screens for protecting wall- 



trees, .... . 342—347 

Soup of gourds, recipe for making, . . . 32 4 

Sowing, instead of planting, of forest-trees, on the supposed 

advantages of, . . . . . 205 

Spens, Colonel, on canker in fruit-trees, and on Scottish 

pears, . ... 425 — 440 

Spider, red, natural history of the . . .358 

Spurs of wall fruit-trees, on the importance of nailing them 

close to the wall, .... 268 

Steam, on heating hot-houses by means of, . . 511 

Steam-pits for the culture of melons, account of, . 350 

at Cunnoquhie described, . . . 570 

minute description of, by Mr Hay, . . 591 

Stewart, Mr Alexander, account of pit for raising early ve- 
getables, &c, . . . . .173 
Still for the manufacture of liquors, plan and section of, 492 
Strawberries, forcing of, means of facilitating, . . 186 

on the cultivation of, . . . 408 

Street, Mr John, on cultivating plants in hypnum-mosses, 158 
Stuart, Mr James, on forcing rhubarb-stalks in the open air, 273 
Subdivision walls in gardens, improvements on, . 263 

Sward-turf, use of, for forwarding early crops of peas, 78, 180 

T 

Thorn, Mr Robert, on the gooseberry- caterpillar, . 378 

Thomson, Mr Thomas, on scraping off the old bark of fruit- 
trees, ..... 220, &c. 



614 



INDEX. 



Tomatoes, immature, on the artificial ripening of, . 364 
Top-dressings, on the utility of, in garden crops, . 479 
Transplanting of onions recommended, . . . 307 
Turf-grass, used for forwarding early crops of peas, pota- 
toes, &c. ..... 180 

Turnip, early white, on the saving the seed of, . 416 
Turnips, on the disease called Anbury in, . 529 — 553 
Turnbull, Mr Archibald, list of select gooseberries, cultivat- 
ed by, . ■ . . . 481 
Tweedie, Mr John, account of a mode of ventilating hot- 
houses, . . . . . . . 200 



V 

Valleyfield, account of economical pit for preserving vege- 
tables at, . . . .173 
Vegetables, on preserving, through the winter, . . 498 
Vegetable marrow, receipt for dressing, . . 324 
Vegetation of seeds, notes on the, . . . 564 
Ventilating of hot-houses, improved mode of, . . 200 
Vine-pit described and figured, . . . 238 
Vines, grape, on propagating by layers and cuttings, . 457 



W 

Wall, garden, general hints for improving a, . . 258 

subdivision, should be inclined to the horizon, . 265 

. account of an inclined, at Portobello, . . 493 

, trees, account of Mr Smith's oiled paper-screens for 

protecting the blossoms of, ... 342 

Mr Irving's screens of net-work and fern, . 446 

trees, advantages and disadvantages of, . . 376 

fruit, frame for preserving, . . . 400 

flued, on the grape-vines best suited for, . 500 

Wallace, Mr John, on the cultivation of onions and carrots, 391 

Walnut, white, notice regarding the, . . . 253 



INDEX. 615 

Warrant for royal charter, .... 87 

Water in a boiling hot state applied to fruit-trees, for destroy- 
ing insects, . . . . .210 
Water, hot, applied for the destruction of gooseberry-cater- 
pillar, . . . . .389 
Waterston, Mr John, on the raising of seedling ranunculuses, 227 
Wines, home-made, report regarding, . . 61, 72 
Witherspoon, Mr Alexander, on destroying caterpillars, 421 

Y 

Young, Mr Arthur, on the anbury of turnips, . . 542 



END OF VOL. IV, 



LIST OF PLATES IN VOL. IV. 



IN PART I. 

Page 
Plate I. Plan of the Experimental Garden, Inverleith, 118 

IT. Professor Dunbar's New Mode of Grafting Ca- 
mellias, - - - 136 

III. Mr Alexander Stewart's Economical Vege- 

table Pit, - - - 17^ 

IV. Illustrative of Mr Hosie's Plan of Thinning Oak 

Woods, - - - 190 

V. Mr Niven's Grape- Vine Pits, . - 243 

IN PART II. 

VI. Mr Robertson's Improved Mode of Glazing 

Sashes, . - - - 348 

VII. Mr Dewar's Steam-Pits, - - 353 

VIII. Indian Saws ; Apparatus for applying Hot- Water 

to Gooseberry- bushes, &c. - - 362 

IX. Mr Dick's Preservative Frame, - 406 

X. Mr Creelman's Inclined Fruit-walls at Porto- 

bello, ----- 496 

XI. Reverend Mr Rhodes' plan of Heating Hot-Houses 

by Steam, - - - - 519 

XII. XIII. Mr Macdonald's Mode of Training Grape- 

vines on the outside of Hot-House sashes, 525 

XIV. XV. Mr Hay's Pine-apple Pit, heated by means of 
Steam introduced into a close chamber filled with 
rounded stones, - - - 591 



I