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THE FLORA OF GUADALUPE ISLAND, 
MEXICO 



By 
Reid Moran 




Published by the California Academy of Sciences 
San Francisco, California 



Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, Number 19 




The pride of Guadalupe Island, the endemic Cisfuiillw giiailulupensis. flowering on a small islet 

off the southwest coast, with cliffs of the main island as a background; 19 April 1957. 

This plant is rare on the main island, surviving only on cliffs out of reach of goats, 

but common here on sjoatless Islote Nccro. 



THE FLORA OF GUADALUPE ISLAND, MEXICO 



^ 



Q 



THE FLORA OF GUADALUPE ISLAND, 
MEXICO 



By 

Reid Moran 




y 



Published by the California Academy of Sciences 
San Francisco, California 



Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, Number 19 

San Francisco 
July 26, 1996 



SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE: 

Alan E. Lcviton. Ediinr 
Katie Martin, Managing Editor 
Thomas F. Daniel 
Michael Ghiselin 
Robert C. Diewes 
Wojciech .1. Pulawski 
Adam Schift" 
Gary C. Williams 



© 1906 by the California Academy of Sciences, Golden (iate Park. 
San Francisco, California 94118 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any 
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or 
any infcMination storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the 
publisher. 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 96-084362 
ISBN 0-940228-40-8 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Abstract vii 

Resumen viii 

Introduction 1 

Guadalupe Island 

Description I 

Place names 9 

Climate 13 

History 15 

Other Biota 15 

The Vascular Plants 

Native or Foreign? 19 

Goats and Plants 23 

Past and Present Vegetation 28 

Extinct Plants and Nearly Extinct 39 

Composition and Relationships of the Flora 41 

Plant Collectors 44 

Catalogue of the Plants 

Ferns 53 

Gymnospemis 56 

Dicots 66 

Monocots 158 

Doubtfiil and Excluded Species 168 

Acknowledgments 170 

Literature Cited 170 

Index to Plant Names 185 



THE FLORA OF GUADALUPE ISLAND, MEXICO 

By 

Reid Moran 

Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences, 
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California 94118 



Guadalupe Island Is a volcanic oceanic island 260 km west of the peninsula of Baja 
California, Mevico, and separated by ocean depths of 3600 ni. Its area is 250 km' 
and its height 1295 ni. Rainfall averages 133 mm near sea level at the south end but 
evidently is much more at the high north end, where there is no record. For at least 
a century and a half, feral goats have degraded the island by destroying the vegetation, 
thus (1) extinguishing native species, (2) fostering soil erosion, and (3) drying up 
springs by killing trees whose fog drip had added greatly to rainfall. 

Once-extensive forests of pine, oak, and cypress on the high northern third of the 
island, and woods of juniper and palms (Brahea), have shrunk drastically and are 
still shrinking, the remaining old trees unable to reproduce because goats eat the 
seedlings. Sage scrub (Senecio etc.) in the northern half of the island has been replaced 
by weedy grasslands, with shrubs surviving only on cliffs and some kinds gradually 
dying out. Some scrub {Amhrosia. Atriplex. I.yciiiin, Hemizonia) remains at low levels 
in the drier southern third of the island, where fewer goats range for lack of water. 
Offshore islets arc refugia for rare plants, including five never found on the main 
island. 

The total known vascular flora is 216 species, but not all there at one time: over 30 
of them are probably now extinct on the island, and new weeds keep coming as if 
to take their place. \V hatever we may mean by native on a volcanic oceanic island, 
I count 45 species, mainly European weeds, as relative newcomers, thus leaving at 
most 171 to consider as possibly native. However, a dozen of these were first found 
in parts of the island where earlier collectors had failed to find them. The cumulative 
evidence is that some must be recent arrivals; but not knowing which are, I keep 
15 west American plants in the category of possibly or probably introduced, leaving 
156 as less doubtfully native. Of these natives, 34 species and subspecies (21.8 percent) 
are endemic, including the monotypic genera Baeriopsis J. T. Howell and Hesperelaea 
A. Gray, though the or more endemics are extinct. Of the native flora. 114 species 
(73 percent) grow also in Alta California and only eight (5 percent) in Baja California 
but not northward. In particular, 101 (65 percent) grow on California islands: and 
19 of these (12.2 percent) are insular endemics. Of the Guadalupe endemics, six have 
closest relatives on other islands. Thus the relationships of the Guadalupe flora are 
mainly to the north, with the islands of southern California: Guadalupe Island is an 
outlier of the California Floristic Province. 

It is most important before more plants are lost, to remove all goats from the island, 
reversing the process of degradation and encouraging in every way the renewal of 
the natural vegetation. Even at best, some rare plants may die out unless propagated 
and replanted. Guadalupe Island with its unique flora is a Mexican national treasure 
in dire need of protection. 

Received March 3. 1995. Accepted June 6. 1995. 



Resunien 

La Isia de Guadalupe is una isia oceanica \nlcanica situada a 260 km al oeste de la 
peninsula de Baja California, Mexico, y separada por profundidades oceanicas de 
3600 ni. Su area es de 250 km cuadrados y su altitud alcan/a 1295 m. La precipitacion 
pluvial promedia 133 mm eerca del nivel del mar en el extreme sur pero e\idente- 
mente is mucho mas en el ele\ado extremo norte, donde no existen regislros. Por 
cuando menos un siglo y medio, las cabras ferales had degradado la isia destruyendo 
la vegetaeion, de esta manera (I) extinguiendo espeeies nati\as. (2) propiciando 
erosion del suelo, y (3) secando manantialcs al matar arboles cuya condensacion de 
niebia complementaba grandemente la lluvia. 

Los en un tiempo extensos bosques de pinos, encinos, y cipreses, en el elevado tercio 
norte de la isia. y montes de enebros y palmeras (Bra/iea) se han reducido drasti- 
camente y continiian reduciendose, los arboles \iejos remanentes imposibilitados para 
reproducirse por que las cabras de\oran los renuevos. El matorral de salvia {Seitecio 
etc.) en la mitad norte de la isia, ha sido reempla/ado por male/a de pastizales, con 
arbustos sobre\i\iendo unicamente en acantilados y algunos gradualmente muriendo. 
Algiin matorral (Ambrosia. Atriplex, Lyciiim, Hemitonia) permanece a bajos nixclcs 
en el mas seco tercio del sur de la isia, a donde \an menos cabras por falta de agua. 
Los islotes litorales son refugios para planlas raras, incluyendo cinco que nunca se 
han encontrado en la isia principal. 

La flora vascular total conocida es de 216 espeeies, pero no todas al mismo tiempo: 
mas de 30 de ellas probablemente se han extinguido ya de la isia, y nuevas malezas 
siguen llegando como para tomar su lugar. De lo que de alguna manera consideremos 
nativo en una isia volcanica oceanica, yo recuento 45 espeeies, principalmente malezas 
europeas, como arribos relativamentc rccicntes, asi dejando cuando mucho 171 que 
se consideran posiblemente nativas. Sin embargo, una docena de cstas fueron por 
primera \ez cncontradas en este siglo, en partes de la isia donde no las habian hallado 
recolectores anteriormente. La evidencia acumulativa es de que algunos son arribos 
recientes: pero no sabiendo cuales son. yo mantengo 15 plantas oeste-americanas en 
la categoria de posible o probablemente introducidas. dejando 156 como menos 
dudosamente nativas. De estas espeeies natiNas, 34 espeeies y subespecies (21.8 por- 
ciento) son endemicas, incluyendo los generos monotipicos Bueriopsis J. T. Howell v 
Hespeielaea A. Gray, aunque cinco o mas endemicas estan extinguidas. 

De la flora nativa, 114 espeeies (73 porciento) crecen tambien en Alta California y 
imicaniente ocho (5 porciento) crecen en Baja California pero no mas al norte. En 
particular 101 (65 porciento) crecen en las islas de California; y 19 de cstas (12.2 
porciento) son endemicas insulares. De las endemicas de (Juadalupe, seis tienen sus 
mas cercanas espeeies emparentadas en otras islas. Asi, las relaciones de la flora de 
Guadalupe se encuentran principalmente al norte, con las islas del sur de California; 
la isia de (luadalupe es un desplazamiento de la Provincia Floristica de California. 

Es de la mayor importancia antes de que se pierdan mas plantas, remoxer todas las 
cabras de la isia, rcvirtiendo el proceso de degradacion y fomentando en todas las 
formas posibles la recuperacion de la vegetacion natural. En el niejor de los casos, 
algunas plantas raras no podran sobrevivir a menos que puedan ser propagadas de 
semillas nativas y replantadas. 

La isia de Guadalupe con su singular flora, es un tesoro nacional mexicano en de- 
sespcrada necesidad de proteccion. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Introduction 

Guadalupe Island, westernmost outpost of Mexico, is a volcanic oceanic island some 260 
km (162 statute miles) off the peninsula of Baja Califomia, 337 km (210 miles) southwest 
of Ensenada, and 400 km (250 miles) south-southwest of San Diego, California (Fig. I ). 
It is separated from the continent by ocean depths of some 3600 m (2000 fathoms) and 
evidently has never been connected. 

Like other high oceanic islands, Guadalupe is remarkable for endemism in the flora and 
fauna; but it is a naturalists' paradise despoiled by feral goats, housecats, and mice. These 
pests need to be extemiinated before they destroy more of the unique endemics of this 
remarkable island; and it is important to reverse the desertification, which in the long mn 
threatens even the goats themselves. Pending removal of all goats, fenced exciosurcs could 
help the recovery of rare plants now close to extinction; but even so, some rare ones 
might not survive unless they could be propagated, of course from native seed, and re- 
planted. As further insurance, botanic gardens on the mainland can help preserve geneti- 
cally adequate samples and seeds of Guadalupe plants. Perhaps the Center for Plant Con- 
servation could slightly extend its area of concern to include this southernmost outlier of 
the Califomia Floristic Province and could coordinate the effort. Meanwhile the Rancho 
Santa Ana Botanic Garden is starting to help with this work. 

Indeed, relationships of the vascular flora are mainly to the noi1h, with the Channel Islands 
of southern Califomia, and to some extent with the islands off northwest Baja Califomia 
(Fig. 1). Hence the flora is of particular interest to Califomian botanists like me. Thome 
(1969) described these islands as to area, height, distance from the mainland and from 
each other, and geological histoiy; and for these islands he discussed dishamionic biotas, 
immigrant pattems of distribution, relict and autochthonous endemism, gigantism, con- 
tinuous flowering, hybridization, and vulnerability. Wallace (1985) tabulated the known 
floras of the eight Channel Islands plus Guadalupe, but there has been no flill account of 
the Guadalupe flora. So at last, here it is. 



Guadalupe Island 

Description 

Guadalupe Island (Fig. 2) is about 37 km (23 miles) long north and south, 12 km (8 miles) 
wide, and 1295 m (4257 feet) high, with an area of about 250 km" (98 square miles). It 
is rather unifomily high in the northern third, the highest point, Mt. Augusta, scarcely 
rising above the general level. In the southern half is one rather sharp 975-meter 
(3200-foot) peak. El Picacho. From there, the surface drops away to rather low elevations 
at the south end, with scattered cones and craters (Fig. 16). Two of these features fomi 
islets offshore: Inner and Outer Islets (Fig. 17). 

The island is a seamount built on the axis of a fossil ridge crest or spreading center, 
starting at most 10 inillion years after the abandonment of the ridge and perhaps much 
earlier (Batiza 1977). The island consists of two partly overlapping shield volcanoes, both 
collapsed calderas, vestiges of the southem one at El Picacho, the younger noilhera one 
remaining as a half-crater at the north end (Figs. 3, 4). These are largely overlain by a 
thick series of flank and fissure eruptions, from a set of north-trending fissures marked 
by lines of cinder cones. Volcanic rock types form a remarkably complete series from 
alkali olivine basalt to trachyte. The oldest exposed rocks are subaerial flows of alkali 



REID MORAN 



Santa Barbara 
Poinl Conception 

Santa Cruz I 
San Mtguel 1 <s ^_ 'Clii> - 
V^ An 

San Pedro Hill 
Santa Barbara I « ^^^ 

Santa Catalina I 



California 



Pacific Ocean 




Figure 1. The California Islands, off soulhem California and northwest Baja California. Based 
on Hydrographic Office Chart 5760, UU2 

oli\ine basalt radiotiietrically dated at 7 ±2 million years BP (Engel and Engel l'-)64, 
1471). 

The notlliern upland is what remains of a caldera about lOkm (6 miles) wide, whose 
collapsed eastern side is eroded away by streams fomiing two large canyons. The western 
rim of the caldera is the main ridge of the island, which from the high point at Mt. 
Augusta curves around to the noilh and northeast, to end in North Point, the northern tip 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 



29" 10' 



Elephant Rock 

Elephant Seal Beach 

Mt. Augusta 

Steamer Point 



Northeast Anchotage 




Long Canyon 
Juniper Canyon 
Red Cinder Cone 



Melpomene Cove 

— Middle Rock 

^fc Outer Islel 

(Islote Zapato) 



Figure 2. Guadalupe Island, with place names used in this flora. Based on LISDMA Chart 21661, 
12th edition, 1982. 

of the island (Figs. 3, 4). Below the rim in the caldera is an iiTegular shelf or upper valley 
(Fig. 3). Here is the only pemianent spring left on the island (Fig. 5). evidently fed partly 
by fog drip from the cypress grove west of the ridge; in August 1981 it was flowing at 
a constant 0.275 liters/second (Gonzalez 1981). Early visitors described other springs 
nearby, and according to Greene (1885). the springs fed plenty of shallow and tepid pools. 



REID MORAN 





Figures 3 and 4. Nonheasi upland, north from Ml. Augusta, the remnant of a caldera collapsed 
and eroded away to the east (right); 2 March 1965. The far rim is the northeast ridge of the island, 
ending in North Point to the right. FiciURH 3. Upper valley, draining south and then cast, to Esparsa 
Canyon (see Figs. 7, 8). Near the middle of the picture is the principal spring of the island (see 
Fig. 5). FlGLiRt: 4 (view to the right of Fig. 3). Lower Circus or inner arc of clitTs. and below it 
the lower valley, the near end draining into Esparsa Canyon, the far end mto Barracks Canyon (see 
Fig. 9). 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

These springs have since dried up, doubtless from the loss of much of the cypress grove. 
Stewart (1965) mentioned three sizable springs still there in 1899; and springy places still 
remained north of the principal spring into the late 1950s. Here there was once a ranch, 
or probably a series of ranches, mentioned but not described by early visitors; adobe ruins 
seen near the spring as late as 1958 are now gone, but others to the northeast have not 
yet entirely melted away. 

Just to the east in the caldera is a lower, inner arc of cliffs, which Franceschi (1893c) 
called the Lower Circus, and below this a lower valley (Figs. 4, 6). The caldera drains 
to the east, mainly by the two largest canyons of the island, Esparsa Canyon (Figs. 7, 8) 
on the south and Barracks Canyon (Fig. 9) on the north. 

At the mouth of Ban'acks Canyon is Northeast Anchorage, for many years the main 
landing on the island (Fig. 10). It has been the site of various settlements — of fishemien, 
goathunters, and soldiers. Just above the beach are two conspicuous old white buildings 
known as the banacks, probably dating from World War II. At my first visit in 1948 the 
remains of a goatmeat cannery were still to be seen on the beach. A broad trail climbed 
by zigzags out of the canyon, then up the east slope and through the lower valley to the 
spring and the cypress grove. The landing is now called Campo Norte. It is connected 
by road, by way of the spring, with the airfield (Campo Pista) near the middle of the 
island, and that with Campo Oeste at West Anchorage and with Campo Sur at the southwest 
comer of the island. 

Seacliffs are high, especially around the northern end. North Point, actually the northeast 
point, stands 400 m above the sea. The north end has seacliffs 500 or 600 m high and a 
steep slope above (Fig. 1 1), and at the northwest comer of the island, exposed to the full 
force of the Pacific swell, slightly more rounded cliffs are some 700 m high. Two-thirds 
of the way down the west coast, west of and below El Picacho, is a break in the cliffs 
— West Anchorage, an indifferent anchorage but sheltered from the north (Figs. 12, 13). 
Over the years this was first a camp for sealers near a major rookei"y of the fur seals 
(Anthony 1925, Hanna 1925). then more recently a seasonal fish camp, sometimes with 
lobster or abalone fishermen, but now is part of the naval base and known as Campo 
Oeste. Rather high cliffs again, continue to the south end (Fig. 13). 

Another old rookery and sealing camp was on the low-lying southwest point of the island. 
A marine base and weather station (Fig. 14) founded there in December 1946 was for 
many years the only permanent settlement on the island; it is now called Campo Sur. 
Just to the east is the south-end mesa (Figs. 31. 32), about 100 m high, with cliffs along 
the south side facing Melpomene Cove. At the southeast comer of the island is South 
Bluff a rounded butte 310 m high (Fig. 32). Just west of South Bluff is the mouth of 
Arroyo Melpomene, which rises on the slopes of El Picacho. some 9 km to the north. 

Close off the southwest coast is a small islet about 30 m (100 feet) high called Islote 
Negro (Fig. 15). Prominent off the south end are two larger islets, Inner Islet and Outer 
Islet (Figs. 16, 17). Inner Islet is a rounded dome 227 m (744 feet) high, with vegetation 
on top and sheer cliffs below. Outer Islet is a seabound volcanic crater 206 m (677 feet) 
high, with sheer cliffs on all sides but the northwest. There the sea has eaten farther into 
the side of the crater, leaving only a low rim (Fig. 48), with a rocky slope down to the 
water, where on a calm day it is possible to jump ashore onto the rocks and scramble up 
into the crater. The floor of the crater is fiat, and its sides slope up unifomily at about 
45°. on most sides to a jagged rim topping the sheer outer cliffs (Fig. 34). But above on 
the east side is a shallow hanging valley, a subsidiary crater, at 190 m (Fig. 35). 



REID MORAN 




Hiiii Kl 5, The spring, in upper \ alley, now the only permanent spring on the island, evidently 
ted hy fog drip on west side of ridge, 26 April l'-)5N, With the loss of many trees, other springs 
of this \alley ha\e dried tip. 

FHit l<r 6. Lower \ alley and eliffs of the Lower Circus, looking south to Vlt. Augusta, with eastern 
fringe of eypress grove beyond; 25 April 1Q5S, 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 











«^i.c;< 



^/l» 



-«te. 



hUjLRK 7. Simthcm rim ot the collapsed caldcra (right): Iciokiiig cast duwii I \parsa C aiiNon trom 
Mt. Augusta, 26 April 1958. 

Figure 8. Mouth of Esparsa Canyon, on east side of the island, with Mt. Augusta and eastern 
fringe of cypress grove on the skyline; 24 April 1958. 



REID MORAN 




4. J*^-^^ 



r ,--~''^ 






IfilMliMwiiiiidfiWilMaMl 






Flc.URi: 9. Barracks Canyon, with Northeast Anchorage at the mouth, the skyHne with Mt. Augusta 
in the middle; 22 April 195S. 

Figure 10. Northeast Anchorage, with the old barracks. 10 April 194S. The two pines on the 
skyline are at the old lookout, at 800 m (see Fig. 42). The shrubs in the canyon mouth are the 
recently arrived tree tobacco (Nicotiana glaiica, M2838). shunned by the goats and so spreading 
and now threateninc to take the island. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




Figure 1L North end ot the island, wiih ^00-meter chlTs, 17 April I4S7. On the skyHne are 
pines {Piniis radiata var. binata), on the slopes many palms (Bvahea eduUs) and a few scattered 
pines. 

Around the comer of the main island, on the east and leeward side, the seacliffs are lower 
than on the west. Near the south end are the ruins of another old sealing camp, used 
supposedly in the first part of the last century to house Aleutian islanders brought by 
Yankee fur sealers to do the dirty work (Hanna 1925). 

Farther north are several canyons or arroyos much shallower than Esparsa Canyon and 
Barracks Canyon in the northeast. 



Place Names 

The map (Fig. 2) shows place names used in this flora. On U. S. Hydrographic Office 
Chart 1688, from which I made my early labels for Guadalupe plants, the few long-es- 
tablished place names are mostly English, though on Mexican maps many are now trans- 
lated or replaced. The newer Mexican names include "Campo Norte" for Northeast An- 
chorage, in the old reports simply called "the landing"; "Campo Oeste" for West Anchorage 
or Jacks Bay or Campo Tepeyac; "Campo Sur" for the weather station or marine base at 
the southwest comer of the island; "Campo Pista" at the air field; and "Campo de Lima" 
for what was called the Lobster Camp. Dr. Carl Hubbs (Peterson et al. 1968, fig. I) im- 
provised such names as he needed to record his observations along the coast, such as 
Islote Negro, Double Point, Dike Point, Yellow Point. Likewise, 1 have infomially coined 
a few names for plant labels, like "Oak Canyon," "South Oak Canyon," and "Hemizonia 
Cliff" "Esparsa Canyon," from Hanna (1925), replaces "North Twin Canyon" of my early 
labels; and "South Twin Canyon" becomes "South Esparsa Canyon." Possibly this name 
is a variant of Espaza, used by Palmer as Espaza Bay, apparently for an indentation on 



REID MORAN 




FldlJRls 12 and 1?. West Anchorage, a break in the chffs rwo-thirds of the way down the west 
coast; 17 April 1957. FKjLRI- 12. View from the west. FIGURE 13. The anchorage from the north, 
with Scnpps \cssel Puolinu T. the high cliffs conlinuing on southward towards Inner Islet. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 





Figure 14. The village and weather station at the southwest comer of the island, 14 April 1970. 
Founded in 1946, it has now grown into Canipo Sur. 

Figure 15. Islote Negro, off the southwest coast, a goalless refugium for south-end plants; 29 
April 1958. (See Frontispiece.) 



REID MORAN 




FiGi.'RI 16, South end ot'lhc island from the summit of El Picacho, showing Inner Islet and Outer 
Islet off the south coast; 16 April 1970. 

FiGURi: 17. Outer Islet (left), a seabound volcanic crater, and Inner Islet, south of the main island; 
22 August 1981. Outer Islet is a museum of plants rare or extinct on the main island; Inner Islet 
is out of reach and tantalizing. 



12 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

the north coast (Watson 1876:1 19). Esparsa Canyon probably is what Palmer once referred 
to as Landrum's Canon (Watson 1876:119) and Brandegee (1900) called Spannann's 
Canon. I have adopted Franceschi's (1893c) temi "Lower Circus" for the lower, inner 
arc of cliffs remaining from the huge caldera that fornied the northeast part of the island, 
i.e. the cliffs below and east of the spring where the earliest collectors camped. The Old 
Lookout is the site of the two ruined stone huts (Fig. 42) at 800 m on the main north 
ridge above and west of Northeast Anchorage. Melpomene Cove at the south end has 
also been known as Whalers Bay or South Bay. The main artoyo at the south end I have 
called Artoyo Melpomene. Inner Islet or Isla de Adentro is also known as Islote Toro, 
and Outer Islet or Isla de Afuera was called Zapato as early as Palmer's day (Safford 
MS). However, these names have sometimes been reversed (e.g. by Berzunza 1950:28); 
and the present names are unambiguous. Since my place names are a mixture of English 
and Spanish, I am taking the easiest course in an English-language account and calling 
the island Guadalupe Island rather than Isla Guadalupe or Isla de Guadalupe. 

Climate 

The climate of Guadalupe Island is largely controlled by weather systems from the north. 
In an occasional year a tropical storm from the south, most likely in August through 
October, may bring heavy rainfall, strongly skewing the means from usual rainfall figures. 

The low south end of the island, with south exposure, is comparatively desertic, but with 
frequent fogs as the abundance of lichens suggests. At Campo Sur (6.4 m elevation) near 
the southwest comer of the island is a Mexican government weather station, the only 
source of weather data for the island. Hastings and Humphrey (1969) gave incomplete 
monthly rainfall and temperature records for nearly ten years between 1951 and 1963 
froin this station. They showed rainfall ranging from 1 4 mm in 1951 to 88 mm in 1952 
and to 693 mm in the exceptional year of 1962 (including 383 mm for March). The mean 
annual rainfall was 129.3 mm, distributed as follows: 60.4 mm (44.7 percent) in winter, 
61.4 mm (45.5 percent) in spring, 2.7 min (2 percent) in summer, and 10.5 mm (7.8 percent) 
in fall. For 1975 to 1981 Gonzalez (1981) reported a mean annual rainfall of 110.7 mm, 
mostly in December, January, and April. Figure 18 shows mean monthly rainfall and 
temperatures for 1987 to 1993. For this period rainfall ranged from 11 mm in 1988 to 
283 mm in 1991. with a mean of 162.0 mm, distributed as follows: 96.0 mm (59.3 percent) 
in winter, 9.2 mm (5.7 percent) in spring, 14.2 mm (8.8 percent) in summer, and 42.6 
mm (26.3 percent) in fall. Comparison of the figures for these three data periods shows 
the inadequacy of such short records in this arid region intruded by rare tropical storms. 
The average for these 20 years of record is an annual rainfall of about 133 mm. 

The much higher northern part of the island can be expected to have more rainfall, and 
from the vegetation (including Piinis radiata) and from experience (in fact, from several 
wet experiences) I am sure it does; but there is no record. As a first estimate for the high 
north end, we might take the rainfall for other places where Pimis radiata is native and 
where it is successfully grown. Dr. William Libby, a student of this pine, told me it grows 
best with about 750 mm of rainfall but under some conditions can survive with as little 
as half that much. The effective moisture, of course, is much greater because of fog drip. 

Bryant (1887) wrote that fogs were dense and, driven by high winds, swept across the 
island and saturated it like rain. He wrote that though rains were not heavy, the ninoff 
sent small torrents rushing down the arroyos. But in fact, rains can sometimes be very 
heavy: I have seen mudtlows, rolling rocks, a muddy torrent flowing out of Esparsa 
Canyon, and waterfalls over the cliffs. Vegetation is now so sparse that runoff and erosion 

13 



REID MORAN 



Isia Guadalupe, B.C., Mexico (6 m) 
Climate Diagram (Mean Data 1987-1993) 



Precipitation (mm) 



Temperature ( C) 




Precipitation 



Temperature 



8ouro«: Baaad on data from Comlal6n 
Naolonal dal Agua. SARH. M«iloo (19S3) 



Fkii K[ IN, Mean monthly rainfall and temperature for 1^S7 to 1993 at the south end of Guadalupe 
sland. Diauram bv Jose Delizadillo. 



are rapid. Between 1957 and 1988 I noted the loss of 8 otit of 9 oaks in Oak Canyon 
through undennining by the torrent that flows after rains, and the last oak is now reported 
gone. 

Before the prevailing northwest winds, clouds often bank up against the north end of the 
island (Fig. 21 ), and Palmer wrote that fogs prevalent in winter are driven by strong, cold 
northwest winds over the crest of the island. At other times clouds tend to dissipate 
southward on the usually wanner south slopes. Moisture from the clouds, or fog (depending 
on the point of view), condenses on the pine needles and cypress branchlets and drips to 
the ground in big drops like rain, making the ground wetter there than elsewhere, enabling 
these trees to grow there. The pines grow on the noilh slope (Figs. 19-21), right up to 
the crest of the ridge where the clouds commonly dissipate, but no farther (Fig. 22). Fog 
drip from pines and cypress evidently helps feed the springs at the north end. With the 
loss of the great groves of the past, other springs of earlier days have dried up. and 
continued loss of trees portends fiirther diying and desertification of the island. 

Hastings and Humphrey (1969) showed an annual mean temperature at the south end of 
17.2°C, the means for different years ranging from 16.6'^C to 17.6^C. Mean temperatures 
by season were: 15.4°C for winter, 16.1°C for spring, 18.4°C for summer, and I8.8°C 
for fall. For 1975 to 1981 Gonzalez (1981) reported a monthly mean temperature of 
17.9°C, varying from 16.2°C for April to 2().4X" for October. For 1987 to 1993 the mean 
annual temperature was 18.2°C. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

At the high north end not only is rainfall greater but temperatures clearly are lower, 
though again there is no record. Lower temperatures result partly from the elevation but 
especially from the frequent fog and cloud cover. Several authors report ice and snow in 
winter. Palmer (Watson 1876) wrote that in December 1874 ice an inch thick formed in 
the middle of the island, accompanied by two inches of snow and followed by hail and 
five days of rain. Bryant (1887) wrote that the nights at that season (Dec— Mar.) were so 
cold that ice occasionally fornied and frost was of common occurrence. A heavy snowfall 
was reported for the winter of 1948^9 (Moran and Lindsay 1950). 

A suggestion of a formerly wanner climate comes from Pleistocene fossils interpreted as 
of Sangamon Interglacial age (Hubbs and Jehl 1976). 

History 

Berzunza (1950) told something of the history of the island and listed scientific expeditions 
and conservation efforts for marine mammals. Nelson (1921) summarized scientific work 
until 1911 in Baja California, including Guadalupe. For an account of the botanical work, 
see Plant Collectors, p. 44. 

In October 1602, according to Berzunza, Sebastian Vizcaino sighted a large island which 
from its position must have been Guadalupe. First to survey the island and chart it accu- 
rately was French Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars, on the Venus in November 1837 (du 
Petit-Thouars 1956). He noted that it ordinarily served as landfall for the galleons returning 
from the Philippines, which then went on to sight Cape San Lucas and continued to 
Acapulco. 

President Lopez Portillo of Mexico visited Guadalupe Island September 28, 1980, and 
reportedly ordered studies to find how the island could best be used for the good of the 
Mexican people. The Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (SARH), contracted 
with Ecoterra of Chihuahua, headed by biologist Dr. Martin H. Gonzalez, for a preliminary 
inventory of the natural resources of the island (Gonzalez 1981). 

Other Biota 

The high oceanic island of Guadalupe is noted not only for its vascular flora but also for 
endemism in birds and land snails. Readers may therefore wonder what is known of these 
and other biota. Often that is little or nothing, from a few chance collections or none. 

Crum and Miller (1956) summarized collections of bryophytes, at 26 mosses and 8 
hepatics, calling the flora distinctly Califomian. Crum (1972) added two more mosses. 
Bonar (1939) reported three fijngi, incidentally collected. 

First to make thorough collections of lichens was William A. Weber in 1963, who reached 
the eastern side of the island and the south end but not the higher north end; he accounted 
for 104 species (Weber 1994). He found the lichen flora, like the vascular flora, more 
closely related to that of southern California and its islands than to that of Baja California. 
Because the lichens are a pristine remnant of a rich tlora now largely gone from coastal 
southern California, he proposed that the southern part of the island be designated a lichen 
reserve. 

No land mammals, reptiles, or amphibians have been found native on the island, but in 
addition to the goats, house mice arrived by 1875 and house cats by 1885; and now there 
are wild dogs on the northwest slope. The Guadalupe fur seal and the elephant seal, of 



REID MORAN 




Figure 19. Pine grove (Pinux radiata var. hiiuiui) on the west slope of the northeast ridge, with 
pines more scattered abo\e: from near North Point. 22 April 1958, 

Figure 20. Palm {Brahea cdiilis) and pmes {Pinus radiaia var. hiiuita) on the northeast ridge, 
seen from the west. 13 April 1948. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 








FlCil RfS 21 and _'_:. ^(>rthca^t no^jc wiiii iiic pmc gro\c i,h'iiui^ raauiia \ai nnuiui). FIGURE 2L 
Clouds banked up against the ridge. 3 May 1967. Moisture from the clouds condenses on the pine 
needles and falls like rain, watermg the pines, enabling them to grow there. (Oaks in foreground.) 
Figure 22. Ridge from the south side, 13 April 1948. The pines come just to the crest but no 
farther because the clouds commonly dissipate as they blow across to the hotter, drier south side. 



REID MORAN 

course, are associated with Guadalupe not as endemics but because the island was the 
sanctuary where a few somehow escaped the hunters in the last century and later, under 
protection of the Mexican government, could recover to spread again; see Anthony ( 1925) 
and Peterson et al. (1968). 

From Palmer's notes and small collection, Ridgway (1876) listed eight species and races 
of landbirds, naming all eight as new — though one is now assigned to a mainland fomi. 
Biyant (1887) found only one more to name, the Guadalupe petrel. As Howell and Cade 
(1954) put it, the history of the avifauna is a sad one of reduction and extennination 
through destruction of habitat by goats, predation by house cats, and, regrettably, some 
excess of zeal by collectors. Apparently the Guadalupe rock wren, Guadalupe house fmch, 
and Guadalupe junco are still doing well. For the latest update on the birds, see Jehl and 
Everett (1985). Hubbs and Jehl (1976) reported fossils of two birds from a Pleistocene 
deposit interpreted as of Sangamon Interglacial age. 

Pilsbry (1927) recognized 14 species and subspecies of ground-living land snails for 
Guadalupe Island, eleven of them (79 percent) endemic. He found the fauna most closely 
related to that of the southern group of Channel Islands, with 8 species or subspecies 
occurring there also or having their closest relatives endemic there. Three others had 
nearest relatives in mainland California and two in northern peninsular Baja California. 
Most interesting is the genus Biivieya, with two species, one endemic to Guadalupe and 
the other to Santa Barbara Island and northwest Baja California. As late as 1922 Hanna 
(1925) still found many land snails, but feral house mice have preyed on them until 
apparently, as he predicted, few are left. 

Palmer and later naturalists collected various insects and spiders, some of which were 
reported by specialists: Amaud (1959, 1963), Blaisdell (1925), Horn (1876), Scudder 
(1876). Snow (1899) listed collections from the fur seal trip of 1897. With the decline 
of the vegetation, presumably much of the original fauna is extinct. There is no compre- 
hensive review evaluating the arthropod fauna, but Gonzalez (1981) included a list of 90 
species, compiled by Dr. Scott Miller, various of them still unidentified. About 18 are 
tentatively considered endemic. 

Hubbs and Rechnitzer (1958) suggested that Guadalupe Island was pro\ing to have a 
high degree of endemism in its littoral marine as well as its terrestrial biota, and they 
mentioned especially fishes. Briggs (1974) wrote that only about four shore fishes could 
still be considered well-detlned endemics, others named from Guadalupe having since 
been found elsewhere. Gonzalez (1981) included a list compiled by Dr. Richard Rosenblatt, 
of 125 shore fish species, including five endemics. 

Strong and Hanna ( 1930) listed 87 marine molluscs from Guadalupe Island, mostly dredged 
from one area off the south end. They found this fauna very similar to the faunas of 
Catalina Island and the Coronado Islands and suggested that many had arrived on drifting 
kelp. Chace (1958) expanded the list to 193, still based on rather few collections. He 
found 149 (77.2 percent) belonging to the southern California fauna, 34 (17.6 percent) 
belonging to the Panamic fauna, and 10 (5.2 percent) endemic. Lindberg et al. (1980) 
reported a Pleistocene marine invertebrate fauna of 86 species, mainly molluscs, of San- 
gamon interglacial age. 

Concerning the marine algae, Dawson (I960) remarked that isolated Guadalupe Island, 
unaffected by coastal upwelling, had an extremely interesting flora, with some Califomian 
species, some tropical Mexican coastal species, some Indo-Pacific insular species, and a 
conspicuous group of endemics evidently derived from the Califomian flora and showing 

1« 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

the effectiveness of isolation and divergent ecology on speciation. Stewart and Stewart 
(1984) summarized all records, listing 21 1 algal species, but mentioned other collections 
still unstudied. 

The Vascular Plants 

Native or Foreign? 

In the beginning, of course, Guadalupe Island was a steaming pile of bare volcanic rock, 
with no native plants. All plants that grow there must be descendants of immigrants. So 
how early must one have come, and by what means, to qualify now as "native"? Perhaps 
seeming most native are those that have settled down and become endemic or perhaps 
survived there but died out elsewhere. In any case, the distinction is not so clear and 
obvious as it might at tlrst appear. "Native" seems best defined a little vaguely as having 
arrived long ago without human help. 

The most foreign Guadalupe plants, and in some ways the easiest to deal with in the flora 
if not in real life, are the 40 or so weeds that have come in the last two centuries, mostly 
from Europe. Table 1 lists them with sourceland and with yeardate of first record on the 
island; and in the Catalogue their names are starred. The table includes and notes those 
few seen only once or twice and apparently never well established. 

So far so good, and this might be the best place to stop. A few floras treat all plants as 
equals, not saying whether they are native or foreign; and from some viewpoints, once 
the plant is there, it may not matter. But most floras tell what plants are supposed to be 
introduced, implying that the rest are native (and seeming to make the distinction with 
confidence) — but really leaving most in the category of not supposed to be introduced. 
In this flora I have tried to distinguish but have sometimes found it impossible. The 
endemic plants and some others are easily called native and the European weeds intro- 
duced, but other plants remain doubtful and debatable. 

For such plants as Oligomehs linijolia and Plantago ovata, which grow also on other 
continents, there is some question whether they are even native to North America, let 
alone to the island. For North America, "native" generally means here before the Euro- 
peans. This makes a convenient if indefinite timeline, after which European plants have 
come in numbers but before which all is murky. But this vague defmition may be hard 
to apply, as with Oligomehs linifoUa. That grows also in the Old World and its relatives 
are all there, so clearly it came from there at some time: if that time was before the 
arrival of Europeans, we can call it "native" and if after, "introduced"; but who knows 
when it came? Furthermore, the Indians clearly moved some plants around before that 
arbitrary timeline, and of course some plants undoubtedly have since been moving about 
on their own, as they always have. So precisely where an American plant is "native" may 
not bear close scrutiny. 

Those Guadalupe Island plants clearly native to western North America we are likely to 
take also as native to the island, but are they all? In fact, some authors have called 
certain ones introduced. In her "List of species widely distributed, probably introduced" 
on Guadalupe Island, Eastwood (1929:398) included, with no explanation, not only Euro- 
pean weeds but also Aristida adscetisionis, Daucus pusillus, Juncus bufonitis. Linaria 
canadensis, Muhlenbergia microsperma, Myosurus minimus, Parietaria "floridana" (= P. 
hespera), Phalaris "intermedia" (= P. cawliniana), and Silene antiirhina. (She probably 
intended two separate lists.) Greene (1885:221, 223) thought Eschscholzia californica 



REIDMORAN 

Tabli 1. Introduced Plants of Guadalupe Island. 







Source 


Found 


Notes 


Anagallix cirven.six 




Europe 


1S75 


Not seen since 1885 


Avena faliui 




Europe 


1K75 


Not seen since 1885 


Avena saliva 




Europe 


1S7? 


Not seen again 


Brassica nigra 




Europe 


I,S75 


Not seen again 


Brnmiis rcctnniin 




Europe 


1875 


Not seen again 


Erodiiim ciciilunitm 




Europe 


1875 




Eroc/iiini nutscliitlum 




Europe 


1875 




Giilniiii ii/hinnc 




Europe 


1875 




lloiilcuni iiniiimini ssp. 


glaucum 


Europe 


1875 




Malva parvilUira 




Europe 


1875 




Sileue gallica 




Europe 


1875 




Sohiinini iiiiierivanuni 




S. America? 


1875 




SllluilllS o/cTi/Cl'IK 




Europe 


1875 




BruxMca ra/ui 




Europe 


1885 


Not seen again 


Bromus lierleroanus 




S. America 


1885 




Bromus diani/nis 




Europe 


1885 




Chenopodium mwale 




Europe 


1885 




Mt'semb)yaiuhciniim en 


slallinum 


Africa 


1885 




Polypogon monspcliL'us, 


is 


Europe 


1 885 




Avena harhata 




Europe 


188Q 




Centaurea melilensis 




Europe 


1 889 




Meliloliis iiidica 




Europe 


1889 




Sonciius teneirimus 




Europe 


1889 




1 ';///)/(/ hfomoiJcs 




Europe 


IS89 


Not seen again 


I'ul/'iii iin'iinis var. /iirs 


ula 


Europe 


1889 




C u/tscllci Inirsu-pasnins 




Europe 


1897 




Laslliciua cDioiuina 




Western N. America 


1897 


Not seen again 


Hordctim inunnum ssp. 


leporiuum 


Europe 


1925'.' 




Hypncliocns gluivu 




Europe 


1925 




Mesciiilvwiiillifiintni iioi 


■.li/!orum 


Africa 


1931 




Bromus niliai'. 




Europe 


1932 




Mcdicago /hil\ DHirp/hi 




Europe 


1932 




Poa aiiiimi 




Europe 


1932 




Sisynitiriiiiii irin 




Europe 


1932 


Rcmtroduced ca. 198 


Bromus hordeaceus 




Europe 


1948 




Micotiana glauca 




S. America 


1948 




Rula chalvpcnsis 




Europe 


1948 


Doubtless planted 


Ccrci.sluim glomcralum 




Europe 


1958 




HcruiLirni cuutcu 




Europe 


1958 




P/hdiiiis uuiior 




Europe 


1958 




Erodnim hruchvcuipum 




Europe 


1978 




Liimurikiii iiurcu 




Europe 


1983 




Rupltanus siiinus 




Europe 


19S3 




Tnliium iic\livuni 




Europe 


1983 


Probably not persistir 


Sisvfnhnuiii orwiilalc 




Europe 


1988 





possibly and Mentzelia micraniha probably "of recent introduction." Vasey and Rose 
(1990:22) included Suaeda "fruticosa" (= S. laxifolia) among plants that "have very re- 
cently gained a foothold here." And Moran (1951:160) thought "Oenothera micraniha" 
(= Camissonia rohusta) was likelv a new arrival. 



20 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Without explanation, Brandegee (1900:22) called four west American plants introduced: 
"Baeria corouaria'' (= Lasthenia coronaria), "5. gracilis" (= L. califoniica), '^Orthocarpus 
piirpiirascens" (= Castilleja exserta), and Platystemon californicus. Palmer had found L. 
califoniica abundant and widespread 22 years before, and there is little reason to doubt 
that it is native in the present sense. The other three no one has found before or since, 
suggesting they might indeed have been waifs that never got well started; but without 
knowing Brandegee's thinking, it is hard to judge. Three more plants likewise have been 
found only once, and after the time of the first collectors: Layia phiiyglossa in 1897, 
Stephanomcria dicgensis in 1906, and Plagiobolhiys acanlhocarpus in 1958. 

Islands (and especially oceanic islands) are simpler to think about than mainland areas. 
But with some Old World islands, inhabited for centuries, distinctions between native and 
introduced must be greatly bluned, especially for weedy and useful plants, so that only 
the very latest arrivals can be recognized with confidence as foreign. Guadalupe, apparently 
never visited by Indians, might at first glance seem clear and easy by comparison. Even 
by 1875, however, when Palmer took the first plant records, it not only was losing natives 
to the goats but also had gained a dozen European weeds — noted for their almost magical 
abilities to arrive but usually needing some help. What else may have had help in amving? 

We may e.xpect those west American plants that have achieved the high but nebulous 
status of nativehood on Guadalupe to have come only slowly, over the millenia, by various 
improbable means. Though a plant is unlikely to make its first natural arrival within any 
short time span, however, conceivably one can come at any time, like this week; on 
establishment, it will then automatically seem native so long as no one suspects it has 
just come. Of course a new arrival may get a slow stall and may remain rare and local 
enough for several years to be overlooked by any collectors, so its anival may not make 
the evening news. And what of ;»matural arrivals, meaning introductions with human 
help? Although sealers and goat hunters of earlier years may have brought little but 
weeds, we cannot know what they did bring. But what is more significant, the 1460 
Angora goats reportedly brought from California in 1873 and 1874 (Esperanza 1874) 
could surely have carried in seeds of west American plants, and probably they did. 

There is, in fact, good reason to question whether certain west American plants found on 
the island are indeed native. Some plants not found by early botanists undoubtedly were 
overlooked because they were rare or were local in remote parts of the island. But some 
that were not found then grow now where those early botanists camped and collected. 
Can these be long-established plants that have reached new areas on the island with the 
drastic changes wrought by the goats or for some other and unknown reason? Can some 
be annuals that appear only sporadically and thus happen to evade the unlikely visits of 
botanists to their home spot? Or can some perhaps be new arrivals? 

For example, Greene found nine western plants in 1885 that Palmer had not noted in 
1875, four of them near the springs where Palmer camped for some 15 weeks! Greene, 
and later Franceschi, found Eschscholzia califoniica in that general area but in one place 
only and away from the springs, where possibly Palmer had reason to miss it, unlikely 
though that may seem. Near the springs, however, Greene found a fine growth of Filago 
califoniica and fine large specimens of Agoseris heterophylla; so how could Palmer have 
missed these? Were they just not flowering that year? Or had the goats been hungrier? 
Greene raised no question about these two; but he was clearly perplexed that Palmer had 
failed to note Dichelostemma pulchelhniu which was now exceedingly common all about 
the spring and on the slopes below — and large, with leaves three feet long and an inch 
wide. Could all four of these plants have failed to flower there the year of Palmer's visit? 

21 



RHID MORAN 

On the other hand, remember, Greene did say that the eschscholzia might possibly be a 
recent introduction. Far from suggesting the same for the dichelostemma, however, he 
named it the next year as an insular new species (though that is not recognized today). 
So could all four of these plants have failed to flower there for Palmer? Perhaps they did 
not flower there that year because they just hadn't reached the island yet! The four give 
cumulative support to this idea. 

How is it possible to tell whether western plants recently found on Guadalupe are native? 
Some clue might come from their distribution elsewhere, for example whether they grow 
on others of the islands and thus show an ability to reach islands. However, their means 
of reaching the other islands are as uncertain as their means of reaching Guadalupe: the 
islands of southern California have a long history of ranching, with goats, sheep, and 
cattle, which could have helped bring in foreign plants! And on the other hand, of course, 
they certainly helped destroy natives. 

All together, a dozen or more plants remam doubtful and debatable. Vew likely several 
of them are introduced, but which ones? Taking them as a group, the probability seems 
high that at least a few are recent arrivals; but taking them one at a time and without 
further evidence, the probability for any one is well below certainty. Having to start 
somewhere, and grasping for some solid basis, I assume that very few west American 
plants were brought in before the great intlu.x of goats of 1873-74. I therefore tend to 
assume that west American plants collected by Palmer in 1875 are native — even though 
knowing some may not be. But what of those tlrst found by Greene and later collectors? 
If they came from parts of the island where earlier botanists collected without fmding 
them, then the later the date and thus the more botanists who had iiol found them, the 
greater the likelihood that they were recent arrivals. Surely some of those must be intro- 
duced, and I think probably most; but still, some may be native. In the Catalogue I discuss 
the status of each of these species, but always inconclusively. Since they can't either 
definitely be called native or definitely be called introduced, they must go into a separate 
category, of Possibly or Probably Introduced (Table 2). This is a satisfying solution to, 
or evasion of, a bothersome problem, though raising only slightly lesser questions of 
exactly which plants to include in this category and whether to call them possibly or 
prohahly introduced. In the discussion of different plants I use sometimes one word and 
sometimes the other. 

Table 1 lists Greene's four additions plus eleven other plants found afterwards where 
earlier collectors had failed to find them. A clear example is Camissonia robusta. now 
common at Northeast Anchorage, where every early botanist went ashore without seeing 
it, but apparently tlrst found in 1948. The table also includes two plants collected only 
by Brandegee in 1897, which he called introduced, though without saying why he thought 
so or where on the island he found them. In the Catalogue each of these 15 names is 
marked with a special symbol (if) to show that the plant is in this uncertain category. 

Not included in Table 2 are several other west American plants first found in recent years 
but seeming less likely new arrivals. For example, Rhus integrifolia is found only on 
Outer Islet, not visited by early collectors. Antirrhinum watsonii is widespread but not 
common at the south end, where either Palmer or Howell might have found it; but it 
could not have come with goats from California so must have found some other way, 
leaving no clue as to when. Likewise, Cuscuta corymbosa could not have come from 
California, and it grows where earlier botanists, except possibly Palmer, have not collected. 
For Layia platyghissa and Stephanomeria diegoensis, though tlrst found in 1897 and 1906. 
there is no record of where on the island; and the collector of the one evidently, and of 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Table 2. West American plants possibly or probably introduced on Guadalupe Island: found in 
later years where earlier collectors had failed to find them. 



Agoseiis h etei -ophy ■Ua 
Dichelostemma pulchellum 
Eschscholzia californica 
Filago californica 
Caslilleja exseria 
Platystemon californicus 
Lupinus bicolor 
A triplex californica 
Lepidium nitidum 
Plagiohothiys colliuiis var. 
Spergularia marina 
Trifolium gracilentum 
Camissonia robusta 
Pectocaiya linearis ssp. ferocula 
Plagiohothiys acanthocarpiis 





Found 


Notes 




1885 


Found only once 




1885 


Widespread and fairly common since 




1885 


Local, not seen since 1893 




1885 


Common ever since 




1897 


Found only once 




1897 


Found only once 




1898 


Now scarce or locally common 




I93I 


Still found at one other place 




1932 


Since occasional 


■alifornicus 


1932 


Scarce, or some years locally common 




1932 


Since occasional 




1932 


Fairly common 




1948 


Locally common since 


'Cula 


1957 


Fairly common since 




1958 


Apparently seen only that year 



the other probably, reached places not visited earlier. Perhaps arbitrarily, I haxe placed 
Lasthenia coronaria with the introduced plants (Table 1) instead of with the possibly 
introduced because the evidence seems at least a little stronger. 

Goats and Plants 

No one knows when goats first reached Guadalupe Island (Fig. 23), but the earliest mention 
I have seen is by Xantus for 1859 (Madden 1949). As on so many islands, some ship, 
here perhaps a whaler or sealer, no doubt left a few goats to multiply into a fresh meat 
supply for later visits. Multiply they have. An estimate for 1870. perhaps far afield, placed 
their numbers at 100,000 or more, with a projected increase, if the cunent rate continued, 
to nearly 400,000 in 10 years (Esperanza 1874). 

About that time, however, the goat population seems to have reached the carrying capacity 
of the island. Fragmentaiy notes by the first few naturalists show a disastrous decline of 
the vegetation around 1875 to 1892, suggesting that within that span the goats may have 
reached their greatest numbers or at least their greatest destmctiveness. For example, in 
1875 Palmer found junipers all over the "middle" of the island, but just ten years later 
Greene (1885) could find there only three that were not quite dead. And again, Greene 
described the northeast slopes as covered with sage scrub, dominated by Senecio palmeh; 
but four years later Palmer found many dead plants of the senecio and few still alive 
(Vasey and Rose 1890), and after only three more years Franceschi (1893c) found the 
slopes bare and the shrubs surviving only on cliffs, accessible only to winged creatures. 
These three reports, fortuitously spaced in a critical time, are a striking record of how 
goats destroyed the sage scrub in those seven years. The cairying capacity of the island 
must have declined abruptly then and must continue to decline as the island becomes 
more desertic. 

Exploitation. When goats became abundant on the island, they were at various times 
harvested for hides and tallow as well as for meat, and apparently there was more than 
one attempt to improve the stock on the island. However, my infonnation is fragmentary 
and almost haphazard. In early years, some Americans hunted goats without license from 
Mexico. In 1884 the Mexican government stationed 40 soldiers on the island to prevent 



23 



REID MORAN 




sfesfc^r ;':«a?fiEifil 



FKjIRI- 23. Feral goats above Northeast Anchorage, 25 April |v^N, 



their wholesale slaughter (Greene 1885, Agraz Garcia 1978); and goathunter Stewart 
(1965) told of losing 1200 skins in 1899 to a Mexican gunboat. 

American hunters reportedly took thousands of hides in various years from the 1860s 
through the early 1900s, in one year as many as 30,000 (Esperanza 1874, Safford MS, 
Anthony 1925, Stewart 1965). Anthony (1925) wrote that as long ago as 1887, when he 
was first on the island, 15,000 hides were taken yearly with no noticeable effect on the 
herds. He said that inany concessionaires failed at harvesting goats because the selling 
price for hides was too low — 75 each in 1899 according to Stewart. The Coast Pilot (U. 
S. Hydrographic Office 1951) inentioned that in 1930 there was a goat meat cannery at 
Northeast Anchorage, and in 1948 and later some remnants were still to be seen at the 
beach. Stewart (1965) gave a vivid account of the 1899 season, from April to late Sep- 
tember, on the island with unlawful goat hunters. 

Esperanza (1874) told how the Califoniia-based Guadalupe Island Company took control 
of the island in Januai^ 1873, planning to iinprove the strain of goats, and began to bring 
in Angora goats and to kill or castrate the wild bucks; but this venture failed. Without 
details, Agraz Garcia (1978) mentioned an introduction of English goats in 1909. 

Agraz Garcia (1978) reported two goveminent-sponsored expeditions to the island, ap- 
parently both in 1971, taking 20,800 goats and leaving, he said, 239. He did not say what 
239 goats were spared, whether they were carefully selected to found a super-race or 
were just those that couldn't be caught. A concessionaire, with about 150 workers from 
southern Mexico divided between the two trips, spent 146 days rounding up goats and 
preparing the meal, bones, and hides. Meanwhile. Agraz Garcia studied the goats, and 
his report tells some of his observations. From an unexplained zoometric study, he thought 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

the goat population descended from four races: Orenburg, Kirghizian, "Pelo Rudo," and 
Nordska; thus he failed to detect the Angora race brought in a century before. With the 
goats gone or mostly gone, according to the plan, the Subsecretaria de Recursos Forestales 
y de la Fauna was to reforest the island but in fact did not. (That would have been the 
best thing possible had they first completely rid the island of goats!) Visiting West An- 
chorage and the airstrip in May of 1971. I saw what must have been the relics of the 
first of the two expeditions; and there was now a good road, newly built, from West 
Anchorage to the airstrip. Since many goats remained alive, the second expedition must 
have been still to come. 

Agraz Garcia did not even mention the operation of Pescados, Mariscos, y Games, S. A., 
in 1970, which I saw in progress in August. Starting about May, they built a runway at 
about 550 m elevation at the north base of El Picacho, built a rough jeep road about 16 
km north to their camp in the cypress grove overlooking the spring, built conals south 
of the spring, brought in a jeep and trailer in a C-47, and by August started flying out 
live goats to Ensenada. According to Oscar Paulin of COTECOGA in 1981, the 1970 
operation took out 14,000 goats. Added to Agraz's figure, this would make some 34,800 
goats in about one year. The next years must have been ideal for plants to recover and 
for botanists to work on the island. 

Goats ami the Flora. Plants of an oceanic island like Guadalupe have evolved in the 
absence of herbivores like goats, have developed no natural defenses against them, and 
so are particularly vulnerable to them — though some like the choUa {Opitniia prolifera) 
may have brought their defenses with them. Because annuals are abundant in spring and 
the goats can't eat them all, their very numbers allow some to make seeds to last over 
the dry season. Although the goats inay gradually eliminate the rarer and more palatable, 
many annuals thus can live with goats. In the long dry season when the annuals are past, 
goats must still rely on their dried remains, but any perennials become relatively more 
vulnerable. In parts of the island most visited by goats, such as near the spring, no shrtib 
within reach could withstand them; hence shrubs survive there only out of reach on cliffs. 

The fact that any trees survive might suggest that trees are secure against goats, but 
cypresses still are dying from goats' eating their bark; and the record shows that vast 
numbers have died. In any case, as Anthony wrote, not even a pine, oak, or palm can 
look down on a seedling to replace the aged trees now falling; so in the long run, all 
trees will be gone. The pines and oaks are dying off most rapidly; but although many 
cypress and palms remain, their danger also is iiruninent. 

Since goats are still eating bark from cypress trees and evidently killing some, we may 
wonder how any survive or why the effect is so different from place to place. I suppose 
the smaller eastern grove, now gone without a trace from the area around the springs, 
was more vulnerable to the goats just because they would be crowded there in dry summers. 
But it is hard to understand why in the greater part of the vast main cypress grove "only 
the fallen trunks, now far gone in decay" should remain in 1885, as described by Greene, 
whereas in other parts of that grove thousands still stand today (Fig. 25). Possibly there 
were other springs in that area: it is hard to imagine another cause. 

Aside from the slaughter of goats by men, the goat population fluctuates with climatic 
cycles, decreasing in a series of dry years and recovering after wet. The plant cover 
fluctuates in the other direction: when goats are few. the plants increase. In average years 
many seedlings from cliff-dwelling plants like Perityie incana appear on the slopes below 
but never reach maturity. When goats are few, the seedlings last longer, showing that 



25 



Rt:iD MORAN 

without goats the slopes would soon be covered; and no one knows what long-lost plants 
might reappear. In 1963-65, bad years for goats, Lotus grandijlonis, not seen by botanists 
since 1885, became common near the mouth of the aiToyo at Northeast Anchorage, but 
by 1967 it was gone again, as if retreating back to some mountain refuge. At the same 
time two seedlings of Lavalera occidcnialis, which on the main island can suwive only 
on cliffs, got well started on the slopes and lasted a couple of years. 

