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Full text of "Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India"

MEMOIRS 



OF THE 



GEOLOGICAL SUEYEY 



OP 



INDIA. 



-trn*- 



li i 







o vj o , •i4f» 



MEMOIRS 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



INDIA. 



VOL. XIV. 



PUBLISHED BY OEDER OK HI8 EXCELLENCY THE GOVEENOR GENERAL OF INDIA 

IN COUNCIL. 



CALCUTTA: 

PRINTED FOE THE GOTERNMENT OF INDIA. 

SOLD AT THE 

GEOLOGICAL STTEVEY OFFICE, 

OFFICE OF SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, 

AND BY ALL BOOKSELLERS, 

LONDON: TRUBNER & CO. 



MDCCCIXXVII I. 



iqloA:^^ 



CAICUTTA ! 

OFFICE OF THE STTPERINTENDENT OF GOVEENMENT PEINTIN&. 

1878. 



PREFACE. 



Undeu instructions from tlie Superintendent of the Geo- 
logical Survey of India, I arrived in the Punjab in the cold 
weather of 1869-70, and commenced the examination of the 
Salt Range Mountains. During the next season and part of 
the one which followed I was entirely occupied with this work. 
The fossil collections which I had from time to time for- 
warded to head- quarters ultimately suggested a palseontologi- 
cal examination of the strata in the field, and Dr. "W. Waagen, 
then on the staff of the Geological Survey, was deputed to 
carry this out. He reached the Salt Eange after the whole 
of the region had been mapped, and after its various geolo- 
gical groups had been arranged, according to their generally 
well-marked petrological features. I accompanied him, and 
we visited together several of the instructive sections. After 
this, he, by himself, devoted many weeks to a close reconnois- 
sance of the Range, noting various sections in detail, largely 
increasing the fossil collections, and observing the demarca- 
tion of the groups indicated by these fossils. 

This examination caused no alteration in the boundary 
lines which I had drawn, nor in the general arrangement of 
the groups, but it enabled the geological positions of cer- 
tain highly fossiliferous formations, such as the triassic and 
Jurassic, and the upper limits of the carboniferous, to be more 
definitely established. It led to Dr. Waagen' s discovery of 
(unique) carboniferous ammonites, and to his suggestion 



Vi PREFACE. 

that one of the groups in the eastern part of the Eange, con- 
taining many ill-preserved shells, as also some doubtful beds 
below the nummulitic, might be cretaceous ; while another 
unfossiliferous group was thought by him to be possibly 
triassic. About the probable places of one or two other un- 
fossiliferous groups he expressed doubt. 

Shortly before making the first draft of the present Me- 
moir, I had had the advantage of frequent discussions upon 
the local geology with Dr. Waagen, who further gave me 
some field notes detailing certain sections which he had 
visited after I left him. I have, in several instances, used 
these notes in preference to my own, because they are more 
detailed, and because they possess the advantage that the 
most characteristic and abundant fossils have been identified 
by a competent palaeontologist. 

At one time it was intended to have made this Salt E^ange 
Memoir a joint production by Dr. Waagen and myself, and 
to have added a description of the palaeontology and a com- 
parison between the geology and that of some European re- 
gions, together with plates and figures to illustrate both the 
geology and palaeontology of the district ; but Dr. Waagen's 
labours upon the fossil Cephalopoda of Kach, followed by his 
long absence on sick-leave, prevented the design, of which he 
would have written the palseontological portion, from being 
carried out. His early retirement from the Survey in ill- 
health before he could work out the Salt Eange collections 
or contribute towards the manuscript of a joint report, be- 
yond what will be acknowledged in the following pages, and 
a few marginal notes on my preliminary report, has left to 



PREFACE. Vll 

me the rather difficult task of re-casting alone matter in- 
tended for a joint publication. 

The originality of this Memoir will, in one aspect, be 
necessarily limited, when the long list of previous writers 
upon the geology of the Salt Range is considered. That the 
Range contained carboniferous, Jurassic, or oolitic, possibly 
triassic, eocene, and perhaps miocene, formations, has long 
been known from former publications ; but the addition to 
these of an ascertained silurian zone above the salt, and a 
new arrangement of all of its groups, have resulted from the 
operations of the Geological Survey. 

The bulk of the following report has lain for some years 
in manuscript awaiting publication. This has been post- 
poned for various reasons, the chief of which I have men- 
tioned. The extensive fossil collections from the district, 
when I last saw them, had been but partially prepared for 
examination, and though I can only give such provisional 
identifications as were afforded by our lamented colleague 
Dr. Stoliczka and by Dr. Waagen, it is satisfactory to know 
that the palaeozoic and secondary fossils have been forwarded 
lately to Dr. Waagen himself for description. 

In preparing this Memoir for publication, I have to thank 
Mr. W. T. Blanford for much assistance in reading the 
proofs ; and whatever success has attended the reproduction 
of my landscape illustrations is largely due to their treat- 
ment by Mr. Schaumburg, the Artist of the Survey. 

A. B. WYNNE. 

Camp Hazaka, 

November 1877. 



CONTENTS, 



CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTORY. 



Fage, 



Introductory. — Geological Examination. — Map used. — Geograpliical Posi- 
tion. — Previous Observers ...... 1 — 35 

CHAPTER II. PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

Physical Features. — Remarkable Features. — The Plateaux. — Passes. — Val- 
leys. — Water Parting. — Lakes. — Springs. — Physical Geology. — Dis- 
turbance. — Faults. — Elevation. — Atmospheric Influences. — Marine Ero- 
sion. — Son Plateau Lakes ...... 36 — 63 

CHAPTER III. STRATIGRAPHIC GEOLOGY. 

Disparity with Himalaya. — Rock Groups, 65. — Carboniferous Ammonites. — 
Salt Range Series, 69. — Diagi-am, 69. — Saline Group, 70. — Purple Sand- 
stone, 84. — Silurian, 86. — Magnesian Sandstone, 87. — Speckled Sand- 
stone. — Carboniferous Limestone, &c., 93. — Triassic Ceratite Group,96. — 
Pseudomorphic Salt-Crystal Zone, 98. — Jurassic, 101. — Cretaceous, 103. 
— Nummulitic, 105. — Tertiary Sandstone and Clays, 108. — Nahan, 109. 
— Siwalik, 110. — Post-Tertiary and Recent, 113. — General Series, 117 . 64—118 

PART II. DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS. 

Section I. Bakrala Ridge, 119.— II. TiUa Ridge, 124.^111. Chambal Moun- 
tain, East, 131. — IV. Jalalpur to Jutana, 136. — V. Eastern Plateau, 143. 
—VI. Dandot Plateau and Spur, 164.— VII. Kahiin Plateau, 170.— 
VIII. Malot Table-land, 175.— IX. Nui-pur Plateau, 184.— X. Son Pla- 
teau, 201.— XI. Chiderii Hills, 245.— XII. Tredian Hills, 257.— XIII. 
Appendix. Trans-Indus Hills, 272. — Summary, 277. — Economic Re- 
sources, 283.— Salt, 284.— Coal, 293.— Petroleum, 297 .—Building Stones, 
298. — Ornamental Stones, 289. — Gypsmn, Lavender Clay, Galena, 300. 
—Alum, 301.— Kahi Mitti, 302.— Gold, 303.— Conclusion, 303.— 

Index . . . . - . . . . 305 



LIST OF PLATES AND OTHEH ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate 



I. 
II. 
III. 
IV. 
V. 
VI. 
VII. 
VIII. 
IX. 
X. 
XI. 
XII. 
XIII. 
XIV. 
XV. 
XVI. 
XVII. 
XVIII. 
XVIII-2. 
XIX. 
XX. 
XXI. 
XXII. 
XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII 

XXIX 

XXX. 

XXXI 



MAP OF SALT KANGE. 

(Frontispiece). View of Khewra Glen, Mayo Salt Mines Village 

Commencement of Salt Range Escarpment at Jalalpur 

Southern Entrance to the Bakh Ravine 

Kalar Kahar Lake .... 

Looking up the River Indus from Kalabagh 

View in Jutana Kas .... 

Faults in Hills north of Sadowal . 

Sketch Maps of Position and Direction of Salt Range 

Diagram to show distribution of Salt Range Series 

Sections, Bakrala Ridge .... 

Rib of Nummulitic Limestone in Ghoragali 

Sections, Kahan and Mount Tilla . 

Cliffs near Baghanwala . . . , . 

Sections, Baghanwala .... 

Sections, Karangli and Chel Hills 

Sections, Khewra to Gamthala and over Chambal Hills 

Kiisak Peak and Fort and Section of Khewra Glen 

Sections, Dandot and West of Dandot . 

Mariala Coal -driving .... 

Diagrams : Slips of Escarpment Matan and Sar 

Sections in Nilawan Ravine 

cuff at Chamil Coal Locality 

Warru Glen and Disturbance in Kavbad Glen near Jabi 

Sections : Choya Gorge ; Greenish Band in Marl, Varcha 
'Kangrawala Hill .... 

Red Marl near Varcha . . . . 

Natural Shaft, Varcha Mine 

Section over Sakesar Mountain, &c. 

East Branch of Golawala Gorge. Place of Coal Shales in Bakh 

Ravine ..... 

Section in Bakh Ravine. Sections at Swas 
Nummulitic Limestone Ridge N. W. from Namal 

Jaba Oil-springs — Ravine in Salt Marl near Mari 
Kalabagh bank of the Indus. Sketch-section in the Chichal 
Pass ....... 



rage. 

39 

45 

47 

49 
141 

53 

51 

69 
120 
123 
125 
137 
138 
144 
149 
157 
164 
167 
187 
188 
205 
213 

227 
229 
231 
244 

246 
254 
252 
265 

269 



SECTIONS AND FIGUEES. 



Fage. 

Fig. 1. — Profile of country . . • • • • .60 

„ 2.— Direction of Salt Eange, diagram. (Plate VIII) . . .51 

„ 3.— Profile of Son Sakesar Basin . . . . . .62 

„ 4.— Position of Salt Range. (Plate VIII) . . . . 51 

„ 5. — Contortion in Salt, Mayo Mines . . ' . . .78 

Figs. 6, 7, 8.— Sections, Bakrala Eidge. (Plate X) . . . .120 

Fig. 9. — Kib of nummulitic limestone, Ghoragali. (Plate XI) . . 123 

„ 10.— Section, Diljaba Mt. (Plate XI) . . . ... 123 

„ 11. — Sectiau, Kalian Eiver gorge. (Plate XII) .... 125 

„ 12.— Section over Mt. Tilla. (Plate XII) . . . . 125 

„ 13. — Section over Chambal Hill ...... 133 

„ 14.— Cliffs near Baghanwala. (Plate XIII) . . . .137 

J, 15. — Section, Baghanwala coal locality. (Plate XIV) . . . 138 > 

^^ 16.— Section, Baghanwala to Kotalkund. (Plate XIV) . . . 188 

„ 17.— Clifis near Baghanwala. (Plate XIII) . , . .137 

^^ 18.— Section across Chel Hill. (Plate XV) . . . -144 

„ 19.— Section, Karangli Hill. (Plate XV) . . . .144 

„ 20.— Section, Khewra to Gamthala Glen. (Plate XVI) . . . 149 

„ 21. — Abnormal position of salt marl, Chambal Hill, west . . 150 

„ 22.— Section over Doltwala Point, Chambal, west. (Plate XVI) . . 149 

„ 23.— Kiisak Peak and Fort. (Plate XVII) . . . .157 

„ 24.— Section of Khewra Glen. (Plate XVII) .... 157 

„ 25.— Section through Dandot. (Plate XVIII) . . . .164 

„ 26.— Section west of Dandot. (Plate XVIII) . . . .164 

„ 27.— Mariala coal-driving. (Plate XVIII«) . . . .167 

„ 28. — Section south-east from Kalar Kahar . . . . 183 

„ 29. — Diagram. Slipped face of escarpment, Matan. (Plate XIX) . 187 

„ 30. — Diagram. Slipped ground, Bar. (Plate XIX) . . . 187 

Figs. 31. 32, 33.— Sections in Nilawan Ravine. (Plate XX) . . .188 

Fig. 34. — Section across Vasnal Valley . . . . .197 

„ 36. — Diagramatic section, Nursingphoar Valley .... 208 

„ 37. — Balanced mass on cliff Nali ...... 212 

„ 38.— Wurru Glen from above. (Plate XXII) . . . .213 

,, 39. — Disturbance in Kavhad Glen near Jabi. (Plate XXII) . . 213 

„ 40.— Section, Choya gorge. (Plate XXIII) . . . .227 

„ 41.— Red Marl near Varclui. (Plato XXIV) .... 229 



SECTIONS AND FIGUllES, 



Xlll 



Fig. -12.— Natural shaft iu Varclia Mine. (Plate XXV) 

„ 43.— Greenish band in Red Marl, Varcha. (Plate XXIII) 

„ 44.— Top of Kangrawala Hill. (Plate XXIII) . 

„ 45.— Section over Sakesar Mt. (Plate XXVI) . 

„ 46. — East brancli Golawali gorge. (Plate XXVII) 

„ 47. — Place of coal shales in Bakh Eavine. (Plate XXVII) 

„ 48.— Section, Bakh Ravine. (Plate XXVIII) 

„ 49. — Section from Swas, the north-east. (Plate XXVI) 
Figs. 50, 51.— Sections at Swas. (Plate XXVIII) 

Fig. 52. — Oil-spring ravine, Jaba. (Plate XXX) 

„ 53.— Ravine in Salt Marl near Mari. (Plate XXX) 

„ 54. — Kalabagh Bank of the Indus. (Plate XXXI) 

„ 55.— Section, Chichali Pass. (Plate XXXI) j 



Fage, 

231 
227 

227 

244 
246 
245 
254 
244 
254 
265 
265 
269 
269 



QV PAPERS ON SALT EANGB. 

LIST OF GEOLOGICAL PAPERS REFERRING TO THE SALT RANGE, &c. 

Year. 

1. Elphinstone's Caubul, visited in 1808, &c., London . . • 1815 

2. BuENES, LiEFT. (afterwards SiE A.).— A Memoir. Geol. Soc. London, 

Vol. II, p. 8 . . 1831-32-38 

3. . Some account of the Salt Mines, Punjab. Jl. A. S. 

Beng. Vol. I, p. 149, &c 1832 

4. Agha Abbas, of Shiraz — Translated by Major Leecb. Jl. A. S. B., 

Vol. XII. p. 564 .. . 1837 

5. MuNSHi MoHUN Lall. — Account of Kalabagb. Jl. A. S. B., 

Vol. VII, p. 25 . . . 1838 

6. Jameson, De. W.— Ext. letter to Mr, Clerk, Jl. A. S. B., Vol. IX, 

p. 1 1841 

7. Deputation to examine effects of great Inundation 

of Indus. JL A. S. B., Vol. XII, p. 183, &c. . 1843 

8. Kaesten, Dr. — LehrlucJi der SalinJcunde, Vol. I, p. 777, Berlin . 1846 

9. Fleming, De. A.— First Report on the Salt Range, &c. Jl. A. S. B., 

Vol. XVII, p. 500 . . . . 1848 

10. Diary of a trip to Pind-Dadun-Khan and the 

Salt Range. Jl. A. S. B., Vol. XVIII, p. 661 . 1849 

11. VicAEY, Majoe. — Geology, Upper Punjab, &c. Proc. Geol. Soc. 

London, Vol. VII, p. 39 . . . 1850 

12. Steachey, Captain R. — Geology of part of Himalayan Moun- 

tains and Tibet. Proc. Geol. Soc. London, 

Vol. VII, p. 292, &c. . . . 1851 

13. Fleming, De., & Muechison, Sie R. I. — On Salt Range (abst. of 

letters). Q. Jl. Geol. Soc. London, Vol. IX, p. 189 . 1853 

14. Fleming, De. A. — Second Report on geological structure, &c.. Salt 

Range. Jl. A. S. B., Vol. XXII, pp. 229, 333, 444 . 1853 

15. D'Akchiac, Le Vicomte and Jules Haime. — Description des 

Animaux Fossiles du groupe Nummiilitique de I'lnde 1853 

16. Theobald, W. — Notes on geology of Salt Range. Jl. A. S. B., 

Vol. XXIII, p. 651 .... 1854 

17. Fleming, Dr. A, — On Iron Ore from Korana hills. Jl. A. S. B., 

Vol. XXIII, p. 92 1854 

18. Medlicott, H. B. — Abstract of paper on Himalaya. Jl. A. S. B., 

Vol. XXX, p. 22 1861 

19. ScHLAGlNTWBIT, RoBERT DE. — Hot springs of India and High Asia. 

Jl. A. S. B., Vol. XXXIII, p. 51 . . 1864 



PAPERS ON SALT RANGE. 



XV 



20. Oldham, T., L.L. D., &e. — Meinoiandum on results of a cursory 

examination of the Salt Range. Report 
to Government of India . 

21. Medlicott, H. B. — Sub-Himalayan rocks, between Rivers Ganges 

and Ravi. Mem. Geol. Sur. Ind. Vol. Ill 

22. Veechebe, De.A. M. — Kashmir, tbeWesternHimalaya, and Afghan 

Mountains. Jl. A. S. B., Vols. XXXV & XXXVI 

23. Baden-PoWEIiL, Me. — Economic products of Punjab, Vol. I 

pp. 13, 69, 130, &c. 

24. Wynne, A. B.— Geology Mt. Tilla. Records Geol. Sur. Ind., Vol. Ill 

25. Lyman, B. S. — General Report on Punjab oil-lands. Government 

Press, Lahore, D. P. W. 

26. Waeth, De. H. — Geology Khewra Salt Range. Appendix, Report 

Administration, Inland Customs Department; 
Official year 1869-70 . 

27. HiCEiE, M., — Pamphlet on customs, quoted by Dr. Warth in above 

28. HiCKiE, CoENElicrs — Analysis of Salt Range salt quoted by Dr, 

Warth ditto. 

29. Lyman, B. S., — Topography of Punjab oil regions. Tran. Amer 

Phil. Soc, Vol. XV .... 

30. Maekham, C.R., c. B. — On Indian Surveys, London 

31. AVaeth, De. H. — Geological descriptions. Salt Range. Report, Ad- 

ministration, Inland Customs Department, Appendix D, 
1870-71 

32. Waeth, De. and Wynne, A.B.,— Collection of Salt Range minerals 

for Vienna Exhibition. Catalogue, Lond. Sty. Office 

33. Oldham, Thos., L.L.D., &c. — Rock-Salt of Salt Range and its 

position. Ver. der Geol. Reichsanstalt, Vienna . 

34. Blanfoed, H. F. — Physical Geography for Indian Schools, p. 133, 

Calcutta and London .... 

35. Wynne, A.B. — Points in Physical Geography., Upper Punjab. Q 

Jl. Geol. Soc, London, Vol. XXX, p. 61 

36. Tscheemak, G. — Salt Range potash salt (translated from the 

Mineralogischen Mittheilungen, 1873, p. 135. (Rec 
Geo. Sur. of India, Vol. VII, p. 64 . 

37. Wynne, A. B.— Trans-Indus Salt Regions. Mem. Geol. Sur., Vol. XI, 

pp. 24, 30, &c. . 

38. Medlicott, H. B. — Sub-Himalayan series in the Jamu hills. Rec, 

Geol. Sur. India, Vol. IX, pt. 2, p. 49 . 



Year. 

1864 

1865 

1866-67 

1868 

1870 

1870 
1871 



1872 
1871 



3872 
1873 
1873 
1873 

1874 

1874 
1875 
1876 



XVI 



PAL^ONTOLOGICAL PAPERS EEPERRING TO SALT RANGE. 

Tear. 

39. Veeneitil, M. de-JI. As. Soc. Beng., No. LX, Vol. XXII, p. 267 1853 

40. Falconer, De. H.— Jl. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. XXIII, p. 677 . 1854 

41. Datidson, Thos., f. e. s.~Q. Jl. Geol. Soc, London, Vol. XVIII. 

p. 25 1862 

42. KoNiNCK, L. DE.— Qtly. Jl. Geol. Soc, London, Vol. XIX, p. 1 . 1863 

43. Stoliczea, De. P.— Mem. Geol. Sur., India, Vol. V, pt. 1 . 1865 

44. Veenetjil, M. de — Note to Dr. Verchere's paper. Jl. A. S. B., 

Vol. XXXVI 1867 

45. Waagen, De. W. — Carboniferous ammonites. Mem. Geol. Sur., 

India, Vol. IX, p. 851 .... 1872 



ERRATA. 



Page 23, line 19 fi-om bottom, for " Gastropeda" read " Gastropoda." 
„ 23, line 5 from bottom, for " Lepida," read " lepida." 

„ 23, line 2 from bottom, for " LamelUbranciata," read " Lamellihranehiata" 
„ 24, line 3 from top, for " latelaris" read " lateralis." 
„ 32, line 18 from top, for " J. Wiener" read " Tscbermak." 
„ 32, line 19, and again on page 80, for " Jahrbuch der ]c. Tc. Geologischen 
Meichsanstalt, XXin,No. 2," read " Miner alogisclie Mittheilungen, 1873." 
„ 40, Hne 13, for « 1921" read " 1221." 
„ 47, line 14 from bottom, /or " Wycher" read " Wycbler." 
„ 51, line 10 from top, for " Augustan" read " Augustan." 
„ 54, in-cut margin, line 3, for " Karangu," read " Karangli." 
„ 55, line 11 from bottom, for " Badrae," read " Badi-a." 
„ 70, line 17, insert " No. 1" before " Med Marl : Gypsum : RocJc-salt." 
„ 70, margin, after salt marl, dele " No. 1." 
„ 72, line 3 from bottom, for " 200" read " 2,000." 
„ 84, line 10 from top, for " dessication" read " desiccation." 
Pages 98, 99. Names of formations in Italics should be in Romans. 
Page 108, line 4, dele " No. 15." 

„ 227, Plate XXIII, fig, 43, for " ban" read " band." 

„ 238, margin, for " inside" read " in side." 

„ 252, in-cut margin, line 1, for " carboniferous" read " carbonaceous." 



MEMOIRS 



OF THE 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



On the Geology op the Salt Range in the Punjab, ^^ A. B. 
Wynne, F.G.S., Geological Survey of India, 

CHAPTER I, 

INTRODUCTORY. 

The Salt Range has long- been known as one of the most interesting 
The rano-e Its im- ^^^ important regions in British India, its geolo- 
portant character. gical interest being enhanced by its highly fossili- 

ferous rocks, and its importance chiefly derived from the enormous 
deposits of rock-salt which it contains. 

Its mineral wealth,* doubtless, early prompted the acquisition of 
Early acquamtance information concerning it, and years before the 
mth its importance. eonquest of the Punjab by the British Govern- 

ment, while the eventful campaign in Afghanistan was taking place, 
British officers penetrated the wild countries then upon our frontier, not 
always without risk of life and armed hostility; and returned to report, 
amongst other things, upon the geology of the district under notice. 

