(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences"

Theodore Henry Hittell's 

THE CAUFORMA ACADEMY 
OF' SCIEIC 



A MAERATWE HISTORY: 1 653-1 90( 



EDITED, REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

Alan E. Leviton and Michele L. Aldrich 

Curator, Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences 
Research Associate, California Academy of Sciences and 
Science and Technology Studies, Cornell University 



PREFACE BY 



George E. Lindsay 

Executive Director Emeritus 
California Academy of Sciences 



San O^rancisco, Calif omia 
1997 






CI7K 



Copyright © 1997 by the CaHfomia Academy of Sciences 

PubUshed by CaHfomia Academy of Sciences 
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California 941 18 
Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 22 

ISBN 0-940228-39-4 

Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 97-66572 

This book has been composed in Adobe Systems Times Roman 

Typeset in the United States of Amerjca by California Academy of Sciences 

in Ventura Professional Publisher '; camera-ready copy produced 

on a Lexmark Optra R laser prmter 

Printed in the United States of America by 

Braun-Brumfield, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan and 
Richard Thunes, San Francisco, California 



This is a Limited Edition printing of 500 copies. 
This is copy number ^ ^^ . 



All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted 
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, 
recording, or any infonnation storage or retrieval system, without pennission in 

writing from the pubisher. 



THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
A NARRATIVE HISTORY, 1853-1906 



\. 





THEODORE HENRY HITTELL 

1830-1917 

(Photograph taken about 1885) 
Courtesy, Geoffrey F. Dunn, Santa Cruz, Cahfomia 



V 



^abCe of Contents 

Page 

Preface 1 

Foreword 3 

Chapter I: 1853 11 

Chapter II: 1854 25 

Chapter III: 1855-1856 

. 1855 38 

1856 43 

Chapter IV: 1857-1862 

1857 49 

1858 50 

1859 51 

1860 52 

1861 53 

1862 54 

Chapter V: 1863-1864 

1863 62 

1864 68 

Chapter VI: 1865-1866 

1865 74 

1866 78 

Chapter VII: 1867 85 

Chapter VIII: 1868 95 

Chapter IX: 1869 105 

Chapter X: 1870 115 

Chapter XI: 1871 128 



vi CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Page 

Chapter XII: 1872 140 

Chapter XIII: 1873 150 

Chapter XIV: 1874 164 

Chapter XV: 1875 180 

Chapter XVI: 1876 191 

Chapter XVII: 1877 202 

Chapter XVIII: 1878 210 

Chapter XIX: 1879-1880 

1879 219 

1880 226 

Chapter XX: 1881 232 

Chapter XXI: 1882 241 

Chapter XXIII: 1883 250 

Chapter XXIII: 1884-1885 

1884 265 

1885 272 

Chapter XXIV: 1886-1887 

1886 277 

1887 282 

Chapter XXV: 1888-1889 

1888 292 

1889 299 

Chapter XXVI: 1890 307 

Chapter XXVII: 1891-1892 

1891 319 

1892 332 



TABLE OF CONTENTS vii 

Page 

Chapter XXVIII: 1893-1894 

1893 339 

1894 343 

Chapter XXIX: 1895 352 

Chapter XXX: 1896 361 

Chapter XXXI: 1897-1898 

1897 370 

■ 1898 377 

Chapter XXXII: 1899-1900 

1899 385 

1900 390 

Chapter XXXIII: 1901-1902 

1901 397 

1902 402 

Chapter XXXIV: 1903 411 

Chapter XXXV: 1904 424 

Chapter XXXVI: 1905 437 

Chapter XXXVII: 1906 453 

References 483 

Appendices 487 

Index 565 



viii CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

APPENDICES 

Page 

Appendix A: Historic Sketch of the California Academy 

of Sciences, by Theodore H. Hittell 487 

Appendix B: Letters from Alice Eastwood and Leverett Mills 
Loomis to E. W. Nelson describing the aftermath of the 
the earthquake and fire that destroyed the Academy 
April 18, 1906 499 

Appendix C: Honorary and Corresponding Members of the 

California Academy of Sciences, 1853-1906 507 

Appendix D: Extract of remarks by Charles B. Turrell on the 

visit of Louis Agassiz, September 2, 1872 510 

Appendix E: Proposal for the establishment of a State Museum 
and building to be administered by the California Academy 
of Natural Sciences, by Josiah Dwight Whitney, State 
Geologist 512 

Appendix F: Comments by Lieutenant De Long and others 
during the reception in behalf of the officers of the Bennett 
Exploring Expedition to the North Pole 514 

Appendix G: Member attendance at Academy meetings, 

1853-1879 516 

Appendix H: Memorial to Theodore Henry Hittell. Reprinted 
from the Proceedings of the California Academy of 
Sciences, 17 June 1918 518 

Appendix I: "California Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Circular," announcing the formation of the Academy and 
including "Instructions for Preparing and Transmitting 
Specimens" (printed June, 1853) 544 

Appendix J: 19th-century meeting record books in the 

Archives of the California Academy of Sciences 551 



TABLE OF CONTENTS ix 

Page 

Appendix K: Comparison of several pages from the original 
(1854) and reprint (1873) editions of Volume 1 of the 
Academy's Proceedings 553 

Appendix L: Sample member certificates issued by the 

Academy during its early years 558 

Appendix M\ Institutional and individual donors to the 
Academy's Library following the April 18, 1906 
earthquake and fire 561 



UCustrations 

Portraits 

Page 

Theodore H. Hittell (Facing Table of Contents) iv 

The Founders 

Andrew Randall 15 

Albert Kellogg 15 

John Boardman Trask 16 

Thomas J. Nevins 16 

Henry Gibbons 18 

Charles Farris (No portrait) 

Lewis W. Sloat (No portrait) 

Louis Agassiz 28 

William Alvord 413 

Frank Marion Anderson 413 

William Albert Ashbumer 63 

William Orville Ayres 30 

Spencer Fullerton Baird 39 

RolloH. Beck 414; 470 

Hans Hermann Behr 28 

James Blake 106 

William Phipps Blake 26 

Hiram G. Bloomer 23 

Henry N. Bolander 58 

Edward Bosqui 21 

Amos B. Bowman 145 

Mary Katharine (nee Layne) (Curran) Brandegee 261 

Townshend Stith Brandegee 301 

John Casper Branner 341 

William Hemy Brewer 55 

Elisha Brooks 89 

Walter E. Bryant 285 

Charles Burckhalter 275 

George Chismore 387 

Samuel Benedict Christy 183 



ILLUSTRATIONS xi 

Page 

David Douty Colton 124 

James Graham Cooper 63 

Charles Crocker 237 

Charles F. Crocker 253 

William H. Crocker 373 

Mary Katharine Layne {Curran} (see also Brandegee, Mary K.) 261 

William Healey Dall 76 

George Davidson 141 

Alice Eastwood 338 

Henry Edwards 87 

Carl Eigenmann 310 

Rosa Smith and Carl Eigenmann 310 

Gustavus Augustus Eisen 251 

Lucius Harwood Foote 340 

William M. Gabb 56 

Otto von Geldem 362 

Henry Gibbons 18 

William P. Gibbons 18 

Edward W. Gifford 430 

Charles Henry Gilbert 331 

Theodore Gill 65 

Daniel Coit Gilman 148 

W. A. Goodyear 98 

Edward Lee Greene 266 

Joseph Grinnell 401 

Charles E. Grunsky 378 

William G. W. Harford 193 

Harvey Willson Harkness 282 

Mellen W. Haskell 365 

Joseph Henry 26 

George Hewston 59 

Eugene Woldemar Hilgard 367 

Edward S. Holden 290 

James Franklin Houghton 378 

A. Wendell Jackson, Jr 214 



xii CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853-1 906 

Page 

Oliver P. Jenkins 345 

David Starr Jordan 331 

Charles A. Keeler 314 

Josiah Keep 214 

Albert Kellogg 15 

Robert Kennicott 76 

Alfred L. Kroeber 393 

Isaac Lea 17 

John LeConte 121 

Joseph LeConte 121 

James Lick 198 

William Neale Lockington 154 

Leverett Mills Loomis 402 

John W. Mailliard 376 

Joseph Mailliard 376 

C[linton] Hart Merriam 409 

John Campbell Merriam 388 

Kakichi Mitsukuri 412 

Eusebius J. Molera 157 

Thomas J. Nevins 16 

Charles Christopher Parry 99 

George C. Perkins 285 

William Montgomery Pierson 366 

William Wightman Price 314 

Andrew Randall 15 

Benjamin Barnard Redding 171 

Joseph Deighn Redding 294 

William Emerson Ritter 333 

James John Rivers 253 

Gulian P. Rixford 353 

Joseph Richard Slevin 452 

James Perrin Smith 388 

Robert Edwards Carter Steams 70 

Adolph Heinrich Joseph Sutro 333 

Joseph Cheesman Thompson 438 



ILLUSTRATIONS xiii 

Page 

John Boardman Trask 16 

John Van Denburgh 348 

Edwin C. Van Dyke 429 

Frank H. VasHt 284 

Josiah Dwight Whitney 55 

Francis Xavier Williams 450 

Bailey Willis 390 

♦5» ♦J* ♦J* ♦J* ♦•♦ ♦*♦ ♦*♦ ♦*♦ ♦*♦ ♦*♦ ♦Jo ♦j» ♦*♦ ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

Manuscript page from Hittell's original manuscript 4 

Page 1 of the Minute Books of the California Academy 

ofNaturalSciences, "the 4th day of April 1853" 10 

Downtown San Francisco, ca. 1854 12 

Proceedings: 1854, vol. l,no. 1, title page 36 

Execution of Joseph Hetherington 47 

California State Geological Survey, 1862 66 

Notification of change of the association's name to 

California Academy of Sciences 96 

First Congregational Church 165 

Arthrozoic Club 168 

Carson State Prison, controversial footprints 256 

California Academy of Sciences: photograph of Market Street 

facade of new building, 1891, facing on Market Street .... 318 
California Academy of Sciences: Market Street property: 

an artist's sketch of Market Street facade 320 

California Academy of Sciences: Market Street property: 

1892, Marble staircase and foyer entrance 321 

California Academy of Sciences: Market Street property: 

Upper floor devoted to curators' offices, etc 322 

California Academy of Sciences: Market Street property: 

Library 322 

California Academy of Sciences: Market Street property: 

Lower floor, south side, mineral exhibits 323 



xiv CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

Page 

California Academy of Sciences: Photograph of main public 

exhibit floor - including Mammoth restoration 323 

California Academy of Sciences: artist's sketch of Market 

Street property: Public exhibits — Mammoth restoration . . . 324 
California Academy of Sciences: Market Street property: 

Public exhibits — Megatherium 325 

Schooner "Academy" 448 

Crew of the Schooner "Academy" 449 

Schooner "Academy" loading supplies 449 

In the Galapagos: Spacious quarters onboard the schooner 

"Academy" 462 

In the Galapagos: "Sailmaker" doing emergency repairs 

onboard the schooner "Academy" 462 

In the Galapagos: A large colony of marine iguana, 

probably Harrington Island 463 

In the Galapagos: Unusual attitudes collecting marine iguana . . 463 
Frederick T. Nelson returning from a "pig" hunt on Cocos 

Island (September 10, 1905, enroute to the Galapagos) .... 464 
In the Galapagos: Recording field observations on nesting 

birds 464 

In the Galapagos: Rollo Beck photographing birds 465 

In the Galapagos: Joseph Richard Slevin carrying a small 

saddleback tortoise (on Hood or Duncan Islands) 465 

In the Galapagos: Fragmented remains of tortoise skeletons 

testify to the earlier slaughter of Galapagos tortoises by 

whalers, settlers, and others seeking oil and meat 466 

San Francisco: A view of the downtown area engulfed by 

fire following the earthquake, April 18, 1906 468 

California Academy of Sciences, Market Street property, 

exterior viewed from Market Street several weeks after 

the earthquake but before final demolition late in 1 906 .... 472 
California Academy of Sciences, Market Street property, 

rear "Museum" building viewed from Market Street after 

demolition of the front "office" building in December .... 473 



ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

Page 

California Academy of Sciences, Market Street property 

interior following the earthquake, April 18, 1906 474 

California Academy of Sciences, temporary quarters at 

1812 Gough Street 477 

California Academy of Sciences, library rooms at 1812 
Gough Street 478 

California Academy of Sciences, Market Street property 
used for temporary storage of Galapagos collections 
before final demolition in early 1907 481 



PREFACE 



This is indeed a long-delayed publication. Theodore Henry Hittell wrote a 
historical sketch and chronology of the first fifty years of the California 
Academy of Sciences, 1853 until 1906, which was in press and destroyed at the time 
of the San Francisco earthquake and fire in 1906. Fortunately, Hittell's manuscript 
survived, but in the urgency of rebuilding the museum in Golden Gate Park it was 
misplaced and "lost" for many years. It was at last rediscovered when records were 
moved to the new Cowell Hall in 1969. 

The manuscript was transcribed and typed and proved to be a most valuable history 
of the foundation and first half century of the oldest scientific society in the western 
United States. 

Dr. Alan E. Leviton, Curator of Herpetology of the Academy and Executive 
Director of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, is an authority on the pioneer scientists who explored the natural history 
of California and the West during the last half of the nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries. Frequently they were associated with the California Academy of Sciences. 
Most fortunately, Dr. Leviton undertook the editing of the Hittell manuscript in 
collaboration with his colleague Dr. Michele L. Aldrich, an historian of science and 
former archivist of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

The comprehensive index which they compiled has more than 50 pages of 
closely-spaced double-column entries, which attests to the scope of the Academy's 
early activities. As Leviton once observed, "I think this will become a basic reference. 
And now, historians of science and institutions will no longer have an excuse for 
ignoring us or the active community of pioneer scientists that initiated and sustained 
the scienfific enterprise along the Pacific Coast during the second half of the 19th 
century." 

Theodore Henry Hittell became a member of the Academy on September 5, 1 887, 
a life member in 1903, and a member of the Board of Trustees in 1909, serving until 
January, 1915. He died February 23, 1917, at the age of 86. 

Hittell was an attorney who came to California in 1 855. He was a writer, historian, 
journalist, and accomplished artist. He was a linguist, and became expert in Spanish 
and Mexican land grants. He authored a four- volume history of California. He was 
attorney and advisor for James Lick, and later a trustee of the Lick estate. He was, in 
part, responsible for Lick's generous bequests to the California Academy of Sciences 
and the California Historical Society. 

A memorial tribute to Hittell and acknowledgment of his accomplishments was 



2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

published in the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences on June 17,1918. 
It is reprinted as an appendix (Appendix H) to this publication. 

In addition to Drs. Leviton and Aldrich's valiant labors as editors, Mr. Roy 
Eisenhardt, Executive Director Emeritus of the Academy, encouraged its final 
preparation and publication, as did Mr. Paul L. Davies, Jr., former Chainnan of the 
Board of Trustees, who also provided financial and moral support. 

Mr. Frank Hittell, a surviving lineal descendent of Theodore Hittell, and his wife 
Jeanne have long been members and supporters of the Academy. They provided the 
portrait of Theodore Hittell (frontispiece). 

Geraldine Kendrick Morris Lindsay (1916-1983) was the founder and first 
president of the Academy's Docent Council. She was an Academy trustee and 
benefactor of the institution. Gifts for the publicafion of this Academy chronology 
were made in her memory. 



George Edmund Lindsay 
Executive Director Emeritus 
California Academy of Sciences 

Octobers, 1995 



FOREWORD 



S: 



everal attempts at abbreviated histories of the eariy days of the CaUfomia 
(Academy of Sciences have been attempted. Perhaps most significant among 
these was Theodore Henry Hittell's essay in this volume (Appendix A) that was 
prepared for presentation at the Semi-Centennial Meeting of the Academy held on 
May 18, 1903. It was intended also for publication as the introductory chapter to a 
chronology of the Academy from its founding to 1 906 that he had assembled between 
September 1903 and early 1906 and which was in the hands of the printer when the 
earthquake struck the city on April 18, 1906. Although most of the manuscript and a 
few pages of galley were recovered from the print shop and the Academy, where all 
but the first 80-or-so pages of the manuscript were at the time, the project was set 
aside as the Academy had to deal the more serious matters upon which its very 
existence depended. 

In 1 893, Charles Frederick Holder, in celebrafion of the opening of the Academy's 
new museum on Market Street in 1 891 , published an article in The Califomian titled 
simply "The California Academy of Sciences." Although it gave a brief account of 
the earliest days in the life of the Academy, it dealt largely with the "current" 
Academy, the new building, its displays, its research facilities, and the principles then 
guiding the institution, its trustees, and its staff. 

In 1903, Theodore Hittell began work on the Academy's chronology. He had 
available all the pre-earthquake documents, minute books, published records of 
meetings, and the extensive records of the corresponding secretary. However, the 
chronology, largely a verbatim extract of the minute books and published proceedings 
of Academy meetings, also included occasional addifional insights by Hittell himself 
based on his own knowledge of people and events. Most notable among these were 
his all too brief observations on James Lick, whom he knew intimately as one of his 
attorneys and confidants, and his previously unpublished description of the events 
immediately following the devastating earthquake and fire that ravaged San Fran- 
cisco 18-19 April 1906. 

In 1918, Charles B. Turrill read a paper before a meeting of the Academy in which 
he also talked about its early days. Turrill had become a member of the Academy on 
June 20, 1 870 and had known many of the early Academy members. Thus, like Hittell, 
he contributed first-hand experience to his commentary, part of which, his description 
of the visit of Louis Agassiz in September of 1872, is quoted in Appendix D. 

Lastly, in November 1942, the late Robert Cunningham Miller, a former Director 
of the Academy, read a brief essay at the meefing of the California Historical Society 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 



f^j ^^f< ^>J itU^-^. J^^ /f^ /^■a~^--L^^ ^ V^^^-vt^-^i;, Je~ <:i^i&^..uf^ M^^ >?fc,i^ A^i?**^ ^^-T 
/l^^ iX^ /«.^« >^ '/«i-<:a^ /ly^^^i^i.^f--'^^^'-^ f"^ *^^ na^^-^^^ ^X<: -^^ 'Tt;* 

/v^c:^ ^£<^ A.,*^ aV ^-c^-i-^y ^ '^'^^^ £:^li^ /^^^ vt^ ^p^«-^--i - 



^ft-rr- 



T'tr-L 






X^cyL ^ A-A.U. '*<-xr^ A^^ 74v.£yJ/£<^^ ..x-^-^^^«<. .^ y»vgy»<^u^ A^.-^ .^ic«^ «>^^ 






7 






Photocopy of a page from Theodore Henry HittelFs handwritten 

manuscript on the history of the California Academy of Sciences 

California Academy of Sciences Archives 



FOREWORD 5 

on "The California Academy of Sciences and the Early History of Science in the 
West." His remarks were then published in the December, 1942 issue of the Califor- 
nia Historical Society Quarterly. Although a readable essay, it suffers from not 
having been based on a critical review of source materials. Rather Miller accepted 
much of the oral tradition that had evolved over nearly a century of Academy history 
plus what he had gleamed from the typescript copy of Hittell's original manuscript. 
Unfortunately, both oral tradition and the Hittell manuscript suffer to some extent 
from the same malady, the lack of verification of the earliest days of the Academy 
and of the people involved. For instance. Miller, like Hittell, stated that Andrew 
Randall was a gunner aboard the Plymouth, Commodore John Sloat's flagship, when 
the latter entered Monterey Bay in 1846, and that he jumped ship and remained in 
California to become the first president of the California Academy of Namral 
Sciences. However, it was not gunner Andrew Randell (corrected spelling), but David 
Dale Owen's field assistant in the Federal geological survey of the Wisconsin-Min- 
nesota territories, Andrew Randall, who came overland to California in 1 849 with 
Col. James Collier's party, who became the Academy's first president. 

Many publications, books and shorter essays treat the 19th century history of 
natural history in the United States, and in some of these there is brief mention of the 
Academy. However, all too often, authors were unaware of any connection whatso- 
ever, or if aware, dismissed the connection with only passing notations. Lester 
Stephens' delightful biography of Joseph LeConte offers one such example. 
Stephens mentions LeConte's participation in the Academy only once, though his 
association with the Academy spanned more than two decades, in the context of 
LeConte's concern that the Academy did not publish his paper on the Carson Prison 
footprints {q.v.) in a timely way. LeConte was an active contributing member of the 
Academy for many years and as Stephens observed, was a key player in the 
controversial interpretation of the Carson Prison fossil footprints, which attracted the 
attention of other distinguished paleontologists of the time, E. D. Cope and O. C. 
Marsh among them. In all fairness to Stephens and others who have written biogra- 
phies and histories of 19th century western American science, undl now, with 
publication of this chronology, there was scarcely anything, save for the unindexed 
minutes of Academy meetings unevenly spread across nearly 50 years of Proceedings 
publications, to which historians could turn that would tease the imagination or even 
suggest opportunity for more in-depth investigation. So little survived the earthquake 
and fire of 1906! 

To the best of our knowledge, save for obituaries and memorials, Joseph Ewan's 
1953 essay on "San Francisco as a Mecca for 19th century namralists" and Michael 
Smith's 1987 "Pacific Visions: California Scientists and the Environment, 1850- 
1915," few biographical sketches or essays on early^^ naturalists of the West have 



^ ^ Stephens, Lester D. 1982. Joseph Le Conte: Gentle Prophet of Evolution. Louisiana State University 
Press, Baton Rouge, LA. 

^■^ We specifically exclude, for instance, such references as Roland Alden and John Ifft's 1943 essay on 
"Early Naturalists in the Far West", the explorations of John Fremont, the geology of John Tyson, or the 
many other references which deal largely with pre- 1850 natural history explorations and study because 
they predate the founding of the Academy and are not relevant to its history. 



6 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

been written or are currently in manuscript that do any better than Stephens in taking 
into account the associations of early naturalists and scientists with the Academy. 
But, for those who peruse the following pages, quickly it will become apparent that 
the Academy served as a focal point for scientific communication along the Pacific 
Coast during the second half of the 19th century prior to the ascent of the area's 
universities, and that it attracted the attention and following of many distinguished 
scientists of the period. And, lest it be forgotten, the Academy, almost from its 
founding, took to heart the advice proffered by Spencer Fullerton Baird to publish 
and distribute its publications widely. It did, and its publications did not pass 
unnoticed, either in the United States or abroad. For instance, we find on a cursory 
examination of Eduard Suess' monumental synthesis of global geology. Das Antlitz 
der Erde, published between 1885 and 1909, Academy publications by members 
George H. Ashley, James Blake, William Phipps Blake, Amos Bowman, George 
Davidson, W. Harper Pease, and James Perrin Smith, among others, are cited. Thus, 
we believe that this narrative should serve as a useful reference, providing as it does 
names, dates, and subject matter, a springboard, so to speak, to the exploration of 
materials that survive in archives, in papers preserved in departmental correspon- 
dence, and in published sources, both at the Academy and elsewhere. While such 
studies can not fail to enhance the Academy's 19th century reputation as a mecca for 
the scientific community in the West, more importantly, they will serve to enlarge 
our understanding of how scientific organizations, geographically isolated from 
instimtions founded in older, well-established centers of population, developed 
during the 19th century, what roles they played in fostering both local and regional 
scientific inquiry and communication, and how they responded to community needs, 
at local and state levels, for scientific expertise and education. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The project of preparing the Hittell chronology for publication was begun more 
than a decade ago. The editors started with a faded yellow typescript (which has since 
been transcribed into a clean white original and yellow carbon) copy of the original 
manuscript but quickly realized that they had to go back to source material to verify 
much of what had been written. This was difficuh to do in part because many of the 
records Hittell had available to him had been destroyed in 1906. Fortunately, the 
Minute Books of Academy meetings and most of the Minute Books of both Academy 
Council and Trustee meetings survived. Also, correspondence among Academy 
members and scientists along the Eastern seaboard survive in archives of Eastern 
museums and universities. It was to these that the editors mmed their attention, 
especially with respect to the earliest Academy members, John Boardman Trask, 
William Orville Ayres, Albert Kellogg, Henry Gibbons, and others. 

Thus, the editors are indebted to many persons who helped them locate relevant 
documents and photographs: Clark Elliott, Harvard University Archives; Judith 
Schiff and Ferenc A. Gyprhyey, Yale University Archives and Historical Librarian, 
Yale University Medical School respectively; Benjamin Watson, Donohue Rare 



CHAPTER IV: 1857-1862 7 

Books Room, Gleeson Library, University of San Francisco; Stanley Clewett, Dawn 
Benson and Margot Benson, Shasta College Museum and Research Center (Redding, 
California); the staff of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Archives; 
Carolyne Rittinger, editor of the Kitchener-Waterloo Record and Scott Muir Stroh 
III, curator of the Anacortes Museum, and Ms Eunice W. Darvill, also of the 
Anacortes Museum, Anacortes, Washington, for permission to publish the image of 
Amos Bowman; Mrs. Ann-Lisa Maneskjold-Lower, who not only provided addi- 
tional information about Gustavus Eisen, but also generously donated original 
portraits of Dr. Eisen and Lucius Harwood Foote in her possession to the Academy 
Archives; Patricia Akri, director of the San Francisco History Center, San Francisco 
Public Library, and Roberto Landazuri for assistance in locating a portrait of George 
Hewston; Peter Hanff and the staff of the Bancroft Library, University of California, 
Berkeley for their help in locating many portraits in their archives; and most 
importantly, William A. Deiss (retired), Pamela M. Henson, Alan L. Bain, Susan 
Glenn, Bruce Kirby, and William E. Cox of the Smithsonian Institution Archives 
(hereafter cited as SIArchives). The latter not only helped us in our survey of the 
Smithsonian's rich manuscript resources but ftarther assisted us in locating many good 
period portraits of several key players in Academy history. 

During the first few years of this project, the Library of Congress was a gold mine 
for the research and the editors enjoyed the full cooperation of the library's staff, 
including access to the library stacks, which enabled them to pore through hundreds 
of volumes, especially unindexed government documents. Unfortunately, in its 
infinite wisdom, the Library of Congress effectively shut its doors to much historical 
research when it decided to deny access to its book stacks to serious scholars. Thus, 
what could be accomplished in a matter of hours now takes weeks and months to do, 
which makes further use of the library's resources next to impossible, especially for 
those who are not local residents. But, during the early days of the project, the editors 
did receive the fiill cooperation of the library's staff and for this they are indeed 
grateftil. They especially want to acknowledge the generous support they received 
from the Library's chief of the Newspaper Division, Mr. Frank Carroll, who assisted 
in their search of early San Francisco newspapers, notably The Pacific, and more 
recently, John Rossman of the Library's Book Service Section, Collections Manage- 
ment Division, who was able to retrieve from the stacks volumes we had been told 
could not be found. 

The staff of the Academy's Library, past and present, have been outstandingly 
supportive of our efforts. Thomas Moritz, Librarian, Larry Currie, Lesley Segedy, 
and most notably Adam Schiff, Associate Librarian, and Karren Elsbemd, Special 
Collections Librarian, have been of immeasurable help and have responded to our 
numerous requests with helpfiil enthusiasm. The same must be said of many of our 
Academy colleagues, especially Drs. Peter U. Rodda (Department of Geology), Paul 
H. Amaud and Vincent Lee (Department of Entomology), and Frank Almeda and 
Thomas Daniel (Department of Botany). Dr. Robert Drewes (Department of Herpe- 
tology) read the entire manuscript and caught errors we had missed; so did Dr. Patrick 



8 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Kociolek (Director of Research). Academy photographers Susan Middleton and 
Dong Lin helped with several of the illustrations. Penultimately, we acknowledge 
with grateful thanks the support of the Academy's administration, notably Dr. George 
Edmund Lindsay, Emeritus Executive Director, Roy Eisenhardt, Emeritus Executive 
Director, and Dr. Evelyn Handler, Executive Director of the California Academy of 
Sciences, for their ongoing encouragement. And, once again we want to acknowledge 
the financial support for publication of this volume provided by Dr. George E. 
Lindsay in memory of his wife, Geraldine Morris Lindsay, and fornier Academy 
trustee, Paul Davies. Their support made the Hittell project a reality. 

A final note. In editing and then augmenting the Hittell manuscript, we found it 
necessary to review all the extant documents we could find that related to Hittell's 
earlier effort. We discovered many inconsistencies, some trivial, some not so. Dates, 
names, and on occasion specific events had to be corrected or supplemented with 
editorial notes. Although we did the best we could given both time and available 
resources, we are certain that some errors slipped through our grasp. Not all the 
inconsistencies are the fault of Hittell or of the editors, however. In the manuscript 
Minute Books of the Academy, individual's names are sometimes spelt differently, 
often dependent on who was the recording secretary at the time. Thus, we find 
reference to Hocholzer and Hochholzer, and Condie and Comrie, Townsend and 
Towndsend, and time simply did not permit us to explore and correct all the variant 
spellings we uncovered. Thus, we beg the reader's indulgence to bear with us and 
accept our apologies for any inconvenience this may cause. 

This is intended to be a reference work, not an analytic history, and for this reason 
we have provided an extensive index. As for the style of presentation, to the extent 
we deemed desirable, we retained Hittell's style, including capitalization and gram- 
matical construction, even applying it to the new material we added intratext (but not 
the footnotes except as they include direct quotes [N.B., footnotes are numbered by 
chapter and sequence within a chapter, e.g. 1 2. 1, meaning chapter 12, footnote I]). 
Thus, we have not brought everything up to today's standards of expression or 
grammar. For instance, the reader will find the words "especial" for "special" and 
"therefor" for "therefore" used widely throughout the text. We have, however, to the 
best of our ability, corrected errors in spelling, of names of people, of biological 
names (but we did not make changes to account for cases of nomenclatural synon- 
ymy), and of geographical localities when we could verify that the errors were 
unintentional. When Hittell consistently used a varient spelling, such as Baulines Bay 
for what is now known as Bolinas Bay, we retained Hittell's use but annotated the 
Index to this effect. Also, in many instances, in the Index we cite people's fiill names, 
if known, even though Hittell or the Academy's handwritten Minute Books may have 
used initials only. Lastly, we have made no attempt to provide biographical sketches 
of the key figures in the story. Biographical sketches are to be found elsewhere. 
Instead, we do provide in the Bibliography a list of suitable references for further 
exploration on the part of the reader. 

It is important to note that among the missing records of the Academy are the 



CHAPTER IV: 1857-1862 9 

Minute Books of the Board of Trustees meetings for the period 1880 to 1906. This 
was a critical period in the Academy's history, coming as it did at the time of the 
construction of a new museum building and the expansion of Academy activities, 
both made possible by the settlement of the James Lick estate and the receipt of 
several large cash donations dedicated to the institution's research and library 
programs. The Minute Books in question were available to Hittell in 1903, and he 
dutifully extracted much useful material, which he used in his narration. Thus, 
Hittell 's manuscript, which survived the earthquake and fire and is preserved in the 
Academy's Archives, and this publication, which is based on that manuscript, are the 
only surviving sources of information on actions taken by the Academy trustees 
during that period. A complete list of the Minute Books covering Academy, Trustee, 
and Council meetings that survived the earthquake and fire is given in Appendix J of 
this volume. 

Alan E. Levi ton and Michel e L. Aldrich 
San Francisco, California 
February 11, 1997 
















~ > 






^^.^ 



■^ < 1.1% /:i^ ^&^ <S2^ <*- ,/^'^.*-^rj /y*?-ty -e^y t^ a . CfyAf, C^-U a..i^y>->^.^<^y 




Page One from the M;«i</e Soofa of the California Academy of Natural Sciences 

"the 4th of April 1853" 



11 



A N AEEATIVE history OF TIE 

CAUFOKIIA ACADEMY 





-19O6 



Chapterl: Year 1853 



o 



n the evening of APRIL 4, 1853 seven San Francisco gentlemen who described 
'themselves as friendly to the "organization of an association for the develop- 
ment of the natural sciences," met by agreement in the office of Lewis W. Sloat at 
what was then known as No. 129 on the west side of Montgomery Street between 
Sacramento and Commercial. These gentlemen were Dr. Andrew Randall, Dr. Henry 
Gibbons, Dr. Albert Kellogg, Col. Thomas J. Nevins, Dr. John B. Trask, Dr. Charles 
Farris and Mr. Lewis W. Sloat. Randall, Gibbons, Kellogg, Trask, and Farris were 
doctors of medicine;' ' Nevins was agent of the American Sunday School Union and 
also attomey-at-law; and Sloat, a nephew of Commodore John D. Sloat, who had 
come out to this country with his uncle in the sloop-of-war Savannah, and was present 
with him at the raising of the American flag at Monterey in 1846,' ' was a real-estate 
broker, notary public, and commissioner of deeds. 



'•' Neither Randall nor Trask had M.D. degrees. Trask was granted a licentiate in medicine from Yale, 
but not an M.D. (see Leviton & Aldrich, 1982). Randall did not hold a degree nor did he practice medicine. 
He had been an assistant to David Dale Owen on the Federal survey of the Minnesota and Wisconsin 
territories before trekking to California in 1849 as a member of the Col. James Collier party (for an 
interesting account of the Collier party see Foreman. 1937). 

'2 Lewis W. Sloat may have been aboard the Savannah in 1846, but his name is not among the ship's 
cornplement. According to Charles Turrill (see Appendix D), he served as "his father's secretary." A Lewis 
M. Sloat is listed among the members of John Woodhouse Audubon's "California Company," a group from 
New York heading for California's gold fields. Trask was also among the members of Audubon's company. 



12 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




San Francisco, 1854: Looking north along Montgomery Street from the comer of California 

and Montgomery Streets, one block south of Sacramento Street. Lewis Sloat's office at 129 

Montgomery Street was on the west side of Montgomery Street, probably in the third building 

on the left, immediately following the second tall brick structure (From Soule, 1855) 



After what was called "a free conversation and the interchange of views and 
sentiments bearing upon the object contemplated" Dr. Randall was called to the chair 
and Mr. Sloat appointed secretary. It was then formally resolved to be expedient and 
necessary to organize an association for the promotion of natural science and that the 
name and style of such organization should be "The California Academy of Natural 
Sciences." It was next resolved that a committee of three should be appointed by the 
chair to draft a constitution and report the same with suggestions and remarks at a 
future meeting. The chair appointed as such a cominittee Col. Thomas J. Nevins, Dr. 
Henry Gibbons and Mr. Lewis W. Sloat. 

At the next meeting held at the same place on April 11, 1853 - at which another 
physician, Dr. T. L. Andrews, and another attomey-at-law and journalist, Mr. Edwin 
R. Campbell, appeared — the draft of a constitution was presented, and also a written 
report. In this report the committee said that "in the examination of the subject 
submitted to them, they had become deeply impressed with the importance of the 
measure proposed in its bearing upon the interests of Natural Science not only on this 
coast but in all the civilized world." 

"Natural History" - continued the report - "in its various departments, as illus- 
trating the principles of Science, has within the last half century attracted the attention 
of the scientific world; and our own countrymen have shared largely in the general 
enthusiasm, which is from year to year becoming more general and absorbing. 



CHAPTER I: 1853 13 

Scientific associations have been organized in many of the older States, whose 
investigations and labors have brought to light many of the previously hidden 
mysteries of nature and have contributed immensely to the progress of the age in the 
practical application of the natural laws to the purposes of agriculture, commerce and 
the useful arts. 

"These developments have contributed in no small degree to the elevation of our 
country in the scale of national importance until she has become the envy and terror 
of despots everywhere. They have opened to us avenues of wealth and national 
aggrandizement and placed in our hands the means and facilities for diffusing the 
principles and blessings of our free institutions to the ends of the earth." 

After this refreshing burst of patriotic sentiment, the report briefly referred to what 
had been done in the interest of science in the other States and concluded as follows: 
"We have on this coast a virgin soil with new characteristics and attributes, which 
have not been subjected to a critical scientific examination. Sufficient, however, 
meets the eye of the naturalist to assure him that this is a field of richer promise in 
the department of Natural History in all its variety than has previously been discov- 
ered. 

"It is due to science, it is due to California, to her sister States, and to the scientific 
world that early measures be adopted for a thorough systematic survey of every 
portion of the State and the collection of a cabinet of her rare and rich productions." 

The meeting then took up, read and discussed the constitution, section by section, 
and, after correction, recommitted it for engrossment. At the same meeting a com- 
mittee was appointed to draft a set of by-laws; another to draw up an address or 
circular for publication "detailing the objects of the association and specifying the 
subjects of collection and investigation, and soliciting the cooperation of all interested 
in the objects of the association;" and another to publish the report of the committee 
on organization. 

The original constitution, thus presented on April 11,1 853, was not finally adopted 
until May 16; but in the meanwhile several other meetings were held. At one of them 
held April 18, by-laws were presented, discussed and recommitted for correction 
and engrossment; a committee was appointed to "make and present a list of such 
scientific books as are necessary for the immediate use of the Academy," and at the 
same meeting a number of gentlemen were proposed as corresponding members, 
including John Donald of San Mateo, California, James C. Swan and Captain C. J. 
W. Russell of Shoalwater Bay, Washington Territory, Mr. Johnson, Waioli, Island 
of Kauai, Sandwich Islands [Hawaiian Islands], and Dr. Henry P. Sartwell, of Penn 
Yan, New York. At a meeting on April 25, a start was given to the cabinet by the 
donation by Capt. Nakum Haynes of a quantity of marine shells and coral from the 
South Pacific Islands and a cassis from the West Indies. Samuel A. Hastings also 
presented an otter-skin, bows, arrows and quiver, small baskets, a bone drinking-cup, 
a mountain squirrel skin and a gray-fox skin, obtained by him from the Rogue River 
Indians. 

The next important meeting, and the one at which the California Academy of 



14 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853-1906 

Sciences may be said to have been founded by the adoption of the constitution, took 
place on Monday, May 16, 1853, at the office of Col. T. J. Nevins at what was then 
No. 174-'/2 and is now No. 622 Clay Street, between Montgomery and Kearney, 
which had by that time become and for a number of years continued to be its 
meeting-place. As a preliminary at this meeting a list of names was presented; and it 
was agreed that the gentlemen so named should be considered, and might become, 
resident members by signing the constitution and paying the membership fee, without 
further requirement. These names, omitting titles, were Andrew Randall, Henry 
Gibbons, Wm. P. Gibbons, L. W. Sloat, T. J. Nevins, E. R. Campbell, T. L. Andrews, 
A. B. Stout, Charles Farris, Leander Ransom, James Nooney, John B. Trask, Joshua 
P. Haven, David Chambers, Ebenezer Knight, A. Kellogg, S. H. Willey, S. Blakeslee, 
O. M. Wozencraft, James D. Whelpley, S. D. Simonds, B. Brierly, Wm. Speer, 
Samuel F. Elliott, H. H. Toland, L. Lanszweert and J. H. Foster. 

The constitution, adopted at this meeting of May 16, 1853, was expressly drawn 
up under and in conformity with "the Eighth Chapter of the Act of the Legislature 
the State of California entitled 'An Act Concerning Corporations,'" passed April 22, 
1850. In it the association was called "The California Academy of Natural Sciences" 
and its object was declared to be "the investigation and development of Natural 
Science, the collection of a cabinet of specimens and a library to embrace the standard 
and current works on Natural History and Natural Science, together with such choice 
miscellaneous literature as may be contributed by the friends and patrons of the 
institution." It provided that "Scientific gentlemen may be received as Resident 
Members, Honorary Members, or Corresponding Members," by a two-thirds vote at 
any stated meeting; but requiring previous proposition by a member. Donors were to 
be called contributing members. An initiation fee was required of $10, and monthly 
dues of $2. Life members were to pay $500. The first annual meeting was to be held 
on the first Monday of January, 1854, and annual [business] meetings thereafter on 
the first Monday of every year, which meeting might be "adjourned from time to 
time, but not beyond the second Monday of January, for closing up unfinished 
business." There were to be weekly [scientific] meetings. The officers were to consist 
of a president, a first vice-president, a second vice-president, treasurer, corresponding 
secretary, recording secretary, librarian, and three or more curators. The president 
and two vice-presidents were to constitute the Board of Trustees. The duties of these 
different officers were prescribed. The curators, who were to appoint their own 
chairman and secretary and keep a record of their proceedings, were to have charge 
of the cabinet and catalogue the specimens, and give the names of the donors. 
Standing committees of three or more were to be elected to take charge of the 
respective departments of Library, Finance, Publication, and Proceedings; but each 
member of any such committee could only be elected at a separate balloting. An 
interesting provision was that at least one scientific lecture was to be given annually 
on each of the several departments of Natural Science, which was to be written out 
in full by the lecturer on paper of unifonn size to be furnished by the recording 



CHAPTER I: 1853 



15 




Andrew Randall 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 




Albert Kellogg 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



16 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




John Boardman Trask 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 




Thomas J. Nevins 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER I: 1853 



17 



secretary at the expense of the association, to the end that they should be bound in 
volumes and placed in the Library. 

At the same meeting, or in the course of the following week, twelve of the 
gentlemen, who had been named as members, signed the constitution; and at the 
succeeding meeting of May 23, an election of officers was held which resulted in the 
choice of Dr. Andrew Randall as president; Dr. Henry Gibbons, first vice-president; 
Col. Thomas J. Nevins, second vice-president; Dr. Arthur B. Stout, treasurer; Dr. 
William P. Gibbons, corresponding secretary, Lewis W. Sloat, recording secretary; 
Thomas J. Nevins, librarian, and Dr. Albert Kellogg, Edwin R. Campbell and Dr. 
Henry Gibbons, curators. A start was made in the election of standing committees, 
of which the chairmen became Leander Ransom for the library; Thomas J. Nevins 
for publications; Joshua P. Haven for finance, and Thomas J. Nevins for proceedings. 
By-laws were also adopted at the same meeting, providing that stated meetings should 
be held weekly on Monday evenings; that proceedings should be conducted in 
accordance with the usual parliamentary practice, and fomiulating an order of 
business. Dr. Kellogg made remarks upon a "plant common in the country, supposed 
to belong to the genus Echinocystis''; and Dr. Randall presented specimens of granite 
from China, granite from Monterey, bitumen from Santa Barbara, cinnabar from near 
the Mission Dolores, and carbonate of lime from the Sanchez Rancho in what is now 
San Mateo, but was then San Francisco County. 

At the third meeting thereafter, held JUNE 13, the first election for new members 
took place, when Alfred Higbee was chosen a resident, Isaac Lea an honorary 
member, and (?) Clements, (?) Johnson, E. W. Gavitt, Henry P. Sartwell, John B. 
Gebhard, and Washington Townsend, corresponding members. At the same meeting 









^^s '0JlL 


1^ '- dB&i*'' 










^^^^^^^ ^.^'^ 


^j^^m^. 




£^^^ >^_^_^^^9HH 




V 


'^^^^ 


^^^ 


^ 



Isaac Lea of Philadelphia, the Academy's first honorary member. 
Smithsonian Institution Archives (95-20502) 



18 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




William P. Gibbons 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 




Henry Gibbons 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER I: 1853 19 

Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons exhibited specimens of the viviparous perch of California and 
gave notice that he would present a paper on the subject. On June 20, J. B. Towndsend 
and Robert Nelson were elected resident members, Joseph Delafield, Charles Pick- 
ering, and Robert Bridges, honorary members, and B. W. Budd of New York and J. 
W. Redfield, corresponding members. The publication committee reported that it had 
a thousand copies of a circular printed at a cost of $50, for which it presented the bill. 
This circular, consisting of a single sheet in small type, of four duodecimo pages, was 
intended to call public attention to the Academy and its objects, and to give general 
instructions of how to prepare specimens for scientific examination and forward them 
(see Appendix I). At the same time it was ordered that the recording secretary should 
procure the incorporation of the Academy, and that the constitution, by-laws and 
proceedings should be published. 

On June 27, Thomas J. Nevins, William Speer and Albert Kellogg, who had been 
appointed a committee on a seal for the association, were clothed with full power to 
design and procure the engraving of such seal; and at the same time the recording 
secretary, through Col. Nevins, reported that he had procured the execution, acknow- 
ledgment and recording of the necessary certificate, whereby the association was 
legally incorporated. This certificate, which recited the adoption and signing of the 
constitution on May 16 and the election of the trustees on May 23, was signed in 
proper form by Dr. Randall as president and judge of election in presence of Lewis 
W. Sloat. It was acknowledged by Sloat before E. V. Joice, Notary Public, and on the 
same June 27, 1 853, filed for record in the San Francisco County Court. 

Thus was launched at a very noteworthy period in the history of our City and State, 
under interesting and in some respects amusing circumstances, what we are in all 
seriousness disposed to think one of the most important and valuable institutions in 
California. It was indeed, as has been said, at a vei7 remarkable period in the history 
of our City and State. The early flush times of California were not yet entirely over 
and San Francisco was still in a "boom" of excitement and speculation. The City then 
had about fifty thousand inhabitants and a large floating population passing through 
it to the mines and returning thence with long buckskin bags full of chunky nuggets 
and glittering dust. Bricklayers, stonemasons, ship-carpenters and caulkers were 
getting $10 a day, four or five times the ordinary wages of the Eastern States; 
house-carpenters, blacksmiths, watchmakers and jewellers, $8 a day; printers from 
$10 to $15 a day. There were twelve daily newspaper and eight tri-weeklies or 
weeklies. There were five American theaters, besides a French, a Spanish, a German, 
and a Chinese one; numerous musical, concert and dance halls; two race-courses, and 
uncountable gambling establishments. The commonest shops rented at from $200 to 
$400 and stores of any pretension at from $500 to $ 1 ,000 per month. Female servants 
received from $50 to $75 a month; firewood cost $ 1 5 a cord; coal $50 a ton; fresh 
butter $1 a pound; fresh eggs $1.25 per dozen; turkeys $6 each, and chickens $2.50 
to $3 a piece. Every man, who could do anything and was not too lazy or too vicious 
to work, found plenty to do; and money was abundant, with a million or more of new 
gold coming in every week from the Sierra foot-hills. 



20 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

It certainly speaks well for the underlying, fundamental character of the San 
Francisco population, in those days and in the midst of such surroundings, that there 
were so many men amongst them who not only took an interest in science but who 
were also willing to make so many sacrifices, as they did in its behalf It was only 
their faith that they were doing good work and their abiding belief that they were 
pursuing the right path that enabled the founders of the Academy to persist in their 
labors through years of difficulty and disappointment. Notwithstanding the flush 
times and the abundance of money in 1853, there was substantially none for the 
Academy. Then, as now, scientific men were not money-makers; and the general 
public took no interest in and paid no attention to their beneficent work. It was 
therefore only with very inadequate means that the association was kept alive, and 
enough money collected to preserve the organization and prevent it from being turned 
homeless into the street. But it was bom to live, and it manfully stmggled on. The 
first moneys paid in were initiation fees, which up to June 23, 1853, amounted to only 
$50, just sufficient to pay for the printing of the circular. By August 1, about $50 
more had been paid in; and then the ominous words, "No money received at this 
meeting," or "No cash received," or at last the shorter, though quite as expressive, 
phrase "No cash," which had already been used several times, began to make their 
appearance in the minutes with alarming frequency. 

There is reason to believe that the early minutes were not kept, or at least not 
written up, with proper care; and doubtless there was more money paid in or handed 
to the treasurer and disbursed by him than appear upon the record; but at all events 
it was barely sufficient to keep the Academy alive. Its room on Clay Street was small 
and inadequate; the lights used were tallow candles and few of them, and the furniture 
of the cheapest description. And yet there the old founders continued to meet regularly 
every Monday evening, week after week, and month after month, and year after year. 
Scientific papers were read and scientific discussions carried on. With all the 
disadvantages and all the drawbacks the sacred fire was kept aglow, and the work 
went bravely on. 

On June 27, Dr. William P. Gibbons made fijrther remarks on the viviparous perch 
in California and exhibited a fish with 21 young contained in a sac corresponding to 
the uterus of a mammal. On July 4 - for even the national holiday did not damp the 
ardor of the scientists -a meeting was held and a resolution adopted urgently 
requiring the members to pay up their monthly dues. On July II, Richard F. Ryan 
and Harrison Eastman became members, and Dr. Kellogg read a paper on the plant 
Echinocystis. On JULY 18, Edward Bosqui was elected a resident member, the Rev. 
J. S. Diehl a corresponding member, David Dale Owen, Charles Whittlesey, and 
Benjamin Silliman [Jr., {Eds.}], honorary members, and founding member Charles 
Farris, a corresponding member because he was about to leave the State. Dr. Randall, 
the president, then read a paper in which he offered a prize of $50 each for the two 
best essays on trees and plants suitable for cultivation in California, and particularly 
with reference to their adaptability to form wind-breaks, stop sand-drifts and guard 
against encroachments and damages by waves and floods. 



CHAPTER I: 1853 



21 




Edward Bosqui 

Donohue Rare Book Room, Richard A. Gleeson Library 

University of San Francisco 

On August 1 , at the meeting at which George Bartlett was elected a resident 
member and Lieut. M. F. Maury of Washington City and WiUiam Dariington of 
Westchester, Pennsylvania became honorary members, it was "on motion of Dr. A. 
Kellogg, Resolved, as the sense of this society that we highly approve of the aid of 
females in every department of natural science, and that we earnestly invite their 
cooperation." But, it was not for a number of years that the ladies accepted the 
invitation thus so gallantly held out to them. Edward Bosqui attended this meeting 
for the first time as a member. At the next meeting, AUGUST 8, Dr. Kellogg touched 
a little perhaps on what might have belonged to the women's department by reading 
a paper "On the making of Bread," which it seems was sharply but good-humoredly 
criticized by Dr. William P. Gibbons. At the next meeting, AUGUST 15, Dr. Henry 
Gibbons called attention to the phenomena of shooting-stars, which he suggested 
occurred annually in the early part of August. For the next several meetings, at least 
until September 5, no minutes appear to have been kept, but the proceedings of the 
meetings are recorded, as follows: AUGUST 22, at the meeting at which Capt. William 
McMichael was elected a resident member and geologist Dr. Ira Davis of Norwich 
University, Vermont a corresponding member, the minutes report on donations to the 
Academy of a miscellany of natural history specimens. On August 29, Prof Joseph 
Henry of Washington D.C. was proposed for honorary membership. During the 
meeting, interesting remarks and suggestions were made by members about the 
comet, which had appeared in the southwestern sky near the horizon for the few weeks 
past. 



22 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

On September 5, the committee on propositions reported favorably on the 
nominations of Prof. Joseph Henry for honorary member and A. S. Taylor of 
Monterey, corresponding member, but no further action was taken. Prof. Trask then 
moved that the corresponding secretary communicate with the President [Benjamin 
Peirce {Eds.}] or Secretary [Joseph Henry {Eds.}] of the National Scientific Con- 
vention'"^ to acquire copies of the proceedings for 1853 and all antecedent years. 
September 12 it was ""Resolved, that the recording secretary (Mr. Sloat) be requested 
to hand over to the Librarian (Col. Nevins) the minutes of the previous meetings not 
recorded, together with the record book, that the records might be written up." At the 
same meeting Dr. Kellogg presented a living owl, "caught near Point Jackson on San 
Francisco Bay." which was handed over to Dr. William P. Gibbons. For a report on 
it at the next meeting Dr. Gibbons made his report; "that the owl was lost." 

On September 19, Professor Joseph Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, was 
elected an honorary member and A. S. Taylor a corresponding member. Lewis W. 
Sloat resigned his office of recording secretary and Col. Thomas J. Nevins, who was 
already second vice-president, trustee, librarian, chainnan of the committee on 
publication and chairman of the committee on proceedings was elected to fill his 
place. From this date on for a considerable time, and for some time previous, the 
minutes are in Nevins's handwriting; and he seems to have been the inventor of the 
curt entry "no cash," which was the usual ending of the record of every meeting. On 
October 3, Hiram G. Bloomer attended his first Academy meeting as a visitor, and 
at the session of OCTOBER 10, he and Merrick G. Reed became resident members; 
and E. G. Cannon a corresponding member. As he did at earlier meetings. Dr. Kellogg 
presented a drawing of another coastal plant and gave notice that he would present 
additional specimens and drawings at future meetings. October 24, George C. 
Yount'"* was elected a corresponding member. Specimens presented to the Academy 
included an extensive assortment of plant seeds by Dr. Kellogg. OCTOBER 31, Rev. 
S. H. Willey, who had been named as eligible at the adoption of the constitution on 
May 16, sent in a communication declining to perfect his membership. 

NOVEMBER 7, Dr. Elijah White, William Davis, William Heftley and Jasper J. 
Papy became resident members. Prof E. B. Andrews of Marietta, Ohio, Dr. C. C. 
Parry of Davenport, Iowa, and William Orland Bourne of New York City, were 
elected corresponding members, and Alexander Dallas Bache, was elected an hon- 
orary member. The treasury was also enriched with $22 from membership fees. The 
first effort to form a section of the Academy was made on NOVEMBER 21, when, on 
motion of Dr. William P. Gibbons, a "Floricultural and Horticultural Department," 
also called an "Agriculture and Horticulture Coinmittee," was organized by Gibbons, 
Kellogg, Nevins, Randall and Bloomer, of which Gibbons was elected chairman and 
Nevins secretary. 

Meanwhile many contributions of specimens came in, and much interest was 

'^ The reference here is to the July 1853 annual meeting American Association for the Advancement of 
Science held in Cleveland, Ohio and the six earlier meetings beginning with the first meeting held in 
Philadelphia in September 1848. 

' "• "Young" in the handwritten Minute Books. George 'Concepcion'Yount, came to California in 1831. 
He settled in the Napa Valley and acquired a land gamt, the Cayamus Rancho, where he died in 1865. 



CHAPTER I: 1853 



23 



r 









Hiram George Bloomer 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

manifested by the members in scientific discussions in reference to them. At the 
meeting on NOVEMBER 28, Dr. T. S. Anderson presented the Academy with a 
collection of plants, woods, and shells from Monterey and Santa Cruz and also from 
Rio de Janeiro, Valpariso and the Samoan Islands. Dr. Kellogg and Dr. Gibbons both 
presented specimens of local plants, and Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons spoke about the rocks 
of Telegraph Hill and the coast of the Bay. 

On December 5, several essays were presented on the subject of trees, shrubs and 
grasses suitable for wind-breaks and for stopping shifting sand, in response to Dr. 
Randall's proposition of July 18 offering rewards therefor; and Ransom, Trask and 
Nevins were appointed a committee to examine them and recommend the premiums. 
At the meeting of December 12, eight members and two visitors, G. W. de Groodh 
and John S. Hittell, were in attendance. It was resolved that Dr. H. Gibbons be asked 
to fiimish the Academy with a copy of his meteorological journal and to present the 
Academy with monthly reports of his ftiture observations, and Col. Ransom be 
requested to provide the Academy with such scientific information that may come to 
his notice in connection with the U.S. Land Survey. Cash receipts of $26 in member 
dues were reported. As the year 1853 was drawing to a close, December 19, A. M. 
Jackson of San Bernardino was elected a corresponding member. The monthly dues 
of Col. Nevins were remitted in consideration of the lights and fuel furnished by him 
for the use of the Academy. At the same meeting an interesting and encouraging letter 
was received from Professor Joseph Henry of the Smithsonian Institution at Wash- 
ington requesting correspondence and exchange of specimens and offering his 

'^ Theodore Henry Hitteil's elder brother who had come to California in 1 849, six years before Theodore 
left Hamilton, Ohio where he had been practicing law after having been admitted to the Ohio bar in 1 852. 
(See Appendix H for a memorial-biographical sketch of Theodore Henry Hittell.) 



24 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

assistance in procuring for the Academy meteorological and magnetic instruments. 
Dr. Kellogg presented drawings and specimens of a variety of California plants then 
in bloom to illustrate the mild character of California climate. On December 26, the 
Rev. A. H. Myers was elected a resident member and Thomas Abbott a corresponding 
member. Mr. Hittell again attended as a visitor. Dr. Kellogg displayed a new plant 
with illustrations and Dr. exhibited two specimens of fishes, one of a new subgenus 
of the family Cyprinidae. 



25 



Chapterll: Year 1854 



rr^he first annual meeting of the Academy, as provided for in the constitution, was 
I held on January 2, 1 854; but at that meeting the reading of the essays, called 
outBy Dr. Randall, and awarding of the premiums, offered by him, so engrossed the 
attention and time of the members that the annual election was postponed until 
January 5. The awards of $50 each were made for two essays, one of which had for 
its motto the words ""Fortune Segnatur" and that is about all the information the 
minutes furnish in regard to them, except that there was also an award in favor of a 
third essay, for which apparently no reward had been offered. Following discussion 
of the awards, Dr. Kellogg exhibited a drawing of Rubus ursinus, the bear blackberry, 
and Dr. W. P. Gibbons again made some remarks on viviparous fishes first presented 
by him on 13th June last. The Committee of Investigation for membership reported 
favorably on the nominations of A. Carpenter for resident member and the Rev. Henry 
Durant of Oakland as corresponding member, and both were duly elected. 

At the adjourned meeting on JANUARY 5, the annual election of officers for 1854 
took place and resulted in the choice of Dr. Andrew Randall as president; Dr. Henry 
Gibbons, first vice-president; Col. Leander Ransom, second vice-president; Thomas 
J. Nevins, treasurer; William P. Gibbons, corresponding secretary, Hiram A. 
Bloomer, recording secretary; Col. Thomas J. Nevins, librarian, and Dr. Albert 
Kellogg, Dr. Arthur B. Stout and Dr. John B. Trask, curators. Dr. William P. Gibbons 
spoke at some length upon the subject of viviparous fishes. At the next meeting, 
January 9, the standing committees were reorganized and the chairmen became: 
Wm. P. Gibbons for the library, Thomas J. Nevins for publication, Thomas J. Nevins 
for finance and Hiram G. Bloomer for proceedings. Among the visitors listed was 
William P. Blake, geologist of the Pacific Railroad Survey. At this meeting Dr. 
William P. Gibbons again brought forward the subject of the viviparous fishes of 
California and read a paper on five new species. On motion of James Nooney it was 
resolved that, as Dr. Gibbons had described five new species and as Professor Agassiz 
had already given names to three of them, the fourth should be called Lolconotiss 
Gibbons a. 

On January 16, Chester S. Lyman, nominated for membership by Professor 
James Nooney, was elected resident member. Professor Henry of the Smithsonian 
Institution acknowledged by letter his election as an honorary member and stated that 
he had ordered, on authority of the president, the meteorological and magnetic 
instruments before referred to, which were to be forwarded without expense to the 
Academy, but that, upon receiving the necessary advises, a draft would be sent for 



26 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
Smithsonian Institution Archives (26452) 




William PhippsBlai<e( 1877) 
Smithsonian Institution Archives Merrill Collection 



CHAPTER II: 1854 27 

the amount of the purchase. At the meeting of January 23, a Mr. Bowman was 
elected a resident member. Dr. H. H. Behr attended the meeting as a visitor. On 
account of the uncertainty as to who had been properly made corresponding members, 
Dr. W. P. Gibbons introduced a resolution "that all names of corresponding members 
be stricken from the books." On a motion of Dr. Kellogg, the resolution passed. At 
the next meeting, January 30, on motion of William P. Gibbons it was resolved "that 
a committee of three be appointed to prepare a memorial to the Board of Supervisors 
of San Francisco, the object of which shall be to encourage the cultivation of shade 
trees within the city limits by offering a premium for every tree, which shall be planted 
and found to be in flourishing condition within as specified time — the Ailanthus to 
be excluded from the list as being unworthy of cultivation." Gibbons, Randall and 
Kellogg were appointed such a committee. William P. Blake, geologist with the 
Pacific Railroad Survey attended the meeting as a visitor. On February 6, Dr. H. H. 
Behr and William H. Ranlet were elected resident members and Lieut. Trowbridge 
a corresponding member. On February 13, Professor Louis Agassiz was elected an 
honorary and Alfred L. Cohen a resident member. At the next meeting, February 
20, a seal for the Academy corporation, which had been recommended, sent back and 
again recommended, was rejected by the votes of Ransom, Trask, William P. 
Gibbons, Heffiey, Papy, White and Behr as against Kellogg and Nevins. 

The matter of corresponding members of the Academy came up again on FEBRU- 
ARY 27 and an election was held which resulted in the choice of James G. Swan, 
Captain C. J. W. Russell, Dr. H. P. Sartwell'", Mr. Townsend" ', B. W. Burke, Israel 
S. Diehl' \ Dr. Ira Davis"', Dr. Brown" ^ C. C. Parry' ', E. B. Andrews" ' and Alden 
A. M. Jackson as corresponding members and James Behrens, resident member. At 
this meeting also the subject of the essays that had engaged the attention of the 
Academy on January 2 again came up, and an awarded of $50 was made "to William 
Thompson, market-gardener near Mission Dolores, for best essay on trees, shrubs, 
grasses and plants and their adaptation to the sands and soils of our sea-coasts and 
shores of our bays and rivers." A satisfactory seal for the Academy seems by this 
time to have been provided, and for engraving it Harrison Eastman was allowed $ 1 2, 
to be applied in payment of his initiation fee and monthly dues. At the meeting held 
March 6, Wm. P. Gibbons offered his resignation as corresponding secretary, but 
the motion was deferred until the next meeting. Under date of March 13 a very 
unusual entry was made, "owing to inclemency of weather and absence of some 
members from City, no business transacted." 

At the meeting of March 27, C. D. Gibbs was elected a corresponding member. 
The corresponding secretary then read a letter from Dr. John LeConte, corresponding 
secretary of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, acknowledging "the reception of 
specimens of the fruit and leaves of the mammoth arborvitae and enclosing a copy 



2 ' Probably S. V. Bowman who in late 1854 to mid- 1855 attended a few Academy meetings and made 
several donations to the cabinet. 

2^ This appears to repeat an action taken on 13 June 1853; Mr. Townsend is probably Washington 
Townsend (q.v.)\ - -^ Repeat of an action taken on 18 July 1853; ^'^ Repeat of an action taken on 22 Aug. 
1 853; - -'' Probably B. B. Brown of Sacramento whose name was advanced by Dr. Kellogg on 1 5 Aug. 1 853, 
but evidently was not acted on; -^ Repeat of an action taken on 7 Nov. 1 853. 



28 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Louis Agassiz 

George Sprague Myers Portrait Collection 

Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences 




Hans Hermann Behr 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER II: 1854 29 

of a botanical description of the tree as published in the Gardener's Chronicle, 
London, December 24, 1853, by Lindley, who names it Wellingtonia Gigantear He 
also read a letter from Mr. Baird, assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
who referred to the proceedings of the Academy in relation to viviparous fishes. The 
corresponding secretary (Dr. William P. Gibbons) said he dissented from the views 
of Mr. Baird in reference to the priority of discovery of this family of fishes. Dr. 
Kellogg thought that the remarks of Dr. Gibbons were very just and that the Academy 
should maintain its ground. Months ago, he said, he had proposed the name of 
Washingtonia for the mammoth tree; but, in waiting for further information respect- 
ing described species, we had lost it. After ftirther remarks by the president and other 
members, the Academy unanimously 

Resolved, That, in view of the isolated condition of this Academy from other 
societies, we will regard every publication of new species, which has been or which 
may be made through the daily papers of this city, as substantial evidence of priority of 
discovery. 

Resolved, That the corresponding secretary be directed to furnish to other scientific 
bodies a copy of the above resolution, accompanying it with explanations which have 
led to this conclusion. 

In the same connection it was resolved that a committee of three be appointed to 
prepare for publication an abstract of the transactions of the Academy; and William 
P. Gibbons, Kellogg and Behr were named as such committee. At the same time it 
was resolved "that the corresponding secretary have leave to withdraw his resigna- 
tion" which constitutes the only motion in the minutes that he had offered. 

On April 3, the corresponding secretary read a letter from Professor Agassiz 
disclaiming the discovery of the new genus of viviparous fishes and also requesting 
exchanges of specimens. The corresponding secretary then made a few remarks upon 
the identification of a California plant allied to the Echinocystis of the Cucurbitaceae 
family. Col. Nevins stated that he had observed the bitter quality of cucumbers grown 
in the vicinity and attributed the same to the impregnation of their flowers by the 
pollen of the Echinocystis. A discussion ensued upon the effects of a pollen impreg- 
nating different species of plants and vegetables. April 17, visitors included Dr. 
William O. Ayres and John Hassenger. The corresponding secretary read another 
letter from Prof Agassiz, acknowledging his election as an honorary member of the 
Academy and requesting to be fiimished with all the documents concerning the 
discovery of the viviparous fishes. On APRIL 26 [as recorded in Minute Books, but 
probably the 24th {Eds.}], Dr. William O. Ayres was elected a resident member. Dr. 
Kellogg donated drawings he had made of plants from Point Reyes, given to him by 
Dr. Randall. He also spoke about having identified five species of yellow violets 
growing in California. W. P. Blake, who attended the meeting as a visitor, donated 
a specimen of silicified wood from the Colorado desert and Dr. H. Gibbons talked 
about his tour of the quicksilver mines and medicinal springs at Almaden. On May 
1 , Dr. Bigelow was elected a corresponding member and Dr. W. O. Ayres paid his 
membership initiation fee of $10 and $2 monthly dues. On May 8, a committee 
(Nevins and Ransom) was appointed to confer with the editors of the California 



30 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




William Orville Ayres 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

monthly magazine called The Pioneer on the subject of publishing the transactions 
of the Academy in that periodical. 

Dr. William P. Gibbons on May 1 5 read another paper on viviparous fishes, giving 
descriptions of four new species, Hysterocarpus traskii, Hyperprosopon argenteus, 
Cymatogaster aggregata and C. minimus. Mr. William H. Brooks was also elected a 
resident member. On May 22 Mr. Brooks was again elected a resident member, the 
minutes of the preceding meeting being unavailable at the time. Dr. Gibbons read 
still another paper on viviparous fishes, describing three new species. At the same 
meeting Dr. William O. Ayres exhibited drawings and gave verbal descriptions of 
five species of fishes, found in our rivers, which he said belonged to the genus 
Leuciscus, called by fishemien salmon-trout. On the same evening the cominittee, 
appointed to confer with the Pioneer magazine in reference to publishing the 
proceedings of the Academy, reported that it had not been able to effect any 
satisfactory arrangement. A communication was received from James G. Swan of 
Shoalwater Bay, Washington Territory, proposing "a remedy for the ravages of the 
Teredo navalis and other destructive borers, which infest our harbors." In connection 
with the reading of a paper describing the Torreya Californica or California nutmeg, 
published by Prof Torrey in the Journal of Pharmacy, Dr. Randall said that, though 
it was stated that the tree had not been observed except on the western slope of the 
Sierra Nevada, he had found it in a caiiada in Marin County, one hundred feet above 
sea-level, three miles distant from the ocean on one side and the bay on the other, and 
about twenty miles from San Francisco. The tree there was from fifty to sixty feet in 



CHAPTER II: 1854 31 

height and from 12 to 15 inches in diameter. On motion of Dr. Henry Gibbons the 
committee on publication was requested to ascertain upon what terms a volume of 
Proceedings and Transactions of the Academy, with plates, could be issued; and in 
the same connection the publication committee was requested to prepare a brief 
history of the Academy, as found in the early minutes, suitable for publication with 
the Proceedings. 

At the next meeting. May 29, the committee on publication reported that the letter 
press of 500 copies of the Transactions of the Academy, consisting of 100 pages, 
royal octavo, 1500 ems to the page, would cost about $300, and that 500 copies of 
ten single-page lithographic plates would cost about $900. The committee was 
thereupon instructed to open a subscription for a publication fund of $2,500 to pay 
the expenses of publication. The attention of the Academy was then devoted to some 
sulphuret of iron, presented by Mr. Cooper of Georgetown, El Dorado County, with 
the following statement in reference to it. "I send you a specimen taken from Nevada 
Tunnel on Cement Hill, 160 feet under ground, where drift and logs are found in 
abundance. This curious specimen was taken out of a log some two feet in diameter. 
Any quantity of the same substance is found in this timber. The base of this hill 
appears once to have been a large river." Dr. Kellogg at the same meeting presented 
drawings and description of the nest of a giant California bird, which he called 
""Pterospoiapsis Sonoraensis'' said to come from near Sonora, Tuolumne County. 

On June 5, Professor Asa Gray presented, through H. G. Bloomer, a paper, which 
he had read before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, on the age of the 
giant tree recently felled in California. Dr. William P. Blake, again in attendance as 
a visitor, presented a Helix from Cyprus Hills, Monterey County; also read a paper 
describing several remarkable specimens of crystalline gold from Coloma, and took 
occasion to remark that a recent severe earthquake at San Salvador took place at or 
about the same time (April 1 0) that a vibration of the earth was observed at San 
Francisco. Dr. Trask read a paper describing four species of fresh water shells from 
the Sacramento River. At the next meeting, June 12, the committee on publication 
presented the form of a subscription list for publishing the Proceedings; and it was 
resolved that the subscription price for the first number should be $5, and that "all 
contributors should be entitled to one copy of the first number and that those 
contributing $100 or more shall be entitled to five copies." Dr. Henry Gibbons, who 
at a previous meeting had given his observations upon a trip to the New Almaden 
quicksilver mines in Santa Clara County, now gave his experiences on a recent trip 
to the Geysers in Sonoma County. The corresponding secretary read a letter from the 
Hon. J. McDougall of the U.S. Senate offering assistance in his official capacity in 
forwarding publications of the Smithsonian Institution. N. W. Chittenden and Robert 
Simpson were elected resident members, and David H. Storer, M.D., was nominated 
for honorary member. 

On June 19, the corresponding secretary read a letter from Prof E. B. Andrews 
of Marietta College, Ohio acknowledging his election as a corresponding member. 
On June 26, Dr. D. H. Storer was elected an honorary member. Dr. Wm. O. Ayres 



32 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

exhibited specimens of the Murre, Uria troile, the bird that lays the so-called 
Farallones eggs, great quantities of which were collected every year and sold in the 
San Francisco market, and also other birds from the Farallone Islands. On July 3, 
Dr. Kellogg presented drawing of a Silene, or catch-fly, procured in Marin County 
by Dr. Andrews, who was to give a specific description of it. Kellogg remarked that 
the species was one of much beauty and well worthy the attention of florists. Col. 
Ransom presented a prepared specimen of a new bird, supposed to belong to the 
cuckoo family, from the plains near San Jose; and Dr. Henry Gibbons read a note 
from Dr. Birdsall in reference to a homed frog. At this meeting, the recording 
secretary, H. G. Bloomer, sent in a resignation of his office, which was accepted, and 
Dr. T. L. Andrews elected to the vacant place. At the meeting held on July 10, Dr. 
Ayres and Dr. Kellogg presented descriptions of new fish and plants; on July 17th, 
Dr. Kellogg presented drawings of three new plants from Mariposa County. Dr. B. 
[? Howard {Eds.}] B. Coit was also elected a resident member. 

The Academy was delighted as well as surprised, on July 24, by an an- 
nouncement, through Dr. Trask, that the proprietors of Clinton, a portion of what is 
now East Oakland in Alameda County, offered to donate ground for a Botanical 
Garden. Prof Nooney and Dr. Andrews were at once appointed a committee to 
investigate the subject and report. At the next meeting, July 31, they reported that 
Lieut. T. H. Stevens, on behalf of Chipman & Aughinbaugh, the proprietors, proposed 
to donate to the Academy ten acres of land in the rear of the projected City of Clinton, 
or, if preferred, a less number of acres within the City limits, for a botanical garden. 
As this looked like business, the committee was instructed to continue to act and given 
power to receive similar proposals from any other persons kindly disposed to the 
objects of the Academy. Attention was then directed to a number of donations from 
Dr. R. Reid of the Stockton Insane Asylum, consisting of four skulls, one of a grizzly 
bear killed on the Calaveras River 14 miles from Stockton, one of a gray wolf from 
the neighborhood of Stockton, one of a beaver from French Camp Slough, and one 
of a mink from the Stanislaus River; also a male and a female tortoise from the San 
Joaquin River. A. H. Myers proposed the purchase of ten cases of preserved 
California birds and mammals, prepared by W. F. Abbott, for $150. As there were 
not funds enough on hand to pay for them, Myers contributed $ 1 5, Col. Ransom $ 1 0, 
Dr. Trask $10, and Dr. Kellogg $5. Col. Nevins offered, for the purpose of meeting 
the emergency, $50, payable without interest within six months, which was accepted; 
and the remaining $60 was ordered paid out of the treasury. At the same meeting Mr. 
Myers presented apples grown in Alameda on trees transplanted sixteen months 
previously; and it was the unanimous testimony of all members present that in 
fineness of flavor they were fully equal to those raised in the Eastern States. It was 
ordered that Col. Nevins be paid $20 per month for the rent of his room. 

The subject of the botanical garden came up again on AUGUST 7, and Col. Nevins 
was added to the committee, which on AUGUST 14 was instructed to report at the next 
meeting the conditions under which the land in Clinton was proposed to be donated. 
Continuing with the August 7 meeting, George H. Goddard was elected a resident 



CHAPTER II: 1854 33 

member and Messes Thomas H. Stevens of Clinton, Dr. R. R. Reid of Stockton, and 
W. A. Wallace of Los Angeles were elected corresponding members. At the meeting 
of August 14, William W. Chipman, one of the proprietors of Clinton, presented 
what were pronounced splendid specimens of nectarines, raised on trees of about two 
years' growth in Alameda not far from Clinton. The Academy then turned its attention 
to the subject of tarantulas, several specimens of which and of their nests were 
presented by D. S. Gibbes, one of the nests containing young tarantulas. Mr. Gibbes 
also presented a paper, describing the habits of the tarantula and the manner in which 
it builds its nest. Dr. Kellogg followed with remarks on the same subject and 
particularly on the tarantula wasp. C. M. Blake presented specimens of organic 
remains (bones and teeth) and a bottle of liquid asphaltum from Los Angeles County. 
Dr. Henry Gibbons made remarks upon the winds in the San Jose Valley, stating their 
general direction to be from the north and northwest as evidenced by the uniform 
inclination of exposed trees towards the south and southeast. Ransom, Nooney, 
Blakeslee and others concurred. Dr. William P. Gibbons urged a revision of the 
By-Laws, so that specific duties should be required of the curators. 

At almost every one of these meetings and many subsequent ones. Dr. Ayres 
presented specimens and read a paper or made remarks upon California fishes, and 
Dr. Kellogg the same upon California plants. On AUGUST 21 and 28, the subject of 
the botanical garden again came up and was talked over. On September 4, Col. 
Nevins presented to the Academy a receipt in full for the rent of his office and 
furniture and pay for storage and stationery furnished from April 1 8, 1 853 to July 3 1 , 
1854, being a donation, as he calculated, of at least $300. Whereupon the thanks of 
the Academy were tendered him; and on motion $20 were ordered paid him as rent 
for the month of September. At the next meeting, September 1 1 , Mr. Sloat exhibited 
a proof-sheet of the proceedings of the previous meeting, taken from the columns of 
The Pacific, a weekly newspaper devoted more particularly to religious subjects, as 
a specimen of the manner in which the transactions of the Academy might be 
published in a permanent forni and at trifling expense. On motion of Dr. William P. 
Gibbons, the publication committee was instructed to have published 250 copies of 
the Proceedings'^ of the Academy in the form exhibited by Mr. Sloat, and that the 
subscription price of the same should be fixed at $3 a year; and, on motion of Dr. 
Ayres, the recording secretary was directed to publish the proceedings in The Pacific 

2^ As an outgrowth of the dispute over priority in publication earlier in the year, the Academy undertook 
to publish its proceedings in a format more acceptable to established scientists and institutions in the eastern 
United States and Europe. To this time the Academy's proceedings were published in local newspapers, 
principally the Daily Alta California and The Pacific. With the issuance of the first pages of the new format 
m September and receipt of the pages at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, Spencer F. Baird, who 
had initially questionecl the priority claimed by the Academy in the publication of information on viviparous 
fishes, wrote the following letter (its receipt is not referenced in the Academy's Minute Books) to D. W. 
P. Gibbons, Academy Corresponding Secretary: [letter dated 10 Oct. 1854] 

"Dear Sir: I had much pleasure today in answering your letter enclosing the first sheet of Proceedings of 
the Academy. In [such] a form there will be no difficulty in [maintaining] any [priority] which may exist 
at the time of publication, although you will find many [who] will contest the validity of any [an- 
nouncement] in a mere weekly newspaper. 

"Will you permit me to suggest the addition of the date of forwarding and issue of the [sheets] either at 
the bottom of its first page or some other conspicuous place. It is true that the date of the meetings 
themselves is given but any interval may elapse between the presentation or reading of a paper and its 
technical publication, {continued next page) 



34 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

as soon after meetings as practicable. Dr. Henry Gibbons then exhibited a head of 
bearded wheat, said to grow wild in the mountains. It "measured about seven inches 
in length, the seeds quite large and nearly half an inch long." Some doubt was 
expressed whether it belonged to the genus Triticum or to a new genus. Dr. Wm. O. 
Ayres presented a communication about the inappropriate naming of fishes found in 
the fish markets in San Francisco. The Committee on the Botanical Garden reported 
progress and was continued. 

On September 1 8, Selim E. Woodworth presented specimens of ferruginous earth 
from Molate or Red Rock Island in San Francisco Bay; also a bottle of the earth 
ground in oil for painting purposes. It was said to resemble what was commonly called 
Hartford clay and to be used by guilders in San Francisco for the same purposes. At 
this meeting the subject of a botanical garden, which had been before the Academy 
since July, received its quietus by an adverse report of the committee upon the matter 
and the unanimous adoption of the following preamble and resolutions, offered by 
Mr. Sloat: 

Whereas, This Association is without a habitation of its own and the proper means 
of displaying and preserving its cabinets and library (which are rapidly increasing) for 
the want thereof, and suitable cases for arranging the same; 

And whereas, the society is poor and it is of primary importance that its collections 
should be arranged and preserved and its proceedings and transactions published; 

And whereas, the possession of a botanical garden, however desirable it may be, is 
at this time comparatively useless to the society and is attended with a large outlay and 
very considerable current expenses, the funds to meet which are required for the 
purposes above specified. Therefore be it 

Resolved, That the donation of lands at Encinal, made by Messrs. Chipman and 
Aughinbaugh to this society, be respectfully declined, and the project of a botanical 
garden be for the present abandoned. 

Resolved, That the cominittee respectfully tender to Messrs. Chipman & Aughin- 
baugh the declination of their donation by, and the thanks of the society, for the offer 
of the same. 

The attention of the weekly meetings for the remainder of the year 1 854 was taken 

up almost exclusively with the presentation and examination of California fishes and 

plants, with papers upon them by Drs. Ayres and Kellogg, and the discussions to 

which they led. Dr. Ayres as an ichthyologist, and Dr. Kellogg as a botanist were 

absorbed in their respective subjects, and it seemed as if nothing could dampen their 



2'' {continued) "Would it not be well to [issue] the pamphlet [in] [the] fomi of a monthly issue, [to] [bear 
{name}] of month like most Bulletins of learned societies. This would make the parts rather more bulky 
and [ ] nothing as to date. 

"You will find 250 copies hardly enough. As new [members] force you, or vou enter into correspondence 
with new institutions, you will want to supply from the beginning. 500 will be as small a number as you 
can safely issue, especially if as I trust, the Academy will in time count its centuries of age. 

"Professor Henry authorises me to send a full series of Smithsonian Publications. Shall they go by 
[ ] [express]? 

"I am glad to see Dr. Ayres is active. He is a thorough naturalist and a smart valuable [ ]. . ." 

"Very truly yours," 

[signed] Spencer F. Baird 

Baird's advice was taken seriously, thus launching the Proceedings series of the California Academy of 
Sciences, now in its 142nd year, save for a break in publication of about 8 years, from 1877 to 1886. 

Original of letter not available. This transcription was made from the letterpress copy of S. F. Baird's 
correspondence in the SI Archives (RU 53, 9:325). Brackets [ ] enclose words that were either difficult to 
interpret or could not be deciphered. 



CHAPTER II: 1854 35 

enthusiasm or repress their ardor. Both devoted a great deal of their time to observa- 
tion and study in their special branches of science, so much so that Dr. Ayres' practice 
as a physician — and he was known and recognized as a very good one — had to some 
extent at least to suffer, while Dr. Kellogg, who kept a drug-store, was almost too 
much engrossed with hunting and working over new plants to patiently wait upon 
customers. Their papers were always drawn with care and were listened to with 
attention and interest, and especially those of Dr. Ayres, who was a man of remarkable 
sound judgment, ability and scholarly attainments. 

On September 25, a bill was presented by Whitton, Towne & Co., the printers of 
The Pacific newspaper, for printing the first number of the Proceedings of the 
Academy and ordered paid. On October 2, Adelestan Jardin was elected a corre- 
sponding member. Dr. Ayres exhibited two new fishes, Morrhua Californica and 
Grystes lineatus, and provided detailed descriptions. On October 9, Dr. Ayres 
described a new genus and species, Clypeocottiis robustus, but then, too late to have 
it excluded from the published Proceedings of the meeting, called attention to Charles 
Girard's earlier description of the same species, which he said had priority of date." 
Dr. W. P. Gibbons read a private letter he had received from Mr. Girard asking for 
additional infonnation on viviparous fishes found on the Pacific Coast. On October 
16, Dr. C. F. Winslow was elected a resident member and Lieut. Stone (USN) a 
corresponding member. Whitton, Towne & Co.'s bill for printing the first bulletin 
[Proceedings, eds.] of the Academy was ordered paid. At the same meeting Col. 
Nevins was ordered paid $20 for rent of his office for October. On October 23, Dr. 
William Jelly was elected a resident member. Dr. H. Gibbons exhibited samples taken 
from sinking a shaft in search for coal near Saucelito, and Dr. Kellogg, in behalf of 
Julius Troeble, Col. W. Warren, and Dr. Trask, presented numerous varieties of 
California flower seeds. Dr. H. H. Behr presented a specimen of a parasitic shrub, to 

2-8 The concern over priority of publication caused great concern to Academy members in the early years. 
But, also of concern was that Eastern scientists did not seem to take their Western counterparts seriously, 
believing them to be amateurs and upstarts. Although the Gibbons-Agassiz dispute seemed to be settled 
amicably, this was not always the case, and very early in the game Ayres ran afoul of both Charles Girard 
and Theodore Gill (q.v.). By 1859, Ayres was disturbed by Girard's treatment of his work and in a letter 
written by John Xantus to Spencer Fullerton Baird, Xantus says of a meeting he had with Ayres in San 
Francisco, "The other day Dr. Ayres visited me & I lent him the fish Report tor perusal. He is extremely 
irritated at Mr. Girard's proceedings with him. In fact -there is a fish, which was described by Dr. Ayres, 
& present as a new genus. At the same time Girard noticed a fish in the proceedings, giving him a name, 
but remarking that the fish is in such condition that it does not admit something like a description. — Now 
in the Report Girard introduces Dr. Ayres fish, under his [Girard's] specific name of the unknown fish. . . 
Dr. Ayres already commenced to write a wholesale criticism of the fish Report, and I believe nobody can 
blame him for." (letter quoted in Ann Zwinger, 1986; see pp. 73-74.) 

On April 1 6, 1 859, Baird wrote to Ayres, "My dear doctor, I shall endeavor before the sailing of the next 
Cala. steamer to get for you the sheets of Girard's work on Fishes . . You must not consider me responsible 
for any treading on your toes on the part of Dr. Girard. 1 have nothing to do with the work." (Letter quoted 
in Zwinger, 1986, p. 78.) 

Like others at the Academy, Ayres felt that even with formal publication in the Academy Proceedings, 
as first recommended by Baird, Eastern scientists still ignored his work, and this pained him. Ayres received 
the pages of Girard's report in July and in a letter to Baird dated July 1 9, 1 859, Ayres complains, "My Dear 
Sir, I wish first of all to express my very great indebtedness to you for Girard's Report upon the fishes. It 
fills the large gap which has so long lain open. . . Of course the first look would be for points in which I 
am personally concerned. I see that in a number of instances he has dropped me very unceremoniously and 
very unjustly; whether I shall ever be able to pick myself up again is yet to be seen. ... I perceive that I 
have quite a number of genera and species here which he has not touched and which are probably new. I 
have been waiting for his work, before making attempts at their publication." (Ayres to Baird, SIA, RU 
7002 {Spencer F. Baird Collection, 1793-1923}, Box 14, item 1 10.) 



36 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 



PHOC EEDIXGS 

OF THE 



CALlFORiiA ACADEMY OF MTORAL SCIEIES. 



YOL. 1. 



SAN FRAXCISCO. 



1854. 



Dr. A. K 



JX'' 



SEP!- 

in the chair 



kh. ISw4. 



:\Ir. W. .1. Steene. by the Ed. of the Pucijic, 
presented a curious specimen of cabbage, grown 
on the Sacramento bottoms, which, instead of 
a head formed of leaves in the usual manner, 
has a globular head formed Ijv an enlargemenr, ui' 
the top of the main stock, five inches in diame- 
ter, and weighing some two pounds or more, 
perfectly sound, with a thin rind, and of the 
consistency* of the inner portion of a common 
cabbage stump. It has the shape and appear, 
ance of a round, field turnip, except that it has 
perfectly formed cabbage leaves on its sides and 
top, occurring at intervals, as on the ordinary 
cabbage stock. 

Dr. Kellogg exhibited a drawing and speci- 
mens of a plant from the sea shore and salt 
marshes of the Bay of San Francisco, the Frnn- 
kenia grandifolia. This plant is often coated 
with crystals of salt, which has given it the 
common name of Salt-weed. It is a low herb 
very much branched, the limbs opposite, with 
dense clusters of somewhat wedged-shaped leaves 
folded back or rolled up ; within these, are un- 
bosomed small pink flowers — stamens usually 6. 
pistils 3. 

Dr. Ayres presented descriptions of the fol- 
lowing species of fish, believed to be new : 

Labrus ptdcher, Ayres. This species, one of 
he finest of our fishes, makes its appearance in 



the market about rhe lirst of A'ViT.sT. and con. 
tiuues in season rill nearly the ciose of February. 
Thev are sold hy the fishermen ';nder the name 
of P>lackfi3h. and are also not unfrcquently call- 
ed .Sheepshead. — Specimpus are (jfteii s^en weigh- 
insr six to eight pounds. ^ly description is 
taken from cue sixteen ar.d a haif inches in 
length, weighing two pounds and a half. 

Form very similar to that of Tnv.to^a Ameri- 
i cniia. (rreatest depth one-fourth the total length. 
Length of the head, five inches and one-fourth. 
Forehead protuberant, esoecially in larsre indivi- 
duals, from an accumulation of fat immediately 
above the eyes. 

Lips thick, loose and fleshy. 

Teeth on the intermaxillaries and in the lower 
jaw alike — -consistin? externally of a single row, 
stout and conicle, of which the two anterior 
pairs are much larger than the others and pro- 
ject forTi-ard : within this external row is a band 
of blunt, rounded teeth, not arranged in regular 
rows, scarcely projecting above the membranes. 
No teeth on the palatine bones or the vomer. 
Teeth on the pharyngeals erely flat, tes.'^elijted 
tubercles ; on the inferior pharyngeal, a few of 
the anterior ones are distinct, conicle. 

Edges of the operculum and preopercidum 
destitute of spines or serrations. Scales deeply 
imbedded, not conspicious, elongated subqua- 
draugular, covering the body, the operculum, 
and the sub-operculum ; extending but slightly 
on the verticle fins. 

The rays of all the fins are enveloped in a 
thickened, partially opaque membrane. 

The spinous portion of the dorsal fin is four 
inches and four-tenths in length ; the spines are 
stout and strong, and one is continued by a fleshy 
prolongation one to two-fifths of an inch in ex- 
tent ; thus making the height of this portion 



Page 1 of the Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences, 1854, vol. 1. 

The volume was reissued with "minor" changes in i 873. The changes, some in wording, some in 

the lithograph plates, are not readily discemable but do exist and must be taken into account if used 

as a primary source, especially in taxonomic research (see Appendix K for sample comparisons). 

(Reproduced from a copy in the Library of Congress) 



CHAPTER II: 1854 37 

which he gave the provisional name of Cuscuta Ceanothi. Subsequently, on Decem- 
ber 4, he furnished a description of it, written in Latin. It was the old European 
practice to give all scientific descriptions in the Latin language, so that learned men 
of any country, as all were familiar with Latin, could read and understand them. But 
the practice is now to a very great extent abandoned; and, when thus tentatively 
revived, it met with no encouragement from the Academy, partly because the 
members generally were not as good Latinists as Dr. Behr and partly because it was 
felt that plain English was better, or certainly good enough. And it may be added that 
there is today almost, if not quite, as much necessity for learned men in every part of 
the world, whatever may be their nationality, to understand English as there was in 
past ages to understand Latin. NOVEMBER 27, Dr. R. Beverly Cole was elected a 
resident member and Dr. A. Chase of Downieville, a corresponding member. Dr. 
Henry Gibbons exhibited peanuts, Arachis hypogoea, part of a crop of several 
hundred pounds, raised in Alameda. DECEMBER 4, P. Edward Connor [in published 
Proceedings, "P. Edwards Conner" in handwritten minutes] was elected a corre- 
sponding member. Dr. H. Behr described the parasitic shmb, Cuscuta Ceanothi, 
found in the vicinity of San Francisco, and Dr. Wm. O. Ayres described two new 
fishes, Osmerus elongatus and Mustelus felis . DECEMBER 1 1, Dr. C. W. Brink was 
elected a resident member. Dr. Kellogg presented specimens of Polypodium from 
Shoalwater Bay, Washington. He said it was used by the Indians in the preparation 
of their tobacco, calling it "wild liquorice." 



38 



Chapter III: Years 1855-1856 



1855 



T' 

took D 



I he first Monday of January, 1855, being New Year's Day, the annual meeting 
was adjourned until Saturday, JANUARY 6, when the annual election for officers 
tool< place and resulted in the choice of Dr. Andrew Randall for president; Col. 
Leander Ransom, first vice-president; Dr. Henry Gibbons, second vice-president; Dr. 
William P. Gibbons, corresponding secretary; Dr. C. F. Winslow, recording secre- 
tary; Col. T. J. Nevins, treasurer; Col. T. J. Nevins, librarian. Dr. W. O. Ayres, curator 
of zoology. Dr. T. L. Andrews, curator of botany; and Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons, curator 
of geology and mineralogy. Col. Nevins, as treasurer, reported the receipts for 1854 
at $441.00, and the expenditures as $461.95, leaving a balance due him of $20.95. 
As librarian, he reported that the Academy had sixty-five books, all in good order. 
The curators reported the cabinet in good condition, and that 1 100 specimens had 
been added to it the previous year. On motion it was ordered that during the year 1 855 
only $ 1 per month should be collected as monthly dues, the additional $ 1 , required 
by the constitution being remitted. At the next meeting, January 8, Dr. Ayres 
resumed presenting papers on California fishes, and Dr. Kellogg papers on California 
plants, and they continued bringing forward new matter at most of the meetings in 
the course of the year. January 1 5, Charles Girard was elected an honorary member. 
Dr. W. P. Gibbons immediately proposed Spencer F. Baird as honorary member and 
at the next meeting, on January 22, Prof. Baird was duly elected. 

About the same time an article, which was distasteful to most of the members, 
appeared in a weekly San Francisco newspaper, called "The California Farmer" over 
the signature of Dr. C. F. Winslow, who had recently been elected recording secretary. 
At the next meeting, JANUARY 29, Col. Ransom and William Heffley were appointed 
a committee to wait upon Dr. Winslow and inquire of him whether he was the author. 
They reported, February 5, that Dr. Winslow admitted that he had written the article 
as published; whereupon, on motion of Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons, the office of recording 
secretary was declared vacant; and soon afterwards William Heffley was elected to 
fill the vacant position. Meanwhile funds had come in so slowly that a committee had 
been appointed to hasten the collection of monthly dues, and to furnish a list of the 
members. The committee furnished "a revised list, having erased the names of those 
who have neither rendered services nor paid anything towards the fiands of the 
Academy, and abated the amount in arrear against certain resident members," 



CHAPTER III: 1855-1856 



39 




Spencer Fullerton Band 
Smithsonian Institution Archives (64750) 

presumably those who had rendered conspicuous service. The report was accepted 
and adopted. At the same meeting, a proposition of Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons to deliver a 
course of lectures on chemistry in aid of the funds of the Academy was approved. 

February 12, Dr. John B. Trask read a paper on shells followed, February 19, by 
a second paper on the same subject. FEBRUARY 19, Col. R. D. Cutts, U.S. Coast 
Survey, was elected a corresponding member. On account of some abuse of the 
privileges of the library, the By-laws were amended by adding a provision that no 
member should remove any book without permission of the librarian or library 
committee; that a record of all books loaned and the names of the borrowers should 
be kept, and that no person except a member, should remove any book without special 
resolution authorizing it. Dr. Trask read a paper on Alasmodon and presented the 
specimens of the shell to. the Academy. February 26, Dr. Kellogg exhibited 
specimens and drawings of a variety of California yellow honeysuckle, Lonicera 
Californica. Dr. Ayres read a paper describing a new genus, Anarrhichthys, and 
species, A. ocellatus, of fishes from San Francisco Bay. March 12, Julius Troebel, 
well-known as an educator and advocate of the Kinder-Garten system, who was then 
editing the San Francisco German Journal, was elected a resident member; and, at 
his request, it was resolved that he should be furnished with copies of the proceedings 
of the Academy for publication in his newspaper in the German language. Dr. Thomas 
Antisell was elected a corresponding member. March 19, Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons 
presented casts of the jaw and teeth of a mastodon, for which he had received $25 to 



40 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

purchase gypsum and procure the casts. The jaw and teeth appear to have been 
presented by Dr. Trask and were said to have come from Columbia in Tuolumne 
County. Dr. Gibbons also called attention to a supposed new species of trout, which 
he called Salmo iridea. Dr. Ayres spoke of a monster of the dog family. April 2, S. 
R. Throckmorton was elected a resident member; and Dr. Behr appears to have been 
elected curator of botany, though the record is silent as to what had become of his 
predecessor in that position. Drs. Ayres and Trask spoke of the ravages of teredos or 
shipwomis and thought there had as yet been no adequate way suggested of prevent- 
ing them. Dr. Trask then read a paper describing a new ammonite from Shasta County, 
Ammonites Batesii. APRIL 9, Quincy A. Brooks of Olympia, Washington Territory, 
was elected a corresponding member. Dr. H. Gibbons, Dr. Behr, Dr. Trask, and Dr. 
Kellogg exhibited specimens of interesting plants, minerals, and fossil shells from 
Tertiary deposits that had come into their possession. 

On April 16, Joshua Child of Encinal was elected a corresponding member. It 
was announced that Palmer, Cook, & Co. had donated to the Academy, for one year 
from April 1, the free use of Room No. 4 of the Phoenix block, the building at 622 
Clay Street in which the Academy held its meetings, for which liberality due thanks 
were returned. Dr. Ayres presented a description of Salmo rivularis, a new species 
from near Martinez. At the same meeting, a letter was received from William 
Thompson, market-gardener near the Mission Dolores, in reference to the premiums 
awarded at the beginning of the year for essays on trees and plants suitable for 
wind-breaks, and stopping shifting sand. The corresponding secretaiy was instructed 
to inform Thompson that $50 had been awarded to him and was ready to be paid. 
Thompson's letter appears to have stirred up a lively breeze in Academy affairs; and 
at the next meeting, April 23, on motion of Dr. Kellogg, it was resolved that Dr. Wm. 
P. Gibbons, on account of his neglect or refiisal to notify Thompson of the award and 
premium, be requested to resign his office of corresponding secretary. Dr. Kellogg 
then, in his usual talk on plants, spoke particularly about wild ginger. Dr. Gibbons 
declined to resign his office; and, for the time, the Academy turned its attention to 
other matters. G. M. Bmnham and Merrick J. Reed were elected resident members, 
and Dr. Randall paid into the treasury $70, of which $50 were probably intended to 
pay Thompson's premium. April 30, Dr. Behr spoke at some length on the so-called 
California silkworm, and expressed an opinion that it might, and was likely to, prove 
valuable. Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons read a paper on a new species of crab, and Dr. C. F. 
Winslow a paper on the causes of tides, earthquakes, rising of continents, and 
variations of the magnetic force. 

On May 7, Dr. Henry Gibbons furnished to the Academy a copy of his meteoro- 
logical tables from December 1850 to March 1853, together with remarks on winds, 
clouds, and weather. These meteorological tables, which were made at San Francisco, 
had been asked for by a resolution dated December 12, 1853; and Dr. Randall had 
contributed $10 and Col. Nevins $5 in advance towards having them made out. Drs. 
Kellogg and Behr reported on the big tree, Sequoia gigantea, which they insisted was 
improperly called Wellingtonia by English authors. They claimed for it their own 



CHAPTER III: 1855-1856 41 

name oVTaxodium giganteum or Washington Cypress." Dr. Kellogg then produced 
a stir by offering a resolution that the office of corresponding secretary, filled by Dr. 
Wm. P. Gibbons, should be declared vacant. It was a reopening of the controversy, 
which had induced the Academy on APRIL 23 to ask for the corresponding secretary's 
resignation. After some heated discussion, the resolution was made the special order 
for the next meeting. Dr. Henry Gibbons moved that the subject should be indefinitely 
postponed; but his motion was lost. At the next meeting. May 14, Dr. Randall in the 
chair and Dr. Ayres acting as recording secretary /?/-o tern, the resolution was called 
up; Trask, Kellogg, Heffley, and Bloomer voted in favor of it, and Randall, Henry 
Gibbons, Wm. P. Gibbons and as appeared, Lanszweert against it, while Ayres, Behr, 
Troebel, Pappy, Ransom, Sloat and Winslow declined to vote. The resolution was 
accordingly declared lost, and so entered. 

The controversy, however, was not yet disposed of, for at the following meeting. 
May 21, a communication from Dr. Lanszweert was read, in which he stated that he 
did not vote at the meeting of May 14. Upon this, a motion was made to amend the 
minutes of that meeting; whereupon the following protest was read and filed; "The 
undersigned hereby protest against the alteration of the minutes of the last meeting 
in regard to the vote of Dr. Lanszweert; and they assert that Dr. Lanszweert did vote, 
as recorded, in the negative, and that he declared to each of them that he had come 
to the meeting and remained in it for the purpose of so voting. H. Gibbons, W. P. 
Gibbons." This called Dr. Lanszweert to his feet with the assertion that he distinctly 
said at that meeting "I don't vote," which was heard by Trask, Kellogg and Sloat, and 
that consequently the protest which had been filed was false. There was again a heated 
discussion with a final result that the minutes of the meeting of May 14 were amended 
so as to leave the name of Lanszweert out of the vote on the resolution and declare 
it carried; and as so amended they were ordered approved. Dr. Kellogg then read a 
paper on plants and Dr. Ayres one on the California mole, Scalops californicus, and 
one on fishes. At the next meeting May 28, James Tallant and Henry C. Macy, were 
elected resident members. A motion was made to proceed to an election to fill the 
vacancy in the office of corresponding secretary, when Wm. P. Gibbons presented 
another protest, which was ordered spread upon the minutes, as follows: "I hereby 
protest against any action being taken in the matter of election of another correspond- 
ing secretary of this Academy; 1st. Because the Academy has no right under the 
present regulations to elect any officer at other than the first meeting in the month; 
2nd. Because the duties of the corresponding secretary, being prescribed by the 
constitution, the society cannot compel him to perform any duties not particularly 
specified therein; consequently all action heretofore had in the premises is unconsti- 
tutional." 

The first ground of this protest was based upon a By-law adopted April 3, 1854, 
that "the first meeting in each month shall be devoted especially to the business of 
the Academy and other meetings to scientific purposes; but this rule may be sus- 
pended by resolution so that miscellaneous business can be acted on at any meeting." 
The second ground was based upon the constitution, Art. V, Sec. 4. "The con-espond- 



42 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

ing secretary shall conduct the correspondence of the association; keep a record, in 
which he shall regularly enter copies of all official letters written by him and also 
note the receipt of all letters intended for the association, with a reference to his files 
thereof, and exhibit the same at the next subsequent meeting; and, at the close of his 
term, deliver to his successor all books, letters, stationery and other property in his 
hands belonging to the association." The Academy, however, did not seem disposed 
to consider these questions, but resolved to proceed, and Dr. William O. Ayres was 
elected corresponding secretary. It was also resolved that the new incumbent should 
call upon the late corresponding secretary and "that the latter be and is hereby 
requested to deliver to the said corresponding secretary all books, papers, correspon- 
dence and other matters in his hands and belonging to the Academy." 

After this experience of internecine feud, comparative quiet reigned, and the 
Academy devoted almost the whole of its attention during the remainder of the year 
to inspecting new specimens and listening to and discussing papers presented by Dr. 
Kellogg on plants and Dr. Ayres on fishes. June 25, M. Auguste Le Folis of 
Cherbourg, France was elected a corresponding member. Dr. Behr described a new 
genus and species of plant, Chloropyron palustre. On JULY 9, James O'Meara of 
Calaveras Co., was elected a con-esponding member. July 30, Dr. John A. Veatch, 
J. R. Hume and Dr. Henry Bates were elected corresponding members. AUGUST 6, 
Dr. J. Eckel was elected a resident member, D. E. Hough and Broome Smith, 
corresponding members, and on the same day a donation was received from Dr. John 
ToiTey, the widely known botanist including "Observations on the Bads maritima 
and a report on the Darlingtonia Californica.'" On AUGUST 20, the old difficulty was 
called up again by a resolution declaring vacant the office of curator of geology and 
mineralogy, of which Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons was still incumbent, and the election of 
Dr. Lanszweert to fill it; and at the same time it was deemed proper to appoint L. W. 
Sloat a committee of one to call upon Dr. Gibbons, as late corresponding secretary, 
and "with full power to act, to obtain from him all books, papers, instruments, moulds 
for casts, and other property in his hands belonging to the Academy." At the same 
meeting Dr. Veatch and Dr. Lanszweert presented and discussed mineral water from 
Red Bluff At this meeting Dr. Ayres read a paper on Echinodennata of the California 
coast. September 3, S. W. Parker was elected a resident member and W. P. Blake, 
a corresponding member. September 10, Dr. Ayres read a paper on a new species 
of "cramp fish," Torpedo Californica, and illustrated, by dissection, its electric 

3 1 On July 16, 1855, Ayres wrote to Spencer Fullerton Baird at the Smithsonian Institution to inform 
him that he had been elected an Honorary Member on Jan. 22, 1855. As a postscript to the notification, 
Ayres spoke of the internal bickering in the Academy with respect to the office of Corresponding secretary: 
"Above 1 send you a notice officially. An unfortunate difficulty between the former Secretary of the 
Academy has resulted in their removing him from the office, and their requesting me to take it. He [W. P. 
Gibbons] refuses to give any report of what he has at any time done, and inasmuch as we cannot learn that 
more than one or two of those elected as Corresponding & Honorary Members have ever been made aware 
of it they have wished me to write to all." 

On the unrelated matter of his researches, Ayres continued, "I am working along here in the dark as well 
as I can, with almost nothing in the way of books or means of reference, and what mistakes 1 make, some 
of you more advantageously situated must correct. I have the materials; you have the authorities. I am 
waiting very impatiently for the Reports on the Pacific Rail Road etc. which will contain more full 
descriptions of the various species from this coast. How can I get them when they are issued? Can you send 
them to me? . . ." (Ayres to Baird, SI Archives, RU 7002 { Spencer Fullerton Baird Collection, 1 793- 1 923 } , 
Box 14, Item 109.) 



CHAPTER III: 1855-1856 43 

organs. SEPTEMBER 24, it was resolved that Col. Nevins be requested to engross the 
records since January, 1 855, at an expense not exceeding $50. OCTOBER 8, Dr. Ayres 
exhibited a specimen and provided a description of a new genus and species of shark, 
Notorhynchus maculatus.^' OCTOBER 22, James Palache of Murphy's, Calaveras 
County, and James G. Cooper of New York were elected corresponding members. 
November 5, letters were read from Dr. Isaac Lea, Dr. William Darlington, and 
Joseph Delafield acknowledging their election as honorary members. William Stimp- 
son of Boston, Norris W. Palmer, Alameda, and Rene Lenormand, Vire, France, were 
elected corresponding members. November 26, Joshua E. Clayton, from Mariposa, 
was elected a corresponding member. Next, on motion of Col. Nevins, it was resolved 
to memorialize Congress in favor of full scientific survey of California and the 
Territories of Oregon and Washington and to petition "the next Legislature of this 

State ... for an appropriation of [ ] thousand dollars per annum for five years 

to aid this association [the Academy {Eds.}] in procuring a site and erecting a suitable 
building for its meetings, library and cabinet and defraying the expenses of scientific 
explorations ... of this State in the departments of Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, 
Zoology, etc. etc." December 3, Charles Girard of the Smithsonian Institution 
acknowledged his election as an honorary member. December 31, it was resolved 
that "meteorological instruments, presented by Mr. William Schmoltz" be placed in 
the hands of Dr. Ayres, and that he be requested to make the observations, for which 
they were intended. 



1856 

The year 1856 commenced with a number of changes in the Academy. By that 
fime the early flush times of California were completely over. During the winter 
months or rainy season of 1855-56, there had been a considerable diminution in the 
yield of the placer mines; and, partly on that account but more particularly on account 
of the loose methods and wild and reckless speculation that were prevalent, the great 
banking houses of Adams & Co., Page, Bacon & Co. and numerous other banking 
concerns failed and in their crash carried down with them many business estab- 
lishments and involved the whole community in losses. There was no longer any 
confidence, and a sort of general bankruptcy stared everybody in the face. The 
Academy, though it had never been well supported, felt the general depression very 
sensibly. Even the little driblets, that had been flowing into its treasury, became more 
and more attenuated; and very few new members joined, while unavoidable expenses 



^•2 Ayres' publication on Notorhynchus maculatus was rejected by Theodore Gill who in a later paper 
usurped the name as his own and redescribed both genus and species (see Gill, 1 862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
P/7//a., p. 495 and 1864, pp. 147-151 [especially pp. 149-150]). The clash over this and other groups studied 
by Ayres and separately by Gill, and Gill's ruthless criticism of Ayres, finally caused Ayres to give up 
research in ichthyology in 1 864. Ayres left San Francisco in 1 87 1 and returned East, first to Chicago, where 
he suffered serious financial reversals, and then in 1878 to New Haven, Connecticut, where he re-estab- 
lished his medical practice and taught at Yale's medical school. In failing health, he retired to Brooklyn, 
New York, in early 1887 and died shortly thereafter, on April 30, at the age of 70. 



44 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

were still running on and had to be met. The collections for the previous year, 1 855, 
had been $647 but the expenditures were $672.00, leaving a deficit of $25.70. 

After the difficulty that had occuned in reference to the office of corresponding 
secretary and the action of the Academy upon it. Dr. Henry Gibbons and Dr. Wm. P. 
Gibbons, who had always been among the most able, active and efficient members, 
substantially withdrew and in effect dropped out; and it was not until after the lapse 
of a number of years that they again joined and took an active part in the institution 
they had done so much in organizing and maintaining and in the objects of which 
they at heart took so much interest. Besides the loss of these gentlemen. Dr. Andrew 
Randall, the president, who had devoted much time and energy to the institution, 
seems to have found that his large business affairs, which had become more or less 
complicated in the general financial disasters and depression, declined to serve any 
longer as an officer; nor does he appear to have taken any llirthcr active part in the 
proceedings. At the annual meeting of January 7, 1856, at which the officers for 
that year were chosen, the election resulted in the choice of Col. Leandcr Ransom for 
president; Dr. Albert Kellogg, first vice-president; Dr. J. N. Eckel, second vice-presi- 
dent; Edward Bosqui, treasurer; Dr. Wm. O. Ayres, corresponding secretaiy; Menick 
G. Reed, recording secretary; Col. T. J. Nevins, librarian; Dr. J. B. Trask, curator of 
geology and mineralogy; H. G. Bloomer, curator of botany; L. W. Sloat, curator of 
conchology, and Dr. L. Lanszweert, curator of zoology. 

One of the first things done at this annual meeting, besides the reading of the report 
of Col. Nevins as treasurer, was an amendment of the constitution reducing the regular 
monthly dues from $2 to $1, and the fee for life membership from $500 to $100. It 
left the initiation fee $10 as before, but specially declared that no one, though elected, 
was to be regarded as a member until he had complied with the prescribed conditions. 
Col. Nevins presented an alphabetical index of the specimens of the Academy 
mentioned in the records form the commencement of its proceedings, and, as it 
appeared that he had engrossed the records of 1 855 as he had been directed to do, he 
was ordered paid $50. Dr. Trask then read a paper on "Earthquakes in California from 
1 8 1 2 to 1 850." At the next meeting, January 1 4, a committee, consisting of Nevins, 
Ayres and Bloomer, which had been appointed to solicit an annual appropriation from 
the California Legislature for the purchase of a site and erecting and maintaining a 
building for the Academy, made a report, which could not have been veiy encourag- 
ing. The Legislature was entirely too busy with political and other schemes to pay 
any attention to science and particularly to an institution which could not control the 
votes even of its own members. The day had not yet come when every Academy of 
Science will be regarded as of vast importance in every well-regulated State. 

There seems to have been still some disagreement in reference to what property 
of the Academy remained in the possession of Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons, the fonner 
corresponding secretaiy, and it was resolved that the Smithsonian Institution should 
be communicated with in regard to the instruments ordered from and transmitted by 
it. Dr. Trask presented a paper on "Earthquakes in California from 1850 to 1855." 
January 21, Dr. Ayres, the corresponding secretaiy, reported that he had received 



CHAPTER III: 1855-1856 45 

from Dr. Gibbons, "one cistern-barometer, one rain-gauge, two thermometers, two 
hygrometers, and one magnetic instrument for detemiining variations." January 28, 
Dr. C. H. Raymond presented specimens of paper made from wood-shavings. 
February 4. Trask, Lanszweert and Bosqui were appointed a committee "to put the 
rooms of the Academy in order." The effect of reducing the fee of life-membership 
from $500, which no one from the beginning had been willing to pay, to $100 was 
seen on February 1 1, when Joseph C. Palmer was elected the first life member, 
followed on February 18 by his partner in business, Charles W. Cook, and on the 
same day P. M. Randall and S. Pinkham were elected resident members and Capt. 
Kentrel a corresponding member. February 25, Dr. Randall, who was present at the 
Academy for the last time, and Dr. Veatch presented specimens. On March 3, 
Missouri State geologist B. F. Shumard was elected a corresponding member, and 
on March 10, A. H. Jones and C. D. Shuepel were elected resident members and J. 
M. Alden a corresponding member. At the same meeting, on motion of Edward 
Bosqui, the treasurer, it was resolved that notice should be sent to all members in 
arrears, and that all money received from monthly dues should be used only for the 
completion of the rooms of the Academy and paying outstanding indebtedness. Frank 
Baker contributed carpeting, for which he received thanks. March 17, Prof J. D. 
Dana donated a copy of his "Science and the Bible," purporting to be a review of 
Prof Lewis' "Six Days of Creation." At the same meeting Col. Nevins presented an 
account of a thunder storm observed at Alameda and Dr. Trask a paper on fossil shells. 
March 24, Joshua D. Haven besides many specimens, donated a large mahogany 
bookcase. April 14, Thomas Rowlandson^^ and Frederick Marriott were elected 
resident members. Dr. Henry Wheatland of Salem, Massachusetts, was elected a 
corresponding member. APRIL 21, Dr. Kellogg spoke about a horse-tail plant of the 
Ephidae family. April 28, Augustus Le Plongeon was elected a resident member. A 
paper on California Crustacea, received from William Stimpson, zoologist to the U.S. 
Exploring Expedition, was read; and Mr. Cochrame was authorized to collect 
specimens for the Academy on his travels in Honduras and elsewhere. May 12, Sir 
William J. Hooker, Director of the Royal Gardens at Kew, was elected an honorary 
member. 

On May 14, occurred the shooting of James King of Wm., editor of the San 
Francisco Evening Bulletin newspaper, by James P. Casey, which gave rise to the 
famous Vigilance Committee of 1 856, one of the most extensive and significant social 
movements in the history of California. San Francisco was at that time in the hands 
of very corrupt politicians and contained a large number of characters of the lowest 
grade, countenanced and protected by them. King had undertaken in his newspaper 
to expose the corruption and had had occasion to speak of Casey, then a supervisor, 
and mention the fact that he had been a convict in the New York penitentiary at Sing 
Sing. On account of this exposure, Casey shot King in open day on the public street, 

^^ In the published Proceedings (1855, vol. 1, pt. 2D, p. 95), the name is misspelt "Rollandson." In the 
Minute Books and in the hand-written roster of members, compiled some years later, it is spelt "Rollinson." 
Thomas Rowlandson arrived in San Francisco from England in 1855 and entered into the life of the city, 
listing himself variously as a mining, agricultural, and civil engineer (see Aldrich, Bolt, Leviton & Rodda, 
1986, Bull. Seismological Soc. America 76( I ):71-75). 