Distribution on the island. Goats generally prefer the northern and higher parts of the 
island, with better feed and more water. Some do reach even the extreme south end, a 
few even in dry summers, but these are only small numbers. In drier seasons, when plants 
are parched and the principal spring becoines the only source of fresh water, they cannot 
stay away from it for long. In the dry August of 1970 I found the herbage clipped off 
to the ground above about 800 m; and the goats had to go far downslope from the spring 
to forage and far to the south. Most goats looked weak and forlorn, and one even rolled 
over and died before my eyes: many more must have died that year before rains brought 
more teed. Again in August 1981, the upper slopes were bare beyond belief 

That goats prefer the north end is clear to see and is borne out by companng the vegetation 
at the north and south ends. In the northern half of the island, aside from the poisonous 
weedy Nicotiana ghiuca and the vicious cholla, no shrubs survive except on cliffs; in the 
southern half, and especially at the low south end, some shnibs show little goat damage 
at low elevations but show more and more damage northward and upward, until they 
disappear at about 400 to 500 m. Ambrosia camphorala, for example, dominates some 
southern parts of the island but is rare and only on cliffs farther north. However, other 
shrtibs that might grow at the south end but for the goats are lacking there. The goats 
that do go there doubtless change the vegetation by eliminating more palatable plants: 
plants found on the islets but not at the south end suggest what the goats must have 
eliminated on the main island. Northward, with more goats desperate in dry summers, 
the standard of palatability must become lower and lower and finally include almost all 
plants. 

Now that people li\'c at the south end of the island, probably fewer goats go there than 
before. At my first visit in 1948, in the second year of the weather station, only three 
people lived there, but it has gradually grown. At first, goat ineat was an important item 
of diet, and a hunter went out every few days and later every week or so. Now, despite 
less hunting, I suppose the size of the base with its human activity must intimidate goats 
and must give some protection to the plants at the south end, or at least the southwest 
corner. In later years I thought I could see some change in the vegetation that might result 
from fewer goats, allowing some plants to rc-colonize the main island from one of the 
islets. See, for example, Castilleja fruticosa. p. 150. 

Effect on the island. Not only are goats extinguishing species of plants, but they also 
continue to destroy the vegetative cover of the island, even if not so rapidly as before. 
They may somewhat improve the soil with manure — some 300 kg each per year according 
to Agraz Garcia ( 1978). However, their overgrazing prevents buildup of mulch and organic 
soil, leading to heating and drying of the soil and to rapid runoff of rainfall and so to 
soil erosion (Coblentz 1980). Also, their destrtiction of trees eliminates the fog drip that 
has added greatly to rainfall and so has helped feed the springs. Thus they have been 
changing the island from a "naturalist's paradise" to desert in a way that can nc\er be 
completely reversed and corrected. 

Hope for the future. Looking at the bare and degraded slopes of Guadalupe Island today, 

26 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

it is hard to visualize the original cover of trees, shnibs, and herbs, and perhaps harder 
to believe that any return towards the pristine state is possible. But we can see some hope 
whenever a series of dry years lowers the goat population and the plants begin to recover, 
and especially when a long-lost plant reappears. 

Hope can be seen also in the recent history of a few of the islands of southern California, 
such as San Clemente Island. 385 km (240 miles) north of Guadalupe. These islands were 
so devastated for two centuries by various combinations and sequences of cattle, sheep, 
pigs, goats, and rabbits, that many native plants were lost and replaced by European 
weeds, much of the soil was lost, and the original appearance is almost impossible to 
imagine. The sheep were removed from San Miguel Island in 1950 and burros more 
recently, so no herbivores remain; but trees and shrubs are gone and the soil is gone, 
according to Johnson (1980). from some two-thirds of the surface. On Santa Barbara 
Island, the rabbits were wiped out by 1981. so no herbivores remain. On Santa Catalina 
Island goats and pigs have been removed from some pails of the island and the removal 
continues. On the main part of Santa Cmz Island the Nature Conservancy has systemati- 
cally removed herbivores, though that good work seems to have flagged in recent years 
(Junak et al. 1995). And on San Clemente under the U. S. Navy, biologists have made 
great progress in the last 20 years in removing goats and pigs, until all are gone, and in 
propagating and replanting native plants. In fact, the plants are now replanting themselves. 
However, European weeds also are thriving, not only competing with natives but also 
increasing the hazard of fire. 

Ing. Jose Rico C. told me in 1994 that in recent years thousands of goats have been 
harvested on Guadalupe but that perhaps 7000 remained. If the goats are ever all removed, 
I am sure that many of the plants surviving on cliffs will spread on the slopes. Of course 
the many aggressive European weeds would also prosper and might tend to crowd out 
some natives. But with the removal of the goats, the process of desertification could 
slowly be reversed. 

Because the goats have economic value, some may not want them totally removed, and 
there may be political pressure to keep the island as a goat range. There might then be 
pressure to introduce other pasture plants, as Agraz Garcia ( 1978) suggested, which would 
be a further calamity for the native fiora. Even if the goats remain as a harvestable 
resource, however, important areas can still be protected from them by fences and to 
some degree will recover. If the cypress grove or some part of it were completely fenced, 
for example, with the goats outside, cypress seedlings could renew the grove, and many 
other native plants undoubtedly would reappear. A fence was started about 1981 but never 
finished. Fencing all the pines and palms would be harder because of the steep and rough 
terrain, but even smaller e.xclosures around some of these trees would allow them to 
reproduce locally. But they must be good fences: those built in 1987 to protect some of 
the pines, according to Libby (1990), the goats took only three months to breach! Also, 
exclosures would be extremely useful in other places, such as the lower valley below the 
cliffs of the Lower Circus: many rare plants on these cliffs, some now on the verge of 
extinction, might then seed themselves and survive. In fact, it is crucial to the ecology 
of the island, and even to the survival of the goats themselves, that fences be built and 
maintained, to rebuild the forest and to sustain and extend the springs. 

The ideal, however, would be to remove all goats, as well as dogs, cats, and mice, and 
to preserve all the native plants, as Mexican ecologists have long urged (e.g. Ravest Santis 
1983). In fact, Ing. Jose Rico C. tells me in 1994 that all concerned governmental agencies 
now agree on that objective. It is important to save even those plants not different enough 



R£ID MORAN 

to have been named as endemics and important not to bring in otiier genotypes as re- 
placements, even when identified as the same species. But it is particularly important to 
save the unique endemics. Some, like the pine, have great economic importance, but all 
have a scientific and even spiritual value because of their uniqueness. Preservation is 
urgent because the seed source and gene pool are shrinking, bringing more plants closer 
to extinction; and furthemiore, the island is becoming more descrtic and harder to restore. 
Guadalupe Island with its unique flora is a Mexican national treasure that urgently needs 
protection. 

Past ani3 Pri:S1hnt Vegetation 

Clearly the goats have profoundly affected the vegetation of Guadalupe Island. We have 
no account of the original vegetation but only fragmentary notes on how it appeared, 
already depleted, to the few early naturalists. The best early notes are by Greene (1885) 
and Franceschi ( 1893c), with some for individual species by Palmer (Watson 1876, Vasey 
and Rose 1890, McVaugh 1956, Safford MS). Also, ornithologist Walter Biyant (1887) 
and Dudley (1899) gave a few brief but helpfiil notes. At best there is little physical 
description of the vegetation but only a mention or description of species of trees and 
shrubs that clearly would be dominant, usually with no more than indirect hints as to 
associated plants. Likewise, of course, there is no full list of the original flora. Hence in 
telling of vegetation in different parts of the island, I am largely telling of species distri- 
butions. 

As local climate varies from one part of the island to another, especially with altitude 
and exposure, the plants vary with it. The low south end of the island, with south exposure, 
is comparatively hot and dry and its plants desertic (Fig. 32) — though with frequent fogs 
there as elsewhere, lichens also are prominent, giving a yellowish cast to the scene. Weber 
( 1994) in fact remarked that lichens often dominate the landscape and "form the principal 
vegetation of the island". The north slope of the island, being higher, with more cloud 
cover and fog, more rainfall and fog drip, and less direct sunlight than the south end, is 
comparatively cool and moist and has quite different vegetation, with many trees (Fig. 
21). In fact, most Guadalupe trees now are in the higher northern third of the island. 
Although some plants grow almost throughout the island, most are more restricted, and 
some have been found only in one area or even only at one spot. Of course, present 
restriction may sometimes be due largely to destruction elsewhere by the goats or to 
desertification. 

Trees. Much of the higher northern part of the island was originally covered with trees 
(Figs. 24, 25), but without human mtervention the trees of the island seem doomed with 
the present generation. There are old trees and dead trees but no young ones, for no 
seedling escapes the goats. All the trees must be well past the century mark, and each 
season sees new windfalls. The scanty records show that many old trees over wide areas, 
at least cypresses and junipers, perished within a short time span, about when (or just 
before) the goats were doing their greatest damage to the sage scmb. At least two small 
trees, Hcsperelaea palineh and Heteromeles arbutifolia var. macrocarpa, are gone alto- 
gether. 

Franceschi (1893a, IS93c) supposed that all the northwest part of the island had been 
clothed in dense pine forest (Pinus nidiuta var. hiiuiui). and he wrote that very large tires 
had evidently burned there more than once. The remaining pines are most crowded on 
the northeast ridge near North Point (Figs. 19—22) and only sparsely scattered on up the 
ridge and on the north slope among the palms. There is no record of associated shnibs; 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 





Figure 24. The endemic Guadalupe Island palm (Bniheci eiiiilis) on the north slope of the island. 
19 May 1971. Although the biggest palm grove is here, other palms grow in canyons scattered 
almost the length of the island. 

Figure 25. Part of the large cypress grove {Ciipressiis guadalupensis ssp. guadalupensis) on the 
upper west slope of the island, looking southwest from Mt. Augusta, 13 February 1957. The grove 
stretches far around from the south (left) to the northwest, though most trees are now gone. 



29 



REIDMORAN 

but Cciinoihiis. Heteromeles. and Ribes. come to mind as possible. 

Franceschi ( 1893c) described the large palm grove (Bnihea ediiUs) on the northwest slope 
of the island, where there are still hundreds or even thousands (Fig. 24). Palms also grow 
in canyons almost the length of the island, and at least a few grew scattered on the 
uplands, as west of the Northeast Oaks. I remember fewer dead ones than with the other 
trees, but they too must be dying of old age. Again there is no mention of associated 
shrubs. 

Greene (1885) wrote that almost the entire plateau of the noilhem half of the island 
appeared to have been covered by cypress (Cupressiis guadalupensis ssp. guadahtpeiisis) 
but that in 1885 only fallen trunks remained over most of that area; the cause of the 
destruction he could not guess. Although the grove on the upper west slope of the island 
evidently is much reduced, remarkably, some thousands of trees still stand (Fig. 25), 
though their bark is often severely damaged by goats. Possibly their distance from the 
spring, the main source of water for goats in dry seasons, gives some slight protection. 
Bi^ant, Greene, and Franceschi all told of a smaller cypress grove on the plateau around 
the springs, on the eastern drainage, where in my time only a single dead tree still stood 
that now too is gone. Under the cypress of both the larger and smaller groves, Franceschi 
(1893c) found a few last survivors of what "must have [been] a thick and general under- 
wood" 12 or 15 feet high of Ceanolhus crassifolliis; but these are all gone. The one shrub 
of Arctostaphylos sp. that Greene found under a cypress may have been another last 
survivor of that underwood. 

Palmer in 1875 saw groves of juniper {.liiniperu.s cali/oniicu) in ravines and low valleys 
all over the "middle" of the island and occasional southward, but only ten years later 
Greene found nearly all dead. A few junipers have survived until recently on the southeast 
coast, where fewer goats range (Fig. 30), but at my last visit to that part of the island in 
1970 they were under strong attack and many dead or dying. 

Palmer found the oak (Ouercits tomentella) frequent at the north end with the pines and 
occasional to the south in canyons on both sides of the island. At the north end a few 
still are scattered with the palms and more with the pines, and farther south also very 
few remain — probably not 50 now on the whole island (Figs. 26, 61, 62). 

Scrub. By the earliest account, sage scrub covered the slopes in the northeast part of the 
island, dominated by the beautiftil white endemic Scnecio palmcri but also with abundant 
Lotus argophvllus ssp. omithopus. Sphaeralcea sulphurea, Calystegia macrostegia ssp. 
macroMegia, and Dichelostemma pulchellum (this last probably introduced). Greene thus 
described the northeast slope in 1885, but already the goats were rapidly destroying every- 
thing in reach. Less than eight years later Franceschi found the slopes bare and the shrubs 
surviving only on cliffs. Because Palmer in 1875 found several plants rare on cliffs that 
probably grew before on the slopes, including some never seen again, still others may 
originally have been part of the scrub. Possible examples are: Coreopsis giganteci, Cros- 
sosoma californicum, Daucus pusiUus, Eriogonum zapatoense. Euphorbia misera, Galvezia 
speciosa. Haplopcippus canus, Lavatera occidcntitlis, Malosma laurina. Perin-lc incana, 
Phacelia phyllomanica, Rhamnus pirifolia. Rhus imegri/olia. Scrophulariu \ilh>sti. So- 
lanum wallacci ssp. clokeyi, and Stephanomeria guadalupensis. 

Most of this noilhem upland once covered with scrub is now reduced to goat pasture 
(Fig. 27), with mostly annuals. Predominant are European weeds, especially Erodium 
cicutahum. E. moschatum, and Hordeum murinum, but also commonly Arena barbala. 
Bromus diaudrus, B rubens. Malva paniflora. Silenc gallica. Sonchus aleraceus, and 

30 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




,."^' ,"*-^c.- '>•,,'■ .11,. 



FiGLRl- 2(1. Small grove of island oak {Oiierciis lomenlclla) in hanging tributary of Esparsa Canyon 
at 450 m, east of Mt. Augusta; 2 May 1967. 

Vulpia niyuros var. hirsuta. However, some native annuals also are often comtnon, like 
Calandrinia ciliata, Claytonia perfoliata ssp. mexicana, Crassula connata, Ciyptantha 
foliosa, Filago califoniica (probably introduced), Giliu nevinti, Purieturia hespera var. 
hespera, and Pterostegiu diymarioides. Less general but common locally in good years 
are such annuals as Amsinckia menziesii, Lepidum lasioccupiim var. latifolium, L. ohlongiim 
var. iitsii/are. Linanthiis pygmaeus ssp. pygmaeus. Pholistoma nicemosum, and Thfolium 
palmerl. 

In northern pails of the island the native shnibs now sun.'ive only on cliffs, beyond the 
reach of goats and sometimes of botanists as well. Some like Galvezia speciosa and the 
endemic Pcrin'/e i/icana (Figs. 28, 31), which are abundant and reproducing well, clearly 
are natural cliffdwellers and have a secure future. But those that were rare on cliffs before 
have now only become rarer: Malosma hiuhua has only three or four survivors, all very 
old shrubs that may even date back to before the goats (Fig. 29). There must have been 
many on the slopes before, making millions of seeds and multiplying into probability the 
chance of a rare start on a less suitable place like a cliff But now that so few remain, 
making few seeds, the chance of starting in such a place is much smaller. So the number 
of such shrubs is likely to dwindle until the species dies out on the island; and from the 
old records, it has been dwindling. Other shrubs rare on northern cliffs, and one or two 
perhaps extinct since my first visits, include Ambrosia camphorata (common at south 
end), Artemisia californica, Crossosoma californicum. Euphorbia misera (common on 
Outer Islet), Galium angulosum, Haplopappus canus, Lavatera occidenialis (common on 
Outer Islet), Phacelia phyllomauica. Rhammis piri folia, Scrophularia vUlosa, and Seuecio 
palmeri. Other shrubs or subshnibs that are more common on the cliffs and are likely to 



31 



RFID MORAN 





I 



Figure 27. Guadalupe upland formerly covered with shrubs but now reduced to goat pasture, 
with mainly European weeds though with some native annuals; 17 December 1957. In the northern 
half of the island, shrubs survive only on cliffs, beyond the reach of goats. 

Figure 28. The endemic Perin-le incaiia on cliff of the Lower Circus, 27 .(anuary 1060. It is 
common on cliffs, a natural clift"dweller with a secure future. 

32 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




V 



t * Si 









:?#-^ 



r^.:^'' 




Figures 29 and 30. Shrubs not at home on chffs are rare, becoming rarer, dying out in the 
northern half of the island. Figure 29. Laurel sumac or lentisco {Malosma laurina) on cliff of the 
Lower Circus, 29 June 1968. Only three or four are left on the island. FIGURE 30. Juniper (Juniperus 
californica. M12062) about 4 m high and 8 m wide hanging from cliff, at 350 m on lower east 
slope of El Picacho, 4 March 1965. Juniper is nearly extinct on the island. 



33 



REID MORAN 

survive are Culyslegia macrostegia ssp. macrostegia. Hemizonia frutescens (north end), 
Sphaerahca siilphurea. and Stephanomeria guadalupensis, as well as some herbaceous 
plants. 

For the north slope there is no early description of the \egetation aside from the trees. 
Possibly common on the north slope was Hemizonia frutescens, now common there on 
cliffs. The lower vegetation now is largely annuals, in spring more lush there than in 
drier areas to the south. These include such weeds as Capsella bursa-pastohs, Cerastium 
glomenitmn, Erodium ciculaiium, E. moschatitm, Galium aparine, Hordemn murinum, 
Hypochoeris glabra, Malva panijlora, and Silene gallica. Native annuals that are mostly 
towards the north end include Aphanes occidentalis. Githopsis diffusa var. guadalupensis 
(rare), Myosurus minimus var. filiformis (rare). Ranunculus hebecarpus, and Slellaria nitens 
(northeast slope to cypress grove). On cliffs at the north end are Hemizonia frutescens, 
Poa secunda ssp. secunda (rare), Polypodium scoulcri (rare), and Polystichum munitum 
(rare); also Baeriopsis guadalupensis, Eschscholzia palmeri, and Lomatium insulare, whicii 
are also at the south end and on the islets. Especially on shaded cliffs and some in talus 
at the bases of cliffs, there and southward, are Cheilanlhes newbenyi. Dudleya virens 
ssp. extima, .Jepsonia malvifolia, Pentagramma triangularis, Polypodium californicum, 
and Trilcleia guadalupensis, none of them very common. 

Farther south, near the "middle" of the island, the three characteristic shnibs, according 
to Palmer, were the abundant Ambrosia camphorata, "giving the country a greenish white 
appearance"; Atriplex barclavana, "scarcely half so abundant"; and Artemisia californica, 
less frequent but still "giving character to the vegetation" (Watson 1876). Below 500 m 
in the southern half of the island the ambrosia is still abundant over wide areas, on the 
top and on the southeast slope of the island, still coloring the landscape; and the atriple.x 
is still abundant in other places on top and on the south end mesa (Fig. 32). The artemisia 
is gone except possibly for a few survivors on northern cliffs. Herbaceous plants common 
in the southern half of the island include Amblyopappus piisillus, Aphanisma blitoides, 
Oligomeris linifolia, Parietaria hespera \ar. hespera, Planlago orata. and Pterostegia 
dninarioides, and common more locally Calaiidnnui mariiima, Crassula eonnata, Ciyp- 
tanlha joliosa, C. maritima, Eschscholzia palmeri (flowering first year), Lupinus niveus. 
Perit^ie emorvi. Sphaeralcea palmeri, and Trifolium palmeri. Common weeds include 
Erodium moscliatum, Hordeum murinum, Mescmhryanthemum ciystaltiuum, hJ. nodi- 
llorum, and Souilius otcraceus. 

For the far south end we have no description of the original vegetation beyond a first list 
of the plants, for 1889. However, the vegetation of the islets, undisturbed by goats, gives 
some clues (Figs. 34, 35). At the south end, with the more palatable plants doubtless 
eliminated, several shrubs and subshrtibs still remain common, notably Atriple.x barclayana 
(Fig. 32), Hemizonia greeneana ssp. greeneana (Figs. 33, 50), H. palmeri (Plate ID), 
Lvcium californicum, Mirabilis californica, and Sphaeralcea palmeri (Figs. 31, 69). Such 
plants as Castilleja fruiicosa and Lomatium insulare (Figs. 31, 77), now found near the 
west end of the mesa above Campo Sur, may be new colonists from the islets, given 
some protection by the nearness of the village. Likewise, Baeriopsis guadalupensis, now 
seen on the steep north slope below the road where it climbs onto the mesa, may have 
increased with protection. 

The Islets. The ofTshore islets are a small but tascuiating and invaluable sample of southern 
Guadalupe Island undisturbed. They are of great botanical interest because their vegetation 
must show much how the original south-end vegetation looked before the goats. They 
are refugia where rare plants survive, some perhaps to return someday to the main island. 

34 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 






Figures 31 and 32. At the dry south end, where few goats range so far from water, perennials 
and even shrubs survive, even within reach; 18 December 1957. Figure 31. Rocky south-end mesa 
just above Campo Sur, with Loinatium insulare, Atriplex harclayana, and Sphaeralcea palmeri. 
Figure 32. Sparse low cover of Atriplex harclavana on the south-end mesa; looking south towards 
South Bluff 



35 



REIDMORAN 




Figure 33. Sparse growili ot Hcniiz: 
on a cinder cone at the south end, 20 August 



ivcuciiihi ssp. ■^rcciicunii (uilh Aliipicx l\ii\ Uivaiia) 
1970. 



Islote Negro. Islote Negro (Fig. 15) is small and rather baiTen, with few habitats and a 
small flora. I found only 27 species of vascular plants: 

Amblyopappiis pusillus 

Antirrhinum walsonii 

Aphanisma hiitoides 

A triplex luirclurana 

Baeriopsis guadalupensi.s (Guadalupe endemic) 
*Chenopodium miirale 

Cistanthe guadalupensis (Guadalupe endemic) 

Ciyptantha maritima 

Diidleya guadalupensis (Guadalupe endemic) 

Eschscholzia palmeri (Guadalupe endemic) 

Galvezia speciosa (Insular endemic) 

Hemizonia greeneana ssp. greeneana (Guadalupe endemic) 

Lycium californicum 

Mammillaria hlossfeldiana var. siturliana 
* Mesembiyanthemum ctystallinuni 
*Mesembtyaiitlien!uni nodifloruin 

Mirahilis californica 

Oligomeris linifolia 

Parietaria hespera var. hespera 

Perityle emoryi 

Perir\'le incana (Guadalupe endemic) 

Phacelia floributida (Insular endemic) 



36 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 











Figures 34 and 35. Vegetation of Outer Islet, undisturbed and much as vegetation must have 
looked at the south end of the main island before the goats; 21 June 1968. Figure 34. Floor of 
the crater, with Cistanthe guadalupensis (thick stems, leafless in summer), Lycium calif brni-cum. 
Figure 35. Shallow upper valley at 190 m, looking north to the main island, with Lavatera lindsayi 
(right foreground), Stephanomeria guadalupensis (white), Atriplex barclayana. Coreopsis gigantea. 



37 



REID MORAN 

Pkiniago ovata 
*Soiicluis oleraceus 
Spergiilaria macrotheca 
Sphaeralcea palmeri (Guadalupe endemic) 
Tiifoliiim palmeri (Insular endemic) 

All are Dicots. Four (marked with *) are Old World annual weeds, though of these only 
Mesembiyanthemum ciystallinum is common. Seven are Guadalupe Island endemics, and 
three more are insular endemics, found only on Guadalupe and others of the islands but 
not on the mainland. Various of these plants are common at the south end of the main 
island, such as Amhiyopappus pusillus, Lycium californlcuin, Mirabilis californica. Paiie- 
tarki hespera var. hespera, and the endemic Hemizonia greeueaua ssp. greeneana and 
Sphaeralcea palmeri (Fig. 69). But Islote Negro is strikingly different from even nearby 
and closely comparable areas on the main island because common here, even in flat 
places, are plants rare on the main island except on cliffs. Perityle incaiui and Galvezia 
speciosa. both common here, are found on the main island mainly in the northern part, 
where they grow only on cliffs (Figs. 28. 51). Mammillaria hlossfeldiana var. shurliana. 
though widespread at low elevations on the main island, is nowhere common there but 
is abundant here (Plate 1 A). Baeriopsis giiadalupensis (Fig. 47), scarcely to be found on 
the main island at all, also is abundant here. Likewise, Cistanthe giiadalupensis, seldom 
seen on the main island except rarely on seacliffs, is abundant and luxuriant here (FRON- 
TISPIECE, Figs. 73, 74). Dudleya giiadalupensis has never been found on the main island 
but is common on the islets (Figs. .57. 58). 

Outer Islet. Like Islote Negro, Outer Islet is a remarkable and revealing sample of south- 
end Guadalupe Island undisturbed; but this islet is larger and farther offshore (Fig. 17), 
and its tlora is larger and tnily unique. My four visits to Outer Islet, one overnight but 
all of them too short, stand out as highlights in my botanical memories. I found 38 species 
of vascular plants: 

Aplhinismn hlitoides 

Atriplex harclayana 

Atriplex californica 

Baeriopsis guadaliipensis (Guadalupe endemic) 

Calysiegia macroslegia ssp. macroslegia (Insular endemic) 

Castilleja frulicosa (Guadalupe endemic) 

Cistanthe guadaliipensis (Guadalupe endemic) 

Coreopsis gigantea 

Crassula connata 

Crossosoma califurnicum (Insular endemic) 

Ciyptantha folmsa (Guadalupe endemic) 

Descurainca pinnata ssp. menziesii 

Dichelostemma pulchellum 

Dudleya guadaliipensis (Guadalupe endemic, islets only) 

Eriogonum zapatoense (Guadalupe endemic. Outer Islet only) 

Eiysimum moranii (Guadalupe endemic. Outer Islet only) 

Eschscholzia palmeri (Guadalupe endemic) 

Euphorbia misera 

Galvezia speciosa (Insular endemic) 

Hemizonia greeneana ssp. greeneana (Guadalupe endemic) 

Hiitchinsia procumhens 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Lavatera lindsayi (Guadalupe endemic, islets only) 
Lavatera occidentalis (Insular endemic) 
Lomatiitm insitlare (Insular endemic) 
Lotus argophyllus ssp. oniithopus (Insular endemic) 
Lyciiim californicum 

Mammillaria hloss/eUliana var. shurliana 
*Mesembiyanthemum cryslallinum 
Mirabilis califonuca 
Oligomehs linifolia 
Pahetaria hespeni var. hespeni 
Perityle emotyi 

Periti'le incana (Guadalupe endemic) 
Phacelia floribimda (Insular endemic) 
Pholistoma racemosum 

Rhus integrifolia (Not on main island, but on mainland) 
Spergularia macrotheca 
Sphaeralcea pabneri (Guadalupe endemic) 

All but one are Dicots and all but one native. Ten are native annuals, all but two of these 
common on the main island. Twelve are Guadalupe Island endemics, and seven more are 
insular endemics. Here again Baeriopsis guadahipensis, Cistanihe guadalupensis (Fig. 
34), Galvezia speciosa, and Perityle incana, are common and not confined to cliffs. Com- 
mon too are the endemic Castilleja fniticosa and Hemizonia greeneana ssp. greeneana, 
otherwise local but common at the south end of the main island, and the insular Lomatium 
insulare, local at the south end and on the northwestern cliffs. Also common are Euphorbia 
misera and the endemic Stephanomeria guadalupensis (Figs. 53-55), uncommon on the 
main island and largely confined there to cliffs, and the insular Lavatera occidentalis 
(Figs. 67, 68), rare on the main island, on northern cliffs. The insular Crossosoma cali- 
fornicum, rare on northern cliffs is rare here too: I saw only one shrub and only on my 
first visit. Lastly, common here, and at least visible on Inner Islet and perhaps common 
on top, is Coreopsis gigantea (Fig. 48), not seen on the main island since Palmer found 
two plants in the crevices of high rocks in 1875. 

Finally, Outer Islet has five plants (marked "islets only" or "Outer Islet only") never 
found on the main island: Rhus integrifolia (Fig. 48), also widespread on the mainland, 
and the four Guadalupe Island endemics Dudleya guadalupensis (also on Islote Negro 
and Middle Rock). Eriogonum zapatoense (Fig. 72), Eiysimum niorauii, and Lavatera 
lindsayi (also on Middle Rock) (Figs. 65, 66). Although no one ever saw these five on 
the main island, they must have grown there, like the coreopsis, until wiped out by goats. 
The five species make up over 1 3 percent of the small native flora of the islet. This is 
the only faint suggestion we have of how many plants, and how many endemics, the 
goats must have destroyed on Guadalupe Island before any one could see them. That is 
a lesson of the islets. 

Extinct Plants and Nearly' E.xtinct 

By the time Dr. Palmer landed on Guadalupe Island in 1 875, the goats had made serious 
inroads and inany plants that might have grown on slopes were found only on cliffs; and 
eight that he found have not been seen again. Also, many aggressive foreign weeds were 
crowding native plants, perhaps contributing to their extinction. However, weeds are few 
in some habitats, as on volcanic cliffs, and there are few on the islets. 

39 



RHIDMORAN 



Of some 156 native, and some doubtfully native, plants of Guadalupe Island, 26 have not 
been found since about 1900 (Table 3). Most of these almost certainly are extinct on the 
island, though for some it is hard to be sure. Though considering in the Catalogue the 
likelihood of survival for each, and still cherishing hope for a few, 1 mark each with a 
dagger (t) in the Catalogue and officially list them all in Table 3 as probably extinct. As 
shown in Table 1, eight of the weeds likewise have not been seen since 1900 and probably 
are extinct, apparently never having gotten well started. 

Tablf 3. Native or possibly native plants probahly extinct on Guadalupe Island: mostly not seen 
since IQOO. 



Ceanollui.s iiiiiculii.s 
Dissantlifhiini culi/onuciini 

Hesperelaca palmeri 
Micropiis ciililornicus 
Planta species 
Pogogyne lenuijhra 
Ribes sanguineum 
Silene antiirhina 
Agoseiis hclerophylla 
AUophrUiini gilioides 
Arctostaphvlos sp. 
EpUohiiiiii /iiliosum 
Malacothiix clcvcliimlu 
Phoradendidn dcnswn 
Satureja palmeii 
Ceanothus crussilolius 
Eriophylhiiii luiuiliim var. 

gnindilliiium 
Eschscholzui ciililoniicii 

HespeiiKiiidc ivnclla 

Castille/a l'xsciUi 
Layia plalyglossa 
Platyslemon ccilifoniicus 
Castillcja giiadaliipeiisis 
Nicolianu allcnuala 

(N. petuiuaeflora) 
Slephunomeria diegensis 
Heleromeles arhuufolia 

var. niacniciupa 



Last Seen 

IS7.S 
1S75 

1875 
IS 75 
KS75 
1875 
1875 
1875 
1885 
1885 
1885 
1885 
1885 
1885 
1885 
IS')."^ 

1 893 
1 80.3 

1843 

1897 
18Q7 
1897 
1898 

1898 
1906 

1958 



Notes 

Only three, nearly dead 
Found once each on Santa C'atalma. 
Guadalupe, and San Clcmente Islands 
Only three still living then, endemic 

Only two. sterile; doubtless endemic 

"Very rare" (only one?); endemic 

Only two 

Occurring sparingly 

Only collection; introduced',' 

Abundant in 1875 

Only collection, only one seedling 

Fir.s't in 1875; few in 1885 

Abundant in 1875 

First in 1875 

Abundant in 1875; endemic 

First in 1875; mo.stly dead in 1893 

First in 1875; rare then 

First in 1885; one place only; 

probably introduced 

First in 1875; "very common 

everywhere" in 1 893 

Only collection; doubtfully native 

Only collections 

Only collection; doubtfully native 

Rare in 1875; endemic 

First in 1875. in a few places 
Only collection 

First in 1957; onlv one tree 



Many other plants are now rare and threatened with extinction — or some of them perhaps 
already gone. All trees are threatened, though we may hope that help will come before 
too late. Also threatened are seven shrubs that survive only on northern cliffs and that 
aren't known to be reproducing: Artemisia cali/oniica. Crossosoma calijoniicum, Galium 
angulosum, Haphpappiis canus. Malosma lamina, Rhamnus pirifolia, and Scropludaria 
villosa. Were it not also on Outer Islet, Lavalera occidentalis would also be on this list; 
but otherwise-rare plants that grow in good numbers on the islets seem safe enough for 
the present. Plants that I have seen only rarely or not at all and that seem most threatened. 



40 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

some of which may be gone by now, include: Camissoiiia guadahipensis ssp. guaciahi- 
pensis, Desciirainia pinnata ssp. menziesii, Gitbopsis diffusa var. giiadalupeiisis, Myosurus 
minimus var. Jiliformis, Matricaria malricarioides, and Plagiohothiys acanthocarpus. Oth- 
ers that, so far as known, are rare or very local include Atriplex californica, Castilleja 
attemiata, Chamaesyce pondii, Cistanthe maritima, Cuscuta coiymhosa, Daucus pusiUus, 
Gmiphalium strainineum, Hutcltinsia procumbcns, Lotus grandiflorus, Melica imperfecta, 
Mimulus latifolius, Phacelia phyllomanica, Poa secunda ssp. secunda, Polystichum mii- 
nitum, Senecio palmeri, Solanum wallacei ssp. clokeyi. Stipa lepida, Thysanocarpus erec- 
tus. Others that are scarcely more widespread include Dodecatheon clevelandii ssp. iiisu- 
laris, Gnaphalium hicoior, Harpagonella palmeri. Linaria canadensis, Lupinus 
guadahipensis, Lvcium fremontii, Solanum douglasii, and Stebhinsoseris heterocarpa. 

Many cliffs on the island are inaccessible and unexplored and may still harbor plants not 
seen for many years or even some never found. In crowded days ashore while working 
from a ship, there was too little time to reach some of these cliffs and work them thor- 
oughly. Now that there are roads and pemianent camps on the island, a botanist based 
on shore and having time and transportation might find it rewarding to work some of 
them more thoroughly. On my first dozen trips to the island, the list of perhaps-extinct 
species was cut down almost every trip. 

Although some cliffs can be scanned at short range from below, others cannot be. The 
often fog-drenched sheer cliffs at the north end of the island seem an especially likely 
place for some rare plants to persist, and in fact they have yielded a few to some rather 
precarious fishing from above. With time and patience these and other cliffs could prof- 
itably be explored further, even if never completely. There are, for example, veiy promising 
cliffs at the brink northwest of Mt. Augusta and others on the southwest coast, and in 
both places it is not too hard or too hazardous to go partway down from the top and then 
work upward, hi some places two or more people could use ropes and other climbing 
aids to advantage. Travelling alone, I found good use for a tree trimmer with a 24-foot 
aluminum pole in six four-foot sections — though this often seemed just too short, and I 
would recommend another 7I2 inches. 

The top of Inner Islet always seemed to me the most interesting but unattainable objective. 

Composition and Relationships of the Flora 

Rjzedowski (1978, fig. 65) recognized 17 floristic provinces for Mexico, including a 
"Provincia de California," nearly equivalent to the California Floristic Province, which 
extends into northwest Baja California, and a "Provincia de Baja California," for the rest 
of the peninsula. However, he made Guadalupe Island a separate "Provincia de la Isla 
Guadalupe," mentioning the relationship to the flora of Alta California and especially to 
that of the islands off the coast but stressing the degree of endemism. 

No flora is complete without a neat summary of how many plants of each major group 
are native and how many introduced, where else they grow, and, especially with an island 
flora, what percentage are endemic. Raven (1%3, 1967) discussed thoroughly and in 
detail the floristics of the California islands plus Guadalupe. There is little to add except 
for changes in numbers with newer infomiation. Wallace (1985) checked herbarium records 
and made a veiy usefhl summary of these island floras, which gave us new numbers, as 
the present flora does for Guadalupe Island. Notably, a reconsideration of what plants are 
native to Guadalupe slightly reduces the size of the accepted native flora. 

The total known vascular flora of Guadalupe Island is 216 species (and subspecies and 



REID MORAN 

varieties), including plants that once grew on the island but are now extinct there. These 
include some weeds that may have grown there only briefly and never become well 
established. It does not include the various species discussed under Doubtful and Excluded 
Species (p. 168) 

All together, then, 216 species of seed plants and ferns have been found on Guadalupe 
Island — but not all at one time. Thirty or more species that once grew there are extinct 
on the island (Table 3; also Table 1). Meanwhile, as if to fill the void, new weeds keep 
coming. Of the 216 listed species, about 45 are relative newcomers and mostly weeds, 
mostly from Europe (Table 1 ); and 1 5 west American plants not found by the first collectors 
also are probably or possibly introduced (Table 2). Thus under a strict yet somewhat hazy 
definition, only 156 species remain listed as native plants. 

There is no knowing how many species were destroyed by goats before they could be 
found by botanists, so the size of the Guadalupe flora before goats is unknown. However, 
the number surviving only on goatless islets is suggestive: of the small flora of Outer 
Islet, 13 percent (live species) appear to be extinct on the main island. Assuming as a 
rough estimate that 1 3 percent of the Guadalupe flora went extinct without being found, 
the flora before goats would be I 79 species. 

Eor each of the eight Channel Islands plus Guadalupe and Cedros, Raven ( 1967) discussed 
the size of the native vascular flora in relation to the size of the island. He concluded 
that in the Channel Islands group an island the size of Guadalupe might have a flora of 
over 400 species. The much smaller size of the actual Guadalupe flora may be related to 
the greater distance of the island from the mainland, perhaps making it harder for immi- 
gration to keep up with extinction. Since the size of the Guadalupe flora more closely 
approaches that of Cedros, a somewhat larger island close to the mainland but at about 
the same latitude, the small size of the Guadalupe flora may be related also to ecological 
differences of these islands from the Channel Islands much farther north, such as drier 
climate (Moran l'-)67). 

Of the 156 native plants, 34 species and subspecies, making 21.cS percent of the native 
flora, are endemic to Guadalupe Island. Two of these species belong to monotypic genera, 
Baeriopsis J. T. Howell and Hesperelaea A. Gray, which thus are endemic genera. The 
unidentified sterile plant (Plania sp.) of Palmer's collection, which several keen botanists 
failed to recognize even to family, was surely an endemic species and possibly would be 
another endemic genus. Also, Nesothamnus Rydb. (for Perityle incana) is a very distinct 
endemic, standing well apart from other species placed in Perinle: and it could arguably 
be kept as an endemic genus, as did J. T. Howell (1942). And finally, E. L. Greene proposed 
for EsLhschohia pulinen (and his P. fmtescens) an endemic genus Petromecon, which 
Fedde (1909, 1936) in his worid monographs of the family also kept but later students 
of the family have not. We can't even guess how many endemics were already extinct 
by Palmer's day. The endemics are as follows (t = extinct): 

Baeriopsis giuuiuliipensis 
Brahea edulis 

Camissonia i^tuidalupensis ssp. giuuialupcnsis 
Caslilleja fniticosa 
t Castilleja giiadahipensis 
Cistanthe giiadalupensis 
Ciyptantha foliosa 
Ciipressiis giiadalupensis ssp. giiadalupensis 

42 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Dudleya guadahipensis 

Dudleya virens ssp. extima 

Eriogomim zapatoense 

Eiysimum moranii 

Eschscholzia elegans 

Eschscholzia palmeri 

Galium angidosum 

Githopsis diffusa var. guadalupensis 

Hem izoii ia fnitescens 

Hemizonia greeneaua ssp. greeneana 

Hemizonia palmeri 
'fHesperelaea palmeri 

Lavatera lindsayi 

Lupimis niveus 

Marah guadalupensis ? 

Perityle incana 

Phacelia phyllomanica 

Pinus radiata var. hinata 
fPlanta sp. 
"fPogog^'ne temiijlora 
'\Satureja palmeri 

Senecio palmeri 

Sphaeralacea palmeri 

Sphaeralcea sulplmrea 

Stephanomeria guadahipensis 

Triteleia guadalupensis 

The other 122 native plants, of course, are wider ranging, or non-endemic. Of these only 
eight species, or 5 percent of the native flora, grow on the peninsula of Baja California 
and sometimes beyond but not north into Aha California. These are mainly desert plants 
and grow mostly at the desertic south end of the island. They are: 

Ambrosia camphorala 

Antirrhinum waisonii 

A triplex bare lay ana 

Chamaesyce pondii 

Cuscuta coiymbosa 

Lepidiiim lasiocarpum var. latifolium 

Mammillaria blossfeldiana var. shurliana 

Thysanocarpus ereclus 

Thus the majority of the non-endemic plants, some 114 species or 73.1 percent of the 
native flora, grow also to the north, in Alta California, and especially on the Channel 
Islands off southern California. In fact, 101 of them, or nearly 65 percent of the native 
flora, grow also on some of those islands and (a few) on islands off northwest Baja 
California. It may be noted that winds and currents reaching Guadalupe are prevailingly 
from the north and northwest, and seeds are perhaps most likely to reach Guadalupe from 
this direction; and these other islands of course have a somewhat similar maritime or 
insular climate. In fact, 19 plants, or 12.2 percent of the native flora, are insular endemics, 
growing also on one or more of the islands off southern California and northwest Baja 
California but not on the mainland. They are as follows (the other islands being AN, 



43 



REID MORAN 

Anacapa; BA, Santa Barbara; Ben, San Benitos; CA, Santa Catalina; Ced, Cedros; CL, 
San Clemente; Cor, Coronados; CR, Santa Cruz; Mar, San Martin; Ml, San Miguel; Nat, 
Natividad; Nl, San Nicolas; RO, Santa Rosa; SPH, San Pedro Hill; Tod, Todos Santos 
— see Fig. 1): 

Calyslegia macrostegia ssp. macrostegiu AN, CA, CR. Mar. Ml, RO, SM 
Crossosoma califomica CA, CL, SPH 
^Dissautheliiim califomicum CA, CL 
Eschschotia ramosa BA, Ben, CA. Ced, CL. Cor, CR, Mar, Nat, NI, RO, Tod 
Galvezia speciosa BA?, CA, CL 
Gilia neviuii AN. BA, CA, CL, CR, Nl, RO 
Haplopappus canus CL 
Jepsonia malvifolia CA, CL, CR, Nl, RO 
Lavaiera occidentalis Cor 
Liuantlms pygmaeus ssp. pygmacus CL 
Uimcitium insitlare CL, Nl 
Lupiuus guadahipensis CL 
Ktiimdus lutifolius CR 
Phacelia flohhunda CL 
Quenus tomeulella AN. CA, CL, CR, RO 
Rhamiuis pln/olui CA, CL, CR, Ml, RO 
Sa-ophulanu villosa CA, CL, RO 
SnUiiuiDi utdhicci ssp. clokeyi CR 
Tn/oliiiiii palwcri BA, CA, CL, Nl 

Of the Guadalupe endemics, six have their closest relatives on other islands: Camissonia 
guadahipensis ssp. guadahipensis, Dudleya virens ssp. extinia. Eriogouiau zapaloense, 
Haplopappus canus, Lavatera lindsayi, and Sohinum wallacei ssp. clokeyi. 

Clearly, the relationship of the flora of Guadalupe Island is mainly to the north, with the 
tlora of Aha California and especially the flora of its islands. Therefore, as Raven and 
Axelrod (1978) explained, and indeed as Howell (1931) had shown in slightly different 
teiTns before, Guadalupe Island can fairly be called a southern outlier of the California 
Floristic Province. 

Plant Collectors 

My aim here is to tell about the plant collectors, especially the early ones, and their trips 
to the island; what is known or can be deduced about where they collected, what new 
plants they found, where their collections are reported, where the specimens are filed, 
and any sources of pertinent information — in short, to bring together any facts that will 
help interpret their collections. Herbarium abbreviations follow Holmgren et al. (1990). 
Nelson ( 1 921; 140-147) concisely summarized scientific explorations in Baja California 
up to 1911, including the work of most early collectors considered here. 

In those early days when Guadalupe Island was remote, wild, and unknown, every naturalist 
visit was both a major undertaking and a botanical landmark. As the world has shnmk, 
visits have become easier and more frequent. And the island itself has changed, less now 
because of the goats; with colonists and even roads, it is no longer the wild place 1 first 
knew in 1948, even as that was no longer the more nearly pristine island Xantus saw but 
failed to describe in 1859. With the coming of cniise ships, when almost anyone can 
become a world traveler for a week, it is impossible to keep track of everyone who might 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

have brought back a few plants — and perhaps not worth trying. 

Janos Xantus. Ahhough the record of collectors rightly begins with Edward Palmer, it 
is not quite complete without mention of Janos (or John) Xantus de Vesey, credited by 
Madden (1940:104) vvith"the first recorded scientific exploration of Guadalupe Island". 
Xantus made important early natural history collections in California and Baja California; 
but at the same time he was becoming a sort of Baron Munchausen of his native Hungary 
by writing extravagant tales of imaginary exploits in the American West, with text and 
illustrations largely lifted from U. S. Government reports of the militate explorers (Madden 
1949, 1977; Zwinger 1986). In a letter from Xantus to Secretary Spencer Baird of the 
Smithsonian Institution, quoted by both Madden and Zwinger, he tells of going ashore 
on Guadalupe Island for several hours on March 17, 1859. Although his time ashore was 
short, we could wish for collections from that time 16 years before Edward Palmer's first 
visit; but Xantus mentioned none and apparently made none. Or at least we might hope 
for a naturalist's description of the island of that day before the goats peaked (he did 
mention about 10,000 goats); but he wrote, for example, that it was "covered entirely 
with gigantic cactacea of innumerable genera & species," with specific mention oi Cereus 
giganteiis, where others have found but two small cacti. He also mentioned "a dark colored 
Leptis" where others have found no native land mammals. Very likely his inspiration 
here was the black Lepiis insularis of Isla Espiritu Santo, just north of La Paz; for he 
wrote the letter from La Paz. Such fantasy impugns the whole of his brief account, though 
that includes enough truth to suggest that he did see the island before giving free rein to 
his imagination. 

Edward Palmer. Dr. Edward Palmer, a major plant explorer in the American West and 
in northern Mexico from 1853 to 1910, was the first naturalist to collect on Guadalupe 
Island. McVaugh (1956) gave a thorough and invaluable account of his life, itineraries, 
and plant collections; and an unpublished biography by William E. Safford adds further 
details, with quotations from Palmer's notes (Safford MS). Blake (1961) also quoted from 
Palmer's notes and gave further facts. 

On reading an account of the goats on Guadalupe Island (Esperanza 1874). Palmer was 
inspired to collect plants there before they were all destroyed. On his first trip, in 1875, 
he intended to stay six weeks but was on the island from February 1 to May 16. With 
him as assistant was twelve-year-old Harry Bye Stewart (1862-1922) of San Diego. Palmer 
lived in a dugout with a roof of earth near the springs on the plateau about a fifth of the 
way from the north end. He did not have a boat, so could travel only overland. At first 
he collected in the northern part of the island, as far as he could go in a day in every 
direction. After the more accessible places, he "invaded the canyons," often collecting 
from the cliffs with a cord and noose at the end of a long pole,"which caused the men 
to laugh when they saw me go out to 'lasso plants', [but mjany of the species I could 
have gotten in no other way." However, he could scarcely have collected in lower Esparsa 
Canyon since he did not find several species which have survived there until recently, 
such as Euphorbia misera. Scrophularia villosa. Slephanomeria guadalupensis, Thteleia 
guadahipensis, and several others that he found only on the higher cliffs. During the last 
part of his stay, when supplies had run out, he was sick and feeble from an enforced diet 
of mostly goat meat, losing some 35 pounds, and could do little collecting. 

Palmer mentioned visiting the extreme northern end of the island in early May. It appears 
that he got south to somewhere near Jacks Bay (West Anchorage), about two-thirds down 
the island — perhaps with the help of Jack the Burro; but judging from the south-end 
plants he did not find on this trip, he clearly did not reach the far south end. For plant 

45 



REID MORAN 

distributions he often gave "south end": but once it was "south end, especially about 
Jack's Bay," and for Lycium californiciim, which does grow at Jacks Bay, he said "extreme 
soutii end." And since he cited the cypress and various plants of high cliffs as in the 
"middle of the island," this phrase often seems to mean well up in the northern half of 
the island. In quoting Palmer's distribution notes for his first trip, therefore, I put "middle" 
and "south end" in quotation marks. 

According to McVaugh (1956:230, 354, 362), Palmer on his first trip collected some 1200 
specimens (vascular plants and cryptogams) under 140 numbers, which were distributed 
in II sets, the first set at GH and some of the others traceable. Watson (1876) gave an 
account of the island based on Palmer's notes and listed his vascular plant collections 
under 1 19 newly assigned numbers, with 15 mostly rare plants unnumbered. Gray (1876b) 
and Watson (1876:124—146) proposed two new genera (Harpagonella, Hesperelaea), 
twenty-two new species, and two new varieties from Palmer's collections; and several 
other species were named later. Others repoiled Palmer's important collections of biyo- 
phytes, lichens, birds, land shells, and insects (McVaugh 1956:230). All together. Palmer 
found 1 19 species of vascular plants, about 12 introduced and 107 native. The plants were 
succumbing fast to the cresting goat population, and he was just in time to find eight 
natives never found on the island again: Ceanoihus ciineatiis, Dissanthelium califonucum. 
Hesperelaea palnieri, Micropus californiciis, Plaiita sp., Pogogyne teiuiijlora, Ribes san- 
giiineum, and Silene antiirhina. We can only wonder what Xantus might have found 16 
years earlier. (Phoradendron densum was not found by Greene in 1885 and apparently 
was not collected again; but Bryant saw it growing on cypress in 1885.) 

For his second visit. Palmer chartered a schooner and was at the island March 27 to April 
3, 1889, sleeping aboard. On March 29-30 he collected Nos. 656-58 and 858-905 at the 
far south end. On April 1-3 he got Nos. 667-75 and 831-57 in the northeast part (McVaugh 
1956:230), collecting in the canyon above the landing but not climbing to the springs. He 
reported that rain had been frequent this year, and his notes suggest that various of the 
plants were indeed lush and abundant. Vasey and Rose (1890) reported his collections 
(US), listing 64 species, ten of them new for the island. Rose named four new species, 
all from the south end: Eschscbolzia palmeri. Hcmizonia greeneana. H. palmeh, and 
Spliaeralcea palmeri, all endemic. The other additions were the native Chamaesyce pondii. 
Spergidaria macrolheca, and Suaeda taxifolia, and the introduced CeiUaurea melitensis, 
Mt'liloius iiidica, and Soiulnis tencrhmus. All together, on his two trips. Palmer collected 
a total of 135 vascular plants, including 15 introduced species and 120 native — out of the 
156 species counted here as probably native. 

E. L. Greene. The second botanist to work on Guadalupe Island was the Rev. Edward 
Lee Greene, a keen student of west American plants, who by his own account had "seven 
days of incessant rambling and climbing" there April 20-26, 1885. He barely mentioned 
a fellow naturalist who, according to Jepson (193 1 ), was George Washington Dunn. Dunn 
had just visited the island {Science 4:366, 1884) and so perhaps suggested Greene's trip. 
Greene (1885) gave interesting notes on the vegetation and listed his 106 collections, often 
with notes; he also included, each marked with a dagger, the 25 species of Palmer's list 
that he failed to find. He added nine native or possibly native plants: Agosehs heterophylla, 
Arctostaphylos sp., Dichelostemma pidchellwn. Eschscbolzia californica, Filago califor- 
nica, Lupinus giicidaliipeusis, MammUlaha hlossfeldiaiui var. sluirliana. Myosiiriis minimus 
\ar. jiliformis, and Opimtia prolifera, the first two of which were not found again; and 
five weeds: Brassica rapa, Chenopodiiim miirale. Hordenm miiriniim, Mesemhiyanthemum 
ciystalliniim, and Polypogon monspeliensis, the first of which was not found again but 
isn't missed. He proposed nine new species then and others later. Greene's mamniillaria 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

was from "towards the south end," but he wrote that in this dry year the southern half 
of the island was a sunburnt waste and that most of his additions were from the vicinity 
of the springs, the district of highest fertility, where the goats did not now range. He 
remarked that the presence of the small garrison at the beach, with soldiers coming daily 
for water and sometimes to hunt goats, must already have had a favorable effect on the 
vegetation of this very best part of the island. 

Greene's Guadalupe Island collections are scattered, at CAS, DS, GH, ND-G, NY, UC, 
US, (and others?). The Greene-Nieuwland Herbarium at ND seems to have just 13. Some 
specimens treated as his types are at CAS, GH, ND-G, UC. 

F. Franceschl Dr. Francesco Franceschi (Emanuele Orazio Fenzi) was a noted Italian 
horticulturist, newly arrived in California in "1893" (Tucker 1945). In December 1892 and 
part of January he visited Guadalupe Island to see the state of the vegetation and to gather 
full particulars on trees and shrubs peculiar to the island, "of which a few have been 
sparingly introduced in gardens and others well deserve to be." In an interesting account 
of his visit, Franceschi (1893c) listed four lichens, identified by E. L. Greene, and 56 
vascular plants, identified by Mrs. Katharine Brandegee (UC; duplicates at DS, POM. 
US). Collecting so early in the season, he added no new plants except for mentioning 

Cotyledon (probably Dudleya virens), but his obser\'ations are astute and often colorful. 

He published ftiller accounts of the palm elsewhere (Franceschi 1893a, 1893b) and men- 
tioned other articles sent for publication that seem not to have appeared yet. 

A. W. Anthony. Alfred W, Anthony of San Diego made many trips in 1887 to 1899 into 
northwest Baja California and to the west-coast islands, collecting birds and mammals 
(Nelson 1921:143). Plant collectors with him on two trips to the islands, including 
Guadalupe, put up many sets of specimens that were distributed with printed labels bearing 
Anthony's name, and he is usually cited as the collector. These are mostly numbered, but 
not all chronologically, and most have only inclusive dates for the trip. T. S. Brandegee 
probably identified the specimens, a set of which is in his herbarium (UC). Clues to 
Anthony's itineraries come from publications by him and his associates and from his 
manuscript catalogue of bird skins (Department of Birds and Mammals, California Acad- 
emy of Sciences). In 1896, leaving San Diego July 9 with a chartered schooner, he was 
on Guadalupe Island September 17-22. James M. Gaylord was plant collector (Anthony 
1896) and on the whole trip apparently made at least 148 numbered collections. In 1897 
on his schooner Wahlberg, Anthony visited the west-coast islands and the Revillagigedos, 
stopping at Guadalupe March 20-26. Botanist T. S. Brandegee was with him as far as 
San Jose del Cabo, collecting for his own herbarium (see next entry). Collecting plants 
for Anthony for the whole trip was Alfred L. Stockton, a nephew of Mrs. Brandegee 
from a ranch 9 miles from Ramona, San Diego County. Anthony's numbers 231-262 are 
from Guadalupe. 

Anthony had visited Guadalupe Island before and went again with Hanna and Slevin in 
1922 (Hanna 1925, Hanna and Anthony 1923). 

T. S. Brandegee. Townshend Stith Brandegee was a major collector of and student of 
Baja California plants (Ewan 1942, Moran 1952). In 1897 he went with Anthony on the 
schooner Wahlberg to the west coast islands, visiting Guadalupe Island March 20-26. 
Brandegee (1900) wrote that the vegetation of Guadalupe was very rank and green but 
not so far advanced as that of the islands they had just visited nearer the coast. He added 
that most plants were not in blossom and that only at the lowest elevations could he find 
them suitable for specimens. Nevertheless, he collected at least 52 species, including the 

47 



REIDMORAN 

following not found before: Aphanisma blitoides, Capsella bwsa-pastohs, Castilleja ex- 
serla. Cislanlhe maritima, Lasthenia coronaria, Layia platyglossa, Phalaris caroliniana. 
Platystemon califoniicus, Stebbinsosehs helerocarpa, and the endemics Stephauomeria 
guadalupensis and Triteleia guadalupensis. The castilleja, lasthenia, layia, and platystemon 
have not been found again. Apparently he landed the first day at Northeast Anchorage. 
The cistanthe, phalaris, and stebbinsoseris now are local near the middle of the island on 
the east side, an area hard to reach afoot from the noilh, and evidently not visited by 
earlier collectors, but easy enough with the ll'Lihlherg; and the aphanisma grows there 
and southward. From the plants he did not find, he evidently did not reach the south end. 
His herbarium is at UC. He later named Castilleja guadalupensis and Stephauomeria 
guadalupensis. 

Fur Se.AL Trip. In the last week of June of 1897 Professors Rufus L. Green, Charles B. 
Wing, and Wilbur W. Thobum, of Stanford University, visited Guadalupe Island as part 
of a fur seal survey. Landing at the south anchorage, the west anchorage, and the northeast 
anchorage, despite the late season they collected 37 species of plants (DS), reported by 
Dudley (1899). To the known flora they added Frankenia salina. Phyllospadix toireyi. 
and an endemic cistanthe described as Talinu/n gnadalupense. 