* The Government receipts from the Cis-Indus Salt Mines for the years 1867 to 1871 
(excluding Kalabagh) exceeded £1,474,549 (Rept., Inland Customs, official year 1870-71, 
p. 14). "The average yearly revenue from the whole department of the Salt Eange for 
the last five years was £382,653 " (MS. letter from H. Wright, Esq., Collector, Shahpur, July 
29, 1872). The rate at which the salt is sold is Es. 3-1 per maund, or 6*. \\d, (at par) 
for 123 lbs. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Ihdia, Vol, XIV, Art. 1. 



2 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Since then much has been learned on this subject ; but it was not 
Geological examina- ^11 a few years since that circumstances enabled 
- *^°^- detailed examination to be made by the Geological 

Survey. The examination of the rocks was supplemented by an investi- 
gation of the fossil-bearing strata in the field by Dr. W. Waagen. 

In carrying on the examination of the ground, I had the advantage 

of using one of the best published maps of any part 
Map used. . . tt 

of India — one, indeed, rivalling those produced by 

Government in Great Britain — that of the Jhelum, Shahpur, and Leia 

tracts, constructed by Captain D. G. Robinson, R.E.,with his assistants^ 

and published on the scale of one inch to a mile. This scale is sufficiently 

large to permit an efiective representation of the salient features of the 

ground ; but the value of the map in this respect is somewhat impaired 

by the quantity and manner of the hill shading, which frequently 

exaggerates the depth of the smaller stream valleys. Yet the features 

are often so faithfully delineated that the stratigraphical structure of 

the ground (or consequences depending thereon) can be discerned by 

the '' ornament^^ upon the sheets. 

Geographically, the Salt Range* is situated in historic ground, 

one extremity resting upon the ancient Hydaspes 
Geographical position. 

or Jbelum rivei-, the other on the Indus or Aba-sin 

(Father of waters), and its eastern extension overlooks the battle-field 

of Chilianwala,t marked by a memorial obelisk built of materials taken 

from the range. It extends from near 71° 30' east longitude to beyond 

73° 30', and the Cis-Indus portion of it lies wholly between the parallels 

of 32° 33' and 33° of north latitude, forming part of the Kohisidn or 

upland of the ^' Siud-Saugor Doab.''^ 

Its connection with the outer Himalayan hills is completely broken 

Relation with the through by the Jhelum valley, and its eastern 

outer Himalaya. ,. • t -n i • , ,i i ii i 

portion IS divided into three nearly parallel spurs 

* Or " Joocl mountains." Burnes, Jour. As. fcjoc. Bengal, Vul. I. 
t Fought January 13th, 1849. 
I '7 ^ 



INTKODUCTOUY. 3 

— the Bakrdla or Diljaba ridge, thai of which Mount Jo<^i Tilla forms 
the summit, and the Pubhi or Kharian hills south of the Jhelum. The 
latter, indeed, hardly belong- to the Salt Range proper, being separated 
from it by the valley of this river, but form a small independent antieliual 
chain aligning itself more with the Salt Kange than the outer Himalaya. 

The Salt Range proper lies entirely Cis-Indus, forming a somewhat 

elevated border to the Rawal Pindi plateau (lying 
Situation, length, &c. 

to the north), and throughout its wLole length of 

about 152 miles presents its steep declivities and lofty escarpment cliffs 

towards the vast plains and deserts which spread from its foot through 

Sind to the sea near Kurrachee. 

It appears to have been the fashion to speak of the Salt Range 

N'ot continuous mth of the Punjab as extending across the Indus' 

Trans-Indus salt-field, ,i i,im tt u • i 

through the Trans-Indus salt region and up to 

the Sufed Koh in Afghanistan — an error adopted from some of the 

earliest writers on the neighbouring countries. Both geographically 

and geologically, the continuation of the Salt Range westward manifestly 

lies to the south of the Trans-Indus salt region, the salt of which 

is believed to be of entirely different age and position from that of the 

Salt Range proper."^ 

Contributions to the geological literature of the Salt Range have 

Previous Observers' been SO numerous in various forms, chiefly as 

publications, &c. j. i. r> j. > ■ ,• 

^ reports to (jovernment or papers to societies, 

and some of these have been so copious, that extended notice of each 

would exceed the space which can be fairly devoted to them here.f 

The past sixty-one years have witnessed the appearance of about 
forty-two papers or records concerning this subject, and others may have 
escaped observation. To those to which access could be obtained notice 

* See Memoir on the Trans-Indus Salt Region, Memoirs Geological Survey, India, 
Vol. XI, pt. 2, P. 32. 

f See list of references appended to preface. 

( 3 ) 



4 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

is due, however meagre, because the accuracy of some contrasts very 
favourably with the generality of early writings upon Indian Geology^ 
while the views put forward in many others cannot be considered 
established. 

In briefly alluding to these writings, parts having special reference 
to the geology of the Salt Range or connection with it will demand 
attention. 

The earliest publication in which I have found any mention of 
El hinstone 1808— " *^® ^^^^ Bange '' is " Elphinstone^s Caubul/' ^ 
1815. jje speaks of a branch of the Sufed Koh, " which 

may be called the Salt Range," as shooting out from the Sufed Koh 
and extending in a south-easterly direction by the south of " Teeree" 
to " Callabaugh" (Kalabagh), where it crosses the Indus, stretches across 
part of the Punjab and ends at " Jellaulpoor,"^ on the right bank of the 
Hydaspes, becoming lower as it gets further from the mountains of 
" Salimaun.-'-' He says it abounds in salt, which is dug out in various 
forms at different places. 

In the days when Elphinstone travelled as a British Envoy to the 
Court of Caubul (Kabul), the whole of the Puujab and Kashmir were 
included in the Afghan dominions, and the country was so little known 
that it can be understood how he might have been mistaken as to the 
continuity of this range. It would appear from the quotation above that 
the Salt Range owes its present name to this traveller. 

The author describes " Callabaughf or Karrabaugh/' i. e., Kalabagh, 
with its narrow road cut through solid salt rock, hard, clear, and almost 
pure, but in some parts tinged and streaked with red — a colour prevailing 



* Account of the Kingdom of Caiibul and its Dependencies, by the Hon'ble Mountstuart 
Elphinstone, p. 103. London, 1815. 

t The author, adopting the method of spelling the names of places with appropriate 
English letters, had some slight difficulty to contend with ; yet any one familiar with the 
native pronunciation of several of the names he uses will observe how faithfully, as he 
writes them, they convey the sounds which these words have in Upper India, or at least 
the Upper Punjab. 

( 4 ) 



INTEODTJCTOllY. • 5 

in the soil of the place. Salt in large blocks like quarried stones was 
lying (as it does often still) piled at the entrance of the Lun Nala,* 
ready for exportation to India or '^ Khorassaun." 

Another early record appears as an abstract of Lieutenant Burnes^ 

Lieutenant A. Burnes, (afterwards Sir A. Burnes') paper on the geology 

1831-32-1838. ^f ^.j^g |^,^j^|,g ^f ^^^ Indus, fecf He describes the 

salt as being found in " layers of about a foot in thickness, separated 
from each other by thin strata of clay/'' referring no doubt to the 
laminated structure of the salt, and perhaps mistaking tbe darker coloured 
lines for earthy layers. He found what he supposed to be bituminous coal 
at Kohat, and stated that the Salt Range " extended across the Indus 
into that district/' supporting an often-repeated error. The abstract 
seems much condensed, and but little is said of the Salt Range proper. 

In another paper by the same author J the locality of the range as the 
Lieutenant A. Burnes, Southern limit of a plateau between the river Indus 
•^^^^- and the Hydaspes is correctly given, as is also the 

general elevation, but this is followed by a statement that the formation 
is •'sandstone occurring in vertical strata.^'' The desolate aspect of 
the hills, the hot springs, alum, galena, and sulphur, are mentioned, as 
well as a red clay in the valleys, indicating salt, which is found at intervals 
throughout the range. 

A description of the " Keoru " (Kheura) mines follows. Gunpowder 
was not used lest the roof should fall in, accidents of the kind occurring 
even then. The miners received a rupee for 20 maunds of salt raised, 
and its selling price was Rs. 3 per maund exclusive of duties. The 
profit is stated to amount to about 1,100 per cent., and from it Runjit 
Singh hoped to derive a revenue of 16 lakhs of rupees. The mode of 

* Called by Jameson the Gossai Nala. 

t A Memoir on the Geology of the banks of the Indus, the Indian Caucasus, and the 
plains of Tartary to the shores of the Caspian, by Lieutenant A. Burnes, Proc. Geological 
Society, London, Vol. II, p. 8. 

% " Some account of the Salt Mines of the Punjab," by Lieutenant S. [A.] Burnes, 
Bombay Army, Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, Vol, I, p. 143, &c. 

( 3 ) 



6 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

extraction was by sledg-e-hammer and pickaxe, and from near the surface 
blocks of 4 maunds each were raised. The salt is said to have held a 
hig-h place throug-hout India with native practitioners on account of its 
medicinal virtues, but it is stated to have been impure, having- a consi- 
derable mixture, probably of mag-nesia, which rendered it unfit for curing- 
meat. The Punjabis ascribed to its effects the prevalence of nazla, a 
disease said to consist of a running at the nostrils. 

In those days the salt was not exported west of the Indus. The 
antiquity of the mines was unknown, and they are said not to have 
been mentioned by the inquiring- Baber in his Commentaries, though they 
had been used by the Emperors of Hindustan. 

In the course of a tour through the Upper Panjab and Afghanis- 

Agha Abbas of Shiraz, "^^^ "^^^^ by one Agha Abbas (at the suggestion 
^^'^'^- of Major R. Leech, by whom the story of his 

travels was translated*), this person mentions having seen 500,000 
maunds of salt covered with mud, as a protection from the rain, 
at Pind-Dadun-Khan. Several of the mines were then closed, including 
those at " Sardee'^ (Sardi), "Neelawan"' (Nilawan) , '" Durnala,'' and 
" Chotana"^ (Jutana), and the latter was said to contain veins of copper 
and lead. Others, as at " Korah'^ (Kheura) and Makraj, were open. 
From his description these mines appear to have been very irregularly 
worked, lighted by openings at top, and dangerous from falls of the 
roof, one of which he witnessed. Blocks were cut by digging round 
two sides and below with picks, then detaching from above by heavy 
blows. The mines of Nilawan and Khur Chotata were the finest. 

The cost of carriage from the mines to Pind-Dadun-Khan was one 
rupee for 20 maunds of salt, and the selling rate, by the Government of 
Maharaja Golab Sing, was to some merchants one and a half, to others 
two rupees. Formerly, the mines produced four lakhs of rupees ; after 
the visit of Captain Wadef they yielded from eight to nine, afterwards 

* Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, Vol. XII, p. 564. 1843. 
t Afterwards Sir Claude Martine Wade, Vigne's Kabul, p. 2. 
( 6 ) 



IJsTnODUCTORY. 7 

from twelve to fourteen laklis, then fourteeu Inkli?, at wliich figure Ag-ha 
Abbas found the revenue in the time of Golab Sing-, though twenty- 
five lakhs were said to be realised. The labourers were paid one^ two, or 
three annas a day, and then, as now, the miners and their families all 
worked in the mines. The mines were farmed by Maharaja Runjeet 
Sing to Golab Sing. 

In another part of the narrative twelve saltpetre {sic) factories are 
mentioned at Karabagh (Kalabagh), producing a revenue of Rs. 12,000, 
the tourist evidently alluding to the alum works. Throughout the 
paper, passing notice is taken of the salt and other mines of the country; 
but the quantity of mineral wealth appears to have been exaggerated. 

When Mohun Lai visited Kalabagh or Baghan"^ there were 
Munshi Mohun Lai, ten alum factories there, and two hundred at 
' Moch on the other side of the river (probably 

one of the localities in the Amb valley beneath Sakesir ?) . The manu- 
facturing process is very roughly described, and the selling price stated 
at Rs. 2 per 8 maunds. 

Twenty-one salt mines were then worked on the other side of a 
neighbouring mountain (along the LunNala probably), the ^crop' of the 
salt being described as like a line of shining marble across and through 
the mountain, at the base of which the numerous holes in the salt were 
attributed to the grazing of cattle ! He says that Rs. 3,00,000 worth 
of salt per annum used to be raised here. He alludes to sulphur 
mines, of the situation of v^hich the Sikh authorities were not aware, 
though they were known and used by the Malik of Kalabagh. 

Writing from Kalabagh, under date 15th November 1841,t Dr. 
Dr. Jameson, November Jameson asserts himself to be in the '' saliferous 
system,^^ which '^extends uninterruptedly from 
that place to Jubbulpore.''^ 

* Account of Kalabagh on the right bank of the Indus : Journal of the Asiatic 
Society, Bengal, Vol. VII, p. 25. 

t Extract from a letter to Mr. Clerk, Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, Vol, XI, 
p.l. 

( 7 ) 



8 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Of the coal of Kalabagh he says that 2,000 maunds had been 
collected, for which the people (valuing it from its supposed medicinal 
qualities) demanded Rs. 4 per pucka maund. He thought no good fuel 
would be discovered there, basing his opinion upon the idea that valuable 
coal only occurred in the carboniferous formation, and apparently 
unaware that there were rocks of that period within a few miles. He 
grouped the coal and sulphur-bearing beds [alum shales] of Kalabagh 
with the salt marl. Among the riches of the country he enumerates 
gold, iron, sulphur, salt, gypsum, limestone, and saltpetre. The gold 
was of course the small quantity of that metal obtained by stream- 
washing from the Indus at Kalabagh; the sources of the iron and 
saltpetre are not given. 

In 1843, Dr. Jameson's " Report^ of his deputatiou hj Government 

to examine the effects of the great inundation of 

Dr. Jameson, 1843. .i t i }} i-v i j tt • j i 

the Indus was published. He experienced much 

difficulty in consequence of the loss of almost all his notes, his baggage, 
collections, &c., when attacked and driven back by the Afridis, at the 
Kotul Pass, followed by his confinement in the Fort of Kohat. He 
speaks of the lowest stratum in the range at several places as being of 
magnesian limestone. He perhaps alludes to some thin flaggy dolomitic 
layers in the red salt marl, but these cannot be said to occupy the position 
attributed to them. 

His rock descriptions are not always sufficiently clear for re- 
cognition. He asserts that the Salt Range is parallel to the central or 
high mountain range of the Himalaya.t 

The alum slate of Kalabagh is said to alternate with the red 
marl. The manufacture of alum from the slate by lixiviation, &c., is 
described, and the produce is stated to have fetched Rs. 19-4 per 6 



* Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1843, Vol. XII, p. 183, &c. 

t Elphinstone, previously mentioned, seems to have written before this word was 
corrupted into the present foi-m as above ; he spells it " Hcmallch," which closely approxi- 
mates to the way natives of Upper India pronounce it. 

( 8 ) 



INTRODUCTOliy. 9 

maimds=384 Ibs.^ of which Rs. 2-4 were exacted as duty by the 
Malik, whose income of Rs. 10,000 per annum was entirely derived from 
the mineral resources of the country : the salt trade, however, being-, 
with the exception of 300 to 700 maunds, which the Malik was 
permitted to sell, monopolised by Rajah Golab Siug-. 

In his bulky Leiirluch der Salinenhmde, published at Berlin in 
^ ,, _ 1846, Vol. I, page 677, Dr. Karsten refers to 

Dr. Kai'sten, 1846. 

the Salt Range and Trans-Indus Salt rocks 
speaking of both as belonging to one continuous range springing from 
the Sufed Koh of Afghanistan, thus repeating the error of previous 
writers, from whom he appears to have derived it. 

Nest in order of time are the first of the more extensive and ac- 
Dr. Andrew Fleming, curate Writings of Dr. A. Fleming, who with 
1848—1853. ^^Q assistants was specially sent by Government 

to make a survey of the geology of the Salt Range. '^ 

The ability and general accuracy of description with which Dr. 
Fleming^s reports are fraught, contrast with many of the geological 
writings of early Indian observers. His examination of the district in 
question was both more careful and more detailed than that of his pre- 
decessor, and was attended with much sounder results. 

The first of his papers mainly refers to the minerals and their 

sources, his preliminary examination having been 
His first report, 1848. i i • i , • - • n ia i • i 

cursory and his determination or the geological 
horizons of certain of the strata afiected by the effort to correlate dis- 
tant deposits closely with the European series. 

His second paper f is an interesting diary of the journey on 

which he appears to have collected the data of 

His diary, 1849. 

his first report. 

* Report on tlie Salt Range and on its coal and other minerals, by Andrew Flem- 
ing, M.D., Edinburgh, Assistant Surgeon, 7th Bengal Native Infantry : Jour, As. Soc, Ben., 
Vol. XVII, p. 500. 1848. 

t- Diary of a trip to Pind-Dadun- Khan and the Salt Range, by the same author : Jour, 
As. Soc, Beng., Vol. XVIII, p. 661. 1849. 

B ( 9 ) 



10 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

In a letter to Sir R. I. Murchlson,"^ Major Vicary details numerous 
Major Vicary, Decern- cursory observations upon the geology of the 
ber 1850. Upper Punjab, made while campaigning in the 

country, his military movements being too rapid to permit of closer 
observation. His route may be traced, but roughly, by the villages and 
passes, &c., which he names ; he thus seems to have crossed the extreme 
easterly portion of the district under notice, and " had reason to think 
the red shales and clays, sandstone, and conglomerate beds beneatV^ — to 
which he applied the term eocene — were "the same formation so produc- 
tive of salt near Pind-Dadun-Khan -" indeed, he extends the observation, 
and from the accounts of Dr. Fleming and Dr. H . Falconer, concludes that 
the red shales near Subathu, Nahu (Nahun), and Mandl were all on the 
same horizon as the salt-bearing zone of the Salt Range. 

Major Vicary separated the tertiary rocks through which he chiefly 
marched, into eocene red beds, bone-bearing Sewalik, and an extensive 
deep-bedded pliocene group. 

Captain Strachey, in his Himalayan paper,t makes but slight refer- 
ence to the Salt Range : he describes a persistent 
Captain Strachey, 1851. 

belt of (Sewalik) tertiary strata supposed to be- 
long to the miocene period as extending along the whole flank of the 
Himalaya from the Sutlej to the meridian of Calcutta, with an inter- 
vening zone between it and the mountains, " chiefly consisting of light- 
coloured sandstones often containing small seams of lignite and imper- 
fect vegetable impressions, often associated with marls and gypsum, and 
sometimes with salt springs. ^^ These he supposes, from their abnormal 
dip towards the mountains, to have been brought into position by a series 
of great faults at the foot of the range. He mentions that they are sur- 
mised, from their mineral character, to be of the saliferous age, and that 
___^ _^___^ t 

* On the Geology of the Upper Punjab and Peshawur : Proceedings, Geol. Soc, London, 
Vol. VII, p. 39, &c. 

t On the Geology of part of the Himalaya Mountains and Tibet, by Capt. Eichai-d 
Strachey, Bengal Engineers, P.G.S., Proc, Geol. Soc, London, Vol. VII, p. 293, &c„ June 
185L 

( 10 ) 



INTRODUCTORY. 11 

they are possibly the extension of the strata containing rock-salt found 
on the same general line to the west in the Punjab, 

Next comes the most valuable of Dr. Flemiug-^s reports, that accom- 
Dr. Fleming's second V^^^^^ by a map and sections.-^ In conducting his 
report, 1853. survey. Dr. Fleming had the advantage of the 

assistance of Mr. William Purdon, the memory of whose engineering 
improvements still lasts in the Salt Range, and also that of Mr. William 
Theobald, now one of the senior officers of the Geological Survey of 
India. Considering the short space of time allowed for the completion 
of the examination, the report may be fairl}' called exhaustive. Errors 
as to the positions assigned to certain groups in his former report are cor- 
rected, the physical features and botany described, and full details of the 
geological structure and development of additional groups in the 
western part of the range are given. 

The mode of mining the salt, manufacture of alum, washing of 
gold, and sublimation of sulphur, are described at length, and the position 
and character of the coal deposits and petroleum springs are noticed. 
Analyses of some of the rocks are inserted ; and the organic remains, 
together with the minerals, receive attention in the description of each 
of the principal groups in which the rocks are classified. 

In a passage upon the upheaval of the range. Dr. Fleming makes 
deductions as to the various depths at which the strata were deposited and 
other physical conditions, arguing from the conformity of the whole 
that they had all been elevated subsequently to the deposition of the 
newer tertiary beds. The upheaving force he thought extended from the 
east to the west, perhaps progressively, but this is not plainly stated ; and 
though he looked upon Mount Tilla as shewing an anticlinal structure, 
he favours the idea of the elevation having taken place along a line of 
fracture further westwards and having affected a greater area. Beyond 

* Report on the geological structure and mineral wealth of the Salt Range in the 
Punjab, with maps, sections, &c., by the same author, in charge of the Geological Survey 
of the Salt Range in the Punjab, season 1851-52 : Jour. As, Soc, Bengal, 1853, p. 230, &c. 

(' H ) 



1% WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN WIE PUNJAB. 

(west of) Sakesir he observed an anticlinal structure again, and he 
thought the elevation of the Himalayas coeval with that of the Salt 
Range, "this fact fully explainiog the anomalous dip along their 
southern side of the newer formations under the metamorphic schists 
of the central ridge as observed by Captain Strachey/^ 

On reading this report, it becomes evident that the impossibility of 
reconciling the series of the Salt Range with those of Europe on the 
basis of its saline and coal-bearing groups being equivalent to the trias 
and carboniferous had struck Dr. Fleming, but he still adhered to the 
idea of more or less close correlation, and, apparently commencing from 
the carboniferous limestone, referred the groups above to the tertiary and 
oolitic periods and below to the Devonian, in the latter of which he 
placed the salt and its associated rocks. 

The most important geological discovery made by Dr. Fleming was, 
perhaps, that of the existence of carboniferous strata in the western part 
of the range, when returning from his first visit in 1848. Amongst the 
fossils which he then found, he names Troductus, Terehraiula, Spirifer^ 
Ammonites, and Belemnites. These were sent to Europe for identification, 
and, through the intervention of the late Sir R. I. Murehison, examined 
by M. de Verneuil, who determined " five out of eight or nine species'' 
to be "forms well known in the rocks of carboniferous age.'' The 
Ammonites and Belemnites are alluded to with doubt in the larger report, 
at page 260, as "what we took for" these fossils ; but although Ceratites 
are subsequently mentioned as having been found, the author asserts 
that these belonged to the carboniferous limestone, on the strength of their 
occurrence with Orthoceraiites. 