46 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

and then hurried to the poHce office whose chief was his personal friend and where 
he was sure of protection and sympathy. Shooting, stabbings, deadly assaults of all 
kinds, robberies, burglaries, larcenies and crimes of all descriptions, and among them 
ballot-box stuffing and other frauds upon the elective franchise were common; and 
the community had already been worked up to a degree of excitement, which now 
burst into flames. The better classes of the citizens met, organized for necessary 
mutual protection, and commenced the great work of cleansing the City of its 
scoundrels or at least making them hunt their holes. They established head-quarters, 
which they fortified, and fornied an army of some five thousand men, which, with 
cannon, marched to the county jail and took out of it Casey and another assassin 
named Charles Cora, who had a few months previously shot down and killed William 
H. Richardson, the U. S. Marshal of the California district. Both of these men they 
carefiilly tried and after due deliberation convicted; and on May 22. the day of King's 
fiineral, who had died a few days before, openly and in the face of the world hanged 
them fi-om the windows of their headquarters, popularly known as "Fort Gunny- 
bags." 

During those days of public excitement - for the Vigilance Committee did not 
stop with the execution of Casey and Cora, but, with the approbation of the better 
class of citizens throughout the State,^ "* continued their work for several months and 
for the time and for a number of years afterwards effectually cleansed the City — The 
Academy, though it formally met, did little business. On June 2, Mrs. Nevins, as if 
to remind the members that the sun still shone and the skies still smiled, sent in a vase 
of beautiful flowers from Alameda. On June 16, J. Mora Moss was elected a resident 
member. Dr. Trask presented a collection of 126 species (? specimens) of Achatinella 
from the Hawaiian Islands to the cabinet. In the course of a few weeks more, July 24, 
while the Vigilance Committee were in the very midst of their Herculean labors, a 
man named Joseph Hetherington, with the same murderous and unbridled passion 
that had cost Casey and Cora their lives, and apparently oblivious or careless of their 
fate, openly shot down Dr. Andrew Randall on account of a debt ^ which the latter 
owed him. The result, as might have been expected by any one that had the remotest 
knowledge of the spirit and earnestness of the Vigilance Committee, was that 
Hetherington was at once seized, tried and condemned; and shortly afterwards, in 
company with another assassin, named Philander Brace, executed, on gallows erected 
in the public street, in the presence of the entire population of San Francisco. In the 
meanwhile, JULY 27, the members of the Academy were called upon to turn out in a 
body and take their placed in the long fiineral procession of their first president. 

^■^ Hittell somewhat overstates the support of the Vigilance Committee. Some, such as the Governor, 
newly installed J. Neeiey Johnson, and San Francisco banker, William Tecumseh Shennan, were concerned 
about the breakdown or constituted authority. Sherman, who earlier in the spring of 1 856 had accepted an 
appointment as Major-General in the California State Militia, agreed to quell the vigilantes by calling out 
the militia on condition that the Army supply the needed anns. As events turned out, army commander 
General John E. Wool refused to provide tne weapons, and Sherman, lacking support, resigned his militia 
commission leaving the Vigilance Committee in control of the city for several months. Although there is 
an extensive literature covering this period of social upheaval, John P. Marszalek's Sherman: A Soldier's 
Passion for Order {\993, The Free Press, Macmillan, Co., New York, pages 105- 109) offers a less euphoric 
assessment of this moment in history than that given by Hittell. 

3-5 $67,175.59 (see Butler, C. P.. unpublished ms in CAS Archives, vol. 1, p. 160). 



CHAPTER III: 1855-1856 



47 




Execution of Joseph Hetherington and Philander Brace, San Francisco, July 29, 1856 

California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

(unknown contemporary source) 

The result of the Vigilance Committee work was a complete change in the 
government of San Francisco, effected by what was know as the "People's Party," 
which grew out of it. Most of the very bad characters, besides those who were hanged, 
had been exiled or found it safest to leave. Honest men were put in office; and for the 
next ten years there was not a more peaceable, orderly or better governed city in the 
United States or, for that matter, in the world than San Francisco. But the changes 
thus brought about engrossed the attention of everybody; and the business of the 
Academy, and particularly its financial interests, had to be more or less overlooked 
or neglected. A portion of its members, nevertheless, continued to meet, and the life 
of the institution was preserved. 

Returning to member meetings, meetings were held on July 7, on JULY 21, at 

which letters from Professor Joseph Henry Lieut. M. F. Maury, and the Royal Society 

of London were read, and on JULY 28, when Charles L. Bonaparte (called Prince) 

and Baron Adolphe J. L. Quetelet were elected honorary members. Also, on their first 

reading, the members unanimously approved two amendments to the Academy 

By-Laws: 

From and after this date, no matters for exhibition presented by any resident member, 
shall be entered on the minutes of the Association. 



48 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

The publication of any paper in the departments of Zoology and Botany, must be 
accompanied by the specimens described or drawings of the same, in a fit condition for 
preservation, which shall become the property of the Association. 

It was at this meeting that Dr. Trask presented a memorial for Dr. Randall. 

On August 1 1, on account of pressing want of funds, a resolution was adopted 
calling upon Edward Bosqui, the treasurer, for a report upon the state of the finances. 
At the next meeting, AUGUST 18, Mr. Bosqui made his report; but at the same time, 
apparently regarding the resolution as a reflection upon his activity in collecting 
funds, he tendered his resignation of his office. This resignation, however, the 
Academy, being in no sense disposed to accept, was expressly rejected; but, for the 
purpose of helping Mr. Bosqui in his arduous task, Mr. Heffley was appointed to 
assist in the collection of dues. About the same time. Dr. John A. Veatch, who became 
a very active contributor of scientific papers, became a resident member. August 
25, A. F. Beardslee was elected a corresponding member. Among donations to the 
cabinet were two snakes, Eutainia dorsalis and Pitiiophis catenifer, by Dr. Lan- 
szweert, and several fish. SEPTEMBER 8, Julius K. Rose and Theodore F. Moss were 
elected resident members; and, SEPTEMBER 29, F. L. A. Pioche and Jules B. Bayergue 
also. Dr. Joseph Bimstill was elected a corresponding member. On the last named 
day, the two amendments to the By-laws first read on July 28 were presented by Dr. 
Trask for their second reading, one to the effect that matters for exhibition presented 
by a resident member should not be entered in the minutes, and the other, that every 
paper intended for publication in the departments of zoology or botany must be 
accompanied by the specimens described in a condition to insure their preservation 
or drawings of them; and that all such specimens and drawings should become the 
property of the Academy. Both amendments elicited much discussion and being put 
to vote, were lost - Kellogg, Trask and Heffley voting in favor of them, and Eckel, 
Lanszweert, Ayres, Bloomer, and Moss, against them. 

October 20, Dr. Ayres presented a description of a new species of mackerel. 
Scomber Diego, from the Santa Barbara Channel. November 17, several donations 
to the cabinet are recorded. December 16, Dr. J. B. Haggin was elected a resident 
member. Captain J. D. Brown donated specimens of corals and sponges from the Gulf 
of California, Mr. Bridges, specimens of Sequoia and Finns, and Dr. Veatch, rock 
specimens from the vicinity of Clear Lake. 



3 6 Although supposedly read to the members at the meeting held on July 28, there is no mention of it in 
the minutes of that meeting. As pointed out by Leviton & Aldrich (1982:62), the original of the memorial 
had been presented to the Randall family and was kept among the family records until it was presented to 
Mr. C. P. Butler of the Academy's Department of Geology by a decendent relative of Andrew Randall. 
For more details about this and about Andrew Randall in general, reference should be made to an 
unpublished manuscript in the Archives of the Academy written in the late 1970s by Clay Preston Butler 
(see Bibliography, this volume). 



49 



Chapter IV: Years 1857-1862 



1857 

The records of the Academy for the next few years are very imperfect." ' There 
are, however, some items preserved, showing the general progress. The annual 
meeting for 1857 was held on January 5; but the attendance was so slim that the 
annual election was put over until the next meeting. Dr. J. B. Stillman of the steamer 
John L. Stephens presented a number of specimens which he had collected on one of 
his trips to Panama. On January 12, in accordance with postponement, the election 
for officers of 1 857 took place and resulted in the choice of Col. Leander Ransom for 
president; Theodore F. Moss, first vice-president; Dr. J. N. Eckel, second vice-presi- 
dent; Merrick G. Reed, recording secretary; Dr. Wm. O. Ayres, corresponding 
secretary; Edward Bosqui, treasurer; Wm. Heffley, librarian; Dr. L. Lanszweert, 
curator of zoology, and Dr. J. B. Trask, curator of geology and mineralogy. Col. 
Thomas J. Nevins, apparently on account of his services, was made a life member; 
and Thomas G. Cary " was elected a resident member. Dr. Trask read a paper on 
"Earthquakes in California in 1856," and Dr. Kellogg a paper on new plants. An 
extensive collection of California plants, woods of native forest trees, mosses from 
New Mexico and the Gila country, shells and minerals, was purchased from the estate 
of Dr. Andrew Randall. (On JANUARY 25, Thomas G. Cary seems to have been 
elected a resident member a second time [Proceefi^//2g5, vol. l,pt. 2,p. 105]. {Eds.}) 
On February 23, Joseph Britton, James Hepburn and A. A. Branda were elected 
resident members and George Fraunfeld of Vienna [Austria], a corresponding mem- 
ber. Wm. P. Blake read a paper on "Telluret of Silver in California." March 23, on 
motion of Dr. Ayres, Captain C. J. W. Russell was declared by viva voce vote a 
resident member. On March 30, Professor Asa Gray and Dr. John Torrey were 
elected honorary members. At this same meeting Dr. Trask presented, among other 
things, a quantity of ripe fruit of the coffee tree from the Hawaiian Islands; and the 
curators were requested to distribute it throughout the state with a view to inducing 

"• ' Not only are the records imperfect, but none of the minutes of the meetings held following January 5, 
1857 to January 20, 1862 are recorded in the minute books. Nor do any of the minutes, save for the papers 
read at the meetings, which were then published as scientific contributions, appear in the Academy's 
Proceedings (ser. 1, vol. 2, 1858-1862). Mention of some of the interesting events that took place at the 
meetings, such as J. D. Whitney's effort to get the State of California to build a state museum to be 
administered by the Academy (see Appendix b), are to be found only in the personal correspondence of 
Academy members, such as J. D. Whitney and William H. Brewer, whose personal papers and those of 
their correspondents, e.g., Spencer Fullerton Baird, are to be found in archives outside of California. 

''•2 Thomas G. Cary, brother of Mrs. Louis (Elizabeth Cabot Cary) Agassiz. 



50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

its cultivation in California. Dr. Trask read a paper on the direction and velocity of 
the earthquake of January 9, 1857. He also read a paper on new microscopic 
organisms from the Santa Barbara Channel, and a paper on zoophytes from the Bay 
of San Francisco and adjacent localities. Captain Russell deposited a water-bottle and 
beads, with a mortar, which had been used, and were supposed to have been made, 
by the Indian woman Maria, the so-called female Robinson Crusoe, on the Island of 
San Nicolas during her solitary residence there of eighteen years. He also deposited 
a volume of records in Spanish of the Mission of San Diego, dating back to 1770. A 
paper by Mr. Garrett on shells of the Hawaiian Islands, was read; and the recording 
secretary was requested to convey to Joseph C. Palmer the thanks of the Academy 
for a donation of the room rent for the ensuing year. OCTOBER 5, Dr. Kellogg read a 
paper on Cupressusfragrans. On NOVEMBER 30, Col. Nevins made a proposition to 
write up the records, which was laid over for a week; and at the next meeting, 
December 7, the whole subject matter was indefinitely postponed. At the same 
meeting, Dr. John A. Veatch read a paper on "A Visit to the Mud Springs in the 
Colorado Desert in July 1857." 



1858 

It was in this year that the Fraser River gold excitement was at its height, and a 
large part of the population of San Francisco rushed off to the new mines. The effect 
of this exodus - added to the business depression of previous years and the drain 
produced by the filibuster attempts of William Walker to establish himself and extend 
the area of slave-territory in Nicaragua, from which the city had not yet recovered - 
was for the time disastrous. Real-estate went down to a very low figure; business in 
general languished more than ever, and merchandise, except for hard-tack, pork, and 
beans and other gold-rush supplies, became to a great extent a drug in the market. 
But, notwithstanding these discouragements, the California scientists, who appar- 
ently had little in the way of wealth to lose, kept on at their work. The annual meeting 
for 1858 was held on January 4, when the officers for the previous year with Col. 
Leander Ransom as president at their head, were reelected, the only change being 
that of Dr. Trask as recording secretary in place of Merrick G. Reed. Dr. Veatch was 
also made curator of conchology. At the next meeting, JANUARY 1 1, the constitudon 
of the Academy, on account of some doubt about its provisions, appears to have been 
amended, so as to entitle life members "to participate by vote or otherwise in all 
meetings of the Society"; (Art. II, Sec. 7): and so as to provide that "if any member 
shall be delinquent in dues for a term of more than twelve months, his name shall be 
erased from the list of members, his membership ceasing from that date. But if the 
person this affected shall show evidence to the Academy that he has been absent from 
the city not less than six months of this fime, the rule shall not be enforced. All articles 
or sections of articles conflicting with the above amendments are hereby repealed" 
(Art. II, Sec. 8). At the next meeting, January 18, it was resolved to dispense with 



CHAPTER IV: 1857-1862 51 

the election of standing committees for the current year. February 22, Col. Ransom 
read a paper on "Growth over the Butt of a Blazed Tree," showing such growth for 
five years and indicating a "ring" for each year. JULY 25, Dr. Kellogg read a paper 
on a blue-star tulip, which he called Cyclobothra coerulea. AUGUST 2, he presented 
specimens and descriptions of two of plants, Calochortus lilacinus, the blue-beard 
butterfly tulip, and Campanula filifJora, the tubular bellwort, the latter first presented 
by him in July, 1855. OCTOBER 25, Dr. Kellogg exhibited drawings of Brodioea 
terrestria. 

1859 



4.3 



The proceedings of the year 1 859 were very much like those of 1 858. The Fraser 
River adventurers had come back disappointed. They had found no gold worth the 
hunting or that would even pay the expenses of the search. Their return though they 
were impoverished, somewhat brightened business prospects; but, in the meanwhile 
national politics were drifting towards the great conflict between the North and the 
South on the subject of slavery, and, except among the very few devotees, little or no 
attention was given to science. For a long time no new members joined the Academy. 
But sfill it continued its sessions and its work went on. At the annual meeting of 1 859, 
held January 10, the old officers, with Col. Ransom at the head as president, were 
re-elected. On January 17, Dr. Veatch read a paper "On the Occurrence of Boracic 
Acid in the Sea-water of the Pacific." For a number of subsequent meetings Dr. 
Kellogg seems to have occupied the chief attention with paper on plants: - January 
24, or\ Abies bridgei; APRIL 25, on Fritillaria viridae; JUNE 13, on Collinsia solitaria; 
July 18, on what he called the Veatchia genus and Veatchia crystallina, a new genus. 



■^^ John Xantus, the Hungarian naturaUst who visited San Francisco in 1859, in a letter to Spencer 
Fullerton Baird at the Smithsonian Institution, said of the Academy, "The California Academy of Nat. 
Sciences is in a deplorable condition, they have only 1 1 (say eleven) members, and each of them has to 
pay about $300 a year to defray the expenses of the society. Their once beautiftil collection is entirely eaten 
up by the miriads of mice & rates, they even destroyed the labels of all the Rocks & fossils." (Letter to S.F. 
Baird, Feb. 17, 1859; in Zwinger, p. 59). Xantus. according to Ann Zwinger (Xantus: The letters of John 
Xantus to Spencer Fullerton Baird from San Francisco . . . 1859-1861. 1986. Dawson's Book Shop, Los 
Angeles, CA. 422 pp.) had a "craving for respect and public approbation [that] led him to fabrication and 
plagiarization. He wrote for fame, not for truth ..." (Zwmger, p. 32 ). He also led Baird astray by withholding 
important details of specimens he sent. For instance, in his letter to Baird (lit. cit. supra), Xantus said, "Mr. 
Hubbard will forward this steamer two boxes from me, the one contains birds & mammals . . .The box 
contains also two small boxes with eggs of the Passerella cinerea, & Chrysomitris Yarrellii, which 1 obtained 
also from Dr. Ayres, and never saw tnem in Ft. Tejon, they were procured near town on the Mission Dolores 
[San Francisco] last summer." Baird, on receipt of the package, had difficulty dealing with the eggs and 
wrote directly to Ayres on April 1 6, "1 have not been able to identify the eggs you sent tnrough Mr. Xantus. 
. ." Ayres responded (May 18, 1859), "You inquire about those eggs sent by Mr De Vesey [John Xantus]. 
I can tell you nothing about them, only that I have no idea whatever that either name [e.g., P. cinerea] or 
[C. yarrellii] is correct. The nests & eggs without the bird were presented to the Academy nearly five years 
ago, having been found somewhere near the city, & remained for a long time without any labels excepting 
a note of their locality. . .For entre nous, & speaking with all possible respect, there is no one of our members 
who to the best of my knowledge & belief could tell the egg of a sparrow from that of any other bird which 
might happen to be of small size . . ." (see Zwinger, p. 67.) 

In a letter written to Baird a few days earlier (Feb. 1 1 ), and in a more generous mood, Xantus says, "Mr. 
Hubbard [Samuel Hubbard, agent for the Pacific Mail Steam Ship Co.] introduced me to the Mercantile 
library association, and I got acquainted through him with almost every scientific gentleman of the town. 
Dr. Trask [John Boardman Trask] is particularly kind to me, and so is Dr. Ayres [William Orville Ayres], 
who both told me, to consider their houses as my own . . ." (see Zwinger, p. 55). 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Bloomeria, and species B. aurea, and Lilium washingtoniamim from the Sierra 
Nevada; August 29, on Ledum californicum\ and SEPTEMBER 1 9, on two new species 
of Pentstemon [= Penstemon]. On September 26, Dr. Veatch read a paper on new 
genera and species of plants, which he had found on Cerros Island near the west coast 
of Lower California, particular descriptions of many of which were presented by Dr. 
Kellogg. The subject of new plants, brought up from Cerros Island by Dr. Veatch, 
was continued by Dr. Kellogg on OCTOBER 2 and again on OCTOBER 10, when 
drawings of the Rhus veatchiana, or elephant sumac, and some other Cerros Island 
plants were presented. At the October 10 meeting. Prof E. Balfour'*'' and Dr. Robert 
K. Greville, were elected honorary members. On OCTOBER 17, Dr. Ayres"" read a 
paper describing eleven new California fishes; after which, on OCTOBER 24, Dr. 
Kellogg resumed the subject of new plants, brought by Dr. Veatch from Cerros Island 
and continued the same subject on NOVEMBER 14 and November 21 with drawings 
of the plants described. On November 30, Dr. Kellogg read a paper on a new species 
of oak found near Clear Lake, California by Andrew A. Veatch and called Abram's 
oak; and on December 5, he seems to have finished up for the time on the collections 
brought by Dr. Veatch from Clear Lake and from Cerros Island. At the same meeting 
Dr. Trask presented a paper on "Earthquakes in California During 1 858" and another 
on "Earthquakes in California During 1859." 



1860 



4.7 



The records for 1 860 are even more meager than those of the preceding several 
years. The annual meeting took place on January 2, and all the officers of 1859, 
with Col. Ransom at their head, were re-elected. On March 5, Dr. Kellogg described 
a new genus of plants, which he called Liliorhiza, and gave a drawing of Liliorhiza 
lanceolata. May 7, he described a new species of Trillium and presented a drawing 

'♦"' Prof. E. Balfour, otherwise unidentified in the Minute Books, may have been Edward Green Balfour 
( 1 8 1 3- 1 889). Balfour, bom at Montrose, Forfarshire, England, went to India in 1 834 and entered the medical 
department of the Indian Anny, becoming surgeon-general from 1 87 1 until his retirement in 1 876. In 1 850, 
Balfour offered to establish a Government Central Museum in Madras and was appointed its superintendent, 
until he stepped down in 1859. While head of the museum, he published several catalogs, including a 
classified list of Molluska, and reports on the work of the museum. (See Dictionaiy of National Biograpliy, 
vol. 22 [supplement], pp. 113-114. 

4-5 See footnote 2.8 (p. 35). 

"♦^ Mr. Andrew A. Veatch, son of Dr. John A. Veatch. 

■^^ Although nowhere recorded in extant Academy records, the establishment of the California Geological 
Survey on 21 April 1 860 was to have a profound effect on the Academy because it brought to San Francisco 
a cadre of eastern scientists, notably Josiah Dwight Whitney, director of the Survey, William Henry Brewer, 
William M. Gabb, and others who gravitated to the Academy thus giving it a new lease on life and a 
broadened perspective on the natural sciences. For a perceptive discussion oi this, see Smith (1994, Pacific 
Visions), especially the section dealing with the California Academy of Sciences. As important as the 
Geological Survey was in this regard, in fact it was only one of several events that attracted this new breed 
of scientist to the San Francisco area and to the Academy in the 1860s. Unrelated to the Survey was the 
arrival of William Healey Dall, Robert Edwards Carter Steams, James Graham Cooper (although he was 
employed by Whitney for part of the time), George Davidson, and with the founding of the University of 
California in 1867, John and Joseph LeConte. For an interesting analysis of the impact that these new 
arrivals had on the Academy, see Table 1 (Appendix G) in whicn the attendance at Academy meetings, 
based on data recorded in the Minute Books, is shown by year and month from 1 853 to 1 876. 



CHAPTER IV: 1857-1862 53 

of it. June 4, he described and gave a drawing oi Sisyrinchium flavidum. On July 2, 
Dr. Ayres read a paper on a number of new fishes, including the new genus and species 
Halias marginatus, and presented outline drawings of them. He continued the same 
subject on AUGUST 6, describing Trichodon lineatus and Osmerus thaleichthys. 
September 3, Dr. Kellogg presented descriptions and drawings of Hemizonia 
luzulaefolia var. fragarioides, Hemizonia balsamifera, Lonicera conjugialis and 
Abronia crux-maltae. OCTOBER 1, Dr. Ayres again took up the subject of fishes, 
reading papers and presenting drawings of two new species, Atherinopsis affinis and 
A. tenuis; and on November 5 and December 3, describing Johnius nobilis and 
Poronotus simillimus and two new genera, Seriphiis and Camarina. 



1861 



4.8 



The annual meeting of 1861 was held on January 7, and the same officers who 
had held for several years, were re-elected. January 21, W. Newcomb, M. D., of 
Oakland was elected a corresponding member. Dr. Kellogg read a paper on what he 
called Polypodium carnosum, and Dr. Trask a paper on "Earthquakes in California 
in 1860." February 4, Dr. W. Newcomb read papers on shells, one on Helix 
Bridgesii from San Pablo, and another on Helix Traskii, and three others; and on 
March 18 another paper on other shells in which he described Helix Carpenteri and 
Helix Ayresiana. He seemed to wish to revive the old practice of giving Latin 
descriptions, but at the same time yielded so far to scientific English as to give them 
in English as well as in Latin. Dr. Kellogg read papers on plants FEBRUARY 18 and 
25, April 1 and 15, May 5, June 2, July 21, September 2, October 6 and 20, 
November 3 and 17, and December 15. The plants described were accompanied in 
every case with outline drawings made by himself; and they included species of Ribes, 
Galium, Mentzelia, Sisyrinchium, Chlorogalum, Allium, Collinsia, Lewisia, Astra- 
galus, Hosackia, Ceanothus, Echinospermum, Lathyrus, Lonicera, and Wahlenber- 
gia. On July 7, Dr. J. G. Cooper read a paper on new California animals, among 
which were what were known as Whitney's owl, Athene whitneyi, Lucy's warbler, 
Helminthophaga luciae, Agassiz' land tortoise, Xerobates agassizii, and some others. 
August 5, R. Pumpelly read a lengthy paper, a "Mineralogical Sketch of the Silver 
Mines of Arizona." On AUGUST 19, Col. Ransom read a paper on the "Declinations 



''•8 As noted earlier, there are large gaps in the handwritten records of Academy meetings contained in 
the Minute Books that were saved from the earthquake and fire. There are no written records for ail of 1 861 
and the only records that were preserved of the meetings are those published in the Academy Proceedings. 
However, these are also incomplete and Hittell had nothing at hand to indicate what, if anything, had gone 
on, or indeed, if meetings were even held. They were, and from the Academy's standpoint, one of particular 
interest was held on Sunday, June 23, 1 86 1 at which, according to a "Dear Friends" letter written by William 
Henry Brewer that day, "and must go soon to a meeting at the Academy of Natural Sciences which meets 
tonight — Prof W. [J. D. Whitney, ^Eds. } ] has a grand scheme for building a great building for the State 
collections here. We are ventilating tne matter here now." Whitney and Brewer seemed to think the matter 
sufficiently important that they delayed their departure for the field, "I had expected to leave San Francisco 
on Tues morning but Tuesday 1 had to meet some men to talk over matters relating to our cabinet building 
— so we delayed until Wednesday." (Brewer to Dear Friends, (California Letters 1860-1861), Yale Univ. 
Archives: Family Correspondence,Group 100; Sen 1; Box 8, Folder 21 11, Letter 21, June 23, 1861.) See 
Appendix E for a transcription of Whitney 's proposal to the Governor and State Legislature for construction 
01 a new State Museum building to be administered by the California Academy of Natural Sciences. 



54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

of the Magnetic Needle in California." He said that the needle varied about 12°40' 
East at the southern line of the State, while at the northern boundary it varied about 
1 8°, and that the lines of equal variation in a general east and west direction were 
very much curved. He said further that there appeared to be in this State an annual 
increase of variation of about four minutes. He added that "the occasional earth- 
quakes, with which we are visited in this State notwithstanding they do no material 
injury, other than to frighten the timid, are believed to have more or less effect on the 
magnetic forces and to cause sudden changes in some localities." Professor Wm. P. 
Blake, on OCTOBER 6, presented a paper on "Crystals of Silver in Furnaces," and on 
December 1, Dr. Ayres a paper, with drawings, on a Lower California fish called 
Cynoscion parvipinnis. 



4.9 



1862 



The year 1 862 commenced with better auspices for the Academy. It is true that 
the great Civil War had broken out and that, though the scene of military contention 
did not extend to California, the attention and sympathy of all the people were more 
or less enlisted and engrossed in the gigantic contest. But at the same time, the State 
had at last taken a very great step in the direction of science by the passage on April 
21,1 860, of an act for a geological survey of California, and in December of that year 
Professor Josiah D. Whitney, who had been appointed State Geologist and was placed 
at the head of the survey, established his headquarters at San Francisco. Both he and 
his able assistant [William Brewer], naturally drifted into the Academy; became 
active members and workers; put a sort of new life into the institution, and gave it an 
impetus which materially assisted in enabling it to continue its struggle for existence 
and in the end to triumph over all obstacles. The records still continue to be imperfect; 
a number of persons became members and were recognized as such, without any 
notice on record of their election, and various errors occur which are difficult, and in 
some cases impossible, of correction. But from this time on the record is fuller than 
for the previous five years. At the annual meeting of 1862, held on January 6, 
Professor J. D. Whitney and his assistants. Professor William H. Brewer and William 
M. Gabb, appeared as resident members of the Academy. At the annual election, 
which took place on that day, the officers chosen for the year were Col. Leander 
Ransom, president; Dr. J. N. Eckel, first vice-president; Rev. S. B. Bell, second 
vice-president; Professor Wm. H. Brewer, recording secretary; Dr. Wm. O. Ayres, 
corresponding secretary; Wm. Heffley, treasurer, and Professor J. D. Whitney, 
librarian. A very complete corps of curators were elected in the persons of Wm. M. 
Gabb for paleontology; J. B. Trask, conchology; J. G. Cooper, zoology; H. H. Behr, 
entomology; H. G. Hanks, mineralogy, and H. G. Bloomer, botany. 

'*'^ The records are not quite as imperfect as they had been during the late 1 850s and first two years of 
the 60s. The minutes of the Acaderny's meetings are again recorded in the Minute Books beginnmg with 
the meeting held on January 20, J. D. Whitney serving as "Sec'y Pro. TemT William Brewer served as 
recording secretary when not in the field and H. G. Hanks and J. B. Trask as interim secretaries in his 
absence. 



CHAPTER IV: 1857-1862 



55 




Josiah Dwight Whitney 
Smithsonian Institution Archives (78-106) 




William Henry Brewer (1861) 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 



56 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




William More Gabb 

(From Nat'l Acad. Sci., Biogr. Mem., 1909, vol. 16; frontispiece) 

Courtesy Peter U. Rodda, Department of Geology, 

California Academy of Sciences 

By this time, though the record does not give the date, the regular meetings of the 
Academy had been changed from every Monday evening to the first and third 
Monday evenings of each month. On January 20, Dr. Ayres, in whose hands the 
meteorological instruments of the association had been placed, made a report upon 
the remarkably heavy rainfall of that winter — usually known as the "Winter of the 
Flood" — up to date. He said there had been 1 8 days in December, with a fall of 7.030 
inches, and 15 days to date in January with 15.040 inches, or in all over 25 inches. 
He remarked that the geological indications of the country were all in favor of the 
supposition that in fornier times rains had been much heavier than since the American 
occupation. Numerous traditions of Indians and accounts of old settlers united in 
making it appear that such had been the case. He also made remarks upon the medical 
bearing of greater or less rainfall and next spoke of the fluctuations of the barometer 
upon this coast, saying that he considered it of little value here for prognosticating 
the weather. Dr. Ayres then presented resolutions of respect for the memory of Col. 
Thomas J. Nevins, a life member and one of the original founders of the Academy, 
who had recently died. He spoke of his "many estimable and amiable qualities" and 
said that the Academy had lost in him "one of its most valued members, one always 
true to its interests, always prudent in judgment, always a sincere and ardent friend 
of science." 

The rains still continued; and, on FEBRUARY 3, there was another discussion on 



CHAPTER IV: 1857-1862 57 

the extraordinary weather. In addition to the rain, snow had fallen on three different 
occasions, covering the Oakland hills; and at Napa it had been five or six inches deep 
— a very rare occurrence. The thermometer at the comer of Clay and Stockton streets 
in San Francisco had, on January 28, fallen to 18-V2° Fahrenheit, and ice had formed 
seven-eighths of an inch thick. Dr. Ayres stated the rainfall of January at 19.155 
inches, and that of the preceding night at .721 of an inch. At this meeting J. W. Lyon 
and Gorham Blake were elected as resident members and Dr. George Horn of 
Philadelphia was proposed as corresponding member. On February 17, Dr. George 
Horn of Philadelphia was elected a corresponding member. The extraordinary floods 
in the interior of the State were made the subject of discussion; and Dr. Ayres said 
that they had carried down into the Bay of San Francisco many freshwater fishes, 
which were caught by fishermen where only salt-water fishes had been commonly 
found. He also said that many serpents had been brought down, and that rattlesnakes, 
which must have come from the interior plains, had been caught in fishermen's nets 
in the Bay. At the same time he spoke of rattlesnakes in Oakland and remarked that 
since the land there had been fenced, the snakes, on account of thus keeping out the 
hogs that destroyed them before, had gready increased -"a curious effect of civili- 
zation." Professor Wm. H. Brewer called attention to the fact that the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Sciences in the publication of their Proceedings always ante- 
dated them, sometimes several weeks and sometimes over a month or six weeks 
earlier than they could have been published. He said it was a matter of considerable 
importance as to the question of establishing priority in the description of a new 
species. Professor Whitney made some comments about the notes published by John 
Xantus on Lower California that first appeared in Hungarian and then were translated 
into German and published in Petermanns Mittheilungen. He questions many of 
the facts like the 2 15 gold and 1 50 silver mines that are spoken of as well as the large 
quicksilver mine, which from its description must be the New Almaden mine in 
California. He concluded that much of what Xantus says about mining interests of 
the peninsula may be quite mythical. 

On March 3, Rev. E. B. Wadsworth and Thomas Vickery, and on March 17, 
Dr. George Hewston were elected resident members. Dr. Trask presented a meteorite 
found at Honcut [Honecut in manuscript minutes {Eds.}] Creek in Butte (then 
Plumas) County in 1861. Professor Brewer presented a slab from a meteorite found 
in Putnam County, Georgia, in 1839. It showed the "Wiedmannstadtian figures" very 
finely. Professor Whitney made remarks upon a Japanese collection of mineral and 



4.10 Whitney's comments, recorded by Brewer in the Academy Minute Books, volume for April 4, 1 853 
to Aug. 20, 1 866, pp. 225-226, are as follows: "Prof Whitney, called attention to John Xanthus [sic] notes 
on Lower California, published first in Hungarian, then translated into German and published in 'Peter- 
manns Mittheilungen. This is considered high authority and goes into all lands, but many of the facts are 
very questionable. 2 1 5 gold mines and 1 50 silver mines are spoken of also a very large quicksilver mine, 
which from its description must mean the New Almaden mine in this state. It is not possible that any such 
mine exists in the locality he mentions. Prof W. considers that all he says in regard to the mining interests 
of the peninsula may be quite mythical." Brewer then records, "Several members united in saying that Mr. 
X. told many large stories here about Lower Cal. that have never been confimied, and considered that his 
statements must be taken with much allowance for exaggeration. And although the article in question will 
probably long be quoted as authority on the matters of which it treats, yet it is evident to the society that 
much is mythical.' 



58 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 



Other specimens belonging to J. H. von Reed that had been put up for sale. They were 
beautifully put up, he said; but he found among them a pipe that was evidently Dutch 
and several minerals that looked very much like California specimens. He pro- 
nounced the collection on the whole interesting; but the labels were in Japanese and 
there was no one known in the City who could read them. Dr. Ayres spoke at some 
length about a strange turtle in the collection, called the sacred turtle of Japan. There 
was a growth of Conferva, which led to a discussion. Professor Henry N. Bolander 
said he had seen a similar growth on a snapping turtle. Dr. Behr said the growth was 
usually attended with disease. APRIL 7, as previously on March 3, Wm. M. Gabb read 
papers on strange animals found in San Francisco Bay, among them Octopus 
punctatus. Professor Bolander reported that the Academy received a large and 
valuable collection of plants from M. Rene Le Normand, a corresponding member 
of the Academy. APRIL 21, Dr. Kellogg read a paper and presented specimens and 
drawings of a new species of what he called Trixis, brought by Dr. Veatch from Cerros 
Island three years previously. Dr. Ayres exhibited specimens of eleven species of 
rock-fish from the vicinity of San Francisco. He thought the rock-fish of more 
economic value to California than any other kind offish except salmon. He pointed 
out the distinctions between the genera Sebastes and Sebastodes, made by Dr. 
Theodore Gill of the Smithsonian Insfimtion, and thought they were not sufficiently 
characteristic but rather dependent upon the smooth head and long lower jaw of the 
former compared with the rough head and short lower jaw of the latter. Five species 




Henry N. Bolander 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER IV: 1857-1862 



59 




George Hewston, ca. 1875 
San Francisco History Center, 
San Francisco Public Library 

of Sebastes and six of Sebastodes were exhibited - a larger number than was found 
in any other locality. Dr. Behr read a paper, with Latin descriptions, and drawings of 
rare California butterflies. 

Professor Bolander, on May 5, read a paper on the grasses in the Academy's 
herbarium and, among them, the so-called buffalo-grass and grama-grass. May 19, 
Dr. Kellogg proposed Mr. Francis Hobler as a corresponding member. He then 
described a new species of plant, Lilium parviim, from the Sierra Nevada. Dr. Behr 
read a paper on a new genus belonging to the family of Bysophaga. JUNE 2, Mr. F. 
Hobler was elected a corresponding member. Professor Whitney presented the bones 
of a chicken from China, which were said to have been blackened by some substance 
the bird had eaten. He mentioned the fact that some chickens in Ceylon and the East 
Indies had bones so colored. Dr. David Wooster deposited for safe keeping a singular 
vase in the form of a coiled serpent. It had been taken from the walls of Jalapa and 
placed in the museum of the City of Mexico, from which it had been removed by Dr. 
Wooster at the time of the Mexican war in 1846. Mr. Rowlandson presented rock 
samples taken from excavations of the Spring Valley Water Works and Dr. Cooper 
made some remarks on some birds in the State collection. June 16, Dr. Cooper 
presented fishes and reptiles from the Rocky Mountains; Ferdinand Gruber, birds 
from the Farallone Islands; and John S. Hittell a lizard from Hunter's Point. JULY 7, 
Leo Eloesser was elected a resident member and F. Gruber sent specimens of birds 
and a letter in reference to them, from the Farallone Islands. Professor Bolander read 
a paper on various plants and particularly the California wild oats. Mr. Rowlandson 



60 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

introduced a motion "That the Academy extend to Dr. Trask on his departure their 
thanks for the interest he has always manifested in their object together with their 
thanks for the great amount of labor done by him in behalf of the Academy, as well 
as their wishes for his success and wellfare [sic] in his new field of labor." The motion 
was unanimously carried. July 21, Ahira Holmes and E. F. Lorquin""' were elected 
resident members. Mrs. J. M. Nevins, widow of Col. Thomas J. Nevins, presented 
plants she collected in Oregon. AUGUST 4, a communication from Lady Dorothy 
Neville of England was read, asking for cocoons of the Saturnia ceanothi or 
California silkworm and seeds of the plants on which it fed. Dr. Ayres presented 
specimens of "pure alumina" argillaceous earth, sometimes mistaken for "meer- 
schaum," from the Farallone Islands, and made remarks upon the novelty of its 
occurrence on those granite peaks. 

By this time several of the collections, and particularly that of plants, had grown 
so large that great need was feh of proper cases in which to keep them. On JULY 21 
a committee had been appointed to procure a plan and estimate of expense for cases 
to contain the herbarium and Dr. Cooper was to do the same for insects; and on 
August 1 8 it was resolved that the first money received, that could be spared, should 
be appropriated for the purpose of doing something in that direction. Also, because 
of the growth of the collections, Mr. Hanks, on behalf of the curators, asked 
permission to have numbers for specimens printed at Academy expense. His request 
was approved. On SEPTEMBER 15 twelve cases, costing only $18, however, were 
procured for holding insects; and label numbers for all kinds of specimens were 
printed. A communication was received from the Museum of Hamburg, soliciting 
exchange of specimens, particularly zoological. November 3 Professor W. P. Blake 
read a paper on the Mariposa "big-trees" and, among other things, said that they were 
"well known and much admired by the Indians, who call them Wa-wo-nah - meaning 
Great Tree." Dr. Cooper read a paper on California mollusks; Dr. Ayres a paper on 
Sebastes\ and Dr. Kellogg, as he had also before on AUGUST 1 8 and OCTOBER 6 and 
afterwards on DECEMBER 15, a paper on California plants. On November 17 the 
subject of a course of lectures for the benefit of the Academy and methods in inducing 
new members to join it were discussed; but, so far as appears, there was nothing of 
importance in those directions accomplished. Dr. Trask and Professor Whitney were 
appointed a committee to endeavor to procure for the Academy all or at least a part 
of the "Great Arizona Meteorite"; but they reported, DECEMBER 15, that they were 



"• " Ernest F. Lorquin, son of Pierre Joseph Michel Lorquin. The latter came to California in 1 849 and, 
according to E. O. Essig, was the first great entomological collector in the State. He spent several years 
collecting throughout Asia in the late 1 850s and early 60s, and returned to France in 1 865. According to E. 
O. Essig (1931, p. 695), "While in the state [California] . . . [Pierre Lorquin] allied himself with other 
scientists and particularly with those of the California Academy of Sciences, where he met H. H. Behr in 
1852 . . ." Although Pierre Lorquin may indeed have met Behr m 1852. it could not have been through the 
Academy inasmuch as its was still a year in the fiiture. Curiously, although an active naturalist and collector, 
and supposedly a close friend of Academy member Behr, whose own membership dates from February, 
1854, Pierre Lorquin does not seem to have had any direct association with the Academy. His name does 
not appear in any of the Academy's records, either as a member or as having attended any of its meetings 
or presented any papers. Nor does his name appear in the early records among those who donated specimens 
to the Cabinet, although it appears that he did arrange for specimens to come to the Academy via 
intermediaries, such as Dr. Benr. Pierre Lorquin sent his collections to Boisduval in Paris, who returned 
cotypes of the new species he described, which were then given to the Academy. All were lost in the San 
Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906. (See E. O. Essig, A Histoiy ofEntomolog}', 1931, p. 695-697.) 



CHAPTER IV: 1857-1862 61 

not able to obtain any part of it. At this last meeting of the year Professor Whitney 
presented a paper on the subject of "Which is the highest mountain in the United 
States, and which in North America?" - questions of very great interest, which could 
not then be answered. 



62 



Chapter V: Years 1863-1864 



1863 

A t the annual meeting of 1 863, held January 5, the committee on the Arizona 
/^^ meteorite reported that they had obtained permission to take casts and were 
mriiished some small pieces for analysis. The meteorite itself had been deposited for 
the time in Odd Fellows' Hall; but it may be added that it was afterwards transferred 
to Pioneer Hall, where it now is. For the first time in a number of years the records 
contain statements of the condition of the collections. Wm. M. Gabb, curator of 
palaeontology, reported 1,007 specimens in his department, exclusive of numerous 
duplicates, and he said that all were in as good condition as the accommodations of 
the Academy would admit. H. G. Bloomer, curator of botany, reported 2,150 
specimens acquired in 1 862, of which 20 new species had been described - the entire 
collection consisting of 6,150 specimens in fair condition. Dr. Behr, curator of 
entomology, reported that the insects were in good order, but that no important 
additions had been made. Dr. Cooper, curator of zoology, reported a few valuable 
additions of animals, but said that great difficulty had been experienced on account 
of inadequate accommodations and that many of those in alcohol were in bad 
condition. In the absence of Dr. Trask, curator of conchology. Dr. Cooper stated that 
much had been done in the arrangement of the collection. In the absence of H. G. 
Hanks, curator of mineralogy. Professor Whitney stated that great improvements had 
been made in the arrangement and labeling of specimens, but that the collection was 
poor in species. As librarian. Professor Whitney reported that valuable accessions 
had been made in 1862, especially in journals; but that on account of want of proper 
cases and of proper care on the part of members and visitors, losses of books and 
journals could not be entirely prevented. 

The annual election for 1863 resulted in the choice of the same officers as those 
of the previous year. Col. Ransom being continued as president, with the exceptions 
that Dr. Trask was made second vice-president instead of S. B. Bell; Dr. Kellogg 
curator of botany instead of H. G. Bloomer, and Gideon E. Moore curator of 
mineralogy instead of H. G. Hanks. Dr. Cooper exhibited a specimen of coral. Pontes, 
drawn up by a fishing line at the Farallone Islands, and said that such coral had been 
found in Monterey Bay but not before so far north as the Farallones. On January 
19, William Ashbumer and Dr. W. W. Hays were elected resident members. Two 
hundred copies of the second volume of the Proceedings of the Academy, stitched 



CHAPTER V: 1863-1864 



63 




William Ashbumer 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Bericeiey 







/^'^ 










1 '** ' 


* 








^« t*#* 










J^i 








A»^J| 


Wpi 


( 


?v^ 




^^^^■^ 


W\ '^. 


1 


W" 

r 


i 


^B" m ' 






b^ 


1 


**^^«^fcr 


mrx^ _jr^_^__% "^f^^ 






m 


^I^^^^H^^HI 


IqH sIHIHIIi^^ 




9HPi*'v'<^[^^H^^v 


1 


1^^^^ ^W^ 1^ 


MH^^^Hj 




^1 1 ^^^P^ 


^ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^K 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^r 









James Graham Cooper 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



64 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

and bound in paper covers, were brought in; and it was ordered that 100 of them 
should be sold at $ 1 per copy to help pay the expenses and 50 copies sent to the 
Smithsonian Institution for distribution. Professor Whitney read a paper on the 
inaccuracy and unreliability of the Eighth Census of the United States in regard to 
the mineral and metallic productions of the country. He pointed out many plain errors 
and said that the list might be greatly extended. Professor Whitney then exhibited a 
peculiarly rich specimen of auriferous quartz from the Fellow Lead on the Middle 
Yuba in Sierra County and said that, according to disinterested and reliable authority, 
$250,000 had been extracted from an excavation there, only 10 feet long and 4 feet 
wide, by crushing the rock in hand-mortars. Robert L. Harris made remarks on the 
comparative friction of car- wheels on a iron track, when rolling and when sliding, as 
shown by experiments made on the street railway on Washington Street. The heaviest 
grade there was 528 feet to the mile or one foot in 10. On a wet day, if the wheels 
were stopped rolling, they would slide on the track and the car become unmanageable, 
while, if the wheels were allowed to revolve somewhat, the car was easily governable. 
This, he said, was not the popular opinion, and the authorities generally stated that 
the sliding friction was the greatest; but experiments had shown that the friction was 
greatest when the sliding was combined with the rolling motion. 

February 16, R. L. Harris exhibited a piece of "Oregon-pine" pile, destroyed by 
teredos at Rincon Point, which led to considerable discussion. It seemed to be the 
general opinion that there was no certain way of preventing the ravages of the teredo 
except by sheathing the pipe in metal; but it was said that piles on the north side of 
the city suffered much less than those on the south side. Attention was called to the 
unreliability of reports by Mr. Xantus about mines in Lower California. March 2, 
Dr. Ayres remarked that a late paper by Dr. Theodore Gill of the Smithsonian 
Institution on the sharks of the Pacific showed his usual want of fixed opinion in 
regard to the genus Notorhynchus (Ayres), - a name which he had restored after some 
years. Professor Whitney called up the subject of J. H. von Reed's collection of 
Japanese specimens and said he had found one specimen of coal to be of English 
origin. Professor Gabb said that the fossils very closely resembled the Tertiary fossils 
of our Northwest, and Dr. Ayres remarked on a similarity between some of the fishes 
and species found in California. March 16, Dr. Trask presented a specimen of 
tree-cotton from Mazatlan, Mexico. He said it grew in a pod resembling a banana on 
a shrub from 4 to 15 feet high, which fonned a high chaparral. Nothing was known 
of its commercial value. Dr. Behr said it resembled certain plants in South America 
and the East Indies, which produced a cottony fiber but were not considered useful. 
Dr. Trask spoke of a species of Confef\'a, which appeared to be sensitive like species 
of Schrankia. Dr. Kellogg read a paper on and presented drawings of two new 
CoUomia. APRIL 5, Dr. Kellogg described a new genus and species of plant, 
Pterostephanus runcinatus, from Nevada. APRIL 20, Philip Lutley Sc later of London, 
England was elected a corresponding member. Dr. Cooper read a paper on a new 
California moUusk of the genus Gundlachia, found in the Feather River near 
Marysville. He considered the discovery of great interest as there was only one other 



CHAPTER V: 1863-1864 



65 




Theodore Gill 
Smithsonian Institution Archives ($A-602) 

species known, which was in Cuba. H. G. Hanks stated that he had collected about 
two hundred specimens of minerals in Owen's Lake valley, and that H. M. McCor- 
mick, a resident of that valley, had presented bones found there in a well thirty feet 
deep. 

On May 4, Professor Whitney read a paper on the California State Geological 
Survey. He spoke of its object as being "an accurate and complete geological survey 
of the State" and a report containing "a full and scientific description of its rocks, 
fossils, soils, and minerals, and of its botanical and zoological productions." He said 
that Professor Brewer, his principal assistant, was in especial charge of the depart- 
ments of botany and agricultural geology, but so far had been engaged in geological 
field work. William Ashbumer had been employed in the field, particularly in 
examining gold quartz mines and machinery, up to the spring of 1 862. Mr. Gabb was 
palaeontologist; Dr. Cooper, zoologist; C. F. Hoffman, topographer. A. Remond, C. 
Averill and V. Wackenrunder had been employed at intervals. He gave a general 
account of all that had been done in the two years and a half since the work 
commenced. He spoke of the collections that had been made and the want of 
permanent provision for them, but at the same time called attention to an act of the 
last Legislature, which had appointed the State Geologist, the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction and the Surveyor-General a committee to report to the next 
Legislamre "upon the feasibility of establishing a State University, embracing an 
Agricultural College, a School of Mining and a Museum, including the geological 
collections of the State." He also called attention to the fact that under the law, as it 
existed, the publications of the Survey were required to be copyrighted and sold for 



66 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




California State Geological Survey, photograph circa 1 862 

Left to right: Chester Averill, Williain More Gabb, William Ashbumer, 

Josiah Dwight Whitney, Charles F. Hoffman, Clarence King, William Henry Brewer 

Smithsonian Institution Archives Merrill Collection (16830) 

the benefit of the common school fund; so that it had been impossible to communicate 
to the public from time to time the results which had been obtained." 

Professor Whitney, at the same meeting, presented an analysis of the Arizona 
meteorite, spoken of at previous meetings, made by Professor Brush of Yale College, 
which showed its composition to be upwards of 8 1 percent iron and 9 percent of 
nickel. It appeared that in July, 1 853, when John R. Bartlett was in Tucson, Arizona, 
his attention was called to a mass of meteoric iron, which was being used as an anvil 
in a blacksmith's shop at that place. He described it in his "Personal Narrative of 
Exploration" (vol. II, page 297) as about five feet long in its greater length and as 
weighing about 500 pounds. It had been found, as he understood, about twenty miles 
distant from Tucson and about eight miles from the road to Tubac at a locality where 
there were said to be a number of large masses. In June 1862, when General James 
H. Carleton marched the "California Column" through Arizona, he took possession 
of the meteorite, supposed to be the one mentioned by Bartlett, and sent it as a present 
to the City of San Francisco, with the expression of a wish that it should be placed 
upon the Plaza and remain there for public inspection forever as "a durable memento 

5' What Whitney did not speak about during this presentation was the difficulty he had with the State 
bureaucracy. In a letter to Spencer FuUerton Baird (Smithsonian Institution), dated Dec. 1 5, 1 862, Whitney 
states that he has not been able to collect the $15,000 the State still owes. He also remarked that "State 
officers would be my best friends if I would be their confidential adviser in their interest in claims and 
stocks; but as it is, 1 do not know one of them who cares a rye-straw for the work [of the Survey]." With 
respect to the fiinding of a State Museum, Whitney goes on to say, "No action has been taken ... for the 
establishment of a state museum or the disposition of the specimens collected . . this year the governor is 
a Sacramento man and thinks only of Sacramento." (Whitney to Baird, Dec. 15, 1862. SIArchives, RU 
7002 (Spencer F. Baird Correspondence, 1793-1923}, Box 35). 



CHAPTER V: 1 863- 1 864 67 

of the march of the Column from Cahfomia." When it arrived in San Francisco, 
however, it was deemed inadvisable to expose it on the Plaza, as desired by the donor, 
on account of its liability to rust in the damp atmosphere and the difficulty of securing 
it from injury by careless and mischievous handling. This in substance was all that 
was ascertained about the meteorite at that time. At the same meeting. Dr. James 
Blake read a paper on "Infiisoria from the Moving Sands in the Neighborhood of San 
Francisco," and Dr. Kellogg presented a paper on two new species of plants, one a 
Convza and the other a CoUinsia. Professor Bolander spoke of several plants from 
Marin County, and particularly of Hierochloa fragrans "as a remarkably fragrant 
plant and as furnishing beautiful grass for lawns." 

On May 1 8, Rev. Thomas Starr King was elected a resident member and William 
S. Sullivant and Leo Lesquereux of Columbus, Ohio, corresponding members. Dr. 
Trask sent copper ore from the Mammoth Lode in Del Norte County. June 1, Dr. 
Kellogg presented a paper on a new species of Hosackia, and Dr. T. M. Logan a paper 
on the "Physics, Hygiene and Thennology of the Sacramento River." June 15 Dr. 
Kellogg presented a paper on a new species of Mentzelia. On July 6, George Thurber 
of New York City and Frederic W. Putnam, Cambridge and Salem, Massachusetts, 
were elected corresponding members. Dr. Kellogg described three new plants, two 
new species of Linum or California flax and a new species of Silene. Dr. James Blake 
read a paper "On the Gradual Elevation of the Land in the Environs of San Francisco." 
He set forth very clearly the evidences of a very considerable rise and expressed the 
opinion that this country affords "more striking example of the action of existing 
causes in modifying the surface of the earth than is to be found in any other portion 
of the globe." JULY 20, Jules B. Bayerque was elected a life member. Professor 
Whitney called attention to the presence in the city of another large Arizona meteorite 
from Tucson. This mass, which was in the fonn of a rough ring, weighed about 1600 
pounds and was being forwarded by Jesus M. Ainsa to the Smithsonian Instimtion at 
Washington. It now appeared that this was the meteorite that had been used as an 
anvil at Tucson and was seen there by Bartlett in 1 853. It had been found at an early 
date by Jesuit missionaries in the Sierra de la Madera and had been removed from 
there, a distance of about twenty miles, to Tucson in 1 735 by Don Juan Bautista Anza, 
the famous opener of the overland road from Altas in Sonora to Monterey in 
California in 1774. The meteorite presented to the City of San Francisco by General 
Carleton in 1862 seems to have been another large specimen found in the same 
locality. 

August 3, F. M. Spence of Victoria, Vancouver Island, was elected a correspond- 
ing member. Auguste Remond presented a paper describing four new species of fossil 
"Echinodermata from the Tertiaries of Contra Costa County," and Dr. Kellogg one 
describing a new species of Allium. The library reported receiving more than 50 
foreign scientific publications through the good offices of the Smithsonian Institution. 
August 17, Dr. Cooper described a number of new and rare California terrestrial 
mollusks. September 7, he described the genus Binneya, a new genus of California 
terrestrial moUusk. Andrew Garrett of Honolulu read a paper describing three new 



68 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Hawaiian fishes. OCTOBER 19, Dr. Ferdinand Mueller of Melbourne, Australia, was 
elected an honorary member and Frederick Wideman of Sinaloa, Alex. Drauphing of 
San Sebastian, and S. W. Morrell of Mazatlan, Mexico, were elected corresponding 
members. Dr. Cooper exhibited specimens of the "little-chief hare," Lagomys prin- 
ceps, a rare animal found in some places about the limits of perpetual snow in the 
Sierra Nevada. November 2, W. G. Binney of Burlington, New Jersey and George 
N. Lawrence and William Cooper of New York were elected corresponding mem- 
bers. Dr. Cooper presented a paper on new genera and species of California fishes, 
including the genus Dekaya, named in memory of New York naturalist Dr. James E. 
DeKay, and Ayresia, for Academy associate William O. Ayres. On NOVEMBER 16, 
Professor Bolander presented a paper entitled "Enumeration of Shrubs and Tress 
Growing in the Vicinity of the Mouth of San Francisco Bay," and Dr. Behr one 
entitled "On Califomian Lepidoptera, No. III." Dr. Cooper continued his paper, or 
series of papers, on California fishes. Dr. Cooper reported that A. S. Taylor of Santa 
Barbara had complained that his name had been omitted from the list of corresponding 
members though he had been elected some years earlier. His name was reinstated. 
December 7, Professor Bolander was authorized to obtain subscriptions for cases to 
contain the botanical collections. December 21, Royal Fisk and Robert L. D' Aumaile 
were elected resident members. Dr. Ayres read a paper from Andrew Garrett, from 
Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, on new Hawaiian fishes, and Dr. Cooper described new 
genera and species of California fish. 



1864 

The annual meeting of 1864 was held on January 4. The various officers made 
reports confined mainly to additions to the collections. In reference to finances it 
appeared that during 1863, $815.35 had been received, which added to $141.22, left 
over from the previous year, made $956.57. The disbursements had been $903.75, 
leaving $52.82 on hand. At the annual election, the officers of the preceding year 
were continued in office, except that Dr. Eckel and Dr. Trask changed places, Trask 
becoming first vice-president and Dr. Eckel second vice-president, and Samuel 
Hubbard was elected treasurer instead of Wm. Heffley, resigned. A proposition to 
amend the constitution so as to make all members of the Academy residing in the 
State resident members and requiring them to share in the expenses of publication, 
which fell heavily upon the members residing in San Francisco, was discussed, 
submitted to vote, and rejected. But in place thereof it was, on motion of Dr. Ayres, 
resolved: "That hereafter the Proceedings of the Academy shall be distributed 
gratuitously only to resident members and to such societies and individuals as the 
Academy shall direct, and that the price of a subscription to others shall be regulated 
by the publication committee." On ftirther motion of Dr. Ayres, the thanks of the 
Academy, the cancellation of any unpaid dues, and exemption from payment of dues 
for the year 1864 were voted to Dr. Kellogg in recognition of his services in making 



CHAPTER V: 1 863- 1 864 69 

the plates for the illustration published in the Proceedings, which had so far been 
furnished by him free of cost. 

Dr. Ayres read letters from European naturalists commenting with disapprobation 
upon the course pursued by Dr. Theodore Gill of the Smithsonian Institution in regard 
to nomenclature in zoology. He also presented letters of inquiry in reference to the 
first printed volume of the Proceedings of the Academy, which had never been 
properly completed and the supply of which had been long exhausted. There was 
some discussion on the subject of a re-publication of the volume; but, as it would cost 
at least $500 and the Academy did not have the money, a re-publication was deemed 
impracticable. The recording secretary called attention to the fact that two constitu- 
tional amendments had been adopted at the annual meeting of January 6, 1 862, which 
had been acted on for two years, but had never been recorded either in the written or 
printed records; one was a reduction of the initiation fee for a resident member from 
$ 1 to $2 (Art III, sec. 2). The secretary was authorized to record the amendments as 
adopted. A paper by Professor Asa Gray was presented, entitled "Description of New 
Califomian Plants"; another by Andrew Garrett on new species of Hawaiian fishes, 
and another by Dr. Cooper in continuation of his series on "New Genera and Species 
of Califomian Fishes." E. Mathewson was elected a resident member. 

On January 1 8, a paper was presented from Dr. W. Newcomb describing nine 
new species of Helix inhabiting California. On motion of Dr. Cooper a committee 
was appointed to report on the advisability of a course of lectures in aid of the funds 
of the Academy. February 1, Wm. M. Gabb presented a paper on a new species of 
Virgularia, Professor Brewer, one on plants found growing in hot springs in Califor- 
nia, and Dr. Newcomb on a new species of Pedicularia. A proposition for the election 
of Dr. Henry Gibbons, one of the founders of the Academy, who had withdrawn with 
his brother Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons in 1855, led to a discussion as to the reasons for his 
withdrawal, and at the next meeting his name was temporarily withdrawn. February 
15, Robert E. C. Steams and Henry Thyark were elected resident members. On 
March 7, the committee on lectures reported that the Rev. Thomas Starr King had 
consented to deliver a lecture for the benefit of the funds of the Academy, but that 
his death, on March 4, had deprived them of his valuable services. Dr. Behr read a 
paper on Califomia butterflies, Lepidoptera, in continuation of former papers; and 
Dr. Trask a paper on "Earthquakes in Califomia during 1 863 and Febmary and March 
1 864." The latter paper elicited a lively discussion on the subject and drew out many 
incidents connected with recent shocks. 

March 21, John G. Kellogg and Jacob Deidesheimer were elected resident 
members. Resolutions of respect for the memory of Rev. Thomas Starr King were 
adopted. A discussion on the popular opinion that there was very little lightning and 
thunder in Califomia took place; and several members remarked that while this was 
tme as to the great valleys and near the ocean, there were many electrical displays in 
the high and more mountainous regions, especially in the northem part of the State. 
Trees were very often seen that showed the effects of lightning and particularly so in 
the Siskiyou mountains. This was followed by a further discussion on the subject of 



70 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Robert Edwards Carter Steams 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Bericeley 

earthquakes. Dr. Behr called attention to Aspidium argutum, which grows in the 
vicinity of San Francisco. He said he had used the root since 1852 as a remedy for 
tape worm with better results than attended the use of the European species of 
Aspidium. 

April 4, Professor Whitney read a paper by Major Williamson, giving the methods 
of determination and results of measurements of depressions below sea level in Death 
Valley from barometrical observations made in 1860 by the California and United 
States Boundary Commission. Professor Whitney said that a party had at that time 
been fitted out to run the eastern boundary lines of California northward from the 
Colorado River and $70,000 had been expended; but that no accurate work had been 
done, and none of the results printed. The field notes and papers had been left in a 
hotel in San Francisco, and, after much delay, had come into the hands of Major 
Williamson, ft appeared that the party, after leaving the Colorado River and following 
the boundary line for some distance, finding water scarce, had turned westward, 
passed through Death Valley, and then gone to Visalia by way of Walker's Pass. 
Barometrical observations were made and journals kept by two members of the party, 
but their journals threw but little light on the geology of the region and contained 
some positive errors, as for example that fossil reptiles were found in obsidian. He 
exhibited a map drawn by Van Dom, the topographer of the expedition, which 
probably gave the general topography in the main correct; but it was utterly irrecon- 
cilable with the maps of the United States land surveys, ft was the first map, so far 



CHAPTER V: 1863-1864 71 

as known, that correctly represented the course of the Amargosa River, which passes 
through a mountain chain westward, then turns again to the north and sinks in Death 
Valley. According to the United States Land-office maps, the valley of the Amargosa 
had been sectionized; but the course of the river had not been correctly given; and in 
Van Dom's fine map confirmed, what was generally believed, that the land-office 
maps of that region were grossly incorrect. Col. Ransom added that it was generally 
conceded that the official maps of the region were incorrect, and that gross frauds 
had been practiced on the government in regard to those surveys. 

Professor Whitney also stated that Major Williamson had for ten years been 
engaged under the auspices of the government in an examination of the fluctuations 
of the barometer on the Pacific Coast, exercising great care and labor in investigating 
the laws governing those fluctuations. This, he said, was an exceedingly important 
work as was evident from the many discrepancies in determinations of altitude on 
this coast. The barometrical measurements of Monte Diablo, for example, which had 
been made by the State Geological Survey with great care and which agreed well 
with one another, showed the mountain 20 feet higher than it was found by leveling. 
April 18, W. S. Brigham and Horace Mann, about to leave for the Sandwich Islands, 
were elected corresponding members. Dr. Trask presented a paper entitled "Earth- 
quakes in California from 1800 to 1864." He said that since 1850 earthquakes had 
occurred on 1 10 days; but that this number was probably not so large as that of those 
occurring in the same period on the eastern coast of the United States. He had records 
of Eastern earthquakes for five years commencing with 1 850 and the number was 
forty-four while those in California were only thirty-seven. Dr. Trask' s paper called 
forth a discussion, as was usual at the end of his papers, on earthquakes; and, among 
other statements made. Dr. James Blake mentioned a report that a crack had been 
opened through Telegraph Hill in San Francisco by one of the recent earthquakes; 
but, so far as known, it was never pointed out. 

May 2, Dr. Behr exhibited a small bottle of oil, said to have been extracted from 
the seed of a California plant by a Frenchman, who claimed to have made a great 
discovery and wished to sell the secret. Dr. Trask and Dr. Kellogg said that they had 
some years before obtained a precisely similar oil from the seed of a plant called 
Megarphiza, which grew on the driest of sandy soil; but it was doubtful whether the 
oil was worth the cost of making it. A paper was presented from W. M. Gabb on 
Cretaceous fossils from Sonora, Mexico. Dr. James Blake made remarks on the 
barometrical measurements of altitudes and the errors incident to them caused by 
high winds. Professor Brewer exhibited the carpels of a Mexican plant which, on 
drying in the office of the State Geological Survey, exploded with great violence 
scattering the fragments about the room. May 16, Rev. J. M. Neri of Santa Clara was 
elected a corresponding member. Dr. Trask stated that in a recent case he had tried 
the roots of Aspidium argutrum, recommended by Dr. Behr at a recent meeting as a 
remedy for tape-worm and with complete success. He had used five drachms of the 
grated root in two doses, four drachms being first administered and in an hour 
afterwards one drachm more. The proper effect was produced in four and a half hours 



72 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

without griping or nausea. It was stated that the plant was abundant in swamps; but 
that hogs were rapidly destroying it. Dr. Cooper said that the Indians of Oregon used 
the root as medicine. Dr. Trask turned the discussion to ferns and said that in the 
mines the young shoots of a species of fern had been much used as a pot-herb; that 
it resembled asparagus; boiled easily and was nutritious. Dr. Behr remarked that 
several species of fem were eaten in Australia. The talk about ferns was followed by 
a discussion on other California plants used as food, such as miners' lettuce, Clavtonia 
perfoliata, and some others. Professor Brewer called attention to certain specimens 
of coal, presented to the Academy on February 15 and said to have been found on 
mountains east of the Colorado River about 25 miles from La Paz, Arizona. On the 
occasion of their presentation Professor Wm. P. Blake had said that the coal was of 
very good quality, but seemed too brilliant for surface coal. He also expressed a doubt 
about the occurrence of coal associated with obsidian, as was stated to be the case 
with those specimens. Professor Brewer now said that, on the authority of J. Ross 
Brown and others acquainted with the locality, there was no coal there and that the 
specimens brought to the Academy were in fact English coal that had been carried 
up the Colorado River by speculators for the purpose of swindling the public by 
selling stock in a fictitious coal mine. 

June 20, C. W. M. Smith and Dr. A. T. McClure were elected resident members. 
July 1 1, a paper was received from Philip P. Carpenter of Wamngton, England, 
describing new marine shells from the coast of California. July 18, Col. Ransom, on 
behalf of John Wilson, presented part of a foot and hair from different Indian 
mummies, a string of beads made of bone and a few blue stones, part of a belt and 
tassel, and a piece of very strong cloth, all taken from a cave near the ancient Pueblo 
of Chiricahui in Chihuahua, Mexico. There were said to be many mummies there in 
a remarkable state of preservation, although there was no sign of any embalming 
substance having been used. Dr. Cooper remarked that he had been present at 
Shoalwater Bay, Washington Territory, in 1854, when Captain C. J. W. Russell 
removed an Indian mummy dried there by the action of the air while protected from 
the weather by a cedar canoe inverted over another containing the body. No preserv- 
ative of any kind had been found with it. The mummy, he said, had been presented 
to the Academy on January 26, 1856. 

On September 5, Professor B. Silliman, Jr., Dr. Eichler and Mr. Ehrenberg were 
present as visitors. Professor Silliman spoke of a recent visit to Arizona along the 
35th parallel and said he had seen evidences of glacial action in the eastern flanks of 
some of the mountains there. He believed that no evidence of glacial action had been 
observed on the Pacific slope so far south. Professor Wm. P. Blake remarked that this 
was the first observation upon glacial phenomena in Arizona, but that he had noticed 
evidence of glaciers in the Sierra Nevada as far south as Tejon Pass in latitude 35°. 
Dr. Behr read a paper on California Satyrides; Professor Wm. P. Blake a paper on a 
nugget of gold, weighing 1 87 ounces Troy, found near Michigan Bluffs on the Middle 
Fork of American River; one on Ammonites or Ceratites from Oregon Bar on the 
same river, and one on a remarkable find by him of the fossil remains of teeth of an 



CHAPTER V: 1 863- 1 864 73 

elephant and teeth and jaw of a horse of a primeval age in the face of the cliff-shore 
of Mare Island. Gideon E. Moore presented a paper on "Brushite," a new mineral 
occurring in phosphate guano. September 19, Professor Rudolph A. Philippi of 
Santiago, Chile, was elected an honorary, and Warren B. Ewer, a resident member. 
The Smithsonian Institution donated a box of shells containing 120 species from 
Panama. Dr. C. F. Winslow made some interesting remarks on his experiences during 
recent travels in South America. October 3, Professor Brewer gave an account of 
recent explorations in the Sierra Nevada by a party connected with the State Geologi- 
cal Survey and the exploration extended from Kern River to Yosemite Valley and 
was rich in scientific results. The crest of the Sierra was very high along the whole 
of this distance, all the higher peaks rising to about 1 3,000 feet, the culmination being 
between the sources of the Kern and Kings Rivers, where there were a number of 
peaks over 14,000 feet, and one above 15,000 feet. Along the whole of it there were 
abundant traces of glaciers, some of gigantic proportions, surpassing anything else 
of the kind found in the State. The caiions of all the principal streams were very deep 
and abrupt. The big trees. Sequoia gigantea, were found over a large area, extending 
"perhaps 25 miles" (so says the record, but he probably said at intervals for 200 miles, 
which would be nearer the fact) along the western slopes on the tributaries of the San 
Joaquin, Kings, Kaweah, Tule, and Kern Rivers. The amount of snow on that part of 
the Sierra was apparently much less that season than usual. Professor Wm. P. Blake 
read a paper on Fossils in the Auriferous State of the Mariposa Estate. 

Among the donations, made OCTOBER 17, were fossil teeth of the elephant and 
horse from Walker's River near Wellington's Station on the road from Carson Valley 
to Aurora in Nevada. Professor Bolander stated that Edward Bosqui offered to do 
$200 worth of book binding for the Academy in consideration of being elected a life 
member, and he was thereupon proposed as such by Dr. Kellogg. November 21, 
Edward Bosqui was elected a life member, Rev. Horatio Stebbins a resident member, 
and G. E. Wellington of Nevada, a corresponding member. Wm. M. Gabb presented 
a paper on some fossils from the gold-bearing slates of the Mariposa Estate, and one 
on fossils from the San Luis Obispo quick-silver deposits. A paper was presented 
from Professor James D. Dana on the crystallization of "Brushite"; and one from 
Philip P. Carpenter on California marine shells. December 5, Frank E. Brown was 
elected a resident member. December 19, Professor B. Silliman, Jr. was elected a 
resident member. It was stated that Major A. W. Bowman had collected in the 
previous July on Raft River in Idaho, about 40 miles west of Fort Hall, a species of 
cactus infested with a cochineal insect. It was also stated that Dr. Cooper had learned 
from Eastern gardeners that Opimtia in green-houses was likewise infested. Dr. Behr 
remarked that cold weather proved less destructive to this insect than a surplus of 
rain. Dr. Behr and E. F. Lorquin spoke of the unusual number of albinos of various 
kinds observed during the latter part of the year, which it may be remarked in passing 
was, as well as the preceding one of 1863, a remarkably dry one. 



74 



Chapter VI: Years 1865-1866 



1865 

The annual meeting of 1865 took place on JANUARY 9, having been adjourned 
to that date. Theodore H. Bloomer was elected a resident member; and, at the 
annual election held directly afterwards, he was chosen recording secretary in place 
of Professor Brewer, most of whose time was engrossed by the State Geological 
Survey. The other officers of the previous year were continued in office, with the 
exception that Professor Henry N. Bolander became curator of botany in place of Dr. 
Kellogg; E. F. Lorquin, curator of zoology in place of Dr. Cooper, and Robert E. C. 
Steams, curator of conchology in place of Dr. Trask. The reports for the year 1864 
of the various curators were ordered on file, and no items from them appeared upon 
the minutes. It was by this time keenly felt that the quarters occupied by the Academy 
at No. 622 Clay Street were not adequate to the needs of the association; and a 
committee was appointed to inquire into the possibility of procuring new rooms. At 
the same time, however, the treasury was in a depleted condition; and, by way of 
seeing if anything could be done to improve it, a revision of the list of members was 
ordered. Papers were presented from Dr. Behr on Califomian Lepidoptera; Dr. W. 
Newcomb on new species of land shells; Wm. M. Gabb on new species of California 
marine shells, and Dr. Trask on California earthquakes during 1864. January 16, 
Melville Attwood was elected a resident member. Wm. M. Gabb, chaimian of the 
committee on procuring new rooms, reported in favor of a subscription among the 
members to procure the necessary funds and the cominittee was continued with 
instructions to carry out the plan recommended. FEBRUARY 6, Charles F. Hoffman 
was elected a resident member and J. D. Dana of Yale College a corresponding 
member. Professor Wm. P. Blake presented a paper on the "New Mineral Oil Regions 
in the Tulare Valley," and another on the "Occurrence on Sphene in the Granites of 
the Sierra Nevada." 

Notwithstanding the want of fiands and the need of new members to supply or 
increase them, the Academy manifested very considerable care, and in most cases 
probably proper discrimination, as to who should be admitted to membership. At a 
meeting of the previous year, July 1 8, 1864, the proposal of an applicant, after much 
discussion, was indefinitely postponed; and on December 19, 1864, that of another 
rejected. Now, on February 20, the election of an applicant was reconsidered; and, 
at the next meeting, March 6, his name was withdrawn. William Hillebrand of 



CHAPTER VI: 1865-1866 75 

Honolulu, was elected a corresponding member. On March 20, Dr. E. Cohn and 
Otto Schmidt were elected resident members. The committee on rooms was instructed 
to wait upon the agent of the Phoenix Block building, which in the meanwhile appears 
to have passed from the ownership of Palmer, Cook & Co. to that of Pioche, Bayerque 
& Co., in regard to the rent. A paper was read from Major Edward Preiss of Mazatlan, 
Mexico, on the efficacy of Euphorbia prostrata as a remedy for the bite of the 
rattlesnake and venomous insects. The plant, he said, grew in the United States, 
particularly in New Mexico and Arizona, and in the northern States of Mexico where 
it was known as "Gollindrinera." Its milky sap was given internally and its bruised 
branches applied to the wound externally; and it was generally considered a certain 
remedy. He had himself tried it with success as a remedy for the bites of poisonous 
insects. On April 1 7, a resolution on the death of President Lincoln, offered by Robert 
E. C. Steams, was adopted and ordered spread upon the minutes, and at the next 
meeting directed to be enclosed in heavy black lines: 

Whereas - Our hearts are burdened with grief by the untimely death of that great and 
good man, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States 

Ordered - That as a mark of respect for the memory of the deceased we do now 
adjourn. 

May 1 , among those present were Messrs. Kennicott and Dall and other gentlemen 
connected with the Western Union Telegraph Company's Russian-American Tele- 
graph Expedition. A communication was received from Professor Brewer, stating 
that the minutes of the Academy for the meeting of October 3, 1864, recently 
published, omitted remarks made by him on that occasion in reference to the 
occurrence of fossils in the auriferous rocks of California, and he would like to have 
them recorded. He had stated "that fossils had been found by the Geological Survey 
in the rocks associated with gold along a line nearly 300 miles in length extending 
from Pitt River to the Mariposa Estate; that the associated rocks, bearing gold, had 
been traced upwards of 550 miles in the Sierra Nevada; that Jurassic fossils had been 
found in the 'auriferous slates' along a belt of 200 miles of this distance, and that both 
Jurassic and Triassic fossils had been found in considerable numbers near and in 
Genessee Valley, Plumas County." May 15, John Klippart of Columbus, Ohio was 
elected a corresponding member. Professor Bolander made remarks upon the isolated 
position of the redwoods. Sequoia sempervirens, upon the hills back of Oakland in 
Alameda and Contra Costa counties. This was a very interesting subject, and 
particularly so in view of the fact that before the American occupation the entire crest 
of the range back of Oakland was covered with redwoods, some of the trees being 
upwards of twenty feet in diameter. June 5, a communication was received from Dr. 
William P. Gibbons in reference to the establishment of a scientific journal, and the 
subject matter was referred to a special committee. June 19, a discussion took place 
upon the adaptation of certain semi-tropical plants to the climate of California. A 
paper was presented from W. H. Pease of Honolulu "On the Existence of an Atoll 
near the West Coast of America, and Proof of its Elevation." The locality he referred 
to was that of "Clipperton Rock," in latitude 1 0° 1 7' north and longitude 1 09° 1 0' west, 
discovered by Captain Clipperton in 1705. It had been visited by Captain Morrell in 



76 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Robert Kennicott 
Smithsonian Institution Archives (43604) 




William Healey Dail (July 9, 1865) 
Smithsonian Institution Archives ($A-1156) 



CHAPTER VI: 1 865- 1 866 77 

1825 and by Sir Edward Belcher in 1839. In 1861 it was examined by Lieutenant 
Griswold in the course of a cruise off the west coast of Mexico in search of guano; 
and he found it to be a true atoll with coral reefs all around it. 

July 3, the Academy was visited by Professor John Torrey, Horace Mann, 
William H. Dall, Robert Kennicott, and Captain Wright. A discussion took place as 
to the motions of the flying-fish. Mr. Kennicott and Dr. Behr discussed the relation 
of the Esquimaux to the North American Indians. Dr. Behr said that the Esquimaux 
could be considered a kind of Indians, their language being of the same structure and 
their different habits being due to physical influences. He further said that according 
to old reports they formerly lived farther south. Mr. Kennicott remarked that, from 
his own observations and from information derived from Madam Roshkin and from 
St. Zagoshins' Report, he believed the natives for some hundreds of miles up the 
Yukon or Kvichpak River were Esquimaux rather than Indians, making a clear 
distinction between the two. Professor Torrey spoke of the California snowplant, 
Sarcodes san guinea, and said that he found it rather indifferent as to what plant it 
fixed itself upon or derived its nourishment from. He had found its fibers penetrating 
into the roots of a Rumex and never into the roots oi Sequoia gigantea. He also spoke 
of the great beauty and fragrance of the California white lily, Lilium washingtoni- 
anum. JULY 17, the committee on Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons' proposition to establish a 
scientific journal reported against its feasibility; and the subject, on its recommenda- 
tion, was indefinitely postponed. On account of the difficulties experienced in 
housing and preserving the cabinets, Mr. George W. Minns suggested that steps 
should be taken to remove them to the upper hall of the Lincoln School building of 
Fifth Street; and, on motion to that effect, he was authorized to confer with the Board 
of Education in reference to the matter. August 7,*^ ' Dr. Ayres spoke of the 
appearance of a species of Sphyrena argentea off Point Conception. Dr. C. T. Jackson 
read a paper on measurements of heights and circumferences of the big trees of 
Calaveras County. August 2 1 , Mr. Minns made a verbal report in reference to the 
proposed removal of the cabinets to the Lincoln School building; and, on his 
recommendation, a committee of three was appointed to confer with members of the 
Board of Education. Robert E. C. Steams called attention to the fact that Gideon E. 
Moore, curator of mineralogy, had removed from the City; and, on his nomination, 
Henry G. Hanks was elected to fill the vacancy occasioned thereby. Professor 
Bolander submitted a paper by C. J. Croft of the First Cavalry of California Volunteers 
on "The Grasses of Arizona." They were chiefly what were commonly known as 
"grama grasses." Theodore Bradley was elected a resident member. September 4, a 
paper was presented from Professor Wm. P. Blake on the abundance of iron ore on 
Williams' Fork of the Colorado River in Arizona; and one from Philip P. Carpenter 
on new marine shells of California in continuation of previous papers. Wm. M. Gabb 
resigned his position on the publication committee, and Mr. Steams was elected to 



^' Not mentioned in the Hittell manuscript but recorded in the published account of the August 7th 
meeting are the following interesting donations to the "Cabinet: Three boxes of shells; Duplicate fossils 
of the U.S. Exploring Expedition; Types of Dana's Geology; Fossils from the Upper Missouri; Miscella- 
neous fossils of the United States, received from the Smithsonian Institution ' (Proc. Calif. Acad. Nat. 

Sci., 1866, 3(3):203.) 



78 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

fill the vacancy. September 18, P. M. Randall was elected a resident member. 
October 2, Treasurer Samuel Hubbard was authorized to make arrangements in 
regard to rent. OCTOBER 1 6, Professor Bolander presented a paper on California trees, 
principally pines, sequoias, and oaks. DECEMBER 4, Major Edward Preiss and Count 
Oswald Thun were elected corresponding members. William H. Dall gave an account 
of the progress of the Russian-American Overland Telegraph Expedition and a 
description of the country traveled over by it. December 1 8, Dr. Ferdinand Stoliczka, 
palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of India, was elected a corresponding 
member. Wm. H. Dall was elected a resident member. Professor Wm. P. Blake 
presented a paper on a peculiar astringent gum or coloring substance in the cones of 
the Sequoia gigantea; also one on ammonites in the auriferous slates of Bear Valley, 
Mariposa County. 



1866 

As the first Monday in 1866 was New Year's Day, the annual meeting was 
adjourned to JANUARY 8, when the election of officers for the year took place. It 
resulted in the choice of Col. Leander Ransom as president; Robert E. C. Steams, 
first vice-president; Dr. Wm. O. Ayres, second vice-president; Samuel Hubbard, 
treasurer; Professor Henry N. Bolander, corresponding secretary; Theodore H. 
Bloomer, recording secretary; and Professor J. D. Whitney, librarian. The curators 
were the same as the year before. The publications committee consisted of Whitney, 
Minns, and Steams, the finance committee of Hubbard, Steams, and Fisk. It appeared 
that the treasurer and finance committee had found it advisable to remove the 
collections and hired a room for their safe keeping; and, on motion of Dr. Ayres, their 
action was approved. The treasurer was authorized to have the collections and library 
insured at an expense not exceeding $50. A committee, consisting of Hanks, Hubbard 
and Steams, was appointed to take measures to procure money in aid of the Academy 
from the State Legislature. Resolutions of respect to the memory of Thomas Bridges, 
who died at sea September 9, 1 865, on a voyage from Nicaragua, were adopted. Wm. 
H. Dall read a biographical sketch of the deceased, stating his services to science; 
and, among other things, said of him: "With all impartial naturalists Mr. Bridges and 
such as he, who bear the burden and heat of the day, are entitled to honors, if not 
precisely of the same character as those due to the students who in their comfortable 
libraries work up the results of the collector, still to honors quite as high." January 
15, Professor Bolander, as curator of botany, presented his annual report, in which 
he spoke of additions made during the previous year to the herbarium, and the 
assistance rendered in arranging and classifying them by Dr. Kellogg and H. G. 
Bloomer. At his suggestion he was authorized to have the botanical specimens 
poisoned, so as to preserve them from insects. February 5, a paper was read from 
Dr. Colbert A. Canfield on the horns of the American antelope, Antelocapra Ameri- 
cana, showing the manner in which the new homs grow when the old ones are shed. 



CHAPTER VI: 1865-1866 79 

Professor Wm. P. Blake read a paper on fossils found in the auriferous slates of 
Mariposa County, and also made remarks on a remarkable spider, which had been 
brought from Georgia. Col. Ransom presented the name of Dr. Henry Gibbons, who 
had withdrawn from the Academy in 1 855, for resident membership. 

On February 19, Dr. Henry Gibbons and Henry Janin were elected resident 
members and Colbert A. Canfield of Monterey a corresponding member. Dr. Trask 
presented a paper "On Earthquakes in California during 1865." Professor Whitney 
made remarks on the nature and distribution of the meteorites which had been 
discovered on the Pacific coast and in Mexico. He said it was remarkable that no 
meteoric stones had ever been discovered either on the Pacific coast, or, as far as 
known, west of the Rocky Mountains, while masses of meteoric iron were known to 
exist in various localities and many of them of large size. There seemed to be good 
authority for reports that there were large masses of such iron on the mountain ranges 
next east of Tucson in Arizona. It was further remarkable fact, he said, that, so far as 
known, no meteorite either stony or metallic had been found within the borders of 
California. A piece of iron found by Dr. Trask on Honcut Creek was for a time 
supposed to be meteoric; but on further examination it proved to be ordinary cast 
iron. From all that was known, the localities of meteoric iron lay in a nearly straight 
line extending from the northwest to southeast for twelve hundred and fifty miles, or 
from the Colorado River near La Paz in Arizona to San Luis Potosi in Mexico. The 
distribution along this line indicated strongly a common origin, as if all had been 
fragments of one immense meteor, which had passed diagonally across the continent, 
throwing off masses on its way. A large mass, that had been discovered near Port 
Orford in Oregon,''" was in the same general path. Professor Wm. P. Blake called 
attention to the discovery of a flowing oil-well on the coast of Southern California. 
On motion of Professor Whitney, it was resolved that any corresponding member of 
the Academy who might take up his residence in San Francisco, might become a 
resident member by notifying the recording secretary that such was his wish. MARCH 
5, a paper was presented from Wm. H. Dall on the buccal plates or mandibles of 
Octopus punctatus; and another of considerable length and thoroughness by A 
Remond "On Geological Exploration in Northern Mexico." March 19, W. H. Dall 
reported that Dr. Cooper had discovered several species of Helix in the vicinity of 
Santa Cruz as well as Margaritana falcata in small rivulets nearby. He also reported 
that he had examined a specimen of Trochiscus norrissii and concluded that it was 
not a proboscidean, as had been thought by several naturalists 

The difficulty about proper accommodations seemed to grow acute. The portion 
of the old Phoenix Block building on Clay Street, where the Academy had been 
holding its meetings at the generous sufferance of Pioche, Bayerque & Co., the 
proprietors, had been cracked by the earthquake of October 8, 1 865, to such an extent 
as to induce those in charge of the library and collections to pack them up and store 
them where they would not be exposed to the weather. On April 2, W. G. Bloomer 



^■2 See "The Port Orford, Oregon, Meteorite Mystery," edited by Roy S. Clarke, Jr., Smithsonian 
Contributions to the Earth Sciences, 1993, no. 31, 43 pp., for an interesting discussion of this elaborate 
hoax perpetrated by the "meteorite's" discoverer, John Evans, who claimed to have found the mass in 1 859. 



80 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

proposed that the Academy should form a union of some kind with the Mechanics' 
Institute. This led to considerable discussion, and one result was a resolution empow- 
ering the committee on rooms to hire such apartment as they should consider proper 
for the present accommodation of the collections. H. G. Bloomer and Royal Fisk 
were also appointed a committee to investigate and report upon the feasibility of 
forming a connection with the Mechanics' Institute or any other institution. H. G. 
Bloomer presented diatoms, possibly belonging to the genera Melissa ^ and 
Meridion, found growing on calcareous sea-weeds on the coast of California. Wm. 
H. Dall presented a paper from Dr. Cooper on a new California Helix. April 16, 
Horace F. Cutter was elected a resident member. Mr. Steams of the Committee on 
Rooms reported that he had hired rooms on the southern comer of Montgomery and 
Sacramento streets at a rent of $25 per month. The building referred to, since tom 
down, belonged to Joseph A. Donohoe, and its lower floor was occupied by his 
Banking House. The rooms hired were on the fourth and top story. At the same 
meeting it was resolved, in acknowledgment of eminent and valuable services 
rendered the Academy, that Dr. Albert Kellogg should be declared a life member, 
and that any and all of his arrearages of dues should be remitted. May 7, the 
Committee on Rooms reported that the rooms in the Donohoe Building would be 
ready for occupancy at the next meeting. Wm. H. Dall was appointed recording 
secretary /7ro tern in the absence of Mr. Bloomer. Dr. Henry Gibbons made remarks, 
in connection with a series of tables showing the variations of rainfall at San 
Francisco, about the connection or parallelism between the rainfall and the phases of 
the moon. He said that the greatest fall of rain took place immediately before the time 
of fiill moon and that, following the day of full moon, the diminution was very rapid. 
The observations, from which his tables were prepared, extended over a period of 
fifteen years. A discussion followed his statements. 

On May 21, the Academy met for the first time in its new rooms on the comer of 
Montgomery and Sacramento streets. There being need of much fitting up. Professor 
Whitney contributed $100 and Robert E. C. Steams, Dr. James Blake and Wm. H. 
Dall smaller sums for the purpose and Messrs. Whitney, Ashbumer and Janin 
contributed $100 jointly for procuring additional scientific periodicals. It was also 
reported that a large number of foreign scientific publications had been received 
through the medium of the Smithsonian Institution. Wm. H. Dall presented a paper 
on a new sub-family of fluvitile mollusca. Professor Whitney made remarks upon the 
"Geology of the State of Nevada." JUNE 4, a number of resident members were elected 
including C. R. King, Frederick Gutzkow, Theodore Blake, W. A. Goodyear, Charles 
Bonner, C. W. Leightner [in Minute Books, but Lightner in published Proceedings 
{Eds.}], Hugo Hocholzer [in Minute Books, but Hochholzer in published Proceed- 
ings {Eds.}], and James T. Gardiner*''^ [in Minute Books, but Gardner in published 



6^ Melissa in both handwritten Minute Books and published proceedings (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 1, 
vol. 3, p. 258, but properly Melosira [fide P. Kociolek, CAS]. 

^■"^ In the membership book, the name is spelt Gardiner. But in all references to Gardner, including the 
King 40th Parallel Survey reports, the Hayaen Survey reports and in William Goetzman's Explorations 
and Empire (Alfred A. Knopf New York. 1966). the "i" is not present. This is a recurrent problem with 
Gardner. 



CHAPTER VI: 1 865- 1 866 81 

Proceedings {eds.}]. W. H. Dall spoke of the shells that had been collected at 
Monterey and gave 263 as the number of species known to have been found there. 
He spoke of having visited a small island off Cypress Point, accessible only at 
low-tide, which was the original locality for Helix Californiensis, and found the 
species nearly exterminated there, caused apparently by a large millipede, which was 
very plentiful and extremely voracious. Professor Whitney made remarks on the 
absence of the so-called Northern Drift from the western coast of North America and 
from the interior of the continent throughout the region southwest of the Missouri 
River. He was inclined, he said, from information so far received to draw the line 
which limits the Northern Drift on the south and west approximately from the mouth 
of the Ohio to the headwaters of the Saskatchewan River. June 18, Baron F. von 
Richthofen, E. B. Dorsey, W. W. Palmer, W. S. Keyes, M. L. Stangroom, J. T. 
Watkins, Jr., W. G. W. Harford, and Louis Falkenau were elected resident members. 
H. G. Bloomer stated that he had identified the plant commonly known as the pepper 
tree as Schinus mollis. Wm. H. Dall called attention to errors in regard to the coast 
of California in Agassiz' "Sea Side Studies in Natural History," recently published. 
He also announced that the building containing the collections of the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences had been destroyed by fire and offered resolutions of sympa- 
thetic concern and be sent to the Academy. R. E. C. Steams mentioned that in an 
hour and a half at Baulines Bay in Marin County he had collected some fifty species 
of mollusca. Dr. Henry Gibbons spoke of the progress of his observations on the 
connection of the phases of the moon and the weather. His remarks were followed 
by an animated discussion. 

July 2, Vitus Wackenreuder, Sherman Day, Thomas Price, and E. Wertheman 
were elected resident members. Wm. H. Dall, acting recording secretary for the 
meetings, announced the loss of the New York Lyceum of Natural History in the fire 
at the Academy of Music in New York. Dr. James Blake offered a resolution, which 
was adopted, that the Academy forward to the society copies of Academy Proceed- 
ings as far as disposable copies pemiit. Dr. Henry Gibbons called attention to the 
experiments and deductions of Dr. Salisbury of Ohio in regard to malarial diseases 
and their supposed vegetable origin. A discussion followed in which Drs. Behr and 
Blake participated. Dr. Hillebrand gave an account of the Botanical Garden of 
Batavia. He said it contained, among other plants, 262 species of palms. He also gave 
an account of the introduction of the Cinchona of various species into India and Java. 
July 16, Dr. S. Pawlicki was elected a resident member and Dr. P. Comrie of 
H.M.S. Sparrowhawk, a corresponding member. Mr. Steams presented a paper on 
shells collected a Baulines Bay in June 1866. Professor Whitney read a paper on a 
human skull found at Altaville, near Angels' in Calaveras County by James Matson 
a shaft at a depth of 130 feet. He was of the opinion that the bed in which the skull 
was said to have been found, was deposited at a time when the volcanoes of the Sierra 
Nevada were still in vigorous action, previous to the age of the mastodon, to the 
glacial epoch of the Sierra and to the erosion of the canons of the present rivers. Dr. 



^ -^ Spelt Condie on p. 374 and Comrie on p. 376 of Minute Books for years 1 853-1866. 



82 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Macgowan, a visitor, made remarks upon earthquakes in China. He said that, though 
frequent there, they had not, during the historic period, done any great damage. Dr. 
Kellogg stated that on a trip from San Rafael to Baulines Bay he had found an oak 
said to be equal to the "live-oak" of the coast for ship building. AUGUST 6, Dr. D. J. 
Macgowan was elected a corresponding member. Dr. Behr presented a paper on the 
California species of Lycaena; Mr. Steams a paper on shells collected at Santa 
Barbara and San Diego; and Professor Whitney a paper on the occurrence of a 
tungstate of lime and copper in Lower California. Dr. Ayres called attention to the 
carcass of a black-fish, which was lying at the Potrero and could be purchased at small 
expense; and, at his suggestion, a subscription was raised among the members for 
that purpose. Professor Whitney exhibited a branch of redwood. Sequoia sem- 
perx'irens, from a small tree near San Rafael, the leaves of which were entirely white. 
He said that similar blanched redwoods existed in other localities, a peculiarity 
confined to the redwood species alone; but that no satisfactory explanation had yet 
been given for this abnormal condition. 

On August 20, William H. Knight and A. Godefroy were elected resident 
members. Professor Wm. P. Blake presented a paper on fossils found on the line of 
the Central Pacific Railroad, two miles below Colfax and in the heart of the main 
gold belt of the State; also on the tooth of an extinct elephant found near Michigan 
Bluffs in Placer County; also on sharks' teeth and other marine remains on the hills 
on the east side of Tulare Lake, and on a quarry of gold bearing slate rock near Lincoln 
in Placer County. He also stated that a mastodon tooth had been found about 3 miles 
from Antioch, near Monte Diablo; and that he had in his possession a portion of a 
human skull said to have been taken from a depth of 250 feet near Columbia in 
Tuolumne County. Mr. Steams read a paper on the Helix, its anatomy, geographical 
distribution, and use as an article of food and for medicinal purposes in both ancient 
and modem times. September 3, John Swett was elected a resident member. Dr. 
Kellogg called attention to a fungus, Polyponis igniarius, found growing upon the 
California laurel, Oreodaphne Californica, and spoke at length about fungi in general. 
Alphonso Wood, sometimes called "Professor" Wood, a visitor who had recently 
retumed from a botanical trip to Oregon, gave an account of his ascent, with a few 
other persons, of Mount Hood. He carried along with him a few instmments, which 
were evidently not very reliable. He stated that the boiling point of water on the 
suminit was 180°, and that this would indicate a height of 17,640 feet! As is well 
known, his estimate was more than 5,000 too high. He admitted its disparity with 
other estimates; and he hoped his results might be tested by the barometer and by 
trianguladon; but "until then," he concluded, "we must adopt the esfimate here made 
as the height of that sublime peak, and accord to Mount Hood the distinction of being 
the highest land in the United States, if not the highest upon the North American 
continent." 

September 1 7, B. P. Avery, James Spiers, and B. R. Norton were elected resident 
members. Dr. Cooper presented a paper on a new species of Pedipes inhabiting the 
coast of California, and spoke of it as "a very interesting shell, being one of the links 



CHAPTER VI: 1 865- 1 866 83 

between the land and marine mollusca." A communication was received from Dr. 
Colbert A. Canfield giving an account of the discovery in Monterey Bay of a fish, 
pronounced to be a new species of Bdellostoma, a genus not previously known to 
exist nearer than the coast of Chile. Louis Falkenau made remarks upon the use and 
value of the spectroscope in chemical analysis and other scientific investigation. 
October 1, A. Winslow Boynton and T. C. Leonard were elected resident members, 
and Royal Fisk resigned his membership. Dr. Behr made remarks upon Lepidoptera 
and, among other things, said that the period of the egg state of the California 
silkworm, Satiirnia ceanothi, was so brief that it was impracticable to successfully 
transport its eggs in good condition to New York or Europe. Professor Bolander made 
some corrections of his paper on "California Trees," presented October 16, 1865. He 
had called a small pine growing between Mendocino City and Noyo, which was in 
fact a Pinus contorta, a Pinus muricata. So also he called a Quercus wislizeni, sl 
well-characterized species with biennial fruit, a Quercus agrifolia, which on the other 
hand has annual fruit. The wislizeni oak grew chiefly in the lower Sierra and the 
valleys east of the redwoods in Mendocino County, while the agrifolia was found 
almost exclusively in the vicinity of San Francisco Bay and streams flowing into it 
and extending southward, approaching the coast more closely near Monterey. 

October 15, A. L. Bancroft was elected a resident member. Professor Wm. P. 
Blake read a paper on various minerals, kerargyrite and proustite, found in the 
"Poorman Lode" in Idaho; copper ores from "Red Cap Claim" in Del Norte County; 
danaite from Meadow Lake, Nevada County, and cinnabar in calcite from Idaho. Mr. 
Steams presented a memorial on the death of Robert Kennicott, who had died in the 
previous May at Nulato Bay in Russian America. He had traveled extensively in the 
Northwest and rendered great service to science. At the time of his death, he was in 
the employ of the Western Union Telegraph Company in its efforts to establish 
overland telegraphic communication between America and Europe by way of Be- 
hring's Strait. Dr. Henry Gibbons made remarks on the relations of the California 
climate with that of Great Basin and the Eastern States. November 5, Rev. S. D. 
Simonds and Dr. J. Morrison were elected resident members, and Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons 
a corresponding member. Dr. Henry Gibbons called attention to the approach of the 
season when "meteoric showers" might be looked for. A discussion ensued, in which 
various ideas and theories were advanced. NOVEMBER 19, J. B. Russell and Dr. E. 
Belle were elected resident members. A paper was presented from Wm. M. Gabb 
"On the Subdivisions of the Cretaceous Fonnation in California." Professor Wm. P. 
Blake read a paper on fossil fish in the Great Basin, Nevada, and called attention also 
to fossil vertebrae collected by him in Tulare County, which he believed belonged to 
marine saurians. He had found them associated with sharks' teeth and other marine 
remains at least 1 500 feet above the present ocean level. Professor Whitney remarked 
that the remains of the crocodile and Ichthyosaurus had been discovered on this coast 
by the State Geological Survey, "and the fact published a year ago." Professor 
Whitney read a paper "On the Occurrence of the Silurian Series in Nevada." Professor 
Blake referred to Dr. Newberry's statement of the existence of Silurian rocks at the 



84 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

base of the series of strata along the canon of the Colorado River, and to his own 
statement of the probably existence of pre-Silurian rocks in that region. December 
3, Professor Whitney read extracts from letters just received from A. Remond, giving 
an account of his geological exploration in Peru and Chile. Professor Whitney spoke 
of the importance of this investigations, especially in reference to the age of the Chile 
coal, and observed that the same Triassic formations that carried coal there had been 
found to bear coal in northern Mexico; and he added that the vast extent of Triassic 
rocks in Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada gave a peculiar interest to every discovery 
of this kind. DECEMBER 17, Dr. F. Hansen was elected a resident member. Dr. J. G. 
Cooper donated ninety-six volumes and pamphlets, chiefly on natural histoi-y, from 
the library of the late William Cooper of New York. 

By this time, the rooms occupied by the Academy in the Donohoe Building on the 
comer of Montgomery and Sacramento streets were found to be so entirely inade- 
quate that the Committee on Rooms reported in favor of going back to the Phoenix 
Block building at 622 Clay Street, where the old rooms previously occupied had been 
repaired and refitted and afforded greater conveniences than before; and the commit- 
tee was directed to procure them. It accordingly rented the new rooms, consisting of 
a main hall, 50 feet by 20, with an arch in the center, and an additional room, 20 feet 
square, intended for library and reading-room. They were carpeted; and to these the 
Academy removed in time for the next meeting. 



85 



ChapterVII: Year 1867 



The Academy met in annual session in its new rooms at No. 622 Clay Street on 
January 7, 1 867. Dr. John B. Trask was elected a life member, and Dr. George 
D. Cleveland and George O. Whitney resident members. The various officers made 
reports, most of them verbal. Mr. Hubbard stated that the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company would transport exchanges of specimens for the Academy to and from New 
York, Japan, and China free of charge. The annual election resulted in a number of 
changes in the officers. Professor Josiah D. Whitney was chosen president; Col. 
Leander Ransom, first vice-president; Robert E. C. Steams, second vice-president; 
Theodore Bradley, recording secretary; Warren B. Ewer, corresponding secretary; 
Samuel Hubbard, treasurer; and Dr. Albert Kellogg, librarian. The curators of the 
previous year were continued in office, except that W. S. Keys took the mineralogy 
department in place of H. G. Hanks, and W. G. W. Harford the conchology depart- 
ment in place of R. E. C. Steams. Whitney, Hubbard, Ashbumer and Steams served 
on the finance committee; Whitney, Ayres and Steams on publications; Janin, 
Gibbons and Kellogg on the library committee; and Keyes, Bolander and Bosqui on 
proceedings. January 21, Govemor R. C. McCormick of Arizona and R. C. Jacobs 
of Chihuahua, Mexico, were elected corresponding members, and Adolph Sutro, H. 
P. Carlton, J. W. Kidwell, A. F. Mason, and H. C. Bidwell resident members. Dr. 
Kellogg exhibited specimens of the heart-leaf meadow parsnip, Thaspium cordatum, 
common on this coast and used as a remedy for chronic rheumatism; and also a 
beautiful willow herb, found in the Sierra Nevada near the Kearsage mines, which 
he considered a variety of Epilobium obcordatum. Dr. James Blake read a paper "On 
the Nourishment of the Foetus in the Embiotocoid Fishes." Professor Bolander 
exhibited the cones of many species of pines growing in Califomia and spoke of the 
peculiarities of the different species and their geographical distribution. Mr. Hubbard 
suggested the propriety and feasibility of securing rooms for the Academy in the new 
Merchants' Exchange Building on Califomia Street; and a committee on that subject 
was appointed; but, for lack of funds, nothing came of the project, and the Academy 
remained for some years longer on Clay Street. 

February 4, Joseph P. Le Count,^ ' C. von Liebenau, A. F. Bell, W. C. Walker, 
George H. Powers, Dr. Thomas Bennett, L. Gilson, Delos J. Howe, Col. R. S. 
Williamson, R. D'Heureuse, Rev. John F. Harrington, Henry C. Hyde, G. B. Hitch- 
cock, and Jacob Bacon were elected resident members. Adolph Sutro donated a copy 



''■' Not to be confused with Joseph LeConte of the University of California, who came to Califomia from 
the University of South Carolina in 1869, as did his brother John. 



86 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

of Humboldt's "Essai Politique sur la Nouvelle Espagne," with atlas. Professor 
Whitney read a paper "On the Fresh Water Infiisorial Deposits of the Pacific Coast 
and their Connection with the Volcanic Rocks." He spoke of how these deposits were 
formed and combated Ehrenberg's opinion that they were of eruptive origin. He also 
thought, from the deposits found in Nevada, that a large portion of the country there, 
extending from Walker's Lake to the Des Chutes River, a distance of about 400 miles 
in length and not less than 100 miles in width, was at one time, probably during or 
immediately after the glacial epoch, occupied by a chain of fresh-water lakes. Dr. 
Kellogg read a paper on "Fungi," their nature, distribution and uses. E. F. Lorquin 
exhibited two ducks, one of which he considered a hybrid between the mallard and 
the pintail, and the other a hybrid between the pintail and the teal. February 1 8, Dr. 
J. G. Cooper was elected a life member, and I. W. Raymond, Rodmond Gibbons, 
Thomas H. Selby, Daniel Knight, Dr. F. A. Holman, Edmund Scott, Heniy Edwards, 
John Melville, George Daly, Robinson Gibbons, Gregory Yale, James Howden, 
George H. Fillmore, Marshall Hastings, John L. Eckley and Lee J. Ransom, resident 
members. Professor Wm. P. Blake read a paper on fossil elephants' teeth found at the 
mouth of the Yukon River and on St. Paul's Island near the middle of Behring's Sea. 
He spoke of similar fossils as having been found at various places in California, the 
most southerly point being at San Pedro in Los Angeles County. L. Falkenau read a 
paper on peat, its origin, distribution and uses. A discussion followed, in which 
Professor Bolander stated that no valuable beds of peat had so far been discovered in 
this State. Dr. Behr and W. S. Keyes commented on reported discoveries, and it 
seemed to be the general opinion that the climate of California was unfavorable to 
the development of this material. Dr. Henry Gibbons made remarks on the simulta- 
neity of storms on the two sides of the continent. 

Professor Whitney made remarks upon the height of American mountain peaks. 
He spoke of Mr. Alphonso Wood's estimate of the height of Mount Hood in Oregon 
(17,940 feet) and gave various reasons why little or no credit should be attached to 
it. He said that Wood's estimate would make Hood nearly 4,000 feet higher than 
Shasta, whereas experienced observers had concurred in stating that Hood was not 
only not so high as Shasta, but not so high as Adams or Rainier, the latter of which, 
according to Wilkes, was only 12,800 feet. Vansant had given the height of Hood as 
1 1 ,934 feet, less than that of Adams, which was measured with the same instruments. 
He said ftirther that Wood had given the limit of forest vegetation on Hood as 9,000 
feet, which it was well known that on Shasta it was 8,000 feet; and it should be lower 
on Hood on account of its being so much further north. Again, taking Wood's figures 
and plotting his distances traveled and the angles of the slopes as given by him, it 
would be found that, to correspond with his statements. Mount Hood would have to 
be no less than 33,400 feet high! Professor Whitney concluded that there was as yet 
no satisfactory evidence to invalidate his previous statements "that we have in 
California the highest mountain in the United States, and the grandest and largest 
mountain mass in North America, although one or two of the volcanic cones of 
Mexico rise to higher altitudes than any of our peaks." Dr. Henry Gibbons made 



CHAPTER VII: 1867 87 




Henry Edwards 

E. O. Essig Collection, 

California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

remarks on the inferior quality of the macadam used on the San Francisco streets and 
asked if any person knew of better in the vicinity. Professor Whitney repHed that the 
nearest locality where good macadam material could be procured was near Petaluma, 
where an excellent quality of traprock or basalt was to be had in great abundance and 
convenient for shipment. 

March 4, J. M. Sibley, William Norris, Henry Pickel, John W. Nystrom, Ross E. 
Brown/"^ Cornelius B. Miller and Theodore P. Painter were elected resident mem- 
bers. Professor Whitney presented a memorial paper on the late Professor Alexander 
Dallas Bache, great grandson of Benjamin Franklin, giving an account of his life and 
eminent scientific services. Mr. Steams read a paper on a remarkable instance of 
vitality in a snail. It had been brought from Cerros Island off the coast of Lower 
California by Dr. Veatch in 1 859 and was named Helix Veatchii. Dr. Veatch gave it 
to Mr. Bridges, who died in 1 865. After Mr. Bridges' death, a portion of his collection, 
including this snail, passed into the hands of Mr. Steams, who, to his great surprise, 
found that it was alive and apparently as well as ever. Professor Bolander called 
attention to a statement made by Mr. Alphonso Wood, published over his own 
signature in the San Francisco Evening Bulletin newspaper, that he had collected in 
five months in Califomia 1 ,490 species of flowering plants, and that during his whole 

^ -^ Shown in the Membership Records Book as Ross E. Browne. Could this be in error for J. Ross Browne, 
Special Commissioner for the Collection of Mining Statistics, who arrived in San Francisco on September 
3, 1 866 under an appointment from H. McCulloch, Secretary of the Treasury, to "collect reliable statistical 
information concerning the gold and silver minues of the western States and Territories." Browne had 
contact with Whitney, Brewer, Gabb and other members of the Califomia State Geological Survey, and it 
seems likley he would have been introduced to the Academy while resident in San Francisco. 



88 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

journey in California and Oregon he had collected 15,000 specimens representing 
2,794 species of plants. His journey occupied about eleven months, including the 
time coming from and returning to the East. His route on this coast was from San 
Diego along the stage road to Los Angeles and San Bernardino; then to San Luis 
Obispo and Santa Cruz, and then north through the Sacramento Valley, past the base 
of Mount Shasta, and along the stage road to the Columbia River. Professor Bolander 
considered it probable that there were not over 500 species of flowering plants 
actually existing in that part of California passed over Mr. Wood and in which he 
said he had collected 1,490 species. It appeared from Professor Brewer's careful 
investigations that over fifty botanists had been collecting in California and Oregon 
during a period extending back for more than seventy years. Some of them were 
collectors of long experience and had much better facilities than Mr. Wood, and they 
had very thoroughly explored a far greater area than Mr. Wood had, yet the total 
number of species obtained by them all, up to Wood's visit in 1866, was only about 
800, where he claimed only 2,416 species of plants in the eighteen northern United 
States and Canada East, embracing at least 500,000 square miles of territory. 
California and Oregon together included only about 250,000 square miles, a very 
small portion of which could have been thoroughly explored by Mr. Wood. How 
unlikely, then, that he should have obtained in nine months 358 more species in 
250,000 square miles than all the botanists in the East had ever been able to find in 
more than double that area! It was very evident that Mr. Wood was no more competent 
to determine species than he was to estimate the height of Mount Hood. Dr. Henry 
Gibbons made remarks on the rainfall at San Francisco for the previous seventeen 
years. Frederick Gutzkow exhibited a sheet of pure silver, three feet in diameter, 
which had the appearance of white writing paper, and explained how he had produced 
it in a leadlined tank from a solution of protoxide of iron saturated with sulphate of 
silver. 

March 1 8, Elisha Brooks, Ellis H. Holmes, Dr. Levi C. Lane, John C. Pelton, Dr. 
J. M. Sharkey, John A. Bauer and Robert Hagen were elected resident members and 
W. H. Dall, corresponding member. Dr. Cooper presented an elaborate paper on "The 
West Coast Helicoid Land Shells." Professor Wm. P. Blake read a paper on the 
"Origin of the Submerged Forests in the Columbia River, Oregon." Mr. Steams read 
notes of measurement of a sunfish, Orthagoriscus analis, weighing 637 pounds, 
which he had seen in the Italian Fish Market of San Francisco in October 1866; he 
then made some remarks on the true habitat of Helix Ayresiana on Santa Cruz island. 
Professor Whitney exhibited supposedly Cretaceous-age coal from Webber Caiion, 
Utah, and pure rock-salt from Salt Mountain on Muddy River about a hundred miles 
south of Pahranagat in Southeastern Nevada presented by Maj. S. S. Lyon, fonnerly 
of the Kentucky Geological Survey, who was present. Gregory Yale spoke of the 
reports of gold mines in Africa, said to be worked by the Emperor Napoleon III and 
kept secret from the world in general. A discussion ensued in which Professor 
Whitney and Mr. Ashbumer expressed doubt as to the possibility of the locality of 
any extensive mining operation being long concealed and disbelief of newspaper 



CHAPTER VII: 1867 



89 




Elisha Brooks 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 

Statements to that effect. The subject of field-meetings of the Academy was discussed, 
and the curators were designated as a committee to superintend them. 

April I, Samuel I. C. Swezey, J. D. Farwell, Frederick Madge, D. J. Littlefield, 
Archibald Cooper, Samuel Pillsbury, Dr. Arthur W. Saxe,^^ and Bemhard Marks 
were elected resident members. Mr. Steams presented a paper on "Shells collected 
at Santa Barbara by W. Newcomb, M. D. in January, 1867" and one on "Shells 
collected at Purisima and Lobitas (in San Mateo County), California, October, 1 866." 
Professor Silliman read a paper "On Naphtha and Illuminating Oils from Heavy 
California Tar (Maltha), and on the Probable Origin of Petroleum." Professor Wm. 
P. Blake read a "Note upon the Brown Coal Formation of Washington Territory and 
Oregon," and an "Analysis of Mt. Diablo (California) Coal." H. G. Hanks presented 
an analysis of rock-salt from Salt Mountain on Muddy river in southeastern Nevada, 
which he pronounced of great purity. Professor Bolander stated that the snow-plant, 
Sarcodes sanguinea, was not confined to coniferous groves. The first field-meeting 
or excursion under the auspices of the Academy was held on Angel Island on 
Saturday, April 6. On April 15, the collections made in the course of the excursion 
to Angel Island were exhibited and commented on. Professor Silliman read a paper 
entitled "Notice of a Peculiar Mode of the occurrence of Gold and Silver in the 
Foot-Hills of the Sierra Nevada, and especially at Whiskey Hill, in Placer County, 
and Quail Hill, in Calaveras County, California." Mr. Falkenau read a paper "On the 
Spirit of the Age and its Influence in the Department of the Natural Sciences." 



■'^ In the Membership Records Book, which is a secondary compilation from the handwritten recordings 
in the Minute Books, Albert is pencilled in for Saxe, Dr. A. W. (Arthur Wellesley Saxe). 