Harry Dri;nt. The Brandegee Herbarium (UC) includes at least 28 specimens collected 
on Guadalupe Island in 1898 by Hairy Drent. Among these are 15 plants Brandegee himself 
did not collect the year before, including such rare ones as Crossosoina calijornicuni, 
Pluicelia phyllomanica, and Solanum xrallacei ssp. clokeyi, the previously unreported 
Euphorbia inisera and Lupinus bicolor. and perhaps the last specimens taken of Castilleja 
guadalupensis and Nicoliana attenuata. According to Stewart (1965:133), "Dutch Harry" 
Drent, a Hollander 38 years old in 1899, "uneducated but bright," was a deep-water sailor 
who made at least five trips to Guadalupe Island. He hunted goats there for about tlve 
months in 1896 (San Diego Evening Sun, 30 Sept. 1896), for some time in 1898, and from 
April to late September of 1899 (Stewart 1965). In 1898 he brought to San Diego four 
live birds of the soon-to-be-extinct Guadalupe caracara, captured "by a trick I had learned 
while in South Africa" (Abbott 1933). He died in San Diego in 1910 (MacMullen 1969). 

How did this goat-hunting sailor come to collect plant specimens and, even more puzzling, 
how could he have such a good eye for rarities? When A. W. Anthony was on Guadalupe 
in mid-September 1896, he could scarcely have failed to meet Drent and his fellow hunters. 
I suppose that after five months of goats, Drent must have been glad to visit with the 
naturalists and that he may have taken some interest in their collecting. Ne.xt year, in 
1897, Drent was a seaman on Anthony's schooner IVahlberg, certainly in December (Purpus 
1898) and evidently on the spring voyage to Guadalupe with Anthony and Brandegee. 
When Brandegee (1900:21) found few plants flowering that March, he must have asked 
Drent to get others for him later and shown him what plants to collect. Since Drent did 
not get them until the next year, evidently he was not staying on the island in 1897 but 
was indeed on the U'ahlberg. In Januaiy 1898 Carl Purpus wrote Mrs. Brandegee that 
Drent was going to Guadalupe to collect palm seeds (Puq:)us 1898). Doubtless he also 
hunted goats; but clearly that was when Harry Drent turned plant collector — and proved 
a bright pupil. 

W. W. Brown. Willmott W. Brown, Jr., studied and collected birds on Guadalupe from 
May I to June 28, 1906, accompanied by H. W. Marsden and Ignacio Oroso (Thayer and 
Bangs 1908, Nelson 1921). The Brandegee Herbarium (UC) includes at least II plant speci- 
mens collected by Brown. A few at UC and US have printed labels whose text suggests 
that his first set is at GH: "Presented to the Gray Herbarium by Messrs. John E. Thayer 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

and Outram Bangs." A check at GH showed eight specimens of Perityle, some with his 
numbers between 4 and 84. so clearly he collected many plants. His collection of 
Stephanomeria diegensis (UC) is the only one known from the island. Since he was two 
months on the island and may have found other unreported plants, a list of his collections 
would be of great interest. However. Dr. Reed Rollins, and later Dr. David Boufford, 
wrote me they found at GH no fieldnotes or list of the Brown collections. 

J. N. Rose. Joseph Nelson Rose, botanist with the Smithsonian Institution, had named 
four new Guadalupe Island species in reporting the collections from Palmer's second trip 
(Vasey and Rose 1890). He visited the island himself on March 2^, 1911, with C. H. 
Townsend's expedition on the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross (Townsend 
1911; Nelson 1921:146; Maxon 1935). According to Townsend "The botanical gatherings 
alone [from this long trip] occupied nearly half of the special freight car to which the 
ship's load was transferred in San Francisco." Rose's Guadalupe specimens (16001—16040 
and 16901?) and his field notebook are at US. 

Hanna, Slevin, and Anthony. G Dallas Hanna and Joseph R. Slevin of the California 
Academy of Sciences and A. W. Anthony of San Diego visited the island July 11-17, 
1922 on the Mexican patrol boat Tecate, on a trip to check on marine mammals (Hanna 
and Anthony 1923, Hanna 1925, Anthony 1925). They made a small collection of plants 
(CAS) and took some valuable 4" x 5" photographs, including some of oaks, pines, and 
cypresses published by Eastwood (1929). 

Mason and Sous. Herbert L. Mason of the University of California and Octavio Solis 
of the botanical garden at Chapultepec Park, Mexico City, visited Guadalupe Island April 
19-21, 1925 (Hanna 1926). Mason collected in the canyon above Northeast Anchorage 
one day and at the south end the next. He got 43 species of plants, including one weed 
not found before, Hypochoehs glabra. In reporting Mason's collections (CAS), Eastwood 
(1929) also gave a useful summary of previous collections. There is no report of Solis' 
collections. At US I saw one specimen of his No. 12, Hemizonia grceneana, April 20. 
The printed label is headed: "Plants of Mexico/Received from Direccion de Estudios 
Biologicos, Secretaria de Fomento. Mexico"; very likely the first set is at MEXU. 

J. T. Howell. John Thomas Howell of the California Academy of Sciences was on 
Guadalupe Island November 14-16, 1931, and March 16-18, 1932. In November he climbed 
up Barracks Canyon to the oaks the first day. visited the pines the second, and landed at 
Melpomene Cove the third. In March he again visited the pines; then on the second and 
third days, with one companion, he made the long overland trip from Northeast Anchorage 
to the south end, camping overnight at the southern limit of the cypresses. He made very 
good use of his time, on the November 1931 trip collecting numbers 8169-8223 and in 
March 1932 numbers 8246-8335 (CAS), including biyophytes as well as seed plants. His 
most remarkable discovery was Baeriopsis guadalupensls. which he described as a new 
genus and species. Beyond that, he added to the known flora seven native or possibly 
native species: Atriplex californica, Hittchinsia procitmbens. Lepidium niridimu Pla- 
giobothrys col I inns var. californiciis, Spergularia marina, and Trifolium gracdentum. He 
also added five new weeds: Bromiis riibens, Medicago polymorpha, Mesemlvyanthenntm 
nodiflonim, Poa annua, and Sisymbrium irio. Howell (1941b) gave an interesting account 
of his two trips and an annotated list (1942) of the vascular plants he had found. His 
observations on the pines he included in a general account of the closed-cone pines of 
the islands (Howell 1941a). Howe (1934) reported his Hepaticae. 

P. J. Rempel. Peter J. Rempel, then of the University of Southern California, collected 

49 



REIDMORAN 

about 40 numbers on Guadalupe Island July 18—19, 1937, on a cruise of the I'elero III of 
the Allan Hancock Foundation (sec Allan Hancock Pacific Exp. 1:46, 312.) He was the 
first to collect on Outer Islet and so first to find CastilleJafnitlco.su, Eriogoinim zapatoense, 
Eiysiimim moranii, and Lavatcra lliidsayi\ but the specimens (DS. LAM now RSA) were 
not identified at the time and there was no report of his collections. 

GEORtiK LlNDS.'V'i'. Gcoigc Lindsay, of the San Diego Museum of Natural History and 
later the California Academy of Sciences, visited Guadalupe Island several times between 
1948 and 1957 and collected plants on three trips (SD). (See Lindsay 1951, 1966; Lindsay 
and Dawson 1952; Moran and Lindsay 1950.) 1948, April 9—16. on Louie and Marcho 
Cavanagh's Matriento with Reid Moran (see next entry); NE Anchorage to Mt. Augusta 
and the cypress grove, south end mesa. Outer Islet (2800-2S40). 1950, January 27 to 
Februaiy 4. with Dr. Carl Hubbs, on the Orca: Outer Islet, Melpomene Cove, above West 
Anchorage, SE coast (1801-1818). 1955. June 10-16. on the Orca. with Dr. Hubbs. and 
with Job Kuijl and Harvey A. Miller (sec below); southeast sealing camp. Outer Islet. 
Islote Negro (2617-2644); he spent four days circumnavigating the island in a small 
launch and observed plants on offshore rocks. 

Reid Moran. Reid Moran, of the San Diego Museum of Natural History, visited 
Guadalupe Island 20 times between 1948 and 1988, ashore 97 days, some short, some 
long (and some nights) (See Moran 1959, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1978). Most of the longer 
and more fruitful trips were with Professor Carl Hubbs (Fig. 73) of the Scripps Institution 
of Oceanography and on Scripps ships. Moran has named five endemic species and sub- 
species: Castillcja fruticosa, Diu/lcya giiadalupensis, D. vireiis ssp. extima. Eriogouum 
zapatoense, and Lavatcra lindsayi. To the known flora he (sometimes with botanical 
companions) has also added 16 other species treated here as native or probably so, and 
one of them as endemic, though a few may possibly be recent arrivals: Antirrhinum 
watsonii. Cuinixsonia mliusla, Castillcja attcnuala, Cuscuta corvmhusa. Ervsinutni mora- 
nii, Gnaphaliuiu Ivcolor. Hctcromclcs arliiitilolia var. nuicrocarpa. Lomatium msiilarc. 
Lycium frcmontii, Fcctocarya linearis ssp. Jcrociila, Plagiohothiys acanlliocarpiis. Poa 
sccuntia ssp. sccunda. Rhus iutcgrifolia. Scrophularia villosa, Stipa lepida, and Zostera 
manna: and seven clearly introduced and mostly weedy species: Bromus hordcaccus, 
Erodium hrachycarpum, Herniaria cineria, Nicotiana glauca. Phalaris minor, Ruta 
chak'pcnsis, and Sisymbrium oricutale. His collections from the 1948 trip are at DS, the 
rest at SD, as also his notebooks. 1948, April 9-16, with George Lindsay (see previous 
entry), on the Manicnt(y, NE Anchorage to pine ridge (over night), south-end mesa. Outer 
Islet (2835-2947). See Lindsay (1966K Moran and Lindsay (1949, 1950), Moran (1951). 
1957, Februaiy 9-14, with Dr. Hubbs; West Anchorage, Islote Negro, Outer Islet, NE 
Anchorage to Mt. Augusta with Julio Berdegue (see Berdeguc 1957) and camp at spring 
(5602-5706). April 17-21, with Dr. Hubbs; West Anchorage, Esparsa Canyon, Islote 
Negro, BaiTacks Canyon, Pilot Rock Beach (5950-5996). October 25-30. with Dr. Hubbs 
and George Lindsay on the Orca; cliffs above NE Anchorage. Esparsa Canyon. Islote 
Negro, south-end mesa, south palm canyon with George Lindsay, SE sealing camp (61 14— 
6166). December 13-18, with Dr. Hubbs and with botanists C. H. Muller (UCSB) and 
Gene Nevvcomb (UC) and C. F. Harbison (SD); up pine ridge to camp at old lookout and 
down by spring and Oak Canyon, lobster camp with Newcomb, lobster camp to El Picacho 
and south end (6420-6481). 1958, April 22-30, on Scripps boat, to collect pine seeds for 
breeding program, with botanists Sherwin Carlquist (RSA, UC), Wallace Enist, and Ira 
Wiggins, (Wiggins & Ernst 1-223, Ernst 259-277, DS); South Esparsa Canyon. Pilot 
Rock Beach to pine ridge for pine cones, Esparsa Canyon, NE Anchorage to camp at 
spring, then to Mt. Augusta and south to lobster camp, south-end mesa, Islote Negro, up 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Arroyo Melpomene to flank of El Picacho at 650 m and down to lobster camp, NE An- 
chorage (6593—6771). 1960, January 26-30, with Dr. Hubbs and class; NE Anchorage to 
Oak Canyon, NE Anchorage to Lower Circus, NE Anchorage to beach cliffs at canyon 
rim, NE Anchorage to canyon rim, Arroyo Melpomene to 600 m (7828—7851). 1965, 
February 28 to March 6, with Dr. Hubbs and class; NE Anchorage to pine ridge, NE 
Anchorage to Lower Circus and Oak Canyon, NE Anchorage to Mt. Augusta and cypress 
grove. Juniper Canyon, lobster camp, Arroyo Melpomene to 400 m (1201 1-12078). 1967, 
April 30 to May 3, with Dr. Hubbs; SW coast, Anoyo Melpomene to 350 m, NE Anchorage 
to Lower Circus, SE Oak Canyon, NE Anchorage to north end (13755—13822). 1968, 
June 21-22, with the Pacific Project of the Smithsonian Institution, on the Stella Polaris; 
Outer Islet (over night), Arroyo Melpomene to 470 m (15113-15128). 1969, February 
21—22, a trip for Museum members; NE Anchorage, south-end mesa (15733). 1970, April 
11-22. with Dr. Hubbs; pine ridge (over night) to NW slope, AiToyo Melpomene, Long 
Canyon to El Picacho to south end. West Anchorage, Islote Negro (17274—17428). August 
16-21, with Harold Pringle of La JoUa; NE Anchorage to Mt. Augusta and by jeep to 
landing strip, Esparsa Canyon, lobster camp, south end. Outer Islet (18143-18171). 1971, 
May 18-23, with Dr. Hubbs; Pilot Rock Beach to pine ridge (over night) and NW slope 
to NE Anchorage, West Anchorage to El Picacho and gray cliff just south (18385-18397). 
1973, March 25, with tourist trip; NE Anchorage to Lower Circus (20304-20310). 1974, 
March 24, with tourist trip; NE Anchorage to Lower Circus (21665-21668). 1978, March 
26—29, to collect pine cones for breeding program and for study of inbreeding in natural 
population, with William Libby, Ken Eldridge. Daniel A.xelrod, Yan Linhart, Cliff Ohmart, 
plus graduate students and other helpers; to cypress grove and pine ridge (25374—25394). 
1981, May 23—24, Palm Society trip to see Guadalupe Island palm, with botanists Mitchel 
Beauchamp, Curtis Clark, Mary Hochberg, Steve Junak (22 specimens, SBBG), Tom 
Oberbauer, Ralph Philbrick, Steve Timbrook, Sherry Whitmore, Howie and Eric Wier, 
and others; Pilot Rock Beach up pine ridge to camp at old lookout, next day to upper 
NW slope (29591-29600). August 19-26, with ecologist Martin Gonzalez and geologist 
Carlos Garcia of Ecoterra, range ecologist Don Duncan, and Oscar Paulin of COTECOCA, 
making preliminaiy inventoiy of natural resources for SARH (Gonzalez 1981), taking 
truck on Mexican LCT, driving to cypress grove to camp (unbelievable!), then Lower 
Circus, pine ridge, south-end mesa, cliffs NW of cypress (29799-29816) [unfortunately 
a very dry summer]. 1988, March 28—30, with Margie Stinson on Pacific Oiieen, with 
several botanists, some collecting: Bruce Baldwin (688-692, DAV), Jim Bartel, Mitchel 
Beauchamp, Tony Burgess (7437-7469, ARIZ), Steve Junak (3469-3569, SBBG), Tom 
Oberbauer, Chuck Quibell ( 1741-1817, NCC), Fred Sproul. Robert Thome (6301 1-631 1 1, 
RSA), Ray Turner; NE Anchorage to spring, next day to Mt. Augusta [some to pines], 
south-end mesa (31000-31018). 

KuiJT AND Miller. With Dr. Hubbs and George Lindsay, Job Kuijt and Harvey A. Miller 
visited Guadalupe on the Orca June 10-16, 1955. They collected on the pine ridge, at 
West Anchorage, at the old sealing camp on the southeast coast, and on Outer Islet, and 
with Lindsay they made the first collections on Islote Negro. Kuijt collected higher plants 
(1001-1081, UC). Miller collected bryophytes (5502-5532, DS); and he collaborated on 
an account of the biyophyte flora (Crum and Miller 1956). 

Weber and McCoy, Corp. William A. Weber and C. J. McCoy, Jr., of the University 
of Colorado, visited the island April 19-29, 1963 with Dr. Hubbs. Though not reaching 
higher elevations, they made the first thorough collection of lichens for the island: NE 
Anchorage, lobster camp, south end, Islote Negro (36493-36680). They also collected 
vascular plants (11969 etc., COLO) and bryophytes. Scripps technician Joseph F. Copp 

51 



REIDMORAN 

collected vascular plants in the same places (141-188, DS). Weber (1964, 1965, 1994) 
named a new genus and another new species of lichen and reviewed the lichen flora of 
the island. 

Enrique Meling. Alf Enrique Meling Lopez, as a student at Universidad Autonoma de 
Baja California, in Ensenada, wrote a professional thesis on the state of the vegetation 
of Guadalupe Island (Meling 1985). He did field work there in the spring of 1982, the 
spring of 1983, and the summer of 1984. He made three long transects, listing species but 
not always collecting vouchers; and some of his identifications are questionable. For check- 
ing by Dr. Geoff Levin, he gave 80 specimens to SD, 46 of them numbered but not 
chronologically, most of them dated but 20 with only month and year; others are at ENC. 
Some of his localities are questionable: for example Camlssoiiia rohustu, Galium apariiie, 
Liiuihu caihiilensis. Loins gnindiflonis, and Uropappus lindleyi all from "E.xtremo Sur," 
the desertic south end. However, he added three or four new weeds to the known flora: 
Lamarckia uiimi, Raphauiis saliviis. Sisymbrium irio (perhaps a reintroduction), and 
Triilciim ucsiiviim. About his specimen of SoUmiim tenullobatwn, see Doubtful and E.x- 
cluded Species, p. 168. 

Jose Rico C. Ing. Jose Rico C. of the Division de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad 
Autonoma Chapingo, Chapingo, Mexico, visited the island in 1982 and again July 1-15, 
1994, collecting many specimens (CHAP). (See Rico. C. 1983). 

Philbrick and Junak. Botanists Ralph Philbrick and Steve Junak, with Peter Schuyler, 
of the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden visited Guadalupe Island April 23-26, 1984, also 
taking entomologist David Faulkner of the San Diego Museum of Natural History. They 
landed near a fish camp on the southeast coast north of Moito Sur, walking inland and 
up the airport road to 1800 ft; they had 2 '/> hours on Outer Islet (see Philbrick 1984); 
and they climbed from Esparsa Canyon to Mt. Augusta. Junak collected numbers 2055- 
2117 and Philbrick some 64 numbers (SBBG). Faulkner also collected some plants (SD). 

Junak and Philbrick also were with Moran in May 1981 and Junak again in 1988 (see 
above); and Philbrick visited Northeast Anchorage on a cruise boat in 1975. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Catalogue of the Plants 

This catalogue aims to include all vascular plants, native and foreign, reported to grow 
on Guadalupe Island and its islets. An asterisk (*) before a name shows that the plant 
seems to be a late arrival, usually meaning a European weed (see Table 1 and discussion). 
A letter phi ((})) shows that it is a west American plant that has been taken for native but 
is possibly or probably introduced (see Table 2 and discussion). A dagger (f) shows that 
it is possibly or probably extinct on the island, commonly meaning that no one has seen 
it since 1900 (see Table 3 and discussion). The synonymy includes chiefly names used 
for the plant as it grows on this island. 

The catalogue not only tells the most recently known distribution of each plant on the 
island but also quotes or paraphrases such early reports as suggest differences in the past, 
thus often telling of the decline of natives and the spread of weeds. These reports thus 
sometimes give clues to the drastic but little documented changes in the vegetation that 
took place in a very few years, even between Palmer's visit of 1875 and Franceschi's of 
1892, when the goats apparently were just reaching their greatest numbers. The map 
(Fig. 2) shows place names used in this account; for other names see under Place Names, 
p. 9. 

Because the Guadalupe flora is most closely related to the floras of the other Pacific 
islands of southern California and Baja California (Fig. 1), the catalogue also notes oc- 
currence on those islands. Useful sources of this infomiation are Wallace's (1985) tabu- 
lation of floras of the Channel Islands, plus the floras of the Islands of Santa Cruz (Junak 
et al. (1995), San Nicolas (Foreman 1967), Santa Barbara (Philbrick 1972, Junak et al. 
1993), Santa Catalina (Thome 1967, 1969), San Clemente (Raven 1963, Thome 1969). 
Todos Santos (Junak and Philbrick 1994a), and San Martin (1994b). 

The catalogue does not describe most plants but does include some descriptive notes and 
even full descriptions when they can tell something new, as well as thumbnail descriptions 
for some interesting endemic plants. It cites specimens mainly for those plants that are 
rare or seldom collected, and the account of collectors (p. 44) tells for each one where 
the first set of specimens is deposited. Herbarium abbreviations follow Holmgren et al. 
(1990). Field numbers prefixed by "M" are mine, and my collections since 1948 are at 
SD. 

Although this is the very latest tlora of Guadalupe Island, it cannot be called up-to-the- 
minute. My visits to the island, and so my observations of the plants, were scattered over 
40 years, from 1948 to 1988 (see p. 50). Where I could go on the island was always 
limited by time and by trip goals. On the latest trips I could not revisit all the remote 
spots where 1 had seen rare plants before, to see whether they still survived. Thus some 
of my sightings are long out of date, and 1 can't know whether the plants are still there. 



FERNS 

Polypodiaceae s.l. 

Cheihinlhes iiewbenyi (D. C. Eaton) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 20 [Heft 85']:133. 1915. 

Notholaena newbenyi D. C. Eaton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 4;12, 1873. 

Range. — Southem California and NW Baja Califomia; San Clemente Island. 

53 



REID MORAN 

Palmer found this fern throughout the island, on rocks in dry exposed places (Watson 
1S76;122). It is fairly conurion from Noitheast Anchorage and the Lower Circus to Arroyo 
Melpomene and the southeast sealing camp. Rolla Tryon (1956:45) cited Guadalupe Island 
collections by Palmer, Franceschi, Anthony, Rose, and Mason. 

Notholaeiw califomica D. C. Eaton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 1(J:27. 1883. 

Range. — Southern California to Arizona, Sonora, and central Baja Califomia; Santa 
Catalina Island. 

This feni is known on Guadalupe Island from only two collections: locally common in 
rock crevices, head of east fork of Arroyo Melpomene at 210 m (M6165): southeast coast 
just north of Mono Sur, D. Faulhier 7D (SD). Dr. Dale Benham, who has the specimens 
on loan, tells me they are the form with yellow farina, which has been called ssp. cali- 
fornica. 

Pellaea mucronata (D. C. Eaton) D. C. Eaton var. mucroiuita 

Pcllaca omilhopiis Hook.. Sp. Fil. 2:14.V 1S5S. 

Pclldca mucioiiala (DC. Haton) DC. L-alon in Fmop>'. Bot. Mcx. Bound. 2(11:2.^3. 1.S59. 

RANiii:. -California to southern Nevada and northern Baja Califomia; Santa Rosa, Santa 
Cruz, Sanla Catalina, and San Clemente Islands. 

Palmer found this fern rare, in crevices of the highest cliffs (Watson 1876:120); and 
Franceschi (1893c:139) called it the scarcest fern on the island, seen only at the eastern 
side, on basaltic rocks fully exposed to the sun. From Guadalupe Island, A. Tryon 
(1957:159) cited only Palmer's specimen. More recent collections are: two in crevice of 
Lower Circus at 950 m (A/7.Vi,S'); one clump in rock crc\ ice, head of east fork of Auoyo 
Melpomene at 210 m (M6166). 

Pentagranima triangularis (Kaulf ) Yatsk., Windham, & E. Wollenw., Amer. Fern 
.lour. 80:15. 1990. 

Gvninogniiiiiihi iruiiiguUiri^ Kaulf, Enum, Fil. p. 73. 1S74. 
Pirrioiiiamma InangiiLiris- Maxon, Contr. U.S. Natl, Herb. 17:173. \^)\?>. 

Range. — Bntish Columbia to Nevada, Sonora, and southern Baja Califomia; San Miguel, 
Santa Rosa, Santa Cmz, Anacapa, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Cedros 
Islands. 

Palmer found this fem in crevices of the highest cliffs in the "nnddle"' and at the "south 
end" of the island (Watson 1876:120). Franceschi (1893c:l39) called this the most widely 
spread fern, growing luxuriantly in the crevices of rocks with northern exposure, also in 
vei7 di7 sunny spots but then much reduced in size. They grow on cliffs in the northeast 
part of the island and as far south as .luniper Canyon but are not very common. 

The Penlagramma triaiigiilaiis complex, as now imperfectly understood, is "a confusing 
anay of morphologically cryptic taxa" (Yatskievych et al. 1990), "a puzzling complex of 
intergrading chemical, chromosomal, and morphological variants" (Smith and Lemieux 
1993), which is variously subdivided and is still due for more study. Alt and Grant (1960) 
included Guadalupe Island in the range of var. maxonii, which they did not study in 
detail. Dale Smith has annotated Guadalupe specimens as varieties maxonii and triaiii^ii- 
larls; and George ^'atskievych wrote me that one of the plants under Palmer 101 at MO 

54 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




FlUbRl- .!<->. I'ciikigi-uiiiiiiu tnuii^^iiiui L^ iMI'3I7) on clitT at north end ol the i^unnl. .mh, n,. , . 
April 1970. 

is ssp. viscosa. though a bit more divided-leaved than usual He said he had seen little 
Guadalupe material and most of that was pretty weird. I am a coward, just calling it ail 
P. irlangiilaris. Figure 36 shows a form with fronds much as in typical i?iiiiigularis but 
viscid. 



Polypodiiim californiciim Kaulf, Enum. Fil. p. 102. 1824. 

Range. — Central California to NW Baja California; Santa Cniz, Santa Rosa, Anacapa, 
San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, Los Coronados, Todos Santos, 
and Cedros Islands. 

Palmer found this feni abundant at the noilh end, in cracks of rocks in damp places, 
sometimes covering large surfaces (Watson 1876:120), but Franceschi (1893c:139) called 
it rather scarce, always in shady or sheltered localities. It grows at 600-900 m, mostly in 
damp and shady places: on the north slope under the pines and on north cliffs, on the 
south wall of Oak Canyon, and with the mimulus on the gray cliff above Campo Oeste, 
in a spot that is perhaps often foggy. I have not seen it abundant. 

Polypodiiim scouleii Hook. & Grev.. Icon. Fil. 1: pi. 56. 1829. 

Range. — Vancouver Island along the coast to central California; Santa Cruz and 
Guadalupe Islands. 

Palmer found this fern encircling the trunk of a single oak in a thick mat of moss and 
constantly wet by the fogs, covering the tree with a network of its strong tough roots to 
the height often feet (Watson 1876:120). Greene (1885:228) feared tlwt "Dr. Palmer's 

55 



REID MORAN 

gathering of it from 'the trunk of a single oak' may have proved the extemiination of 
the species on this island." Evidently, though, Greene was looking up the wrong tree, for 
Hanna and Slevin again found it on oaks (Eastwood 1929:399). I found it on the tmnks 
of two pines on the northeast ridge at 530 m (M6422), as well as on northwest-facing 
vertical cliffs nearby and farther towards North Point, at 460 m (M6420). The fem-bearing 
trees seem to be gone, but the cliff is still there and 1 hope also the fern. 

Polyslkhum niiiiiititin (Kaulf ) C. Presl, Tent. Pterid. p. 83. 1836. 

Aspidium muiulum Kaulf, Enum. Fil. p. 236. 1824. 

Polystichiiin muiiitum (Kaulf) C. Presl ssp. solilarium Maxon, Fern BulL 11:39. W)i. 

Poiyslichum solilarium (Maxon) Underw. ex Maxon, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 10:493. 190S. 

Range. — Alaska to Montana and southern California; Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and 
Guadalupe Islands. 

Palmer saw only two large bunches of this fern, at the northern end in a rocky place 
inaccessible to goats and constantly damp from the prevalent fogs (Watson 1876:120). 
Though seldom collected, it persists on the sheer northwest cliff at 600 m near North 
Point (M2959I). where noted by Sheny Whitmore. 

Maxon (1903) wrote that his ssp. solitahum was distinguished by the dark persistent chaff 
which very thickly covered the rachis throughout and by the naiTOwer and extremely 
coriaceous pinnae, which were inore scurfy below and somewhat glaucous in appearance 
and possessed of abbreviated decidedly cartilaginous appressed incurved teeth. The holo- 
type is Anthony 9 of 1896 from Guadalupe Island (GH); and Palmer 102 is a paratype. 
David Wagner annotated my collection (M29591) in 1989 as P. nniniiiiin. See Wagner 
(1979). 

GYMNOSPERMS 

Cuprcssaccac 
Ciipressiis liuadalupensis S. Watson ssp. guadalupetisis 

Cupiessus iiuadahipcnsis S. Watson, Pioc. Amor. Acad, .^rts Sci. 14:300. 1879. 

Cuprcssus niaciocarpa Hartw. var. giuulaliiiwiisis (S. Watson) Masl., Card. Chron. Ser. 3, 18:62. 

1895. 
Ciipressiis nnuroLurpa of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Tree 1 5—20 (—25) m tall, the crown dense to rather open, commonly rounded or subroimded, 
in isolated trees often broader than high, occasionally pointed, the main axis identifiable 
nearly to top or often lost in branches (Figs. 37, 38). Trtnik mostly 2—5 dm thick, often 
to 1 and rarely to 2 or reportedly 2.5 m, in age often fluted (Fig. 39); primary branches 
mainly ascending at about 45-60°, the lowest 1-2 m above base (Fig. 39); bark of trunk 
and branches commonly smooth, peeling annually in thin non-fibrous curling plates two 
to several centimeters long and wide, the new bark pink to reddish to greenish, mostly 
soon aging various shades of gray to lavender gray, but in a few trees the bark on branches 
smooth but on trunks persistent, fibrous or often shaggy, brown, splitting lengthwise into 
strips. Foliage green to rich glaucous blue-green, glaucous especially on young trees. 
Ovulate cones 24-40 (—50) mm long, nearly as thick, generally with 8 or 10 scales, often 

56 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 












jJH 








1 


'il^a 






Jmi,j 


Ik 


^9 


4Ul 






V 


^9 


flH^B|: ll\t> 


1 


Hi"^ 


gtt^^^B 


Hwtl^^l!HttiiwF^B^B^y^/j^^ 



i? 5 



i& 



-a o 



57 



RKIDMORAN 

with conspicuous homs which may be 6 mm long. 

Pahner reported only that the cypress grew in ineguiar clusters in the "middle" of the 
island (Watson 1876:1 19); he called it a tine widely spreading tree, though varying much 
in habit, averaging about 40 feet high. According to Greene (1885:217) "this tree appears 
fonnerly to have occupied almost the entire plateau of the northern half of the island; 
but now, upon the greater part of this tract, only the fallen tninks, far gone in decay, 
remain. The cause of this destruction I cannot guess." He mentioned that the cabins near 
the springs stood in a fine cypress grove. Franceschi (1893c: 138) wrote that the principal 
grove on the higher central plateau covered not less than two or three square miles. Dudley 
(1899:281) wrote that samples of dead wood from the southern part of the island agreed 
in stiTicture with cypress wood and not with juniper wood which had previously been 
supposed to occur there. He concluded that "the cypresses, therefore, probably extended 
over the southern half of the island until destroyed by the goats; and their disappearance 
may have caused the disappearance of subperennial springs, as none exist in that region." 
It is not clear how far south or at how low an elevation the wood was collected, but 1 
suspect that Dudley's conclusion is much too sweeping. Furthemiore, Palmer saw not 
merely dead wood but also living junipers in the "central" and "southern" part of the 
island, and indeed Dudley reported dead junipers. 

Cypresses now grow mainly on the comparatively gentle western and southern slope of 
the island in the vicinity of Mt. Augusta, at about 950 to 1200 m elevation. The main 
grove extends from about west of Mt. Augusta around to the south-southeast, with a more 
scattered stand to the northwest. The total number of trees must be in the thousands. On 
the bench near the spring one old dead tree remained at the time of my first visits but is 
now gone. The only trees on the eastern drainage are a few at the head of the canyon 
just south of Mt. Augusta. Fallen trees are especially numerous in the area from west to 
northwest of Mt. Augusta, and more fallen ones were seen each trip. The southern part 
of the grove is still a beautiful dense forest (Fig. 25), but many trees show severe damage 
to the bark by the goats. As with the other trees of the island, no seedlings escape the 
goats. Although in dense parts of the grove trunks may be as thin as 1 dm, they must all 
be well over 100 years old. 

After the visit of Mexican President Lopez Portillo on September 28, 1980, there was a 
plan to fence the cypress grove and keep the goats out, to raise cypress seedlings at the 
Tecate nursery from Guadalupe seed, and to replant bare areas. However, the fence was 
never finished, and the project clearly was abandoned. 

Franceschi (1893c) called attention to the great variation of the cypress in habit and color 
and also in size and shape of the cones. Howell collected a series of specimens to show 
the variation and gave notes on his observations. I also was impressed with the great 
variation, as expressed in the description above, the crown dense to open (Figs. 37, 38), 
the bark smooth to shaggy and persistent (Figs. 39, 40), the foliage green to very glaucous, 
and the cones (Fig. 41) varying greatly in size and shape. 

A related tree in Orange and San Diego Counties, California, and in northwest Baja 
California was sometimes called C. goveniaiia Gordon or C. sargentii Jeps. but was then 
more commonly called C. guadalupensis. as by Abrams (1923:73). Jepson (1922) named 
this mainland tree C. forbesii but did not differentiate it from other species. In his thorough 
revision of New World cypresses, Wolf ( 1948a), after discussing the difficulty of specific 
and subspecific delimitation, recognized 15 species and no varieties. He kept C. forbesii 
as a species closest to C. guadalupensis but said (p. 5) that a most drastic reduction of 

58 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




59 



REID MORAN 




FiCiliRF 41. Foliage and cones of Cupressiis guadahipensis ssp. guadalupensis (M5671) 
13 Fcbmai-v 1957. 



species might place it as a subspecies of C guadahipensis or even reduce it to synonymy. 
Little (1970) discussed the problem further and proposed a more conservative treatment. 
Thus where Wolf accepted 15 species for the New World, Little had 8 species and 7 
additional varieties, W\\h forbesii as a variety of C. guadahipensis. Silba (1981) had 8 
species and 9 additional varieties, including C. guadalupcnsis var. forhesii. 

Wolf did not visit Guadalupe Island but had to rely on the herbarium specimens of 
Franceschi, Anthony, Hanna, Fleming, and Flowell, plus cultivated trees. Possibly the 
island trees he saw in cultivation were a biased sample, grown from seeds from trees 
selected for their glaucous foliage as more ornamental. For C. forhesii he saw only two 
collections from Baja California, whereas well over a dozen localities are now known 
(Minnich 1987, fig. 4). Wolf said the two species were alike in having smooth cheiry-red 
or mahogany-brown exfoliating bark on their trunks and branches; they generally devel- 
oped a branched crown with several leaders instead of retaining a single central axis; the 
foliage was remarkably alike, despite a difference in color, with the dorsal glands, when 
visible, usually inconspicuous and rarely if ever active; and they both had large cones, 
with large brown or tan seeds. He said that C. guadahipensis was a larger tree in the 
wild as well as in cultivation; usually with bluish green or glaucous blue-green instead 
of green foliage; with generally larger ovulate cones, attaining a maximum length of 45 
mm, whereas in C. forhesii they are rarely over 30 mm long; with the inner faces of the 
cone scales glaucous and the seeds usually glaucous. He added that with the limited 
material of C. guadahipensis examined, it seemed that the staminate cones generally had 
as many as 18 scales and were therefore much larger than those of C. forhesii. which 
had only 12 or 14 scales; and his key shows scales 14—18 for C. guadalupensis and 10-14 
for C. forhesii. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Wolf described C. forhesii as usually less than 10 m high, with a trunk 3-5 dm thick; but 
according to Parish, as quoted by Wolf (p. 64), trees on Mt. Tecate had tninks sometimes 
nearly 1 m thick. Since, however, as Wolf pointed out (p. 162), recurrent bnish fires have 
prevented the survival of old trees, the maximum size of mainland trees is unknown. 
Although Wolfs description of C guadalupensis said the trees varied from slightly blue- 
green to rich glaucous blue-green, the notes he quoted on Howell S299 say "with very 
green, non-glaucous leaves"; and 1 have seen many green trees. With more material, the 
suggested distinction in number of scales of the staminate cones does not hold. For ex- 
ample, one collection from Guadalupe Island (Ramsay & Peterson s.n. SD) has mostly 
8-12, and one from south of Tecate (Ml 3986) has mostly 16-18. In specimens from 
Guadalupe Island, the seeds may lack glaucousness. However, the difference in size of 
ovulate cones is impressive. For 42 cones from the island, all from different trees (M5671, 
M25384). I found a range in length of 24-38 nun, with a mean of 29.5 ± 0.34 mm. For 
mainland trees I measured 79 cones on 28 herbarium specimens (SD) from 14 localities 
in Baja California and about 8 localities in southern California. The range in length was 
14-29 mm, with a mean of 21.5 ± 0.35 mm. 

Zavarin et al. (1967) studied the distribution of tropolonic heartwood constituents in various 
species of Ciipressus. For C. forbesii and C. guadalupensis they found common constitu- 
ents separating these two from other U. S. coastal cypresses, but their preliminary data 
based on small samples did not show substantial differences between the two. Dr. Zavarin 
wrote me in 1994 that he and his associates are continuing their work, using terpenoids 
from leaves. They have sampled four U.S. populations out of many populations of C. 
forbesii and eleven cultivated trees of undocumented origin for C. guadalupensis . They 
have found only small differences between two populations of C. forhesii and for some 
terpenes highly significant differences between those populations and their sample of C. 
guadalupensis. He writes that the chemical data so far suggest an appreciable gap between 
C. forbesii and C. guadalupensis. Considering the great morphological variation in the 
island population, however, it might not be surprising to find great chemical variation as 
well. At least it would seem to require some large and well-selected samples to show 
significant differences between island and mainland trees as a whole. 

My impression is that the trees on the island seem more variable than those on the mainland, 
and in many respects variation in the island population seems to more than encompass 
that in the various mainland populations. However, the remarkable difference in cone size 
suggests that mainland trees be separated subspecifically, as C. guadalupensis ssp. forbesii 
(Jeps.) R. M. Beauchamp. 

Guadalupe cypress grows well in central and southern California, making a handsome 
tree. The oldest in cultivation are said to be from seed Palmer collected on his first trip. 
Wolf ( 1948b;389) told of many fine old trees 50 or 60 feet high and 30 or 40 feet wide, 
with trunks to 4 feet thick, adding that he had never found cones. Wagener (1948:299) 
told of an experimental planting of twenty trees of C. guadalupensis at Stanford University, 
with C. macrocarpa Gordon and others. He said they grew almost as fast as C. macrocarpa. 
in both height and diameter. Among the test species he found C. guadalupensis outstanding 
in character, growth rate, ability to compete with surrounding trees, and freedom from 
pests and diseases. He found it apparently not at all susceptible to cypress canker fiingus 
(Coiyneum cardinale Wagener), so destructive of C. macrocarpa. He concluded that 
Guadalupe cypress deserves wider use. 



REIDMOF^AN 

Junipems californka Carr., Rev. Hort. Ser. 4, 3:352. 1854. 

Range. — Central California to S. Nevada, NW Arizona, and noilh central Baja California; 
Isla Cedros. 

On his first trip. Palmer found the juniper all over the "middle" of the island and occa- 
sionally at the "south end," in the ravines and low valleys (Watson 1876:119). Only ten 
years later, Greene (1885:217, 218) found it "upon the very verge of extemiination. . . . 
Of the grove in the middle of the island [there remained] only three trees that were not 
quite dead; and on these three only a few tufts of green twigs gave the feeble sign of 
nearly exhausted vitality." The fur seal party in 1897 found many dead but no living trees 
(Dudley 1899:281 ). About 1.5 or 2 miles south of the cypresses in 1932, Howell ( 1941b:40) 
found a ghost grove which he took to be what was left of the juniper grove described 
by Palmer, the dead remains extending for several miles. 

However, Greene in 1885 did note one vigorous juniper on a southeastern cliff hanging 
over the sea. In that pail of the island, where goats are fewer though still too many, a 
few junipers have sunived until recent years, showing more damage with each of my 
visits. In June 1955 Job Kuijt (1077) and George Lindsay {2635C) collected from a juniper 
in a canyon bottom about a mile north of the southeast sealing camp; it was about 5 m 
tall and wide, only partly alive, the goats having eaten as high as they could reach. In 
1957 at 275 m in Juniper Canyon there were two healthy erect trees 5 m tall, with rounded 
crowns 6 m wide. Near the mouth of the canyon, at 40 to 125 m were many dead junipers 
and four living ones, though two were badly damaged. One gnarled sprawling tree was 
4 111 high and 10 m wide, with a trunk 3 dm thick (M6454). In 1965 two of the four were 
dead and only one remained in good condition. In the next canyon south, dead junipers 
extended to 350 m, where a healthy one 4 m high and 8 m wide (Ml 2062) hung from 
the south wall of the canyon, out of reach of goats (Fig. 30). In Januaiy 1960, when 
climbing the southeast slope west of the banacks at Northeast Anchorage to check a 
shrtib of Mdlosimi at 300 m, I saw beyond it, too far for certain identification and beyond 
the reach of man and goat, a healthy shnib of what appeared to be juniper. 

Pinaccae 

Piiitis ladiatu 1). Don var. hinata (liiigclm.) Lcminon, W. .'^nicr. Cone-Bearers 
p. 42. 1N95. 

Pi}iu\ iii\ii;nL\ Loud. var. hiiiata Engclni. in W. H. Brewer & S. Watson. Bol, (.'alif. 2:12S. 1880. 

Piiius niJniui n. Don t'omia hiinila (Engclm.) J. T. Howell, Leafl. W. Bot. .V3. l')41. 

Piiiiis roduihi D. Don \'oxm?i guadalupcnsis J. T. Howell. Leatl W. Bot. 3:3. 1441. 

Piiiiis idJhihi D Don ssp. hiihiiti (Hngelni ) 1-. Murray, Kalmia 1220. K'S2, [Basionyni incorrectly 

given as /' r,iJitihi \ar Iviiala Engelni.] 
Piiiii.s muncutci. P iviiiiiidlii. and P radiala Ibmia iiuluila of Guadalupe Island rererenees. 

RangI:. Hndcmic to Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer reported the pine from high elevations at the northern end of the island (Watson 
1876:1 19). Franccschi (1893c) said they extended all over the northern and northwestern 
part, which in times past they must have covered in a very thick forest, the finest trees 
growing amongst the palms. In my time the main pine grove has been on the northwest 
slope o'l the island near the crest of the northeast ridge, at about 300 to 800 m (Figs. 20, 
21, 42). On the hotter and drier southeast side of this ridge, where the fog conunonly 



62 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




Figure 42. The endemic Guadalupe Island pine [Piniis radiaiu var. hiiuiui) at the old lookout, 
800 m. 13 April I94S. This tree was ca. 30 m tall with a crown 32 m wide and a trunk 2.1 m 
thick — the largest pine seen and larger than any Monterey pine measured on the mainland. 



dissipates as it blows across the ridge, a few trees grew only just below the crest (Fig. 
22). The noilheastemmost trees were within ± I km of North Point (Fig. 19). A few small 
groups were scattered above the main grove, up the ridge to the southwest, in 1957 still 
to 1 1 60 m. and a few large pines were scattered on the northwest slope among the palms. 
In a panoramic view from the notlhwest, Libby et al. (1968, fig. 1) showed most of the 
pines on the island in 1957. 

From two short days of sampling in March 1964, Libby et al. (1968) counted only 383 
living pines but said their census, pailicularly of trees low on the cliffs and in canyons, 
was approximate. A census in 1978 showed that about 5—10 percent of the trees seen in 
1964, and all the seedlings, had since died (Libby 1978). Many fallen trees are to be seen 
(Fig. 19), and the decline continues rapidly. 

Although earlier botanists reported only Piniis nuliata var. hiiuitu from the island. Mason 

63 



REID MORAN 

(1932) added P. imiricata D. Don, and McMinn and Maino (1935) included Guadalupe 
in the range of P. remorata Mason. After studying variation on the island, however, 
Howell (1941a) concluded that all the pines belong to one variable species; and Newcomb 
(1959), Libby et al. (1968), Axelrod (1980), and Millar et al. (1988) have agreed. Howell 
found a few trees with cones very similar to those of typical P. ladiata on the coast of 
central California — [reflexed and] very asymmetrical, with umbos of the outer scales 
much thickened — and a few with [spreading] almost symmetrical cones, with the scales 
alike on all sides; but most had intermediate cones, somewhat asymmetrical, with the 
outer scales noticeably but not prominently umbonate. (See Figures 43, 44.) Finding com- 
plete intergradation among the three types, and finding no other differences correlated 
with those in the cones, Howell treated them all as forms of one species. Whereas Engel- 
mann had separated the Guadalupe tree as variety hinuia on the basis of paired needles, 
Howell found that on vigorous shoots the needles are mostly in threes, as in typical P. 
radiala. So he did not take up the variety but instead named three fomiae based on the 
three types of cones: forma radiala. with very asymmetrical cones, fomia giuidaliipensis, 
with nearly symmetrical cones, and fomia hiiuiia. with intemiediale cones like those of 
the type collection (Palme/- 90. MO). 

The pine of Cedros Island was fonnerly called Piniis miiricata D. Don or P. mwicata 
var. cedrosensis J. T. Howell, though Mason (1930) referred Anthony's 1896 specimen 
(UC) to P. remorata Mason. However, recent students have agreed that the Cedros pine 
is another form of P. radiala (Newcomb 1959, Libby et al. 1968, Axelrod 1980, Millar 
et al. 1988), and Axelrod named it P. radiala var. cedrosensis (J. T. Howell) Axelrod. 

Forde (1964) found that in the Califomian populations of P. radiala each needle has zero 
to two resin canals; whereas for Guadalupe and Cedros trees Newcomb (1959) reported 
the number as two to several. 

As in P. radiala. so also in P. nniricaia. the cones of different trees vary from spreading 
and nearly symmetrical, with thin cone scales, to retlexed and very asymmetrical, with 
the outer scales (away from the branch) greatly thickened. Linhart (1978) supported the 
old view that thick cone scales are adapted to protect the seeds from fire and the newer 
view that they also tend to protect the seeds from squiiTcls. In both species, mainland 
trees where there arc squirrels have mostly veiy asymmetrical cones; and the populations 
with the greatest proportion of nearly symmetrical cones are on islands with no squinels, 
P. radiala on Guadalupe and P. mwicata on Santa Cniz. Axelrod (1980) rejected these 
ideas, suggesting instead that larger cones with thicker scales protect the seeds against 
summer drought and developed in the Califomian populations with the trend to increasing 
summer drought. He suggested that ancient types have persisted on Cedros and Guadalupe 
Islands, where he supposed there still were summer rains. 

Axelrod compared large samples of cones from Guadalupe and Cedros Islands with sam- 
ples from the three mainland populations of P. radiala and from all known fossil sites. 
He showed (1980, fig. 2) that cone size was significantly different in each of the five 
living populations, with Cedros cones smallest (mean length 6.5 ± 1.3 cm) and Guadalupe 
cones next (8.2 ± 1.2 cm), as compared to 9.6 ± 1.3 cm, 1 1.4 ± 1.4 cm, and 13.9 ± 1.7 cm 
for the three Califomian populations. The oldest fossils also had small cones, some floras 
2 7 million years old with cones about the size of Guadalupe cones. 

The Guadalupe population thus is significantly different in cone size from other living 
populations. Also, Linhart (1978:36) called it the only population with a high frequency 
(over 30"'o) of thin-scaled [nearly symmetrical] cones. It is also noteworthy that the maxi- 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




Figures 43 and 44. Cones of Guadalupe Island pine (Pinus radiata var. binata) from neighboring 
trees, 14 December 1957. Figure 43. Cones of the reflexed asymmetrical radiala form (M643I). 
Figure 44. Cones of the spreading nearly symmetrical remorata form (M6432). 



65 



Rf-IDMORAN 

mum [basal] trunk diameter of 2.71 m noted by Howell is greater than the 1.83 m d.b.h. 
recorded for the largest mainland tree measured (Libby et al. 1968). The largest tree I 
measured (M6432), just south of the rock shelters at the old lookout (Fig. 42), had a trunk 
diameter at breast height of 2.1 m, a branch spread of 32 m, and a height of ± 30 m, as 
estimated from a photograph showing the full branch spread. The top has since broken 
out of this tree. 

On the basis of allozymes, Millar et al. (1988) agreed that the five living populations of 
P. radiata are well differentiated. They found the Guadalupe and especially the Cedros 
populations highly variable. All together then, the Guadalupe population is amply distinct 
from other native populations and seems best kept as a geographical variety or subspecies. 

Piniis iiiclitUa is probably the most widely planted tree species in the world, frequent in 
both landscape and forest plantings in most countries of Meditenanean climate (Libby et 
al. 1968). Under the name of radiata pine, it is especially impoilant in the forest economies 
of New Zealand, Chile, and Australia; and worldwide it makes up an increasing share, 
now about three percent, of the international trade in wood and wood products (Libby 
1995). It is becoming a domesticated plant and one of the best known plants genetically, 
and genetic improvement requires bringing in genes of all native populations, including 
the Guadalupe trees (Libby 1990). Many cones were therefore collected on Guadalupe in 
1958, 1964, and 1978, and seedlings are now growing in California, Australia, New Zea- 
land, and elsewhere. Forest geneticists consider that Guadalupe trees are valuable for good 
growth fomi and high wood density and may be more resistant to winter cold and to 
relatively hot and dry climates. And they are less susceptible than California trees to some 
diseases, such as Western gall nist {Endocronariium harknessii) (Old ct al. 1985), that 
are serious threats to radiata pine throughout the world, and so can help in breeding for 
resistance. 



DICOTS 

Aizoaccae 
*Meseinbiyaiillieinum ciystalliiiuni L., Sp. PI. p. 480. 1753. 
Gaxoul cnsuil/imim (L.) Rothiii., Notizbl, Bot. tiart. BltIiii l.^;4i.^, l')4l. 

Range. — Native to Africa; a widespread weed along the coast of western North America 
and elsewhere. 

Greene (1885:223) found this weed on the beach at the landing [Northeast Anchorage], 
and Dudley (1899:282) reported it from the south anchorage. It is now one of the com- 
monest plants in the southern part of the island and on the islets (Fig. 74) and, though 
much less common in the northern part, occasional even at the spring and the pine grove. 

*MesembryantlteniuiH nodijloruni L.. Sp. PI. p. 4S(). 1753. 

Gasoiil noiUlloniin (L.) Rothm., Notizbl. Bot. Gait. Berlin 15:41.^, 1^41. 

Range. — Native to Africa; a common weed along the coast of southern California and 
northern Baja California. 

Howell (1942:148) was first to find this weed on the island, at the south end. It is now 

66 



GUADALUPH ISLAND FLORA 

rather common in the southern part of the island, including Islotc Negro, and occasional 
farther north, even to the spring. 

Anacardiaceae 

Malosma laurina Nutt. ex Abrams, Fl. Los Angeles, ed. 2, p. 220. 1917. 

Rhus lawiiui Nutt. in Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:210. 1838. 

Range. — Southern California to southern Baja California; Santa Catalina. San Clemente, 
Todos Santos, and Cedros Islands. 

Palmer saw only four shrubs, in the crevices of high rocks (Watson 1876:114). Franceschi 
(1893c:135) saw what he took to be the same four, growing not far apart on the basaltic 
cliff east of the cabins; and Dudley (1899:282) mentioned the same. Franceschi also saw 
another, too high up to be surely identified, on the right bank of the canyon near the 
landing. Barkley (1937:417) cited Franceschi's specimen and also those of Drent and of 
Brown. On early trips I saw four shrubs on the vertical cliffs of the Lower Circus at 
900 m, large and old and undoubtedly those seen by earlier botanists; but by 1981 only 
three remained (Fig. 29). A fourth one, doubtless that mentioned by Franceschi, grows 
at 300 m on the southeast slope of Barracks Canyon near the mouth: 1 checked it with 
field glasses from 50 m, which is about as close as anyone but a goat would care to go. 

Rhus integrifoUa (Nutt. in Ton'. & A. Gray) W. H. Brewer & S. Watson. Bot. Calif 
1:110. 1876. 

Range. — Southern California and NW Baja California; San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa 
Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, Los Coronados, Todos Santos, and Cedros 
Islands. 

Moran (1951:157) reported this shrub from the inner slope and floor of the crater on 
Outer Islet, where it is fairly common with Lyciiim californiciim and Cistanthe guadalu- 
pensis (Fig. 48). No one has ever found it on the main island. 

Boraginaceae 

Amsinckia meitziesii (Lehm.) A. Nelson & J. F. Macbr., Bot. Gaz. 61:36. 1916. 

Amsiuckia iiUennedia. A. spcclahilis. and A. vcniicosa of Guadalupe Island reTcrences. 

Range. — British Columbia to Idaho, Utah, and NW Baja California; South America; 
Santa Cniz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina, and Cedros Islands. 

Palmer found this plant very abundant on level ground at the "south end" (Watson 
1876:118). It is widespread from low elevations in the northeast part of the island, as at 
Northeast Anchorage and in Esparsa Canyon, to the flanks of El Picacho at 600 m and 
the mouth of Arroyo Melpomene, but usually just a few scattered plants. Flowers are 
February to May. 

Dr. Peter Ray wrote me in 1958 that at GH he was able to find only one sheet of Palmer's 
original collection (No. 69), with only one small immature specimen, lacking nutlets. (If 
the plant was abundant as reported by Palmer, it seems strange that this should be the 
only specimen.) He found it labeled in Gray's hand as A. venncosa Hook. & Am.; but 

67 



REID MORAN 

since Gray did not cite this specimen in his later work. Dr. Ray suggested that this 
identitlcation may have been hasty or without conviction. He refened the specimen to A. 
menzu'sii in accordance with the treatment of Ray and Chisaki (1937). 

Cryptaniha foliosa (Greene) Greene, Pittonia 1:113. 1887. 

Kniiiizkia loliosa Greene. Bull. Calif. Acad, Sci. 1:205. 1885. 
Eriiric Ilium miiriciilaliim of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

This is a stiftly erect, divaricately branched annual 0.5^ dm high, with leaves 1-6 cm 
long, and with 4 homomorphous nutlets. 

Palmer found this plant in wami clear places in the canyons of the "middle" of the island 
(Watson 1876:118). It is widespread on the island, from the pine ridge and north slope 
to Outer Islet, often seen on grassy slopes, one of the commonest nati\ e annuals and in 
good years so abundant as to color the slopes bluish white. It flowers .lanuaiy to .lune. 

.Johnston ( 1925:63) wrote that this species was readily recognized by its peculiar habit of 
branching, congested spikes, coarsely anned calyx-lobes, and small nutlets. Besides the 
type collection of Greene ("isotypes" GH, UC), he cited specimens of Anthony, Brandegee, 
Palmer, and Townsend. 

Ciyptaiitha maritima (Greene) Greene var. maritima 

Kiynitzkui mantima Greene, Bull Calif Acad. Sci. 1:204. 1885. 
Ciyplanllia iminiiiiia (Greene) Greene, Pittonia 1:117. 1887. 

Ciyptaiitha inantuna (Greene) Greene var. gciniiiia I. M. Johnst., Contr. Gray Herb. 74:48. 1925. 
Erilricliiiiin angiistifo/iuiii. E. ramosissiimim. and Kniiitzkui raniosissinia of (iuadalupe Island ref- 
erences. 

Range. — Southem California to Arizona and southern Baja California; San Nicolas, 
Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, Los Coronados, San Bcnilo, and Natividad 
Islands. 

Palmer found this plant on level spots at the "south end" and also near the beach on the 
eastern side (Watson 1876:118). It is widespread at low elevations, from Northeast An- 
chorage to the south end and on Islote Negro, on alluvial fans, in arroyos, and on grassy 
slopes, sometimes common. 

Greene's type is from Guadalupe Island ("isotypes" GH, UC). Johnston (1925:48) also 
cited Guadalupe collectons by Anthony, Brandegee, and Palmer. 

Harpagonella pahiieri A. Gray, Proc. Amer. .'^cad. Arts Sci. 11:88. 1876. 

Range. — Southern California to Arizona and central Baja California; Santa Catalina 
Island. 

Palmer found this plant only at the "south end," in low valleys (Watson 1876:118). Howell 
(1942:152) reported it as only in the middle part of the island, where tairly common. I 
also have seen it only near the middle of the island: on the east to northeast slopes of El 
Picacho and in the Comal area south of the cypress grove, at 275 to 900 m. rather scarce 
but locally common. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Gray (1876b) described the species and the monotypic genus Harpagonella from Palmer's 
Guadalupe Island collection (No. 70. GH). Further, the very distinctive bur of this plant 
inspired Gray (1876a) to write about kinds of burs in the family. All authors have rec- 
ognized this genus, and Johnston (1924) in his key kept it under a separate tribal name 
Harpagonelleae. 

^Pectocatya linearis (DC.) Ruiz. & Pav. ssp. ferocula (I. M. Johnst.) Thome, Aliso 
9:191. 1978. 

Pectocaiya linearis (DC.) Ruiz & Pav. var. ferocula \. M. Johnst.. Contr. Arnold Arb. -^:95. 1932. 

Range. — Central California to central Baja California; Santa Rosa. Santa Cniz, Anacapa. 
San Nicolas, Santa Catalina. San Clemente. and Cedros Islands; also Argentina. 

This plant was first found on the island in 1957. In 1958 Dr. I. M. Johnston verified three 
of my collections: M5960 and 6633 from the bed of Esparsa Canyon, and M6650, from 
the valley below the Lower Circus at 850 m. It is now widespread, from Northeast An- 
chorage to the pine ridge to El Picacho and Arroyo Melpomene. In good years it is 
common in such places as about the principal spring and in the valley below the Lower 
Circus. It could scarcely have been so common in earlier years without having been found 
before. Possibly it was rare before and has spread with the drastic changes in the vegetation 
of the last century. However. I list it with those west American plants possibly introduced 
on Guadalupe Island (Table 2). 