It would appear that the salt was supposed by Dr. Fleming to consist 
of a single bed, and he alludes to a singularly eruptive appearance of the 
accompanying marl, though its stratification at the west side of the range 
" negatives the idea." He thinks it probable, however, that " it has 
undergone metamorphism from igneous influence," notwithstanding the 
absence of " plutonic or volcanic rocks by which this might have been 
( 12 ) 



INTllODUCTOEY, 



13 



caused." In connection with this subject, a singular chocolate-coloured 
argillaceous rock is mentioned as of somewhat " trappean-'^ aspect, occur- 
ring where the junction of the marl and overlying purple sandstones 
takes place, and supposed to be a " metamorphic argillaceous sandstone." 
The greater number of the mines he thought confined " to detached 
masses of salt, sometimes with horizontal or vertical lines of stratifica- 
tiou, depending on their position at the time they became fixed in the 
consolidating gypseous paste." 

At the time of his report, — in the years 1850 and 1851 respectively, — 
768,603 and 64-0,618 maunds of salt were extracted, yielding a revenue 
of Rs. 15,37,400 in 1850 and Rs. 13,81,295 in 1851, at a selling rate 
of Rs. 2 per maund of 40 seers."^ 

Geological notices of Kalabagh, Musakhel, Kaffir Kote, Banu, the 
Korana hills, and Murree, will also be found in the report. f 

* I. c, p. 248. 

t For the sake of comparison with other or the most recent classifications of the rocks,, 
that of Dr. Fleming is appended. He recognised the following formations, which are 
arranged in his tahle in reverse order, but are here placed naturally, the oldest lowest : — 

. Alluvium. 
( Greenish sandstones, argillaceous grits, con- 
l- glomerates, and red and green clays. 
r Brown calcareous sandstone, numniulitic lime- 
X stone, marls and alum shales with lignite. 
Cc. Green Belemnite sandstone and shales. 
J b. Cherty thin-hedded limestones with shales- 
/ a. Yellow iron-stained quartzose sandstones, 

grits, and bituminous shales. 
/'c. Upper limestone, sometimesmagnesian. 
3 b. Grey sandstone and shales. 
/ a. Lower limestone, calcareous sandstone, 
and shales. 
d. Upper red variegated sandstone, grits, 

conglomerates and clays. 
c. Greenish micaceous sandstones and shales 
with grey dolomitic (magnesian) sand- 
stone. 
b. Lower red sandstone and grit with con- 
glomerate. 
a. Eed marl with gypsum and rock-salt. 

( 13 ) 



POST TERTIARY Recent 

C Miocene ? 



3. TERTIARY 



2. SECONDARY 



Eocene 



Oolitic 



rCAEBONIFEEOUS. 



1. PRIMARY or 

PALEOZOIC 



1^ Devonian 



14 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP TPIE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The reference to the Korana hills^ is, so far as I am aware, the only 
information extant about their geological structure, except the mention 
made of them by Mr. Theobald in a paper to be noticed presently. 
Dr. Fleming could not recognise among their dark-coloured and quartz- 
veined beds of coarse, brown, ferruginous sandstone, greenish quart- 
zite and silicious clay slate, any representatives of the Salt Range 
series, but considered them rather as lower Silurian or Cambrian, and 
subordinate to the salt formation of the range. No fossils could be 
detected, but filling small cracks in the sandstone small specimens of 
pyrolusite or peroxide of manganese were found, and numerous white 
quartz veins contained masses of rich hsematitic iron ore.f The beds dip 
to the north-west at angles of 40° to 45°. 

These hills are situated in the Jetch Doab near the River Chenab 
(or " Ascesines," Elphinstone^s Caubul, page 24) and 24 miles south- 
eastward of Shahpur. They rise by Dr. Fleming's measurement about 
957 feet above the plains of the "Bar." 

On the whole, this report is highly interesting and abounds with 
information. 

A paper by the late distinguished geologist, Sir Roderick I.Murchison, 

with abstracts of letters from Dr. Fleming and his 
Dr. Fleming and Sir , i z-v 

Roderick I. Murchison, own remarks thereon, appeared in the Quarterly 

Journal of the Geological Society, London, for 

August 1853,J accompanied by a sketch map. 

Dr. Fleming's letters herein alluded to are dated in 1851-52, and 
express opinions which he altered during his correspondence with Sir 
Roderick, from whom he learned that salt occurred in all formations 

* I. c, p. 444. 

t Limonite, composed of peroxide of ii-on, silica, and water, — vide paper by Dr. Fleming, 
Jour. As. Soc. Beng., XXIII, p. 92. 1854. 

J On the Salt Range of the Punjab, by A. Fleming, E.I.C., Assistant Surgeon, 4th 
Punjab Cavalry (Abstract of letters addressed to Sir R. I. Murchison) : Quarterly Journal 
of the Geological Society, London, Vol. IX, p. 189. 1853. 
( 14 ) 



INTRODUCTORY, 15 

from tlie oldest to the youngest, and that the salt of Livonia (Russia) 
occupied the same position as that of the Punjab. 

Among the fossils Dr. Fleming had sent home, Messrs. de Verneuil 
and Davidson had recognised — 

Productus cora, 

P. costatus, 

P. Flemingi, 

Orthis crenistria? 

Terelratula Roi/sii, 

T. crispata ? 
and new species of Terebratula. 

Sir Roderick observed that the second letter of Dr. Fleming^s was 

chiefly remarkable for the author^s belief, drawn 
Sir R. I. Murchison. 

from physical phenomena, that the chief saliferous 

masses had been produced by eruptive agencies. This opinion was purely 

the result of observation, as Dr. Fleming was unaware some distinguished 

geologists have held the same views. 

In the valuable work of Vicomte D^Archiac and M. Jules Haime,* 
D'Archiac and Haime, ^^^ geology of the Salt Range is referred to. They 
'^^^^' give in their geological resume (page 173, &c.) a 

sectional representation of the range, which may be considered diagramatic, 
for it includes together groups seen only at its opposite ends, and 
represents a strong unconformity between the tertiary sandstones and 
the underlying limestone which has not been found to exist. Taking 
their information perhaps from the observations of Dr. Fleming, 
the authors described the lowest rocks as Devonian, including conglo- 
merate (1), gypseous and salt-bearing rocks (2), and red sandstone 
(3). Above these are slaty and calcareous clay and sandstones (4 
and 5) , supposed to represent the carboniferous formation, then limestone 



* Description des Animaux Fossiles, du groupe Nummulitique de I'lnde, par le Vicomte 
D'Archiac et Jules Haime. Paris, 1853. 

( 15 ) 



16 WYNNE; GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

and carbonaceous slates {6), Jurassic, succeeded by (7) nodular sandstone^ 
and sbaley bituminous clay with lignite and limestone with NtimmuUtes 
(8), shaley grey limestone with Nummulites (9), grey or yellowish lime- 
stone marly or sandy and sub-compact, and (10) nodular sandstone, the 
whole from No. 7 forming the lower tertiary sub-division^ overlaid by 
(11) younger tertiary rocks with bones. 

In their palseontological resume, the authors refer to the Punjab as 
their " second region " or province, the first being Sind, Beluchistan, and 
Kach, and the third the Himalayan or Subathu division. Of the forty- 
four Punjab (Salt Range) nummulitic species of fossils, they found 
eighteen common to the first province, but none common to the Salt 
Range and Subathu rocks. They appear not to have known any Salt 
Range Ce^Jialo^oda, and of its Echinodermata mention only one species. 

The next account of the geology of the Salt Range is by Mr. 

Theobald,* who had, when exploring the range 
Mr. Theobald, 1854. . . . . „ . 

with Dr. Fleming, good opportunities for studying 

the subject. The paper was written three years before it was published, 

but revised and curtailed owing to the publication of others on the same 

subject in England. The writer gives a close description of the physical 

features and general appearance of the range, its direction, length, and 

width, remarkable points and heights. 

Passing to the geology of the range, Mr. Theobald avoids discussing 
the identity of the geological groups with similar ones in Europe, but 
remarks that " it would not be difficult to identify almost every bed 
of the permian and saliferous rocks of Europe by lithological character 
with the beds of the Salt Range below the nummulitic limestone, but 
in an inversed order." He contends that as the whole of the strata are 
conformable they were deposited during subsidence, and he attributes 
the formation of valleys on the plateau and gorges leading thence to the 

* l^otes on the Geology of the Fcmj&b Salt Range, by W. Theobald, junr.. Assistant, 
Geological Survey of India, late of the Punjab Geological Survey : Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, Vol. XXIII, p. 651. 1854. 
( 36 ) 



INTRODUCTORY. 17 

south to forces no longer existing, but resembling those by which the 
Falls of Niagara were excavated. 

The different groups with their thicknesses are represented in a list 
(extracted below*), and tolerably full descriptive observations upon each 
group follow, an extract from a former report being given regarding the 
Baghanwalla coal, and a section to explain the position of the petroleum 
springs at Jabbi.f The suddenness with which fossils appear in the lower 
(or Froductus) limestone group is adverted to, none being found below. 
The Korana hills referred to by Dr. Fleming are also noticed,^ and the 
rock of the Kheura gorge, &c., alluded to by the latter as of "somewhat 
trappean aspect,""' is declared to be an actual trap. Appended to the 
paper is a list of tertiary Mammalian and other fossil remains identified 



* Mr. Theobald's list is given in inverted order, but here restored, for sake of uniformity, 
to the natural one. 

10. Nummulitic limestone, conglomerate, green, red, and yellow Feet. 

ossiferous sands, marls and conglomerates, minimum ... 10,000 

9. Upper or nummulitic limestone ... ... ... 1,100 

8. Carbonaceous shales, sandstone, and lignite ... ... 80 

7. Red and green, white spotted shales and sandstones . . . 600 

6. Lower (or ProcZwe^Ms) limestone ... ... ... 1,100 

5. Hard fawn-coloured sandstone with bands of conglomerate .. . 700 
4, Cupriferous purple shale, and red friable grits and con- 
glomerates ... ... ... ... 400 

3. Dark arenaceous shales with green earth ... ... 250 

2. Dark-red sandstone, fine grained with black iron sand 

partings... ... ... ... ... 700 

1. Red marl and gypsum with rock-salt ... ... 1,500 



Total ... 16,430 



t Jaba on the Government maps. 

X As formed of a species of slate ■ with feebly developed slaty structure and deep ripjile 
marks, gray, stained red and yellowish, and weathered to a dark burnished brown, with 
intensely ferruginous burnt aspect, white quartz veins, much peroxide of iron, and a curious 
carbonate of lime and iron (Jour. As. Soc, Beng., Vol. XXII, p. 208), having 65'14 per cent, 
of carb. lime, which formed half a one-foot quartz vein. — Jour. As. Soc, Beng., Vol. XXIII, 
p. 674. 

c ■ ( 17 ) 



18 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

by the late Dr. Falconer as being", with a single exception, entirely of the 
character of those of the Siwalik hills.* 

Some of the sub-divisions are differently placed by Messrs. Fleming- 
and Theobald. " The fawn-coloured sandstone/' No. 5 of the latter, is 
placed above Dr. Fleming's Devonian " d," instead of being' included in 
a lower division " a" ; Mr. Theobald's No. 7, a zone marked by the 



* As this list may prove useful for reference, it is given below. The fossils were from 
near Jelalpiir and Lehri (the latter eastward of the Bakrala ridge), and the absence of 
Carnivora is noticed. 

PACHYDERMATA. 
Peoboscidia. 
ElepTtas. — A plate of a worn molar, species undeterminable, but probably E. Hyendricus. 
Mastodon. — Two specimens of molar ridges of the Elephantoid or Stegodon group, 

species undeterminable. 
Two fragments of ivory tusks. 

Sippopotamidce. — Tusks of the lower jaw of a larger size than are usually met with 
in the Siwalik Sexaprotodon, and resembling more the true Hippopo- 
tamus or Tetraprodon of the Nerbudda. 
EMnoceros. — Upper and lower molars in fragments. 
Equus, — Upper and lower molars of two species. 
Sms.— Upper jaw. 

EtrMINANTIA. 

Sivatherium. — Lower jaw (fragment) with tooth. 

Sos. — ^Upper and lower molars and fragments of jaws. 

Cervus and Antilope. — Several species, some of them very minute, abundance of 

astralagi, femur ends, and scapula caps, also fragments of deer's 

horns. 
Camelus. — Portions of a molar. 

Ates. 

Fragment of a leg bone, with the articular surface, of a large form, belonging to the 
Grail . 

BePTIIiIA. 

Crocodilus and Leptorhynchm (Gavialis). — Lower jaws and teeth with vertebrse. 
Trionyx. — Fragment of the carapace with vertebrae of a large species. 
Msh. — A vertebra. 

MoiLtrscA. 

A few lime casts of one of the species found in the Siwalik hills. 

H, F. 
Calcutta, 12th September 1854. 



( IS ) 



INTRODUCTORY. 19 

prevalence of pseudomorphic salt crystal casts, and by him placed high up 
in the series, is the upper member of Dr. Fleming's Devonian according 
to the sections given by the latter. 

Sufficient has been said to shew the important character of the 
paper, the general conclusions arrived at approximating more or less lo 
those of Dr. Fleming previously noticed. 

During a visit to the Punjab in the winter of 1859-60, Mr. Medlicott 

had an opportunity of seeing the relations of the 

H. B. Medlicott, 1859. -, n , r, , -r, i 

rocks at the eastern end of the Salt Range, and 

some of them are alluded to in his memoir upon the southern Himalaya 

between the Ganges and Ravi.* 

He observed a diiFerence between the grouping of the Subathu 
series and that of the Salt Range nummulitic limestone and next succeed- 
ing beds, certain hard sandstones and red clays of Subathu not being 
present in the Salt Range where the massive unconsolidated mammali- 
ferous clays and sands of the upper Sub- Himalayan (Siwalik) group are 
stated to rest upon a denuded surface of the nummulitic limestone. The 
great difference between the fossils of the two localities as enumerated 
by D'Archiac and Haime is also alluded to ; out of forty-four species 
from eachj none are common to both, and those of Subathu are of shallow 
water forms as compared with those of the Salt Range. 

In describing the salt mines of Mandi and Drang, Mr. Medlicott 
notices the presumption by previous geological observers that the salt rocks 
of Mandi are beyond question the geological equivalents of those of the 
Panjab (Salt Range, &c.). The position of the Mandi salt being, however, 
fixed by Mr. Medlicott as well within the general boundary of his Krol 
group,t and not in the Sub- Himalayan rocks, the clue which the latter 



* Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. Ill, Pt. 2, "Subathu group." 
Abstract on same subject. — Jour. As. Soc, Beng., Vol. XXX, p. 22. 1861. 

t Since Mr. Medlicott's memoir was written, the " Krol" rocks have been supposed of 
triassic age, and the Mandi salt has been recently thought by Mr. Theobald (MS. commu- 
laication) probably of eocene age. 

(19 ) 



20 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

mig-ht have afforded to . the age of that salt is lost, and onlj the total 
dissimilarity of the associated rocks in each region indicate these saline 
deposits of Mandi to be different from those of the Salt Range. 

For the sake of comparison, Mr. Medlicott^s district being the 
nearest carefully examined ground in that direction to the Salt Range, 
his classification of its rocks is abstracted from the memoir and given 
below.^ 

A paper in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of 

London for February 1862,t by the distinguished 
Thos. Davidson, 1862. 

palseontologist, Mr. Davidson, treats of the carboni- 
ferous Bracliiopoda of the Salt Range collected by Fleming and Purdon. 
Seventeen species are described, including* the Genera Terebratula, Athyris 
Retzia, Spirifera, Bhynchonella, Streptorhynchus, Orthis, Froductus, 
StropJialosia, and Aulosteges. Several of these are figured, and the author 
observes that the total number of carboniferous Brachiopoda thus dis- 
covered " amounts to about twenty-eight species, of which thirteen at 

* Sub -Himalayan Series. 

Conglomerates, sandstones, clays. 
Lignite sandstones and clays. 
Kasauli, gray and purple sandstones. 
Dagshai, purple sandstones and red clays. 
Sabathu, fine silty clays with limestone, 
(Nummulities.) 

Himalayan Series. 
1. — Unmetamoephic — 

Keoi ... Krol Hill ... Limestones. 

Infea KeoIi . . . Ditto . . . Carbonaceous slates or shales. 

BliNl ... Blini River ... Limestone and conglomerate. 

2. — Metamoephic — 

Crystalline and svib-crystaUine rocks, &c. 
f On some carboniferous Brachiopoda collected in India by A. Fleming, M.D., and 
W. Purdon, Esq., P.G.S., by T. Davidson, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc, 
London, Vol. XVIII, page 25, Feb. 1862. 

In a foot note to the paper, Mr. Davidson mentions the following species as having been 
identified by M. de Verneuil and himself in 1853 : Ailiyris Roysii, a Spirifera neai-ly 
related to S. lineata, Streptorhynchus crenistria, Froductus Cora^ P. Fleming ii, P. casta- 
tus, and P. Humboldtii. The determination of some of these first established the fact of 
carboniferous strata occurring in the Salt Range. 

( 20 ) 



Uppee 


... 


Sivvalik 




Middle 


... 


Nahun 


r 


LOWEE 


■■■( 


Subathu [since 
"Sirmur"] 





INTRODUCTORY. 



21 



least are common to European rocks of the same period/^ The o<eolo- 
gical features of the carboniferous rocks of the district are not dwelt 
upon further than to mention that the fossils occur in beds differino" 
mineralogically^ some being- hard and crystalline and others arg-illaceous, 
while a few were from magnesian limestone. Dr. Fleming's separation 
of the carboniferous rocks into three divisions is also given as follows : — 

c. Upper Limestone : Brachiopoda, and other fossils occur through- 
out the formation. 

b. Gray sandstone and shales^ in which but few fossils have been 
found. 

a. Lower limestone, with calcareous sandstone. This limestone 
generally abounds in large Brachiopoda and other fossils. 

Some of the species described are said to be identical with specimens 
from such distant localities as Red River, Louisiana, Iowa, New Mexico, 
Ai-kansas, and Bolivia, on the table-land of the Andes. 

The following" are Mr. Davidson's lists: — 



Collected by De. Fleming. 

Terehratula (vel Waldheimia) Flemingi, 

Dav. 
T. biplicata Srocchi {?) var. problematica, 

Dav. 
T. Mimalayensis, Dav. 
T. suhvesicularis, Dav. 
Athyris 'Roysii, L'Eveille, sp. 
A. subtilita, Hall, sp. var. grandis, Dav. 
Setzia radialis, Phillips, sp, var. 
H. grandicosta, Dav. 
Spirifer striata, Martin, sp. 
S. MoosaTchailensis, Dav. 
8. lineata, Martin, sp. var. 
Spiriferina octoplicata, Sow., sp. 
Mhynchonella pleurodon, Phill. sp, 
Camarophoria Purdoni, Dav. 



Collected by W. Puedon, Esq., F.G.S, 

Terehratula Himalayensis, Dav. 
Athyris Roysii, L'Eveille. 
Athyris subtilita, Hall (?) var. 
Spirifera MoosaTchailensis, Dav. 
8. lineata, Martin, var. 
Rhynchonella pleurodon, Phill. var. 
Camarophoria Furdoni, Dav. 
8treptorhynchtis crenistria, Phill. 
8. pectiniformis, Dav. 
Productus striatus, Fischer. 
P. Cora, D'Orh. 
P. Purdoni, Dav. 
P. costatus, Sow. 
P. Humboldtii, D'Orh. 
P. semireticulatus , Sow. 
Stroph.alosia Morisiana, King (?) var, 
( 21 ) 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



Collected by De. Fleming. Collected by W. Puedon, Esq., F.G.S, 

StreptorJiyncJius crenistria, Phill. sp. Aulosteges Dalhousii, Dav. 

var. robustus, Hall. Crania, (sp. indet.) 

S. pectiniformis, Dav. 
Orthis reswpinata, Martin, sp. 
Froductus striatus, Fischer, sp. 
P. longispinus, Sow. 
P. Cora, D'Orb. 
P. semireticulatus. Sow. 
P. costatus, Sow. 
P. Purdoni, Dav. 
P. Humholdtii, D'Orb. 
StropJialosia Morisiana, King (?) var. 

The author mentions Dr. Fleming^s conviction that all the fossils 
recorded in his list were derived from rocks of the carboniferous period^ 
and the diflSculty he found in referring two of the species of TerehraUda 
to this age. They recalled to him certain forms of Jurassic or creta- 
ceous age much more than any shells of the carboniferous period with 
which he was acquainted. He therefore called attention to them with 
a view to ascertaining whether they might not have been derived from 
a less ancient formation. That there were good grounds for his doubts 
will be seen. 

The Journal of the Geological Society of London also contains a paper 

, ,^ . , by another eminent palaeontologist. Professor de 
Professor de Komnck, •' x o ^ 

1863. Koninck,''^ upon fossils discovered by Dr. Fleming 

in the Salt Eange. In his opening paragraph, .M de Koninck refers to 
the paper of Mr. Davidson, mentioning the fact just noticed that some 
of the Brachiopoda do not possess a palaeozoic aspect. This feature, he 
observes, may be remarked likewise among the fossils of other classes in 



* Descriptions of some fossils from India discovered by Dr. A. Fleming of Edinburgh, 
by Dr. L. de Komnck, F.M.G.S., Professor of Chemistry and Geology in the University of 
Liege. Quar, Jour., Geol. Soc, Lond., Vol. XIX, p. 1. 1863. 

This paper, that of Mr. Davidson, the work of D'Archiac and Haime, and the note 
by M. de Verneuil, are about the only sources of general palajontological information re^ 
garding the Salt Range as yet extant, and these refer chiefly to its carboniferous, trias, 
and nummulitic formations. 

( 22 ) 



INTRODUCTORY. 



23 



Doctor Fleming's collections, and he notices that certain species belong to 
genera hitherto only found in the secondary formations and principally in 
the lower groups of that great period. The Ceratites in particular are 
remarkable, all being new to science, and but for this, serious doubts 
might have been entertained relative to their geological position, though 
Dr. Fleming had ascertained by personal examination that they occurred 
in the same beds as those which contained carboniferous Producti and 
Spirifera. The author remarks, however, that the rock containing the 
Ceratites was without any traces of these other palseozoic genera. The 
fossils which he had for determination included forty-nine species, five of 
which were in bad preservation and undeterminable. Those described, 
thirty-six of which are figured, are as follows : — 



I. Anthozoaeia. 



1. Isastrcea aracJinoides, de Kon. 

2. Clisiophyllum Indicum, „ 

3. Lithostrotion basaltiforme, Conyb 

and PMU. 