90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Professor Bolander exhibited specimens of Apocynum, found on moist land subject 
to overflow in Round Valley and extensively used by the Indians for fish-lines and 
other purposes. A field excursion of the Academy was made to the neighborhood of 
the Twelve Mile House in San Mateo County on April 20. 

May 6, D. F. Thomas, Silas A. White, B. Smith, M. J. McDonald, William Patten, 
and Philip Prior were elected resident members. Dr. C. L. Anderson of Santa Cruz, 
California, Henry Walter Bates, Royal Geographical Society of London, Prof J. H. 
Balfour of Edinburgh University, Dr. John Alexander Smith of Edinburgh, James 
Haswell, Geological Society of Edinburgh, Capt. J. B. Caldbeck of Singapore, and 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Royal Geographical Society of London, were elected 
corresponding members. Mr. Steams presented a paper from J. Rowell on a new 
species of Pisidium, a shell found on Angel Island. Mr. Steams also read a note upon 
a recent "Exhibition of Parhelia," witnessed by him about 5 o'clock p.m. on April 
17. The diameter of the halo around the sun and halo north and south, displayed at 
each point of intersection a parhelion or mock sun of very considerable brilliancy and 
continued for upwards of half and hour. A discussion followed upon sun and moon 
halos, in the course of which Dr. Henry Gibbons combated the popular notion that a 
halo around the moon was an infallible sign of rain. In some seasons these signs 
invariably failed, and he thought no mle could be established on the subject. A paper 
was presented from Professor Silliman entitled "Notice of New Localities of Dia- 
monds in Califomia." He sent for exhibition four small diamonds, one from Forest 
Hill in EI Dorado County, one from French Corral in Nevada County, one from 
Fiddletown in Amador County, and one from Cherokee Flat in Butte County. 
Professor Whitney remarked that there were fifteen or twenty localities in Califomia 
where diamonds had been found; but they were all of small size, the largest, weighing 
only 7-V4 grams, having been found at French Corral. Most of the diamonds found 
in Califomia were twenty-four sided, the facets being usually curved. He said it was 
a mistake, resulting from confounding hardness with toughness, to suppose that a 
diamond could be stmck a heavy blow on an anvil without breaking. 

At the same meeting. Professor Whitney read a paper "On the Geological Position 
of Coal," the object of which was to show how completely the results of modem 
geological explorations and discoveries had done away with the old idea that valuable 
beds of coal were confined to any one member of the series of geological formations. 
He spoke of the principal coal-fields of the world as being divided into two great 
groups on opposite sides of the globe; those of Europe and the Eastem United States 
belonging to the Paleozoic age, while those of India, China and Australia were 
Mesozoic. The coal of the Pacific Coast of North America belonged chiefly to the 
Cretaceous series, a geological formation that in other parts of the world had been 
found substantially barren of combustible materials. A paper was presented from 
Baron F. Richthofen "On the Natural System of the Igneous Rocks." Professor 
Whitney exhibited a canine tooth from deep gravel deposits at Douglas Flat near 
Murphy's in Calaveras County, different from a tooth of any animal before found in 
this state either living or dead. He thought it belonged to a hyaena; and, if so, it was 



CHAPTER VII: 1867 91 

the first notice of the occurrence of this animal on the American continent. Dr. Cooper 
stated that Mr. Ridgeway, who had accompanied the government exploration of 
Russian America, found on that coast birds nearly identical with species living in 
Asia - a fact of much interest because none of the same species were found on the 
East Coast. It suggested a former intimate relation between Western America and 
Eastern Asia. 

May 20, John P. Cairns, J. W. C. Maxwell, Constantine Heusch, William Fischel, 
E. W. Burr, Archibald C. Peachy, J. P. H. Wentworth, C. P. Stanford, Dr. Henry 
Gibbons, Jr., and Dr. P. M. Randall were elected resident members. Mr. Steams read 
a paper on "Ancient Mining on Lake Superior." Professor Bolander exhibited a 
branch oiPimis tuberculata and pointed out that two whorls of cones had formed in 
the last year's growth. June 3, G. H. Mumford and A. S. Gould were elected resident 
members, and Try on Reakirt of Philadelphia and Lorenzo G. Yates of Alameda 
County, corresponding members. Mr. Steams announced the death of Auguste 
Remond, who had contributed various valuable papers to the Academy. A commu- 
nication was received from Lorenzo G. Yates on the remains of an elephant found 
near the Mission San Jose. Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons read a paper on the remains of a 
redwood forest on the Contra Costa Range east of San Francisco. Mr. Nystrom 
presented a paper on the origin of Table Mountain in Tuolumne and Calaveras 
Counties. JUNE 17, Wm. M. Gabb presented a paper on the "Geology of Califomia," 
also a letter from Antonio Raimondi of Lima, describing the great mountains of Pern. 
July 1 , a communication was received from Professor Wm. P. Blake stating that the 
fossil remains found in Tulare County and exhibited by him to the Academy on 
November 9, 1866, were not those of saurians, as he then supposed, but of a large 
species of Delphinidae. Dr. Wm. P. Gibbons again spoke of the redwood forest that 
formerly covered the crest of the Contra Costa Range east of San Francisco. July 1 5, 
W. A. S. Nicholson, Dr. Arthur B. Stout (an early member who appears to have 
dropped out), and Dr. C. W. McCormick were elected resident members. Dr. Henry 
Gibbons made remarks on the effects at Watsonville of an earthquake, which occurred 
on October 6, 1 866. He also spoke of the absence of worms from Califomia fmit. Mr. 
Steams and Mr. Yale made remarks upon the ancient mines of Lake Superior and the 
race who probably worked them. AUGUST 5, Professor Bolander gave an account of 
a recent trip to Humboldt County and his botanical observations in that region. Dr. 
Henry Gibbons called attention to the meteoric display expected about the 1 0th of 
the month, which, however, either did not come or was not observed. At the next 
meeting, AUGUST 19, he made remarks on the distribution of clear and cloudy days 
at San Francisco. Mr. Steams exhibited a species of Pholas and described its method 
of boring. 

September 2, Professor Whitney gave an account of a recent visit to Oregon, 
Washington Territory, Vancouver Island and British Columbia. He said he had 
ascertained by rough trigonometrical measurements that Mount Hood was at least 
2,000 feet lower than Mount Shasta. He had intended to ascend Mount Hood in order 
to measure it barometrically; but, learning that Col. Williamson proposed doing so, 



92 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

he resolved to await his measurement, which would be authoritative. Dr. Ayres spoke 
of explosive sounds recently heard by him during perfectly clear weather in the 
vicinity of Borax Lake in Lake County. They seemed to come from beneath the 
surface and recalled subterranean noises which had been heard in the neighborhood 
of Mount St. Helena. SEPTEMBER 16, a paper was received from Col. R. S. William- 
son, giving an account of his ascent in August, 1867, and measurement of Mount 
Hood. He found its height to be 1 1,225 feet; and this, beyond doubt, is the correct 
figure, or very close to it. OCTOBER 7, on motion of Dr. Stout, a committee was 
appointed to consider the subject of providing a new building and increasing the 
facilities and usefulness of the Academy. OCTOBER 21, J. G. Burt was elected a 
resident member, and Prof W. D. Alexander of Honolulu a corresponding member. 
Prof. Whitney read letters from Wm. H. Dall dated at ''St. Michael's, Russian 
America, August 14th, 1867" in which he said he had "traveled on snowshoes, with 
the thermometer from 8° to 40° below zero, about 400 miles" and "Paddled in open 
canoes up stream 650 miles and down stream 1300 miles" in Alaska, then called 
Russian America as shown in the address. He spoke of the geological formations 
along the Yukon River for 1,300 miles above its mouth. There was a broad patch of 
volcanic eruptive rock near the lower bend and from there to the sea. Near the bend 
was a seam of good coal but so small as to be useless. Granite and mica were rare; 
and he found no traces of glacial action. Dr. Cooper and Professor Whitney made 
remarks upon the probability of present volcanic activity in Oregon and Washington 
Territory. The evidence seemed to be conflicting so far at least as showers of ashes 
were concerned. There was no doubt, however, of the existence of solfataric action 
on Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens and probably on Rainier and Baker. He also 
exhibited several photographs taken of the upper Tuolumne Valley by Mr. W. Harris. 
A paper was read from C. F. Hoffman, describing in some detail the Hetch-Hetchy 
Valley on the Tuolumne River. 

November 4, George C. Johnson was elected a resident member. Dr. James Blake 
read a paper "On the Organs of the Male of the Embiotocoid Fishes." Professor 
Whitney made remarks upon the species of minerals occurring in California and on 
the Pacific Coast of America in general, noting the absence of a number. He said 
there was a remarkable resemblance in the conditions, which had influenced the 
fomiation and segregation of the accidental minerals found accompanying the 
stratified and eruptive masses through the vast extent of the regions in question, 
making another fact going to show the unity of the Cordilleras of North and South 
America as a geological result. Professor Bolander said that the absence of many 
mineral species from this Coast found a parallel in a similar absence of many botanical 
groups. Dr. Cooper did not think there was any poverty with respect to animal species, 
and suggested that the absence of certain groups of plants might be due to the absence 
of certain mineral constituents from the soil. Dr. Behr thought the California Lepi- 
doptera more nearly confonned to European and Mexican types than to those of the 
Eastern states. A committee was appointed, on motion of Mr. Steams, to consider the 
propriety of amending the constitution of the Academy. It consisted of Steams, James 



CHAPTER VII: 1867 93 

Blake, Bosqui, Ewer, and Bolander. November 18, R. H. Stretch and Dr. Gustav 
Holland were elected resident members and Mr. L. C. Schmidt of Eureka, Humboldt 
Co., a corresponding member. Professor Whitney read a paper, in continuation of his 
remarks at the last meeting, on the elemental minerals occurring in California. He 
also spoke about the depressions in Death Valley and mentioned reports, which cited 
Mr. Gabb as authority, that no depression below ocean level existed there. In reply 
he would say that the valley visited by Mr. Gabb was near the head of the Amargosa 
River, while the true Death Valley was at the sink of that river, where the amount of 
depression might be safely assumed to be not far from 175 feet below sea level, as 
given on Col. R. S. Williamson's authority. Professor Bolander stated the number of 
true species of pine in California as fifteen, and of fir as four. Dr. Stout, of the 
committee on providing a new building, presented a memorial to the State Legisla- 
ture; asking that the use of Verba Buena Cemetery in San Francisco, the ground on 
which the new city hall now stands, be given to the Academy. 

November 27, a special meeting was called to listen to remarks of Professor 
George Davidson, Assistant to the U. S. Coast Survey, on a recent trip to Alaska. He 
gave a general account of the geography, climate and natural resources of that 
country. Dr. Kellogg, who accompanied the party as botanist, made remarks upon 
the flora of the Northwest Coast. December 2, S. W. Holladay, Henry R. Goddard, 
and Henry K. Moore were elected resident members. Professor Silliman read a paper 
on three new localities of tellurium minerals in California and some mineralogical 
features of the Mother Lode. Mr. Steams read a paper on shells collected at Bodega 
Bay in June, 1867, and another on Shells collected by the U. S. Coast Survey 
Expedition to Alaska in 1867. Mr. Bolander presented a paper submitted by Leo 
Lesquereux, "A Catalogue of the Mosses found ... on the Northwest Coast of the 
United States, and especially in California." Professor Whitney gave an account of 
the work performed by the State Geological Survey. Dr. Henry Gibbons exhibited a 
species of pork, containing entozoa, erroneously supposed to be Trichinae, but which 
he believed to cysticerci. They had the appearance of soaked peas and were not 
injurious, he said, when cooked. He also took occasion to remark that if the tules of 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys were permitted to undergo the natural 
processes of growth and decay, instead of being annually burned over, the land might 
in time become sufficiently elevated to be inhabited. Robert L. Harris, who had 
recently run a new levee from Vallejo to Sacramento, reported that the height of the 
Sacramento level above sea-level, instead of being 56 feet as commonly supposed, 
was but 21 feet, and that the low lands in the vicinity of Sacramento were only a foot 
and a half above sea-level. The committee on amendments to the constitution reported 
a new constitution, which was laid over for action at the next annual meeting. 

December 16, William Hamel, P. B. Cornwall, Horace D. Dunn, and W. B. Rising 
were elected resident members. Copies of the proposed new constitution were 
distributed. W. A. Goodyear read a paper on the "Salt Spring Valley and the Adjacent 
Region in Calaveras County"; Professor Silliman a paper "On the Occurrence of 
Glauberite at Borax Lake," and Hiram G. Bloomer, a paper on the scientific names 



94 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

of the "Big Tree." Dr. Henry Gibbons called attention again to the pork containing 
entozoa, exhibited at the last meeting, and said that some of the members of the 
Academy had pronounced them Distomata; but he was still satisfied, after further 
examination, that they were cysticeroi. Dr. Henry Gibbons, Jr. gave a detailed 
statement of reasons for assigning them to the genus Cysticercus. At this last meeting 
of the year 1867, the attendance of members was thirty-seven; and the attendance at 
all the meetings of the year had been good. This, as well as the number of new 
members who joined during the year, indicated that a new interest in the Academy 
had been awakened and that it was attracting more and more attention. 



95 



ChapterVIII: Year 1868 



This year the annual meeting commenced on January 6, with thirty-three 
members present. Benjamin M. Hartshome was elected a life member, W. W. 
McFarland, William Bailey, George F. Allardt, Dr. A. F. Sawyer, and Dr. Isaac 
Rowell, resident members, and W. C. S. Belcher and W. D. Christie, corresponding 
members. The president. Professor Whitney, delivered an address, giving in brief the 
history and progress of the Academy. Mr. Hubbard, the treasurer, presented his annual 
report to the effect that $ 1 624. 1 4 had been received in 1 867 and $ 1 ,546. 1 7 paid out, 
leaving on hand $79.97. The curators of botany and conchology also presented 
reports. The new constitution was next taken up, read section by section, amended in 
some particulars, and adopted as amended and as a whole. The meeting was then 
adjourned to January 13, when the constitution was slightly amended and again 
adopted as a whole. The new constitution provided that the name of the society should 
be the "California Academy of Sciences," dropping the word "Natural" of the old 
title. Its object was to be "the promotion of science," and "this was to be accomplished 
by the holding of meetings for scientific intercourse and discussion, by the reading 
and publication of papers containing original contributions to science, by the estab- 
lishment of a museum and library, and by other suitable means." Members were to 
be resident, life, corresponding, and honorary. Resident members were to be elected 
from among persons residing within 150 miles of San Francisco, and every resident 
member might become a life member by paying $200 into the treasury. Correspond- 
ing members were to be elected from persons not residing within 150 miles of San 
Francisco; and a method was provided for changing, in proper cases of change of 
residence, corresponding membership into resident membership, and vice versa. 
Honorary members were not to exceed forty in number, twenty to be residents and 
citizens of the United States, and twenty, foreigners. The business of the Academy 
was to be exclusively managed by, and its officers selected from, resident and life 
members. The names of candidates for resident membership should be proposed by 
at least two members; posted in a conspicuous place in the Academy for at least two 
weeks, and balloted for only at a stated meeting. Honorary members could be elected 
only at an annual meeting, but had to be proposed by the Council and posted at least 
four weeks before election. Four-fifths of the members present were necessary to 
elect, and only one candidate could be balloted for on one ticket. No person rejected 
as a candidate was to be eligible for one year afterwards. A member might be expelled 

*■• Published in vol. 4, p. 1 of the Proceedings as January 4th, 1868, in error. The meeting was held on 
January 6th, the "first" IVlonday of the month (as recorded in the handwritten minutes of those meetings; 
Academy Archives; Minute Books, Jan. 6th, 1868-Jan. 2nd, 1872). 



96 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




/v i 



^Ae name c/ me 



'crai/d ^ ana 2 c^ ^& et. /, uaj oeen /ciiMimea to //ou <^ 

;o V /^^^-v2^-, ^!>*&::^=2rv-^.^^ ~~:- 




tJ^/eaiie acAnozi'iecme ^Ae iecec/it o/ me Ja/ne, ana a(A/iei)4 coHe<i- 
/icnaence ana eccc/ianae^ to t/ie " (^oUed/toncuha c/ecieta^?^ o/ me t^'u/- 
ij/oi}Zia ^cacAmin o/ tyeienceJ, ^7a?t rj/^ianccdco. " 



^y Aave me /u>-m>i to us 



<s/an tJt^ianci^co , 

fan. /3, /6^6^. 




®or. Jfer'j}. 



Notification of change of name to the California Academy of Sciences 

sent to Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 

Smithsonian histitution Archives 



CHAPTER VIII: 1868 97 

for cause and after due hearing by vote of at least two-thirds of the members present; 
but expulsion proceedings could be instituted only at a stated meeting, which, 
however, might be adjourned from time to time, but not beyond the next stated 
meeting. No person expelled should ever again, under any circumstances, become a 
candidate for election. The officers were to consist of a president, vice-president, 
corresponding secretary, recording secretary, treasurer, librarian, and director of the 
museum, who should together constitute the Council; and as many curators as the 
Council should from time to time determine. Officers were to be elected by ballot at 
the annual meeting on open nomination, and only one officer elected at one balloting. 

The president was to preside when present at all meetings of the Academy and 
Council, name all committees not otherwise provided for, and, with the Council, 
direct the general business of the Academy. At the annual meeting he should report 
on the condition and progress of the Academy, and also announce the deaths of 
members dying during the preceding year, accompanying the announcement with 
biographic notices in the case of persons eminent in science. The duties of other 
officers were likewise prescribed. The president, vice-president and treasurer were 
to be the official Trustees and act as a sub-committee on finance; and the president 
and secretaries were to act as a sub-committee on publication in the Council, with 
power to add two to their number; and the duties of these committees were to be 
regulated by the Council. Vacancies in office were to be announced to the Academy 
by the president and an election to fill the vacancy held at the next meeting. The 
annual meeting was to be held on the first Monday of January; but, if that should be 
January 1 , then on the next day; stated meetings were to be held on the first and third 
Mondays of every month; field-meetings or excursions at such time and place as the 
Academy might direct, and special meetings, in case the Council deemed it desirable, 
at any time on the call of the president. Any annual or stated meeting could be 
adjourned from time to time for the purpose of closing up unfinished business, but 
not beyond the time of the next stated meeting. Meefings of the Council might be 
held at any time and place at the call of the president, and he was to call a meeting 
when requested by any member of the Council. Resident members were required to 
pay $3 as an initiation fee and $3 quarterly in advance towards defraying expenses. 
No member in arrears should take part in the business of the Academy; and the names 
of members more than one year in arrears should be stricken from the rolls and such 
persons be ineligible to re-election for one year after such dismissal. Publications 
were to be directed, as to style and amount, by the committee on publication under 
the general supervision of the Council; and resident, life and honorary members were 
to be entitled to receive, free of cost, one copy each of all publications issued during 
their time of membership. Amendments to the constitution had to be presented in 
writing to the Council at least one month before being acted on. The Council was 
required to present them to the Academy with a report on the question of adoption 
and with such amendment as it might see fit. The Academy might then, at any stated 
meeting, adopt any such amendment by a two-thirds vote of the members present. 

At the same adjourned meeting of January 13, the election of officers under the 



98 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 



new constitution took place and resulted in the choice of Professor J. D. Whitney as 
president; Dr. James Blake, vice-president; Professor H. N. Bolander, corresponding 
secretary; Theodore Bradley, recording secretary; Edward Bosqui, treasurer; Dr. A. 
Kellogg, librarian, and R. E. C. Steams, director of the museum. At the meeting of 
the Council held the next day, JANUARY 14, H. N. Bloomer was appointed curator of 
botany. Also, the Council approved sending the Smithsonian Institution fifty copies 
of the Memoirs, parts 1 and 2 of volume 1 for distribution. January 20, an offer of 
the proprietors of a suburban resort, called the "City Gardens," to donate to the 
Academy the use of one of its buildings was declined. Five hundred copies of the 
new constitution, list of members and president's address were ordered to be printed. 
Announcement was made of the appointment by the Council of the following 
curators: Dr. Cooper on general zoology; W. G. W. Harford, conchology; Dr. Trask, 
Radiata; R. H. Stretch, entomology; W. A. Goodyear, geology; H. G. Bloomer, 
botany. Copies of the second memoir of the Academy were distributed. Dr. Cooper 
read a paper on "Some Recent Additions to the Fauna of California," Theodore A. 
Blake "Notes on the N. W. Coast of America," in which he called attention to the 
erosive action of glaciers as well as many inaccuracies in the charts of the coasts, and 
Professor Whitney a paper on the system adopted by the State Geological Survey of 
naming mountain peaks in California. Dr. Kellogg exhibited specimens of Siberian 
plants, including Rhododendron, Campanula, Linnea borealis, and a new species of 
the gooseberry family combining in its fruit the qualities of the gooseberry and 
currant. 

February 3, George Lette, P. Hueme, Ottakar Hoffman, Charles Beseler, and 




Watson A. Goodyear 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER VIII: 1868 



99 



Dr. Justus Fuchs were elected resident members; and two candidates were rejected. 
Among the donations was a wild duck's gizzard, containing, with gravel, grains of 
placer gold; also a specimen of the pulu-fem. Dr. Stout reported on the progress made 
by the committee on a new building. Dr. Kellogg exhibited the stem of Panax 
horridum of Alaska, allied to the ginseng plant. Professor Whitney, Dr. Henry 
Gibbons and others made remarks about the mulberry, Morus multicaulis, and the 
speculations to which it had given rise. FEBRUARY 17, Dr. Thomas M. Logan, Rev. 
Albert Williams, R. B. Swain, and William Hayes were elected resident members. 
Dr. Parry of the Southern Pacific Railroad gave an account of some of the natural 
features along parallel of latitude 35°, and the probabilities of coal being found on it. 
He also briefly compared the flora of the Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains. 
Clarence King, chief of the Government Survey on the parallel of 40° gave an account 
of that region. Drs. Cooper, Henry Gibbons and James Blake spoke of the winds 
prevalent in Southern California and on the West Coast generally; and Gibbons, Behr, 
Cooper, Kellogg, Bolander, and White discussed the harmless and harmful action of 
frost upon plants. 

March 2, Nathan Porter, Emile Sutter, and H. D. A. Schieffler were elected 
resident members. Professor Bolander delivered an address upon the value of a 
properly conducted botanical garden as illustrated by the great good accomplished 
by the botanical garden of Melbourne, Australia. The subject evoked discussion upon 
the utility of new plants that had been or might be introduced into California. A 
resolution was adopted, on motion of Gregory Yale, appointing a committee consist- 



^^^Hg^sF^^ ^a 


k 


^^^Bsk 


1 


i ' 


Aj>%' 


jl^^*^ '■'■x 


M 


bP^^ 


w 


Sk^ ..f^ 


I' \ 


"^s&s^^^^^SEmB^Ss^^jiStt^^^- ^^^S^ 





Charles Christopher Parry 

George Sprague Myers Portrait Collection, 

Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences 



100 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

ing of Messrs. Yale, H. Gibbons, Steams, Stout, and Veatch to prepare a succinct 
recommendation, as the sense of the Academy, for the continuance by the legislature 
of the State Geological Survey. A strong and unanimous feeling was manifested in 
favor of the continuation of the Survey, and the retention of Professor Whitney at its 
head, as necessary for the material interests, culture, and good name of the State, no 
less than for the general interests of science. Dr. Stout announced that he had safely 
transmitted to Paris a specimen of the snow-plant, Sarodes sanguinea, in carbolic 
acid, and that it arrived there retaining the natural vividness of its colors. March 16, 
a memorial to the Legislature in favor of the continuance of the State Geological 
Survey was presented, adopted, and ordered transmitted to the San Francisco dele- 
gation at Sacramento, Professor Bolander donated a large collection of ferns and 
grasses, in number about fifteen hundred specimens, of which one hundred and 
thirty-five were Califomian, the others from the East Europe, Australia, and Chile, 
all fully identified. Remarks were made upon the importance of a catalogue of plants 
introduced from abroad and successfiilly cultivated in California. Bolander stated that 
those most extensively cultivated had been introduced from the Mediterranean 
regions, and that they were found in the Spanish colonies generally. 

April 6, H. S. Craven, Dr. A. J. Bowie and Howard Crittenden were elected 
resident members and Col. Ezekiel Jewett of Utica, New York, a corresponding 
member. Dr. Stout, of the committee on providing greater facilities for the Academy, 
reported on the failure to obtain from the Legislature any portion of Yerba Buena 
Park for a building site, though the San Francisco Board of Supervisors approved the 
project. He suggested the formation of a sinking fund to furnish means to purchase a 
lot. Objections to this plan were made on the ground of the inadequacy of the income 
of the Academy. Dr. Ayres proposed a special monthly contribution. Dr. Stout urged 
the importance of securing a building site while the price of real estate remained low, 
and said that a purchase at that time would give the Academy the benefit of the 
advance in prices that was sure to come. The whole subject, however, was referred 
back to the cominittee. Joshua E. Clayton called attention to some specimens of fossil 
coral from Silver Peak Basin in Nevada, and a new trilobite found there. He also 
spoke of the vast quantities of rock salt found in the same vicinity and stated his 
opinion that it was not, as commonly supposed, of oceanic origin, but came from the 
decomposition of saline rocks. Dr. Ayres called attention to a specimen of sponge, 
called "Venus' flower-basket," Euplectella speciosa, from the Philippine Islands. A 
committee consisting of Messers. Stout, Logan, Yale, Ayres, and Steams was 
appointed, on motion of Dr. Stout, to draw up a report on the "abmpt and shabby" 
discontinuance of the State Geological Survey; and at the next meeting, APRIL 20, a 
report was presented strongly condemning it, which was accepted, approved and 
adopted by the Academy. As the discontinuance of the Survey deprived Professor 
Whitney of his occupation in California and necessitated his retum to the East, he 
resigned his office as president of the Academy and accompanied his withdrawal with 
a few farewell remarks. ' 

May 4, Dr. C. T. Deane, Joseph Paxson, Gen. John F. Miller, Anton Roman, 



CHAPTER VIII: 1868 101 

Theodore A. Mudge, John B. Felton, Dr. Isaac Bluxome, Thomas A. Barry, Dr. R. 
Beverly Cole, Calvin Brown, Frank M. Pixley, H. L. Davis, Julius Bandmann, 
Thomas M. Cash, John Hucks, J. F. Lohse, J. W. Willard, Benjamin A. Patten, Justin 
P. Moore, August Emory, and A. Harpending were elected resident members. Dr. 
James Blake, on nomination of Mr. Steams, was elected president in place of 
Professor Whitney, who had resigned. At the suggestion of Professor Bolander a 
committee was appointed to arrange a course of short lectures, one to be delivered at 
each regular meeting of the Academy, the subject of each lecture to be open to general 
discussion by the members after its delivery. Mr. Steams stated that he was obliged 
to be absent from the State for a year and therefore resigned his office as director of 
the museum, though he designed upon his retum to again put his hand to the plow 
and labor for the Academy. Rudolph D'Henreuse read a paper on the "Proper Use of 
Air with Reference to Industry and Medicine." Dr. Stout gave notice of a proposed 
amendment of the constitution, reducing the fee for life membership from $200 to 
$100. May 18, Dr. J. G. Cooper was elected vice-president in place of Dr. James 
Blake, who had been elected president. Dr. Kellogg exhibited specimens of the 
holly-leaved wild cherry, Cerasus ilicifolia, and also of the choke cherry, Cerasus 
Virginiana, both from the neighborhood of San Francisco. He remarked that the 
former was called by the Indians Islais, which had given name to the creek so-called 
in the southern part of the City. He also mentioned a report that cattle could eat its 
leaves when fresh with impunity, but would die if they ate them when wilted on 
account of the production in such leaves of hydrocyanic acid. A discussion ensued 
as to whether hydrocyanic acid existed or was produced in the leaves of the cherry 
and kindred plants. 

June 1, Milton S. Latham, Frederick Townsend, Dr. Benjamin D. Dean (in the 
published Proceedings, but "Deane" in the handwritten minutes {p. 46} [Eds.]) and 
Dr. W. A. Grover were elected resident members. The committee on lectures reported 
arrangements and assignments for seven lectures to be delivered by Drs. Blake, 
Gibbons, and Cooper and Messrs. Falkenau, Bolander, Bloomer, and Bradley, 
respectively. An amendment to the constitution, reported favorably from the Council, 
was adopted, reducing the fee for life membership from $200 to $ 1 00. H. G. Bloomer 
was elected director of the museum in place of Steams, resigned. A committee was 
appointed to confer with the San Francisco Board of Supervisors on the subject of 
providing rooms for the accommodation of the Academy. R. W. Raymond, U. S. 
Commissioner of Mining Statistics, delivered an address on the relations of the 
government to the mineral lands and mining interests of the country. June 15, L. 
Falkenau read a paper on "The Part we should take in Furthering the Mining Interests 



^2 Between 19 Jan. 1866 and 22 Jan. 1871, Henry Bolander corresponded with William Henry Brewer, 
then at Yale but formerly J. D. Whitney's assistant on the California State Geological Survey, keeping 
Brewer up-to-date on events in California. Among the 18 letters written during this period (Yale Univ., 
Sterling Library Archives; Group 1 00, ser. 1 , box 5, folder 1 68), Bolander noted how he, Kellogg, and Behr 
had themselves withdrawn from taking part in survey activities because of the treatment accorded Whitney 
(letter dated 5 Feb. 1 867); in a letter dated 28 March 1 868, Bolander observed that "Whitney will go east 
next month also Steams [Robert Edwards Carter {Eds.H to retum no more . . . Well, what next. A Pacific 
RepublicV'\ in another letter dated 9 July 1 869, Bolander writes "The stopping of the State survey is now 
also much regretted. I should not wonder if Prof Whitney would find a willing ear this year." 



102 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

of the Pacific Coast." Dr. Stout, of the committee on providing greater facihties for 
the Academy [Building Committee], reported in favor of accepting an offer of the 
Paul Tract Homestead Association of a block of land in the City and County of San 
Francisco, on condition that the Academy would expend $15,000 in putting up a 
building on it or otherwise improving the same; but, after some discussion, the matter 
was postponed to an adjourned meeting. JUNE 22, at the adjourned meeting, the 
discussion was resumed with the result that the matter was again laid over for final 
action at a special meeting to be held on June 29. Also at the adjourned meeting of 
June 22, Dr. Victor Fourgeaud was elected a resident member; and Theodore Bradley 
resigned his office of recording secretary on the ground that he did not have time to 
properly attend to its duties. JUNE 29, the definite question, "Will the Society accept 
the offer made to it by the Paul Tract Homestead Association?" was put and, after a 
lengthy and free discussion, was decided in the negative. The land was considered 
entirely too far out of the inhabited part of the city to be of any value to the Academy, 
and, besides, it had no money to comply with the condition imposed. At this meeting, 
though expressly a special one, H. T. Livennore, James Deering, J. S. Phillips [Philips 
in the handwritten minutes {Eds.}], E. R. Howes, and Dr. R. H. McDonald were 
balloted for and declared elected resident members. Elisha Brooks was elected 
recording secretary in place of Theodore Bradley, resigned. A human skull, supposed 
to be centuries old, exhumed near extensive ruins at the junction of the Gila and Salt 
Rivers in Arizona, was presented by Dr. P. M. Randall. It was found with an "ojo," 
or earthen water jug, inverted over it, which seemed to have served as a preserver, 
for the remains of the other portions of the skeleton were so far decayed as to crumble 
at the touch. Dr. Randall stated that it bore no resemblance to the skulls of any of the 
present Indian tribes of the region, and that those Indians said it did not belong to any 
living tribe, but was a "Montezuma." 

July 6, George A. Treadwell was elected a resident member. Dr. Blake read a 
paper on the "Chemistry of Digestion," which was followed by a discussion on the 
subject and by remarks from Dr. Henry Gibbons on the injurious effects of chewing 
and smoking tobacco. Dr. Ayres reported on a sponge from the Sea of Japan as a 
species of Hyalonema that is parasitic on other sponges. Professor Bolander, as 
corresponding secretary, stated that he had received two letters from scientific men 
in the East, commenting in such violent terms of condemnation on the recent action 
of the Legislature in superseding the State Geological Survey that he declined to read 
them publicly. July 20, William J. Shaw and E. J. Schellhouse were elected resident 
members. Dr. Cooper delivered a lecture on "Edible Mollusks of the Pacific Coast." 
Gregory Yale made remarks on the evidences that the San Francisco peninsula was, 
at a time not far distant in the past, an island or series of islands. Edward Bosqui, 
treasurer, presented a report on the condidon of the finances of the Academy, showing 
an indebtedness of over $500. Professor Bolander tendered his resignation as corre- 
sponding secretary for the reason that he had not time to attend to all the duties of the 
office; but he was induced to withdraw it on the understanding that he would be 
ftimished with an assistant. 



CHAPTER VIII: 1868 103 

August 3, L. L. Treadwell was elected a life member, and A. L. Wolf and A. 
Warren, resident members. The president stated that the Council had appointed Dr. 
Kellogg special assistant to the secretaries and treasurer at a small salary, which was 
to be raised by subscription. Among the donations was an Octopus, found near Fort 
Point, and some fossil pine cones from lignite beds near the Ocean House in San 
Francisco. Dr. Henry Gibbons delivered a lecture on "Microscopic Parasites." AU- 
GUST 17, J. Silver, C. L. Houghton, and H. S. Crane [shown as H. S. Craven in the 
handwritten minutes but corrected to H. S. Crane in the published Proceedings, eds.] 
were elected resident members. Professor Bolander delivered a lecture on the "Flora 
and Agricultural Resources of the County around Eureka, Humboldt Bay." Dr. Stout 
moved that an assessment of $5 be levied on each member of the Academy for the 
purpose of paying off its debt. After much discussion, the subject was laid over until 
next meeting. 

September 7, Dr. Lorenzo Hubbard was elected a resident member. Theodore 
Bradley exhibited a stone image of an eagle nearly two feet high, said to have been 
found imbedded in clay, covered with eight feet of alluvium, on the bank of 
Willamette River, two miles above St. Helens, Oregon. H. G. Bloomer delivered a 
lecture on "Classification and Generalization." Dr. Stout's proposition to levy an 
assessment to pay the debt of the Academy was taken up and again laid over "until 
next meeting," and in that condition it seems to have been allowed to lie. Additions 
to the cabinet included a collection of plants received from M. Rene Le Nomiand of 
Vire, France, and a collection from New Caledonia donated by Prof Meissner of 
Basle, both through Dr. Kellogg. September 2 1 , E. N. Boynton, John M. Buffmgton, 
and Milton Andros were elected resident members. A catalogue of the library, made 
by Elisha Brooks, was presented by him. Dr. Blake made some remarks on the 
peculiar state of the atmosphere which had prevailed for some days. He alluded to 
the pale pink color and haziness. The discussion dismissed the possibility of smoke 
from the burning forests in Oregon or in Marin County. Other explanations were 
considered. Dr. Stout exhibited dissections of a cuttle fish. Octopus. He alluded to 
Victor Hugo's description of the animal in his "Toilers of the Sea" and said it was 
evident the novelist had never seen one nor properly understood the beauty of its 
physical construction. The animal, which seems to have been caught near San 
Francisco, measured eleven feet between the tips of its extended arms. S. A. White 
remarked that one had been captured some years before at Victoria, Vancouver's 
Island, the arms of which were as thick as a man's leg and measured fourteen feet in 
length. 

October 5, William H. Dall gave a detailed account of Alaska, where he had 
been exploring and studying the geography, geology, climatology, ethnology, and 
natural history of the country for two years. He spoke of the only gold up to that date 
found there as coming from the mouth of the Porcupine or Rat River near Fort Yukon, 
and being in very small quantities. He said that the natives all came under the general 
designation of Esquimaux, though they differ very much from the Esquimaux of the 
eastern side of the continent. They are tall, athletic people, very intelligent and 



104 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

ingenious, and superior to the American Indians of the interior. Though they belong 
to the same general race as the little eastern Esquimaux, having words that are the 
same, they are evidently later comers. Mr. Dall also said that, after a careful study, 
he was satisfied that there is no open Polar Sea and that an unbroken sea of ice 
stretched over from America past the North Pole to Asia.^^ OCTOBER 29, Theodore 
Bradley delivered a lecture on the "Value of the Study of Science in its Historical 
Relations." 

November 2, Mr. Bloomer moved to adjourn on account of the small attendance 
and the political excitement. Gregory Yale objected, and the motion was withdrawn. 
Amos Bowman was elected a resident member. Mr. Yale spoke of the necessity of 
gathering reliable information in regard to the recent earthquake of October 2 1 , the 
severest felt since the American occupation of the country. November 16, L. 
Falkenau delivered a lecture on "Analytical Chemistry," illustrated with experiments. 
A discussion of the recent earthquake followed, preliminary to future full reports upon 
the subject. December 7, Emile Grisar and J. J. Owens were elected resident 
members. J. E. Clayton read a paper on "Earthquakes in the Kern River Region, as 
observed by Dr. Famsworth." He gave the observation of Dr. A. Famsworth on a 
series of shocks that occurred on the headwaters of Kern River on September 4, 5, 
and 6 when there were five hundred in all, and thereafter for five or six days one or 
two shocks every hour. Other parties reported frequent shocks at intervals of an hour 
or two during the remainder of the month. A discussion ensued on the various theories 
as to the igneous, chemical and magnetic causes of earthquakes; and it seemed to be 
the general opinion that they were caused by chemical and igneous agencies in the 
interior of the earth. December 2 1 , Dr. Blake exhibited a map showing the directions 
in which the earthquake of October 21 struck different places in the vicinity of San 
Francisco Bay and stated that they all tended towards a center near Haywards in 
Alameda County. 



^^ The sheets (pages 30-37, pis. I-II of the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, vol. 4, 
1868-1872) containing Dall's remarks were printed in part in November 1868 and in January 1869 and 
placed in circulation. It is not known how seriously his observations on the extent of the Arctic ice pack 
were taken by others in planning expeditions to the Arctic via the Bering Straits {e.g., theJeannelte [q.v.]) 

^■'^ For a discussion of the abortive attempt to gain information and write a report about this earthquake 
see Aldrich, M., B. Bolt, A. Leviton, and P. Rodda, 1986. The "Report" of the 1868 Haywards Earthquake. 
Bull. Seismol. Soc. America 76(l):71-76. 



105 



ChapterIX; Year 1869 



Thetr( 



I he annual meeting was held January 4. The president read his annual address, 
giving the condition and progress of the Academy during the preceding year. 
THe~treasurer reported the receipts during 1868 at $1,760, and the disbursements at 
$1,636, leaving a balance of $124; but that there was an outstanding indebtedness of 
$440. The librarian reported the library in good condition; but the director of the 
museum complained of great deficiency of room and conveniences for the rapidly 
increasing collections. Dr. Gibbons commented on the reports and gave it as his 
opinion that more money ought to be devoted to the museum and less to publication. 
The annual election resulted in the choice of Dr. James Blake, president; Dr. J. G. 
Cooper, vice-president; Leo Eloesser, corresponding secretary, Theodore A. Mudge, 
recording secretary; Elisha Brooks, treasurer; Dr. A. Kellogg, librarian; and H. G. 
Bloomer, director of the museum. Professor J. D. Whitney was elected an honorary 
member, and G. W. Dunn, a corresponding member, was placed on the list of resident 
members. Among the donations was the rattle, containing thirty rings, of a rattlesnake, 
eight feet long, captured by Dr. P. M. Randall in Arizona. In his annual report on 
the condition of the museum, Mr. Bloomer complained of the want of rooms to 
display the collections. Dr. H. Gibbons commented that more money should be 
devoted to the museum to make a better showing before the community. In the 
Council, G. W. Dunn was appointed curator of entomology, W. G. W. Harford, 
curator of conchology, and Dr. Trask, curator of Radiata. JANUARY 18, W. Frank 
Stewart and Professor George Davidson, Chief of the U. S. Coast Survey for the 
Pacific Coast, were elected resident members. Dr. Cooper moved the establishment 
of divisions of members, such as conchological and mineralogical, and they would 
hold separate meetings and publish their proceedings. Dr. Kellogg proposed a 
botanical division to include meetings in the field. 

February 1, Max Waizman was elected a resident member. H. G. Hanks read a 
paper on the mineral resources of Owen's River and adjacent districts, particularly 
Inyo and Death Valley districts and the "Gun Sight" lead, the first silver found in 
California of which any record existed. He said that an emigrant party in 1 849 
reported having seen on their way over that region fabulously rich silver mines and 
were said to have brought in specimens of pure silver. In 1 850, a Dr. French and party 
went out in search of these mines, but were unsuccessful; and they had since been 
known only in story. Mr. Hanks exhibited specimens of argentiferous galena from 



^' Spelt Randle in the published minutes (PC4S4:41 [Feb. 1 8701) but Randall in the handwritten minute 
book (Minute Books Jan. 6, 1868 to Jan. 2, 1872, p. 83.). The published minutes are probably in error. 



106 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




James Blake 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

the region and some ores from the northern end of Owen's River Valley showing free 
silver. Dr. Henry Gibbons spoke of the remarkable effects of rain upon adobe land 
near Redwood City in San Mateo County and how its swelling and shrinking, under 
the influence of moisture and drought, caused cracks in the walls of houses built upon 
it, which were often erroneously attributed to earthquakes. Gregory Yale spoke of 
the importance of the erection of an observatory in California and hoped the Academy 
would have the honor of its establishment. February 15, J. W. Hobson, Dr. J. J. 
Stevenson, and Smythe Clark were elected resident members. Dr. Blake read a paper 
on the "Lower Forms of Organic Matter." Dr. Kellogg presented specimens of the 
fruit, foliage and wood of the canon live oak, Quercus chrysolepis, from the neigh- 
borhood of Baulines Bay in Marin County. He spoke of the solidity, strength, 
toughness, and durability of its timber as equaled only by the southeastern live oak, 
Quercus virens. In his view of the subject, it was a "burning shame" to have such 
valuable timber shipped to San Francisco for firewood, out of sheer ignorance of its 
value. He also referred to the mustard plant in California and commented upon the 
difference between it and the English species. 

March 1 , Dr. George Hewston, Rev. A. Aaronstein, J. F. Breed, and O. W. Easton 
were elected resident members. Dr. Henry Gibbons spoke of the peculiarities of the 
climate of California; there were in fact, he said, three different climates, one in 



CHAPTER IX: 1869 107 

southern California near Mexico; one in northern California near Oregon, and one in 
Central California, each of which he briefly characterized. He then spoke of the value 
of the telegraph as an indicator of coming storms. He said that on one occasion he 
was with Professor Henry at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, where daily 
and sometimes hourly reports of the weather were received from all parts of the 
Atlantic States. Professor Henry, and he while there, could sit down before a large 
relief globe and locate storms as they were reported; and in that way follow and trace 
them as they were approaching, hundreds of miles away, until they finally burst upon 
the city. Had he been five hundred miles above the earth, looking down upon the 
atmosphere, he could not have obtained a better idea of the progress of a storm. In 
this State, where the prosperity of almost every interest depended upon the rains, the 
knowledge of storms was of especial importance. Our chief prognostic of rain so far 
was. the occurrence of three hot days following a Northerly, when rain, in the proper 
season of the year, was to be expected. Dr. Kellogg exhibited specimens of meat that 
fell from the sky near San Jose. It was said that the atmosphere was clear at the time, 
and the fragments of meat fell over an area of twenty acres. Much discussion ensued; 
but the general opinion was that the strange shower had been disgorged by vultures 
or buzzards flying so high in the air as to be invisible. The pieces of bone found 
seemed to be too large to have been taken up by a whirlwind, which it was suggested 
might have caused the phenomenon; but Mr. Beardsley stated that at Gold Hill, 
Nevada, in 1 862, a whirlwind had taken up 4,000 feet of lumber and torn it to shreds. 
A letter from W. F. Stewart described a remarkable magnetic stonn near San Jose on 
February 23. The weather was dry and sky cloudless, when the magnetic needle 
suddenly began to turn and was greatly deflected to the east for some time. Dr. Blake 
stated that when making observations in reference to the recent earthquake, he had 
noticed the needle dip far more in San Ramon Valley near Monte Diablo than near 
San Francisco Bay. 

March 15, Gregory Yale exhibited specimens of copper pyrites taken at a depth 
of 208 feet from an artesian well that was being bored on Commercial Street in San 
Francisco, and made remarks upon the strata penetrated by the auger. He also 
announced the discovery of a nearly entire skeleton of a mastodon near Petaluma in 
Sonoma County. A letter was received from W. F. Stewart of San Jose on the recent 
shower of meat near that place. He confirmed the theory that the fragments had been 
disgorged by vultures or buzzards. He said that in 1 863 a similar fall of meat was 
observed in the valley below San Jose, the ground for some half a mile being covered 
with fragments. That was the year when thousands of cattle perished for want of food, 
and myriads of buzzards would so gorge themselves with the flesh of the dead animals 
that they would be obliged to vomit in their flight. He had on more than one occasion 
known them to drop pieces of meat upon himself and horse when riding under them. 
April 5, Dr. W. F. McNutt was elected a resident member. Among the donations was 
a series of stereoscopic view of Indian inscriptions on rocks near Cisco in Nevada 
County from Charles Crocker. Professor Davidson described experiments for obtain- 
ing longitude by the use of the telegraph. The old method was by the use of 



108 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

chronometers carried from point to point or by astronomical observations and 
calculations. He said that he had, in eighty-two hundredths of a second, made a 
telegraphic circuit from San Francisco to Cambridge in Massachusetts and back, a 
total distance of 7,200 miles. The exact difference in time between the two places 
was found to be three hours and twenty-five minutes. April 19, L. A. Gould and 
Captain Edward Pinnor were elected resident members. Dr. Kellogg exhibited several 
new and beautiful plants from near the mouth of the San Joaquin River. A discussion 
took place on the subject of inscriptions found in various places on rocks; but no 
satisfactory explanations of them was given. 

May 3, Rev. Siegfried Simon, Hermann Simon, Eugene Amstein were elected 
resident members. H. P. Carlton read a paper on shells found at Antioch and vicinity 
in Contra Costa County. Dr. Henry Gibbons made observations upon silk culture and 
the manner in which it had been attempted in California. He also spoke about the 
ramie plant of China, Boehmeria uivea, and the value of its fiber. He further said that 
the fiber of the common nettle was used by the Indians in Southern California for 
making fishing nets, and that its thread was very strong and not injured by water. He 
thought there were no true farmers in California but only raisers of cereals and that 
in time ramie would be found of more importance for cultivation than wheat. He also 
spoke of the possibility of acclimatizing Eastern fish, such as shad and other species 
not then existing here. Dr. Blake said there was no country in the world where an 
acclimatizing society might be made so useful as in California. Professor Bolander 
stated that a company had already been fornied in San Francisco to introduce shad. 
He also spoke of the ramie plant and New Zealand flax, Phormiiim tenax, as worthy 
of naturalization and well adapted for the tule lands in the interior of the State. He 
likewise recommended extensive cultivation of the basket-willow, Salix viminalis, 
and of the Australian gum-tree, Eucalyptus, especially for piles. He also mentioned 
the opium poppy and teazle as likely to reward cultivation, and thought that much 
more could be made out of California if it were cut up into ten acre pieces of land 
and devoted to special products. Among native plants that were deserving of attention 
was a very good celery, Pimpinella apiodora, which grew on hillsides among dry 
rocks. May 1 7, R. Heynemann'^ ' was elected a resident member. Gregory Yale spoke 
of the advisability of starting a subscription for a pemianent abiding place for the 
Academy, and said that the members represented $3,000,000 of wealth, among whom 
$300,000 ought to be raised. Professor Davidson remarked that the Academy of 
Sciences of the wealthy city of Philadelphia with the most vigorous efforts had been 
able to raise only $20,000 or about one fifth of what was required there. Dr. Blake 
referred to the difficulty of raising funds for any scientific purpose; as exemplified 
in the trouble of collecting money enough to investigate the recent earthquake. As 
from these expressions of opinion it seemed apparent that nothing could be done in 
the way of a subscription. Mr. Yale moved the appointment of a committee to examine 
and report upon an Outside-Land lot, near the comer of Point Lobos and First 



■^ 2 R. Heynemann in the published minutes (PCAS 4:53) but H. Heynemann in the handwritten minute 
booi< (Minute Books, Jan. 6, 1 868 to Jan. 2, 1 872, p. 1 01 ) 



CHAPTER IX: 1869 109 

Avenues, near Lone Mountain, which had been reserved and set aside by the San 
Francisco authorities for the purposes of an "Academy of Sciences." 

June 7, Theodore A. Mudge resigned his office of recording secretary on account 
of other engagements. Mr. Yale asked further time to investigate the supposed title 
of the Academy to the Outside-Land lot reserved by the City for an "Academy of 
Sciences." Dr. Blake stated that he had visited the locality near Petaluma of the 
mastodon remains reported at a previous meeting; but he found that they had been so 
scattered that none of any value could be obtained. He, however, found that the houses 
built in Petaluma on a rocky foundation suffered much more from the earthquake of 
October 21, 1868, than those buih on alluvial soil. The Council, at its meeting, 
transacted only routine business. June 21, Edward Cohn, Hugo Eloesser, Arthur 
Eloesser, Frederick Reichling, George A. Elliott, and Dr. John Vansant were elected 
resident members. Henry P. Carlton was elected recording secretary in place of 
Theodore A. Mudge, resigned. Among the donations was a large lizard, Heloderma 
horridum, said to be poisonous, from Guaymas, Mexico; an Indian mortar, weighing 
35 pounds, from a mound at Raccoon Straits, Marin County; a fossil oyster, Ostrea 
titan, said to have been found fifty feet below the surface on Telegraph Hill, San 
Francisco, and imperfect peat from a salt marsh near San Francisco Bay. Robert 
Schlagintweit, the traveler and explorer, being present and asked to address the 
Academy, described many incidents of his journeys. He spoke, among other things, 
of a remarkable mineral, nephrite, found in the coal quames of Turkistan. It was so 
soft when first taken out of the ground that it could be cut with the finger-nail; but, 
when exposed for a time to the air, it became so hard that it would cut glass. The 
inhabitants there made idols, pipes, and handles for tools of it. He also spoke of his 
travels in the Himalaya Mountains, where he found people living at an elevation of 
16,000 feet and occupied in raising sheep. He found the snow-line lower on the 
southern side of these mountains than on the northern, which he explained by taking 
into account the difference in humidity on the respective sides. 

July 12, at a meeting adjourned from July 5, A. T. Winn and Isaac Wormser were 
elected resident members. Professor Bolander gave an account of a trip to the Sierra 
Nevada and a description of Emigrant Gap and Bear Valley in Nevada County. The 
latter he pronounced produced by glaciers. He exhibited a large number of plants 
collected by him. H. P. Carlton, who had accompanied Bolander, spoke of shells he 
had found on the Truckee River and in that vicinity. A communication was received 
from J. M. Upham devoted principally to the subject of the reclamation of Sherman 
Island near the mouth of the Sacramento River, where 47 miles of levee 5 feet in 
height, had been thrown up at a cost of $80,000. A discussion ensued in reference to 
the reclamation of the tule lands of California in general and their adaptability for 
agricultural purposes. July 19, David Hughes, Samuel A. L. Brannan, W. W. Dodge, 
and Dr. W. H. Titcomb were elected resident members. Among the donations were 
two slabs of limestone from Treasure City, White Pine County, Nevada. The side of 
one was covered at regular intervals with protuberances the size of buck-shot and that 
of the other with corresponding depressions, which suggested to some members the 



110 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

idea that it was a fossil hail-storm. Dr. Cooper thought the name not altogether 
inappropriate as the depressions were probably caused by the beating down of 
hailstones on soft sand, which hardened, the depressions being afterwards filled with 
overflowing mud, which likewise hardened into limestone. There was also exhibited 
a section of a pine log from Puget Sound, nearly two feet in diameter, having a leaden 
ounce-ball in the center but without any trace of its course or how it got there. The 
growth-rings of the log, supposing them to be annual, indicated that it was 1 10 years 
old when cut. It, therefore, seemed as if the ball must have been fired before the time 
of Lewis and Clark's Expedition, or even before Vancouver's voyages. R. W. 
Raymond, U. S. Mining Commissioner, spoke about mining countries, mining laws, 
and the importance of mining schools. At a separate meeting of the Council, held 
three days later, on July 22, Mr. Samuel Brannan offered to put the zoological 
collections in order. His offer was accepted and he was appointed curator of zoology 
in place of Mr. Lorquin. The Council also declared the position of Dr. Trask as curator 
of Radiata vacant. 

August 2, several Indian relics were presented which indicated great age; and 
Dr. Blake remarked that they tended to prove a remote antiquity of the human race 
in California. Dr. Henry Gibbons exhibited apples grown in Alameda County, which 
had been buying out under evergreen oak trees for over a year and were still perfectly 
sound and fresh. AUGUST 16, Maurice Dore was elected a resident member. A 
discussion took place "as to the scientific name of the so-called poison-oak," which 
it was finally decided to record as Rhus toxicodendron, though it is now known as 
Rhus diversifolia. A lively discussion also took place in reference to the apparently 
smoky condition of the atmosphere, which Dr. Henry Gibbons attributed to forest 
fires in the region of Puget Sound, Washington Territory. It was not clear what 
brought the smoke down the coast, as the ordinary winds would not do so; but there 
certainly was smoke in the air, and he could smell it. Dr. Blake inquired whether Dr. 
Gibbons' smoke was not a kind of hazy fog. He could not detect any smoke. His 
impression was that the atmosphere was clear in the mornings. Dr. Gibbons was very 
certain that it had not been clear but on the contrary very hazy that morning; and in 
proof that there was smoke in the air he said that the sunsets were very red. As to the 
fog theory, he had recently been on the eastern side of Monte Diablo, quite out of the 
reach of the fog, and found the atmosphere smoky there. Dr. Blake thought, if there 
was much smoke, it was unnecessary to look to Washington Territory for it, as it 
might come from tule fires much nearer. Dr. Behr said that in other countries, 
Australia, for instance, smoke from great fires did not spread over vast surface 
distances. Dr. Blake said there ought to be some instrument by which the density of 
smoke in the atmosphere could be measured as moisture was measured — a smoke- 
meter, for instance. Dr. Gibbons suggested "or a meat-smoker." It was remarked that 
perhaps the reason why smoke did not travel far in Australia was that the combustible 
material there did not contain so much carbon as the wood in America. Dr. Behr 
replied that the amount of carbon in plants was about the same in all parts of the 
world. Dr. Gibbons said that smoke and wind were incompatible and that in the East 



CHAPTER IX: 1869 111 

the first day of brisk wind dispelled the haze of Indian summer. Dr. Behr said the 
state of the atmosphere had a great effect upon smoke; on some days it would rise 
straight up and on other days it would creep along the ground. Some one asked, "What 
is smoke?" Dr. Gibbons answered that it was unconsumed carbonized vegetable 
matter. Dr. Behr thought there were several other ingredients entering into the 
composition of smoke. Dr. Blake said that eminent geologists had decided that smoke 
issuing from volcanoes contained no carbon whatever. Dr. Gibbons replied that 
smoke from volcanoes was probably partly ashes, but chiefly unconsumed mineral 
matter. Dr. Gibbons next made some remarks about earthquakes. He said that in his 
opinion the area [San Francisco] had enjoyed an unusually long immunity from 
earthquakes of any magnitude, the earthquake of last October having been a very 
critical one. According to one newspaper account of the meeting. Dr. Gibbons thought 
that the October earthquake of last year had given vent to the accumulated gases and 
hence no shakes of any consequence were felt since, but he would not be surprised 
if another earthquake occurred in the near fiiture. It was reported that Dr. Gibbons 
did not want to alarm members of the society, among whom the matter was discussed. 
The Academy Secretary said that he did not think it best that discussions of a scientific 
body, such as this, upon the question should be published.'^ "* 

September 6, among the donations was a piece of wood perfectly preserved, taken 
at a depth of 288 feet from an artesian well at Santa Clara, Santa Clara County. Dr. 
Blake called attention to the peculiar light in the heavens, observed throughout the 
State a few weeks previously, soon after sunset. He attributed it to a vaporous or 
smoky medium at a high altitude, which reflected the sun's rays. Dr. Cooper presented 
an elaborate paper on "The Fauna of California and its Geographical Distribution."'^ ■* 
On September 7, the Council met but transacted only routine business. September 
20, W. H. Haskell was elected a resident member. Attention was called by Gregory 
Yale to shells from a so-called Indian shell-mound near San Quentin in Marin County. 
He was of the opinion that the mound was not the work of Indians; but was simply 
an upheaval, and that such mounds in general were originally under tide-water when 
the shell deposits were made. Drs. Blake and Cooper, Professor Bolander and others 
said that shell-mounds made by Indians did evidently exist in many places, and that 
their depth of shell deposits and other characteristics showed that they had been 
artificially formed. 

October 4, W. H. Collie and George Hobson were elected resident members. 
Among the donations were specimens of the "wild parsnip" from Nevada. A letter 
about them from Lieutenant D. L. Carpenter of Ruby Valley, Nevada, stated that two 
miners there had been poisoned by eating the root. Dr. Stout said that he had prepared 
a concentrated tincture of the root and found it had no effect on a frog when introduced 
into its blood, but, when put into its stomach, caused complete paralysis in one minute. 
Professor Davidson called up the subject of Indian shell-mounds and said that some 



'^■^ In an insert to the article, the "Reporter" stated that "The question of suppressing Dr. Gibbons'earth- 
quake opinions was not further discussed, and publication not prohibited." Mining and Scientific Press, 
August 17, 1869. f f a J 

'^■'^ See Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 1 870, 4:61-81 . 



1 1 2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

years previously he had examined such a mound ten feet high near Sausalito in Marin 
County, and found 30 skulls in it; and he concluded that the Indians have had 
something to do with the elevation. October 18, B. Christensen was elected a 
resident member. Mr. H. Davis of San Francisco presented fragments of Indian 
skulls and implements from a shell-mound near San Rafael in Marin County. He said 
there were a dozen or more such mounds in the vicinity, one of them about 300 feet 
long by 175 feet wide and 20 feet high. He had opened it and found human skeletons 
at various depths in successive strata of ashes, soil and shells evidently slowly 
accumulated; also flint implements, circles of stones used for fire places, ornaments 
of abalone shell, various kinds of bones and other evidences of human occupation. 
He was disposed to think, however, that fiirther researches in these mounds were not 
likely to be productive of any valuable results. He had pursued his own labors in them 
at the request of persons in the East, who had manifested an interest in them; but he 
did not regard them as of much importance. Dr. Cooper was of the opinion that the 
investigations might be of great value in determining the origin, character and 
condition of the people who occupied the mounds. The relics indicated that the people 
had not advanced beyond the "Stone Age," and were of the same race as the "Diggers" 
of the Great Basin east of the Sierra Nevada; but the tribes north of California and 
those south of it differed from each other, and each differed from the Indians of 
California. It was a question, he said, whether there had ever been any connection 
between the people of the west coast of America and the east coast of Asia. A Chinese 
junk was said to have visited Mexico before the time of Columbus, and there was 
evidence that the Japanese had visited the Northwest Coast; but as yet there had been 
nothing found to indicate any ancient communication with California. Professor 
Davidson remarked that there were records of at least four shipwrecks of Japanese 
vessels on this coast within a period of only one or two centuries, and it was probable 
that many more had occurred previously. The coast might have been colonized from 
Asia, and there might be evidences of it in the mounds. 

November 1 , many scientific publications were received through the Smithsonian 
Institution at Washington, which continued, as it had been doing for years, to 
distribute publications of the Academy and receive for it publications of other 
institutions. Dr. Kellogg gave an account of a recent trip to Humboldt Bay and 
exhibited plants collected on it; and, among them specimens of Whitney's primrose, 
Oenothera Whitneyi, discovered by Professor Bolander. He complained that his 
whortleberry-leaved oak, Quercus vaccinifolia, had been ascribed to Dr. W. Hooker, 
and had also been considered a dwarf variety oi Quercus chrysolepis, and wished to 
correct both these errors. He also spoke of a species of Ceanothus as a producer of 
cream when fed to cows, and said that land covered with the plant was considered 
most valuable by dairymen. Dr. Cooper said that a species of the Ceanothus in the 
East had been used for tea in the time of the American Revolution. H. G. Bloomer 
reported that the "wild parsnip," presented on October 4, was the Cicuta maculata. 



^^ F. Davis in the published proceedings (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4:83) but H. Davis in the handwritten 
mmuies (Minute Books, }'dn. 6, 1868 to Jan. 2, 1872, p. 122). This is probably Mr. Horace L. Davis, elected 
a resident member of the Academy on May 4, 1 868. 



CHAPTER IX: 1869 113 

usually called "water-hemlock," and well known in the East as a deadly poison. 
November 1 5, Col. Leander Ransom read a paper on "Shell-mounds" accompanied 
with sketches of four near San Pedro Point in Marin County. He said that all he had 
seen were in the neighborhood of beds of mussels or other shell-fish, either on the 
banks of bays or streams or not far off. A favorable spot, he went on to explain, was 
selected; a basin-shaped depression made, and a sort of lodge constructed, in which 
the Indians lived and around which they threw out the refuse of their shell-fish and 
other food. After years of such deposits and accumulations of offal, when the stench 
became too oppressive and the fleas and other vermin unbearable, they would set fire 
to the lodge and, after a thorough "purging by fire," build a new habitation and 
commence another series of years and deposits. The results in centuries were the 
shell-mounds. Mr. Yale read a paper on "Meteoric Showers" and said that, while 
looking for a display on the night of November 13, he had, about a quarter before 5 
o'clock in the morning, seen the largest and most brilliant meteor he had ever 
witnessed. It moved from east to west and illuminated the heavens and the earth on 
the line of its track. It exploded at length with a fan-like shape, but he could hear no 
explosive noise. 

December 6, the Council met and the following names were advanced for 
honorary members, James D. Dana, Jeffries Wyman, George Engelmann, Benjamin 
Peirce, T. H. Huxley, Henri Milne-Edwards, Prof Bunsen, Prof Helmholtz, and Dr. 
J. D. Hooker. At the Academy's regular biweekly members meeting, ^ John Taylor 
and Arthur W. Bowman were elected resident members. Dr. Behr spoke of Eucalyp- 
tus marginata as growing plentifully in Australia and thought it might be imported 
with advantage for use as piles, as the wood was not attacked by the teredo. Professor 
Bolander spoke of the Coniferae of California and said that their 33 species had now 
been settled, and there was, he said, no such variety and richness in any other part of 
the known world. Professor Whitney said that in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, 
where he had spent the last summer, he had observed only 6 species. He also read a 
letter from Baron Richthofen on the geology of China and one from J. E. Clayton on 
the White Pine Mineral District of Nevada. Professor Bolander spoke of a reported 
rise of 6 feet in the level of Mono Lake, a freshening of its water, and the disappear- 
ance of the dense clouds of flies, the larvae of which had formerly been so abundant 
on the lake shores. Professor Whitney said that the level of Mono Lake, as indicated 
by water-marks, was once 600 feet higher than now. He added that Great Salt Lake 
and Pyramid Lake had also risen very much in the past two years. He thought there 
were periodical rises and falls in the lakes of the Great Basin, corresponding with 
periodic climatic changes. He said there had been an unusually large rainfall east of 
the Sierra Nevada in the past year. A discussion ensued as to whether the large rainfall 
east of the Sierra had any connection with the uncommonly small rainfall in Califor- 
nia. December 20, Professor Whitney gave an account of geological explorations in 



^•^ In the handwritten Minute Books (Jan. 6"^. 1868 to Jan. 2"'', 1872, p. 130), the meeting is shown as 
taking place on Dec. 7, but this is probably in error. The biweekly meetings of the Academy were held on 
Mondays, usually preceded by a meeting of the Council. In the Council mmute books, the date is given as 
Dec. 6, 1869. 



1 14 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

the Colorado portion of the Rocky Mountains in the summer of 1869.'^ '' His party 
consisted chiefly of professors and students from the Mining School of Harvard 
University; but he was also accompanied by Professor Brewer of the Yale Scientific 
School and by C. F. Hoffman. They had ascended and measured the highest peaks 
there and found the highest points in the Rocky Mountains to be Mount Harvard, 
which was 14,270 feet; Gray's Peak, 14,245; Pike's Peak 14,216; Mount Lincoln, 
14,123; Mount Yale, 14,078; and Long's Peak 14,050. No peak had been found as 
high as several in the Sierra Nevada. Dr. Cooper presented an elaborate paper, the 
first of a series, on "West Coast Fresh- Water Univalves." Professor Bolander read a 
paper on eight species of grass of the genus Melica found in California. Dr. Carl von 
Scherzer, Chief Commissioner of the Commercial and Scientific Department of the 
Austro-Hungarian Embassy to Eastern Asia and America, was introduced and gave 
an account of his journey around the world, and efforts in China to establish a treaty. 
Among other things relating to that country, he spoke of the difficulty which his 
friend. Baron Richthofen, had experienced there, in endeavoring to make scientific 
explorations, on account of being opposed at every point by government officials, 
who were still jealous of foreign enterprise. 



^•^ Whitney published these comments in "Explorations in the Rocky Mountains by J. D. Whitney," 
(1870), Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, 49(147): 398-399. It is noted in the opening paragraph that, "Professor J. 
D. Whitney has given the California Academy of Sciences some of the results of explorations under his 
direction in the Rocky Mountains during the summer vacation of 1869." 



115 



Chapter X: Year 1 870 



A t the annual meeting of January 3, 1870, Professors Henri Milne-Edwards, 
/^^Robert Bunsen, H. L. F. Helmholtz, Thomas H. Huxley, and Dr. Joseph D. 
HooKer, of Europe and Professors James D. Dana and Benjamin Peirce and Drs. 
Jeffries Wyman and George Engelmann, of the United States, were elected honorary 
merribers. Dr. Blake, as president, read his annual address upon the condition and 
progress of the Academy, which was received with satisfaction and applause. Elisha 
Brooks, treasurer, in his report on the finances showed ''that the Academy was free 
from the burden of debt for the first time." The librarian and the director of the 
museum reported their departments in good condition. At the annual election the 
officers chosen for 1870 were Dr. James Blake as president; Dr. A. Kellogg, 
vice-president; Leo Eloesser, corresponding secretary; H. P. Carlton, recording 
secretary; Elisha Brooks, treasurer; Dr. J. D. Cooper, librarian, and H. G. Bloomer, 
director of the museum. Dr. Henry Gibbons introduced the subject of earthquakes, 
giving his views of their cause, and illustrating them with a diagram upon the 
blackboard. A discussion ensued, participated in by Messrs. Heynemann, Holladay, 
Blake, and Stout. January 17, Donald Bruce was elected a resident member and J. 
C. Brevoort of Long Island, New York, a corresponding member. Dr. E. Palmer, of 
the U. S. Agricultural Bureau, gave an account of recent journeys in Arizona and 
Sonora, and spoke of the habits of the Indian tribes, the ruins of ancient towns, and 
the relics of former inhabitants found there. Dr. Stout exhibited globular concretions, 
some from near Mokelumne Hill, Calaveras County, and others from Fossil Hill, 
Nevada. He contended that the larger stones were of volcanic origin and had been 
formed by being thrown out in a melted condition by craters and cooled in spherical 
form, like leaden shot, when falling. His theory elicited a lively discussion as to the 
origin and formation of the concretions. Professor Whitney concluded his earlier 
remarks on his explorations in the Rocky Mountains with an account of his visit to 
South Park, Colorado. He also read a letter from Baron Richthofen giving more details 
on the geology of China. 

February 7, Professor W. J. W. Williams, Col. Charles D. Gibbes, Abner Doble, 
Thomas Nelson, and Charles C. Rueger were elected resident members. A bronze 
medal was presented to the Academy from the Royal Academy of Christiania, 
Norway, having on it the inscription, "£jc haustu Olympico valentiorr A suitable 
reply was ordered to be forwarded. The library reported receiving a large number of 
foreign scientific publications through the Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Behr read a 
paper on the extinction of plants in the neighborhood of San Francisco by the progress 



1 1 6 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1 853- 1 906 

of settlement and the encroachment of foreign weeds. Dr. Blake read an abstract of 
a paper by Carl Vogt on prehistoric man, in reply to which H. G. Bloomer read an 
abstract from an address by President Stokes before the British Association to prove 
that man originated from the special design and creation of Divinity and was not a 
development from an ape or any other inferior form. He evidently took no stock in 
Darwinism, which was turning the scientific world upside down. FEBRUARY 21, 
Thomas W. Newcomb and A. A. Hazeltine were elected resident members. Benjamin 
M. Hartshome donated a number of valuable books. Mr. Easton gave a verbal account 
of his theory of the structure of the Coast Mountains and their lateral spurs. He 
supposed that coal was formed in the basins between the spurs that ran into the ocean. 
In his opinion, the same formation extended to the Isthmus of Darien, and that the 
lateral valleys there afforded natural passages for ship canals across from ocean to 
ocean. He thought, if his views were correct, that they would throw light upon many 
geological puzzles. 

March 7, among the donations were two specimens supposed to be the globes of 
human eyes dried into hard balls, taken from the graves of Chilean aborigines, which 
had been opened two years previously by an earthquake, but on examination they 
proved to be vegetable productions. Dr. Blake read a paper on the "Climate of 
California," particularly on the peculiar weather of the preceding winter. It evoked 
an animated discussion, in which Drs. Gibbons and Cooper participated. March 21, 
Dr. William P. Gibbons, one of the old members who had withdrawn in 1855, and S. 
H. Herrin were elected resident members. Dr. Blake read extracts from a paper by 
M. Gintrac of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, France, on the advantages of raising 
silkwonns in the open air and attributing many of their diseases to confinement in 
too close rooms. He said they would thrive well in any temperature from 47° to 104° 
and were not injured by the direct rays of the sun, nor by sudden changes of weather, 
nor by thunderstorms, as was commonly supposed. Dr. A. W. Saxe made remarks 
upon the sea-currents of our coast, giving it as his opinion that a warm current up the 
coast caused the moderate climate peculiar to California. Dr. Cooper said that the 
warm current was several hundred miles outside. Dr. Gibbons and others entertained 
similar views. A few days after this meeting the general dissatisfaction with the 
discontinuance of the State Geological Survey, which had been expressed in many 
other quarters besides the Academy, bore fruit in the enactment of a new statute by 
the State Legislature, adopted March 25, 1870, directing the State Geologist (Profes- 
sor J. D. Whitney) to proceed and with all reasonable diligence complete the survey 
and the publication of its results, and appropriating $2,000 per month, payable 
monthly, for two years to pay the expenses of survey and publication. The work was 
accordingly soon afterwards resumed, and the Academy had the benefit, for a couple 
of years longer, of the presence and cooperation of the scientists connected with it. 

April 4, Charles Geddes and William J. Fisher were elected resident members. 
Remarks were made on an auroral light observed about midnight on March 28, and 
on an earthquake which occurred on April 2. April 18, Dr. Blake read a communi- 
cation from Captain C. F. Hall, the Arctic explorer, asking the concurrence of the 



CHAPTER X: 1870 117 

Academy in a petition to Congress for an appropriation of $100,000 in aid of his 
proposed third expedition to the Polar Seas. On motion of Dr. Henry Gibbons the 
petition was signed and transmitted to the California delegation in Congress. Profes- 
sor Whitney made some remarks on the boundary line between Oregon and Califor- 
nia. He also asked that a committee be appointed to inquire as to the best instmment 
for recording earthquake phenomena and the proper place for it. Whitney. Gibbons, 
Davidson, and Williamson were thus appointed. A lively discussion then took place 
in reference to Dr. Henry Gibbons' theory of earthquakes. He thought them occa- 
sioned by gases or rather steam produced by water percolating into the hot interior 
of the earth. In his opinion, such places as the Geysers furnished a vent and there were 
no earthquakes there. Professor Bolander said that the earth did shake at the Geyser. 
Dr. Gibbons replied that the shakes there were only miniature earthquakes; but if the 
escaping gases were pent up they would cause a prodigious convulsion. Heynemann 
asked, if the earth were as solid as granite, where were the caverns, spoken of by Dr. 
Gibbons to be found? The earth was said to be much heavier than granite, but the 
gases, if they were the causes of earthquakes, must come from somewhere, and must 
just as certainly get out through some opening, so that there ought to be caverns. But 
the question was, where and how were these gases produced and where were these 
caverns? Dr. Blake was inclined to think that gases, if engendered, would surge 
upwards at once rather than travel along the strata. He did not believe that traveling 
gases would have the power to shake the country up in so uncommon a manner as 
did the earthquake of 1868. Professor Bolander thought the theory of gases wrong. 
Gas, he said, would not travel with the same rapidity that earthquakes do through the 
rocky ridges of the interior of the earth, disturbing the surface as they went along with 
a wave-like motion. He thought electricity was at the bottom of the unpleasant 
movements. Volcanoes might possibly have some connection with earthquakes, but 
the usual causes were local. 

Dr. Stout said he was satisfied with the gaseous theory, but he had some doubt as 
to its force. He had no doubt the center of the earth was in an igneous condition; but 
he could not believe that the gravity of gas produced by the dripping of water into it 
would be sufficient to cause the convulsions noticed in earthquakes. His opinion was 
that they were produced by electricity alone. Dr. Gibbons thought that electricity was 
a convenient name for solving difficult phenomena — a safe refuge for those who gave 
the subject only slight study. Mr. Heynemann said that the earthquake question was 
a very interesting one; and he would like to know how to account for them. It was 
said that the earth's temperature increased one degree for every thirty-four feet of 
descent into it; and at that rate the temperature at a depth of 20,000 feet would be 
600°. Now fossils had been brought up from about that depth in the ocean, and they 
did not appear to have been burned, and he would like to hear the phenomenon 
accounted for. Another member answered that the water of the ocean kept the bottom 
cool, but, if Mr. Heynemann would descend 20,000 feet below the bottom, he would 
be likely to find hot weather. Another member suggested that a curator of earthquakes 
ought to be appointed, whose duty it should be to collect specimens of earthquakes 



118 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1853-1906 

and place them in the museum, taking care, however, to purge such specimens of 
their gases to avoid dangerous consequences. Still another members suggested that, 
for the protection of the City of San Francisco, an artificial volcano should be got up 
in the neighborhood for the escape of the gases coming this way and producing so 
much uneasiness. Besides, he said, as the lava from a volcano was reported to be so 
food a fertilizer, the advantages of such an institution near the sand hills of the City 
would be inestimable. Dr. Gibbons said that the arguments of the last speaker were 
convincing, and he would therefore move the appointment of a committee to get up 
such a volcano in the new Golden Gate Park for the purpose of fertilizing it. The chair 
asked time for consideration in the appointment of so important a committee; and the 
Academy adjourned. 

May 2, among the donations was a section of the trunk of a lemon-verbena tree, 
Aloysia citriodora, showing its luxuriance in this climate, its diameter being seven 
inches. Professor Davidson exhibited photographs of the last total eclipse of the sun, 
taken at Springfield and Shelby ville, Illinois, and spoke of the great improvement in 
accuracy of observation thus secured. He also spoke of the slight rainfall at and about 
Los Angeles and the likelihood that the crops there would be an entire failure; while, 
if proper attention and energy were directed to the subject, abundant water for all 
necessary irrigation could be obtained there by boring artesian wells not more than 
70 feet deep. Dr. Cooper gave an account of observations made by him, in the course 
of a recent trip to the Sierra Nevada, on the absence of frost in the ground under the 
snow and the rapidity with which animals and vegetables sprang up when the drifts 
were but half melted. Flowers blossomed on the very edge of the retreating snow; the 
tops of ant-hills, still half buried, were covered with active insects, and small animals 
came out of their winter burrows as soon as the sun's rays struck the bare soil. Many 
birds and quadrupeds were constant residents of the summits through the entire 
winter. Professor Whitney exhibited an impression of a fossilized leaf, apparently a 
fan palm, from a volcanic sedimentary deposit near Placerville in El Dorado County. 
It was the first specimen of the kind, he said, so far found in California and indicated 
a sub-tropical climate in the Tertiary era. May 16, Gregory Yale called attention to 
the death of Dr. John A. Veatch, who had been one of the most active and valuable 
members of the Academy. He also spoke of a shell-mound that was being opened 
near the terminus of the Bay View Railroad in the southern part of the City and 
County. He still maintained that these so-called mounds were not true mounds or 
built for burial purposes, but were natural elevations or formed by successive deposits 
of shells and refuse without any design to form mounds or burial places. The deposits 
in most of them were not deep enough to admit adults to be buried in a sitting posture, 
as was usual in Indian burials. Dr. Cooper spoke of the so-called Alabaster Cave in 
El Dorado County and the absence of any human or other animal remains found in 
it. Mr. Yale suggested that the dampness there might favor decomposition and said 
that the caves of Europe, where animal remains had been found, were all very dry. 

June 6, G. R. Throckmorton and J. T. Brown were elected resident members. 
Professor Davidson exhibited the skull of a sea-lion killed near Punta Arena in 



CHAPTER X: 1870 119 

Mendocino County, and also a stone, as large as a child's head, which he said was 
one of several found in the animal's stomach. He had been told by the hunters that in 
the breeding season the males of this species eat no food, but swallow stones instead, 
and are consequently very thin afterwards, furnishing very little oil. He said that the 
Aleutians made a similar statement in reference to the fur seals, which are allied to 
the sea-lions. Dr. Stout referred to the fact that he had exhibited to the Academy, at 
a previous meeting, a piece of basalt taken from a well 128 feet deep in the Western 
Addition of the City, and said that it indicated the existence, beneath the superficial 
and characteristic rocks of the San Francisco Peninsula, of an underlying stratum of 
basaltic rock something like that found near Petaluma. JUNE 20, Thomas C. Banks, 
J. B. McChesney and Charles B. Turrill were elected resident members. Dr. Stout 
presented a copy of Captain C. M. Scammon's book on the Cetaceans of the West 
Coast of America, with remarks upon the author's laborious devotion to the work. 
He also spoke of the process of preserving specimens with carbolic acid and said that 
birds might be preserved entire by injections of that fluid. Dr. Cooper remarked that 
such specimens were liable to be spoiled for all usefiil purposes by shrinking out of 
shape. Dr. Stout next exhibited a piece of rock, which he called basalt, found in a 
well in the City 75 feet deep. Professor Whitney said it was a very hard, metamorphic 
sandstone, not uncommon on this peninsula. Dr. Blake spoke of a remarkable 
hailstonn, which occurred near Pleasanton in Alameda County on June 12. The 
hailstones were large enough to kill birds. The storm was accompanied with lightning 
and thunder. 

July 1 1, at a meeting adjourned from July 4, Dr. C. N. Ellinwood and J. F. Gray 
were elected resident members. Col. R. S. Williamson asked for information as to the 
prevention of the movement of the sand-dunes around the formations of the light- 
house at Toke Point, Cape Shoalwater, Washington Territory. He said there was a 
long reach of sand coast at that point extending for many miles, which during stonns 
of wind drifted so much as to cause apprehensions that the light-house might be 
undermined. Professor Davidson spoke of a similar case on the coast of France, where 
they had to protect the exposed building by heavy masonry sunk below the drifting 
sand. Professor Bolander thought that protection might be secured by planting such 
vegetation as could be made to grow in the sand; and he named several plants that 
could be successfully rooted and would afford a basis for other vegetation. Professor 
Davidson said that in some cases the sand had been known to change level fifteen 
feet in a single night, and this would render the growth of plants of any protective 
value difficult. Dr. Cooper said that several of the plants named by Professor 
Bolander, if they could be protected from cattle, could be successfijlly grown. Dr. 
Blake suggested the planting of annuals of rapid growth, which would hold the 
surface while larger, denser and more durable plants could become rooted. Professor 
Davidson made some remarks about whales, additional to what the work of Captain 
Scammon had given. He referred to the attacks made upon them by the thresher shark, 
which he said would manage to get above the whale's head and keep it under water 
thus preventing him from breathing until he was suffocated. He also spoke of the 



120 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1853-1906 

"sounding" of the whale, when struck with the harpoon, and said that in shallow water 
the animal would strike bottom violently and come up covered with mud, and 
frequently so stunned as to give the whaler an opportunity to strike again; and this 
was one of the reasons why whaling in such seas was the most successful. Professor 
Davidson said that he had measured the angle between two sides of the specimen of 
supposed basalt that had been presented at a previous meeting, as found in San 
Francisco by Dr. Stout, and found it to be 140°, which would make a nine-sided prism. 
Professor Whitney said that so far as his knowledge went, there was no basalt in San 
Francisco County. 

July 18, Henry Hemphill was elected a resident member. Leo Eloesser resigned 
his office of corresponding secretary, and H. G. Hanks was elected to fill the vacancy. 
Dr. Blake read a paper on the "Climate of the North Pacific Ocean," based upon 
observations of Captain Doane of the Pacific Mail Steamship "China," made on the 
course of six consecutive round voyages between San Francisco and Japan from 
November 1 869 to June 1 870. Gregory Yale read a paper on two shell-mounds in the 
lower part of San Francisco County, one of which had been examined by several 
members of the Academy. He exhibited a diagram of the mound, but said he was not 
yet ready to give a complete description. He said he thought there should be a 
systematic series of observations made on those and other mounds so as to arrive at 
definite conclusions regarding them, their origin and purposes. It was his intention, 
he said, to at some time write out a complete account of his own observations. Dr. A. 
W. Saxe spoke on the subsidence of artesian water in Santa Clara Valley. He 
incidentally mentioned the fact that fish occasionally came from the wells, and 
sometimes saw-dust. He was satisfied the fish did not belong originally to subterra- 
nean streams, but had in some manner found their way from surface streams through 
underground channels. Professor Davidson stated that workmen of the Central Pacific 
Railroad Company, in boring for water at Oakland Point in Alameda County at a 
depth of 205 feet, had passed though a redwood log 7 feet in diameter. Both the wood 
and the bark were fresh and sound. At the depth named the flow of water in the well 
was materially influenced by the state of the tide in the Bay, the pressure of high tide 
causing an increased flow. H. G. Hanks stated that borate of lime had been found in 
considerable quantities at a point beyond Virginia City, Nevada, and that there was 
a probability that valuable deposits of nitrate of soda would be found associated with 
it. 

August 1 , at its regular members meeting. Professor John LeConte, Professor 
Joseph LeConte, E. Durand, Charles H. Dennison, and James R. Smedberg were 
elected resident members. Dr. EUenwood moved to invite the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science to hold its next meeting in San Francisco. The 
president said that the matter must be brought before the Council, and called a meeting 
for 4 o'clock the next day. Dr. Stout made remarks upon the subject of preserving 
animal bodies by the use of carbolic acid. He exhibited specimens of birds and fish 



'" ' Elder brother of Joseph LeConte; not to be confused with John Lawrence LeConte, the entomologist 
and cousin of John and Joseph LeConte, or John Eatton LeConte, Jr., father of John Lawrence. For details 
of the LeConte family line see Lester Stephens' biography of Joseph LeConte (1982). 



CHAPTER X: 1870 



121 




Joseph LeConte 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 




John LeConte 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 



122 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1 853- 1 906 

preserved for over a year without indications of decay by simply removing the 
contents of the abdomen and filling the cavity with cotton soaked in fluid carbolic 
acid, reduced with alcohol to 95 per cent. He claimed that the largest animals could 
be so preserved. He had himself been called upon, when Captain Pearson died some 
years previously, to embalm the body from preservation, and he did so by using 
carbolic acid; and he had no doubt that one hundred years hence, if the body were 
examined, it would be found in a good state of preservation. Professor Davidson said 
that, if Dr. Stout's facts and theory were correct, the carbonic acid preparation was a 
valuable one for collectors who had not time or skill to skin specimens or in case of 
vultures, buzzards and other animals where the work was offensive. Dr. Cooper 
thought it might answer for temporary purposes but doubted its value for any great 
length of time on account of the evaporation of the acid. Dr. Stout said it was true the 
acid would evaporate; but in doing so it seemed to permeate every particle of the 
tissues and even preserve the brain. The body desiccated and became very light, and 
decomposition appeared to be arrested. He said the principal preserving substance 
used in the embalming of the mummies of Egypt was undoubtedly carbolic acid in a 
crude state. Dr. Cooper said it dried the body and contracted it so that he did not think 
specimens so prepared could ever be set up by a taxidennist. Professor Davidson 
spoke about sea-lions and said that the females remain on the coast all the year and 
go in schools to feed regularly, while the males come only for a short time, about two 
months, and during these visits do not feed. He mentioned a male that had been shot 
at Punta Arena in Mendocino County, in the body of which was found embedded an 
Alaskan spearhead and part of a sinew line attached, so that it must have traveled 
about 1200 miles. Dr. Cooper described a recent trip to "Castle Peak," an elevation 
of something over 9,000 feet in the Sierra Nevada and four or five miles north of 
Summit on the Central Pacific Railroad. The peak consisted of a castle-like row of 
vertical cliffs which, he said, were of basaltic and volcanic conglomerates. August 
2, by order of the president, the Council met to consider three matters: an offer by 
Mr. R. B. Woodward to erect on his property at the Mission a building of suitable 
dimensions to house all the property of the Academy; the motion by Dr. Ellenwood 
to invite the American Association for the Advancement of Science to visit California 
and hold their next annual meeting in San Francisco, which was approved; and, if 
asked, to allow the San Francisco Microscopical Society to become a section of the 
Academy. 

August 15, Professor A. Poey, who had been director of the observatory at 
Havana, Cuba, was introduced and spoke about meteoric showers and their periods 
and also about sun-spots. He said that extraordinary physical phenomena on the earth, 
such as great storms, seasons of heat and cold, diseases, and even crimes, occurred 
in cycles, usually of nine or ten years or more, and corresponded with astronomical 
cycles of meteoric showers, which were closely connected with sun-spots. Professor 
Whitney read a letter recently received from Baron Richthofen describing the 
immense development of loess deposits in northern China. He said that the geological 
conditions under which these subaerial deposits fonn is still not understood. He also 



CHAPTER X: 1870 123 

made some comments on the geology of the "Castle Peaks" of the Sierra Nevada, 
which were recently visited by the Survey. 

September 5, H. E. Highton and Dr. C. M. Hitchcock were elected resident 
members, and Professor A. Poey, a corresponding member. The library reported 
receiving a large donation of foreign scientific publications through the Smithsonian 
Institution. Dr. Augustus Le Plongeon read a paper on the aboriginal ruins of Peru 
and exhibited artifacts taken from the ruins. Dr. Stout called attention to a proposal 
by a group known as the "Bolivia Colonization Society" to establish a settlement 400 
miles from the mouth of the Amazon and to keep open lines of communication with 
the Pacific shores by highways across the Andes. He expressed the hope that the some 
special good for science would come out of this effort. September 19, the Rev. 
William Alexander of was elected a resident member and Drs. Miguel de los Rios 
and- A. J. de los Rios of Lima, Peru, corresponding members. Professor Bolander 
stated that Dr. George Engelmann had written him that he had received a notification 
of his election as an honorary member of the Academy and that he would have made 
a formal reply in writing, but he could not make out the name of the secretary. Mr. 
Yale desired to say that the Regents of the University of California had made a verbal 
proposition to incorporate the Academy as a part of the University. '^^ Dr. Stout made 
extended remarks upon the subject and very decidedly objected to and protested 
against any such movement. The Academy decided to take no further notice of the 
proposition unless and until it came in written form and with proper authority. Mr. 
Hanks said that the American Association for the Advancement of Science'"^ had 
accepted the invitation of the Academy to hold their meeting in San Francisco in 
1872. October 3, Judge S. Clinton Hastings,'^'' Jacob R. Snyder and Dr. N. R. Davis 
were elected resident members. Professor Esmark from Christiania, Norway, who 
spoke at the Academy meeting on September 19, was elected a corresponding 
member. Following the display of several objects of natural history and comments 
thereon, and a discussion of some recent unusual meteorological disturbances by Dr. 
Blake the discussion focused on how best to entertain the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science when it meets in San Francisco in 1872. 

November 7, Gen. David D. Colton and Dr. John Hewston were elected resident 
members. After a brief paper by Dr. Kellogg on a new Califomian Dicentra, Judge 
Hastings read a paper on earthquakes, propounding the theory that they were caused 
by the falling in of walls of caverns beneath the crust of the earth. He thought that 



"'^ This matter must have come up earlier, but it is not mentioned in the Minute Books. On March 24, 
1871, James Cooper, who was not known for mincing words, in a letter to Spencer Fullerton Baird said, 
". . . the Academy is flourishing considering the hard times and laughs at the wise professors and regents 
of the University [of California] who kindly informed us that we must be swallowea up in that Asylum for 
rebel Professors or be extinguished. On the contrary they have managed so recklessly that their President 
admits thev are on the verge of bankruptcy, and nothing but a liberal appropriation by the Legislature will 
save them! This will be had ... as the University is a popular hobby & will probably swallow up all that 
the state has to give . . ." (SIArchives, RU52, Box 29, Folder 13.) 

^^■^ Reported in the newspaper [The San Francisco Bulletin) account of the meeting of October 3 and 
referred to as the "National Association for the Promotion of Science" 

'"'* Serranus Clinton Hastings, former Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, came to California in 
1 849 and was appointed Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court ( 1 849- 1 85 1 ). Afterward, he entered 
business and practiced law. He founded Hastings College of Law in San Francisco in 1878. 



124 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




David D. Colton 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 

the action of subterranean water might be an agent of these collapses. He believed 
that the cessation of earthquakes in countries once disturbed by them, like England, 
was due to the final settling in of the earth's crust and filling up of the vortices. He 
asserted that earthquakes were confined to countries where long dry seasons prevail 
and that the phenomena recurred at periods between the dry and rainy seasons, as in 
California where they were most marked in the Autumn and Spring. In reference to 
subterranean waters he said that the increase in the volume of springs and streams at 
the end of summer was to be explained by assuming that rains had swollen their 
far-removed sources and then, by hydrostatic pressure through subterranean conduits, 
had raised their distant outlets. Professor Davidson said that the theory of Judge 
Hastings about earthquakes being confined to dry and warm countries was not 
supported by facts. They were common in Alaska, where the climate was cold and 
of perpetual moisture. Dr. Henry Gibbons pronounced Judge Hastings explanation 
of the rise of springs and streams in autumn as equally untenable; and, on the contrary, 
he ascribed it to the diminution of evaporation, with the shortening of the days and 
lengthening of the nights in autumn, - view in which he was supported by Dr. Cooper 
and Dr. Kellogg. Dr. Gibbons fiirther said that he had treated the subject in an 
elaborate paper, which was published in Silliman 's Journal some twelve years 
previously,"' "^ and that his explanation had been accepted by scientific men as correct. 
Dr. Kellogg mentioned the results of experiments to test the amount of evaporation 
from the earth, which was ascertained to be very great in the driest season; and of 

'"•-'' Gibbons, Henry. 1864. On the rising of springs and streams in California before the winter rains. 
American Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 38 (Nov.), pp. 187-189. 



CHAPTER X: 1870 125 

course, when this evaporation was lessened by shorted days, there would be a gradual 
increase in springs and steams. Dr. James Blake thought the contraction of rocks with 
lessened heat might, by reopening fissures, permit a greater flow of water, and should 
be taken into the account; and he commented upon the increase of streams after an 
earthquake shock as the result of the opening of cracks. Dr. Gibbons in reply said that 
the increase of water occurred with the shortening days, when there was no abatement 
of heat; and he rather referred the flow coincident with earthquakes to the settling of 
the soil and rocks, which would squeeze out the moisture, or close its ordinary 
channels of escape under the surface. 

Judge Hastings, with a smile, observed that he had advanced his theories only for 
the purpose of eliciting the discussion; but he thought he could vindicate them. In 
reply to a question by Dr. Gibbons, he said that he had been first led to attribute 
earthquakes to the falling in of cavern walls by a fact told him six months before by 
one of the sisters of San Juan Capistrano, who showed him where the hill there had 
sunk in at the time of the earthquake, which destroyed the Mission church in 1818. 
Dr. Le Plongeon made remarks on earthquakes in Peru and endorsed an opinion 
advanced by Dr. Gibbons that such phenomena were caused by the explosion of gases 
along spaces between the molten core of the earth and its crusts. Dr. Blake closed the 
discussion by remarking that what was wanted about earthquakes was facts, not 
theories. Unfortunately the circumstances usually attending these phenomena were 
not favorable to a careful collection of data, and our knowledge was not sufficient to 
afford a complete explanation. 

Mr. Hanks referred to the reported finding of a ship on the Colorado Desert, alleged 
to have been stranded there centuries ago by the recession of the sea, and proposed 
that a committee should be appointed to investigate the subject. Professor Davidson 
said that the so-called ship was supposed to be a schooner, which Mr. Vise had 
attempted to haul across the desert on a large cart a few years ago but had been 
compelled to abandon. Mr. Hanks replied that Col. Albert S. Evans had described the 
ship in an article, published in The Galaxy a year before Vise's expedition, and 
testified that the vessel was a large one. Dr. Henry Gibbons said that he was willing 
to incur the risk of being "sold," in an endeavor to elicit truth. A motion was then 
carried that Col. Evans should be invited to address the Academy on the subject and 
Mr. Hanks should be appointed a committee to gather information on the same matter. 

November 21,""' Dr. John Morrill [?Morrell] of Colima, Mexico, was elected a 
corresponding member. Mr. Hanks read a paper in reference to the reported ship on 
the desert. He said that his inquiries had elicited nothing but secondary evidence. 
There was positive evidence that numerous persons had seen at a distance of some 



'"^ Hittell neglected to take note of the special meeting of the Council held on November 10. At that 
meeting several proposals were acted upon, including one by James Blake to send a petition to the 
Lighthouse Board in Washington asking that Lighthouses on the Pacific Coast be authorized to record 
meteorological observations. The proposal was approved. A request by Dr. Le Plongeon that the Academy 
publish his article on Peruvian antiquities was rejected. Lastly, Mr. H. P. Carlton proposed the appointment 
of a committee of Academy members who were "men of property and business habits to solicit 
subscriptions for the purpose of purchasing a lot to be the property of the Academy upon which a building 
might be erected for use by the Academy. A list of 40 names was made out from which a committee could 
be selected. The proposition was carried. {Minute Book of the Council, Jan. 14, 1868-April 14, 1874, pp. 
34-35.) 



126 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1853-1906 

miles an object, which they believed to be the wreck of a large ship embedded in the 
sand; but it was in a spot that was muddy and inaccessible during portions of the year. 
A company had left San Bernardino some time before for the purpose of solving the 
mystery; but they had been unable to approach nearer than four miles on account of 
mud. It was said, however, that the Indians insisted on the existence of the ship. Under 
the circumstances Mr. Hanks suggested as a theoretical explanation, in the absence 
of direct proof, that the alleged ship might be only a mass of the curious travertine 
which forms in the alkaline lakes on the plains and southern deserts and grows into 
fantastic forms like coral. He had himself seen fomis which could easily have been 
mistaken for almost anything. Professor Davidson, in allusion to an assumption that 
the alkaline valley containing the "ship" was seventy feet lower than sea-level, stated 
that the field notes of a party surveying for the 32" parallel railroad showed the level 
of the western side of the desert to be seven hundred and fifty feet above the ocean. 
Col. Albert S. Evans, being present on invitation, gave an account of his observations 
on the supposed ship. He had crossed the desert several times. He had seen the object 
once from a distance of some ten miles and afterwards from a point within three miles; 
and from that distance had examined it with a glass. It appeared to be the hulk of a 
vessel, lying tilted on its side and partly buried in the alkaline mud that surrounded 
it. The locality was a salt plain which at certain seasons was covered with water and 
at others was quite dry. He had observed the old waterline on the surrounding hills 
and was surprised at the drifts of fine shells, spirals, such as are found in ocean beds. 
His impression was that the locality was above the present sea-level. The so-called 
"New River," which runs from the desert into the Colorado south of the ship, might 
have been formed by an immense cloud-burst or water-spout emptying upon the 
desert and cutting a channel to the river, which the drifting sands were then closing 
up. He mentioned several instances of water spouts that had precipitated rivers of 
water, cutting large channels in the earth and destroying everything in their course. 
He had heard the Indian story of the ship and the Indian tradition that the sea once 
flowed in there from the Gulf but did not attach much importance to them. He said 
that he did not know that the object seen by himself and others was a ship, but he 
thought it was; and, because he had seen it on several occasions, he knew it could not 
be the effect of mirage. Neither could it have been the schooner said to have been 
hauled to the desert on an ox-cart by Martin Vise for that went by a road far south of 
the place described and he had reason to believe it reached its destination and was 
then afloat. Furthermore, the supposed ship was mentioned before Vise ever started 
with his schooner. Col. Evans spoke of one person who claimed to have gone to the 
ship, to have examined it; and to have reported that it was built of teak- wood. At the 
conclusion of the speaker's remarks, some conversational discussion took place in 
reference to cloud-bursts and their effects; but the "ship on the desert" appears to 
have dropped out of the domain of science and passed over to that of fiction and 
romance. 

December 5, Professor Davidson called attention to the growth of oysters in San 
Francisco Bay from seedlings brought from New York and planted the previous 



CHAPTER X: 1870 127 

March. They seemed to have thrived well, had grown very rapidly, and were already 
several times larger than when planted. Mr. Throckmorton, Dr. Cooper, and others 
doubted their growth in the time specified; but Professor Davidson said the fact was 
based upon undoubted authority. Dr. Cooper expressed a desire to know why an 
imported species of oyster should grow so large while the oyster native to this coast 
and planted under the same conditions grew no larger than in an uncultivated state. 
Professor Davidson, passing from bivalves to jewels, said that two diamonds had 
been not long before been found in Arizona. The specimens had been brought by 
prospecting miners among a great variety of minerals, including rubies, garnets and 
so on. The miners, not knowing the diamond in the rough, had thrown away some 
large and valuable specimens. The largest brought by them to San Francisco would 
cut above three carats and according to Frontier, Pohlman and Bellemre, lapidaries 
would be worth about $500 when cut. This discovery, the Professor said, indicated 
another industry in our country. Dr. Le Plongeon read a paper on earthquakes. 

December 19, at the regular meeting, Dr. Blake donated a femur and other bones 
of a mastodon from Inyo Co. and said he hoped to obtain the skull. Dr. Le Plongeon 
read a continuation of his essay on earthquakes. Professor Davidson stated that in 
studying the bars and entrances of all the rivers and bays opening directly upon the 
Pacific Coast of the United States a law was developed showing that the channels all 
tended to the northward directly in the face of the northwest winds and the northwest 
swell rolling in steadily all summer. He attributed the cause of this to the bottom sands 
being rolled along the coast by the eddy or inshore current, running as a rule to the 
northward, contrary to the direction of the great coast current, running to the 
southward off-shore. The in-shore current attained a velocity of two miles per hour 
and a width of about three miles. He illustrated the law by drawings of the entrances 
of San Francisco Bay, Humboldt Bay, and others. Dr. Cooper presented a paper, "On 
Shells of the West Slope of North America," in which he described a large collection 
of shells presented to the Academy by Dr. Robert K. Reid of Stockton. 



128 



ChapterXI: Year 1871 



I he annual meeting of 1871 took place on Tuesday, JANUARY 3. William Blunt 
was elected a resident member. Dr. Cooper, librarian, reported that the library 
icreased during the past year beyond all precedent, and the books contributed 
were all of great value. The treasurer, Elisha Brooks, reported that the receipts of the 
precious year had lacked about $700 of equalling those of the year preceding, which 
fact he attributed to the general business depression. The receipts had been only 
$1,355.00. The country members especially had not paid up. But nevertheless the 
Academy was out of debt and had on hand a balance of $8.25. H. G. Bloomer, director 
of the museum, reported that the collections had greatly increased during the past 
year and the new accessions were interesting and important, but on account of want 
of room and conveniences could not be properly displayed. He went on to remark 
that as the collections had been made "for an unappreciative public, a rich and wealthy 
public, that had witnessed the meetings of the Society in their dingy rooms for 
eighteen years, without coming forward to aid the building up of an institution that 
would be an honor to our City, there needed be no wonder that the Museum of the 
California Academy of Sciences did not present a more satisfactoiy appearance, 
however enthusiastic members might be in the general work of the Association." He 
further said that Professor Esmark of the Royal Academy of Christiania, Norway, 
was arranging the alcoholic specimens, and Henry Edwards the entomological 
collections. The report of the officers of the annual election that day held showed that 
the following officers had been chosen for the year 1871, and they were declared duly 
elected: president. Dr. James Blake; vice-president. Professor George Davidson; 
corresponding secretary. Rev. F. Hanson; recording secretary, H. P. Carlton; librar- 
ian, Dr. J. G. Cooper; director of the museum, H. G. Bloomer; treasurer, Elisha 
Brooks. The minutes of the last previous meeting of the Council were then read in 
reference to amendments of the Constitution, which were to be acted on the next 
month. 

Dr. James Blake gave a description of a shell-mound, which he had recently visited 
at Lafayette in Contra Costa County. It was about one hundred feet above sea-level 
and eighteen miles from the salt waters of the Bay. In extent it was about one hundred 
yards long by fifty yards wide, and about ten feet high; and it was fornied to a very 

" ' At a special meeting of the Council held on December 27, 1870, the following constitutional 
amendments were proposed; "Art 2, Sec. 1, append; The payment of the monthly dues of officers of this 
Academy, during their term of office shall be left optional.'' Also, "Art. 2, Sec. 3, That the Council [changed 
to Trustees] shall have the privilege of nominating for election for gratuitous [changed to honorary] life 
memberships . . ." It was also proposed to seek a "competent and responsible" lawyer to advise on the 
legal status of the Academy. {Kfiimte Book of the Council, Jan. 14, 186$- April 14, 18/4, p. 36.) 



CHAPTER XI: 1871 129 

considerable extent of the remains of salt-water shells. As to the question how the 
shells came to be found in such quantities at a point now so far inland, he said that in 
his opinion the Bay once extended to or near that point, and that the Indians had not 
carried them from the present shores of the Bay. Besides the shells there skeletons of 
Indians, and bones of deer and other animals, which had been split lengthwise 
probably by the Indians. There were also flint chips in large quantities among the 
debris of the mound. The geological evidence, he said, went to show that the whole 
valley was over the bed of the sea, sandstone being the prevailing rock. Professor 
Bolander said that in Mendocino County the Indians were accustomed to carry shells 
and fish to as great a distance as in this case from the sea. Professor Davidson, as a 
sort of parting salute to the "Ship on the Desert," said that on the authority of Col. 
Sedgwick the elevation of New River near the Colorado was some one hundred and 
fifty- feet, and to get up there the ship must have ascended about that much uphill. 
Besides it had been stated that the ship was some two hundred and fifty feet long. If 
so, it would probably have registered two thousand tons. He added that he did not 
draw any conclusions; but upon these stubborn facts the public might draw its own. 

Dr. James Blake presented his annual address as president of the Academy. He 
said that he had expected to resign the office and had prepared his address with that 
in view. He congratulated the Academy upon its financial condition. He said that it 
had been enabled to expend about $400.00 on its museum during the past year, besides 
meeting all its ordinary running expenses. He spoke of the necessity of better quarters 
and the efforts that had been made and were being made to acquire a lot and building 
for the proper use of the institution. He called attention to the great and unobtrusive 
work accomplished by the association and the value of and great respect which had 
been paid to is publications throughout the enfire scientific world. No other Society 
with the same small number of working members had accomplished so much for 
science during the same period; for, although the laborers were few, the ground we 
had to work in was virgin soil and had yielded an abundant harvest. He also said that 
within the last two or three years a change had evidently taken place in the community 
in respect to scientific culture. The increased attention given to science in modem 
education and the recognition of the value of scientific labor by government had not 
failed to act beneficially upon the Academy. During the year just passed thirty-four 
new members had joined the institution and the collections had very rapidly in- 
creased, while in the library only fifty-nine new works had been received in 1 868 and 
one hundred and eighty-nine in 1869, the number of new books added in 1870 was 
three hundred and sixty-four. 

January 16, Charles A. Spencer was elected a resident member and James S. 
Lawson, U. S. Coast Survey, a corresponding member. Gregory Yale read an opinion 
on the legal status of the Academy to the effect that before it could have a legal 
character and be able to proceed with the business of building as was contemplated, 
it should incorporate and elect trustees in accordance with law. He submitted fomis 
for that purpose, which were adopted. The members present attached their signatures 
to an agreement for reincorporation, and the secretary was directed to advertise a 



130 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

notice for the election of trustees to be held on February 6, 1871, at l-^/i o'clock p.m. 
at the Academy rooms, 622 Clay Street, San Francisco. Dr. Henry Gibbons made 
remarks on observations conducted by himself on an extemporized seismometer or 
earthquake gauge, consisting of a pound weight attached to the end of a wire. He said 
it was very sensitive to movements; but that there had been no indications of any 
movements in this locality for an unusually long period. Dr. Blake and Professor 
Davidson suggested that some of the oscillations previously observed by Dr. Gibbons 
in the night-time might be caused by atmospheric or hygrometric changes, which 
affect all buildings, even some of stone or brick, in support of which suggestion 
Professor Davidson advanced a number of facts, including the well-known contrac- 
tion and expansion of Bunker Hill Monument. Professor Davidson then took occasion 
to state that the Coast Survey had determined the position of Mount Rainier in 
Washington Territory to be Lat. 46°5r09" North and Lon. 121°45'28" West. Pre- 
vious locations had been twenty miles from being correct. Its elevation was definitely 
determined to be 14,444, making it four feet higher than Shasta and confirming the 
speaker's impression that it was the highest peak on the coast. In making his 
calculations, however, the Professor did not reckon with Mount Whitney. Attention 
was again called to the agreement for reincorporation of the Academy. Those who 
signed the agreement were the seven officers, and in addition to them Gregory Yale, 
Dr. George Hewston, Major Robert S. Williamson, Benjamin P. Avery, Dr. Henry 
Gibbons, Sr. and several others. The notice for the meeting for election of trustees on 
February 6, 1 87 1 , was dated January 16, 1871. 

February 6, Henry Chapman was elected a resident member. The Smithsonian 
Institution of Washington, as it had frequently done on previous occasions, sent a 
large package of books, besides regular exchanges. The matter of the election of 
trustees came up. After a long discussion as to the number required, the following 
seven gentlemen were elected as the first Board of Trustees: Dr. James Blake, 
president, H. P. Carlton, Elisha Brooks, Dr. C. M. Hitchcock, Gen. John Hewston, F. 
L. A. Pioche, and Samuel Hubbard. The Board of Trustees, so elected was authorized 
to prepare a certificate of incorporation to be executed by them in accordance with 
law and filed in the proper office. Said certificate was to contain the name and objects 
of the association. 

February 20, Dr. J. P. Whitney and G. A. Games were elected resident members. 
Professor Bolander presented the Academy with a large collection of dried European 
plants sent by Dr. Hooker of Kew Gardens. Dr. Kellogg exhibited a plate of a lily, 
which he proposed should be called Lilium Bloomeriamim, and read a description of 
it. Professor Bolander said that he had received from Europe a description of a lily, 
which had been named Lilium Humboldtii, and he believed it to be the same as the 
plant described by Dr. Kellogg. Mr. Bloomer thought there were reasons for believing 
L. Humboldtii and L. Canadensis to be the same as L. Pardalinum, which had been 
described by Dr. Kellogg several years previously. Professor Bolander called atten- 
don to a statement, which he had recently observed in a newspaper, to the effect that 
certain parties were making arrangements to cut peat in the San Joaquin Valley, and 



CHAPTER XI: 1871 131 

inquired if any real peat was known to exist in California. He thought the conditions 
here were not favorable to the formation of true peat. This substance was formed by 
the decay of vegetable matter constantly under water. When the vegetable matter was 
subjected to such overflows as were the case along the San Joaquin River, earthy 
matter must be deposited with the vegetable matter, which would prevent the 
formation of real peat. Dr. James Blake, recurring to what he had said at a previous 
meeting in reference to a shell-mound at Lafayette in Contra Costa County, stated 
that he had since learned from an old Califomian that the Indians were formerly in 
the habit of gathering shell-fish on the coast and carrying them ten or fifteen miles 
inland for food. Dr. Henry Gibbons spoke of some observations he had been making 
regarding the rains in this State. He said that in the western States the rain begins in 
the quarter from which the cloud comes, while upon this Coast the rain begins to fall 
first in the quarter towards which the cloud is being blown. 

March 6, ' Professor Bolander stated that there were now known to be one 
hundred and forty species of grasses on this Coast. Only fourteen species had before 
been observed. This was probably owing, he said, to the rapidity with which observers 
had gone over the ground. Among the total number he included several species that 
were cultivated, such as timothy and grasses used for lawns. He had recently found 
a species which he believed to be identical with that found by Dr. Hooker at Magellan 
Bay when on his expedition to the Antarctic continent with Captain Ross. It is 
distinguished by a remarkably vivid green color and he would recommend it to the 
attention of persons who intended making lawns. The species grew abundantly from 
Cisco on the Central Pacific Railroad to the summit, and stock-raisers spoke of it as 
being of especial value for grazing. The grasses around Mono Lake he regarded as 
identical with species which were natives of Chile. 

March 20, Professor Davidson said that Professor Marsh of Yale College had 
prepared an article upon the silicified forest trees near Calistoga in Napa County, 
which would be published in an Eastern scientific journal. He asked if an article on 
the same subject had not been read in the California Academy of Sciences and, if so, 
what its character was, and its date. A discussion thereupon ensued about Eastern 
scientists appropriating discoveries, made on this Coast by residents, and claiming 
originality after descriptions had been published here. Dr. Henry Gibbons said that 



" - For some inexplicable reason, Hittell neglected to record a discussion that took place at the March 
6th meeting relating to claims by Clarence King that he and his party were the first to discover glaciers in 
the United States (on Sept. 11, 1 870; see, for instance, Rabbitt, 1 979, pp. 189-190). The following is quoted 
from the minutes of that meeting; "Professor Davidson [George Davidson, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey] 
called attention to an article in the Atlantic Monthly for March, in which Clarence King claims for himself 
and party the first discovery of glaciers in the United States. Mr. King had made valuable observations, but 
he has been preceded by other parties in the discovery of active glaciers. Lieutenant (now General) August 
V. Kautz, U.S.A., attempted to ascend Mount Rainier in 1856 or 1857, but found his way barred by great 

flaciers. Mr. King, in his paper, says it was possible that glaciers may be discovered upon Mount Baker; 
ut this question was settled by Mr. Coleman, of the Alpine Club, who ascended the mountain in 1869. He 
published, in Harper's Magazine of that year, a description of glaciers on Mount Baker, and gave 
illustrations of them." With respect to additional discoveries of active glaciers in western North America 
[prior to King, Emmons, and Clark's ascent of Mt. Shasta], Davidson continued, "[that] he had received a 
letter from Professor W. P. Blake, in which he corrects the statement which had been made in the papers 
recently, that the Western Union Telegraph Company had made the first discovery of glaciers on the 
Stickeen [Stikine] river [British Columbia], in 1865. Professor Blake published a description of the same 
glaciers in \S63." (Minute Books, Jan. 6, 1868-Jan.2, 1872, p. 188 [printout from The San Francisco Bulletin 
newspaper]. See also I. C. Russell [1896] and Proc. Calif. Acad. Sd., I872[I871] 4[4]: 161-162.) 



132 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

so long as we kept our light hidden under a bushel, we could not blame others in 
making our resources known. We did not publish in scientific journals the results of 
our discoveries, and we could not fmd fault with Professor Marsh or any one else for 
doing what we neglected to do. Other members thought differently, inasmuch as 
descriptions of California subjects had been published in Eastern journals as originals, 
when it was well known, or might have been, that the same had previously been 
published here. Professor Davidson then described an electro-thennal pile he had 
devised to measure sub-surface temperatures. 

April 3, there was talk about an earthquake that had occurred the precious 
evening, April 2, 1871. Nothing specially new or important was elicited except that 
Mr. Bloomer, quoting from Brigham's history of earthquakes in New England, stated 
that of the two hundred and thirty-one shocks recorded in New England from 1568 
to 1870, one hundred and forty-eight were said to have occurred in winter and 
seventy-four in summer. The office of Corresponding Secretary having become 
vacant with Rev. F. Hanson's departure for the East, Dr. J. G. Cooper was elected to 
act until the Trustees should have completed the reincorporation and reorganization 
of the Association. Mr. Heynemann desired to have the state of the weather noted at 
the time of the earthquake, and said that the wind had changed after the shock to the 
south from the north. He wished, he said, to propound the following theory: If a moist 
current of air were above and a dry one underneath, the effect, if they were sufficiently 
pronounced, would be a thunderstorm. If a dry current were above and a moist one 
underneath, after a continued drought, the effect would be an earthquake. Dr. Gibbons 
and Dr. Blake said that they could not see any necessary connection between the state 
of the atmosphere and earthquake phenomena. April 17, Henry Keller was elected 
a resident member. Drs. Ayres and Blake and Mr. Hanks each made brief remarks 
on a variety of subjects. 