Pectocar}'a recurvata I. M. Johnst., Contr. Arnold Arb. 3:97. 1932. 

Pevlocaiya penicillata of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — SE California and Nevada to Sonora and northern Baja California. 

Palmer collected this plant with HarpagoneUa palmeri. which he found only at the "south" 
end, in low valleys (Watson 1876:1 18). In 1958 Dr. I. M. Johnston wrote me that Palmer's 
specimen and Auiltouy 237, the only collections of Peciocaiya he had seen from Guadalupe 
Island, were both P. recunxita. He also verified my collection (M6594) from the bottom 
of Esparsa Canyon, where it was fairly common in 1958. I had also found a single plant 
on the northeast slope of El Picacho at 550 m (M6467). I have not since found it on the 
island and wonder whether this is just an accident or whether P. recim-ata has declined 
at the same time that P. linearis ferocula seems to have been increasing. 

^Plagiobothrys acanthocarpiis (Piper) I. M. Johnst., Contr. Arnold Arb. 3:33. 1932. 

Allocaiya acanthocarpa Piper, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 22:S7. 1920. 

Range. — Central California to NW Baja California; Santa Cmz Island. 

Apparently this plant was collected on Guadalupe Island only in 1958: shallow valley 
below Lower Circus [?] {Wiggins & Ernst 107); uncommon on dry ground on a gentle 
slope northeast of principal spring at 975 m (M6659). (My recollection was that Wiggins 
and Ernst collected the plant the saine place I did.) This seeins an improbable place for 
a plant usually found in vernal pools. Remarkably, Palmer, Greene, and Franceschi not 
only had visited the area but actually had camped there without finding it — though then 
there were even shallow pools in the area, which would seem more hospitable to it! 
However, this is a plant that in some places appears only sporadically, apparently de- 

69 



REID MORAN 

pending on rainfall. I list it (Table 2) with those west American plants possibly introduced 
on the island. 

(^Plagiobothij's collinus (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. var. ailijoniiciis (A. Gray) L. C. Higgins, 
Great Basin Naturalist 34:163. 1974. 

PIcigiiihoihrrs calilonncus (A. Gray) Greene, Bull. Galif, Acad. Sci. 2:407. 18S7. 

Range. — Central California to NW Baja California. 

Howell (1942:152) found this plant only near the barracks. It grows now also in the 
shallow valley below the Lower Circus and on the plateau near the spring, in some years 
very scarce but sometimes common. In the wet year of 1978 I also found some with 
smaller flowers as in var. gracilis (I. M. Johnst.) L. C. Higgins, the dried corollas 1.5—6 
mm wide, varying from plant to plant. The few mature nutlets seen are small, + 1.25 mm 
long. 

Like P. accinihociirpiis, this plant now grows where early collectors would probably have 
found it had it been there then, though the vegetation was then very different. The question 
again is whether it could have spread from some other part of the island. However, 1 list 
it (Table 2) with those west American plants probably recently introduced. 

Cactaccae 

Note. — For Pachvccreiis pringlei see E.xcluded Species, p. 168. 

Manimillana blossfeldiana Boed. \ar shuiiiana (H. E. Gates) Wiggins m Shre\e & Wig- 
gins, Veg. Fl. Sonoran Des. p. 1030. 1964. 

MainiUaiid or NcomanimilUiria goodridgii or gaoiliiilgei of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — West central Baja California; Guadalupe Island. 

Greene (1885:223) found a single specimen, of fair size and in flower, toward the south 
end of the island. On his second trip Palmer found it common at the south end (Vasey 
and Rose 1890:24). It is widespread over the mesa at the south end and is on Islote Negro 
(Plate I A) and Outer Islet but is rather scarce in the northern part of the island: cliff on 
noilh rim of Barracks Canyon at the mouth, 450 m (M6I22). 

Lindsay compared living plants from the island with some from the type locality of A/. 
hlossfeldiuna var. shuiiiana and concluded that they were essentially similar (Lindsay 
and Dawson 1952). He did note, however, that the island plant had pitted rather than 
smooth seeds, which sounds like an imptnlant difference. 

Opuntia prolifcra Engelm., Amer. .lour. Sci. Ser. 2. 14:338. 1852. 

Range. — Southern California to NW Baja California and Isia Cedros; offshore islands 
except San Miguel and Todos Santos. 

Greene (1885:223) found this cholla rather common on precipitous rocky places near the 
sea on both sides of the island, but especially plentiful near the landing. It occurs from 
the northeast part of the island and West Anchorage to the south end. generally at low 
elevations but on sunny slopes above Northeast Anchorage to 600 m. 



70 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 
Campanulaccac 

Githopsis diffusa A. Gray var. guadaliipensis Morin, Syst. Bot. 8:465. 1983. 

Cilhopsis specularionies of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer found this plant abundant at the "middle" and north end of the island, under sage 
bnish and dead branches (Watson 1876:1 16); he said the flowers were white, turning to 
blue after gathering. Greene (1883:225) listed it without comment. It is now very rare 
among rocks under pines and oaks on the northeast ridge: in 1955 two plants were found 
in frtut (Kuijt & Miller 1006) and in 1958 two in flower {M6613, Wiggins & Ernst 43). 

Morin (1983) placed the Guadalupe Island variety in G. diffusa ssp. Candida (Ewan) 
Morin, whose var. Candida grows in the mountains of San Diego County, California. She 
described it as shorter than var. Candida, usually 4-10 cm tall, with smaller upper leaves, 
the intemodes veiy short and so the plant densely leafy, the hypanthium shorter and 
+ 2-3 times rather than ± 5 times as long as wide. 

Triodatiis biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Greene, Man. Bay Reg. p. 230. 1894. 

Spccidaria biflom (Ruiz & Pav.) Fisch, & C, A. Mey., hid. Scm. Hon. Petrop. 1:17. 1835. 

Range. — Oregon to Mexico and South America; Santa Rosa, Santa Caiz, and Santa 
Catalina Islands. 

Palmer found this plant rare, in the shade of rocks and sagebrtish on hillsides in the 
"middle" of the island (Watson 1876:1 16). It is still uncommon, among rocks under pines 
and oaks on the upper northwest slope and also near the barracks and on the grassy slopes 
above. 

Caryophyllaceae 

Note. — For Polycarpon deprcssum see Excluded Species, p. 169. 

*Cerastiiim glonwratiim Thuill., Fl. Paris, ed. 2, p. 226. 1799. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a widespread weed in North America. 

This weed was first found on the island in 1958, on the pine ridge {ll'iggins & Ernst 35). 
It is now widespread there and on the northwest slope of the island, sometimes lush and 
abundant under the trees, and is fairly common to the spring and the slope above the 
barracks at Northeast Anchorage. 

*Herniaria cinerea DC, Fl. Franc. Suppl. p. 375. 1815. 

Range. — Native to southern Europe; a rather uncommon and sporadic weed in western 
Noilh America. 

This weed was first found on the island in 1958: on four trips in 1957 I had not happened 
to see it. In April 1958 we found it at a half dozen places scattered from the principal 
spring to the mouth of Arroyo Melpomene, mostly just one or a few plants at each place. 
Only on the slopes of El Picacho was it inore common, and that has remained its main 
stronghold on the island. In 1970 it was common on the northeast side from 500 m to 

71 



REID MORAN 





i; I 







Pi All 1 
A \hintmilUiiui hlnsstchlianu var sluirlianu {Mfi'dS.I) on Islcilc Negro. 2K April 1^)5S, 
B. I loUL-niiL' hraiich of the endemic Hcmiz.mia Inilcsccns {\!:wil-) on elitf al the north end at 
NOd 111. 21 August U'NI 

C Howenng branch ol the endemic Hcimznnia :^rccncaiui ssp i^nrncuihi {.\lriN3) on the south 
end mesa at 100 m, 2S October 1957. 

D. >'oung plant of the endemic Hemizoma palincn on the south end mesa at inO m. 27 April l^SS. 

E. Flowers of the endemic Dudlcya guodahipfnsis on plant from Mote Negro, grown in San Diego. 
(1 ,kinc 1957 

I-, The endemic Lupiuus iiiwiis in an'oyo on south end mesa. 29 .April I9>N 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




^^ 'T^^ 


MB^H 




^^i^R 


i''!'-- ^'^si 


l^t^ 


^IA(M 


^:^# 



K I 




Plate 2 
G. Flowers of the insular endemic Lavalera occicienlulis (left) and the Guadalupe endemic L. Iiinlsavi, 
on Outer Islet, 11 February 1957. 

H. The rare endemic Camissonici guadahipensis ssp. guadahipensis in the bed of Arroyo Melpomene 
at 450 m (Momn & Ernst 6737129 April 1958. 

I. Young plant of the endemic Eschscholzia palmeri on Islote Negro. 19 April 1957. 
J. Flower of the endemic Ctslanthe guadalupfiisis on plant from Islote Negro grown in La Jolla. 
30 March 1957. 

K. The rare insular endemic Mmiulus laiijoliiis (Storaii & Ernst 6'3S) m the dry sandy bed of Arroyo 
Melpomene at 450 m, 29 April 1958. 

L. The endemic Triteleia guadahipensis: a plant of the type collection {M! 21163). from the east base 
of El Picacho, flowering in San Diego 28 .'Xpril 1973. 



73 



REID MORAN 

the summit and on the soutli side. Othei-wisc. it still seems to be scattered. 

fSHene aiitirrhina L., Sp. PI. p 416 1753. 

Range. — British Columbia to NW Baja C'alitbmia and the eastern United States; San 
Miguel. Santa Rosa. Santa Cruz. Santa Catalina. San Clemente. and Todos Santos islands. 

Palmer found this plant only in a canyon on the east side, near the beach (Watson 1876:113). 
No one has found it since, and very likely it is extinct on the island. In other places, 
however, it appears very irregularly, in some areas commonly following fires. Steve Junak 
tells me he found it in 1995 on San Miguel Island, where it was seen before only by 
E. L. Greene in 1XS6. 

*Sileiie iiallkii L.. Sp PI. p. 416. 1753. 

R.ANGF. - Nati\e to Europe: a widespread weed in Noilh America. 

Palmer found this weed occuiring sparingly in the ■"middle" of the island, in level open 
spots (Watson 1X76:1 13). It is now widespread and often common on the northwest slope 
and in the northeast part of the island and less common to the south end. 

S/n'ri;iilaii(i iiiucnit/ieca (Homem) Heynh.. Nom. 2:6S9. 1846. 

Lepigomim nuicnilliL-cum (Homem.) Fisch. & C. A. Mey.. Ind. Scm. Hort. Pelrop. 3:14. 1837. 

Tissa macrntheca (Homem.) Britton. Bull. Toitcv Bot. Club 16:129. 1XS9. 

Tis\a laliiuim (irccne, f'rythea 1:106. 1X93. 

Spcri^iiliina iiiucnithccn (Homem.) Fisch. & C. A. Mey. var. uiliiiiim (Greene) .Icps.. Fl. Calif 

F49.V hM4 
TisMi pallidii of Ciuadalupc Island ret'ercnccs, 

R.ANUI-. — Washington to NW Baja California; islands of southern California and Los 
Coronados. 

On his second trip Palmer found this plant common on exposed sides of hills, in arroyos, 
and on sides of canyons at the south end ( Vasey and Rose 1890:23). Franceschi ( 1893c: 134) 
saw it only on a peipendicular cliff on the right bank of the canyon not far from the 
landing, growing there in numbers. In the northern part of the island it survives only on 
cliffs, though sometimes locally common: northwest cliff at 600 m (M172H())\ BaiTacks 
Canyon at 480 m (M7S32)\ Esparsa Canyon at 300 m {M6126). At the south end it grows 
not only on seacliffs and on Islote Negro and Outer Islet but also commonly on flat areas 
on the mesa. At the southwest comer of the island it extends far out onto barren la\a 
often expo.sed to salt spray (Fig. 45). 

Greene (1X')3) based Tissa nilniiiiii on the collections of Palmer and Franceschi from 
Guadalupe Island (type: Palmer .S64ii. ND, UC, US). Fie said it was most unlike all others 
in its almost obsolete intemodes and consequent dense leafiness; and he described the 
seeds as minute and wingless. To Spcriiiilaria macrotheca var. talimmu Jepson (1915:493) 
also referred specimens from San Clemente Island. 

Rossbach (1940:70-76) discussed in detail the great variation in 5. macrothcca, seen even 
in plants growing side by side. She wrote that at first there seemed some reason to keep 
Tissa taliiuim of Guadalupe Island as an entity because of its extremely short-intemoded 
habit and crowded, spreading, fleshy leaves, with a leafless strict inflorescence standing 
defimtelv above the foliaue (Fic. 46; also see Moran 1959, fig. 20). As she then pointed 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




Figures 45 and 46. Two tbmis of the polymoriihic Speriiiilaiia macroiheca. FIGURE 45. A 
prostrate form {MU75K), on barren lava near the upper hmit of salt spray at the southwest comer 
of the island, 30 April 1967. Figure 46. A form with crowded succulent leaves and with flowers 
raised above the leaves (M5659), in the crater of Outer Islet, 1 1 February 1957. E. L. Greene named 
this form as the endemic Tissa talimim. 



75 



RHID MORAN 

out, however, not all Guadalupe specimens have this habit: she mentioned variation in 
inflorescence and in size, shape, and pubescence of leaves. Later collections show more 
variation. In plants of shaded cliffs the stems are pendent and to 7 dm long — longer than 
she described for the species as a whole. Intemodes are to 13 mm long. Leaves are 1—8 
cm long, whereas she described them for the species as to 5 cm long. She described the 
petals for the species as rosy to light pink and perhaps occasionally white but noted that 
she had never seen any absolutely white in the Held; but in five of my Guadalupe col- 
lections the color is noted as white and in only one noted as tinged lavender. Rossbach 
then wrote that the seeds of Guadalupe plants measured 0.5—0.7 mm long, whereas those 
of 5'. inacrotheca are usually 0.7-0.9 mm long but may be only 0.6 mm; in plants of San 
Clemente Island she found the seeds 0.6-0.9 mm long. She concluded that although some 
Guadalupe plants have no match in habit elsewhere, Tissa taliintm is not consistently 
distinct in any character, and she gave it no taxonomic recognition. 

For the plants of San Clemente Island, Raven (1963:321) found that those collected late 
in the season tend more to approach the fonn of T. talimim. He suggested that the complex 
needed more study, especially in the experimental garden, since the plants vaiy so widely 
in their ecology in nature and probably also show seasonal variation. My seed measure- 
ments of more recent Guadalupe collections agree with Rossbach's. 

i^Speigularia marina (L.) Griscb., Spied. Ff Rumcl. 1:213, 1843. 

Ranch. — British Columbia to NW Baja California and east coast; Santa Rosa, Santa 
Cruz, Anacapa. San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands; 
also Eurasia. 

Howell ( 1942:149) was first to report this plant, finding it only on the trail to the cypress 
grove. It has since been found only in the northeast pan of the island, as at Northeast 
Anchorage, near the principal spnng, and in the valley below the Lower Circus, sometimes 
locally common. Because earlier collectors did not find it, the question is whether it could 
have spread from some other part of the island with the drastic changes at the end of the 
last centuiT. Raven (1963:298) noted it as possibly introduced on Guadalupe, and I list 
it witli those west American plants probably introduced (Table 2). 

Slellaria niteiis Nutt. ui Toit. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:185. 1838. 

RANGt. — British Columbia to Utah and NW Baja California; Santa Rosa, Santa Cniz, 
and Santa Catalina Islands. 

Palmer found this plant among rocks on hillsides ui the "middle" and at the north end 
of the island (Watson 1876:113). Greene found it only under oak trees at the north end. 
It is now rather scarce, but in small colonies, in open areas from the northwest slope to 
the cypress grove, at 600-1 150 m. 

Chcnopodiaceac 

Aphuiusmu hlitoides Nutt. ex Moq. in A. DC. Prod. 13~:54. 1849. 

Range. — Coastal southern California to west central Baja California and offlying islands, 
except San Miguel. 

First to find this plant on Guadalupe Island was Brandegce (1900:22), without specific 



76 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

locality. It is fairly common on rocky slopes near the shore in the southern part of the 
island, from Juniper Canyon and West Anchorage to the south end, and on Islote Negro 
and Outer Islet. It seems remarkable that Palmer did not find it at the south end in 1889, 
and 1 wonder if it could possibly be a late arrival. 

Atriplex baiclayana (Benth.) A. Dietr., Syn. PI. 5:537. 1852. 

Atriplex palmeri S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 1 1:146. 1876. 

Atriplex dilatata Greene, Pittonia 1:264. 1889. 

Atriplex rosei Standi.. N. Amer. Fl. 2L60. 1916. 

Atriplex harcluvaiia (Benth.) A. Dietr. ssp. palmeri (S. Watson) H. M. Hall & Clem.. Camegie Inst. 

Wash. Pubf 326:315. 1923. 
Atriplex harclarana (Benth.) A, Dietr. ssp. dilatata (Greene) H. M. Hall & Clem.. Camegie Inst. 

Wash. Pubf 326:315. 1923. 

Range. — Baja California, Sonora, and Smaloa. 

Palmer found this plant only at the "south end" of the island (No. 83; Watson 1876:119). 
He called it one of the three characteristic perennials of the island, much more frequent 
than Artemisia californica but scarcely half so abundant as Fixmseria [= Ambrosia] caiti- 
phorata. It is still very common in the southern half of the island below 600 m (Fig. 32), 
which is about the level at which the goats totally destroy it. It is also on Islote Negro 
and Outer Islet (Fig. 35). At the south end in August 1970 I noted this and Hetnizonia 
greeneana as the only plants looking inuch alive at that season. 

Watson based A. palmeri on Palmer S3 of 1875 (GH). Greene based A. dilatata on speci- 
mens from the San Benito Islands. Standley based A. rosei on part of Rose 161) J J 
(US638110), from Guadalupe Island, March 2. 1911. 

In their careful revision of Atriplex, Hall and Clements (1923:313) stated: "Eight species 
have been described from what is here included under .4. barelayana .... After assembling 
all of the available material, it seeins doubtful if any of these, with the possible exception 
of ,4. lurida, can be advantageously retained even as subspecies. Much individual variation 
is apparent and single plants veiy frequently have fmiting bracts of two or more of the 
'species'. However, the differences between the extremes are so striking that it seems 
desirable to give some kind of taxonomic recognition to the more frequently recurring 
fotms." Accordingly, they recognized six subspecies, mostly with considerably overlap- 
ping ranges. Plants from the southern part of Guadalupe Island they refen-ed to two sub- 
species: ssp. ililatata (including A. rosei) and ssp. palmeri. Howell ( 1942:148) noted some 
variation in habit and vesture, and considerable variation in size and shape of truiting 
bracts, but regarded all five of his collections as belonging to a single variable entity. I 
agree. Whatever the ultimate best treatment of this species, it does not seem feasible to 
recognize two subspecies occuiring together on Guadalupe Island. 

(^Atriplex californica Moq. in A. DC, Prod. 13^:98. 1849. 

RANGt. — Central California to NW Baja California and Isla Cedros; islands of southern 
California. 

Howell (1942:48) found this plant on an ocean bluff near Northeast Anchorage. Moran 
(1951:54) found it on the north outer slope of Outer Islet, where also it has been seen 
later. These are the only known localities on the island. Because earlier collectors did not 
find it at the principal landing, the question is whether it was a relatively recent arrival; 
and 1 list it as possibly so (Table 2). 

77 



REID MORAN 

Note. — *Chenopodhim amhwsioides L., "Epazote", grown in a pot at Campo Sur in 
1971 {M29799), seemed a potential weed, as on Isia Socoiro. 

*Clieii()pi>(liiiin miinile L.. Sp PI. p. 219. 1753. 

Clicnii/'otliiiDi alhuni of Ciuadalupc Island references',' 

Range. — Nati\ e to Europe, a common \\ eed in North America. 

Greene (1885:227) found a few plants of this weed near the landing and said it was 
evidently a newcomer. It is now widespread on the island, from the pine ridge and north- 
west slope to West Anchorage and Islote Negro, in the northern part of the island sometimes 
locally common. 

Palmer found one plant near the sea on the east side which Watson ( 1876:227) reported 
as C. album L., but according to Wallace (1985:101) the NY specimen is C. imirule. 
Greene (1885:227). while listing C. miirale as a new arrival, also listed C. alhuni without 
comment; and his specimen, if any, has yet to be checked. Eastwood (1929:403) cited a 
collection of Hanna and Sle\ in as C. album, but I have not found this at CAS. If C. 
album e\'cr has been on the island, it clearly has not become well established and persisted 
there. 

Siuu-da kLvifolia (Standi.) Standi.. Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 8:10. 1930. 

SuueJa calitoniica S. Watson var. puhcxccns .leps.. Fl. Calif 1:447. 1014, 
SuLiL'da calitiiniica. S /riihcDsu. and S lonvvaiui of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Southern California and Baja California; islands of southern California and 
also Los Coronados and San Martin. 

Palmer saw suaeda on his second tnp: Vasey and Rose (1890:22) mentioned it among 
plants that "have very recently gained a foothold here," although they did not include it 
in the list of plants collected. It is fairly common at West Anchorage on the flat behind 
the beach at 10 in and at Campo Sur on the talus at the base of the cliffs and out onto 
the baiTcn la\a flat to the west. 



Compositae 

^(iiAgo.si'ris hcreropliylla (Nutt.) Greene, Pittonia 2:178. 1891. 

Tioxumm luicmphvlhiin (Null.) Greene. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 10:SS. 1^;S3. 

Range. — British Columbia and Idaho to NW Baja California; Santa Rosa Island. 

Greene (1885:225) found fine large specimens in grassy ground about tiic springs. There 
is no further record of this plant from the island, and presumably it is extinct. Greene 
wrote that this was "of the ordinary fomi only", and Quentin Jones annotated Greene's 
specimen of 20 April 1885 (DS) as A. hetcroplnila var. heteruphylla. Because Palmer 
had camped for 15 weeks at the springs and had failed to find this plant and three others 
later found there by Greene, it very likely was a new arrival not well established by 
Palmer's time. I therefore list it with the west .^mencan plants probably introduced on 
the island (Table 2). 



78 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Ambfyopappus pusilliis Hook. & Am., Hook. Jour. Bot. 3:32 L 1841. 

R.ANGE. — Coast and offlying islands of south central California to central Baja California; 
also Peru and Chile. 

Palmer found this plant in low ground at the "southern end" (Watson I876;116). It is 
often abundant on flats and hillsides at low elevations in the southern part of the island, 
including Islote Negro, less common northward, and rare at high elevations in the north. 

Ambrosia caniphorata (Greene) W. W. Payne, Jour. Arnold Arb. 45:414. 1964. 

Franseha campliDiata Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci. 1:192. 1885. 
Franseria hipiiviatifuia of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Baja California, including Cedros Island, western Sonora, and southern San 
Luis Potosi. 

Palmer found this one of the most conspicuous plants at the "south end", especially about 
Jacks Bay [West Anchorage], growing in thick roundish clumps about a foot and a half 
high on level spots and among rocks, giving the country a greenish white appearance. 
He added that it was not relished by goats but that asses were very fond of it. In the 
northern part of the island, even if not relished, A. camphorata is now rare and confined 
to cliffs: north rim of BaiTacks Canyon near the mouth at 370 m (M7H42): Ban-acks 
Canyon at 300 m (M7828)\ north side of Esparsa Canyon at 300 m (M6627); north side 
of South Esparsa Canyon at 280 m (M6601). In the southern half of the island it is dominant 
in many areas below 500 m. On the southeast coast it is by far the commonest perennial, 
giving a grayish color to the landscape. On the northeast flank of El Picacho it extends 
to about 500 m, and just to the north I saw a few seedlings to 600 m. In this part of the 
island in December 1957 it was little browsed by goats at sea level but showed more and 
more damage at higher elevations, the upper limit perhaps being the level of total de- 
struction. Similarly, Howell (I941b:40) told how in coming south from the cypress grove 
he tlrst found the dead remains of franseria, then a few live stumps, and still farther south 
[and lower] some shnabs a foot or two tall. However, on the uplands south of El Picacho, 
at about 500 m, some abnipt discontinuities on comparatively level places apparently arc 
due to differences in soil. From there south on the Melpomene drainage, this plant is 
abundant down to about 250 m but is rarely seen much below, except for a few at the 
mouth of Arroyo Melpomene. Near Plaza de Toros it is common on the east slope of the 
island but stops abmptly near the divide with the Melpomene drainage. It is not found 
on the islets. 

Greene based the species on his collections from Guadalupe and Cedros Islands. Payne 
(1964:415) called the Guadalupe collection the type (holotype CAS; K, NY, US). 

Artemisia califoniica Less., Linnaea 6:523. 1831. 

Range. — Central California to NW Baja California; islands of southern California and 
Los Coronados, Todos Santos, and Cedros. 

Palmer found this shnib in considerable abundance at the "south end", in rocky spots, 
giving character to the vegetation, about a foot and a half high, of rather loose habit; also 
in the "middle" of the island, in crevices of the highest cliffs (Watson 1876:1 16). He said 
it was immune to goats and [after the ambrosia and atriplex] one of the three most char- 
acteristic perennials of the island (Safford MS). Franceschi (1893c:136) found it in con- 
siderable numbers on the cliff east of the cabins [i.e. the Lower Circus] and also a mile 

79 



RHID MORAN 

or so to the north. Later collectors have not mentioned it, and it seems to be very rare 
now. confined to cliffs in the northeast part of the island, if indeed it survives at all. The 
only collection in this century was in 1957, from a single shrub at 300 m on a cliff in 
Esparsa Canyon {M612S)\ I failed to find it there the next year. In 1981 I tentatively 
identified with this species a plant seen high out of reach on a south-facing cliff at 
750 m, south of the old lookout and thus high above Northeast Anchorage. This may be 
the second place mentioned by Franceschi. 

Btieiiopsis iiiHiilalupensis J. T. Howell. Lcall W. Bot. ,V15.1 1942. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

This is a dense woody shiiiblet to 3 dm high and 9 dm wide, having bright green succulent 
leaves and solitary yellow heads 1-3 cm wide, with mostly 8 rays. For a full description 
and photographs, one in color, see Moran 1968. 

Howell (1942:153) found only a single plant of this species, with Hciuizoum paliucn and 
Spluicrulceu pulnieri. on a rocky flat at the south end of the island. Although rare in such 
places, accessible to goats, it is common on Islote Negro (Fig. 47). Middle Islet, and 
Outer Islet and in some other places protected from them. In fact, it very likely is common 
in many such places along the west and north shore, sheltered by high cliffs above. On 
rocks occasionally exposed to salt spray, as on the west side of Islote Negro, it grows 
down close to the sea where little else will grow. In April 1967 it was luxuriant for 
perhaps a half kilometer along the talus of a north-facing seacliff, and up to the edge of 
the mesa at 100 m, around the comer just north of Campo Sur (Ml 3760): but in August 
1981 plants there showed severe damage by goats. In 1988 it was thriving there at the 
top of the cliff beside the road just above Campo Sur. It also grows at 600 m on ledges 
on the foggy sheer northwest cliff of the north ridge of the island (Moran & Plulhrick 
2^?'J2). 

With his new species Howell proposed Baeriopsis, a monotypic genus that is thus endemic 
to Guadalupe Island. He wrote that its affinities were not e\ ident. but he said the characters 
of involucre, achenes, and pappus seemed to relate it to Ainblyopuppus Hook. & Ani. 
Carlquist (1959b, figs. 7. 8) studied the wood anatomy of this plant in comparison with 
various other Helcnieae. He also made a chromosome count of/; = 8 based on his collection 
46S (CAS. RSA). 

*Centaurea melitensis L. Sp. PI. p. 917. 1753. 

Rangr. — Native to the Mediterranean region; a widespread noxious weed in western 
North America and elsewhere. 

On his second trip Palmer reported this weed as introduced on the north end and gradually 
finding its way up the island (Vasey and Rose 1890:25). It is now established at a few 
places in the northeast part of the island, as at Northeast .Anchorage and near the mouth 
of Esparsa Canyon, and on the east slope of 1-1 Picacho at 450 m (Mf^"}!). 

Coreopsis iiiiiiinlea (Kellogg) H. M. Hall, finis, Calif Publ. Bot. 3:142. 1907. 

UpiDsvuc i^r^aiiica Kellogg. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4:172. 1K72, 

R.XNOI:. -- Coast and islands of southern California; Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer found only two plants of this species, in the crevices of high rocks (Watson 

80 



GUADALUPH ISLAND FLORA 

1876:115); and no one has since found it on the main island. Moran (1951:159) repoiled 
it from the sheer cliffs of Inner Islet and common on the floor and inner slope of the 
crater on Outer Islet (Fig. 48). In 1982 Robert L. Brownell. Jr.. of the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, sent me photographs (SD 110590) of the cliffs about half a mile north 
of Pillar Point, on the southeast coast, showing plants which he thought might be 
C. gigantea. I could not be sure from the photographs, but the colors of foliage and 
flowers strongly suggest Peritylc iiicana. 

^Eriophvllum lanatitm (Pursh) James Forbes var. gnindifloriuii (A. Gray) Jeps., Fl. 
W. Mid! Calif p. 524. 1901. 

Bahia lanata var., and e\idently Eriophyllum cuespitnsiim, of Guadalupe Island 
references. 

Range. — SW Oregon and north central California as far south as Mariposa County; 
Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer found a single plant that had escaped the goats, on a rocky open spot in the 
"middle" of the island (Watson 1876:1 16). Constance (1937:91) described Palmer's speci- 
men and compared it with other collections, saying it was fairly well matched by such 
specimens as H. M. Hall 10147 (DS, UC), from Rocklin, Placer Co. He found nothing 
sufficient to separate it from var. grandijlomm. However, Palmer described the flowers 
as light orange, whereas the rays of this species are always described as yellow. 

Franceschi ( 1 893c: 135) reported Eriophyllum. a woody perennial on a rock near the cabins. 
Probably this is the same, but Dr. Constance was unable to fuid Franceschi's specimen 
at UC, where presumably it should be. 

No one has since found this plant, and it probably is extinct on the island. 

Filago arizonica A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 8:652. 1873. 

Range. — Southern California to Arizona, central Baja California, and northern Sonora; 
Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Cedros Islands. 

Palmer found this plant on level ground at the "south end" (Watson 1876:115). Howell 
(1942:154) found it on the slope of the pine ridge as well as farther south. Mostly it 
grows in the southern part of the island, sometimes locally common, but generally little 
collected. Dr. James Morefield verified two of my collections in 1992. 

^Filago californica Nutt, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. Ser. 2, 7:405. 1841. 

Range. — Northern California to Utah, Texas, Sonora, and central Baja California; islands 
of southern Callifomia except San Nicolas; also Todos Santos and Cedros. 

Greene (1885:224) found a fme growth of this plant about the springs, and Franceschi 
(1893c: 135) called it very plentiful. It is widespread on the island, from the pine ridge 
to Arroyo Melpomene, and is more common than the other species. Dr. James Morefield 
verified nine of my collections in 1992. 

Because Palmer had camped at the springs for 15 weeks without finding this plant, as 
well as three others that Greene found there ten years later, and because it is now wide- 
spread and common and impossible to overlook, very likely it was a late arrival and not 
well established by Palmer's time. 1 therefore list it with the west American plants probably 



REID MORAN 




Figure 47. A ^u■a;u::l-^lzcLl plan; o: B.icnopsiy gudJahipciisis (Ml~-^:-)) on Isloic Nclz:,.. Mi.'wing 
the succulent lea\cs and the yellow flower heads: 18 Apiil 1970. This is a monotypic genus endemic 
to Guadalupe Island. 

FiGLRE 48. Flowering plants of Coreopsis gigantea in the crater of Outer Islet, with Rhus ime- 
grifoUa (nght). Lyvium califonucum. Atriplex harclayana: 1 1 February 195". Beyond the low crater 
nm are Middle Rock and Inner Islet, and bevond them the south end of the mam island. 



82 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

introduced on the isLind (Table 2). 

Gnaphalium bicolor Bioletti, Ei-ylliea l:l(i. 1893. 

Range. — Central California to southern Baja California; islands of southern Califonua 
and Todos Santos, San Mailm, and Cedros. 

I first found this plant on the island in 1958. It seems to be local below 400 m on the 
east side of the island, in Esparsa Canyon (e.g. M13793. M]<S153) and in Long Canyon 
(Ml 2077). It is rather infrequent in a part of the island where no early botanist but Bran- 
degee is known to have collected. Possibly it is a recent auival, but the evidence is not 
convincing. 

Gnaphalium straininciiiii Kunth, No\. Gen. Sp. 4:85. 1820. 

Ciuiphalium chilense Sprengel, Syst. 3:480. 1826. 

Giiuphaliuin sprengelii Hook. & Am., Bot. Beechey Voy. p. 150. 1833. 

Range. — Washington to Montana, Texas, and northern Baja California and Isla Cedros; 
islands of southeni California except Santa Barbara and San Clemente. 

Palmer collected this with Micro.schs in the "middle" of the island (Watson 1876:116), 
Greene (1885:224) found only one, and Palmer on his second trip found three plants in 
an arroyo bed at the south end (Vasey and Rose 1890:24). I have seen only a few plants 
in the bed of AiToyo Melpomene near the mouth, in 1958 (A/67/5) and again in 1970 
(Ml 7 350). 

Haplopapptis caiius (A. Gray) S. F. Blake, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 24:86. 1922. 

Diplostephiiim canum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 1 1:75. 1876. 
Corethrogx'iie cana (A. Gray) Greene, Bull. Calif Acad. Sci. 1:223. 1885. 
Hazardia cciiia (A. Gray) Greene, PIttonia 1:2Q. 1887. 

Range. — Endemic to San Clemente and Guadalupe Islands. 

Palmer found this shiiib in the crevices of high cliffs (Watson 1876:1 15). Greene (1887:29) 
could find but a single specimen, in a niche some 20 feet above the base of a peipendicular 
cliff near the summit of the island. He supposed this shrub the only survivor, and it 
seemed in the decline of old age. Franceschi ( 1893c:I35) also saw only one, perhaps the 
same one, on the cliff of the Lower Circus near the conal. 

Despite Greene's gloomy words, however, 1 have seen a score of survivors in the last 40 
years, on several cliffs in the northern part of the island: one in 1957 on the north rim 
of Barracks Canyon near the mouth at 450 m (M6120); nine in 1970 on the south side 
of Esparsa Canyon at 250 m (Ml SI 51); one in 1970 on the pine pinnacle at the north 
end, at 550 m; one in 1971 near the middle of the north end, at 675 m; four in 1981 in 
Oak Canyon and on the Lower Circus at 850 m (M29804); five in 1981 on a western 
cliff northwest of the cypress grove at 1075 m. However, I have not seen seedlings, and 
the small total number still suggests endangemicnt. 

Palmer found the plant in tlower March 28, but I found the best flowers in August 
(M29S(I4) and poorer remnants in April, May, and October. 

Gray (1876:75) based the species on Palmer 39, from Guadalupe Island (holotype GH; 
F, MO, NY). Although Hall (1928:244) treated Hazardia detonsa (Greene) Greene, of 
Santa Rosa and Santa Crtiz Islands [and Anacapa], as a synonym, he discussed differences 

83 



REIDMORAN 

and suggested that with more information it might be restored. With more collections, 
Raven (1963:343) elaborated the differences and separated the northern plant as Haplopap- 
piis dctoiisiis (Greene) Ra\en. 

Hemizonia 

Note. — For H. srreersii see E.xcluded Species, p. 160. 

Two species and one subspecies of Hemizonia are endemic to Guadalupe Island. These 
three belong to a group informally called Section Zunamra by Keck (e.g. 1960:172), with 
six shrubby species having much reduced upper leaves. The others are H. clemeniina 
Brandegee on six of the Channel Islands of California, H. streetsii A. Gray of the San 
Benito Islands of Baja California, and H. mini/utrnii Jeps. of the Santa Susana Mountains 
and Santa Monica Mountains of southern California. Carlquist (1959a) studied the wood 
anatomy of this group in comparison with other Madiinae. And Carlquist ( 1965:1 15-1 IS) 
discussed and illustrated them as an example of adaptive radiation. Bruce Baldwin is 
growing the three Guadalupe species plus H. ciemciuina and H. miiuhoriiii and tells me 
he has fertile hybrids in all combinations, the three Guadalupe species completely inter- 
fertile. On the island, H. fruiescens seems geographically distinct, high on the north end. 
The other two grow together at the south end, where they look quite distinct and ditTcrent; 
but their flowering times overlap and they do hybridize, though rarely. 

Hemizoniu fiiitescens A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:79. 1876. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Small sparse shnib, with stern to 1.5 cm thick, having thin brown bark splitting lengthwise, 
and with branches few, erect to arching or decumbent, slender, 4—8 dm long; or according 
to Greene flowering while still herbaceous. Stems sparsely glandular and hirsutulous to 
closely hirsute with uniseriate trichomes to 2 mm long, later with axillary cottony tufts; 
axillary fascicles starting above during first year, those in upper 10 cm later growing out 
as closely glandular branchlets to 5 cm long, each with tenninal head and with tertiai7 
branchlets to 1.5 cm long in upper 1-2 cm; these sometimes with a few short quatemaiy 
branchlets. Primary leaves linear, thick-margined, 2-8 cm long, 1-5 mm wide, hirsute and 
glandular, mostly with 3—1 ascending teeth; secondary linear, entire, 1-2 cm long, clo.sely 
glandular; upper fasciculate, filiform, 2^ mm long. Flowering mainly in summer; heads 
thyrsoid-racemose; involucres 3-5 mm high and wide, short hirsute and glandular: ray 
florets 8-9, the ligules obovate-oblong, 2-3-toothed, 3 -4 mm long; disk florets 10 12, 
the group suiToimded by as many nearly discrete hncar bracts; pappus of 5 linear or 
subulate fimbriate-denticulate paleae, the disk achenes well-fonncd but apparently sterile. 
Mature achenes'.' 

Palmer found only a few small plants among bushes in the crevices of high rocks in the 
"middle" of the island (Watson 1876:1 15). Greene (1885:224) found it common on level 
ground and hillsides, in such places strictly annual, and saw only one suffrutesccnt plant, 
on a precipice. Today it is fairly cominon, as a small shrtib, at 500-800 m on cliffs at 
the north end of the island (Fig. 49), from North Point at least to the middle of the north 
end. Also, 1 thought I saw it on westside cliffs at 1075 m, northwest of the cypress grove. 
Palmer found abundant yellow bloom on May 1. I found no flowers in December. April, 
or one May, onlv one plant with a few flowers another May {MLISL^), and all plants \n 
good flower m August {MJOSO?) (Fig. 49, Plate IB). 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Hemizonia greeneana Rose ssp. greeiteana 

Hemizoiua greeneaim Rose in Vasey & Rose. Contr. U. S. Natl Herb. 1:24. 1890. 

Range. — Endemic to the south end of Guadalupe Island and offlying islets. 

Dense compact rounded dark green moundlike shitih to !S dm high and 2.4 m wide, with 
arching-decumbent branches (Figs. 33. 50). or in exposed places the plant prostrate; herb- 
age glandular-viscid throughout. Branches closely leafy below, only the lowemiost leaves 
opposite, the middle axils often with fascicled leaves, the upper mostly with leafy 
branchlets; ultimate branchlets or peduncles with shorter intemodes and fascicled leaves. 
Lower leaves often glabrous except for the glands, sometimes sparsely hirsute or villous- 
hirsute, 2—4.5 cm long, 5-8 mm wide, the rachis 2—4 mm wide, seldom entire, mostly 
with 4—12 ascending teeth or lobes; upper leaves gradually smaller, entire, those of the 
peduncles linear-oblong, ± 5-10 mm long and 0.5-1 mm wide. Flowering throughout the 
year but mainly in summer; heads often numerous and subcorymbose on main branches, 
solitary or few and cymose on branchlets, 11-18 mm wide, mostly 8-rayed, but some 
early ones with more rays and the first, tenninating the main branches, with as many as 
14; involucres campanulate, 4—7 mm high. 4—6 mm wide, sparsely hirsute, beset with 
peg-like glands 0.05 mm long and each tipped with a sticky yellowish globule ± 0.1 mm 
thick, the bracts lanceolate, acute, cymbifomi and strongly keeled in lower 3/5 and + 2.5 
m wide (flattened), with hyaline margins, nan'owed to a flatter thickish apex 2—3 mm 
long; ray fiorets 8-14, the tube 1.5-2.5 mm long, stipitate-glandular. the ray oblong to 
obovate, tmncate and 2-3-crenate at apex, 4.5-6.5 mm long. 2.5-3.5 mm wide, sub- 
glabrous, the style branches slender. 2—3 mm long; receptacular bracts 8—13 (about as 
many as rays), in one series, weakly united to middle or above, oblanceolate, nanowly 
acute, 5—6 mm high, ± 1.5 mm wide, herbaceous with hyaline margins, glandular, the apex 
sparsely long-ciliate; disk florets 8-14 (-21), the corollas 4-5 mm long, the tube slightly 
ampliate above, subglabrous, the lobes triangular-ovate, 0.7-1 .0 mm long, thickened and 
densely puberulent ventrally on margins, the anthers yellow, ca. 2.5 mm long, the stigma 
lobes 2 mm long, the achenes sterile, 1.7-2.5 mm long, sparsely glandular-puberulent, the 
paleae 6-11, 1.3-2.4 mm long, free or united at base, unequal, irregularly lanceolate or 
oblong, stiff dull white, subentire to laciniate. Achenes 2-3 mm long, triquetrous, black, 
transversely rugose, acute and stipitate at base, with upcur\ed beak mostly 2-3 times as 
long as thick. 

On his second trip. Palmer found this shrub common on the south end, in all the canyons 
and arroyos and along the beach: he called it a very homely plant, growing in great 
clumps in ban'en places and the most noticeable plant of the region (Vasey and Rose 
1890:24). Because of its size and dark foliage, it is indeed the most conspicuous plant 
of the south end; and it flowers abundantly in summer, making a beautiful show when 
other plants are dormant. Along Arroyo Melpomene it extends only ± 3 km from the south 
end, to 350 m. However, in April 1970 1 saw what seemed to be Hemizonia, probably of 
this species, on the western seacliffs a little farther north. It also grows on the east slope 
of the island north of Morro Sur (Junak 2069). It is common on Islote Negro, Middle 
Rock, and Outer Islet; and in August 1970 I saw many plants in fiill flower on the sheer 
south face of South Bluff Thus it is abundant but very restricted at the south end of the 
island. 

The ssp. peninsularis Moran (1969:286) is a slightly taller and mostly more open shrub, 
with mostly virgate branches, generally shorter and stiffer trichomes, somewhat longer 
and relatively narrower lower leaves with fewer teeth or lobes, more and slightly longer 

85 



R[:ID MORAN 







^*#. 



FlOLKi 40 The endemic Hciiiiinnui lnitf<ccns (l^'WD on clitT at the north end. SOO m. 
21 August I4N1, 

FiGLRl 50. The cndcniic Ht-iiu:oimi grcciicaiui .ssp. givciii-unu at the south end- -old shrubs, 
showing the arching branches; 27 April 1958. This shrub is local but abundant on the south end 
and its islets and makes a beautiful show with yellow flowers in summer, when other plants are 
dormant. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

pappus paleae, and generally shorter beak on the achene; however, both are variable. It 
is very local in northwest Baja California, on the Todos Santos Islands, on Punta Banda, 
and on north-facing cliffs at the mouth of the Rio San Miguel. Brandegee (1899) first 
reported the Todos Santos Island plant as seeming the same as specimens from Guadalupe 
Island that were named as H. frutesceus but that did not exactly agree with the description 
of that species; later (1900) he called the Todos Santos plant H. greencaiui. 

Rose described the heads of//, greeneana as having 8 rays and 8-10 disk florets, as in 
H. fnitescens and H. palmeh, and at most seasons they do (Plate IC). However, early 
heads, ending the main branches, may have 12-14 rays, a corresponding number of in- 
volucral and receptacular bracts, and a correspondingly large number of disk florets, some- 
times as many as 2 1 . These early heads resemble the usual heads of H. clementiiui Bran- 
degee, of the Channel Islands, which regularly have 12—14 rays and 15—30 disk florets 
but which differ in having 2 series of receptacular bracts. As the leaves of the two also 
are similar, H. greeneana ssp. peninsularis in early flower has been mistaken for H. 
Clementina. Of the other two species of sect. Zonanva, H. streetsii A. Gray, of San Benito 
Islands, has 1 1—3 1 rays and 50 or more disk florets, and H. minthornii Jeps., of the 
southern California mainland, has 8 rays, 18—23 disk florets, and receptacular bracts in 
± 3 series. I wonder about the number of rays in first heads. 

Hemizonia palineri Rose in Vasey & Rose, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 1:24. 1890. 

Range. — Endemic to the south end of Guadalupe Island. 

Flattened shrub, 0.5—1.5 (—2.5) dm high and 3-6 (-8) dm wide, the woody main stem to 
2.5 cm thick; herbage with abundant white silky pubescence. Leaves numerous, opposite 
below, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, mostly entire, silky strigose, not at all viscid, 
1-2 cm long, 1.5-3 mm wide. Flowering in winter and spring; heads numerous, somewhat 
corymbose; involucral bracts 4—4,5 mm long, each entirely surrounding achene, hyaline 
margined; rays 8, the corolla 4.5 mm long including tube, the tube ± 0.7 mm long, villous; 
receptacular bracts 8, very weakly united ± to middle, the divisions linear-acuminate, 
with prominent midvein, pilose to base, the apex ciliate; disk florets 10-12, the corollas 
3-3.5 mm long, the lobes lightly villous, the disk achenes 1.2-1.6 nrm long, flat, sterile. 
Achenes 1.7—2.2 mm long, the beak short, appressed to body; paleae 6-12, very unequal, 
1.1-2.7 mm long. (Plate ID). 

On his second trip Palmer foimd this a very common plant on the south end of the island, 
in all exposed places (Vasey and Rose 1890:24). Though less common than the larger 
and more conspicuous H. greeneana, it is well distributed over the mesa, and sometimes 
locally common, within 3 km of the south end and up to 200 m; it has not been found 
on the islets. Thus it appears to be highly restricted. It is in full flower in March and 
April, when H. greeneana is mostly not flowering; and it is completely donnant, looking 
almost dead, in summer, when H. greeneana is at the height of flowering. In 1958 I 
found two apparent hybrids between the two species, one intennediate {M6694), the other 
{M6695) more like H. palmeri. 

*Hypocltoeris glabra L., Sp. PI. p. 811. 1753. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a widespread weed in North America. 

Mason found a single plant of this weed in BaiTacks Canyon in 1925 (Eastwood 1929:417). 
It now occurs the length of the island and from shore to summit, rather common on the 
north slope and in some canyon bottoms. 



87 



REID MORAN 

Lasthenia californka DC. e\ Lindl., Bot. Reg. 21: sub. pi. 1780. 1835. 

Baeria gracilis (DC.) A. Gray. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 4:196. 1S74. 

Baeria palmer: A. Gray, Bot. Calif. 1:376. 1876. 

Lasthenia chiysosloma (Fisch. & C. A. Mey.) Greene, Man. Bol. San Francisco, p. 205. 1894. 

Bueria chirsosloitia var. palmeri (A. Gray) .'. T. Howell, Leafl. W. Bot. 3:152. 1942. 

Ranch. — Oregon to Arizona and NW Baja California; islands of southern California 
and Los Coronados, Todos Santos, and Cedros. 

Palmer found this plant abundant in wami low spots in the "middle"" and at the "south 
end'" (Watson 1876:1 16), and Howell (1942:152) called it occasional from the middle to 
the south end. It is widespread in the southern half of the island and as far north as 
Esparsa Canyon, generally not common but in wet years locally abundant and giving 
color to some grassy slopes. Omduff (1966:58) cited the collections of Brandegee and of 
Wiggins and Enist. Concerning the accepted name, see Johnson and Omduff ( 1978). 

Although Palmer had found this plant before, Brandegee (19(J0:22), without explanation, 
called it recently introduced. However, it grows also on the northern islands in a familiar 
pattern, and in all respects it seems like a native on Guadalupe. 

Dr. Omduff, who used Guadalupe seedlings in his hybridization studies (Omduff 1966), 
wrote me in 1959 that in the greenhouse they were distinctive for their tallness, wiry 
sterns, and general reluctance to shed their achenes even when ripe. 

f*Lasrhenia coronaria (Nutt.) Omduff, Univ. Calif Publ. Bot. 40:76. 1966. 
Baeria coronaria (Nutt.) A. Gray, Proc. Anicr. Acad, Arts Sci. 19:23. 1S83. 

Range. — Southern Califomia to NW Baja Califomia; Los Coronados and Todos Santos 
Islands. 

Brandegee (1900:22) listed this plant as "a recent mtroduction about the usual landing" 
(Northeast Anchorage), though he did not explain further. Since he also called B. cali- 
fornica a recent introduction, when that seems clearly native, we cannot accept his state- 
ment without knowing his thinking. However, this plant has not otherwise been found on 
the island, before or since, suggesting that it may then have been a new arrival that never 
became established. Since every botanist to visit the island has gone ashore at the landing 
where he found this plant, very likely someone else would have found it had it grown 
there for long, whether native or not (though it is tme that a few rare native plants have 
been found there only once). Furthemiore. there is no particular reason to think it a likely 
native: it has not reached any of the islands of southern Califomia, all closer to the 
mainland, though 89 percent of the Guadalupe natives that occur also in cismontane south- 
em Califomia have reached one or more of these islands. Having no reason to disagree 
with Brandegee's statement, I therefore tentatively accept this species as an introduction 
that did not become established. Brandegee's specimen was cited by Omduff ( 1966:79). 

iLavia plan'ulossa (Fisch. & C. A. Mey.) A. Gray. Mem. Amer Acad. Arts. 
Ser."2. 4:l().i. 1849. 

Layia clcgans (Nutt.) Ton-. & A. Gray. Fl. N. Amer. 2:394. 1843. 

Range. — Northern Califomia to central Baja Califomia; San Miguel. Santa Rosa. Santa 
Cmz, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Both Anthony and Brandegee collected this plant on Guadalupe Island in 1897, with no 
specific locality. There is no other record, and probably it is extinct on the island. Wallace 
(1985:50) cited Anthony 251 at US. The specimen of Anthony's collection at UC was 
annotated by David Keck in 1934 as L. elegans. On the same sheet is a specimen collected 
20 March 1897 by Brandegee, labeled L. platyglossa A. Gray, and checked by Keck. 

^Malacothrix develandii A. Gray. Bot. Calif 1:433. 1876. 

Range. — California to Utah and extreme noilhem Baja California; Santa Rosa Island. 

Palmer found this plant abundant among rocks and trees in the "middle" of the island 
(Watson 1876:1 16). Greene (1885:225) noted it without comment. In revising this group, 
Davis and Raven (1962:261) noted that the occun'ence of M develandii on Guadalupe 
Island needed to be continued by more material and by a chromosome count. Apparently, 
however, no one has found it for over a century, and it probably is extinct on the island. 

Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Ch. Porter, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 5:341. 1894. 

Matncwia discoidca DC, Prod. 6:50. 1837. 

Chamoinilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34:232. 1916. 

Range. — Alaska to NW Baja California and NE Asia; Santa Rosa, Santa Cniz, Anacapa, 
and Santa Catalina Islands. 

Palmer found this plant around springs in the "middle" of the island (Watson 1876:1 16). 
It was still there, but rare, in 1958 (Wiggins & Ernst 113). Although it may still turn up 
in a good year, quite possibly it is e.xtinct on the island. 

The native range of this weedy plant is unknown, and possibly it is introduced on 
Guadalupe Island. 

'fMicropus californicus Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Index Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1835:42. 1835. 

Range. — SW Oregon to NW Baja California; Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina 
Islands. 

Palmer found this plant on dry gravelly slopes in the "middle" of the island (Watson 
1876:1 15). No one has seen it since, and it probably is extinct on the island. 

Perityle emoryi Torr. in Emoiy, Notes Mil. Rec. p. 142. 1848. 

Perilyle grayi Rose, Bot. Gaz. 15:118. 1890. 
Perityle californica of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Southern California and Nevada to Baja California and Sonora; W South Amer- 
ica; islands of southern California and NW Baja California except San Miguel and San 
Nicolas. 

Palmer found this plant scattered through some of the canyons on the east side (Watson 
1876:1 16). It is widespread on the island, from the north slope to the south end and on 
Islote Negro and Outer Islet, more common at lower elevations and southward. 

From Guadalupe Island, Powell ( 1974:258) cited collections by Anthony, Carlquist, Mason, 
Moran, Palmer, and Rose. He included here Perit\4e grayi Rose, based on Palmer 44 of 
1875 (US?; isotypes GH, NY) from Guadalupe Island. 



89 



REID MORAN 




FRjURf; 51. Old shnib of the endemic Pcriiy/c iiilciiiu (A//-i 7V_'') hanging from a chIT in Esparsa 
Canyon, wilh Fritz (^lire for scale; 2 May I'JdV, 

Peiitvlc incaiia A. (irav. Proc. Ainer. Acad. Arts Sci. I 1:7S. 1^176. 



Nc\i>ilhimnii\ iiicaiius (A, Gray) Rydh., N, Anicr. HI, .^4:12, 1914. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

This is a dense grayish-white tomenlulose shrub I 2 or even 4 in wide and sometimes 
trailing to 5 m (Fig. 51), the stem soft-woody, to 4 cm or more thick, with naked corymbs 
of H) 50 or more discoid yellow heads. 

Palmer found this shrub \ery common in the "middle"" of the island, in the cre\ ices of 
high rocks, hanging in massive bunches of yellow bloom (Watson 1876:116). Franceschi 
( 1 893c: 136) called it by far the most abundant of all the shrubs still living on the island 
and the most likely to survive, as it seemed quite at home on the more precipitous cliffs 
and young plants and seedlings were abundant in the crevices of the rocks. It is certainly 
the commonest shnib on the cliffs today (Fig. 2S); and on cliffs it extends from sea level 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

to Mt. Augusta at 1220 m and the length of the island, from the north end to the islets 
off the south end. On the islets it also grows in less steep places, but Greene (1885:216) 
did not mention it among the shnibs that in his day still covered the gentler slopes in the 
north. Nor does it grow on gentler slopes in the southern half of the island where Ambrosia 
camphoniia and Athplex bairlayanu are abundant despite the goats or at the south end 
where hemizonia thrives. A few seedlings of the perityle appear on slopes below the 
northern cliffs but persist even briefly only in years of fewer goats. From February to 
October and probably in the other months at least some plants can be found flowering, 
but the main flowering period is about April to June. 

Gray based this species on Palmer's collection No. 43 (holotype GH; NY. US). This is 
the shrubbiest member of its genus, and Carlquist (1959b, figs. 1, 2) studied its wood 
anatomy in comparison with various other Helenieae. It is distinctive also for its tomen- 
tulose herbage, rather large naked corymbs, and coarsely pubescent achenes, and it is 
nearly unique in its discoid heads. Partly because of its shrubbiness, Powell suggested 
that it might be a primitive member of the genus, but presumably this is an example of 
insular woodiness. For this species Rydberg (1914) proposed the monotypic and thus 
endemic genus Nesotluimmis, returned to Perinle by Blake (1926), Everly (1947), Powell 
(1974), and most other authors. However, Powell wrote that it did not belong to any of 
the related-species groups and thus stood as an anomalous species. He said that it could, 
in fact, be recognized as a monotypic genus with little change in the ta.xonomic naturalness 
of the subtribe. He added that it was similar to Pericome in habit and capitulescence 
characters and perhaps shared ancestral affinity with that genus. Howell (1942) did rec- 
ognize Nesoihamnus. However, Powell suspected that P. inccuni was distantly related to 
the P. crasslfolia group and was best treated as a member of section Perinle. Based on 
MI 7426 Powell (1974) reported a chromosome count of )/ = 50— 57. hexaploid. 

Davies (1980) illustrated a plant grown at Kew from seeds from Islote Negro (M J 7426). 
From seeds from the same source and from later collections, it is also grown now in 
southern California for drylands plantings. 

Senecio palmeri A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:80. 1876. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Dense white shmb ± 1 m high and (on cliffs) to 1.5 or 2 m wide, much branched from 
base, with tnmk to 1 dm thick. Leaves oblong-spatulate, obtuse, pinnately veined, 2—9 cm 
long, 0.5—2 cm wide, entire to sinuate-dentate, narrowed at base to a slender petiole. 
Inflorescence a temiinal pedunculate few to several headed corymbose cyme. Heads yel- 
low, on long bracteate peduncles, 10-14 mm high, radiate; involucre white, barely caly- 
culate, of 20-30 linear bracts; ray florets 12—18, the rays oval, 8 mm long; disk florets 
numerous; achenes sericeous-pubescent. 