4. Jj. irregulare, Phill. 

5. Michelinia favosa, Goldf. 

6. Alveolites septosa {?), Fleming. 



II. ECHINODEEMATA. 

7. Philocrinus cometa, de Kon. 

8. Cidaris Forhesiana, „ 

III. MOLIUSCA. 

A. Bryozoa. 

9. Polypora fa^tuosa, de Kon. 

10. Fenestella megastoma, „ 

11. F. (?) Syhesii, 

12. Betepora {?) Lepida, „ 

13. Phyllopora{?) Saimeana, de Kon. 

14. P. cribellum, „ 

S. Lamellihranciata. 

15. Anomia Lawrenciana, de Kon. 



16. Pecten Flemingianus, de Kon. 

17. P. Asiaticus, „ 

18. P. crebristria, „ 

19. Solenopsis imhrieata, „ 

C. Gasttopeda. 

20. Dentalium Herculeum, de Kon. 

21. Bellerophon decipiens, „ 

22. B, orientalis, „ 

23. B. Jonesianus, „ 

24. Macrocheilus depilis, „ 

25. J£ avellanoides, „ 

26. Nerincea {?) n. sp. {?) „ 



D. Cephalopoda. 

27. Ceratites Flemingianus, de 

28. C. MurcJiisonianus, 

29. C. Sauerianus, 

30. C. planulatus, 

31. C. Lyellianus, 

32. C. latifimbriaius, 

33. C. Buchianus, 

34. C. Bavidsonianus, 

35. C. Lawreneianus, 

36. Goniatites (?) Gangeticus, 

( 23 ) 



Kon. 



24 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

37. Nautilus Bartini, Galeotti. ' i IV. Pisces. 

38. N. Flemingianus, de Kon. ^2. Acrodus, n. sp., closely related to 



39. Orthoceras vesiculosum, 

40. O. racMdum, 

41. O. decrescens, 



A. latelaris, Ag. 

43. Acrodus Flemingianus, de Kon. 

44. SauricMliys {?) Indicus, „ 



Prof, de Koninck's doubts as to the place of at least some of the 
Ceratites were, it appears, quite as well grounded as Mr. Davidson^s re- 
garding certain of the BracJiiopoda. 

In a list of Indian and High Asian hot springs, by M. Robert de 
_ , , , oil- Schlagintweit, published by the Asiatic Society of 

Eobt. de ScMagin- ^ ' ^ -^ _ ^ -^ 

tweit, 1864. Bengal,* one at Musakh^t — a misprint for Musa- 

'^^\ near the Salt Range is mentioned, coupled with the name of 

Dr. Fleming, its latitude being 32° 43' and longitude 71° 39' at 706 feet 
above sea-level and its temperature being 94°. This spring is situated 
in the Bukh Ravine, in the Western Salt Range, between Musakh^l and 
Namal. The water, according to Fleming, gives off sulphuretted hydrogen 
and deposits sulphur. 

The memorandum t or report in which the former Superintendent 
Thomas Oldham ^^ ^^® Geological Survey of India recorded obser- 

LL.D., 1864. vations, resulting from a visit to this district and 

its neio-hbourhood, to inspect the sources of the coal and salt, is chiefly 
confined to the objects of his journey, time not permitting of detailed 
geological examination. Dr. Oldham refers to the exploded idea (see 
Dr. Jameson's report) that useful mineral fuel could only be obtained 
from rocks of one fixed geological horizon, and demonstrates its fallacy. 
Minute details regarding the position, thickness, and circumstances of 
the coal as exposed at 19 localities, and in one case a tabular view of part 



* Vol. XXXIII, p. 51, &c., 1864. 

t Memorandum on the results of a cursory examination of the Salt Eange and parts of 
the districts of Baiiu and KoJiat, with a special view to the mineral resources of those dis- 
tricts. (Report to Government of India.) 
( 24 ) 



INTRODUCTORY. 25 

of the section containing ii, are given. The prospects of its being remuner- 
ative^ if worked, are discussed. Some valuable observations and sugges- 
tions follow relating to the salt mines and their working system. 
The Trans-Indus salt mines as well as the petroleum or mineral tar and 
sulphur of some localities^ are also described. 

Dr. Stoliczka, in his paper upon the geological sections across 

the Himalaya from the Sutlei to the Indus * 
Dr. Stoliczka, 1865. "^ ' 

makes some reference to the carboniferous fossils of 

the Salt Range, some of the species being found in his " Kuling beds " 
or carboniferous series of that Himalayan region. He has also an allu- 
sion to the occurrence of newer secondary rocks in the Punjab which 
must also refer to the Salt Range. 

In the voluminous paper on the geology of Kashmir, the Western 
Dr. A. M. Verchere, Himalaya, and the Afghan Mountains,t by Dr. 
Verchere, are several passages referring to the Salt 
Range. In sections 89 and 97, the connexions between the range and 
his theory of the special elevation of the whole region are indicated, and in 
section 64 the carboniferous limestone is alluded to as well as the formation 
of the salt marl, and supposed internal changes in it. This marl is re- 
ferred to the trias or permian age and called " saliferian." The carboni- 
ferous are said to be succeeded by oolitic rocks. In the succeeding 
section the nummulitic rocks are described, their associated alum shales 
being, it is stated, developed only where lignite is situated close to the 
" saliferian^'' formation, and the opinion is expressed that these shales 
appear to be patches of lignite metamorphosed. In sections 67 to 75, 
the sandstone, clay and conglomerates, overlying the nummulitic group, 
are supposed to be miocene, the upper portion being identical with the 



* Memoirs of the Geological Sui-vey of India, Vol. V, Pt, 1. 

t Kashmir, the Western Himalaya, and the Afghan Mountains, a geological paper by 
A. M. Verchere, Esq., Beng. Medical Service, with a note on the fossils by M. Edouard de 
Verneuil, Memb. de I'Acad. Scien., Paris. Jour., As. Soc, Bengal, Vols. XXXV and 
XXXVI, Pte. 2 and 2, 1866-67, with maps and illustrations. 

B ( 25 ) 



26 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Siwalik rocks. The position of tlie Salt Range Ceratites is discussed in 
section 76. 

At sections 92 and 93 the gypsum and salt marl of this district are 
again noticed, and an anticlinal arrangement of beds at Marl on the 
Indus mentioned, as shewing conformity of the " saliferian'^ under 
Jurassic rocks and an unusual dip of the silurian^ and Jurassic beds on 
both sides of the anticlinal. It is suggested that these local upheavals 
may be due to swelling of the gypseous beds from the change of anhyd- 
rite into common gypsum. 

A manuscript paper by the same author on the district of Banu and 

neighbourhood, in referring to part of the Salt 

Range, repeats his triassic classification of the 

salt marl, impugns the correct conclusion of Dr. Fleming, that it was in- 

feriorly placed with regard to the carboniferous series, and concludes with 

the statement that no older rocks than carboniferous are present. 

In M. de VerneuiFs note to the paper of Dr. Vercheref will be 

..T 1 ^7 •^ -.cnA found several very interesting remarks upon the 
M. de Vernemljl864i — j o r 

1867. fossils sent to Europe by the latter, mostly from 

Kashmir, but some identified with Salt Range forms. The author also 
refers to the species forwarded by Fleming, Purdon, Godwin- Austen, and 
Verchere, and shews the wide range of some of the Salt Range forms ; 
for instance, — 

Atliyris {Terelratula) subtilita, Hall, found also in the carboniferous 
of Great Salt Lake, Utah, America. 

Productm longispinus , Sow., found also in Ohio, Kentucky, 
England, Spain, Belgium, Russia, in the Governments of Tiver, Kalonga 
on the Donetz, and on the River Belaja, near the glacial sea. 

P. Cora, D'Orbigny ; found also in England, Belgium, Spain, and 
in Russia, on both slopes of the Ural, &c., as weU as in North America. 



* Silurian is evidently a misprint in Dr. Verchere's paper for Saliferian. 
f Dr. Verchere's paper already noticed.— J. A. S, B., Vol. XXXVI, year 1867. 
( 26 1 



INTRODUCTORY. 27 

P. semireticulatus, Sow., also in Europe (Russia) and America, 
in Siberia, and in the Altai Mountains. 

P. costatns, Sow., also in England, Russia, and Missouri. 

P. Humboltii, D'Orb., Salt Range, and western slope of the northern 
Ural Mountains. 

M. de Verneuil speaks of Russia, the Ural, and the Altai as links 
between India and England as regards the organic remains referred to. 

In his large work on the economic products of the Punjab,"^ Mr. 

Powell, apparently following Dr. Fleming, states 
Baden.PoweU, 1868. • ., -n. • 

that the principal beds of salt occur m the Devonian 

group on the southern side of the Salt Range. Prom Dr. Fleming's 

reports he extracts the full description of the working of the mines. 

The Range, its geographical position, the positions of its adjacent ridges, 

and its geological structure are described. 

At page 13 Mr. Powell states, apparently as an extract from 
Dr, Fleming, that grains of native platinum are found in the same way 
as the gold in the Indus, being called by the natives " white gold,'' and 
that they despise it exceedingly. In Dr. Fleming's " Trip to Pind- 
Dadun-Khan, &c.,"t (at page 682), he says, from repeated inquiries 
among the gold-washers, he could not discover that platinum occurred. 
This is in accordance with my experience. 

A short descriptive paper by myself on the structure of Mount 

Tilla, at the eastern end of the range, appeared 

in the Records of the Geological Survey.^ The 

series as exposed here diflFers greatly from the development of the rocks 

further westward. 

Mr. Lyman was deputed to furnish a specialjreport upon the 

mineral oil of the Punjab and its sources. The 
Mr. B. S. Lyman, 1870. 

field of his operations lay chiefly north of the Salt 

* Economic Products of the Punjab, by Mr. Baden H. Powell, C.S.,:;Vol. I, pp. IS, 69^ 
and 130, &c., 1868. 

t Jour. As. Soc, Beng., Vol. XVIII, p. 682, July 1849. 

X Records of tlie Geological Survey of India, Vol. Ill, No. 4, 1870. 

( 27 ) 



28 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Range, but he had opportunities of seeing parts of it, particularly the 
Jaba petroleum springs, at the west end and northern side of the range. 
The structural geology of these oil localities are treated at length in 
his report, to which sections and small maps are appended.* 

In a subsequent paperf the same author makes several allusions to 
the physical geology of the range and of the neighbouring country, and 
mentions also the useful minerals. 

Among the appendices to the Annual Report of the Customs Depart- 
ment for the official year 1S69-70, is a report by 
H. Warth, 1871. ^ J ^ r J 

Dr. "Warth upon the Mayo Salt Mines region at 

Kheura,J one of the most important of the Salt Range mining localities. 

The report gives a very detailed description, first, of the geology of 
the environs ; secondly, of the hill in which the salt mines are situated ; 
it then treats of the mines, their present and future mode of working ; 
and concludes with chemical analyses of the salt.§ Vertical sections are 
also given shewing the arrangement of the strata and position of the 
mines in profile. 

The author divides the rocks into two main groups, the " sandstone'^ 
and " salt^^ formations, these being again sub-divided into seven smaller 
divisions. |1 

Living upon the spot and with many opportunities of acquainting 
himself with details, Dr. Warth has left little unsaid about the locality. 



* General Report on the Punjab Oil Lands, by Benj. S. Lyman, Government Press, 
Lahore. 1870, p. 38, &c. 

t Topography of the Pmijab Oil Regions, by the same author. Trans. Amer. Phil- 
Society, Vol. XV, 1872. 

J Report on the Administration of the Inland Customs Department for the official 
year 1869-70. Appendix H, by Dr. H. Warth, Chemical Analyst, Inland Customs Depart- 
ment, since appointed Collector of the Salt Range District. 

§ From Mr. M. Hickie's pamphlet on Customs ; also analyses, by Cornelius Hiekie, Esq., 
Chemical Analyst, Agra. 

II The following is the list which is given of all the strata, from above downwards, 

by Dr. Warth :— 

, Thickness. Average. 

Recent formation. — Debris of Gypsxxm, &c. ,.. 100' — 200 150' 

Limestone formation, — Nummulitic limestone ... 200 

( 28 ) 



INTRODUCTORY, go 

Cousidering- this more from a mineralogieal than a geoloo-ical point of 
view, he has dwelt at greater length upon the mines, mineral produc- 
tions, and immediately associated rocks, than upon the geoloo-ical suc- 
cession ; and were it not for his minute and accurate survey of the mines 
the stratigraphical relations of the salt deposits here would have remained 
longer unknown. 

Another report by Dr. Warth forms the ''Appendix!)" to the 
,f i«-n'7i ^^^^ " Ammal Report of the Inland Customs Be- 

His report tor lo/U-7i. ,./<-,« 

partment" (1870-71, published in 1872). In this 
the engineering operations of the year are first detailed, and fresh matter 
added, including a geological description of Jogi Tilla (or Mount Tilla) 
with reference to a proposed trial shaft (since commenced) in order to 
.discover whether the great salt deposits exist in their usual place beneath 
that mountain."^ A map and sections of the locality are appended. 



Coal formation. — Coal, alum-shale, and marl 

r Green sandstone 
Sandstone formation ) gj^g marls 

(Red sandstone 

fUpper layer of white gyp- 

I sum 

Salt formation ... J l'''^ ''^ ^^^^' "^^ ^^^^'^^ 
Jorown gypsum 

Lower layer of white gypsum 
I^Salt marl and salt 
FoZcawJc— Trap piercing through the lower strata up to the boundary betwe 
the upper layer of white gypsum and red sandstone. 

Feet. 
Sandstone formation ... ... , . 1 325 

Salt formation 



Thickness. 


Average. 




20' 


100—150 


125' 


400'— 800 


600' 


5' 


5' 


60'— 200- 


130' 


80—200' 


140' 


a 200' 


200' 


600' 


600' 



The following succession of strata at Mount Tilla is given : 



1,075 

2,400 



Nummulitic limestone 

Variegated strata 

Green sandstone 

Dark shales 

Red sandstone (minimum) 

Gypsum (minimum) ... ... ,_^ __ 130 

"850 



Feet. 
70 
80 

200 

135 

235 



( 29 ) 



30 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

In a passage referring' to the brine spring of Kalra^ near Bakrala^ 
on the Grand Trunk Road, from Jhelum to Rawal Pindi, the author 
seems to suppose the existence of a salt-field below. 

The third part of the paper is a preHminary report " Upon the mlt- 
learmg strata in the eastern part of the range from the Mayo Salt Mines 
to Jogi Tilla." The geological structure and physical features of the 
ground are mentioned, and a succession is described differing slightly 
from that formerly presented by this writer.* 

Dr. Warth corrects Dr. Fleming's statement that " beds underlying 
the salt marF^ were visible ; he supposes that this appearance is due to 
a simple case of slippage, and he states that strata older than the salt 
marl are nowhere seen. 

A fourth part of the report is devoted to the ''Salt mines of the 
Funjdh Salt Mange, west of Pind-Dadun-Khan" thus furnishing, in 
conjunction with former reports, a complete survey of the range so far 
as the salt is concerned. 

The salt quarries of Kalsibagh on the Indus are first described, then 
the geological structure of that part of the range ; the alum shale mines 
and alum factories are next noticed (the latter slightly) ; after this all 
the " beats'' or preventive sub-divisions of the range as far as Makrach 
are taken up and treated in detail, the physical and geological features 

* One member of the series (s) formerly included by Dr. Warth with his green sand- 
stone is separated in the following table, which being inverted in the original is here 
placed in natural order : — 

Estimated thickness. 
^ Tertiary strata 
■q Nummulitic limestone ... ... 

I Coal embedded in shaks 

£ Red and green, white spotted shales and sandstones {vide 
Fleming), variegated strata with impressions of salt 
crystals 
t Hard fawn-coloured sandstones with conglomerates 
Y Dark arenaceous shales with green earth 
/-■> Dark red sandstone, fine-grained 
a Red marl and gypsum with rock salt 

( 30 ) 



1,000 feet 


200 


jj 


50 


» 


150 




400 


„ 


200 


„ 


400 


,, 


1,000 


„ 



INTRODUCTORY. 31 

of each referred to^ aud ample information as to the mines given^ together 
with numerous rough illustrations. 

It will be necessary to refer subsequently to various parts of these 
l^apers^ whichj from the amount of information they contain, form certain- 
ly the most valuable observations made upon the salt-bearing portion 
of the Salt Range series. The advantage of having a competent mining 
engineer aud analyst, acquainted with geological structure, resident 
upon the spot, will doubtless be felt in connection with future opera- 
tions. These appear likely to be carried out on a larger scale than 
hitherto, a wire tramway from the Mayo Mines crossing the Jhelum 
at Chak-Nizam having been erected (under the superintendence of 
Lieutenant de Wolski, R.E.), and surveys on both sides of the river 
having been made for a branch line from the Northern State Railway. 

In an able memoir upon the Indian Surveys* by Mr. C. R. 
Markham, C.B., there is a passage at pag-e 105 

Markham, 1871. • -, r. ^ & A » 

upon the Physical Geography of the Upper 
Punjab, in which the Salt Range is slightly mentioned. 

A very full collection of the Salt Range minerals and a complete 

set of petrological specimens illustrating the 
Wynne and Wartli, 1873. 

structure of the range at Kheura, from the lowest 

salt upwards, was forwarded to the Vienna Universal Exhibition of 1873 
by the Geological Survey of India. In making this collection Dr. 
Warth rendered much valuable assistance, and furnished a solid rect- 
angular mass of salt from within the mines, of about two tons in weight. 
This large specimen was taken to shew the general character and strati- 
fication of the salt, which it did very perfectly ; it arrived safely at 
Vienna, via Lahore and Calcutta, and was left there. 

Dr. Oldham^ while he was officially engaged upon the arrangement 

of the East Indian mineral products at the Vienna 
Oldham, 1873. 

Exhibition, noticed (in a communication published 

* Printed by order of H. M.'s Secretary of State for India in Council, Allan and Co., 
London. 

( 31 ) 



Sa WYNNE: GEOLOGY OE THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

in the Ver. Der Geol. UeichsanstaU) the position of the rock salt of 
the range and its silurian age, being thus the oldest of known salt 
deposits. 

In Mr. H. F. Blanford's Physical Geography for the use of Indian 

Schools,^ a slight reference is made to Salt Range 

H. P. Blanford, 18V3. ^^^^^^^^ r^c^^ upheaval of the range is referred 

to the period when the Siwalik hills were formed, or perhaps later, 

and a similarity of certain of its formations to those of the Himalaya 

around the Spiti and Sutlej valleys is noticed. 

While the minerals for the Vienna exhibition were being col- 
Tween, 1873. lected from the Salt Range in 1873, the in- 

J. Wiener, 1874. teresting discovery was made by Dr. Warth of 

potash salt in an impure saline bed separating two of the thick salt 
seams of the Mayo mines. An analysis of the mixed salt by Mr. Tween 
of the Geological Survey of India, was given in the catalogue of the 
collection (published at Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873), 
page 8. A notice of this potash salt, containing sylvine and kieserite, 
and a description of the mineral by Mr. J. Wiener, will be found in a 
translation by Mr. V. Ball from the Jahrhuch der h. h. GeologiscJien 
ReicJisanstalt (XXIII, No. 2, p. 136), in the Records of the Geo- 
loo-ical Survey of Indla.f The hardness and cleavage of the kieserite are 
stated to be the same as those of the Hallstadt mineral of the same kind. 

A paper of mine in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 

of London, J with special reference to the " junc- 
A. B. Wynne, 1874. . , _.^ -r. ./I 1 . .1 

tion in the Upper runjab, between the outer 

Himalayan tertiary rocks and those forming the hills,''' has several 
allusions to the geological features of the Salt Range. The con- 
formable sequence of the tertiary rocks and the parallelism which 



* Published in Calcutta and London, 
t Vol. VII, Pt. 2, p. 64. 

J Qtly. Jour., Geo. Soc, London, Vol. XXX, Pt. 2, p. 64. I should have quoted 
Dr. Stoliczka's Taglig limestone, in table facing page 62, as Liassic. 

( 32 ) 



INTRODUCrOllY. 38 

obscured any recoguisable break between the Salt Rang-o eocene 
(nummulitic) and overlying sandstone and clay series, are mentioned. 
A section through Diljaba mountain is given for comparison with the 
Dandli section of Mr. Medlicott^s Sub-Himalayan Report; but subse- 
quent examinations have so altered the reading of the latter that much 
of the disparity noticed has been removed, and if the Dandli hill lime- 
stone had proved itself nummulitic by any fossil remains the similarity 
between the two sections would be striking."^ 

The suggestion at p. 69 regarding possible differences connected 
with the production of the Himalayas of the Simla area as compared 
with those mountains nearer to the Upper Punjab appears to coincide 
with the later and bolder announcement of Mr. Medlicott, that these 
two areas of the Himalaya have been elevated at different periods. 
(Records, vol. ix). I did not venture to say so much. The elevation of 
the Salt Range was doubtless connected with that of the Western 
Himalayas. 

In the memoir on the Trans-Indus Salt Regionf I have referred 

to the geology of the Salt Range where closely 
A. B. Wynne, 1875. . • i • 

connected with the subject under consideration. 

When this memoir was published, I was absent on furlough and had 

not the opportunity of either correcting the proof sheets or bringing 

some of the observations into connection with the most recent views 

developed by the Survey regarding other regions geologically connected 

with this. Thus the classification of the upper tertiary beds was 

influenced by the supposed discovery that the Siwalik fauna extended 

downwards far into the Nahan group. On more recent information 

the Upper Tertiary beds should have been shewn in the table at page 21 

as Siwalik instead of Nahan; and the rocks immediately below these, 

* See Mr. Medlicotf s paper, Records, Geol. Survey Ind., Vol. IX, p. 49. This 
limestone is supposed to be carboniferous. Paper on tbe Pir Punjal. Lydekker, Records, 
Geol. Surv., Vol. IX, p. 157. 

t Mem. Geo. Sur. Ind., Vol. XI, 1875. 

E ( 33 ) 



34 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

at least as far down as the nnmmulitic limestone, would have been 
classed as Nahan. 

In his recent paper upon the Jama country* Mr. Medlicott 

describes at some leno-th the chano^ing structural 
H. B. Medlicott, 1876. . . . . 

features of the intermediate tertiary region, be- 
tween his Sub-Himalayan district and that occupied by these rocks in 
the Upper Punjab. 

The paper has an important connection with the geology of the upper 
scries of the Salt Range, and requires to be carefully considered, because 
it diflfers greatly from any previous attempts to apply the eastern 
structural arrangement to the Western Punjab part of the Hima- 
layan border zone of tertiary rocks. In both regions the differences 
of stratigraphical structure, embracing succession or discordance, had 
been as well known as that identical groups occurred in both. 