May 1 , Dr. Blake stated that the Board of Trustees had decided to incorporate 
under a new constitution, which however was the same as the old constitution with 
a few amendments calculated to fit the altered circumstances. The new constitution 
would shortly be presented for consideration and adoption. May 8, Obadiah Liver- 
more and Joseph Garland were elected resident members. Mr. Hemphill presented a 
collection of land shells from west of the Rocky Mountains, containing some new 
and rare forms. Because of low attendance, fiirther business was postponed. May 15, 
the new constitution was read and adopted, section by section, and then adopted as a 
whole." The new instrument differed very little from the old constitution of January 
18, 1868. It provided that, in addition to life members, who became such in the 
ordinary way, "the Trustees shall have the privilege of nominating for election for 
honorary life membership such members as have rendered valuable services to the 
Academy, such elections not to exceed two annually." It left out the provision of the 
previous constitution for a Council, consisting of the general body of officers, but 
provided for a Board of Trustees that the president, recording secretary, and treasurer 



' ' '^ See Minute Books, Jan. 6, 1 868 to Jan. 2, 1 872, pp. 206-2 1 7. The handwritten copy of the constitution 
is out of order and follows the minutes of the regular meeting of the Academy held on June 26, 1871 
(recorded on page 205). 



CHAPTER XI: 1871 133 

should be ex-officio trustees. The curators were to be appointed by the trustees 
instead, as before, by the Council. The recording secretary was required, as a new 
duty, to furnish an abstract of the proceedings of the Academy for publication. All 
the duties imposed upon the Council in the old constitution were by the new 
instrument imposed upon the Board of Trustees. Meetings of the Board of Trustees 
were to be held quarterly on the second Mondays of January, April, July, and October, 
though meetings might be called at any time by the president; and he was required 
to call a meeting whenever requested to do so by any other trustee. Four members of 
the Board were to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. 

Recording Secretary H. P. Carlton made a statement to the effect that the minutes 
of the Academy were not in perfect condition. He said that he had kept the minutes, 
not by engrossing them, but by pasting therein the reports of each meeting as 
published in The Bulletin. Portions of the record, consisting of printed matter, had 
been removed from the Book of Minutes for the purpose of making up the annual 
report. He offered this statement, he said, to exonerate himself from blame in the 
future as he had furnished full and correct reports, which had been interfered with 
without his consent. Upon his explanation, the Academy by formal vote declared him 
free from blame. Mr. Carlton then stated that he was about to leave the city for some 
time and therefore begged to offer his resignation of the office of recording secretary, 
which he had filled for two years. 

June 5, A. D. Hodges, Jr. was elected a resident member. Professor Bolander read 
a paper on grasses of the genus Stipa in California. Dr. Cooper followed with a paper 
on a collection of shells made by Mr. Henry Hemphill, "Shells of the West Slope of 
North America, No. II." Professor Bolander read a communication from Dr. Asa Gray 
inquiring about the intended invitation of the Academy to the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science to meet in San Francisco. At the suggestion of Dr. 
Cooper, it was immediately resolved to reaffirm the invitation for the Association to 
hold its annual session in San Francisco in 1872. The matter was then referred to the 
Board of Trustees for further action. JUNE 19, Henry B. Janes and Charles E. Parker 
were elected resident members. A. D. Hodges, Jr. was elected recording secretary in 
place of H. P. Carlton, resigned. Professor Davidson exhibited the telegraphic 
apparatus and method in use by the Coast Survey for the detennination of the 
difference of longitude between any two places. The death of Gregory Yale, a valued 
member of the Academy was announced, and Dr. Henry Gibbons appointed to draw 
up appropriate resolutions of respect to his memory. June 26, election took place to 
fill the various offices, not already filled under the new constitution, and resulted in 
the choice of the following gentlemen: Dr. James Blake; president; Professor George 
Davidson, vice-president; Dr. J. G. Cooper, corresponding secretary; H. G. Bloomer, 
director of the museum; S. A. L. Brannan, librarian; Elisha Brooks, treasurer. 

July 3, H. G. Hanks read a report on the "Fossil Ship" of the Colorado Desert. 
He said that the object, which had been supposed to be the wreck of a vessel, did not 
prove to be such. Its resemblance, when seen from a distance, to a stranded ship, was 



11.4 



The San Francisco Bulletin, a daily newspaper. 



134 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

however, generally admitted. Prof. Davidson reported on his measurements of coast 
terraces between San Francisco and San Diego. He found four principal elevations, 
from 20 to 1500 feet high, running back as far as 6 miles from the present beach. Dr. 
Henry Gibbons presented resolutions of respect to the memory of Gregory Yale as 
an active, zealous and worthy member of the Academy, always ready to contribute 
his labor and his means to advance its purposes, and one whose amiable disposition 
and goodness of heart endeared him to his associates. On July 11, the Board of 
Trustees took up the question of inviting the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science to meet in San Francisco. Prof Davidson was asked to determine if 
reduced railroad fares could be obtained for people to come to the meetings, and Gen. 
Hewston was asked to contact the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce to join in 
the invitation. JULY 17, Mr. Hodges, having left the city, B. P. Avery was elected 
recording secretary. Dr. Gibbons introduced Professor Smith, vice-president of the 
Royal Society of New South Wales, who made a few remarks about establishing 
relations between his association and the Academy. JULY 19, in the meeting of the 
Board of Trustees, Prof Davidson reported that the Central Pacific and Union Pacific 
Railroads had agreed to offer half- fares to all accredited members of the American 
Association. It was also reported that a number of local merchants showed a friendly 
and liberal spirit to having the meeting in San Francisco. The following curators were 
elected: H. G. Hanks, mineralogy; E. Durand, paleontology; Prof Bolander, botany; 
George Hewston, conchology; Harry [sic; Henry] Edwards, entomology; J. G. 
Cooper, zoology. 

August 7, E. V. Joice was elected a resident member. A formal election of 
Trustees to serve under the new constitution for the remainder of the term and until 
the annual election in January, 1872, resulted in the choice of Dr. James Blake, B. P. 
Avery, Elisha Brooks, Gen. John Hewston, Dr. C. M. Hitchcock, F. L. A. Pioche, and 
Samuel Hubbard. C. B. Turrill presented a specimen of coal from Alaska, which he 
pronounced of superior quality. Professor Dall stated that he had examined the 
reported coal field and found it to be a very thin and shallow bed of Miocene formation 
and the coal of poor quality, being too much impregnated with shale and iron pyrites. 
Dr. James Blake read extracts from a letter from Mrs. Toland concerning a nest of 
young orioles which had been adopted as a family by the male canary. The conclusion 
arrived at was that the male canary had not the natural shrewdness of the females else 
he would not have suffered himself to be imposed on. In answer to an inquiry by 
Judge Hastings, Professor J. D. Whitney stated that since the survey of Great Salt 
Lake by Lieutenant [sic; Captain] Stansbury, twenty-two years ago, that lake had 
been steadily rising up to last year; but that then a subsidence had commenced. He 
said that the same phenomena of rise and subsidence had been observed in all the salt 
lakes of this country. Great Salt Lake, he continued, had at some former time covered 
the whole valley. Dr. [James] Blake stated that he had been attached to Stansbury's 
Expedition and that they had passed over large banks of salt which are now entirely 
under water. A discussion ensued as to whether Pyramid and other lakes in the Great 
Basin had ever had an outlet; but no definite conclusion was arrived at. Dr. Blake 



CHAPTER XI: 1871 135 

also reported that the Chamber of Commerce agreed to join in the invitation to the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science and that an invitation had 
accordingly been sent. AUGUST 2 1 , Professor Whitney gave an account of the 
investigations of the State's geological survey and expressed dissatisfaction with one 
of the aneroid barometers as a height-measurer. Dr. Blake read a short communication 
on diatoms from Pueblo Valley, Nevada and one on prismatic dolerite from Black 
Rock, Nevada. Mr. Dall read a paper on California mollusks. 

September 4, Dr. Harvey W. Harkness of Sacramento, was elected a member. 
Professor Henry of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington was introduced and 
made extended remarks on the rainfall and the results of observations for twenty years 
which were soon to be published in ftill, on his action as a member of the Light-House 
Board while here, and generally on the reasons why the wealth of this country should 
be generous in aiding and promoting science. Mr. Steams read a paper on the habitat 
and distribution of several western American species of mollusks, being corrections 
to Mr. Robert's "Catalogues," published in the American Journal of Conchology. Dr. 
James Blake exhibited under the microscope specimens of diatoms from a hot-spring 
in Nevada having a temperature of 160°. He said they were more numerous propor- 
tionately there than in any other locality known, six or eight hundred occurring in a 
bit of mud the size of a pin's head. Most of them were identical with the fossil species 
described by Ehrenberg from near Salt Lake; but many new species occurred, 
particularly the red algae living in the spring and found in vast beds in many parts of 
the world. He found about sixty-two species, of which thirty were the same as 
Ehrenberg's, who mentioned about sixty-eight species. September 18, Dr. Blake 
stated that he had found at Calistoga, Napa County, California a number of species 
of diatoms in a spring having a temperature of 168°; also rotifera and oscillaria in a 
spring of 120° temperature. Many of the diatoms were identical with those found in 
Pueblo Springs, Nevada, and fossil at Sah Lake. The oscillaria found in the hottest 
waters were so small as to be hardly perceptible even under high powers of the 
microscope. He thought that when the fossil deposits of infusoria were made the water 
covering those regions was all of high temperature. Other species were found all in 
water of a lower temperature. At the Board of Trustees meeting held the next day, 
September 19, Dr. Blake and Dr. Hitchock were appointed a committee to investi- 
gate the purchase of the First Congregationalist Church property of Dr. Stone's 
congregation at the comer of California and Dupont for the use of the Academy. 

October 2, James S. Jamison and J. B. Easterbee were elected resident members. 
Mr. Hanks read a paper regarding a phenomenon reported by Captain S. P. Lund on 
board the vessel Transito de Alvarez. When in latitude 45°33' North and longitude 
125°25' West, which would place it about eighty-five miles west of Cape Lookout 
on the coast of Oregon, the sun was obscured during the entire day by a peculiar 
yellow haze, which was occasionally so dense that it was found necessary to light 
lamps in the cabin. Birds from the land flew on board, showing every symptom of 
terror — some of them allowing themselves to be caught, while others died, as if from 
exhaustion or fear. During the obscurity a light dust fell, some of which Captain Lund 



136 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

gave to Mr. Hanks, who subjected it to careful chemical and microscopic examina- 
tion. The lighter portions, separated by test tube, proved to consist principally of 
woody fiber, probably scraped up from the deck of the ship. But the heavier particles 
proved under the microscope to contain particles resembling chloride of ammonium, 
insoluble and not acted upon by the mineral acids. Particles of sand were also present, 
and some dark-colored grains the nature of which was not evident. But the most 
interesting discovery was a black, cellular, shining substance of peculiar appearance, 
which burned something like bitumen and gave reactions like those of asphaltum. A 
lengthy discussion followed in reference to the nature of the substances described 
between Dr. Kellogg, Dr. Cooper, Dr. Henry Gibbons, Dr. Blake, and Mr. Hanks. 
The most plausible explanation of the phenomenon was presented by Dr. Cooper, 
who attributed it to the burning of Tertiary beds of cove (lignite) on Whidby's Island 
near the Straits of Fuca, the dense smoke of which carried upwards with it fine 
siliceous particles. 

October 1 6," '' Charles G. Yale was elected a resident member. Dr. Cooper called 
attention to the inaccurate and derisive reports of the proceedings of the Academy 
published in some of the newspapers, and suggested that something should be done 
to secure true and correct reports. Several members concurred in the recommenda- 
tion. The president intimated that the Academy could protect itself, at any time 
deemed necessary, by excluding reporters who abused their privileges. Dr. James 
Blake gave the results of recent examinations of the hot water of the Geysers in 
Sonoma County. He had found algae growing with remarkable abundance in the 
water at different temperatures from 1 12° to 195°. The highest temperature at which 
he had found any living organism was 198°. In this spring, two fornis of confervae 
were found — one, a delicate hairlike form resembling Hydrocrocis Bischoffu but 
larger; and the other, a filament with globular enlargements at intervals. In a spring 
at 174° many Oscillaria were found. The only diatom found was in a spring of the 
same temperature. In the water of Geyser Cafion Creek, at a temperature of about 
1 12°, large quantities of algae were found, but only two fonns of diatoms. The waters 
of the Geysers, he said, were unfit for the production of diatoms, which were so 
plentiful in the Calistoga and Nevada hot springs, on account of the absence of 
alkaloid silicates in the water, which were charged with free sulphuric acid. The 
presence of oscillaria in the waters of a highly mineralized spring, at a temperature 
of 1 74°, would show how great is the range of the conditions under which these fonns 
of plant life can be developed. Dr. Cooper alluded to the formation of microscopic 
plants on white globular masses in dilute sulphuric acid. Dr. Kellogg stated that such 
formations were common in electric batteries and also referred to the case of a 
cryptogam surviving the heat of an oven. Mr. Durand refeiTed to a recent examination 
made by him of the salts precipitated from vaporous exhalations at the Geysers. He 
found large quantities of sulphate of ammonia, which is rare in the natural state. 

November 6, Professor Davidson remarked that as a rule, in the entrances to the 

" 5 Shown as October 17'*^ in the handwritten minutes (Minute Books, p. 235) and October 7 in the 
pubMshed Proceedings (vol. 4, p. 193). The latter is probably a typographical error; but the former is also 
likely an error inasmuch as the biweekly meetings were always held on Mondays, and in 1 87 1 , that would 
have been October 1 6. 



CHAPTER XI: 1871 



137 



harbors and rivers on our coast, the channels all tended to the northwest, the northern 
headlands showing bold rocky bluffs and the southern points on the other hand 
forming long, low sandy beaches. He said his own observations had been confirmed 
on the same subject by information received from Lower California, thus showing 
that there was a strong inshore current setting to the northward along our entire coast. 
Dr. Cooper announced the discovery at Mare Island of a fossil tooth resembling that 
of a saurian, but considered by Professor Agassiz to belong perhaps to a fish allied 
to Archegosaurus. Having been found in alluvium, its exact position was uncertain; 
but if Carboniferous, it must have been transported as far as from the northern Sierra 
Nevada at least. Professor Davidson presented a detailed review of observations in 
reference to the longitude of San Francisco and gave it in terms of time, as 8h. 9m. 
38.13s. West of Greenwich, an increase of four seconds of time over the provisional 
longitude of former years. This amount had been fully expected from the comparison 
of previous results on the Atlantic Coast between astronomical determinations and 
those by the telegraph. Dr. Henry Gibbons gave a series of statistics illustrating the 
rainfall on our coast for the previous twenty-one years, arranging the years in the 
order in which the rainy seasons commenced, giving the dates of the first rainfall, 
and the amount of rain of each subsequent season, as follows: 

1852 Nov 9 33.5 inches 



1859 ' 


' 9 


17.0 


1855 • 


' 10 


21.0 


1861 ' 


' 10 


38.0 


1863 ' 


' 11 


8.5 


1853 ' 


' 14 


23.0 


1856 ' 


• 15 


20.0 


1866 ' 


' 16 


32.0 


1865 • 


• 18 


21.0 


1850 • 


' 19 


7.0 


1867 ' 


' 19 


40.5 


1864 ' 


' 23 


21.0 


1857 • 


■ 24 


19.0 


1870 ' 


' 29 


16.0 



1858 Dec 4 


20.0 


1860 " 6 


14.6 


1869 " 7 


20.0 


1868 " 17 


21.5 


1862 " 18 


16.0 


1851 " 19 


18.0 


1854 ■' 31 


24.0 



Although the mean supply was somewhat greater in the seasons of early com- 
mencement, yet the difference was not sufficiently marked for any practical purpose. 
There had been two very dry winters, 1 850 and 1 853, and they both commenced early. 
There have been four very wet seasons 1852, 1861, 1862, and 1867, commencing 
respectively on the 9, 10, 16, and 19 of November. It was singular that the season of 
the least rain and that of the most commenced on the same date, November 19. The 
most remarkable season was that of 1854-55 when the rain did not commence till the 
last night of December, and yet the supply was copious; and, being distributed late. 



' '^ Reference to this appears in the "October 7" {sic; Oct. 16 {see footnote 1 1.5, page 136}) minutes as 
published in the Proceeaings of the Academy, vol. 4, pp. 193-194. It also appears in the transcribed, 
handwritten minutes for Nov. 6, 1871 (Minute Books, Jan. 6, 1868-Jan. 2, 1872, p. 242). 



138 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

it made for one of the best years for agriculture that we ever had. The spring rains 
were the most valuable. No matter how much fell in November, December and 
January, a dry spring would ruin the crops. On the other hand, copious or even 
moderate rains distributed through February, March and April would insure a 
bountiful harvest. Judge Hastings read a paper that propounded a series of interroga- 
tions on the Darwinian theory of natural selection. November 20, J. Augustus 
Whiting was elected a resident member. Benjamin P. Avery presented a written 
resignation of the office of recording secretary on account of his ill health. His 
resignation was accepted, and Dr. George Hewston elected to fill the vacancy. Dr. 
Blake made some remarks on a supposed plant fibre that had been sent by Mr. Morrill 
from Mexico and known as mercatilla that is stronger than cotton. He also spoke 
about hot spring deposits at Puebla, Humboldt Co., Nevada. He reported that he had 
uncovered diatoms in soil at a depth of five feet and 115 feet northwest of the spring 
of the same species as those occurring in the spring. He reported that few diatoms 
were found to the south of the spring. He remarked he was amazed by the extent of 
the thousands of cubic yards of the infusorial earth deposit and the short time required 
for its accumulation because, he said, the process can only have been going on during 
the present geological epoch. Dr. Kellogg gave a brief account of a variety of plant 
previously known as Tuchermania maritima, but now transferred to the genus 
Leptosvne, which he proposes to call it Leptosyne maritima gigantea. It occurs on 
San Miguel and Santa Barbara Islands. 

December 4,"^ there were twenty-eight gentlemen present, that being about the 
usual attendance; but on this occasion the meeting was specially honored with the 
presence of one lady. Professor Whitney read a paper relating to the Geological 
Survey of California, illustrating his remarks by the map and charts in progress.""^ 
He gave a summary of the work and how far it had been carried, stating the difficulties 
encountered and what had been accomplished. Professor O. C. Marsh of Yale College 
was introduced and made some instructive and interesting remarks descriptive of 
some of his labors in the course of explorations in the interior of the continent. He 
stated that he had found fifty new species of fossil vertebrates and gathered the finest 
collection of fossil reptiles that had as yet ever been made in the Upper Cretaceous 
of Kansas. He said that among these was Mosasawus [sic], or one of its allies, a 
species, Professor Cope had supposed, when he described it from a specimen before 



" "^ December 5 in the published Proceedings (vol. 4, p. 199) but Dec. 4 in the handwritten minutes. 
December 4, 1 871 was a Monday, the usual day on which meetings were held. 

"^ This appears to be the last paper that Whitney presented at an Academy meeting, and it may have 
been the last meeting he attended. In a letter to O. C. Marsh (Yale Univ.) dated June 9, 1872 (from San 
Francisco) in response to an inquiry by Marsh about a meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science (see Sept. 1 9, 1 870 at which Academy meeting it was announced that AAAS had 
accepted the Academy's invitation to hold its 1 872 meeting in San Francisco). Whitney said that Academy 
affairs were in the hands of "business men" and that he is excluded. Therefore, he knows "nothing of the 
Association [AAAS] meeting." (Yale Univ. Sterling Lib. Archives: Group 343, ser. 1 , box 35, folder 1 500.) 
Whitney's statement to Marsh is something of a surprise inasmuch as Asa Gray, Joseph Lovering and J. 
Lawrence Smith state in their report to the AAAS in August, 1872 that they had received a telegram from 
" the President of the California Academy of Science [sic] andXhQ Directory of the Geological Survey. . 
." recommending deferring the meeting to another year. At this time, Whitney was still director of the 
California Geological Survey. He was also a member of the AAAS committee to arrange for the meetings, 
as was Marsh. (For additional comments and a possible explanation for the breakdown m communications, 
see footnote 1 1.9, p. 139.) 



CHAPTER XI: 1871 139 

him, had no hind limbs; but in the course of recent explorations more perfect 
specimens had been found, proving that the animal had well-developed hind legs. 
Numerous fossil birds of great interest had also been obtained. In the lower Tertiary 
measures, there had likewise been found numerous fossil specimens of minute 
vertebrates. He reported on the discovery of a distinct Miocene fauna in Wyoming, 
and on material his party obtained in eastern Oregon and Idaho that, he said, would 
help clear up many questions relative to the great interior lake basins and their 
geological puzzles. He said that the Pliocene basin in Oregon contained a large 
number fossil horses and two or three species of fossil rhinoceros. 

Earlier in the day (December 4), a meeting of the Board of Trustees was held at 
which communications from Prof Asa Gray and Prof Joseph Lovering were read 
relating to the Academy's invitation to the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science to meet in San Francisco in 1872. Both letters said that the 
Association had accepted the invitation and that a committee had been appointed 
consisting of J. Lawrence Smith, J. D. Whitney, and O. C. Marsh to arrange for the 
meeting. The Trustees also considered a proposal for the purchase of church 
property at the comer of Dupont and California but declined the proposed price of 
$30,000. Also at this meeting, Dr. Blake proposed the names of Charles Darwin and 
Prof. Ehrenberg of Berlin as honorary members. 



"^ This is the last mention of the proposed meeting in the minutes of the Academy's meetings. A report 
filed by Asa Gray, Joseph Lovering, and J. Lawrence Smith (see Proceedings of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, 1 873, pp. 278-279), with the Association dunng its annual meeting held 
in Dubuque, Iowa in August, 1 872, states in part "About this time [date not given but certainly much earlier 
than August, 1872] a telegram was received from the President of the California Academy of Science 
[5/c][George Davidson] and the Director of the Geological Survey [Josiah D. Whitney] to say that, in their 
opinion, the meeting in San Francisco should be deferred to anotner year." No explanation was given, but, 
based on the complicated negotiations that had been entered into with both railroad and steamship lines 
for reduced fares, and the need to confirm arrangements all along the way, the sometimes slow exchange 
of mail between East and West Coasts must nave played havoc with the time schedule to complete 
arrangements. This seems confirmed by Gray, Lovering and Smith who also state in their report (op. cit.) 
that they were so encouraged by the reports from San Francisco that they "commenced making arrange- 
ments with the Ocean Steamers, and inviting foreign guests as requested [by Davidson and Whitney]. After 
proceeding thus far, we sent several communications to San Francisco, but, by reason of misdirected letters, 
or snow blockade, we did not receive answers to these communications." [For those familiar with winter 
weather in the Sierra Nevada, the latter should come as no surprise. Eds.] Forty-three years were topass 
before AAAS came to San Francisco to hold the Association's first-ever meeting along the Pacific Coast 
and only second west of St. Louis [the Association met in Denver in 1901]. 



140 



Chapter XII: Year 1 872 



t: 

Profes 



I he first Monday of January being New Year's day, the annual meeting was held 
on Tuesday, January 2, 1872. Charles Darwin of London, England, and 
ProTessor Ehrenberg of Berlin, Germany, were elected honorary members unani- 
mously by the twenty-six members in attendance. Dr. James Blake delivered the 
annual address, giving a brief synopsis of the advance of science in California and a 
summary of the addresses that had been made in the course of the past year before 
the Academy. He also offered suggestions for improvement in the instruction of our 
children and the people in general in reference to science. Elisha Brooks, Treasurer, 
reported the receipts of the past year as $8.35 cash on hand from the previous year, 
and $1271.00 received as dues from members in 1871, making a total of $1279.35. 
There had been expended during the year $565.00 for rent of rooms; $159.40 for 
printing; $152.00 for furniture for the cabinets; $127.10 commissions on collecting 
dues; $60.00 for care of rooms, and $103.00 for sundry expenses, making a total of 
$1 166.50, and leaving a balance on hand of $1 12.85. There was however, he said due 
Payout, on "that old bill," about $82.00; also $40.00 on a bill of Bacon & Co., which 
he considered a reckless expenditure; and $3.50 for gas, all of which, when paid, 
would leave the Academy in debt $12.65; but he had already received for dues of 
1872 more than enough to cover the deficiency and leave a balance in the treasury. 
The proper officers reported the results of the annual election that day held. There 
had been two persons nominated for president, of whom Professor George Davidson 
had received twenty votes, and Dr. James Blake four votes. Two persons had also 
been nominated for vice-president, of whom Gen. John Hewston received sixteen 
votes and Professor Henry Bolander seven votes. The other officers received unani- 
mous votes. The declared elected were: president. Professor George Davidson; vice- 
president. Gen. John Hewston; recording secretary. Dr. George Hewston; corre- 
sponding secretary, Henry G. Hanks; treasurer, Elisha Brooks; director of the mu- 
seum, Hiram G. Bloomer; librarian. Dr. C. N. Ellinwood; Trustees, Dr. James Blake, 
Dr. C. M. Hitchcock, Gen. John Hewston, Gen. David D. Colton. On a motion by Dr. 
H. Gibbons, Sr., a unanimous vote of thanks was tendered by the Academy to the 
retiring president. Dr. James Blake, for the diligence and fidelity with which he had 
performed the duties of his office. A number of cases, containing a beautiftil 
collection of Lepidoptera, mounted and selected by Henry Edwards, were presented, 
for which due thanks were tendered him. At the Board of Trustees meeting held a 
few days later (January 1 1 ), last year's curators were reappointed. And, on a motion 
by Gen. D. D. Colton, a curator of ethnology was added and Dr. George Hewston 



CHAPTER XII: 1872 



141 









\ 






^^^T^^ 







George Davidson 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

appointed curator. January 15, H. G. Bloomer and W. G. W. Harford were elected 
honorary life members. Mr. C. D. Gibbes reported on meteorological observations 
he had made in the Sierra Nevada, at Red Mountain, during the winter of 1 862-63 
including the occurrence of Protococcus nivalis, or "red snow," at about 8,000 or 
9,000 feet. The president appointed Dr. George Hewston, Dr. Stout and Dr. Cooper 
as a Committee on Publication for the ensuing year. Dr. George Hewston offered the 
following resolution, by order of the Board of Trustees: 

Resolved - That the officers of this Society are prohibited from incurring any 
indebtedness on behalf of this Society unless authorized by the Board of Trustees or by 
a vote of the Academy at a regular meeting; — the same to constitute an addition to the 
ByLaws of the Academy. 

February 5, John O. Earl, Dr. C. M. Bates, Charles A. Wetmore, Henry Carlton, 

Oscar D. Munson, and Dr. Isaac Bluxome were elected resident members. The 

resolution, offered at the last meeting, was adopted by a vote of fourteen ayes to six 

noes. Dr. Henry Gibbons, Dr. Kellogg and Dr. Cooper were appointed a committee 

to fiimish proper subjects for discussion. Judge Hastings again called the attention of 

the Academy to a former proposition, made by hint, that the Academy should afford 

inventors an opportunity to exhibit their inventions. Dr. Kellogg informed the 

gentleman that the Academy had already made provision for entertaining any and all 

subjects relating to science or art, and that the word "natural" had been stricken out 

of the original title of the Society so as to do away with the idea that the sole object 



142 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

of the association was confined to natural history subjects. Dr. Cooper stated that the 
Mechanics' Institute had offered to rent to the Academy some very convenient rooms. 
February 19, Captain Oliver Eldridge, William Alvord, Samuel M. Wilson, 
Ralph C. Harrison, F. W. Von Reynegom, George E. Page, and A. J. Chambers were 
elected resident members. Eldridge was associated with the Pacific Mail Co.; William 
Alvord was Mayor of San Francisco; George Page was chief engineer with the 
Southern Pacific Rail Road; Harrison and Wilson were lawyers; Von Reynegon, a 
printer; and Chambers, an assayer. Professor Rudolph Gottgetren of Munich, Bavaria, 
was elected a corresponding member. On behalf of Dr. Kellogg of the committee on 
preparing subjects for discussion, the secretary read the following report: 

The following questions are offered in a spirit of inquiry and not for dogmatic 
dispute, which can only engender antagonism, dissension, contention, alienations, and 
every evil work. Gentlemen will please bear in mind that the Academy must by no means 
degenerate into a debating society. 

Question 1. Do aerolites chiefly fall in the path of the ecliptic or magnetic path: i.e., 
22°30' on either side of the poles of the earth? and what is their origin? 

Questions 2. Have the remains of tropical productions in the Arctic climes any 
bearing upon the geological phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes? 

Question 3. Is the restless desire from age to age for more facts characteristic of those 
who are unable to reason from principles to causes? and would any among of chaotic 
facts be sufficient for such persons? 

Dr. Henry Gibbons offered the following additional 

Questions 4. Can the climate of California be altered sensibly by changes in the 
earth's surface by cultivation and otherwise? 

Dr. James Blake offered the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the Trustees of the California Academy of Sciences be requested at 
their earliest convenience to forward a petition to the Legislature through the San 
Francisco delegation, praying for a continuance of the State Geological Survey as at 
present conducted. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted, and it was so ordered. The secretary 
then read a communication from the City and County assessor's office, assessing the 
furniture of the Academy at a valuation of $500. The Secretary moved that a 
committee of three be appointed to draft a memorial and bill to be presented to the 
Legislature, asking State aid on behalf of the Academy. After some discussion, the 
whole subject was on motion referred to the Board of Trustees with power to act. 

At a special meeting held on February 26, the Board of Trustees acted on the 
resolution passed at the February 19th general meeting relative to the continuance of 
the State Geological Survey and agreed to forward the following petition to the State 
Legislature 

The Trustees of the California Academy of Sciences, as requested by an unanimous 
vote of that body, respectfully pray that a liberal appropriation may be made at this 
session of the Legislature for the continuance of the State Geological Survey and the 
publications thereof as at present organized and conducted under the direction of 
Professor J. D. Whitney. 

A second resolution, being a memorial and bill to the State Legislature to provide, 

in behalf of the Academy, aid in the amount of $40,000 to purchase a suitable building 

for the collections, library and meetings of the Academy, was adopted. Gen. Hewston 



CHAPTER XII: 1872 143 

offered to take it to Sacramento. Lastly, in response to a communication from Rear 
Admiral B. Sands of the U. S. Naval Observatory requesting that the Academy 
support a memorial to Congress to make suitable appropriations for the observation 
of the transit of Venus, an astronomical phenomenon of great rarity, the officers and 
trustees voted to endorse the proposal in the name of the Academy. 

March 4, the name of George E. Gray was substituted in place of that of George 
E. Page as the person elected a resident member at the last meeting. The secretary 
contended for the correctness of his minutes; but it was admitted by all that Gray was 
the person intended, as he had been described as the engineer of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad Company, although it seemed that in the application for membership his 
name had been incorrectly written Page. The death of corresponding members M. 
Sebastian Rene L'Nonnand of Lenaudiere, France, was announced. A question about 
the Indians and the state of their culture having come up and been discussed for some 
time. Judge Hastings referred to a visit which he had made to the Indians of the 
Northwest Coast in company with William H. Seward and Gen. Davis, and said that 
from what he had seen and heard he thought some of them at least were entitled to 
credit for the high state of civilization which they had reached. As a proof of what he 
said, and in order to convince the Academy of the correctness of his deduction, he 
said that one of the chiefs, on being asked his opinion of a dinner party to which he 
was invited as a guest, remarked that it would have been much better if there had 
been more whiskey and less beef The secretary read communications in which the 
Academy was encouraged by the president and by Rear Admiral Sands, U.S.N., to 
draft resolutions and a memorial to Congress to appropriate funds for observations 
on the transit of Venus across the sun in 1874. It was reported that the Trustees had 
already acted on the matter in the name of the Academy. On motion, the members 
present endorsed the action of the Trustees. March 18, H. H. Bigelow and William 
M. Hughes were elected resident members and Charles F. Davis of Lima, Peru, a 
corresponding member. Dr. Blake gave a brief account of recent observations by Mr. 
Dall on the Japanese warm current off the Alaskan coast as reported to Prof 
Davidson. 

April 1 , John Williamson, William H. Knight, Eugene E. Dewey, Albert S. Evans, 
and Thomas P. Madden were elected resident members, and Col. E. Sparrow Purdy, 
Cairo, Egypt, a corresponding member. Mr. Durand presented a brief description of 
a new mineral from New Almaden Mines he named aragotite. Dr. Gibbons made 
some remarks on ozone, and Dr. Blake spoke of experiments he had done some time 
earlier to ascertain the proportion thereof in the atmosphere. April 1 5, James Hutchin- 
son and William S. Watson were elected resident members. F. E. Durand presented 
a paper on crystallization of metacinnabarite. Dr. Stout reported for the committee 
on foreign exchanges on progress in the translation and review of foreign publica- 
tions. May 6, Thomas P. Madden, previously elected a resident member, paid $ 1 00 
into the treasury and became a life member. After adjournment, the Academy was 
called to order again for the purpose of taking some action in reference to the sudden 
and mysterious death of F. L. A. Pioche, a life member of the Academy and one of 



1 44 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

its Board of Trustees. On motion a committee, consisting of Dr. Fourgeaud, Dr. Henry 
Gibbons and Obadiah Livermore, was appointed to draw up suitable resolutions of 
respect to the memory of the deceased as a friend and benefactor of the Association. 
May 20, Dr. Blake spoke on the geology of the Great Basin in the vicinity of Pueblo 
Range and Pueblo Butte. He also made some remarks on the geology of Napa County, 
with particular reference to the discovery of another petrified forest at a higher 
elevation than previously known. Mr. Henry Carlton exhibited a double-fluid ba- 
rometer, invented by him. 

June 5, resolutions of respect to the memory of F. L. A. Pioche were presented 
and adopted, in which it was said that "the California Academy of Sciences has lost 
one of its most valued members, as distinguished for his love of the Arts and Sciences, 
as for his wide-spread liberality. . . ." M. Octave Pavy, who was about starting on an 
exploring expedition to the Arctic, made a visit to the Academy and was introduced 
by Dr. Stout. He explained the object of his proposed expedition, which appeared to 
search for a "northwest passage." He said that when Sir John Ross first encountered 
the Esquimaux, those people would not believe that he came from the south, their 
idea being that the climate moderated towards the north and that the south was an 
uninhabitable waste. He said that he believed in an open polar sea and expected to 
sail to Wrangle Land [sic], which he conceived to be a sort of continent. His intention 
was to cross it on sleds; then launch his rubber raft; spread a sail upon it, and reach 
the pole, whence he would go down by way of Baffin's Bay into the Atlantic. 
Professor Davidson combatted Mr. Pavy's idea about an open polar sea and disputed 
his supposed open currents. He said he would as soon expect to encounter a mountain 
of ice-cream in the center of Africa as a warm polar basin. George E. Gray, chief 
engineer for the Southern Pacific Railroad, gave an account of his survey of the 
railroad route between Gorgonio Pass and the San Diego and Fort Yuma wagon road, 
a distance of about fifty miles. He spoke about the depression of the Colorado basin, 
and that in places the surface sank below sea-level as much as two hundred and fifteen 
feet, and that there were places on the desert three hundred feet below sea-level. Dr. 
Kellogg made extended remarks about moosewood as the strongest vegetable fiber 
known and spoke of its abundance and great value. It was the Dorca palustris, 
sometimes called leatherwood. Mr. Steams gave a description of a new species of 
Mangelia from California. 

June 17, J. B. Pigne-Dupuytren was elected a resident member. Mr. Steams 
announced the death of Dr. William Stimpson, late director of the Chicago Academy 
of Sciences and corresponding member of the Academy, and made some remarks on 
his contributions. Resoludons in memory of Dr. Stimpson were put forth and adopted. 
Professor Davidson exhibited a boomerang found near Anaheim, in San Diego 
County, indicating that the Indians of Lower California, or rather those of the southem 
part of this State, were acquainted with that instmment and its use. It was made of 
wood and curved almost to a right angle. Professor Davidson then stated that a 
communication relative to the diminution in magnitude and disappearance of stars in 
the constellation Leo had appeared in one of the San Francisco joumals, (the Aha 



CHAPTER XII: 1872 



145 



California), but upon an examination he had found all the stars usual places and of 
their usual magnitude. Dr. Kellogg referred to a statement in the last number of the 
American Naturalist relative to the singing of the Maryland marmot and suggested 
that those members who might have an opportunity of making the acquaintance of 
California marmots would investigate the subject of whether they, too, were tuneful. 
Dr. Blake reported that he had called upon M. Pavy to renew the discussion of currents 
within the polar basin, but had not been able to meet with him. 

July 1 . Benjamin Smith, Alexander Austin, and James R. Finlayson were elected 
resident members. Robert E. C. Steams read a paper on the economic value of certain 
Australian forest trees {Acacia and Eucalyptus) and their successful cultivation in 
California; also upon the value of eucalyptine. An interesting discussion took place 
upon the general subject in which Professor Bolander, Professor Davidson, and Dr. 
Stout participated. A communication from the Grand Marshal of the Fourth of July 
celebration invited the Academy to take part in the coming ceremonies. On motion 
the communication was received and placed on file; and the secretary was instructed 
to decline on behalf of the Academy the honor tendered. Amos Bowman read a paper 
"On Coast Surface and Scenic Geology" of the San Francisco Peninsula and Alameda 
and Contra Costa hills and farmlands, and F. E. Durand presented a paper on silver 
mines of Pioche, Nevada, describing the principal argentiferous veins. 

July 15, R. E. C. Steams called attention to an article published in 1789, in the 
Massachusetts Magazine, vol. 1, page 416, describing Oil Creek in Pennsylvania, 
comparing the oil, which floated on its waters, to Barbadoes tar, and saying that 
bathing the joints in it gave relief for rheumatic complaints. Dr. Stout exhibited 




Amos B. Bowman 
Anacortes Museum, Anacortes, Washington (D-I-7C) and 
Kitchener-Waterloo Record, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada 



1 46 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

samples of black iron sand and said that an enormous body of it existed within fifty 
miles of San Francisco. The sample, he said assayed fifty per cent of pure iron of the 
best quality. The sand was composed of ferriginous particles, a portion of which were 
magnetic, and portion not. It could be easily smelted, and he had already had a 
specimen manufactured. A discussion ensued as to the origin, deposition, and 
distribution of the iron sands, which was participated in by Dr. Henry Gibbons, Gen. 
John Hewston, Dr. Stout and others. A general discussion also took place on the 
propriety of obtaining better quarters for the Academy. Dr. Kellogg donated a large 
collection of botanical specimens and a collection of electrotype illustrations of 
California plants. AUGUST 5, James P. Dameron was elected a resident member. Mr. 
Steams read a description of new species of shells, Siphonaria Brannani, from Santa 
Barbara Island, and Tnincatella Stimpsonii, from False Bay, San Diego County. 
August 19, James Freeborn was elected a resident member. Mr. Steams read a paper 
on Purpura canaliculata, a marine shell ranging from Unalaska to Monterey. Profes- 
sor Davidson, as president, announced the anticipated arrival of Professor Louis 
Agassiz, whereupon Gen. John Hewston, Dr. Henry Gibbons and Dr. James Blake 
were appointed a cominittee of reception on behalf of the Academy. Professor 
Davidson then gave an account of his recent experiments to determine the relative 
values of great and small altitudes for astronomical observations, and spoke of the 
ridge of the Sierra Nevada as peculiarly adapted for the location of an observatory, 
describing the cleamess and steadiness of the atmosphere on the summit and the sharp 
definition of celestial bodies seen from there. Dr. George Hewston presented his 
resignation as recording secretary, which the Academy was not inclined to accept. 

September 2, Professor Louis Agassiz, Mrs. Agassiz, Dr. F. Steindachner, Dr. 
Thomas Hill, Mr. Blake, Captain Johnson and others connected with the Steamer 
Hassler Expedition, together with Professor John Torrey of Columbia College, New 
York, and Dr. Daniel Coit Gilman, President-elect of the University of California, 
Berkeley, were introduced and welcomed by a crowded audience. Professor Agassiz, 
being called upon, made an address, in which he spoke'" ' in terms of high praise of 
the efforts of the Academy in establishing a scientific body in a community so 
absorbed in the business of gathering gold; of the great success which had attended 
these efforts, and of the excellence and value of the scientific work done by it. He 
spoke of the great wealth of Califomia, and what it owed to science, and what it ought 
to do for science, and enlarged upon the growth of scientific study in the Eastem 
States and the importance of fostering it in every community. He also spoke of the 
excellent and valuable work of the State Geological Survey, and of the bright promise 
of the University of Califomia for the cultivation, promotion and diffusion of 
knowledge. Professor Gilman being called upon, made remarks, as did also Professor 
Torrey. '" ' September 1 6, W. E. Mayhew and Erastus Dennison were elected resident 
members. Professor Joseph LeConte read a paper, "On Some of the Ancient Glaciers 
of the Sierras," describing a recent visit to the Sierra Nevada and giving his observa- 



'21 Agassiz's remarks were published in Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 1 873, vol. 4, pp. 253-256; also Gilman 
(ibid., p. 256) and Torrey (ibid., p. 257). 



CHAPTER XII: 1872 147 

tions on the former glaciers of the Yosemite country and the Lake Tahoe region. " "" 
Among the interesting points made by Prof LeConte was that Yosemite and Hetch- 
Hetchy Valleys were both carved by glaciers. R. H. Stretch read a paper on a species 
of scale lice. Coccus, a pest to orchardists, that had recently made its appearance at 
Menlo Park in San Mateo County. He also read a paper on "flea seeds," so-called 
because seemingly animated by the insects inside of them, which appeared to be 
"galls" produced by a species of Cynips infesting different kinds of oak trees. 
September 25, a special meeting, called to enable members of the Academy and 
their friends to hear Professor Agassiz prior to his departure for the East, on account 
of the insufficient room in the Clay Street quarters, was held at Pacific Hall, where a 
large audience assembled. Professor Agassiz, after making reference to the voyage 
of the Hassler and the present aims of science, spoke at considerable length on the 
"Natural History of the Animal Kingdom."''^^ ''^ 

October 7, F. Oppenheim, H. L. Breed, William Meyer, Peter Donahue, and J. 
C. Wilmerding were elected life members, and W. P. Prichard, T. J. Edmondson, W. 
H. Rulofson, L. H. Bonestell and Harry Andrews, resident members. A paper from 
Captain C. M. Scammon was read, on a new species of whale, Balaenoptera 
Davidsoni, taken in Admiralty Inlet, Washington Territory. W. H. Dall presented a 
paper on new species of moliusks from the Northwest Coast. R. E. C. Steams read 
a paper, making a comparison of the conchology of portions of the Atlantic and 
Pacific Coasts of North America. Professor Davidson read a paper entitled "Sugges- 
tion of a Cosmical Cause for the Great Climate Changes upon the Earth." October 
21, Edward F. Hall, Jr. and William Burling were elected life members. Rev. Horatio 
Stebbins, J. H. Weeden, William Doolan, W. J. Miller, John Perry, Jr., James M. 
McDonald, William H. Sears, W. H. Foster, Jr., William Leffingwell, Andrew McF. 
Davis, E. G. De Crano, B. F. Ellis, Henry P. Bowie, John Currey, Dr. Henry M. Fiske, 
William Lane Booker, Dr. William Calvert, Jasper M. McDonald, G. S. Johnson, 
William B. Thomberg, and Louis T. Haggin, were elected resident members and M. 
W. Saunders and H. J. Stewart corresponding members. Dr. Blake read a paper on 
the topography of the Great Basin. 

November 4, Richard S. Floyd, B. Howard Coit and Peder Sather were elected 
life members, and Rev. A. J. Nelson, James G. Steels, Rev. Joseph Wythe, James F. 
Bowman, Rev. Otis Gibson, John S. Bugbee, and G. D. Wyman, resident members. 
Henry Glass, U.S.N. , was elected a corresponding member. Professor Ezra S. Can- 
read an abstract from an unpublished paper by John Muir, describing living glaciers 
discovered by him at the head waters of Tuolumne River. W. H. Dall presented a 
paper on three new species of Crustacea, parasitic on cetacae of the Northwest Coast 



'2 2 LeConte's remarks appeared in the Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 259-262 in January, 1873. 
LeConte also sent a copy oinis remarks to the American Journal of Science; they were published in May, 
1873, under the same title, "On some of the ancient glaciers of the Sierras." (Amer. Jour. Sci.. sen 3, 
5(36):325-342). The footnote states that it was "Read before the Cal. Acad, of Sciences, Sept. 16, 1872." 

'2^ See Appendix D for comments by Charles B. Turrill who was present at the meeting at which Agassiz 
addressed the Academy membership. (See also footnote 13.10.) 

'-■■* Agassiz's remarks were carried in several local publications (e.g.. Overland Monthly, Scientific & 
Mining Press). They were not published by the Academy as were his earlier remarks at the meeting of 
Sept. 2 (see footnote 12.1). 



148 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




p. f.. W ATKINS' 



rC lOiiu^aajri y 



Art Gallery 



e. rf^tita t^ EibS4 k 



Daniel Coit Giiman, ca. 1872 

Photograph by Carleton E. Watkins. 

National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution (NPG.77.185) 

of America. He also presented a paper on "Pre-Historic Remains in the Aleutian 
Islands," in which he described excavations made by him on the sites of pre-historic 
villages on Amaknak Island and human relics found there, also relics found in caves. 
Dr. Stout read a paper on the "Horse Disease and its Treatment." Professor Davidson, 
at this meeting as well as at the precious one, presented solutions of certain problems 
in mensuration. November 18, Henry F. Teschemacker, Ezra S. Carr, and J. A. 
Hoffman were elected resident members. Dr. Kellogg presented a description of a 
new species of plant. Hibiscus Californicus, from an island in the San Joaquin River. 
Professor F. H. Bradley and Dr. J. Curtis,'"^^ of Professor Hayden's Yellowstone 
Expedition, were introduced and gave descriptions of the upper Snake River and 
upper Yellowstone River regions. They reported on many of the features they had 
seen including Old Faithfiil and Giant geysers and on hot springs that supported 
animal life at water temperatures of 1 86°F. 

December 2, Henry F. Williams, J. D. Pierson, Dr. John M. Willey, Barrington 
Gethen, Richard Gird and Richard L. Ogden were elected resident members. W. A. 
Goodyear presented a paper on the geology of the coast of Oregon, as observed in 
the course of a recent trip to it. He spoke especially of the coast at Koos [= Coos] 

'- -'' Frank Howe Bradley [geologist] and Dr. Josiah Curtis [profession uncertain] with the Hayden survey 
(see Mike Foster, Ferdinand Vanaeveer Hayden. 1994. Roberts Reinhart Publ., Niwot, CO. xv + 443 pp., 
illus.). 



CHAPTER XII: 1872 149 

Bay, and the auriferous sand and gravel hills that border the ocean north of the 
Coquille River. He also called attention to a striking contrast between the character 
of the volcanic matter of Oregon and that of the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. 
The Cascade mountains, where the Columbia River cuts through them, appear to be 
made up of a series of superimposed sheets of lava which spread far and wide over 
the originally smooth and gently-sloping lands. They therefore consist of terraces of 
compact, solid rock from base to summit. The western slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
on the other hand, shows its volcanic matter almost exclusively in fragmentary fonns. 
Beds of ashes, breccias, and volcanic gravels and conglomerates abound; but lava 
flows are few and far between. This is especially true of the central part of the Sierra 
Nevada, where there is only on great flow, that of the Tuolumne Table Mountain. 
Great as is the total quantity of volcanic material in the mining counties of the Sierra 
Nevada, it is insignificant compared with the vast accumulations that built up the 
Cascade Range. DECEMBER 16, Edward F. Northam, Professor Daniel C. Oilman, 
and A. de Tavel were elected resident members. Dr. A. W. Saxe read a paper on the 
periodicity of the California flood seasons and their probable dependence upon the 
condition of the sun as exhibited by sun-spots. W. H. Dall presented a paper "On the 
Parasites of the Cetaceans of the Northwest Coast of America, with Descriptions of 
New Forms." He also presented a paper entitled "Descriptions of New Species of 
Mollusca from the Northwest Coast of America." 



150 



ChapterXIII: Year 1873 



The annual meeting of 1873 was held January 6. Robert M. Brereton was 
elected a life member and Theodore A. P. Brown, C. B. Morgan, Dr. P. 
Hatchand S. B. Boswell, resident members. Professor Davidson, as president, deliv- 
ered his annual address and spoke of the past and present status of the Academy, its 
progress, its claims to public consideration, and its prospects. The librarian, director 
of the museum, and curator on entomology submitted reports. Elisha Brooks, treas- 
urer, reported the receipts for 1872 as $2,701.35 and the disbursements as $1,33.90, 
leaving a balance of $1,568.45 in the treasury. The Board of Trustees recommended 
that Robert E. C. Steams should be elected a life member. The annual election resulted 
in the choice of Professor George Davidson as president; Gen. John Hewston, 
vice-president; Henry C. Hanks, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, recording 
secretary; Elisha Brooks, treasurer; Dr. C. N. Ellinwood, librarian; Hiram G. 
Bloomer, director of the museum; and R. E. C. Steams, David D. Colton, Thomas P. 
Madden and Oliver Eldridge, tmstees. Dr. Stout read a paper "On the Chemistry of 
Great Fires," and more particularly on certain phenomena connected with a recent 
disastrous fire in Boston. His views elicited a discussion. January 20, Robert E. C. 
Steams, John P. Jones, A. A. Gansl, Tiburcio Parrott, and George T. Marye, Jr. were 
elected life members, Samuel P. Middleton and E. L. Beard, resident members, and 
Montgomery P. Fletcher and Casper Schenck, corresponding members. Dr. Henry 
Gibbons exhibited a tape-worm of peculiar fomi, which he pronounced a beef 
tape-worm Trenia mediocanellata, supposed to have been produced by eating dis- 
eased raw beef Dr. Stout exhibited a package of the black sand, shown at a former 
meeting which he said consisted, one half of fine iron and was to be found large 
quantities within fifty miles of San Francisco. It was subjected to microscopical 
examination, and a discussion took place in regard to it. Professor Davidson presented 
a paper on "New Problems in Mensuration" in continuation of former papers. 

February 3, William E. Brown, Frederick H. Waterman, and Rev. W. A. Scott 
were elected resident members and Charles E. De Long and Albert Bierstadt, 
corresponding members. P. B. Comwall exhibited a frog which had been found in a 
Mount Diablo coal mine'^ ' 223 feet below the surface. It was dead; but it was said 
to have been picked out of the ground in a living condition and to have lived twelve 
hours after its release. A discussion took place, and the general opinion seemed to be 
that no frog or toad had ever been picked out of solid rock alive, as often reported. 
W. H. Dall mentioned instances in which toads had been cemented in solid stones 



13.1 



Possibly the Black Diamond Coal Mine [eds.] 



CHAPTER XIII: 1873 151 

and buried; and they invariably died if the cement continued uncracked; though in 
some cases, where the cement was cracked, they remained ahve for some time. R. 
E. C. Steams read a paper "On a New Alcyonoid Polyp from Burrard's Inlet," 
supposed to be the same as the animal spoken of by Dr. Blake at the meeting of July 
17,1871, and pronounced by him a kind of sponge. W. H. Dall presented descriptions 
of three new species of Cetacea, Delphinus Bairdii, Tursiops Gillii, and Grampus 
Stearnsii. Dr. J. M. Willey presented a paper "On the Auriferous Gravel Deposits of 
Placer County," in which he spoke particularly about the substance, called "cement," 
found in large quantities and supposed to be a volcanic ash, solidified by time and 
pressure. Dr. Kellogg followed with a paper entitled "Descriptions of New Plants 
from the Pacific States." 

February 17, James Lick and George C. Hickox were elected life members, and 
Gregory P. Hart' " a resident member. John Hewston, Jr. announced that Mr. James 
Lick had donated to the Academy, under certain conditions, a valuable lot of land on 
Market Street in San Francisco for building purposes. Mr. Lick said that he made the 
"gift to the Academy in consideration of the desire he has to promote the diffusion 
of Science and the prosperity and perpetuity of the Academy."'" ^^ He thereupon 
produced and read the deed of donation. It was dated, signed, acknowledged and 
delivered on February 15, 1873. In it Mr. Lick said that, in consideration of the desire 
he had to promote the diffusion of science and the prosperity and perpetuity of the 
California Academy of Sciences, he gave, granted and confirmed to it a lot on the 
southeasterly line of Market Street, commencing 195 feet southwesterly from the 
southwesterly comer of Market and Fourth Streets and having a frontage of 80 feet 
on Market Street by a depth at right angles northeasterly of 275 feet on the south- 
westerly side and 195 feet on the northeasterly side, and being a portion of the 
Hundred-vara Lot No. 126, reserving the rights of possession and rents and profits 
for two years. The conditions were in substance that the premises should be used and 
devoted solely and exclusively for scientific purposes, and none other; and should 
never be used for political or religious purposes. They should never be encumbered 
in any manner nor alienated during the life of any of the existing members of the 
association; nor should they or any part of them or of any edifice erected upon them 
be leased, used or occupied except for the proper purposes of the society. The 
Academy was required to erect and maintain on the premises, and covering the whole 
lot except a small space in the rear for light and ventilation, a substantial and elegant 
brick edifice, three stories in height, with a substantial granite front faced with 
appropriate scientific emblems; and its stmcture and design should be classic and 
such as would readily distinguish it from buildings used for business or commercial 
purposes. At least one apartment in the edifice should be suitable for and devoted to 
the purposes of a library; another to a museum, and another to a hall for lectures. The 
Academy was ftirther required within two years to secure the necessary funds to 
commence and complete the edifice with all reasonable dispatch, but, if the funds 

'^2 Harte in the handwritten Minute Books but Hart in the published minutes iProc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 
5:19. -^ 

'^^AZ/'wufeSoo/:.?, California Academy of Sciences, Jan. 15, 1872-July20, 1874, p. 64. 



152 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

were raised at any time within two years, possession of the premises would be given 
upon 30 days notice to that effect. And in case the Academy should violate or fail to 
fulfill any of the terms or conditions, all its interest and estate in the premises should 
cease and determine, and the property and all interest and estate therein would revert 
to the donor. 

The members of the Academy, when the deed had been read, testified their 
appreciation of Mr. Lick's generosity by hearty applause. The president said he felt 
incompetent at the time to express the sense of the Academy in fitting terms. The 
board of Trustees, he said, in considering the project of securing proper accommo- 
dations for the institution, had never thought of exceeding an expenditure of $25,000; 
but this site on Market Street alone, as he had been assured by competent judges, was 
worth $ 1 50,000. Professor Davidson then read a paper on "The Probable Periodicity 
of Rainfall," which he illustrated with diagrams showing the yearly, monthly, and 
average monthly rainfall at San Francisco for 23 years, from 1 849 to 1 872 inclusive. 
Dr. George Hewston read a paper on a new species of marine crustacean exceedingly 
destructive to wooden piles, which had recently been detected in San Francisco Bay, 
and to which he provisionally gave the name of Limnoria Californica. An amendment 
to Article III, Section 2, of the constitution having been presented to the Board of 
Trustees and submitted by it to the Academy, was adopted to the effect that, "The 
Vice-President shall attend all meetings of the Trustees and, in case of the absence 
of the President, shall preside at the same and be entitled to vote," W. H. Dall 
presented a paper "On the Avi-fauna of the Aleutian Islands from Unalashka 
Eastward." 

March 3, John H. Carmany and Robert Robinson were elected resident members, 
W. N. Lockington, a corresponding member. Dr. Kellogg presented another paper 
entitled "Descriptions of New Plants from the Pacific States." The president an- 
nounced that the Board of Trustees had taken appropriate action'^^ in reference to 
the donation of James Lick by an expression of their gratitude and thanks for his 



'^ *♦ Among the actions taken, Academy president George Davidson wrote to Joseph Henry, Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution, on February 1 9th, 1 873, "Dear Sir, I have been directed by the Board of Trustees 
of the California Academy of Sciences to acquaint you with the information, that our fellow member James 
Lick of Santa Clara County, California, has deeded to the Academy a lot of ground 80 x 275 on Market 
Street San Francisco, valued at nearly $100,00.00 gold, on condition that we acquire the means to erect a 
building of a certain character thereon, commencing the erection at a period two years after February 1 5th, 
1873. 

"This we shall lend all our individual energies to accomplish, but to stimulate others in our community 
to emulate the example of James Lick, the Trustees have thought proper that I should ask you to write a 
letter to him thanking him in behalf of Science, for the munificence of his act." (Davidson to Henry, 
SIArchives, RU 26 {Office of the Secretary, Incoming Correspondence, 1863-1879}, vol. 162. p. 147.) 

On April 3rd, 1873, Davidson informed Henry that he had transmitted the latter's letter to Lick. In 
Davidson's view this letter, and others he had requested, had the dual purpose of thanking James Lick for 
his generosity as a patron of Science and for raising money from others. Some months later. Davidson 
wrote to Henry again asking his support, and informing him that like letters were sent to Louis Agassiz and 
James Dwight Dana, the latter by Prof. Oilman, President of the University of California, asking their 
endorsement of the Academy's request of James Lick that he modify the conditions of his deed if the 
Academy were unable to meet the stated conditions on raising money within the time allowed for 
construction of a building. (Davidson to Henry. Smithsonian Institution Archives, RU 26 {Office of the 
Secretary}. Incoming Correspondence. 1863-1879, vol. 132, pp. 486-4877). The pleas must have worked 
because Lick did modify the deed in October, 1873, extending the time for raising funds for the building, 
and then again in September 1875, at which time all restrictions were removed an5 the property was given 
to the Academy as an outright gift, (continued next page) 



CHAPTER XIII: 1873 153 

unexpected and unsolicited gift, as set forth in the minutes of their proceedings on 
February 18, which had been engraved and framed and presented to Mr. Lick 
personally. They accepted the deed and promised the efforts of every member of the 
Academy to faithftilly endeavor to carry out the views of the donor in the spirit in 
which they were expressed. The president then said that to erect a suitable building, 
and maintain it when completed, would require a sum of $200,000; and he hoped the 
necessary amount could be obtained by the time specified in Mr. Lick's deed. He 
entertained no doubt of the Academy's being able to raise the money. Judge Hastings 
stated that he was ready to join with any twenty or any ten other gentlemen to make 
up the sum of $200,000 to build the edifice and maintain it. He added that it had been 
suggested to erect a statue to Mr. Lick, and he saw no reason why those who donated 
means to carry out the great objects proposed, as Mr. Lick had done, should not be 
honored in that way. 

Professor Davidson called up the subject of the "cemenf of the auriferous gravel 
deposits in the Sierra Nevada, spoken of by Dr. J. M. Willey on February 3, and said 
that, if the cement should prove to be decomposed quartz, it might be accounted for 
by glacial action; but, in that case, how was the great amount of rounded pebbles to 
be accounted for? He added that Professor Whitney had determined and plotted out 
the elevations of the different gravel deposits above the America and other rivers, 
and that they exhibited an almost identical slope for the ancient river beds with that 
of the present river beds, although the latter were from 1 ,200 to 1 ,400 feet below the 

134 (continued) j^ elegant Victorian style, Joseph Henry, in response to George Davidson's request, 
addressed the following letter to "James Lick, Esq. San Francisco" : 

"March 10th 73. Dear Sir: I have just seen in the public papers an account of your gift to the Academy 
of Sciences of San Francisco and I beg leave, as the Director of an institution of a similar character, founded 
by a benevolent Englishman of enlarged views and extended sympathies, to express in behalf of science 
the high appreciation which will be attached, by all who are qualified to pronounce upon the subject, to 
your munificent donation. 

"The study of abstract science without regard to its immediate application forms an essential element in 
the advance of the world in its moral and intellectual development. Without a constantly increasing 
knowledge of the laws of nature modem civilization must in time become stationary, like that of Japan and 
China. It is only by making new conquests in the realms of nature that man is enabled to control her forces 
and apply them to her manifold uses. You have therefore acted wisely in making the donation in question. 
Money is the representative of accumulated power and every dollar contains a certain amount of potential 
energy which can command labor; but while there are thousands of enterprising men in our country who 
have talents for accumulating wealth there are but very few like yourself wno have the wisdom and 
enlightened sympathy to apply it as you have done. There is in most men an instinct of immortality which 
induces the desire to live favorably in the memory of their fellow men after they have departed this life, 
and surely no one could choose a more befitting means of erecting a monument to himself more enduring 
or more worthy of admiration than that which you have chosen. You have done good service to the cause 
of science by your gift which 1 trust will be increased in value by the example you have set for others. I 
must sincerely hope that other wealthy citizens of California will supplement your gift by furnishing the 
means of erecting a suitable building; but should there be none such perhaps an appeal to the city or state 
might be made for the purpose, it should be recollected, however, that, besides a suitable building, funds 
are required to sustain, properly, an establishment like that of the Academy, a curator will be necessary 
and the means for publisning the proceedings. Furthermore, an establishment of the kind ought to have the 
means of consecrating to science any one who may be found in the country possessed of the peculiar 
character of mind in a marked degree for original investigation. 

"With my best wishes for your continued prosperity and long life, I am very truly yours, [signed] Joseph 
Henry. Sect. Smithsonian institution." (SlArchives, RU 33, vol. 33. p. 40.) 

The above is not the only letter Henry wrote to James Lick on behalf of a fledgling California institution. 
A year later, Joseph LeConte wrote to Henry informing him that he had passed on to both James Lick and 
Lick's Board of Trustees, Henry's earlier letter supporting the building of an observatory and that Lick 
had, indeed, executed a formal deed for its establishment. (Joseph LeConte to Joseph Henry, September 8, 
1874, SlArchives, RU 26 {Office of the Secretary, Incoming Correspondence, 1863-1879}, vol. 145, p. 
416.) 



154 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




William Neale Lockington 

George Sprague Myers Portrait Collection 

Department of Herpetology, California Academy 

of Sciences 

former. A communication was received in reference to manna and honey-dew, based 
upon observations of John Applegarth, a farmer residing near Woodbridge in San 
Joaquin County. The appearance of manna was comparatively rare, having been 
noticed by him only in the autumn of 1851 and in 1872, both times after seasons of 
abundant verdure. It was discovered in the early morning of the first cool weather in 
the autumn and covered the foliage and fences, somewhat like frost, in the form of 
small, rounded, whitish grains or particles, quite sweet to the taste. The honey-dew 
never failed to occur in the early fall, covering the leaves of shrubs and trees with a 
thick, viscid, sticky substance, which soiled the clothes and adhered to the hands and 
face in passing through thickets and was of a sweetish but ranker taste and not so 
agreeable as that of manna. Both were readily gathered by bees; but they were never 
found in the same cells in the hives. It was a belief among the farmers that the 
honey-dew arose from the sweet aroma of the countless wild flowers carried up by 
the rarefied atmosphere and condensed in the fall by the evening dews, while the 
manna might be the pollen of flowers carried up on occasions favorable for it. They 
thought it impossible, in view of the abundance and wide area over which it was 



CHAPTER XIII: 1873 155 

spread, that the honey-dew could be deposited by insects as was reported by scientists. 
E. F. Lorquin gave a description of a species of California vulture recently captured 
by him. It measured nine feet ten inches from tip to tip and differed from the common 
species by having the neck covered with down instead of being bare. 

March 17, James T. Boyd, Dr. Richard H. McDonald, Louis Sloss, William B. 
Hooper, Frank Locan, F. E. Wilke, E. E. Eyre, Mark L. McDonald, Coll Dean,' ^^ 
Horace L. Hill, and E. J. de Santa Marina were elected life members, and R. B. Irwin, 
J. H. Blumenberg, John J. Haley,"" A. B. Forbes, John F. Miller, Dr. J. A. W. 
Lundborg, I. C. Woods, S. D. Field, J. H. Smythe," *' Oliver P. Evans, W. A. Aldrich, 
Jacob Best, Michael Deering, A. W. von Schmidt, Jourdan W. Roper, J. D. Howell 
and Laurence Kilgour, resident members, and M. Lindermann, Otto Finsch, and 
Alexander Willard, corresponding members. Judge Hastings stated, in connection 
with remarks made by him at the last meeting, that he was ready to unite with other 
gentlemen and be one of twenty to raise the sum of $200,000 for building purposes, 
and that in pursuance of his proposition he had placed $10,000 in the hands of one 
of the Trustees on the terms proposed. Dr. Kellogg presented still another paper on 
"Descriptions of New Plants from the Pacific States." A paper was presented from 
Dr. Theodore Gill on the ''Scombrocottus salmoneus of Peters, and Its Identity with 
Anoploploma fimbria.'^ R. E. C. Steams read a paper on xylophagous or wood-eating 
animals, referring especially to Teredines among mollusks, Linmoria and Chelura 
among crustaceans, and Termites among terrestrial insects. W. H. Dall presented a 
paper of "Descriptions of New Species of MoUusca from the Coast of Alaska, with 
note on some rare forms." 

April 7, Samuel F. Reynolds, Henry H. Haight, and Samuel C. Gray were elected 
resident members. Among the donations was a magnificent set of Kingsborough's 
Mexican Antiquities from George C. Hickox. The president announced that the deed 
of James Lick to the Academy had been filed for record on February 20. W. H. Dall 
read "Remarks on the Death of Professor John Torrey," an honorary member of the 
Academy, who died in New York on March 10; and a committee was appointed to 
prepare appropriate resolutions of respect to his memory. Professor Davidson read a 
paper on the determination of the geographic position of the station at San Jose del 
Cabo in Lower California, occupied by the French astronomer, Chappe d' Auteroche, 
during the Transit of Venus in 1769 - the year, it may be observed, in which Jose de 
Galvez dispatched from the same place the ships San Carlos and San Antonio for the 
settlement of Alta California. Frederick Gutzkow read a paper describing "A New 
Process for the Extraction of Boracic Acid." 

April 21, Jerome B. Cox, Frank F. Taylor, Charles B. Brigham, and D. S. 
Hutchinson were elected resident members. S. B. Boswell, previously elected a 
resident member, having paid the required fee was enrolled a life member. Henry 
Edwards presented a paper "On the Honey-making Ant of Texas and New Mexico, 

'^5 Spelt Deane in the handwritten minutes; also John H. Haley (Minute Books, CAS, Jan. 1 5, 1 872-July 
20, 18/4, p. 70) (compare with the published proceedings (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 5:43). 

'^^ Variously spelt Smyth and Smythe in both handwritten and published minutes (see, for example, 
Smyth in Minutes, both handwritten and published, for March 17, 1873, Smythe in the Minute Books for 
Aug. 3, 1874 to Nov. 15, 1880, p. 206, and Smyth in the same Minute Book. p. 209. 



1 56 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Myrmecocystus Mexicatms of Westwood," based principally upon observations of 
Captain W. B. Fleeson of San Francisco, who had recently had opportunities of 
studying the ants in their native haunts. He described one of their nests or hills, which 
were found near Santa Fe in New Mexico, and the manner in which they were guarded 
by the ant soldiers; also how the confined honey-makers, whose abdomens were 
distended into large, globose, bladder-like forms about the size of a pea and who 
never left the nest, were fed by other ants. He further said that the honey of these ants 
was much sought after by the Mexicans, who not only used it as a delicacy, but applied 
it to bruised and swollen limbs, and ascribed to it great healing qualities. Dr. James 
Blake read a paper "On the Connection between the Atomic Weights of Substances 
and Their Physiological Action," chiefly devoted to the action of poisonous metals 
injected into the blood of animals. '^^ R. E. C. Steams presented "Descriptions of a 
New Genus and two New Species of Nudibranchiate Molluska from the Coast of 
California," his specimens being from Point Pinos, Monterey County. He also 
presented a paper entitled, "Descriptions of New Marine Mollusks from the West 
Coast of North America," being a continuation of previous papers on West Coast 
Mollusks. Dr. Kellogg presented more "Descriptions of New Plants from the West 
Coast of America." Judge Hastings read a paper on pavements as used in ancient and 
in modem times. Dr. Stout exhibited specimens of the stone used in building the U.S. 
Branch Mint on Fifth Street in San Francisco. It came from Vancouver island and 
contained iron which oxidized after a brief exposure to the weather and changed from 
a bluish gray to a dingy yellow color. He said the fault could be cured by washing 
the stone with sulphuric acid; but to apply the remedy to the entire mint building 
would involve great expense. He suggested that a collection of samples of building 
stone should be made for the Academy museum. Mr. Steams proposed resolutions 
of respect to the memory of Professor John Torrey, which were adopted. They spoke 
of his "high scientific attainments of the deceased, the purity of his private character 
and the many estimable qualities which endeared him to his fellow-men." 

May 5, Alexander P. Moore and William W. HoUister were elected life members, 
and Judge O. C. Pratt and Charles V. B. Keading, resident members. Among the 
donations was the first shad, Alausa praestabilis, caught in California waters. 



'^^ This is a continuation of wori< that James Blai<e had begun on the relation between atomic weights 
and physiological action of chemical substances as early as 1 836 or 37 while still living in London. As a 
result, he "laid the foundation of our present knowledge of the relations existing between the atomic weight 
of metals and their physiological action and later demonstrated the efficiency of metals belonging to the 
samegroupof isomers as proportionate to their atomic weight, with the exception of the salts of potassium 
and ammonium. He arranged the elements into isomorphous groups according to their atomic weight and 
poisonous qualities and evolved a law covering the definite relations between reacting salts of chemicals 
and their significance when injected into the circulation." (Miller. 1928, Diet. American Medical Bio^r., 
pp. 108-108). Leake(l95l,Ces77t'/-w.v, 8:1 17) observed "By 1846 Blake had come to three quite remarkaole 
conclusions: ( 1 ) that the characteristic physiological effect of an inorganic compound in solution was 
produced by the electro-positive element; (2) that with increase in atomic weight of the electro-positive 
element in a series of inorganic compounds there is an increase in toxicity; ancf(3) that the characteristic 
physiological effects of the electro-positive elements tend to reappear as one goes up the series with 
increasing atomic weight .... When one examines the groups of the elements made by Blake on the basis 
of their physiological action one cannot help but be stnick by the remarkable similarity to what is called 
the 'Perioaic Table', the famous classification of the elements on the basis of their physical-chemical 
properties as made by the great Russian chemist, Mendelejeff ( 1834-1901 )." For adaitional comments 
about James Blake, see also Leviton & Aldrich, 1987 (Sept.), Fellows Newsletter (of the California 
Academy of Sciences), pp. 4-8. 



CHAPTER XIII: 1873 



157 



presented by the State Board of Fish commissioners. S. R. Throckmorton, one of the 
commissioners, said that on June 27, 1871, this shad was three-quarters of an inch in 
length and was put into the Sacramento river just above Tehama. It was one of 1 5,000 
young shad, hatched in the Hudson River, New York, and brought out in cans by Seth 
Green, arriving in California by railroad in about ten days. The specimen exhibited 
had been caught in a trap near Vallejo. It was a male and not full grown. The fish 
would be at maturity the next year and might be expected in the harbor by the month 
of April of that year. They would then be full-sized breeding fish; and, if a quarter of 
the 15,000 came back breeding fish, they would be sufficient to stock the coast. Dr. 
Stout exhibited specimens of the Orchilla plant from Magdalena Bay, Lower Cali- 
fornia, of the liquid dye made from the same, and of goods dyed with it. Dr. Kellogg 
presented specimens and "Descriptions of New Plants from the West Coast of 
America." Professor Davidson read a paper on 'The Abrasions of the Continental 
Shores of Northwest America, and the Supposed Ancient Sea Levels." May 19, 
Major-Gen. J. M. Schofield, Eusebius Molera, and Professor D. McClure were 
elected resident members and Franz Steindachner (Vienna), a corresponding mem- 
ber. Dr. Blake read a paper describing the structure of the honey-bag of the honey- 
making ant, Myrmecocystus Mexicanus. Professor Davidson presented "New 
Problems in Mensuration." Dr. Kellogg presented "Descriptions of a New Genus and 
two New Species of Plants from the Pacific Coast of North America." 

June 2, W. W. Montague and A. W. Chase were elected resident members. Mrs. 
E. S. Carr read a paper by John Muir, describing "Explorations in the Great Tuolumne 




Eusebius J. Molera 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



158 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

Canon" and containing remarks on the geology and ancient glaciers of the Yosemite 
region. JUNE 16, William C. Ralston was elected a life member, and George W. 
Lewis, Cutler McAllister, John R. Jarboe, and Agapius Honcharenko, resident 
members. A. W. Chase read a paper "On the Artesian Wells of Los Angeles County." 
He said they had been a success only in a narrow belt extending across the plain in a 
direction parallel with the coast line and the mountain range. The artesian water, when 
struck, was at a depth of from 90 to 180 feet, and its temperature about 64°. Judge 
Hastings read a paper on the action of frost upon grape vines in Napa County and its 
apparent eccentricities in injuring some vines, while others directly adjoining and 
seemingly similarly situated were comparatively uninjured. All the vines were of 
foreign varieties; but those unaffected were trained on willow stakes two and a half 
feet above the ground, while the others were not so trained. JULY 7, William S. 
Chapman was elected a life member, F. A. Bishop, John C. Robinson, George H. 
Mendell, F. A. Miller, and O. Button, resident members, and J. W. Glass of Denver 
City, corresponding member. A paper was presented on behalf of Henry Edwards, 
entitled "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera No. 1. Descriptions of some new or imperfectly 
known Heteroceray R. E. C. Steams read a paper on "Aboriginal Shell Money." A 
communication was received from Dr. Cooper "On the Law of Variation in the 
banded California Land Shells." July 21, H. H. Moore and D. O. Mills were elected 
life members, and Dr. J. C. Homer de Tavel and A. Gros, resident members. The 
president read a second deed from James Lick to the Academy, conveying an 
additional lot of 40 feet front on Market Street and mnning back 195 feet on one side 
and 155 on the other side, next east of the property previously conveyed, and under 
the same terms and conditions as in the previous conveyance. It was dated July 1 1 , 
1 873, and signed, acknowledged and delivered on the same day in presence of Samuel 
Hennann, D. J. Staples and John O. Earl. The president, in speaking of the new deed, 
said that the edifice, required to be built on the property as enlarged, would cost 
$300,000, and the taxes and assessments on the property would be at least $5,000 per 
annum. He considered that the conditions could not be complied with, but was in 
hopes that some modifications of them could be obtained from Mr. Lick, who was 
really anxious to benefit the Academy. With this expectation he advised acceptance 
of the new deed; and on motion of Dr. George Hewston, after some discussion, the 
Tmstees were authorized to accept it. R. E. C. Steams presented papers on shells 
collected at San Juanico and Loreto, Lower California, by William M. Gabb. Henry 
G. Hanks presented a paper on Cuproscheelite. Judge Hastings read a paper on 
"Climate Changes." Professor Davidson presented a paper "On an Improved Teleme- 
ter for Reconnaissance, Engineering, and Military Purposes." 

August 4, David J. Staples, Solomon Goldsmith, Alfred Wheeler, Albert Wil- 
liams, Jr. and Dr. Richard D. Plummer were elected resident members. Dr. Blake 
presented a curious specimen of polyp, or rather series of polyps on a stem, taken 
near Cape Roberts in the Gulf of Georgia in about seven fathoms of water. The stem, 
when stretched out, was about thirty inches long and from three to four inches in 
diameter and covered with small polyps. W. A. Goodyear read a paper "On the 



CHAPTER XIII: 1873 159 

Situation and Altitude of Mount Whitney," giving an account of a trip made by M. 
W. Belshaw and himself on July 27, to a peak in the High Sierra supposed to be Mount 
Whitney and so named by Clarence King, but which was not the true Mount Whitney. 
He said they rode their mules to the top of the peak they ascended, and that the true 
Mount Whitney, discovered by Professor Brewer and party in 1 864, was some six 
miles distant in a northwesterly direction and was evidently some 600 or more feet 
higher in altitude. After their return Mr. Belshaw had measured the two peaks by 
rough triangulation from Cerro Gordo in Owens River Valley and found the peak 
they ascended to be 14,033 feet and the true Mount Whitney to be 14,930 feet above 
sea level. AUGUST 1 8, Leland Stanford and Irving M. Scott were elected life members, 
and Charles Stephens, E. D. Farrington, Frederick Gutzkow, Lewis Locke, J. H. 
Locke, Charles L. Weller, and Edward W. Corbett, resident members. The president 
announced that the Academy had acquired the skin and skeleton of a sea-elephant 
from the coast of Lower California. Professor Davidson read a paper "On the 
Auriferous Gravel Deposits of California." He said he had visited the hydraulic mines 
at Smartsville in Yuba county, where the auriferous gravel was 400 feet deep, lying 
between hills of rock that did not contain any gold. This gravel was cemented together 
so compactly as to require gunpowder to break it up sufficiently to be worked by the 
hydraulic streams; and he was of opinion that it was a part of great glacial tenninal 
moraine. He could not see how the action of water could produce it or leave it where 
it was; the gravel, boulders and cement did not bear the appearance of having been 
formed by moving water; and, besides, the gold particles, instead of being rounded, 
were flattened. Nor could he see how volcanic action could account for it. R. E. C. 
Steams presented a "Description of a New Genus and Species of Alcynoid Polyp," 
referring to the polyp from the Gulf of Georgia, presented to the Academy by Dr. 
Blake on August 4, and for which he proposed the name for the genus, or rather 
sub-genus under the genus of Pavonaria, of Verrillia, and for the species of Blakei. 
Dr. Blake presented a paper "On the Structure of Verrillia Blakei.'" 

September 1, Dr. Horatio S. Gates was elected a life member, and Andrew F. 
Craven and John T. Brady, resident members. Among the donations was a specimen 
of white sandstone from Lake Merced in San Francisco County, where Professor 
Davidson said there was a large deposit, which was being worked and shipped east 
for use as a polish. He said it was found to be superior to rotten-stone for that purpose. 
Professor Davidson made remarks "On an Improved Leveling Rod," devised by 
himself. R. E. C. Steams spoke of the fossil tooth of a species of elephant, found on 
Santa Rosa Island near the cmmbiing remains of tusk, which he thought showed that 
the island was once a part of the mainland. Professor Davidson said that he had 
examined the partially exhumed remains of a large animal near Lake Merced, which 



'3^ Stephenson in the handwritten minutes (A/mwreSoofa, CAS, Jan. 15. 1872-July20, 1874, p.91). 

'^"^ Lest anyone think that Academy meetings never engendered argument and criticism and that all 
present acted with Victorian politeness, in a letter to William Dall written on 1 9 Aug. 1 873, Robert Steams 
says of fellow Academy member James Graham Cooper, "Cooper has returned to this city and will probably 
inflict his presence on the Acad, occasionally — he pitched in to me a few days ago on shell matters and 
I told him squarely what I thought of him and his work — since that he has been ciuite docile." (SI Archives, 
RU7073 {William H. Dall Papers, 1865-1927}, Box 16, Folder 30.) Of course. Steams seems to have had 
a cmsty side too, judging from comments in other correspondence to Dall. 



1 60 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

were supposed by some parties to belong to a whale. Steps had been taken to secure 
it for the museum. He also, as president, stated that the Board of Trustees had taken 
under advisement the difficulties arising from the terms of Mr. Lick's donations, and 
had addressed Mr. Lick in reference thereto and requesting a modification of the 
conditions, to which there had as yet been no specific reply. 

September 15, Louis Gerstle and Simon Greenwald were elected life members. 
Mr. Steams made remarks upon the Grand Canon of the Tuolumne River and what 
had been said about it, particularly in respect to accessibility, by Professor Whitney 
and by John Muir. Dr. A. W. Saxe called attention to a mound, composed of materials 
supposed to have been collected by the Indians, just south of the mouth of Laguna 
Creek, six miles north of Santa Cruz. It was, he said, full of implements used by the 
aborigines, and particularly of large quantities of chalcedony which must have been 
brought from a considerable distance. Dr. George Hewston called attention to the 
English sparrow, which had been introduced into the country. He could see no good 
reason for the introduction of a foreign sparrow, which had objectional habits, while 
we had a most valuable native sparrow that should be protected - the western 
white-crowned finch or sparrow. It frequented gardens, built its nest in the city, and 
had a very sweet song. It destroyed caterpillars and insects and could be familiarized 
and made a domestic bird. R. Steams said he believed the reason why the English 
sparrow was preferred in the East was because it destroyed certain caterpillars and 
especially the canker-worm, which some native birds would not touch. A note from 
the president was read, stating that the Tmstees had had several conferences with Mr. 
Lick in reference to the difficulties accompanying his deeds to the Academy. They 
had found him willing to make such modifications as would bring about a favorable 
end to the negotiations. Dr. Henry Gibbons made remarks about a proposed balloon 
voyage across the Atlantic. He said there was reason to believe in the existence of a 
strong upper current in the air from west to east, which was demonstrated by the 
course of high cirrus clouds. He thought, however, if a balloon voyage were at- 
tempted, it would be better to make the first experiment from the Pacific to the 
Atlantic. Mr. Steams remarked that the same suggestion had been made by Professor 
Henry to Professor Wise, the aeronaut; but the latter had replied that, in case of 
accident, he preferred to fall in water rather than on land. 

October 6, William Kohl was elected a life member and Dr. J. D. B. Stillman 
and George S. Ladd, resident members. Henry Edwards presented a paper on "Pacific 
Coast Lepidoptera: No. 2. On the Transformation of the Diurnal Lepidoptera of 
Califomia and the Adjacent Districts." A paper was read from Dr. J. G. Cooper in 
reference to certain Califomia mollusks. Alexia setifer and its allies. W. A. Goodyear 
presented a paper "On the Height of Mount Whitney." He said that M. W. Belshaw 
in company with Charles Rabe had ascended the tme Mount Whitney on September 
6 and taken observations, from which he had computed the altitude to be 14,898.5 
feet above sea level. The president reported progress in the matter of the modifications 
of the terms of Mr. Lick's donation to the Academy, and said that Mr. Lick had so 
changed the conditions of the first deed that the Academy would have several years 



CHAPTER XIII: 1873 161 

to raise the money for the erection of a proper building. October 20, Andrew B. 
McCreery was elected a life member, and Dr. H. H. Behr, W. W. Russell, Isaac E. 
Davis, Philip Caduc, and C. H. Whitesides, resident members, and Stephen Powers 
of Sheridan, Placer County, corresponding member. Professor Davidson delivered a 
lecture on the discovery and progress of spectrum analysis, and H. G. Hanks 
explained the construction of the spectroscope and illustrated its use with experi- 
ments. 

November 3, Joseph A. Donohoe was elected a life member, and Robert W. 
Andrews, E. G. Waite, Thomas Adams, and Henry Michaels, resident members. 
Among donations were twenty-seven volumes of the voyages of "L' Astrolabe" and 
twenty of the voyage of "La Bonita," in French. They were presented through Dr. 
George Hewston by "A Friend of the Academy," who withheld his name. Specimens 
of a marine worm called "Palolo" from the Navigation Islands were also presented. 
They were seen floating in the early morning in certain channels of those islands, as 
was said, on only two days in the year, and their appearance was calculated with 
astronomical precision by the natives. On such days they appeared in great abundance 
and were caught only before sunrise, for as soon as the sun shone, they disappeared 
to return only at neap-tide in the months of October or November. W. R. Frink, the 
donor, said that they were esteemed by the natives as a choice delicacy, and the 
"Palolo days," were occasions of festivity and thousands repaired to the channels to 
gather them. The worms were of all colors, and the surface of the water, at the time 
of their appearance, presented the most gorgeous hues. In 1872, he said, the "Palolo 
days" were October 23 and November 23. Mr. Steams said that the specimens 
presented were too imperfect to determine their true nature; but they appeared to be 
allied to the Nereidae. W. A. Goodyear presented a paper "On the High Sierra South 
of Mount Whitney," in which he spoke particularly of the extinct volcanoes and lava 
flow at an elevation of about 9,000 feet on the east side of Kern River nearly opposite 
what are known as Soda Springs near Little Kern Lake. A paper by Henry Edwards 
was presented, entitled "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera. No. 3. Notes on some Zygsenidae 
and Bombycidae of Oregon and British Columbia; with Descriptions of New Spe- 
cies." The minutes of the Board of Trustees, accepting a new deed from James Lick 
in place of the first deed made by him were read, and then the new deed. This 
instrument was dated, signed, acknowledged and delivered on October 3, 1873. It 
recited the first deed for the lot 80 feet front on Market Street and proceeded to state 
that, for the purpose of relieving the Academy "from all the terms, provisions and 
conditions contained in said deed and all disabilities, if any exist," the same property 
was conveyed; but with substantially the same express reservations and conditions 
contained in the first deed, except that the time for raising the money and erecting 
the building contemplated as in the first deed was extended to ten years from date; 
and then, if the Academy violated or failed to fulfill any of the terms and conditions, 
the property should go to the State of California, with the request and hope that the 
law-making power would devote it to the uses and purposes for which the California 
Academy of Sciences had been organized. This deed had been accepted by the Board 



162 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

of Trustees and placed on record on October 14, 1873. On motion of Dr. George 
Hewston the deed and the action of the Board of Trustees were accepted and 
approved. 

November 17, L. L. Robinson was elected a life member and William Harney, 
Thomas H. Blythe, M. W. Belshaw, Dr. G. L. Murdock, Newton Booth, William 
Murray, Joseph Perkins, and William H. Moor, resident members. L. L. Robinson 
was elected a life member and W. M. P. Martin and S. W. Williams, both of Peking, 
China, were elected corresponding members. Among the donations was granulated 
beet sugar made by the Sacramento Beet Sugar Company, and also photographs of 
hieroglyphics cut on thin blocks of wood from Easter Island. W. H. Dall presented 
a paper "On Further Examinations of the Amaknak Cave, Captain's Bay, Unalaska." 
Dr. Blake presented a paper "On Nickeliferous Sand from Eraser River," and I. C. 
Wood on "On the Spontaneous Combustion of Hydro-Carbon Vapors." J. B. 
McChesney called attention to "Shell Mound" near the Bay shore a few miles north 
of Oakland in Alameda County, which he described as about 1 75 feet in diameter, 
with sides sloping at about 45 or 50 degrees, composed of shells and other debris 
covered with shrubbery and with its apex somewhat hollowed. A discussion ensued 
as to whether the bones found in shell-mounds were of prehistoric age. D. J. Staples 
said that in 1849-1850 he had witnessed, on the Mokelumne river 14 miles northeast 
of Stockton, the burial of several Indians who had died from the effects of bad 
whiskey. They were placed in the ground, near the tents or houses occupied by the 
tribe, and buried in a sitting posture, surrounded with their personal property, 
consisting principally of beads and trinkets. He had also seen other Indian burials of 
the same kind; and in his opinion the reason for their being so near the habitations of 
the living was to be found in the indolence and filthy habits of the Indians, and perhaps 
to some extent in their desire to have the graves near by so as to visit them often. He 
had examined a number of mounds on the upper Sacramento and American rivers, 
and thought they had been thrown up for the purpose of raising their brush huts above 
the encroachments of the spring floods. He felt confident that scientific men would 
not discover in the Indian mounds of California anything to connect them with a 
prehistoric age. 

December 1, Dr. C. M. Hitchcock, having paid the required fee, was enrolled a 
life member, and Henry Kimball, W. N. Lockington, S. P. Carusi, J. R. Scupham, and 
Dr. E. J. Eraser were elected resident members. Frank E. Taylor resigned his 
membership. Professor Bolander presented a paper of "Remarks on the Genus 
Lilium.'" December 15, the death of Professor Louis Agassiz, who was an honorary 
member of the Academy, having been announced, it was resolved that an appropriate 
memorial meeting should be held; and a committee was appointed to make the proper 
arrangements. J. H. Steams was elected a life member, and Dr. E. Hiller, P. C. Lander, 
Daniel Swett, John Muir, John Lewis, Jason Springer, and Gen. B. S. Alexander, 
resident members. Dr. Blake read a paper "On the Puebla Range of Mountains" in 
the northern part of Humboldt County, Nevada. Professor Joseph LeConte read a 
paper "On the Great Lava Flow of the Northwest, and on the Structure and Age of 



CHAPTER XIII: 1873 163 

the Cascade Mountains." December 22, a special meeting was held in Mercantile 
Library Hall as a tribute to the memory of Professor Louis Agassiz, bom May 28, 
1807, died December 14, 1873. Addresses upon his life work, his character and 
influence, were made by Professor Davidson, Professor D. C. Oilman, Professor 
Joseph LeConte, Rev. Horatio Stebbins and Rev. W. A. Scott; and papers were read 
from R. E. C. Steams and Henry Edwards. On motion of W. H. Dall, a series of 
resolutions of respect to the memory of deceased were adopted, one of which was 
"That to Professor Agassiz and the pupils whom he impressed by his teachings and 
example we largely owe the adoption of that wise liberality, exhibited by the 
government and by many private individuals, in matters relating to scientific explo- 
ration and research, which is so justly the pride of American citizens." ' 



'^ '0 As an interesting aside, Dall was not always so generous in his opinion of Agassiz. Agassiz was an 
avowed creationist, and in December of 1872, Dall wrote a letter to Joseph Henry in which, among other 
matters, he included the following comment on Agassiz's science, "... 1 see that you were not at Cambridge, 
when Prof Agassiz had been fulminating against the evolutionists in a style which is forcible if not 
convincing. As he has not kept pace with the progress of science for the last fifteen years, I do not know 
that his opinion is very valuable." (Dall to Henry, Dec. 29, 1872. SIArchives, RU 26 {Office of the 
Secretary}, Incoming Correspondence, 1863-1879, vol. 132, pp. 477-478.) 



164 



Chapter XIV: Year 1 874 



r ■ ihe attendance of members during the year 1873 had been large, usually from 
1 30 to 45. Following two special meetings of the Trustees, one on January 2nd 
ana a second on the 3rd, to discuss the offer by Mr. Newhall to rent the First 
Congregationalist Church to the Academy, the regular annual meeting of 1 874 was 
held on January 5. There were 64 present. Matthew Turner, Levi M. Kellogg, and 
A. P. Elfelt were elected resident members. The president delivered his annual 
address, showing the progress of the Academy during the past year; its large additions 
to library, museum and membership; its gratifying condition at that time, and its 
prospects for the future. The secretary reported a total membership of 472 persons, 
including all classes. The treasurer reported the receipts for 1873 as $7,356.15, and 
the disbursements as $2,823.43, leaving $4,562.72 in the treasury. Reports of the 
librarian and director of the museum showed their departments in fair condition, but 
strained for want of room. The annual election resulted in the choice of Professor 
George Davidson as president; Gen. John Hewston, Jr., vice-president; R. E. C. 
Steams, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, recording secretary; Elisha 
Brooks, treasurer; Dr. H. H. Behr, librarian; H. G. Bloomer, director of the museum; 
and Gen. D. D. Colton, George E. Gray, Oliver Eldridge, R. E. C. Steams, Henry 
Edwards, Thomas P. Madden, and Dr. A. B. Stout, tmstees. There were opposition 
candidates for the offices of president, vice-president, corresponding secretary, 
librarian, and two places on the Board of Tmstees, for which, as will be noticed, seven 
persons were elected in addition to those who held ex officio. A vote of thanks was 
tendered to Henry M. Newhall, proprietor of the old First Congregational Church 
building on the southwest comer of Califomia and Dupont Streets, for his liberal offer 
to lease the same to the Academy for a term of years at $250 per month, complete 
with a reverse donation of $ 1 00 a month to the Academy during the time the Academy 
might continue to occupy it; and, on motion, the mles were suspended and Mr. 
Newhall elected a life member. 

January 19, George W. Smiley and L. Livingston were elected life members, 
and Judge S. S. Wright, W. H. L. Bames, Dr. A. S. Hudson, Dr. Gustav Eisen, August 
Dmcker, Charles Schultze, Everard Stiele, E. E. Haft and Almarin B. Paul, resident 
members. Among the donations was a large collection of scientific books, about two 
thousand in number, from Professor Henry of the Smithsonian Institution at Wash- 
ington, for which a vote of thanks was tendered.'^ ' A. W. Chase read a paper on "The 
Auriferous Sands of Gold Bluff in Humboldt County," illustrated with drawings and 
sections of the locality. His conclusions were that all the gold among the sand and 



CHAPTER XIV: 1874 



165 




First Congregational Church, home to the Cahfomia Academy 
of Sciences 1874-1891 (engraving from Soule, 1855) 



gravel of the beach there came from the bluff, and that it was only after a continuous 
succession of ocean swells, cutting the beach at an angle that gold could be found in 
the sand in paying quantities. W. H. Dall presented papers entitled "Catalogue of 
Shells from Bering Strait and the Adjacent Portions of the Arctic Ocean, with 
Descriptions of Three New Species," and "On New Parasitic Crustacea, from the 



''*•' On November 29, 1873, George Davidson wrote Joseph Henry, "The Trustees of the Cal. Acad. 
Sciences having learned that the Smithsonian Institution has a large number of duplicate volumes of 
scientific books, reports, and proceedings of learned societies, make an earnest appeal to you to donate the 
same to the California Academy of Sciences as the nucleus of a scientific library for this coast . . ." Three 
weeks later, on December 24, 1873, Davidson again wrote to Henry. "I have your letter of the 12th and 
15th advising me that you had shipped, as a present to the California Academy of Sciences, fifteen boxes 
of books consisting of all the duplicates of puolications ... in the possession of the Smithsonian Institution 
. . ." (Davidson to Henry, SI Archives, RU 26 {Office of the Secretary}, Incoming Correspondence, 
1863-1879, vol. 136, p. 232, vol. 142, p. 1.) 



166 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

N.W. Coast of America." The president announced that the Board of Trustees had 
taken a lease from Mr. Newhall of the old First Congregational Church building on 
the southwest comer of California and Dupont streets and made suitable arrange- 
ments for moving into it; and that the next meeting of the Academy would be held 
there. He also announced the appointment by the Board of Trustees of the following 
curators: Dr. George Hewston of general zoology; W. H. Dall, ichthyology; W. G. 
W. Harford, conchology; William G. Blunt, ornithology; Henry Edwards, entomol- 
ogy; W. A. Goodyear, paleontology; and Theodore A. Blake, mineralogy; also of 
Professor Davidson, R. E. C. Steams, Charles G. Yale, Henry Edwards, and Dr. 
Kellogg as committee on publication. 

February 2, Albert H. Harris was elected a life member, and A. S. Hallidie, A. 
D. Smith, and W. M. Wherry, resident members. Dr. Blake exhibited the case of a 
human skull that had been brought up with dirt from the 400-foot level of the Ophir 
Mine on the Comstock Lode, Nevada. He thought it had been carried down into the 
mine with dirt from a neighboring ravine, which at an earlier period had been used 
to fill up former workings. But, independently of its history, the skull presented some 
very interesting features. The presence of a large interparietal bone, the heavy 
superciliary ridges, the very low forehead, the great development of the posterior 
portion of the skull, the peculiar position of the socket for the articulation of the lower 
jaw, and the great development of the processes for the attachment of muscles showed 
a form which, in his opinion, was more removed from that of any existing race of 
human beings than that of any skull that had heretofore been found. Dr. Blake also 
called attention to a paper "On Nickeliferous Sand from Eraser River," read by him 
on November 17, 1873, and said that the mineral then described by him as magnetic 
oxide of nickel, had been pronounced by Professor Walcott Gibbs a mineral never 
before discovered; and he would therefore propose for it the name of" Fraserite." 

February 16, George W. Beaver, George Oulton, and G. Niebaum were elected 
life members, and Dr. J. C. Moore, John C. Merrill, Carlton Newman, Thomas B. 
Bishop, Frederick Mason, John R. Sharpstein, J. E. Squire, H. F. Cooper, Emanuel 
Newman, F. C. Du Bmtz, and James S. Gillam, resident members. Professor David- 
son read a paper "On Improvements in the Sextant." A paper by Henry Edwards was 
presented, entitled "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 4. Descriptions of some new 
Genera and Species of Heterocera." Professor Davidson exhibited maps and charts 
showing soundings in the Pacific Ocean made by Captain George E. Belknap of the 
U. S. Steamer Tuscarora in 1 873 for a telegraph cable between Califomia and Japan. 
It appeared from them that the bottom of the ocean, going west from the Straits of 
Fuca [Juan de Fuca {Eds.}], sloped gradually to a depth of 100 fathoms and then 
made a sudden descent, which reached a depth of 1 ,400 fathoms at a distance of 1 50 
miles from the coast. The temperature of the water at the greatest depth on this line 
of survey was 34 degrees, Fahrenheit. Continuing the surveys down the coast to San 
Francisco, it appeared that the sudden descent of the bottom of the Pacific to a great 
depth was continuous along the entire line, varying from twenty to seventy miles out. 
Opposite San Francisco the great bench was reached a short distance off the Faral- 



CHAPTER XIV: 1874 167 

lones, where the bottom suddenly descended to a depth of two miles. Off Cape 
Foulweather in Oregon, the bottom descended precipitately from 300 to 1,500 
fathoms, and then the plateau continued westward for hundreds of miles, and 
comparatively as level as a billiard table. Off Cape Mendocino a depth of 2,200 
fathoms was reached eighty miles from the shore. Thirty miles off the Golden Gate 
the bottom was reached at 100 fathoms; at fifty-five miles it had descended to 1,700 
fathoms; and at one hundred miles out the enomious depth of 2,548 fathoms had been 
measured without reaching bottom. 

March 2, Anson G. Stiles, Frederick Castle, and Charles Troyer were elected life 
members, and James Behrens, C. E. Gibbs, John McHenry, Jr., Walter Van Dyke, 
Carlton W. Miller, Edward Steele, James McKinley, William H. Sharp, and Josiah 
Belden, resident members. Among the donations was a set of the "Flora Braziliensis," 
in thirty-four volumes of Professor Louis Agassiz presented by Alexander Agassiz 
in accordance with the expressed wish of his deceased father. W. H. Dall presented 
a paper, entitled "Notes on the Avifauna of the Aleutian Islands, Especially Those 
West of Unalashka." R. E. C. Steams read a paper, a translation, describing the 
excavation of an ancient vessel of the Viking period in the parish of Tane, Norway. 
Judge Hastings read a paper on the "Creeping of Railroad Tracks." Professor 
Davidson recurred to the subject of the depth of the Pacific Ocean, and said that 
Professor Bache had detennined it in 1 855 from observadons on the great earthquake 
waves of December, 1854. The rate of motion of the crest of the wave from Simoda 
to San Diego was 370 miles per hour, or 6 miles per minute. The duration of the 
oscillation on the San Diego path was 31 minutes; on the San Francisco path 35 
minutes. From this data it appeared that the length of the wave on the San Diego path 
was from 186 to 192 miles, and on the San Francisco path from 210 to 217 miles. A 
wave 2 1 miles in length would move with a velocity of 6 miles per minute in a depth 
of 2,230 fathoms and a wave of 217 miles in length would move with a velocity of 
6.2 miles per minute in a depth of 2,500 fathoms. By a similar calculation the average 
depth on the San Francisco path was found to be 2,100 fathoms. 

March 16, James Whartenby was elected a life member and Edwin Merrifield, 
John H. Bostwick, G. W. Dunn, Benjamin Roop, and Lovell Squire, resident mem- 
bers. R. E. C. Steams read a paper, entitled "Remarks Suggested by Dr. J. E. Gray's 
Paper on the 'Stick Fish' in 'Nature,' Nov. 6, 1873." The object of the remarks seems 
to have been to take Dr. Gray to task for calling what Mr. Steams, in a paper read 
before the Academy on August 18, 1873, had named Verrillia Blakei, an Osteocella 
septentrionalis. Dr. Cooper presented a paper on "The Influence of Climate and 
Topography on Our Trees." He attributed the scarcity of trees and small number of 
species in the immediate vicinity of San Francisco, as compared with those of the 
Russian River region on the north and the Monterey region on the south, to the 
prevalence during the dry season of the strong winds blowing in through the Golden 
Gate. The wind affected the growth of trees in the San Francisco region, and in other 
regions where there were "wind gaps" more than soil or altitude and accounted for 
the phenomenon of trees growing on the sheltered sides of hills, which were bare on 



168 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




The members of the "Arthrozoic Club," a group of early 

California entomologists and Academy members [*]. 

(Left to right) James John Rivers*, Albert Koebele, George 

Washington Dunn*, James H. Behrens*, Carl (Charles) Fuchs*, 

Thomas L. Casey*, and William G. W. Harford.* 

E. O. Essig Collection, 

California Academy of Sciences Archives 



the exposed sides. There were, he said, only about forty species of trees within sixty 
miles of San Francisco. It was to a considerable extent different with shrubs, which 
were not so much affected by the winds. But as to the distribution of trees, the course 
and force of the prevalent winds were the chief causes of the local peculiarities 
observed. He divided the trees growing near San Francisco into five groups, in the 
first of which he placed 25 species as growing within ten miles; in the second, ten 
more growing within twenty miles; in the third, eight more growing within thirty 
miles; in the fourth, six more growing within forty miles; and in the fifth, one more 
growing within sixty miles. Dr. Blake submitted a number of amendments to the 
constitution, relative to the membership of the Academy and apparently designed to 
prevent its interests from falling in unscientific hands. They were referred to the 
Board of Trustees. 

April 7, Manuel Aspiroz, Rev. Frederick E. Shearer, William C. Gibbs, Ferdinand 
Lantern, and George W. Dietzler were elected resident members. Dr. Behr exhibited 
and described a species of mangrove, Avicenia officialis, found in New Zealand, 
which he thought adapted to this state. It would grow in the sea as far out as low water 
mark, and was used in New Zealand to protect plantations against tides. He said the 
seeds were never dormant, but began to germinate as soon as mature, whether in earth. 



CHAPTER XIV: 1874 169 

air or water; and he added "they always grow where not wanted, and do not always 
grow where they are wanted." Judge Hastings read a paper on the "Correlation of 
Forces and the Indestructibility of Matter." Charles D. Gibbes presented a paper on 
"Reclamation of Swamp Lands." W. H. Dall presented a paper, entitled "Notes on 
Some Tertiary Fossils from the California Coast, with a List of the Species Obtained 
from a Well at San Diego, California, with Descriptions of two New Species." 
President Davidson, being about to be temporarily absent, wished to place himself 
on record as opposed to the amendments of the constitution as proposed by Dr. Blake 
calculated to create a class of "Fellows of the Academy" composed of scientific men 
only. A discussion followed; and the result was the adoption of a resolution author- 
izing the Board of Trustees to select such assistance from the members of the 
Academy as it thought proper and prepare a new constitution, to be presented within 
six months from date. April 20, Dr. V. J. Fourgeaud read a paper, entitled "General 
Scientific Hypothesis, as an Introduction to a work on Evolution of the Organic and 
Inorganic World." Dr. A. S. Hudson read a paper "On Shell Mounds in Oakland, 
California." He said there were two tumuli on the Bay shore about two miles north 
of the City Hall in Oakland, one some 300 feet in diameter at base; and the other 
about 240 feet in diameter at base, about 35 or 40 feet high, and with a truncated 
summit 1 50 feet in diameter. From the north side of the latter ran a kind of pan-handle 
270 feet long and originally 5 or 6 feet high. He quoted Abbe Domenech to the effect 
that "Indians do no special work for mere whim or pastime - they have a definite 
object in their labor," and he thought that this mound bespoke a similar sentiment. It 
conveyed to his mind the idea that human hands had given it existence and figure for 
a purpose. Dr. Henry Gibbons called attention to some potatoes, which had grown 
from last year's crop and come to maturity this year, without throwing up any shoots 
above ground. He said there were in his garden a number of different-sized potatoes 
of recent growth without stems or with very little stems. How they were produced 
was an interesting question in vegetable economy, if not in practical agriculture. Dr. 
Blake read a communication in reference to his proposed amendments to the consti- 
tution in answer to Professor Davidson's remarks about them, and in substance 
asserting that the Academy was growing unscientific. A discussion ensued with the 
result that a committee consisting of Judge Currey, Judge Hastings, Dr. Henry 
Gibbons, G. W. Smiley, and Dr. Fourgeaud, was appointed to investigate and report 
upon the subject. 

May 4, Robert C. Rogers, Solomon Heydenfeldt, Jr., William C. Randolph, 
William T. Reilly, Dr. W. J. Younger, G. W. Anthony, Stephen H. Phillips, Benjamin 
B. Redding,'"" T. J. Lowry, J. Stephen Jones, William Brooks, and Wellington C. 
Burnett were elected resident members. Messers. Currey, Hastings and Gibbons, of 
the committee on Dr. Blake's statements in reference to the membership of the 



'■^ - For a biographical sketch of Academy member and Trustee Benjamin Redding, sometime journalist, 
state legislator, California Fish and Game Commissioner, mayor of Sacramento, and land agent for the 
Central Pacific Railroad, see Lois Ward, Benjamin Bernard Redding. The Covered Wagon. 1 95 1 , pp. 33-36; 
see also, Renee Renouf The Greatest Bohemian of All: Joseph D. Redding. The Califomians, 12(3): 1 1-22 
[Benjamin Redding, pages 11-12]; Virginia Lawrence, How the Grinch Stole Redding. 1986, 10 pp. 
(unpublished ms; copy in Archives, California Academy of Sciences), {continued next page) 



1 70 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Academy, presented a majority report, and Messrs. Smiley and Fourgeaud, a minority 
report. They seemed to be nearly the same and to the effect that the interests of the 
Academy were not suffering from the character of its membership; but the majority 
report expressed high appreciation of Dr. Blake's scientific attainments, while the 
minority report closed with a recommendation that no further action should be taken 
in the matter. A lively discussion as to the two reports followed, with the result that 
both were accepted and approved. Judge Hastings read a paper "On the Alleged 
Mysterious Occurrences at the Clarke Mansion in Oakland," which apparently were 
of the so-called "spiritualistic" kind. Dr. V. J. Fourgeaud read a continuation of his 
paper, presented at the last meeting, on a "General Scientific Hypothesis as an 
Introduction to a Work on Evolution of the Organic and Inorganic World." Rev. 
Albert Williams and H. G. Bloomer took exceptions to some assertions in Dr. 
Fourgeaud's paper. A discussion ensued, which was becoming lively, when a motion 
to adjourn was made and carried. May 18, Rev. E. L. Greene and Robert T. Van 
Norden were elected resident members. Among the donations was a valuable botani- 
cal collection including plants from the Cape of Good Hope and from Europe, all 
identified and catalogued, presented by Professor Bolander. Dr. Fourgeaud read a 
paper on "Some of the Relations of Matter and Space." He also read a paper in reply 
to the exceptions taken by Rev. A. Williams and H. G. Bloomer to certain statements 
in his paper on evolution, read at the previous meeting. Judge Hastings read a paper 
"On Electrical Phenomena on this Coast." Shells of transplanted Eastern oysters, 
covered with the spat of young oysters, having been presented for inspection, G. R. 
Throckmorton, State Fish Commissioner, stated that he had examined them and found 
the spat to be of the small California native oyster. He asserted that the spat was only 
found on Eastern oyster shells planted near beds of native oysters. The Eastern oyster, 
he said, had not developed a tendency to increase in California waters. It was 



] 4.2 {con!intie<f) j^ his dual Capacity as land agent for the railroad, and a fish commissioner. Redding carried 
on an interesting correspondence with Spencer Fullerton Baird at the Smithsonian Institution. For example, 
Baird wanted to obtain free rail transit of packages bound from San Francisco to Washington, and Redding 
wanted to import live fish for stocking California's rivers and coast. The ciiiid quo pro merge in a letter 
dated June 1 6, 1 874, in which Redding writes to Baird that the Central Pacific management would continue 
its policy of shipping boxes bound for the Smithsonian without charge. However, Redding observed that 
unless Baird could get other roads to do the same, the most that could be waived would be the charges from 
San Francisco to Ogden. Utah, where the railroad changes from the Central to Union Pacific. He cautioned 
that if the Union Pacific and the Eastern roads were not willing to waive the charges, then the arrangement 
with the Central Pacific would be of little value. He noted that shipping costs from Ogden to Washington 
DC were greater than from San Francisco to the East Coast because local rates are charged from Ogden to 
the East Coast, which are greater than through rates, which are charged on freight originating in San 
Francisco. (Redding to Baird, SI Archives, RIJ52, Assistant Secretary, 1850-1877, Incoming Correspon- 
dence, item 422-423.) This early arrangement for waiving shipping charges was short-lived, however, 
because in 1876, faced with charges in the State Legislature of favoritism toward certain institutions, the 
Central Pacific was forced to change its policy (Redoing to Baird, SIArchives. RU 52, vol. 203, pp. 96-97). 
Also, another problem emerged which related to the demand for immediate payment from some of the 
lines beyond those of the Central and Union Pacific and it was only because of the intervention of Governor 
Leland Stanford, that it was possible for Central Pacific cars with Smithsonian-bound items to go as far as 
Chicago. From there. Redding warned, Baird would have to complete arrangements on his own. 

With respect to fishes, evidently Redding had good luck, for he wrote to Baird in regard to a current 
shipment ttiat "Mr. Stones has arrived safely with his car of new varieties offish . . .The shad were lost at 
Laramie in consequence of an excess of alkali in the water-all the lobsters were lost, except four which 
arrived in not a very healthy condition. All the others, some eighteen varieties, came in perfect order and 
have been turned into (as we hope) appropriate places." (Redding to Baird, SIArchives, RU 52, Assistant 
Secretary, 1850-1877, Incoming Correspondence, item 422-423.) Additional correspondence relating to 
the import of fishes and the export of fish products, mostly salmon eggs, is included among the 
Redding-Baird correspondence (SIArchives, RU 52). 



CHAPTER XIV: 1874 



171 







I !-: 






22 S! 26 Montgomery Street, 






Benjamin Barnard Redding 

California Historical Society 

Photograph by Carleton E. Watkins. FN-30570. 

short-lived here becoming very fat and dying within a year after being placed in the 
Bay — in which latter assertion he made a very great mistake. He pronounced the 
experiment of transplanting Eastern oysters in the Bay - an industry which has since 
become large and important — up to that time a failure. Dr. Blake offered a paper 
explaining his position in reference to his proposed amendments to the constitution 
and designed, as he said, to set himself right before the Academy as he thought his 
motives and representations had been misunderstood. Objections were made that the 
matter had been disposed of, and the paper was ruled out of order. Dr. Blake again 
called up the subject, and the objections were withdrawn; but the communication was 
found to be lengthy and, after a portion had been read, it was, on motion of Judge 
Hastings, laid on the table; and on motion of Dr. Gibbons the Academy adjourned. 
June 1, John H. Saunders, G. Parker Cummings, and William Dutch were elected 
resident members. T. J. Lowry presented a paper on an "Improved Method of 
Observing Ahitudes of the Sun at Sea." He proposed, by the attachment of an extra 
index glass to the ordinary reflecting instruments used for observations of the sun, to 
duplicate the image, and claimed that thereby the instrument would not only eliminate 



172 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

its own errors, but also those of observations, as well as those due to sudden 
atmospheric changes; and in fine become an instrument theoretically almost perfect. 
He added that the theory of nautical astronomy had reached a point of perfection that 
only awaited the detennination of the true dimensions of the solar system — which, it 
was hoped, the next Transit of Venus would give - to make it all that could be wished. 
June 15, Addison E. Head was elected a life member and Charles T. Dake, and 
James W. Winter, resident members; J. G. Lemmon and H. W. Howgate were elected 
corresponding members. James Lick presented fragments of the flag which waved 
over Fort McHenry during its bombardment on September 14, 1814 and gave rise to 
the "Star Spangled Banner." The fragments had been given to Mr. Lick by Comino- 
dore George Henry Preble, U.S.N. , then Commandant of the Naval Station at 
Philadelphia. Charles L. Weller presented one hundred volumes of books, chiefly 
government publications. Judge Hastings read a paper "On the late alleged manifes- 
tations in Oakland," and Dr. Fourgeaud [Forgeaud as published in the newspaper 
account of the meeting {Eds.}] a paper on evolution, both being in continuation of 
papers previously read by them. Professor Davidson called attention to the munifi- 
cence of James Lick's gifts to science, and particularly those designed to establish in 
California the largest and most complete astronomical observatory in the world, and 
to the unbounded admiration of his generosity expressed by scientific men in the East. 
He also stated that Mr. Mumford of the Telegraph Company had shown him an 
instalment for the transmission of unusual sounds along a telegraph wire, and that he 
himself had heard distinct musical sounds thus transmitted a distance of 800 miles. 
Professor Edward S. Morse was introduced and made an address. He congratulated 
the members on the prosperity of the Academy, comparing it, in respect to its means, 
with similar bodies in the Eastern States. He said, "In the East we are familiar with 
your publications. 1 wish to tell you that when the first "Proceedings' came along, we 
were somewhat amazed and thought that some young men were starting it, and the 
Society would only last a year or so. From year to year you kept on; and we saw that 
the papers you published showed reasonable research. We saw that you did not decay 
and were getting on; but we never dreamed that you would get an amount of money 
more than that of all the Eastern Societies put together." He gave a sketch of the 
struggles of several of the scientific societies in the East and said that the sum given 
to the Academy by Mr. Lick exceeded all the flinds of all the natural history societies 
in the Atlantic states. Mr. Lick had gone ahead of Mr. Peabody as far as science was 
concerned; for Mr. Peabody had endowed educational institutions liberally but gave 
only about $300,000 to purely scientific societies. The position occupied on the globe 
of the California Academy, he said, was a fine one, as it was the only endowed society 
on the Pacific Ocean and it had plenty of means and a large area for investigation. In 
his closing remarks. Professor Morse said, "Science has changed a great deal in the 
last ten years. Our old proceedings of societies were merely technical; now they are 
broader. As your President [George Davidson] said in his last report, 'There is no 
money in this country for individual pursuits.' In Europe this is done, but not here. 
There large sums are appropriated to assist Professor Blank in his investigations. In 



CHAPTER XIV: 1874 173 

this country our naturalists are poor. So in a society they must label and paste and do 
miscellaneous work, and get no time for investigation. The primary object of your 
Society is to fiimish original investigators. Now you have ample funds to employ 
specialists, and you must impress upon them that they must give the results of their 
investigations to you. Do not let the bread-and-butter idea predominate. There are 
other things for men to do besides eat and drink and make money." 