Palmer called this shrub "white sage" and found it veiy abundant on many wami spots, 
from the "middle" to the north end: about three feet high, of diffuse habit, a very free 
and showy bloomer, beginning to flower early in February and maturing in May, when 
the air was filled with its downy seeds (Watson 1876:116). Greene (1885:216) found it 
still covering the gentler declivity leading to the plateau from the zigzag trail out of the 
canyon; he called it really very handsome, a shrub three or four feet high, with snow-white 
foliage and fine clusters of yellow blossoms. According to Bryant (1887:271), an orni- 
thologist who spent the first three months of 1886 there, a "small white sagebmsh with 
yellow blossoms" grew in places "throughout the entire length of the island." On his 
second visit, in 1889, Palmer found that the senecio had decreased, spots where there 



RPAD MORAN 




FlCjURh 52. The endemic Seiiecio palmeri from clilTof'the Lower Circus {.M6653). 25 April 1958. 
Once the commonest shrub of the northeast part of the island, it sunives only on a few cliffs and 
is becoming rare. 

were thickets of it before having now only dead plants, with just a few scattering plants 
alive. Four years later, Franceschi (1893c: 1 36) found it only on the eastern cliff, where 
he saw perhaps three dozen; he called it very conspicuous and much whiter even than 
Perinle inciina. I have seen it only in Oak Canyon and around the comer to the south 
on the cliffs of the Lower Circus (Fig. 52). where despite the whiter foliage it is sometimes 
hard to tell at a distance from the much more abundant Perityle incana. In Januaiy 1960 
I saw 12 without having time to cover the length of the cliff In 1974 I found a young 
plant in a crevice of the Lower Circus, showing it still does reproduce on the cliff In 
August 1981, with older eyes and no field glasses, I tailed to identify any, but 1 am 
hopeful that they still survive. 

Carlquist (1962, figs. 26, 27) studied the wood anatomy of this plant in comparison with 
various other Senecioneae, based on his collection 260. 

*Sonchus oleraceus L., Sp. PI. p. 794. 1753, 

Range. — Native to Europe; a common weed in North America. 

Palmer found this weed very rare, on warm slopes in the "middle" of the island (Watson 
1876:1 16). Greene (1885:225) reported it now very common on the eastward slope of the 
island. It now extends the length of the island, from the north slope to the south end and 
on Islote Negro, in some northern areas fairly common. 



92 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

*Sonchus tenerrimus L., Sp. PL p. 794. 1753. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a weed in tiie SW USA and Mexico. 

On his second visit Palmer found this plant in shady canyons at the south end, not common 
(Vasey and Rose 1890:25). It is now occasional near the shore in the southern half of 
the island. 

Stebbhisoseris heterocarpa (Nutt.) K. L. Chambers, Amer. Jour. Bot. 78:1024. 1991. 

Microseris heterocarpa (Nutt.) K. L. Chambers. Contr. Dudley Herb. 4:286. 1955. 
Microseris lindleyi of Brandegee's reference. 

Range. — California and NW Baja California; Santa Rosa. Santa Cniz. Anacapa, Santa 
Catalina, and San Clemente Islands. 

Brandegee (1900) reported this plant from Guadalupe Island without comment, and Cham- 
bers (1955:288) cited his specimen. It seems to be local on the east side of the island 
just south of the middle, generally rather scarce but noted in 1970 as fairly common 
locally on the northeast slope of El Picacho at 525 m (Ml 7381) and as occasional in the 
bed of Long Canyon at 50 m {Ml 7362). 

^Stephanomeria diegensis Gottlieb. Madroflo 21:476. 1972. 

Range. — Southern California and NW Baja California; Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa 
Catalina, San Clemente, Los Coronados, and Todos Santos Islands. 

This plant is known from Guadalupe Island only from a collection (no. 46, UC) by 
W. W. Brown in 1906. Gottlieb (1971) showed a dot for the island on his map for this 
species. He wrote me that the Brown collection at UC is a poor specimen whose long 
peduncles suggest S. exigiia Nutt. ssp. decinei (J. F. Macbr.) Gottlieb, to which S. diegensis 
is closest. Dr. Reed Rollins wrote me in 1988 that he did not find a specimen at GH. 

Stephanomeria guadalupensis Brandegee, Zoe 5:164. 1903. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Perennial with milky-orange late.x, closely white tomentose, sometimes subglabrescent, 
usually several branched from a woody perennial base to 4 cm thick and with corky bark, 
the stems often decumbent at base, thence erect, unbranched and leafy below inflorescence, 
to 1 or even 1.5 m tall and to 2.5 cm thick at base. Leaves oblanceolate to spatulate, acute 
to rounded at apex, attenuate below to a broad petiole, entire to sinuate-dentate or often 
deeply pinnatifid into a dozen narrow segments, the lower leaves 0.5—3 dm long, 2-9 cm 
wide, the upper gradually smaller and becoming entire. Panicle viscid, 1—6 dm tall, 4—20 
cm wide, of many ascending racemose branches with heads more crowded at tips, flowering 
August to October. Involucres 10-1 1 mm long, glandular, somewhat wooly at apex, with 
graduated small outer bracts, 5— 8-flowered (Fig. 54). Ligules deep pink, ± 8 mm long and 
3—4 mm wide; anthers 4—5 mm long. Achenes 4 mm long; pappus 4—6 mm long, of 14—19 
bristles, plumose nearly to base. 

Brandegee collected the type March 26, 1897, in Sparmanns Canyon (perhaps Esparsa 
Canyon?), where the clumps of white leaves were very conspicuous on the nearly per- 
pendicular dark colored cliffs. The inflorescence with fruiting heads that he collected was 
a remnant from the previous season (holotype UC92373!). Though not so common as 
perityle and galvezia, this showy plant grows on cliffs throughout the island, from the 

93 



RHID MORAN 




ridljRrs 53 and 54. The endemic Stcphanomciia 
Islet, 21 August 147U. Fioi. rh 54, Flower head (■ 
crown in iierkelev, 26 No\ ember l')60. 



guadalupi.'iisis. FiGLRl:. 53. Colony on Outer 
4.5) of plant from Esparsa Canyon (AM/.i5) 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




Figure 55. Young branch of Slephanomeria guadalupensis growing up to become a floral stem: 
the condensed fomi on Outer Islet {M151I9). with subentire leaves; 21 June 1968. 

north end to Outer Islet (Fig. 35). Earlier collectors must have seen it but would not have 
found it flowering in spring. 

On shaded cliffs in the northern part of the island, lower and middle leaves are large and 
deeply pinnatifid and tend to be glabrescent; for a photograph, see Carlquist (1965, fig. 
14-6). On Outer Islet the plant has a very different aspect: more compact, more densely 
tomentose, with leaves subentire to sinuate-dentate (Figs. 53, 55). This form has been 
grown at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. Plants of exposed seacliffs on the main island 
(Howell 8175, M6124) are much like those of Outer Islet. 

Carlquist (1960) studied the wood anatomy of this plant in comparison with other 
Cichorieae. 

Uropappiis lindleyi (DC.) Nutt., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. II, 7:425. 1841. 
Microseris liiieanfolia (Nutt.) Sch.-Bip.. Pollichia 22-24:308. 1866. 



95 



RFIDMORAN 

Microseris lindleyi (DC.) A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 9;210. 1874. 

Range. — Washington to Texas and NW Baja California to Isla Cedros; islands of south- 
em California and NW Baja California. 

Palmer found this plant only in the "middle" of the island, on stony ridges, eaten close 
by goats (Watson 1876:116), and Chambers (1955:285) cited his collection. Greene 
(1885:225) called it abundant and very rank about the springs and the cypress groves, 
■'where the goats do not now range." It is now widespread in the northern part of the 
island and as far south as El Picacho, generally scarce but sometimes locallv common 
on grassy slopes. 

ConvoKulaceae 

Note. — For Cressa iruxilleiisis var. vallicola, see E.xcluded Species, p. 169. 

Calystegia macrostegia (Greene) Bnunmitt ssp. macrostegia 

Convolvulus inacrostcgius Greene, Bull, Calif Acad. Sci. 2:208. 1885. 

Volvulus macroslegius (Greene) Farw., Amer. Midi. Naturalist 12:130. 1930. 

Convolvulus occidentalis A. Gray var. macroslegius (Greene) Munz. N4an. S. Calif Bot. p. 387. 

1935. 
Calystegia macrostegia (Greene) Bruinmitt, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52:214. 1965. 
Convolvulus occidentalis of Guadalupe Island references. 

R.ANGE. — San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina, Todos Santos, 
San Martin, and Guadalupe Islands; intergrading elsewhere with other subspecies. 

Palmer found this plant in the crevices of high rocks, hanging down six feet or more, 
continuing to bloom from March through the summer, a thousand flowers seen on a single 
plant (Watson 1876:118). Greene (1885:208, 216) found it in crevices of basaltic cliffs 
and also spreading its long trailing branches abroad among the rocks of declivities at 
lower elevations, where he counted it among the most conspicuous plants. Franceschi 
(1893c:137) said it was highly relished by goats but was still keeping its hold on the 
most perpendicular cliffs, where its drooping green masses formed a striking contrast to 
the silvery foliage of Perin'le incana. Moran (1951:159) found it on the inner slope of 
Outer Islet. It is still conspicuous on cliffs, such as the Lower Circus, in the northern part 
of the island, and on the southeast coast, often trailing to 25 feet. Seedlings often appear 
on slopes below the cliffs and elsewhere and in years of few goats may persist, as in the 
arroyo at Northeast Anchorage in 1965. Southward, in some years, it forms occasional 
large masses in the bed of Arroyo Melpomene (Fig. 56). 

Ciiscuta coryinhosa Ruiz & Pav.. Fl. Peiii\. 1:69. 1798. 

R.^NGE. — Southern Baja California and central Mexico to Peni. 

Stems pale yellow, inflorescence axillary, of 1-5 flowers, with some bracts: pedicels 2—4 
mm long. Calyx 3-4.5 mm wide, 2—2.5 mm long, gamosepalous, the lobes broadly rounded, 
entire, ± 2 mm wide. Corolla white, ovoid, ± 5—6 mm long, the segments ovate, rounded 
al apex in fresh material examined, ± 1.25 mm long and so ± one-fourth tube. Scales 
naiTow, dentate, extending above middle of corolla tube. Filaments short, the free part 
± 0.5 mm long; anthers ± 0.4 mm long. Styles 2—3 mm long, the stigmas capitate. Cap- 
sules depressed globose, umbilicate at top, dehiscing irregularly at base, capped at apex 
by withered corolla. Seeds ±3^, ± 1.5 mm wide. 

96 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




»*'jp- ^^^i.^ 



Figure 56. Calystegia macrostegui ^.sp nuuh 
at 300 m, 5 March 1965. a year of fewer goats 



Me\;ia (Ml 2117 1) in the bed of Arroyo Meipoineiie 



Known on Guadalupe Island only from one collection: locally common on Sphaeralcea, 
Mirabilis, Perityle, etc., at 50 m on the lava mesa just north of the tlsh camp at West 
Anchorage, 17 April 1970 (Ml 7420). In 1957 I collected twice at West Anchorage, though 
farther south and not at this spot, without finding the dodder; and I have not been there 
since 1970 to look. Various plants are local on the island, often for obscure reasons; but 
it seems remarkable that this parasite has been found nowhere else. It grew near a crude 
landing strip used probably for flying out lobsters or abalone and possibly for flying in 
foreign plants — though there is no knowing whether planes ever came there, directly or 
indirectly, from much farther south where the dodder grows. If it should be found spreading 
to other parts of the island, or no longer found at all. that might suggest it was introduced; 
but I tentatively treat it as native. Among photographs Meling Lopez left with his specimens 
at SD was one of cuscuta, with no locality. Although the species is not identifiable from 
the photo, presumably this is of C. con'inbosa on the island, showing it was still there 
in the early 1980s. 

In the treatment of Yuncker (1932; and note figs. 94F and G) this plant seems more or 
less intemiediate between vars. grandijiora Engelm. and sniosa Engelm., both cited from 
southern Baja California. Styles are included as shown for var. graiuli/lora. Wiggins 
(1964:1132) called the southern Baja Califomian plant var. graiuiitlora, but in his flora 
(1980:378) he called it just C. coiymbosa. 

Crassulaceae 



Crassiila connuta (Ruiz & Pav. 
18a:389. 1930. 



A. Berger in Engler, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 



97 



RHID MORAN 

Tilhica era hi Hook. & Am., Bot. Beechev Vov. p. 24, 1S30. 

Tillcu-u mmima Gay, Fl. Chil. 2:529. 1847. 

TilUica Icptopelala Bcnth,. PI. Hartw, p. ."^10. 1X40. 

R.ANCil-. - Oregon to Argentina and Cliile; islands of soutlicm California and NW Baja 
California to the San Benitos. 

Palmer found two varieties, in large patches in a few exposed clear spots in the "middle" 
and at the noilh end (Watson 1876:115). It is widespread on the island, from the north 
slope to Outer Islet, and in some places is abundant in good years. 

Bywater and Wickens (19S4, map 2) showed var. ainiiatu and also var. ercctoidcs M. 
Bywater & Wickens on Guadalupe Island; and they also annotated some Guadalupe speci- 
mens as var. cremica (Jeps.) M. Bywater & Wickens. The four varieties they recognized 
for western North America have largely overlapping ranges and characters; and some 
differences among the specimens probably result from different temperature and moisture 
conditions from place to place and from year to year. After considering the matter in 
siime detail (Moran 1442), I decided it was not practical to distinguish their \arieties. 

Diidleya iiiiadalupensis Moran, Madrono 11:154. 1451 

R.ANcit-.- Endemic to Guadalupe Island; known only on oftlying rocks and islets. 

Gaiidcx 1.5 3.5 cm thick, to 15 cm or more long, branching to form rounded clumps to 
5 dm wide, of 80 or more rosettes. Rosettes subglobose. 3-15 cm wide, of 25^0 (-75) 
leaves, the leaves pale green to farinose, oblong-oblaneeolate, apiculate-acuminate, 2.5 -^i. 5 
cm long, 8—1 3 mm wide, 2—3 mm thick, the base 4—8 mm wide, the margins rounded. 
Floral stems glaucous, sinuous, cur\'ing down first, then up, 2-3 dm long, 4—7 mm thick, 
bare in lower 5 cm, with 15—35 leaves above, the leaves glaucous, ascending, triangular- 
ovate, acute, the loweniiost 1-2 cm long, 7-10 mm wide. Cyme glaucous, of 2— 3 ascending 
simple or bifurcate branches, the cincinni 4—8 (-12)cm long, with 7-12 (-17) flowers; 
pedicels erect, the lower 3—5 (-8) mm long, the upper 2-3 mm long. Flowers April-June. 
Caly.x 5-6 mm wide, 6-8 mm high, rounded below, the tube 1-1.5 mm long, the segments 
naiTOwly triangular-ovate, acute, slightly unequal, 3-5 mm long, 2.5-3.5 mm wide. Corolla 
pale greenish yellow but glaucous and appearing almost white, 1 1—13 mm long, ± 4 mm 
wide at base and 7-1 1 mm wide above, the petals linear-lanceolate, acute, 2—2.5 mm wide, 
connate 1-2 mm, strongly keeled, nearly straight, erect or ascending and not touching 
much above calyx. Stamens erect, the filaments ± 9 mm long, adnate + 1-2.5 mm, the 
cpipetalous higher; anthers yellow. ± 1 mm long. Nectar glands whitish, I mm or more 
wide. Pistils nearly erect but separated, or bowed outward with styles connivent, the 
ovaries ± +-6 mm long, the styles at first ± 2 mm long, becoming 3—4 mm long. Mature 
follicles ascending, the ventral margins ± 60-75° above horizontal. Chromosomes: /; = 
17. 

This plant was first found on Outer Islet in 1948, the type Monm 2947 (DS324267, 
3242(i8). It is fairly common from the inner slope of the crater to the upper valley (Fig. 
57). Here the leaves are unifomily light green. In 1957 I found it occasional on Islote 
Negro, with a green fomi (M5621)) and a farinose fonn (M56I9) (Fig. 58). Here rosettes 
are often solitary or few, though they may fomi clusters to 4 dm wide. In August 1970, 
looking from a boat, I saw what clearly was this plant on Middle Rock. In 1955 George 
Lindsay wrote me he was sure he saw Diu/lcya plants on rocks off the north end of the 
island, and this species seems to me probable. 

Dr. Charles H. Ulil made chromosome counts of the type collection, from Outer Islet, 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




Figures 57 and 58. The endemic Dudleya guadalupensis. found only on offlying islets. 
Fit.URF 57. Plant on Outer Islet (M5644), with old dried floral stems and with young floral stems 
growing down and then up; 11 February 1957. FuiiiRH 58. Cincinnus of plant from Islote Negro, 
grown in San Diego, 6 June 1957. 



99 



REID MORAN 

and of three collections {M6044, M6706, M6798) from Islote Negro, in all four finding 
11= 17. Thus the plant is diploid relative to the basic number for the genus (Uhl and 
Moran 1953). 

Funamoto et al. (1985) repoiled a somatic count of 2;; = 102 from a plant supposedly of 
this species and supposedly from Guadalupe Island. However, I have had no response 
from the authors about the origin of their plant or whether a voucher specimen is deposited 
in any herbaraium where their identification can be checked. Although they seem to imply 
that their plants were collected in the wild, it is most unlikely that any of the authors got 
to this remote island or, if so, was able to find this plant, known only from two inaccessible 
islets off the windward side and south end. 

A plant in the nursery trade in Southern California as D. guadalupensis proves to be D. 
grcenei Rose. In 1990 David Grigsby of Vista kindly gave me plants of it (M3W32, SD) 
that he had as Abbey Garden 69-1168, supposedly field collected. Since neither Charles 
Glass nor the supposed collector could verify this infomiation, the source of the plant is 
uncertain but probably is not Guadalupe Island, where D. greenei is unknown. For this 
collection Charles H. Uhl got a chromosome count of « = 5I, as in other collections of 
D. grccnci. Since this count corresponds to the somatic count reported by Funamoto et 
al., 1 suspect that their plants came from a nursery and not from Guadalupe Island. From 
this circumstantial evidence, I reject the report of Funamoto et al., based on dubious 
material and at variance with Dr. UhTs four counts of n = 17 based on authentic material. 

When the type was collected in April 1948, the rosettes had about 35—70 leaves and were 
very compact, the outer leaves tightly folded over the inner (Moran 1951, plate 3). Im- 
mature leaves less than 2 cm long were many, making up about half the total; and they 
were nearly equal in size rather than grading evenly from youngest to mature, as is usual 
in Diidleva. In cultivation the rosettes became more open, with 25^0 leaves grading 
more evenly from small to large, and thus appeared more typical for the genus. In later 
years, plants on the islets also had this more typical appearance. Thus the plants of the 
type collection were somewhat abnomial, presumably because of some unusual growing 
conditions. Young floral stems of the type collection became etiolated before they were 
unpacked; and although they went on to flower in Santa Barbara, the pedicels were elongate 
and the flowers somewhat abnormal (Moran 1951: plate 3, below). From flowering plants 
later collected on the islets and from plants flowering in San Diego (Figs. 57, 58; plate 
IE), the description above is improved over the original description. 

Dudlcya virens (Rose) Moran ssp. cxtima Moran. Ilaseltonia 3:9. 1995. 

Diulk'vii has\ci. D. vireiis. and probably Colvledon of Ciuadalupc Island ret'erenccs. 

RANGE:. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

The first report of Ducileya from Guadalupe Island was by Franceschi (IS93c:l 35), who 

found only one small plant of Conledon on a rock along the trail not far from the 

landing. Apparently he brought back the living plant, but if it ever flowered, no specimen 
or other record seems to remain. Very likely his plant was of this species, which is rare 
on cliffs in the canyon back of the landing of Franceschi's day. 

In 1948 I found a sterile plant of this species (M29I3) at 800 m on what I have since 
called Hemizonia Cliff at the north end of the island (Moran and Lindsay 1950, with 
photo). It grows mostly on cliffs in the north and northeast parts of the island: one plant 
{Ml 7308) on a rock under oaks on the northwest slope at 700 m; north rim of Ban-acks 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Canyon, 450 m (M6123)\ cliff in Barracics Canyon near confluence of south and west 
forks, 420 m {M7830); in siiade on north-facing cliffs, Esparsa Canyon at 250 m (M5972 
type, SD; M6J3I). Though scarce, it seems to be holding its own despite goats and 
botanists, mostly high above their reach. 

Dudleya virens is insular (Moran 1995), otherwise growing on San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, 
and San Clemente Islands, and on seacliffs at the south foot of San Pedro Hill, a fornier 
island related to Catalina and San Clemente Islands but now connected to the mainland 
by the alluvial Los Angeles Plain (see Smith 1900). It is smaller from north to south, the 
Guadalupe plant conspicuously different from the robust plant on Point Vicente on the 
mainland. There and on Catalina Island (ssp. insulare), clumps are up to 2 m wide, the 
caudex 2—6 cm thick, the rosette leaves 1—3 cm wide, the floral stems 2—7 dm tall and 
5—15 min thick, and the many-branched inflorescence 10-25 cm wide. Plants of San Cle- 
mente Island (ssp. virens) are intemiediate in size. On Guadalupe Island clumps are ca. 
I— 2 dm wide, the caudex 1—2.5 cm thick, the rosette leaves 6— 15 mm wide, the floral 
stems 1-2 dm tall and 2—5 mm thick, the inflorescence 2-12 cm wide. 

The two collections from Hemizonia Cliff (A/29/5, M6436: Fig. 59) have oblong-oblanceo- 
late farinose leaves, in what happened to be clustered subsessile rosettes. The collections 
from cliffs in the canyons farther south have narrower and more sharply acute green 
leaves, and in age the stems are pendent to 3 dm. When M2915 flowered in cultivation 
and turned out to be tetraploid, I placed it with the somewhat larger tetraploid D. hassei 
(now D. virens ssp. hassei) of Catalina Island and so reported that species from Guadalupe 
Island (Moran I960). When one of the green narrow-leaved plants (A/5972) proved to be 
diploid, I thought it might be feasible to distinguish two taxa on the island, different 
cytologically as well as morphologically. But then when the second collection from Hemi- 
zonia Cliff (A/6-/ .^6) also proved to be diploid, it seemed better, if not entirely satisfactory, 
to keep all the plants of Guadalupe Island in one subspecies of D. virens. 

Crossosomataceae 

Crossosoma californicum Nutt., Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2. 1:150. 1847. 

Range. — Endemic to Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Guadalupe Islands, and San 
Pedro Hill, a landlocked island north of Santa Catalina. 

Palmer found only nine shrubs, in the crevices of cliffs overhanging the canyons in the 
"middle" of the island, out of reach of the goats and accessible only by the aid of a rope 
(Watson 1876:1 12). Franceschi (1893c: 133) saw only one, on the almost inaccessible cliff 
of the Lower Circus. Moran (1951:159) found one small shrub on the inner slope of Outer 
Islet but saw none on later visits. A few others have survived until recently on cliffs in 
the northeast part of the island and possibly are reproducing there to a limited extent, in 
Esparsa Canyon, in Barracks Canyon, and on the cliffs of Oak Canyon and the Lower 
Circus. However, the plants very likely are decreasing in numbers and so seem threatened 
with extinction. 

Cruciferae 

'\*Brassica nigra (L.) Koch in Roehl, Deutsch Fl. ed. 3, 4:713. 1833. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a widespread weed in North America. 

Palmer found this weed in considerable quantity in the "middle" of the island, in open 

101 



RFID MORAN 

spots and on the best soil; he said it was eaten by the goats (Watson 1876:1 13). No one 
has found it since, and very likely the goats ate it all. Dr. Reed Rollins wrote me in 19SS 
that he did not find the Palmer specimen at GH. but Wallace (1^85:54) cited one at NY. 

t*Brassica rapa L., Sp. PI. p. 666. 1753. 

Biu\.\icti ( <//);/'i',s7;7.v I,., Sp. PI. p. 666. 175.i. 

RANG!:. — Native to Europe; a common weed in western Noilh America. 

Greene ( 1 SS_S:22 1 ) found a few plants near the cabins but added that the species apparently 
was not yet well established. No one has found it since, and apparently it never did 
become established. 

*Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.. Ptlanzeng. I:S5. 17^)2. 

RANCit:. — Nati\ e to Europe; a cosmopolitan weed. 

Brandegee collected this weed on the island m IS')7. hut Howell (1*^*42:14^)) was fust to 
report it. He found it occasional on a rocky slope below the upper conal on the trail to 
the cypress grove. It grows in the northern part of the island, mostly at higher elevations, 
as on the northwest slope and about the spring, in good years locally common and lush, 
less commonly in the mouths of the canyons. 

Desctirainia pinnata (Walter) Britton ssp. ineiiziesii (DG.) Detling. Amer. Midi. Naturalist 
22:5()S. 1034. 

Sis\iiihriuin cuHcscciis of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Central California to NW Baja California; Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, 
Santa Catalina, San Clemente. Los Coronados. and Todos Santos Islands. 

Palmer found this plant in great abundance in wami sheltered localities (Watson 1876:1 13). 
Howell ( 1*^42:149) found it occasional in a meadow in the cypress grove. I found a small 
colony on the south inner slope of the crater of Outer Islet. It seems to be generally 
scarce on the island, if not now extinct. 

Detling ( l'-)3'-):5()9) cited Brandegee's Guadalupe Island collection as ssp. nieiizicsii but 
cited Howell's as ssp. halictonim (Cockerell) Detling. Raven (1963:322) noted that the 
plants from San Clemente Island and some from Guadalupe Island have been considered 
ssp. Inilicionim but that their affinities with ssp. meuzicsii were more obvious. 

Eiysiiiiiiin iiioianii Rollins, Contr. Gray Herb. 200: 1^3. 1970. 

Erysinniiii ntsulaic of (iuadakipc I.sLind rcfeiviiCL's. 

R.ANGE-. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island; known only on Outer Islet. 

This is a shrub to 5 dm high with stems to I cm thick, u ith densely appresscd short 
silvery pubescence, yellow flowers in March to ,lune and e\en August, and straight spread- 
ing siliques 2—5 cm long. 

Moraii (1951:154) found this plant occasional on the iniiei- slope of the crater of Outer 
Islet. It also grows in the upper \alley of Outer Islet but has not been found on the main 
island or elsewhere. 



102 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

On the basis of flowering specimens with young fruit, Rossbach (1958:122) refened to 
the plant of Outer Islet as an atypical form of E. insulare Greene, othei-wise of San 
Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Anacapa Islands. In naming E. moranii. Rollins said that in its 
shnibby habit it was most like E. insulare and E. suffnitescens (Abrams) G. Rossb. among 
American species. He thought it might be more closely related to E. suffnitescens, of the 
California coast, and particularly to var. gnvidifolium G. Rossb., of Santa Barbara and 
San Luis Obispo Counties. 

Guillenia lasiophylla (Hook. & Am.) Greene, LeatI Bot. Obs. 1:227. 1906. 

Sisvmhnum ivflexiiin Nutt., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4:25. 1<S50. 

Thelypodhmi lasiophyllum (Hook. & Am.) Greene, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13:142. 1886. 

Caulaiuhus lasiophYlliis (Hook. & Am.) Payson. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 9:303. 1922. 

Range. — Washington to northern Baja Califomia; islands of southern California except 
San Nicolas; also Todos Santos, Cedros, and Natividad. 

Palmer found this plant abundant in the "middle" and at the "south end" of the island, 
in low grounds (Watson 1876:113). Payson (1923:306) cited Palmer's collection and one 
by Brandegee. Howell (1942:149) found it occasional in the middle and southern parts 
of the island. It is now rather scarce in the northern part of the island and widespread in 
the southern part, where it may be locally common in good years. 

Hutchinsia prociunbens (L.) Desv., Jour. Bot. 3:168. 1814. 

Capsella pmcumhfiis (L.) Fr.. Novit. Fl. Suec. Mant. 1:14. 1832. 

Range. — British Columbia to central Baja Califomia and the Old World; San Miguel. 
Santa Rosa, Santa Cmz. Anacapa, San Nicolas, and Santa Barbara Islands. 

Howell (1942:149) found this plant in gravelly soil at the south end of the island. 1 have 
found it scarce and in only two places: north outer slope of Outer Islet (M5655) and on 
talus of north-facing seacliff northeast of Campo Sur at 50 m {Ml 3766). 

Lepidiiim lasiocarpum Nutt. var latifolium C. L. Hitchc, Madrono 8:136. 1945. 

L. lasiocarpum of Guadalupe Island references. 

R.ANGE. — Baja Califomia to Arizona and Sonora; Isla Clarion. 

Palmer found this plant in ravines in the "middle" of the island and rarely at the "south 
end" (Watson 1876:1 13). It is widespread on the island, from the pine ridge and Northeast 
Anchorage to the mouth of Arroyo Melpomene and in good years locally common. From 
Guadalupe Island Hitchcock (1945:136-137) cited collections by Palmer, Howell, Bran- 
degee, and Mason. 

ifLepidium nitidiiin Nutt. ex Toit. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:116. 1838. 

Range. — Washington to NW Baja Califomia; islands of southem Califomia except San 
Miguel; also Los Coronados and Todos Santos. 

Howell (1942:150) was first to report this plant from the island; he saw it only on the 
trail to the cypress grove. It now also grows near the spring and in the shallow valley 
below the Lower Circus. It seems remarkable that the earlier collectors did not find it. 
and I list it with the west American plants that are possibly late arrivals (Table 2). 



103 



RHIDMORAN 

Lepidium ohlongiim Small var. insulare C. L. Hitchc. Madrono 8:125. 1945. 

L. hipiiuuiiifulum. L. menziesii, and L. ohlongiim of Guadalupe Island references. 

RANGli. — San Miguel, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, San Nicolas, Santa Cataiina, San Clemente, 
Todos Santos, Guadalupe, Cedros, San Benito, and Natividad Islands. 

Palmer found this plant generally abundant on wami hillsides throughout the island (Wat- 
son 1876:1 13). It is widespread, from the pine ridge to the south end and in good seasons 
fairly common. 

The type of this variety is Palmer 7 (N^'; isotypes GH, MO) from Guadalupe Island. 
From Guadalupe Hitchcock also cited collections by Palmer in 1889, Rose, Drent, Greene, 
and Brown. He said that most material from the mainland of California and Baja California 
has larger silicles than do the insular plants and is otherwise somewhat intermediate with 
the widespread typical variety. 

"Raphaniis sativiis L., Sp. PI. p. 69. 1753. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a common weed in western North America. 

Meling Lopez (1985:50) was first to find this weed on the island, in the corrals in the 
cypress wood. It was still there in 1988 (M31<l()6), uncommon with abundant SisymhriiiDi 
oiicutale. 

*Sisymhriunt irio L., Sp. PI. p. 659. 1753. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a weed in western North America. 

Howell (1942:149) was first to fmd this weed on the island, seeing it in 1932, only near 
the barracks. Apparently the only other collection until recently was from the lobster 
camp {If'ehcr d McCoy II) in 1963. In 1988 it was occasional at Northeast Anchorage 
{MJIKKII) and with the more common 5. ohentalc in open ground near the cabin at the 
northeast edge of the cypress grove (M3I007), perhaps from a new introduction. 

*Sisymbriiini orientale L., Cent. PI. 2:24. 1756. 

Range. — Native to the Old World; a common weed in western North .America. 

This weed is a recent arrival, not reported before. In 1988 it was occasional at Northeast 
Anchorage (KBIOOO) and near the spring (M31()04) and locally common in open ground 
near the cabin at the northeast edge of the cypress {M3 1(105). 

Thysanocarpus erectiis S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. I 1:124. 1876. 

Range. — Guadalupe and Cedros Islands; north central Baja California. 

Palmer found this plant only between Jacks Bay (West Anchorage) and Mount Augusta, 
in clear level spots (Watson 1876:113). Howell (1942) found it not common, on rocky 
slopes between the cypress grove and the broad transverse valley. It appears to be local 
in the central part of the island: occasional on bare rocky areas of red soil at 80O- 
900 m. south of the cypress grove {M6675); scarce in .luniper Canyon at 100 m 
(MI2n?9[/2); scarce m Long Canyon at 200 m (Ml 2076). 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 
Cucurbitaceae 

Marah guadalupensis (S. Watson) Greene, Leafl. Bot. Obs. 2:36. 1910. 

Megarrhiza guadahipcusis S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. ILOS. 1876. 
Echinocystis guadalupensis (S. Watson) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3:819. 188L 
Micrampelis guadalupensis (S. Watson) Greene, Pittonia 2:129. 1890. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island? 

Tuber (the one dug) irregular because among rocks, 47 cm high, 12 x 6 cm wide above, 
tapering downward. Stems to 6 m long and 7 mm thick; intemodes to 20 cm long. Leaf 
blades orbicular to ovate in outline, 10-27 cm wide, mostly 5-lobed ± to middle, the lobes 
triangular-ovate to oblong, acute to obtuse, the sinus 3—6 cm deep, wider to narrower than 
deep, the margins sinuate to denticulate or somewhat dentate, the upper surface slightly 
papillate-scabrous, minutely pubescent, especially on veins, the lower surface more nearly 
glabrous; petiole 4—13 cm long; tendrils bifid or trifld, the peduncle 3-8 cm long. Staminate 
flowers 6—20 in raceme, or in panicle 1-3 dm long of up to 6 racemes, on pedicels 3—20 
mm long; calyx lobes linear-subulate, 1.5-3 mm long; corolla white, broadly campanulate, 
12-30 mm wide, the tube obconic, 3— 5 mm long, the lobes unequal, triangular-oblong, 
rounded to subacute, 6-14 mm long, 3-7 mm wide; anther head subglobose, 1.5-2.5 [?] 
mm wide. Pistillate flowers on pedicels to 2 cm long; calyx lobes linear, 2 (—7?) mm 
long; corolla white, open-campanulate, 18^0 mm wide, the tube 2-A mm long, the lobes 
oblong-lanceolate, acute to obtuse, 8—14 mm long, 2—5 mm wide. Fruit ovoid, short beaked, 
to 6 cm long and 5 cm thick, striated from base to apex, short pubescent, rather sparsely 
spinose, the spines 1—15 mm long, to 1—2 mm wide at base, glabrous or puberulent; pedun- 
cle 5—8 cm long. Seeds 2-A, ovoid lenticular, 28 mm long, 25 mm wide, 14 mm thick 
(immature), olivaceous, the circumferential line inconspicuous. Flowers Deceinber to May. 
(Description broadened from Stocking 1955.) 

Palmer found this plant in crevices of high rocks in the "middle" of the island (Watson 
1876:138). Franceschi (I893c:135) saw it only among rocks on the right bank of the 
canyon not far from the landing, but he was assured that it grew all over the island. He 
noted that young shoots appeared about the middle of January. It is now uncommon, in 
the north on cliffs but in the south sometimes growing well within reach of the goats yet 
showing no damage (Fig. 60): Barracks Canyon, 475 m; Esparsa Canyon, occasional on 
cliffs and banks, 50 m (M5974). on talus to 250 m; narrow talus above beach, south of 
Esparsa Canyon (Wiggins & Ernsl 56); Juniper Canyon, 50m (M645>); Long Canyon, 
200 m {Ml 2078); canyon behind lobster camp, 50 m; Arroyo Melpomene, 400 m {M673-I). 

Stocking ( 1955) kept A/, guadalupensis as an endemic of Guadalupe Island, characterized 
by large campanulate corollas, linear calyx teeth, in pistillate flowers "6-7 mm long", and 
weak-spined two-seeded fniit. Besides the type collection (Palmer 33, GH, US), he cited 
collections by Anthony, Brandegee, and Franceschi. The island plants of southern Cali- 
foniia he called M. macrocarpiis (Greene) Greene var. major (Dunn) Stocking (= M. major 
Dunn), differing from typical mainland M. macrocarpus in their larger leaves, flowers, 
and seeds. Wallace ( 1985: 15) also kept M guadalupensis as a Guadalupe endemic, placing 
other island plants in M. macrocarpus. Schlising (1993) and Junak et al. (1995) treated 
some Channel Island plants as M. macrocarpus var. major, thus by implication also rec- 
ognizing M. guadalupensis. On the other hand, Ferris (1960:70) broadened M. guadalu- 
pensis to include much of M. major but kept some other island plants in M. macrocarpus; 
and Wiggins (1980:393) did the same. Raven (1963:340) treated the San Clemente Island 



105 



RFID MORAN 




Fkii.RI 5'-», CLint of llic endemic Dmllcva vircii\ ssp cxlinui (,\/6-/.-!ft) tVdin ;i elilT liigh al the 
north end. tlowernig in San Diego, II May U)(i() 

FlGLiRl 6(1. ['he endemic Marah guadalupensis i.\lf>-IX'') a( the mouth of .Uimper Canyon. 50 m. 
16 December l'^^57. It is accessible to goats but is hitter and not eaten. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

plants under M. macrocarpus but remarked that much more fruiting material was needed 
from the islands before definite conclusions could be reached. He thought that although 
the extremes were very different, it did not seem useful at that time to recognize the 
variety on the islands, and he thought the plants from Guadalupe Island also very probably 
conspecific with M. macrocarpus. More fruiting material still is needed. 

Stocking (1955) thought the wide-ranging M. oreganiis (Torr. & A. Gray) Howell, with 
its comparatively large calyx lobes and sparsely-spined fruit, was primitive in the genus; 
and he thought M. guadalupensis much like it in flowers and fruit and perhaps its closest 
relative. Although I have found no mature fioiit and seeds of M. guadalupensis, immature 
fruits on five collections from different places on the island are fairly unifonri in size, 
with spines not so sparse as in A/, oreganus, often as short as 2 mm but sometimes to 15 
mm. In two plants growing side by side (Ml 2078. 12078A), spines were short in one, 
long in the other. Greene (1885:223) wrote that the fniit was conspicuously flattened 
laterally, but this was not true in those I saw; possibly he meant the seeds. 

In its large leaves and large flowers the Guadalupe plant differs from mainland A/, macro- 
carpus and agrees with the later-named M. major. Calyx lobes are longer than decribed 
for other species, though I did not find them so long in the pistillate flowers as both 
Watson and Stocking described them. There is still a question whether this is distinct 
from M. major and so whether A/, guadalupensis is confined to Guadalupe Island. Tim 
Ross, who has on loan the three cited cotypes of A/, major, writes me that Trask 91 is 
from San Nicolas Island and Trask 280 and 281 from San Clemente Island. It is to be 
hoped that future collectors will get mature fruit and seeds. 

Ericaceae 

^Arctostaphylos sp. 

Range. — Unknown; perhaps endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Greene (1885:225) found a single seedling of not more than two or three years' growth, 
under a cypress; he called the species apparently new. There are no further reports, and 
the plant is undoubtedly extinct. Greene's specimen has not been found. 

Euphorbiaceae 

Note. — For Chamaesvce mclanadenia and Siillingia lincarifolia see Excluded Species. 
p. 168. 

Chamaesyce pondii (Millsp.) Millsp., Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 2:411. 1916. 

Eupluvhiu poudii Millsp. in Vasey & Ro.se, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 1:12. 1890. 
Eupliorlmi guadalupensis J. T. Howell. Leafl. W. Bot. 1:51. I*-)??. 

Range. — West central Baja California and Guadalupe Island. 

On his second trip Palmer collected this plant (883, F, GH) at the south end of the island. 
Although Vasey and Rose (1890:21-27) failed to list it with his Guadalupe Island col- 
lections, Millspaugh mentioned Palmer's Guadalupe specimen in describing the species 
on p. 12 of this same paper. Howell (1933, 1942:151) found the plant occasional on 
gravelly flats or in coarse sandy soil on dry windswept slopes at the south end. It appears 
to be local near the west edge of south end mesa, at 100-200 m, just above Campo Sur. 



107 



REID MORAN 

Howell (1933) described Euphorbia guadalupensis as a Guadalupe Island endemic, based 
on his collections 8331 (type CAS) and S195, from Melpomene Cove. However, Wheeler 
( 1934) pointed out that it was the same as E. pondii. Besides the Guadalupe specimens, 
Wheeler (1936:12) cited for E. pondii only the type collection, from Playa Maria. He 
said E. pondii was close to E. polycarpa Benth. var. polycarpa but was a small annual. 

Euphorbia misera Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. p. 51. 1854. 

Range. — Southern California to Sonora and central Baja California; Santa Cruz, Santa 
Catalina, San CIcmente, Los Coronados, Todos Santos, San Martin, San Benito, and Cedros 
Islands. 

Drent in 1898 was first to collect this plant on Guadalupe Island, though his find went 
unreported. Moran (1951:157) found it common on the floor and occasional on the inner 
slope of the crater of Outer Islet. It is rather rare on cliffs in the northeast part of the 
island and scarcely more common on the mesa at the south end: two in Esparsa Canyon, 
300 m (M613n), one at 230 m (Ml 81 52); lobster camp, 70 m (M6449)\ Arroyo Melpomene, 
350 m {M12072), 170 m (M13767)\ south end mesa, 100 m (M13767). 

Catalina, San Clemente, Los Coronados, Todos Santos, San Martin, San Benito, and Cedros 
Islands. 

Drent in 1898 was first to collect this plant on Guadalupe Island, though his find went 
unreported. Moran (1951:157) found it common on the floor and occasional on the inner 
slope of the crater of Outer Islet. It is rather rare on cliffs in the northeast part of the 
island and scarcely more cominon on the mesa at the south end: two in Esparsa Canyon, 
300 m (M6130), one at 230 m (M18152): lobster camp, 70 m (M6449)\ Avcoyo Melpomene, 
350 m (M12II72), 170 m (M13767)\ south end mesa, 100 m (M13767). 

Fagaceae 

Qiwixiis tonientellu Engelm., Trans. Acad Sci. St. Louis 3:393. 1877. 

Oiieivits cl}iTso/cpis of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to Santa Rosa, Santa Cniz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina, San Clemente. 
and Guadalupe Islands. 

Palmer reported the oak as frequent at the north end and occasional in canyons on both 
sides of the island (Watson 1876:119). Greene (1889:45; 1890a:57) saw a few trees at 
the "cool foggy summit" of the north end and a few more, somewhat different in appear- 
ance, "in entirely different soil, and on the very opposite kind of exposure, namely in 
certain di-y, heated canyons of the southeastward slope." "It seems to exist on Guadalupe 
only in a few more than middle-sized trees, at the cool, foggy summit of the north end 
of the island; and in a scarcely more considerable number of smaller, and smaller-leaved 
trees (possibly not of the same species) in the hot and dry canyons of the eastward slope." 
Franceschi (1893c: 138) mentioned oaks in the northwestern part of the island with the 
palms, as well as a few scattered trees at the north end; he reported oaks in two places 
more than a mile apart on the east side under the cliffs of the Lower Circus; and he said 
that the oak was the only tree to be seen in the southern part of the island. And Howell 
(1942:147) told of a few trees near the head of Barracks Canyon (Figs. 61, 62). 

Watson listed Palmer's two numbers (<S'<V. <S'9) as "O. diiysolepis Liebm.; fide Dr. Engel- 
mann." and Engelmann ( 1 877) referred both to Q. tomeniclla when he founded the species. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




Figures 61 and 62. The island oak. Querciis lomentella, endemic to Guadalupe and five of the 
Channel Islands. FlciURH 61. Two trees at the mouth of Oak Canyon, a tributary of Barracks Canyon 
(M644i). 14 December 1957; these trees are now gone. Figure 62. Tree on north slope of the 
island. 28 March 1978. 



109 



RHID MORAN 

Greene, Franceschi, and Howell, however, all pointed out differences between the oaks 
at the north end and those of the east side. 

Franceschi described the trees of the northwest slope as "fine specimens forty to sixty 
feet high, remarkable for the grayish color of the bark and the size of the leaves, which 
are glossy dark green on the upper surface and covered with a somewhat rusty tomentum 
beneath." Howell described specimens from the grove illustrated by Eastwood (1*^)29, 
plate 34, figs. 1, 2): "The twigs and the lower side of the leaves of the cuuent season are 
densely tomentellous with rather loose buff-colored hairs. The older branches are glabrate 
or nearly so and the lower side of older leaves are only thinly pubescent and slightly 
glaucous." 

Franceschi wrote that the oaks of the east side, "if not specifically distinct appear at least 
to be a very different fonn, not only by the leaves but also by the bark, which is darker 
and corky. These trees are rather stunted and branching from the base." Of specimens 
from these trees, Howell wrote: "Although these specimens are not entirely typical of O. 
chiysok'pis Liebm., they are more like that species than [like? or are?] the specimens 
from the north end. The leaves are more coriaceous; the upper side is light green and the 
lower side is entirely pale and chalky with a scattering of those peculiar glandular trichomes 
characteristic of the canyon live oak of California. The pubescence on the twigs and 
petiole is thick and close, quite unlike the relatively shaggy pubescence of [the oak from 
the noilh end]. I was able to obtain acorns and cups, and these resemble the acorns and 
cups of that fonn of Q. chiysolepis that occurs in the mountains of southern California 
that has been called O. cnissipociila Torr." 

Greene considered the trees at the north end as typical O. tomentella. He thought the 
trees of Santa Cruz Island conesponded more closely to those on the east side of Guadalupe 
Island than to those at the north end. 

Dr. C. H. Muller collected the oak at the north end in 1957 and studied my collections 
(M6439-M6443) from Oak Canyon on the east side. He wrote me that the trees at the 
north end agree more closely with those on the islands of California and are biologically 
more typical of the species, whereas those of Oak Canyon show strong introgression by 
Q. chiysolepis but agree more closely with the type specimen. 

The main stand of oaks apparently was with the pines at about 600 to 700 m on the steep 
northwest slope of the main northeast ridge (Fig. 62). Other oaks are scattered along the 
northwest slope of this ridge up to perhaps 900 m, and a few more are scattered among 
the palms of the northwest slope west of the main stand. The total number of trees at my 
first visit was probably less than 100, and they have been falling with the years. 

Of the oaks fonnerly in the canyons of the east side, two small groups remained at the 
time of my visits. One must be the more northern of the two groups mentioned by 
Franceschi and is where Mason (1537) and Howell (8173) collected. These trees were at 
ea, 850-900 m in the north fork of BaiTacks Canyon, in the steep gorge through the cliffs 
of the Lower Circus or rim of the lower plateau which I call Oak Canyon (Fig. 61). In 
1957 there were nine living trees, or perhaps seven, two with trunks double from the 
base; they were 8-10 m tall, with trunks to 6 dm thick and bark in thin grayish plates. 
Two of these trees, undercut by the torrent that tlows after rains, had fallen; and by I960 
one of these was gone. By 1981 only four trees remained and by 1988 only one. Jose 
Rieo. just back from the island in July 1944. told me that too was gone. 

In 1967 there were five oaks (M137S,S. M137,S'-)) at 450 m in a hanging tributaiT on the 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

north side of Esparsa Canyon about 3 km east of Mt. Augusta, which I call Southeast 
Oak Canyon (Fig. 26). The trees were about 8 m tall, with widespreading branches, in 
some places decumbent on the rocks. Jose Rico told me in 1994 that only two remained. 

In 1988 a single spreading tree stood at 1 100 m at the head of Esparsa Canyon on the 
east slope just south of Mt. Augusta {MjKIOS). 

In 1970 there were two oaks at 700 m on the steep west slope below the gray peak above 
West Anchorage (MI 7394). They were erect, about 8 m tall, with tioinks to 5 dm thick. 

Minnich (1987:124) wrote that Q. tomentella occurs south of the U.S. border only in 
central Baja California "in an arroyo 3 km east of Mt. Augusta and on Guadalupe Island." 
So far as known, however, neither the oak nor the mountain occurs on the peninsula. 

Frankeniaceae 

Frankenia salina (Molina) I. M. Johnst.. Contr. Gray Herb. 70:92. 1924. 

Fnmkenia gmndifolia Cham. & Schltdl.. Linnaca 1:.''5. 1S26. 

Range. — Central California to Nevada, central Baja California, and South America; is- 
lands of southern California except Santa Barbara, and also Todos Santos. 

Dudley (1899:281) reported this plant on the side of the bank near Northeast Anchorage, 
where no one else has found it before or since. The only other locality known on the 
island is at 5 m on the low bauen lava flat, near the upper limit of salt spray, at the 
southwest comer of the island, northwest of Campo Sur {M6472, M13756). 

Geraniaceae 

*Erodium brachycarpum (Godr.) Thell., Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 5:17. 1918. 

Range. — Native to North Africa; naturalized in western North America. 

This weed was getting well started in 1978: occasional in shallow grassy valley below 
Lower Circus, 800 m {M25374)\ occasional east of the principal spring, 1000 m {M25376). 
By 1988 it was abundant about the spring (M31011) and elsewhere on the upland. 

*Erodiiini cicutaiium (L.) L'Her. ex Alton, Hort. Kew. 2:414. 1789. 

Rangh. — Native to southern Europe; widely naturalized in western North America. 

Palmer found this weed abundant all over the island, and the principal food for the goats, 
covering the rocks; usually three or four inches high by August (Watson 1876:1 13). Greene 
(1885:222) saw very little of either species, but Franceschi (1893c:134) said it literally 
covered the whole surface of the island. It now extends the length of the island and is 
one of the very commonest plants on rocky slopes in the northern half 

*Eiodiiim moscbatum (Bumi.f) L'Her. ex Alton, Hort. K.ew. 2:414. 1789. 

R.ANGE. — Native to southern Europe; widely naturalized in western North America. 

Palmer found this weed in the "middle" of the island, less common than the last and 
starting later in the spring (Watson 1876:114). Franceschi (1893c:134) found it plentiful 
all over, chiefly among rocks and stones, but not so common as E. cicularitim. Howell 

111 



RKID MORAN 

(1942:150) found it throughout the island, especially at lower elevations, and said the two 
species are perhaps the commonest plants after Hordeum; and that is still true. 

Grossulariaceac 

^Ribes sanguineum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. p. 164. IS 14. 

RangI:. — British Columbia to NW California; Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer found only two plants of this species, in the damp shade of cliffs at the north end 
(Watson 1876:1 14); and no one else has seen it. Quite possibly it is extinct on the island, 
and I have marked the name with a dagger. Nevertheless, I am reluctant to declare the 
case closed, for the foggy northwest cliff has many inaccessible damp shady ledges, on 
some of which it might possibly survive. 

Eastwood (1929:407) thought this must be some other species because this one is found 
in California only at the extreme north. However. Peter Raven wrote me in 1962 that 
Otto Solbrig had checked Palmer's specimen and found it to be R. sanguineum — with 
glabrous styles and glandular faut. 

Hydrophyllaceac 

EmmenaiUhe pendiiliflora Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc. 17:281. 1835. 

Range. — Central California to Utah, Arizona, and central Baja California; Santa Cruz, 
Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands. 

Palmer found this plant in rocky ravines in the "middle" of the island (Watsonl876:l 18) 
and on his second trip saw it in canyons and on hillsides at both ends of the island (Vasey 
and Rose 1890:26). Greene (1885:226) called it abundant, very large and handsome, far 
suipassing what one sees of this species in California. It is occasional or locally common 
in aiToyos and on rocky slopes in the northeast part of the island and south as far as the 
lobster camp. 

Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia (Benth.) Greene var. cliiysanthemifolia 

Eiicnpla chiysanthemifolia Greene. Bull. Calif Acad. Sci, 1:2(10. 1X85. 

Range. — California to NW Baja California; San Miguel, Santa Rosa. Santa Cruz. Ana- 
capa, Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands. 

Palmer collected this plant apparently with the following (Watson 1876:118). It is occa- 
sional in the northeast part of the island, favoring more shaded places than the following. 
Constance (1938:146) cited the collections of Palmer and Mason. 

Constance recognized both the species and the variety, with generally different but some- 
what overlapping ranges. 

Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia (Benth.) Greene var. bipinnatifida (Torr ) Constance. Lloydia 
1:147. 1938." 

Ellisia (.hiysanthcmitolui of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — SE California to Nevada, Arizona, and central Baja California. 



112 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Palmer found this plant abundant under sage brush on wami hillsides from the "middle" 
to the north end and also rarely at the "south end" (Watson 1876:118). It is occasional 
or locally common in canyon bottoms and among rocks in the northeast part of the island. 

From Guadalupe Island Constance (1938:148) cited Palmer 74 and Anthony 252. Many 
collections he found impossible to assign with any degree of certainty to either the species 
or the variety, and he remarked that the rather abundant collections from Guadalupe Island 
illustrate admirably the confusing transitions that occur whenever the two occur together. 

Phacelia floribunda Greene, Bull. Calif Acad. Sci. 1:200. 1885. 

Phacelia phyllomanica A. Gray var. interrupla A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:87. 1876. 

Range. — Endemic to Santa Barbara, San Clemente, and Guadalupe Islands. 

Rather dense annual to 6 dm high and wide; flowers lavender, February to May. 

Palmer found this plant frequent in wann nooks in rocky ravines in the "middle" and at 
the "south end" of the island (Watson 1876:1 18). Greene (1885:226) found it in the lower 
parts of the island. It is occasional in arroyos in the southern half of the island, from the 
lobster camp and West Anchorage south and on Islote Negro and Outer Islet, and less 
common now in the northern part. 

Gray named the variety from Palmer's Guadalupe Island collection (No. 72, GH holotype). 
Greene thought it in no wise resembled the gigantic half shmbby P. phyllomanica, of the 
upper precipices, except as regards the pinnately parted calyx lobes. In M5653, from 
Outer Islet, Marion Cave found h = 1 1 (Cave and Constance 1959). 

Phacelia phyllomanica A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:87. 1876. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Leafy subshrub 1-2 m high and to 2 m wide, canescent with dense short soft hairs and 
above longer villous, not hispid or glandular but somewhat viscid above. Leaves 6-10 
cm long, 3^.5 cm wide, pinnatisect, with 13—25 crowded oblong-linear pinnatifid seg- 
ments, the lobes short, oblong, sometimes few-toothed. Cincinni thyrsoid-congested, to 5 
cm long, with 40-55 flowers, at first dense, the flowers sessile. Calyx segments either 
all leaflike and 3-5-pinnately parted or 1-3 broadly linear and entire. Corolla blue-violet, 
slightly exceeding calyx, the scales short and broad. Annular disk conspicuous, the stamens 
subexserted. Chromosomes: n= II. (Fig. 63) 

Palmer found this plant rare, in large compact masses in the crevices of high rocks in 
the "middle" of the island (Watson 1876:118). Gray named the species from Palmer's 
collection (No. 72, GH type). Greene (1885:226) said it was shrubby below and often 
more than six feet high, the largest species known. Franceschi (1893c: 1 36) saw a con- 
siderable number in a limited locality on the cliff east of the corral; he called it a most 
elegant shrub, with finely cut foliage, dark green above and whitish below. In January 
1960 and May 1967 1 found a group of about eight shrubs, not flowering, high overhead 
on the cliffs of the Lower Circus (M7836. Ml 3782). One was ± 1.5 m high and 2 m 
wide. In 1981 I saw 6 or 8 large clumps out of reach on ledges of the western cliffs at 
1075 m, northwest of the cypress grove. Seeds from I960 grew at the U. C. Botanical 
Garden, flowering September 1962 (Fig. 63), and Marion Cave got a count of « = II 
(apparently unpublished). 



113 



Rl-ID MORAN 




Figure 63. The endemic shrubby Phacclia plnUomaiiua (A/7,S',iA). grown ni Berkeley froin seed 
from the Lower Circus. 3 September 14(i2, 

Pliolistoma racemosum (Null.) Constance, Bull. Toncy Bot. Club 66:340. 1939. 

Nemophilu nicciiioMi Null, e\ A (iray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 10:315, 1S75. 
Nfinnphihi iiiiiila ol' (iuadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Southern California to central Baja California and Isla Cedros; Santa Cruz, 
Santa Barbara. Santa Catalina, San Cleinente, Los Coronados, Todos Santos, San Martin, 
Cedros, and Natividad Islands. 

Palmer found this plant on wami slopes in the "middle" of the island and rarely at the 
"south end" (Watson 1876:118). Franceschi (1893c:136) found it plentiful among rocks 
all over the island. It is widespread in the northern half of the island, from the north slope 
to Juniper Canyon, locally common among rocks, and less common southward but ex- 
tending to Outer Islet. From Guadalupe Island Constance (1939:350) cited collections of 
Anthony, Franceschi, Greene, Palmer, and Rose. 

Labiatae 

^Pogogyiw teniiiflora A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:100. 1876. 

HedeomnidL's icmiillora (A. Gray) Bnq, in HngI, & Prantl. Nal, PHanzentam, IV. 3a:2^).>. 1X96. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer found this plant very rare among sage brush on the eastern side (Watson 1 876: 117). 
No one has found it since, and undoubtedly it is extinct. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Gray based P. tenuiflora on Palmer's collection (No. 65. GH holotype) from Guadalupe 
Island. This species falls in subgenus Hedeomoides A. Gray, which was made a separate 
genus by Briquet (1896), with the upper pair of stamens sterile. Howell (1931) thought 
it probably closest to the widespread P. serpylloides. mainly of central California and 
now very rare if not extinct in northwest Baja California near San Quintin. 