The principal points bearing upon the Salt Range tertiary sand- 
stones, &c., are the following : — 

All the breaks, faulted boundaries, discordances, or marked uncon- 
formities separating the different tertiary zones in the south-east 
become altered and die away in their extension to the north-west, so 
that the groups found in the Upper Punjab succeed each other with 
perfect parallelism at the Salt Range as well as elsewhere in this 
country. This regularity of sequence I had often noticed and referred 
to — see papers on the Upper Punjab.f 

Even the unconformity of the Sub-Himalayan eocene Sabathu 
group on the older Himalayan series likewise dies out, and the Sabathu 
beds in this northern region rest with as perfect parallelism upon older 
limestones of unknown age in Punch, as I had observed them to do upon 



* Eecords, Geol. Survey, Ind., Vol. IX, p. 49. 

t Records, Geol. Survey, Ind., Vol. VI, pp. 60, 63, Vol. VIII, p. 48, and Quarterly 
Jourl. Geol. Soc, Lond., Vol. XXX, p. 61, 1874. 

( 34 ) 



TNTRODUCTOllY. 35 

the hill limestone of Khairi Murut,''^ westward of Rawal Pindi, or, indeed, 
as the Salt Range nummulitic limestone rests on underlying rocks. 

But a break is mentioned at the top of this Salt Range nummulitic 
limestone based upon the occurrence of a layer with limestone and flint 
pebbles just below the junction with the overlying sandstones, &c. : the 
parallelism between the two remaining still as prominent as elsewhere 
in the whole series. I have long sought for evidence in favour of this 
supposed unconformity, but have never been able to prove it completely 
by any denuded surface of the older rock ; the junction layer spoken of 
where I have seen it, appeared made up of fragments not distantly 
derived. West of the Indus, indeed, I believe a peculiar sudden transi- 
tion takes place.f 

A suggestion is made that the Salt Range nummulitic limestone 
represents that at the bottom of the Sabdthu zone, strong indications of 
the connexion occurring in the hsematitic clay and coal bands at its base. J 
The Nahan fauna is declared still unknown, and it is noticed that the 
ossiferous Mammalian beds are all Siwalik. The Sirm6r triple group 
referred to is not represented in this country. 

A new sub-di\-ision is introduced to receive the Upper Siwalik 
conglomerates; and a post-tertiary conglomerate series (which has repre- 
sentatives near the Salt Range) forms an unconformable group, inter- 
mediate between the tertiary beds and the alluvium. Hence, the only 
tertiary sub-divisions near the Salt Range will be nummulitic, Nahan 
and Siwaliks, the latter comprising lower and upper groups. 

It will be seen from the foregoing account of previously published 
matter relating to the geology of the Salt Range, that it is hardly an 
easy task to furnish a report, brought up to date, which shall not in too 
great a measure repeat the observations to be found in former papers, 
nor yet leave unnoticed circumstances of importance. Differences in the 
conclusions arrived at have been generally suppressed in the preceding 
notes, but statements of contrary views will be found further on. 

* Believed to be nummulitic in part, if not aU, 

t On Mount Tilla, Eec. Geol. Sufv. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 83. Mems. Geol. Surv. Ind., 
Vol. XI, Pt. 2, p. 65, and several junctions in detailed descriptions, 
X Memoirs, same vol., p. 139, 

( 35 ) 



36 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 



CHAPTER 11. 



PART I. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

Of itself, the Salt Range forms a prominent physical feature of North- 
. „ , » Western British India, rising between the flat 
N.-W. India. plains and thai, or desert, of the Lower Indus 

basin and the elevated Potwar* plateaii embayed between the outworks 
of the Himalaya, Hindd Kush and Afghan mountains. It rises above 
the adjacent tracts, but with a considerable relative difference of altitude 
on either side, as do the Western Ghats above the Deccan and low coast 
plains, or as the Himalaya range itself rises above the high plains of 
Asia on one side, but stands at a much greater difference of level above 
the low plains of India on the other. One analogy with the latter 
range as to some physical peculiarities might even be carried further, the 
general watershed of the adjacent countries in both cases lying north- 
ward of the principal elevations and both being bordered to the south 
by a fringe of coarse deposits brought down by swollen torrents from 
the hills. 

Here, however, the physical analogy ceases ; the aspect, stratigra- 
phical structure and forms of the two regions being even more dissimilar 
than are their respective heights, formations of the same geological age 
have, it is true, been found in both, and some few fossils from each have 
been pronounced identical, but the petrographieal characters of the rocks 
are totally different. 

The essential feature of the salt range is that it forms a bold escarp- 
ment to the southwards, this character being 
obscured in some places, by reason of the con- 
torted state of the rocks, and in others very promiment, presenting a 



* Tliis plateau has several divisions witli different names, But that of one of them, 
the Potwar, is often applied to the whole of the ground lying immediately north of the Salt 
Eansje. 

\ 36 ) 



PHYSICAL PBATUKES. 37 

fine facade of lofty cliffs, bluffs, and precipices overlooking numbers of 
steep valleys and penetrated by profound ravines or gorges,'^ some of 
wbicli almost deserve the name of caiions. 

These features contrast strongly with the flatness of the plains below 
and with the undulating or hilly plateaux which for 76 miles crown 
the acclivities, or with the more gentle northerly slopes intersected, as 
they descend to the Potwar, by an intricate labyrinth of deep, narrow, 
often vertical-sided ravines, such as are rarely seen save in this region, 
and which have won for it the special name of Kuddera,,-\ from inhabitants 
generally unobservant of natural features, and often ignorant even of 
the names of those beyond their own immediate locality. 

The southern escarpment is strongly marked along most of the 
range, rising to an average height of 2,200 feet 

Southern escarpment. 

above the plains at its foot, which are seldom more 
than 750 feet above the sea. Lofty portions of it also look down upon 
the Potwar plateau, the edge of which (with heights averaging 1,824 
feet) does not reach to within 1,074 feet of the mean height of the Salt 
Range. 

A very gradual increase of these heights takes place westwards to- 
wards the most elevated summit, Sakesar, which 
The Potwar. , ., , ' ' 

is situated 36 miles from the western extremity of 
the range at the Indus. Here the general elevation is 4,500 feet, and 
the summit itself has an altitude of 6,010 feet. 

But the Salt Range is not entirely a simple elevated tract strongly 

Variety of form of scarped on one side and surmounted by undulating 

^^'^^^' open plateaux. This is its character in the central 



* This word " gorge " is frequently locally used in speaking of the deep throat-like 
" gulches" of the range, to which it appears very applicable. 

t A narrow valley in this part of the country is called a " durra " kus or " khnd " ; the 
affix is taken to mean a multiplicity of forms. A large glen or stream course (dry or other- 
wise) is called a « Waan " or "Vaan"; as Nila Waan, the blue valley, named after the 
colour of its stream as seen from above. 

( 37 ) 



38 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OE THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

region; except that the northern sides of its plateaux are commanded by 
a minor escarpment facing to the south. At each end of this upland 
country the features change considerably ; in the east one or two con- 
spicuous hills rise above neighbouring portions of the range, while to the 
west the ridges enclosing a flat depression, called the Son, converge, 
and unite with the superior mass of the peak Sakesar. 

Eastward of Jalalpur the extension of the principal ridge becomes dis- 

From Jalalpur to east- ^o^^ed, and sinuous, and is cut through by the chan- 

ward. nels of two considerable rivers, the Bunhar and the 

Kahan ; Mount Tilla, one of the most lofty eastern elevations, occurring 

at the part interposed between these streams. This Mount Tilla ridge is 

generally between 3 and 4 miles broad, it averages 

nearly 2,000 feet in height, and culminates at Jogi 

ka-Tilla in an elevation of 3,342 feet. Just to the westward of this, where 

the mountain is highest, its width is barely above a mile. The Chambal 

portion of the Tilla chain, nearest to Jalalpur, rises to 2,290 feet, has a 

north and south direction, bending towards the west, where separated 

from Mount Tilla by the Bunhar gorge, and, declining by successive 

ridges eastward, dies out in the alluvial flat of the Jhelum near the Grand 

Trunk Road eastward of Rotas. 

From the northern side of the range at a point N. 10° E from Pind- 

Dadan-Khan, an important spur, separated by a 
Bakrala ridge. , 

deep gap from the mam mass, leaves the latter and 

stretches for more than 30 miles in a north-easterly direction. Close to 

the range, where it forms the Diljaba mountain, this spur has a height of 

3,052 feet, but further on it declines to heights averaging 2,336 feet, and 

it has been called the Bakrala Ridge from the Pass of that name on the 

Trunk Road. Its highest point in this neighbourhood is Nili Hill near 

Domeli, and the ridge having a general width of 2 or 3 miles may be 

said to end in the broken hilly ground extending for some distance from 

the right bank of the Jhelum in the vicinity of Lehri. 

( 38 ) 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 39 

• From Jaliilpur for 16 miles to the W. N. W. the escarpment of the 
Changes in the escarp- ^ain range is very plainly marked, rising gradually 
"lent. in height from 1,852 feet to 2,275 feet (the level 

of the neighbouring part of the Jhelum river is about 700 feet), and the 
width of this part of the range steadily increasing westwards from 2| to 
6 miles. 

One of the most remarkable features of the eastern part of the 

range is that the strongly prevalent southerly 
Bemarkable f eatiu'e. 

escarpment changes sides, so to speak, at Chambal 

mountain north of Jalalpur (where the strata have been most enor- 
mously disturbed and faulted), an easterly dip of the beds giving a 
westerly aspect to that portion of the scarp. At Mount Tilla, a few 
miles distant, the southerly aspect is regained, but at the Diljaba end 
of the Bakrala ridge the scarp faces the north-west, and again at 
Karangli hill, overlooking the Choya-Saidan pass, a strongly marked 
westerly escarpment occurs. This hill, 3,526 feet high, and that of 
Chel near it, 3,701 feet, seem to be both displaced portions of a south- 
westerly extension of the Diljaba and Bakrala ridge. Such variation 
in the forms of the hills indicates, as might be supposed, corresponding 
disturbance which will be noticed in its proper place. 

Another remarkable feature is that the direction of the whole range 
Another remarkable changes abruptly near Sakesar, nearly at right 
^^^^S^- angles to its (east-by-north to west-by-south) 

course. Here it becomes very suddenly narrow for about 9 miles, bears 
to the north-west-by-north, and loses in height, averaging 1,727 feet (with 
a summit near Namal of 2,260 feet), and a width of two miles and less. 
This abrupt change corresponds to features in the Trans-Indus extension 
of the range, both together forming a deep, wide, and open sinus in 
the hilly margin of the Indus plains, where that river debouches from 
the mountains. This change is, however, more closely connected with 
the general orography of the Upper Punjab than with the Cis-Indus Salt 
Range, though it forms one of its most peculiar features. 

( 39 ) 



40 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT HANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Beyond the narrow part the range expands into the Tredian hills, 

reaching to within a few miles of the Indus, and 
Tredian hills. , .-,^0^-1 o/iiT 

having a width 01 8 miles near bwas, but dim- 
inishing as the river is approached. They have an average height of 
3,087 feet, and their highest point is reached at Tredian itself, 3,477 feet. 

At the debouchure of the Indus upon the plains the Salt Range may 

be said in most senses to disappear for a space in 
Disappearance of the _ p • o -y 

range proper at the In- a way difficult to account for Satisfactorily, a few 
small and disconnected hills only remaining to 
represent it. The chief of these detached portions, formed of the most 
perishable materials of the whole series of the range, is the salt hill of 
Mari, consisting of red marl, gypsum, and rock salt, and having an 
altitude close to the river's bank of 1,931 feet.^ The geological and 
physical relations of the Salt Range re-appear in some measure Trans- 
Indus beyond the limits of this district. 

As one continued massive feature the range may be said to com- 
mence at its eastern plateau, where the high 
ground from Jalalpur, rising gradually from the 
Btinhar river, meets and almost joins the Diljaba portion of the Bakrala 
ridge : from hence westward nearly to the summit at Sakesar, high 
plateaux form its crest. These may be called the Eastern plateau, the 
Dandot plateau, the Kahun, Malot, Niirpur, and S6n plateaux. 

The " Eastern plateau " extends westward to Bid, a distance of nearly 
sixteen miles, with a width of from one to eight 
miles and heights of from 2,100 to 3,800 feet, the 
width of the whole range here being from 7 to 10 miles. The surface 
undulates, being frequently of bare rock, worn waist-deep into closely 
adjoining furrows. The plateau is much indented by the heads of valleys 
along its south-eastern side, and bordered in the opposite direction by 



* Dr. Fleming's List of Altitudes, 2nd report, p. 449, (No heights are given 
on the field maps.) 

{ 40 ) 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 41 

the hill of Chel and by an open shallow valley, beyond which the con- 
spicuous peak of Karangli overlooks the northern entrance to the pass of 
Choya-Saidan-Shah. From this peak a series of south-westerly ridges 

and valleys divides the plateau from the next, 
Danddt plateau. ... 

and terminates in very broken ground surrounding 

the small but lofty plateau of Dandot, part of which is 2,599 feet above 

the sea. 

Next to the westward is the Kahun, which might also be called 

the Dalwal plateau, with heights of over 2,400 feet. 
Kahun plateau. tj • i • i • -, ■ 

It is less rocky than those previously mentioned, is 

bounded on the north by steeply sloping rocky " Knddera," and southward 

by two remarkably long, straight ravines, meeting at an obtuse angle and 

forming the deep gorge of Makr^ch. This upland is 16 miles long and 

8 wide, the whole range having here gained so much in width as to be 

12 miles broad. 

On the south-west side of the Kahiln, a lofty, narrow, and irregularly 

shaped plateau extends in a north-westerly direc- 
Malot plateau. , 

tion, between one of the ravines just mentioned. 

and the southern slopes of the range. It rises to elevations of 3,000 and 

3,200 feet, and may be called the Malot plateau. 

Separated from that last mentioned by the deep Sardi (Sera or Seri- 

arik) gorge is another larger table-land on which 
Nurpur plateau. n -kt ^ 

the village of Nurpur stands. It is in parts less 

rocky than the last, and has much the same character as that of 

Dalwal. The elevation of the surface ranges from 3,500 to 2,800 feet. 

This Nurpur plateau is about 10 miles from north to south and the 

same from east to west, the whole range here having a width of 14 

miles. 

The high plateau-country stretches to the westward for 32 miles. 
Son or Western pla- becoming narrower about Pail and Chamil, where 
*^^^' the whole width of the ridge is about 12 miles. 

P ( 41 ) 



42 WYITOE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT S.ajf€iS; 12? THE PUNJAB. 

Still further to the west it becomes much wider, and includes the 
large tract ealledthe Son, reaching to the foot of Sakesar peak, under 
which is situated the Son-Sakesar lake at an elevation of 2,526 feet. 

In parts this table-land resembles a sea of huge limestone billows^ 
particularly where it is intersected by the east and west chain of the 
Patial hills. South of this chain lies a somewhat less elevated and 
more broken tract, traversed by deep ravines leading down to the plains. 
The Patial hills rise towards and coalesce with the high mass of Sakesar, 
as do also those which bound the northern side of the Son pleateau, 
upon which heights occur of over 2,900, 3,000, and 4,000 feet. The 
width of this plateau from north to south is about 14 miles, that of 
the whole range having increased to 18 or 20 miles. The Son 
possesses a reputation for coolness of climate equal to that of Kashmir.* 

A large spur or lobe of hills,t leaving Sakesar, flanks for some 
miles the narrow part of the range which trends to 
the north-north-west, as if to continue the southern 
side of the Son plateau, but it is much more broken, and has little or 
nothing of the plateau character. It is separated by a long and deep 
valley from the narrower part of the range and it rises to a height of 2,899 
feet above Chideru. 

From the summit of Sakesar the eye ranges widely over the adjacent 

^ , , ., country. To the south, flat plains and desert 

Country oneacn side •' 

bf the range. stretch to the horizon with a surface to all ap- 

pearance as level as that of the sea, being broken only by the great rivers 
and the distant tops of the Korana hills, a small group near the Chenab 
river. To the north the Potwar or Rawal-Pindi plateau expands beyond 
the zone of " Kuddera " at foot of the range in wide, gentle undulations, 
upon which, eastwards, heights of 1,600, 1,700, and 1,800 feet are marked 



* Dr. Fleming's Keport, p. 236. 

t These are the" Gredi" hills of Dr. Fleming (p. 252), and apparently the " Patial' 
hills of Mr. Theobald (p. 653). 



( 42 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 43 

on the maps. North of the Son the heights rise to above 2,000 feet, but 
westwards towards the Indus decline again to 1,200, 1,300, 1,500, and 
1,600 feet. Distance and elevation make the ground on this side also 
appear like a flat plain, but betw^een the undulations are deep intricate 
Kudderas leading to the broad sandy beds of rivers generally nearly dry. 

The range is traversed by three or four principal passes (not includ- 
ing paths or roads which follow no particular 
Passes. 

depression). The lowest of these are situated near 

each end of the range. The Bakrala Pass on the Grand Trunk Road 
north of Jhelum may have a height of 1,400 feet at the ridge of the 
same name } that at Ghoragali near Diljaba is a gorge of the Bunhdr 
river at about a height of 1,309 feet; a lower gorge on the same stream 
at Pind Sevika may be between 800 and 90O feet high. The long 
pass of Choya-Saidan-Shah, following the deep valley of that name, one of 
the few considerable valleys opening on the north side of the range, 
is an old route from Pind-Dadan-Kh^n northwards ; up this the road rises 
among the intricate and deeply excavated ravines of the range to a 
height of about 2,000 feet at its crest. The deep gorge of Sardi nearly 
intersects the range southward of Kalar Kahar lake, but the road 
which crosses it here climbs the right side of this deep defile below Sardi 
village. 

The last of the passes worth mention as such is that from Namal to 
Musakhel, above the right bank of the impassable Bakh ravine and at 
a little distance from it. It probably does not ascend so much as 50O 
feet above the plain to the south.* 

The valleys of the range are numerous, and some of them profound 

gorges, but none have now any important con- 
Valleys. . 

nection with the country beyond it, excepting the 

deeply cut passages of the Kahan, the Bunhar, the Vahi, a nameless 

stream near Khyrabad, and the gorge of the Indus itself. 

* The elevations of summits and similar points only are given on the maps ; those of 
hollows or crests of passes are not marked, hence they are estimated above. 

( 43 ) 



44 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE TVmilS, 

The latter at K^labagh is 1,070 feet in width from shore to shore; its 
depth in the cold weather varies from 15 to 45 feet, the velocity of 
the stream is 1*64 feet and the discharge 21,200 cubic feet per second.* 
Its surface is a little over 681 feet above sea level. 

There is a wide open valley at the east side of the range, with 
heights of over 1,100 and 1,200 feet, lying between Mount Tilla and 
Bakrala ridges. It is traversed by both the Kahan and Bunhar rivers, 
having no stream exclusively its own. A portion of this valley or 
depression occupies a recess where the Biinhar river spreads before 
escaping through the Find Sevfka gorge. This, the Choya-Saidan glen, 
an open basin on the Nurpur plateau, and a small but deep coomb-like 
depression beneath Vasnal, are the only glens of importance opening 
northwards, all the rest being ravines or surface stream-courses, which 
are more numerous than usual on account of the softness of the rocks 
traversed. 

The whole southern face of the range is cut up by numberless 
ravines and deeply penetrated by many precipitous excavations, eroded 
to a depth of several hundred feet lower than the escarpment of the table- 
lands. One of these gorges bifurcates at Makrach, where it may have a 
depth of more than 1,000 feet. Another is the fine glen of Sardi (Sera or 
Seriarik), apparently some 1,500 feet in depth, where its width is little 
more than a mile, and even much narrower near its mouth, though equally 
deep ; but the grandest chasm of all is that of the Nilawan, cut out of 
the Nurpur plateau. This varies from a quarter of a mile to a mile 
in breadth, and penetrates the range for a length of about 5 miles from 
its narrow mouth. Its depth is unknown, but may be guessed at 1,500 
to 1,700 feet. 

Other fine glens of the same character are — that leading south from 
Pail, the Narsingphoar ravine, the Sanglewan not far to the west- 
ward, the Jabi gorge from above Kavh^d, the glens of Vurcha, Amb, 

* From information kindly supplied by D. MeMordie, Esq., C.E., when, engaged 
upon a projected canal from Marl southwards. 

( 44 ) 



'-"j!»-^ 




'I *«:■ 





PHYSICAL FEATURES. 



45 



and the singularly inaccessible canon called the Bakh ravine, which 
intersects the whole range near Namal, having a length of about 
a mile and a fall of nearly 350 feet (judging from the heights upon 
the map). 

There are features connected with this ravine which make it ap- 
pear strangely placed at this point. The streams which now discharge 
through it look too small to have cut so large a gorge, even though this 
may have been commenced when the ground to the north was less 
worn down by denudation. The occurrence of boulder beds near where 
the great rivers leave the Himalayas, and the existence of an uncon- 
formable boulder accumulation at the north-eastern side of the ridge 
close to the town of Namal, at the commencement of the ravine, would 
suggest the possibility of this glen having once been a channel through 
which a larger stream from the north, perhaps the Soan river, found 
its way southwards before the gorge of the Indus was sufficiently 
reduced and cut backwards to take off the main body of meteoric water 
at a higher point. 

At present the Golar and Thrappi rivers, which unite and discharge 
through the Bakh ravine, drain a comparatively small area north of 
Sakesar summit. 

All the streams from the Tredian hills run in steep narrow gullies or 
gulches, those to the south especially, and one of these has eaten for itself 
a cavernous passage beneath a massive rocky spur ; they are sometimes 
quite impracticable to follow up on foot. 

The water-parting or " divide^' of the range lies north of the prin- 
cipal crest or edge, belonging indeed partly to 
Water-parting. ^ k m • i 

the Potwar plateau. For some 45 miles m the 
central portion it separates the heads of tributaries to the Indus from 
those of torrents which tend towards the Jhelum, but never reach it, as 
surface streams."^ From other parts of the range the drainage of both 

* That from Makrach forms a doubtful exception. 

( 45 ) 



46 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

sides finds its way southward^and notwithstanding the elevation and 
continuity of the chain, it forms no considerable barrier to the general 
southerly outflow of waters from the north, this northern drainage 
completely traversing^ it at two places to the west, while in the east 
the Tilla ridge is likewise twice intersected, and that of Bakrala no 
fewer than five times to afford passage to streams from the Potwar. 

From the salt-marl, most of the southern streams are highly saline, 
those which are least salt being used for irrigation, but very few are 
either potable or palatable even to the scattered population accustomed 
to brackish water all their lives. 

The hollows of the Son Sakesar and Khabaki lakes on the western 
plateau of the range are open shallow depressions without visible out- 
fall. The basin of the latter is small, but that of the former includes an 
area of about 60 square miles and occupies a singular position close to 
the highest elevations. 

The four salt lakes of the range form quite exceptional features to the 

general drainage. Three of them are on the west- 
Salt lakes. 

ern or Son plateau ; two of these, the Khabaki and 

Son Sakesar,* or Samandar, lakes, in depressions of its northern part ; and 

the other, the Jalar or Jalur lake,t in the rugged country to the south. 