The deaths of Col. Leander Ransom, former president of the Academy, and 
Adolphe J. L. Quetelet, an honorary member, were announced. President Davidson 
made remarks at some length in reference to the prominent position Leander Ransom 
had occupied in the Academy, having attended the second preliminary meeting on 
April 1 1, 1853, and been an active and efficient member ever since. He had been 
president from January 1855, to January 1867, a period of eleven years. 

July 6, William B. May and C. H. Wakelee were elected resident members. A 
number of photographs of hieroglyphic inscriptions found on Easter Island and 
several letters from Thomas Croft in relation to them and the natives of the island 
were received. Henry Edwards presented a paper entitled "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, 
On the Earlier States of Some Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera." A. W. Chase of the 
U.S. Coast Survey presented a paper "On the Use of Giant Powder [dynamite] for 
Obtaining Specimens of Fish at Sea." He related various instances in which he had 
practiced this method of killing or maiming large numbers offish off Santa Catalina 
Island. Henry Edwards published a memorial in memory of George Robert Crotch 
of Philadelphia. JULY 20, E. Stevens was elected a resident member. Among the 
donations was a bottle of sonorous sand from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, together 
with a letter in relation to the sands from W. R. Prink. He said that the sand drift was 
at the southwesterly end of the island and was about sixty feet high. At the extreme 
south end, if two handfuls were slapped together, a sound was produced like the 
hooting of an owl, more or less sharp as the motion was quick or slow. Sitting down 
and giving the sand a quick circular motion with the hand produced a sound like the 
heavy bass of a melodeon. Sliding down the sand produced a sound, which accumu- 
lated as the descent was made until it was like distant thunder. But the greatest sound 
was produced by one man rapidly dragging another by the legs down the incline and 
carrying with them as much sand as possible when the sound was "terrific and could 
have been heard many hundred yards distant." Professor Davidson communicated 
the general results of the recent survey by Commander Belknap of the U. S. Steamer 
Tuscarora on the proposed southern route for a telegraph cable from this coast to 
Japan. Henry Edwards presented a paper entitled "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 6. 
Notes on the Earlier Stages ofCtenucha Miiltifaria, Boisduval." Mr. Steams said that 
the Board of Regents of the University of California has extended an invitation to 
Academy members to attend the University's commencement exercises. The presi- 
dent announced that the Board of Trustees had been aided in drawing a new 
constitution by Samuel M. Wilson, Judge Currey and R. C. Harrison, and that it would 
be presented at the next meeting. 

August 3, Cornelius Cole, Professor Thomas Guerin, James Faulkner, and Carl 



174 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

I. Schneider were elected resident members. The new Constitution and By-Laws were 
reported from the Board of Trustees and, after considerable discussion, were adopted 
with only one dissenting voice. The new constitution, in so far as it differed from the 
old one, provided that the members of the Academy should consist of resident, life 
and honorary members, leaving out corresponding members. When a person was 
proposed for membership, his name should be posted in a conspicuous place in the 
Hall of the Academy for at least one month. It was then to go before the Council; and 
if that body reported favorably, the person was to be balloted for by the Academy but 
no one was to be elected during the month preceding the annual election. Every person 
elected, except honorary members, was to pay his initiation fee and first quarterly 
dues within one month after receiving notice of his election, and then sign the 
constitution. If a person were not reported upon favorably by the Council, or if he 
were rejected by the Academy, his name might be again proposed at any time after 
the expiration of one year from the date of his rejection. Honorary members could 
only be elected at the annual meetings and must have been proposed by the Council 
not less than two months before such meeting and posted for that length of time. To 
elect required four-fifths of the members voting; and there was to be no election unless 
twenty votes were cast. The Council was to have the privilege of nominating for 
election to life membership such persons as had rendered valuable services to the 
Academy, such elections not to exceed two annually. Correspondents of the Academy 
might be appointed by the Council for one year and should have the privilege of 
attending the meetings, visiting the library and museum, and reading and communi- 
cating papers. The business of the Academy was to be managed exclusively by the 
resident and life members, from whom the officers of the Academy should be elected. 
The number of honorary members should not exceed fifty, of whom thirty should be 
resident and citizens of the United States, and twenty of foreign countries. 

The Board of Trustees was to consist of seven members, to be elected annually, 
who were to have charge and management of the estate and property of the Academy 
and transact all affairs relative to the temporalities thereof The old provision for ex 
officio Tmstees was done away with. The new Board should require bonds of the 
treasurer, librarian and director of the museum and select some bank as a depository 
of the funds of the Academy. They were to have authority to loan surplus funds, but 
no loan should be made except the same should be secured by mortgage of unencum- 
bered real estate in the City and County of San Francisco, the value of which, 
exclusive of all improvements should in the judgment of the Trustees be twice the 
amount of the loan, or by a pledge of bonds of the State of California or of the City 
and County of San Francisco, whose par value should be double the amount of the 
loan. 

The officers of the Academy were to remain the same as before, except that there 
was to be a first and second vice-president. The officers had to be resident or life 
members for three years before their election. The officers, except the Trustees, were 
to constitute the Council. Provision was made for a nominating on the first Monday 
of December from members not holding office. The ticket for the succeeding year 



CHAPTER XIV: 1874 175 

had to be presented on the third Monday of December and thereafter posted. Other 
tickets might be presented, apparently at any time before the election was held. The 
initiation fee was fixed at $5 and the dues at $3 per quarter. Payment of dues 
consecutively for twenty-five years entitled a resident member to life membership. 
If a paper were accepted for publication the author was to be entitled to fifty printed 
copies. Medals and prizes might be established and the means of bestowing them 
accepted by the Academy on the recommendation of the Council. The By-Laws were 
substantially the same as before. 

August 17, R. E. C. Steams exhibited specimens of "Chinese water-nuts," 
sometimes called water chestnuts, Trapa bicornis, an important article of food in 
China and Japan, and held in high estimation in India, and suggested an attempt to 
cultivate it in California. Dr. Blake presented a paper "On the Structure of the 
Sonorous Sand from Kauai." He had examined the sand under the microscope and 
found it composed of small particles of coral and apparently calcareous sponges. The 
grains were all more or less perforated, with small holes, mostly terminating in blind 
cavities. When the grains were set in motion, the friction against one another caused 
vibrations in their substance, and these vibrations being communicated to the air in 
the cavities produced the sounds. The accumulated sound of millions of these 
resonant cavities might well swell up so as to resemble the thunder to which it had 
been compared. Professor Thomas Guerin presented a paper on "Canals depending 
on Tide Water for a Supply, or the Supply of Tide Water to Canals," based upon a 
survey he had made of a canal proposed to connect the waters of the Bay of Fundy 
with those of the Gulf of St. Laurence. Professor Davidson read a paper "On the 
coming Transit of Venus." Mr. Steams made some remarks on the death of Dr. 
Ferdinand Stoliczka of the Geological Survey of India. 

September 7, B. F. Sherwood was elected a life member and Charles Wolcott 
Brooks, James A. Waymire, Frank P. McLean, Abel T. Winn, Frederick T. Newberry, 
Charles Sonntage, Charles M. Blake, and Dr. B. R. Swan, resident members. Henry 
Edwards presented papers on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 7. Descriptions of 
Some New Species of Heterocera," and "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 8. On the 
Transformations of Some Species of Heterocera, Not Previously Described." Stephen 
Powers presented a paper on "Aboriginal Botany." In it, he said, he included "all the 
forms of the vegetable world which the aborigines used for medicine, food, textile 
fabrics, omaments, etc." He mentioned seventy-three vegetable substances, and said 
he was indebted to Professor Bolander for the identification and scientific names of 
many of them. In each case he gave the Indian name and the manner in which the 
plant was used. SEPTEMBER 21, W. N. Lockington presented a paper "On the 
Cmstacea of Califomia." Judge Hastings read short papers entitled, "Our Thunder 
Storms"; "On Transmission of Musical Sounds by Telegraphy"; "On Katie King and 
the Spiritualistic Theories"; "Questions to the Eminent Scientist, A. R. Wallace"; and 
"On the Creeping of Rails on North and South Railroad Tracks." Dr. J. G. Cooper 
made remarks "On Califomia Coal." He said that the tme coal of the Carboniferous 
rocks in other countries was formed from the tree-ferns, algae, and other plants of 



1 76 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

low organization; but none such had been found on this coast. From the fact that our 
coal contained remains of conifers and dicotyledonous trees, geologists had long 
considered it only lignite; but practically that of Vancouver Island, Bellingham Bay, 
Coos Bay, and Monte Diablo was as good as much of the older coal. He said there 
were numerous strata of pretty good quality in the Coast Range, but too thin to pay; 
none would pay if less than two feet thick and in most places a thickness of four feet 
was necessary, if the coal was no better, nor more accessible, than that of Monte 
Diablo. Nearly all the strata in the Coast Range were either too thin or too full of 
sulphur or other impurities to be valuable. Resolutions of respect to the memory of 
Hiram G. Bloomer were presented by the Board of Trustees, read, and adopted. They 
spoke of the deceased as one honored for his gentle and kindly nature; respected for 
his principles, of truth, worthy of admiration for his enthusiastic love of science, and 
his great desire ever to impart information. On motion of Professor Bolander, a 
conunittee was appointed to examine his library and herbarium with a view to 
purchase. 

October 5, Henry F. Teschemacher, having paid the required fee, was enrolled 
as a life member. Dr. Cooper presented a specimen of orange-red fungoid growth in 
red sap, exuded from partially burned willow trees, and remarked that though it would 
be supposed, according to scientific belief that the spores of this lichen or ftingus 
merely found a suitable place to grow in the scorched sap, it looked very much like 
a case of "spontaneous generation" of fungus from the sap itself Dr. Cooper also 
made remarks on " California during the Pliocene Epoch," in which he described the 
country when the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys were with salt or brackish 
water with outlets, besides the Golden Gate, if that existed at all, in the neighborhood 
of the mouths of Russian and Salinas Rivers, and the ocean coast in many places was 
occupied by marshes in which roamed the animals of that period, including masto- 
dons, elephants, buffaloes, llamas, horses, tigers, and others. After the Pliocene came 
the volcanic era; and, after that, the post-Pliocene, when extensive glaciers covered 
the Sierra Nevada and ploughed out its great caiions. Since the end of the age of ice, 
there has been comparatively little change in the topography of the country. Professor 
E. W. Hilgard of the University of Michigan, being introduced, congratulated the 
Academy upon the attendance of its members, which greatly surpassed that of 
ordinary meetings of scientific bodies in the Eastern States, and then made remarks 
upon the geology of the country north of the Gulf of Mexico, as compared with the 
geology of the Pacific Coast. Stephen Powers presented a paper on "The California 
Aborigines." He thought the prehistoric Indians a superior race as indicated by the 
superior workmanship of their stone implements. He was disposed to think that they 
had originally come from Asia. 

The committee appointed to examine the library and botanical collection of H. G. 
Bloomer, deceased, with a view to purchasing, reported that they were worth at least 
$700; but, in consideration of the inestimable services rendered by Mr. Bloomer to 
the Academy, they recommended the $1,000 be paid to the widow and family in 
quarterly installments of $250 each. The report was adopted and referred to the Board 



CHAPTER XIV: 1874 177 

of Trustees. At its meeting on November 3, that body reported that, as they could 
find no warrant for paying out $ 1 ,000 for property, which was worth only $700, they 
could allow only $700; and that sum was accordingly ordered paid. 

October 19, F. Gruber and G. T. Bromley were elected resident members. J. P. 
Dameron read a paper on "coal." Charles D. Gibbes called attention to the "Bois 
d'Arc" or Osage orange, Madura aurantiaca, both for hedges and timber. He said 
the wood was one of the most durable in the world, and remarkably strong, elastic 
and tough. It was of a beautiful yellow color, close grained, received a fine polish, 
and was valuable for furniture. It also yielded a bright yellow dye. In Texas it was 
used for wagon wheels. For ship building it was better than live oak, and by the Indians 
preferred to any other wood for bows. As an ornamental tree it was one of the most 
graceful and beautiful. W. H. Dall presented "Notes on Some Aleut Mummies," 
which, however, had been ascertained to be not more than about 100 years old. He 
also gave a brief synopsis of his recent expedition to Alaska. A paper was presented 
from Professor Davidson on the "Mesh-knot of the Tchin-cha-au Indians, Port 
Simpson, British Columbia." Dr. Cooper presented a paper on "California in the 
Miocene Epoch." He said that, as there was much less land above water in this part 
of the continent during the Miocene than in the Pliocene, the field for terrestrial 
animals to exist was much more limited. The fossil evidence relating to the Miocene 
was, however abundant and consisted of marine shells found at short intervals 
throughout the Coast Range and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Many of the 
marine remains were only of microscopic size and from them was produced the 
petroleum of this coast — a substance so far found exclusively in the Miocene strata 
of California. The flora of the Miocene was not very different from that of the present 
age. It appeared that the whole northern hemisphere in the Miocene epoch had a 
remarkably uniform climate, in which the vegetation of Europe resembled that of the 
Eastern States. A wonderful fact connected with it was that Greenland in latitude 70° 
and Spitzbergen in latitude 78°58' had a luxuriant forest of trees, mostly American 
in character, and among them a redwood, indistinguishable from the present Califor- 
nia redwoods. He felt forced, he said, to the conclusion, in spite of astronomic opinion 
that the poles of the earth had changed since then; and, if they had, this fact might 
help to explain many geological puzzles both in California and elsewhere. W. N. 
Lockington presented a paper entitled "Observations on the Genus Caprella, and 
Description of a New Species." Dr. Blake described an electrical phenomenon 
witnessed by him at Placerville in El Dorado County during a thunder storm on 
September 30. A brilliant luminous display, resembling the aurora, arose from the 
ridge of the mountains six miles distant and continued for from fifteen to twenty 
minutes. The storm was raging in the valley at the time, but on the mountains the 
weather was clear. The appearance, he thought, was produced by a violent discharge 
of electricity from the ridge. 

November 2, W. H. Dall, having paid the required fee, was enrolled a life 
member. Dr. Behr spoke of the Eucalyptus globulus, and said he had been informed 
by an Australian correspondent that its wood made excellent shingles by reason of 



1 78 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

its non-inflammable character. Dr. H. W. Harkness described an extinct volcano, 
supposed to have become recently inactive, which he had visited on a late trip to 
Plumas and Lassen counties. It was in the northern part of Plumas County to the 
eastward of Lassen's Butte. He was of opinion that it had been in active operation 
within twenty-five years. He also spoke of a lake, over a mile and a half in diameter, 
discovered by him in the mountains between Warner Valley and Big Meadows in the 
northern part of Plumas County, which he said was by barometrical measurement 
7,330 feet above sea-level. He believed it to be the most elevated of any body of water 
of such magnitude in the United States. As it was comparatively unknown and without 
a name, he called it "Lake Livingstone." Judge Hastings presented a communication 
in the form of a memorial to the trustees of the Lick property, relating to the terms of 
the "Lick Donation" and asking for a modification of them. The matter was referred 
to the Board of Trustees of the Academy, and a committee, consisting of Judge 
Hastings, R. C. Hamson and J. H. Smythe, was appointed to act with the Trustees. 
Henry Edwards presented a paper, entitled "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 9. - 
Description of a New Species of 77? vm from the Collection of Dr. Hermann Behr." 
Dr. Harkness submitted written papers, descriptive of the volcano, supposed by him 
to have become recently extinct, and of the lake 7,330 feet in elevation, in Plumas 
County. On motion of C. Wolcott Brooks, it was resolved that the lake described 
should be called "Lake Harkness" instead of "Lake Livingstone." November 16, Dr. 
W. Newcomb presented a paper entitled "Description of a New Species of Shell from 
San Francisco Bay"; Dr. Blake read a paper "On the Composition of some Grapes 
grown in California, in relation to their Fitness for making Wine"; and William J. 
Fisher a paper "On a New Species of Alcyonoid Polyp." Dr. Cooper read a paper on 
"The Eocene Epoch in California - Are there really no Eocene Strata?" He said that 
no positively Eocene fossils have been found here, either marine or terrestrial, which 
fact indicated a wide gap, so far as deposits were concerned, in the early Tertiary age. 
One explanation had been suggested, that our limits may have been entirely above 
the ocean during that epoch; and another, that our diy land may have then been sunk 
so deep in the ocean that the marine animals common to that period could not flourish 
at such depths. Still another explanation had been suggested, that the great prevalence 
of volcanic action heated or poisoned the ocean waters. The only deposits at all 
resembling the Eocene were specimens found near the Tejon in California and others 
near the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. He then discussed the question, 
introduced by him at a previous meeting; "Have the Poles Changed?" He was of 
opinion that the existence of tropical and temperate groups of beings within the Arctic 
Circle from the Miocene back to the Carboniferous age proves either such a change, 
or the existence of some light-giving medium there in those ages, of which we have 
no knowledge. 

December 7, Dr. Cooper presented a paper entitled "Note on Tertiary Formation 
of California," in which he said that Professor Dana in the last edition (1874) of his 
"Manual of Geology" considered the Monte Diablo coal strata, as well as those of 
the Rocky Mountains, as belonging to the lignite era of the Eocene. Although in both 



CHAPTER XIV: 1874 179 

cases there were some Cretaceous fossils found in or above it, the presence of lignite 
was more important, especially as showing the existence of a decidedly Tertiary 
vegetation. Henry Edwards presented a paper on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 10. 
— On a new Species of Papilio from California." Judge Hastings read papers on "The 
Coming Earthquake," and "Shell Mounds of Pacific Plains and Valleys." December 
21, T. J. Lowry read a paper on "A Device for the Solution of the Problem of 
Lengthening the Pendulum of the Astronomical Clock without Stopping or Disturb- 
ing its Vibrations." He said a method had been devised of virtually shortening a 
pendulum while in motion, by dropping shot into a small closed funnel fixed upon 
its face. The difficulty was to extract the shot and thereby virtually lengthen the 
pendulum while in motion. Tweezers and various other mechanical appliances had 
been tried to pick the shot out; but the manipulation disturbed the vibrations. It had 
occurred to him to make the shot of iron, instead of lead, and use a magnet to extract 
them. Thus while gravity might aid in shortening a vibrating pendulum, magnetism 
might assist in lengthening it. The nominating committee, appointed by the Council 
and Trustees as provided in the constitution, reported a ticket for officers of the next 
year. 



180 



Chapter XV: Year 1 875 



At the annual meeting held January 4, in the absence of the president, the 
vice-president, Gen. John Hewston, read the annual address, giving a statement 
condition and progress of the Academy during 1874. The corresponding 
secretary reported that the correspondence was becoming more extensive and impor- 
tant. The recording secretary reported the average attendance at meetings for the past 
year as 31; the number of resident members as 301, and of life members, 75. The 
treasurer reported the balance on hand as $2,958.43. From the librarian's report it 
appeared that there were 5000 volumes in the library of which 2500 were bound. At 
the annual election the following were chosen officers for 1875; George Davidson, 
president; Henry Edwards, first vice-president; Dr. Henry Gibbons, second vice- 
president; Henry G. Hanks, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, recording 
secretary; Elisha Brooks, treasurer; William J. Fisher, librarian; Dr. Albert Kellogg, 
director of the Museum; David D. Colton, John Hewston, Jr., Robert E. C. Steams, 
George E. Gray, Ralph C. Harrison, Thomas P. Madden and William Ashbumer, 
trustees. January 18, Dr. Kellogg exhibited plants and read a paper on "California 
and Colorado 'Loco' Poisons." He spoke first of the so-called rattle-weed. Astragalus 
Menziesii, found in the vicinity of San Francisco and also wide-spread over the State. 
It appeared that horses, cattle, and sheep, in this vicinity at least, would shun it as 
long as the pasture was good; but when the grass disappeared and they were impelled 
by hunger, they would eat the rattle-weed and become so affected by it as to stagger, 
lose control of their muscles, act strangely and stupidly, and in fact become "loco," 
the Spanish word for crack-brained or crazy. After once eating the weed, they seemed 
to like it and would hunt for it, being apparently infatuated with its intoxicating or 
stupefying effects. Unfortunately, the injury produced was pennanent, often lasting 
many months, but ending in death. The Colorado "loco" plant, Oxytropis Lamberti, 
had similar effects. An allied plant, called the devil's shoe-string, Tephrosia, stupe- 
fied and intoxicated; but the effects soon wore off. 

February 1, Cornelius Hertz, Horatio Stone, J. R. Scowden, and Jeremiah Clark 
were elected resident members. T. J. Lowiy read a paper on "The Protracting Sextant 
- A New Instrument for Hydrographic Surveying." He claimed that his new instru- 
ment would enable one observer to accomplish in hydrography the desideratum of 
measuring at the same instant two angles, and plotting them with the same instrument. 
The secretary read a communication from Professor Davidson on the "Transit of 
Venus," observed by him in Japan. Dr. Henry Gibbons read a paper on "Climatic 
Changes in California," and W. N. Lockington, one on "Sponges." A paper was 



CHAPTER XV: 1875 181 

presented from Dr. Cooper on "The Origin of California Land-Siiells," in which he 
spoke of" the humble and despised snails as among the most important evidences of 
geological changes and conditions of the land, climate, etc. in the past history of the 
globe." Dr. Cooper, also, presented a paper "On Shells of the West Coast of North 
America, No. Ill," being a continuation of former papers on the same subject. 
February 15, the secretary read a paper from Professor Davidson on "Abrasions of 
the Coast of Japan," also a paper from Professor Davidson entitled "Note on the 
Probable Cause of the Low Temperature of the Depths of the Ocean." He considered 
the theory of the interchange of heated surface waters of the equatorial regions with 
the cold waters of the Arctic basin through Behring's Straits as weak and insufficient, 
and attributed the nearly ice-cold waters of the ocean depths to the former existence 
of the great ocean-coast ice belt and probably to ice masses occupying the high 
northern and southern areas of the ocean. Dr. Kellogg read a paper, being a letter 
addressed to Ellwood Cooper of Santa Barbara on the "Different Varieties of 
Eucalyptus and their Characteristics." He spoke of about sixty different species. R. 
E. C. Steams made verbal remarks about the subjects of Dr. Kellogg's paper and 
mentioned the proper and improper methods of transplanting young trees. Mr. Steams 
also called attention to the fact that some of the young trout, hatched at Berkeley from 
eggs brought from the Eastern States by rail, were double - some with two heads and 
one tail and others distinctly formed by joined together by a filmy substance. 
President Oilman of the University of California invited the members of the Academy 
to hold a session at Berkeley on the following Monday. February 22, a special 
meeting was held at Berkeley. Mr. Steams made a few remarks reminding the 
members that the Academy would have to depend mainly upon the University to fill 
its ranks as time thinned it of its pioneers. Professor Joseph LeConte read a paper 
"On Some of the Ancient Glaciers of the Sierra," in continuation of a previous paper 
read by him. He spoke of the great glacier that scooped out Lake Tahoe and of its 
outlet down the Tmckee Canon, and of the side glacier that scooped out Donner Lake. 
But he spoke more particularly of the glaciers that formed Fallen Leaf Lake, Cascade 
Lake, and Emerald Bay, and the evidences they had left of their action. Professor 
John LeConte described two new pieces of apparatus recently acquired by the 
University - one for projecting microscopic objects, and the other for measuring the 
force of electric currents. Dr. Kellogg read a paper on "Hops." Resolutions were 
adopted expressive of interest in the affairs University and satisfaction at its advance. 
March 1, a paper by S. B. Christy was read describing a "Meteor seen at 
Berkeley" on the evening of December 9, 1874. Charles Wolcott Brooks read a long 
paper entitled "Report of Japanese Vessels Wrecked in the North Pacific Ocean; from 
the Earliest Records to the Present time." Dr. Stout announced the death of Sir Charles 
Lyell; H. G. Hanks, John Muir and Albert Kellogg were appointed a committee to 
draft appropriate resolutions. March 9, the Board of Tmstees took occasion to 
remind the Council that it had no right to grant the use of the Academy's Hall to J. 
W. Taylor for a course of lectures; they suggested that under the constitution they 
were the custodians of the property of the Academy and accountable for its manage- 



182 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

ment, and that any application for its use should be made to them. March 15, Henry 
R. Taylor and J. W. Anderson were elected resident members. Amos Bowman read 
a paper on "Terraces in the Coast Range as related to the Detritus of Glaciers and of 
the Ancient Rivers." C. W. Brooks read a long paper, entitled "Early Migrations — 
Ancient Maritime Intercourse of Western Nations Before the Christian Era; Eth- 
nologically Considered and Chronologically Arranged, illustrating Facilities for 
Migration among early Types of the Human Race." Judge Hastings called attention 
to the fact that the work of the State Geological Survey on the "Botany of California" 
would soon be published, and that the means to secure the publication had been 
contributed, at the instance of President Gilman of the University of California, by 
Leland Stanford, Henry Pierce, Robert B. Woodward, Lloyd Tevis, D. O. Mills, 
James C. Flood, John O. Earl, William Norris, and Charles McLaughlin. On motion, 
it was ordered that the names of the contributors should be enrolled upon the records 
of the Academy as Benefactors of Science. And it was fiirther ordered that honorable 
mention should be made and recorded of Professor Asa Gray, Professor J. D. 
Whitney, Professor Watson and Professor William H. Brewer for their personal 
devotion, without pecuniary consideration, to the work. 

On April 1 , the Board of Trustees adopted By-Laws to govern its meetings. At 
the regular meeting of the Academy held on April 5, Horatio Stone read a paper on 
the "Unity of Arts," and Amos Bowman a paper on "Coal Deposits of the Pacific 
Coast." Professor Brewer exhibited a map showing the distribution of woodlands in 
the United States. He alluded to the theory of the connection of the existence of forests 
with rainfall, and said that no instrumental evidence had been found in any part of 
the United States that the destruction of forests had reduced rainfall. It appeared to 
be a fact, he added; but it had not so far been properly proven. Dr. Henry Gibbons 
thought there was evidence to prove the fact, and said that in California, in regions 
very limited in extent, the rainfall varied greatly in a few miles, the greater amount 
falling in the vicinity of timber. Dr. Gibbons exhibited a branch of poplar tree, from 
the broken end of which a branch of mistletoe had grown, as if it had been grafted. 
April 19, Alfred E. Regensberger, James B. Clifford, E. T. Tarbox, Arthur C. Taylor, 
Charles Frances, J. R. Stanton, and F. P. Hartney were elected resident members. 
Professor Brewer read a paper "On the Formation of Ice Pellets or Hail in the Spray 
of Yosemite Falls," in which he described a visit to the ice-cone formed at the foot 
of the Upper Yosemite Fall in the winter time, and said that the spray came down in 
part in the form of hail, each grain of which he judged to be about a tenth of an inch 
in diameter. T. J. Lowry read a paper on "Hydrographic Surveying." Henry Edwards 
presented a paper on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 1 1 — List of the Sphingidae of 
California and Adjacent Districts, with Descriptions of New Species." George E. 
Gray offered resolutions, which were adopted, expressive of appreciation and ap- 
proval of the work of Professor D. C. Gilman, President of the University of 
California, and regret that he had resigned his position, but at the same time 
expressing a conviction that his contemplated removal to the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity at Baltimore, Maryland, would prove fruitful of benefits to the entire country. At 



CHAPTER XV: 1875 



183 



a meeting of the Board of Trustees, held the same day, it appeared that a suit had been 
commenced by the City and County of San Francisco against the Academy for taxes 
on the Outside-Land lot, marked "Academy of Sciences," on First Avenue; and the 
matter was referred to Trustee Harrison. 



15.1 



May 3, C. W. Brooks read a very long paper, entided "Origin and Exclusive 
Development of the Chinese Race — Inquiry into the Evidence of their American 
Origin, suggesting a great Antiquity of the Human Races on the America Continent." 
May 17, Gustave Mahe and Ernest L. Hueber were elected resident members. 
William Guerin read a paper on "The Sewage System of San Francisco." A paper by 
J. E. Clayton was read on "The Glacial Period — Its Origin and Development." He 
supposed the theories of a universal upheaval of the land of the northern hemisphere, 
of a change of position of the poles of the earth, and of the passage of the earth through 
a frigid zone; and maintained that the geological disturbances and volcanic eruptions 
which occurred at the close of the Tertiary Age, together with the return trade winds, 
were the only causes, ample and sufficient, to produce the facts and phenomena of 
glacial times. The secretary read an extract from a letter by A. W. Kiddie, County 
Surveyor of Plumas County, confirming the claim of Dr. Harkness as the rightful 
discoverer of Lake Harkness. In the Board of Trustees, an informal discussion took 
place in reference to the Lick deed and the suit brought against the Academy by the 
City and County of San Francisco for taxes on the Outside-Land lot on First Avenue. 

June 7, S. B. Christy and Frank Soule were elected resident members. Henry 
Edwards presented a paper on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 12. — On some New 




Samuel B. Christy 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 



'5 ' Reported as "May 2" in the published Proceedings. May 2nd was a Sunday; the correct date is May 
3, as recorded in the Minute Books. 



1 84 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Species of Noctuidae." Dr. Kellogg described a new lily, Lilium maritimum, from the 
vicinity of San Francisco. Dr. Henry Gibbons made verbal remarks on "Clouds." Dr. 
C. F. Winslow called attention to the fact that in 1853 he had procured a fragment of 
a large bone, apparently a portion of the tibia of some gigantic quadruped or reptile, 
which had been taken from a depth of about 23 feet in digging a well in 1852 on the 
lot occupied by Dr. Zeile's Baths on Pacific near Kearny Street in San Francisco. He 
had sent it to Professor Leidy some years afterwards, and he pronounced it to belong 
to a gigantic sloth of an extinct and undetemiined form. He suggested that the 
remainder of the skeleton was doubtless still embedded in the ground where the 
fragment had been dug up and might be reached by careful excavation, without injury 
to buildings. In the Board of Trustees, a resolution was adopted that in order that the 
expenses of printing the Proceedings of the Academy might not exceed the ability of 
the Trustees to pay for them, the Council should be requested to submit all papers it 
wished printed to the Board of Trustees and number them in their order of merit. In 
the opinion of the Board, no paper should be published in full except original matter, 
and all printing should be competed for. The Board ordered paid to H. M. Newhall 
$150 rent for one month for the Academy building; and that continued for years to 
be the rate of rent paid. The Board also allowed a small salary to the recording 
secretary and to the treasurer, and a small sum for contingencies to the director of the 
museum. JUNE 22, Dr. William P. Gibbons read a "Description of a New Species of 
Trout from Mendocino County." The adult fish, which he called Salmo mendocinen- 
sis, was about 27 inches long. Dr. Gibbons said he was indebted to Joseph H. Clarke 
for much of his information about it and would have called it Salmo Clarkii, had it 
not been that there was another fish so named. Dr. Kellogg described a new species 
of lily, Lilium lucidum, found in Oregon and Washington Territory. Judge Hastings 
read papers "On the Genuineness of Archaeological Specimens, including Ancient 
Coins," "A Plan for the Construction of Levees for Reclaiming Land," and "San 
Francisco as a Point for an Astronomical Observatory." Amos Bowman read a paper 
on "The Geological Formation of California." 

July 6 , being a holiday, there was no meeting. JULY 1 9, Henry Edwards presented 
No. 1 3 of his papers on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera - On the Earlier Stages of Vanessa 
Californica," also No. 14 of the same series, "On the Genus Catocala, with Descrip- 
tions of New Species."'"^ ■ Judge Hastings read a paper on "Phenomenal Changes of 
Climate in Past Epochs." Dr. A. W. Saxe called attention to the discovery of a new 
group of big redwood trees in the basin'"^^ at the headwaters of San Lorenzo River 
and Boulder Creek in Santa Cruz County and said that one of the trees was 150 feet 
in circumference eight feet above the ground. He, however, did not seem to be very 
positive about the size and said he would obtain further details. Dr. Gibbons 
announced the death of Marshall C. Hastings. AUGUST 2, Dr. G. King, Dr. F. W. 
Godon, A. W. Crawford, Pembroke Murray, William Eimbeck, and James L. King 



'5 2 Printed on pp. 207-215 of vol. 6 of the Proc. CAS with a note, "The following naper, read at the 
Regular Meeting held July 19, 1 875, should have been printed in the Proceedings of that Meeting" (see pp. 
145-149). 

15.3 jsjow Bjg Basin Redwood State Park. 



CHAPTER XV: 1875 185 

were elected resident members. Dr. James Blake read a paper "On Roscoelite, or 
Vanadium Mica," found at Granite Creek, El Dorado County. Dr. Blake also spoke 
of physiological experiments he had performed to determine the molecular relations 
of beryllium (see also footnote 13.7). He had introduced the metal into the blood of 
living rabbits and compared the effects with those of alumina, and found a marked 
increase in the physiological action of those substances with the increase of their 
atomic weights; and these experiments, he believed, were the first in which physi- 
ological reactions had been used to throw light on the chemical properties of a 
substance. A paper by W. N. Lockington was read, giving a list of Echinidae in the 
collection of the Academy. A discussion took place as to the advisability of inviting 
the Microscopical Society to join with the Academy. AUGUST 16, Dr. Kellogg 
described a recent trip to Mendocino County and said, among other things, that he 
had discovered there a true thorn. Dr. Henry Gibbons spoke of the remarkable climatic 
phenomena occurring in the winter of 1874-5 both here and in Europe. In the Board 
of Trustees' meeting of the same date, in response to a letter from the Academy's 
Council questioning the Board's wish to have papers approved by the Council for 
publication submitted to it, the Board said that its object was only "to limit the 
publications to the extent of the finances in their hands to pay for the printing. It was 
not their intention to interfere with the duty of the publication committee . . . nor do 
the Trustees assume to criticize or reject any paper that the Council wish printed." 
The Trustees suggested a meeting with the Council to resolve misunderstandings. 

September 6, Joseph O'Connor, J. P. Moore, and G. H. Sanders were elected 
resident members. Henry Edwards spoke of a recent trip to Mount Shasta, and 
particularly of the "pitcher-plant," Darlingtonia Californica, which is found in that 
locality in great abundance. He described its insectivorous qualities and the manner 
in which insects were attracted and ensnared by it. He was inclined to think that no 
process similar to digestion went on within the plant, but that the fluid mass derived 
from the decay of the imprisoned insects descended through the tube of the plant into 
the earth and was there taken up by absorption through the roots, thus acting as a kind 
of liquid manure. He said the plant lured almost all orders of insects, and he found in 
examining about forty tubes, no less than forty-three species. In the Board of Trustees, 
on account of the suspension of the Bank of California, which had been made the 
depository of the cash fijnds of the Academy, it was ordered that the treasurer should 
thenceforth keep the Academy monies in the London and San Francisco Bank. A 
meeting with members of the Council to discuss the printing of the proceedings was 
held and "an amicable understanding arrived at, the printing being left as it was" (in 
the hands of the Publications Committee [Eds.]). September 20, William Barber and 
E. Pander were elected resident members. Among the donations were argentiferous 
galena from the Sacramento mine and gold ore from San Gregorio Creek in San Mateo 
County. Mr. Williamson read a paper on "Fish Culture," and T. J. Lowry a paper on 
"A New Method of Determining Position of the Sounding-Boat: Application of the 
Two-Point Problem to Hydrographic Surveying." Dr. Blake read a paper "On the 
Results of Glacial Action at the Head of Johnson's Pass in the Sierra Nevada." 



1 86 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Johnson's Pass is a gap in the western summit of the Sierra at the head of the Valley 
of the South Fork of American River and about 7,500 feet above tide water. The break 
in the mountains extends for about a mile and a quarter from north to south and is 
nearly level. The head of the Pass constitutes a pretty steep escarpment, which forms 
a part of the western boundary of Lake Tahoe Valley, some miles south of the Lake, 
and 1000 feet in altitude above it. The Pass is separated on the north from Echo Lake 
Valley by a large moraine, which at one time was a lateral moraine of Echo Lake 
Glacier. This glacier for a period flowed into Tahoe Lake Valley, but when that basin 
filled. Echo Lake glacier deflected down the American River Valley. To the south of 
the Pass there is another large moraine, which was deposited by a glacier coming in 
from the south end of Tahoe Lake Valley at a time when that valley was entirely 
filled. W. N. Lockington presented a communication calling attention to the un- 
healthy condition of the Academy building, and suggesting remedies. A lengthy 
discussion took place, at the end of which the subject was postponed for future 
consideration. 

September 27, the Board of Trustees held a special session for the purpose of 
meeting Messrs. John B. Felton and Theodore H. Hittell, attorneys of James Lick, to 
hear the reading of Mr. Lick's new Trust Deed of his property in general and to receive 
a new special and unconditioned deed in fee of the Market Street property. As has 
already been stated, Mr. Lick, on February 15, 1873, made a deed of donation to the 
Academy of the lot, 80 feet front on Market Street near Fourth, constituting the 
southwesterly side of 100-vara Lot No. 126; but it was so hampered with conditions, 
so practically impossible of fulfillment, as to be substantially useless to the Academy. 
At the same time he made a similar deed to the Society of California Pioneers for a 
similar lot, fronting 80 feet of Fourth Street near Market and constituting the 
southeasterly side of the same 100-vara Lot 126, the dividing line between the rears 
of the two lots being a diagonal running in a nearly northerly direction from the 
southerly comer of Lot 126; so that each lot was 275 feet deep on the outer side and 
95 feet on the inner side. He afterwards on October 3, 1 873, as has also been already 
stated, on account of representations made to him that it would be impossible for the 
Academy to comply with the conditions of that first deed, made a second deed to the 
Academy of the same property, modifying to some extent the ternis and conditions, 
but still leaving them practically as impossible of fulfillment as before, and the 
donation therefore substantially useless. On July 16, 1874, Mr. Lick made his first 
Trust Deed, whereby he conveyed all his property, except such as he had conveyed 
as above stated to the Academy and Society of Pioneers, conservatively estimated to 
be worth $3,000,000, to Thomas H. Selby, D. O. Mills, Henry M. Newhall, William 
Alvord, George H. Howard, James Otis and John O. Earl, in trust to sell the same and 
devote the proceeds, with the exception of a few gifts to relatives, to certain public 
purposes, including $700,000 for the establishment of the Lick Astronomical Obser- 
vatory; $300,000 for a School of Mechanical Arts; $250,000 for statuary emblematic 
of California and its history to be erected in Sacramento; $150,000 for a monument 
in San Francisco to the memory of Francis Scott Key, the author of the "Star Spangled 



CHAPTER XV: 1875 187 

Banner," and various other sums for like purposes, amounting in all to nearly 
$2,000,000; and to divide the residue in equal proportions between the California 
Academy of Sciences and the Society of California Pioneers. 

In accordance with this deed, Mr. Selby and his associates commenced selling off 
portions of the property, thus conveyed to them in trust, and disposed of several 
parcels, when Mr. Lick became dissatisfied with their management and particularly 
with Mr. Selby, who was their president and spokesman. Under the circumstances, 
Mr. Lick consulted Mr. Hittell at whose suggestion Mr. Selby was informed of the 
situation and respectfully asked to resign. He at first expressed a willingness to do 
so; but, upon consulting with his associates, they objected; and he then declined. As 
this apparently meant war, Mr. Hittell advised the employment of his partner, John 
B. Felton, as chief counsel; and, at Mr. Felton's suggestion, the locally famous Deed 
of Revocation was executed by Mr. Lick on March 17, 1875, and recorded the same 
day, by the terms of which, and for the reasons therein set forth, he revoked his first 
Deed of Trust, but ratified and confirmed all the sales and acts of the Trustees made 
and done up to that time under its provisions. The effect of this Deed of Revocation 
was to substantially paralyze the trust; and on April 17, the Trustees commenced a 
suit in the district Court to be allowed to resign, which suit resulted on September 14, 
1875, in a constant decree, accepting their resignation; reducing the number of 
trtistees to five; appointing at Mr. Lick's suggestion, Richard S. Floyd, Faxon D. 
Atherton, Bernard D. Murphy, John H. Lick, and John Nightingale as new Trustees, 
and directing the old trustees to convey to them all the property remaining in their 
hands, which conveyance was accordingly made on September 16, 1875. A few days 
afterwards, on September 21, 1875, Mr. Lick executed a new Trust Deed of his 
property in general to the new Trustees and, at the same time, new deeds, absolute 
and without any conditions whatever, of the lots on Market and Fourth Streets to the 
California Academy of Sciences and Society of California Pioneers. 

As the new Trust Deed, though in most respects similar to the old one, made some 
changes in the disposition of Mr. Lick's property, it was deemed advisable to make 
the beneficiaries affected parties to it and obtain their consent to the changes; and it 
was chiefly for the purpose of obtaining the consent of the Academy that the attorneys 
of Mr. Lick appeared, as above stated, before the Board of Trustees. Mr. Felton 
thereupon stated the changes made in the Deed of Trust, which were principally the 
reducing of the amount given for statuary emblematic of the history of California 
from $250,000 to $100,000 and providing that it should be erected at the City Hall 
in San Francisco instead of at Sacramento; the reducing of the amount given for a 
monument of Francis Scott Key from $150,000 to $50,000; the adding of the 
$240,000 so saved, to the $300,000 given for a School of Mechanical Arts, thus 
making its sum $540,000; and the giving to John H. Lick, son of James Lick, $ 1 50,000 
in addition to a sum of $3,000 given him by the first deed. At the same time Mr. Felton 
read the new deed to the Academy of the Market Street lot of 80 feet front and called 
attention to the fact that it was a gift absolute in terms and was intended to relieve the 
Academy from all the conditions of the previous deeds. In response to the explana- 



188 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

tions of changes and request for concurrence thus made, the Board of Trustees of the 
Academy adopted a resolution — which, however, was to be considered as provi- 
sional and dependent upon the consent of the Academy — to accept and join in the 
execution of the new Trust Deed, to accept the new deed to the Market Street property, 
and to call the Academy together the next day to consider and, if satisfactory, approve 
and ratify their action. 

September 28, the Academy met in special session at the request of the Board of 
Trustees for the puipose of taking action in reference to the new deeds of James Lick. 
Gen. D. D. Colton, president of the Board of Trustees, was present as representative 
of that body, and Mr. Hittell as attorney of Mr. Lick. Gen. Colton stated the action 
of the Board of Trustees and its desire, in a matter of so much importance, to have 
its action expressly authorized and endorsed by the Academy. By request, Mr. Hittell 
read to the Academy the new deed to the Market Street property. Thereupon, the 
resolutions of the Board of Trustees were approved, adopted and ratified as the act 
of the Academy. Immediately after the adjournment of the Academy, the Board of 
Trustees again met [at 8:30 p.m.]; on a motion by Mr. Ashbumer, the new Trust Deed 
was duly executed in the name of the corporation by Gen. Colton as president and 
Mr. Yale as secretary, and the new deed to the Market Street property formally 
delivered and accepted.'" "^ The Board then adjourned to meet the next afternoon at 
the Lick House, where Mr. Lick resided, to tender to him the Academy's thanks. 

October 4, among the donations were specimens of manna found on eucalyptus 
trees in the University grounds at Berkeley, supposed to be the first found on 
eucalyptus trees in California. Dr. Blake read a paper on '"Phylloxera.'" He described 
the breeding insects as having wings and depositing their eggs on the leaves of the 
vine, and said that the larvae, when hatched, descended to the stem and thence by 
cracks and crevices down the roots. He recommended giving up vines once attacked 
and devoting attention to healthy plants by finding out some method of preventing 
the larvae from getting down the lower part of the stem and to the roots. He also read 
a paper "On the Reimer Grape," which he described as containing the most malic 
acid and being one of the best wine-producing grapes in California. OCTOBER 18, 
among the donations were specimens of the "candle-nut" from the Hawaiian Islands. 
It was the fruit of a tree that grew from 20 to 30 feet high, said by C. D. Gibbes to be 
Aleuhtes triloba, and by the natives called "Ku Kui." The fruit was about two inches 
in diameter; shell of inner nut very hard, and kernel good to eat but rather rich. The 
oil was easily expressed; and it had been customary to send it to England for making 
candles. As a drying oil it was ranked among the best. The Hawaiians used the kernels 
for producing light by stringing them on slender slips of bamboo and using them as 
candles. They burned with a peculiar but pleasant odor. Dr. G. F. Becker read a paper 
on the "Comstock Lode," and Dr. Behr one on "'Phylloxera.'''' Henry Edwards 
presented "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 15 -Description of a New Species of 
Catocala from San Diego." R. E. C. Steams read a paper "On the Vitality of Certain 
Land Mollusks," giving an instance of a Bulinmlus pallidior from San Jose del Cabo 



'5 ■* Recorded in Book 801 of Deeds, page 253, City and County of San Francisco. 



CHAPTER XV: 1875 189 

in Lower California, which was kept in a box without food and was found alive after 
two years, two and a half months. He was of opinion that mollusks in arid regions 
are calculated by adaptation and evolution to maintain their hold upon life longer than 
those of more favored regions. 

November 1, Charles W. Banks and Dr. G. F. Becker were elected resident 
members. Dr. Henry Gibbons spoke of the difference between rainstorms here and 
in the Eastern States. In the Board of Trustees, Gen. Colton spoke of the rents of the 
Market Street property, which had become the absolute property of the Academy. 
The amounted to $192.50 per month; and he thought they might be doubled. He also 
spoke of the taxes on the property, which would have to be paid by the Academy. O. 
Livermore was appointed agent to take charge of the property under direction of the 
president until ftirther order. November 15, J. R. Scupham made remarks upon the 
Teredo and presented a specimen of wood, showing an instance in which one of the 
worms had bored into the hole of its neighbor — the first case of the kind that had been 
noticed. A discussion took place on the subject of the Phylloxera between Dr. Behr, 
Dr. Blake, Dr. Kellogg, and Judge Hastings. In the Board of Trustees, Mr. Ashbumer 
reported that he had arranged for cleaning of the Market Street property. He also 
requested funds for specimen cases in addition to those previously approved. 

December 6, among the donations were twenty-six specimens of native woods, 
presented by Joseph H. Clarke of Caleto, Mendocino County. Dr. Kellogg remarked 
of them that they were valuable, all the specimens being in fine order and careftilly 
prepared. W. N. Lockington read a paper on "Landscape Gardening," giving a list 
of the varieties of plants adapted to California gardens, and suggestions as to the 
proper laying out of grounds. Dr. J. G. Cooper presented a paper entitled "New Facts 
relafing to California Ornithology - No. 1." Mr. Steams announced the death of 
Benjamin P. Avery, U.S. Minister to China and a member of the Academy, who had 
died at Peking in the early part of November, and said that "his life had been 
conspicuous for its purity; his character for its many virtues; his intellect for its refined 
and delicate culture; his heart for its tender and generous sympathy." In the Board of 
Trustees, the treasurer reported that he refused to deposit a check from the Lick 
Trustees for rents due the Academy because it had been made out to D. D. Colton as 
president of the trustees, and not the Academy. How this matter was resolved is not 
indicated. Mr. Ashbumer was authorized to employ a policeman to keep people off 
the steps of the Academy's building. December 20, a memorial to the State 
Legislature, praying for a revival of the State Geological Survey and a liberal 
appropriation for its continuance and completion, presented by J. R. Scupham, was 
approved and ordered forwarded. Henry Edwards read a paper, embracing the 
substance of verbal remarks, made by him at a previous meeting, on the Califomia 
pitcher-plant, Darlingtonia Californica. In reference to Mr. Edwards' opinion that 
the juices of the insects entrapped and destroyed by the plant were carried down to 
the roots and absorbed there as manure. Dr. Henry Gibbons stated that the inquiries 
of scientists had led many of them to believe that the plant was tmly carnivorous and 
endowed with a digestive power similar to that of animals. Their general view seemed 



190 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

to be that the insects were decomposed and their juices absorbed by the leaves, as 
manure was absorbed by the roots. Dr. Gibbons also referred to the alleged efficiency 
of the Sairacenia as a remedy for small-pox, but said its claims in this respect had 
not been recognized. A report from the nominating committee, appointed by a joint 
meeting of Council and Board of Trustees, presented a ticket for officers of the 
ensuing year. In this ticket the name of Professor Davidson was proposed as a 
candidate for president and also for a trustee. After some discussion on the subject, 
the name of Professor Davidson as a candidate for trustee was taken off and that of 
Gen. John F. Miller inserted in its place. In the Board of Trustees, a resolution was 
adopted directing the funds of the Academy, then in the London and San Francisco 
Bank, to be transfeired to the Bank of California, which had recovered from its 
temporary difficulties and suspension and was re-established on a firm basis; and that 
thence-forth the Bank of California should be the depository of the funds of the 
Academy. As for the special policeman to keep people off the steps of the building, 
Mr. Ashbumer reported that because there was to be a "change in policemen on that 
beat," he decided to wait. 



191 



Chapter XVI: Year 1 876 



Xhe annual meeting for 1876 was held on January 3. On recommendation of 
the Council, Dr. Henry Gibbons, Sr. was elected a honorary life member. Louis 
mmer and W. E. Burleigh were elected resident members. In the absence of the 
president, Henry Edwards, first vice-president, read the annual address on the 
condition and progress of the Academy. He spoke of the past year as an eventful one 
for the institution. It was poor no longer. The cloud of adversity, which seemed so 
long to overshadow it and which, but for the untiring energy and hopeful perseverance 
of a few of its members, would have brought its career of usefulness to a close, had, 
by the grand beneficence of one man, been removed. He spoke of the example of Mr. 
Lick in the disposition of his wealth as noble, and said that he had earned for all time 
the unbounded gratitude of lovers of Science, not only in California, but throughout 
the whole civilized world. He reviewed the work of the Academy during the past year 
and thought it in point of value and interest in no respect behind the work of precious 
years. Gen. Colton, as president of the Board of Trustees, presented an annual report 
on the condition of the "temporal ties" of the Academy. The amount of money on 
hand at the beginning of 1875 was $2,958.43 and at the end of that year $1,598.73. 
The greatest economy, consistent with the needs of the institution, had been exer- 
cised; but necessary purchases, expenditures connected with alterations of the Acad- 
emy building and current expenses had unavoidably reduced the amount of cash on 
hand. The prospects for the future, however, were bright. The rents of the Market 
Street property, given by Mr. Lick, which were about $2,300 annually, had been 
increased about 1 00 per cent, and it was to be expected that the gross amount for the 
coming year would be in the neighborhood of $5,000. In addition to this, the 
provisions of the Deed of Trust, executed by Mr. Lick, warranted the belief that the 
princely gift thereby made would enable the Academy to erect on the ground within 
a few years one of the most magnificent temples of science on the face of the globe. 
The recording secretary reported the average attendance of members at meetings as 
31. Twenty-seven new members had joined in the course of the past year; four had 
died, and three resigned. The total resident membership was 301, and life member- 
ship, 78. The treasurer and the Board of Trustees also presented reports, showing in 
detail the receipts and disbursements of the year 1875. The librarian reported very 
considerable additions to the library and especially mentioned the donation of a large 
collection of books on history and geography by Professor D. C. Gilman, and rare 
and costly works on entomology, including those of Hubner, Cramer, Drury, and 
StoU, by Gen. Colton. The director of the museum also made a report on the condition 



192 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, I853-I906 

of the cabinets. The annual election resuhed in the choice of Professor George 
Davidson as president; Henry Edwards, first vice-president; Henry C. Hyde, second 
vice-president; Theodore A. Blake, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, record- 
ing secretary; Edward F. Hall, treasurer; William J. Fisher, librarian; W. G. W. 
Harford, director of the museum; D. D. Colton, John F. Miller, Thomas P. Madden, 
R. E. C. Steams, William Ashbumer, George E. Gray, and R. C. Harrison, trustees. 
On motion of Mr. Ashbumer, a committee was appointed to take into consideration 
the matter of sectionizing the Academy. ^ 

January 1 7, Z. W. Greene and Dr. James Murphy were elected resident members. 
C. B. Turrill read a paper by C. W. Brooks and one by himself, recommending a 
course of popular scientific lectures before the Academy. Henry Edwards presented 
a paper on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 16 — Notes on the Transformations of 
some Species of Lepidoptera not hitherto recorded." Dr. Henry Gibbons called 
attention to the frequency of earthquakes in different parts of the world during the 
past summer. A report, in the form of preamble and resolutions, providing for the 
creation of sections of the Academy for particular subjects of study and research, was 
presented by the committee appointed for that purpose and adopted. The new Board 
of Tmstees organized by the election of Gen. D. D. Colton as president, William 
Ashbumer, vice-president, and Charles G. Yale, secretary. On motion of George E. 
Gray, the treasurer was required to give a bond in the sum of $5,000; and on motion 
of R. C. Harrison the librarian and director of the museum were each required to give 
a bond in the sum of $500. The Lick Tmstees sent in a communication, stating that 
they had paid the taxes on the Market Street property, assessed at $90,000, to-wit: 
$1,444.50, and requesting the amount so paid to be refunded to them. Gen. Colton 



"' ' Following the annual meeting, Robert Steams, in a letter to William Dall, waxed enthusiastically 
about the present and future condition of the Academy. On Jan. 27, 1876, he wrote, "The annual meeting 
ofthe Academy was an exciting affair — 187 [of a membership of 301, eds.] votes polled, which indicates 
at least a robust vitality. We have to pay taxes this year on $90000.00, the assessed value ofthe Market St. 
lot [deeded to the Academy by James Lick], and it will about drain the coffers — but we have the coin to 
pay it; what a change when compared with the past, when $20.00 would have "busted" the treasury. We 
may be behind in the publication of our Proceedings for 1875, which I regret but nevertheless it is a 
satisfaction and a great one, to us who put our hands to the plow, in the dark days and who held our grip 
and kept the lamp burning, though at times with an uncertain light. Davidson was re-elected and under the 
circumstances it is well — we have also cleaned out the Hewston element, through delicate tact without 
an uproar. Again at the last meeting 1 prepared at the reauest of many members a resolution and general 
plan for sectionizing the Academy (adopted) — and we snail have at once a large and active section in the 
direction of Mining Engineering — other sections will soon organize. All of tnis stimulates activity and 
excites interest and will undoubtedly prove beneficial to the institution. 1 hope to live to see a proper 
building and an efficient crew, and to nelp mould [sic] things in such form as to make the Academy the 
leading organization in America, (save for the SI [Smithsonian Institution, eds.]) in energetic, broad and 
useful work -to scientifically evangelize the State and all of these Western commonwealths so that the 
center of scientific culture and progress shall be nearer the setting sun than at present." (SIArchives, RU 
7073 {William H. Dall Papers, 1865-1927}, Box 16, Folder 30.) 

Steams' euphoria was reasonably short-lived. Before a decade had passed, without a new building, 
without fiinds for publication, with the death of Benjamin Redding (see footnote 21.4), and with George 
Davidson no longer President ofthe Academy, Steams wrote to Dall (Nov. 3, 1883) "The Acad'y is a 
starter in the suds and it does seem at times as if the barnacles over there [Steams is writing this from his 
home in Berkeley, eds.] w'd sink the ship . With the exception ofthe "Carson foot print" paper nothing has 
been printed since Pt. 1 of Vol. VII ending December 1 8/6. At one time recently the treasury had the means 
to pay for printing all the back mss; the Pub Com were not ready - now that the mss is readv. the funds are 
needed to pay the rent and of hall for the exhibition ofthe Crocker-Stanford Collection. Then again there 
is a muddle, whether to build and where and when and so it goes - thank the lord 1 am on the outside - 1 
haven't much respect for damn fools, and some of those fellers come very near fitting that temi." (R. E. 
C. Steams to W. H. Dall, Nov. 3, 1883; SIArchives, RU 7073 {William H. Dall Papers, 1865-1927}, Box 
16, Folder 32.). 



CHAPTER XVI: 1876 



193 




William G. W. Harford 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

was authorized to pay the bill. The director of the museum was authorized to deliver 
certain archaeological specimens to be loaned to Professor Baird of the Smithsonian 
Institution for exhibition at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. The salary of 
the secretary was fixed at $25 per month, the same as that of the previous year. 
Attention was called to certain expenses incurred at the recent election of the 
Academy, including dinner forjudges and inspectors, when Mr. Madden proposed 
that they should be paid by the Trustees personally, which was accordingly done. 

February 7, C. L. Scudder, W. J. Graves, Samuel Pumell, Joseph Tilden, Gerrit 
L. Lansing, Dr. Robert K. Nuttall, and Dr. J. T. Crook were elected resident members. 
W. N. Lockington read "Remarks on the Crustacea of the Pacific Coast, with 
Descriptions of some [twenty] New Species." The corresponding secretary read a 
bill, introduced in the California Assembly, for the protection of the blue heron, Ardea 
herodias, with a request from an assemblyman for suggestions in regard to it. After 
a lengthy discussion the matter was laid on the table. He also read a memorial to 
Congress by the Boston Society of Civil Engineers for the adoption of the metric 
system of weights and measures; and on motion the chair was requested to appoint a 
committee to report upon the subject. It was announced that Dr. Gerhard Rohlfs had 
accepted an invitation to lecture at the Academy on his African travels in the 1860s. 
The judges of election reported that they had filed a certificate of the recent election 
with the county clerk. February 2 1 , J. R. Scupham asked for infonnation in respect 
to a plant which had the property of coagulating milk, like rennet. Dr. Behr said that 
the plant from which quassia came had that property. Dr. Gibbons said that Gratiola 



194 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Virginica also had the property, and that medical writers stated that quassia was one 
of the best bitters known. He also spoke of the peculiarities of certain plants, which 
were hannless to men but injurious to animals, and vice versa; also of plants injurious 
to fleas, stating that the impression the Verba Buena leaves would drive away fleas 
was incorrect, but that the powder of Artemisia filifolia was fatal to them. The subject 
of poison-oak was introduced and a discussion took place as to the liability of some 
persons to be affected by it while others could handle it with immunity. 

March 6, Louis Janin, James D. Hague, H. S. Craven, C. A. Stetefeldt, C. W. 
Lightner, E. B. Dorsey, W. A. Skidmore, Howard Schuyler, Hamilton Smith, Jr., 
Alfred Poett, W. H. Hall, J. S. Curtis, and Charles Barton Hill were elected resident 
members. Professor Davidson exhibited specimens of boomerangs, which had been 
used by some of the California Indians. He also gave a general description of his 
recent trip to Japan, India, Egypt, and part of Europe, the principal object of which 
had been to gather infonnation with regard to late improvements in civil engineering 
and irrigation. William J. Fisher tendered his resignation as librarian, which was 
accepted; and soon afterwards Charles Troyer was appointed by the Council to fill 
the office. On motion of Gen. Colton the Board of Trustees was authorized to loan 
certain ethnological specimens to the Central Pacific Railroad company for exhibi- 
tion, with its own collections, at the Centennial Exposition. March 20, Charles F. 
Dio Hastings was elected a life member. W. N. Lockington read a paper entitled 
"Description of Seventeen New Species of Crustacea." F. Gruber read the first of a 
series of popular papers on ornithology, illustrating his remarks with specimens of 
birds prepared by himself April 3, Henry Hemphill presented a "Description of a 
New California Mollusk" from Humboldt Bay, and Dr. Kellogg a paper on Brickelia 
multiflora from the Sierra Nevada. Professor Davidson read a paper descriptive of 
irrigation works in course of construction in British India, illustrated with maps and 
diagrams. Dr. Hale of Albany, New York, mentioned a curious case of mimicry 
observed by him in the Santa Cruz Mountains, where he had found a small spider 
exactly resembling the flower of the Madrona tree in color, size, and form. In the 
Board of Trustees, on recommendation of the Council, the Pharmaceutical Society 
of San Francisco was allowed the use of the hall of the Academy twice a week at the 
rate of $20 per month until fiirther notice. The council also recommended that the 
rooms and cabinets of the Academy should be kept open to the public daily from 9 
o'clock A. M. to 4 P. M.; and that the salary of the director of the museum should be 
increased to $100 per month, and the recording secretary be paid $25 per month as 
secretary of the Academy in addition to his salary as secretary of the Board, which 
recommendation was taken under advisement. APRIL 1 7, Samuel Lubeck was elected 
a life member, and Joel F. Lightner, T. Bechtinger, J. K. Wilson, and J. F. Meyers, 
resident members. Among the donations was a spider, resembling a Madrona flower, 
from William Barber. Captain C. Bryant, U. S. Treasuiy agent to the Pribiloff Islands, 
Behring's Sea, on invitation, described the seal fisheries there and the habits of the 



"'•^ Although shown in the Minute Books and published account as J. P. Meyers (see Proceedings 
1876[1877], 7:50), later references to a W. F. Myers, also supposedly elected on this date but not shown 
in the records, suggest that the name was initially improperly recorded. 



CHAPTER XVI: 1876 195 

fur seal. In the Board of Trustees, the matter of the recommendation of the Council 
to increase the salaries of the director of the museum and recording secretary came 
up; and, on motion of Mr. Ashbumer, it was resolved that the condition of the finances 
did not for the present admit of any increase of salaries. A communication was 
received from the Society of California Pioneers, requesting the privilege of right of 
way from Market Street over the Academy's lot to the rear of their Fourth Street lot. 
On motion a committee, consisting of Messrs. Madden and Miller, was appointed to 
consider all matters relating to the real estate of the Academy; and to this committee 
the request of the Pioneers was referred to investigate and report. 

May 1, Dr. Blake presented a specimen of infusorial earth from the hills about a 
quarter of a mile south of the northeast end of Lake Merced in San Francisco County. 
The deposit was known as the "chalk mine," and a considerable quantity of it had 
been sent to the Eastern States, as he understood, to be used for polishing glass. The 
so-called mine had been opened on the side of a ravine and the deposit seemed to 
fonn a continuous stratum four feet thick where exposed but probably much thicker 
as the whole hill for some distance seemed to be formed of it. The highest part of the 
outcroppings were about 200 feet above sea level, and the bed probably belonged to 
the Pliocene fonnations found cropping out along the beach to the south of Lake 
Merced. On microscopical examination the rock seemed to be made up of siliceous 
particles, evidently of organic origin, which were probably the remains of diatoms, 
though no perfect diatoms had been discovered in it. W. N. Lockington read a 
"Description of a New Genus and Species [Bellophis zonatus] of Colubrine Snake" 
from northern California. W. G. W. Harford read a "Description of a New Genus 
and three New Species of Sessile-Eyed Crustacea," two from Angel Island and one 
from Tomales Bay; and Mr. Lockington a "Description of a New Genus and Species 
of Decapod Crustacean," from Tomales Bay. Professor Davidson read a continuation 
of his papers on irrigation in India, Egypt, and Italy. May 15, H. W. Reese, Albert 
Arents, C. A. Luckhardt, Emlen Painter, and Louis Falkenau were elected resident 
members. Among the donations were many Japanese articles, presented by Lieuten- 
ant Murray S. Day, U. S. Navy, the most curious of which was perhaps a "Passu" or 
moustache lifter, used by the Ainos of the Islands of Yesso, Japan, for lifting the 
moustache in the drinking ceremony. Professor Davidson read a continuation of his 
papers on irrigation in India, Egypt and Italy. 

June 5, Rudolph Thormann, L. L. Hawkins, Walter W. Dannenberg, Edward N. 
Moor, and Robert Chalmers Lord were elected resident members. Henry Edwards 
presented a paper entitled "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, No. 17. On the Transforma- 
tions of Colias {Meganostoma Reak) Eurydice, Bdv." Professor Davidson read a 
continuation of his papers on irrigation in India, Egypt, and Italy. F. Gruber read the 
second of his series of papers on ornithology. His special subject was "Birds of 
Migration and Song." In the Board of Trustees, the committee on real estate, to whom 
had been referred the request of the Pioneer Society for a right of way over the Market 
Street lot to the rear of the Fourth Street lot, reported that the committee deemed it 
inexpedient at that time to grant such right of way, for the reasons: first, that such 



196 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

concession would inevitably lead to unpleasant complications with the tenants of the 
Society of Pioneers and probably with the Society itself; and, second, that as the Lick 
Trust had already sold the lots of the Academy and Pioneers, new arrangements would 
likely be made with reference to the open ground then under lease to the Spring Valley 
Water Company, and the committee were of opinion that the Academy could get a 
better income from the property without any such encumbrance as the right of way 
requested. An offer had in fact already been made of $75 per month for the unoccupied 
ground, and the best course for the Academy to pursue was undoubtedly to lease it 
for the best price that could be obtained. JUNE 19, J. P. Dameron described a recent 
trip to Mount Tamalpais in Marin County, which led to a discussion in reference to 
the large and peculiar slide, plainly visible from San Francisco, on the southeasterly 
side of the mountain. 

July 3, being one of the centennial holidays, no meeting was held. July 1 7, among 
the donations was a volume of the "Botany of California," being a part of the work 
of the State Geological Survey, which had been published by contributions of private 
citizens, whose generosity had already been noticed and acknowledged by the 
Academy. On this occasion a note of thanks was tendered to Judge Hastings for his 
instrumentality in obtaining the contributions. W. N. Lockington submitted "Re- 
marks on the Crustacea of the Pacific Coast of North America, including a Catalogue 
of the Species in the Museum of the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco"; 
also "Remarks upon the Various Fishes known as Rock Cod." Dr. Kellogg read a 
paper on '" Ludwigia Scabriuscular In the Board of Trustees a letter was read from 
W. E. Brown, stating that he was about to grade a lot belonging to himself on First 
Avenue and asking the Academy to grade the adjoining "Academy of Sciences" lot. 
The matter referred to the real estate committee. AUGUST 7, W. N. Lockington read 
"Notes on Some California Marine Fishes, with Descriptions of New Species."' 
W. G. Krueger exhibited a small model of a flying-machine, of his own invention, 
and explained its construction. His idea was that such a machine should be con- 
structed like a large bird. AUGUST 21, Dr. Kellogg read "Notes and Descriptions of 
some California Plants." September 4, W. N. Lockington presented several papers 
on Crustacea and fishes, and Dr. Kellogg one on plants. The resignation of Theodore 
A. Blake as corresponding secretary was read and accepted; and the appointment of 
a successor referred to the Council. September 1 8, Dr. Kellogg presented "Botanical 
Papers" and W. G. W. Harford a "Description of Three New Species of Sessile-Eyed 
Crustacea, with Remarks on Ligia occidentalis .'" The Council reported that it had 



'6^ For several years both before and after Lockington read this paper, at Academy meetings he read and 
then published papers on fishes, Crustacea, sponges, and general natural history. And, he, like Ayres before 
him, ran afoul of Theodore Gill, in Washmgton, D.C., who earlier had severely criticized Ayres (see 
comments by W.G.W. Harford, at the Dec. 19, 1881 meeting of the Academy) and now Lockington for 
what he considered unscientific work. Of course. Gill had an agenda for this criticism for he objected to 
the intrusion of these Califomian upstarts, amateurs in his opinion, in what he had carved out as a personal 
fiefdom, the fishes of the North Pacific. On a somewhat defensive note, on Dec. 21, 1878, Lockington 
wrote to William Healey Dall, "I understand that my work among the fishes has been severely criticized 
by Prof Gill. All 1 can say is that I wish Prof Gill were compelled, for just one year, to work under the 
same conditions that I do; with our imperfect museum and confused and defective library (you know all 
about that) and with no time at his command save evenings and Sundays." SlArchives, William Healey 
Dail papers, RU 7073, Box 13, Folder 25. 



CHAPTER XVI: 1876 197 

appointed Dr. A. B. Stout corresponding secretary in place of Theodore A. Blake, 
resigned. 

October 2, the death of James Lick having been announced, R. E. C. Steams 
addressed the Academy and said that Mr. Lick had passed away peacefully the 
previous morning, Sunday, October 1, 1876, at the age of 80 years. He spoke of Mr. 
Lick as the friend and benefactor of the Academy and as one who, though not 
educated in those higher schools where the mind is trained to scientific study and 
thought, still possessed a native breadth of mind quick to perceive and appreciate the 
lofty aims of Science and the benefits it had conferred upon mankind. He spoke of 
his many munificent gifts and said that it was safe to assert that the name of James 
Lick deserved and would receive an honorable and prominent place on the roll of 
great public benefactors; and that future members of the Academy, who would be 
especially benefited with the means and facilities of scientific research, secured to 
them by his bounty, and who would thereby be enabled to contribute to the sum of 
human knowledge, would ever hold the name of James Lick in grateful remembrance. 
It was thereupon resolved by the Academy that Mr. Lick's name should ever be held 
in grateful remembrance and that the Academy would accept an invitation of the 
Society of California Pioneers to take part in his funeral and attend it in a body. 

October 16, among the donations was a cabinet containing about 600 specimens 
of minerals, presented by R. H. Stretch. Henry Edwards presented No. 1 8 of his papers 
of "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera," specially devoted to a new species of Heterocampa. 
Dr. Blake read a paper on a "Remedy for the Phylloxera^ He described the insect 
after a study of its natural history, as one of those which goes through a series of 
generations without changing its form; but in which, after a certain number of these 
parthenogenic generations, the power of non-sexual reproduction ceases, and the 
development of a new form, the winged insect, becomes necessary for the continu- 
ance of the species. It was the non-sexual fonns that did the damage to vines, and 
they were so abundant that a single impregnated ovum, laid by the winged insects, 
had been calculated to produce as many as 75,000,000 of the little pests that 
devastated vineyards. The remedy he suggested - and said he had tested with good 
effects — was bisulphide of carbon. His method was to use an iron tube with a sharp 
steel point, pierced with holes and having a water-tight piston. The tube was forced, 
with the point down, into the ground several feet near the roots of the vine; about an 
ounce of the sulphide of carbon was poured in and the tube then filled up with water; 
the piston applied, and the contents of the tube forced out by driving down the piston. 
The bisulphide was extremely volatile and would permeate the ground for a consid- 
erable distance; and wherever it permeated it effectually killed the insects. The 
remedy was comparatively cheap and could be easily applied. He also said that the 
refuse lime from gas-works, applied around the roots of the vines, would kill the 
insects. Professor T. Guerin read a paper on "The Factor of Safety in Water Pipes." 

November 3, two papers by Professor Davidson were read by the secretary; one 
on a "Search for the Supposed Intra-Mercurial Planet Vulcan," and the other on "The 
Problematical Intra-Mercurial Planet." Professor Davidson had been for some time 



198 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




James Lick 

1796-1876 

California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER XVI: 1876 199 

engaged in making observations on the summit of Mount St. Helena in Napa County. 
The French astronomer Le Verrier had by telegraphic dispatch asked observers on 
the Pacific Coast to make search for the supposed planet as it crossed the disk of the 
sun on October 9 and 10. Professor Davidson had made observations on those days, 
but did not see any planet. Henry Edwards presented No. 1 9 of his papers on "Pacific 
Coast Lepidoptera," specially devoted to a singular variety of the larva oi Halesidota 
Agassizii. NOVEMBER 20, Dr. Kellogg described a couple of new plants received from 
Joseph H. Clarke, corresponding member. C. D. Gibbes read a paper on the 
geological formation of "The Oil Region of Tulare Valley West of Tulare Lake," and 
exhibited specimens of the oil and rocks found there. A paper, written by Anton 
Stuxberg, was presented by Dr. Gustav Eisen, entitled "Preliminary Report on the 
Lithobii of North America." Henry Edwards presented No. 20 of his papers on 
"Pacific Coast Lepidoptera." In the Board of Trustees, at a meeting in which the 
Council was invited to participate and at which it was present, a new complication 
in the affairs of the Lick Estate was brought up for consideration. To render it 
intelligible will require some words of explanation. When Mr. Lick's new Trust Deed 
was being prepared, John H. Lick, the natural but recognized son of James Lick, 
expressed a desire to be given $250,000 in the new disposition of the property and 
proposed if this sum were given him to concur in any disposition that might be made 
of the remainder and to execute any papers that might be asked of him to that effect. 
Mr. James Lick was informed of this proposition on the part of his son; but would 
not listen to it and insisted upon giving him only $150,000, which he said was more 
than he knew how to properly make use of This was, as the event proved, a business 
error on the part of Mr. Lick. Notwithstanding the clearness and cautious prudence 
of his intellect, he was irascible, and when his temper was roused it was ungovernable. 
In about a year after the execution of his new Deed of Trust, for example, he became 
dissatisfied without any good reason with his new Trustees or at least those who were 
present, for Mr. Floyd had gone to Europe to look into the subject of astronomical 
observatories, and asked for their resignations, which they iminediately sent in; and 
thereupon Mr. Lick appointed a new Board of Trustees, consisting of Richard S. 
Floyd (then absent), Edwin B. Mastick, William Sherman, George Schoenwald, and 
Charles M. Plum. These gentlemen remained the Trustees at the time of Mr. Lick's 
death in 1 875 and continued to be such afterwards. 

As soon as Mr. Lick died, John H. Lick, who had kept quiet in the meanwhile, 
manifested his dissatisfaction with the disposition of the property and employed Hall 
McAllister as his attorney to contest the same. He was now no longer willing to accept 
$250,000, but demanded a great deal more and was in a position to jeopardize the 
disposition of the whole estate. A long, bitter and expensive litigation was threatened, 
when at last a provisional compromise was effected by the terms of which John H. 
Lick was to become the administrator of his father's estate and, after such appoint- 
ment, to release all his claims to the estate both as an individual and as administrator 
for the sum of $535,000, which sum was also to be in fiill payment of his legacies 
under the Trust Deed. As soon as this provisional compromise was effected, it became 



200 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

necessary, for the purpose of carrying it completely into effect, to obtain the consent 
and concurrence of the beneficiaries under the Trust Deed, and particularly of the 
California Academy of Sciences and the Society of California Pioneers, who were 
the residuary beneficiaries under that instrument. It was the matter of this compromise 
that was on this occasion presented to the joint meeting of the Board of Trustees and 
Council, with the request that the Academy should consent to and concur in it. Gen. 
Colton, as president of the joint meeting, stated in brief the situation of affairs, adding 
that any sum allowed John H. Lick in excess of the sum given him by the Deed of 
Trust would have to be taken from the shares of the Academy and Pioneers, and said 
that he had invited Mr. Felton, as representative of the Lick Trustees to be present 
and offer such suggestions and explanations as he might deem proper. Mr. Felton 
thereupon read the agreement of compromise, signed by John H. Lick and all the Lick 
Trustees of both Boards appointed under the new Tmst Deed, with exception of Mr. 
Floyd who was still absent, and also a special and earnest request, signed by the 
Trustees of both Boards, that the compromise, though involving the relinquishment 
of any claim on the part of each of the residuary beneficiaries to a sum of $192,000, 
should be accepted and concurred in. He also read a schedule showing the valuation 
and monthly income of the Lick property, and stated that the valuation was based for 
the most part on prices actually offered. From this schedule it appeared that the 
property was worth in coin the sum of $3,062,693.50 and the monthly income was 
$14,634. The bequests made by the Trust Deed amounted to $1,917,000. The 
proposed compromise would add to this sum $385,000, making $2,302,000 and 
leaving a balance for the residuary beneficiaries of $60,693.50. If the compromise 
were effected this balance, to be divided between the Academy and the Pioneer 
Society, might be relied on with much certainty, but if the compromise were not 
effected, there would certainly be a long and costly litigation and no certainty as to 
the result. After Mr. Felton withdrew, the matter was discussed by Tmstees and 
Council, Gen. Colton stated that the Pioneers and all the other beneficiaries had given 
their consent to the proposed compromise, but he thought it would be time enough 
for the Academy to act when there was no question as to the rights and powers of 
those desiring the compromise. On motion of Mr. Ashbumer, the matter was referred 
to Gen. Colton as president of the Board of Trustees to confer with Messrs. Felton 
and McAllister, with instructions, however, that the Board did not desire at that time 
to sign the compromise agreement or act in the matter. Gen. Colton then said that he 
understood the sentiment of the meeting to be that the Academy would be willing to 
divide the surplus of the Lick estate into three equal parts, of which John H. Lick 
should receive one part, the Pioneers one, and the Academy one, provided the 
Academy were guaranteed to have at least $250,000 and John H. Lick to have nothing 
until that sum was paid the Academy. 

December 1 , Professor Davidson read a continuation of his papers on irrigation, 
describing the North Sea Canal of Holland. Henry Edwards presented No. 21 of his 
papers on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, describing two new species of Thecla,'^ and 
W. N. Lockington another paper on the "Crustacea of the West Coast of North 



CHAPTER XVI: 1876 201 

America." T. J. Lowry read a paper on "A New and Expeditious Method of Placing 
the Transit." Dr. Ohver M. Wozencraft made remarks on the "Feasibihty of Reclaim- 
ing the Colorado Desert of California." December 18 Dr. Kellogg read a paper on 
""Tribulus from the Eastern Shore of the Gulf of California," and Henry Edwards 
presented No. 22 of his papers on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera." Professor Davidson 
read a continuation of his paper on irrigation, describing the Canal Cavour. The 
nominating committee presented a ticket for officers of 1 877, with George Davidson, 
president, and W. G. W. Harford, director of the museum. December 27, at a meeting 
of the Board of Trustees, the president and treasurer were authorized to borrow from 
and give the note of the Academy to the Bank of California for a sum not exceeding 
$3,000; and among the bills ordered paid was one for $3,406.16 for taxes on the 
Market Street property. 



202 



ChapterXVII: Year 1877 



A t the annual meeting of 1877, held January 2, the president presented his 
/-% annual address, showing the condition of the Academy and its progress during 
tne past year. The recording secretary reported the aggregate membership as 366. The 
treasurer reported that disbursements for 1876 at $10,283.31, and stated that the 
balance overdrawn, and owing to the Bank of California, was $ 1 ,538.58. The librarian 
and director of the museum made reports on the condition of their respective 
departments; showing a satisfactory increase of books and specimens. On recommen- 
dation of the Council, Henry Edwards and Dr. Arthur B. Stout were elected honorary 
life members. On the report of the officers of the annual election, the following were 
declared elected officers of the Academy for the year 1877: Professor George 
Davidson, president; Henry Edwards, first vice-president; Henry C. Hyde, second 
vice-president; Dr. A. B. Stout, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, recording 
secretary; Edward F. Hall, Jr., treasurer; Charles Troyer, librarian; W. G. W. Harford, 
director of the museum; David D. Colton, R. E. C. Steams. Thomas P. Madden, Ralph 
C. Harrison, William Ashbumer, George E. Gray, and John F. Miller, trustees. In the 
Board of Trustees, a communication was received from the Lick Tmstees, asking that 
someone be appointed on the part of the Academy to examine the personal property 
of the Lick estate, consisting chiefly of furniture, books, tools and farming imple- 
ments, at the Lick Homestead in Santa Clara County, which by the terms of the Trust 
Deed was to be divided between the Academy of Sciences and the Society of 
California Pioneers, and a schedule of which was also transmitted. January 15, W. 
N. Lockington read a paper on "Crustacea of the Pacific Coasf '; Henry Edwards, No. 
23 of "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera"; Dr. Kellogg, a paper on three new plants; and 
Professor Davidson, a continuation of his papers on " Irrigation in India, Egypt, and 
Italy." In the Board of Tmstees, the officers of last year were re-elected. 

February 5 Henry Edwards presented No. 24 of "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera"; 
Dr. Kellogg made remarks on the abnormal growth of deer homs; and Professor 
Davidson read a continuation of his papers on " Irrigation in India, Egypt, and Italy." 
A letter from S. W. Jewett was read in reference to rocks, with curious inscriptions 
upon them, found in Kem County. Dr. Henry Gibbons suggested the fonnation of a 
Meteorological Section of the Academy; and J. R. Scupham stated that the Central 
Pacific Railroad Company had for a considerable time kept meteorological records 
at some fifty different stations and would no doubt be glad to communicate all 
infomiation in its possession of interest to the Academy. Dr. Stout asked Professor 
Davidson why great famines occun^ed in India where such stupendous irrigation 



CHAPTER XVII: 1877 203 

systems were in vogue as he had described. Professor Davidson answered at consid- 
erable length, giving the reasons and locations of the famines, and stated that in the 
districts, where the great engineering works had been completed, no distress was felt. 
February 19, among the donations were eight fragments of the egg of the extinct 
dinoresis and a number of pebbles used by that bird to assist its digestive functions. 
Professor Davidson read a continuation of his papers on irrigation in India, Egypt, 
and Italy. In the Board of Trustees, Professor Davidson called the attention of the 
Board to the fact that a member of the Academy had urged him to intervene in the 
Lick estate business and particularly in reference to the personal property in Santa 
Clara County, and, knowing, as he did, that the matter was in the hands of the Trustees, 
he deemed it proper to inform them that outside parties were disposed to interfere. 
Gen. Colton stated that the business had been placed in the hands of attorneys and 
that proper steps had been taken for a disposition and division of the property. 

March 5, William B. Hyde was elected a life member and John A. Mallory a 
resident member. Henry Edwards presented No. 25 of "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera," 
and W. N. Lockington another of his papers on "Crustacea." Professor Davidson read 
a continuation of his papers on irrigation. He also read "Notes on the Spider Line of 
the Tarantula," and "Spiders Throwing Their Webs." He then presented a letter from 
a correspondent on the subject of the production of rain by human agency and read 
a "Note on the Question of Rain Storms following Great Battles." Dr. Henry Gibbons 
spoke of the rainfall in California and explained that the rainfall that followed the 
cannon-firing of the previous July 4 was due to natural causes and not to the explosion 
of gunpowder. There was generally a tendency to rain about that date; and on that 
occasion the meteorological conditions were favorable for rain before the firing 
began. S. R. Throckmorton described a curious fish from Marin County, specimens 
of which he presented. They appeared to live in the banks of the salt-marsh creeks in 
holes, the entrances of which were out of water at half-tide; but as the holes ran down 
into the ground they remained filled with water at all times. March 19, Dr. S. W. 
Dennis was elected a resident member. R. E. C. Steams read a paper "On Aboriginal 
Shell Money"; and W. H. Dall, a paper "On Califomian Species of FucusT Professor 
Davidson read a paper "On the Suez Canal." He also read a letter from the French 
astronomer Le Verrier in reference to the supposed intra-mercurial planet Vulcan and 
the time of its passage over the sun's disk. The supposed period of the revolution was 
36.02 days. A paper on "Pacific Coast Hymenoptera" by E. T. Cresson was submitted. 

April 2, Professor Joseph LeConte read a paper "On the Critical Periods in the 
Earth's History and their Relation to Evolution; and on the Quaternary as such a 
Period." J. R. Scupham read a paper on "Nut Grass and Bermuda Grass." April 16, 
among the donations were bleached and unbleached paper made from the Yucca 
plant, presented by Henry Payot. Professor Davidson read a paper "On Defects of 
Micrometers." May 7, Professor Davidson read a paper "On Breakwaters." Dr. 
George Bennett was introduced and made remarks on the zoology of Papua. Dr. 
Kellogg, being called to the chair, a resolution was adopted requesting Governor 
Irwin to appoint Professor Davidson to fill the vacancy in the Board of Regents of 



204 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

the University of California, caused by the death of John B. Fehon, who had died on 
May 2, 1877. In the Board of Trustees, on account of the embarrassment occasioned 
by the low state of the finances and the non-payment by a number of the members of 
the Academy of their monthly dues, a resolution was adopted urging upon the 
treasurer extra exertions to make collections and appointing a committee, consisting 
of Messrs. Gray and Ashbumer, to confer with that officer upon the subject. On 
motion of Mr. Ashbumer, the Trustees also adopted a series of resolutions urging 
Governor Irwin to appoint Professor Davidson a regent of the University in place of 
John B. Felton, deceased. Henderson Brothers presented a bill of $16 for planting 
eight trees on First Avenue in front of the "Academy of Sciences" lot, stating that 
other property-owners along the street had agreed to pay at the same rate for trees 
planted in front of their property. As, however, the Academy had never signed any 
agreement or given any order to have the work done, the bill was rejected. Payment 
of a bill for $730.65 for printing the Academy's Proceedings for 1875 was deferred 
for want of funds, although other bills, amounting to $350, were ordered paid. In the 
matter of the controversy with John H. Lick as to the Lick estate and the proposed 
compromise of it. Gen. Colton reported that he had as the representative of the 
Academy, at the request of a committee of the Society of California Pioneers, met 
with them for the purpose of taking the subject into consideration. The Pioneers were 
in favor of accepting the compromise recommended by John B. Felton on November 
10, 1876. William T. Coleman, as representative of the Pioneers, had said that 
everybody had consented to the compromise except the Academy. He had answered 
Mr. Coleman by saying that, as all the sacrifice was to come from the Pioneers and 
Academy, the other parties, not being affected financially, would naturally consent; 
but the Academy was not disposed to submit to an arrangement so detrimental to its 
interests. He had said, however, that he would agree on the part on the Academy to 
take $350,000 cash, and let the balance go. He also said that Messrs. S. M. Wilson 
and R. C. Harrison, whom he had consulted as attorneys, considered the proposition, 
that the Academy and Pioneers should bear the whole burden of the compromise, was 
unreasonable and unjust, and proposed that the amount of the sacrifice should be 
divided pro-rata among all the beneficiaries named in the Tmst Deed or, in other 
words, that each beneficiary should contribute proportionally; and that he had finally 
agreed that, if the other beneficiaries would accept this proposition, the Academy 
would give its proportion of 13 V2 per cent of what was necessary. The final result of 
the conference was an agreement that the other beneficiaries were to be asked to 
consent to this arrangement; and papers were being prepared for the necessary 
signatures. 

May 21, L. C. McAffee, J. C. Cebrian, and J. T. Murphy were elected resident 
members. Professor Davidson gave an account of the earthquake tidal waves, which 
entered the Bay of San Francisco on May 10, illustrating his remarks with diagrams 
showing the oscillations enlarged from the lines traced by the pencil of the tide-gauge 
at Fort Point. June 4, Dr. Kellogg described fourteen new species of plants. J. P. 
Moore read a paper on "Foods," urging upon the Academy the utility of making 



CHAPTER XVII: 1877 205 

collections and directing attention to that subject. Professor Davidson read a paper 
on "Breakwaters in Europe." JUNE 18, J. R. Scupham presented two specimens in 
bottles of the Gordins or hair-snake, not uncommonly found in railway-station water 
tanks. He said that the specimens well illustrated the readiness with which a mistaken 
opinion might be formed in respect to the growth of these creatures. After having 
kept the bottle a few days, a long white substance had been developed, which was a 
production of young Gordii. He then gave a sketch of the life-history of the animal 
and showed how far removed it was from a hair. S. B. Christy read "Notes on the 
Monte Diablo Coal Mines," giving an analysis of various coals from California and 
Washington Territory. In the Board of Trustees, a letter was received from Edward 
F. Hall, Jr. tendering his resignation of the office of treasurer. As this action on the 
part of Mr. Hall was clearly occasioned by the action on the part of the Board of 
Trustees on May 7, in reference to the collection of delinquent monthly dues, the 
Board, instead of accepting the resignation, adopted a series of preambles and 
resolution to the effect that Mr. Hall had misapprehended the purpose of the action 
of the Trustees; that no reflection upon or censure of the treasurer had been intended 
and was expressly disclaimed; and that, as it appeared from the report of the 
committee appointed to confer with him that he had exercised due diligence and 
faithfulness and done all he could in the collection of dues, the resolution adopted 
May 7, should be and was recalled and expunged from the record; and the secretary 
was instructed to inform Mr. Hall of the action thus taken. A letter was received from 
Spaulding & Barto, offering to complete the printing of the Proceedings of the 
Academy for 1 876, which was partly in type, and wait a reasonable time for payment 
of the bill, provided their bill for $739.65, already for several months overdue, were 
shortly paid and the Trustees authorized the printing to go on. The Board, however, 
declined to authorize any fiarther printing for the time, on the ground that it had no 
power to create a debt. 

It may be here added that, on account of this doubtless very proper unwillingness 
of the Board to incur indebtedness, although the printed volume of the Proceedings 
of the Academy for 1876 was finally completed and published, it was the last one of 
the old series of printed Proceeding; and no other printed volume of the Academy 
was issued until about 1883, when the finances of the insfitution were in better 
condition. For this reason the records of the Academy for 1 877 and several succeeding 
years, consisting merely of written minutes without the texts of papers read, are more 
or less imperfect. The princely donation of Mr. Lick, although it enriched the 
Academy and eventually turned out to be much larger than the sum which the Board 
of Trustees would at that time have been willing to accept, was not yet, nor was it for 
some years to come, available. On the other hand, it was not exactly correct that the 
Board had no power to create or incur a debt. It had already, on account principally 
of the necessity of paying the taxes on the Market Street property, been compelled 
to borrow money and give its note for the amount, as before stated; and the same 
necessity continued for some years to come, as will be seen in the fiirther history of 
its progress. 



206 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

July 2, among the donations was cotton from Fort Yuma, raised there by Col. 
Barney; also a bottle of fish from an artesian well near Santa Barbara, presented by 
Thomas R. Bard. Professor Davidson read a paper "On the Breakwater at the Island 
of Aldemey; with Practical Conclusions on Breakwaters in general, especially as 
regards the Pacific Coast." Dr. Kellogg read descriptions of three new plants. Edward 
F. Hall, Jr. tendered his resignation as treasurer of the Academy, which was accepted, 
and the matter of appointing a successor referred to the Council. July 16, Professor 
Davidson read a paper "On Spectrum Phenomena Observed in Heliotropic Signals," 
Dr. Blake, a paper of "Observations of the Evidence of Glacial Action in the Sierras"; 
W. N. Lockington, a paper on a species of shark; and Dr. Kellogg, a paper on five 
new species of plants. An announcement was made that the Council had chosen A. 
McF. Davis as treasurer in place of E. F. Hall, Jr., resigned. AUGUST 6, Dr. Kellogg 
read descriptions of four new plants. R. E. C. Steams read "A Criticism on Mr. 
Barber's Treatise on Shell Ornaments found in Colorado, Utah, and Arizona." 
August 20, George W. Dent, E. W. Bowen, and Dr. A. M. Edwards were elected 
resident members. Professor Davidson read a paper "On the Determination of the 
Earth's Distance from the Sun by Means of the Parallax of Mars at Opposition"; also 
a paper on "The Spectrum Appearance of Venus when near the Horizon." Dr. Kellogg 
described five new species of plants. SEPTEMBER 3, Professor Davidson read a paper 
"On the Systems of Triangulation in Use by the Engineers in India." Sir Joseph 
Hooker was introduced and spoke of "Observations of Earthquake Waves in Austra- 
lia." 

October 1, Dr. Kellogg read descriptions of new species of plants. October 15, 
W. N. Lockington read a paper "On the Evolution of Nerves and Nerve Tissue." 
November 5, Professor Davidson read a paper on "Apparatus for Geodetic meas- 
urement adopted by the Coast Survey"; made remarks on the rotation of Saturn; read 
a paper by Professor Newcomb on the satellites of Mars, and offered a tribute to the 
memory of Le Verrier, the French astronomer. November 1 9, Mrs. J. H. Sargent and 
Miss S. A. Plummer, the first lady applicants, were proposed for membership. F. T. 
Newberry read a paper "On the Eucalyptus^ referring particularly to remarks made 
at a previous meeting by Dr. Kellogg and Dr. Behr with reference to its fire-resisting 
qualities. He quoted newspaper reports of what these gentlemen had said and 
controverted the statements attributed to them that eucalyptus wood was fire-proof 
Dr. Kellogg answered that the remarks attributed to him by the newspaper were 
incorrect. What he had said was that some forms of eucalyptus had the property of 
not blazing, and that in the case of a shingle made of some varieties of the tree, if a 
live coal were dropped on it, a hole might be burned through, but it would not blaze 
up. Such was the only statement he had made in that regard, and he had never said 
that the shingle or the wood was fireproof Dr. Behr, in answer to Mr. Newberry, said 
that the eucalyptus did have a certain immunity from fire. The leaves would bum 
very generally; but the wood was difficult to set on fire and was not apt to hold fire. 
He knew of but one case of an extensive fire in a forest of eucalyptus trees. Those 
trees were spread over the entire country on what was known as the "open" or "scmb" 



CHAPTER XVII: 1877 207 

in South Australia. Fires occurred nearly every year in the scrub; and the scattered 
eucalypti frequently showed traces of the fire; but he had never seen them destroyed 
by it. They were the only trees that survived and sprouted again. In the one instance 
referred to, the eucalyptus trees took fire and burned long before he visited the spot; 
but some of the old settlers recollected the circumstance. 

Mr. Newberry thought Dr. Behr mistaken about the eucalyptus not readily taking 
fire and burning up completely. Dr. Behr replied that he had resided in Australia 
several years and knew whereof he spoke. He had been there for the purpose of 
studying botany and traveled in different parts of the country, not confining himself 
to the cities alone. He said the eucalyptus would give out considerable heat when 
once lighted; but as to forest fires, when every other vegetable growth was entirely 
destroyed, the eucalypti alone would sprout again. Mr. Newberry said that in the 
Australian diggings he had once lighted two green logs of eucalyptus wood, each two 
feet thick; and they had held fire for two weeks, even in rainy weather. He had used 
green logs because the dry wood was too hard to chop. He also said that in the "Great 
Black Friday Fire" in Victoria, all the eucalypti were burned - that is to say, all the 
branches; but it was true that the trees budded out again ultimately. He added that the 
trees would stand any ordinary amount of cold. Dr. Behr said that the most northern 
point in Europe, where the eucalyptus was cultivated, was Geneva in Switzerland. It 
had been planted and grew in Florence and Pisa in Italy and some other places in 
Northern Europe, where there were some frosts. J. R. Scupham said that the tree had 
been planted in Florida and Georgia, but had been destroyed by frost. Dr. Kellogg 
said that Mr. Newberry's paper was especially valuable inasmuch as it called attention 
to the fact that we were not cultivating the best varieties; and this he himself had 
always thought to be the case. People who planted eucalyptus trees should be careful 
to make a good selection of species. He thought, however, that Mr. Newberry was 
mistaken in his statement that the teredo attacked eucalyptus as readily as it did pine. 
There was a specimen of eucalyptus pile in the Academy that had been in the water 
a long time and no teredo had attacked it, while another specimen of pine pile, which 
had stood alongside it, was completely honey-combed. The specimen of Eucalyptus 
was, he thought. Eucalyptus marginata. Mr. Scupham said that E. marginata did 
resist the ravages of the teredo, and that E. rostrata would resist those of the white 
ant. He further said that E. rostrata would last as a railroad tie from 9 to 14 years, 
and in some instances it had lasted 1 8 years. But all the varieties would not grow here. 
Some flourished in California as well as in Australia, and some, like the E. globulus, 
even better. E. cornuta, E. sisalis, and E. hemiflora grew fast and large, as did E. 
gigantea (?Desf {= globulus}; ?Hook. {= obliqua}). On the other hand, it was 
difficult even to sprout the seeds of £. marginata and E. rostrata. They would, under 
favorable circumstances, grow perhaps six feet in as many years, while the E. 
globulus would in the same length of time reach a height of 60 feet. The peculiar 
combination of heat and moisture in some places was favorable for some varieties, 
but not for others. He had himself tried some experiments the previous year for the 
Southern Pacific Railroad Company with these trees on the Colorado Desert. He had 



208 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

planted E. globulus and E. cornuta; and they had grown all right during the summer 
and were from three to six feet high; but the winter frosts of Southern California killed 
them all. 

Dr. Behr thought the growth of some varieties depended greatly on the character 
of the soil. He had in some districts found the same varieties small and stunted in one 
spot and large and flourishing in another spot nearby and apparently the same, except 
different in soil. Mr. Scupham said he had searched all over the State to find a large 
specimen oi E. marginata and, although he had heard there were many, he had not 
been able to find any more than six feet high. Mr. Newberry spoke in reference to 
Dr. Kellogg's statement about the so-called "iron bark" eucalyptus and the teredo. 
He said that in New Zealand, where they suffered greatly from the teredo, they had 
tried every variety, and found the "iron bark" as worthless as the other kinds for 
protection against the borers. As to Mr. Scupham's remarks about the loss of trees 
on the Colorado Desert from frost, he thought it more probably that the wind had 
done the mischief. Mr. Scupham replied that where the trees were planted, the winds 
prevailed only in the summer; and the trees were all right then. But in the winter there 
was little or no wind, only it was cold and frosty; and it was at that time that the trees 
died. Dr. Stout closed the discussion by remarking that it was very interesting as well 
as important for the reason that the eucalyptus was being planted very extensively in 
California, and all the infonnation that could be obtained in reference to it was 
valuable. 

In response to the wide-spread interest in having California properly represented 
at the Paris Exposidon next year. Dr. Stout offered a resolution that "The California 
Academy of Sciences accept the invitation of the French Government to participate 
in the proposed International Exhibition . . . [and] that the Academy . . . cooperate 
with the Commission appointed ... by the Governor of California to represent the 
scientific, agricultural and commercial interests of California in the . . . exposition." 

November 26, at a meeting of the Board of Tmstees, Gen. Colton read a letter 
from the Lick Trustees, stating that they were ready to pay over in equal proportions 
to the Academy of Sciences and the Society of California Pioneers, the net proceeds 
of sales of the property left by Mr. Lick at his homestead farm in Santa Clara County, 
"upon the execution and delivery to the Trustees of proper bonds by each against 
adverse claimants." It appeared that the reason these indemnity bonds were required 
was that, on account of the refusal of the Academy to accept the compromise proposed 
by John H. Lick, he was pressing his claims, and the Lick Trustees deemed it unsafe 
to make any distribution without indemnity as long as those claims remained 
unsettled. In the meanwhile, they had been obliged, on account of the opposition and 
standing out of the Academy to commence a suit, nominally against all the parties in 
interest but in reality against the Academy alone as the only adversary, for the purpose 
of obtaining an adjudication approving and authorizing the compromise. In reference 
to that subject. Gen. Colton said that the Board considered the demands of John H. 
Lick unfair and unjust; but it had offered to accept a decree of the Court distributing 
the amount necessary to carry out the compromise pro rata among the different 



CHAPTER XVII: 1877 209 

beneficiaries. Counsel had been employed to defend against the suit; and an answer 
had been filed, in substance making this proposition, to which he had sworn on behalf 
of the Academy; and that was the condition of affairs at that time. 

December 3, ladies were for the first time proposed for resident membership: 
Miss Jessie Smith,' Miss Carolina L. Hunt, Miss Helen M. Thompson, and Mrs. M. 
E. Edwards' '". Dr. Kellogg described a number of plants. A paper on "Mars and His 
Moons" by Professor John LeConte was read. W. W. HoUister exhibited specimens 
raised in this State of trees brought from Japan eight years before. He said the varieties 
were numerous and would grow nearly every where in California. The fruit was 
delicious and would preserve in its own saccharine matter. The trees themselves were 
ornamental as well as useful. December 17, Henry Edwards presented No. 25 of his 
papers on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera." J. R. Scupham gave the results of a series of 
meteorological observations in this State and referred to the apparent failure of the 
theory of eleven-year periods of sun-spots in relation to rainfall. Dr. Behr read a paper 
"On the Resistance of Eucalyptus to Ignition." Professor Davidson read a paper "On 
the Necessity of a Physical Survey of the State of California," and Professor E. W. 
Hilgard made remarks on the same subject. The nominating committee, appointed at 
a joint meeting of the Council and Board of Trustees, reported a ticket for officers of 
1878. 



'^' See footnote 18.2. 



210 



ChapterXVIII: Year 1878 



The annual meeting was held January 7. The president and officers presented 
their reports showing the condition and progress of the Academy during the 
past year. The annual election resulted in the choice of Professor George Davidson 
as president; Henry Edwards, first vice-president; Henry C. Hyde, second vice-presi- 
dent; Dr. A. B. Stout, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, recording secretary; 
Elisha Brooks, treasurer; Charles Troyer, librarian; W. G. W. Harford, director of the 
museum; David D. Colton, R. E. C. Steams, George E. Gray, Ralph C. Harrison, 
Thomas P. Madden, William Ashbumer, and John F. Miller, trustees. On nomination 
of the Council, Professor George Davidson was elected an honorary life-member. In 
the Board of Trustees, it appeared that there were not sufficient funds on hand to pay 
the tax bill of $2,684.61, assessed against the property of the Academy; and Gen. 
Colton, as president of the Board, was authorized to make an arrangement with the 
Bank of California to pay the taxes on the Market Street property. A bill of Henry M. 
Newhall for $216.85, being $150 rent of the Academy building for the month of 
December, 1877, and $66.85 for repairs of building, was ordered paid. Gen. Colton 
then presented to the Board his annual report,which, it appears, was never read to the 
Academy. He commenced by saying that it was his duty to report the condition of 
the temporalties of the Academy at the close of the year just past; but it was neither 
pleasant nor satisfactory to him to do so. The treasurer's report showed that the 
indebtedness of the institution was over $4,000, and this was the more unsatisfactory 
for the reason that the most rigid economy had been practiced; so much so, that 
complaints had been made of the Trustees for declining to allow expenses for which 
there was no money to pay. But it had been the unanimous determination of the Board 
to incur no liability against the Academy, which could not be met from what could 
be reasonably expected to be the revenue of the Society; for to rush into debt, without 
certainty of the source from which the necessary funds would be forthcoming, would 
simply be to jeopardize all the valuable property of the Academy; and this the Board 
would never consent to do. Under the circumstances any accusations against the 

1 S 1 

Trustees of too much economy were not only unkind, but unjust. 

He regretted, he went on to say, that the very moderate and reasonable hopes of 
the Trustees, at the close of the last year, of the receipt of certain funds, being the 

'^ ' Though perhaps unjust, among the measures taken to economize were suspension of pubhcation in 
1877 of the Proceedings of the Academy and of the purchase of publications for the library (W. N. 
Lockington to W. H. Dall, Dec. 2 1 . 1 878 and 27 Jan. 1 879. Si Archives, RU 7073 {William H. Dall Papers, 
1865-1927}, Box 13, Folder 25). in time these measures took their toll and the Academy alienated several 
of its most active scientist members (e.g., Robert E. C. Steams, Joseph LeConte, George Davidson, 
Lockington, and Albert Kellogg, who declined to leave his plant drawings to the Academy). 



CHAPTER XVIII: 1878 211 

proceeds of the personal property at the Lick homestead, which had been specifically 
donated to the Academy by the late James Lick, had not been fulfilled, although the 
property had been sold and "those claiming to be the Trustees of the Lick estate" had 
received the money. Such unreasonable conditions had been imposed upon the 
Academy, without compliance with which they would not pay over the money, that 
the Academy had been precluded from the receipt of the same. Although the managers 
of the estate had found or assumed authority to sell the property and receive the 
proceeds, they would not consent to pay us our portion, notwithstanding the authority 
to sell and to pay over the proceeds were inseparable under the terms of Mr. Lick's 
deed. And he would fiirther say that the parties managing the Trust under Mr. Lick's 
deed did not seem disposed to acknowledge the relationship of the Academy of 
Sciences to the Lick property as indicated by Mr. Lick's express declarations. Instead 
of adhering rigidly to the fialfillment of the Trust Deed in accordance with its spirit 
and letter, they had manifested a disposition to abandon Mr. Lick's instructions so 
far at least as the Academy was concerned. They had assumed a right to donate to 
those claiming to be heirs a large proportion of the property expressly given by Mr. 
Lick to the Academy, ignoring the fact that Mr. Lick himself was the only proper 
judge of the amount he would give to those claiming relationship; and he regretted 
to say that the business had practically resolved itself into the proposition of the 
Academy being compelled to stand solitary and alone in defending and maintaining 
the Trust as originally designed by the Great Philanthropist. But notwithstanding this 
position of the Academy, and though it carried with it much annoyance and trouble, 
the Board of Trustees deemed it a sacred trust, which they had inherited from Mr. 
Lick, and they would endeavor to maintain inviolate his last wishes as expressed both 
in writing and verbally. The Board had therefore retained Messrs. S. M. Wilson and 
R. C. Harrison as attorneys to protect the trust; and there was every reason to hope 
and believe they would be successful, and that in the end the unjust and absurd claims 
of the managers of the Lick estate would be settled adversely to them in the courts. 

By reference to the treasurer's books, it would be seen that the Market Street 
property produced but little more than enough to pay its own taxes and expenses; and, 
as it came to the Academy already burdened with an unpaid tax, it had been necessary 
to borrow money to clear it, and thereby to incur and indebtedness. This would have 
been avoided if the money realized by the managers of the Lick estate from the sale 
of the homestead personal property had been turned over, which, as already stated, 
had not been done. In conclusion he said that the impression was strong upon his 
mind that under the existing management of the Lick Trust the Academy, as a 
residuary and therefore a favored beneficiary, would receive little or nothing out of 
the vast estate, instead of several hundred thousand dollars, as Mr. Lick sincerely 
believed it would. Trusting, however, that the course pursued by the Board of Trustees 
would meet with approval and hoping that the workings of a wise Providence may 
give us a more satisfactory showing in the matter before the close of another year," 
he submitted the questions involved to thoughtflil consideration. 

January 21, ladies were for the first time elected and became resident members 



2 1 2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

of the Academy at this meeting. They were, in the order of their applications, Mrs. J. 
H. Sargent, Miss S. A. Plummer, Miss Jennie Smith,'** " Miss Caroline L. Hunt, Miss 
Helen M. Thompson, Mrs. Mary E. Edmonds ' and Mrs. L. M. F. Wanzer. At the 
same meeting Alexander Del Mar, G. P. Rixford, E. S. Parker, J. G. Lemmon, C. C. 
Cadman, Thomas A. Holman, and John T. Evans were elected resident members. 
Professor Davidson read a paper "On the Habits of the Walrus," from infonnation 
fiimished him by Captain Thomas W. Williams; Dr. G. F. Becker, a paper "On 
Rainfall in California"; B. B. Redding, a paper "On the Climate of California," and 
W. N. Lockington, a paper on a new species offish. 

February 4, R. E. C. Steams read a paper describing the shells found in a piece 
of earth from the bottom of a well 47 feet deep in the Colorado Desert, 195.54 feet 
below sea-level. J. G. Lemmon read a "Description of a New Plant, Sagina Oratar 
Dr. Henry Gibbons read a paper on rainfall, and particularly the downpour of January, 
1878. A discussion followed, participated in by Professor Davidson, B. B. Redding 
and Dr. Gibbons. Mr. Partsch read a paper upon the disease of cattle usually supposed 
to be caused by eating the loco plant or rattle-weed and attributing it to the larvae of 
the gad fly. February 18, J. G. Lemmon read a paper "On the Darlingtonia 
Californica.'" Professor Davidson presented a problem and its solution in reference 
to the calculation of compound interest paid in advance. Alexander Del Mar followed 
with remarks upon the same subject. In the Board of Trustees, the officers of the 
previous year were re-elected. On motion of Gen. Miller, a committee of one 
consisting of Mr. Madden, was appointed to wait upon the president of the Lick 
Trustees, ask for, receive and receipt for any moneys in their possession coming to 
the Academy from the sale of the personal property at the Lick homestead. The 
secretary reported that the outstanding bills at that time amounted to $4,964.72, and 
the cash in the treasury as $317.99. At an adjourned meeting of the Board, held 
February 28, on motion of Gen. Miller, an instrument was executed setting forth 
the donation by James Lick to the Academy of one half the personal property of the 
Lick estate at the Lick homestead in Santa Clara County; the authorization by the 
Academy to the Lick Trustees to sell the same as such portions of it as they thought 
advisable; the sale of certain portions of the property for $5,976.32, of which the 
Academy was entitled to one half, and the payment to the Academy of said half or 
$2,988.16; in consideration of all which, the Academy thereby fonnally acknow- 
ledged the receipt of said sum and released and discharged the Lick Trustees from 
all claims on the part of the Academy to the property so sold, and authorized the 
execution of the instrument in the name and as the act of the California Academy of 
Sciences by the affixing thereto of its corporate name and seal by the secretary. This 
important and significant paper, as will be readily perceived, indicated a new 
movement in the Board of Trustees. 

March 4, George W. Prescott was elected a life member, and Charles Webb 



'^^ Proposed for membership on Dec. 3, 1877, as Miss Jessie Smith and Mrs. M. E. Edwards. In the 
handwritten minutes for Jan. 21,1 878, at which new members were elected, Jessie Smith is shown as Jennie 
Smith; Mrs. M. E. Edwards appears in the minutes of Oct. 6, 1879. but on Jan. 3, 1881, on election to life 
membership, and in the Hittell manuscript, as Mrs. Mary E. Edmonds. 



CHAPTER XVIII: 1878 213 

Howard, Mrs. Charlotte Blake-Brown, Elizabeth A. Follansbee, George C. Edwards, 
George Spaulding, A. Wendell Jackson, Jr., John M. Stillman, Solon H. Williams, 
and Josiah Keep, resident members. B. B. Redding read a paper on "Olive Culture 
in California," and Alexander Del Mar, a paper entitled "Interest on Money." March 
1 8, A. Del Mar read a paper "On the Gold Placers of Brazil," and Professor Davidson, 
a paper "On the Transit of Mercury and What It May Teach." In the Board of Trustees, 
a communication was received from the Lick Trustees, expressing their desire to turn 
over to the Academy and Pioneers all the unsold personal property remaining at the 
Lick homestead in Santa Clara County; and, on motion, Thomas P. Madden, who had 
acted so judiciously and successfully in the recent settlement, was appointed to 
receive and divide the same with the Pioneers or sell and divide the proceeds as he 
might deem most advantageous. 

April 1, Dr. W. M. Searsby, B. Murray, Jr., William T. Wenzell, F. C. Bauer, 
Miss J. G. Oakley, and William C. Belcher were elected resident members. Donations 
to the museum included 45 mineral specimens from W. G. W. Harford and five 
specimens of native silver from the Stonewall Jackson Mine, Maricopa Co., Arizona 
from Prof. Thomas Price. Professor Davidson read papers "On the San Francisco 
Time of the Transit of Mercury," "Note upon the Periodic Secretion of the Lachrymal 
Gland," and "Losing and Gaining a Day in Traveling around the World." Dr. Stout 
read a communication from Count Luboski suggesting the collection of "Statistics of 
Social Law." J. R. Scupham called attention to the Yucca tree of the Mohave Desert, 
which he said was peculiar. It had been already utilized for making paper. Engelmann 
had claimed there was but one variety; but there were more. For three years the trees 
had not flowered, but they were then in bloom. He then described the differences 
among several of the varieties. APRIL 1 5, Professor Joseph LeConte read a paper "On 
the Formation of Mountains." 