'fSatiireja palineri (A. Gray) Briq. in Engl. & PrantI, Nat. Ptlanzeiifam. IV, 3a:3()3. 
1896. 

Calamintha palmeri, A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:100. 1876. 
Clinopodium pahneri (A. Gray) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2:515. 1891. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer found this plant abundant among trees and sage brush in the "middle" of the 
island (Watson 1876:117). He said it was strong-scented and not eaten by the goats, but 
he didn't know how hungry they would be. Greene (1885:1 17) listed it without comment. 
No one has found it since, and undoubtedly it is extinct. 

Gray based the species on Palmer's collection (No. 66, GH holotype?). He placed this 
species in section Acinos and added the following remarks: "Calyx shorter than in C. 
acinos, in fruit less declined or ascending. Except for the four fertile stamens this plant 
would be referred to Hedeoma. The stamens are too straight and distant for a Calamintluu 
but apparently it may be referred to that polymorphous genus." 

Leguminosae 

Lotus argopliylliis (A. Gray) Greene ssp. oniithopiis (Greene) Raven, Aliso 5:326. 
1963. 

Hosackia ornithopus Greene, Bull. Calif Acad. Sci. 1:185. 1885. 

Syrmatium oniithopum (Greene) Greene, Bull. Calif Acad. 2:148. 1886. 

Lotus argophyllus var. ornithopus (Greene) Ottley, Univ. Calif Publ. Bot. 10:238. 1923. 

Hosackia argophylla of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and 
Guadalupe Islands. 

Palmer found this plant in the crevice of a rock (Watson 1876:114). Greene (1885:185, 
216) called it frequent in the middle of the island and mentioned it as one of four con- 
spicuous plants of middle altitudes where the trail climbed out of the canyon above the 
landing. Moran (1951:157) found it on the inner slope of the crater on Outer Islet. In the 
northern part of the island it is occasional on cliffs, with seedlings often seen on the 
slopes below. It is fairly common at West Anchorage and southward, often in aiToyos. 
The type of Hosackia ornithopus is Greene's collection of April 19, 1885, from Guadalupe 
Island (UC 80750, part of type). From var. ornithopus Isely (1 98 1) separated the plants 
of San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, San Clemente, and Santa Catalina Islands as var. argeiiteus 
Dunkle, thus leaving ssp. ornithopus only on Guadalupe Island. He wrote that Guadalupe 
plants had clusters of greatly exserted pods, some with 3 seeds, whereas plants from the 
northern islands have shorter pods, with only 2 seeds, as in other forms of L. argophyllus. 

Lotus grandifloriis (Benth.) Greene, Pittonia 2:145. 1890. 
Hosackia gramiiflora Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc. 17:366. 1837. 

115 



RFID MORAN 

Lotus guadalupensis Greene, Pittonia 2:144. 1890. 

Lotus grandiflorus (Benth.) Greene var. mutahilis Ottley, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bol. 10:208. 1923. 

Range. — Northem California to NW Baja California; Santa Rosa. Santa Cniz, and Santa 
Catalina Islands. 

Palmer found this plant among trees in the "middle" of the island (Watson 1876:114). 
Greene (18S5:222) saw no trace of it at Palmer's locality and found only a snigle large 
bushy plant in a nearly inaccessible crevice on the face of a cliff. No one saw it again 
until April 1 963, when Weber and McCoy ( 1 1969) and Copp ( 146) found it rather common, 
flowering in the aiToyo bed at Northeast Anchorage. It was still there in Februaiy 1965 
(Ml 2(11 2), but 1 failed to find it in 1967 and later. It seems unlikely to have been growing 
at Northeast Anchorage, the usual landing, all those years without having been found. 
Presumably it survived on some cliff above, got started in the arroyo in a year when 
goats were few, then disappeared when goats increased again. Meling L. 014. of March 
1982, is labeled "E.Mremo Sur." the extreme south end, which seems very improbable. 
Meling L. (1985:54) reported finding four plants near the "aguaje del bosque" and one 
in an arroyo near the south end. 

Greene (1885) at first reported his collection as Hosackia grandiflora. He later (189()b) 
described Lotus guadalupensis as follows: "Branches stout, erect, 2 feet high, from a 
suffnitescent base, and with the other parts minutely velvety: intemodes short, not equalling 
the sessile leaves: leaflets about 5 pairs, obovate-oblong, mucronulate: peduncles stout, 
surpassing the leaves, the 6— 10-flowered umbel with a large I -foliate bract: caly.x-teeth 
subulate-setaceous, rather shorter than the oblong-campanulate tube: corolla 6 to 7 lines 
long, yellow, ... It is singular among the species of this group in having numerous 
leaflets equally distributed on the rachis; so that only on account of its gland-like stipules 
is it retained in this place. But it is very closely related to [L. leucophaeus Greene] though 
more remote from the true L. graiulijlorus." 

Ottley (1923:208) and Wiggins (1980:680) included L. guadalupensis in L grandiflorus. 
^Lupinus hicolor Lindl., Bot. Reg. 13: pi. 1 109. 1827. 

Lupinus /vcii/or Lindl, var. microplni/us (S. Watson) C. P. Sm,. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 50:382. 

1924. 
Lupiiuis Ivcolor Lmdl, ssp. microplnlhis (S. WatsonI D. B. Dunn, Aliso 3:1.S1. 1955. 

Range. — British Columbia to Sonora and central Baja California; islands of southern 
California except Santa Barbara. 

The first collections of this plant from Guadalupe Island are by Drent in 1898 and Brown 
in 1906, both without specific localities (Smith 1923:385). It grows in grassy places in 
the northeast part of the island, from Northeast Anchorage and the spring to El Picacho, 
generally rather scarce but in a few places locally common in good years. Since earlier 
botanists failed to find it even though they collected in the general area where it now 
grows, I list it as a possible late arrival (Table 2). 

This plant has been reported before as L. hicolor var. or ssp. microplnilus. but Riggins 
and Sholars ( 1993:628) found the named varieties and subspecies ± indistinct in geography 
and moiphology and in need of further study. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Lupimis guadalupemis Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci. 1:184. 1885. (Not L. giiadalu- 
pensis C. P. Sm. 1951.) 

Range. — Endemic to San Clemente and Guadalupe Islands. 

Greene (1885:184) found this plant on the high plateau of the island, in good fruit but 
nearly past flowering April 23. It now appears to be rather scarce and local on the east 
side of the island just below the middle, at 100-650 m, from the mouth of Long Canyon 
to the slopes of El Picacho and the slope south of Mt. Augusta. Besides Greene's col- 
lections, Dunn (1957) cited one by Brandegee. 

On San Clemente Island this plant has been named L. clementinus C. P. Sm., L. alicle- 
mentiims C. P. Sm., and L. moranii Dunkle. Dunn (1955) considered it an insular relict 
connecting L. nanus and L. affinis with certain Mexican species. 

Liipinus niveiis S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:126. 1876. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

This is a densely white tomentose bush to 4 din high and 1 m wide, mostly living only 
one season, with light blue flowers. (Fig. 64) 

Palmer found this plant only in the "middle" of the island, on high cliffs, only one plant 
in bloom, March 25 (Watson 1876: 1 14). Greene (1885:222) also saw only one flowering 
plant and that almost inaccessible; but numerous seedlings of this, or else of an annual 
species with the same pubescence, were growing on level ground south and west of the 
cabins, where the goats no longer ranged. On his second trip Palmer found it in flower 
and fruit March 29 in the sandy bed of a canyon at the south end (Vasey and Rose 
1890:23). In the northern part of the island it is rarely found flowering on cliffs, but the 
seedlings are occasional, widespread on the slopes and down to the beach. At the south 
end in a good year it is abundant and beautiful in sandy arroyo beds (Plate IF). 

Smith (1922:205) called this a very distinct isolated insular species, not closely related 
to any other known species but better lined up with L. nanus, at least for the time. Dunn 
(196()) grew L. niveus in the greenhouse and tried crosses with two subspecies of L. 
nanus. Although he got no seed, some pods started to develop, suggesting to him that 
the two species had some affinity and that the placement of L. niveus in the Micranihi 
was correct. Hamion and Dunn (1968) found in the greenhouse that L. niveus was a 
short-lived perennial. (At the south end of the island 1 noted a few plants that clearly 
were living over a second year.) They also crossed it with several shrubby Califomian 
perennials and a South American annual. They concluded that L. niveus is a relictual 
species transitional between these shrubby lupines and the annual Micranihi. 

*Medicago polymorpha L., Sp. PI. p. 779. 1753. 

Medicago hi.spuia Gaertner, De Fruct. Sem. PI. 2:349. 1791. 

Range. — Native to southern Europe; a widespread weed in western North America. 

Howell (1942:150) was first to report this weed on the island; he saw it only near the 
barracks. I also have seen it only in that vicinity. The var. brevispina (Benth.) Heyn. is 
also there. 



117 



REID MORAN 




FiGliRt 64. The endemic Lupiinis iinviis grown in San Diego. 2^ May I'^Sl. 

*MelUotHs indka (L.) All. Fl. Ped. 1:308. 1785. 

Ranch. — Native to Eurasia; a widespread weed in North America. 

Palmer on his second trip found this plant common along the beach at the north end and 
ascending into shady canyons (Vasey and Rose 1890:24). I have seen it only at Northeast 
Anchorage and in the mouth of Esparsa Canyon, in neither place common. 

Trifoliiini dcpaiipcnitiim Des\ . var. Iriincatiiin (Greene) Martin c.\ isley. Brittonia 
32:56. U)8(), 

Tn/nlnini iiimiililhinini Greene. Pittonia .V2I5. IS')?. 
TnloluiD! uDiplcctcns of Guadakipe island ret'erences. 

RANGE:. — Central California to NW Baja California; islands of southern California except 
Santa Barbara. 



118 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Palmer found this plant rare, only on the beach on the east side of the island (Watson 
1876:1 14). Franceschi (1893c: 135) saw it only in the canyon near the landing, but not in 
large numbers. Howell (1942:150) found it common at higher elevations. It is fairly com- 
mon on the north end and about the spring. 

Greene in 1897 described T. minutijlorum as follows: "Annual, very slender, glabrous, 
the numerous branches decumbent, a few inches to almost a foot long: leaflets 1/2 to 3/4 
inch long, the lowest exactly linear, tnmcate or emarginate, the others oblong-linear and 
abruptly acutish, all somewhat serrately and very evenly denticulate: peduncles fllifonu, 
much longer than the leaves: heads not much more than 2 or 3 lines broad in flower; 
involucre parted into 6 or 7 oblong entire lobes: calyx teeth subulate-lanceolate, herbaceous 
almost throughout: corollas moderately inflated in age." 

"An interesting species, allied to T. Inmcatiim and T. hydrophlliim, which latter it agrees 
with in having the leaflets of its earliest leaves narrower than those of the later ones, in 
which respect these two differ from all other West American clovers. This one is of 
southern California and Guadalupe Island." 

^Trifolium gracileiitum Torr. & A. Gray, FI. N. Amer. 1:316. 1838. 

Range. — British Columbia to NW Baja California; islands of southern California and 
Todos Santos. 

Howell (1942:150) was first to find this plant (8247), calling it the common clover at 
lower elevations at the north end of the island, as on the slope of the pine ridge. It is 
common on North Point and the uplands about the spring, extending to the beach and to 
the south end mesa. Because it is so widespread and common now but was not found 
until 1932, 1 list it with those west American plants that probably are introduced on the 
island (Table 2). 

Trifolium microcephaliim Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2:478. 1814. 

Range. — British Columbia and Montana to NW Baja California; San Miguel, Santa 
Rosa, Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina. and San Clemente Islands. 

Palmer found this clover very abundant at the "middle" and north end of the island 
(Watson 1876:114). It is widespread, from the beach to Mt. Augusta and from North 
Point to the northwest slope to El Picacho, often rather common, and then less common 
southward, as in the bed of Arroyo Melpomene. 

Trifolium palmeri S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:132. 1876. 

Trifolium gracileiuiim Torr. & A. Gray var. palmeri (S. Watson) McDermotl. N. Amer. Trifol. p. 
'300. 1910. 

Range. — Endemic to San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, San Clemente. and 
Guadalupe Islands. 

Palmer found this clover rather abundant in the "middle" of the island among rocks and 
trees on hillsides (Watson 1876:114). On his second trip, in a year of good rainfall, he 
called it very common in large masses in canyons and plains at the north end and quite 
common on the south end in wet sand in canyons; he added that it was widely distributed 
over the island and formed the main food supply of the goats (Vasey and Rose 1890). 
In the northeast part of the island it grows mainly in the mouths of the canyons, but from 

119 



REID MORAN 

West Anchorage and El Picacho southward it is more widespread and common. It is also 
on Islote Negro. 

Zohary and Heller (1984) followed McDemiott in treating this as a variety of T. gnicilen- 
iiinv, and it is closely related, differing chiefly in leaf shape. However, Raven (1963:328) 
considered that on San Clemente Island the two were completely distinct both ecologically 
and morphologically. And they likewise appear distinct on Guadalupe, in South Esparsa 
Canyon in 1958 growing side by side (M6598, M6599). Steve Junak tells me he has found 
them distinct also on Santa Barbara and San Nicolas Islands. 

ficia /lussi'i S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 25:129. 1890. 
riaci cMgiui \'ar. luissei (S. Watson) Jcps., Fl. W. Mid. Calif p, 296. 1901. 

Range. — Southern Oregon to NW Baja California; Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa. 
San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, Los Coronados, and Todos Santos Islands. 

Palmer in a wet year called this plant common on shady sides of ravines at the north end 
(No. 847, Vasey and Rose 1890:24). Ordinarily, it is rather scarce on the island, as on 
the slope above Northeast Anchorage and on El Picacho. Coinmonly this has been called 
a variety of C exigiia, now included in ('. huloviciana. However, Lassetter (1975) and 
Gunn (1979) have treated it as a monomorphic species of more limited range, similar to 
the polymorphic )'. ludoviciaiui but distinguished by the apical abaxial stylar brush and 
the pubescent ovaries and pods. Gunn cited Guadalupe collections by Palmer (S47), Wig- 
gins and Ernst CnO), and Moran (M6643). 

Vicia liidoviciana Nutt. ssp. ludovkiana 

Vicia liidoviciana Nutt. in Torr. & A. Gray. Fl. N. Amcr. 1:271. 1S38. 
Vicia exigiia Nutt. in Torr. & A. Gray. Fl. N. Amcr, 1:272. 183S. 

Range. — To SE US and N Mexico: the exigua phase Northern California to NW Baja 
California; Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands. 

This species seems to be slightly more common than the other, as near the spring, in 
Esparsa Canyon, in the arroyo bed of Long Canyon, and at West Anchorage. 

According to Gunn (1979), I', ludovicuina includes two subspecies, and ssp. liidoviciana 
consists of five geographic races (phases) that are not given formal names: phase exigiia. 
corresponding to V. exigiia Nutt., grows mainly in southern California and northwest Baja 
California. Lassetter (1984) reached similar conclusions and in his fig. 5 showed his race 
4 confined to California and Baja California, including Guadalupe Island. 

Loasaceae 

Mentzelia mkrantha (Hook. & Am.) Ton. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:535. 1840. 

Menizclia dispcr.sa of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — California to NW Baja California; Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina, and San Cle- 
mente Islands. 

Palmer found this plant in ravines in the "middle" and at the "south end" (Watson 
1876:1 15); and on his second trip he reported it common in canyons at the south end 

120 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

(Vasey and Rose 1890:24). Greene (1885:223), failing to find M. dispersa of Watson's 
list, reported M. micrantha as an addition to the flora, seen only on the beach near the 
landing and probably a recent introduction. It is widespread mostly at low elevations, 
mostly in arroyo beds, from Northeast Anchorage to Arroyo Melpomene, but nowhere 
common. 

Although Watson and Vasey and Rose identified Palmer's specimens as A/, dispersa S. 
Watson, Darlington (1934:193) cited at least one of his specimens as M. micrantha and 
cited no Mexican collections of A/, dispersa. Harry Thompson in 1975 verified my six 
collections as M. micranlha. 

Malvaceae 

Lavatera lindsayi Moran, Madrono 11:158. 1951. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island, and known there only on Outer Islet and Middle 
Rock. 

Open shrub to 7 dm tall and 11 dm wide, the stem to 4 cm thick; herbage velvety with a 
dense stellate puberulence. Leaf blades round-cordate with sinus nearly closed, 3-9 cm 
wide, 5- to 7-lobed one-third of way to base or less, the lobes rounded, coarsely crenate; 
petioles 2—5 cm long. Flowers several in upper axils, pendent on jointed pedicels nearly 
equalling flowers, campanulate, 4.5-5.5 cm wide. Involucel 8-15 mm long, of 3 oblong 
rounded bracts united in lower third. Calyx 20-25 mm long in flower, to 32 mm long in 
fruit, divided nearly to middle into triangular-ovate acute or acuminate segments. Petals 
erect or slightly ascending but not widespreading, deep purple throughout, with darker 
veins, obovate-spatulate, emarginate, 3-5 cm long, 10-18 mm wide. Staminal column 25- 
35 mm long. Fruit 9-12 mm wide, enclosed in calyx; mericarps 8—10, smooth, 1-seeded. 
This shrub flowers January to August (Figs. 65, 66; Carlquist 1965, fig. 14-7). 

This shrub grows on the north outer slope, on the inner slope, and in the upper valley of 
Outer Islet, from 20 to 190 m, and I also saw it in 1970 on Middle Rock; it has never 
been found on the main island. Flowers were collected in January, February, and April, 
with L. occidentalis. and most plants were still flowering in June and August, when L. 
occidentalis was past flowering and largely leafless. In the upper valley where the two 
occur together, I found a single plant that seemed to be a hybrid (A/5650); the petals are 
erect below, spreading from near the middle, whitish with 5 diffuse purple stripes and 
suffiised with purple between. 

Lavatera lindsayi differs from L. occidentalis in its denser pubenilence, smaller and more 
shallowly lobed leaves, later flowering, and more erect purple petals (Plate 2G). Since 
the two grow together and since their flowering times overlap, the apparent rarity of 
hybrids is noteworthy. Moreover, plants of L. occidentalis on Outer Islet are even less 
pubenilent than other collections of that species and agree with them in floral characters, 
thus in these respects showing no approach to L. lindsayi. Yet it is remarkable that of all 
collections of L. occidentalis, those from Outer Islet (Fig. 68) most closely approach L. 
lindsayi (Fig. 66) in leaf shape, having comparatively short and rounded lobes. 

Lavatera occidentalis S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:124. 1876. 
Lavatera insiilaris S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 12:249. 1877. 
Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe and South Coronado Islands. 

121 



REID MORAN 




FUjI Rl s (i5 and 66. The endemic Lavatcra lindsavi on Outer Islet. FltaiRi; 65. Flowering shrub 
{i\ll5IJf<), 21 June 1%8. FIGURE 66. Flowering branch [M564.S), 11 February 1957. 



122 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Summer-deciduous shrub 0.5-3 m tall and to 2 m or more wide, or hanging from cliffs 
to 4 m, the trunk to 1 dm thick, the herbage thinly stellate-puberulent. Leaves round-cor- 
date, 6— 16 cm wide, 7-lobed a third to nearly half way to base, the lobes rounded to 
subacute, to 3.5 cm long and 3 cm wide, coarsely crenate, the sinus nearly closed to open 
at 110-130°, the petioles 3-23 cm long. Flowers axillary, solitary, on detlexed pedicels 
2—3 cm long and jointed just above middle. Involucre of 3 subequal bractlets 7-10 mm 
long, 2-5 mm wide, connate 1.5-3 mm. Calyx in flower 25—28 mm long, the lobes fo- 
liaceous, 18-19 mm long, 12-13 mm wide; in fruit 30-36 mm long or 5.5-6.6 cm wide, 
the lobes spreading, ovate, acute, veiny, (15-) 18-25 mm long, (10-) 15-19 mm wide. 
Petals ascending in lower third (within calyx), then spreading or somewhat recurved, 
nanowly spatulate with a broad naked claw, emarginate, 4-6 cm long, 13—15 mm wide 
above, ± 4 mm wide at base, greenish white below, whitish diaphanous above, with 3 
faint narrow diverging purple stripes near center above. Staminal column ± 25—27 nmi 
long, the broad base dark purple. Style + 9 mm long, the lobes ± 22 mm long. Fruit 12—15 
mm wide, enclosed in calyx, finely pubescent; carpels 6—10, 4.5—5.5 mm high, about 
equalling the short conical summit of the axis. Seeds dark brown, 4.5 mm wide. The 
shrub flowers January to April and was seen flowerless and nearly leafless in .lune and 
August. 

Palmer found this shrub conspicuous on the cliffs in the "middle" of the island, only 
rarely and with difficulty accessible, in flower and immature fruit in April (Watson 
1876:113). Greene (1885:222) called it a larger shrub than described, the large ones 10 
feet high. Franceschi (1893c: 134) saw a few scattered specimens, all on the most inac- 
cessible rocks east of the island, and found a few seedlings not likely to sui'vive. Moran 
(1951:157) found it common on the inner slope of the crater on Outer Islet. There are 
also a small colony on the floor of the crater, at 30 m, and a few plants in the upper 
valley. Here the plant is likely to survive, but on the main island it is now very rare and 
only on cliffs. In 1960 two large dense shrubs grew on cliffs of the Lower Circus (M7835, 
7835a), quite possibly in the place meant by Palmer and Franceschi, one near the base, 
the other high out of reach (Fig. 67); but by 1981 the lower one was gone. In 1970 two 
grew at 300 m on the south rim of Esparsa Canyon at the mouth {M1SI45). In 1963, a 
year when plants were somehow getting ahead of goats, Weber and McCoy found a single 
seedling (11968) near the zigzag trail above the ban'acks, but I failed to find it there in 
1965. And in 1965 I found a single young plant ± 1 m high on the bank of Arroyo 
Melpomene at 400 m (Ml 2074), which I did not find again in 1967. 

The plants of Outer Islet are small, rarely more than 1 m tall. The leaves are more sparsely 
pubenilent than in other collections and are lobed only about a third of the way to the 
base, with rounded lobes, and the sinus is nearly closed (Fig. 68). The plants of Esparsa 
Canyon had leaves with very open sinuses, which are similar to the leaves of Brandegee's 
collection (UC). Moran (1951:158) pointed out the close similarity of L. insidaris S. 
Watson, of Islas los Coronados, to L occideutalis, of Guadalupe Island, suggesting that 
it be included in the same species, as Fryxell (1988) did; but in 1985 George Krebs 
annotated specimens from Coronado as L. insulahs. That grows only on the south island, 
where it seemed to be one continuous population, and the collections are rather uniform. 
Collections from Guadalupe Island are variable in leaf shape, but some closely match the 
specimens from the Coronado Islands. Greene (1885) said the flowers of L. insulahs were 
exactly those of Z-. occidentalis. and so it appears except that they average a little smaller, 
± 3—5 cm long. There is little to separate the two. 



123 



REID MORAN 




Figure 67 and 68. The insular endemic Lavatera occidentalis, found only on Guadalupe and on 
South Coronado Island. Figure 67. One of two plants high on cliff of Lower Circus (M7S3!<), 27 
.lanuary I960. Figure 68. Flowering branch {M5643) on Outer Islet. 11 Febniary 1957. 



124 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

*Malva parviflora L., Demonstr. PL p. 18. 1753. 

Malva borealis of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Native of Eurasia; a widespread weed in North America and elsewhere. 

Palmer found this plant only on the richer open spots in the "middle" of the island, in 
dense masses (Watson 1876:1 13), but after his second trip reported it now introduced all 
over the island (Vasey and Rose 1890:23). Greene (1885:221) found it very common on 
the eastward slope. It is now widespread over the island and some places locally common, 
especially on the north slope. 

Sphaeralcea palfiieri Rose, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 1:23. 1890. 

Range. — Endemic to the southern half of Guadalupe Island. 

Plant perennial with a stout woody crown to 2 cm thick, densely yellowish canescent with 
very short hairs, those of the stems 0.15-0.20 mm long, with ca. 25 rays. Stems erect or 
arching to prostrate, conspicuously angled, mostly 2-6 dm long and 2-A mm thick and 
dying back nearly to the thick woody base but in sheltered spots sometimes persisting 
and to 1 m long and 1 cm thick. Leaf blades thick, rugose, with veins very prominent 
beneath, broadly ovate to subrhomboidal, 3-veined from base and sometimes faintly 3- 
lobed, at base cuneate, at apex obtuse to rounded or retuse, rarely acute, 2.5—6 cm long, 
2-4.5 cm wide, crenulate-toothed, the petioles stout, 1-4 cm long, 1/5—1/2 as long as 
blade. Inflorescence a narrow thyrse with lower branches not more than 5 cm long. Pedicels 
stout, shorter than fruiting calyx. Calyx at anthesis 6—9 mm high, with ovate acutish 
strongly ribbed lobes equalling in length the angular-ribbed tube. Petals widespreading, 
white or pinkish, yellowish or yellowish green at base, conspicuously veined, nanowly 
obovate with long narrow claws, 13—17 mm long, 4-10 mm wide, with dense tuft of hairs 
on each margin near base. Column sparsely or rather copiously pubescent. Fniit higher 
than hemisperical, about 2/3 as high as fruiting calyx. Carpels 12-17, with chartaceous 
walls, 4—5 mm high, ca. half as wide, broadly and shallowly notched, the dehiscent part 
erect, ovate, at apex rather narrow but obtuse, muticous, the indehi scent part forming 
1/4—1/2 of the carpel, rather prominently reticulate; attaching threads short. Seeds 2, very 
pubescent. (Description modified from Kearney 1935.) 

Palmer, on his second trip, found this plant in all exposed parts on the south end of the 
island (Vasey and Rose 1890:23). Moran (1951:159) reported it occasional on the crater 
floor. Outer Islet. It is fairly common at West Anchorage and on the south end mesa and 
also grows on Islote Negro (Fig. 69) as well as Outer Islet. 

Rose based the species on Palmer 867 (type US; GH, K, NY, UC) and H68. Kearney 
(1935) kept it distinct from 5. siilpburea. his concept of the species based only on five 
specimens of Palmer's two collections. His key characters for S. palmeri were plant yel- 
lowish-canescent (vs. whitish-canescent or tomentose), stems conspicuously angled (vs. 
terete or nearly so), leaf blades with veins very prominent beneath, strongly cuneate (vs. 
with veins not very prominent beneath, subcordate to subcuneate), calyx conspicuously 
ribbed (vs. not conspicuously ribbed), and carpels about 17 (vs. about 12); and his de- 
scriptions suggest various other differences. With the study of more material of both 
species, these differences seem to hold up to some degree, though some of them become 
less absolute. In particular, there is considerable overlap in the number of carpels, though 
there appears to be some difference in the means. Kearney placed these two species by 
themselves in his section Sulphweae, distinguished by the petals less than half as wide 

125 



REID MORAN 




FiGLiRF 69. The endemic SphaeniLva puliiicri (A/.i''AV,V) on Isiote Negro. 1^ April 1057. 



as long. His chart of hypothetical relationships shows this section as rather isolated but 
closest to the Emoiyanae. That section includes two species of central and southern Baja 
California and one extending from southern Nevada and southeast California to northern 
Sonora and northern Baja California. Fryxeli (1988) closely followed Kearney's treatment. 

Sphaerakea siilphurea S. Watson. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11125. 1876. 
Siilii hcderacca and .S'. Icpiosa hederacca of Guadalupe Island references. 



RaNGI: 



Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 



Plant perennial, to ± 1 m high and 1-1.5 m wide, with rather stout woody crown, densely 
whitish canescent or tomentose with short hairs, those of stem 0.2-0.4 mm long, with 
20-25 rays. Stems numerous, erect or arching from near base, to 5 mm thick. Leaf blades 
usually thickish, with veins not very prominent beneath, broadly ovate, deltoid, or nearly 
orbicular, at base subcuneate to subcordate, at apex very obtuse to acutish and sometimes 
mucionate, 3-5-veined from base, shallowly 3-lobed at or below middle with rounded or 
acutish lobes, the margin finely to rather coarsely crenate and often somewhat mgose, 
the larger blades 3-9 cm long, 2/3 as wide to wider than long, the petioles slender or 
rather stout, 1/3-1 1/2 times as long as blade. Inflorescence an intemipted many-flowered 
thryse, narrow or with lower branches up to 12 cm long, and often forked. Pedicels rather 
stout, usually much shorter than fruiting calyx. Calyx at anthesis 5—7 mm high, with 
lanceolate or deltoid-ovate, acute or short-acuminate lobes 1-2 1/2 times as long as tube. 
Petals in bud pale orange at tips, in anthesis spreading, white, greenish or yellowish at 
base, conspicuously veined, oblanceolate or narrowly obovate with long narrow claws, 
10-15 mm long and 1/3 to 1/2 as wide. Column sparsely pubescent. Fruit higher than 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

hemispherical, ± 2/3 as high as calyx; carpels ± 2, with thin, chartaceous walls. 3^.5 mm 
high and 1/2 to 2/3 as wide, shallowly to rather deeply notched, the dehiscent part erect 
or ascending, ovate or deltoid, obtuse, muticous to short-cuspidate, the indehiscent part 
forming about 1/3 of carpel, prominently and somewhat coarsely reticulate; attaching 
threads short or rather long. Ovules 2 or 3. Seeds 1-3. sparsely pubescent. (Description 
modified from Kearney 1935.) 

Palmer found this plant very abundant on rocky slopes and in the crevices of the highest 
rocky ridges, from the "middle" of the island to the "southern end," where it was most 
frequent (Watson 1876:113). Greene (1885:216) found it quite abundant on the gentler 
declivity leading to the plateau from the zigzag trail out of the canyon. Franceschi 
(1893c:134) called it much more abundant than lavatera, one of the very few plants of 
which some meager specimens may be seen scattered about even in places occasionally 
visited by goats; he saw seedlings and young plants near the landing, both on the beach 
and on the dry lava rock. It is common on cliffs in the northeast part of the island, from 
Northeast Anchorage and Esparsa Canyon to the Lower Circus, and south as far as the 
lobster camp. In 1981 I saw it on western cliffs at 1075 m, northwest of the cypress 
grove. It seems not to be at the north end. Kearney ( 1935:34) cited specimens of Palmer 
(No. 18 GH, type; CM. F. K, MICH, MO, NY, PH, UC. US). Greene, Franceschi. Bran- 
degee, Drent, Anthony, and Mason. 

Froin a collection of Thobum. Green, and Wing in July 1897, Dudley (1899:282) listed 
"Sphaeraclea? Material scanty. Near noilheast landing." The specimen (DS 140703) was 
annotated by T. H. Kearney as "Sida hederacea ?" and by 1. D. Clement in 1948 as 
"? Sida leprosa var. hederacea"; but Clement (1957:58) cited it as S. leprosa var. hederacea 
(Dougl.) K. Schum., without the query. Most leaves are folded so that it is hard to tell 
their shape, but some clearly are ovate and longer than in the sida. There is no question 
that this is the sphaeralcea. 

Nyctaginaceae 

Mirabilis californica A. Gray in Torr., Bot. Me.x. Bound, p. 173. 1859. 

Hesperonia heimerlii Standi.. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. LV412. IQIL 
Mirabilis heimerlii (Standi.) J. F. Macbr., Contr. Gray Herb. 56:24. 1918. 
Mirabilis laevis of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — SW California and NW Baja California; Santa Rosa, Santa Cniz. Anacapa. 
Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands and islands of NW Baja Cali- 
fornia. 

Low shmb to 2 m wide and mostly 2-3 dm high, with many prostrate branches, the stem 
to 2 cm thick, with gray bark, the branches brittle, glabrous, glaucous, much swollen at 
nodes. Leaf blades subsucculent, deltoid-ovate, cordate at base, obtuse or acutish, 1^ 
(-5.5) cm long, to 4.5 cm wide, + 1 mm thick, usually glabrate but younger ones glandular 
puberulent. the petioles half as long as blades or upper ones much shorter. Involucres 
numerous in axils of leaves, on peduncles 0.5—3 mm long, or congested at ends of branches, 
campanulate. often purplish, densely glandular-puberulent. 3-6 mm long at anthesis. 5—8 
mm long in fruit, the lobes deltoid to ovate, 1-3 mm long. Perianth purple, 8-12 mrn 
long, glandular-puberulent on parts exposed in bud. Anthocarp globular to prolate, 3-4.5 
min long, 2.5-3 mm thick, dark brown. 

Palmer found this shmb in crevices of the walls of canyons on the east side (Watson 



REIDMORAN 

1876:1 18) and on his second trip reported it common at the south end (Vasey and Rose 
1890:26). In the northeast part of the island it is not uncommon on beach cliffs, ascending 
to 450 m on the north rim of Barracks Canyon at the mouth, and occasional on cliffs in 
the canyons. In the southern part it is more common, especially near the shore but also 
inland in arroyos and on mesas, at least to 350 m, as well as on Islote Negro and 
Outer Islet. 

Standley (1911) based Hesperonia heimerlii on Palmer S86 (US22626, holotype), from 
the south end of Guadalupe Island, and on collections of Franceschi and Rose. He named 
it for Dr. Anton Heimerl, a student of the family, who had marked specimens of it as a 
new species. Standley said that the fomi of the fioiit ("spherical or slightly depressed 
vertically") placed it nearM cedrosensis Standley, from which it differed in its pubescence, 
the plants "glandular pubescent, never scabrate." Likewise, Macbride (1918) separated 
Mirahilis heimerlii by its "truly globose fruit." Wiggins (1980: 149) and Wallace ( 1985:21 ) 
also recognized A/, heimerlii as a Guadalupe endemic. Recent collections, however, show 
that the fruit varies and is often somewhat longer than thick. 

Since Ferris (1964) has clarified the distinction of A/, califoniica A. Gray from A/, laevis 
(Benth.) Curran, the Guadalupe plant clearly belongs to the A/, califoniica complex, agree- 
ing in the fonn of the involucre. It is perhaps woodier than typical A/, californica and 
tends to differ in its shorter anthocarp and perhaps larger leaves. From var. cedrosensis 
it differs in its pubescence, which is fairly unifonn in all collections. No combination of 
characters is evident to separate it from all other members of this complex, and it is 
similar to some plants of San Clemente Island. 

Olcaceae 
^Hesperelaea palmeri A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:83. 1876. 
R.ANGF.. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

This was a rather compact glabrous tree 20 to 25 feet high, with entire coriaceous mostly 
opposite leaves and temiinal panicles of perfect 4-merous lemon-colored tlowers, and 
with fmit undoubtedly drupaceous (Fig. 70). 

Palmer found only three live trees, in a canyon on the east side; he saw no young trees 
but many dead ones (Watson 1876:1 18). Brandegee (1900:22) remarked that goats were 
not the only extemiinators of endemic species, "for I searched in vain for Hesperelaea at 
the exact locality where Dr. Palmer found it and could only find a goat conal made from 
trees chopped down in the vicinity." No one has seen it since, and it is undoubtedly 
extinct. 

Gray called this genus remarkable in the Oleaceae for its wholly distinct and unguiculate 
petals, imbricate above, and its apparently unifomily isomerous stamens. The genus has 
remained monotypic and so is endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Onagraccac 

Camhsonia i>iiaclaliipensis (S. Watson) Raven ssp. guadalupensis 

Oeiiotlwra giiudciliipcnsis S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 1 1:137. 1S76. 
Camlssoiiio guadalupensis (S. Watson) Raven, Brittonia 16:284. 1964. 
Oenauthc guadalupensis of Guadalupe Island references. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 



lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



lllllllllllllllllllll 




Figure 70. Flowering branch of the remarkable Hesperelaea palmeri. a small tree of the Olcaceae. 
now extinct. In 1875 Palmer found many dead but only three still alive; no one has found it smce. 
Hesperelaea was an endemic monotypic genus of Guadalupe Island. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer found only two plants, in a ravine on the east side near the beach (Watson 
1876;1 15). In 1958 Ernst and 1 found seven plants widely scattered in the bed of Anoyo 
Melpomene at 450 m {Moran and Enisl 6737) (Plate 2H), and in 1965 I found two more 
in the same arroyo at ca. 300 and 400 m (Ml 2070). Raven studied plants raised from the 
seeds of the first collection, as Raven 17530 and /<S7 75 (DS). 

In a list of plants known only from Guadalupe Island, Vasey and Rose (1890:22) included 
"9. Oenanlhe guadahipensis Wat." There is no such name in Oenanthe. and no member 
of that genus has been found on Guadalupe Island or seems likely to be. The similarity 



129 



R[-inMORAN 

1)1' the generic name, the use of the same specific epithet and author, and the position in 
the hst, together show that this is an error for Oenothera guadaliipensis S. Watson. Joseph 
Rose's field notebook for March 1911 (US) shows Rose 1 690 1 as Oenaiuhe giiaclaliipensis. 
suggesting that he may have found the rare endemic camissonia in the same part of the 
island where Pahner found it. However, Dr. Raven wrote mc that he was unable to find 
Rose's specimen at LIS. 

Raven ( 19(i.V.v^2) described a ssp. clemeiuimi froiu San Clemente Island, where he later 
(l'-)(i9;275) reported it as common on dunes around the noilh end and down the west 
shore, up to 100 feet elevation. He found it to differ in its spreading rather than appressed 
sirigose pubescence, in the presence of short glandular trichoines in the inflorescence, 
and in the presence of a red dot near the base of each petal. Raven (1969) found both 
plants autogamous, with a gametic chromosome number of ;; = 7. Reciprocal F| hybrids 
showed no evidence of chromosomal structural heterozygosity, but reduced stainability 
of pollen suggested a substantial reduction in fertility in the hybrids, although seed-set 
did not appear to be impaired. 

ifCamissonia robusta Raven, Brittonia 16:2X4. 1964 
OciKilhcra luuiiiiulni of (iiiadalupe Island references, 

RANCii . — Southern California to NW Baja California; San Miguel, Santa Cruz, Santa 
Catalina, and San Clemente Islands. 

Moran (1951:160) found this plant in the canyon mouth at Northeast Anchorage, where 
it has remained fairly common in later years (Fig. 71). It has also been found near the 
spring (Lindsay in 194H), rather scarce on the northwest slope at 550 m (Ml 7295). and 
near the north rim of Barracks Canyon at 500 m (\II^SI)4). 

Because this plant was fairly common at the landing uhere e\ery botanical \isitor to the 
island had come ashore without finding it, Moran (1951:160) thought it very likely a new 
aiTival. Raven (1963:298) at first also called it probably introduced. Judging later from 
the phylogeographic relationships of Guadalupe Island and from the scarcity of the plant 
on San Clemente Island, however. Raven ( 1969:305) thought it equally likely that it might 
simply have gone undetected on Guadalupe before and have become more common re- 
cently. He added that it probably will not be po.ssible to resolve this question definitely. 
I list it with those west American plants that arc probably introduced (Table 2). 

A nussing piece to this puzzle may possibly be the Rose collection (1 6911 1) oi' "Ociianihe 
giia(ialiipe}isis," mentioned under the previous species. Was that really C. guadaliipensis, 
or could it possibly have been C. mhustal If C. rohusiii. it would show that this plant 
was already on the island by 1911 and then perhaps more likely native. 

iEpilohimti foliosiim (Toit. & A. Gray) Suksd., Deutsch. Bot. Monatss. 18:S7. 1900. 

Epili'lvum miinituiii Liiidl. \ar. toliosum Torr. & .A. Gray, Fl. N. .Amer. 1 :4')0. 1N40. 
Epilohiiim miiiiiiiini of Guadalupe Island references. 

Ranch-.- Vancouver Island and Idaho to southern California; Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer found this plant onl\ at the north end, among rocks and sage brush (Watson 
1876:115). Greene (1885:223) found two or three plants in the same area. No one has 
seen it since, and it is doubtless extinct on the island. 

Seavev, Wriuht. and Ra\en (1977) found A", loliosuni distinct from E. imniituiii Lindl. in 



GUADALUPH ISLAND FLORA 

several respects, including chromosome number. Palmer's Guadalupe Island collection 
(K, MO, NY. UC) was hard to assign to either species, but from the flower size they 
tentatively called it E. foliosiini. 

Papaveraceae 

Dr. Wallace E. Ernst collected poppies on Guadalupe Island in April 1958 and reported 
some chromosome counts (Ernst 1958). He helped me straighten things out. 

^i^Eschscholzia californka Cham. var. californka 

Eschschotia californka Cham, in Noes, Hort. Phys. Ber. p. 73. 1820. 
Eschschobia gigas Fedde. Repert. Nov. Sp. 3;2S. 1906. 

Range. — Northern to southern California; San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Sanla C'niz, and 
Guadalupe Islands. 

Greene (1885:221) found this plant "luxuriating in one place only, near the edge of a 
precipice, northeast of the cabins," i.e. near the top of the Lower Circus. Franceschi 
(1893c: 133) reported it plentiful in the same limited locality, its leaves clipped pretty 
closely by the goats. No one has found it since, and it doubtless is extinct on the island. 

Greene descnbed the plant as follows: "Root perennial: stem robust, two feet high: petals 
orange, two inches long. The true E. califoniicay Franceschi affinned that it was perennial. 
Greene (1885:183) wrote that E. californica did not appear in southern California except 
at considerable altitudes in the mountains, as at San Gorgonio Pass and Tehachapi Pass, 
and he mentioned his collection from Guadalupe Island. He said that in all these localities 
it was the same robust large-flowered perennial so well known from San Francisco to the 
borders of British Columbia. Later, however, Greene (1905a) restricted E. californica to 
the San Francisco Peninsula but did not refer the Guadalupe specimen to any other species. 
Based only on Greene's collection (GH holotype''), Fedde in 1906 named E. gigas, thus 
a Guadalupe endemic, which he thought doubtless related to E. crocea and E. rigida but 
different in habit and in the fonn of the hypanthium. Dr. Ernst wrote me in 1962 that 
Greene's Guadalupe Island collection of 24 April 1885 at GH was annotated by Fedde 
as E. gigas Fedde. Ernst called this the giant coastal form of E. californica, the only 
specimen of it he had seen from Guadalupe Island. 

Greene thought this plant was "possibly of recent introduction." Although conceivably 
the goat hunters may have beautified the premises by planting California poppies, the 
ability o^ Eschschobia to reach this island is shown by the presence of three other species; 
and the finding of this unexpected northern one is consistent with the occurrence here of 
such other northern plants as Polypodium scouleri, Rihes sangiiineiim. and Eriophyllum 
lanatum. var. grandijloritm. On the other hand, since Palmer had camped nearby for 15 
weeks without finding this conspicuous plant, or three other plants later found by Greene, 
very likely it was a late arrival and not well established. I therefore list it with the west 
American plants probably introduced on the island (Table 2). 

Eschscholzia elegans Greene. Bull. Calif Acad. Sci. 1:182. 1885. 

Eschschohia californica var. hypecoides of Cjuadalupc Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island? 

Erect annual i-b dm high, branching above base, glabrous, very glaucous. Leaves finely 
dissected, their ultimate divisions long and parallel or shorter and divergent, linear or 

131 



REIDMORAN 

oblanceolate, acute. Calyptra ovoid, apiculate, 10 mm long. Torus cylindrical, the outer 
rim corky, the inner erect and hyaline. Corolla to 35 mm wide, the petals spreading with 
margins hardly meeting, 8-20 mm long, greenish yellow when fresh, turning orange on 
drying. Stamens 16-20, the filaments and anthers about equal. Pods thin-walled, slender, 
6-9 cm long. Seeds slightly elongated, apiculate, tuberculate, the raphe obvious. Chromo- 
somes: /) = 17 fide W. Emst. 

Palmer found this plant only at the "south end" in ravines and in the "middle" of the 
island on level ground (Watson 1876:112). Greene (1885:183) called it common in the 
middle and southern parts of the island, the type his collection at CAS? I found it common 
on the alluvial fan at West Anchorage (M5604, M5956). 

Eschscholzia palmeii Rose, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 1:23. 1890. 

PciKiincciin pabncn (Rose) Greene, Pittonia 5:2'^).'^, 1905. 

PciniDiL-ciiii Iniicsiciis Greene, Pittonia 5:2'^4. I'^OS. 

HschsclKilzia /niicscciis (Greene) .1. T. Howell, Lcafl. W. Bot. 3:140. 1Q42. 

RangF;. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Shrub to 5 dm high and 1 m wide, erect or with decumbent branches, with soft-woody 
stem to 4 cm thick, the bark corky, golden brown to gray, orange in fissures; but flowering 
the first season when still tiny and herbaceous. Foliage commonly dense, very glaucous 
when young, the leaves alternate, pedately dissected into moderately divergent long nar- 
row-linear subterete acute to obtuse segments, the petiole linear, to 4 cm long. Pedicels 
erect, rising above foliage, persisting stiff and conspicuous, to 17 cm tall. Toms a hemi- 
spherical subligneous cup, the outer margin a thick herbaceous ring, the inner elevated, 
thickish, corky. Calyptra almost spherical to ovate-conic, with short blunt point, 5-15 mm 
long. Corolla 1.5-6 cm wide, the petals spreading, bright yellow with orange basal spot, 
cuneate-obovate, 8-26 mm long. Stamens 50-80 or more, the filaments 3-10 min long, 
filifomi above a flattened base, the anthers linear'.', 2.5-3 mm long. Stigmas 4, not greatly 
elongated, clavellate. Pods 3-7 cm long, hard and subligneus, the valves fluted. Seeds 
with no superficial papery coat, appendage, or reticulation, but surface uneven by short 
interrupted subsinuous rugosities. Cotyledons linear, 1.5-3 cm long, ± 1 mm wide. Chro- 
mosomes: /; = 1 1 fide W. Emst. 

Paliner found this plant at the south end of the island, where he saw it only on a rocky 
ledge, but there common (Vasey and Rose 1890:23). In the northem part of the island it 
is occasional on .seacliffs and cliffs in the canyons and on the northwest cliff at 600 m 
(MI72SI). It is more cormnon on the mesa at the south end and on Islote Negro and 
Outer Islet, where many seedlings may be seen flowering in a good year (Plate 21). 

Greene (I9()5b) proposed the endemic genus Petromecou for E. palmerl and his new P. 
/niicsccns. He said the two species had something of the habit of the dendroid msular 
eschscholzias but a pedatifid foliage and the fiowers of Stylophorum as to the excessive 
number of stamens, 80 or more, on long filaments. He added that the toms and the stigmas 
approached those of Eschscholzia but were different, as also were the seeds. Fedde (1909, 
1936) continued to recognize Petromecou as an endemic genus of Guadalupe. On the 
other hand, Howell (1942), Emst (1958), and Wiggins (1980") remmed it to Eschscholzia. 
Eschscholzia palmeri clearly is a very distinct species but I think no more. 

Greene (1905b) based Petromecon frutescens on Franceschi's collection of January 1893 
from "rocky ledges on the northem slope of Guadalupe," the holotype at CAS. Evidently, 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

however, this is the plant mentioned by Franceschi {1893c: 134) under E. elegans var. 
ramosa: "perennial on a nearly inaccessible cliff of lava detritus on the right bank of the 
canyon 500 or 600 feet from the landing." Howell (1942:149) reported it from ocean 
bluffs inaccessible to goats near Northeast Anchorage. Greene described the species as 
much larger than P. palmeri, a foot high and as broad; growing branches and their foliage 
less succulent; older and naked branches wholly and solidly woody, the wood firm, com- 
pact, and hard; leaves ample, on long and slender petioles, pedately divided and cleft into 
long narrow-linear moderately divergent segments; calyx ovate-conic; corolla cnicifonn, 
the cuneate-obovate petals not meeting; stigmas 4, rather short, equal; pods and seeds not 
known. 

Ernst (1958) reported /! = 1 1 for E. palmeri from the south end. Considering plants on 
cliffs in the canyons to be E. frutescens, that may be a shrub to 1 m wide and 5 dm high, 
with a trunk to 4 cm thick. In May 1967 I compared fresh material of M13797, from 
Esparsa Canyon, and Ml 5762, from the talus of the seacliff northeast of Campo Sur, 
presumably typical E. palmeri, with various herbarium specimens. Ml 3797 was less com- 
pact, and the ultimate segments of the leaves more slender, as might be expected from 
the habitats. The petals were larger, to 26 mm long as compared to 1 9 mm, and the orange 
spot was less pronounced. The stigmas were four in both, contraiy to the distinction 
implied by Greene. Plants on Islote Negro, are larger and woodier than Greene supposed, 
so that difference doesn't hold. Dr. Ernst got a count of « = 1 1 for Ml 3797, as he did 
for plants from the south end. He wrote me in 1958 that he thought E. frutescens was 
just E. palmeri growing perhaps a bit shaded and out of the wind on the east side of the 
island, and 1 certainly do not see any way to distinguish it. 

Eschscholzia ramosa (Greene) Greene, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13:217. 1886. 
Eschscholzia elegans var. ramosa Greene, Bull Calif. Acad. Sci. 1:182. 1885. 

Range. — Islands of southern California and northern Baja California, except San Miguel 
and Anacapa. 

Erect compact treelike annual, 2^ dm high, very glaucous, the stem simple below, com- 
pactly branching above. Leaves finely divided, the ultimate lobes short and divergent, 
often blunt. Torus somewhat urceolate, the rim membranous, and outer rim lacking. Ca- 
lyptra ovoid, 5 mm long. Corolla smaller than in E. elegans, reddening less in drying, 
12-25 mm wide, the petals 6-13 mm long. Stamens 16-20?, the filaments 1-2 mm long, 
the anthers 2-3 mm long. Pods stout and straight, 6-9 cm long, strongly few-striate. Seeds 
nearly globular, distinctly reticulate. Cotyledons linear, entire, 2.5^.5 cm long, ca. 1 mm 
wide. Chromosomes: /;= 12 fide W. Ernst. 

Greene (1885:183) based this species on plants found under high cliffs near the landing 
at the northeast end of the island. He wrote that the erect compact tree-like habit was 
peculiar. It is the more common annual species on the beach and near the shore on both 
sides of the island. 

Dr. Ernst wrote me in 1958 that although E. elegans and E. ramosa are both variable, 
he thought he could distinguish all the material of them from Guadalupe Island, and he 
sent me an illustrated key. He said that once he recognized that there were two entities 
with different chromosome numbers and could release himself from some previous preju- 
dices, he found these differences more easily seen. He said that, in fact, he felt more and 
more like a true spiritual son of the late E. L. Greene. He added, however, that until he 
could see fresh material from the other islands, he would be very cautious about extra- 

133 



RIHD MORAN 

Guadalupe detemiinations. According to Raven (1963:322), Dr. Ernst then considered E. 
elcgans possibly restricted to Guadalupe Island, while plants resembling E. ramosa were 
more widely distributed, having been collected on Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara, Santa 
Catalina, San Clemente, Guadalupe, Coronado, Todos Santos, San Benitos, and Cedros 
Islands, though not on the mainland. Wiggins (1964, 1980) included E. ramosa in E. 
elegaiis, with a range from Santa Rosa Island to Guadalupe and Cedros Islands. 

^f\)Plutystciiiofi californicus Benth., Trans. Hort. Soc. London, II. 1:405. 1835. 

Range. — Oregon to Nevada, Arizona, and NW Baja California; islands of southern Cali- 
fornia except San Clemente. 

Brandegee (1900:22) reported this plant from Guadalupe Island but with no specific lo- 
cality. No one has found it since, and it probably is extinct on the island. 

Without explanation, Brandegee called this plant a recent introduction. The fact that it 
has not been found before or since may suggest that it was a waif that never became 
established. However, Brandegee made the same statement about Lasthenia californica, 
which seems clearly to be native. Furthennore. although the absence of the poppy from 
San Clemente, the most oceanic of the Channel Islands, is not reassuring, its presence 
on the other seven islands does show some ability to reach islands. The question is im- 
possible to resolve, and I list this plant as possibly introduced on the island (Table 2). 

Plantaninaccae 

Plaiitasio ovata Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab., p. 31. 1775. 

Plaiikigo insiilans Fastw,. Proc. Calif Acad. Sci. Scr. .\ 1:112. IXQS. 
PlaiUago puhi;j,<inica of Ciuadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Southern California and offshore islands to central Baja California and Cedros 
Island; also Old World. 

Palmer found this plant in level spots at the "south end" (Watson 1876:1 16). In favorable 
seasons it is common in the southern half of the island, including Islote Negro, and 
occasional farther north. 

Stebbins and Day (1967) showed that P. insulaiis, described from western North America, 
was more closely related to the Old World P. ovata than to other Amencan plants. On 
the basis of chromosome differences and apparent small moiphological differences, they 
kept it a separate species, and they argued that it must have reached the New World by 
natural means, probably at the beginning of the Miocene. Bassett and Baum (1969) treated 
P. fastigiala (including P. Insulaiis) as conspecific with P. ovata and thought it probably 
introduced into the New World comparatively recently by man. When it arrived remains 
uncertain, but I tentatively follow Dempster (1993) in not separating the ,^mcrtcan plants 
taxonomically. There is more to learn. 

Polcmoniaeeac 

Note. — For Navarrctla hamata see Excluded Species, p. 169. 
^Allophylliim gilhides (Benth.) A. D. & V. E. Grant, Aliso 3:105. 1955. 
Colliiiuia i^ilidii/cs var, i^liiniuisa and Gilia divaiicala of (iiiadalupe Island references. 

134 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Range. — Oregon to southern California and Arizona; Guadalupe Island. 

Palmer found this plant abundant under bnish and in protected places in the "middle" of 
the island (Watson 1876:118). Greene (1885:225) li.sted it without comment, but Grant 
and Grant (1955:105) cited Greene's collections. No one has found it since, and very 
likely it is extinct on the island. 

Gilia nevinii A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. ed. 2, 2':41 1. 1886. 

Gilia muhicaulis Benth. ssp. nevinii (A. Gray) H. Mason & V. E. Grant, Madrono 9:209. 1948. 
Cilia muhicaulis and var. millefoliata of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to Santa Rosa, Santa Cniz. Anacapa, San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, 
Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Guadalupe Islands. 

Corolla lavender to deep blue-violet, not spotted. 

Palmer found this plant very abundant under brush and in protected places in the "middle" 
of the island (Watson 1876:118). Franceschi (1893c) reported it very common among 
rocks over the whole island. It is widespread, from the northwest slope and pine ridge to 
the mouth of Arroyo Melpomene. It grows especially on grassy slopes, where in good 
years it is often abundant, especially in the higher northern part of the island. 

Linanthus pygmaeus (Brand) J. T. Howell ssp. pygmaeus 

Cilia pygmaea Brand, Ptlanzenreich 4"' ;134. 1907. 
Cilia guadalupensis Brand, Pflanzenreich A" :I34. 1907. 
Linanlhus pygmaeus (Brand) J. T. Howell, Leaf!. W. Bot. 2:100. 1938. 
Cilia pusilla and var. californica of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to San Clemente and Guadalupe Islands. 

Corolla lobes blue to lavender, throat yellow or white, and tube yellow. 

Palmer found this plant abundant under brush and in protected places in the "middle" of 
the island (Watson 1876:1 IS). It now grows in grassy and rather bare places, mostly at 
400 to 1000 m but lower in the canyons, from the pine ridge and cypress grove to El 
Picacho, in good years locally abundant. 

The type is Palmer 79 in part (where?), from Guadalupe Island. Grant (1959:137) also 
referred here G. guadalupensis Brand, based on Palmer 79 in part. Raven (1963:334) 
separated the mainland material as ssp. continenialis. 

Polygonaccae 

Note. — For Harfordia macroptera see Excluded Species, p. 169. 

Eriogonum zapatoense Moran, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 15:267. 1969 

Eriogonum molle of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island: known only on Outer Islet. 

This is a shrub, with trunk to I dm thick, densely tomentose herbage, and 4—8 times 
trichotomous cymes of yellow flowers (Fig. 72). In protected places it may grow erect, 



135 



REID MORAN 








Figure 71. Camissonia robusta above Northeast Anchorage, 25 March 147.v Now conunon where 
every early botanist came ashore, it was not found until 1948. Can il be nati\e' 

FiGURi; 72. The endemic Eriogonum zapaloense (Ml SI 70) on Outer Islet, 21 August 1970. This 
.shrub has never been found on the main island. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

but most plants are prostrate, commonly with the tmnk or the few main branches amning 
zigzag up slope, so that the plant is strongly asymmetrical, in many larger plants the 
lower branches dead and the foliage clustered at the top. 

This shrub is common on the inner slopes of the crater, especially the south slope, and 
occasional in the upper valley, of Outer Islet, sometimes known as Islote Zapato. From 
sterile plants found in 1948, Moran (1951:154) reported it as E. mollc Greene. It is most 
similar to E. molle, which is endemic to the north end of Isla Cedros, and to E. giganteum 
S. Watson, of Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Santa Barbara Islands, California. In 
leaf shape especially, it resembles E. giganteum ssp. fonnosiim (K. Brandegee) Raven, 
of San Clemente Island. Both E. tnolle and E. giganteum grow erect, and E. giganteum 
often much taller; and both have somewhat thinner leaves, commonly taller and stouter 
peduncles, and much larger and, especially in E. molle, denser cymes, with pubescent 
pedicels, and with white or pink rather than yellow flowers. The holotype is Moran 15114, 
collected 21 June 1968 (SD67852). 