These three lakes vary in size with the amount of rain-fall ; they have no 

* A fault with a north-east and south-west direction was supposed by Mr. Theobald to 
bring the salt-marl up at the eastern foot of Sakesar, so as to impregnate the water of the 
lake (see paper already referred to, p. 653) ; this dislocation could not be recognised on the 
ground. 

t Dr. Fleming, translating the name " Julhur " as Sanscrit for a spring of fresh water, 
asserts distinctly that the water of this lake, unlike others on the range, is fresh. Rain may 
have lately fallen and produced this impression when he visited it, for it was subsequently 
found to be as saline as the others, both by Dr. Oldham and Dr. Waagen, at considerably 
different dates. The natives of the place considered it mita, or sweet, i. e., fresh enough to 
drink. 

Professor Blochraann, of Calcutta, has kindly supplied translations of the following 
Sanscrit words : " 'Jhalra,' a spring of fresh water; ' Jalar,' a thicket or copse." There is 
no wood now near the lake to render the latter derivation for the name likely, though there 
may have been once j doubtless there are fresh springs in the vicinity. 

( 46 ) 



^t 



■m 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 47 

outlets, and are all salt or saline, thouo^h far removed from and at a 
higher elevation than the salt-bearing strata. The largest of them is the 
Samandar lake, about 3 miles long and 1 wide. The fourth, the 
lake of Kalar Kahar, having a diameter of about a mile and only a depth 
of 3 or 4 feet, is situated close under the north side of the range. It 
has no outlet either except when flooded; a neighbouring nala then 
affords a passage for the surplus water, and sometimes its white saline 
bed is all but dry. 

There may be various reasons for the saltness of these lakes, which 
differs in intensity, and would seem not to be derived from chloride of 
sodium only; ordinary precipitation from water, unable to escape except by 
evaporation, may have caused it. In the case of Kalar Kahar, brine 
springs at one place have an influence ; and with regard to the Son, the 
saltness may be due to the former existence of overlying sandstones and 
clays charged with saline ingredients. 

Fresh-water springs are not uncommon upon the plateaux or along 

their borders. Among them may be mentioned 
Fresh springs. 

those at Choya-Saidan-Shah, the large sacred spring 

of Katas, that at the Wycher cliff, Dand6t, and those of the Verala scarp. 

The table-lands form a large catchment surface, the rain water falling 

upon which would produce springs in the usual way. Another sacred 

spring at Hotas may be connected with dislocation of the rocks. Here 

fresh -water springs are locally numerous, one of them forming a strong 

stream which issues from the dry sandy bed of the Kahan river. 

Brine springs in the salt region are no novelty, but one at Kalra on 
the south side of the Bakrala ridge near Domeli is 

Brine spring. -i i i • i 

situated among rocks, the highest above the salt- 
marl ; it also occurs in a dislocated locality in the bed of a torrent 
depositing calcareous tufa and forming river-conglomerate {Kavjur). 
The water of the spring is of a milky-bluish opaline tint ; it is half 
saturated with salt (according to trials by Dr. Warth), and forms black 
and yellowish precipitates. It comes probably from a considerable depth, 

( 47 ) 



48 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

otherwise more springs than one might be expected to occur, and its 
unknown source can only be guessed at. 

There is another so-called salt spring in the same range at the 
southern slope of Nili hill, where a somewhat strong variety of the usual 
" Khdra pdni " of the country, charged with mixed salts, chiefly of soda, 
issues in the bed of a rocky nala. 

Saturated brine springs occur on the right bank of the Bunhar 
stream in the Ghoragali pass (near Diljaba mountain), just where it is 
most narrow. The source is probably connected with the salt-marl. 

The brine spring of Kalar Kahar rises from a patch of this salt-marl 
in an entirely abnormal and dislocated situation. 

The water of streams in the sandy and argillaceous rocks along the 
north and easterly parts of the range frequently deposits the saline in- 
crustation called " tur " or " hallar "* in considerable quantities. 

The hot and sulphurous springs of the Bakh ravine have been noticed 
by almost every one who has visited the place ;t 
indeed, the smell of sulphuretted hydrogen emitted 
by them is sufficient to attract attention. They occur for some distance 
from the entrance at both ends of this remarkable miniature canon, some 
issuing strongly, others without force -, gas bubbles up, and the water, 
which is covered by a thin film of gypsum, deposits a black tenacious 
mud used by the natives as a dye for colouring cotton cloth.f The 
sources are probably distant from the surface, and the springs do not 
occur in one particular formation. 

Similar sulphurous springs, sometimes warm, occur here and there in 
other parts of the range. Two of these close to the 
Chota and Bara Kata brooks near Jaba (north side 



* Sulphate of soda and common salt ; Fleming, 1st Report, p. 525. 

t MS. notes by Dr. Waagen, &c., &c. 

X See ante^ Fleming, 2nd Report, p. 265 ; also Schlagintweit, in Chap. I. 

48 ) 




I 
o 
^< 
m 
< 



J^ 



■■I 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 49 

of the western end of the range) bring to the surface a sufficient quantity 
of petroleum* to enable about 3 quarts daily to be collected, but all is 
liable to be washed away for the time by floods. From a gypseous deposit 
here, (thought by some to result from the action of these springs upon 
the neighbouring limestone,) native sulphur was reported to have been 
collected ; but when I searched for it, the barest traces only could be found. 

Viewed from the north, the aspect of the Salt Range is that of a mono- 
tonously undulating and not very lofty ridge, 

aSP6Cu« 

upon which some conspicuous summits, such as 
those of Chel, Karangli, Tilla, and Sakesar, attract the eye. Closely ap- 
proached over ''Kuddera" ground, the range may be often observed 
covered with scrubby jungle and on limestone slopes by a mass of 
Su,nhetta-\ and BehekarX shrubs, through which it is difficult to work 
a passage. Having once left the plateau, almost everywhere on the 
ascent the bare rock protrudes, presenting a striking uniformity of grey 
and greenish or red tints, the latter sometimes predominating and some- 
times replaced by a dusky orange; all these brighter colours beino- 
restricted to argillaceous rocks. On the undulating plateaux small 
patches of cultivation lie between rocky undulations dotted or covered 
with Sunhetta jungle, trees of any size being almost entirely absent 
everywhere along the range. 

Seen from the south, the scarcity of vegetation and the bright colour- 
ing of the red, purple, grey, orange, and whitish rocks of the cliffs and 
slopes, present a strong contrast to the other aspects of the range ; the 
fan-shaped accumulations of detritus at the mouths of the torrent g*orges 
encroaching upon each other to form a stony belt, slightly concealed 
by thin, starved-looking jungle, which only adds to the sterile appear- 
anee of the ground. The whole of this dry and sun-burnt face of the 

* Lyinan — "Punjab Oil Lands;" Report to Public Works Department, Lahore Govern- 
jnent Press, 1870. 

t TJodoncea Burmanniana. (Fleming.) 

J Adhatoda vassica. Dr. Fleming's 3ud Report, p. 238. 

G ( 49 ) 



WYNNE 




5 

CD - 






; GEOLOGY or THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

range radiates so much, absorbed heat, that an en- 
campment at some distance in the plains, though 
hot, is found to be cooler than one at its foot. 

g Picturesque spots occur occasionally, their at- 

s tractiveness enhanced by their rarity ; and there 

Z is much that is imposing, though wild, in other 

■a scenes. Instances of one or the other may be found 

I in the summit of Mount Tilla, with its ruins and 

-i g- ancient buildings ; the rock-pools and gardens of 

I 9 Choya-Saidan-Shah; the antiquities of Katas and- 

u II Rotas ; the lofty village of Dandot ; the neigh- 

l S bourhood of Kalar Kahar, when the vines are in 

I -i leaf and the lake is full ; the grand glens of Nila- 

^ I wan, Sardl, and Nursingphoar ; the vicinity of 

I f. Sodhi near the head of the latter ravine ; the deep 

.si glen of Amb; and the gorge of the Indus at 

I ^ Kalabagh, with salt-rock, water, boats, and quaintly 

I I piled buildings, making up a brightly-coloured 
^ o picture, in which the crimson rol from burnt aluni' 

-■ shale, and duller red salt-marl, contrast with the 

1 a cool greenish-greys of the lofty Dangot cliifs in 
I g the back ground. 



PART II. 

OROGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL GEOLOGY. 

As the theoretical explanations of the formation 
of the Salt Range are included in those relating to 
the origin of the adjacent mountain regions, I shall 
endeavour to confine the following observations tO' 
features, of which some description may be found 
useful in considering the local relations with re- 
gard to the larger area beyond the subject of this 

( 50 ) 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



"Wynne; 5alt Roun^e 



■Memoirs Vol: XIV. PlcUe. VtlT. 




SKETCH OF POSITTO"N" OF SALT RANGE PUNJAB 
(R.a-nges in Black") 




Diagram of Direction of Salt Range . 4;8.Miles =-1. Incli. 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. SI 

report; points which belong to the physical geology of the range must, 

however, be briefly noticed. 

The situation of the Salt Range is in itself peculiar ; it crosses that 

embayment where the lower ground of Western 
Orographical position. , i • i i • 

Hindustan projects into the high mountain regions 

of Asia, and it forms a separation between two tracts which have very 

unequal altitudes as seen in fig. 1, a rough profile of the country from 

Swat to the Chenab crossing the range near Sardi. 

This recess is embayed by the high mountains of the North-West 
Himalaya on the east, and the Sulimdn, Hala, Augustan,* and Khyber 
mountains on the west; while, to the north, elevated mountainous 
ground intervenes between it and the snowy ranges of the Hindu Kush. 
In the regions where such great physical features approach and the 
resultants of their oriffinatins: forces encountered one another, concen- 
trated disturbance might be expected to produce intense distortion. la 
the Salt Range this is observable, both stratigraphical contortion on the 
smaller scale and sinuous curvature of the range itself marking its 
eflPect. Including its continuation Trans-Indus, the whole chain appears 
to have yielded to lateral out-thrust, or forces proceeding from the 
greater mountain chains on either side, and to have been compelled 
to accommodate itself to shortened longitudinal limits. (See diagram j 
Plate VIII, fig. 2.) 

The principal or western sinuosity of the range (bordering the 
Indus for some 70 miles) follows, in a measure, the converging axial 
directions of the more lofty ranges, its curvature conforming to the 
angk between these lines. f To the east, however, the strike of the Tilla 
ridge is distorted so as to fold back upon itself in a curve resembling 
the letter S, 

* A name applied by natives to the mountains west of the Punjab. 

t Sir Eoderick Murchisou's mention of the Salt Range as the " first step in ascending 
from the Lower Panjab to the Himalaya" accords -svith its features, but its parallelism to 
the Valley of Kashmir and the " mighty Himalaya" is anything but evident. Quart. Journ, 
Oeol. Soc, Lond., Vol. IX, p. 189= 

( ^1 ) 



6g WYNNE : GEOLOGY OE THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

These siBuosities coinciding with escarpments would also sng-gest 
undulations in the strata, being arrested by fissures along lines of 
weakness. 

The two prominent results of disturbance, flexure and fracture, va- 
ried according to the intensity of their cause, 
are commonly observable throughout this region, 
but complicated flexure is less frequent to the east, having been appa= 
rently relieved by numerous great fractures. In the vicinity of Mount 
Tilla, of the Chambal, Diljaba, and Bakrala ridges, boldly curved beds 
are often brought into association with nearly vertical strata by means 
of faults. 

Indications of anticlinal structure occur in the Bakrala ridge 

and at the Rotas end of the Tilla range, on 
Eastera parts of the range. • i p ^, i , , • 11 

the eastern side 01 Lhambal mountain and close 

to Jalalpur, while similar open curves define the eastward commence- 
ment both of the Kahun and Eastern plateaux. Between Diljaba 
and the last named is a decided synclinal in the upper rocks, and the 
wide valley between Tilla and Bakrala ridges may be called a double 
synclinal hollow. Besides these larger flexures, small contortions are 
of frequent occurrence, but few other parts of the range exhibit marked 
synchnal or anticlinal curvature as essential forms of the mountain 
structure. And yet the whole chain, from the 

Slight disturbance on the Eastern plateau westward, partakes broadly of 
Eastern Plateau. ^ ^ •' 

the uniclinal or incomplete anticlinal charac- 
ter, the northern side of the curve only being present. It seems rea- 
sonable to suppose that the strata once formed a complete arch, but 
there is no proof whatever that this was the case. 

Over the whole of the plateau eastwards, the rocks, though elevated, 
Greater contortion to the ^re but slightly disturbed, hence the tabular 
^^^^' forms of the ground; but to the west the rolling 

wave-like surface is intimately connected with more violent disturb- 
ance, each wave representing an anticlinal arch. All the hill country 

( 5a ) 



- 5 



•H 1- 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 53 

about Sakesar is a mass of contortions, fractured and disarranged in 
places ; but the narrow part of the range, uniting this mountain with 
the Tredian hills, is composed of highly inclined beds showing a strong 
tendency to bend over to the south-west, excepting which this uniclinal 
rido-e has no more indication of anticlinal continuity than the plateau 
country to the east. 

In the Tredian hills intense plication again predominates, and the 
Intense disturbance at the climax of disturbance is reached where the range 
Indus. itself and nearly all of its characteristic forma- 

tions are lost among dislocations as the Indus is approached. 

All along the northern slopes, except where deranged by faulting, the 

disturbance, even where greatest, is regular and 
Northern slopes. , , i t , . 

the northerly dip constant. 

The whole southern face of the range presents the most strangely 

broken and dislocated features, large portions of 

Southern slopes, ,,„ . , ^ • i-ii j 

the lofty escarpment having subsided and 

smaller land-slips taken place, until the slopes have become often crowded 
with huge disconnected rock masses at all elevations, in all positions and 
of nearly all the harder groups, the heterogeneous assemblage being fre- 
quently overshot and obscured by debris. This much of the mountain 
structure is, however, but the result of meteoric denudation assisted by 
the perishable nature of the soluble salt and gypseous marl beneath. 
Besides dislocations of this kind there are many true faults, which 

generally take directions oblique to that of the 
Faults. . . . 

range : sometimes these coincide so strongly 

with marked physical features as to become suggestive of cause and effect. 
Though not susceptible of any very systematic arrangement, there is 
some parallelism between the fractures lying in courses from west 30° 
to 35° north, also in another group bearing north-45°-east, the included 
angle approximating to that at which the range suddenly bends north- 
wards near Sakesar. Other faults assume nearly north and south or 
east and west directions. 

( 53 ) 



54 WYNNE '. GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

A long fault stretches close by the south-eastern foot of Mount Tilla, 

bringing- the lowest rocks there exposed against 
Tilla faults. .111^1 

steeply inclined or vertical beds or the tertiary 

sandstone and clay series : three minor dislocations parallel to the main 
one lie between the unbroken uniclinal of the mountain and the master- 
fault, The displacement here must be large, but cannot be exactly 
estimated, because of the positions of the rocks. The fault is lost in the 
sandy gorge of the Biinhar river at Pind Sevika, 

North of JaMlpur an extensive and most complicated amount of 

faulting has taken place, bringing the groups at 
Jalalpur faults. .... 

each end of the series into junction, a large 

branch fracture extending along the western base of Chambal mountain 

(east) apparently to join the Tilla fault. 

One of the most considerable lines of faulted dislocation in the whole 

district coincides very much with the direction of 
Karangu and Diljaba fault. ^ -n , ,, .^ . ,. 

the Bakrala ridge, sometimes lying at one side, 

sometimes at the other, the line being certainly far from straight, and the 
whole dislocation appearing like an extended combination of shorter 
fractures. One of the results of this zone of faulting is the exposure of 
a mass of nummulitic limestone on the sandstone and clay ridge near 
Domeli; another is the way in which this limestone disappears at 
Ghoragali pass, among the overlying beds, the same or a parallel fault 
occurring here on the north-west side of the ridge. The escarpment of 
Diljaba mountain is also connected with this line of fracture, which ap- 
pears to be itself displaced by a cross-fault at the western end of that hill. 
In the neighbourhood of Chel hill much contortion and great dislocation 
occurs on both sides of the ridge, but most towards the Potwar country. 
Whether the fracture is here again connected with the main line or 
not is obscure, but the fault with its original direction reappears on 
the north-west flank of Karangli hill. Here it turns into the Choya- 
Saidan-Shah valley, bringing the tertiary sandstones against the salt- 
marl. From this valley the fracture bends down the deep Gamthalla 
( 54 ) 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 55 

Sforge, its throw having changed sides and the tertiary sandstones, &e., 
being again brought against the salt-marl on the opposite side from that 
which they occupy at the mouth of the Choya Valley. The fault is lost 
in the red marl at Makrach, but another appears to start from the place 
where it ends, running up the Malkana branch of this gorge to 
the west-north-west, and terminating, or becoming no longer traceable, 
at Kalar Kahar. Close to the latter place, and exactly in the line of 
this fracture, the red salt-marl appears among the nummulitic lime- 
stone beds. The throw of this great line of dislocation, it will be seen, 
varies, changes sides, and in places amounts to nearly the whole thickness 
of the eastern Salt Range rocks. 

. In the neighbourhood of Vasnal, on the northern side of the range, 

another complex group of faults encloses a hexa- 
Vasndl. 

gonal patch of the red salt-marl surrounded by 

nummulitic limestone on all sides but one, and there by the overlying 

tertiary sandstones, &c. ; just a fragment of some of the lower rocks 

above the salt-marl appearing in connection with it. 

From this place two lines of fracture nearly at right angles seem to 
start, one reaching to the head of the Nilawan ravine and bringing a 
long strip of the tertiary sandstones, &c., against the underlying lime- 
stane. The other appears to extend by Badrae to beyond Dheri, where 
another complicated system of partly concealed- faults exposes the red 
marl and some of the overlying rocks, 

Down in the bottom of the Nilawan ravine, crushing and faulting 
again appears, as also in the glen leading from 

Nilawan, &C. -n •^ Tr i i i /> • • ^ 

Pail to Kutta, and another fracture coincides with 
the glen of Nursingphoar. 

A long fracture, too, extends up the nearly straight Kavhad glen 

from near Jabi in a north-east direction, and meets 
Kavhad, 

a series of faults at first bearing north-east south- 
west, but afterwards taking a westerly direction along the cliffs near 

( 55 ) 



56 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Jalar, and to the north of that lake, sending off a nearly parallel branch. 
The main fracture extends to the head of the A'mb glen, passing down 
which it is lost among a multitude of parallel and other dislocations. 

In the Chiderii hills again faults abound, and also in the Tredian 

hills to the north-west ; all the fractures between 

Kavhad and those of the last-named hills uniting 

with the frequent minor dislocations, to produce the greatest confusion, 

amidst which the true succession of the rocks can only with difficulty 

be traced. 

The most extreme result of the faulting of the range is the mysteri- 
ous, almost total, and abrupt, disappearance of the 
whole western series intermediate between the 
tertiary sandstones and clays and the salt-marl. From near Khyrabad 
to the Indus, the faults themselves by which this has been effected have 
left such slight traces to mark their course that, were it not for the 
disturbance of the ground and the re-appearance of the series beyond the 
Indus, discordance would have to be inferred in order to account for 
the absence of the intermediate strata in this neighbourhood. 

If the range formed a simple symmetrical anticlinal curvature, its 

origin would be as easily explained as that of other 
Elevation. . . ., , i i i i i • 

mountains similarly constructed by the hypothesis 

of lateral pressure, in some cases accompanied by the settlement of the 

mass ; but while the disturbance evidently tended to produce common 

anticlinal curvature, it only partially succeeded, so far as can be seen, and 

produced instead the uuiclinal structure described, with a more or less 

strong resemblance to the features of certain of the Sub-Himalayan hills 

bordered by fissures or what would amount to faults, if not in some cases 

absolutely dislocations. 

This resemblance is nevertheless incomplete, in so far that the sec- 
tions across the Sub-Himalayan ground expose the boundary fissures and 
adjacent structures, but in the Salt Range noLhiug whatever is known 
( 56 ) 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 57 

of the rocks concealed alons;- its southern foot or their positions."^ The 
Korana hills, forty miles distant, afford the nearest evidence in this direc- 
tion, and there the principal ridge, according to Dr. Flemingjf has a 
uniclinal structure and northerly dip, like the Salt Range itself. 

The effort to recall a former state of things has been made by 
Dr. Fleming J in treating of the upheaval of the range, and again 
in an elaborate manner by Dr. Verchere § when writing of the larger 
adjacent area. Dr. Fleming supposes three subsidences and elevations 
to have taken place before the great elevation of the whole range ; 
in the JMiocene period or subsequently, and contemporaneously with 
that of the Himalaya. He also considers that the upheaval extended 
from east to west. 

Dr. Verchere contends that the whole of the embayed ground 
between the border ranges of North-West India was uplifted into an 
open arch or dome-shaped anticlinal bordered by fissures, along one 
of which, perpendicular to the others, the arcli was broken down, 
leaving the Salt Range as its uptilted extremity. Botli of these 
authors, Mr. Theobald,^ Mr. Medlicott,j| and Mr. H. F. Blanford^* 
agree in attributing tlie elevation of the range to later tertiary times, — 



* No deep borings are known in the vicinity of tlie Salt Range : the wells for the piers 
of the railway bridges oh the Jhelum and Chenab rivers are entirely in detrital deposits, 
and these deposits only have been found in a boring at Anibala between the Indus and 
Ganges basins. This boring has been put down to a depth of 700 feet, the altitude of the 
locality being 919, so that the bore-hole has nearly reached sea level. — Professional Papers, 
Roorkee (Riirki), No, 12, vol. ii, Major Thackeray, R. E. 

t Authority cited, p. 446. 

t Au. cit., p. 364. 

§ Ditto, p. 83. 

% Authority cited, pp. 656-657. 

II Au, cit., p. 174 

** Ditto, p. 133. 
H ( 57 ) 



S8 WYNNE : GEOLOGY 01' THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

from the Miocene to the Siwaliks of India^ — and most of them are 
in favour of the more recent period. Without entering into recondite 
theories of elevation here^ I may point out that the whole of the Salt 
Range series, up to the top of the nummulitic limestone at leasts 
being conformable, and this series, together with the overlying tertiary 
beds up to the Siwalik group partaking of the general disturbance, the 
last elevation is shown to have taken place, or to have been going 
on subsequently to the upper tertiary period. The evidence afforded 
by the rocks is too uncertain to show whether this action was remittent 
or recurrent, but the varied nature of the whole series would suggest 
many changes of level.* 

The subsidence alluded to by previous writers as necessary for 
the accumulation of several thousand feet of tertiary strata, would 
indicate a depression of far greater amount than the present total elevation 
of the range, and the break in the tertiary series, just above the 
local nummulitic limestone, alluded to by Mr. Medlicott,t might well be 
connected with some of the more recent oscillations. 