May 6, a paper by Professor Davidson was read, entitled "A Forward Movement 
in Astronomy." A dispatch from "Summit" near Donner Lake on the Central Pacific 
Railroad, dated May 6, 4:20 P. M., announced that the transit of Mercury had been 
observed there by a party of the Coast Survey. W. N. Lockington read "Remarks 
upon the Star-Fishes and Serpent-Stars of the Pacific Coast." Rev. Dr. Bleasdale was 
introduced and spoke of the success attending the establishment of a museum 
embracing all subjects of interest, at Melbourne, Australia. He recominended in 
accordance with the Australian plan, an extension of the collections of the Academy 
to embrace not only scientific objects but all articles of utility to the country, so as to 
be of practical benefit as well as to popularize science. A discussion ensued as to the 
best method of popularizing science. May 20, Professor John LeConte, Professor 
Willard B. Rising, Dr. Joseph R. Davidson, and Jay G. Kelley were elected resident 
members. Dr. Stout called attention to a work on forestry by Professor Simony, a 
German author, which, he said, contained many facts of value to any country and 
especially to California. It was resolved, on motion of A. W. Jackson, Jr., that 
measures should be taken towards a translation and publication of Professor Simony's 
work in so far at least as it treated of the preservation of forests. R. E. C. Steams read 



214 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




A. Wendell Jackson (1874) 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 




Josiah Keep 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 



CHAPTER XVIII: 1878 215 

"Remarks on the Death of Professor Joseph Henry"; and Professor John LeConte, 
Dr. A. Kellogg, and J. M. Stillman were appointed a committee to prepare and present 
proper memorial resolutions. The formation was announced of a Zoological Section 
of the Academy, consisting of W. G. W. Harford. J. P. Moore, Henry Edwards, W. 
N. Lockington, Henry Chapman, Dr. A. W. Saxe, and Dr. A. B. Stout; also of a Section 
of Chemistry, consisting of Professors W. B. Rising, John LeConte, G. F. Becker, 
Joseph LeConte, S. B. Christy, A. W. Jackson, Jr., and J. M. Stillman. Dr. Henry 
Gibbons called attention to the peculiarity of a continuous rain during the night of 
May 19 and the day of May 20. The records kept for a number of years showed that 
some rain might be expected in May; but this rain had been much more copious than 
usual. He also called attention to a movement on foot to extend the U. S. Signal 
Service to the Pacific Coast, and suggested a committee to prepare and forward a 
memorial on the subject to Washington. Dr. Stout moved that the chairman, R. E. C. 
Steams, chair the committee and appoint the others. Mr. Steams agreed and appointed 
Dr. Henry Gibbons and B. B. Redding to serve with him. In the Board of Tmstees, 
Judge A. C. Bradford, secretary of the Society of California Pioneers, presented a 
claim for services during the recent session of the State Legislature in procuring the 
passage of a bill settling the amounts due by the Lick estate for delinquent taxes for 
the years 1868 and 1869. These taxes were claimed to be unconstitutional and had 
been in litigation a number of years; but were finally held to be collectable. From the 
act passed by the Legislature it appears that the delinquency against the Lick estate 
was settled for the sum of $ 1 5,966.76. Mr. Bradford stated that he thought his services 
worth $1,000; that the Lick Tmstees were willing to make him an allowance and the 
Society of Califomia Pioneers had manifested its consent; but that the Lick Tmstees 
desired also the consent of the Califomia Academy of Sciences before taking any 
action. On motion of Gen. Miller, the matter was referred to the Lick Tmstees with 
an assurance that the Academy made and would make no objection to such action as 
they might deem just and proper in reference to the subject. Thomas P. Madden 
reported that a satisfactory division had been made with the Society of Califomia 
Pioneers of the unsold personal property of the Lick estate left at the Lick homestead. 
June 3, Dr. Henry Gibbons made remarks about the peculiar atmospheric currents 
on the Pacific Coast. The committee on the Signal Service reported that they had 
prepared a memorial for the extension of that service to Califomia and forwarded it 
to U. S. Senator Sargent at Washington. A letter from Mr. Browne of Hobartstown, 
Australia, regarding the properties of the eucalyptus tree in resisting fire was read 
and discussed. An inquiry being made respecting the habits of the shad on the Pacific 
Coast, S. R. Throckmorton said that its habits here offered somewhat from the habits 
of the fish on the Atlantic Coast. There, after going down to salt water, it retumed to 
the waters in which it had been propagated; but here it did not. On this Coast it seemed 
to have taken a new departure in this respect. Since 1870, about 350,000 shad had 
been propagated here, chiefly in the Sacramento River at Tehama; and since the 
propagation commenced, shad had been caught along the Coast from Wilmington, 
in Los Angeles County, to the Columbia River. This strange freak of abandoning its 



216 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

natal place was attributed to the influence of the herring, which seemed to inveigle 
it from the staid and orderly paths of its ancestors. The companionship of the plebeian 
herring appeared to exert such a fascination over the patrician shad upon this Coast 
that they renounced their birthplace and traveled about with the roving schools of 
herring; while in the East the shad always made pilgrimages to the home of their 
nativity. Another inquiry was made as to the notion, common in some quarters, that 
under certain circumstances, wheat would change into cheat; but after a few words 
it was dismissed as an exploded idea and not worthy of discussion. June 17, on the 
reading of the minutes of the previous meeting, J. R. Scupham questioned their 
correctness as to the habits of the shad on this Coast. He thought it improbably that 
Mr. Throckmorton said or intended to say all that was attributed to him; the fact being 
that the shad did return to their natal waters, only their habits in this regard were 
somewhat less marked on this Coast than elsewhere. R. E. C. Steams read a paper 
"On the Theory of Protection as Illustrated in the Seeds of Several California Plants." 
Henry Edwards presented Nos. 27 and 28 of his papers on "Pacific Coast Lepidop- 
tera." The committee on the death of Professor Joseph Henry presented a series of 
resolution, which were adopted, in regard to the great services of Professor Henry to 
science, giving an account of his principal discoveries, particulariy in reference to 
electro-magnetism and electric telegraphy; also his services on the U. S. Lighthouse 
Board, and his labors and influence in the development and administration for more 
than thirty years of the Smithsonian Institution. A copy of the resolutions, signed in 
behalf of the Academy by John LeConte, Albert Kellogg, J. M. Stillman and Robert 
E. C. Steams, was forwarded to Prof. Henry's widow. 

July 1 , among the donations, was a piece of a redwood tree enclosing acorns 
supposed to have been deposited in the wood by the carpenter woodpecker. The rings 
of the wood indicated a growth of forty years outside of the acorns. Henry Edwards 
presented No. 29 of "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera." W. N. Lockington read a paper on 
"Constaces," and A. Del Mar, one "On the Silver Question." JULY 15, Dr. Stout, as 
corresponding secretary, reported the receipt from France of a pamphlet announcing 
the formation in Paris of an "Indo-Chinese Society," portions of which, after trans- 
lation, he read. His remarks, especially in so far as they involved the Chinese question, 
then a matter of political controversy, elicited considerable discussion; but he insisted 
upon the importance of the subject and gave notice of his intention to move for the 
formation of an Oriental Section of the Academy. Henry Edwards presented No. 30 
of his papers on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera." AUGUST 5, J. P. Moore read a paper 
"On the Salmon Disease," and A. Del Mar, one "On Our Civilization." Dr. Stout 
stated that a Section of the Academy on Oriental Literature had been organized, and 
that the Council had reported favorably upon it. On his motion, the action of the 
Council was approved. He then made remarks upon the growing importance in 
Califomia of artesian wells, and the need of further scientific investigation in regard 
to them. Rev. Dr. Bleasdale spoke about gems and particularly of those found in 
Califomia. Henry Edwards, on account of intended departure from the State, tendered 
his resignation as first vice-president of the Academy, which was accepted; and the 



CHAPTER XVIII: 1878 217 

matter of filling the vacancy was referred to the Council. It was moved that Academy 
member Dr. S. W. Dennis be appointed the Academy delegate to the meeting of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science and that he ask the association 
to take under advisement a proposition to hold its next meeting in San Francisco. 
August 19, E. S. Pillsbury, L. E. Ricksecker, August Harding, and Edward Booth 
were elected resident members. Alexander Del Mar donated a large number of books 
to the Academy. Dr. O. M. Wozencraft read a paper on the "Proposed Irrigation and 
Improvement of the Colorado Desert." Amos Bowman presented a map of California, 
compiled from authentic sources and designed for the use of those interested in forest 
culture. The Council reported the election by them of Dr. Harvey W. Harkness as 
first vice-president of the Academy in place of Henry Edwards resigned. 

September 2, S. B. Christy read a paper "On Ocean Placers of San Francisco"; 
J. P. Dameron, one "On Magnetic Currents, Aurora Borealis, and Open Polar Sea," 
and A. Del Mar one, on "Finance." SEPTEMBER 16, among the donations was a 
number of plants collected on the Great Wall of China by the late B. P. Avery. Dr. 
Kellogg read a paper describing the plants collected by Mr. Avery. J. P. Dameron 
read a paper entitled "Evolution of the Soul." October 7, a communication from the 
Council announced that they had adopted a resolution to the effect that thereafter all 
written papers should be submitted to the Council before they were read in the 
Academy, and that no paper should be read unless it had been accepted by the Council. 
On motion the resolution was adopted as that of the Academy. It appearing, however, 
that Alexander Del Mar had prepared for that evening a paper on "The Poorer 
Countries of Europe," the rules were on motion suspended, and the paper read. The 
formation of a Section of Geology and Mineralogy was announced and approved, 
consisting of Professor Joseph LeConte, A. W. Jackson, Jr., S. B. Christy, Thomas 
Price, C. D. Gibbes, Josiah Keep, Edward Booth, August Harding, Amos Bowman, 
Jay G. Kelley, and William Ashbumer. OCTOBER 21, Dr. Hugh Whittell was elected 
a resident member. W. N. Lockington read papers "On Specific Names" and "De- 
scription of Two New Fishes." In the Board of Trustees, R. E. C. Steams was 
requested to prepare resolutions of respect to the memory of Gen. David D. Colton, 
late president of the Board, who had died on October 9. 

November 4, A. W. Jackson, Jr. read a paper "On the Microscope in Geology." 
J. P. Moore spoke on the "Relations of Fungi to Disease." Drs. Behr and Bleasdale 
made remarks upon the same subject. Dr. H. W. Harkness described the nest of a 
mud-wasp in which he had found living spiders some months after they had been 
confined there by the wasp. He said they had remained in a hypnotic condition and 
without food for that length of time. November 18, E. A. Parker and Alonzo Phelps 
were elected resident members. Professor Joseph LeConte made remarks in reference 
to the new Section of Geology, Mineralogy and Mining, saying that it had been 
intended to embrace not only all scientific cultivators of those branches of knowledge 
in the Academy, but also all members who had any practical knowledge of them. The 
object was to attract everyone interested in those subjects. He said that the formation 
of Academy Sections and the activity stimulated by them would, hopefully, react 



218 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

[favorably] on the Academy and "revew the vigor of the whole body." He spoke also 
of the commonly received opinion, among certain classes of the community, that 
there was an antagonism between theory and practice, but he said that true theory 
was indissoluble from true practice. Mr. Yale then announced that the Council had, 
at the request of the Section, approved renaming it to the Section on Geology, 
Mineralogy and Mining from Geology and Mineralogy as first proposed. W. N. 
Lockington read "Notes on Fishes," Dr. Harkness read a paper of "Observations on 
the Fungoid Diseases of our Forest Trees." B. B. Redding said the fungoid growths 
on cedar trees were so common along portions of the lines of the Central Pacific 
Railroad that he had supposed them to be natural characteristics of the trees. In the 
Board of Trustees, B. B. Redding was elected to fill the vacancy in the Board 
occasioned by the death of Gen. Colton; and William Ashbumer was elected president 
of the Board. Gen. Miller was elected president /jro tern in place of Mr. Ashbumer. 
December 2, J. M. Stillman read a paper "On Chemical Synthesis," W. N. 
Lockington, one on "Claims of Zoology," and A. Del Mar, one on "Insanity and 
Suicides in Mining Countries." The latter was followed by a discussion, in which 
Messrs. Stretch, Scupham and Redding participated. DECEMBER 16, A. Del Mar read 
a paper "On Evolution of Words." A paper by C. D. Gibbes "On Artesian Wells," 
was read by Prof Price. Diagrams were presented showing the strata underlying the 
City of San Francisco. The subject was discussed by Messrs. Harkness, Price and Dr. 
Gibbons. The nominating committee reported a ticket for officers of 1879. R. E. C. 
Steams made remarks and presented resolutions of respect to the memory of Gen. D. 
D. Colton, late president of the Board of Tmstees, which were read and adopted as 
expressive of the sense of the Academy. 



'^^ Steams remarks were subsequently printed and distributed as a "Memorial" publication of 3 pages. 



219 



Chapter XIX: Years 1879-1880 



1879 

A t the annual meeting of 1 879, held January 6, the several annual reports of 
/-\^ the president and officers, showing the conditions and progress of the Academy 
during the previous year, were read. William Ashbumer, the new president of the 
Board of Trustees, presented a report of the transactions of that body, and the secretary 
set forth the financial condition of the association. The officers of election reported 
the following as chosen officers for 1879, and they were accordingly so declared: 
Professor George Davidson, president; Dr. H. W. Harkness, first vice-president; 
Henry C. Hyde, second vice-president; S. B. Christy, corresponding secretary; 
Charles G. Yale, recording secretary; Elisha Brooks, treasurer; Charles Troyer, 
librarian; W. G. W. Harford , director of the museum; William Ashbumer, R. E. C. 
Steams, R. C. Harrison, George E. Gray, Thomas P. Madden, John F. Miller, and B. 
B. Redding, tmstees. B. B. Redding read a paper on "The Foothills of the Sierra." Dr. 
James Blake made remarks upon the same subject. On nomination of the Council, 
Dr. H. H. Behr was elected an honorary life member. In the Board of Tmstees, the 
president reported that, in accordance with authority conferred upon him, he had 
borrowed $12,000 from the Bank of Califomia, for which he had given the note of 
the Academy, drawing ten per cent per annum interest, and sent to the tax collector 
a certified check for $3,286.08, the amount of taxes assessed against the Academy. 
The secretary reported the receipts for 1878 as $3,001.86, from sale of personal 
property of the Lick homestead; $2,805, rent of Market Street log; $120, rent of hall; 
$100, one life membership fee; $2,323.50, monthly dues; $317.99, cash on hand 
January 1, 1878; making a total of $8,668.35. The expenditures, including $2,684.61 
for taxes and $ 1 ,950 for rent of Academy building, were $7,171 .73, leaving a balance 
of cash on hand January 1, 1879, of $1,496.62. The debts outstanding, however, 
amounted to over $3000. January 20, among the donations was a sponge from the 
Farallon Islands, brought up from a depth of 140 fathoms by the donor, Francisco 
Forcada. S. B. Christy read a paper "On the Formation of Cinnabar Deposits." Dr. 
James Blake read a paper "On Comparative Rainfall in Different Places in Califor- 
nia." Dr. Kellogg described two new plants. 

February 3, among the donations was a sample of brown sugar, the first made 
from sugar cane in Arizona, presented by George A. Treadwell. Eadweard J. Muy- 
bridge presented a set of photographs, showing in continuous series the positions of 



220 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

a horse in trotting, running, and walking. Professor Davidson read a paper "On 
Geodetic Instruments of Precision at the Paris Exposition and in European Work- 
shops." W. N. Lockington read "Descriptions of Fishes Found in CaUfomia Mar- 
kets." Dr. Stout read a letter from Captain Howgate commending his plans for 
reaching the North Pole, it would have a beneficial effect by influencing legislation 
in the direction of a government appropriation. On motion of J. M. Stillman, the 
matter was referred to the Council for consideration. In the Board of Trustees, 
William Ashbumer was elected president for 1 879; B. B. Redding, president pro tern, 
and Charles G. Yale, secretary. Mr. Yale was credited with $ 1 00 on back salary owing 
to him, to pay for a life membership in the Academy. The president was authorized 
to make a payment of $400 on account of the note to the Bank of California. A salary 
of $50 per month to the director of the museum was continued. FEBRUARY 1 7, Delos 
Lake, Mrs. Mary K. Curran, Mrs. Volney Gushing, and A. C. Russell were elected 
resident members. Professor Albin Putzker read a paper "On the Scientific Study of 
Languages." Dr. James Blake read a paper "On Temperature in Relation to Eleva- 
tion." The president reported that the Council had adopted a resolution in favor of 
Captain Howgate's plan for Arctic discovery, and that a copy of it had been forwarded 
to U. S. Senator Sargent at Washington. Dr. Henry Gibbons exhibited apples gathered 
on February 16 from trees in Alameda County. For a considerable time the trees had 
been bare of leaves, but the apples still hung in good condition upon the branches, 
thus showing peculiarities of California climate. In the Board of Trustees, the 
president reported having paid $426.67 in silver, equivalent to $416.67 in gold, on 
the $2,000 note owing to the Bank of California. Financial affairs appeared to be so 
stringent that it was resolved to present a statement to the Academy at large, 
representing the probably necessary expenditure, if the Academy was to be kept open, 
and that to keep it open more money would have to be provided. 

March 3, A. Del Mar read a paper "On the Growth of the Wealth of Nations." A 
paper by J. P. Moore was read, describing the red truffle, a specimen of which had 
been found at San Rafael, Marin County. It was one of the first truffles found in 
California. A discussion ensued in reference to the cultivation of truffles and mush- 
rooms in California, in which Messrs. Harkness, Redding, and Stretch participated. 
Professor Davidson read "New Problems in Mensuration." A communication was 
received from the Board of Trustees, setting forth the financial condition of the 
Academy, the embarrassments in providing funds for carrying it on, and the necessity 
of active cooperation on the part of members to increase the sources of revenue. It 
stated the monthly income at $393, and the monthly outlay, as the Academy was then 
carried on, at $500, leaving a monthly deficit of $107. This made no provision for 
printing of Proceedings or for legal expenses in reference to the Lick Trust affairs, 
in which the Academy was involved. All the other expenses were as low as they could 
be made, the main items being a monthly amount of $250 for taxes, $ 1 50 for rent of 
the Academy building, and $50 as salary of the director of the museum. Under the 
circumstances, though the Trustees did not wish to be considered as prescribing any 
course of conduct, it seemed plain to them that, unless some action were taken by the 



CHAPTER XIX: 1879-1880 221 

members themselves, such as submitting to a voluntary assessment or increasing the 
amount of their monthly dues, or in some other manner increasing the funds, there 
would be "no other course open to them excepting that of closing the Academy." 
After the reading of the statement and some discussion in reference to it, on motion 
of Dr. Harkness, a committee of three, consisting of Messrs. Harkness, Ashbumer, 
and Leo Eloesser, to which Professor Davidson was afterwards added, was appointed 
to solicit the necessary subscriptions to keep the Academy open. The Council reported 
the appointment of it by Dr. Kellogg as Curator of Botany and of Dr. Stout as Curator 
of Ethnology and Osteology. March 17, B. B. Minor and Ivan Petroff were elected 
resident members. Among the donations were white crystals from the Colorado 
Desert, used by the Indians as a white paint, presented by J. P. Moore. There were 
also, among a number of ores and minerals presented by John T. Reed of Oak Grove, 
San Diego county, two specimens supposed to be cryolite, the first found in the United 
States. It appeared that Mr. Reed some time previously, in looking over the collections 
in the museum, had seen Greenland cryolite and said there was a mineral of the same 
kind in San Diego County. A piece of cryolite was given him; and, on his return home, 
he went to the deposit and sent to the Academy the specimens referred to, which were 
apparently of the same nature as the genuine article and, if so, of great commercial 
value for the manufacture of a particular kind of glass. B. B. Redding read a paper 
"On the Sanitary Influence of Trees." J. M. Stillman read a description of a new 
mineral found in San Bernardino County and named by him, at the suggestion of the 
donor, B. B. Redding, "Bemardinite." W. N. Lockington read a paper "On the 
Flounders of the San Francisco Markets." The committee appointed at the last 
meeting reported progress in the matter of providing fiands to keep the Academy open. 
April 7, Ross E. Brown, D. P. Belknap, and John G. Russell were elected resident 
members. J. M. Hutchings''" presented specimens of quartz and black shale and also 
white clay, used by the Indians at Warner's Ranch in San Diego County as paint. Dr. 
Kellogg read a description of a new plant, and Professor Davidson presented four 
new problems in mensuration — one of which was, to subdivide a cone into any 
number of cones of equal volume. April 21, among the donations was a water-newt 
from Marin County, supposed to be the Mexican axolotl, but afterwards identified as 
the Amblystoma tenebrosum. B. B. Redding drew attention to the interest and 
importance attached to the axolotl, and particularly from the standpoint of evolution, 
as having both lungs and gills, and wanted to know if it was a native of California. 
Dr. Kellogg stated that he had found the Amblystoma in the gill state not at all 
uncommon in Mendocino County. There it took the hook freely, and to the disgust 
of fishermen. Mr. Redding said that the axolotl was not uncommon in Mexico and 
that the Aztecs had been fond of it. Mr. Lockington called attention to the fact that 



'^ ' In 1861, Hutchings published a 267-page popular English-language travel guide. Scenes of Wonder 
and Curiosity in California, one of the earliest to describe for the tourist Yosemite [Yo-semite] Valley, the 
Calaveras [Mariposa and Frezno {sic\] Big Trees, New Almaden mines, the Farallones Islands, Mt. Shasta, 
The Geysers, and other natural as well as man-made attractions in the State. This guide, with its descriptions 
of the routes to the locations and the sites themselves, includes many engravings, some ludicrous, but most 
historically important images of some of California's most visited places. Hutchings's guide, published by 
the J. M. Hutchings Publisning Co., predates the better known guide by Charles Nordhoff ( 1 876) or Josian 
Dwight Whitney's popular guides to Yosemite ( 1 863, et seq.) 



222 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

the Amblystoma tenebrosum and allied species were very common in California and 
that it was possibly a mistake to call the specimen presented an axolotl. A paper by 
R. E. C. Steams was read "On Certain Much Abused Mollusks," in which he pointed 
out various errors in recently printed books of popular scientific character in reference 
to those animals. A paper by E. J. Molera was read on "The Economic Divisibility 
of Light," particularly referring to the electric hght. Professor Davidson asked for the 
authority of a statement in it that 6,000 candles of electric light per horse-power could 
be obtained, as the authorities so far had asserted that 3,000 candles per horse power 
was the theoretical limit, and practically only 1 ,500 candles were really obtained. Mr. 
Molera stated that he had himself seen 300,000 candles produced by a 25-horse power 
machine. Considerable discussion ensued in reference to the subject between Mr. 
Molera and Mr. Scupham. A discussion also took place in reference to Dr. Blake's 
paper, read at a previous meeting, "On Temperature in Relation to Elevation." A 
communication was received from the California Pharmaceutical Society, asking the 
cooperation of the Academy in the establishment of a botanical garden in Golden 
Gate Park. It was laid over for discussion at a subsequent meeting. 

May 5, a paper by Professor Joseph LeConte was read "On the Glycogenic 
Functions of the Liver." Mr. Molera read a continuation of his paper "On the 
Economic Divisibility of Light." Professor Davidson quoted various authorities to 
show that the candle-power of electric light obtainable per horse-power was much 
less than that claimed by Mr. Molera. Dr. Kellogg was appointed a committee of one 
to confer with the California Pharmaceutical Society in reference to the proposition 
to establish a botanical garden in Golden Gate Park. A. W. Jackson, Jr. stated that 
he had analyzed the substance received from San Diego County, supposed to be 
cryolite, and found it to be silica. MAY 19, W. N. Lockington read "Notes on New 
and Rare Species of Fishes." A discussion ensued in reference to the organs of hearing 
of fishes, which was participated in by Messrs. Lockington, Scupham, Stout, Hark- 
ness. Redding, Christy, Brooks, and Behr. June 2, Dr. Frisch, then on his way to make 
natural-history researches in Polynesia, was introduced and presented advanced 
sheets of a work by him on Siberia. J. M. Stillman described the peculiar charac- 
teristics of the new mineral "bemardinite" from San Bernardino County. He said it 
burned freely like wax, but contained no paraffine. In the Board of Trustees, it was 
shown that the $2,000 note to the Bank of California had been reduced to $ 1 ,200. 
June 16, the meeting was devoted to the reception of Lieutenant G[eorge] W[ash- 
ington] De Long, U.S.N, and other officers of the Bennett Exploring Expedition to 
the North Pole.'*^ ' A large audience was present. Dr. Stout initiated the exercises by 

'•^^ The story of the ill-fated voyage of the Jeannelte is vividly told in a somewhat romanticized but 
carefially researched historical narration by Cmdr. Edward Ellsberg, Hell on Ice: The Saga ofthe Jeannelte, 
published in 1938 (Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, x + 421 pp.). A quasi U.S. Naval polar exploration 
expedition, it was sponsored and fully funded by James Gordon Bennett ( 1 84 1 - 1 9 1 8), son of James Gordon 
Bennett (1795-1872), owner and publisher of the A'evv York Herald. The vessel was outfitted for Arctic 
exploration at Mare Island, just north of San Francisco, during the spring of 1879. It left San Francisco for 
the Bering Straits on July 8. The vessel became ice-bound in September after encountering unexpectedly 
severe early pack ice about 100 miles east of Wrangel Island in the East Siberian Sea at latitude 71°N. The 
ship was lost and in time most of the crew perished. A few survived and a stirririg chronicle of survival can 
be found in the account by the Jeannette's engineering officer (later Admiral) George W. Melville, In the 
Lena Delta ( 1 885, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. 497 pp.). De Long's own journals, edited by his wife, 
Emma, were published in two volumes in 1884 by Houghton, Mifflin, The Voyage of the Jeannelte .... 



CHAPTER XIX: 1 879- 1 880 223 

reading a paper on "Arctic Discovery," after which Lieutenant De Long was intro- 
duced and made an address '^^ in reference to the proposed attempt to reach the North 
Pole by way of Behring's Straits. He said the expedition would coirmience its real 
work about latitude 71°, beyond which all was practically unknown. It expected to 
undergo the same trials and embarrassments that other polar explorers had met with; 
but as to what might be accomplished he could tell better upon his return. Dr. 
Harkness, who occupied the chair, called upon several gentlemen for remarks; and 
in reply. Dr. Behr gave a brief outline of the probable features of high Arctic flora, 
and J. P. Moore, of probable discoveries of great interest to microscopists. C. W. 
Brooks also made remarks. William Bradford, the artist noted for his pictures of 
Arctic scenery, spoke of the great daring manifested by the attempt to reach the pole 
by the way of Behring's Straits, above which the general drift of the ice was northward 
or away fi^om home, while on the other, or Baffin's Bay and Greenland side, the drift 
was southward or towards home. He expressed admiration for the courage of the 
adventurers and a fervent hope for their success. Jerome J. Collins, a member of the 
expedition, who went in the double capacity of specialist in meteorology and 
representative of the press, made remarks about proposed meteorological observa- 
tions in the high north and closed the evening with a statement of the unbounded 
confidence he and his companions felt in their leader and the determination on their 
part to leave nothing undone to render the results of the expedition of great value. 

July 7, among the donations was the foot of a deer from Mendocino County, 
having a single, solid hoof, instead of a double or cloven one, presented by Joseph 
Clark. Dr. Henry Gibbons presented seventeen specimens of chrome iron and one of 
infusorial earth from San Luis Obispo County. W. N. Lockington read a continuation 
of his paper on "Fishes found in the San Francisco Markets." Mr. Brooks said that 
he had received letters from Eastern scientists expressing gratification on the Acad- 
emy's actions in regard to the Jeannette Polar Expedition. The death of Dr. John B. 
Trask was announced, and Dr. Kellogg was requested to prepare appropriate resolu- 
tions. July 21, Dr. Kellogg read a eulogy upon the late Dr. John B. Trask, one of the 
founders and a life member of the Academy, giving an account of his scientific work. 
He submitted resolutions, which were adopted, to the effect that in the death of Dr. 
Trask the Academy "had lost a highly honored and zealous member, whose faithful 
services in nearly every department had left lasting memorials of his great industry 
and devotion to the cause of science, to be long and gratefully remembered." A letter 
from Dr. Behr was read in reference to larvae found in the root of an English-walnut 
tree by Ellwood Cooper of Santa Barbara County. He pronounced them the larvae of 
a species of Prionus, a genus belonging to the Cerambycidae. Dr. Kellogg supple- 
mented the letter with a description and drawing of the insect. Mr. Lockington 



'^^ For a transcription of the proceedings of the reception see Appendix F. 

'^"^ Fide Hittell, not in the handwritten records of the meeting (Appendix F) and perhaps a little too 
exuberant a statement on Hittell's part in the light of subsequent events. According to the handwritten record 
of the events of the evening, Collins said that he and his companions were "satisfied with their leader," 
which is a far cry from ' unbounded confidence." And it is questionable that Collins, in using the 
unenthusiastic descriptor "satisfied" spoke for others among the crew who may, indeed, have had more 
confidence in De Long than he, Collins. 



224 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

presented descriptions of new species of Crustacea and fishes of this Coast. The 
discussion in reference to the organs of hearing in fishes, begun at a previous meeting, 
was resumed and participated in by Messrs. Redding, Kellogg, Lockington, Saxe, 
and Scupham. Dr. Saxe spoke of grape-vine pests and recommended the application, 
just before the budding out of the vines, of a wash composed of 4 pounds of sulphate 
of copper to 5 gallons of water as a cure for "mildew" which, he said, was caused by 
the Oidium Tuckehi, a fiingus. AUGUST 4, Pedro Del Ospina and Tulio Ospina were 
elected resident members. B. B. Redding read a paper describing the manner in which 
the native Indians manufactured obsidian arrow-heads, as observed by him on a recent 
visit to the McCloud and Pit Rivers at the head of the Sacramento Valley. Dr. Behr 
read a paper on "The Passion Flower," noticing some of its malfonnations. Dr. 
Kellogg presented a new violet from Yuba County, discovered by Mr. Brooks and 
for which he proposed the name of Viola Brooksii. " AUGUST 18, R. W. Simpson 
was elected a resident member. Professor Edward D. Cope delivered a lecture on 
"Palaeontology," which was "highly interesting and instructive" as characterized in 
a note of thanks tendered him. 

September 1 , among the donations were many specimens offish presented by B. 
B. Redding; a section of pile showing the ravages of the marine hovQX Xylotria [= 
Bankia], a teredo, and a new species of Dalea from Arizona, presented by George A. 
Treadwell, which was described by Dr. Kellogg, who proposed for it the name of 
Dalea Treadwellii. Dr. H. W. Harkness tendered his resignation of the office of first 
vice-president, which was "accepted with regret." Dr. Stout stated that a movement 
had been set on foot in San Francisco to organize an Arctic Expedition under the 
auspices of the Academy; but that it had fallen through for want of sufficient support. 
September 15, W. A. Goodyear read a paper "On the Auriferous Gravels of 
California," and A. Pinart, one on "The Shell Mounds of the Pacific Coast." October 
6, Professor O. S. Ingham, James O'B. Gunn, W. A. Bissell, N. T. Smith, and J. C. 
Stubbs were elected resident members. Major J. W. Powell, of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, was introduced and described his explorations, and particularly his perilous 
boat voyage in the Great Caiion of the Colorado River. Dr. Stout made remarks on 
recent Arctic discoveries by the Swedish explorer Nordenskyold. October 20, Dr. 
Quintius C. Smith of Cloverdale was elected a life member on an understanding made 
with the Council that a fine aneroid barometer, given the Academy, should be 
accepted as equivalent to a life membership fee. W. N. Lockington read a paper "On 
California Fishes," and Dr. Kellogg described a new plant. Professor Edward D. 
Cope, who had recently returned from a short visit to the northern part of the State, 
spoke of his trip to Klamath Lake and the fauna of that neighborhood. He also spoke 
of Silver Lake, Summer Lake, and Christmas Lake and the fish found there. October 
27, Professor Cope delivered a lecture on "A Review of the Modem Doctrine of 
Evolution" in which he stated that both probabilities and conclusive evidence support 
it as a "truth.""' 



•''5 Viola Brooksini in the Minute Books, Aug. 3, 1 874 to Nov. 1 5, 1 880, p. 24 1 . 

'■^^ A lengthy abstract of this lecture was published a few months later (see Cope, E. D. 1 880. A Review 
of the Modem Doctrine of Evolution. American Naturalist [13 March 1880]: 166-178, 261-272), 



CHAPTER XIX: 1879-1880 225 

November 3, Professor Frederick Slate, Mrs. Theodore H. Hittell, Oscar T. 
Barron, John H. Saunders, C. A. Webb, Frederick Ludermann, and E. C. Locke were 
elected resident members. Professor E. D. Cope exhibited a skull of what he supposed 
to be a cave bear found in a cave in the McCloud River country. He compared it with 
skulls of existing grizzly and polar bears and showed that it was an animal very much 
larger than either of them, and had peculiar characteristics. He also called attention 
to a new species of lizard, belonging to the collection of the State Geological Survey 
at Berkeley, which had been found by Dr. J. G. Cooper. He likewise called attention 
to the specimen of a deer's foot in the museum of the Academy, the hoof of which 
was not cloven but formed one solid piece. It was not, he said, a monstrosity, but was 
curious and very interesting in many respects. Judge S. C. Hastings read a paper on 
"Hog-wallows," in which he expressed an opinion that similar formations were going 
on ih various places in the State, such as Shennan Island near the mouths of the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The "hog-wallows" are small depressions and 
accompanying small elevations scattered over the ground, making the surface very 
irregular. Judge Hastings' idea was that large pieces of the surface ground, cracked 
into layers during the dry season, were floated off by the high waters of the flood 
seasons and lodged on neighboring land, forming the peculiar elevations and leaving 
the corresponding depressions. His theory provoked a discussion on the subject, 
participated in by Messrs. Cope, Christy, Currey, and Brooks; but there is no record 
of their remarks. November 17, Elija Nichols was elected a resident member. Dr. 
Stout donated a large collection of natural-history and ethnological specimens. J. P. 
Moore suggested the expediency of forming a properly identified collection of Pacific 
Coast coals and fossil woods. 

December 1, among the donations were specimens of abnormal growths of cedar 
wood from Port Orford, Oregon, presented by Captain Simpson. They resembled 
tubers and had been dry out of the ground at the roots of the tress. The trees that 
produced them were rare and in almost every instance grew in poor, gravelly ground. 
Upon the roots of some of the trees great numbers of these tubers were found, the 
larger ones being apparently defective or, in other words, not solid, while the smaller 
ones were firm and hard and might be turned into balls. When dry, the wood was very 
light. Dr. Kellogg said that abnormal growths of similar character were sometimes 
found on cypress trees. Fred Kuhnle presented two spiders found in holes in the 
ground near Petaluma in Sonoma County. J. P. Moore gave a description of 
ground-spiders, to the habits of which he had devoted some attention. He said he had 
frequently found in their holes numbers of beetles, Coleoptera, which were always 
packed in closely, heads down. Dr. Behr thought the beetles had been placed in the 
holes to provide food for the young spiders. DECEMBER 1 5, the nominating committee 
presented a ticket of the officers proposed for the next year. W. J. Fisher read a paper 
descriptive of Kodiak Island in Alaska, and Professor Davidson, a paper on "Scien- 
tific Explorations in the United States." In the Board of Trustees, important matters 
for consideration came up; but the records of their transactions from about the middle 
of 1879 to the beginning of 1881 are missing, and the particulars of their action can 



226 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

therefore not be given. The main and most important fact, however, in reference to 
the temporal affairs of tlie Academy, which were in their keeping, was a setdement 
of the Lick estate controversy. The suit brought by the Lick Trustees to vahdate and 
authorize the compromise with John H. Lick had been decided in the lower or district 
court adversely to the Academy; and the Academy, represented by its Board of 
Tmstees, had then appealed the case to the Supreme Court of the State. On December 
17, 1879, the Supreme Court affinned the judgment approving a compromise, and 
thus at last put an end to the litigation. The result was that John H. Lick received out 
of the Lick estate $535,000 or $385,000 in addition to the $150,000 given him by the 
Trust Deed; the claim of the Academy that the additional sum should be assessed pro 
rata upon all the beneficiaries was defeated; and, on the very simple ground that the 
Academy and the Pioneers were only entitled to the residue after the full settlement 
of the other portions of the Trust, it, of course, follov/ed that the additional $385,000 
had to be paid, like costs and expenses of administration, out of what might otherwise 
have become a part of the residue. On the other hand, a long and costly litigation, 
which might have swept away all the residue and jeopardized the entire Trust was 
put an end to; the Lick estate, which was known to be amply sufficient if properly 
managed to pay all the benefactions designed by Mr. Lick, was cleared of complica- 
tion; and his Trustees, whose hands had hitherto been tied, as it were, were now 
enabled to proceed with the work of fulfilling and settling up the Trust; and, as it 
happily turned out, they did perform the work faithfully and well, and to the advantage 
of all the beneficiaries and everybody interested. 



1880 

The annual meeting of 1 880 took place January 5. On nomination of the Council, 
Charles D. Gibbes was elected an honorary life member, and J. P. Sweeney and W. 
H. Wallace, resident members. Vice-president J. P. Moore read an annual address, 
reviewing the work of the Academy in its various departments for a number of years. 
The president of the Board of Trustees presented a report of the condition of the 
temporalities of the institution. The secretary reported the expenditures for the last 
year as $ 1 1,1 52.07 - a large amount, considering that the income did not at that time 
exceed $4,800. The record of the items of these expenditures seems to be missing 
from the archives of the Academy; but it is probable that they included considerable 
expenses incurred in the litigation in reference to the Lick Trust. It is certain that none 
of the amount was expended for publications; for nothing had been published for 
several years. The corresponding secretary reported that there had been many 
complaints made by foreign societies that they had for a long time received nothing 
in exchange for their own publications promptly forwarded. The annual election 
resulted in the choice, for officers of 1880, of Professor George Davidson as 
president; J. P. Moore, first vice-president, H. H. Behr, second vice-president; S. B. 
Christy, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, recording secretary; Elisha 



CHAPTER XIX: 1 879- 1 880 227 

Brooks, treasurer; Charles Troyer, librarian; W. G. W. Harford, director of the 
museum; William Ashbumer, R. E. C. Steams, George E. Gray, B. B. Redding, 
Thomas P. Madden, R. C. Harrison, and James M. McDonald, trustees. A communi- 
cation from Professor Davidson was read "On the Total Solar Eclipse of January 1 1, 
1880," which he had gone to the Santa Lucia Mountains in Monterey County to 
observe. January 19, B. B. Redding read a paper on "The Buried Treasures of Our 
Remote Ancestors." Professor Davidson, in attendance, described the total eclipse of 
the sun of January 1 1, which he had observed from the Coast Survey Station, Santa 
Lucia Mountains, Monterey Co., and had earlier communicated to the members. 

February 2, A. T. Dewey, W. B. Ewer, and Dr. J. B. Trembly were elected 
resident members. J. M. Stillman read a paper "On the Larrea Mexicana or Creosote 
Bush," giving an analysis of the lac produced from it; also a paper "On the Laurel or 
Vmbellulaha Californicay Dr. Behr read a paper describing the changes which had 
taken place in the vegetation of the Peninsula of San Francisco within the previous 
thirty years. A paper by J. P. Moore was submitted "On a Cave Fungus, found in the 
400-foot Level of the Yellow Jacket Mine in Nevada." February 16, J. P. Moore 
read a paper "On the Edible Fungi of the Vicinity of San Francisco." Dr. Kellogg 
presented descriptions of three new species of plants in a collection brought from 
Fresno County by Dr. Gustav Eisen. A communication was received from Franklin 
W. Choate, asking pennission to speak before the Academy on the causes which 
produce the flying of birds, his theory being that it was produced in a peculiar manner 
by currents of electricity. W. N. Lockington read a paper, entitled "Is Evolution 
Immoral?" March 1, B. B. Redding exhibited a salmon from the Truckee River, 
where it had always lived, showing how large a salmon of that kind would grow in 
four years. Professor David Starr Jordan of the U. S. Fish Commission, being present, 
was asked to speak of the fishes of southern waters as recently observed by him. He 
said that but little was as yet known abut the fishes of this Coast, and especially those 
of the Southern Coast. In his remarks he spoke of the finding of a true sole, the first 
ever found on the Pacific Coast of North America. J. M. Stillman presented a paper, 
in continuation of a previous one, on the lac of Larrea Mexicana; and also one on the 
lac of Acacia Greggii. Mr. Redding made remarks upon the importance from an 
economic point of view of California lac. March 15, Dr. William F. McAllister, 
Anton Roman, and William F. Buswell were elected resident members. Dr. Eugene 
Dupuy lectured on "Hereditary Transmission in Nerve Lesions." 

April 5, Captain R. W. Simpson spoke of the oil of white cedar. He said it was 
obtained by burning the wood under certain conditions. It had powerfiil medicinal 
qualities and was very volatile but left a sediment. B. B. Redding described fly-fish- 
ing as practiced by the Indians on King's River with artificial flies of their own 
manufacture. APRIL 14, E. J. Molera read a paper describing the details of "Triangu- 
lation in making the Connection between the Geodetic Surveys of Europe and 
Africa." J. M. Stillman read a paper "On the Mode of Production of Gum Lac." 

May 3, H. C. Eggers, Frederick R. King, and Charles H. Hinton were elected 
resident members. Hermann Wenzell explained by means of models the working of 



228 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

his pneumatic system of driving a number of clocks by a common central power. 
Professor Davidson thought that while the system might answer for ordinary purposes 
and for clocks close to one another, it would not be accurate enough for astronomical 
purposes or for clocks at wide distances apart. His remarks elicited some discussion. 
May 17, J. P. Moore read a paper "On the Parasitic Fungi found on Living Plants." 
Prof. Davidson reported on the time of the slight earthquake of April 14, 1880 at Ih 
07m 45s. A communication was read from the California Horticultural Society in 
reference to a proposed Botanical Garden, and asking the cooperation of the Academy 
in its establishment. It stated that the Horticultural Society had selected the grounds 
of the State University at Berkeley as the best location. The matter was referred to a 
committee consisting of Messrs. Moore, Behr, and Kellogg. 

June 7, P. S. Buckminster read papers "On Cyclonic Winds" and "On Some Forms 
of Ice in Mines." Professor Davidson made remarks in reference to phenomena 
observed by Mr. Buckminster, and explained the theory of Professor John LeConte, 
who in 1 850 correlated the observations of Elliott ( 1 824), Herschell (1833) and others 
concerning the fomiation of projecting ice crystals on the circumference of plants 
and in moist grounds. The subject elicited a discussion, in which Messrs. Buckmin- 
ster, Kellogg Redding, and Stillman took part. C. W. Brooks read a paper on 
ethnology, especially devoted to evidences of the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands 
by Spanish navigators in the sixteenth century. Remarks upon the subject were made 
by Messrs. Redding and Behr. A letter was received from Prof Baird announcing 
that the Smithsonian Institution had forwarded 148 books and papers to the Academy. 
June 21, W. A. Russell presented specimens of so-called "candle-fish." The corre- 
sponding secretary read in connection therewith a paragraph from the Reno Gazette 
newspaper, in which it was stated that the fish were found in a spring just east of 
Honey Lake. They were different from any other fish found in the lakes of that region. 
The appeared to have come up with the water from clefts in the rocks. The spring was 
eighty feet long, twenty feet wide, and six feet deep. Remarks in reference to the 
development of such fish in so strange and isolated a locality were made by B. B. 
Redding. On behalf of parties residing on the Mohave Desert, Mr. Redding presented 
samples of a textile plant growing wild upon that desert. It was used by the Indians 
for medicinal purposes and form food, as well as form making cordage. The 
gentleman sending it thought it could be grown in this state as a valuable fiber. Dr. 
Kellogg said that it might be a variety of Salvia columbaria. He said fiirther that it 
produced a large number of seeds, which might be successfully used, like flax-seed, 
for removing foreign substances from the eyes. The seeds, when put in water, would 
swell to five times their bulk when dry. Similar seeds had been found in Aztec graves, 
showing that in the pre-Columbian days the country produced a similar plant and that 
the people knew and availed themselves of its valuable qualities. Mr. Buckminster 
read a paper in continuation of a previous one on forms of ice crystals, in which after 
referring with particularity of observations on the subject by Stephen Elliott, Sir John 
Herschell, and Professor John LeConte, he mentioned a number of details which he 
thought they had not attempted to account for. He referred to the six-sided perpen- 



CHAPTER XIX: 1879-1880 229 

dicular needle-form of ice crystals. Mr. Redding gave some interesting facts in regard 
to a practical utilization of this peculiarity in the formation of ice-crystals in the matter 
of storing and preserving ice. He said that cakes of ice, when stored for keeping, 
should be placed on edge, instead of on their flat surfaces; as it had been found that 
if placed in such position in the ice-house, there would be considerably less rapid 
disintegration and less waste from melting. Mr. Brooks suggested that electrical 
currents were probably the active agents of Nature in the organization of crystalline 
forms. Mr. Buckminster said he had evidence that certain mineral crystals were 
continually forming in the old workings of certain mines. 

July 5, the secretary reported receiving a large number of scientific papers and 
serials for the library. The meeting adjourned early because only a few members were 
present. July 19, W. N. Lockington read a paper on "The Fish of the Pacific Coast 
Waters." in which he spoke of the investigations prosecuted by Professor Jordan of 
the U. S. Fish Commission. He said that forty new species offish had been discovered 
upon this Coast, many of which would furnish material for future description. There 
were 240 species of marine and from 40 to 50 species of fresh water fish now known 
to exist in Pacific Coast waters. There were 2 1 species of flat fishes, resembling 
flounders in shape, found upon the Coast, of which the halibut was the largest. He 
explained the reason for the recent finding of so many new species along the Coast 
to be that the fishermen were seeking deeper waters for fishing. Mr. Lockington called 
attention to a small "tope," Galeorhinas galens, among the donations. He said it was 
abundant along the Coast and was caught extensively by Chinese fishemien for the 
oil they yielded. He also called attention to a specimen of king-crab, the first that had 
been found in California waters. It had been found near the San Leandro draw-bridge 
in Alameda County; and he thought it had been brought there, when very young, 
among the young oysters imported from the East and planted along the Alameda 
shore. He added that the king-crab, when very young, more nearly resembled the 
fossil trilobite than any other living species of crab. He closed his remarks by saying 
that Professor Jordan had caught a large fish, in whose stomach he had found a smaller 
fish just swallowed, and in the stomach of the latter, a still smaller fish, which it had 
swallowed — thus forming a sort of nest of boxes, one within the other. 

August 2, Volmar A. Hoffmeyer was elected a resident member. Dr. Kellogg 
described a new species of gentian, Gentiana Dunnii, given to him by Mr. Dunn. C. 
D. Gibbes read a paper "On the Manufacture of Pencils." AUGUST 16, Professor 
Jordan addressed the Academy on the fishes of the Pacific Coast, particularly the 
salmon. The subject of a supposed peat formation underlying portions of the southern 
part of San Francisco was called up, and a discussion ensued. September 6, among 
the donations was a piece of wax from the wreck of a Japanese junk near the mouth 
of the Columbia River presented by Captain R. W. Simpson. The junk appeared to 
have been laden with a cargo of wax and was wrecked in 1839. C. W. Brooks gave 
a brief account of the vessel and spoke generally about Japanese wrecks on this Coast. 
Dr. Kellogg described a new plant, Trilium [sic] arnesii. Josiah Keep read a paper on 
"The Apparent Distortion of the Disk of the Sun," and Mr. Lockington one "On the 



230 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

Sharks and Rays of this Coast." Remarks were made as to the deleterious effects on 
fishes and mollusks of coal oil floating on the surface of the water of San Francisco 
Bay. It was stated that petroleum refiise was allowed to run into the Bay from the 
oil-works at Alameda Point. B. B. Redding called attention to a stringent law of the 
State against the matter complained of, and said it could be prevented by applying to 
the proper authorities. SEPTEMBER 20, Dr. C. C. Parry was introduced and spoke of 
arrow-grass and bulbs and also of Panax, characterized by its very large leaf 
October 4, Mr. Moore made some remarks on the honey found on the leaves of the 
Madrone. Dr. Behr said that the honey is produced by aphids, and illustrated how it 
is done. Mr. Moore then read a coirmiunication from Professor Davidson on Jupiter's 
satellites as seen by the naked eye. OCTOBER 18, a paper by J. A. Mellon was read, 
giving an account of the mesquite tree and its uses, and Dr. Kellogg spoke upon the 
same subject. W. N. Lockington read a paper on the "Fishes of Our Coast," giving a 
list of all then known. Dr. Engelmann gave an account of his travels in Arizona, and 
also an account of the California oaks and their economic value. 

November 1, Dwight Whiting,'''^ Daniel Cook, and Mrs. Ellen M. Colton were 
elected life members. Among the many donations to the museum was a "metate," a 
stone slab for grinding seeds, found at Hawkinsville, Siskiyou County, nine feet under 
ground. Mr. Redding called attention to it and said that it could not have been 
transported from Mexico but was probably an aboriginal work of California Indians. 
Mr. Gibbes presented a letter from Gov. Durdy requesting the Academy to send its 
Proceedings to the Geographical Society, Cairo, Egypt. J. P. Moore read a paper on 
the Phylloxera, which called out remarks on the same subject by Dr. Behr. November 
15, W. H. Dall, who had just returned from a trip to Alaska and the Arctic regions, 
gave an account of his summer's work, and Dr. Engelmann spoke of the varieties of 
Pacific Coast oaks. 

December 6, Ivan Petroff donated several articles of Indian dress and impliments. 
C. W. Brooks read a paper on "The American Exploring Expedition: An Inquiry and 
Review of the Probable Situation of the Jeannette [Lieut. De Long's vessel] and 
missing whalers Vigilant and Mount Wollastony ''^ A discussion ensued, participated 
in by Captains Hooper of the Revenue Cutter Corwin, Williams of the Hidalgo, and 
E. E. Smith, ice pilot of the Convin, and Messrs. W. H. Dall and Wells. December 
20, B. B. Redding read a paper on "The Future of Fish Culture"; Dr. Stout, a paper 
"On the Aleutian Islands," and C. W. Brooks, a paper by Commander Henry Glass 



'^^ Recorded as Dwight Whitney in the Minute Books for Nov. 1 , 1 880, but in the minutes of later meetings 
at which the person was present, in both 1882 and 1883, the name is clearly recorded as Dwight Whiting. 
Dwight Whiting is also listed in a separate "Membership Records" volume, which was compiled by two 
or more persons, otherwise unidentified, likely around the turn of the century. A pencilled notation at the 
beginning of this volume states, "Book correct to Jan. 7, 1901." Unfortunately, even in this book there are 
occasional errors in the spelling of member names as well as dates of election to membership so that it 
cannot be taken as gospel unless verified by other sources. Dwight Whitney does not appear in the 
membership records compilation. 

'"^^ Publication of the Academy's Proceedings was still suspended. Brooks'comments were published in 
the Daily Alta California on December 8, 1880 and issued as a reprint of 14 pages under the title, 
"Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences at a Reception Given to the Captain and Captains of 
the Pacific Whaling Fleet on their return from the Arctic. Their Views, and Unanimous Expression of Belief 
in the Jeannette's Safety, Speculations Concening the Whereabouts of the Missing Whalers Vigiland and 
Mount Wollaston." 



CHAPTER XIX: 1 879- 1880 231 

"On the Hurricane of October 26, 1880 at Sitka, Alaska." He also presented a paper, 
read by title, on "Early Migrations — An Examination of the Claims that Buddhist 
Priests visited the West Coast of North America in the Fifth Century, including 
Translations of all Passages relating thereto from the Nun Szu or Southern History 
found in the Grand Annals of China, with critical and explanatory notes." 
The nominating committee reported a ticket for officers of 1 88 1 . 



232 



ChapterXX: Year 1881 



T 



I he annual meeting of 1881 was held on January 3. The following officers 
were announced and declared elected for the year: Professor George Davidson, 
pi^ident; Justin P. Moore, first vice-president; Dr. H. H. Behr, second vice-president; 
S. B. Christy, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, recording secretary; Elisha 
Brooks, treasurer; Charles Troyer, librarian; W. G. W. Harford, director of the 
museum; William Ashbumer, George E. Gray, R. E. C. Steams, B. B. Redding, 
Thomas P. Madden, R. C. Harrison, and James M. McDonald, trustees. The secretary 
reported the expenditures of $7,500 in the course of 1880, and a deficiency of about 
$1,000. The librarian reported that 436 books had been added to the library during 
1 880, and C. D. Gibbes said that 778 specimens of minerals had been received during 
the same time. The president read his annual address on the condition and progress 
of the Academy and concluded it with a paper "On the Benefit of Scientific 
Investigation and the Relations of Science and Industry." On nomination of the 
Council, Samuel M. Wilson and Ralph C. Harrison were elected honorary life 
members. Mrs. Mary E. Edmonds,"" having paid the required fee, was declared a 
life member. The Council announced the appointment of the following curators: C. 

D. Gibbes, mineralogy; Dr. Stout, ethnology; Dr. Kellogg, botany, W. N. Lockington, 
ichthyology and Crustacea; Josiah Keep, conchology; Dr. Behr, entomology, and 
Henry Chapman, birds and mammals. 

Janu.ary 17, Joseph G. Eastland and Adolph Sutro were elected life members, 
and C. S. Capp a resident member. A. W. Jackson, Jr. read a paper "On the Occurrence 
of Precious Metals in Sedimentary Deposits," and W. N. Lockington one on "Cali- 
fornia Fishes." A letter was read from Dr. Schroeder of Frankfurt-on-Main, in which 
he stated that he was able to make 50-inch refractor glasses for telescopes by a new 
method cheaper than 36-inch ones could be ordinarily made. In the Board of Trustees, 
Benjamin B. Redding was elected president; George E. Gray, vice-president; and, on 
account of Mr. Yale's declining further to serve, Charles Wolcott Brooks, secretary. 

February 7, Thomas E. Eraser was elected a life member, and Henry E. Mathews, 
Rev. Horatio Stebbins, and Frank Jaynes, resident members. Mrs. Theodore H. Hittell 
read a paper "On Sericulture in California"; Dr. Behr, a paper "On Fungoid Growth 
on Grape Vines"; and J. G. Lemmon, a paper "On Pacific Coast Acrididae." A paper 
by W. J. Fisher "On the Sea Otter" was read by the secretary. February 2 1 , Professor 

E. T. Cox and L. Oesterreicher were elected resident members. Notes were read from 
a report by W. H. Dall, in which he expressed an opinion based upon his observations 



2'" Earlier shown as M[ary] E. Edwards (q.v. and footnote 18.2). 



CHAPTER XX: 1881 233 

in the Arctic that the Japan Warm Current did not enter Behring's Straits as was 
popularly supposed, and that the northern current through the Straits and in the Arctic 
ocean was chiefly dependent for its direction and force on the tides and for its heat 
on the warming of the shallow waters of Norton Sound and the Yukon River. This 
opinion and the statement of facts led to a discussion as to the influence of Arctic 
currents on the course of Lieut. De Long's vessel, the Jeannette; and this to a 
discussion on Arctic climate and the reasons for finding in Arctic regions the remains 
of tropical or subtropical animals. Mr. Brooks stated that he had received a letter from 
Mrs. De Long thanking the Academy for its interest in her husband. In the Board of 
Trustees, R. C. Harrison, to whom had been referred delinquent tax bills on the library 
and ftimiture of the Academy for the years 1872-3 and 1873-4 and a tax bill on the 
First Avenue lot, claimed by some to belong to the Academy, reported in favor of 
paying the delinquent taxes on library and furniture but against paying the tax on the 
so-called Academy lot on First Avenue. 

March 7, among the donations was a striped bass taken outside the Golden Gate, 
presented by D. J. Staples. Mrs. J. G. Lemmon read a paper on "Pacific Coast Ferns." 
Dr. Harkness described a new grape-root fungus. A paper by Ivan Petroff "On Internal 
Water Communication in Alaska" was read. In the Board of Trustees, a proposition 
to employ a Mr. Clark to make a complete catalogue of the property of the Academy 
for $75 per month for three months was lost; and the director of the museum and 
curators asked to hand in lists of all the property in their respecdve departments. 
March 21, Captain R. W. Simpson described his efforts to cultivate wild rice on this 
Coast. Dr. Harkness described a new earth fungus found by Mrs. Mary K. Curran in 
Golden Gate Park, which he named Octaviania. Dr. Behr read "Observations on a 
Species of Fungoid Growth on a P/zv//oxera-infested Grape Root." Professor David- 
son stated that he had constructed two 25-feet pendulums, which he would hang in 
the Academy Hall, and with them illustrate the effect of the rotation of the earth. 

April 4, Joseph D. Grant was elected a life member, and James V. Coleman, a 
resident member. Captain A. E. Bruno read a paper describing his adventures and 
researches in South Pacific Islands, particularly New Guinea. Dr. Harkness presented 
a list of 29 new species of California fungi, and particularly described one species 
infesting the oak trees in Golden Gate Park. Dr. Henry Gibbons exhibited a number 
of roses and called attention to the fact that the bushes had been infested with scaled 
bugs, and that he had entirely cured and cleaned them by applying a compound of 
petroleum and castor oil. A discussion ensued on the subject of the use of petroleum, 
in which Dr. Gibbons, Dr. Behr, Dr. Kellogg and Mr. Verder joined. APRIL 18, Dr. 
Behr read a paper "On the Scale Bug." May 2, Charles F. Crocker and L. E. Blockman 
were elected resident members. The Alaska Commercial Company presented an 
outfit designed by the Swedish government for marine dredging. W. G. W. Harford 
read a paper "On Seals," and Captain A. E. Bruno, a continuation of his paper on 
adventures and researches in South Pacific Islands, referring particularly to New 
Guinea. In the Board of Trustees, it was deemed necessary to advise the Phamiaceu- 
tical Society that when it used the Academy building there should always be at least 



234 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

one professor or person in authority present. It was resolved that meetings of the 
Adelphic Society had best be held elsewhere. May 16, among the donations was a 
stone axe from the Tucson Mountains in Arizona, presented by E. T. Gerald. Professor 
Davidson said he had never seen a more perfect specimen. Mr. Redding said that, so 
far as he knew, that kind of stone axes was only found in Arizona and New Mexico. 
Professor Cox said that he had seen many of them in Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky. 
Dr. Harkness reported that he had made an examination of what had been supposed 
to be showers of sulphur and found only pollen from a species of pine trees. Professor 
Davidson spoke at some length calling in question the correctness of W. H. Dall's 
observations to the effect of the non-existence of the Japan Warm Current in 
Behring's Straits. The brothers Krause of the Bremen Geographical Society, on their 
way to the Arctic, were introduced to the Academy. In the Board of Trustees, among 
bills acted was an old one of Spaulding & Barto, amounting to over $ 1 2.00 for printing 
the Proceedings of the Academy for 1875 and 1876. It appeared that the work had 
been done by order of the Council, without technical authority of the Trustees, and 
that it was understood to be "outlawed" by lapse of time; but by vote of Ashbumer, 
McDonald and Redding, as against that of Gray, $4.00 of it was ordered paid. Dr. 
Behr was granted permission to deposit his private collection of Lepidoptera in the 
Academy building during the pleasure of the Trustees and on the condition of no 
responsibility on their part. 

June 6, George C. Perkins and James G. Fair were elected life members. A large 
audience was present on account of a reception tendered by the Academy to Lieuten- 
ant R. M. Berry, Ensign H. M. Hunt, Col. W. H. Gilden, Asst. Surgeon Costello, 
Engineer A. V. Vane, and other officers of the U. S. Arctic Exploring Expedition ship 
Rodgers, as well as Capt. Howgate. C. W. Brooks opened the exercises by reading 
a paper "On Evidences regarding the Discovery of Wrangel Land and the Course 
pursued by the Exploring Ship Jeannette.'"^^~ Professor Davidson read a paper by 
James Gamble, superintendent of the Western Union Telegraph Company, advocat- 
ing the use of 20-pound-per-mile steel wire for telegraphic communication between 
headquarters and sledge parties. In answer to an inquiry by the president. Lieutenant 
Berry said that he did not consider the claim of Captain DoUman to the discovery of 
Wrangel Land as well founded. He proceeded to express his thanks to the Academy 
for the assistance it had afforded him and the Naval Relief Board in making up their 
proposed route in the Arctic seas. As to Mr. Gamble's proposition about the use of 



~^~ This and other papers read at this meeting were published in the Daily Alta California and other San 
Francisco newspapers between June 7 and June 1 1 , 1 88 1 . The articles were then extracted from the papers 
and published as a post-print booklet bearing the title, "Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 
at its Regular Meeting held June 6th, 1881. Reception of Lieut. Robert M. Berry, U.S.N, commanding U. 
S. Steamer Rodgers of the Jeannette Search Expedition." The post-print included at least one paper by C. 
W. Brooks given at an earlier meeting. The following papers are included in the post-print: ( 1 ) Introductory 
summary of the presentations [unsigned but likely a Daily Alta California reporter attending the meeting]; 
(2) Charles Wolcott Brooks, "Early Discoveries of Wrangel Island"; (3) an "Addenda" by George 
Davidson; extract of a paper by C. W. Brooks read at a previous meeting, "The Object of Arctic 
Explorations"; (4) "Description of the Rodgers," an unsigned article, probably oy a reporter for the Daily 
Alta California, published first in the Daily Alta California on June 10, 1 88 1 ; (5 ) extract of a letter addressed 
to the Academy Dy Col. Charles S. Bulkiey stating that he had observed an "almost constant northerly flow 
of water" in the Bering Strait, contradicting William Dall's earlier observations relating to the Kuro Shiwo 
or Japanese warm current; (6) James Gamble on "The Telegraph in Arctic Regions" [first printed in the 
San Francisco Mining and Scientific Press on June II, 1881 J. 



CHAPTER XX: 1881 235 

telegraphic wires, he would be happy to try them; but it was to be remembered that 
in extensive sledge journeys, weight was a matter of prime consideration, and Arctic 
sledges were generally overloaded with absolutely indispensable articles. He did not 
deem it necessary to say much in reference to the purposes of his journey, as that 
subject was already understood and had been explained as well as he could explain 
it; and as to the course he should pursue, he would have to be guided by circumstances 
as he might find them after reaching Wrangel Land. June 20, a paper by C. D. Gibbes 
"On Extinct Animals" was read by J. P. Moore. Professor Davidson referred to the 
proposition of Mr. Gamble to use steel wire for telegraph communication between 
headquarters and exploring sledge parties in the Arctic regions, and said that Augus- 
tus Harding had suggested the use of aluminum wire instead of steel, as it had greater 
conductivity and was much lighter. He himself thought that fine silver wire might be 
used, as having still greater conductivity and being much stronger than aluminum. In 
the Board of Trustees, the matter of paying a part of Spaulding & Barto's old bill for 
printing the Proceedings of the Academy for 1875 and 1876 was, on motion of 
McDonald, reconsidered on a showing that when the work was done the Trustees had 
declined to authorize it or assume responsibility, and had only informally said that 
when the Academy might find itself free from debt and with sufficient funds, it might 
consider the equities of the claim. The matter was then referred to R. C. Harrison for 
a legal opinion as to how payment might be made with safety to the interests of the 
Academy, when it should be deemed best to do so. 

July 1 8, John Richards was elected a resident member. Among the donations were 
several Shoshone arrow-heads and a number of tubers of a plant used as food by the 
Shoshone Indians, all from Humboldt River, Nevada. B. B. Redding called attention, 
in connection with the above, to a donation made at a previous meeting by J. A. 
Wellon of specimens, from the same locality, of the wood used by the Shoshone 
Indians to make arrows. Dr. Kellogg had examined the wood and said it was Tessaha 
borealis. Dr. C. C. Parry read a description of a new plant called Gilia Veatchii. 
Professor Davidson made remarks upon the comet. In the Board of Trustees, the 
secretary reported a credit balance of $900 in bank. July 29, a special meeting was 
held for the purpose of giving a reception to Lieutenant Schwatka, the Arctic explorer. 
That gentleman was introduced and read a paper on "Arctic Exploration," in which 
he gave an account of his recent expedition to the polar regions. August 1, David 
Cahn was elected a life member, and Charles Nelson and Thomas P. H. Whitelaw, 
resident members. John Richards read a paper "On the Application of Standard 
Measures to Industrial Processes." AUGUST 15, B. B. Redding read a paper "On the 
Discovery of Nitrate in Nevada"; W. J. Fisher, a paper "On the Earthquakes of 
September and October 1880 at Uga[{m}or{ni} {o}or{a}k?]'"' Island, Alaska"; Dr. 
Stout, "On Artesian Wells"; and Henry D. Wolfe, "On Aleutian Family Names and 
their Ethnological Value." SEPTEMBER 5, Alpheus Bull, Jr. was elected a life member, 
and Robert Caldwell and George H. Sanderson, resident members. Dr. Behr called 

20^ Handwriting in the Minute Books (Stated Meetings, Dec. 1 880-Dec. 1 890, p. 29) difficult to interpret: 
Uga[{m!or{ni} {o]or{a}k?]. The most lii<ely extrapolations are Uganii< Island, which is embedded along 
the nortn coast or Kodiak Id., or Ugamak Island, a small island off the southwest coast of Unimak 
Island,which is centrally located in the Aleutian chain. 



236 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

attention to the facility with which injurious insects could be introduced into the State 
and the necessity of care to prevent it. He had himself received specimens of insects 
from abroad, which were still alive although they had been several weeks on the way. 
J. P. Moore read a paper "On Parasitic Fungi." September 19, among the donations 
were plants used by the Shoshone Indians for making mats and ropes, presented by 
J. A. Palmer. A book on "Earthworms" by Dr. Gustav Eisen was presented. Dr. Behr 
read a paper "On Insecticides," which elicited a discussion from J. P. Moore, Dr. 
Stout and G. P. Rixford on the subject of bisulphide of carbon and other washes. The 
chairman announced the death of James A. Garfield, president of the United States; 
and the Academy adjourned. In the Board of Trustees, a question had been raised as 
to a possible or shadowy claim of the Academy to a strip of ground, 40 feet wide, on 
the northeast side of their property on Market Street, embraced in one of the early 
conditional deeds of James Lick, and the expediency of arranging with the Society 
of California Pioneers to make a common thoroughfare out of it. R. C. Harrison 
reported verbally as to the interest of the Academy in it and presented an abstract of 
the title made by C. V. Gillespie. A letter from the Council was received recommend- 
ing Professor Davidson for superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
On motion of Ashbumer the letter and recommendation were adopted, subscribed by 
the Trustees and forwarded to the Secretary of the Treasury at Washington. On motion 
of Madden, Spaulding & Barto's bill for printing the Proceedings of 1875 and 1876 
was approved and ordered paid, provided no interest was claimed; but, on motion of 
Gray, on account of the necessity of soon paying taxes, only $4.00 were ordered paid 
at that time. The secretary reported $1,577.65 to the Academy's credit in the bank. 
October 3, Frank S. Douty, Andrew J. Hatch, and William Robinson were elected 
resident members. B. B. Redding presented a hook and line used by the Shoshone 
Indians for catching trout, and described their use. C. W. Brooks gave a synopsis of 
the latest news from the Arctic. In the Board of Trustees, the use of the Hall was 
granted for monthly meetings of the Geographical Society of the Pacific, it to pay 
$7.50 per meeting for gas, janitor and incidental expenses. October 17, R. E. C. 
Steams read a paper on "Certain Aboriginal Relics from Napa County." He also 
presented a section of yellow-pine bark, filled with acorns deposited in it by wood- 
peckers, and read a paper "On the Acorn-Storing Habits of the California Wood- 
pecker." His remarks called out a discussion. Dr. Behr exhibited an insect found in 
the Lord of Lome Mine, Nevada, in a stratum of stiff clay 700 feet from the mouth 
of the tunnel and 300 feet below the surface. It had been sent by J. T. McDougall, 
Superintendent of the mine, with a statement of the circumstances. Dr. Henry Gibbons 
remarked that he remembered when Dr. R. K. Nuttall sank a well at the comer of 
Montgomery and Califomia Streets, an insect without eyes or wings was brought up 
from a depth of 60 feet. Dr. Kellogg described a plant presented by Professor 
Davidson and commonly called "turkey feed." Dr. Gibbons said it afforded a cure 
for poison oak and its root a decoction valuable in cases of pulmonary consumption. 
A letter from Professor Davidson announced that on October 14 he had finished his 
first measurement of the Yolo baseline and expected to finish the second by Nov. 15. 



CHAPTER XX: 1881 



237 




Charles Crocker 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

Mr. Brooks announced inquiries about a steamer being seen by natives at the mouth 
of the Lena [River], being the Jeannette, but he thought it improbable for it to have 
been there at the time." 

November 7, Mrs. J. C. Campbell, Mrs. John H. Sargent (a previous member who 
had temporarily dropped out), and Thomas H. Buckingham were elected resident 
members. B. B. Redding, as president of the Board of Trustees, announced the receipt 
on November 7 from Charles Crocker of a donation of $20,000 in aid of scientific 
research under the auspices of the Academy. The donation consisted of twenty 
6-per-cent bonds for $1,000 each, of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. In his 
letter, making the donation, Mr. Crocker said that he desired the money to be derived 
from these bonds at maturity, to "be again invested by you or your successors" in 
other safe and interest-bearing securities, so that the sum of twenty thousand dollars 
should be a permanent fund for the use of the Academy; and that the income from 
the fund should be annually expended "in assisting in their investigations, in Califor- 
nia, Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona, such worthy and studious investigations and 
experiments, largely and necessarily excluded themselves from acquiring support 
through the ordinary avocations of current industrial life." The Board of Trustees, 
Mr. Redding said, had made an appropriate reply, thanking Mr. Crocker for the 
donation and the high appreciation he had manifested of the benefits conferred upon 
society by scientific investigation. On motion, the Academy supplemented what the 
Trustees had done by adopting unanimously a series of resolutions, proposed by them, 

-''"* In fact, there was some truth to the rumors because two boats of survivors of the Jeannette did make 
landfall on the delta of the Lena [in northern Siberia], but not together. The one bearing Engineer George 
Wallace Melville and his party was to survive; the other, with Lieut. De Long, perished with the exception 
of William F. C. Nindemann. Quartermaster, and Louis Noros, who had been sent ahead by De Long to 
seek help from the first inhabitants they could fmd. 



238 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

to the effect that the endowment should always be known and designated as the 
"Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund," and that a special report of its use and 
condition should be made at each annual meeting. Dr. Henry Gibbons, referring to 
the donation, called attention to the fact that the arduous labor for thirty years, under 
great difficulties and discouragements, of many willing and enthusiastic men had 
built up an institution of which the Pacific Coast might well be proud; and it was in 
every respect worthy of the munificent gift so generously bestowed upon it. Consid- 
ering the circumstances and the very limited means at its command, it was wonderful 
what the Academy had accomplished. It had struggled long and hard against great 
disadvantages; but it had acquired a character which gave promise that it would make 
excellent use of Mr. Crocker's endowment. J. P. Moore said that the world demanded 
of science practical results, and that the Academy had a valuable corps of hard 
workers, who would be greatly stimulated by the interest thus manifested in, and the 
substantial aid thus given to, scientific investigation. A paper from Professor David- 
son was read "On the Transit of Mercury." R. E. C. Steams read a paper "On the 
Botanical of P/nsianthiis albens, the Structure of its Flowers, and their Peculiarities 
as an Insect Trap." Dr. Behr stated, in reference to Mr. Steams' paper, that several 
asclepiadeceous plants were known to play tricks on insects. Ceropegra caught them, 
like Physianthus, by a mechanical contrivance; other insectivorous plants in other 
ways. Stapella, an African plant, deceived them by smelling like rotten meat, so that 
flies would blow upon its flowers; and their offspring thus deposited would, of course, 
die of starvation. Dr. Gibbons said that he had long before made observations on 
plants similar to those described by Mr. Steams and had noticed that as long as the 
insect stmggled the plant held it fast; but, as soon as the insect became quiet, the plant 
released its grip. Dr. Behr read a paper "On the Part Played by Hawk Moths in the 
Economy of Nature." 

November 2 1 , Charles H. Bradford, John T. Doe, George Spaulding were elected 
life members. Among the donations were spiders found in the Keystone Mine in 
Amador County 800 feet below the surface. They were found by James F. Parks, 
superintendent of the Mine and presented by Captain James M. McDonald. Dr. Behr 
read a paper describing them. J. G. Lemmon read a paper "On Arizona Forest Trees." 
December 5, J. G. Lemmon read a paper on a new species of gentian, which he 
named Gentiana microcalyx, R. E. C. Steams read a paper "On the Growth of Certain 
Califomia Forest Trees and Meteorological Data Suggested Thereby." The paper 
evoked considerable discussion, particularly on the point, advanced in it, that some 
connection could be traced between the rings of growth and the character of the 
seasons in which they were produced. The discussion was participated in by Messrs. 
Davidson, Behr, Kellogg, Brooks, and Steams. The death of Henry Chapman, curator 
of birds and mammals was announced, and a tribute of respect to his memory was 
read by the Secretary. Professor Davidson, Mr. Redding, Mr. Steams, Dr. Kellogg, 
and Mr. Harford each spoke of the great merits of the deceased and the many 
obligations the Academy was under to him for valuable and gratuitous services. A 
series of resolutions were adopted by the Academy, which referred to Mr. Chapman 



CHAPTER XX: 1881 239 

as "one of its most energetic and useful members, and one to whom it was indebted 
for a large amount of faithftilly performed work." DECEMBER 19, among the dona- 
tions was one from Commodore Thomas S. Phelps, consisting of a piece of canvas 
brought up on the anchor of the U. S. Ship Lackawanna in the early part of the year 
at the Island of Juan Fernandez, where it had been lying submerged for from 150 to 
200 years. J. R. Clifford presented an insect pest, which infested artificial flowers 
and fancy featherwork in the manufacture of which paste had been employed. 

J. G. Lemmon read a paper, describing a new species of Ranunculus, which he 
named Ranunculus heterophyllus. He proceeded to say that he had been encouraged 
by Dr. Asa Gray to make descriptions of new species, even if all the literature upon 
the subject were not on hand or available. There were only ten libraries in the world 
where all the botanical works were to be found, and only one of these on this 
continent. We had only a nucleus of one here in California. He said he was therefore, 
on account of want of all the most recent publications, apt to make a mistake and 
name as new something that had already been described. It had been the custom of 
some Eastern men to describe all sorts of California plants from any kind of 
specimens, without ever having seen them grow, and take the chances as to their being 
new and the descriptions accurate; and they had not infrequently received credit 
which should have remained in California. Professor Davidson expressed a hope that 
all young investigators would go ahead without hesitation. "Get what literature you 
can; but, at all events, go on and describe your specimens." Dr. Behr said that 
California botanists had been roughly handled by Eastern scientists for describing 
old things; that is, plants already described; but they did not take into consideration 
the fact of the want of scientific literature on the Pacific Coast. Professor Davidson 
resumed by saying that one member of the Academy had become involved in a 
controversy with Dr. Theodore Gill of the Smithsonian Institution on a similar 
subject. Dr. Gill had described certain species of Pacific Coast fish from dried-up 
specimens. Mr. Lockington had described the same species from fresh specimens; 
but Dr. Gill had considered his own descriptions as most accurate and had arraigned 
Mr. Lockington for describing, as new, old species and describing them inaccurately. 
Mr. Harford said that Dr. William O. Ayres, an able and efficient member of the 
Academy in its earliest years, had described new species of fish and Dr. Gill had 
attacked him in the same way; and the result was that Dr. Ayres, who disliked 
controversy, was so disgusted that he gave up the study of ichthyology. Mr. Harford 
went on to say that Professors Jordan and Gilbert had recently had occasion to make 
use of Dr. Ayres' descriptions, as contained in early volumes of the Proceedings of 
the Academy, and with their help identified all but one of the species, showing that 
his work had been carefully and well done. A discussion then took place in reference 
to the skin of what was called an "albino" deer, which had been presented by D. M. 
White of Port Townsend, Washington. The skin was not entirely white, but had large 
white patches on it. The nominating committee presented a ticket for officers of 1 882. 
In the Board of Trustees, Professor Davidson, as president of the Council, asked for 
an appropriation to print and publish a pamphlet from the correspondence and 



240 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

resolutions in reference to the "Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund," for distribu- 
tion to scientific societies corresponding with the Academy; and the Trustees author- 
ized the expenditure of $50 for that purpose. 



241 



ChapterXXI: Year 1882 



This year the annual meeting was held January 2. Edgar Mills, Squire P. 
Dewey, J. D. Fry, G. M. Josselyn, and William S. Wood were elected life 
members, and C. Mitchell Grant, Isidor Cohn, Ignatius E. Thayer, John Dolbeer, A. 
Crawford, W. R. Bentley, Augustus E. Elliott, Hippolyte Dutard, and J. G. Harding, 
resident members. On recommendation of the Council, Charles Crocker was elected 
an honorary life member. Professor P. V. Hayden and Major J. W. Powell were 
elected honorary members. The officers declared elected for 1882 were Professor 
George Davidson for president; Justin P. Moore, first vice-president; H. H. Behr, 
second vice-president; S. B. Christy, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, 
recording secretary; Elisha Brooks, treasurer; Charles Troyer, librarian; W. G. W. 
Harford, director of the museum; B. B. Redding, George E. Gray, Thomas P. Madden, 
James M. McDonald, William Ashbumer, Ralph C. Harrison and Robert E. C. 
Steams, trustees. The treasurer reported a balance on hand of $91.07. The secretary 
reported the total membership as 284, of which 105 were life members and 179 
resident members. The librarian reported an accession in the course of 1881 of 388 
books. The president read his annual address on the condition and progress of the 
Academy, and included also extended remarks on the subject of "Science in the Public 
School System." A report from the Council was read, which called specific attention 
to the fact that no publications of the Academy had been printed since 1876, owing 
to want of funds. A memorial addressed to Congress on the subject of Alaska and 
asking for appropriations to extend and continue the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Surveys 
in and through that Territory was presented. It appeared that the memorial had already 
been considered and approved by the Council and also by the San Francisco Chamber 
of Commerce and the Geographical Society of the Pacific. Professor Davidson said 
that the government surveys in Alaska had not, up to that time, been systematic for 
want of regular appropriations; and it was becoming more and more important to 
have accurate and full information regarding the navigable waters and topography of 
that region. On motion the memorial was approved and adopted as the act of the 
Academy. 

In the Board of Trustees, B. B. Redding, the president, presented an annual report, 
he said that two years ago the Academy owed $4,022.95 and last year, $2,955.47; but 
at that time all bills, including taxes, had been paid, and there was a balance of $9 1.17 
in the treasury. The receipts during the past year had been $8,683.67, of which $3,306 
was for life and resident membership dues, and $4,171 .67 for rents. The expenditures 
for the year had been $8,542.60. The property of the Academy consisted of the lot 



242 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

on Market Street, 80 feet front; a claim to a lot on First Avenue; one half interest as 
residuary beneficiary in the Lick estate, and the Crocker Scientific Investigation 
Fund, besides its collections and library, including 132 volumes of unsold printed 
Proceedings. The use of the Academy Hall had been granted without charge for day 
meetings to the Ladies' California Silk Culture Association, and, for small sums to 
cover expenses, to the Geographical Society of the Pacific, the Horticultural Society, 
and the College of Pharmacy. 

January 16, among the donations were Indian bones from the same cave near the 
McCloud River, in which Professor Cope had found the remains of the cave bear, the 
only remains of that animal ever found in this State. A specimen of amber was 
presented, found 35 feet below the surface in a well in Tulare County, donated by C. 
P. Converse of Visalia, and former Governor Purdy presented several specimens of 
silver ore from the Santa Teresa Mine. Dr. Kellogg described two new plants, Gilia 
secundum and Spomoca muhcata. Dr. Harkness read a paper "On the Vegetable Cell 
and Some Facts pertaining to its Life History." A discussion took place on the subject 
of the "Influence of North Winds," in which Messrs. Harkness, Gibbes, and Gibbons 
participated. On January 28, in the Council, the director of the museum stated that 
books were missing from the library. He recommended restricting access to the 
library to members and that new keys should be made. A letter from the Geographical 
Society of Bremen was read in which the Academy was asked to acknowledge the 
truthfulness of Capt. E. Dollman's statements as to the discovery of Wrangell Land. 
The letter drew attention to the fact that at the meeting of the Academy held June 6, 
1881 (^.v.) doubts had been raised about DoUman's statements. The letter argued that 
Lieut. Berry's reports determining the position of the ( ? ) on the south side of 
Wrangell Land, visited by Dollman, proves Dolman's [sic] original assertions that 
he was the first to land there. The society asked the Academy to declare that the report 
of Capt. Dollman was a truthful one and that the doubts expressed earlier were 
erroneous and without foundation. No immediate action was taken on this request, 
but the president was asked to examine the matter and report back to Council. 

February 6, W. G. W. Harford read a brief paper "On the Angel Fish" to the 
effect that specimens exhibited in the city as new were well known and fully described 
in the books. A paper by (Mrs.) Dr. Mary K. Curran was read "On Caenums of the 
Hare {Lepus Califomicus).'" From its meeting held on January 14, the Council 
reported the appointment of the following curators for the year: E. F. Lorquin, 
mammals and birds; Charles G. Yale, fishes; A. B. Stout, ethnology and osteology; 
Edward T. Cox, geology and palaeontology; Justin P. Moore, botany; H. H. Behr, 
entomology; Josiah Keep, conchology, and C. D. Gibbes, mineralogy. In the Board 
of Trustees, the officers of last year were reelected, with B. B. Redding as president. 
February 20, A. W. Manning, Isaac L. Requa, Walter E. Dean, A. K. P. Harmon, 
and John G. Kellogg were elected life members, and F. A. Hyde, Charles G. Hooker, 
Charles E. C. Apponyi, Henry Ferrer, and W. F. Nolte, resident members. An 
invitation was received from the Board of Trade to a lecture on the Nicaragua Canal 
by Mr. Menocal. Professor H. A. Ward of Rochester, New York, was introduced and 



CHAPTER XXI: 1882 243 

spoke of his method of collecting specimens for casts, and announced the presence 
in the City of a large collection of his casts, which would shortly be exhibited to the 
Academy. The president announced the death of ex-Governor Purdy, who, though 
not a member, had made many donations to the Academy. 

March 6, Professor Ward read a paper "On the Mammoth." Professor Joseph 
LeConte read a paper prepared by himself and Professor Rising, "On the Fomiation 
of Metalliferous Veins," and Professor Davidson, a paper entitled "Notes on the 
Temperature of Air and Water at the Golden Gate." Professor Ward announced that 
his collection was on exhibition to members of the Academy and their friends at 
Mercantile Library Hall on Bush Street. The committee appointed to consider Capt. 
Dollman's claims as the first to land on Wrangell Land reported that they now have 
the charts, received from Prof Davidson, needed to examine the question of its 
supposed location. In the Board of Trustees, the sum of $821.50 was ordered paid to 
Spaulding & Barto in full on their old bill for printing the Proceedings of the Academy 
for 1 875 and 1 876. This was in addition to $400 paid on the bill September 20, 1881. 
The secretary reported a balance of $ 1 ,290.47 in banks. March 1 8, a special joint 
meeting of Trustees and Council was held. Professor Davidson stated the object to 
be to obtain Ward's Palaeontological Collection. He said it could be purchased for 
$18,000, and he hoped it would be. Messrs. McDonald, Moore, Gray, Hickox and 
Davidson were appointed a committee to report as to what could be done. At the 
regular meeting of the Academy held on March 20, William T. Coleman and Henry 
T. Scott were elected life members, and Arthur A. Smith a resident member. A. W. 
Jackson, Jr. read a paper "On the General Principles of the Nomenclature of the 
Massive Crystalline Rocks." A paper by Charles Froman of Virginia City, Nevada, 
was read "On the Increase of Temperature with Depth." Mr. Harkness exhibited a 
new fungus, allied to the puff ball, found by Mrs. Mary K. Curran, which he had 
named Polyplorium Ciirranii. In the Board of Trustees, the treasurer was authorized 
to collect the semi-annual interest of $600 on the 20 Southern Pacific Railroad bonds 
constituting the "Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund." At a joint meeting of 
Trustees and Council, held March 25, McDonald reported that the Ward Collection 
could be purchased any time before March 31 for $ 1 6,000, and after that time for the 
same with current expenses added. At another joint meeting, held March 29, at the 
suggestion of Davidson, he, Moore and Harkness were appointed a committee to 
solicit subscriptions to purchase and maintain the Ward Collection as a part of the 
Academy. 

April 3, John F. Boyd, Hermann Schussler, Daniel E. Hayes, John W. Ackerson, 
J. H. Goodman, Jacob Z. Davis, and W. S. Keyes were elected life members, and 
Thomas Brown, H. A. Ward, W. T. Reid, M. H. Hecht, and J. J. Rivers, resident 
members. Among the donations was a spindle-whorl, a small disklike perforated 
stone, found in the ruins of Troy and described as probably "used by the Trojan 
women as a votive-offering to Pallas Athene Ergane, the tutelary deity of sacred 
Ilion." It was presented by Lloyd Tevis, with a letter from Professor Schliemann, the 
archaeologist, transmitting it to the donor. A communication was received from the 



244 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Board of Supervisors, asking the Academy to make an investigation on the subject 
of sewer gas and to spread infonnation by lectures and reports in reference to the 
condition of the City sewers, their engineering and what might be shown by micro- 
scopical and chemical examination. The supervisors added that the investigations 
suggested might have an important bearing upon the exceptionally high death rate; 
but, on account of the condition of the City finances, would have to be made without 
expense to the City. The matter was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. 
Gray, Behr and Moore. The committee on the Ward Collection reported that they had 
consulted with a number of life members in reference to the matter and, among others, 
with Charles Crocker, who had already manifested munificent liberality to the 
Academy; that, upon the subject being mentioned, Mr. Crocker had said that he would 
propose to Governor Stanford that they two should purchase the entire Ward Collec- 
tion and present it to the Academy; that Governor Stanford, when spoken to, had 
promptly acceded to the proposition; that thereupon each of them drew a check for 
$8,000 and handed it to the committee, and the result was that the Academy had 
become the owner and possessor of the property. It was thereupon resolved that the 
collection should thenceforth be known as the "Crocker-Stanford Collection of 
Geology, Mineralogy and Natural History" and that, for the time, it should continue 
on public exhibition in Mercantile Library Hall. In the Board of Trustees, a bill for 
rent of the Academy building was presented by the executors of Henry M. Newhall, 
who had recently died, at the rate of $250 per month. It will be recollected that when 
the building was rented in 1874 Mr. Newhall stated that he would contribute $100 
per month to the Academy, and it was done by allowing $100 off of each month's 
rent. The matter was referred to the prudential committee of the Board. 

April 8, at a special meeting of the Trustees, the prudential committee reported 
that an arrangement had been made with the executors of the Newhall estate for a 
verbal continuation of the lease of the Academy building at the rate of $ 1 50 per month. 
The Council recommended the payment from the "Crocker Scientific Investigation 
Fund" of monthly sums of $50 to Charles D. Gibbes for work on mine-petrography 
of the Pacific Coast. On motion of Madden, $40 per month to each from April 1 to 
October 1, 1882, was allowed. A notice was received from the Lick Trustees of the 
commencement of a friendly suit against the Academy for the purpose of settling and 
quieting the title to the 40-foot strip of ground adjoining on the northeast the 
Academy's lot on Market Street, all the expenses of the suit to be at the expense of 
the Lick Trustees. April 17, Dr. Harkness read a paper "On a New Bacterium found 
in the Waters of Mono Lake." Dr. George M. Sternberg, U.S.A., addressed the 
Academy on the subject of microscopic objects. A. W. Jackson, Jr. described rock 
soap from Tres Pinos, San Benito County, giving its characteristic features. The 
committee appointed to collect subscriptions for the "Crocker- Stanford Collection" 
reported the receipt of various sums to defray the expenses of keeping the exhibition 
open; and, among other things, stated that Daniel Cook had offered to pay the rent of 
Mercantile Library Hall, where it was exhibited, for one year. Mr. Redding, on behalf 
of the Trustees, announced that the exhibition would be open to the public free on 



CHAPTER XXI: 1882 245 

every Saturday afternoon and evening, and ten cents admission charged on Tuesdays 
and Thursdays. It was also announced that a large archaeological collection had been 
presented to the Academy. Vice-president J. P. Moore announced that a large 
archaeological collection had just been presented to the Academy. In the Board of 
Trustees, various deeds from John H. Lick and others to the Academy were ordered 
on record or deposit in the Academy's special deposit box in the vault of the Bank 
of California. They included deeds from John H. Lick, Samuel Lick, H. S. Lick, Sarah 
Helper, Jane A. Graham, Julia Anne Antrim, James W. Lick and Andrew J. Ely, as 
heirs of James Lick. The treasurer reported that he held $1,145 collected by Messrs. 
Harkness and Moore for maintenance of the Crocker-Stanford Collection and sub- 
scriptions for $2,595. The president reported that he had taken out a fire insurance 
policy of $ 1 2,000 on the collection at a premium of $ 1 50, the commission on which, 
$28, .allowed Mr. Moore, was by him donated to the Academy. A catalogue of the 
property of the Academy was authorized to be made at an expense not to exceed $500. 
W. G. W. Harford, director of the museum, was made director of the Crocker-Stan- 
ford Collection also; and his salary fixed, during the pleasure of the Board at $1,000 
per year, payable monthly, with an allowance of $240 per annum for two assistants 
to aid in the care of the museum and collection, - "said sum to include all cleaning 
expenses, etc. and no payments to be made in advance of services rendered." 

May 1, Dr. Kellogg exhibited and described Mimidus alpestus. In the Board of 
Trustees, the Lick Trustees submitted accounts of their administration of the Lick 
Trust, which were pronounced to be in all respects satisfactory. The secretary reported 
the cash on hand as $520 from the Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund, $2,375 from 
collections for maintenance of Crocker-Stanford Collection; $979.20 from admis- 
sions-total $3874.20. At the meeting of the Council held on May 13, J. J. Rivers 
was appointed curator of herpetology. May 15, Louis A. Gamett, Seth Cook, William 
J. Shaw, and Stanley Forbes were elected life members, and Henr>' A. Sonntag'' ' a 
resident member. An audience of 120 members is said to have come to this regular 
meeting of the Academy, but no explanation is given for the larger than usual turnout. 
A letter from Professor Davidson was read, giving results of observations on the 
occupation of Jupiter on April 1 9 by Messrs. Lawson and Gilbert at the San Francisco 
observatory of the Coast Survey. Dr. George M. Sternberg read a paper on "Biology," 
illustrating his remarks with enlarged photographs. The Council presented a series of 
resolutions, which were adopted, in tribute to the memory of Captain De Long and 
his associates of the Jeannette Exploring Expedition, who had perished in the Arctic 
seas.' ' In the Board of Trustees, the cash on hand counting all funds, was reported 
to be $4,826.66. May 29, in the Council, it was resolved to recommend to the Trustees 
that the Academy commence immediately publication of a proceedings for 1881-82 
and that once the papers in arrears are printed, the Academy then issue monthly 
Bulletins. The publications committee was instructed to prepare the arrears papers 
for printing. JUNE 5, J. P. Moore read a paper by Dr. Arthur Krause of the Bremen 

2'-' Spelt Sontagg in the handwritten Minute Books (vol. Stated Meetings Dec. 1880-Dec. 1890, p. 76). 

2 '-2 De Long perished on the Lena Delta, northern Siberia, on October 30, 1881. For references see 
footnote 19.2. 



246 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Geographical Society on his recent explorations in Alaska. He also described the 
characteristics of certain parasitic plants. Dr. C. C. Parry, by request, gave an account 
of a trip in Southern and Lower California, mentioning especially the most interesting 
plants he had met with. In the Board of Trustees, the cash on hand, counting all funds, 
was reported at $5,351.06. June 19, Dr. Harkness presented specimens of red snow 
from the Sierra Nevada, the first ever brought to the Academy. He described the plant 
which caused the red color. He also called attention to the fact that what appeared to 
be a mountain beaver had been tracked near Blue Canon on the Central Pacific 
Railroad in the Sierra Nevada, and said that means had been taken to obtain a 
specimen. Dr. Behr thought from the description given that the animal was a new 
rodent. Dr. Behr also read a recipe for [treating] snake bite, sent him by Dr. Holford, 
government botanist of Australia. A discussion ensued on the subject of venomous 
reptiles. 

July 3, Dr. Kellogg exhibited a new and beautiful columbine from the Yosemite 
Valley, with a description of it by J. M. Hutchings. JULY 17, Horace Fletcher, A. H. 
Breckenfeldt and Frank P. Deering were elected resident members. C. W. Brooks, 
by request, described a cyclone he had witnessed, which called out a discussion on 
the subject of cyclonic storms, participated in by Messrs. Stout, Harkness, Brooks 
and Redding. Dr. Kellogg described a species of large-sized purple heather bell found 
in this State. He also gave an account of the manner in which Indians make water-tight 
baskets, with fast-colored patterns woven in, from a species of native grass, the 
colored parts being taken from the outer covering of a maidens-hair fern that grows 
at an altitude of from 5000 to 6000 feet and has a comparatively large leaf Dr. George 
M. Sternberg presented and described a collection of fossil bones of the Quaternary 
period, which he obtained from an old lake basin between the Snake and Columbia 
Rivers in a stratified yellow sandy soil among dunes overlying basalt. In the Board 
of Trustees, it was found necessary to order that "the director of the museum or one 
of his assistants shall be present at all meetings (of the Phamiaceutical Society in the 
Academy Hall) to open and close the building and guard and protect the property of 
the Academy." On motion of Gray, it was resolved "to procure plans for the erection 
of a one story and basement brick building, with truss roof for immediate occupancy 
on the Academy lot on First Avenue." JULY 20, at a joint meeting of Tmstees and 
Council it was resolved to be inexpedient, on account of financial conditions, to invite 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science to meet in San Francisco 
in 1883. 

August 7, Mrs. E. B. Crocker of Sacramento, widow of Justice E. B. Crocker, by 
a letter dated August 4, donated to the Academy her collection of birds and mammals, 
together with the cases in which they were contained. They consisted of about 1,000 
specimens of birds from all parts of the world and 1 00 mammals, all mounted, labeled, 
classified and arranged in their respective cases. She requested that they might be 
preserved in the same form and known as the "Collection presented by Mrs. E. B. 
Crocker of Sacramento." It was resolved, in accordance with her request, that the 
collection, which was estimated to be worth $12,000, should be marked on each case 



CHAPTER XXI: 1882 247 

"Collection donated by Mrs. E. B. Crocker of Sacramento, Cal," and a letter of thanks 
returned to the donor. Dr. Harkness read a paper, prepared by himself and C. D. 
Gibbes, describing large and strange footprints found in the quarry of the State Prison 
at Carson, Nevada, and in connection with the paper in which some of the footprints 
were supposed to be those of primeval man, exhibited plaster casts, drawings and 
photographs of them.''^ J. R. Scupham also read a paper describing the same 
footprints. In the Board of Trustees, it appeared that the Mechanics' Institute of San 
Francisco had asked the privilege of exhibiting the Crocker-Stanford Collection in 
their pavilion as part of their Exposition; that the Academy had desired, if so 
exhibited, that it should be housed and protected in the pavilion for a period of four 
years, and that on a conference no satisfactory terms could be arranged; and it was 
therefore resolved that the offers made would not justify a removal of the Collection 
to the Mechanics' Institute pavilion. AUGUST 21, the sudden death by apoplexy this 
day of Benjamin B. Redding, president of the Board of Trustees, was announced; 
and, on motion of Harkness, the Academy adjourned out of respect to the memory 
of the deceased. AUGUST 28, at a special meeting Messrs. Scupham, Gray and 
Harkness were appointed a committee to present appropriate resolutions in memory 
of B. B. Redding. Professor Joseph LeConte read a paper on "The Carson Footprints," 
embodying his observations from personal inspection of them.*^ 

September 4, Miss Nellie G. Sanborn and E. B. Rail were elected resident 
members. R. E. C. Steams, on behalf of the Board of Trustees, read a memorial and 
presented resolutions in respect to the death of B. B. Redding."' ■* They spoke of Mr. 
Redding's life as one "of exceeding excellence and eminent usefulness" and said that 
"his generous nature, spotless character, public spirit, and distinguished and intelli- 
gent service, extending through many years, entitled him to be regarded as an 
illustrious citizen and a benefactor to be commemorated." The resolutions were 
adopted as "the sentiment of the Academy." C. D. Gibbes read a paper "On the Carson 
Footprints," illustrated by stereopticon views, for the expense of which the Trustees 



-'^ The discussion of tlie Carson Prison footprints continued well into 1883. Several papers were 
published, four of which, two by C. D. Gibbes, and one each by H. W. Harkness and Joseph LeConte were 
privately printed although they bear an imprint, "From the Proceedings of the California Academy of 
Sciences. The Academy did not publish any Proceedings volumes between 1 877 and 1 884, but individuals 
who presented papers at its meetings did pay to have their remarks issued as separates. The four papers 
read oefore the Academy and then published privately are as follows; 

Harkness, Harvey Willson. 1882. Footprints found at the Carson State Prison. Pp. 1-7, 2 ilius. (of 
footprints) (read Aug. 7, 1882); 

LeConte, Joseph. 1882. On certain remarkable tracks, found in the rocks of Carson quarry. 10 pp. (read 
Aug. 27, 1882); 

Gibbes, Charles Drayton. 1882. Pre-historic foot-prints in the sandstone quarry of the Nevada State 
Prison. Pp. 1-8, 4 illus. (read Sept. 4, 1882); 

Gibbes, Charles Drayton. 1882. Fossil jaw of a mammoth. Pp. 9-10, 1 illus. (read Oct. 2, 1882). 

-' '' In a letter to William Dall dated Aug. 27, 1882, Robert Steams laments the loss of Benjamin B. 
Redding (Redding was a trustee of both the Academy and the University of California; Steams was at the 
time Secretary to the University's Board of Regents), "The Univ'y. and Acad'y have met with a really 
great loss in the death of Mr. Redding, which occurted suddenly on Monday last -a most useful and 
estimable man. I hardly know where to look for one to take his place; and am sure we can't find anybody 
who can fill it. So we go ~ these hopes discourage me - I had hoped to see the Acady, with a proper building, 
well equipped and efficiently manned, the endowment fixed before 1 kicked the bucket, but the way things 
work, tne inertia that someone has to check or guard against is severe upon the persons to whom such work 
a duty falls - and so in the Univ'y, the environment has so many opposing elements that it wears a fellow 
to the bones to stand watch and want to thwart unfriendly movements." (SIArchives, RU 7073 {William 
H. Dall Papers, 1865-1927}, Box 16, Folder 31.) 



248 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

allowed a sum not exceeding $15. In the Board of Trustees, Charles F. Crocker was 
elected a trustee in place of Mr. Redding, deceased. George E. Gray was elected 
president of the Board, and Thomas P. Madden, president /;ra tern. On motion of R. 
C. Harrison it was resolved that the Academy should make no defense to the action 
to quiet title brought by the Lick Trustees in respect to the strip of ground, 40 feet 
wide, adjoining the Academy's property on Market Street, inasmuch as it appeared 
to the satisfaction of the Board that, by his absolute conveyance to the Academy of 
the lot of 80 feet front, Mr. Lick intended that the Academy should retain no interest 
in the adjoining 40 feet. September 18, Miss Isabel Downie, Robert Hawxhurst, 
James M. Kelley, Alfred Barstow, and John A. Paxton were elected resident mem- 
bers. E. F. Lorquin read a paper "On the Disappearance of the California Vulture." 
A large collection of reptiles, fishes and Crustacea, collected and arranged by W. N. 
Lockington, was donated by James M. McDonald, R. W. Simpson, Charles Crocker, 
J. G. Fair, B. B. Redding, J. H. Saunders, C. H. Hinton, J. D. Douty, and J. O'B. Gunn. 
October 2, Dr. F. R. Waggoner, W. E. James, G. W. Brush, Joseph D. Redding, 
Dr. W. R. Cluness, Dr. David Wooster, and George Cadwalader were elected resident 
members. A. W. Jackson, Jr. read a paper on "The Glaucophane Rocks of California" 
and C. D. Gibbes, a paper on "The Fossil Jaw of a Mammoth from the Carson Quarry, 
Nevada." C. W. Brooks exhibited a specimen of aerolite which had fallen beside 
Dwight Whiting, a member of the Academy while standing on the bank of the 
Wynootche River. A paper by Professor Davidson was read "On the Comet Now 
Visible." His observations had been made from the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 
station on Mount Tamalpais, Marin County. October 16, E. F. Lorquin spoke of the 
"Hanging Nests of Birds," and Dr. Behr of the "Work of Mason Bees." Professor 
Joseph LeConte addressed the Academy on "The Life and Work of Charles Darwin." 
Professor Davidson made remarks "On Comets" and read from a paper prepared by 
him some time previously on the subject. In the Board of Trustees, Dr. Kellogg was 
allowed his monthly payment of $40 for three months longer, commencing October 
1. The "Voy Collection," which had been exhibited at Mercantile Library Hall in 
connection with the Crocker-Stanford Collection, was ordered to be transferred to 
the Academy building. R. C. Harrison reported that he had filed a disclaimer for the 
Academy in the suit of the Lick Trustees to quiet their title to the strip of 40 feet of 
ground adjacent to the Academy's lot on Market Street, and that a decree in favor of 
the Lick Trustees had been entered in the case. OCTOBER 24, in the Council, it was 
resolved that the papers submitted for publication by Keep, Harkness, LeConte, and 
Gibbes be given to the publications committee for publication in a Bulletin. OCTOBER 
30, at a special meeting of the Board of Trustees, it was resolved that the Crocker- 
Stanford Collection should be removed from the Mercantile Library Hall as soon as 
possible, for the reason that there were no satisfactory means of heating the apartment, 
and it was therefore an unfit place to keep the collection. It was also resolved that a 
committee, consisting of Messrs. Crocker, McDonald, and Madden, should search 
for new quarters for the occupancy of the Academy and its collections. The secretary 
reported the total cash on hand as $4,627.84. 



CHAPTER XXI: 1882 249 

November 6, A. T. Hatch was elected a resident member. Dr. Kellogg stated that 
a specimen of pine had been handed him, the foliage of which had an acid taste like 
sorrel. He thought it was Pinus Douglasii. A discussion took place on the question 
of the poisonous qualities of certain leguminous plants. J. G. Lemmon spoke of a 
recent botanical trip of himself and wife to Arizona. In the Board of Trustees, it 
appeared that the sum of $3,415 had been contributed for maintenance of the 
Crocker-Stanford Collection, of which all but $195 had been paid in. Among the 
contributors were Daniel Cook, $750; Claus Spreckles, $500; Moses Hopkins, $250; 
Alaska Commercial Company, $200; and J. S. Doe, $200. November 20, among the 
donations were 18 specimens from the nitrate deposits of Peru, presented by Lucius 
H. Foote, U. S. Consul at Valparaiso, Chile. R. E. C. Steams read a paper "On the 
History and Distribution of the Fresh Water Mussels, and the Identity of Certain 
Alleged Species." Dr. Harkness submitted descriptions of 40 new species of fungi. 
In the Board of Trustees, the total cash on hand was reported to be $4,995.41. The 
College of Phamiacy, having been requested to remove its property as early as 
convenient, asked to be permitted to leave it in the building for some time longer; 
and its request was allowed on conditions. On motion of R. E. C. Steams, the Council 
was requested to report the actual performance of duties by parties participating in 
the benefits of the Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund. December 4, J. G. Lemmon 
presented a number of specimens of ore from Arizona and described the localities 
where collected. Dr. Harkness made remarks on the galls infesting the Quercus 
agrifolia. Dr. Behr made remarks on a wild potato found by J. G. Lemmon in Arizona. 
December 18, Dr. Harkness read a paper describing 15 new species of fiingi. Dr. 
Henry Gibbons spoke of the influence of the upper currents of air on the local climate, 
and especially on rainfalls frequently coming from the northwest. Dr. Harkness 
exhibited the jaw of a mastodon found in a tunnel in Butte County, 700 feet below 
the surface and 500 feet in from the mouth of the tunnel. L. J. Sketchley read a paper 
"On Ostrich Farming in Califomia." The nominating committee presented a ticket 
for officers of 1883. In the Board of Tmstees, it appeared a controversy had arisen 
between the secretary of the Board of Tmstees and the recording secretary of the 
Academy as to who was the secretary to give legal notice of the election. Mr. Harrison 
expressed an opinion that the election notice should come from him. It had been usual 
for the recording secretary of the Academy to give it. This year a printed notice was 
given by both secretaries. 



250 



ChapterXXII: Year 1883 



The annual meeting was held January 2. The president, having been absent, 
asked a month's indulgence for his annual address. The recording secretary 
reported the total membership to be 306, and the average attendance at meetings 
during 1 882 to have been 5 1 . The director of the museum reported that the Academy 
received during the past year, including the Crocker-Stanford Collection, an addition 
of 10,967 specimens. J. P. Moore reported the donation of what was known as the 
Voy Ethnological and Palaeontological Collection by Irving M. Scott, Andrew 
Carrigan, William B. Hyde, Jr., J. O'B. Gunn, Christian Froelich, Jr., R. H. Pease, 
Jr., A. Chabot, and W. B. Randol. On nomination of the Council, Dr. Gustav Eisen 
was elected an honorary life member. J. P. Moore, H. W. Harkness and A. Kellogg 
were appointed a committee to draft suitable resolutions of appreciation of the labors 
of Robert E. C. Steams, who was about to leave for scientific work in the East." 



2- ' Stearms had decided to leave California to tai<e a position at the Smithsonian Institution as curator 
of conchology. Just when Robert Steams first entered into negotiations with Spencer F. Baird, mostly 



through an intermediary, Wiiham H. Dall, regarding a curatorship, we do not know. We do know it had to 
be before March 17, 1881 because on that day Baird wrote to Dall, "Dear Mr. Dall, Did you write, as 
suggested to Mr. Steams, to know how he took tlie idea of coming to Washington in charge of our collection 
of snells, and possibly bringing his own to be deposited subject to the future negotiations for acquiring 
/■/.[italics ours, eds.] f think I could arrange a payment of $1 500 or even $1800 a year as curator . . ." (Si 
Archives, RU 7073 | William H. Dall Papers, 1865-1927}, Box 7.) It is clear from this and later 
correspondence that Baird was anxious to acquire the Steams shell collection, and that he recognized the 
fact that he could not do so without Steams accompanying it. On July 19th, 1881, Baird again wrote to 
Dall, "I did not before understand that Mr. Steams had resigned for the purpose of taking charge of the 
collection of shells in the National Museum; but supposed it was from disinclination to continue in the 
service of the University of Califomia. 1 also supposed that his coming to Washinton depended entirely 
upon his selling his collection; and at any rate that the main body of it at least should come to the National 
Museum, and be still subject to his control. Of course, if the sale were made, and the collection transferred 
to the Museum, all the conditions made with Mr. Steams would have been fulfilled, if his collection comes 
I will make some arrangement by which I will pay him at least $1200 a year. 

"Away from my records and memoranda, I am unable to speak positively in regard to engagements of 
this kind. Did I agree to appoint Mr. Steams conchologist curator, expecting on the condition of the 
acquisition of his cabinet? I am of course perfectly willing to fulfil [sic] any promise that 1 have made 
conditionally or unconditionally. 

"In the reorganizing of the Museum for the fiscal year 1 881 and 1 882, 1 found it necessary to exercise a 
very rigid economy inorder to make both ends meet, and the margin for permanent additional employees 
is but small, — considerably less than 1 had supposed possible. . . . Acting under the impression that the 
Steams' call to Washington was on condition of his being accompanied by his collection of shells, and in 
the uncertainty as to whether this could be secured, I had not made any definite provision for him . . ." 
(SIArchives, RU 7073 {William H. Dall Papers, 1865-1927}, Box 7.) 

Although Steams let it be known that he planned to leave Califomia for the East, he does not seem to 
have taken any positive steps for several months. Indeed, on August 22, 1883, Steams wrote to Baird, "I 
had a letter from Mr. Dall (fated the 30th June in which he informed me that you intended to nut my name 
on the roll of curators and allow me the usual monthly salary, the amt thereof to go on (- ?-) of the collection, 
until I entered upon the regular duties of the curatorship ... so that I supposed that the arrangement would 
commence with the new fiscal year July 1st and have been expecting a remittance accordingly. 

" My health on the whole is better; our house has been placed in the hands of a real estate broker to sell, 
and we are praying for speedy good fortune in the matter of a quick sale. . ." (SIArchives, RU 7002 {Spencer 
Fullerton Baird Collection, 1793-1923}, Box 33.) 



CHAPTER XXII: 1883 



251 




Gustavus Augustus Eisen (ca. 1910) 

(Photo by Dr. Peder S. Bruguiere, who taught Eisen photography) 

Courtesy Mrs. Ann-Lisa Maneskj old-Lower, Altoona, Pennsylvania 

The annual election resulted in the choice of Professor George Davidson as president; 
Justin P. Moore, first vice-president; H. H. Behr, second vice-president; Samuel B. 
Christy, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, recording secretary; Elisha 
Brooks, treasurer; Charles Troyer, librarian; W. G. W. Harford, director of the 
museum; George E. Gray, Ralph C. Harrison, James M. McDonald, Robert W. 
Simpson, Thomas P. Madden, Charles F. Crocker, and Lewis Gerstle, trustees. 
Professor Davidson described the Transit of Venus, as observed by him in New 
Mexico; and J. P. Moore described the same Transit of Venus, as observed by him 
on Monte Diablo in California. In the Board of Trustees, the allowance to C. D. 
Gibbes from the Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund was discontinued on request 
of the Council. The financial report showed the receipts from all sources for 1882 to 
have been $28,445.14, and the disbursements $25,707.04 leaving a balance of 
$2,738.10. Donations had been received during the year of $19,758.50 in cash and 
$12,300 in property (being $12,000 for the Mrs. E. B. Crocker Collection and $300 
for the Voy Collection) making a total of $32,058.50. The Crocker Scientific 
Invesdgafion Fund yielded $1,200 out of which had been paid the allowances to Dr. 
Kellogg and C. D. Gibbes and also certain expenses attending investigations of the 
"Carson Footprints." 

January 15, J. G. Lemmon read a paper "On the Potato; Its Early History; its 
Properties, Uses, Degeneration and Restoration." Professor Hitchcock," " of Dart- 

22-2 Charles H. Hitchcock, son of Edward Hitchcock, St., and New Hampshire state geologist, 1 868-1 878. 



252 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

mouth College, was introduced and spoke of the "Northern Glacial Moraines." In the 
Board of Trustees, George E. Gray was elected president; Thomas P. Madden, 
presidentpro tern, and C. W. Brooks, secretary. January 29, in the Council, president 
Davidson read a letter from Mr. Hamburger of Sacramento that called attention to 
bill no. 302 offered in the State Senate to publish the maps of the State Geological 
Survey. On Prof Davidson's recommendation the Council adopted a resolution to 
endorse the act. 

February 5, Francesco Lambertenghi (Italian consul). Dr. Paoli de Vecchi, S. B. 
Leavitt, and William R. Eckert"^ were elected resident members. W. J. Forsyth read 
a paper "On the Cinchona and the Method of its Cultivation as Conducted in the East 
Indies." J. G. Lemmon read a continuation of his paper "On the Potato." Interest in 
establishing a Microscopical Section of the Academy was expressed by some 
members. The Council announced the appointment as curators of E. F. Lorquin on 
birds and mammals; J. J. Rivers, radiates, reptiles and Crustacea; C. G. Yale, fishes; 

A. B. Stout, ethnology and osteology; J. P. Moore and Mary K. Curran, botany; H. 
H. Behr, entomology; Josiah Keep, conchology; C. D. Gibbes and J. T. Evans, 
mineralogy; Edward Booth, geology and palaeontology. In the Board of Trustees, the 
committee on new quarters reported that they could find no satisfactory building 
available. The cash on hand was $3,439.50. February 19, Dr. F. V. Hopkins, Henry 

B. Osgood, Miss M. H. Jones, and Mrs. Donald McLennan were elected resident 
members. Professor Joseph LeConte read a paper "On the Genesis of Metalliferous 
Veins." A joint committee, chosen by members of the Board of Trustees, the Council, 
and the Academy at large, was appointed to consider the most expedient manner of 
obtaining a much needed pemianent building for the use of the Academy and the 
proper display of the museum to the public. It was composed of James M. McDonald, 
Charles F. Crocker, Thomas P. Madden, Lewis Gerstle, George Davidson, Justin P. 
Moore, Charles G. Yale, H. H. Behr, H. W. Harkness, William A. Aldrich, William 
Norris, Frederick Gutzkow, Jacob Z. Davis, and Thomas Price. In the Board of 
Trustees, there was much discussion in reference to a new building and the unsatis- 
factory condition of Crocker-Stanford Collection. 