Pterostegia drymarioides Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 2:48. 1835. 

Range. — California to Utah, Arizona, and NW Baja California; islands of southern Cali- 
fornia and south to Cedros. 

Palmer found this plant in the shade of rocks in the "middle" and more rarely at the 
"south end" of the island (Watson 1876:1 19). It grows among rocks throughout the island, 
from the north slope to the south end and from sea level to the top of Mt. Augusta and 
El Picacho, often rather common but less so at the south end. 

Portulacaceae 

Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC, Prod. 3:359. 1828. 

Calandrinia menziesii Hook., Fl. Bor. Amer. 1:223. 1S34. 

Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. var. menziesii (Hook.) J. F. Macbr., Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 
11:20. 193L 

Range. — British Columbia to Arizona, Sonora, and central Baja California; South Amer- 
ica; islands of southern California and Islas Todos Santos and San Martin. 

Palmer found this plant in moist spots in the open valleys all over the island, growing in 
masses (Watson 1876:113). Greene (1885:221) remarked that it was much smaller than 
in California, always prostrate, an albino fonn very frequent. It is now one of the common 
plants of grassy slopes from shore to summit in the northern part of the island and extends 
to the south end in damp arroyo beds. 

Cistanthe guadalupensis (Dudley) Carolin in Hershkovitz, Phytologia 68:269. 1990. 

Talinum guadalupense Dudley in Jordan. Fur Seals and Fur-seal Islands N. Pacific Ocean. Part 3, 
p. 282. 1899. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Succulent shrub to 8 dm high when not in flower and to 1 8 dm wide, summer-deciduous 
in dry sites, the stem to 1 1 cm thick at base, branching from base and above, the lower 
branches in large plants sprawling; bark smooth, brown, usually with dull silvery sheen, 
with slight tendency to peel in papery layers; ultimate branches blunt at ape.x, crowned 

137 



REID MORAN 

with leaf rosette, 1 .5-^ cm thick below rosette, the leaf scars irregular, lunate to rhombic. 
6-14 mm wide, 3-6 mm high, the bundle scar elliptic, 2-3 mm wide, 1.5— 2 mm high. 
Rosettes lax, 0.5-2 (-3.5) dm wide, of 10-35 (-55) leaves, only the youngest close-set, 
the older separated by areas of stem greater than those they cover. Rosette leaves obovate 
to obovate-cuneate, rounded to truncate or emarginate at apex and usually apiculate, 3—10 
(—17) cm long, 3—5 (1.5—8.5) cm wide, 3—7 mm thick, bluish glaucous, the margins obtuse, 
often purple-red. Floral stems terminal, 1-5 (-9) dm tall, 3-12 mm thick at base, bearing 
12-20 scattered bracts and. froin axils of upper ones, 3-10 spreading to ascending mostly 
simple branches 3-10 cm long, each ending in a crowded cincinnus or sometimes two or 
rarely several; panicle 1-3 dm high, 1-2.5 dm wide. Lower bracts like reduced foliage 
leaves, those of inflorescence thin, broadly ovate, acutish, cupped, keeled, yellow-green 
with conspicuous purple-red veins, 3-10 mm long, 3-8 mm wide, usually drying persistent. 
Cincinni circinate in bud, of 5—13 flowers, the axis conspicuously jointed, its segments 
mostly 3—5 mm long, or the lower longer, 1.5—3 min thick at base, 2^ mm thick at apex, 
each seated in hollow in axil of sheathing bract. Pedicels 2—5 mm long, 1-3 min thick at 
base, thickening upward, each with small basal bract and shallow basal constriction, where 
abscission may later take place. Buds ovoid to subglobular, rounded at apex, to 9 mm 
long and 8 mm thick. Flowers (Plate 2J) at least Jan.-June, 2.5^.5 cm wide, opening 
mostly two days and partially closing at night, subperigynous, the stamens and petals 
inseiled on edge and outer shoulder of cup 1-2 mm high closely surrounding base of 
ovary. Sepals 2, broadly ovate to renifonn, rounded at apex, imbricate in bud, 6— 10 mm 
long, 7-13 mm wide, colored and marked like bracts, persisting in fruit. Petals 5 (—7), 
imbricate, rotately spreading to slightly upcurved, rose pink to almost white, obovate, 
often cuneate at base, subtruncate to emarginate, erose, 13-23 mm long, 10-22 mm wide, 
connate + 0.5 mm. Stamens 70-105, the filaments pale to deep rose, 8—14 mm long, the 
outer filifonn, glabrous, the inner thickened and connivent in lower fourth and there 
bearing colorless clavate unicellular hairs to 1 mm long, concealing ovary; anthers cream 
to deep rose, oblong, 1,2— 2 mm long, 0.5— 0.7 mm wide, maturing in centrifugal order, 
the two thecae rather weakly united, free in lower half and upper fourth. Gynoecium 
mostly 3-merous; ovary free, subglobular, 2—3 mm thick, with 3 (2^) low vertical ridges 
alternating with faint grooves; style white, 10-16 mm long, tapering from ± 0.4 mm thick 
at base to ± 0.8 mm thick at apex; stigmas 3 (2^), spreading, oblong, rounded at apex. 
1.5-2 mm long, ventrally papillose, the papillae ±0.1 mm long and a fourth as thick. 
Capsule cartilaginous, brown with oily lustre, triangular-ovoid, 6—8 mm long, 5—6 mm 
thick, capped nearly to maturity with dark puiple corolla remnant, splitting nearly to base, 
the valves triangular, subacute. Seeds numerous, lenticular, strophiolate, flnely low-mam- 
millate, dark red-brown and somewhat shining but largely covered with scurf, 0.9-1.2 
mm long, 0.8-1.0 mm wide, 0.5-0.6 mm thick, the raphe rather acute, the opposite edge 
rounded. Chromosome number: /; = 48 flde Sherwin Carlquist. 

Botanists of the fur seal expedition were first to find this curious succulent shrub (Dudley 
1899); the specimen is noted as "in valley, south end of island." Thirty years later a single 
living plant, found by Steve Glassell and Bill Pemberton, reached Eric Walther, who 
showed first the sterile plant (1932), then ( 1937) the flowering plant with an identification. 
Howell (1942:148) saw what he took to be this plant "on rocks inaccessible to goat and 
man" near Northeast Anchorage. Moran and Lindsay (1950) found it plentiful on Outer 
Islet (Figs. 34, 75) and on a black lava rock just off the landing at the southwest comer 
of the island; and Lind.say (1951) showed several fine photographs of it on this rock and 
told its remarkable story. It is common also on Islote Negro (Frontispiecb. Figs. 73, 
74)(Moran 1959, figs. 21-23). In fact, after four days circumnavigating the island in a 
small launch in search of fur seals, George Lindsay wrote me in 1955 that it grows on 



GUADAI UPF ISLAND FI ORA 




Figures 73 and 74. The endemic Cistauihe gtiadaliipensis, rare on the main island, common on 
Islote Negro (see Frontispiece). Figure 73. The largest shrub seen {M5WJ). with Dr. Carl Hubbs, 
19 April 1957. FIGURE 74. The abundant seedlings (with a few of Mesemhnantlwmiini ciTslal/iiuiiii), 
10 February 1957. 



139 



REID MORAN 







Figure 75. Cistanthe guadalupensis on Outer Islet, leafless for the summer. 21 .lune 146^!. 

rockspretty well around the island. On the main island it is occasionally seen on seacliffs, 
but it is very rare in more accessible places such as the edge of the south-end mesa. 



Dudley (1899) said nothing about the generic position of this plant, and until recently no 
one has questioned his placing of it in Talinum. From the dried specimen he called the 
thickened stem a fusifonn fleshy root, perhaps thinking it analagous to the tuberous stems 
of various American species of Talinum, and called the leaves all radical. Wilson ( 1932) 
and von Poellnitz (1934) could add little to the description and kept the species in Talinum. 
The true nature of the stem became known only when the plant was rediscovered and 
was illustrated and variously redescribed (Walther 1932, 1937; Moran and Lindsay 1950; 
Lindsay 1951; Byles 1957). In fact, Hershkovitz (1992) still called the leaves all basal. 

Although Eastwood (1929:404) formally listed this plant as Talinum guadalupense, she 
also mentioned it (p. 396) as a species of Calandrinia. Walther (1937) commented on 
the similarity of the flowers to those of "the well-known Calandrinia discolor Schrad. 
from Chile," and I have been impressed with its overall similarity to the Chilean plant 
grown in California as C. grandiflora Lindl. Carolin decided its relationships were indeed 
with the Chilean plants (Hershkovitz 1990). Surprisingly, the superficially very different 
annual Calandrinia maritima, which happens also to grow on Guadalupe Island as well 
as on the mainland, also belongs to Cistanthe section Cistanthe. 

Carlquist (1965, fig. 8-13) showed a large plant and a flower of C. guadalupensis and 
briefly discussed its unusual growth fomi. Carlquist (1974:399. fig. 10.15) showed the 
plant and flower and. with a transection and a tangential section of the secondary xylem. 
discussed parenchyniatization of the xylem. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Cistanthe guadahipensis throve in the garden of Dr. Carl Hubbs in La Jolla, California, 
within sight of the sea, flowering handsomely most of the year and coming freely from 
seed. It is widely admired among fanciers of succulent plants and still sometimes grown, 
though they often consider it hard to grow (Rowley 1978, 1987). 

Cistanthe inaritima (Nutt.) Carolin in Hershkovitz, Phytologia 68:269. 1990. 
Calaiulrinia inaritima Nutt. in Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. LI 97. 1838. 

Range. — Coastal southern California to central Baja California; most islands of southern 
California and NW Baja California, to Isla Cedros. 

Brandegee (1900:22) was first to report this plant from Guadalupe Island but gave no 
specific locality. It seems to be scarce and local on the east side of the island just below 
the middle, as near the lobster camp. Others of Brandegee's additions to the known flora 
are rather local in this part of the island. 

Claytoiiia perfoliata Willd. ssp. mexicana (Rydb.) J. M. Mill. & K. L. Chambers, 
Novon 3:269. 1993. 

Limiua guadahipensis Rydb.. N. Amer. Fl. 21:311. 1932. 

Claylonia perfoliata and Monlia perfoliata of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Central California to Guatemala; islands of southern California to Cedros. 

Palmer found this plant all over the island, in masses on the shaded side of rocks or logs 
or in deep ravines (Watson 1876:113). Franceschi (1893c:134) found it quite common 
from centre to north, most luxuriant under the palms, where it was in flower early in 
December. It is now rather common among rocks and in other shaded spots, widespread 
from shore to summit in the northern half of the island and to El Picacho, sometimes 
lush and abundant. 

Rydberg based Limnia guadalupensis on Palmer's collection (No. 15) of 1875 (NY). From 
the key and description it would appear to differ from related species in the shape of the 
basal leaves and in the small size of the plant as a whole and especially of its stem leaves, 
inflorescence, and seeds. However, the type sheet has not only three very small plants 
but also one large one, clearly of the same collection. Howell (1942:148) remarked that 
this plant was almost invariable on the island, and clearly there is only one species though 
here as elsewhere the size varies greatly. Large plants (e.g. M6600) may be as much as 
3.5 dm tall, with basal leaves to 4 cm wide, the disk of stem leaves 7.5 cm wide, and the 
inflorescence 14 cm long. Greene (1885:221) remarked that the corolla of the island plant 
was smaller and more purple than in California plants. Corollas are about 2-3 mm long, 
which is a little small for the species, and I would say deep pink rather than puiple. The 
seeds are about 0.95-1.3 mm long, which again is rather small for the species. 

Miller (1978) reported from chromosome counts of 235 populations that Claytoiiia per- 
foliata s. I. is a polyploid pillar complex based on three morphologically different and 
geographically defined diploids and having five levels of ploidy. 

Primulaceac 

f*Anagallis an<ensis L., Sp. PI. p. 148. 1753. 
Range. — Native to Europe; a widespread weed in North America. 

141 



RlilD MORAN 

Palmer found only three plants, in a gravelly place near the beach on the east side (Watson 
1S76:1 17). Greene (1885:225) saw only one plant, on top of the island. No one has found 
it since, and evidently it never became well established. 

Dodecathcon clevelandii Greene ssp. iusuUms H. .1. Thomps.. Contr. Dudley Herb. 

4:1.^4. 1953. 

DmlccallicDii iiiciului of Ciiiadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Inner south coast ranges of California to San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, 
Anacapa, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Guadalupe Islands. 

Palmer found this plant very abundant on moist rocky slopes at the "south end" and 
"middle" of the island and noted that goats were very fond of it (Watson 1876:117). 
Franceschi (1 893c: 136) found robust large-leaved specimens, most abundant only between 
the trail to the cabins and the cliff, the finest on the very ridge. He remarked that goat 
hunters, short of tobacco and attracted by the lea\es, used them as a substitute and said 
they had a most pleasant flavor. 

Between the goats and the goat hunters, the plant is now scarce, a few small colonies 
seen scattered on the northeast slope of El Picacho at 500-800 m and one or two plants 
on the cliff of the Lower Circus and on its brink. Most plants seen were sterile, only one 
on a cliff having some old flowers 21 March 1974 (M21166). From Guadalupe Island, 
Thompson (1953:133) cited Anthony 245 and Pnhncr 55. 

Ranunculaceae 
Myosiirus minimus L. vav. Jiliformis Greene. Bull Calif Acad. Sci. 1:277. 1885. 
Myosiinis minimus of Guadalupe Island references. 
Range. — Northern California to NW Baja California. 

Greene (1885:220) found this plant at the middle of the island and also at the north end, 
near springs. Campbell (1952:394) cited Greene's speennen of April 19, 1885, (GH) and 
called Guadalupe Island the type locality. Apparently it has since been collected on the 
island only once, in 1958 {IViggins and Ernst 33). on the upper northwest slope of the 
pine ridge at 600 m. Thus it is rare in accessible places, but the foggy northwest cliffs 
probably have suitable habitats where it may suiA/ive, 

Runiinciiliis liehecarpiis Hook. & Am., Bot. Beechey Voy. p. 316. 1840. 

Range. — Washington and Idaho to NW Baja California; Santa Catalina and Cedros 
Islands. 

Palmer found this plant abundant on wami slopes in the "middle" of the island (Watson 
1876:1 12). Greene (1885:220) found it only in the shade of a large tree. It is now wide- 
spread and locally common on the northwest slope at 500-800 m and more rarely seen 
as far south as the spring. 

Greene thought the island plant shorter and stouter than the California plant, the achenes 
more numerous. However, Benson ( 1948:1 1 1 ) cited the collections of Palmer and Greene 
as /?. hchcciirpits. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 
Rcscdaccae 

Oligomeris linifolia (Vahl) .1. F. Macbr., Contr. Gray Herb. 53:13. 1918. 
OUgomeris glaucescens and O. suhukila of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Southern California to Texas and Mexico; islands of southem California to 
Cedros, San Benitos, and Natividad; also Old World. 

Palmer found this plant in deep vvami canyons and ravines in the "middle" of the island 
and occasionally at the "south end" (Watson 1876:1 13). It is occasional to locally common 
at low elevations throughout the island but especially in the southern half including Islote 
Negro and Outer Islet. Some authors treat it as an introduction in the New World. 

Rhamnaceae 

fCeanothus crassifolius Torr., Pacif Railr. Rep. 4:75. 1857. 

Ceanothus crassifolius Torr. var. planus Abrams. Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6:413. 1910. 
Ceanolhus perplexans of Guadalupe Island references'.' 

Range. — Southern California to NW Baja California. 

Palmer found only three alive, at the base of Mt. Augusta (Watson 1876:1 14). Greene 
(1885:222) saw only a small seedling, near the cabins. Franceschi (1893c: 134) found one 
plant alive near the center of the island west of Mt. Augusta among the cypresses, "sur- 
rounded by what appeared to be the dead stumps of thousands of its brethren, which must 
have fornied a thick and general underwood not only in the larger cypress grove but also 
in the smaller near the springs and cabins." "Twelve to fifteen feet high." Later he found 
three or four more living plants in the upper grove. No one has found this shrub since, 
and undoubtedly it is extinct on the island. 

Under var. planus, McMinn (1942:234) cited Guadalupe Island, Dr. F. Franceschi 1332 
in 1893. 

iCeanothiis ciineatiis (Hook.) NuU. in Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:267. 1838. 

Range. — Oregon to NW Baja California. 

Palmer found only three nearly dead specimens, among rocks in the "middle" of the 
island (Watson 1876:114). No one has seen it since, and undoubtedly it is extinct on the 
island. 

Rliainnus pirifolia Greene, Pittonia 3:15. 1896. 

Rhamnus crocea Nutt. ssp. piri/olia (Greene) C. B. Wolf Mon. Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Gard. 1:4.^. 

1938. 
Rtuwmus crocea of Guadalupe Island references. 

R.ANGE. — Endemic to San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, 
and Guadalupe Islands. 

Shrub to 2 m high and 5 m wide or hanging from cliff to 4 m; trunk to 1 .5 dm thick. 

Palmer found only six shrubs, growing in the crevices of high cliffs in the "middle" of 

143 



REID MORAN 

the island, in bloom April 6 (Watson 1876:114). About that many have survived until 
recent times, scattered on cliffs in the northeast part of the island: two in Oak Canyon 
at 850 m (Ml 2032) and 900 m {Ml 2(136): Barracks Canyon at 420 m (M7829); north rim 
of Barracks Canyon at 500 m (Ml 3803): Esparsa Canyon at 250 m (M5964). In May 1971 
1 saw what appeared to be this shrub on a high cliff at 675 m near the middle of the 
northwest end of the island. From Guadalupe Island Wolf (1938:46) cited Anthony 261, 
Hanna (CAS), and Muson 1528. 

Rosaceae 

Aphunes occidentalis (Nutt.) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 22:380. 1908. 

Akhenulla occuiunhilis Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray. Fl. N. Amer. 1:432. 1840. 

Range. — Washington to NW Baja California; Santa Rosa. Santa Cniz, Santa Catalina, 
and San Clemente Islands. 

Palmer found this plant among rocks and sage bmsh at the north end and also around a 
spring (Watson 1876:1 14). This inconspicuous little plant is widespread on the northwest 
slope of the island and the northeast ridge, from 500 to llOOm, and fairiy common 
locally. 

Robertson (1974) wrote that [subgenus] Apluincs "probably was confined to Europe before 
western man began his explorations of the world." However, there seems no question 
that this is native in western North America and on Guadalupe Island. 

yHeteromeles arhiitijolia (Lindl.) M. Roem. var. macrocarpa (Munz) Munz. Aliso 
4:92. 1958. 

Pholiiua iirhiililiiliii Lindl. var. macrocarpa Mun/. Bull. S. Calif Acad. Sci. 31:64. 1932. 

Rangk. — Endemic to Guadalupe and San Clemente Islands? 

The late Guadalupe Island population of one may be described as follows. Tree ± 5 m 
tall, with one arching branch 7 m long; trunk 2 dm thick at base. Young stems and young 
leaves densely tomentose with simple slender crisped white hairs ± 1 mm long, a few of 
which persist in age. Leaf blades elliptic, inostly obtuse and mucronate at apex but some 
acute or rounded, cuneate at base, 4-9 cm long, 1.5-4 (-5.7) cm wide, mostly 2.2-2.6 
times longer than wide, the margins revolute, subentire or mostly weakly crenate-dentate, 
with 10-18 crenations on each side, when young with subulate red glandular teeth ±0.4 
mm long; petioles 12-27 min long. Inflorescence to 16 cm wide. Petals white, spreading 
to spreading-ascending. Young fruit obovoid-tmncate, slightly angled, to 9.5 mm thick. 

Wiggins (1980:793) reported the species as once common on Guadalupe Island but now 
virtually exterminated by the goats, a few spindly shnibs persisting on inaccessible cliffs, 
mostly at the north end of the island. However, I have seen no specimens or other records 
to support this statement. I have seen only a single tree, arching out from a sheer arroyo 
wall, at 70 m, just northwest of the lobster camp on the southeast coast. Specimens of 
December 1957 (M6452: Newcomb 184. UC) bear a few flowers and some immature 
fniit, to 9.5 mm thick according to Newcomb's notes, though I noted them only as 6 mm 
long; specimens of April 1958 (Carlqiiist 484, Wigi^ins and Ernsi 202) have immature 
inflorescences. The tree had disappeared by 1970, and the species probably is now extinct 
on the island. Dr. Witmins wrote me in 1958 that Dr. Hanna said he had seen the same 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

tree in 1922, but no specimen could be found at CAS. 

This plant is notable for its broad, obtuse, nearly entire leaves, the blades mostly 2.2-2.6 
times longer than wide; an exceptional leaf is 8.2 cm long by 5.7 cm and so less than 1.5 
times longer than wide. In typical mainland specimens the leaf blades commonly are 
narrower and acute and almost always are sharply senate. Also, the young herbage in 
the Guadalupe specimens is exceptionally pubescent. All together, these specimens thus 
look quite different from typical mainland material: in fact, several able botanists (R. 
Bacigalupi, L. Benson, A. Carter, J. T. Howell, P. A, Munz, R. F. Thome), all well ac- 
quainted with H. arhutifoliu, failed to recognize sterile specimens. 

Mainland collections of H. arbuiifolia vai7 widely in leaf shape. The blades commonly 
are acute, 1.5—3 cm wide, and 3^ times as long, though specimens with broader or more 
obtuse blades occur sporadically but rather widely through the range. The teeth vary in 
size but are rarely so reduced as in the Guadalupe plant; and generally no correlation is 
evident between width of leaf and size of teeth. Pubescence also varies, usually with no 
evident conelation with leaf width or size of teeth; very few specimens are as tomentose 
as those from Guadalupe Island. 

However, some collections of H. arbutifolia from the Cape Region of southern Baja 
California have leaves obtuse to rounded, to 6 cm wide (R. K. Peters 248, UC, from La 
Laguna), some with the teeth small or subobsolete; at least some have young growth 
tomentose; and at least some have large fruits. At La Laguna I collected from two shrubs 
growing side by side {M7434A), both with young growth tomentose, one with leaves 2—3 
cm wide, the other with leaves mostly 3-5.7 cm wide. 

Munz (1932) proposed var. macrocarpa for trees of San Clemente and Santa Catalina 
Islands, on the basis of fruits 8-10 mm long rather than 5—6 mm long. Raven (1963:324) 
reserved judgement on the variety, unconvinced that the fniit was unifomily large in the 
populations of these two islands; and he reported large fmit on some specimens from 
Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands. Although Thome (1967:63) likewise did not recognize 
the variety, he wrote that in general the specimens of Catalina Island did seem to have 
larger fruits. These authors also refen-ed to tree-like size. 

Discussion of var. macrocarpa thus far had centered on size of fmits and had not mentioned 
the leaves. However, after Dr. Munz had seen the Guadalupe specimens, he wrote 
(1974:747), "There is a tendency for insular plants to have Ivs. subentire, [and he went 
on] the frs. red, 8— 10 mm long, and these constitute a possible var. macrocarpa (Munz) 
Munz. . . . Judging from their behavior in the botanic garden, they are not only more 
showy, but less readily eaten by birds." In the holotype, from San Clemente Island (Munz 
6759, POM 18981), the leaves are obtuse and 2-3 times as long as wide; leaf seiTations 
on one branch are rather small and on the other subobsolete. A near topotype (Raven 
17985, RSA, SD) is very similar in leaf shape and margins to the Guadalupe specimens. 
In most San Clemente specimens the leaves are rather wide for their length, some 5 cm 
wide, but a few are strongly serrate. Most are like average mainland specimens in pu- 
bescence, but a few are markedly pubescent. 

Trask (1899) remarked that on Catalina Island the leaves of//, arbutifolia were usually 
entire, sharply serrate ones occurring but rarely, often not one such leaf on a slope covered 
with this species. In fact, this seems an overstatement; for many collections, including 
some with large fruit, have sharply serrate (and rather narrow) leaves, similar to average 
mainland material. Although some have broad leaves and reduced or subobsolete teeth, 
the tendencies seem weaker here than on San Clemente Island. Among specimens from 

145 



R[-:iD MORAN 

Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands, where Raven noted some large fniit. some have 
narrow and sharply serrate leaves; but again there is some tendency to reduction of teeth 
and a greater tendency to greater leaf width. One Ralph Hoffmann collection (SBBG) 
from Santa Rosa Island has one leaf blade 15 cm long and 7.9 cm wide! On Isia Cedros 
most plants, from canyons on the east side, have the leaves narrow, acute, and sharply 
seiTate; but one collection (M18432), from under the pines 3 km from the north end, has 
some leaves to 4 cm wide and obtuse, some with much reduced teeth. Since many of 
these insular collections lack fniit, it is not clear what proportion of the plants have large 
fruit or to what extent leaf characters are coirelated with large fniit. One specimen from 
Sierra de San Francisquito in the Cape Region (7". 5. Bnimlcgee 205. UC) Tatcmi Shimizu 
annotated as var. macrncurpa . 

Although the known population of Guadalupe Island may be called remarkably unifonn, 
nothuig is known of fomier variation. Perhaps the Guadalupe plant is a relict that persisted 
in a relatively pure state on this most isolated island, persists with some admi.xture of the 
mainland fomi on less isolated San Clemente Island, and has more nearly been swamped 
out on the continental Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and Anacapa Islands. Dr. 
Daniel Axelrod wrote me that he knew of no fossils of this fonn. It seems well treated 
as a subspecies (or variety) on Guadalupe and San Clemente Islands, even though it 
becomes more of a taxonomic embarrassment on the northern islands and in the Cape 
Region. 

Rubiaccae 

Galium ani>iihsuin A. Gray, Proc. A\mer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:74. 1876. 

RANGt:. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Dense, much branched, probably dioecious, dark green shnib to 8 dm wide and projecting 
nearly as far from cliff with long slender woody branches spreading to pendent, bearing 
dense annual tufts of new vegetation at nodes; stems 4—8 ribbed, the stems and leases 
sparsely hispid with short or long straight spreading hairs. Leaves 4 or often 6 in a whorl, 
mostly 3-7 mm long, 1 -nerved, spreading or often rellexed, elliptical or obovate, nanowed 
gradually to base, obtuse or round at apex, tipped with long weak hair; glandular cells 
apparently none. Flowers in April and May, apparently few, solitary at ends of lateral 
branches; corolla rotate, yellow-green, glabrous or rarely hispid; ovaries glabrous or rarely 
with a few hairs like those on stems and leaves. Faiil in October, fleshy, glabrous, whitish, 
translucent, 2,5-3.5 mm thick, the mericarps not separating, becoming shiny black and 
wrinkled when dry. Chromosomes: 2» = ca. 66. (Description based on that of Dempster 
1978:10) 

Palmer found only a single small scrubby plant, in a crevice of a high cliff in the "middle" 
of the island (Watson 1876:1 15). Though not reported since, it has persisted until recently 
as a veiy rare plant on cliffs in the northeast part of the island. In 1957 I found two 
plants on a clitY at 450 m on the north rim of Barracks Canyon at the mouth (A/6// 7) 
but in 1960 failed to find them again. Also in 1957 I found a single plant at 250 m on 
a cliff on the south side of Esparsa Canyon (M6I36), and it was still there in 1970 on 
my last visit to that spot. 

Deinpster (1978:10-1 1) thought this plant probably closest to the tleshy fruited dioecious 
species of California. In buds collected from the Esparsa Canyon plant in May 1967 
{M13<S02), she found 2n = ± 66; she was rather sure that it was hexaploid. She noted that 



146 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

all flowers seen had well-developed pistils and abortive stamens. She added that most 
material had 4 leaves at the great majority of nodes, though the type had 6 at most nodes. 
And the type was unique also among the six collections she had seen in having hispid 
corollas. 

*Galiiim aparine L.. Sp. PI. p. 108. 1753. 

Range. — Widespread in North America, commonly thought to be introduced Worn 
Europe; islands of California. 

Palmer found this plant common on wami shady hillsides in the "middle" and more rarely 
at the "south end" (Watson 1876:115). It is widely distributed in the northern half of the 
island, as far south as Juniper Canyon, and is fairly coirunon about rocks in the canyons. 
at the foot of cliffs, and on the northwest slope of the island. 

Rutaceae 
*Ritla clialepensis L., Mant. p. 69. 1767. 
Ruta graveoleiis of Guadalupe Island references. 
Range. — Native of southern Europe; widely grown and often escaping. 

In 1948 three sterile plants grew in the canyon mouth at Northeast Anchorage (Moran 
1951:160). In 1965 a colony of a dozen grew on the south bank of the arroyo at 20 m 
(Ml 20 19), so the plant is reproducing but not spreading rapidly. 

Saxifragaceae 

Jepsonia malvifolia (Greene) Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 23:19. 1896. 

Heiichem .' and Jepsonia parni of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to Santa Rosa (type locality), Santa Crtiz, San Nicolas, Santa 
Catalina, San Clemente, and Guadalupe Islands. 

Woody caudex 5-7 cm high, branching horizontally to form a clump to 15 cm long and 
10 cm wide, the branches mostly 1.5—2 cm thick, abruptly narrowed upward to short stem 
±5 mm thick bearing leaves and peduncles. Leaves 1-2, appearing in October, fragrant, 
the petiole at first pink, 3-7 cm long, 1.5-3 mm thick, the blade at first funnelform and 
to 6 cm wide. Peduncles 1-3 from one stem, at different stages, 14 cm tall, 2 mm thick 
at base, densely glandular-pubescent, with bract ± 5 cm above base; cyme 2-3 cm wide, 
of ± 20 flowers on several lax cincinni, or with subsidiary cymes below. Flowers August 
to October, on pedicels 1—2 mm long. Hypanthium subcampanulate, subpentagonal, sub- 
truncate at base, glandular-pubenilent, the tube ± 2 mm long, greenish with 10 dark red 
veins, the calyx lobes erect, triangular-ovate, rounded, 1—1 .2 mm long by 1 .2—1 .5 mm. 
Corolla 7-8 mm wide, the petals outcurved, ovate, rounded, 3— 3.5 mm long, ± 2.5 mm 
wide, white veined dorsally with pink becoming purplish red, the stipelike base ± 0.4 mm 
wide. Filaments white, erect. 2-3 mm long, the anthers purplish. Gynoecium whitish, 
2 mm high, the styles short, indefinite. (Fig. 76) 

Palmer found a single plant, not in tlower, in the crevice of a rock (Watson 1876:1 14); 
Franceschi (1893c:135) likewise found but one; and Greene (1885) omitted it from his 



147 



REID MORAN 




FKjURI: 76. The insular endemic Jepsonia malvildlia (Ml 2064). from lower east slope of El 
Picaclio at 350 m; nowering in San Diego 1 October 1^)72. It grows also on five of the Channel 
Islands. 

list, in whicii he intended to include Palmer's findings as well as his own. Moran 
(1951:160) found sterile plants on a cliff at the north end, which flowered in cultivation. 
Despite early reports or lack of them, the plant is widespread and sometimes locally 
common, especially on north cliffs and in deep soil among rocks on north slopes, from 
the north end to the gray peak south of El Picacho and to the east slope above the 
southeast sealing camp, at least from 100 to 800 m. 

Scrophulariaccac 

Note. — For Galvczia juncea see Excluded Species, p. 169. 

Antirrhinum nuttallianum Benth. ssp. suhsessile (A. Gray) D. M. Thomps., Syst. Bot. 

Monogr. 22:95. 19,S8. 

Anlirrhiiium suhsessile A. Gray, Bot. Gaz. 9:54. 1S84. 



148 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Antirrhinum pusillum Brandegee. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6:360. 1916. 

Anlirrhinum nultallianum Benth. forma pusillum (Brandegee) Munz, Proe. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4. 

15:359. 1926. 
Sairocarpus pusillus (Brandegee) D. A. Sutton, A revision of the tribe Antirrhineae, p. 466. 1988. 

Range. — Coastal southern California to south central Baja California; San Miguel. Santa 
Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina, Los Coronados, Todos Santos, San Martin, 
and Cedros Islands; Arizona. 

Palmer found this plant rather rare in deep wami canyons in the "middle" of the island 
(Watson 1876:117). It is widespread on the island but rather uncommon, often no more 
than one or two seen at a time. The small cleistogamous fonna pusillum likewise is 
widespread but not common, as often as not the two occurring together. Thompson 
(1988:98) found experimentally that the cleistogamous condition of fomia pusillum may 
be induced by suboptimal growing conditions and is easily reversible. 

Antirrhinum watsonii Vasey & Rose, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 11:533. 1889. 

Amirrlunum kingii S. Watson var. watsonii (Vasey & Rose) Munz. Proc. Calif Acad. Sci. Ser. 4, 

15:367. 1926. 
Sairocarpus watsonii (Vasey & Rose) D. A. Sutton. A revision of the tribe Antirrhineae, p. 471. 

1988. 

Range. — Central Baja California to western Sonora and southernmost Arizona; Islas 
Cedros and San Benitos. 

This plant was first found on the island in 1957 {Af5632, M5987, M6157). It is widespread 
but not common at low elevations in the southern pail, from the lobster camp and West 
Anchorage southward and on Outer Islet. Thompson (1988:104) reinstated it as a species, 
citing h'15987 and Ml 7 345 from Guadalupe Island. Dr. Thompson in 1986 annotated six 
of my Guadalupe collections. 

Castilleja attenuata (A. Gray) T. I. Chuang & Heckard, Syst. Bot. 16:656. 1991. 

Orthocarpus allenuatus A. Gray, Pacific Railr. Rept. 4:121. 1857. 

Range. — Vancouver Island to NW Baja California; Santa Cruz Island; also central Chile, 
where possibly introduced. 

This plant has been found only one place on the island, first in 1967: locally common in 
seep on northwest slope between the old lookout and Hemizonia Cliff, at 800 m (Ml 3821). 
I have not found it there in drier years. 

■t^Castiileja exserta (A. Heller) T. I. Chuang & Heckard, Syst. Bot. 16:657. 1991. 

Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth.. Scroph. Indicae. p. 13. 1835. Not CastiUcja purpurascens 
Greenm. 

Range. — California to Arizona, Sonora, and northern Baja California; San Miguel, Santa 
Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina Islands. 

Brandegee (1900:22) is the only one to have found this plant on Guadalupe Island, and 
Keck (1927:541) cited his specimen as Orthocarpus purpurascens t\'pica. Because it is a 
west American plant that also grows on the four northern islands in a familiar pattern, it 
might be easy to accept as native on Guadalupe. Without explanation, however, Brandegee 

149 



RHID MORAN 

called it "introduced" — though his assertion is unconvincing because he said the same 
of Lasthenia califomica, which seems clearly to be native. The fact that the plant has 
not been found before or since suggests that it may indeed be a waif that never became 
established. Since there is no way of knowing, I list it as possibly introduced on the island 
(Table 2). 

Custilleja fiHlicosa Moran, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 15:283. 1969. 

Casiillciu ^UiuUilupcnsis of some references. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island, at the south end and on Outer Islet. 

This is a woody perennial 2-5 or rarely 9 dm high and to 5 dm or more wide, with 
glandular-puberulent to somewhat villous light green herbage, the bracts and calyx tipped 
with Indian orange. 

This plant grows on a barren volcanic mesa and in two craters near the south end of 
Guadalupe Island, in an area of low rainfall but of frequent fog. In 194S I found it on 
the inner slope of the crater of Outer Islet (Moran 1951:159) but failed to find it on the 
main island, even though I collected at the very spot on the mesa where its bright (lowers 
were conspicuous in later years. Earlier collectors at the south end also had failed to find 
it. Until the founding of the weather station in 1946, enough goats evidently came to the 
south end to keep certain plants near the point of extinction; but goats have since come 
more at their peril, and the plants have gained some slight protection. In 1957 I did find 
C. fniticosa on the mesa above the station but saw only herbaceous plants, looking almost 
like annuals. In 1967 and later, some plants were small shnibs with woody stems to 2 
cm thick. In 1957 it extended as far north as the inner slope of the crater of Plaza de 
Toros. at 320 m (M6479), though in 1970 1 failed to find it there. These facts suggest 
that in 1957 C. fniticosa might recently have colonized the main island from one of the 
nearby islets and that the extent of the colony has since varied with the years depending 
on goat damage. The number of goats coming to the south end, and the damage they do, 
must vai7 from year to year, depending on pressures farther north. 

Custilleja /ruticosa, though still herbaceous at first tlovvering, is remarkable for the thick 
and hard woody stems of older plants. Apparently it is one of the woodiest of the genus. 
Perhaps in relation to the maritime habitat, the foliage leaves are quite thick and somewhat 
succulent. The capsules are unusually hard and woody and are distinguished by a depres- 
sion on the under side, which sometimes becomes a deep transverse groove. Capsules 
from past years often persist on dead infiorescence axes, mostly still unopened and still 
holding seeds. Such seeds proved viable, and from seedlings (MI376S) Lairy Heckard 
got a chromosome count of ;; = 12 (Chuang and Heckard 1993). 

Caslilk'ja iiuadalupcnsis Brandegee, Zoe 5:166. 1903. 

Casiillcia tolmlo^ii o'i Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

Intricately and divaricately branched shrub 2-6 dm high, the stems hard and woody, closely 
cottony tomentosc abo\e with very fine dendritic hairs, subglabrescent; inteniodes to 
1 cm ; axils mostly with shoots, at least a cluster of leaves and often the stem 3-5 cm 
long. Leaves spatulate, rounded at apex, mostly 4--6 cm long and 3-10 mm wide above, 
± I mm wide at base, not decurrent but clearly jointed to stem, thin, at first closely tonien- 

150 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

tose with dendritic hairs, in age subglabrescent, those below and sometimes well above 
middle simple and entire, the upper ones lobed at or a little below middle, the lobes 
spatulate, 1 .5—2.5 cm long; higher leaves with lobes more towards base. Bracts 
± 2.5 cm long, with pair of ascending lobes near base, the upper with another pair near 
apex, the lobes spatulate, the middle one 3-5 mm wide, the lateral ± 2 mm wide above. 
Young spike crowded, 3— 6 cm long, with 10-15 or more flowers and buds, the lower 
intemodes after anthesis becoming as much as 13 mm long. Flowers strictly sessile. Calyx 
tomentose, 21-22 mm long, cleft 4—5 mm before and 9-10 mm behind, the double lateral 
lobes 3^ mm wide, retuse to a depth of 0.5— I mm, the tips roimded. Corolla 19-21 mm 
long, densely puberulent along the back with multicellular but unbranched non-glandular 
trichomes 0.1-0.2 mm long, glabrous on the thinner margins, the tip or at least part of 
the back protruding through posterior sinus of calyx; lip short, the teeth half its length. 
Stamens shorter than to slightly exceeding corolla, the filaments glabrous, the anthers 
slender, curved, glabrous, ± 3 mm long. Style exserted 3—5.5 mm, glabrous, thickened and 
hooked at apex, the stigma papillose. Very immamre capsules 7 mm long and 5 mm wide. 

Palmer found this plant only in the "middle" of the island, rare among fallen branches 
(Watson 1876:117). Anthony collected the type specimen (UC 103541) in "an almost 
inaccessible spot on the western cliff" September 20, 1896. On that date, according to 
Gaylord (1897:42), Anthony went to the northern limit of the pine, doubtless far out 
towards North Point. A slip in the pocket reads "only one plant of this species could be 
reached and that with great difficulty." Drent collected it again in 1898 (UC), and no one 
has found it since. It may possibly survive on the vast inaccessible northwest cliff; but 
from Palmer's statement, it probably was not mainly a cliffdweller, so it is very likely 
extinct. 

Galvezia speciosa (Nutt.) A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 22:311. 1887. 

Gamhelia speciosa Nutt., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4(1 1:7. 1848. 
AiuinhiiHiin speciosum (Nutt.) A. Gray. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 7:376. 1868. 

RangI:. — Endemic to Santa Barbara?, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Guadalupe 
Islands. (Not known from the Coronado Islands or the Baja California peninsula, where 
cited by Wiggins [1980:495]) 

Shnibs prostrate, or in level protected places to 1.5 m high, or hanging to 3 m from cliffs. 
Flowers February to August. 

Palmer found this shrub frequent in the crevices of high rocks in the "middle" of the 
island and called it very ornamental, the bright scarlet flowers continuing all sununer 
(Watson 1876:1 17). It is one of the commoner plants of seacliffs in the northeast pail of 
the island, as well as on shaded cliffs in Oak, Barracks, and Esparsa Canyons. On Islote 
Negro and Outer Islet it is not confined to cliffs; and probably the same is true of Inner 
Islet, though there only cliffdwellers can be seen from below. 

According to Sutton (1988:5 1 1 ), Guadalupe specimens differ from Califomian in the rather 
broader leaves, with glabrous (not glandular) axils, and in the seeds with less anastomosed 
winglike ridges on the ventral face. He thought this material might deserve taxonomic 
recognition. 

Gray (1887) combined the North American Gamhelia Nuttall with the South American 
Galvezia Dombey. Sutton (1988) separated Gamhelia again on the basis of the thicker- 
walled capsules with locules opening by several teeth and the bilaterally symmetrical 

151 



REIDMORAN 

seeds. However, David Thompson (1993:1032) kept it in Galvezia. 

Linaria canadensis (L.) Duin.-Cours., Bot. cult. ed. 1, 2:96. 1802. 

Liuiina canadensis (L.) Duin.-Cours. \ar, tcxensis (Scheeie) Pennell. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia 73:502. 1921. 

R.ANGE. — Biitish Columbia to SE USA and southern Baja California and Socorro Island: 
San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, Los Coro- 
nados, Todos Santos, and Cedros Islands. 

Palmer found this plant rare on the sides of canyons in the "middle" of the island (Watson 
1876:1 17), and it has seldom been collected since. It grows on grassy slopes of the north 
ridge at 600-800 m {M25394) and in the valley below the Lower Circus at 800 m 
(M253S9), in some years very scarce but in wet years locally common. 

Mimulus latifolius A. Gray, Proc. Anier. Acad. .Arts Sci. 11:95. 1876. 

Eunanus latifolius (A. Gray) Greene. Bull, Calif .Acad. Sci. 1:Q9. 1885. 
Mimulus hnwdegei Pennell, Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Philadelphia 49:170. 1947. 

R.ANGE. — Endemic to Guadalupe and Santa Cruz Islands. 

Corolla limb pink or lavender-pink; tube dark purplish red; palate ridges yellow with 
purple spots. Capsule light brown, asymmetric, 16 mm long, flattened contrary to partition, 
sharply bent 4 mm above base and thence straight; outer cell wider, splitting to bend, the 
inner apparently not dehiscent. Seeds light brown, smooth and somewhat shining, o\oid. 
apiculate at both ends, 0.5-0.6 mm long, 0.3-0.4 mm thick. 

Palmer found this plant only in the "middle" of the island, scattered in wami rather moist 
spots (Watson 1876:117). Greene (1885) and Vasey and Rose (1890) listed it without 
comment. In April 1958 Emst and I found five plants scattered along the bed of Arroyo 
Melpomene at ±450 m (Moran and Ernst 673S) (Plate 2K), but I have not seen it there 
since. In April 1970 it was locally common (.\fl7392) with Polypodium califcvnicum and 
Jepsonia malvifolia at 800 m on the west-facing gray cliff above West Anchorage and 
1 km south of El Picacho. This population, to the windward of upper Arroyo Melpomene, 
is a likely seed source for the plants found in that arroyo in 1958 and is the only known 
refuge for the species on the island. On 22 May 1971 I went back, hoping to find seeds, 
but the few plants seen were less advanced than those of April the year before. This had 
been a very dry year but with a little rain about two weeks before my visit; possibly the 
plants had gemiinated after the rain. The blowing fog of that day perhaps is common, 
somewhat moistening the upper west slope. It is noteworthy that the polypodium also 
grows here at its southernmost station on the island and the only place I remember it on 
any but a northfacing cliff 

Mimulus latifolius belongs to section Oenoe A. Gray, including ten Califomian species, 
with capsules woody, asymmetric, tardily or not dehiscent. The type of M. latifolius is 
Palmer 58 (GH; isotypes MO, NY. PH). From Guadalupe Island, Grant (1924:3 1 1 ) ftirther 
cited only collections of Bryant in 1885 and Palmer (S39) of 1889. She also cited a 
collection of Brandegee in 1888 from Santa Cruz Island: Pennell in 1947 separated that 
plant as A/, brandegei, but Thompson (1993) included it again in M. latifolius. It is now 
\ery rare if not extinct on Santa Cruz Island, where it was last collected by Carl Wolf 
in 1932 (Junak et al. 1995:264). Another member of Oenoe. M. traskiae A. L. Grant, 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

grew on Santa Catalina Island but apparently has not been found since 1903 and possibly 
is extinct. 

Scrophularia villosa Penneli, Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 5:223. 1923. 

Range. — Endernic to Santa Catalina, San Clemente. and Guadalupe Islands. 

Shrub 1-1.5 m high, the woody stem to 8 dm high, to 3 cm thick at base. Flowers in 
April and May; corolla deep maroon shading to almost black above. 

On Guadalupe Island this rare shrub first came to light in 1957, surviving on a few 
north-facing cliffs in the north and northeast part of the island. All together, I have found 
only six: four in 1957 at 250 m in Esparsa Canyon (M5970)\ one in 1958 at 120 m in 
South Esparsa Canyon (M6596); and one in 1971 at 675 m near the middle of the north 
slope of the island (Ml 8390). I visited the site in Esparsa Canyon in four later years, and 
by 1970 all four shrubs apparently were gone. Let us pray. 

From the other eight species he recognized for western North America, Shaw (1962) 
separated S. villosa by its shrubby habit, glandular villous inflorescence, and reduced or 
absent sterile filament. He cited M5970 from Guadalupe Island. 

Solanaceae 

Lycium californicum Nutt. in A. Gray, Bot. Calif 1:542. 1876. 

Range. — Southern California to Baja California, Arizona, and Sonora; San Miguel, Santa 
Cruz, Anacapa, San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina. San Clemente, Los Coronados, 
Todos Santos, San Martin, San Benito, and Natividad Islands. 

Palmer found this shrub on rocky bluffs at the "extreme south end" but not abundant 
(Watson 1876:117); his specimen was cited by Hitchcock (1932:329). Howell (1942:152) 
reported it as fonning thickets that are one of the characteristic features of the south end, 
the stems cun'ing to the ground, rooting, and growing up again. Moran (1951:159) found 
it common on the floor of the crater on Outer Islet (Fig. 34). It is widespread in the 
southern half of the island, from Long Canyon and West Anchorage to Islote Negro and 
the south end, especially in the an'oyos, from sea level at least to 500 m. 

Howell remarked that the flowering parts of his collection were smaller than those de- 
scribed by Hitchcock. 

Lycium fremontii A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 6:46. 1862. 

Range. — Southern California to Arizona, southern Baja California, and Sonora; Santa 
Rosa Island. 

This shrub was first found on the island in 1958. So far as known it is very local, on the 
rocky walls of Arroyo Melpomene at 400 m (Moran and Ernst 6733, M7848). 

^Nicotiana atteituata Torr. in S. Watson, Bot. King Exp. p. 276. 1871. 

Nicotiana petuniaeflora Greene. Bull. Calif Acad. Sci. 1:209. 1885. 
Nicotiana higelovii of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — British Columbia and Montana to Texas and NW Baja California. 



153 



RHID MORAN 

"Two or three feet high, stout, viscid-pubescent and somewhat hispid-scabrous: radical 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, 3^ inches long on slender petioles; cauline linear-lanceolate, 
longer than the radical, on shorter petioles; calyx-teeth triangular-lanceolate; corolla an 
inch and a quarter long, salverform, white changing to bronze-purple; limb three-fourths 
of an inch broad, with very shallow, scarcely noticeable, rounded or even refuse lobes." 
(Greene I.e.) 

Palmer found this plant (no. 64) in only a few places in the "centre" of the island, in 
open spots and good soil; flowers greenish yellow, bronzy below (Watson 1876:117). 
Greene (1885:226) added nothing on the distribution. The last collection was in 1898. by 
Drent (UC). and the plant undoubtedly is extinct on the island. 

Goodspeed (l'-)54:49l) listed A', pcitmiueflora Greene among the insufficiently known 
species, as "N. aitennuia Torr.?"; but in treating N. aileiiuata (p. 429), he did not even 
mention it. Under TV. altcuiiata, however, without qualification, he cited Palmer 64 from 
Guadalupe Island; and he wrote (p. 47) that the representatives of the species on the 
island were identical with those on the mainland and thus gave no indication of a long 
period of isolation. Yet presumably Greene's type collection is of the same species. 

*Nicotian{i <;laiica Graham. Edinburgh Phil. .lour. 1828:174. 1828. 

Range. — Native to South America; naturalized from California to Texas and Mexico. 

This noxious weedy shrub first reached the island between 1932 and 1948 (Moran 
1951:160): by the time of my first visit it was well established in the mouth of the canyon 
at Northeast .Anchorage, where the sharp-eyed Tom Howell had failed to find it 16 years 
before. It fomis thickets there and has spread north and south along the shore and up the 
slope. Unfortunately, the goats shun it, and it threatens to take the island. Though botanists 
see the invasion as a disaster, ornithologists Howell and Cade (1954) hailed it as cause 
for hope, because this large shrub provides extensive cat-resistant habitat for small birds, 
with nectar for hummingbirds and seeds for passenncs. 

*Solanitm umericaniim Mill.. Gard. Diet., ed. 8. 1768. 

Solanum lunlillonim .lacq., Ic. PI, Rar. :;2.SX. 1 7N(> 93. 
Siiluiiiiin calvum Bitter, Repcrt. Sp. Nm . 12:S1, I^LV 
Sdluimiii iiiiiniiu of Gaadaliipi; Island rctcrcnLCS 

Range.— .Apparently nati\e to tropical .America; a widespread weed in North .America 
and elsewhere. 

Palmer found this plant rare in the "middle" of the island and in a canyon near the beach 
on the east side, in rich level spots (Watson 1876:117); and on his second trip he found 
a single plant in a canyon at the south end (Vasey and Rose 1890:26). Franceschi 
(1 893c: 137) found it more common, a few in crevices of the Lower Circus and more in 
the canyon near the landing. I have not seen it in the northern half of the island, but it 
grows sparingly farther south, as at the lobster camp and near the mouth of AiToyo 
Melpomene. 

FJitter based .S'. calvum on Palmer 60 pro parte (UPS). He described the specimen in great 
detail but did not compare it with any other species. It appears not to differ from 5'. 
americanum. Dr. G. L. Stebbins in 1958 verified my identification of one collection 
(M644S) with .S'. lUHlilhu-iim. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 
Solanum douglasii Dunal in A. DC, Prod. 131:48. 1852. 

Solanum nigrum L. var. douglasii (Dunal) A. Gray, Syn. Fi. N. Amer. ed. 2, 21:22S. 1886. 
Solanum profundeincisum Bitter, Repert. Sp. Nov. 12:80. 1913. 

Range. — Central California to Southern Baja California and central Mexico; San Miguel, 
Santa Rosa, Santa Cmz, Anacapa, San Nicolas, Santa Barbara. Santa Catalina, and San 
Clemente Islands. 

Palmer found only two plants, in a canyon near the beach on the east side (Watson 
1876:1 17). Greene (1885:226) also saw two plants in the canyon near the beach, "perhaps 
the very same individuals seen by Dr. Palmer." Franceschi (1893c: 137) found three plants, 
two on the lava dike at the southern side of the landing and one a little way up the 
canyon. There are no other reports. The plant is now rare on the island, seen only in the 
northeast part. In 1957 two grew on a south-facing cliff at 450 m on the north rim of 
Barracks Canyon at the mouth (M6I 16), but by 1960 one of these was gone. In 1958 
several grew on a south-facing talus slope at 200m in South Esparsa Canyon (M6602). 

Bitter based 5. profundeincisum on Palmer 60 pro parte and 61 (UPS). Again, although 
he described the specimens in great detail, he did not compare his proposed species with 
5'. douglasii or with any other species. I do not see that it differs at all. 

Solanum wallacei (A. Gray) Parish ssp. ciokeyi (Munz) Thome, Aliso 7:76. 1979. 

Solanum arhorescens Clokey, Bull. S. Calif Acad. Sci. .30:60. 1931. Not Moench. 
Solanum ciokeyi Munz, Bull. S. Calif Acad. Sci. 31:69. 1932. 

Solanuim wallacei var. ciokeyi (Munz) McMinn, 111. Man. Calif Shrubs p. 49L 1939. 
Solanum wallacei, S. xanli, and S. xanti var. wallacei of Guadalupe references. 

Range. — Endemic to Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Guadalupe Islands. 

Weak shrub to 16 dm high, the stems brittle, 1 cm thick, to 5 cm at common base. Herbage 
viscid, densely soft white pubescent, at first very densely so and yellowish, the trichomes 
spreading, mostly unbranched, of unequal lengths intermixed, 0.2—1 (—2) mm long, unis- 
eriate, of 2—15 cells tipped with a tiny yellowish globule. Leaf blades ovate to oblong- 
ovate, acute or subacute, cordate to subtruncate at base, entire or faintly and inegularly 
crenate, 3^ cm long, 15-37 mm wide; petioles 6-12 mm long. Cymes on peduncles 10-23 
mm long, of mostly 2 cincinni of 7-9 flowers each, the axes at length to 23 mm, the 
pedicels slender, pubescent, 10-21 mm long. Flowers Jan.-May, at times abundant and 
showy. Calyx pubescent, in flower campanulate, 3^ mm long, in fruit shallowly bowl- 
shaped, 12 mm wide, the lobes deltoid-ovate, acute or becoming rounded, 1.5—2 mm long. 
Corolla rotate, shallowly 5-lobed, 2-3 cm wide, blue-violet, pubescent outside on parts 
exposed in bud, with paired green spots surrounded by white inside at base opposite each 
lobe, the lobes broadly ovate, acute, 7—9 mm long and wide. Filaments adnate 2 mm to 
corolla base, equal, 4 mm long and I mm wide at base, puberulent; anthers equal, yellow, 
3.5^ mm long, 1.5 mm wide, splitting lengthwise. Ovary globular, green, 1.5—2 inm thick; 
style 8-10 mm long, papillose in lower third and with a few scattered short trichomes, 
glabrous above. Old fruit I cm thick, orange-brown, glabrous and somewhat shiny. Seeds 
red-brown, obliquely ovate, 1.9-2.1 mm long, 1.4— 1.6 mm wide, 0.6-0.8 mm thick, the 
margins rounded, the surface closely pitted with round-bottomed pits 0.02-0.1 mm wide. 
Chromosomes: « = 12 fide Marion Cave. 

Palmer found this plant only in the "middle" of the island, in the crevices of rocks (Watson 
1876:1 17). He called it a very showy shnib, in large bunches about two feet high, blooming 

155 



REID MORAN 

all year; flowers numerous, lilac or purple. Greene (1885:226) found it common on the 
plateau, in round compact masses three feet or more in height and thickness. Franceschi 
{1893c: 137) found it on the eastern cliff a little south of the corral, already in flower at 
the beginning of January. I have found it (M7837 etc.) only on the cliff of the Lower 
Circus, the place meant by Franceschi and perhaps also by Palmer. Here I saw mainly 
one colony of about ten plants, very showy and conspicuous in flower, surviving fortui- 
tously high on the cliff in a pocket of rich soil like a window box, suitable for continued 
reproduction yet beyond the reach of goats. 1 saw only one old fmit. from the year before. 
In 1988 I saw another plant out of reach farther north on the cliffs. 

Palmer described the fniit as small, changing from green to yellow, mottled, and at length 
veiy dark plum color, maturing very slowly. Both Katherine Brandegee (in Franceschi 
1893c: 137) and Greene identified the Guadalupe Island plants with 5. xanti var. wallacei 
of Santa Catalina Island, though Gray (Watson 1876:1 17) had refeired Palmer's collection 
to S. xanii and not to the variety. The ssp. clokeyi is a smaller shrub than ssp. wallacei, 
with shorter, less dense, and less tawny pubescence, smaller leaves, smaller flowers, and 
smaller truit. It needs closer comparison with the variable 5. xaiiri of the mainland. 

Umbelliferae 

Dauciis pusillus Michx, Fl. Bor. Amer. 1:164. 1803. 

Range. — Vancouver Island to central Baja California, SE USA, and South America; 
islands of southern California and Los Coronados and Todos Santos. 

Palmer found this plant abundant through the "middle" of the island, among sage brush 
on the sides of canyons and in open level places (Watson 1876:115). Greene 1885:223) 
noted it without comment. It now seems to be rare, known from only one collection this 
century: scarce on grassy slope at 900 m south of the cypress grove (M6676). 

Loimiilum insiilaie (Eastw.) Munz, Man. S. Calif Bot. 358. 1935. 

Range. — Endemic to San Nicolas, San Clemente, and Guadalupe Islands. 