So far as I can judge, the structure of the range leads to the 
inference that its existence is due to complicated lateral compression 



* The Salt Range gives indications of the existence of land at no great distance, con- 
temporaneously with the formation of several of its boulder beds, even so far back as the 
period of its earliest groups, and again at various stages up to tertiary times. In one 
case a section in supposed Triassic beds, between Pid and Kheura, exposed what seemed to 
be an old river course. The transported fragments in these boulder beds include very 
similar varieties of crystalline rocks irrespective of age, and amongst them rocks unknown 
to exist northward of the range. This suggests the idea that the land whence these frag- 
ments came may have been situated to the south. Other indications of contemporary hind 
jn that direction may be found in the fossil vegetation of the newer rocks us well us their 
remains of land animals. 

f Rccoi-ds, Geol. Sur. Ind,, Vol, IX, p. 55. 

( 58 ) 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 59 

under unequal conditions of resistance, which in a late tertiary period 
developed itself in local disturbance along- one or more lines of fissure coin- 
ciding- with the direction of the uniclinal escarpments, the whole of 
the features having been subsequently much modified by meteoric 
erosion. 

The strongly marked relations which often exist between the forms 

and structures of mountains are seldom more evi- 
Relations between the • i <-. i -r. t i • 

form of the ground and deut than lu the Salt Kange. In this case they 

its sreological structure. ,.^ ij- •• si j. l • j.-i j-ii> 

" ° result trom much disparity or texture in the diiier- 

ent strata, and they are most pronounced where the disturbance has been 
least violent. 

Not alone are these relations observable in detail, but they affect the 
range generally, for its strata differ from those of the neighbouring lower 
country (where these can be seen), and the outcrops of many varieties 
of the rocks are indicated in the forms of the ground. Thus the Kuddera 
country of the northern slopes is always formed of soft sandstones with 
innumerable alternations of clay bands j the plateaux are chiefly com- 
posed of limestone, rarely overlaid by some beds of the succeeding group, 
and all the escarpments are formed of the hard limestone, of still harder 
dolomite or magnesian sandstone, or where this is absent, of massive or 
uniform beds presenting a relative contrast of texture to others in their 
vicinity. 

The escarpments frequently exhibit three or more groups of different 
hardness, some of them producing under-cliffs, and 
many of the slopes both on the plateaux and along 

the unscarped mountain sides are derived directly from the bedding of 

the rocks. 

On the south side of the range below the solid escarpment the frag- 
Disintegration, south ^entary stratigraphical relations all but defy in- 
side of range. terpretation, the transition from continuity to 

( 59 ) 



60 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

disruption being frequently impossible to trace. Limestone tracts are 
often found with a gentle slope in a peculiar semi-disintegrated state, 
the rock although not being in situ is yet unmixed with fragments 
of other rocks and retains sufficient of a former stratigraphical pos'ition 
to conceal the beds beneath. Outlying patches of such half-degraded 
rock may be sometimes seen in contact with, or resting lapon, a lower 
group, to the exclusion of other intervening layers washed out from 
beneath. 

In parts of this dislocated country as many as twenty chief lines of 
division may be traced, often between widely different and abnormally 
placed rock masses, and taking as many different directions within one 
square mile as there are lines; where such confusion prevails, the 
difficulty of distinguishing between faulting and land-slip sometimes 
becomes an impossibility. All this dislocation and disarrangement is 
generally referable to geological and stratigraphic structure, and espe- 
cially to the occurrence of soft saline marl, gypsum and rock-salt 
beneath superincumbent masses of hard solid limestone, or other rock, 
having allowed the upper bed to sink into any accidental position of rest 
as the action of disintegration went on. 

In the Upper Punjab rains are scarce or inconstant, capricious or 

limited, in great measure, to hills of greater altitude 
Atmospheric influences. 

and extent than the Salt Range ; the climate of the 

country is marked by a large daily range of the thermometer; the 

seasons are extreme, and for most of the winter months the conditions of 

a desert prevail — intensely dry air and bright sun during the day, and 

excessive radiation of heat, causing frost, at night. Such atmospheric 

influences are most likely to operate strongly in altering the form of the 

ground, particularly where many of the rocks are absorptive or saline as 

in this district. Add to these the effects of the strong dry winds 

which prevail at certain seasons, and it will be readily understood, 

that with heavy rains succeeding intervals of drought, there are causes 

( 60 ) 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 



61 



ia operation sufficient to account for a large amount of meteoric 
denudation.* 

If anything were wanting to prove the extent of this erosive action, 
the rain-worn surfaces of the limestone plateaux, the numerous little 
patches of level ground, remains of former flats among the Kudderas, 
the pinnacles and profound ravines along the escarpments, and the mass 
of detritus brought down by torrents, would amply establish its existence 
and its power. To this agency alone, operating upon suitable materials, 
can I attribute the removal of the once overlying tertiary sandstones. 



* The rainfall at tlie following stations near the Salt Range is taken from the Pmijab 
Government Oaxette for three years : — 



« 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 




i 






i 






i 


ih 






Q 




_ « 


« 


_«« 


■-^ 


Q 


~G § 


<— * 


Name of Statioit 


o 


■a 

g 


o 


_, ui cT 

^23 


.2 

a 
g 


o 
o-oa 


« o ^ 

'- -t^ lO 
^ CD- 

oi2 


a 


























mS=0 




ftT3 


,_ -s-o 












1- 

ii 

In. 


S2S 
In. 


bo 

> 

< 
In. 


1! 

1- 


Average 
April Is 
ber 22n 


6D 




Si— " 






In. 


In, 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


Jhelum, east of Range ,.. 


5-1 


10-9 


13-8 


17-9 


21-0 


21-9 


10-1 


13-0 


21-9 


Shahpur, south of „ 


13-1 


7-9 


14-9 


9-0 


9-8 


16-2 


10-4 


11-3 


170 


Chakowal, north of „ 




... 


... 








9-1 


7-0 


13-0 


Tullagung, „ „ 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


7-8 


7-4 


13-3 


Pind-Dadun-Khan, south of 




















Range 








... 






9-8 


11-0 


14-6 



From this it would appear that the general average rainfall of the comitry in which the 
Salt Range is situated is equal to about 16 inches. Mr. Login, in a paper which has recently 
appeared in Vol. XXVIII, Journal of the Geological Society of London, p. 186, thinks that the 
rainfall of the Punjslb is the same now as it was two thousand years ago, but more restricted 
to the mountains. Dr. Verchere, at section 96 of his paper previously referred to, argues 
that at the beginning of the miocene period in these regions the rainfall was excessive, 
resembhng that of Patagonia. 

( 61 ) 



62 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

the cutting of the Indus* aud other gorges, and the excavation of preci- 
pitous valleys over 1,000 feet depth. 

It has been thought that the cliff feature, here so striking, resulted 

■_ . from marine erosion ; of course this may have 

Marine erosion. 

taken place, but so great has been the subaerial 

denudation, that the traces of marine action would now be sought in 

vain. 

.5010 




Pig. 3. — Profile of Sfln Sakesar basin. Natural scale | inch=l mile. 
Sakesar Mountain, 6 miles to west. 

The salt lake basins of the Son valley present some peculiarity as 

to their excavation; the largest, the Samundar lake, 
S6n Plateau lakes. i • -, n r^n n -i - ^ 

at an altitude of 2,536 leet and with a catchment 

area of about 60 square miles, covers 6 square miles of surface, and 
varies in depth and area with the accession of rain water, but is usually 
shallow. It has no visible outlet, and the difference between the altitude 
of the lake aud that of the lowest part of the edge of its basin may be 
less than 100 feet. The greater part of the basin is formed of limestone 
and is rocky, but in an easterly direction there are large deposits of 
coarse detrital materials that may conceal some spot where the water 
could have escaped, before the passage was blocked up by their accumu- 
lation. No sufficient reason for calling in the aid of ice to assist in 



* If only a coincidence, it may be observed that the depth to which the last results of 
atmospheric erosion have reached at the vv^ater escape of the Indus from the hills, is nearly 
equal to the whole fall of that river from Kalabagh to the sea. The average of twenty 
heights on the Potwar plateau gives 1,426 feet, and the depth of the Indus gorge at 
Kalabagh, including that of the river itself, is about 650 feet, the fall from thence to the 
sea (taken from the height on the maps) being equal to 681 feet, or 82 feet less than half the 
average elevation of the Potwar country. 

( 62 ) 



PHYSICAL FEATUllKS. 63 

expkfiuiii'f^ the excavation exists, and though there may have been for- 
merly subterranean passages through which dissolved portions of the 
limestone could be carried off, the saltness of the water indicates evapo- 
ration as the main cause to limit the area of the lake. 

The Khabaki lake at 2,481 feet of elevation is in an even deeper^ though 
much smaller, depression of the Son ; like the Samundar, it has no outlet 
either. It is 276 feet lower than the nearer summit elevations, and from 
114 t© 196 feet lower than the least elevated part of the margin of its 
basin ; this also appears to be more completely a rock basin than the other, 
and both, if filled, would discharge into one of the heads of the Narsing- 
phoar ravine. Another and smaller lake is that of J alar to the south- 
ward, also wifhout an outlet. All are situated in limestone tracts, and 
though probably connected with " swallow holes " or the damming up of 
former water passages, the size and form of some of the basins render 
local subsidence not at all an improbable cause for their existence. 

Under existing circumstances, and with nothing to carry away ac- 
cumulating water except evaporation, these lakes must be gradually 
silting up. 



( 03 ) 



64 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

CHAPTER ITT. 

STRATIGEAPHIC GEOLOGY. 

The Salt Range and the neighbouring parts of the Himalaya are as 
unlike in geological structure as adjacent regions containing several 
of the same formations need well be. The Khasia hills,* eleven to 
twelve hundred miles distant, occupy a somewhat analogous position 
with regard to the great chain, yet notwithstanding the distance, the 
geological section of that distant locality is not more dissimilar than that 
of the nearer known Himalayan regions described by Mr. Medlicott,t 
Dr. Stoliczka,J and others. § From the Salt Range to the Khasia hills, 
the structure of the ground concealed by the Gangetic or other alluvium 
is quite unknown, and in other directions, towards the peninsula of India, 
so far as the country has undergone examination, its geology is equally 
different from that of the Salt Range, so that the latter becomes unique 
if its geological features do not extend westward and south-westward. 

The disparity with the Himalaya consists not so much in the absence 
Disparity with Hima- ^^ formations common to both as in the relative 
layan regions. character of those represented ; the deposits of each 

possess petrographic and palseontological characters peculiarly their own, 
analogous to the distinctions marking the " Alpine^^ and " extra Alpine^'' 
regions of continental palseontologists.|| 

Some eight fossil species are mentioned by M. de Vei'neuil as com- 
mon to the carboniferous series both of the Himalaya and the Panjiib, 

* Mem. Geol. Survey, India, VoL I. 

,t Ibid, Vol. III. 

J Ibid, Vol. V. . . 

§ Ibid, Vol. IX. 

II This analogy was first suggested by remarks of the late lamented Dr. Stoliezka 
made while examining a few of the Salt Range fossils I had collected, and the suggestion 
seemed borne out by Dr. Wangen's field examinations in the Upper Panjab. 

( 64 ) 



STRATIGRAPHIC fSEOLOGY. 65 

and these include some of the Salt Range formsi'^ but with this exception. 
Dr. Waagen's acquaintance with scattered Upper Punjab Himalayan 
localities tended to show that the fossils of their formations, other than 
carboniferous, compared with the Salt Range, possessed facies as distinct 
as the petrological characters of the rocks which contained them.f 
The latter distinction, too, varies in degree, the rocks older than Num- 
mulitic being least similar in each region ; the nummulitics, though 
distinguishable, approximating, and the overlying tertiary sandstones 
and clays being most alike ; indeed, they belong to the same great 
series,! in contact at either side with the inferior rocks of both regions, 

^ock Groups. — For the sake o£ conveying a comprehensive view of 
the various groups and their distribution, I annex a diagram, PL IX, 
in which their lateral extensions are shown to scale, and give a short 
reference to each before describing them more fully. They are naturally 
divisible into groups, thus : — 

No. 1. — The lowest is the gypseous red salt marl with rock-salt. 

No. 3. — The group which succeeds is less constant than the last, 
but its massive purple sandstones are prominently seen 
in the southern sections. 

No. 3. — Overlying No. 2 is a zone of softer nature and darker 
colour, black to dark gray argillaceous beds, with harder 
bands. It divides and dies out to the westward, and it 
contains the oldest fossils met with — Silurian. 



* Since the above was written, a specimen of Productus Sumholdtii, D'Orb , has been 
found erratic at the northern base of some hills south of and close to Hassan Abdal by 
Mr, R. Lydekker. This is a Salt Range species, and may indicate the occurrence of a repre- 
sentative of the Salt Range carboniferous group among the outer Himalayan hills much 
nearer than the great ranges of the Himalaya beyond the Kashmir valley. How far the simi- 
larity of the group to the Salt Range carboniferous may extend, remains to be discovered. 

•j" The difference between the nummulitic fossils of the Sub-Himalyas (Sabathu) and 
the Salt Range was long since pointed out by D'Archiac and Haime, and mentioned in 
Mr. Medlicott's Sub-Himalayan Memoir. 

X Southward, in Kach and Lower Sind, the marine tertiary beds, newer than the 
nummulitic, are entirely different from these. — Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind., Vol. IX, pt. 1. 

I ( 65 ) 



66 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

No. 4. — The last group is closely succeeded by a strong and fre- 
quently much harder zone, characterised to the east by 
hard magnesian and other light-coloured sandstones 
with beds of dolomite. It also dies out westward. The 
continuation of the succession above this group differs 
in different parts of the range. 

No. 5, — Near where No. 4 becomes divided and no longer trace- 
able as a connected group, its beds are succeeded by a 
softer and coarser set of granular, strongly bedded, 
sandstones, surmounted by pale lavender -colon red clay. 

No. 6. — testing immediately on the last is a group of limestones 
chiefly crowded with carboniferous fossils, and only 
developed at the western side of the range. 

No, 7. — So intimately united with the preceding as to appear to 
form a conformable upper portion is another group of 
limestones, sandstones and shales or clays, in which 
fossils are numerous. It is not quite so extensive 
laterally as No. 6, and between these lies the boundary 
separating the palaeozoic and mesozoic rocks, this upper 
group being of Triassic age. — (Waagen.) 

No. 8.— -To carry on the succession we must again turn to the 
eastern part of the range which groups 6 and 7 do not 
reach. Here, resting upon No. 4 and disappearing near 
the commencement of No. 5, is a group of thin, flaggy 
sandstones interstratified with blood-red clays, which, 
from its general relations to the rocks above, has been 
considered to occupy nearly the same place as the dis- 
tant westerly group No. 7, both being probably Triassic, 
though this can only be decidedly stated for the former. 

No. 9. — The next group lies in the far west of the range succeed- 
iugNo. 7. It contains white, red, and soft sandstones, 
( 66 ) 



STKATIGRAPHIC GEOLOGY. 67 

with yellowish and gray limestones, and yellow marls. 
Its fossils are numerous and of Jurassic ag-e. 

No. ] 0,— Newer than the last, but never in contact with it, is a 
zone of soft, greenish brown, and olive sandstones, 
conglomerates, and dark shales. It commences in the 
eastern part of the range, extending further west than 
No. 8 or any of the underlying groups to the east; 
fossils are most rare and ill -preserved, but such as were 
found were considered by Dr. Waagen probably creta- 
ceous. 

No. 11 group is the massive white or light-coloured nummulitic 
limestone forming so marked a series of cliffs and 
escarpments, and of which the summit of the range 
consists. It disappears in the dislocations at the Indus 
and also thins out to the east. 

Nos. 12, 13, and 14 include the portions of the tertiary sandstone 
and clay series overlying the nummulitic limestone. 
Three sub-divisions of it, including Nahan and Siwalik 
beds, have been recognised, chiefly in the east part of 
the district, by Mr. Medlicott. 

No, 15. — In this may be included the alluvial and other super- 
ficial deposits, together with an older diluvial or post- 
tertiary conglomeratic group. 

The presence of a few small exposures of a peculiar trappean rock 
will be noticed in another place. 

From this and Plate IX, it will appear that the rock groups 
are irregularly distributed laterally. Of the whole (excluding the more 
recent) , seven are found to the east and seven or eight to the west, two 
only, or at most three, being continuous throughout the range. Four 
of the western groups are absent in eastern sections, and four belonging 
to the latter are unrepresented in the west, while of these eight only two 
may belong to the same period. 

{ 67 ) 



68 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

The sub-divisions as indicated all possess sufficiently well-marked 
petrographic characteristics to enable them to be distinguished. If 
some hesitation on this ground might be felt^, as to the boundary between 
Nos. 6 and 1 , it would be removed by palseontological evidence: The 
fact of superposition establishes several of the groups^ but some, though 
probably related, are so distant from each other that this clue to their 
place is absent, and when fossils are entirely wanting, as in Nos. 1, 
2, 4, 5, and 8, their geological age becomes less certain, though their 
places in the series may give some aid as to their approximate position. 

Of the older groups. No. 3 only has yielded fossils and at but two 

places, where several small shells of the genus 
Fossiliferous beds. 

Oholus^ Eichw., or SipJionotreta, vern., were 

found by myself and determined by Dr. Stoliczka,t thus indicating an 

age not newer than Silurian. 

In group No. 4, obscure Fucoidal impressions have been met with, 
but nothing determinable. Group No. 6 abounds with well-known 
carboniferous species and many new ones according to Dr. Waagen. 
No. 7 contains quantities of Gastropoda and bivalves of Triassic age, 
(and some which Dr. Waagen thought might possibly show the lower 
beds to belong to the continental Dyas). No. 9 has numerous Belemnites 
and other Jurassic fossils as recognised by Dr. Waagen and previous 
observers. No. 10 has furnished but scanty and obscure palseontological 
evidence, while No. 11 is full of ill-preserved nummulitic fossils, and 
the tertiary sandstones, &c,, above frequently contain mammalian bones, 
crocodilian and other remains. 

Perhaps the most remarkable fact relating to the fossils found in 

^ , .„ . the Salt Rane-e is the discovery of true Ammonites 

CarDoniterous Ammo- =• '' 

niies. in the Carboniferous rocks near Jabi, collected by 

Dr. Waagen himself (See Mem. Geol. Surv. India, Vol. IX, pt. 2). It 

* See remarks on Oholtis, with plates, by T. Davidson, Esq., F. G. S. &c., " On earli- 
est forms of Brachiopoda hitherto discovered in the British Paleozoic rocks."^Geol. 
Mag., Vol. V, p. 303. 

f Dr. Waagen has seen these fossils in situ and cleared some specimens for further 
determination, but did not decide to which of the two genera they belonged, so far as I am 
aware. 

( 68 ) 



Oos -itm N rt 




j 



STRATIGRAPIIIC GEOLOGY. 



09 



is greatly to be regretted that his examination of the Salt Range col- 
lections, so unfortunately interrupted by his illness, was left incomplete."^ 
Observe. — In this and following tables the rocks are arranged in 
natural order, lowest beneath and newest at top, as printed : — 



Alluvial and " 
sub-recent, i 

Post Ter- 
tiary. 

Pliocene P 
Miocene ... J 
Eocene 



Salt Ran^e Series. 

Quartern AEY. 
■ Eain-wasli, alluvium, and superficial deposits. 



15 



Pebble beds 



Trias 



Carbonife- 
rous. 



14. Upper Siwalik ... 
13. Lower Siwalik ... 

.12. Nahan 

11. "Upper limestone" 
of Salt Eange. 



Ci'etaceous 10. Olive series 
Jurassic ... 9. Variegated group 



8. Pseudom o r p h i c 
salt-crystal zone, 

7. Ceratite beds 



6. "Lower limestone'' 
of Salt Range. 



? 5. Speckled sandstone 

? 4. Magnesian sand- 
stone. 
Silurian ... 3. Obolus or Sipho- 
notreta beds. 

? 2. Purple sandstone.. 

Eruptive ... Diorite ? and Ash 

? 1. Saline Series 



Conglomerates 



Feet. 



various thickness. 



Cainozoic. 

Conglomerates, drab and pink clays ... 300 to 2,000 

Gray sandstones and red clays, with 

Bones ... ... ... 1,200 to 7,500 

Greenish-gray sandstones, crocodilian 

remains and fossil wood . . . 600 to 1,000 

Nummulite limestone. &c., large Gas- 
tropods, Bivalves, Echinoderms, &c. 400 to 600 
Mesozoic. 

Olive, reddish, and white sandstones, 
calcareous beds, black shales with 
boulders, TerebratulcB and Bivalves 150 to 350 

Red and white and variegated sand- 
stones, yellow and gray limestones 
and marls, some hsematitic layers. 
Ammonites 1 Belemnites, &c. ... ' 200 to 500 

Eed and lighter-coloui-ed flaggy sand- 
stones and blood-red clays or shales, 
pseudomorphic salt-crystals ... 50 to 500 

Gray limestones, calcareous sandstones 
and gray marls weathering greenish, 
Ceratites, kc. ... ... 120 to 250 

Pal.s;ozoic. 

Gray and magnesian limestone, cal- 
careous sandstone and argillaceous 
beds, numerous Productce, Spiriferce, 
Bellerophoii, Ooniatites, and many 
other fossils ... ... 300 to 500 

Speckled, reddish and white sand- 
stone, red and lavender clay ... 250 to 450 

Light-coloured magnesian sandstone, 

dolomite-sandstone, and shales ... 150 to 250 

Black shales with glauconitic cal- 
careous layers and sandy bands, 
Obolus or SipJionotreta ... 30 to 150 

Deep purple sandstones .. . ... 250 to 450 

A few exposures connected with the 
salt marl close up to base of No. 2 lenticular. 

Bright scarlet gypseous marls with > 800 to 1,500 
thick beds of rock-salt, gypsum, l Total un- 
thin dolomitic layers • ...J known. 



* The whole of the collections from the palaeozoic and mesozoic formations of the 
Salt Range have lately been sent to Dr. Waagen for description in the Palseontologia Indica. 

( 69 ) 



70 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT KANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The whole of this great series^ from the red marl up to the post= 

tertiary group^ presents a general and regularly 
Conformity. . -n • 

successive parallelism of stratification, each group 

succeeding the one it rests upon without the intervention of any marked 

traces of erosive action.''^ In a few isolated cases the upper surface 

of the highest carboniferous layers has been found locally rugged, as if 

the upward succession were less regular at that horizon, but in its 

general aspect it presents no exception to the rule.f 

Haematitic layers have been observed in some instances to mark the 
junction of some of the upper formations, both where the succession 
indicates the greatest irregularity and where it exhibits the least. 