March 5, Gen. J. F. Houghton was elected a resident member. Mrs. J. G. Lemmon 
read a list of 36 ferns, mostly from Arizona, collected by her and presented to the 
Academy. A paper by C. L. Hooper of the U. S. Revenue Marine, on "Arctic 
Currents," was read. In the Board of Trustees, on recommendation of the Council, 
Dr. Behr was allowed the use of the Academy Hall for one hour each Monday for 
instruction in botany to the senior class of the Pharmaceutical Society. It was 
announced that the settling of the main floor of the Academy building had been 
arrested by the owners. A communication was received from the secretary of the 
Society of California Pioneers in reference to giving of a portion of the Academy's 
lot on Market Street, parallel to Market, and cutting the Academy lot into two parts. 
It was laid on the table for future consideration. March 19, Richard Rising, E. J. 



22^ Spelt "Eckert" in the handwritten Minute Books (Stated Minutes, Dec. 1 880- 1 890, for both Dec. 1 8, 
1 882 (p. 92) and Feb. 5, 1 883 (p. 98). In the Membership Records book, someone pencilled in a change of 
spelling to "Eckart." 



CHAPTER XXII: 1883 



253 




Charles F. Crocker 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 




James John Rivers 

E. O. Essig Portrait File 

California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



254 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

Wilson, W. S. Campbell, and Rev. B. F. Rattray were elected resident members. Dr. 
Behr read a paper "On Remains of Elephants from Siberia." Professor Davidson read 
a paper on the "Temperature of Sea Water of the Pacific and its hifluence on 
Propagation of Oysters." The president said the secretary, Mr. Yale, had prepared the 
proceedings of the Academy for some years back for publication;"' " and Dr. Kellogg 
exhibited a large number of sketches of California trees and other plants, prepared 
for photo-lithographing. He stated that his work was being done under the auspices 
of the Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund management. So far as Proceedings of 
the Academy were concerned, however, none were ever published for the ten years 
between 1876 and 1887, as has already been stated. 

April 2, among the donations were the first ostrich eggs laid in California; also 
the lower jaw of an animal found in the sandstone quarry of the Nevada State Prison 
at Carson, which C. D. Gibbes pronounced to be from a specimen of Machairodus 
or saber-tooth tiger. Dr. Kellogg read a catalogue of plants donated by C. G. Pringle, 
Dr. Behr described a new flowering plant found near San Francisco, which he named 
Anemone Grayii. Col. John E. Gowan, a specialist in marine engineering, was 
introduced and described the method in which the Russian vessels, sunk at Sebastopol 
in the Crimean war, had been raised. Dr. Harkness read a paper, describing his ''Homo 
Nevadensis" which he claimed to be a new species of the genus Homo, whose 
footprints had been found at the State Prison quarry at Carson, Nevada. As these 
Carson footprints attracted great attention, and as the claim that some of them were 
human and proved the existence of man as early as the beginning of the Quaternary 
period became a subject of considerable discussion and caused not a little comment 
on the mistake made in reference to them, it is deemed proper to give the main facts 
in detail. 

About the middle of May 1882, W. J. Hanks, sheriff of Storey County, Nevada, 
while on a visit to the Crocker-Stanford Collection in San Francisco, called the 
attention of Charles D. Gibbes of the California Academy of Sciences to reports of 
footprints, both of men and animals, at the quarry of the State Prison at Carson, 
Ornisby County, Nevada. He suggested that they should be examined by scientific 
men, and said that he would make arrangements with his friend, William Garrard, 
the warden of the Nevada State Prison, for the entertainment and furnishing of all 
facilities for examination to any scientist who might be sent there for that purpose. 
On his return to Nevada, Mr. Hanks went to the State Prison quaiTy and on June 26 
wrote to Mr. Gibbes that he had examined the footprints and found mastodon tracks 
22 inches in diameter, "as plain as if made yesterday." In speaking of the other 
footprints, he said "the man's track is very plain, his track measures 22 inches in 
length. There are bird tracks, women's tracks, and many other fossil remains. It is the 
most wonderftil formation in the world." Mr. Gibbes showed this letter to B. B. 



22"' Destined to become volume 1 of the Bulletin (Number 1 of volume 1 issued Feb. 29, 1884), a short 
lived serial publication of the Academy which was replaced by the Proceedings series when the latter was 
revived in 1887-88. Although Charles G. Yale initially served as "editor" of the first number of volume 
one of the Bulletin, it was Mrs. Mary K. Curran who did the final editing and saw it through the press. 
Volume 1 of the Bulletin consisted of four parts or numbers, the last of which was issued on Jan. 2, 1885. 
Volume 2, numbers 5 through 8 (the last number published), covers the period Jan. 27, 1 886 to the end of 
September, 1887. 



CHAPTER XXII: 1883 255 

Redding who agreed to go with him and examine the footprints; and Mr. Gibbes then 
wrote to Mr. Garrard, who on July 2 answered, inviting Mr. Gibbes and Mr. Redding 
to come up and remain with him, while making their examinations, as guests of the 
State of Nevada, at the same time stating that he was expecting a visit from Professors 
Joseph LeConte and W. B. Rising of the University of California. Mr. Garrard, in his 
letter, said of the tracks that had been laid bare in the quarry: "well defined human 
footprints, 2 1 inches long, covered by 34 feet of sandstone, are found nowhere else 
that I know of." On the receipt of this invitation, Mr. Gibbes again saw Mr. Redding, 
whose business engagements, however, prevented him from going to Nevada at that 
time; and Mr. Gibbes then spoke to Dr. Harkness and Mr. Scupham, who both agreed 
to go at once. They accordingly went to Carson, Dr. Harkness and Mr. Gibbes on July 
20, and Mr. Scupham met them there the next day. Professors LeConte and Rising 
arrived on July 22. All these gentlemen, after remaining a couple of days and making 
a very carefiil examination of the tracks, left again; but Mr. Gibbes remained ten days, 
making drawings, photographs, measurements and casts. 

The Nevada State Prison is situated about a mile and a half east of Carson City, 
at the north end of a low ridge of sandstone, the termination of a short spur of Pine 
Nut Mountain, about three miles east of the edge of the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, 
and at an elevation of 4,490 feet above sea level. A portion of the sandstone ridge, of 
a area of about one and a half acres, had been quarried out to a depth of from 12 to 
32 feet; and the floor of this excavated portion constituted the site upon which the 
prison buildings had been erected and the prison yard in which the tracks referred to 
were exposed. These tracks were described by Mr. Gibbes as consisting mainly of a 
mammoth track and six series of footprints shaped like those of moccasined or 
sandled human feet. The mammoth track, situated near the east wall of the yard, 
consisted of eight large, somewhat rounded footprints, 21 by 22 inches in diameter, 
with an average step 4-'/2 feet long, and a straddle of from 12 to 16 inches, apparently 
made by a mammoth or mastodon. A line of eighteen smaller footprints, 4 by 3-'/2 
inches in size, shaped something like a dog's track and supposed to have been made 
by a hyena or some animal like it, crossed the line of the large tracks. The first series 
of the footprints, resembling human ones, situated near the southeast comer of the 
yard, consisted of twenty-seven footprints disposed in three lines. The first and 
principal line was straight and regular, the footprints being 19 inches in length by 8 
inches wide at the ball of the foot and 6 inches at the heel. The step was about 27 
inches, and the straddle 18 inches. The second line seemed to be a return of the first. 
The footprints of the third line were of the same character but considerably smaller 
and crowded together; and near these last mentioned footprints but apart from all the 
other tracks were indications of a large animal lying down or wallowing. Between 
the second and third of the above mentioned lines were five footprints of some large 
animal, about 8 inches in diameter; and running from the first to the third line was a 
line of smaller footprints, about 5 inches in diameter, apparently made by some feline 
animal. The second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth series were all near the southwest 
comer of the prison yard. They were all of footprints similar to those of the first and 



256 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 










a: 
o 
o 







f >5 










^ 



o o ^ 

c S 2i 

ca 3 c 

•- j« « 

T3 ^ > 

g ^ W 

^ ■- .1 

t/D c/5 ^ 

c c p3 

'^^ 5 cr> 



8 o I' 

o S ^ 

.pi 

O <L< 

lu ^ s: 

:S a ^ 
^Q ^ 
'I ^ ^2 

■= ^ ^ 

2^2 
M.t: £ 

2 O =- 

g c « 

E « ^ 
o U , 



<u 



C CO _ 
■r 13 CO 

2 > ^ 

3 o g 

I ^^ 

o § ^ 
O 3 ■£ 
> a- 



CHAPTER XXII: 1883 257 

second lines of the first series. No. 2 consisted of 13 prints straight and regular; No. 
3 of 15 prints, rather irregular; No. 4 of 14 prints going parallel to No. 2 and crossing 
No. 3; No. 5 of 44 prints, extending 1 12 feet to the west wall of the yard, and No. 6 
of 15 prints, crossing No. 5, near the wall. In addition to these, there were numerous 
tracks of large wading birds with three toes 5 inches long, having a step of from 23 
to 24 inches, crossing portions of series 1, 2, 3 and 4, and a few deer tracks. All the 
tracks had apparently bee made in a soft clay or mud deposit from three to five inches 
deep, sufficiently consistent to retain the impressions, which afterwards hardened and 
were subsequently covered with other deposits, but too soft to preserve impressions 
of nails or claws. 

The almost immediate results of the examination of these tracks by the gentlemen 
above named were the four papers read before the Academy as already mentioned 
under their proper dates - the first by Dr. Harkness on August 7, the second by J. R. 
Scupham on the same day, the third by Professor LeConte on August 27, and the 
fourth by C. D. Gibbes on September 4, 1882." Dr. Harkness, who read the first 
paper, showed that the deposit in which the footprints appeared were of the lower 
Quaternary period and of fresh water origin, and he pronounced the six series above 
described to be "the tracks of men," and that they wore sandals. He said that no single 
impression furnished conclusive evidence of the sandal; but that when studied as a 
whole we can determine with a good deal of exactness the actual length and breadth 
of the sandal, which we find to be eighteen and one half inches in length, eight inches 
(wide) at the ball of the foot, while the heel is six inches in breadth." He gave the 
breadth of the straddle as eighteen inches "as measured from the center of the sandal 
of one foot to the center of the corresponding one," meaning the transverse distance 
from the middle of the center line of one foot to the center line of the other. He noticed, 
as the main objections to the claim that the footprints were those of men, the colossal 
size of the sandal, and the width of the straddle which was "so marked as to cause a 
suspicion that they were those of an animal other than of man." He argued that the 
sandal was made of wood, gouged out with an obsidian or flint chisel, and having a 
raised border, through holes in which it was tied to the foot, and for these reasons 
was necessarily large. As to its length, he said he had a diagram of a shoe worn by a 
man, six feet in height, then living in an adjoining county, which was but one half 
inch shorter than the sandal in question. In reference to the straddle, he would only 
say that, "in walking in muddy slippery places, we all walk with our feet further 
separated," and that "by using such an unwieldy foot gear as we have described, such 
a position of the feet would be almost a necessity." After Dr. Harkness had finished, 
Mr. Scupham read a paper upon the same subject, in which he seems to have confined 
himself chiefly to a description of what he had seen; but he intimated that, if the 
footprints were human, the individual who made one the tracks was probably 
dragging a heavy weight for the reason that the toes were so far out and the step was 
so short and irregular. 

Professor Joseph LeConte, who read the next paper on August 27, devoted his first 



22-5 See footnote 21.3. 



258 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

attention to the deposit and determined it to be either of the Quaternary or Upper 
Pliocene period. As to the so-called mammoth or mastodon tracks, he said they were 
"undoubtedly those of an elephant"; but as to the "supposed human tracks" he was 
not so certain. He said that no one who saw them could "fail to be struck with their 
remarkable general resemblance, both in their form and in their apparent singleness 
of each impression, to human tracks." But their size was far too great for any human 
foot, and the fonn, he thought too much curved, and added, "if human, it is more like 
the jaunty step of the parlor than the careless tread of the forest." On the subject of 
size, he continued that it was, however, 

not necessary to suppose the foot bare. There may have been a foot covering, and this 
would at once explain the absence of toe marks. Major Garrard's original suggestion 
was that the foot was moccasined; but this still leaves the great size unexplained. The 
acute suggestion of Dr. Harkness is more plausible. He supposes that the foot sole was 
protected by a large sandal of wood. He finds evidence of this in certain flat spaces at 
the toe and along the sides of some few of the tracks. But in most cases, especially where 
the track is deep, nothing of the kind is seen; the bottom is round, more like the 
impression of a moccasin than a sandal. It is well known that the Mexican Indians now 
wear a sandal of thick leather or rawhide, called 'huarache,' and that it is often made 
much larger than the foot. If we regard the tracks as human, the best suggestion I can 
make is that the foot was protected by a huarache, which at first was stiff enough to 
make a flat track, but becoming soft by wetting would soon make a round track like a 
moccasin. I say, the best suggestion I can make; but even so, the prodigious size of the 
tracks can hardly be explained. 

He, however, found the most serious difficulty in the straddle. After remarking 

that "the necessary conditions of steady and effective walking in a biped is that the 

feet should barely pass each other without touching," he continued: 

with broad sandals on, of course, the foot-centers would be more separated; but only 
by the width of the sandal. Perhaps in boggy ground, with sandals encumbered with 
mud, the separation of the foot-centers would be still greater, viz: the width of the mud 
encumbered sandal. But making every allowance of this kind, still the straddle is 
inexplicable. 

He then turned to the quadrupedal theory, and said he had little or no better success 

than with the bipedal theory. 

On this view, the tracks were made by a large, clumsy-footed planti-grade animal, each 
track being a double track of the two feet on one side ~ the one foot partly or wholly 
treading out the track of the other. This would account for the irregularity in the shape 
of the tracks of the same series, and especially for the wide straddle. 

But, 

if it be asked what animal, on this view, made the tracks, I must confess I do not know. 
The two animals, which came into my mind while looking at the tracks, were the bear 
and the extinct gigantic ground-sloth, the Mylodoii - perhaps more likely the latter. 

He, however, could not find any toe marks or claw marks, and he looked in vain 

for any certain indications of double tracks. An he ended his remarks on these 

human-looking tracks with the words: 

In conclusion, then, the one strong argument for the bipedal theory is the apparent 
singleness of the tracks and the absence of the toe-marks, while the one strong argument 
for the quadrupedal theory is the wide space between the right and the left series of 
tracks. To this may perhaps be added, also the size and shape. It seems to me that 



CHAPTER XXII: 1883 259 

inductive caution requires that the judicious mind should hold itself in suspense awaiting 
more evidence. Meanwhile, however, my own mind inclines strongly to the latter theory. 

On the other hand, C. D. Gibbes, who read his paper on September 4, 1882, and 

who spent ten days in his examinations, measurements, drawings and descriptions, 

was very positive that the disputed tracks were human. It is true that in his printed 

paper, he sometimes put an interrogation mark after the word "human"; but he 

believed and argued that they were human. He said; 

When we tread in these gigantic foot prints, made by a race of men that passed away 
many thousand years ago, it tells a story of the ancient life of man written on the sands 
of time, that makes it difficult to overcome the fact that they are of human origin. 

In reference to one series of the tracks, called by him the third series, where the 
toes were turned out more than usual and the stepping was irregular, he said that it 
was the one the Mr. Scupham thought might have been made by a man dragging a 
heavy weight; "but," continued Mr. Gibbes, "if he had been, his own track would 
have been obliterated, and another trail left in its place. May it have been a woman 
with a heavy burden as the squaws carry now?" Mr. Gibbes further said: 

With regard to the size of the foot prints, presuming they are of human origin (of which 
there can scarcely be a doubt) they were not made by any person of an ordinary size; 
for would any common man take such long steps in mud? Why should there not have 
been a large race of man in the old world, as well as animals of enonnous size?" 

And again: 

In conclusion, as doubts have been expressed as to the human origin of these foot prints, 
particularly by those who have not seen them, thinking perhaps that they were made by 
a bear or some unknown animal, I would say that both in Texas and in this country, 
have I trailed not only animals, but the Indian or the war path, for miles at a time. And 
that many frontiersmen of great experience in tracking Indians, and also bear and other 
game, have witnessed these foot prints, and all give their judgment without question in 
favor of their human origin. 

Subsequently on October 2, 1882, Mr. Gibbes read a paper on the "Fossil Jaw of 
a Mammoth" found in the Carson State Prison yard, which he took to be a portion of 
the lower jaw, with part of a tooth attached, of an Elephas Americauus or Elephas 
intermedius, and also a paper on a "New Discovery of Fossil Bird Tracks," found at 
the same place, which had four toes, the middle one of which measured five inches 
and the hind one two inches, with a foot spread of nine inches, and a step of from 2 1 
to 23 inches. 

No ftirther paper upon the "Carson Foot-prints" was presented to the Academy, 
although there was more or less talk upon the subject, until this meeting of April 2, 
1 883, when Dr. Harkness read his paper, as above stated, on his ""Homo Nevadensis", 
in which he seems to have reiterated his former opinion as to the human origin of the 
disputed footprints and thought himself justified in regarding them as proofs of a new 
species of the genus Homo, to which he gave the specific name of Nevadensis. This 
paper, though read to the Academy, was not published; nor was that of Mr. Scupham; 
but all the others mentioned above were printed as loose sheets of Proceedings of the 
Academy; and it is from them that the account here given is made up. It may be added 
that at the end of the printed copy of Professor LeConte's paper, there was an 
"Addendum," subsequendy written, in which he spoke of an article, published by 



260 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Professor Edward D. Cope, and a letter written to him by Professor Marsh of Yale 
University, in which the deposits of the Carson quarry were pronounced to belong to 
the Equus Beds, belonging to the Upper Pliocene or early Quaternary period. He also, 
at that later writing, substantially indicated what is now accepted as the solution of 
the questions involved by giving the opinion of Professor Marsh in the following 
language: "From deposits of this age three species of gigantic ground sloths are 
known, viz: two species oi Morotherium and one species of Mylodon. It is not at all 
improbable, as suggested by Marsh in his letter, that the supposed human tracks were 
made by one of these. The size, the stride, the curve, and the straddle, all agree with 
this supposition." 

April 16, Melville Attwood, Mrs. F. S. Vaslit, and H. G. Parker were elected 
resident members. Professor Davidson spoke of the unusually favorable conditions 
under which the Transit of Venus observations had been made on the Pacific Coast. 
May 7, E. L. G. Steele, Rev. Edward L. Greene, William McM. Woodworth, J. A. 
Richardson, Samuel J. Clarke, August Liliencranz, and Walter M. Wolfe were elected 
resident members. Among the donations were 7 1 Arizona plants, including seven 
new species, from Mr. Lemmon, and land snails and 10 birds, two of which are new, 
from Mr. Belding. Prof Davidson deposited with the Academy 13 photographs of 
the Transit of Venus taken at Cerro Roblero Stateion, New Mexico. The committee 
on the contemplated departure of Robert E. C. Steams, who was about to proceed to 
the East to be attached to the conchological department of the Smithsonian Institution 
at Washington, presented a series of resolution, which were adopted, giving expres- 
sion to the high appreciation entertained by the Academy of the great service Mr. 
Steams had rendered it and wishing him God speed in his new sphere." A. W. 
Jackson, Jr., read a paper "On the Stmcture and Genesis of the Bassick Ore Deposits, 
Custer County, Colorado." May 2 1 , J. G. Lemmon presented 97 different species of 
Arizona plants; and Ivan Petroff read a paper on "Alaskan Boars." The president 
called attention to the gift of an eight-inch refracting telescope by A. Chabot for the 
benefit of the school children of Oakland, Alameda County. 

June 4, Chancellor Hartson was elected a resident member. R. E. C. Steams read 
a paper "On the Molluscan Fauna of the Colorado Desert and Regions East Thereof" 
A discussion ensued on the fresh- water and salt-water shells of the Colorado Desert. 
Dr. Harkness spoke of the havoc caused by the sycamore tree pest, then more general 
than it had been for some years. Professor Davidson read a paper "On D'Arrest's 
Comet." Mr. and Mrs. J. G. Lemmon presented 96 plants from the Huachuca 
Mountains in Arizona with descriptive lists. In the Board of Tmstees, it appeared that 
there was a balance of over $800 in the Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund; and 
$40 per month from it was ordered paid to Mrs. Mary K. Curran for botanical work 
on the herbarium. The Council, at its meeting on June 2, took note that Mrs. Curran 
"had for many months given her whole time to the proper arrangement and classifi- 
cation of the botanical collections of [the] Academy, and travels at her own expense 
to different parts of the country to fill wants in the collection, etc. From knowledge 



22 6 Also reported in the San Francisco Mining and Scientific Press for May ! 2, 1 883, p. 329, col. 4. 



CHAPTER XXII: 1883 



261 




Mary Katharine Layne (Ciirran) (Brandegee) 

Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation 

Carnegie-Mellon University 



of her successful labors on this special unit, the Council unanimously recommends 
this action." JUNE 18, Dr. Henry Gibbons made remarks on the "Meteorology of this 
Coast," and Dr. Harkness described a fungus attacking the leaves of cherry and apricot 
trees. 

July 2, among the donations were: from John Barker of Summer, Kern County, 
573 fossil sharks' teeth and other fossils from 200 feet above the bed of Kern River; 
and from Frank Bell three fossil teeth of a horse from the State Prison quarry at 
Carson, Nevada; also the rib of some large animal found there, and the cast of another 
foot print uncovered ten feet below the surface. J. P. Moore donated 1 8 bound books 
of reference. Professor W. P. Blake read a paper "On Remains of the Megatherium 
found in Honduras." In a discussion which followed, in reference to the Carson 
footprints. Professor Blake expressed an opinion that they were not made by a giant, 
sloth. In the Board of Trustees, it appeared that the balance of cash on hand was 
$3,010.78, including $775.85 in the Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund and 
$658.88 in the Crocker-Stanford Collection maintenance fiand. July 16, among the 
donations was a fine specimen of shad from the Columbia River, presented by Dwight 
Whiting, who said that thousands of them were "being caught and thrown away by 
salmon fishers because of their abundance." Professor Pierre J. C. Jannsen, director 
of the National Observatory at Meudon, France, and Professor Etienne L. Trouvelot, 
for many years astronomer at Harvard University but then detailed by the French 
government on the French Solar Eclipse Expedition, of which Professor Jannsen was 
the chief, were introduced to and welcomed by the Academy. Professor Jannsen 
returned thanks, speaking in French. Professor Trouvelot spoke in English in refer- 



262 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

ence to the solar protuberances and corona and also of the "red star, of 4 and 4-'/2 
magnitude, three degrees north and three degrees east of the sun at time of solar 
eclipse." Professor W. P. Blake read a paper on the fossil remains of the ''Glyptodon 
in Honduras." Dr. Kellogg spoke of a specimen of pine, presented by Thomas Holt 
as "black pine from Redwoods towards San Jose, Cal." and said it was a variety of 
Pimis Jeffreyii. Miss Rosa Smith of San Diego addressed the Academy on the "orb 
weaver," a small species of spider, named after her, by the Philadelphia Academy of 
Sciences, Zilla Rosa. Dr. Henry Gibbons gave illustrations of the remarkable inge- 
nuity of the common house spider. In the Board of Trustees, Professor Davidson, as 
chairman of the Council, asked the Board to pay the expenses of himself. Professor 
William P. Blake and C. D. Gibbes to the Carson State Prison quany to examine and 
report upon some new fossil foot prints recently uncovered, as well as to reexamine 
the old ones. He said that Professor Blake agreed to make a full report to the Academy. 
C. F. Crocker offered to furnish railroad tickets at half rates; whereupon it was ordered 
that the Academy pay the necessary expenses. H. E. Mathews, secretary of the Lick 
Trustees, reported the cash surplus at that date of the Lick estate over specific gifts 
to be $ 1 7 1 , 1 85.42, and that all the unsold property was yielding adequate rentals, the 
fonner estimate of $66,000 being considerably exceeded. 

August 6, L. Heinze and John Barker were elected resident members. Among 
the donations was a large collection of casts, fossils, and sandstone specimens of foot 
prints from the Carson quarry, presented by Frank Bell, William Garrard. Professor 
Davidson and C. D. Gibbes; also serpentine from St. George's Reef, Crescent City 
Lighthouse rock, from Captain A. H. Payson, U.S.A., and a cube of Oregon sandstone 
from the beach north of Port Orford, said to be one of the finest building stones found 
on the Pacific Coast. Dr. Harkness read a new paper entitled "Remarks on Footprints 
of Homo Nevadensis at Carson." C. D. Gibbes made a new report on the same subject, 
and Professor Davidson read a report purporting to be made on behalf of the 
committee appointed by the Tmstees to examine the locality. None of these papers 
was published. In the Board of Trustees, Professor Davidson asked for $76.62 for the 
expenses of himself and party out of the Crocker Scientific Investigation fund; and 
it was so ordered against the objections of Captain McDonald, who insisted upon a 
strict construction of the express purposes for which that fund had been given to the 
Academy and contended that nor part of it should be used except for those express 
purposes. AUGUST 20, Dr. Harkness presented fresh-water sponges from a small lake 
at the summit of the Sierra Nevada. A paper by Captain C. L. Hooper on "Arctic 
Summer" was read, and also a letter from William R. Bentley, describing perpetually 
frozen ground in a shaft 108 feet deep, in Idaho. SEPTEMBER 3, among the donations 
were 151 freshwater land and fossil shells by F. A. Sampson. Dr. Behr read a paper 
on "Organic Underground Life." SEPTEMBER 17, Miss Rosa Smith, William H. 
Matthews, and W. W. Elliott were elected resident members. General J. F. Houghton 
read a paper on the "King Fish" or spat, Lampris guttatusT^^ found in Monterey Bay. 
Professor Davidson called attention to a controversy going on in the American 



-2^ Incorrectly shown as "grettatus" in the handwritten minutes {Minute Books, p. 1 1 7) for this date. 



CHAPTER XXII: 1883 263 

Association^" in reference to glaciers, and referred to papers read in the Academy, 
showing the action of glaciers (^.v.) on this coast. 

October 1 , Professor Davidson spoke on "Earthquake Waves and the Means of 
Recording Them." Dr. Harkness called attention to the fact that a paper had been read 
in the Academy on August 6, purporting to be a report of a committee appointed to 
examine the Carson footprints, and asked the secretary who appointed that commit- 
tee. The secretary answered that he had no knowledge of any such committee. 
Professor Davidson then stated that no committee had been appointed by the Acad- 
emy, but that he and another member had been requested by the Trustees to go to 
Carson and investigate certain new tracks, and they had invited Professor Blake to 
accompany them. OCTOBER 15, in the Board of Trustees, it appeared that there was 
some talk of procuring a new lot and building for the Academy as indicated by a 
formal offer by C. G. Hooker to sell a lot on the east side of Van Ness Avenue between 
Fulton and Grove streets at the rate of $300 a front foot. October 27, at a meeting 
of the Building Committee, there was more talk about selling the Market Street 
property and purchasing a new lot for the Academy. Dr. Davis submitted a plan for 
buying a lot on the northwest comer of McAllister and Larkin, for about $50,000. Dr. 
Harkness, who seemed favorable to selling the Market Street lot, also said that San 
Francisco Park Commissioner Pixley had assured him that a location for a building 
might be obtained in the Park itself Following further discussion, a vote to recom- 
mend to the Trustees the selling the Market Street property resulted in 5 ayes and 5 
noes, and the motion was defeated. This was followed by a vote on Mr. Bowman's 
proposal to recommend that the Board of Trustees lease the Market Street property 
for a term of 20 years. The motion passed by a vote of 8 ayes and 2 abstentions. 

November 5, N. W. Tallant, Lewis B. Harris, and William Zimmerman were 
elected resident members. Among the donations: a container of snakes from Isthmus 
Darien, Panama, from Mr. Wasserman, 13 bird skins from Point Barrow, Alaska, 
from A. C. Dark, and from Mr. Lemmon, 35 specimens of the Polemonium family 
of plants of which seven are new. Dr. Steneker read a paper on the Steller sea cows, 
found on Behring and Copper Islands. The species was said to be extinct, no living 
specimen having existed for sixty years. Mrs. Mary K. Curran read a paper "On a 
Hybrid Oak near Folsom, Quercus Kelloggii and Quercus Wislizenii ."' Professor 
Davidson read papers on "Solar Eclipse of October 30""," "Notes on Appearance of 
Saturn," "A Brilliant Meteor," and " Trouvelot's Red Star." In the Board of Trustees, 
it appeared that the resolution, which had been adopted September 4, 1882, declining 
to make any defense to the suit of the Lick Trustees to quiet title to the strip of 40 
feet of ground adjoining the Academy's lot on Market Street, and disclaiming any 
interest therein had gone too far, inasmuch as the Academy did have a very consid- 
erable interest in it as one of the residuary beneficiaries of the Lick estate, of which 
that lot was a part. The former resolution, therefore, was rescinded and a new 
resolution adopted, setting forth the interest of the Academy as above indicated, 
which was ordered to be transmitted to the Lick Trustees. November 19, W. F. Goad 



22-8 American Association for the Advancement of Science. 



264 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

was elected a resident member. Mary K. Curran donated three volumes of "Genera 
Plantarum" by G. Bentham and J. D. Hooker. Mrs. J. G. Lemmon read a paper entitled 
"Field Notes on Arizona Plants," and E. J. Molera, a paper "On the Aztec Calendar 
Stone."^^^ 

December 3, Dr. Behr read a paper on "Evolution." Professor Davidson read a 
paper on the "New Bogoslov Volcano." He also spoke of the Pons-Brooke comet, 
and said it had been visible to the naked eye on December 1 . He likewise spoke of 
the shadows and bright portions of Saturn's rings, and, on request explained, as far 
as he knew, the progress of the telescope for the Lick observatory. In the Board of 
Trustees, R. C. Harrison reported that the Lick Trustees did not desire any appeal 
from the decision and decree of the Superior court construing the Lick Deed of Trust 
and requested all parties interested to file papers expressly waiving their right of 
appeal so that final settlement of the Trust might thereby be expedited. A resolution 
was adopted to authorize the waiver of all right to appeal, if, and after, all other parties 
filed such waiver. The secretary reported that the maintenance fund to defray the 
expenses of the Crocker-Stanford Collection, which seems to have been still kept on 
exhibition, was overdrawn $302.20. December 17, Professor Davidson gave an 
explanation of the method of detennining the difference of declination between the 
Pons-Brooke comet and any star. A discussion took place as to the causes of the "red 
sunsets." The nominating committee presented a ticket for officers of 1884. In the 
Board of Trustees, C. D. Gibbes reported that 5400 persons had visited the Crocker- 
Stanford Collection during the past year. The sum of $100 was ordered paid the 
secretary for services rendered. 



-2 9 Because the Academy had suspended publication of its Proceedings series, Molera published his 
remarks in a privately printed paper, printed in San Francisco in late 1883 (15 pp.. 1 pi.). On Nov. 27, 
Molera gave the same paper at a meetmg of the Geographical Society of the Pacific. 



265 



Chapter XXIII: Years 1884-1885 



1884 

At the annual meeting of 1 884, held JANUARY 7, Joseph Pescia was elected a 
resident member. The various officers presented their annual reports, showing 
the condition of the Academy and its progress during the past year. The following 
were declared elected officers for 1884: Professor George Davidson, president; H. 
W. Harkness, first vice-president; H. H. Behr, second vice-president; S. B. Christy, 
corresponding secretary; C. G. Yale, recording secretary; Elisha Brooks, treasurer; 
Carlos Troyer, librarian; W. G. W. Harford, director of the museum; Charles F. 
Crocker, George E. Gray, Ralph C. Harrison, R. W. Simpson, Thomas P. Madden, 
James M. McDonald, and Louis Gerstle, trustees. Professor Davidson read a paper 
on "Astronomical Research." On nomination of the Council, Dr. Harvey W. Harkness 
and Charles G. Yale were elected honorary life members. In the Board of Trustees, 
it appeared from the annual report that "every obligation had been audited and 
promptly paid, and no debt of any kind existed against the Academy. The income 
from the Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund is being expended in original research, 
in accordance with the intention of the donor and the suggestion of the Council of 
the Academy. During the year, the Trustees have had constantly in view the question 
of the disposal by lease or sale of the Market Street lot. Negotiations are still pending; 
but as yet no definite conclusions have been reached." The report further stated that 
the First Avenue lot had been fenced in, but was still vacant. It spoke of the various 
collections and said that the expenses of the Crocker-Stanford Collection for the year 
had been $2,066.15, exhausting the fiind raised from special maintenance and also 
$408.17, drawn from the fund of the Academy. The total receipts for the year had 
been $7,056.07, which added to $2,829. 1 7, on hand at the beginning of the year, made 
a total of $9,685.24. The disbursement had been $8,253.52, leaving on hand 
$1,631.72. Thanks were tendered R. C. Harrison for gratuitous services in legal 
proceedings in reference to the Lick Trust. The taxes paid during the year amounted 
in all to $2,032.83. 

January 21, J. Carlos Mexia, Dr. S. M. Mouser, Dr. W. F. Smith, H. R. Taylor, 
and Philip Labadie"^ ' were elected resident members. Among the donations were a 
collection of 20 species of spiders, eight of which were new, from Prof G. W. Peck 
of Milwaukee, and a large collection of curios from the Solomon and New Hebrides 

^^ ' J. Labadie in the handwritten minutes for Jan. 21,1 884 (p. 126 of the Minute Books). 



266 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 



Islands, from Capt. Tiemey of the whaler Rainbow. E. J. Molera read a paper "On 
the Storage of Electricity." The Council announced the appointment for the year of 
Messrs. Davidson, Yale and Behr as publication committee, and the following 
curators: E. F. Lorquin of birds and mammals; J. J. Rivers, radiates, reptiles and 
Crustacea; Miss Rosa Smith, fishes; Dr. A. B. Stout, ethnology and osteology; E. L. 
Greene and Mary K. Curran, botany; H. H. Behr, entomology; Josiah Keep, conchol- 
ogy; J. T. Evans and W. M. Wolfe, mineralogy; Melville Attwood, geology and 
palaeontology. In the Board of Trustees, George E. Gray, was elected president; 
Thomas P. Madden, president /7ro tern, and C. W. Brooks appointed secretary. 

February 4, among the donations were specimens of "flukes," Distoma hypa- 
ticum, found in the livers of sheep in Humboldt County, where many hundreds of 
sheep had been killed by them. Dr. Behr gave a sketch of the life history of Distoma 
hypaticum. Dr. Henry Gibbons spoke of the phenomena of "Red skies." On motion 
of Dr. Gibbons, a resolution was adopted recommending Professor Davidson to the 
Governor for reappointment as one of the Regents of the University of California. 
Seven papers were submitted for publication in a special "Bulletin" of the Academy. 
They were by Dr. Asa Gray, Miss Rosa Smith, Drs. Behr and Kellogg, Mrs. Mary K. 
Curran, Dr. H. W. Harkness, T. H. Evans, and Professor Davidson respectively. 
February 18, William M. Lent was elected a life member, and P. S. Buckminster, 
G. A. Moore, and Holger Berkedel resident members. J. T. Evans read a description 
of the new mineral colemanite. E. L. Greene read an obituary notice of the late Dr. 
Engelmann. Mr. C. W. Brooks read an extract from the last number of Nature 
describing some of the phenomena attending the volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in the 




Edward Lee Greene 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 



CHAPTER XXIII: 1884- 1885 267 

East Indies. In the Board of Trustees, $125 were appropriated to pay for printing a 
special Bulletin at the request of the Council. 

March 3, Dr. Behr submitted a paper entitled "A Classification of Plants, 
Founded on Evolution." A paper by C. Burckhalter and C. B. Hill was read, describing 
the transit of the fourth satellite of Jupiter on February 20, and the phenomena 
connected therewith. In the Board of Trustees, W. B. Farwell of the Society of 
California Pioneers attended and called for a positive answer regarding a proposition 
to square the end of the Academy's lot on Market Street. He announced that the 
Pioneers, jointly with J. C. Flood, the owner of the adjoining property on the south 
comer of Market and Fourth Streets, had purchased from the Lick Trustees, for 
$41,000 a strip of land, adjacent to the Pioneers' lot and running from Fourth Street 
to the Academy's lot, to be kept open as a court for the purpose of giving light and 
access to the buildings proposed to be erected on each side of it. The matter was 
referred to the prudential committee, consisting of Messrs. McDonald, Crocker and 
Gerstle, to consider and report. March 1 7, the publication was announced of Bulletin 
No. 1, the first regular publication of the Academy since 1876.' " It consisted of 59 
pages. The secretary stated that Mrs. Curran had prepared the manuscripts and 
oversaw their publication. On motion of Dr. Stout, a vote of thanks was extended 
Mrs. Curran for her volunteer efforts. A discussion took place on the subject of 
artesian wells and natural gas. April 7, E. L. Greene read "Botanical Notes of a Trip 
in San Luis Obispo and Monterey Counties." A letter was read from William Carter 
of North Vallejo, Solano County, stating that his grain fields had been attacked by 
the Hessian fly. Dr. Harkness explained the progress of growth of the fly, and 
exhibited under the microscope its eggs and larvae. He also exhibited galls from an 
oak tree in Yosemite valley and described the life history of the cynips found in them. 
April 21, A. D. Wilder, W. H. Smyth, Frederick H. Jenssen,"' ' Dr. J. M. Selfridge, 
and William Freeborn were elected resident members. Dr. Behr read a paper on 
"Classification of Insects." Dr. Harkness presented a species of truffle found at Santa 
Cruz and a species found by J. J. Rivers near Duncan's Mills in Sonoma County. 

May 5, Edward Probert was elected a resident member. Dr. Behr read a paper on 
the "Germ Theory of Disease." Dr. Harkness did not exactly agree with Dr. Behr in 
his conclusions on the germ theory; and a discussion ensued between those gentlemen 
on the subject. Professor Davidson made remarks about a recent trip by him to the 
City of Mexico. Two days earlier, in the Council, long-time member Amos Bowman 
was ordered dropped from membership for non-payment of dues. C. D. Gibbes was 
appointed assistant curator of mineralogy. In the Board of Trustees, a new policy of 
fire insurance for $ 1 2,000 on the Crocker-Stanford Collection was ordered to be taken 
out at a premium of $ 1 50. Col. Abraham Andrews, in answer to a letter by him, asking 
for an exhibit for the World's Fair at New Orleans, was informed that the Academy, 

--^2 xhe date of this issue of the Bulletin is recorded as Feb. 29, 1884; part 2, Jan. 31, 1885; part 3, Feb. 
28, 1 885; part 4, pages 1 79-234, Aug. 29, pages 235-255, Oct. 1 3, pages 256-27 1 , Nov. 1 9, 275-282, Dec. 
14, pages 283-336, Dec. 15, pages 337-357, Dec. 31 (although the issue date printed on page 337 says 
January 6, 1 886), 1 885, and pages 358-372, Jan. 26, 1 886. The volume was closed on January 31,1 886. 

23^ Shown as Jennsen in the handwritten minutes for April 21, 1884 (p. 133 of the Minute Books), but 
Jenssen on the announcement of his death, April 18, 1887 (p. 230 of the Minute Books). 



268 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1 853- 1 906 

though it wished success to the Fair, had no means or material suitable for exhibition. 
May 19, Joseph D. Redding read a paper on the "Fish Interests of California." R. E. 
C. Steams made verbal remarks on edible shellfish of the Pacific Coast. Captain 
Simpson spoke of their destructiveness to fish. June 2, A. G. Bell"'*^ of Washington 
gave a brief description of a "System of Visible Speech," invented by him for teaching 
deaf persons. Dr. Behr exhibited grape leaves with Phylloxera in the "gall form," the 
first time it had been presented to the Academy. June 16, E. L. Greene described a 
new plant, which he named Crockeria in honor of Charles Crocker, the donor of the 
Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund. Dr. Behr described the habits of the army 
worm and the vine moth, giving suggestions as to remedies. Professor C. A. White 
of the U. S. Geological Survey was called on and gave an account of the biological 
work being done by the survey. 

July 7, A. Pierce was elected a life member, and Richard H. Sinton, a resident 
member. Dr. Henry Gibbons made remarks upon the poisonous qualities attributed 
to tin when acted on by the acids of fruits and vegetables. He exhibited samples of 
pure tin and tin adulterated with lead, such as is used for making fruit cans. J. T. 
Evans stated that he had made some examinations and found lead salts in cases of 
asparagus, evidently from the lead mixed with the tin to cheapen it. Dr. Gibbons called 
attention to the recurrence of the phenomena of red sunsets. July 2 1 , Dr. Behr stated 
that he had received from Baron Koels a curious web from New Mexico. It was a 
product of a colony of butterflies, which protected them from rain and wet weather. 
He thought the caterpillars belonged to the Lepidoptera family. Frederick Gutzkow 
spoke on the subject of poisoning by canned fruits. He had looked it up and found 
there had been extensive researches in respect to alloys of tin and lead — one by 
Professor Hull in America, others by Professor Weber under the auspices of the 
German government. These researches proved that the danger was insignificant and 
overestimated. They agreed that a slight addition of tin to lead overcomes the 
poisonous qualities. There would be in a tin can a very insignificant amount of lead. 
Professor Weber found the remarkable fact that if the lead was in a solution of tin 
and lead, it was precipitated by the alloy itself He did not think there would be any 
danger at all from the minute quantity of lead. The subject of poisoning from 
ice-cream was also described briefly. In the Board of Trustees, a letter was received 
from W. B. Farwell, stating that he was authorized by J. C. Flood to offer $200,000 
in cash for the Academy's Market Street lot. The matter was referred to the prudential 
committee. 

August 4, the subject of poisoning by canned fruits again came up for discussion. 
Mr. Gutzkow reiterated his previous statement that thorough, careful and scientific 
investigation had proved that there was no danger in using lead with tin for fruit cans. 
Descriptive notes of the volcano of Bogoslov in Behring's Sea by Lieutenant Doty 
of the U. S. Revenue Marine, were read and photographs exhibited showing views 
of the new island fonned during the recent emptions. Professor Davidson described 
a recent brief visit to the Grand Caiion of the Colorado River. Frederick Gutzkow 



^^ '' Recorded as A. M. Bell in the handwritten minutes (p. 136 of the Minute Books). 



CHAPTER XXIII: 1884- 1885 269 

described the method of retorting quicksilver in vacuo. AUGUST 18, among the 
donations was a ''Boa imperator" presented by Captain William Lund of the brig 
"Dora." A letter was read from W. C. Chapin in reference to the sinking of a deep 
well in the Forty-mile Desert, White Plains, Nevada, where specimens of wood had 
been brought up from a depth of 1 6 1 5 feet, the stratum or piece of wood pierced being 
9 feet thick. Professor Davidson gave the results of a computation of the occultation 
of Venus by the moon. Charles W. Brooks was requested to find out from Mr. Lorquin 
if it were really true that sixty small snakes were taken from the specimen of Boa 
imperator, presented by Captain Lund, when it was being prepared by the taxidermist. 
Captain Lund described briefly the Tres Marias Islands in the Pacific Ocean about 
60 miles off San Bias. In the Board of Trustees, the prudential committee, consisting 
of Messrs. McDonald, Crocker and Gerstle reported that "at present it is not advisable 
to sell the Academy's Market Street lot." The report was approved and adopted, and 
Mr. Flood's offer of $200,000 cash for it declined. SEPTEMBER 1, Joseph Durbrow 
was elected a resident member. A paper giving an account of the first ascent of the 
volcano Makushin on the Island of Unalaska in the Aleutian chain was read; also a 
paper by C. W. Brooks on "Arctic Drift and Ocean Currents."""^ September 15, 
among the donations was a cast of a fragment of the lower jaw of a mammoth, found 
at the Carson, Nevada, State Prison quarry, presented by C. D. Gibbes. A letter was 
read from Lieutenant Doty, describing the old and new volcanic islands of Bogoslov 
in Behring's Sea. In the Board of Trustees, an invitation was received from the Society 
of California Pioneers asking members of the Academy to attend the laying of the 
comer stone of the new Pioneer Building on Fourth Street. 

October 6, among the donations were a plant and seeds of Chenepodium Quinoa, 
presented by William N. Meeks. Dr. Stout made remarks in reference to the plant, 
describing its uses in Peru, where it was cultivated as a food plant. He said that Mr. 
Meeks, having described its uses in Peru, where it is cultivated as a food plant, had 
raised some of the grain in this State and was desirous of seeing it cultivated on a 
large scale in California. Professor Davidson submitted by title several papers on 
astronomical subjects. He read papers on "Partial Solar Eclipse, October 18, 1884." 
"Volcanic Activity of Four Islands, Behring's Sea," and "The Comet Wolf" A. W. 
Jackson, Jr. of the University of California gave the morphology of the new mineral, 
"Colemanite." October 20, Dr. Behr addressed the Academy on the habits of a 
beetle, called Tigiodera croza, which always follows locust and grasshopper pests. 
The specimens shown had been brought from the Gila Desert by Mrs. Curran. 
Professor Davidson exhibited the Foucault pendulum in illustration of the rotation of 
the earth. J. Z. Davis asked if notice had been given the Board of Trustees to remove 
the Crocker-Stanford Collection from Mercantile Library Hall. The question was 
prompted by the general understanding that the managers of the Mercantile Library 
Association desired the use of their hall for other purposes; and in view of the 



2^ -'' Brooks' extended remarks on studies of Arctic drift and currents were privately printed in 1 884 (Geo. 
Spaulding & Co., San Francisco, printers) in a pamphlet of 18 pages bearmg the title, "Arctic Drift and 
Ocean Currents, Illustrated by the Discovery on an Ice-Floe off the Coast of Greenland of Relics from the 
American Arctic Steamer 'Jeannette.'" 



270 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1853-1906 

necessary removal of the Crocker- Stanford Collection, there was a question where it 
should be removed to and what should be done with it. Dr. Harkness protested against 
any proposition to remove it to the Academy building on California and Dupont 
Streets, and advocated hiring a safe place to store it. Mr. Davis offered a resolution 
that the collection be boxed up and stored. Mr. Harford thought the resolution out of 
order for the reason that the matter was in the exclusive jurisdiction of the Board of 
Trustees. Dr. Harkness thought the Trustees would desire to have an expression of 
opinion from the Academy. A general discussion ensued; and it was finally deter- 
mined, on motion of Mr. Molera, to appoint a committee of three to confer with the 
Trustees on the subject. Messrs. Molera, Harkness and Behr were appointed such 
committee. In the Board of Trustees, it appeared that on October 1 5 a notice had been 
served upon the Academy by the Mercantile Library Association to raise the rent of 
Mercantile Library Hall from $60 to $500 per month, payable in advance, commenc- 
ing with the next month. At a special meeting of the Trustees on October 22, Messrs. 
Molera, Harkness and Behr appeared before the Board and expressed an opinion that 
it was inexpedient to move the collection to the Academy building. The result was a 
discussion, and finally a reference of the subject to the pnidential committee; but it 
seemed evident that the Trustees did not see so much objection as the committee did 
to storing the collection in the Academy building, objectionable in many respects as 
it was. 

November 3, Dr. Harkness referred to remarks made by him at the previous 
meeting in regard to the removal of the Crocker-Stanford Collection from Mercantile 
Library Hall. He said that he had regarded the matter as a case of urgency, and that 
he did not intend to reflect in any manner upon the Board of Trustees. Mr. Molera, 
who appears to have been a trustee of the Mercantile Library Association, said that 
there had been a discussion among the Library Trustees as to the lease to the Academy 
of their Hall; that a suggestion had been made that the Academy could not be required 
to move as it had at least a verbal lease; that the notice to raise the rent had been 
served only as a legal measure and under an apprehension that litigation might arise, 
and that the Library Trustees had no desire to incommode the Academy or give it 
trouble. And he added that a communication had been received from the Academy 
Trustees that the Crocker-Stanford Collection would be packed up, removed and 
stored. C. W. Brooks then stated that he was the person who had made the suggestion 
about the Academy's verbal lease, and that he had based it upon the fact that there 
was an understanding with the Mercantile Library Association that the Academy 
should have thirty days after notice to remove. Professor Davidson said that, in 
conjunction with president Gray of the Board of Trustees, he had shown the notice 
to raise the rent to R. C. Harrison for his legal opinion, and was informed by him that 
it was strictly legal and business-like. Mr. Harford stated that the Crocker-Stanford 
Collection had already been almost all removed to the Academy building and was 
being stored there. In the Board of Trustees, the prudential committee reported that 
the entire collection had been removed except the mammoth. Megatherium, Glypto- 
don, and a few other large pieces, which were being taken down and would be 



CHAPTER XXIII: 1 884- 1885 271 

removed as soon as possible. November 17, John Birmingham'^^ and George P. 
Reynolds were elected resident members. Dr. Behr read a short paper by W. H. Dick, 
a student of the Phannaceutical College, "On the Medicinal Effects of the Volatile 
Oil of Oregon Cedar." Mr. Harford announced the death of Dr. Henry Gibbons, Sr. 
one of the charter members of the Academy; and on motion Dr. Kellogg and Dr. 
Harkness were appointed a committee to draft appropriate resolutions of respect to 
his memory. In the Board of Trustees, Mr. Harford reported the complete removal of 
the Crocker-Stanford Collection from Mercantile Library Hall to the Academy 
building, where it was stored in the basement, and that the possession of the Hall had 
been surrendered on November 10. As there appeared to be still some question as to 
who should give notice of the annual election, it was ordered that two notices should 
be published, one by the secretary of the Board of Trustees and one by the secretaiy 
of the Academy. 

December 1, Dr. Kellogg read an obituary notice of Dr. Henry Gibbons, Sr., one 
of the original founders of the Academy, who had died on November 6, 1884 at the 
age of 75 years. He compared his death to the setting of the sun amid celestial twylight 
splendors, prophetic of another dawn. He spoke of his unfaltering zeal for the cause 
of science and the welfare of the Academy, and his attendance, fidelity and appre- 
ciative support of the institution, through good and through evil report for two 
generations. He also spoke of his sei'vices in reference to many other public institu- 
tions; his ability as a lecturer, debater and public speaker, and the facility with which 
he wielded the pen. A series of resolutions were then adopted in recognition of the 
services of Dr. Gibbons as those of one, who, by his devotion to science for many 
years and his communications to the Academy since its organization, had contributed 
largely to its present position and influence. Professor Davidson then gave the result 
of recent observations on the planet Saturn. He said that recent reports had asserted 
the disappearance of the Enke division of the ring; but he had within a week seen it 
distinctly on three successive nights. He also communicated the observations of 
Captain Hague of the Alaska Commercial Company; who had witnessed an eruption 
of the volcano Kigamilgach on the southernmost of the Four Islands in Behring's 
Sea, Lat. 52°45'N., Long. 1 70°00'W. He also exhibited the rupture of short glass tubes 
by passing a heated wire through them - a phenomenenon called to his attention by 
Mr. Cheever. He said he had no theory to advance upon the subject; but he thought 
that a slight scratch was made on the inner surface of the glass and that when the next 
change of temperature took place, the unequal tension was relieved and the rupture 
took place, somewhat as in a Rupert drop; and the quicker the change of temperature 
the more likely the rupture to occur. DECEMBER 15, Professor Davidson read a note 
concerning astronomical errors due to local deflection of the plumb line. The 
nominating coinmittee presented a ticket for officers of 1885. 



^^■^ Birmingham in the handwritten minutes (pp. 146 and 151 of the Minute Books), but Bermingham in 
the later-assembled Membership Records Book. 



272 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1853-1906 

1885 

The annual meeting of 1 885 was held January 5. Professor Pier Andrea Saccardo 
of Padua, Italy, was elected an honorary member, and J. H. Smythe, a resident 
member. On nomination of the Council, Mrs. Mary K. Curran and E. F. Lorquin were 
elected honorary life members. The various officers presented their annual reports. 
The officers declared elected for the year were: Professor George Davidson, presi- 
dent; H. W. Harkness, first vice-president; H. H. Behr, second vice-president; S. B. 
Christy, corresponding secretary; C. G. Yale, recording secretary; Elisha Brooks, 
treasurer; C. Troyer, librarian; W. G. W. Harford , director of the museum; George 
E. Gray, Thomas P. Madden, R. C. Harrison, J. M. McDonald, L. Gerstle, C. F. 
Crocker and R. W. Simpson, trustees. In the Board of Trustees, it appeared that the 
receipts of 1884 had been $7,046.62, which added to $1,631.72, balance from the 
year before, made $8,678.44. The disbursements had been $8,2 1 0.95, leaving on hand 
$468.49. The maintenance of the Crocker-Stanford Collection had cost the Academy 
$2,30 1 .04, including $436.26, the cost of removal. The total cost of maintenance since 
its acquisition in 1882 had been $6,124.24 of which $23,415.10 had been raised by 
subscription. JANUARY 19, William Churchill addressed the Academy on the "Eth- 
nology of the Polynesian Archipelago as Illustrated by the Native Language and 
Religion." In the Board of Trustees, George E. Gray was elected president; Thomas 
P. Madden, president pro tern, and C. W. Brooks appointed secretary. 

February 2, John W. Hendrie was elected a life member, and Granville W. 
Stewart, Edgar L. Allen, and Henry F. Lorquin," resident members. William 
Churchill"''^ read a paper on "Certain Data Leading to the Belief of the Subsidence 
of a Continent in the Pacific Ocean." C. W. Brooks asked about volcanic action in 
the South Pacific, and Mr. Churchill gave a general description so far as volcanic 
activity was concerned. Dr. Harkness asked about the method of "swanning" or 
moving off of a portion of the younger population from one island to another or others, 
which was described. Mr. Churchill also, by request, described the sculptured 
stone-work on Easter Island. In the Board of Trustees, allowances were made out of 
the Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund during the pleasure of the Board, of $40 
per month of Mrs. Curran and $40 per month to Dr. Kellogg, and a gross sum of $ 1 00 
to Edward L. Greene for valuable services rendered. February 1 6, apart from routine 
matters. Dr. Harkness described the method of development of galls, particularly oak 
galls, and said that the season had arrived, for those who wished, to collect them. 

March 2, Timothy Hopkins and Joseph P. Hale were elected life members, and 
Dr. William P. Gibbons, who had previously dropped out for the second time, a 
resident member. Capt. Wm. Churchill read a paper entitled "An Introduction to the 
Study of the Present Inhabitants of the Islands of the Intra-Tropical Pacific." In the 



--■"^ Son of Ernest F. Lorquin, Academy curator or mammals and birds, and grandson of the distinguished 
lepidopterist Pierre J. M. Lorquin (see footnote 4.11). 

23« Reported as Capt. Thos. Churchill in the Minute Books for Dec. 1880-Dec. 1890 (p. 160), but later 
references in those Minute Books are to Capt. Wm. Churchill (p. 1 62, 1 97, 1 98, 205, et seq). 



CHAPTER XXIII: 1884- 1885 273 

Board of Trustees, the prudential committee reported in substance that they had been 
wrestling with the San Francisco Gas Company to obtain a reduction on a gas bill for 
$2 1 .60 charged for the use of gas in Mercantile Library Hall from November 8 to 
November 12, 1884. Considering that all but a few boxes of the Crocker-Stanford 
Collection had been moved from Mercantile Library Hall before November 8 and 
that the Hall had been surrendered on November 10, the bill appeared at least strange; 
but the Gas Company insisted on its "bond." On motion, the matter was turned over 
to the secretary to try his hand at the business and settle on the best terms he could. 
March 16, Josiah Keep exhibited specimens of Eastern oysters, Ostrea virginiana, 
spawned in the Bay of San Francisco and therefore native of California, and also, 
specimens of Modiola hancata and Modiola formicata, both of which had been 
introduced accidentally from Eastern waters by being mixed with imported "seed 
oysters." Capt. Churchill spoke of his travels in the Amazon region of South America. 

April 6, among the donations, 140 samples of California woods. Professor 
Davidson stated that it was the general opinion of astronomers with whom he had 
talked in the Eastern states that the limit of proper size for telescopes, designed for 
observations of precision, had been reached, and described the difficulties to be 
overcome with glasses of any large telescopes. But these large objectives, he said, 
had great value in the light-collecting power and therefore exhibited details of objects 
where smaller ones would fail. April 20, Josiah P. Stanford and John W. Taylor were 
elected resident members. Among the donations were two bottles containing two 
different varieties of truffles, one from Sonoma and the other from Marin County. 
Dr. Harkness described the occurrence of truffles, and the method adopted in finding 
them. Professor Davidson called attention to a new system of telegraphy, invented 
by J. C. Ludwig of San Francisco, which Messrs. Hewston and Gamett were about 
to introduce to the Ocean-cable companies of the East. Gen. John Hewston read a 
paper describing the electrical apparatus and the new system of telegraphing. Profes- 
sor Davidson also, by means of large drawings, described the details of the apparatus 
and its mode of operation. In the Board of Trustees, a salary of $40 per month during 
the pleasure of the Board was ordered paid to W. Churchill for services in indexing 
the library of the Academy. The policy of insurance of the Crocker-Stanford Collec- 
tion against fire was ordered renewed. 

May 4, a note on a remarkable meteor observed on April 19 by C. B. Hill was 
submitted by Professor Davidson, who also read a note on previous displays of 
meteors. Dr. Harkness submitted a secdon of wood found at a depth of 1615 feet in 
an artesian well at White Plains, Nevada. In the Board of Trustees, the prudential 
committee reported that Bulletins I and II of the Academy had been printed and 
published, and recommended the prindng of Bulletin III. The Forestry Committee 
was allowed the use of the Academy Hall for its meetings during the pleasure of the 
Board. May 18, Dr. William P. Gibbons read a paper "On Viviparous Fishes." He 
also read a letter from Professor Louis Agassiz, written February 27, 1854, on the 
same subject. June 1, a paper was read by Professor Davidson on the "Transit of 
Jupiter's IV Satellite," giving results of observafions by C. Burckhalter of Oakland. 



274 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1853-1906 

Dr. Behr spoke on the subject of the Phylloxera and the Hessian fly. Capt. Churchill 
read a note concerning "A Small Magnetic Island in the Feejee Group." June 15, 
Charles Goodall was elected a life member, and Arthur Brown, Gerritt L. Lansing, 
Edmond Carey, Edgar J. Bowen, and Thomas H. Caswell, resident members. Edward 
L. Greene read a "Sketch of the Botany of Guadalupe Island." Professor Davidson 
communicated the observations of himself, C. B. Hill and C. Burckhalter on the Dark 
Transit of Jupiter's IV Satellite on June 7. JULY 6, a report by C. D. Gibbes was read, 
giving an account of a deposit of fossil bones found on Putah Creek in Yolo County. 
A paper entitled "Notes on Mount Pit" by Arthur B. Emmons was read. In the Board 
of Trustees, it was ordered that the expenses of C. D. Gibbes on his trip to Putah Creek 
in the interests of the Academy should be paid out of the Crocker Scientific 
Investigation Fund. July 20, Josiah Keep read "Notes Concerning the Shells of 
Monterey Bay." A discussion ensued in reference to the influence of the ocean 
currents on the fauna of the sea coast. In the Board of Trustees, the City and County 
personal property tax against the Academy, amounting to $35.71 was ordered paid. 

August 3, A. W. Rose, Jr. was elected a life member, and H. C. Nash, a resident 
member. Edward L. Greene read "Observations on Cedros Island." In the Board of 
Trustees, it was resolved that the pmdential committee should inquire into the current 
disbursements of the Academy and report as to what retrenchment could be made. 
August 17, Mrs. Mary K. Curran read "Botanical Notes of a Trip to Southern 
California." Resolutions of respect to the memory of Charles Wolcott Brooks, 
secretary of the Board of Trustees, who had died on August 16, were adopted. In the 
Board of Trustees, William M. Noyes was appointed secretary pro tern in place of C. 
W. Brooks, deceased. AUGUST 29, at a joint meeting of the Tmstees and Council, it 
was resolved to apply to the Lick Trustees for a loan of $5,000 to defray expenses 
and publish Proceedings of the Academy. 

September 7, Clark W. Crocker, Thomas L. Casey, and Howard R. Johnson were 
elected resident members. Professor Davidson read a paper on "Volcanic Activity in 
the United States." Dr. Harknes^ described the result of volcanic activity supposed 
to have occurred in 1 85 1 at Louisa Lake in Sierra County. Professor Davidson spoke 
of the question of a quarantine station in the Bay of San Francisco and suggested a 
point south of Hunter's Point on the west side of the Bay and at the edge of deep 
water. In the Board of Trustees, a resolution was adopted to borrow $5,000 from the 
Lick Trustees and give the note of the Academy therefor with interest at the rate of 
5 per cent per annum. SEPTEMBER 21, a paper by J. G. Cooper was read by title" '" 
"On Fossil and Subfossil Land Shells of the United States, with Notes on Living 



"9 The handwritten minutes for May 1 8'^, 1 885, inscribed in the Minute Books for Dec. 1 880-Dec. 1 890, 

P. 167, state, "He [Dr. W. P. Gibbons] aho presented [itahcs ours {Eds.}] to the Academy a letter from 
rof Agassiz . . ." Hittell interprets this to mean "read a letter;" we suspect that Gibbons actually gave the 
Academy the letter that he had received from Agassiz years earlier when the matter of priority for the 
discovery of viviparity in perch fishes first surfaced (see p. 28 and index). This letter, and the one received 
earlier from Spencer Fullerton Baird (see also p. 28) were decisive in the decision to initiate a fonnal 
publication, the Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences, the first part of which appeared 
in September of 1 854. 

23.10 The reading of papers by title as a means of informing members of papers that had been submitted 
for publication or had oeen recently published in an Academy publication seems to have been initiated at 
this meeting. Beginning in 1 894, the reading of papers by title was reserved for the December meetings. 



CHAPTER XXIII: 1 884- 1 885 



275 



Species." Professor Davidson described the position of the new star in the nebula of 
Andromeda. October 5, Professor Davidson presented a note on "The New Star in 
Andromeda." Dr. Harkness called attention to an edible fungus, Bolitus, found in 
abundance at Berkeley in Alameda County and neighboring localities. He also 
described and illustrated with the microscope a new fungus affecting oak trees near 
Menlo Park in San Mateo County. OCTOBER 19, Charles Burckhalter was elected a 
resident member. Dr. Harkness read a paper on "Edible Fungi of California." Dr. 
Behr spoke of the cultivation of semi-tropical fruits in California, speaking particu- 
larly of the fig and the means by which it was propagated. 




Charles Burckhalter, ca. 1875 

Courtesy of Dr. Carter Roberts (USGS) 

and the Chabot Observatory Archives 

November 2, among the donations was a piece of driftwood from Cape Lisbume 
on the northwest coast of Alaska, 200 miles north of Behring's Strait. Professor 
Davidson gave the authority of H. D. Wolff, who was stationed at Cape Lisbume, 
that for a whole year there was a current past the Cape towards the north and northeast. 
It was supposed that the driftwood had come through Behring's Strait in a branch of 
the Kuro Sina. W. Churchill exhibited a chart of the world on a new plan and 
described the manner of sailing on great circles. Mrs. Curran read "Botanical Notes," 
and Dr. Harkness read "Notes on the Fungi of the Pacific Coast." In the Board of 
Trustees, authority was given the Council to contract with Cunningham, Curtis & 
Selch for binding 200 quarto volumes and 300 octavo volumes more or less at 89 
cents for quartos and 64- '/2 cents for octavos, the whole amount not to exceed $500. 
November 16, Nathaniel Keith was elected a resident member. Lieutenant Thomas 
L. Casey read the introduction to a paper on "New Species and Genera of California 



276 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1 853- 1 906 

Coleoptera." Professor Davidson read a letter from Stedman Forney of the Geodetic 
Survey on a petrified whale found near the head-waters of Caiiada Diablo [Devils 
Canyon] on Big Creek, about 18 miles [closer to 23 miles {Eds.}] south of Point Sur 
in Monterey County, at an altitude of 3,300 feet above sea level and 3 miles distant 
from the ocean. The remains measured 32 feet in length and the bones, particularly 
of the vertebra and head were in a perfect state of preservation. Professor Davidson 
also spoke of observations on, and read a paper on Saturn. In the Board of Trustees, 
permission was given to the Ladies Silk Culture Society of California to hold their 
day meetings in the Academy Hall. 

December 7, a paper by C. Burckhalter was read, entitled "Observations on Nova 
Andromeda on December 5, 1885." In the Board of Trustees, a communication from 
Miss C. J. Flood, in reference to a party wall between her lot and the Academy lot on 
Market Street, was referred to a special committee consisting of Messrs. Gray, 
Harrison and McDonald. DECEMBER 21, Professor Davidson read a paper on "Com- 
parison of the Temperature of the Air and Water near the Golden Gate and their 
Relations to the Periods of Fog." A communication was read from the secretary of 
the Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund, calling attention to the existence of a ftind at 
Stamford, Connecticut, "for the establishment of scientific research in its broadest 
sense." The nominating committee reported a ticket for officers of 1 886. In the Board 
of Tnistees, the president reported having borrowed $2,500 from the Lick Trustees 
on December 1 1, and given the note of the Academy for the amount with interest at 
the rate of 5-'/2 per cent per annum. W. Churchill was engaged one month longer for 
indexing the library. 



277 



Chapter XXIV: Years 1886-1887 



1886 

The Academy met in annual session on January 4, 1886. Professor Edward S. 
Holden, Edward S. Clark, and Lucius H. Foote were elected resident members. 
A paper by Thomas L. Casey on "Revision of the California Species of Lithocaris 
and Allied Genera," was read by title. Professor Davidson read notes on "The 
Earthquake of December 30, 1885" and "Occultation of the Companion of M 
Geminorum by Saturn on January 9." The recording secretary reported a total 
membership of 313, 22 having been added during the year. The various officers 
presented by the nominating committee, consisted of the names of the officers of the 
previous year renominated; but an antagonism had for some time been growing 
between Professor Davidson and Dr. Harkness, which to a considerable extent 
involved their friends. It manifested itself at this election by running of an opposition 
ticket on which Justin P. Moore and John T. Evans were nominated for first and 
second vice-presidents instead of Dr. Harkness and Dr. Behr. The result was the 
election, as declared, of Professor George Davidson for president; Justin P. Moore, 
first vice-president; John T. Evans, second vice-president; S. B. Christy, correspond- 
ing secretary; C. G. Yale, recording secretary; Elisha Brooks, treasurer; C. Troyer, 
librarian; W. G. W. Harford, director of the museum; George E. Gray, Thomas P. 
Madden, Charles F. Crocker, Ralph C. Harrison, Louis Gerstle, Robert W. Simpson 
and James M. McDonald, trustees. In the Board of Trustees, E. L. Greene was ordered 
paid $200 out of the Crocker Scientific Investigation fund for services rendered. It 
appeared from the annual report that the receipts for 1885, including the balance on 
hand and the $2,500 borrowed from the Lick Trustees had been $8,444.42, of which 
$7,534.74 had been disbursed, leaving on hand a balance of $904.68. In addition to 
this there was an unexpended balance of $351.02 in the Crocker Scientific Investi- 
gation Fund. In reference to the loan from the Lick Trustees, the Board declared that 
the money was borrowed "in deference to the Council and must not be then as a 
precedent by their successors. The policy and precedents of the Board heretofore have 
been, "pay as you go," and that system should be rigidly adhered to for all time." The 
proposition of Miss Cora J. Flood to build a party wall, partly on the condition that 
the Academy would repay to her half the cost when it should have use for the wall. 
January 18, among the donations were specimens of nummultic limestone and 
syenite from temples of Lower Egypt. Dr. Harkness, in connection with them, spoke 



278 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1 853- 1 906 

of the geologic features of the Nile Valley and the method of construction of the 
pyramids, which he had assured himself were of natural rock. Dr. Behr read a paper 
"On the so-called Carnivorous Plants." In the Board of Trustees, William M. Noyes 
resigned as secretary pro tern. George E. Gray was elected president; Thomas P. 
Madden, president jpro tern, and William Churchill appointed secretary. The bonds 
of the treasurer, librarian, and director of the museum were fixed at $ 1 ,000 each. The 
fonnal party-wall agreement with Miss Flood was presented, approved, and ordered 
executed. 

February 1 , a paper from Dr. Willis E. Everette of Vancouver, Washington, was 
read, describing the flora, fauna and Insectivora of the Yukon River in Alaska and 
British North America. A report from the Council announced the appointment of J. 
T. Evans, J. P. Moore, C. G. Yale and E. L. Greene as publication committee and the 
following curators: E. L. Greene and Mary K. Curran, botany; H. H. Behr and E. S. 
Clark, entomology; Josiah Keep, conchology; A. W. Jackson, Jr. and C. D. Gibbes, 
mineralogy; Melville Attwood, geology; A. B. Stout, ethnology and paleontology; J. 
J. Rivers, ichthyology, radiates and reptiles; E. F. Lorquin, ornithology. Professor 
Davidson read a paper upon an observation of Saturn on January 25, in which he 
verified his previous detemiinations of the Encke division and saw the inner edge of 
the B ring projected on the body of the planet. Dr. Harkness called attention to what 
he claimed to be errors in the descriptions of fungi in the paper by Dr. W. E. Everette, 
read at the previous meeting, on the flora and fauna of the Yukon River. He said the 
descriptions were incoirect and misleading. Dr. Behr asked to be excused from 
serving as curator of entomology while the Academy occupied the building it was 
then in, as he was removing his own collection to preserve it from damage. In the 
Board of Trustees, payments were ordered to be made, out of the Crocker Scientific 
Investigation Fund of $30 per month to C. D. Gibbes; of $40 per month to Mrs. Curran 
and Dr. Kellogg respectively, and $ 1 per day to a person employed to poison the 
herbarium. FEBRUARY 15, Dr. Stout inquired as to what was being done by the 
building committee. Professor Davidson as president stated that the whole matter 
rested with the Board of Trustees, and that it was deemed best to await the settlement 
of the Lick Trust. He them made remarks upon the occultation of the Hyades, 
observed on February 12. Charles Troyer called attention to the use of benzole in 
killing insects for cabinet specimens, and said it appeared to be more rapid and 
effective than either cyanide of potassium or chlorofomi. Mr. Harford reported that 
the herbarium had been completely protected against insects by being thoroughly 
poisoned. Professor Davidson spoke of a slight protuberance on Saturn just south of 
the planet's equatorial belt. He announced the publication of Bulletin IV of the 
Academy. 

March 1 , Dr. Behr described the grain pest, Collandra granaria, and exhibited 
specimens of it found in wheat lying in a San Francisco warehouse. March 15, 
Carlton H. Clark, William Churchill, Miss M. S. Haggin, George A. Johnson, and J. 
W. Anderson were elected resident members. Professor Davidson read papers on 
"The Annular Solar Eclipse of March 5, 1886" and "the Secular Variafion of the 



CHAPTER XXIV: 1886-1887 279 

Magnetic Declination at San Francisco." Lieutenant John C. Cantweli read a paper 
on the "Exploration of the Koowak River, Alaska." April 5, John W. Twigg was 
elected a resident member. Professor Joseph LeConte read a paper "On the Post-Ter- 
tiary Elevation of the Sierra Nevada, as Shown by the River Beds." In the Board of 
Trustees, fire insurance was ordered taken out for $ 12,000 on the museum collections 
and library of the Academy; and a bill of Spaulding & Co., amounting to $627. 10 for 
printing Bulletin IV was ordered paid. April 19, Professor Davidson read a "Note 
on Transits of the II and III Satellites of Jupiter, Davidson Observatory, March 20, 
1886." May 3, Professor Davidson read a paper "On Early Voyages of Discovery 
and Exploration of the Northwest Coast of North America." May 17, among the 
donations was a specimen of the dressed hair of a chiefs head, supposed to be from 
the Solomon Islands. Capt. W. Churchill gave an account of the manner of dressing 
the hair in the South Pacific Islands, and expressed an opinion that the hair in question 
came from the New Hebrides rather than from the Solomon Islands. Dr. Behr read a 
paper "On Acapulco." Professor E. S. Holden presented publications of the Washburn 
Observatory, and described the system adopted in making star maps. JUNE 7, among 
the donations were a bow, arrows and spears from the New Hebrides Islands, 
presented by R. W. Simpson. W. Churchill described them and the method of using 
them in the South Seas. In the Board of Trustees, $ 1 ,030 were ordered paid for binding 
books. June 21, E. L. Greene read a paper for Mrs. Curran endtled "a Botanical 
Excursion in Marin County." Dr. Harkness spoke of the "Animal and Vegetable Life 
Found in the Waters of Mono Lake," and exhibited various specimens of them. 
Professor Holden spoke of the progress of the Lick Observatory, and particularly with 
reference to the construction of the great dome and mounting of the telescope. In the 
Board of Trustees, the secretary was directed to prepare as many books as could be 
bound for $50, and to see that the necessary corrections should be made in certain of 
the books already accepted from the binders. 

July 6, at a meeting of the Trustees, 30 volumes of quartos and 36 octavos were 
ordered bound; and Bulletin V of the Academy ordered published at a cost not to 
exceed $300. For the lack of a quorum of members, no meetings of the Academy 
were held in July. 

August 2, Lieut. Glassford of the U.S. Signal Service read a paper on "Storni 
Types of the Pacific Coast." August 16, Lieutenant W. A. Glassford, B. H. Pendle- 
ton, Miss Gertrude Stanford, and S. E. Dutton were elected resident members. Dr. 
Behr spoke about "The Arian Races." In the Board of Trustees, James M. McDonald 
made an address on what he called, "Continuing in the Book-Binding Business," and, 
as a result, it was resolved that not more than $ 1 00 should for the present be expended 
in binding. SEPTEMBER 6, Professor Joseph LeConte lectured "On the General Causes 
of Earthquakes with Special Reference to the Recent One at Charleston, South 
Carolina." In the Board of Trustees, the prudential committee, consisting of J. M. 
McDonald, C. F. Crocker and L. Gerstle, presented a report on the condition of the 
collections of the Academy and of the Academy building. They said that the 
Crocker-Stanford Collection was in general in reasonably good condition as stored 



280 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1 853- 1 906 

in the building; but that the perishable portions of it were exposed to dampness and 
mould. They quoted Mr. Lorquin, curator of birds and mammals, as saying about the 
same thing in reference to the Mrs. E. B. Crocker Collection and advising that it 
should be removed to a place where it could be kept perfectly dry. As to the Academy 
building, the old First Congregational Church, it had been built in 1 853 of brick made 
with salt water, which had been so poorly burned and were so soft that they absorbed 
moisture like a sponge and did not dry out from one rainy season to another. The site 
of the building was a steep hillside rising rapidly as it ran back to the west — the grade 
of California Street, its northern boundary line, being 75 feet in the block of 412- '/2 
feet. A deep excavation had therefore been necessary for the foundation of the 
structure, and into this excavation the water from the hill continually seeped, keeping 
the foundation walls constantly soaked. In the meanwhile, the metal roof had rusted 
and rotted away; and a new roof was necessary, or other quarters, before it rained 
again. The report continued in the following language: "Considering that this Acad- 
emy has occupied this building since A.D. 1874 to this year of Grace 1886, and had 
paid to the proprietors about $20,000 in rents, it discourages the hope that adequate 
attention and expenditure will be bestowed to properly and decently secure and 
protect this Academy and its valuable collection." And in conclusion it said: "Part of 
the duty imposed on this committee was 'to place the blame where it belongs,' we 
therefore report that the blame should rightfully be placed on the Academy at large, 
and not upon the Board of Trustees." SEPTEMBER 20, Professor George C. Comstock 
read a paper on "The Provisional Value of the Latitude of the Lick Observatory." A 
paper by Professor George C. Becker "On the Washoe Rocks" was also read. 

October 4, Dr. Harkness called attention to a fungus, rare in this State, which he 
exhibited. He also exhibited under the microscope the larvae of the caddice fly, 
attached to leaves in a peculiar manner. Capt. W. Churchill made remarks "On 
Correspondence Recently Noted Between Melanesia and the Northwest Coast of 
North America." Professor Davidson also spoke of correspondence in the matter of 
labrets worn by some natives of the Northwest Coast of America and by natives of 
the South Pacific Islands. He then described the remarkable submarine valleys in the 
ocean bed off Point Delgado and Cape Mendocino. Justin P. Moore tendered his 
resignation of the office of first vice-president, which was accepted. A communica- 
tion was received from R. Ellsworth Call, professor of zoology in the University of 
Missouri,'^' commending the recent publications of the Academy. In the Board of 
Trustees, $350 were authorized to be expended for printing Bulletin VII. OCTOBER 
18, two neuropterous insects were presented by Dr. Behr, the same which appear at 
the beginning of the rainy season and at certain periods before rains. Their natural 
history was discussed by Messrs. Behr, Holden, Evans, Wm. P. Gibbons, and Mrs. 
Curran. A paper on "North American Coleoptera" by J. T. Evans was read by title. 
Professor Davidson read a paper entitled "The Land Falls of Cabrillo and Farrelo, 
1542-1543"; another on "The Determination of the Standard Geodetic Data for the 



241 As recorded in the Minute Books for Dec. 1880-Dec. 1890 (p. 205), but at the time Missouri State 
University. Call also published on Quaternary geology and stratigraphy, and invertebrate paleontology. 



CHAPTER XXIV: 1886-1887 281 

Computation of Geographical Position on the Pacific Coast"; and one, by title, on 
"Early Spanish Voyages on the Coast of California." W. A. Goodyear read a paper 
on "Earthquakes in Salvador." Dr. Harkness exhibited under the microscope two new 
species of fungi described by himself, a new Utsilago and a Pestalozzia. The Council 
reported the appointment of Thomas Price as first vice-president in place of J. P. 
Moore, resigned. November 1, Dr. Behr read a paper on "Prehistoric Inscriptions on 
Easter Island." In the Board of Trustees, it appeared that a new arrangement had been 
made with the owners of the Academy building to repair the same and make it fit for 
occupation; and a new lease of it had been executed as of date of October 1, 1886. 
An expenditure of $270 additional was authorized for the printing and publication of 
Bulletin VI. NOVEMBER 15, Professor Holden read a paper on "The Distribution of 
the Stars in the Northern and Southern Skies." William Ashbumer described a visit 
to the establishment of Alvan Clarke and an examination of the Lick telescope glass, 
through which he looked at various stars. Professor Davidson read a note "On the 
Occultation of Aldebaran, observed by Davidson, Hill and Burckhalter, November 
12, 1886." In the Board of Trustees, a purchase of books from Dr. Stout was 
authorized to the extent of $50. 

December 6, among the donations was an axe, made of jade and used by the 
natives of Alaska in making their canoes, presented by William Clarke. Professor 
Davidson spoke of it as a very fine specimen and described the method adopted by 
the indians in fashioning it. S. B. Christy read a paper on "Rustless Iron," being a 
description of the Bowers-Barff process of working iron. Professor Davidson stated 
that on November 14 and 1 5 he had watched for "November Meteors," but saw none. 
In the Board of Trustees, an additional loan of $2,500 from the Lick Trustees was 
authorized and the giving of the Academy's note, drawing interest at 5-'/2 per cent 
per annum, therefor. December 20, a communication was received from C. 
Burckhalter, giving observations at the Chabot Observatory in Oakland of the new 
star that had appeared last year in the nebula of Andromeda. The president announced 
the death of Dr. Isaac Lea, the eminent conchologist of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
and an honorary member of the Academy. Messrs. Harford and Behr were appointed 
a committee to prepare appropriate resolutions of respect to his memory. The matter 
of choosing officers to conduct the approaching election came up, and the strain 
between what were commonly known as the Davidson party on the one side and the 
Harkness party on the other side, which had shown itself at the last election, again 
manifested itself Each party nominated candidates and a spirited contest took place 
even as to officers of election. It was very plain that there was going to be what may 
be called a bitter contest as to who should be officers of the Academy for 1 887. When 
the nominating committee, which had been appointed by the incumbent officers, 
reported a ticket for 1 887, they renominated the old officers and, in view of an evident 
desire on the part of many members for a change of administration, thought proper 
in their report to say: 

Should there even be a radical difference of opinion as to the future governing policy 
of the Academy, we would, while cheerfully conceding the honest zeal and good-will 
of all our fellow workers, respectfully suggest that the present officers, tried and true 



282 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 



as well as ripe in experience, are the most suitable to carry out the purposes of our 
organization, more especially at this time in view of the now proximate distribution of 
the Lick estate. 

Within one year at furthest this expectation is likely to be realized; and legal questions, 
some of a grave and intricate character, will come up for definite settlement; and, in this 
connection, it is well to bear in mind how many promising inheritances have been 
seriously impaired or even entirely wrecked by post-obits and anticipations of income. 

'Make haste slowly' applies as well to scientific effort as to ordinary commercial 
transactions, and we should ask on all hands a kind, patient and generous criticism of 
affairs in which no personal interests are at stake, but only a friendly rivalry in unselfish 
devotion to the advancement of science. 



1887 



The annual election of 1887, held January 3, was a hotly contested one. The 
regular ticket, presented by the nominating committee, and consisting of the names 
of the old officers and known as the Davidson ticket, was opposed by a ticket of nearly 
all new names known as the Harkness ticket. The result was the election of the 
opposition ticket and the choice of the following officers for 1887: Dr. Harvey W. 
Harkness, president; H. H. Behr, first vice-president; George Hewston, second 
vice-president; H. Ferrer, corresponding secretary; C. G. Yale, recording secretary; 
John Dolbeer, treasurer; C. Troyer, librarian; J. G. Cooper , director of the museum; 




Harvey Willson Harkness 
Courtesy California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER XXIV: 1 886- 1 887 283 

Charles F. Crocker, Thomas P. Madden, James M. McDonald, E. L. G. Steele, S. W. 
Holladay, D. E. Hayes, and E. J. Molera, trustees. At the annual meeting, held on the 
evening of the same day, the old officers presented their reports on the condition of 
the Academy and its departments and the progress made during the past year. The 
new officers were declared elected. January 17, Dr. C. Max Richter, Charles H. 
Hinton, N. W. Spaulding, and William G. Badger were elected resident members. 
Dr. Harkness, the new president, delivered an inaugural address. The secretary called 
attention to the fact that Elisha Brooks, the retiring treasurer, had served the Academy 
in that office for nineteen consecutive years, gratuitously collecting and disbursing 
fijnds without mistakes or errors, and suggested that a vote of thanks of the Academy 
should be tendered him; and on motion such thanks were presented. Edward L. 
Greene read a paper on "Botanical Exploration on the Island of Santa Cruz." Dr. Behr 
read' a paper "On Certain Changes in the Flora and Fauna of California, Which Have 
Taken Place Since 1 850." In the Board of Trustees, the annual report of the Old Board, 
a majority of which had been displaced at the recent election, gave strong expression 
against the supposed policy of the new regime, characterizing it as "discounting the 
future and cashing expectations" and pronouncing it "ill-advised and productive of 
loss and of positive danger." In reference to the financial condition of the Academy, 
it said that the receipts during 1886, including $5,000 borrowed money and amount 
on hand at the beginning of the year, had been $10,806.56, and the disbursements 
$8,912.60, leaving a balance of $1,893.96 in the general fund. In the special Crocker 
Scientific Investigation Fund, the receipts, including balance on hand, had been 
$1551.02, and the disbursements $990, leaving a balance of $561.02, which added 
to the general fund balance made a total of $2,454.98 cash on hand. The only 
outstanding bills were the notes to the Lick Trustees for $5,000, a bill for binding 
books, and a bill for printing papers of the Academy. In the matter of organizing the 
new Board, the presidency was offered to Charles F. Crocker; but he declined; and 
it seems that Thomas P. Madden was elected president and E. L. G. Steele president 
pro tern. The bond of the treasurer was fixed at $2,000, and those of the librarian and 
director of the museum at $1,000 each. 

February 7, a letter was received from Professor Davidson in reference to a fossil 
elephant tusk, presented some two years before by Captain James McKenna, which 
had been left at the Merchants' Exchange since then, to the effect that it had been 
recently delivered to the Academy. Dr. C. M. Richter read a paper "On Ocean 
Currents and their Influence on the Climate of California," and Dr. Harkness a paper 
"On a New Species of Fungus." Dr. Behr read an obituary notice of Dr. Isaac Lea of 
Philadelphia, the first honorary member of the Academy, elected in July, 1853. The 
Council announced the appointment of H. W. Harkness, E. L. Greene, C. G. Yale, 
George Hewston, and J. G. Cooper as publication committee, and the following 
curators: Mary K. Curran and E. L. Greene, botany; David Wooster, ethnology and 
osteology; E. F. Lorquin, mammals and birds; Rosa Smith and H. F. Lorquin, fishes, 
reptiles and radiates; E. S. Clark and John Hewston Jr., geology and palaeontology; 
Melville Attwood and C. D. Gibbes, mineralogy. The Council also reported that it 



284 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 



had adopted a resolution that papers to be read before the Academy should be 
submitted to the president on the Thursday preceding the meeting, and that papers 
read should be handed to the secretary to be submitted to the publication committee. 
In the Board of Trustees, it was resolved that a box for the keeping of important 
documents should be rented of the Safe Deposit Company at a cost of $15 per year. 
Frank H. Vaslit and C. D. Haines were employed for such services as might be 
required of them by the Council and Trustees at a salary of $40 per month each. 
Thomas P. Madden resigned as a member of the Board and George C. Perkins was 
elected in his place. February 21, Walter E. Bryant was elected a resident member. 
Dr. Behr read a paper "On the Power of Adaptation of Insects." Dr. Harkness spoke 
of the fiingoid growths affecting sycamore trees. He said that every season, when the 
leaves attained the size of a quarter of a dollar, they were apt to become blighted, 
sometimes being fresh and green in the evening and next morning withered. He had 
observed the same thing in the East and had been told by Professor Gray that the 
sycamore trees of Massachusetts had been affected in the same manner for thirty 
years. He further said that he had made careful observations and detennined the cause 
to be a minute fungus, which he had named Glaesporium platoni. In former years, 
the sycamore had been well-shaped trees; but now they were generally scrawny and 
unsightly, with few straight limbs. This he attributed to the flingus. Dr. C. M. Richter 
read a supplement to his previous paper "On Ocean Currents" and answered certain 
criticisms upon the statements in that paper made by Professor Davidson, as published 
by the newspaper reports of a meeting of the Geographical Society, of which he was 
president. A discussion followed in which an unidentified non-member said that he 




Frank S. Vaslit 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER XXIV: 1886-1887 



285 




George C. Perkins 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 




Walter E. Bryant 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



286 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1 853- 1 906 

had lived in the vicinity of Behring's Straits for some six years making observations 
for the Smithsonian Institution, and that he could corroborate Professor Davidson's 
views on the subject of the currents. In the Board of Trustees, an organization was 
effected by the election of E. L. G. Steele as president, and S. W. HoUaday as president 
pro tern. 

March 7, Dr. Frederick V. Hopkins was elected a resident member. A paper by 
Mary K. Curran on "The Lichens of this Vicinity" was read and a collection of lichens 
exhibited in connection with the paper. Dr. C. C. Parry read a paper "On the Pacific 
Coast Alders." In the Board of Trustees, the subject of a new building on the 
Academy's Market Street lot was discussed by S. W. HoUaday and others. March 
21, Professor F. L. Clarke lectured on recent eruptions of Mauna Loa and Kilauea on 
the Island of Hawaii, exhibiting photographs of the localities taken before, during, 
and after the emptions. Three papers were read by title: one "On the West Coast 
Pulmonata, Fossil and Living" by J. C. Cooper, one on "Occultation of Stars by the 
Dark Limb of the Moon" by George Davidson, and one, a "Continuation of Catalogue 
of Pacific Coast Fungi," by H. W. Harkness. Dr. Harkness also addressed the 
Academy on the "Geology of Egypt." Charles G. Yale presented his resignation as 
recording secretai^, which was accepted. Charles Troyer presented his resignation 
as librarian, which was not accepted. April 4, the death on March 31 of Dr. Albert 
Kellogg, the last surviving charter member of the Academy, was announced. Out of 
respect for Dr. Kellogg, the meeting adjourned. In the Board of Trustees, Professor 
Davidson represented the destitute condition of C. D. Gibbes, and on motion of C. F. 
Crocker, the sum of $40 was ordered to be paid to him at once out of the Crocker 
Scientific Investigation Fund. It was also ordered that $40 due to Dr. Kellogg should 
be paid to his representative, W. G. W. Harford. April 18, Dr. Carl von Hoffman 
was elected a resident member. Professor F. L. Clarke lectured again on volcanic 
eruptions in the Island of Hawaii, and he stated that the map used in illustration of 
his remarks was the first of a series made by him by order of King Kalikana. Dr. 
Hewston read a paper on the "Fonnation, Life, and Uses of Sponges." Dr. Behr read 
a memorial paper on Dr. Kellogg, from which it appeared that the deceased was bom 
in Connecticut in 1813; that he had traveled much in his younger years in the Southern 
and Western States for the benefit of his health, which was infirm, and that it was in 
the course of those travels that he became interested in botany. He came to California 
in 1849; settled first at Sacramento, and in a few years afterwards moved to San 
Francisco, where he had always since lived. He was one of the proposers and founders 
of the Academy and the last survivor of the original seven. His guileless simplicity 
and honesty, continued the memorial, 

as well as his enthusiasm for science made him beloved by all; and in all the relations 
of Hfe his conduct was beyond praise. Those who knew him in early days remember 
well his filial devotion to his aged mother; and all who had the pleasure to be in daily 
intercourse with him praise, with one, his kindness, his patience, and his forbearance. 

Resolutions of respect to his memory were adopted and spread upon the minutes. 

The death of Dr. Frederick H. Jenssen was also announced and Dr. Behr presented a 

memorial notice of him. In the Board of Trustees, insurance of the Academy's 



CHAPTER XXIV: 1886-1887 287 

property for another year was ordered. A sum of $40 per month during the pleasure 
of the Board was ordered paid to Walter E. Bryant for ornithological work. Frank H. 
Vaslit was appointed secretary of the Board without increase of the salary of $40 per 
month, previously allowed him. May 2, Curry W. Tjader was elected a resident 
member. For the first time, biweekly reports on new donations to the library were 
recorded in the minutes as follows: Publications received, 175; from correspondents, 
140; by donation, 29; by purchase, 6. E. L. Greene read a continuation of a previous 
paper "On the Botany of Santa Cruz Island." Dr. Hewston read a paper on "Glass 
Sponges," illustrated by drawings on the screen. He also announced the death of 
William Ashbumer and presented resolutions of respect to his memory, which were 
adopted. The Council announced the election of William F. Smith as recording 
secretary of the Academy in place of C. G. Yale, resigned. In the Board of Trustees, 
the Council announced the adoption of a resolution that its members deemed it 
expedient that steps should be taken "for the improvement of our lot on Market Street 
by building for the use of the Academy and for the purposes of revenue." May 16, 
Walter E. Bryant read a paper "On the Birds of California," illustrated by plates 
thrown on the screen. Adley H. Cummins"" read a paper on the "Evolution of 
Figures," illustrated by many plates of letters and numerals. Dr. Behr described 
parasitic worms infesting the sticklebacks in Lake Merced. The president announced 
the death of William O. Ayres, one of the early members of the Academy and noted 
as an ichthyologist. On motion. Dr. William P. Gibbons, and Dr. Stout were appointed 
a committee to draw proper resolutions of respect to his memory. June 6, Adley H. 
Cummins"'*^ and Samuel C. Passavant were elected resident members.""" Dr. Hark- 
ness read a paper on "Vinous Fungus," illustrated by plates drawn by Dr. Gustav 
Eisen and thrown on the screen. On motion of Dr. George Hewston, a resolution was 
adopted calling for a special executive meeting of the members of the Academy "for 



2'*^ For those interested in tracing the growth of an institutional library as a partial reflection of the 
influence of the institution among its peers and the scientific community, details of biweekly library 
accessions, and thus library growth, for the period for the period 1887 to 1894 were published in the 
Academy Proceedings, reports on the regular biweekly meetings (see Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 2, vol. 3 
et seq.). 

The impact of the residue of the James Lick endowment not otherwise committed to the new Academy 
building followingsettlement of the estate in 1887 and of the Amariah Pierce bequest (a. v.) in 1895 for the 
purchase of books, is readily apparent in the increase in funds available for library purcnases: 1 887 - 2303 
total item accessions: 56 by purchase, 1632 from "correspondents" (including exchanges), unrecorded 
balance, incidental donations; 1888-2348; 57, 1970; 1889- 1898: 252, 1598; 1890-2603: 371, 2057; 
1891-1986: 782, 1719; 1892-3732: 1876, 1720; 1893-2937:977, I860; 1894-1841: 274, 1411. 

^^■^ On this date, recorded in the Minnie Books (Dec. 1 880- Dec. 1 890, p. 233) as Adley D. Cummins, then 
Adley J. Cummins (p. 234, June 6), Adley D. Cummins (p. 240, July 1 8), Adley H. Cummins (p. 243, Sept. 
5; 299, Aug. 5, 1889, el .?eo.), but Adley H. Cummings (memorial on death, see Proc. Calif. .4cad. Sci., 
1890-92, ser. 2. vol. 3, p. 3^3). 

24.4 With respect to the election of new members at this meeting, the following wryly humorous item 
appeared in the Daily Alta California on June 7, the day after the Academy's meeting. Local newspapers 
frequently sent repoilers to cover the meetings, and their stories were published usually a day or two later. 
From the report as filed: Following the reading of a paper on fungi. Dr. Harkness resumed his chair [as 

6 resident]. ' Without wasting any time the announcement was made that at an executive meeting of the 
loard it was decided to made a radical change in the method of electing new members. The old way was 
to appoint tellers to carry round the ballot-box and then to transport it to the President. The new way was 
to place the instrument of torture on the small desk in front of the speaker's chair and to compel each 
member to pass in solemn march before the throne. When directly in front of the President the member 
must bow and carry his right hand in the direction of the ballot-box. Upon receiving an approving nod from 
the President and two winks from the Secretary the member could grasp a ball and gently deposit it. (Jboinote 
continued next page) 



288 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1853-1906 

the purpose of considering the propriety of authorizing the Board of Trustees to 
borrow money from the Lick Trust for the purpose of the erection of a building for 
the Academy and the improvement of the Market Street property." The committee 
on the death of Dr. William O. Ayres presented a series of resolutions, which were 
adopted. They spoke of Dr. Ayres as "a scholar, possessing analytic powers of mind 
in an eminent degree." They characterized his scientific work as "a compendium of 
original research, which was received as authority by kindred institutions and has 
stood to this day the test of rigid criticism." They also spoke of the man himself and 
the "high social virtues which adorned his character." 

June 16, the Academy met in special executive session for the purpose of 
considering the advisability of building on the Market Street lot. Dr. George Hewston, 
Frederick Gutzkow and John R. Scupham were appointed a committee to draw up 
resolutions expressive of the sense of the Academy of the subject. They presented for 
adoption three short resolutions: First, that the Market Street property should be 
improved as soon as possible; Second, that the Trustees be requested to borrow the 
money necessary to accomplish that object from the Lick Trust; and. Third, that a 
committee of seven be appointed as a committee of conference with the Board of 
Trustees to consider ways and means to accomplish the desired object. As soon as 
these resolutions were reported. Dr. Stout made a motion to adjourn, which was lost. 
He then made a motion to strike out the first two resolutions, which was declared lost. 
A division being called for, nine voted in favor of the motion and thirty-two against 
it. The resolutions were then adopted; and a committee of seven, in accordance with 
the third resolution, appointed, consisting of O. C. Pratt, A. S. Hallidie, George T. 
Marye, Jr., N. W. Spaulding, A. K. P. Harmon, Jacob Z. Davis, and William S. 
Chapman. JUNE 20, Hans C. Behr and L. M. F. Wanzer were elected resident 
members. The library reported 63 new publications, 51 from correspondents, 10 by 
donation, and two by purchase. A paper by Dr. Gustav Eisen was read "On Sutroa, 
a Genus of Oligochaetae." Dr. C. C. Parry read a paper on California manzanita, 
Arctostafphyla. Walter E. Bryant read a paper on the "Nest and Eggs of the Evening 
Grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertina.'" JULY 18, Hasbrouck Davis and George G. 
Blanchard were elected resident members."^^^ Dr. Hewston read a paper by Mary K. 

24.4 (continued) "jhg fj^sf name to be subjected to this ordeal was George J. [sic\ A] Specht, whose 
appMcation for resident membership was approved by Messers. E. J. Molera and Hermann Schussler. The 
long line was formed and the box passed to tne Chair by Mr. Troyon [sic; Troyer], one of the paid officials. 
Mr. Specht was rejected. 

"The next candidate for trial by white and black ball practice was Adley H. Cummins, whose command 
of living and dead lingos is practically unlimited. This gentleman had the good luck to be nominated by a 
lady and as the sex ran the society's election last year, fie was accepted. 

"The third candidate was Captain George Ainsworth, who is good enough to be one of the Regents of 
the State University, but who was rejected without ceremony. The last applicant who knocked at the doors 
of the Academy was S. D. [sic; C] Passavant. He slipped in, and this order of business was over. 

"The followmg names were then submitted: Daniel Sutter [but Suter in the Minute Books, p. 234], 
Hasbrook [sic; Hasbrouck] Davis, George T. [sic; G] Blanchard and Frank H. Vaslitt [sic; Vaslit][aIso listed 
in the Minnie Books among the new nominees was Bernard Bienenfeld, whom our reporter seems to have 
overlooked]. Their turn will come at the next meeting. They were all well recommended, but the fatal 
blackballs may be waiting to consign them to outer darkness, where there is wailing and gnashing of molars 
rejected." 

-''- For some unstated reasons, the nomination of Frank H. Vaslit, destined to become one of the most 
active members of the Academy during the last decade of the century, was rejected. Vaslit was subsequently 
elected to resident membership on Feb. 17, 1890 and honorary life member on Jan. 6, 1896.. He served as 
secretary to the Board of Trustees, and did field work in Baja California with Dr. Gustav Eisen in 1894. 



CHAPTER XXIV: 1886-1887 289 

Curran on "A Botanical Trip in Siskiyou County." W. E. Bryant read a paper "On a 
New Subspecies of Petrel from Guadalupe Island." 

August 1 , Dr. B. B. Brewer was elected a resident member. Professor F. L. Clarke 
read a paper "The Bavispe Earthquake," illustrated with diagrams. A paper by Walter 
E. Bryant was read on "Unusual Nesting Sites." It was at this meeting that Theodore 
H. and Mrs. HittelT"^^ were nominated for Academy membership. AUGUST 1 5, James 
De Fremery was elected a resident member. Dr. Brooks O. Baker read a paper on the 
"Customs and Religious Observances of the Hawaiians"; Dr. Behr, a paper on 
"Geographical Distribution of Insects," and Dr. Hewston made remarks on dredging 
being done in San Francisco Bay. In the Board of Trustees, where there had been no 
meeting since May 2, S. W. Holladay called attention to the fact that the Society of 
California Pioneers and Miss Cora J. Flood, in dedicating "Pioneer Court," a private 
waybetween their lots and running 40 feet wide from Fourth Street, ran back only 
194 feet; and that the one foot, at the rear of the rear of the court and adjoining the 
side of the Academy's lot, had been built up by the Pioneers with a brick wall one 
foot thick and ten feet high, so as to exclude the Academy from any use of the court, 
except such as it might derive from the light and air above the brick wall. The sum 
of $400 was appropriated for printing Bulletin VIII, and $150 for printing Part I of 
Volume II of what were called Memoirs of the Academy. 

September 5, Theodore H. Hittell'"'^ and Robert Simson were elected resident 
members. Professor Joseph LeConte read a paper entitled "Flora of the Coast Islands 
of California to Recent Changes in Physical Geography," and Adley H. Cummins, a 
paper on "Tmly Dead Languages." The president announced the death of Professor 
Spencer F. Baird of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, and Professor 
LeConte and Dr. Behr were appointed a committee to draw appropriate resolutions. 
In the Board of Trustees, plans for an Academy building on the Market Street lot were 
submitted by Mr. Osbom. SEPTEMBER 19, Professor William Nussbaum read a paper 
on "Heredity." Professor Joseph LeConte presented resolutions of respect to the 
memory of Professor Spencer F. Baird, which were adopted and a copy ordered sent 
to the family. OCTOBER 3, Dr. Behr made remarks on the natural history of the 
mud-wasp. October 17, Dr. Hewston read a paper on "Protozoa," illustrated with 
drawings on the screen. October 28, at a special meeting of the Board of Trustees, 
it appeared that the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco 
were about to appropriate the lot on First Avenue near Point Lobos Avenue, dedicated 
and named on the City Map of Outside Lands by the words "Academy of Sciences," 
to school purposes. On motion of Mr. Hays, a preamble and resolution were adopted, 
declaring that the lot had been reserved and dedicated as the Academy's lot, and that 
it had been and was claimed as such by the Academy, and directing the president and 
prudential committee of the Board to appear before the Supervisors, remonstrate 
against the diversion of the lot from the uses of the Academy, and take all lawful steps 
necessary to secure the same for the use of the Academy. The prudential committee 



-''^ Both Theodore and Mrs. Hittell were nominated together, but only Theodore H. Hittell was elected 
to membership on Sept. 5. Although not mentioned in the minutes, it was probably realized that Mrs. Hittell 
was already a member, having been elected nearly 8 years earlier, on Nov. 3, 1879. 



290 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 



was also empowered to procure an abstract of title to the Market Street lot. November 
7, Frank H. Gushing delivered a lecture on ethnology and particularly as connected 
with his life among the Zuni, or Pueblo Indians, in New Mexico. In the Board of 
Trustees, Mr. Holladay announced that Mrs. A. M. Parrott, the owner of property on 
Market Street next south of the Academy's lot declined having a party wall between 
her property and that of the Academy. Mr. Holladay also spoke in reference to the 
title of the Academy to the First Avenue lot and claimed that the reserving of it and 
marking it "Academy of Sciences" on the Outside Land Map of the City was a valid 
reservation an dedication of it to the "California Academy of Sciences." He also 
reported that the party wall between the Academy and the Pioneers at the rear of their 
lots had, with the excavation for it, cost the Pioneers nearly $ 1 0,000, one half of which 
would have to be paid by the Academy when it came to use the wall. Frank H. Vaslit, 
secretary of the Board, on account of ill health, was granted one month's leave of 
absence, with salary paid in advance. NOVEMBER 21, Professor E. S. Holden read a 
paper on "California Earthquakes." November 30, a special meeting was held at 
which Frank H. Cushing delivered a lecture on the "Discovered Ruins of the City of 
Los Muertos, Arizona." 

December 5, a continuation of Walter E. Bryant's paper on "Unusual Nesting 
Sites" was read by Dr. Hewston. Professor George C. Edwards lectured on "The 
Problem of Lights," illustrated with drawings on the screen. In the Board of Trustees, 
$350 were appropriated for printing Volume I, Second Series, of the Proceedings of 
the Academy, the first publication of its Proceedings since 1 876. A sum not exceeding 
$200 was allowed to defray the expenses of Walter E. Bryant and party to go to Lower 




Edward S. Holden 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 



CHAPTER XXIV: 1886-1887 291 

California and collect scientific specimens and matters of scientific interest for the 
Academy. December 19, Walter E. Bryant read a paper on "Birds and Eggs from 
the Farallones Islands," illustrated on the screen. The nominating committee pre- 
sented a ticket for officers of 1 888. Dr. Stout called up the subject of the appropriation 
of the First Avenue lot by the Board of Supervisors for school puiposes and 
characterized it as a "confiscation" of the property of the Academy. Mr. Holladay 
explained the situation and in substance gave notice that the "last say" had not yet 
been said. In the Board of Trustees, Mr. Holladay offered resolutions, which were 
adopted, to the effect that the Academy reiterated its previous acceptance of, and 
thereby specifically accepted, the dedication to it of the First Avenue lot; that no 
charge should ever be made for admission to the museum of the Academy to be 
erected on it, and that a copy of the resolution should be sent to the Mayor and Board 
of Supervisors. 



292 



Chapter XXV: Years 1888-1889 



1888 

January 3, 1888, the annual election resulted in the choice of the following 
officers: H. W. Harkness, president; H. H. Behr, first vice-president; George Hew- 
ston, second vice-president; Henry Ferrer, corresponding secretary; William F. 
Smith, recording secretary; I. E. Thayer, treasurer, C. Troyer, librarian; J. G. Cooper, 
director of the Museum; C. F. Crocker, D. E. Hayes, S. W. Holladay, George C. 
Perkins, Jacob Z. Davis, E. J. Molera, and E. L. G. Steele, trustees. The annual reports 
of officers were presented and flied. On nomination of the Council, Professor John 
LeConte and Professor Joseph LeConte were elected honorary life members. In 
accordance with the constitution, and to fill up the depleted list, the following were 
elected honorary members: Professor Alexander Agassiz, Joseph Leidy, S. P. Lan- 
gley, G. Brown Goode, Francis A. Walker, A. E. Verrill, W. K. Brooks, Mrs. E. B. 
Crocker, Edward D. Cope, A. S. Packard, C. V. Riley, George H. Horn, Clarence 
Dutton, Elliot Coues, Charles B. Cory, Alphonse de Candolle, H. B. Medlicott, James 
Hector, W. G. Farlow, E. T. Cresson, Joseph Lovering, Francois Crepin, Maurice 
Chaper, Theodore Lefevre, E. A. Regel. Henri de Saussure, D. C. Danielssen, G. O. 
Sars, and E. S. C. Cosson. 

In the Board of Tmstees, it appeared from the annual report that the secretary of 
the Lick Trustees gave an estimate that the property coming to the Academy as 
residuary beneficiary of the Lick estate would amount to about $350,000. It fijrther 
appeared that the resolution, adopted at the last meeting of the Board and purporting 
to be a formal acceptance by the Academy of the supposed dedication of the First 
Avenue lot, had been transmitted and delivered to the Mayor and Board of Supervi- 
sors of San Francisco on December 24, 1887. During the year 1887, no money had 
been borrowed. The receipts of that year, including the balance left over from 1 886, 
were $1 1,103.44 and the expenditures $9,256.22, leaving a balance of cash in the 
general fund of $1,086.20 and in the Crocker Scientific Invesfigation Fund of 
$761.02, or a total of $1,847.22. The prudenfial committee reported that the party 
wall between the Academy's lot and the Flood building had been finished and the 
Academy's share of the cost would be a little under $5,000, payable when the 
Academy would make use of it. A report of Messrs. Holladay and Molera on the First 
Avenue lot insisted that the Academy's title to it was perfect. 

January 16, Dr. Behr read a paper on "The Names of Colors in Ancient 



CHAPTER XXV: 1888-1889 293 

Languages," illustrated on the blackboard. In the Board of Trustees, C. F. Crocker 
was reelected president; S. W. Holladay, president pro tern, and Charles Stephens 
appointed secretary, as well as assistant librarian of the Academy, at a salary of $40 
per month during the pleasure of the Board. E. L. G. Steele offered a resolution that, 
"in view of the difficulties which have already arisen in regard to the lot on First 
Avenue, which is owned by this Academy, and to avoid the same in future, and also 
for the preservation of the museum of the Society and that it may be at once utilized 
for the public good," the Board should immediately proceed to the erection of a 
building on it and borrow the money necessary therefor from the Lick Trustees. After 
some discussion the consideration of the resolution was postponed until the next 
meeting. Mr. Molera gave notice that at the same next meeting, he would introduce 
a resolution to build on the Market Street lot. 

February 6, among the donations to the cabinet were 1000 species of plants sent 
in exchange by honorary member Prof R. A. Philippi, of Santiago, Chile. Frederick 
Gutzkow read a paper on "A New Method of Quantitative Determination of Bromine 
in Sea Water," with illustrative experiments. Joseph D. Redding offered a preamble 
and resolution, which were adopted, asking for the establishment by the United States 
of a National Park in the vicinity of Mount Shasta and so as to include, and protect 
from pollution, the McCloud River, the natural spawning ground of California 
salmon.^^ ' The president announced the death of Professor Asa Gray, the botanist; 
and Dr. Hewston, Dr. Behr and Mrs. Curran were appointed a committee to draw up 
appropriate resolutions. In the Board of Trustees, Jacob Z. Davis exhibited plans and 
drawings for the improvement of the Academy's Market Street lot. Mr. Molera urged 
immediate action and introduced a resolution to that effect, and that a conference 
should be had with the Pioneers and Miss Flood for the purpose of acquiring the use 
of Pioneer Place for the proposed Academy building. An additional $10 per month 
was allowed Charles Stephens, the secretary, making his salary, as secretary and 
assistant librarian, $50 per month. February 20, Adley H. Cummins read a paper 
"On the Races of Man and their Limitations." Dr. Hewston presented a resolution of 
respect to the memory of Professor Asa Gray, which was adopted, and also a 



25 I The full text of the resolution states: "Whereas the attention of the Government of the United States 
has been called to the advisability of establishing a National Park in the vicinity of Mount Shasta. Siskiyou 
County, California for the purpose of preserving the natural beauties, the game and the aspect of the country 
in their natural condition — 

"And whereas the McCloud River has its rise at the base of Mount Shasta and extends some fifty miles 
in a southerly direction, and empties into the Pitt, which empties into the Sacramento River — 

"And whereas the said McCloud River is the natural spawning ground of the Pacific Coast Salmon in 
California — 

"And whereas the said McCloud River will be in time polluted by the incursion of tourists and the 
establishment of sawmills etc. around its banks — 

"Now, therefore be it resolved by the Academy of Sciences of San Francisco: That it is the earnest wish 
of said Society that there shall be a National Park established around the base of Mount Shasta for the first 
named purposes, and furthermore, that said National Park shall extend in territory, so as to include the 
McCloud River, in order to hold the same inviolable forever for the purposes of pisiculture and fish 
industries of our State: — 

"And furthermore that this Society will cause a copy of this resolution to be forwarded to the 
Congressmen representing California before a bill is introduced or passed establishing said Park." (Minute 
Books, Dec. 1880-Dec. 1890, pp. 256-257. 

For a biographical sketch of sometime musician/attorney Joseph D. Redding, son of Benjamin B. Redding 
(o.v.), see Renee Renouf, "The Greatest Bohemian of All: Joseph D. Reddmg." The Californians, 1983, 
12(3): 11-22. 



294 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Joseph Deighn Redding (early 1890s) 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 



memorial In the memorial it was said that Professor Asa Gray, as a scientist in his 
department, had few, if any, superiors. He was acknowledged as one of the most 
thorough botanists living. His industry in his work was unparalleled. He was unflinch- 
ing in the pursuit of truth. He was not a mere book or closet naturalist, but traveled 
and investigated the fields and collected, so far as was possible, the plants he 
described. He was one of the modem scientists who, like Huxley and Tyndall, did 
not entertain the idea, that, by popularizing his favorite branch of study, he in any 
wise detracted from the scientific character of his own reputation on the true value 
of his science. He was deeply impressed with the importance of the botany of the 
Pacific Coast and made three visits for the purpose of studying it. As a man, he was 
gentle, kind, cheerfiil and genial. His birth took place at Paris, Oneida County, New 
York on November 10, 1810; in 1842 he became professor in natural history in 
Harvard College, and his connection with that institution continued to the time of his 
death on January 30, 1888. in his seventy-eighth year. 

March 5, Gilbert Palache was elected a life member. W. Lindgren of the U. S. 
Geological Survey read a paper on the "Topographical Features of Lower California." 
Melville Attwood made remarks "On Determination of Form and Hardness of 
Crystals." Ivan Petroff explained a map of Kodiak Island, which he presented to the 
Academy. In the Board of Trustees, $150, out of the Crocker Scientific Investigation 
Fund, were ordered paid Dr. Cooper for work in collecting and classifying fossils. 
S. W. Holladay announced that the Board of Education, authorized by the Board of 
Supervisors of San Francisco, were about to build on the First Avenue lot; and, on 



CHAPTER XXV: 1888-1889 295 

motion of Mr. Molera, it was resolved to send a protest to the Board of Education 
against the erection by them of any structure on the Academy lot or interference in 
any way with the rights of the Academy. March 19, 1. E. Thayer made remarks on 
the abundance offish at the Island of Tahiti, a number of which and a few mollusks 
from there he donated. Dr. Hewston read a paper by Mrs. Curran on "Comparison of 
Flora of Chile and California." In the Board of Trustees, a report of examination of 
the safe deposit box showed that in contained the twenty bonds of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad Company for $20,000, constituting the Crocker Scientific Investigation 
Fund; also the various deeds to the Academy, and the lease of the Academy building, 
dated October 1, 1886 for two years at $150 per month, with a privilege of 1, 2 or 3 
years or fraction of a year more, if requested in writing; also an insurance policy on 
the museum, collections and library. A committee was appointed to arrange with the 
Lick Trustees as to loans for building purposes, and another to confer with the Society 
of California Pioneers in reference to the use of Pioneer Place. 