Moran ( 1951:159) found this plant on the inner slope of the crater of Outer Islet and also 
near the southwest corner of the south-end mesa. On Outer Islet it grows not only in the 
crater but also in the upper valley at 190 m, where one plant measured 7 dm wide. On 
the mesa it seemed at first very local in a shallow arroyo at 100 m, just above Campo 
Sur (Fig. 77), and so far as I have seen has since spread less than 1 km to the north. 
Plants seen on the mesa in June and August were completely domiant and were dead 
above ground. 

This plant also grows at 500 to 800 m on foggy northwest cliffs from North Point to 
Hemizonia Cliff, flowering December to May (M6437. Ml 381 3. Ml 7298). Leaf segments 
are wider here than in plants at the south end. 

Urticaceae 

iHesperocnide tenella Torr., Pacif. Railr. Rept. 4:139. 1857. 

Range. — Central California to NW Baja California; Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara, Santa 
Catalina, San Clemente, Los Coronados, Todos Santos, and San Martin Islands. 



156 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 




Fkiurh 77. The insular endemic Lomatiiim uisuUire {MlJil^y) ow ilic M>ulh-end mesa, 5 Mareh 
1965. It grows also on Outer Islet and on cliffs at the north end, and on San Clemente and San 
Nicolas Islands. 

Palmer found this plant in damp shady places, among high rocks, in the "middle" of the 
island (Watson 1876:119), Greene (1885:227) listed it without comment, and Franceschi 
(1893c: 137) found it very common everywhere. Apparently no one has seen it since, and 
evidently it is extinct on the island. 

Parietaria hespera B. D. Hinton var. Iiespera. 

Panetana hespera B. D. Hinton, Sida 3:293. 1969. 

Parietaria detiilis and P. floridana of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Central California to Utah, New Mexico, and NW Mexico; islands of southern 
California and south to Cedros, 

Palmer found this plant abundant in damp shady places (Watson 1876:119). It is rather 
common among rocks from shore to summit and from the north slope to the south end 
mesa and on Islote Negro and Outer Islet. 

Viscaceae 

^Plioradendron densiim Trel., Gen. Phorad. p. 27. 1916. 

PhoradeiiJroii guadalupense Trel., Gen. Phorad. p. 29. 1916. 

Phoradendron holleamim (Seem.) Eichler ssp. densuin (Trel.) Wiens, Brittonia 16:29. 1964. 

Phoradendron holleanum and var. pauciflorum of Guadalupe Island references. 



157 



REID MORAN 

Range. — Oregon to Baja California and Chihuahua. 

Pahner found this mistletoe near the "south end", on Ciipressiis and more frequently on 
Juniperus (Watson 1876:119). Bryant (1887:295) mentioned mistletoe on the cypress at 
a height of 20 feet. However, Greene did not see it in 1 885, and apparently no one has 
found it since. I have examined most of the remaining junipers and could scarcely have 
missed the mistletoe had it been there. I have also looked for it several times on some 
hundreds of cypress trees and, strange to say, have failed to find it — though there I am 
less certain it is absent. If it was originally rare on the cypress, could it have required 
the large seed source on the junipers to ensure infection of the less susceptible cypress? 
Or is it still there after all? 

Fosberg (1941) doubtfully referred P. guadalupense to P. bollenamtm var. paucijlorum 
(Torr.) Fosberg. saying there was not enough material to decide its status. Wiens (1964:29) 
wrote that the Guadalupe plant did not differ in any important way from P. hoUainuin 
ssp. densiim. 

Familia ignota 
fPlaiUa species 

Siiniiiila i)icii:li'sin of Guadalupe Island references. 
Range. — Presumably endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

In the crevices of rocks in the "middle" of the island Palmer found two plants only, 
without flowers or fruit, of what Watson (1876:115) doubtfully identified as Sciniciila 
mciiziesii Hook. & Am. No one has since found anything like it, and presumably it is 
extinct. Dr. Lincoln Constance examined the specimen and concluded it was not Saniciila 
or any other Umbellifer. Since he and Dr. P. A. Munz and other botanists well-versed in 
the flora of California failed to recognize even the family of this specimen, 1 assume that 
it was at least an endemic species and so list it with the endemics. 

The specimen at Gil could not be found recently. The only trace of it is a faded and 
blurred copy of a memo from Dr. Munz to Peter Raven (SD), with a sketch of one of 
the three leaves. These were "palmately about 5-lobed, with very lacmiate and iuegular 
margins, prominent venation, and distended petiole bases (like an umbellifer). If I were 
going to check on it. I'd think Umbelliferae or maybe .latropha." 

MONOCOTS 
Gramincae 

Aiistida adscetisiouis L., Sp. PI. p. 82. 1753. 

Aristuhi hrommdcs HBK. Nov. Gen. Sp. 1:122. 1S15. 

Range. — California and Texas to Argentina; Santa Rosa, Santa Cniz, Santa Catalina, 
San Clemente, and Cedros Islands. 

Palmer found this grass in deep canyons among other grasses and plants (Vasey and Rose 
1890:27). Hitchcock (1924:544) cited his collections and one by Rose (/6V.i/). It is wide- 
spread at low elevations on the island but not common. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

*Avena barbata Pott ex Link, Schrad. Jour. Bot. 2:315. 1799. 

Range. — Native to Europe; now a widespread weed. 

On his second trip Palmer found this grass in canyons and on rough slopes (Vasey and 
Rose 1890:27). It is now widespread on the island and in some places fairly common. It 
is the only member of the genus collected in recent years. 

t*Aveiia faliia L.. Sp. PI. p. 79. 1753. 

Range. — Native to Europe; now a widespread weed. 

Palmer found several patches in open places and on the best soil (Watson 1X76:120). 
Greene (1885:228) saw very little and remarked that apparently it was not established. It 
has not been found recently. Gould and Moran (1981:40) tentatively identified Palmer 
94a (MO) with A. fatiia though it has some characters o\' A. harhata. 

^*Avena saliva L., Sp. PI. p. 79. 1753. 

Range. — Native to Europe; widely grown as a crop plant and sometimes escaping. 

Gould and Moran (1981:40) identified P(//wt^/- 94 (MO) as an atypical fonn of this species. 
Apparently it has not been collected since. 

*Brotmis berteroanus Colla, Mem. Ace. Turin 39:25. 1835. 

Bninnis Iriiiii Dcsv. in Gay, Fl. Cliil. 6:441. IS53. 
Trisctwii harhaluw Steudel, Syn. PL Glum. 1:229. 1854. 
Bronnis steiilis of .some Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Native to southern South America; a weed in SW USA and NW Mexico. 

On his second trip, in a year of frequent rains. Palmer found this grass abundant and 
often large at the south end and very common also in the noilheni part of the island 
(Vasey and Rose 1890:26, 27). He added that it made the be.st forage at the north end, 
in the canyons very large and growing so thickly that it looked like grain. It is now 
widespread at low elevations but generally scarce. I have never seen it common. 

*Bioniiis (liandnis Roth, Bot. Abh. p. 44. 1787. 

Bromiis mii.xiimis Desf. Fl. Atlant. 1:95. 1798. 
Broinus rigidiis of Guadalupe Island references. 
Bronnis sterilis of some Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a weed in SW USA and NW Baja California. 

Greene (1885:228) reported this grass as abundant, saying that not even the goats were 
fond of it. It is now widespread on the island, from the north end to Arroyo Melpomene, 
sometimes locally common. 

* Broinus hordeaceus L., Sp. PI. p. 77. 1753. 
Bromus mollis L.. Sp. PL ed. 2, 1:112. 1762. 
Range. — Native to Europe; a widespread weed. 

159 



REID MORAN 

Moran (1951:1 59) found this grass occasional in the canyon mouth at Northeast Anchorage 
in 1948. It has since spread up the northeast side of the island to the area of the springs. 

* Browns nibeiis L.. Cent. PI. 1:5. 1755. 

Bnmnis imiilritciisis s:-p. nihens (L.) Husnot. Gram. Fr. Belg. p. 71. 1899. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a widespread weed. 

Howell ( 1942: 146) collected this grass at Northeast Anchorage and reported it not common. 
It has now spread upward to the pine ridge and Oak Canyon and south to Long Canyon 
and in man\ places is rather common. 

i*Brflnius tectorum L.. Sp. PI. p. 77. 1753. 
Bruinus slenlis of some Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a frequent weed through much of the USA and in NW 
Mexico. 

Wallace (1985:87, 98) reported B. leclorum for Guadalupe Island, based on Palmer 99 
(NY) in part. Watson (1876:120) had listed this collection as B. slerilis L.. with Palmer's 
comment that it was on wami hillsides, .sometimes in large patches as if sown, at the 
"south end" and "middle"; but according to Wallace it is a mi.xture of B. icctonim and 
B. trinii [= B. hcrteroanus]. Presumably it was B. herteroanus that was so abundant, for 
B. tectorum has not otherwise been reported from the island and probably never became 
well established. 

rDissanllu'liiini culifoniiciiin (Nutt.) Benth., in Hook.f. Icon. PI. 14:56, pi. I.'?75. 
1881. 

SiciukIiIou cilifonnca Null., Jour. Acad. N.it. Sei. Philadelphia. Ser. 2. I:1SQ, 1)S4S. 

Range. — Endemic to Santa Catalina. San Clemente. and Guadalupe Islands. 

Palmer found this grass on wann rocky slopes in the "middle" of the island but not very 
abundant (Watson 1876:120). He said it was very succulent and that the goats were very 
fond of it. No one has found it since. Likewise, it has been found only once on Catalina 
and once on San Clemente: e\idently. it is extinct. 

*Hordeum inuiinitm I s.sp. glauciim (Steud.) Tzvelev. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 
8:67. 1971. 

Honlciiin iilaiuuin Steud., Syn. PI. Glum. 1:352. 1S55. 
HorJewn stehhinsii Covas. Madrono 10:17, 1949. 

R^NOH. — Nati\e to Europe; a widespread weed. 

Greene (1885:228) reported "only a few tufts" of//, muriinim [ssp. glaiictim''!] near the 
cabins on the plateau, "but the seed is there and it will hardly fail to become abundant." 
The ssp. ojaiiciim is now widespread on the island and certainly one of the most abundant 
plants. 



IbO 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 
*Hordeiini miiriiiian L. ssp. leponniiin (Link) Arcang., Comp. FL Ital p. 805. 1882. 
Honieuni leponnum Link, Linnaca 9M33. 1K35. 
Range. — Native to Europe; a widespread weed. 
The ssp. lepohmim is also widespread on the island but is less abundant. 

*Lainarckia aiirea Moench. Meth. PI. p. 201. 1794. 

Range. — Native to southern Europe; a common weed from California to Texas and 
northern Mexico. 

Meling Lopez (1985) was first to find this weed on the island (Zona Bosque, Meling 
Lopez 041. SD). In 1988 it was occasional near the spring and above (MS 1(109). 

Melica imperfecta Trin., Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, Ser. 6, Sci. Math. 
2:59. 1836. 

Range. — Central California to central Baja California; islands of southern California 
and south to Cedros. 

Palmer found this grass in crevices of high rocks in the "middle" of the island (Watson 
1876:120). Greene (1885:228) found only one tuft in a place inaccessible to goats. It is 
now rare, on cliffs in the northeast part of the island, seen in 1967 on the Lower Circus 
at 950 m (M13783) and in Southeast Oak Canyon at 400 m (M13791). 

Miihlenbergia niicrospenna (DC.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1:64. 1829. 
Muhlenhergia dehilis (HBK) Kunth. Rev. Gram. 1:63. 1829. 

Range. — SW USA to Peni; islands of southern California except San Nicolas and of 
NW Baja California south to Cedros. 

Palmer found this grass abundant on warm slopes in the "middle" of the island and less 
common at the "south end" (Watson 1876:120). Palmer's collections of 1889 were cited 
by Hitchcock (1913:294). It is now widespread on the island, from the pine ridge to the 
south end mesa, but not very common. 

Phalaris caroUniana Walter, Fl. Carol, p. 74. 1788. 
Phalari.s uilermedia Bosc ex Poir., Encycl. Siippl. 1:300. 1810. 

Range. — Southern USA and northem Mexico; Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, 
Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands. 

Brandegee (1900) first reported this grass from Guadalupe Island, but without specific 
locality. It appears to be local on the island and rather uncommon, in arroyos below 
500 m west to northwest of the lobster camp. This little visited part of the island is where 
Cisianlhe mantima, Gnaphalium hicolor, Stipa lepida, and Stehbinsoseris heterocarpa 
also appear to be local. 

Most authors treat this grass as introduced in western North America, often saying it 
grows in disturbed places; and there is no clear way to tell. However, its distribution on 
the island and in wild parts of northem Baja California suggests to me that it may be 

161 



RFID MORAN 

native. Also, Raven (1963:315) quoted Dennis E. Anderson as feeling then that it might 
well be native in California, even though later Anderson (1993:1282) has treated it as 
introduced. 

*Phalaiis minor Retz., Obs. Bot. 3:8. 1783. 

R.-XNGE. — Native to the Mediterranean region; a widespread weed in North and South 
America. 

This grass was first found on Guadalupe Island in 1958, scarce at Northeast Anchorage 
(M67H9, Wiggins & Ernst 216). It persists in that area and also grows in an arroyo bed 
near the southwest comer of the island (M31015). 

*Poa annua L.. Sp. PI. p. 68. 1753. 

Rangf. — Native to Europe but now widespread in North America. 

Howell (1942:147) found this grass in the pine grove. It is now abundant on the upper 
north slope and about the spring and is scattered elsewhere in the northern part of the 
island. 

Poa secnndu J. PresI ssp. seciinda 

P,ni scciimla .1 Prcsl, Reliq. Haenk. 1:271. 1S25-30. 
P,Hi Muhrellu (Tlniib.) Vasey, Grasses U. S. p. 42. 1SS3. 

Range. — Alaska to northern Baja California; San Miguel. Santa Rosa, Santa Crtiz, Ana- 
capa, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, San Clemente. and Todos Santos Islands. 

This grass is known on Guadalupe Island from one collection: one clump on face of 
Hemizonia cliff at SOO m. 3 May 1967 {MIJSI6). 

*PolypogoN monspeliensis (L.) Desf, Fl. Atlant. 1:67. 1798. 

Range. — Native to Europe; a widespread weed in North America. 

Greene (1885:228) found this grass common about the springs. It is still common there 
and occurs more sparingly under pines at the north end and m the streambeds of the 
canyons draming the northeast part of the island and south to Juniper Canyon. 

Stipa k'pida A. S. Hitchc , Amer. Jour. Bot. 2:302. 1915. 
Nasclla Icpuia (A. S. Hitchc.) Barkvvorth, Taxon 3^):hl(), IWl. 

Range. -- Northern California to southern Baja California; islands of southern California 
and Los Coronados and Cedros. 

This grass was first found on Guadalupe Island in 1958. It appears to be local on the 
east side south of the middle of the island: east slope of El Picacho, 450 m (M6754. 
Wiggins & Ernst 199): west of the lobster camp, 70 m (Wiggins & Ernst 203). 

*Tiiticuni aestiviim L., Sp. PI. p. 85. 1753. 

Range. — Native to Eurasia; widely culti\ated and occasionally escaping but unlikely to 
persist out of cultivation. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Meling Lopez (1985) was first to find this grass on the island (Corrales. zona bosque, 
Meling-Lopez 042, SD), and there seems to be no later record. 

\*Vulpia bromoides (L.) Gray, Nat. An'. Bnt. PI. 2:124. 1821. 

Range. — Native to Europe; widespread in North America. 

"Guadaloupe Islands," April 1889, Dr. E. Palmer 674 (POM/RSA), as checked by Tim 
Ross and as noted by Wallace (1985:33, 90). According to McVaugh (1956), this would 
be from the northeast part of the island. I have seen no other record. 

I'lilpia microstachvs (Nutt.) Benth. var. paiiciflora (Beal) Lonard & Gould, Madrofio 
22:226. 1974. 

Fesluca pacifica Piper. Contr, U.S. Natl. Herb. 10:12. 1906. 

Range. — British Columbia to southern Baja California; San Miguel, Santa Cniz, Ana- 
capa, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, San Martin, and Cedros Islands. 

Palmer found this grass in bunches on waiTn slopes and in open places in the "middle" 
of the island (Watson 1876:120), and Greene (1885:228) listed it without comment. This 
century it seems to have been found only rather scarce near the springs and old ranch 
(Moran 6658, Wiggins & Ernst 114). 

*y'ulpia ntvuros (L.) C. C. Gmelin var. hirsiita Hack.. Cat. Gramin. Portugal, p. 24. 
1880. 

Fesluca megalwa Nutt.. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Ser. 2, 1:1SH. 184S. 

Range. — British Columbia and Montana to southern Baja California; islands of southern 
California and Todos Santos; native to Europe. 

On his second trip Palmer found this grass in canyons, not common (Vasey and Rose 
1890:27). It is now very coinmon in the northern part of the island, from sea level to the 
top of Mt. Augusta. 

liilpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb. var. hhtella (Piper) Henrard, Blumea 2:320. 1937. 

Festuca octoflora Walter var. hirtella Piper, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 10:12. 1Q06. 
Fesluca lenella of Guadalupe Island references. 

Range. — British Columbia to Texas and central Baja California; islands of southern 
California and Todos Santos, San Martin, and Cedros. 

On his second trip Palmer found this grass in the southern part of the island (Vasey & 
Rose 1890:26); his collections were cited by Hitchcock (1913:378) as F. octn/lora var. 
hirtella. Howell (1942:146) found it not common in the iniddle part of the island. It 
appears to be rather local at widely separated places on the island: South Esparsa Canyon, 
50 in (A/6595); south flank of El Picacho, 650 m (M6741)\ Melpomene drainage, 300 m 
(M6729A). On the flank of El Picacho it was abundant over a gently sloping area several 
hundred meters wide. 



163 



REID MORAN 

Juncaceae 

Junciis hufonius L., Sp PI. p. 328. 1753. 

R.vnCjE. — Widespread on all continents; San Miguel. Santa Rosa, Santa Cniz. Anacapa. 
San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands. 

Palmer found this rush from the "middle" to the north end of the island, abundant in 
springy places (Watson 1876:120). It is still common locally in seasonally wet places 
throughout the island, from the spring to tinajas in Arroyo Melpomene. 

Liliaceae 

i^Dichelostemma pulchelliim (Salisb.) A. Heller, Muhlenbergia 1:132. 1906. 

BniJiLiea capualu Benth., PI. Hartw. p. }}"). 1857. 

Brodiaea insukms Greene. Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci. 2:134. 1886. 

Dichelostemma insulare (Greene) Bumham, Muhlenbergia 3:74. 1907. 

Dipteroslemon insulare (Greene) Rydb., Bull Torrey Bot. Club 39:111. 1912, 

Brodiaea capilala Benth. var. insiilans (Greene) .1, F. Macbr., Contr. Gray Herb. 56:9. 1918. 

Range. — Southern Oregon to central Baja California; islands of southern California and 
south to San Benitos and Cedros. 

Greene (1 885:216) reported this plant exceedingly common on the tableland about the 
spring and on the declivity below. On his second visit, Palmer found it quite plentiful in 
deep ravines and on hillsides at the south end (Vasey and Rose 1890:26). It is widespread 
on the island, from the north slope to Outer Islet. In the northem part it seldom reaches 
flowering size except on cliffs. Farther south, beyond the range of most goats, it is fairly 
common in some places and often does flower. 

Brodiaea insiilans. of the islands from San Miguel to Guadalupe, Greene ( 1886) separated 
mainly on the basis of its larger size: "Closely allied to [B. capitata] but many times 
larger. . . . Scape 3-5 feet high: leaves often a yard long and an inch broad: . . . comis 
... the largest in the genus, often two inches in diameter. . . ." However, the island 
plants are by no means always large, and Hoover (1940:471) wrote that in favorable 
situations and in favorable seasons plants of the mainland may grow as large as any seen 
from the islands. Although he supposed that their often larger size probably had some 
genetic basis, he did not separate the island plants la.xonomically — nor have others. In 
fact, the Guadalupe plant may not belong with the other island plants genetically. 

Greene said he could not account for Palmer's failure to either collect this plant or make 
note of its presence on the island. This was remarkable considering that Palmer had 
camped for 15 weeks where Greene now found it so common and, in fact, where he 
collected three other plants Palmer had not found. The only explanation seems to be that 
it was a late arrival not yet established on the island. I therefore list it as a probable 
newcomer (Table 2). 

Triteleia giiadalupensis L. W. Lenz, Aliso 7:145, figs. 1, 2. 1970. 
Brodiaea higens and Triteleia liigens of Guadalupe Island references, 
Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Conns 2-3.5 cm thick, the thick coat of coarse fibers extending upward to form a neck. 
Leaves two, 3—1 L5 dm long, 12-32 mm wide. Scapes 3—7.4 dm tall, 2-5 mm thick, smooth 
or slightly scabrous; involucral bracts ovate, acuminate, 1-5 cm long. Flowers (Plate 2L) 
in March to May, about 20-30, on pedicels 1.5-5 cm long. Perianth golden yellow, 27-32 
mm wide, 14—21 mm long (closed), the tube funnelform, 5-9 mm long, the segments 
widespreading, 12-14 mm long, 4—8 mm wide, papillose at apex, each with green to dark 
purple midvein, the outer ovate, nanowly rounded at apex, the inner elliptic, broadly 
rounded and emarginate at apex. Filaments all inserted at mouth of perianth tube, alter- 
nately long and short, oblong or subcuneate, subtmncate and mucronate at apex, the mucro 
bearing the anther, the longer 5—6 mm long, 3 mm wide, the shorter 2—3 mm long; anthers 
pale yellow, 2-3 mm long. Ovary twice as long as stipe. Chromosomes; n = 8. (Description 
broadened from Lenz 1970). 

Brandegee (1900:22) found this plant common along the slopes of Spamianns Canyon 
(perhaps Esparsa Canyon'.'), and Moran (1951:160) found it high at the north end. It grows 
on shaded cliffs in the northern two-thirds of the island, in some places rather common 
locally: Hemizonia Cliff, 800 m (M138II etc.); Oak Canyon 850 m (Ml 2301); Esparsa 
Canyon 250 m {M5969y, head of canyon west of the lobster camp (Weber & McCoy 
12016) [near the following]; east slope of El Picacho, 350 m (MI 2063, type collection). 

In a careful revision of Thleleia. Hoover (1941) placed Brandegee's specimen under T. 
lugens Greene, a rare species which, in his sense, had a remarkable disjunct distribution 
in the inner North Coast Ranges of California, the San Gabriel Mountains, and Guadalupe 
Island. On the basis of living plants, Lenz ( 1970) separated T. giiadahipensis, with Moran 
12063 (SD59967) as holotype; and he concluded that the plant of the San Gabriel Moun- 
tains also was specifically distinct. Thus he restricted typical T. lugens to central California, 
where it is now known from Monterey and San Benito Counties as well as the North 
Coast Ranges. He distinguished T. giiadahipeiisis from T. lugens by its generally larger 
size, its larger corms whose thick coat of coarse fibers extends above the top to fomi a 
distinct neck, and its golden yellow perianth with a longer and broader tube. He said that 
in flower color and shape it approached the plants of Monterey and San Benito Counties 
more closely than it did the more northern ones From field-collected buds of the type 
collection. Dr. Marion Cave got a meiotic chromosome count of n = 8. 

Palmae 
Brahea ediilis H. Wendl. in S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 11:146. 1876. 
Etythea edulis (H. Wendl.) S. Watson. Bot. Calif 2:212. 18S0. 
Range. — Endemic to Guadalupe Island. 

This is a palm to 10 m tall, with a clean columnar trunk 2—4 dm thick above the enlarged 
base, with green costapalmate leaves 2-3.5 m long (Fig. 78), and with a finally pendent 
inflorescence 1-3 m long bearing edible black drupes 2.5-3.5 cm thick (Fig. 79). 

Palmer reported the palm as frequent in deep warm ravines, from the northern end to 
Jacks Bay [West Anchorage] (Watson 1876:120). Franceschi (1893a) wrote that the only 
considerable remaining grove was on the northwest slope, covering an area not less than 
one mile and a half long, and one-half to one mile wide, though formerly extending 
farther north as shown by burned trunks. He said that palms used to grow in the canyon 
coming down to the landing [Barracks Canyon], "where man has destroyed them all for 
thatching the cabins with their leaves and eating the central Cabbage, which is indeed 

165 



RtID MORAN 




FkiliRl 7iS. The endemic Guadalupe Island palm {Hrnhcu ciliilis) on the north slope of the island, 
I? April 1Q70. This handsome palm in commonly grown in southern California and elsewhere. 



delicate and sweet." And he told of what appeared to be the scattered remains of a 
fonnerly considerable grove on the two sides of Esparsa Canyon. Dudley (1899:283) 
reported 50 or more palms in each of three canyons opening into the central valley [Arroyo 
Melpomene] above the south anchorage. Brown mentioned a small grove on the west 
side near Steamer Point (Thayer and Bangs 1908:102). Hanna (1925:237. pi. 19, fig. 2) 
reported about a thousand palms reinaining in Esparsa Canyon. 

Much of the fine grove described by Franceschi still stands on the northwest slope (Fig. 
24), extending about 3 km in a northeast-southwest direction and from the top of the 
seacliffs at about 450 m up to 800 m and having probably several thousand trees. A few 
grow among the pines to the northeast (Fig. 20). No palms remain in Bairacks Canyon, 
as Franceschi said, though a few old palm roots were still to be seen in 1960. Several 
hundred palms remained in Esparsa Canyon in 1970, at about 250 to 400 m, but scarcely 
the thousand seen by Hanna 50 years before. Palms reinain in three other shallower canyons 
on the east side, south as far as El Picacho. In the one emptying at the lobster camp I 
counted 69 palms in 1957, at 250 to 450 m. On the west side there are still palms in the 
canyon above West Anchorage; and in 1957 about 30 grew in a hanging valley at 
350 m some 7 km south of El Picacho (Lindsay 1966:8, photo). I saw none in the tributaries 
of Arroyo Melpomene. 

All these palm groves arc of old trees: no seedling escapes the goats. 1 have seen only 
two palm seedlings on the island. One was in Arroyo Melpomene, but it has since dis- 
appeared. Possibly this was from a seed dropped by someone carrying a palm inflorescence 
to the village to feed a domestic goat once kept there. The other was in the aiToyo not 




GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 



Figure 79. Fruit of the oiidcmic Guadalupe Island palm (Brahea eiliili.\){M! 2(166) on the north 
slope of the island, 4 Mareh 1965. Palmer remarked that the fruit was eaten by man, goats, birds, 
and inice. 

far above the lobster catnp, where it was not likely to survive the goats for long. 

Palmer said that the clusters of fruit (Fig. 79) weighed 40 or 50 pounds and that the fruit 
was eaten by man, goats, birds, and mice. Franceschi wrote that the fruits were similar 
in size and taste to prunes, and he evidently considered them an additional dividend to 
be got frotn growing an excellent palm. At just the right stage between greenness and 
decay, the fruits are indeed quite edible; but to me they are less like prunes than like 
some inferior kind of date. 

Bailey (1937) had six species of Eiythea, native in northwest Mexico; Uhl and Dransfield 
(1987) recognized about 16 species of Brahea. including Eiythea, native to Mexico and 
Guatemala, though saying that a new taxonomic treatment was much needed. The nearest 
species geographically is B. armaia, of northern and central Baja California. An interesting 
question is how the original palm seed got to the island (Moran 1978). The fruits and 



167 



REID MORAN 

seeds of B. ediilis are too dense to float in sea water, and it would take an enterprising 
bird to carry so heavy an object so long a distance. The inflorescence might float; but it 
is most unlikely either to become detached or to be carried down a turbulent rain-swollen 
arroyo to the sea while still bearing thnt. 

Guadalupe Island palm is well established in cultivation in southern Califomia and else- 
where and makes a veiy handsome tree. Its merits greatly impressed Dr. F. Franceschi, 
a noted horticulturist, later of Santa Barbara but in 1892 newly arrived in Califomia (cf 
Tucker 1945); and in the winter of 1892-93 he visited Guadalupe Island largely to gather 
fuller infonnation about it. Writing later about the palm in its island home and in culti- 
vation, Franceschi (1893a) noted that fresh seed gemiinate in a few weeks, though older 
ones take several months; and that afterwards this palm grows nearly as quickly as Wash- 
iugtoniii tilifera and Phoenix caiiarit'iisis, two well-known fast growers. And he wrote 
that horticulturists "are sure to fmd it to be the most elegant of all Fan Palms from the 
North .-Xmerican continent." 

Zosteraceae 

PhyllospadLx toireyi S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 14:303. 1879. 

Ranch. — Oregon to central Baja Califomia; islands of southem Califomia. 

Dudley (1899:283) reported this surf-grass as scarce, near the west and south anchorages. 
It is common enough on the intertidal reef at West Anchorage and off the landing at 
Canipo Sur. Also, it was collected for me by diver Wes Andrew at the south end and by 
him and by divers Jim Stewart and .lay Quast at Northeast Anchorage. 

Zostera marina L., Sp. PI. p. 968. 1753. 

R.ANGE. — Alaska to Baja Califomia and Atlantic coast; Santa Rosa, Santa Cmz, Anacapa, 
Santa Catalina, Los Coronados, San Martin, San Geronimo, and Cedros Islands. 

This eel-grass was collected for me in Januai^ I960 by divers Jim Stewart and Jay Quast 
at 140 feet at Northeast Anchorage {M7S44). Anne Mower annotated the sterile specimen 
in 1969. saying it looked like the shallow-water fonn. 

DOUBTFUL AND E.XCLUDED SPECIES 
Chamaesyce melanadenia (Ton.) Millsp., Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 2:410, 1916. 
Fupluirhia mcUiihidciua Torr,. Pacif. Railr. Rcpt. 4 LVs. 1S57. 

Wheeler (1934, 1936:439) reported this species from Guadalupe Island on the basis of 
specimens (F, GFI) collected by Palmer in 1XS9. On two specimens the labels — one 
handwritten, the other typed — say "Lagoon Head" but not "Guadalupe Island." A third 
label has printed on it "Lagoon Head" and "March 9, 1889"; but "Guadalupe Island, 
Lower Calif" is written below. The field number (7S3) falls in the series for Lagoon 
Head and inland rather than in that for Guadalupe Island (McVaugh 1956:239. 230), and 
the date agrees. Furthcmiore, Vasey and Rose (1890:12) cited this collection as from hills 
40 miles back from the ocean. Lagoon Head, Baja Califomia, showing they had fuller 
infonnation than appeared on these labels. Thus the report for Guadalupe Island seems 
clearly mistaken. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 

Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson) Britton & Rose. Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 12:422. 
1909. 

When in a letter to Spencer Baird, Xantus improvised Cereus giganieus on Guadalupe 
Island, Zwinger (1986:88, note 13) wrote: "Cereus giganieus, Saguaro, does noi reach 
this far west and south; what Xantus saw was Pachycereus pringlei, Cardon, a then-un- 
collected species." It is still uncollected, however, and there is no reason to believe that 
Xantus saw any giant cactus on the island; see under Xantus, p. 45. 

Solaniim tenuilobatiini Parish, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ser. 3, 2:165. 1901. 

A specimen of this species (SD 119427) is labeled as from Guadalupe Island: Arroyo, 
Zona Sur, 3 km N Morro Sur, Alf Enrique Meling L., 30 March 1982. This rare plarit is 
otherwise known from a few places in chaparral at 200-1 100 m in southwestern San 
Diego County, California (Beauchanip 1986:229), and northwest Baja California. I ques- 
tion whether this plant would grow in such a di"y place as the south end of the island 
and reserve judgement about its occurrence on the island. .See Hnrique Meling, p 52. 

StilliiiQia linearifolia S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Ai1b oci. 14:297. 1879. 

The cucumstances for this species closely parallel those oescribed abo\'e for Chamaesyce 
melanadenia. Rogers (1951, fig. 21) showed a dot for Guadakipe Island on his map for 
this species; and in the list of specimens (p. 248) he cited E. Palmer 785 (F, GH, US) 
from "lagoon head, Guadaloupe Island." At least one of these specimens (F) has the 
printed "Lagoon Head" label with "Guadaloupe Island" writien below. However, number 
785 again falls in the series for Lagoon Head and inl.ind rather than in that for Guadalupe 
Island (McVaugh 1956:239, 230); and Vasey and Rose (18W:12) cited this collection as 
from Lagoon Head. Thus this report for Guadalupe Island likewise seems clearly mistaken. 

In tabulating plant distributions on the Channel Island.s of Cilifornia plus Guadalupe 
Island, Dunkle (1950), on the pages shown, marked for fiuadalupe Island the following 
plants for which 1 have found no other record: Ctypiciinhu clevelandii Greene var. hispidis- 
sima (Greene) I. M. Johnst. (pp. 306, 330), Echeveria grccnci (Rose) A. Berger [= Dudleya 
greenei Rose] (p. 304), Lyciitm richii A. Gray var. ha.ssei (Greene) I. M. Johnst. [= L. 
brevipes Benth. var. hassei (Greene) C. L. Hitchc.](p. 306), and Senecio lyonii A. Gray 
(p. 307). Assuming these to be clerical errors, I exclude them pending further evidence. 
Apparently Dunkle never visited the island. 

In a list of San Clemente Island plants also growing' on one or more of the other Channel 
Islands and the adjacent mainland. Raven (1963:2-''^) starred the name of Cressa iruxH- 
lensis var. vallicola to show it was also on Guadalupe Island. I have seen no other record 
and think this probably a clerical enor. 

Wiggins (1980) cited for Guadalupe Island the following previously unreported species: 
Amsinckia spectabilis Fisch. & C. A. Mey. (p. 217), Galvezia Juncea (Benth.) Ball var. 
juncea (p. 495), Harfordia macropiera (Benth.) Greene & Parry (p. 168), Hemitonia 
streetsii A. Gray (p. 37 but not p. 362), Navarretia hamata Greene ssp. hamata (p. 465), 
Polycarpon depressum Nutt. (p. 622), and Ruppia maritima L. (p. 953). Dr. Wiggins 
visited the island only once, in April 1958, with Sherwin Carlquist, W. R. Ernst, and me; 
and we collected pretty much together. The list of Wiggins and Ernst collections includes 
none of these species, and I believe he collected none of them. Wallace (1985) showed 
some of these species for Guadalupe Island in his distribution table, but for each he 
referred to Wiggins (1980), thus saying that he neither accepted nor denied the report. 

169 



Ri;iDM()RAN 

I have seen no specimens and no other record of any of these species from Guadalupe 
Island, and I exclude them all from the list of Guadalupe Island plants for want of evidence. 

Ackno\vlcdj;ements 

During the half century of my interest in Guadalupe Island, so many people have helped 
in so many ways that 1 can scarcely even list them. First, I am grateful to the Mexican 
officials who granted pemiission to visit the island and to collect plants, to all those who 
helped me reach the island, including many captains and crews, and to my various com- 
panions ashore. I think first of George Lindsay and our great island adventure of 1948, 
with Lewie and Marcho Cavanagh on their 36-foot ketch Manneiilo, and of his continuing 
help and support. Then I am especially indebted to Professor Carl Hubbs of the Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography, who kindly included me on many of his trips and who took 
a great interest in my work with the plants. Others who took me on valuable and memorable 
trips to the island, include the Pacific Project of the Smithsonian Institution. Harold Pringle 
on Pastime. BUI Libby and his pinecone crew, Margie Stinson and Capt. Eddie McEwan 
on Pacil'ic Oiiccih and Dr. Martin Gonzalez and the Mexican Navy, 

For the use of their specimens and for many other courtesies I thank the curators of the 
following herbaria: CAS, GH, NCC. ND, NY, RSA, SD. UC. US. Particularly helpful 
with references from library and herbarium were Annetta Carter, .ludy Gibson, and Billie 
Meeder. Martin Gonzalez kindly lent me his copy of his \aluablc report to the Mexican 
government on the natural resources of the island. 

Among the botanists who have given information or advice about particular plants, often 
of their favorite families, are Marion Cave, Lincoln Constance, AKa Day, Lauramay 
Dempster, Wally Ernst, Paul Fryxell, C. L. Hitchcock, Fran Hommersand, Tom Howell, 
Ivan .lohnston. Bill Libby, George Lindsay, C. H. MuUer. Bob Omduff Peter Ray. Peter 
Raven, Jo.se Rico C, Reed Rollins, Tim Ro.ss, Dale Smith, John Strothei. t harles Uhl, 
and William A. Weber. 

Walter and Irja Knight gave advice and help with the photographs and other matters. 
Colleen Sudekum drew the maps, Jose Delgadillo made the climatic diagram, and Dr. 
Alejandro Rodriguez kindly translated the abstract into Spanish. 

Those who have reviewed the manuscript or read large parts of it, catching small and 
large enors and suggesting improvements, include Frank Almeda, Claire Brey, Tony Bur- 
gess, Shenvin Carlquist. Tom Daniel. Steve Junak. Chuck Quibell. Peter Rax en. and Bob 
Thome. 

To all these good people 1 am grateful for their invaluable help at various stages of this 
work. 

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1025 pp. 



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GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 



Index to Plant Names 

Accepted names are in roman type, synonyms and misapplied names in iiallc. Page 
numbers in bold are for principal references only. 



Agoseris heterophylla 21, 23, 40, 46, 78 
Alchemilla occidcntalis 144 
Allocciiya acauthocarpa 69 
Aliophyllum gilioides 40, 134 
Amblyopappus pusillus 34, 36, 38, 79 
Ambrosia camphorata 26, 31, 34, 43, 77, 

79, 90 
Amsinckia intermedia 67 

menziesii 31, 67 

spectabilis 67, 169 

vernicosa 67 
Anagailis arvensis 20, 141 
Antirrhinum l\ingii watsonii 149 

nuttallianum pusiUum 149 

nuttallianum subsessile 148 

pusilluiu 149 

speciosiim 151 

subsessile 149 

watsonii 22, 36, 43, 50, 149 
Aphanes occidcntalis 34, 144 
Aphanisma blitoides 34, 36, 38, 47, 76 
Arctostaphylos sp. 40, 46, 107 
Aristida adscensionis 19. 158 

hromoides 158 
Artemisia califomica 31. 34. 40. 77, 79 
Aspidiiim munitum 56 
Atriplex barclayana 34, 36, 38. 43. 77. 90 

barclayana dilatata 11 

barclayana palmeri 11 

califomica 23, 38, 41, 49, 77 

dilatata 11 

palmeri 11 

rosei 11 
Avena barbata 20, 30, 159 

fatua 20, 159 

sativa 20, 159 
Baeria chrysostoma palmeri 87 

coronaria 21, 88 

gracilis 21, 87 

palmeri 87 
Baeriopsis guadalupensis 34, 36, 38, 39, 

42^49, 80 
Baliia lanata 81 
Brahea edulis 30. 42. 165 
Brassica campestris 102 

nigra 20. 101 



rapa 20. 46, 102 
Brodiaea capita ta 164 

capitata insularis 164 

insidaris 164 

I II gens 164 
Bromus berteroanus 20. 159. 160 

diandrus 20. 30. 159 

hordeaceus 20, 50, 159 

madritensis riibens 160 

maximiis 159 

mollis 159 

rigidus 159 

nibens 20, 30, 49, 160 

sterilis 159, 160 

tectonim 20, 160 

irinii 159, 160 
Calandrinia ciliata 31, 137 

ciliata menziesii 137 

discolor 140 

granditlora 140 

maritima 34, 140, 141 

menziesii 137 
Calamintha palmeri 1 1 5 
Calystegia macrostegia macrostegia 30, 

34, 38, 44. 96 
Camissonia guadalupensis 128, 130 

guadalupensis Clementina 130 

guadalupensis guadalupensis 41. 42. 
44, 128 

robusta 22, 23, 50, 51, 130 
Capsella bursa-pastoris 20, 34, 47, 102 

procumbens 103 
Castilleja attenuata 41, 50, 149 

exserta 23, 40, 47, 149 

foliolosa 150 

fruticosa 26, 34, 38, 39, 42, 50, 150 

guadalupensis 40, 42, 48, 150 
Caulanthiis lasiophyllus 103 
Ceanothus crassifolius 30, 40, 143 

crassifolius planus 143 

cuneatus 40, 46, 143 

perplexans 143 
Centaurea melitensis 20, 46, 80 
Cerastium glomeratum 20, 34, 71 
Cereiis giganteus 45, 168 
Chamaesyce melanadenia 107, 168, 169 



185 



Rf-ID MORAN 



pondii 41, 43. 46, 107 
Chamonulla siiaveolens 89 
Clieilanthes newhcnyi 34, 53 
Chenopodium alhinii 78 

ambrosiodes 78 

murale 20, 36, 46, 78 
Cistaiithe guadalupensis 36, 38, 3^), 42, 
67, 137, 140 

maritima 41, 47, 141, 161 
Claytonia perfoliata mexicana 31, 141 
Clinopodium palmeh 1 1 5 
Collomici gilioides gliitinosa 134 
Convolvulus macrostegius 96 

occidentalis 96 

occidenlalis macrosicgius 96 
Coreopsis gigantea 30, 38, 39, 80 
Coretbrog\ne caua 83 
Coryneum cardinale 61 
CoMedon sp. 100 
Crassula connata 31, 34, 38, 97 

coniuita evectoides 98 

coiuuila eremica 98 
Cressa truxillensis vallicola 96, 169 
Crossosoma califomicum 30, 31, 38—10, 

44, 48, 101 
Cryptantha clevelandii hispidissinia 169 

foliosa 31, 34, 38, 42, 68 

maritima gcnuina 68 

maritima maritima 34, 36, 68 
Cupressus forhcsii 58, 60, 61 

goveniaua 58 

guadalupensis 56, 60, (il 

guadalupensis forbesii 60, 61 

guadalupensis guadalupensis 30,42, 56 

macrocarpa 56, 61 

macrocarpa guadalupensis 56 

sargenlii 58 
Cuscuta corymbosa 22, 41, 43, 50, 96, 97 

corymbosa grandiflora 97 

corymbosa stylosa 97 
Daucus pusillus 19, 30, 41, 156 
Descurainia pinuata men/iesii 38, 41, 102 

pinnata haiictonim 102 
Dichelostemma insulaiv 164 

pulchellum 21, 23, 30, 38, 46, 164 
Diplosicphium canum 83 
Dipterostemon insulaiv 164 
Dissanthelium califomicum 40, 44, 46, 

160 
Dodecatheon clevelandii insularis 41, 142 

nu'dia 142 



Dudleya greenei 100, 169 

guadalupensis 36, 38, 39, 43. 50. 98 

bassei 100 

virens 47, 100, 101 

virens extima 34. 43, 44, 50. 100 

virens hassei 101 

virens insularis 101 

virens virens 101 
Echeveria greenei 169 
Echinocyslis guadalupensis 105 
Ellisia cluysanlliemifolia 112 
Emmenanthe penduiiflora 112 
Endocronartium harknessii 66 
Epilobium tbliosum 40. 130 

minutum 130 

minutum foliosum 130 
Eriogonum molle 135 

giganteum 136 

giganteum fomiosum 136 

zapatoense 30, 38, 39, 43. 44, 50, 135 
Enophyllum caespUosum 81 

lanatum granditlomm 40, 81, 131 
Erilrichium anguslifoliwn 68 

muriculatum 68 

ramosissimum 68 
Erodium brachycarpum 20, 50. 1 1 1 

cicutarium 20, 30, 34. Ill 

moschatum 20, 30, 34. 1 1 1 
Eiysimum insulare 102 

moranii 38, 39. 43. 50. 102 

suftrutescens 102 

suffiTJte.scens grandifoliuiii 103 
Eiylhea edulis 165 

Eschscholzia califomica californica 19, 
21, 23. 40, 46, 131 

californiea hypecoides 131 

crocea 131 

elegans 43. 131. 133, 134 

elegans liunosii 132, 133 

fruteseens 132, 133 

gigas 131 

palmeri 34, 36. 38. 43, 46, 132, 133 

ramosa 44, 133, 134 

ngida 131 
Euciypta chrysanthemifolia 

chrysanthemitblia 112 

chrysanthemifolia bipinnatillda 112 
Eunanus latifolius 152 
Euphorbia guadalupensis 107 

melanadenia 168 

misera 30, 31, 38, 39, 45. 48. 108 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 



pondii 107 
Festuca megaliini 163 

oclojloni hirtella 163 

pacifica 163 

tenella 163 
Filago arizonica 81 

califomica 21, 23, 31, 46, 81 
Frankenia graiu/ifJora 111 

salina 48, 111 
Franseria bipinnatifida 79 

camphorata 79 
Galium angulosum 31, 40, 43, 146 

apanne 20, 34, 52. 147 
Galvezia juncea juncea 148, 169 

speciosa 30, 31, 36, 38, 39, 44, 151 
Gamhelia speciosa 151 
Gasoul ciystallinum 66 

nodlflonim 66 
Gilia divaricata 134 

ginidaliipensis 135 

multicaulis 135 

multicaulis millefoltatu 135 

multicaulis nevinii 135 

nevinii 31, 44, 135 

pusilla 135 

pusilla caltfuniica 135 

pygmaea 135 
Githopsis diffiisa Candida 71 

difftisa guadalupensis 34, 41, 43, 71 

spccularioides 71 
Gnaphaliuni bicolor 41, 50, 83, 16! 

chilense 83 

sprengelii 83 

stramineum 41, 83 
Guillenia lasiophylla 103 
Gvnuu)gramma triangularis 54 
Haplopappus canus 30, 3 1 , 40, 44, 83 

detonsus 84 
Harfordia niacroptera 135. 169 
Haipagonella paimeri 41, 68, 69 
Hazardia cana 83 

detonsa 83 
Hedeomoides tenui flora 1 14 
Heinizonia Clementina 84, 87 

frutescens 34, 43, 84, 85 

greeneana greeneana 34, 36, 38, 39, 
43, 46, 49, 77, 84, 85, 87 

greeneana peninsulatis 85 

minthomii 84, 87 

paimeri 34, 43, 46, 80, 87 

streetsii 84, 87, 169 



Hemiaria cinerea 20, 50, 71 
Hesperelaea paimeri 28, 40, 43, 46, 128 
Hesperocnide tenella 40, 156 
Hesperonia heimerlii 127, 128 
Heteromeles arbutifolia macrocarpa 28, 

40, 50, 144, 145 
Heuchera ? 147 
Hordeum glaucuin 160 

leporinum 160 

murinum glaucum 20, 160 

murinum leporinum 20, 160 

stehhinsii 160 
Hosackia argoplnila 115 

grandijlora 115, 116 

ornithopus 115 
Hutchinsia procumbens 38. 41, 49. 103 
Hypochoeris glabra 20. 34, 49. 87 
Jepsonia malvifolia 34. 44. 147. 152 

pariyi 147 
Juncus bufonius 19, 163 
Juniperus califomica 30, 62 
K)ynitzkia foliosa 68 

maritima 68 

ramosissiina 68 
Lamarckia aurea 20, 52, 161 
Lasthenia califomica 21, 87, 150 

civysostoma 87 

coronaria 20, 23, 47, 88 
Lavatera insularis 121, 123 

lindsayi 39, 43, 44, 50, 121 

occidentalis 26, 30, 31. 39, 40, 44. 121, 
123 
Layia elegans 88 

platyglossa 21, 22, 40, 47, 88 
Lepidium hipinnatifidum 103 

tasiocarpum 1 03 

lasiocarpum latifolium 31, 43, 103 

menziesii 103 

nitidum 23, 49, 103 

ohlongum 103 

oblongum insulare 31, 103 
Lepigonum macrotliecum 74 
Leptosyne gigantea 80 
Limnia guadalupensis 141 
Linanthus pygmaeus continentalis 135 

pygmaeus pygmaeus 31, 44, 135 
Linaria canadensis 19, 41, 52. 152 

canadensis texensis 152 
Lomatium insulare 34, 39, 44, 50, 156 
Lotus argophyllus ornithopus 30, 39, 115 

arandifloms 26, 41, 52, 115, 116 



REIDMORAN 

gnimliflonis mutabilis 115 

guadalupensis 115, 116 

IcLicophaeus 1 16 
Lupinus at'l'inis 117 

aliclemcnlliiiis 1 1 7 

bicolor 23. 48, 116 

bicolor microphyllus 116 

clementiims 117 

guadalupensis 41, 44, 46, 116 

moranii 117 

nanus 117 

niveus 34, 43, 117 
Lycium brevipes hassei 169 

califomicum 34, 36, 38. 39, 45, 67, 153 

fiemontii 41, 50, 153 

richii hassei 169 
Malacothrix clcvciandii 40, 89 
Malosma laurina 30, 31. 40, 67 
Malva horealis 123 

parviflora 20, 30. 34, 123 
Mammillaria blossfeidiana shurliana 36, 
38, 39, 43, 46, 70 

guodhdgii 70 
Marah guadalupensis 43, 104. 105. 107 

macrocarpus 105 

macrocarpus major 105 

major 105, 107 

oreganus 107 
Matricaria discoidca 89 

matricarioides 41, 89 
Medicago hispida 117 

polymorpha 20, 49. 117 

polymoq^ha brevispina 117 
Megarrhiza guadalupensis 104 
Melica imperfecta 41. 161 
Mclilotus indica 20. 46. 117 
Mentzelia dispcrsa 120. 121 

micrantha 20, 120, 121 
Mesembryantlicniuni crystallinum 20, 34, 
36, 38. 39. 46. 66 

nodiflonun 20. 34. 36, 49, 66 
K'licrampelis guadalupensis 105 
Micropus calitbrnicus 40. 46. 89 
Mieroseris heterocarpa 93 

lindlevi 93. 95 

liuearifolia 95 
Mimulus hrandegei 152 
latifolius 41, 44, 152 

traskiae 152 
Mirabilis califomica 34, 36, 38, 39. 127, 
128 



califomica cedrosensis 128 

heimerlii 111. 128 

laevis 127 
Montia perfoliata 141 
Muhlenbergia dehilis 161 

niicrospcrma 19. 161 
Myosurus minimus filifonnis 34, 41, 46, 

142 
Nasella lepida 162 
Navarretia hamata hamata 134. 169 
Nemoplnla aurita 113 

raceinosa 113 
Neomammillaria goodridgii 70 
Nesolhamnus ineanus 89 
Nicotiana attenuata 40. 48. 153. 154 

bigelovii 153 

glauca 20, 26. 50. 154 

petuniaeflora 40. 153. 154 
Notholaena califomica 54 

newhenri 53 
Oenandie guadalupensis 129. 130 
Oenothera guadalupensis 128, 129 

mieraniha 20. 130 
Oligomeris glaucescens 143 

linifolia 19. 34. 36. 39. 143 

su hula la 143 
Opuntia prolifera 46. 70 
Orthocarpus aitenuatus 149 

purpuraseens 21. 149 
Pachycereus pringlei 70. 168. 169 
Parietaria dehilis 157 

Jloridana 19, 157 

hespera hespera 31, 34, 36, 38, 39, 157 
Pectocarya linearis ferocula 23. 50. 69 

penieillata 69 

recurvata 69 
Pellaea mucronata mucronata 54 

orniduipus 54 
Pentagramma triangularis 34, 54, 55 

triangularis maxonii 54 

triangularis triangularis 54 

triangularis viscosa 55 
Pericome 91 
Perityle californiea 89 

emoryi 34, 36, 39, 89 

gravi 89 

incana 25. 30. 31. 36. 38, 39. 42, 43, 
89, 91. 96 
Pelromeeon frulescens 42. 132 

pahnen 132. 133 
Phacclia tloribunda 36, 39, 44, 113 



GUADALUPE ISLAND FLORA 



phyllomanica 30, 31, 41, 43, 48, 113 

phyllomanica interrupta 113 
Phalaris caroliniana 47, 161 

intermedia 19, 161 

minor 20, 50, 162 
Pholistoma racemosum 31, 39, 113 
Phoradendron holleanum denswn 157, 
158 

holleanum paiiciflnrum 157, 158 

densum 40, 46, 157 

guadalupense 157, 158 
Photinia arhuti folia macrocarpa 144 
Phyllospadix torreyi 48, 168 
Pinus insignis hinaia 62 

muricata 62, 64 

muricata cedrosensis 64, 65 

radiata binata 28, 43, 62, 63, 64, 66 

radiata guadalupensis 62, 64 

remorata 62, 64 
Pityrogramma triangularis 54 
Plagiobothrys acanthocarpus 21, 23, 41, 
50. 69. 70 

califoniicus 70 

coUinus califomicus 23, 49, 70 

collinus gracilis 70 
Planta sp. 40, 42, 43, 46, 158 
Plantago fastigiata 134 

insularis 134 

ovata 19, 34, 38, 134 

patagonica 134 
Platystemon califomicus 21, 23, 40, 48, 

134 
Poa annua 20, 49, 162 

scabrella 162 

secunda secunda 34, 41, 50, 162 
Pogogyne tenuiflora 40, 43, 46, 114 

serpylloides 115 
Polycarpon depressum 71, 169 
Polypodium califomicum 34, 55. 152 

scouleri 34, 55, 131 
Polypogon monspeliensis 20, 46, 162 
Polystichum munitum 34, 41, 56 

munitum solitarium 56 

solitarium 56 
Pterostegia drymarioides 31, 34, 137 
Quercus chrysolepis 108, 110 

crassipocula 1 10 

tomentella 30, 44, 108, 110, 111 
Ranunculus hebecarpus 34, 142 
Rhamnus crocea 143 

crocea piri folia 143 



pirifolia 30, 31, 40. 44. 143 
Raphanus sativus 20. 52. 104 
Rhus integrifolia 22, 30, 39, 50, 67 

laurina 67 
Ribes sanguineum 40. 46, 112, 131 
Ruppia mantima 169 
Ruta chalepensis 20, 50. 147 

graveolens 147 
Sairocarpus pusillus 149 

watsonii 149 
Sanicula menziesii 158 
Satureja palmeri 40, 43, 115 
Scrophulana villosa 30, 31, 40, 44, 45, 

50, 153 
Senecio lyonii 169 

palmeri 23, 30, 31, 41, 43, 91 
Sida hederacea 126 

leprosa hederacea 126 
Silene antirrhina 19, 40, 46, 74 

gallica 20, 30, 34, 74 
Sisymbrium canescens 102 

irio 20, 49, 52, 104 

orientale 20, 50, 104 

refle.xum 103 
Solanum americanum 20, 154 

arborescens 155 

calvum 154 

clokeyi 155 

douglasii 41. 155 

nigrum 155 

nigrum douglasii 155 

nodijlorum 154 

profundeincisum 1 55 

tenuilobatum 52, 169 

wallacei 155. 156 

wallacei clokeyi 30, 41, 44, 48, 155, 
156 

xanti 155, 156 

.v<7/;// wallacei 155, 156 
Sonchus oleraceus 20. 30. 34. 38. 92 

tenerrimus 20, 46, 92 
Specularia bijlora 71 
Spergularia macrotheca 38, 39, 46. 74. 76 

macrotheca talinum 74 

marina 23. 49. 76 
Sphaeralcea palmeri 34. 38. 39. 43. 46, 
80, 125 

sulphurea 30, 34, 43, 125, 126 
Stellaria nitens 34, 76 
Stebbinsoseris heterocarpa 41, 48, 93, 161 
Slenochloa californica 160 



Rf;iD MORAN 

Stephanomeria diegensis 21. 22, 40, 48, 93 

exigua deanei 93 

giKuialupensis 30, 34, }'■). 43, 45. 48. 93 
Stilfingia linearitblia 107. 169 
Stipa Fepida 41. 50, 161, 162 
Stylophorum 132 
Suaeda culi/oniicii 78 

Ciililoniica puhcsccns 78 

friiliai.su 20, 78 

taxitblia 46, 78 

toireyana 78 
Synnutiiim ornithopum 115 
Tulinum guadalupense 48, 137, 140 
Thelypodiuin lasiophyllum 103 
Thysanocaipus erectiis 41, 43, 104 
Tillucii erechi 97 

leptopeliilu 97 

minima 97 
Tissa macrotliccii 74 

pallida 74 

lalinum 74, 76 
Trifolium amplecteus 118 

depauperatum truncatum 118 

gracilentum 23, 49, 119 



gracilenriim palmeri 119 

hydrophilum 1 19 

microcephalum 1 19 

niiiuiti/lonim 1 18 

palmeri 31, 34, 38, 44, 119 

truncatum 119 
Triodanis biflora 71 
Triseliim barbatum 159 
Triteleia guadaiupensis 34, 43, 45, 48, 
164, 165 

I II gens 164, 165 
Triticum aestivum 20, 52, 162 
Troximon heterophyllum 78 
Uropappus lindleyi 52, 95 
Vicia exigua 120 

exigua liassei 120 

hassci 120 

ludoviciana ludo\iciana 120 
Volvulus macrostegius 96 
Vulpia bromoides 20, 163 

microstachys paucitlora 163 

myuros hirsuta 20, 30, 163 

octotlora hirtella 163 
Zostera marina 50, 168 



190