April 2, Professor P. V. Veeder was introduced and delivered a lecture on "The 
Recent Changes in Japan." The library reported receiving a large number of extremely 
valuable quarto volumes of the Geological Survey of India'^" as well as 24 decades 
of Natural His toiy from Victoria, Australia. In the Board of Trustees, the committee, 
appointed to confer with the Pioneers in reference to the use of Pioneer Place, reported 
that the Pioneers were unwilling to grant the use of it except on condition that the 
Academy would extend the same through its lot. April 16, Dr. Hewston presented a 
lamprey, Ammochaetus cibarius, found in the Bay of San Francisco, and called 
attention to the smallness of its size. He said it had been caught in a herring net and 
went on to observe that the fact of its capture suggested a very good reason for the 
serious diminution of the yield offish in the Bay. While the Italians and particularly 
the Chinese were permitted to use nets, whose meshes were so fine as to catch so 
small an object, it was idle to charge the scarcity of our fish to the few seals that 
resorted to Seal Rocks, where they served to diversity and embellish one of our most 
attractive points of interest. Dr. Harkness exhibited pine branches attacked by a 
parasite, called Peridermium Harknessii. He said it attacked the inner bark and, by 
the irritation it produced, caused an enormous development and finally exhausted the 
tree and proved fatal. The so-called digger pines, Pinus Sabiniana, seemed to be 
suffering most severely and thousands of them were dying from its attacks. The death 
of Dr. Ferdinand F. von Richthofen, an honorary member of the Academy, was 
announced; and F. Gutzkow gave a sketch of scientific career and presented an 
appreciative tribute to his memory. The Librarian reported that the Academy had 
acquired by purchase De Candolle's 23-volume Prodromus on plants as well as 
several valuable works on geology and fossils. In the Board of Trustees, C. F. Crocker, 
of the committee of conference with the Society of California Pioneers, reported that 
it was not practicable to make any arrangement for the use of Pioneer Place, and, on 
motion, it was resolved that it was expedient to proceed immediately to the erection 
of an Academy building. J. Z. Davis, of the committee to arrange for loans from the 

^^■2 Palaeontologia Indica, a grand serial publication started in 1 861 to report on the extraordinary fossil 
discoveries uncovered by Survey geologists and paleontologists. Publication continues to this day ( 1 996). 



296 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Lick Trust, reported that the funds needed for building could be obtained from the 
Lick Trustees; and, on motion, it was resolved that the president should borrow the 
necessary funds, say $200,000, for the purposes of building on the Market Street lot 
on the best possible terms. Trustee S. W. Holladay was appointed attorney for the 
Board in the matter of the building and he was requested to engage as coadjutors, if 
he desired, the firm of Mastick, Belcher & Mastick. It was resolved to invite numerous 
architects to submit plans for the proposed new building, with an understanding that 
none were to be paid for unless approved and accepted. 

April 26, at a special meeting of the Trustees, it was resolved that certain 
directions in reference to the proposed building should be sent to the architects invited 
to compete in drawing plans. These were mainly that the building opposite Pioneer 
Place was to be set back from 4 to 6 feet and to have an open front towards it so as 
to afford an attractive appearance from Fourth Street. There was to be light secured 
for the building wherever it was possible to get it. There was to be an assembly room 
for at least 200 persons; and the building with extras was not to cost over $200,000. 
The plans were to be compared, and $300 paid for the one chosen as first; $200 for 
the second, and $100 for the third; and $100 might be given for a fourth, presenfing 
desirable points not contained in the others. The plans thus chosen and paid for were 
to belong to the Academy; the others to be returned. The architect of the plan adopted 
was to be superintendent of the building; but the Academy reserved the right of 
modifying any plan, and in such case to select the superintending architect. 

May 7, Samuel L. Theller and Charles F. Sonne were elected resident members. 
Professor Joseph LeConte lectured on "The Most Probable View Regarding the 
Condition of the Interior of the Earth." In the Board of Trustees, it was resolved to 
send more specific directions to architects in reference to the proposed new building, 
and asking their plans to be handed in by June 18. A sum of $200 was appropriated 
to publish Dr. Gustav Eisen's Memoir with illustrations, and $60 per month allowed 
Mrs. Curran for her various services, including the editing of the Proceedings of the 
Academy, the additional $20 to be paid out of the general fund. May 21, Dr. Julius 
Koebig was elected a resident member. A paper by Dr. Gustav Eisen on "Antiquities 
of Guatemala" was read and illustrated on the screen. Dr. Behr spoke of insect pests, 
particularly the army worm. JUNE 4, Professor Josiah Keep read a paper on the 
"Measurement of Frustums of Cones and Cylinders." Professor L. A. Lee described 
the work perfomied by the "Albatross" during its voyage through the Straits of 
Magellan and northward to San Francisco. In the Board of Trustees, S. W. Holladay 
was requested to defend the Academy's title to the First Avenue lot. An allowance 
of $40 per month was authorized for petty expenses of the library. June 18, W. T. 
Baggett was elected a resident member. The publication of the second bulletin of 
Proceedings of the Academy was announced. Frank H. Gushing addressed the 
Academy on "Evolution," and also answered many questions asked in reference to 
his ethnological research in New Mexico and Arizona. In the Board of Trustees, the 
plans of architects for the new building were opened in the following order; W. F. 
Smith, 1; J. J. & T. D. Newsom, 2; Percy & Hamilton, 3; Salfield & Kohlberg, 4; J. 



CHAPTER XXV: 1 888- 1 889 297 

M. Curtis, 5. W. Patten asked for further time to complete his plans; but the Board 
declined to extend the time and returned his plans unopened. The plans retained were 
inspected and then left with the secretary to be kept strictly private. July 2, Dr. Behr 
read a paper on "Disproportional Multiplication of the Vanessa Californica.'' Special 
notice was taken of a magnificant set of astronomical drawings by Prof Trouvelot 
by an Academy member. July 16, Professor Ward described the museum at the 
Coronado Beach Hotel. 

August 6, a paper prepared by Professor E. S. Holden on "Volcanoes in the 
Moon" was read by Dr. Hewston. F. Gutzkow described the "Manufacture on this 
Coast of Magnesia from Sea Water." In the Board of Trustees, Messrs. Davis and 
Holladay were appointed to act with the president in adjusting the shape of the rears 
of the Academy's and Pioneers' properties. Messrs. Davis, Molera and Harkness were 
appointed to consider the plans for the new Academy building. AUGUST 20, the 
president announced the death of Charles Crocker on August 14"' at the Hotel del 
Monte, in Monterey Co., and made remarks upon his munificence to the Academy 
and the great interest he had always taken in its welfare. He also announced that the 
Board of Trustees and the Council, upon hearing of the death of Mr. Crocker, had 
appointed a committee to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the Academy 
at the loss it had sustained, which would be presented to the Academy for adoption. 
The resolutions, reported by Messrs. Hewston, Holladay, Perkins, Harkness and 
Ferrer, were then presented and adopted;'^ "* and the Academy adjourned as a mark 
of respect to the memory of the deceased. 

September 8, a paper by Professor E. S. Holden "On Earthquakes in California, 
Oregon, and Washington Territory" was read. In the Board of Trustees, on motion of 
J. Z. Davis, the five plans for the new Academy building were accepted, and 
premiums awarded as follows: to John M. Curtis, $300; William F. Smith, $200; 
Percy & Hamilton, $200; Salfield & Kohlberg, $100; John J. & Thomas D. Newson, 
$100, all the plans to be retained as the property of the Academy. At an adjourned 
meeting, on September 11, Mr. Davis recommended J. M. Curtis as supervising 
architect of the new building; Messrs. Harkness and Molera recommended G. W. 
Percy. E. L. G. Steele resigned as a Trustee, and Irving M. Scott was elected in his 
place. It was determined that a supervising architect should then be elected, condi- 
tioned upon the Board being able to make satisfactory terms with him. G. W. Percy 
received four votes and J. M. Curtis two votes; and Percy was declared elected. It 
was also determined to rent a room near the property for use as a Board room during 
building operations. September 1 7, Adley H. Cummins read a paper on "Compara- 
tive Mythology." Dr. Hewston described a species of banana plant, very large and 
luxuriant but fruitless, growing in his front yard on Sutter near Polk Street in San 
Francisco. In the Board of Trustees, the employment of G. W. Percy as supervising 
architect was authorized, limiting his commissions to l-Vi per cent of the cost of the 
work. In an adjourned meeting, on September 24, J. Z. Davis tendered his resignation 
as a Trustee; but it was laid on the table. The employment of G. W. Percy as 



25 3 The resolutions were published in the San Francisco Bulletin the next day (Aug. 21 ) 



298 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

supervising architect was reported on a commission of 2-V2 per cent on the cost of 
the building while under his supervision. A Board room in the Flood Building 
adjoining the Academy lot was hired at $50 per month; and Trustee Molera was 
directed to prepare a document defining Mr. Percy's duties and responsibilities as 
supervising architect. 

October 1 , a paper by Mary K. Curran "On Trees and Shrubs of the Sierra 
Nevada" was read. This was followed by an address by Dr. R. G. Eccles of New York. 
In Board of Trustees, a contract was signed with Mr. Percy defining his duties and 
responsibilities. October 15, Dr. J. Koebig read a paper "On Modem Chemistry in 
Agriculture." Theodore H. Hittell read a paper, entitled "Sutro's New Water Power," 
in which he described the method of collecting the sea water splashed above high 
water mark on the rocks at Point Lobos by the ocean surf, and thus filling a reservoir 
with a considerable head above ocean level. Dr. Harkness spoke of scientific 
researches at and about Lake Tahoe. In the Board of Trustees, OCTOBER 22, R. D. 
Clairmont was employed to prepare a financial statement of Academy business and 
open a series of regular account books. Mr. Molera reported a negotiation having in 
view the furnishing of rooms in the new building for the Supreme Court of California. 
The resignation of Jacob Z. Davis as a Trustee presented at a previous meeting was 
accepted, and John Taylor was elected in his place. 

NOVEMBER 5, a paper by T. S. Brandegee "On the Flora of Santa Barbara Islands" 
was read. In the Board of Trustees, Mr. Molera reported that the consent of Mrs. Abby 
M. Parrott for a conjoint lightwell between her property and that of the Academy 
could not be obtained. In the Board of Trustees, November 12, it appeared that the 
Society of California Pioneers were still not disposed to allow any use of Pioneer 
Place except on condition of extending it through the Academy's lot. November 19, 
F. Gutzkow read a paper on "Magnesium Oxychloride or Sorel's White Cement, and 
the Favorable Conditions for its Manufacture in California." W. R. Bentley read a 
paper "On the Great Glacier of the Selkirks." In the Board of Tmstees, architect Percy, 
in speaking of material for building, said that sandstone afforded better resistance to 
fire than granite or marble though not equal to them in tensity under a crushing force. 
A new attempt was made to come to some agreement with the Pioneers and Miss 
Flood for the use of Pioneer Place. 

December 3, among the donations were 121 specimens of birds from L. Belding. 
Professor Joseph LeConte read a paper on "The Structure of the Great Basin Region," 
and J. R. Scupham, a paper on "Identification of Coal Seams." Dr. Hewston described 
the progress of the new building on Market Street, then under way. In the Board of 
Trustees, it was resolved to offer $ 1 5,000 for the use of Pioneer Place. On December 
10, the Pioneers had a meeting on the subject, and there seemed a disposition 
manifested to grant the desired use for $30,000, when C. O'Connor, Miss Flood's 
agent, objected to any such use except on condition of extending the Place through 
the Academy's lot; and the Pioneers thereupon made such extension an indispensable 
condition of any grant of right of way or use. December 1 7, Theodore H. Hittell read 
a paper, entitled "Change of Level of the Peninsula of San Francisco," which was 



CHAPTER XXV: 1888-1889 299 

based principally upon the finding of drift logs and bones of large marine animals 
eighty or more feet below the surface near the top of Mount Parnassus and about 700 
feet above present sea level. Dr. William P. Gibbons read a paper "regarding the 
drawings of the late Dr. Albert Kellogg and his reasons for not leaving them to the 
Academy while the present administration was in power." After a great many 
desultory remarks, it was, on motion, resolved that the paper was not in proper tone 
and should not be received by the Academy. The nominating committee reported 
ftirther interviews with the Pioneers in reference to the use of Pioneer Place and also 
a correspondence between the Pioneers and Miss Flood with Mrs. A. M. Parrott, 
asking an interview with the object of extending Pioneer Place not only through the 
Academy lot but through her lot also; but Mrs. Parrott replied that she could not 
entertain any proposition for its extension through her property and that she thought 
an intei-view on the subject unnecessary. It was ordered that $5,000 should be 
borrowed from the Lick Trust to pay taxes and other current expenses. 



1889 

Annual meeting, January 7, 1889. The reports of officers were received and 
placed on file. As the result of the annual election, the following were declared 
officers for the year: H. W. Harkness, president; H. H. Behr, first vice-president; 
George Hewston, second vice-president; Frederick Gutzkow, conesponding secre- 
tary; J. R. Scupham, recording secretary; I. E. Thayer, treasurer; C. Troyer, librarian; 
J. G. Cooper, director of the Museum; C. F. Crocker, D. E. Hayes, S. W. Holladay, 
E. J. Molera, I. M. Scott, George C. Perkins, and John Taylor, trustees. In the Board 
of Trustees, the annual report detailed the resolution of the Board in the early part of 
1888 to improve the Market Street lot by the erection on it of a building suitable for 
the uses of the Academy and for stores and rooms from which an income might be 
derived. It stated the negotiations that had been had with reference to acquiring the 
use of Pioneer Place, and their failure. The only proposition on which the use would 
be granted involved the necessity of substantially sacrificing all the rear portion of 
the Academy's lot, leaving only a depth for its building of 145 feet, which would not 
be sufficient for the purposes designed. It had been detennined not to make the 
sacrifice, and the plans adopted for building had accordingly been made to cover the 
whole lot and with a view of reaching the building from the Market Street entrance 
only. On this plan the work had commenced; the excavation of the lot had been 
finished; and it was expected that in a year the building would be ready for occupancy. 
As to the First Avenue lot, the Board of Education, notwithstanding the protests of 
the Academy, had proceeded to build on it, but this Board still considered the title of 
the Academy to it perfect and would assert its rights in proper time. A sum of $5,000 
had been borrowed from the Lick Trustees, making the indebtedness to the Lick Trust 
$10,000. The new loan was made necessary by increased and unusual expenses in 
excavafing the Market Street lot and paying for plans of building in addition to the 



300 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

ordinary current expenses of the Academy. In the meanwhile, it had been ascertained 
from private sources that the amount to be received as residuary beneficiary under 
the Lick Trust would considerably exceed all previous estimates, although no official 
information to that effect had as yet been received. It further appeared that the receipts 
for 1888, including the balance on hand and the $5,000 borrowed, had been 
$14,014.77 and the disbursements $11,078.71, leaving a balance of $2,936.06, of 
which $2,185.04 belonged to the general fund and $751.02 to the Crocker Scientific 
Investigation Fund. 

January 21, the following papers were read by title: "New Species of California 
Mammals" by Dr. C. Hart Merriam; "Song Notes of Birds" by L. Belding; "Pet- 
rographical Notes on Baja California" by Waldemar Lundgren; "Review of Eiythrin- 
inae" by C. H. and R. S. Eigenmann; "Botanical Notes" by Mary K. Curran; "Report 
upon a Collection of Birds from Lower California" by Walter E. Bryant. E. J. Molera 
read a paper "On the Late Total Eclipse of the Sun." In the Board of Trustee, C. F. 
Crocker was elected president; S. W. Holladay, president pro tern, an Charles 
Stephens appointed secretary. The Council asked and obtained an appropriation of 
$700 to send W. E. Bryant and C. D. Haines to Magdalena Bay, Lower California, 
for three months to collect natural history specimens. It was resolved that the new 
Academy building should have a front on Pioneer Place, as if it were open, with a 
view to its use in case the right to use it should be acquired. 

February 4, Theodore H. Hittell read a paper, entitled "The Acorn and the Oak," 
the purpose of which was to call attention to the continual change of inorganic into 
organic or so-called dead into living matter. In the Board of Trustees, a contract was 
made with George Goodman to do the concrete foundation work of the new Academy 
building for $3,244. James W. Duncan was appointed superintendent of construction 
at a salary of $ 1 50 per month, to commence when required by the architect. On motion 
of E. J. Molera, seconded by G. C. Perkins, it was resolved that a suit should be 
commenced against the City and County of San Francisco and the Board of Education 
for the First Avenue lot. At a special meeting of the Trustees, held February 1 1 at 
the architect's office, it was resolved to build the rear wall of the Academy building, 
commencing on the Parrott line 30 feet from the extreme southerly end and running 
parallel to Market Street to the Pioneer building, leaving the rear triangle an open 
space. Mr. Molera moved that the Academy auditorium be placed next the eastern 
wall of the new building, which motion was negatived. Mr. Molera also moved that 
the classical style of architecture be adopted for the front of the building. Such was 
the direction of Mr. Lick on his first deed; and it was a direction which, if properly 
carried out,would have secured a handsome front. But Mr. Holladay moved to amend 
by adopting the "Modem Romanesque style of architecture"; and, on vote, the 
amendment carried 4 to 1, Mr. Molera voting in the negative. FEBRUARY 18, Dr. 
Hewston read a paper on "Crinoids or Sea Lillies." 

March 4, Townshend S. Brandegee, Waldemar Lindgren, Volney Rattan, James 
E. Mills, and Lyman Belding'' "^ were elected resident members. Among the donations 
was a specimen of limonite, presented by F. Gutzkow, from which he suggested a 



CHAPTER XXV: 1888-1889 



301 




Townshend Stith Brandegee 

Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation 

Carnegie-Mellon University 



theory of the origin of gold in our placer gravels; also an egg containing specimens 
of a ftingus growth and of the Gordius or "hair snake," presented by Pietro C. Rossi. 
The president announced the death of Seth Cook and Dr. Jules C. A. de Tavel. A 
paper by Professor Holden on "California Earthquakes in 1888" was read. Gen. L. 
H. Foote then presented the regular paper for the evening entitled "Notes on Corea." 
In the Board of Trustees, it was resolved that S. W. Holladay, assisted with such 
eminent counsel as he might deem necessary, should report whether the erection of 
the building as contemplated would jeopardize the title of the Academy to its share 
of the residue of the Lick estate, and if necessary, that a suit should be commenced 
against the Lick Trustees to determine the Academy's status in the matter. March 
18, Dr. Behr read a paper "On the Names of Colors." In the Board of Trustees, a bill 
of C. Duisenberg & Co. for 270 barrels of cement, amounting to $1,039.50, was 
ordered paid. The secretary thereupon reported that there was not enough cash on 
hand to cover that and other accounts due at the end of the month; and it was therefore 
ordered that $5,000 more be borrowed from the Lick Trust. 

April 1, Dr. J. B. Trembly presented "Reports of the Meteorology of Oakland, 
1881-1888." F. Gutzkow addressed the Academy on "Water Motors and Water 

25 4 Incorrectly recorded as Louis Belding in the handwritten minutes {Minute Books, Dec. 1 880-Dec. 
1890, p. 288). The published newspaper account of the meeting contains even more inaccuracies, 
mentioning as newly elected members Mr. Townsend and S. Brandegie for Townshend S. Brandegee, 
Voluaz for Volney Rattan, and James E. Miller for James E. Mills; also Lucius S. Foote for Lucius 
H[arwood] Foote. 



302 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

Meters." In the Board of Trustees, it was ordered that the Society of CaHfomia 
Pioneers should be notified that the northwest wall of their building projected on the 
Academy's lot and that they be requested to cut off the projection so as to confomi 
to the line. A number of construction bills were ordered paid, and a number of reports 
made as to constmction contracts. Specimens of stone for the front of the building 
were ordered to be submitted to Professor A. W. Jackson, Jr. and Professor Frederick 
Hesse of the University of California, for their opinion as to their value for building 
purposes. At a special meeting on April 8, the Trustees ordered that specimens of 
Sespe, Niles Ventura, and lone stone be referred to Professor Jackson to report upon 
their durability against disintegration by weather, he to receive $25 for each specimen 
reported on. It was announced that the projection of the wall of the Pioneer building 
was being cut away so as to conform to the line. It was ordered that the Board of 
Supervisors should be asked to allow proposed heavy granite columns on each side 
of the Market Street entrance of the Academy building to project 1 foot 9 inches on 
the sidewalk and the bases of the columns 2 feet l-'/2 inches. Judge A. L. Rhodes 
reported his legal opinion that the Academy's right to one-half the residue of the Lick 
estate was absolute. Various contracts for building construction were awarded. April 
15, F. Gutzkow described some peculiar aluminum deposits; and a discussion 
followed on the qualities of aluminum. A paper by Professor G. M. Schaeberle on 
"Bernard's Comet" was read. The president announced the publication of Volume I, 
Second Series, of the Proceedings of the Academy. A resolution of thanks acknow- 
ledging the work of Mrs. Mary K. Curran as Proceedings editor passed unanimously. 
In the Board of Trustees, a communication from the Pioneers invited further nego- 
tiations in reference to the use of Pioneer Place. A few more construction contract 
were awarded. 

May 6, the plans of the Academy building in course of construction were exhibited 
and explained by Mr. S. W. HoUaday. In the Board of Trustees, a list of all the 
construction contracts, with dates and amounts, was filed as follows: " 1 888, Nov. 1 9, 
Sibley, L. B.- excavating — $1,100; 1889, Feb. 4, Goodman, Geo. - concrete foun- 
dation - $3294; Ap. 2, McCarthy, Jno. - brick work - $3,884; Ap. 9, Healy, M. J. $ 
Co. -granite work -$17,200; Ap. 9, Fletcher, W. M.- carpenter work -$49,772; 
Ap. 9, Rix & Firth - constructional wroght iron work- $12,375; Ap. 9, O'Connell 
& Lewis - cast iron work - $ 1 8,900; Ap. 1 5, Ransom & Gushing - concrete work — 
$14,300; Apr 15, Duffy Bros. - plumbing, gas fitting and drain work -$15,326," 
being altogether contracts to the amount of $ 1 69, 1 5 1 . Professor Jackson reported that 
Sespe freestone was decidedly superior to any of the lone, Niles or Ventura stone 
submitted, and he was ordered paid for his opinion and expenses $ 1 87. The treasurer 
reported $4,413.07 on hand, and it was ordered that $10,000 more be bonowed from 
the Lick Trust. The sum of $ 1 ,064.96 was ordered paid to Spaulding & Co. for printing 
Volume I, Second Series, oi Proceedings of the Academy, and Britton & Key, $100 
for maps accompanying same. Frank H. Vaslit's salary was raised to $50 per month. 

In the matter of the use of Pioneer Place, it appeared that in their recent commu- 
nication the Pioneers had said that the representatives of Miss Flood had changed 



CHAPTER XXV: 1888-1889 303 

their mind in reference to the subject, and that the right of user could then be obtained 
for $30,000, and that the Academy had adopted its plans and let its contracts without 
reference to the use of Pioneer Place, and it was not too late to change them. It also 
appeared that a wooden building and fence on Mrs. Parrott's lot projected over the 
Academy's lot, and her agent was disposed to claim the right of maintaining them as 
they were by prescription; but on second thought, it was agreed that the Academy 
might make them conform to the line, if it were done without expense to Mrs. Parrott. 
As to the Academy's interest in the Lick estate and its ability to continue its building, 
it appeared that the Lick Trustees had applied to the court, in suits commenced against 
the only specific beneficiaries not yet paid, to be allowed and authorized to pay to 
the Academy and the Pioneer Society each $300,000 on the ground that they had on 
hand in addition to these sums ample funds to meet all the specific gifts. There was 
some discussion as to the publication of a new volume, entitled "West American 
Oaks" by Dr. Albert Kellogg. It was edited by Edward L. Greene and contained matter 
and particularly drawings, which seemed to have been prepared by Dr. Kellogg while 
in the employ of the Academy and was claimed to belong to the Academy. After Dr. 
Kellogg's death. Dr. William P. Gibbons, E. L. Greene and a few others seem to have 
published the book as a work independent of the Academy, and Captain J. M. 
McDonald ftimished the funds for it. Messrs. Molera and Percy were appointed a 
committee to decide upon the modeling of the embellishments of the new building, 
and Messrs. Holladay, Perkins and Harkness a committee to arrange for a fomial 
laying of the comer stone. 

May 20, a large photograph of the moon was presented by the Lick Observatory. 
Dr. Behr read a paper on "The Duration of Individual Life in Insects." In the Board 
of Trustees, it appeared that the Board of Supervisors had granted the permission 
asked, allowing the bases of the granite columns at the entrance of the Academy 
building on Market Street to project 2 feet l-'/2 inches on the sidewalk. The architect 
reported that W. B. Farwell had made a bid to flimish stone for the front of the building 
for $27,844 and O. E. Brady offered the same for $19,500; and it was ordered that 
Brady's bid be accepted. June 3, a paper by H. R. Taylor was read, entitled "Nesting 
Habits of Some of Our Raptores, with Notes on the California Condor." W. E. Bryant 
made a report on his recent trip for the Academy to Lower California. In the Board 
of Trustees, $10,000 were ordered to be borrowed from the Lick Trust. A sum of 
$500 was paid to Judge A. L. Rhodes for his legal opinion on the right of the Academy 
to one-half the residue of the Lick estate. S. W. Holladay's bill seems to have been 
the same, but he reduced it one-half, and $250 was ordered paid him for a similar 
opinion. The printing of the Proceedings of the Academy for the current year was 
authorized at a cost not to exceed $1,000. Further construction contracts for the 
Academy building were awarded to P. Azinar, for painting, $3,750; Will & Fink, for 
electric bills, $475; W. Croman, for tin and galvanized iron roof, $5,170; Winslow 
Brothers of Chicago, for ornamental iron work and electrotyping, $1 1,200. June 17, 
W. E. Bryant read "Descriptions of the Nests and Eggs of Some Lower California 
Birds." 



304 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

July 1, W. E. Bryant read "A Description of Some New Mammals." In the Board 
of Trustees, in addition to the $10,000 borrowed from the Lick Trust in June, it was 
ordered that $20,000 more be borrowed. Professor Davidson presented a petition, 
signed by himself and others, asking that the Grand Lodge of Masons should be 
invited to lay the comer stone of the Academy building. The president stated that the 
programme had already been made up for the ceremony of laying the comer stone; 
that it would take place on Friday, July 12, at 2 o'clock P.M. On the afternoon of 
July 12, accordingly, the Tmstees, Council and other members of the Academy met 
at the building in course of constmction and the comer stone, containing a copper 
box filled with appropriate documents and specimens of coins, was laid by H. W. 
Harkness as president of the Academy. July 15, E. J. Molera presented the silver 
trowel used in laying the comer stone of the new Academy building. T. S. Brandegee 
read the paper for the evening, "On Cirio," a tree, and C. Troyer made remarks on 
Indian inscriptions on the rocks near Soda Springs in Placer County. The Board of 
Tmstees resolved to sign a certificate to continue the existence of the Academy in 
accordance with recent amendments to the Civil Code of Califomia in reference to 
such corporations. The Board then adjoumed to July 17, when S. W. Holladay was 
directed to prepare a petition to the Superior Court, asking its pemiission for the 
Academy to execute a mortgage on its real estate to the Lick Tmstees for an amount 
not exceeding $350,000. It was ordered that $1,000 be allowed Holladay on account 
of services as attorney. 

August 5, F. Gutzkow explained the working of a new water meter. Dr. Harkness 
presented specimens of Peronospora viticola and an undescribed Cladosporium from 
a wild vine, with remarks conceming them. The president announced the death of 
Adley H. Cummins, and S. W. Holladay and C. Troyer were appointed a committee 
to draft appropriate resolutions. The Board of Tmstees ordered another $20,000 to 
be borrowed from the Lick Tmst. AUGUST 19, F. Gutzkow addressed the Academy 
on "Aluminum and its Manufacture." W. E. Bryant read a paper on ''Amblystoma." 
Among the donations was a valuable collection of shells by M. Maurice Chaper of 
Paris, France. In the Board of Tmstees, a constmction contract was ordered to be 
made with the Califomia Marble and Building Stone Company for $25,000 and a 
mortgage to be executed to the Lick Tmstees for a sum not exceeding $350,000, as 
allowed by judgment of Court. SEPTEMBER 2, Dr. George Vasey addressed the 
Academy on "Grasses." In the Board of Tmstees, it appeared that a mortgage to the 
Lick Tmstees for $300,000, to secure all moneys borrowed or to be borrowed from 
them, had been executed, and the secretary was directed to deliver the same to the 
Lick Tmstees; receive from them a check and certificates of deposit for $2 1 8,969.40, 
and hand them over to the treasurer. September 16, F. Gutzkow read a paper "On 
the Hydrometallurgy of Silver." In the Board of Tmstees, the secretary reported that 
the mortgage business with the Lick Tmstees had been completed; and that the 
Academy had received its four notes for $80,000, paid interest thereon $1,030.60, 
and received in check and certificates of deposit representing cash $218,969.40, 
making in all $300,000, the amount of the mortgage. The president reported that he 



CHAPTER XXV: 1 888- 1889 305 

had endeavored to place $ 1 50,000 of the amount at interest in some commercial bank, 
but had found it impossible. He had therefore detennined to place it with the Pacific 
Improvement Company, a corporation connected with the Southern Pacific Railroad 
Company, and accordingly loaned it on two notes, both dated September 10, 1889, 
one for $50,000 drawing interest at the rate of 3 per cent per annum and payable on 
demand, the other for $100,000 with 4 per cent per annum interest, payable in six 
months. The notes were signed by the Pacific hnprovement Company by F. S. 
Doughty, secretary, and indorsed by Leland Stanford, Charles F. Crocker, C. P. 
Huntington by N. T. Huntington, his attorney in fact, and Mary P. B. Searles by H. 
J. S. Severance, her attorney in fact. The president's action was approved. Mr. Molera 
gave notice that he would move to place a bronze statue of James Lick in an 
appropriate place on the front of the Academy building. 

October 7, T. S. Brandegee spoke of the flora of Lower California and exhibited 
photographs of new species of cactus found there. In the Board of Trustees, an 
addition of $20 per month was ordered paid to W. E. Bryant, making his salary $60 
per month. J. P. Bowen was appointed watchman of the new building at $7.50 per 
week. About $10,000 of construction bills were ordered paid. OCTOBER 21, the 
members of the Academy were invited to attend the launching of the U. S. war vessel 
"San Francisco" at the Union Iron Works. November 4, Francesco Lambertenghi, 
Consul General for Italy at San Francisco, donated a copy of his work entitled "El 
Diritto Comune," being a translation into Italian of Judge Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
Jr.'s work "On the Common Law," and made an address on the progress of Italian 
Law. T. S. Brandegee read a paper "On the Flora of Baja California." A discussion 
followed on the nature and uses of Lower California orchilla as a dye. The Trustees 
awarded a contract for lathing and plastering to Charles Dunlop for $19,400, the 
lowest of four bids. November 18, among the donations were two living rattlesnakes 
by Dr. Behr. A paper by Dr. C. F. Millspaugh was read on Euphorbiacea collected in 
Lower California. Attention was called to the remarkable character of the collection. 
In the Board of Trustees, a report was presented that the concrete floors of the new 
Academy building had been tested and found in first-class condition. December 2, 
Dr. Behr read a paper entitled "The Economy of Nature as Exemplified by Vegetable 
and Animal Parasites." A collection of 425 specimens of about 200 species of beetles, 
mostly fi-om the vicinity of Oakland, by F. C. Torrey, was among the donations 
received. The Trustees ordered $4,500 to be paid Miss Cora J. Flood for one half the 
cost of the party wall between the Academy and Flood buildings, which the Academy 
was not making use of December 16, many donations of plants, insects, reptiles, 
birds and eggs were received including more than 8000 insects from Lower California 
and 2000 species of plants, of which 1200 were from Europe and Algeria by E. 
Cosson.. W. E. Bryant read a paper, entitled "The Lower California Expedition of 
1889," illustrated by views on the screen. Dr. Behr read a continuation of his paper 
on "The Economy of Nature as Exemplified by Vegetable and Animal Parasites." 
The nominating committee reported a ticket for officers of 1890, being a renomina- 
tion of the incumbents. Judge Currey presented an opposition ticket, different from 



306 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

the other by proposing Professor Joseph LeConte for president instead of Dr. 
Harkness, and E. S. Clark for librarian instead of C. Troyer. He moved that the 
Academy should print the opposition ticket as well as the regular one. His motion 
was declared out of order for the reason that the expense of printing the opposition 
ticket could not be incurred without the consent of the Board of Trustees. He then 
moved that the Board of Trustees be requested to print both tickets; but on vote his 
motion was lost. 



307 



ChapterXXVI: Year 1890 



At the annual meeting of 1890, held January 6, the usual reports of officers 
were read, accepted, and placed on file. That of the president of the Board of 
Trustees showed that the contracts for the new Academy building on Market Street 
amounted to $218,346, of which $1 17,045 had been paid, leaving a balance due of 
$101,301. These did not include contracts for an elevator or illumination. The annual 
election resulted in the choice of H. W. Harkness, president; H. H. Behr, first vice- 
president; George Hewston, second vice-president; Frederick Gutzkow, correspond- 
ing secretary; John R. Scupham, recording secretary; I. E. Thayer, treasurer; Charles 
Troyer, librarian; J. G. Cooper, director of the museum; Charles F. Crocker, D. E. 
Hayes, S. W. Holladay, George C. Perkins, E. J. Molera, Irving M. Scott, and John 
Taylor, trustees. In the Board of Trustees, it was reported that Miss Flood had been 
paid $4,500 for one half the party-wall between her building and the Academy 
building. It was also reported that a suit had been commenced against the City and 
County of San Francisco and the Board of Education for the First Avenue lot. 
January 20, Dr. Harkness spoke of the damage done to Eastern oysters planted in 
the Bay of San Francisco by whelks, which had to all appearance been introduced 
with the young oysters from the East. Dr. Behr spoke of fish found in artesian wells 
in Algeria, specimens of which had been donated by Maurice Chaper of Paris France. 
Dr. Gustav Eisen said that similar fish were found in artesian wells in Kern County. 
Dr. Behr presented specimens of diseased peach tree roots, and Dr. Harkness called 
attention to a recent report on the root-knot disease published by the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, in which it was claimed that the disease was the work of Anguilliila. 
In a discussion which followed, this theory was disputed by Messrs. Harkness, Behr, 
and Eisen, who claimed that the Anguilliila did not produce the disease but only found 
in the diseased tissue a suitable nidus for its eggs. The new Board of Trustees 
organized with C. F. Crocker as president; E. J. Molera, president pro tem\ and 
Charles Stephens, secretary. 

February 3, the minutes are silent on the evening's events except for the approval 
of the minutes of the previous meeting and reports on donations to the cabinet and 
library. At an adjourned meeting of the Trustees, held February 5, it was announced 
that the Academy required the party-wall between it and the Flood building to be 
carried up ten feet higher than it had been carried by Miss Flood; and it was proposed 
that the Academy should build the addition, with Miss Flood's consent and on the 
understanding that she would refund one half the expense, if she should use the 
additional wall. The Council asked that Frank H. Vaslit should be employed to do 



308 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

clerical work under the direction of the president of the Academy, and that his salary 
should be increased to $60 per month, commencing February 1 , 1 890. A sum of 
$1,200 was appropriated for publication purposes. Clark P. Streetor was employed 
as a janitor at $40 per month in place of C. D. Haines, resigned. Frank H. Vaslit was 
employed as asked by the Council; and the salary of Charles Stephens, as secretary 
of the Board, was advanced to $30 per month. February 17, Frank H. Vaslit and 
James S. Bunnell were elected resident members. Dr. Behr read a paper on Am- 
blystoma, giving a detailed description of the peculiar metamorphosis in this and 
allied genera. In a discussion which followed, the question arose as to the difference 
between salmon and trout. Dr. Behr stated that the difference consisted as to one 
particular in the fact that the salmon leads a marine life in general, but spawns in 
fresh-water streams, while the trout lives and spawns in fresh-water streams, only 
exceptionally entering the sea. There was also a difference in the time of the spawning 
season of the two. This opinion was concurred in by Professor C. H. Townsend of 
the Fish Commissioner's steamer Albatross, who added some observations on the 
tenacity of life in Menopoma an animal related to Amblystoma. I. E. Thayer read a 
paper on modem ship building, calling attention to the transition from iron to steel 
as a building material and to the increase of oil-tank steamers. Dr. Harkness identified 
and described different species of fungi in a collection donated to the Academy by 
Mr. Carl Precht. The president he called attention to the death of Ernest St. C. Cosson 
of Paris, France, a noted botanist and an honorary member of the Academy, and read 
a short sketch of his life and labors. On motion, T. S. Brandegee and T. H. Hittell 
were appointed a committee to prepare a proper memorial notice of the deceased. In 
the Board of Trustees, Mrs. Rosa Smith Eigenmann was, on recommendation of the 
Council, employed as a specialist in ichthyology at a salary of $60 per month. 

March 3, a paper by W. J. Raymond, "Notes on Subalpine Mollusca of the Sierra 
Nevada," was read by title. F. Gutzkow exhibited a specimen oi Cordyceps\ and Drs. 
Behr and Harkness made remarks upon its life history. Theodore H. Hittell, of the 
committee appointed for that purpose, presented and read a memorial notice of the 
noted botanist, Ernest St. C. Cosson of France, in which particular note was taken of 
his unfinished botanical explorations in Algiers and of his generous donations of 
publications and Algerian plants to the Academy. In the Board of Trustees, a contract 
was made with P. H. Jackson & Co. for Hyatt light and illuminating tile work at a 
cost of $9,240; and it was ordered that the entrance hall of the Academy building 
should be paved with encaustic tile. March 17, Dr. Harkness read a paper on "The 
Nomenclature of Organic Life." He also made remarks on Rhytisma arbuti, a fungus 
infesting the leaves of the madrono, rendering the tree unsightly. A collection of 350 
specimens of about 100 species of fish, including many types, was among the 
donations received. In the Board of Tmstees, it was announced that Miss Flood 
consented to the addition often feet in height to the party-wall between her building 
and the Academy on the terms proposed by the Academy. Morton A. Edwards offered 
a medallion of the bust of James Lick for $150; and that sum was ordered paid him 
for it. 



CHAPTER XXVI: 1890 309 

April 7, Carl H. Eigenmann read a paper on "Some Features of the Fresh- Water 
Fauna of South America." Dr. H. Carrington Bolton gave an account of a visit to a 
hill of sonorous sand in the Desert of Sinai. Professor Henry A. Ward, who had visited 
the same hill some thirty years previously, related his experiences during his journey, 
which was then more difficult, and corroborated Dr. Bolton's report of the form of 
the hill and the sound produced by the movement of the sand. Professor Ward also 
described a recent voyage around South America and particularly his trip down the 
western side of the continent. From latitude 42° South, opposite the Island of Chiloe 
[Isla Grande de Chiloe, Chile, {Eds.}], there extends along the coast for more than a 
thousand miles an island passage, navigable for small vessels the entire distance but 
in places too tortuous and narrow for large ones. He represented the natives of the 
southwestern coast as a miserable, naked and degraded race and gave some amusing 
instances of their apparent indifference to cold. April 21, several specimens of 
Coprinus were presented by Carl H. Clark. The largest were over six inches in breadth 
with a stripe an inch in diameter and sixteen inches in length. They were found 
growing under brandy casks in the storage cellar of Kohler's Winery near Glen Ellen 
in Sonoma County. Dr. Harkness made remarks, explaining the place of the plant in 
classification. C. H. Eigenmann spoke of fishes collected near the mouth of the 
Sacramento River, and called especial attention to the young of the quinnat salmon, 
of which a number had been procured; also to the young of the smelt, Osmerus 
thaleichthvs, and also to the large number of species of Scopelidae, recently added 
to the California fauna. Six new species had been found in the neighborhood of San 
Diego. All these possessed phosphorescent organs. They were all obtained from the 
stomachs of rock cod in stonny weather. It seemed that during calm weather they did 
not get within reach of the rock cod, probably on account of their living near the 
surface of the water. In the Board of Trustees, the secretary reported that the Lick 
Trustees would not for the present collect interest on the mortgage given them by the 
Academy. He also reported that $20,000 had been drawn from the $50,000 demand 
note given the Academy by the Pacific Improvement Company. The superintendent 
reported slowness in several departments of construction work. It was ordered that 
the corporate title "California Academy of Sciences" should be permanently in- 
scribed on the front of the new Academy building. 

May 5, Carl H. Eigenmann and Charles Fuchs were elected resident members. In 
the Board of Trustees, it appeared that the California Marble and Stone Company of 
California were remiss in sending marble. On motion of E. J. Molera, it was resolved, 
in deference to the wishes of James Lick, expressed in his deed of gift, and in order 
to afford a home, encourage and make a nucleus for the advancement of learning, 
that the Board of Trustees should let out the upper floor of the commercial portion 
of the Academy building at one-half the commercial schedule price, that might be 
established for the rent of rooms, to such scientific societies as should be deemed 
worthy of such favor, including the California Chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the California Camera Club, the 
Geographical Society of the Pacific, the Historical Society, the Medical Society, the 



310 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Carl H. Eigenmann 

George Sprague Myers Portrait Collection, 

Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences 




Carl and Rosa Smith Eigenmann (first woman curator of 

fishes in the U.S.), circa 1922 in Santa Cruz, California 

George Sprague Myers Portrait Collection, 

Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences 



CHAPTER XXVI: 1890 311 

Microscopical Society, and the Technical Society of the Pacific. May 19, Frederick 
Gutzkow stated that he had had occasion to examine deposits of so-called pyrolusite 
of manganese ore, found in various places within the limits of San Francisco. They 
consisted principally of psilomelane of "hard" ore of manganese, containing a notable 
quantity of barya and about 57 per cent peroxide of manganese. As the maximum 
percentage of psilomelane rarely exceeded 60 per cent, while the German pyrolusite 
assayed up into the nineties, it could readily be understood why shipments made from 
here to England, about twenty years previously, had to be discontinued. Examinations 
of specimens from other California localities seemed to show that most, if not all, 
California deposits of so-called pyrolusite, mentioned in various geological publica- 
tions, ought properly to be called deposits of psilomelane. C. H. Eigenmann spoke 
of the development of the membranes in the eggs of fishes, he said that the simplest 
form of them is a thin membrane traversed by fine canals. This membrane, the "zona 
radiata," which is present in all fish eggs, is the only covering of those eggs that are 
lighter than water. Those eggs, that are heavier than water an would otherwise fall to 
the bottom and in many cases die in the mud, are provided with various contrivances 
to attach them to foreign substances as soon as deposited. In the herring, this 
contrivance consists of a membrane overlying the zona, which becomes very viscid 
when deposited and causes the egg to adhere to any substance with which it comes 
in contact. In the smelt, an outer membrane exists, which is attached to the zona only 
around the micropyle. At the time of spawning that membrane is partially stripped 
off and attaches itself to foreign substances, thus suspending the egg by the micropy- 
lar region. In the gobies, a network of threads, similarly attached to the zona, takes 
the place of the outer membrane in the smelt. In the stickel-backs, a number of 
mushroom-shaped processes attached to the outer membrane are viscid. There are in 
many eggs long threads attached to the zona, which twine about sea weeds and other 
substances and thus suspend the eggs. These threads vary greatly in different eggs. 
In Isesthes, they are massed on one half the zona and form a cushion by which the 
eggs are attached. In the mud minnow, Fundulus the threads, which are numerous, 
are mere projections of an outer thin membrane. In Atherinopsis, they are fewer and 
have hollow bases into which fit projections of the zona. In the flying fish and gar 
fish, they fit into pockets of the zona. All the membranes and processes are, so to 
speak, products of the egg itself; and in those eggs, that are provided with processes, 
these are usually developed before the zona makes its appearance. In the yellow- 
perch, a thick covering overlies the zona. This differs from all other structures in fish 
eggs. It is the product of the granulosa cells, overlying the zona, and is not fornied 
until the latter has almost attained its ftill thickness. These granulosa cells are 
modified in the region of the micropyle and one large cell usually acts as a plug to 
the micropyle in ovarian eggs. 

June 2, T. S. Brandegee gave an account of a recent trip to Santa Catalina Island. 
He described briefly the climadc and topographical features of the Island and its most 
striking plants. He exhibited a photograph of the Bay of Avalon, which had become 
a place of summer resort. At the time of his visit there were about 12,000 sheep and 



312 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

10,000 goats on the island. The goats were not valued but on the contrary were 
regarded as undesirable on account of their consuming pasture needed for the sheep; 
and for this reason visitors were allowed to amuse themselves hunting and shooting 
the goats. In the Board of Trustees, among bills ordered paid was one for $100 to 
Marion Wells for modelling. Lieutenant A. W. Grant declined pay for preparing 
specifications for an electric light plant, and a vote of thanks was tendered him. June 
16, Dr. H. Carrington Bolton, who had recently returned from a visit to the Hawaiian 
Islands, exhibited a quantity of sonorous sand, which he had collected there, and 
produced from it, in the presence of the Academy, the characteristic sound. Dr. Carl 
Lumholtz gave an account of his residence for two years among the cannibals of 
Australia. He said that the aborigines of that country were probably the lowest of the 
human species. In no respect in advance of the Stone Age, the cannibal instinct was 
strong within them. Having made himself acquainted with their language, he had 
lived among them subsisting upon such food as the natives used while moving about 
from place to place, as was their habit. The nanative was illustrated with numerous 
pictures. 

July 7, F. Gutzkow spoke of a diatomaceous earth found in Sonoma County. He 
said that the mineral, which was found in various places in California, consisted 
chiefly of silica and water, and was of considerable economic importance. It had been 
used for building puiposes and to some extent as an absorbent for nitroglycerine in 
the manufacture of powder; but for the latter purpose the California product had 
unfortunately been found not well fitted. The presence in it of a small quantity of iron 
prevented its being used for making white glass; but he stated that he had devised a 
cheap and effective method of eliminating the iron, his method depending upon the 
volatility of ferric chloride. C. H. Eigenmann exhibited specimens of salmon, 
salmon-trout, and trout. He said that the individuals of species differ so much, 
according to the condition, the season, the bottom over which they live, and the sex, 
that it is sometimes almost impossible for any one, not an ichthyologist, to distinguish 
between species. This had caused much trouble between the Fish Commissioners and 
their deputies. Among the specimens exhibited were a large number of Lake Tahoe 
trout, Mr. Eigenmann having just returned from Tahoe and Donner Lakes and brought 
with him all the varieties of that species, which were to be procured at that time. He 
said that much diversity of opinion existed among the Tahoe fishermen as to the 
number of species of trout found in that region, all seeming to think that there were 
at least two and many placing the number as high as six, — namely: the big black trout, 
the red trout, the progy or pogy, the silver trout, the yellow-belly, and the brook trout. 
With the possible exception of the first named, which he did not see, he said that all 
the varieties had been conclusively shown to represent a single species, Salmo 
pwpuratus henshawi. In the Board of Tmstees, the secretary was directed to draw 
the $20,000 balance due on the $50,000 demand note given the Academy by the 
Pacific Improvement Company. It was decided to be inexpedient at that time to send 
a collecting expedition to Alaska as had been under contemplation. A contract made 
with the United Edison Manufacturing Company for furnishing the Academy build- 



CHAPTER XXVI: 1890 313 

ing with electrical apparatus for $4,500 was approved. JULY 21, G. P. Rixford 
presented specimens of marble from Inyo County and carbonate of soda from Soda 
Works at Owen's Lake; and he described the process of the manufacture of the soda. 
I. E. Thayer announced the donation of five cases of coral, including 37 species, from 
the Navigator Islands, by Mr. Thomas C. Johnston. Dr. Bolton called attention to the 
coming meeting in Indianapolis of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, and explained the aims and objects of the association. In the Board of 
Trustees, the resolution of May 5 in reference to renting rooms in the Academy 
building to certain learned societies was amended by rescinding the clause fixing the 
rates of rent for such societies "at one half of the commercial schedule price that might 
be established for the rooms of said building." 

August 4, Robert Stevenson, Charles A. Keeler and W. W. Price were elected 
resident members. Dr. Gustav Eisen gave a description, alarming to lovers of our 
forests, of the waste and destruction by lumbermen of many of the grandest of the 
Big Trees, Sequoia gigantea, in various localities in the Sierra Nevada, and insisted 
upon the importance and necessity of immediate action in efforts to protect and 
preserve them. He recommended a petition of the Academy to the government at 
Washington. On motion a committee, consisting of William S. Chapman, John R. 
Scupham and Gustav Eisen, was appointed to formulate the proper action. In the 
Board of Trustees, the secretary was instructed to draw $20,000 on the $ 1 00,000 note 
given by the Pacific Improvement Company to the Academy. Th sum of $ 1 ,000 was 
appropriated for binding about 1000 volumes of foreign journals and $50 for 
dust-proof cases for entomological specimens. Rents of rooms on the seventh floor 
of the Front Building of the Academy were fixed, ranging from $55 to $ 1 5 per month 
and amounting in all to $174, leaving one room unassigned. August 18, Mrs. Rosa 
S. Eigenmann read a paper entitled "The Establishment of a Marine Laboratory in 
California." A paper by Dr. Edward Palmer was read, entitled "Customs of the 
Coyotero Apaches." Dr. Gustav Eisen read, as a preliminary report of the com'"iittee 
on the preservation of the Big Trees, a memorial to Congress, asking for government 
action on the subject. In the Board of Trustee, at an adjourned meeting on AUGUST 
19, the sum of $200 was appropriated for a trip of two months by Walter E. Bryant 
to Lower California for the purpose of collection birds and small mammals for the 
Academy. 

September 1 , Dr. Behr made remarks on the caprification of the fig and read a 
letter from George Roeding of Fresno, in which that gentleman gave an account of 
the artificial fertilization of the Smyrna fig on his ranch in Fresno County and the 
consequent production of perfect seeds and great improvement of the fruit. The pollen 
of the Capri fig was transferred to the cavity of the Smyrna fig by means of a 
toothpick. A paper by Frank J. Walker "On the Location and Area of the Sequoia 
Forests" was read; and it was ordered that copies of it and accompanying maps should 
be transmitted to the U. S. Secretary of the Interior and members of Congress. At the 
same time the report of the committee on the subject of preserving the Big Trees, 
consisting principally of the memorial previously prepared, was read and approved, 



314 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Charles A. Keeler 
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley 




William Wightman Price ( 1 896) 

George Sprague Myers Portrait File 

Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences 



CHAPTER XXVI: 1890 315 

and copies ordered to be transmitted with Mr. Walker's paper and maps. S. W. 
HoUaday read a memorial notice of Adley E. Cummins, deceased. Mr. HoUaday also 
read a proposed amendment to the constitution, providing for a class of associate 
members and restricting the admission of voting members to scientists. The amend- 
ment was approved by the Academy and referred to the Council. The librarian 
reported that among the donations to the library was a complete set of the Zoological 
Record, presented by Mr. Prosper Hueme. The president announced the death of 
Academy member James Whartenby. In the Board of Trustees, the secretary was 
instructed to draw $15,000 on the $100,000 note held by the Academy against the 
Pacific Improvement Company. It was ordered that $ 1 ,050 should be expended for 
elevator apparatus; also that an artesian well be bored for water, and that arrangements 
should be made for necessary power and gas. SEPTEMBER 15, among the donations 
wasa specimen of wood compressed into the Consolidated Virginia Mine in Nevada, 
presented by A. K. P. Harmon. A paper by Mr. Theodore H. Hittell on "Indian 
Pictographs at Soda Springs, Placer County" was read, and photographs exhibited of 
some of the most striking inscriptions. A discussion ensued on the subject of Indian 
pictographs, participated in by Messrs. Eisen, Rixford and Troyer. On motion a 
committee was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Eisen, Rixford, and Hittell, to take 
steps to interest the public in the preservation of these relics of the past. C. A. Keeler 
read notes and exhibited a map, showing the limited area as yet occupied on this coast 
by the English sparrow; and urged its extermination before it should be too late. He 
thought the best mode of procedure would be to appoint a few men to destroy them 
in every possible way. The bounty method, he said, had been found expensive and 
useless. A discussion on the subject ensued in which Drs. Eisen and Hewston 
participated; and the English Sparrow seemed to have no friend. In the Board of 
Trustees, $ 1 ,2 14 were appropriated for bookcases and cases for botanical specimens. 
It was ordered that wooden floors, instead of concrete, should be provided for the two 
upper galleries of the new Academy building. 

October 6, the proposed amendment to the constitution in reference to associate 
membership, having been reported back from the Council, came up for action. E. J. 
Molera moved its indefinite postponement, which motion was lost; and the amend- 
ment was then passed for submission to vote at the next annual election. In the Board 
of Trustees, the secretary was instructed to draw $20,000 on the $100,000 note to the 
Academy of the Pacific Improvement Company. The use of the western storeroom 
of the Academy building was granted to the State Floral Society for three days, 
commencing November 5, free of rent. OCTOBER 20, C. A. Keeler read a paper "On 
the Geographical Distribution of Land Birds in California." The president announced 
the death of Richard S. Floyd, president of the Lick Trustees, and a life member of 
the Academy; and, on motion, James T. Boyd, Thomas P. Madden and R. C. Harrison 
were appointed a committee to present appropriate resolution of respect to his 
memory. The president also announced that this was expected to be the last meeting 
in the old First Congregational Church building, and that there would be no meeting 
on the first Monday in November on account of moving to the new building on Market 



316 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

Street. In the Board of Trustees, it appeared that the Front Building of the Academy 
on Market Street had been insured against fire for one year on a valuation of $75,000 
for a premium of $500. The Council reported that the curatorship of fishes had been 
declared vacant from and after November 1. S. W. Hoiladay reported that the 
Supreme Court of the State had decided in the case of Floyd N. Rankin, that the sum 
of $540,000 donated by James Lick for a School of Mechanic Arts, was not due to 
that institution until required to purchase a site and erect buildings; and that conse- 
quently no interest had accumulated or was accumulating on that sum; so that any 
interest received by the Lick estate on such as-yet-unused money would go into the 
residue of the Lick estate to be divided between the Academy and the Pioneer Society 
as residuary beneficiaries. It was resolved that Mr. Hoiladay should be paid $1,000 
on account of legal services, on the understanding, however, that he would not accept 
a fee awarded to him in connection with other attorneys in the case by the court. 

On November 3, the Board instructed the secretary to draw $25,000 on the 
$ 1 00,000 note, held by the Academy against the Pacific Improvement Company; and 
it seems that under this and previous orders and drafts, the Pacific Improvement 
Company paid back to the Academy all the money, amounting to $ 1 50,000, which 
had been loaned to it, with the interest stipulated in its notes. NOVEMBER 17, on 
account of delays in getting the new building ready, the Academy met again in the 
old building. George M. Sternberg was elected a resident member. The committee 
on the death of Richard S. Floyd presented resolutions of respect to his memory. They 
spoke of his valuable services to science; his devoted, intelligent, untiring and 
successful efforts, as president of the Lick Trustees, to carry out the philanthropic 
wishes of Mr. Lick in the construction of the great telescope and the erection of the 
Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton, and also his faithful and intelligent admini- 
stration of the Lick estate to which the Academy was so largely indebted for its 
excellent financial condition, the resolutions were adopted and ordered spread upon 
the minutes. W. B. Bryant described his recent trip in Lower California. In the Board 
of Trustees, it appeared that a boiler for elevator puiposes had been placed in the 
basement of the new Academy building at a cost of $717, and the architect reported 
that the elevator would be ready to run by the middle of December. A brick store-room 
for the keeping of alcohol was also ordered constructed in the basement. S. W. 
Hoiladay was instructed to made arrangements to procure a further loan of $50,000 
from the Lick Trustees on the mortgage already given, which provided for a loan of 
$350,000, of which only $300,000 had so far been borrowed. 

December 1 , Lieutenant John P. Finley of the U. S. Weather Bureau read a paper, 
also reported on in the local press, on "Cyclonic Development and Precipitation upon 
the Pacific Coast." He said that California storms came from the Aleutian islands or 
the regions adjacent to Japan, the great breeding ground of North American tempests. 
In the Board of Trustees, bills to the amount of $21,153.56, including a tax bill for 
the year of $3,666.56, were audited and ordered paid. A further allowance of $600 
was made for publications. It was ordered that the artesian well previously provided 
for should be bored in the triangular space at the rear of the Academy building. It was 



CHAPTER XXVI: 1890 317 

further ordered, in accordance with arrangements made, that the further sum of 
$50,000 should be borrowed of the Lick Trustees pursuant to the permission pre- 
viously granted by the Court to borrow to the extent of $350,000. December 1 5, the 
president announced the death of Dr. Henry Ferrer, a resident member, and Drs. C. 
M. Richter and E. S. Clark were appointed a committee to draft suitable resolutions. 
The death of Dr. J. B. Trembly, a resident member, was also announced, and J. R. 
Scupham and Arthur Brown were appointed a committee on memorial resolutions. 
The nominating committee, appointed as provided by the constitution, presented a 
ticket for officers of 1891. W. E. Bryant made remarks upon a kind of fire-sticks 
used by the Indians of the Cape region of Lower California. He also spoke of the 
peculiar tendency of the small skunk of that region, called there the "zorrillo,""^ ' to 
be affected with rabies and in that condition to attack man. Forest fires, and cases of 
their originafing spontaneously, were discussed at some length. The president an- 
nounced that the annual election and annual meeting for 1891 would be held on 
January 5 in the new building on Market Street, which, though not entirely finished, 
would then be occupied by the Academy. In the Board of Trustees, monthly salaries, 
amounting to $460, with various sundries, were ordered paid. As it appeared that the 
Academy building was nearly completed and the services of Superintendent Duncan 
were desired by the Mercantile Library Association on a new library building, an 
arrangement was authorized for a division of his time and services between the 
Academy and the new building. It was resolved that Charles D. Gibbes should be 
paid $25 per month from the Crocker Scientific Investigation Fund from January 1 , 
1891, until further order. 



26 > Little fox. 



318 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




The California Academy of Sciences ( 1 89 1 ) 

Market Street entrance to its "Front" or commercial building. The Museum, the "Rear Building, 

was located immediately behind the Front Building and connected to it via an enclosed bridge. 

California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



319 



Chapter XXVII: Years 1 89 1 - 1 892 



1891 

The annual meeting for 1 89 1 took place in the new Academy building on Market 
Street on January 5. The usual reports were received and placed on file, the new 
officers declared elected for the year were: H. W. Harkness, president; H. H. Behr, 
first vice-president; George Hewston, second vice-president; Frederick Gutzkow, 
corresponding secretary; John R. Scupham, recording secretary; Lucius H. Foote, 
treasurer; Carlos Troyer, librarian; J. G. Cooper, director of the museum; Charles F. 
Crocker, W. C. Burnett, E. J. Molera, John Taylor, D. E. Hayes, George C. Perkins, 
and Irving M. Scott, trustees. The amendment to the constitution, submitted to vote 
at the annual election, was declared adopted. It provided that "associate" members 
might be elected, while enjoying all the other rights and privileges of the Academy, 
should not be entitled to vote, and that the qualifications for resident and life members 
should be professional engagement in scientific work or contribution by their labor 
to the advancement of some branch of science. In the Board of Trustees, bills 
amounting to $19,939.95 were ordered paid, except one of $140.40 presented by the 
San Francisco Gas Company. It appeared that $50,000 had been borrowed from the 
Lick Trustees as ordered; but that a special new mortgage had to be given therefor. 
It was reported that an artesian well had been completed as directed and that it ran 
down to a depth of 192 V2 feet. 

From the annual report of the Trustees it appeared" ' that the new building was 
ready for occupation, but not yet entirely finished. It was described as divided into 
two parts, separated by an open space 27 feet wide, the two buildings being connected 
by a covered passage-way on the first and second floors and an iron bridge on the 
sixth. The front or commercial building was arranged into two large stores and two 
smaller ones on the first floor on Market Street, the upper floors into sixty office 
rooms, all intended for rental. The construction was substantial and, though not 
absolutely fire-proof, was rendered so fire-resisting as possible by the use of metal 
lathing on all wood partitions or in walls around the stairways and elevator and an 
inch of mortar between double floors on each story. It was supposed, with its most 
approved plumbing appliances, independent gas fittings, electric wires for incandes- 
cent lighting, and all other conveniences found in modem office-building, to be of 



-^^ ' A curious use of the past tense by Hittell inasmuch as he was on the scene at this time and had 
first-hand knowledge of the status of the construction work. 



320 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




The California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, 1891 

Artist's sketch of the Market Street Entrance 

California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER XXVII: 1891-1892 



321 




J A;"-^ - 



Marble staircase and foyer entrance to the California Academy of Sciences 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

first-class construction. The rear building was devoted entirely to the uses of the 
Academy and it was considered fire-proof. It was six stories high, one less than the 
front building; and the entrance to it from Market Street was by a wide hall in the 
center of the front or ground floor of the front building. Its walls were of unusual 
thickness and had hollow vertical spans to prevent dampness. The floors and roof 
were constructed entirely of concrete and twisted iron rods running through them. 
All structural iron work was protected from heat by a covering of at least two inches 
of plaster or concrete. The building was completely lighted by windows on four sides 



322 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




"'''''■i^!'HPiS?''''';§''5i 



Upper floor devoted to Library, curator's rooms, etc.. showing Court 

(see page 474 for post-earthquake photograph of this area) 

California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 




Academy Library 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



CHAPTER XXVII: 1891-1892 



323 




Lower floor, south side, showing mineral cases 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 




Main exhibit floor (circa 1902), mammoth restoration. Academy employees John Carlson and 

Edward W. Gifford are the figures in the lower right (Carlson to the left of Gifford) 

California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



324 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Public exhibits, mammoth restoration (based on an artist's sketch) 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



and a very large sky-light and light-well in the center. The basement was intended 
for heating and ventilating apparatus and storage rooms. The first story contained the 
lecture-hall, committee rooms and laboratory; the second, third and fourth stories 
were to be devoted to museum purposes and the exhibition of the Academy's 
collections of specimens, while the fifth and sixth stories were partitioned off into 
rooms for scientific work and Library. 

The disbursements on account of construction for the building during 1890 had 



CHAPTER XXVII: 1 89 1 - 1 892 



325 




Public exhibits, Megatherium (based on an artist's sketcii) 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

been $164,291.98 or total to date of $268,862.29. The moving of the museum and 
collections had required time and care, but had been successfully accomplished; and 
the payment of rent by the Academy had ceased. As to future income, it was expected 
that the front or commercial building would yield a sufficient revenue not only to 
meet current expenses but also to allow and justify original research and experimental 
work. The stores and many of the offices and rooms had already been rented at 



326 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

favorable rates. Upon one of the floors rooms had been offered to scientific societies 
at moderate rent in accordance with the purposes of Mr. Lick, and some had been 
taken; and in all respects the affairs of the Academy had been called in and duly 
received, together with $5,585.54 interest. It had been deemed proper to insure the 
front or commercial building against fire; but the rear building would not be insured 
as it was deemed fire-proof 

January 1 9, there was no meeting of the Academy, but the new Board of Trustees 
met and organized with the election of Charles F. Crocker as president; E. J. Molera, 
president pro tern, and Charles Stephens, secretary. It appeared that there was then 
an approximate balance of $30,943.25 cash in the Bank of California to the credit 
and subject to the draft of the Academy. 

February 2, the minutes of the annual meeting were read and some objection 
was made by W. S. Keyes that they did not state with sufficient distinctness the 
amendment made to the consdtution; but others thought them sufficient and they were 
approved as read. Dr. C. M. Richter, of the committee on the death of Dr. Henry 
Ferrer, presented resolutions of respect to his memory, which were adopted. It was 
noted that he enjoyed a world-wide reputation in his specialty, being a most skillful 
master in microscopy, as well as a wann promoter of science generally. Charles A. 
Keeler moved a committee to memorialize the State Legislature to take measures to 
prevent the spread of the English sparrow; and Messrs. Keeler, Bryant and Scupham 
were appointed for that purpose. The president announced that, on account of the still 
unfinished condition of the new lecture hall, there would be no meeting until the first 
Monday in March. In the Board of Tmstees, bills were ordered paid to the amount of 
$18,306.75. It was ordered that another loan of from $50,000 to $100,000, sufficient 
to complete and fiimish the new building should be negotiated with the Lick Tmstees. 
It was further ordered that 260 opera chairs should be placed in the lecture hall at a 
cost of $960, and a letter chute from the upper to the lower fioor be placed in the front 
building. February 16, in the Board of Trustees, W. C. Burnett reported that a new 
loan for $100,000 had been negotiated with the Lick Trustees. G. R. Waters was 
employed as elevator man. W. E. Bryant was allowed $3 1 .58, extra to the appropria- 
tion previously made him for expenses of his trip to Lower California. 

March 2, F. C. von Petersdorff was elected a resident member. The secretary read 
an account of the discovery of precious opals near Moscow in the State of Washing- 
ton,""^ ' and exhibited specimens presented by Melville Attwood. T. H. Hittell, for 
and at the request of Dr. Harkness, read a paper, dated the same day, whereby Dr. 
Harkness fonnally donated to the Academy his large collection of Fungi, which he 
had been fifteen years in collecting. It consisted of over 10,000 specimens, identified, 
numbered, catalogued, and aiTanged in convenient receptacles. On motion, the 
donafion was accepted and a vote of thanks tendered the donor. The Academy then 
adjourned to April 6. In the Board of Trustees, bills amounting to $17,100 were 
ordered paid. The Council asked that the salaries of Mrs. M. K. Brandegee, W. E. 
Bryant and F. H. Vaslit be increased to $80 per month each, to commence March 1 , 

-''■' Moscow is in the State of Idaho but it is so close to the Idaho-Washington state line that the specimens 
could easily have come from the "State of Washington" and still be "from near Moscow." 



CHAPTER XXVII: 1891-1892 327 

1891; and it was so ordered. At an adjourned meeting on March 5, Davidson & 
Leigh, who, after the death of O. Livermore, had been appointed rent-collectors, 
reported that they had received $2,379.27 in rents since Livermore's death and that 
the estate of Livermore was indebted to the Academy in the amount of $1000.45 for 
money collected. Trustee Molera reported that a room in the Academy front building 
had been rented to the Astronomical Society for $20; one to the Technical Society 
for $40, and four to the Camera Club for $55 per month. W. C. Burnett was instructed 
to make a claim against the estate of O. Livennore, deceased, for the rents collected 
by him for the Academy and not paid over. Charles Stephens, secretary of the Board, 
was appointed agent to look after and manage the Academy buildings and collect the 
rents; and his salary was advanced to $80 per month. It was ordered that all leases 
should be submitted to W. C. Burnett for approval. A formal authorization was made 
for borrowing, and executing a new note and mortgage to the Lick Trustees for, the 
$ 1 00,000 last negotiated and arranged for. 

April 6, there being no quorum the Academy adjourned. In the Board of Trustees, 
bills aggregating $22,686.28 were ordered paid. The elevator-man's salary was fixed 
at $50 per month. Arbitrators were appointed to adjust claims for extra work made 
by W. M. Fletcher, who had been the carpenter of the new buildings. C. F. Crocker 
was authorized to investigate a claim that the Academy had made a duplicate payment 
of taxes in 1 890 and, if necessary, to employ an attorney to recover the amount 
improperly paid. April 20, in the Board of Tmstees, the secretary reported that he 
had received $50,000 on the new loan from the Lick Trustees and deposited it in the 
Bank of California to the credit of the Academy. C. F. Crocker reported that the taxes 
overpaid by mistake in 1 890 would be paid back. May 4, G. P. Rixford read a paper 
on "Indian Carvings at Swansea, Inyo County" and presented a series of photographs 
of the carvings. E. J. Molera announced the death of General Carlos Ibanez, Count 
of Mulhacen, president of the International Geodetic and Statistical Societies and 
president of the International Board of Weights and Measures, and read a notice of 
his life and labors. Dr. Carl Lumholtz read a paper on "Recent Explorations in 
Mexico," giving his experiences and discoveries in the unexplored Sierra Madre 
country. The president announced the death of Professor John LeConte, a life 
member, and, on motion, Theodore H. Hittell and Gen. J. F. Houghton were appointed 
a committee to present a proper memorial. The Academy then adjourned to June 1. 

In the Board of Trustees, the secretary reported that he had received $3,325.75 of 
refunded taxes. It appeared that these taxes, which were mortgage taxes, had been 
paid with other taxes by a check from the Academy including them while the Lick 
Trustees, as mortgagees, had also paid them and were the proper persons under the 
law to pay them. The amount so refunded and paid back was $3,625.75, of which 
$300 were paid to the attorney employed to collect the money. Dr. H. H. Behr made 
a written proposition that if he were employed as permanent curator of entomology 
at a salary of $80 per month, he would agree to donate his entomological and natural 
history collection, resign his medical practice and devote his remaining years to his 
duties as curator of entomology . The acceptance of the proposition was recommended 



328 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853-1 906 

by the Council; and on motion of Molera, seconded by Perkins, it was accepted, and 
Dr. Behr appointed curator of entomology at a salary of $80 per month. May 7, at a 
meeting of the Board of Trustees, the former agreement to arbitrate claims of W. M. 
Fletcher for extra carpenter work on the Academy buildings was revoked, for the 
reason that a new arbitration agreement had been entered into and regularly filed in 
court. 

June 1 , among the donations were 279 books and pamphlets on geology, zoology, 
anatomy, and botany, presented by Dr. Gustav Eisen, for which a vote of thanks was 
tendered him. Lieutenant John P. Finley read a paper on "The Hot Winds of 
California," illustrated by numerous maps and charts. A paper on "Opals" by Melville 
Attwood was read; and a number of specimens of opals in the matrix from Mexico, 
Australia, and Hungary, presented by him to the Academy, were exhibited. Theodore 
H. Hittell, of the committee on the death of Professor John LeConte, read a memorial 
of the deceased, speaking of him as one loved for the kindness and geniality of his 
disposition, revered for the elevation and purity of his character, and eminent for the 
breadth and depth of his scientific and scholarly attainments. It gave a sketch of his 
life from his birth in Liberty County, Georgia, on December 4, 1818, to his death at 
Berkeley, California, on April 29,1891; of his professorship; of his presidency of the 
University of California, and of the scientific labor he had done and works he had 
written. It finally compared him to the ideal scholar, depicted by the German 
philosopher Fichte, whose work endures and advances the human race in the path of 

^^ -^ The following is a transcript of T. H. Hittell's memorial for Professor John LeConte as recorded in 
the Minute Books, Stated Meetings, Jan. 1891 -Nov. 1904, pp. 10-12: 

"A great and honored member of this Academy has passed away from amongst us - a man loved by 
all who knew him for the kindness and geniality of nis disposition, revered for the elevation and purity of 
his character and eminent for the breadth and depth of his scientific and scholarly attainments. Professor 
John LeConte, of the University of California, closed his long and honorable career at Berkeley on April 
29, 1891. He was bom in Liberty County, Georgia, on December 4, 1818, and was consequently 
seventy-two years and a few months old at the time of his death. He received a preparatory training under 
the tuition of the celebrated Alexander H. Stephens, and in 1835 entered Franklyn College, afterwards 
known as the University of Georgia, where he graduated with high honors in 1838. 

"From an early age he manifested a remarkable taste for scientific subjects and in college exhibited a 
decided preference of those branches of study which were connected, with nature and physics. Almost 
immediately after graduation he proceeded northward, entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
the University of New York, and received from that institution the degree of M.D. in March, 1 841 . He then 
returned to his native state and married a lady of beauty and refinernent who survives him as his widow. 
He commenced the practice of medicine at Savannah, where he remained until August, 1 846, when he was 
elected to the chair of natural philosophy and chemistry in Franklyn College, his alma mater. From that 
time he abandoned the practice of medicine and devoted himself to the study of the physical sciences. In 
1 855 he became lecturer on chemistry in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the University of New 
York - thus reaching a chair in his second alma mater as he had previously reached a chair in his first. 

"In 1856 he accepted a call to fill the professorship of natural and mechanical philosophy in the 
University of South Carolina and remained there until the spring of 1869, when he was called to the chair 
of physics in our own University of California. He was almost immediately upon his arrival in this State 
appointed acting President of the University, and as such initiated the first exercises of that institution. In 
1 8/0 after the election of Dr. Durant as President, and for several years thereafter. Dr. LeConte gave himself 
up exclusively to the duties connected with his professorship; but in 1875, after the resignation of Dr. 
Gilman, he was again appointed to act as President, and in 1876 was elected to the office ot President. He 
continued to fill the office of President for a year and a half since which time, and to the time of his death, 
he occupied the chair of physics. 

"Professor LeConte became a member of this Academy on August 3, 1870, and a life member on 
January 3, 1888. He was also a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of many other scientific 
societies in this country and in Europe. He wrote many valuable and important papers on scientific subjects 
connected with the phenomena of the vibrations of sound, on the astronomy of Mars and its satellites, on 
the famous nebular nypothesis, on the evolution of worlds, and on various other matters whereby glimpses 
are gained into that world of truth called nature, the knowledge of which is destined to emancipate humanity 
from the shackles of ignorance and superstition, and all the innumerable ills connected with and involved 
in those immeasurable evils, [footnote continued next page) 



CHAPTER XXVII: 1891-1892 329 

civilization and culture. In the Board of Trustees, bills amounting to $2,623.48 
were ordered paid. 

July 6, the president announced the death of Charles Stephens, secretary of the 
Board of Trustees, Henry Edwards, and E. J. de Santa Marina. Dr. David Wooster 
read a paper on "Stone Heaps in Arizona" and Dr. Behr a paper on "A New Remedy 
for Snake Bite." In the Board of Trustees, $8,176.40 were ordered paid, including 
about $7,000 on building account. JULY 20, at a meeting of the Trustees, Gen. Lucius 
H. Foote acted as secretary of the Board. AUGUST 3, a paper by Melville Atrwood on 
"Coal and Coke from the Tacoma Colliery, Wilkeson Coal Field, in the State of 
Washington" was read and specimens presented. Dr. Gustav Eisen read a paper on 
the "Introduction of Blastophaga psenes into California," in which he gave a 
description of the natural caprification of the fig. In the Board of Trustees, bills to the 
amount of $5,040.50 were ordered paid. On motion of Perkins, Gen. Lucius H. Foote 
was elected secretary in place of Charles Stephens, deceased, his term to be consid- 
ered as commencing on July 13, 1891. AUGUST 17, at a meeting of the Trustees, it 
was resolved that $20 per night should be the rent of the lecture hall. 

September 7, the president announced the death of Dr. George Hewston, second 
vice-president of the Academy; and Messrs. Hittell, Behr and Scupham were ap- 
pointed a committee to draft an appropriate memorial. Messrs. Bryant, Vaslit and 
Harkness were appointed a like committee in reference to the death of Henry 
Edwards. In the Board of Trustees, bills amounting to $916.35 were ordered paid. 
The salary of secretary Foote was fixed at $80 per month, the same as had been paid 
Mr. Stephens. 

October 5, David Starr Jordan, Charles H. Gilbert, Douglas H. Campbell, 
Edward Ehrhom, and Joseph Swain were elected resident members. Theodore H. 
Hittell, of the committee on the death of Dr. George Hewston, read a memorial of the 
deceased,"'' giving an account of his career from his birth in Philadelphia on 



27.3 (cominued) "About the end of the last century the great German philosopher Fichte wrote a treatise 
on the subject of The Scholar, in which he represented tne vocation or the genuine student of truth as the 
grandest and sublimest occupation of the human mind. In perusing his book, the reader by degrees becomes 
almost as enthusiastic as the writer was, and feels in every part of his sensitive system the verity of what 
the philosopher set forth. The glories of conquest and empire, the pride of kings, presidents and politicians, 
the glamor of family and wealth all pass away. They are vanities. They are nothing. But what the scholar 
accomplishes endures and advances the race in the path of civilization and culture. In these days quite as 
certainly as a hundred years ago there is no greater man than the scholar, and among scholars of California, 
no one, perhaps, made a nearer approach to the character contemplated by the philosopher than our late 
honored member, Professor John LeConte." 

-^^ Memorial prepared by Theodore H. Hittell and Hans Hermann Behr for Dr. George Hewston and 
spread upon the minutes, October 5, 1891 (M«Mfe5ooA-.?, Stated Meetings, Jan. 1891 -Nov. 1904, pp. 17-18. 
"Mr. President: 

"Your committee appointed at the last meeting to prepare a paper expressive of the sense of the 
Academy upon the death of Dr. George Hewston, lateLife Member and Vice-President, beg leave to submit 
the following — 

''Death of Dr. George Hewston. Dr. George Hewston, an honored member of this Academy, who for 
nearly thirty years was actively engaged in encouraging its objects and promoting its interests, has passed 
away. He was bom in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 11,1 826, and it was there too that he was 
reared and received his early education. Naturally studious and interested in scientific objects, he turned 
his attention to medicine and, after a regular course of study, was graduated M.D. from the University of 
Pennsylvania. After practicing a few years in his native city, during a part of which time he was Professor 
of Anatomy in the Philadelphia College of Medicine, he in 1860 came to California, and, being pleased 
with the country and climate he in 1861 brought out his family and opening an office for the practice of 
his profession, took up his permanent residence in San Francisco, {footnote continued next page) 



330 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

September 1 1, 1826, to his death in San Francisco on September 4, 1891, and of the 
various labors he had performed and honorable positions he had filled. He was 
characterized as a fluent speaker and a ready writer of elegant English, a man of 
pleasing and attractive presence, and earnest student and scholar, a good citizen, an 
honor to the medical profession, and a devoted friend to science. In the Board of 
Trustees, the secretary reported the balance of cash on hand at the end of September 
as $24,126.57. On recommendation of the Council, it was resolved to purchase the 
scientific library and collection of Dr. George Hewston, deceased, for $50. October 
19, among the donations were 26 volumes on various scientific subjects, presented 
by B. Frank Leeds of Santa Clara County, for which a vote of thanks was tendered 
him. Professor C. H. Gilbert read a paper on the "Deep-Sea Work of the U. S. Steamer 
Albatross." That vessel was engaged in 1 888 in making scientific investigations along 
the coast of Lower California, and Professor Gilbert was one of the corps of 
investigators. After presenting a short summary of the results of the expedition. Prof. 
Gilbert spoke at length of the importance of such work, about improvements that have 
been made in appliances for research, and about his experiences as a diver off the 
Lower California coast. In the Board of Trustees, it was ordered that the lecture hall 
should be placed at the disposition of the University of California for lectures to be 
given by its professors under the auspices of the Academy. W. C. Burnett reported 
that in the arbitration case in reference to claims for extra carpenter work on the 
Academy buildings by W. M. Fletcher, the award had been adverse, and that an 
attempt had been made to vacate and set aside the submission, but had failed. The 
amount of the award against the Academy seems to have been about $3,000. 

November 2, a communication from Lieutenant John P. Finley was read, con- 
veying the information of his relief from duty as officer in charge of the U. S. Pacific 
Coast Weather Service, and his departure from California. On motion, it was resolved 
that the Academy very deeply regretted the departure of Lieutenant Finley from his 
field of labor in California, of which he was so well fitted, and desired to express its 
appreciation of the valuable services to science perfomied by him while in charge of 
the California Division of the Weather Service. Thanks were also tendered for the 
many courtesies extended by him to the Academy. Professor O. P. Jenkins delivered 
a lecture on "Muscles and Nerves and the Modem Appliances Used in Their 
Investigation." The committee, appointed on the death of Henry Edwards, presented 
a memorial, from which it appeared that Mr. Edwards was bom in Herfordshire, 



27.4 {continued) "j^jg main leaning, outside of his profession was towards zoology and particularly the 
study of zoophytes, but he also from time to time manifested a lively interest in politics and in 1873 was 
elected to the Board of Supervisors, and in 1875, upon the death of James Otis, Mayor of the City and 
County of San Francisco, was chosen to fill his unexpired term, which he did with credit to himself and 
satisfaction to the public. He also for a number of years occupied the position of Professor of the Theory 
and Practice of Medicine in the Toland Medical College and afterwards in the Medical Department of the 
University of California. 

"He became a member of the Academy on March 17, 1862, and, on March 1, 1869, a life member and 
was at the time of his death on September 4, 1 89 1 , and had been for several years previously Vice President. 
He was a fluent speaker and a ready writer of elegant English. Besides numerous written lecmres on 
scientific and literary subjects, he gave frequent oral addresses before this Academy on matters of general 
interest and was always listened to with attention, appreciation and applause. He was a man of pleasing 
and attractive presence, and the work he did and the impression he produced upon his contemporaries were 
those of an earnest student and scholar, a good citizen, an honor to his profession and a devoted friend to 
science. . . ." 



CHAPTER XXVII: 1 89 1 - 1 892 



331 




Charles Henry Gilbert (1893) 

George Sprague Myers Portrait Collection 

Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences 




David Starr Jordan (1891) 

George Sprague Myers Portrait Collection 

Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences 



332 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1 906 

England, on August 27, 1 830, and in early life had studied law, but afterwards took 
to the stage as a profession. He traveled extensively and wrote a book of sketches, 
which was published under the title of "Mingled Yams." He was a good actor; but 
early developed a love for science, particularly entomology, and gathered and 
possessed one of the largest and finest collections of butterflies in the world. He was 
an active and valued member of the Academy; was first vice- president for three years 
previous to his departure for the East in 1877, and wrote many papers on the subject 
on "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera." In the Board of Trustees, the secretary reported the 
cash on hand at the end of October to be $24,590.07. Bills amounting to $4,593.32 
were ordered paid. 

December 7, among the donations were specimens of slate from El Dorado 
County, and a paper by Melville Attwood was read, showing its chemical analysis. 
The specimens were from what was known as the "White Bar Slate Quarry" and were 
pronounced to be of first class quality. Dr. David Starr Jordan delivered a lecture on 
the "Salmon and Trout of the Pacific Coast." In the Board of Trustees, the secretary 
reported the cash on hand at the end of November to be $18,135.55. Percy & 
Hamilton, the architects of the Academy buildings, presented a statement, showing 
that the payments for construction up to November 30, 1891, had amounted to 
$344,315.59, and that there was still owing $13,185, including $4,000 on the award 
to W. M. Fletcher. Bills to the amount of $1,680.78 were ordered paid. December 
21, the nominating committee presented a ticket for officers of 1892, renominating 
all of the current officers with the exception of Irving M. Scott, who declined, and 
Dr. George Hewston, deceased. In the Board of Trustees, bills to the amount of 
$2,205.80 were ordered paid. They included a balance of $1,437.50 to Percy & 
Hamilton in full for their services as architects. 

1892 

At the annual meeting of 1892, held January 4, on recommendation of the 
Council, Otto Stoll, Sereno Watson, William H. Brewer, George L. Goodale, J. A. 
Allen, and Dr. Herman Graf zu Solms-Laubach were elected honorary members. 
Professor William E. Ritter was elected a resident member. The following, on report 
of the judges and inspectors of the annual election, were declared chosen officers for 
the year: H. W. Harkness, president; H. H. Behr, first vice-president; J. G. Cooper, 
second vice-president; Frederick Gutzkow, corresponding secretary; J. R. Scupham, 
recording secretary; L. H. Foote, treasurer; Charles Troyer, librarian; J. Z. Davis, 
director of the museum; Charles F. Crocker, W. C. Burnett, D. E. Hayes, E. J. Molera, 
George C. Perkins, Adolph Sutro, and John Taylor, trustees. In the Board of Trustees, 
the secretary reported that there had been received during the year 1891, from the 
Lick Trustees, $100,000, from dues of members paid, $1,075.50; interest on the 
Crocker Scienfific Investigafion Fund, $1,200; from rents, $22,408.81, all which. 



CHAPTER XXVII: 1891-1892 



333 




William Emerson Ritter 
Bancroft Library, Univerersity of California, Berkeley 




Adolph Heinrich Joseph Sutro, ca. 1 880 

National Portrait Gallery, 
Smithsonian Institution (NPG.85.102) 



334 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 

with a balance on hand at the beginning of the year of $2,113.72, amounted to 
$126,796.03. He reported the cash then on hand as $16,952.70. 

January 1 8, the new Board of Trustees organized by the election of C. F. Crocker 
as president, E. J. Molera, president /^ro tern, and L. H. Foote, secretary. The Council 
reported that they had "acquired the services of Miss Alice Eastwood for the terni of 
six months, at a salary of $50 per month to mount the plants in the herbarium." 
Appropriations were made of $200 for binding, $500 for printing, $800 for purchasing 
periodicals, and $500 for purchasing books. 

February 1, Charles A. Keeler read a paper on "Heredity in its Relation to the 
Inheritance of Acquired Characters." The president announced that the museum of 
the Academy would thereafter be open to the public on Sundays from 1 o'clock a.m. 
to 4 p.m. In the Board of Trustees, the secretary reported the cash at that time on hand 
to be $17,808.95. On motion of Molera, it was ordered that the museum should be 
kept open to the public on Sundays, and that the janitor should be allowed $ 1 .50 extra 
compensation for his attendance each Sunday that it was so kept open. At the request 
of Dr. Harkness, the sum of $300 was appropriated to purchase certain Japanese 
figures and bronzes. FEBRUARY 15, Dr. Gustav Eisen read a paper entitled "The 
Evolution of the Forms of Trees as Produced by Climate Influences." February 23, 
at a special meeting of the Board of Trustees, Dr. Harkness recommended an 
expedition to Lower California and Mexico for scientific work. He said that Town- 
shend S. Brandegee would go at his own expense and without pay; Dr. Gustav Eisen 
would go without pay, if his expenses were paid; and W. E. Bryant likewise. On 
motion, the sum of $1,000, asked for to pay expenses, was appropriated. The sum of 
$30 was appropriated for photographs of the museum to be distributed among 
members of the Academy. 

March 7, among the donations was a collection of Greenland plants, presented 
by John H. Redfield, and a package of specimens of Sphagna of the northeastern 
United States, presented by Edwin Faxon, for which thanks were tendered the donors. 
C. A. Keeler read a paper, entitled "Is Natural Selection Creative?" Dr. Harkness 
exhibited specimens of the species of Cynips, then abundant in Golden Gate Park, 
and of the woody galls from which they were emerging; and he made remarks upon 
their life history. In the Board of Trustees, on motion of Taylor, seconded by Perkins, 
the salary of secretary Foote was fixed at $125 per month, commencing January 1, 
1892. April 4, Dr. Harkness resumed from last meeting the subject of Cynips 
infesting the oaks of Golden Gate Park and suggested the probability that the one 
attacking the buds was an alternate generation of the one producing the woody galls. 
Frederick Gutzkow described a new process for refining silver bullion. Charles A. 
Keeler made remarks upon the question, "What Constitutes a Species?" The president 
announced the deaths of recently elected honorary member Sereno Watson and 
William A. Aldrich, resident member. In the Board of Trustees, J. G. Cooper was 
appointed curator of palaeontology for three months at a salary of $80 per month. It 
was ordered that the judgment of W. M. Fletcher against the Academy should be paid 



CHAPTER XXVII: 1 89 1 - 1 892 335 

without further litigation, provided he would throw off the costs. The balance of cash 
on hand was reported to be $16,929.28. 

April 18, Miss Alice Eastwood and William L. Watts were elected resident 
members. Dr. H. W. Harkness, T. S. Brandegee and Katharine Brandegee, proprietors 
of the scientific magazine Zoe, offered fifty copies of Volumes I and II, respectively, 
of that publication to be distributed among the principal scientific societies of the 
world with which the Academy was in correspondence "in grateful ackonwledgment 
of favors granted to the California Zoological Club and the California Botanical 
Club." Eadweard Muybridge delivered a lecture on the "Science of Animal Locomo- 
tion," illustrated with stereoptican views of instantaneous photographs" of animals 
in motion. May 2, Dr. Behr read a paper, entitled "Flight of Insects." Dr. Harkness 
exhibited gall wasps just hatched from leaf-bud galls of oak trees. As president, he 
announced the purchase of the skeleton of a whale, which he said would be mounted 
and placed in the gallery of the museum. In the Board of Trustees, a sum of $1,000 
was appropriated for the purchase of books, and $200 for the purchase of the skeleton 
the whale referred to in the Academy meeting. 

June 6, among the donations was a specimen of Eastern oyster, spawned and 
grown in San Francisco Bay near San Loranzo, 9'/2 inches long and 3 '/2 inches wide. 
It was said to be seven years old, and was presented by R. Reid. Also donated, a 
collection of 82 species of Tertiary fossils from Southern California by Dr. S. Bowers. 
The president announced the deaths of Jacques J. Rey, L. L. Robinson, and Samuel 
M. Wilson, life members, and Professor E. A. Regel, an honoraiy member. Dr. Gustav 
Eisen made a preliminary report upon the recent scientific expedition to Lower 
California and Mexico. In the Board of Trustees, the Society of California Pioneers 
was granted pemiission to attach a terra cotta flue to the rear wall of the Academy 
building, with a right reserved to revoke the pemiission at any time. Dr. Harkness 
reported that the second floor of the museum was completely furnished and open to 



-^^^ Eadweard Muybridge, bom 1 830. His name first appears in American photographic journals in 1 868 
in commentaries on nis photographic views of Yosemite, made in 1 867. His views were exhibited in Europe 
and brought him intemationalfame. In 1 879, at the request of Leland Stanford, Muybridge took a sequence 
of near-instantaneous photographs of a race horse running that showed clearly and for the first time not 
only the position of the feet during running, but that at one point, all feet were off the ground, a point of 
considerable interest to Stanford, who had made a bet sometime earlier to that effect. Muybridge used a 
device which he called a "zoopraxiscope," a projection lantern with a number of successive photos printed 
on a circular glass wheel that could be rotated in the projector to give the impression of motion. Although 
Muybridge was preceded by Henry R. Heyl of Philadelphia in February 5, 1870, Heyl did not have the 
advantage of the instantaneous successive views presented by Muybridge. 

Muybridge's photos led to a change in the way artists depicted horses running. Heretofore, in the gallop, 
horses were shown with limbs stretched out fore and aft at the moment when they were off the ground as 
opposed to the actual condition in which they were nearly tucked in, i.e., retracted, beneath the body. In 
their paintings of the American West, Frederick Remington, Russell, and Scheryvogel incorporated the 
new information in their action depictions of horses. 

For an interesting discussion of Muybridge and the importance of his contributions to photography, see 
Robert Taft [1938], Photography ami the American Scene: A Social Histoir. IH39-1889. Dover Publ. 
Edition, New York. 1964. xii+'546 pp., illus. (Muybridge, see pages 405-418, 509-510 [notes]). Also, 
William Welling, Photographv in America: The Formative Years, 1839-1900. Univ. New Mexico Press, 
Albuquerque, NM. 1978. xi +'431 pp. (see pages 253-256). 

-^^ The records of donations recorded in the Minute Books for the June 20th meeting {Minute Books, 
Stated Meetings, Jan. 189 1 -Nov. 1904, p. 34) duplicate the donations report presented at the June 6th 
meeting {loc. cit., p. 33) 



336 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1 853- 1 906 

the public. Bills amounting to $7,710.82 were ordered paid. JUNE 20,"^^ Dr. Gustav 
Eisen read a paper on "The Lost Civilization of the Mayas, as indicated by Archae- 
ological Remains in Mexico and Central America," illustrated with stereoptican 
views. 

July 18, S. W. Holladay read a paper on "Earthquake Freaks." Charles A. Keeler 
gave an short account of a recent trip to the Farallon Islands. In the Board of Trustees, 
it appeared that the cash in bank amounted to $12,561.25. AUGUST 1, a paper by 
William W. Price on the "Discovery of a New Grove of Sequoia giganted" was read 
by Mr. Bryant. A paper by J. G. Cooper on "Land and Water Shells of Lower 
California — No. 2" was presented by title. A paper by Melville Attwood was read, 
recommending the exhibition of California iron ores at the World's Columbian 
Exposition. Dr. Harkness exhibited a living specimen of Amhlystoma and made 
remarks concerning its metamorphosis. C. A. Keeler and Professor W. E. Ritter 
discussed certain points of Romane's theory of natural selection. In the Board of 
Trustees, an application of the State Agricultural Society for a loan of various articles 
belonging to the Academy for exhibition at the World's Fair at Chicago was refused 
on the ground that the Trustees did not feel justified in allowing the removal of the 
articles. An appropriation of $1,000 was made, at the request of the Council, for the 
purchase of books. 

September 5, among the donations were specimens of lignite from Sutro Heights 
in San Francisco, presented by Melville Attwood. E. W. Jones addressed the 
Academy on the subject of tin mining and particularly explained the methods of 
working the ore at the Temescal Mine. C. Fuchs made remarks on the beetle, 
Phlaeosimis dentatus, which was doing great damage to cypress tress. In the Board 
of Trustees, it appeared that the cash on hand was $ 1 5,575.8 1 . September 1 9, among 
the donations were specimens of Phragmites communis covered with honey dew, 
presented by G. P. Rixford. They came from Owens Lake, where the Indians scrape 
off the honey dew for sweetening use. It is there known as "Indian sugar." Charles 
A. Keeler read a paper on "Sexual Selection as a Factor in the Beautiful in Nature." 

October 3, Anthony W. Vogdes and Oscar T. Barron'^ '' were elected resident 
members. Major J. W. Powell, director of the U. S. Geological Survey, delivered a 
lecture on "The Aboriginal Tribes of North America." In the Board of Trustees, Dr. 
Gustav Eisen was employed on scientific work for the Academy for a term of five 
months at a salary of $80 per month. It was resolved that $10,000 of the money lying 
in the Bank of California should be withdrawn and placed on tenn deposit, drawing 
interest, in the San Francisco Savings Union and Gennan Savings and Loan Society. 
October 17, among the donations was a collection of ethnological specimens from 
the South Sea Islands, presented by Thomas C. Johnson, for which thanks were 
tendered him. An announcement was made of the discovery by H. W. Fairbanks of 
Proctus ellipticus, a trilobite from the Waverly Group in Shasta County, California. 
Lieutenant John P. Finley of the U. S. Weather Bureau, who had returned to 



-^^ "Baron" in the Minute Books (Jan. 1891-Nov. 1904, p. 40) but "Barron" in tiie published record of 
the meeting (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 2, 3:376) and when first elected a resident member, Nov. 3. 1 879 



CHAPTER XXVII: 1891-1892 337 

California, lectured on "Phases of Pacific Coast Weather and Violent Local Storms," 
illustrated with stereoptican views. November 7, among the donations was a collec- 
tion of ethnological specimens from the Gilbert Islands, presented by John L. 
Howard. In the Board of Trustees, the balance of cash was reported to be $ 1 6,656.82, 
of which $10,000 was on deposit drawing interest, in savings banks. It was ordered 
that a telephone should be placed in the rear building for the uses of the Academy. 
November 2 1 , among the donations, a set of lichens of Colorado and another of the 
Yakima region of Washington, by T. S. Brandegee. H. W. L. Couperus read a paper 
"On the Possibility of the Cultivation of Coffee within the Limits of the United 
States." A committee consisting of Dr. Harkness, T. S. Brandegee, and J. R. Scupham, 
appointed by the Council to represent the Academy in a general committee from the 
universities and scientific societies to promote the means of procuring a topographical 
map of the valley areas of California, offered a resolution that, whereas the U. S. 
Government, through the Director of the Geological Survey, offered to cooperate 
with the State government in the survey and mapping of the valley areas of California 
to the extent of superintending the work and defraying one-half the expenses, the 
Academy heartily endorsed the proposition to obtain from the State Legislature an 
appropriation to cover the annual expense of $25,000 for securing such surveys and 
maps. The consideration of the resolution was deferred until next meeting. 

December 5, the matter of the resolution offered at last meeting, in reference to 
surveys and maps of the valley areas of California, came up for action. It was pointed 
out that Secretary Irelan of the State Mining Bureau felt that the map was unnecessary 
because that body was presently engaged in perfecting a geological map of the state. 
The president then asked Mr. Scupham to read the resolution and explain it. The 
motion was then discussed by Dr. Joseph LeConte, E. J. Molera, Prof. Christy, and 
Mr. Watts. Dr. LeConte spoke about how the idea for a general topographical map 
had originated about three years ago within the university and how he had consulted 
with the Academy and with Stanford University before the U. S. Geological Survey 
was approached. It seemed that most of the discussion focused on the scale to be 
adopted, there being a general disposition otherwise to favor the resolution. E. J. 
Molera moved to amend the resolution by including the whole of California instead 
of only the valley areas, and that the scale of the maps be not less than six inches to 
the mile. S. B. Christy moved as a subsfitute that the scale be not less than one inch 
to the mile, and that all the State be included. The substitute prevailed and the 
resolution, as amended, was adopted. It developed during the discussion that William 
Watson of the State Mining Bureau thought that the State could spend its money more 
profitably for its own institutions and should not commit itself to spending $25,000 
per year for ten years, but before the vote was taken, it was reported"^ ** that he had 
changed his views. In the Board of Trustees, Mrs. M. K. Brandegee declined receiving 
any further salary as curator of botany and asked that Miss Alice Eastwood be 
appointed joint curator of botany and be paid a salary of $80 per month; and it was 
so ordered. An appropriation of $40 per month for six months was made for an 

27 8 At least one San Francisco paper carried a lengthy report on the meeting (see San Francisco Examiner 
for Dec. 6.) 



338 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Alice Eastwood wearing a floral hat, with which 

she was to be identified for the rest of her life 

(from a photo taken by Dr. Gustavus A. Eisen in 1912) 

California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 

assistant in herbarium work. In connection with the new movement in the Botany 
Department, it was stated that Mrs. Brandegee would continue to render such services 
as she could without pay. On motion of Molera, seconded by Sutro, it was resolved 
"that the zeal and efficiency evinced by Mrs. Brandegee during the years of her labors 
in the herbarium had been such as to merit our highest commendation." It was ordered 
that salaries of curators, previously paid out of the Crocker Scientific Investigation 
Fund, should thereafter be paid out of the general fund. The matter of the controversy 
with W. M. Fletcher, the carpenter, appeared to be still unsetded and was referred to 
Messrs. Crocker and Burnett "to settle as best they could." December 19, the 
nominating committee presented a ticket for officers of 1893. 



339 



Chapter XXVIII: Years 1893-1894 



1893 

The annual meeting of 1 893 took place on JANUARY 3. The usual annual reports 
of officers were received and placed on file. From that of the librarian it 
appeared that the additions during the year 1892 had been from correspondents 1 720, 
by purchase 1876, and by donation 135, making a total of 3732 and showing a 
considerable growth. On the report of the judges and inspectors of the annual election, 
the following were declared officers for 1893: H. W. Harkness, president; H. H. Behr, 
first vice-president, J. G. Cooper, second vice-president; T. S. Brandegee, corre- 
sponding secretary; John R. Scupham, recording secretary; Lucius H. Foote, treas- 
urer, Carlos Troyer, librarian, J. Z. Davis, director of the museum; W. C. Burnett, C. 
F. Crocker, D. E. Hayes, E. J. Molera, George C. Perkins, Adolph Sutro, and John 
Taylor, trustees. In the Board of Trustees, the secretary reported that the receipts for 
1 892 had been: from dues of members, $ 1 ,065; from interest on the Crocker Scientific 
Investigation Fund, $1,200, from rents of offices and stores, $30,127.84, making a 
total of $32,392.84. The disbursements appear to have been: for ordinary expenses 
$10,070.28; salaries, $8,223.48; construction bills, $7,922; for the library $4,432.02, 
and for the museum, $2,059.04, making a total of $32,706.89. Miss Effie A. 
Mclllriach was employed as assistant in the botany department at a salary of $40 per 
month. January 16, W. L. Watts read a paper on "The Geological Economics of the 
Central Valley of California." February 6, W. L. Watts read a paper on "Natural 
Gas in San Joaquin Valley." W. S. Chapman called attention to the fact that a bill 
had been introduced into Congress to contract the limits of the Yosemite Park 
Reservation and moved the appointment of a committee to prepare resolutions 
requesting the California delegation in Congress to preserve the present limits. The 
motion prevailed by unanimous vote and Messrs. W. S. Chapman, Gustav Eisen, T. 
H. Hittell and James M. McDonald were appointed such committee. Dr. Gustav Eisen 
read a paper "On the Preservation of Cane in the Sierra Nevada." The new Board of 
Trustees organized with the election of C. F. Crocker, president, E. J. Molera, 
president pro tern, and Lucius H. Foote, secretary. 

March 6, among the donations was a collection of over 400 specimens of 
Lepidoptera from the Republic of Columbia, collected at an elevation of from 5,000 
to 8,000 feet above sea-level presented by D. T. Hughes, to whom thanks were 
tendered. George H. Ashley read a paper, entitled "An Illustration of the Flexure of 



340 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1853-1906 




Lucius Harwood Foote 
California Academy of Sciences Special Collections 



Rock," in which he described the sagging of a slab of marble, some six feet long, 
lying for a considerable period in a horizontal position and insufficiently supported 
except at the ends. Dr. Behr read a paper on the "Relations between Butterflies and 
Plants." W. C. Bryant read a paper entitled "Descriptions of New Mammals from 
Lower California" and exhibited specimens of the animals described. In the Board 
of Trustees, $75 were appropriated to purchase a 3,000 mile railroad ticket for the 
curator of botany. March 20, S. W. Holladay asked the consent of the Board of 
Trustees to ask for and receive a balance of attorney fees allowed by the court in the 
action of Floyd vs. Davis. The Board replied that it did not deem any action on its 
part necessary. 

April 3, Professor John C. Branner, Professor J. P. Smith, Marsden Manson, and 
Professor William R. Dudley were elected resident members, and Dr. O. P. Jenkins 
was proposed by Dr. D. S. Jordan and H. W. Harkness. W. L. Watts read a paper on 
"Subterranean Air Currents in the Sacramento Valley" and W. S. Bryant, "Notes on 
the Food of Birds." Dr. Gustav Eisen made remarks on a dwarf Chinese Lily and on 
the dwarfing of plants in general. In the Board of Trustees, Dr. Harkness, as president 
of the Academy, was authorized to make such purchases, as he thought proper, at a 
sale of objects of scientific interest at Woodward's Gardens, to an amount not 
exceeding $1,000. The sale was a disposal of remnants of the extensive private 
collections of Robert B. Woodward, which constituted an important part of the 
attractions of what were known as "Woodward's Gardens" on Mission and Four- 
teenth Streets, which for a number of years and up to the time of the proprietor's death 



CHAPTER XXVIII: 1893-1894 



341 




Jt.ihn t aspci Braiiner 
Smithsonian Institution Archives (95-20508) 

was the most pleasant and popular place of resort in San Francisco. He maintained 
there a menagerie of animals, a large aquarium of marine and freshwater fishes, a 
gallery of paintings and sculpture, and a museum of objects of curiosity and scientific 
interest, besides a theater and concert hall, while the grounds themselves, consisting 
of several blocks of land, which were tastefiilly laid out an ornamented with rare and 
beautiful trees, shrubs and flowering plants, formed a sort of botanical garden. After 
Mr. Woodward's death, the place lost its prestige as a resort and rapidly declined; 
and finally everything that had made it beautiftil and attractive was sold off, and the 
land, which in the meanwhile had appreciated in value, like former places of 
somewhat similar though not so elaborate and tasteftil character, such as the "Russ 
Gardens," the "Willows" and the "City Gardens," was divided up into ordinary city 
lots and buih over. The purchases for the Academy from the Woodward Gardens 
collections have thus a sort of historic association connected with them in addition 
to their intrinsic value. April 17, the Trustees, on the recommendation of Dr. 
Harkness, appropriated $ 1 00 for a dissecting microscope for the use of the Academy. 
May 1, Dr. George H. Horn of Philadelphia was introduced. Walter E. Bryant 
read a paper on the "Variations of the Bill of the California Jay" and W. L. Watts 
read "Notes on Quicksilver Deposits in California." A communication from the 
Smithsonian Institution relating to the Hodgkins' prizes was received and ordered 
posted in the Library. In the Board of Trustees, the Council seems to have arranged 



342 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1 853- 1 906 

for the sending out of a new scientific expedition at a cost of some $400, whereupon 
the Board thought necessary to remind the Council of the constitutional provision 
which prohibited the incurring of any indebtedness unless authorized by the Trustees. 
June 5, the president announced the death of Professor Alphonse de Candolle, an 
honorary member, and of Charles D. Gibbes and Joseph P. Hale, life members. Dr. 
Gustav Eisen read a paper entitled "Late Investigations on the Pollinization of the 
Fig," and W. E. Bryant, a paper on "Some Cases of Albinism in California Animals," 
with exhibition of specimens. In the Board of Trustees, an appropriation of $400 was 
made to send Dr. Gustav Eisen and W. E. Bryant on a scientific expedition into the 
northern part of the State; but subsequently, on July 17, the destination of the 
expedition was changed to Lower California, which seemed to be a peculiarly 
interesting field for scientific exploration. At the meeting of the Tmstees on the last 
named day, $2,000 were appropriated for printing, and $1,000 for the purchase of 
books. August 7, Perham W. Nahl delivered a lecture on "Improvements in Aerial 
Navigation." Admiral Selwyn of the British Royal Navy was introduced and made 
remarks on his trip to this coast in H.M.S. Sulphur in 1837.'^ ' AUGUST 14, at a special 
meeting, Admiral Selwyn read a paper "On a New Adaptation of the Humid Process 
of Extracting Metals from their Ores." September 4, meeting canceled for lack of a 
quomm. SEPTEMBER 1 8, in the Board of Trustees, it appeared that the arbitration case 
of Fletcher vs. the California Academy of Sciences on claims for alleged extra 
carpenter work on the Academy buildings, in which there had been a judgment against 
the Academy, had been appealed to the Supreme Court; and W. C. Burnett now 
announced that the Supreme Court had affinned the judgment and therefore decided 
adversely to the Academy as a finality. October 2, meeting canceled. Labor Day 
holiday. OCTOBER 16, the Trustees ordered a fee of $250 to be paid W. C. Burnett 
for his services in the Fletcher case. 

November 6, the following papers presented for publication were read by title 
and submitted:'*^ "Report on Mexican Hymenoptera, Principally from Lower Cali- 
fornia," by William L. Fox; "On a Collection of Formicidae from Lower California 
and Sonora, Mexico," by Theo. Pergande, and "Tunicata of the Pacific Coast of North 
America. I - Perophora annectens, new species" by W. E. Ritter. Theodore H. Hittell 
read a paper entitled "Oysters in San Francisco Bay." Among the donations to the 
museum, from M. C. McGregor, 62 specimens of Coleoptera, an addition to the 72 



-^ ' H.M.S. Sulphur, under command of Capt. Edward Belcher, visited central California during the 
months of October-December. Selwyn's name does not appear in Belcher's narrative of the voyage, but 
this is not surprising inasmuch as Selwyn at the time could not have been much more than 1 5 years of age, 
if that, and likely a novice Midshipman or perhaps cabin steward. In the 1830s, and earlier, rarely were 
officers below the rank of Lieutenant acknowledged in published lists of ships'company. A review of the 
lists of officers of the Royal Navy for the years 1840 through 1890 reveals only two officers having the 
surname Selwyn, Frederick L. A. and Jasper Henry. Both reached the rank of Captain in the late 1850s 
(Jasper in 1 858, Frederick in 1 859), and both retired in 1 868. However, in 1 885 Jasper Henry Selwyn was 
given tlag rank of Admiral, the only Selwyn in the lists to achieve that rank during this period. 

2**2 jhe implication here and in the years that follow, as stated in HittelFs original manuscript, is that 
these papers have been submitted for but not yet published. Usually the handwritten minutes state simply, 
"The following papers were read by title: — ." As a matter of fact, many if not all the papers listed were 
already published in the Academy's Proceedings, and it seems that the intention of reading the titles into 
the minutes at the near end-of-year meetings was to report on either what had been published during the 
year or had already been accepted for publication. As an example, the first paper mentioned, "Report on 
Mexican Hymenoptera . . ." by William J. Fox, was printed on September 14, 1893. 



CHAPTER XXVIII: 1893-1894 343 

Coleoptera and 4 1 Hemiptera previously given, plus several batrachians and mammal 
skins. December 4, the following papers were read by title and submitted: "On 
California Eudrilidae" by Gustav Eisen, and "Revision oi Ceanothus'" by Katharine 
Brandegee. Dr. Gustav Eisen made a preliminary report on the recent scientific 
expedition to Lower California. December 18, Prof Andrew C. Lawson was 
proposed for membership by Prof Joseph LeConte and T. S. Brandegee. The 
nominating committee presented a ticket for officers of 1 894, consisting in substance 
of the old officers renominated; but considerable opposition to several of them, and 
particularly to the president and recording secretary, had manifested itself; and, as an 
indication of it, an opposition or so-called "reform" ticket was presented, on which 
the name of the president was left blank, though it was understood that that of 
Professor George Davidson was to be written in, and the name of Charles G. Yale 
given for recording secretary. Other proposed changes included Gulian Rixford for 
recording secretary, T. S. Brandegee, corresponding secretary, Charles A. Keeler, 
librarian, and Walter E. Bryant, director of the museum. 



1894 

At the annual meeting of 1 894, held January 2, the usual reports of officers were 
read and placed on file. From that of the librarian, it appeared that during 1893 the 
additions to the library were 1860 from correspondents, 977 by purchase, 100 by 
donation, making a total of 2,937. The president presented a very full report on the 
condition and progress of the Academy. He said, among other things, that "the 
progress of the life of the institution had been unbroken, mainly owing to the fact that 
its officers had ever been in accord." He ftirther said that in his inaugural address as 
president in 1 887 he had used the words, with reference to the peculiar circumstances 
of the moment, that "The life and usefulness of a scientific society depends upon the 
activity of its members and its publications." That the members of the Academy had 
been fiilly aware of the necessity for constant and unremitting work, the years of 
labor, which had intervened since then, would bear witness; and it was also mani- 
fested in the various departments of scientific work as well as in the volumes of our 
publications. Increasing interest in the museum had been shown in the marked 
increase in the number of visitors during the past year. This fact alone was a source 
of gratification to the members, for it was proven that as a means of education the 
museum was not only useful but economical. The belief in its importance in the 
education of the pupils of our public schools had been fiilly realized in the past; and 
it should be the duty and the pleasure of members to assist the young in every manner 
possible in their endeavor to acquire information within the precincts of the Academy. 
The Trustees at an early day had made provision for the school children and for 
persons employed in daily labor by granting free access to the museum not only upon 
week days but upon Sundays and holidays as well. And that the opening of the 
museum upon holidays had been a success was proven by the fact that a large number 



344 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 1 853- 1 906 

of visitors had taken advantage of the opportunity. It had not been deemed advisable, 
owing to the extra cost, to keep a record of the number of visitors; but a carefLii 
estimate placed the number of visitors as exceeding one hundred thousand the past 
year. 

The address then reviewed the work of the year and specified many of the valuable 
and interesting donations that had been made. Among the later, note was taken of a 
dugong received from Mr. B. E. DeLopez; a valuable collection of birds, mammals, 
and reptiles, and a large Japanese vase from J. Z. Davis; shells from T. H. Hittell; and 
a collection of rare coins from Mrs. Andrew Kohler. The report took note of the 
liberality of the trustees in providing funds for the library, which "is becoming more 
and more important to the Academy, as it is rapidly advancing and as the methods of 
study are changing and improving. Every provision possible should be made for its 
growth, as such accumulations are of the greatest importance to all who may be 
engaged in any department of scientific work." It also spoke about the activities of 
the curators. It was noted that Dr. Eisen spent two and one-half months in Lower 
California, which was also visited by Mr. and Mrs. Brandegee; Alice Eastwood, when 
not in the field, devoted herself to the herbarium and in a study of the genus Allium; 
Dr. Cooper relabeled the entire collection of fossil and living shells; but. Prof Gilbert, 
because of duties at Stanford, was unable to devote time to the ichthyology depart- 
ment; and Dr. Behr, though engaged in caring for the entomological collection, had 
few opportunities to increase its size. On motion, the report was ordered spread upon 
the minutes. 

The report of the judges and inspectors of the annual election showed that the 
following persons had been elected officers for the year, and they were so declared: 
H. W. Harkness, president; H. H. Behr, first vice-president; J. G. Cooper, second 
vice-president; G. E. Moore, corresponding secretary; Charles G. Yale, recording 
secretary; L. H. Foote, treasurer; Charles Troyer librarian; J. Z. Davis, director of the 
museum; W. C. Burnett, C. F. Crocker, D. E. Hayes, E. J. Molera, George C. Perkins, 
Ado