One break, indicated by derived pebbles of the lower rocks, at the 
junction of the tertiary sandstones with the nummulitic limestonej 
accompanied by as much parallelism as elsewhere, will be noticed 
further on. 

Saline Series. 
Hed Marl : Gypsum : Hock-salL 

The saline series is distinguished by the predominance of marl, in 

colour bright scarlet to dull purple, containing 
Salt Marl No. 1. , , , i ^ i- -, -, 

the rock-salt, gypsum, and some subordinate dolo- 

mitic layers, all forming together the lowest member of the series. In 
every section and every glen where the section is seen, the , gypseous 
marl may be clearly observed passing beneath the next group and 
underlying all. It is always succeeded by dull earthy sandstones or con- 
glomeratic beds, and always presents the same peculiar aspect. 



* In the outer Himalayas, at Sirban mountain, near Abbottabad, there is marked 
unconformity of the Trias, &c., resting upon the supposed Silurian slates, 

t This unbroken passage of the rocks from Palaeozoic to Mesozoic formations, the 
distinction being chiefly marked by the fossils alone, seems also to characterise the succes- 
sion in the Himalayas as shown by Dr. Stoliczka's Sections and his paper, — see Mem. 
Geol. Sur., Vol. V. 

( 70 ) 



SALINE GROUP. 71 

Its brilliant scarlet colour, together with the arid aspect of the ground 

it forms, distinguish this rock from all the other 
Colour. 

groups. Under vertical sunshine it pales consid- 
erably, owing to the slope of the ground, and to the associated whiter 
gypsum being more visible ; but when the sun is low the marl glows vividly 
in the slanting rays, reflections of one surface upon another producing the 
softest and most velvet-like transparent shadows, while parts of a dull 
purple colour vary its monotony, and, at a sufficient distance to be in- 
fluenced by the blue of the atmosphere, this gives rise to many harmo- 
nious effects. 

The marl forms the most noticeable portion of the saline group, but 
in close association with it are thick beds of gypsum and thicker ones 
of rock-salt. It is tough rather than hard, but when very dry, possesses 
much the consistence of sun-dried brick. 

According to Dr. Warth's examination, it contains a quantity of 
gypsum, and from Dr. Fleming's account I extract 

Composition. 

the followmg : " It does not disintegrate when 
treated with hydrochloric acid, but in powder effervesces strongly, the 
greater part remaining undissolved as a red mud composed of clay and 
sulphate of lime ; the portion soluble in acid consists of carbonate of 
lime and carbonate of magnesia in about equal proportions with a 
little alumina and peroxide of iron, to which it owes its colour.''' "^ With 
this composition the name of "gypseous marP' is not inapplicable. 

Beyond the gjrpseous, saline, and dolomitic layers the red marl bears 
stratification andtWck- ^^^ original traces .of stratification, or inter-strati- 
^^^^^" fication, generally none at all ; hence it is difficult 

to form any correct idea of its thickness. Supposing it to have, where 
most largely developed, the same nearly horizontal stratification as other 
groups in its vicinity, and reckoning from the height of the mountain 
slopes which it forms (near Kusuk), it would appear to be at least 1,500 
feet in thickness. It may be doubted whether another example could be 



* Fleming's 2nd Report, p. 240. 

( 71 ) 



73 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OE THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

found of such a homogeneous^ argillaceous and aqueous deposit of the 
same depth in which signs of stratification are equally absent. In strong 
contrast to this is the perfect lamination frequently seen in the enclosed 
salt; and in the platy dolomitic layers. From the contorted state of the 
latter, and the curvature of the beds of salt in some of the mines, it may 
be presumed that, whether stratified or not, the salt marl is likewise 
disturbed. It has never been found to show any traces of erosion before 
the deposition of the next group. 

Dr. Fleming speaks of parts of the marl as brecciated, enclosing 
angular masses of other rocks, and mentions thin, argillaceous, dark-red 
layers in it. The latter I have not been able to detect, and the former 
observation seems to refer to some superficial mingling of fallen materials. 
Every one who has examined the ground pronounces the marl un- 
fossiliferous, but I am not aware that any of it has been subjected to 
microscopic examination. 

It may be found in the most complex association with various other 
groups, and through faulting it is brought into juxta-position with some 
of the very newest rocks of the series, or it may be apparently incousecu- 
tively overlaid by various bands — a result of progressive displacement, 
in most cases caused by the dissolving of the salt or washing out of 
the marl from below the superior groups. It thus continually makes its 
appearance among the stratigraphic wreck which it has itself produced, 
and it is not completely buried by the mass of the overlying series, frac- 
tures permitting it to appear occasionally on the top of the range and 
along its northern slopes. Along the southern foot of the range it is 
seen wherever the ground is not thickly covered 
by debris. It rises pretty high to the eastward ; 
at Khewra to 1,000 feet nearly ; at Kusuk to between this and 1,500 ; 
at Mount Chambal (west) to nearer 300 feet ; but westward of Makrach it 
lies generally low. At Varcha it is again high ; it has been found at 
Dheri in the plateau country close to an elevation of 2,739 feet, and it 
( 73 ) 



SALINE GROUP. 



73 



forms a hill of some 427 feet* above the plains at Marl on the Indus. 
On the north side of the range it is found in a small glen at Vasnal, and 
obliquely traversing the slope from Kalar Kahar lake to west-by-south. 

The only non-constituent minerals which the marl is known to con- 
tain besides the gypseous and saline ones are bi- 
pyramidal quartz crystals in the gypsum of Mari 
(said also to be found at Sardi), scattered crystals or nests of iron pyrites 
in the gypsum also, here and there, and earth-oil intercalated with the 
gypsum of Khewra gorge. 

As to age, the salt marl has been referred to Triassic, New Red 
Sandstone or Permian, Miocene or Pliocene, but it 
is now known, from the way in which it passes 
beneath the overlying beds, to be not newer than Silurian — a fact de- 
pending upon the discovery of Obolus or Siphonotreta in the group 
No. 4. Beyond this its place cannot be as yet more definitely fixed. 

Besides the disseminated gypsum, the red marl contains extensive 

beds and masses of this mineral, often largely 
Gypsum. 

developed in its upper part, but also more doubt- 
fully present in lower situations. As a rule, the gypsum overlies the salt. 
Sometimes it is interstratified with the marl, and sometimes it appears as if 
former beds had been broken up, or partially dissolved, leaving large frag- 
mentary masses embedded in the softer rock. Contorted or even distorted 
lines of stratification are found in the gypsum, but it has never been found 
to contain any detrital pebbles or foreign fragments. According to 
Dr. Fleming, it is nearly pure sulphate of lime, free from carbonate of 
lime. Its texture varies from compact and sub-crystalline to saccharine, 
and plates of clear selenite are also foundo Its colour is white, or white 
mottled with grey or bluish grey, or it is sometimes pink or red ; 
the more compact varieties are used for turning into ornamental 
utensils. 

* From comparison of heights on map and that given by Fleming, p. 449, 2ud Report. 
K ( ^3 ) 



74 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

Although the gypsum occurs in great quantity, true anhydrite has 

never been found associated with it or in the marl, 
Semi-anliydrite. 

the nearest approach to this mineral being certain 

large nodular cores of greater weight and hardness and of a bluish white 

tint within beds of the whitish gypsum. Specimens of this rock were 

found by Dr. Warth to contain only 5 per cent, of water. 

Bischof says : Sulphate of lime at high temperatures under pressure 
crystallises with 6*21 per cent, of water, thus forming a semi-anhydrite'^ 
(anhydrite being of course waterless and gypsum containing 20-79f per 
cent.) , and coming close to the Salt Kange rock. Gypsum (according to 
Bischof also) may have three-fourths of its water driven off by long ex- 
posure to boiling temperature, leaving the same percentage nearly as in 
Dr. Warth^s specimen. Hence it would appear that if this be an original 
rock, a high temperature may have existed during its formation,:|: or 
heat may have acted upon it since its deposition. If neither be the case, 
the situation of this semi-anhydrite may suggest the transition of the 
rock from anhydrite to gypsum by taking up water. This variety 
melts away or changes into finely crystalline white powder below the 
surface of a stream highly charged with salt in Khewra gorge. 

Sometimes in thick masses of the ordinary gypsum, there occur layers 
Dolomite layers in gyp- ^f ^hite, brittle, hard flaggy dolomite which looks 
s^^- and burns like a limestone. At one or two places, 

notably at the southern foot of Mount Tilla,§ these dolomite layers 
contain numerous and very perfect casts of large " hopper-shaped" crystals 
of salt. The same kind of rock becomes massive at the western foot of 
Mount Chambal (east) northward of Jalalpiir, also in Khewra glen, 
where a foetid variety is associated with the peculiar eruptive rock of 



* Bischof on rock-salt works near Stassfiu-t, C. E. M. PfefEer, Halle, p. 48. 
t 20-88, Vide Page, and 20-8, Dana. 

% The gypsum of the Spiti Valley is attributed partly to thermal springs. — Mallet, 
Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind., Vol. V, p 159. 
§ First observed by Dr. Warth. 

( 74 ) 



SALINE GROUP. 75 

the locality and with coaly-looking- highly bituminous shales oecurrino- 
as a pocket or small lenticular mass."^ 

In several places^ and apparently low down in the salt marl, hard, 
thin, dark, platy, gray, or greenish layers of what appears to be also 
a sandy dolomite with shaly partings, have been met with in several 
places: they may perhaps be the thin beds of chert and silicious sinter 
of Dr. Fleming^s paper (p. 240). 

In a few spots — fewer even have been placed on record by others— 
I have met with some irregular patches of a dark 

Trap. , 

purple compact to earthy volcanic-looking rock. 

It occurs associated with gypsum and red marl close to the upper surface 
of the saline series, just below the purple sandstone (No. 2). • It has the 
appearance of a diorite, and is associated with paler purple "volcanic tufa 
or ash. It is crowded with stellate accicular crystals of what may be 
decomposed actinolite,t and contains strings and nests of talc, small 
geodes of reddish and clear quartz and chalcedony, minute cavities filled 
with reddish calcite, strings of quartz and white specks of some decom- 
posed mineral not sufficiently abundant for determination. I have not 
observed this trap in dykes, but in nearly horizontal lenticular layers from 
a few inches up to 6 feet thick or even more ; in some places between 
gypsum bands, sometimes having a thin layer of the red marl between it 
and the overlying sandstone, or, as in the Nilawan ravine, lying between 
rock-salt and gypsum. Here it is partly decomposed, but may have been 
15 feet thick. The associated violet or lavender earthy portion is used by the 
natives instead of soap. J It generally overlies the more solid rock with an 
irregular thickness up to 4 feet. Mr. Theobald seems to have found 
this rock in a more dyke-like position altering the adjacent rocks an 



* Some of the shale made a fine blazing fire, decrepitating while burning and leaving 
much ash, also giving off sulphurous fumes. From this rock Dr. Warth obtained a dark 
mineral oil by distillation. 

t Tremolite : Fleming, p. 242, and Theobald, p. 676. 

J Not unlike the ashy clays with the volcanic -looking infra-nummulitic laterites in 
Kachh.— Mem. Geol. Sur., Vol. XI. 

( 75 ) ' 



76 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

observation difficult to make on account of the general decomposition in 
its vicinity where I have seen it. In the Upper Khewra gorge the 
following section occurs : — 

8. Purple sandstone ... ... ... to feet. 

7. Red gj'pseous clay ... ... ... 10 to 15 „ 

6. Lenticular mass of trap, maximum,.. ... 5 to 6 „ 

5. Greenish clay ... ... ... 2 „ 

4. Powdery dolomitic layer, white ... ... 4 „ 

3. Bituminous shale ... ... ... 6 inches. 

2. Dolomitic laminated bands ... ... 15 feet. 

1. Red marl, gypsum, and salt ... ... 1,000 „ 

The rock-salt is found near the upper part of the red marl as a rule, 
and generally just below the greatest development 
of the gypsum, with which its stratification is 
parallel. It alternates with thick, dark-brownish red beds of impure 
saline marl, called by the natives hallar, and is pink, reddish, or white, 
rarely having gray blotches, but frequently showing numerous alterna- 
tions of laminae of small thickness, reddish and white colour and different 
degrees of opacity. 

The marl, gypsum, and salt, all yielding rapidly to the wasting action 
of the atmosphere, which reduces the whole to a state of obscurity, it is 
difficult to find any natural sections from which to gather the detailed 
structure of the saline zone. In Khewra mining region, where a 
portion of the saline deposits has been most fully explored and a survey 
of the mines made, the lowest bed of the series as known there is a bed 
of salt, but this is insufficient to show that salt-rock is always the lowest 
member of the series. 

The various modes of concealment, natural or artificial (to prevent 

theft), combine to prevent an idea being formed of 

on mm y. ^^ lateral extension of the salt beyond wha't may 

be gathered from its very frequent occurrence along the southern foot of 

the range. As to its thickness, whether local or otherwise, the great • 

caverns excavated in it at Khewra, Varcha, and other localities (some of 

which are large enough to contain good-sized parish churches or large 

houses) give a general notion of the massive character of the deposit. 

( 76 ) 



SALINE GROUP. 



77 



At the Mayo Mines, Dr. Warth"'^ has found from his survey that the salt 
occurs in five great beds having- a united thickness of 275 feet, alter- 
nating- with another 275 feet of kallar or impure salt, the whole of this, 
saline group being intercalated in the upper part of about 1,000 feet of 
red marl and gypsum. 

.Single beds of the salt are over 100 feet in thickness here, and 
in other parts of the range vary from 6 to 30 feet; indeed, the salt occurs 
so frequently that it does not appear to have ever been necessary to 
trace out the extension of any particular bed. 

The beds are not all of equally good salt, some containing a little 
earthy matter, but many, if not the majority of 
them, consist of the mineral in a fine translucent 
or even transparent condition varying from crystalline to compact. 

The following analyses of the sah of the (Khewra) Mayo Mines 
will be found with others in Dr. Warth^s Report 
already mentioned, these having been made by 
Mr. Cornelius Hickey, Chemical Analyst, Agraf : — 



Composition. 



CoNTElfTS. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 

Average. 


Earthy matter ... 
Sulphate of lime 
Chloride of calcium 
Chloride of magnesium 
Chloride of sodium 
Water and loss ... 


Trace. 
0-77 

0-71 

94-60 

3-92 


Trace. 
069 
0-42 
0-71 
92-84 
5-34 


Trace. 
0-92 
116 
1-34 
92-80 
3-78 


0-04 
0-68 

2-22 

91-74 

5-32 


Trace. 
0-75 
0-50 
1-25 
93-00 
4-50 


Total 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 



No. I. Purest white crystalline salt. 

No, II. White salt as sold from depot, Buggy Mine. 

No. III. Red salt as sold from depot, Slijewal Mine. 

No. IV. Mixed red and white salt as sold from depdt, Buggy Mine. 

No. V. Average good salt of Mayo Mines calculated from the others. 

* Report in Appendix to Administration Report, Inland Customs, 1869-70. 

t Dr. Fleming thought the salt contained no chloride of magnesium, and that the 
red salt derived its colour from something of an organic nature (p. 243, Report previouslj' 
quoted). Dr. Jameson (auth. cit.) speaks of crystals of quartz as occurring, though rarely, 
in the salt. These I have never observed or known to be observed, 

( 77 ) 



78 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT KANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The banded structure of the salt beds is chiefly caused by layers 
of different colour, the bands being most solid, 
looking- or of darkest colour about the middle and 
softened into a paler tint on the edge ; sometimes there are alternating 
layers of a red earthy nature from which Epsom salt effloresces. The strata 
have a regularity intermediate between that ordinarily observable in flag- 
stone and sandstone, the bands or layers having in some places for consi- 
derable distances vertical to their planes a general thickness of 6 to 8 inches 
varying to 2 feet, while for several yards across the strike in some of the 
larger beds no lamination at all is to be seen. There are also numerous 
irregularities of the bedding showing much lenticular arrangement of 
deposition. In one place an earthy film was observed crossing a thick bed 
in a zig-zag manner as if a crack had been filled up. No sign of current 
(ripple) mark or well-developed oblique lamination could be found. Layers 
of the salt thinning out, convex above and below, were frequently 
seen. 

A contorted band of salt between two layers of hallar similarly 

curved was observed in the 10-feet 
marl bed ( fig. 5 ), the appear- 
ance being precisely similar to 
that produced by disturbance in 
ordinary stratified rocks, though 
the arch was only about 3 feet 
across. One of the uppermost 
layers of the salt in the Khewra 
gorge has a mechanical brecciated 
soJx. "b KcJiar- "^ structure, and encloses fragments 

of marl, gypsum, and of rock-salt. 

Fig. 5.— CoQtortion in beds within the Mayo salt mines. 

The whole of the group of salt beds at this place is shown to be 
curved by the different angles of dip observable, but none of the 
complicated little foldings so common in the adjacent gypsum and 

( 78 ) 



Z"'^" 


^^TJ-J#^ 


A 


'- 


t ( / 




V 


„ 


// / . 


i 

f 


// / _, : 


■it 


/ / 


s 

/' ^ 


/ 


'-^ r 


/' ^' 


' 



h 



SALINE GROUP. 79 

dolomitic layers are apparent. The curvature mig-lit either result from 
general disturbance of the whole strata, or from partial motion iu the 
saline series only, and would go to prove a certain flexibility even in 
the crystalline salt rockj which must have crystallised in horizontal 
planes originally. Superincumbent pressure is of enormous force in the 
mines, the strongest stone masonry, even in arches, being crushed out 
of form, and where large 40 feet pillars of salt are left to support 
the roof, this vertical pressure causes huge flakes of the mineral to 
separate. 

At the ends of ^'drifts" also the pressure causes large pieces to flake 
off the vertical surfaces left unsupported by working out. 

The whole mass of the salt-mines hill is subject to percolation of 
small quantities of rain water, which would eventually cause movement 
and slippage under the pressure alluded to. 

The compact solidity of the salt may be inferred from the fact that 
sounds travelling through it are audible at distances of 110 to 130 feet 
(as proved by Dr. Warth^'s measurement) . The miners often, in approach- 
ing drifts, signal to each other by blows of a sledge on the face into 
which they are cutting. 

Sulphate of magnesium (Epsom salts) is mentioned in small quanti- 
ties in some of the analyses (given by Dr. Warth) 
Associated salts, 

made from waste-salt ; its existence is doubtful, 

except to a very trifling extent in the mass of this rock-salt, but it 
impregnates the hallar and thin layers between the salt-beds. It also 
efiloresces from the surfaces of the red marl in old workings. 

Dr. Warth has also found in the mines a white mineral composed of 
gypsum, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of magnesium, besides very 
beautiful, long, curving, fibrous, spun-glass-like crystallizations of salt 

( 79 ) 



80 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

in some of the old drifts, which are now neither safe nor easy of access. 
In fissures of the salt* he has met with scattered crystals of selenite 
and crystalline nests of a mineral with the composition of Glauberite 
(sulphate of calcium and sulphate of sodium without water) . 

While a collection of the Salt Range minerals was being- made for the 

- Vienna Exhibition of 1873, a greenish or reddish- 

Potassium salts. •Till ii 

white glassy mmeral, harder than common salt, 

was found by Dr. Warth extensively mixed with the material of the 

Icallar band, separating the Sujewal and Purwalla salt seams of the Mayo 

mines. It predominated throughout a thickness of 6 feet in the hallar 

bed, and was largely mixed with sulphate of magnesium, which also pre- 

vailed through 7 feet of the same band immediately beneath. On a 

rough examination by Dr. Warth this was found to be potassium salt. 

In composition it varied, and two of the specimens for the Vienna 

Exhibition examined by Mr. Tween gave the following results : — 



Chloride of potassium 
Do. of sodium 

Sulphate of magnesium 
Do. of potassium 

Water 



No. 1. No. 2. 

Colourless salt. Pink-coloured salt. 

3-8 61 '43 
29-82 

58-02 7-78 
38 

•62 2-1 



100-44 100-63 



This potassium salt is referred to in a translation from the Jahrbuch 
der h. k. Qeologisehen Reichsanstalt, xxiii, No. 2, p. 136,t as a white or 
reddish granular mixture of sylvine (chloride of potassium) and kieserite 
(sulphate of magnesium) , the kieserite possessing the same hardness and 
cleavage as the Hallstadt mineral and also appearing to be compact. It 



* In Sujewal and PurwaUa mines, where the salt crystals sometimes assume unusual 
forms, the margins of the cube-faces being replaced so that the solid angles have 6 bevelled 

3S. 

t Records, Geol. Surv. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 64. 
( 80 ) 



SALINE GROUP. 81 

has been ascertained that this potash salt forms only a local lenticular 
deposit : it has not been found except in this instance, so far as I am 
aware. 

As to size and quantity, the salt deposits of this district rank high 

among known localities for the mineral, numerous 
Size and quantify. 

though these are known to be.* The salt group 

of the Salt Range, though occupying a much greater longitudinal extent 

of country, displays much less salt at the surface than is exposed in the 

Trans-Indus salt region. The mineral is found at not very distant 

intervals along the south side of the range for a distance of 120 miles. 

How much of the salt formerly existing has been removed by the 
percolation of fresh water, and perhaps subterraneously distributed to the 
southward, cannot of course be known, but it is on record that the water 
of the Thull or Bar and of many places in that direction is brackish 
or sufficiently saline for salt to be manufactured from it; this is at 
great distances from the Salt Range. 

It is not easy to attempt even a rough estimate of the quantity of 
salt in the Salt Range. If an average thickness of only 135 feet and a 
width of three miles be assigned to the salt beds, then, in the 130 
miles along which these are seen, there may be 130 miles X 3 miles 
X 135 feet of beds, giving as the solid content of the salt deposits 
nearly 10 cubic miles. 

* Large deposits of salt are known to occur at Hormuz in the Persian Gtilf, near the 
chores of the Caspian Sea, in Persia, in Algeria, in Europe, and America; hut still those of 
the Salt Range seem hardly inferior to any of those recorded by Dr. Karsten {Lehrluch 

der Salinenkunde, Berlin). Salt is not known to occur in the valley of Kashmir, see 

Dana's Mineralogy, Art. Salt. 

A shaft which took several years to sink is stated to have passed through 3,907 feet 
of rock-salt at Sperenberg, twenty miles from Berlin, without reaching the limit of the 
deposit (Sitzunsber d. Naturf. G«sellsch. zu Halle, 1867, 23, Nov.) The salt was met with 
at 280 feet from the surface of the ground, but the dip not being given, the thickness 
cannot be estimated. A measured section at Bahadur Kheyl, trans-Indus, gave a thickness 
of 1,000 to 1,200 feet of salt, the very magnitude of which rendered it doubtful whether 
there were not concealed faults. 

L ( 81 ) 



82 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

Rock-salt, gypsum, and dolomite have always presented, as to their 
; Origin of the rock- origin, difficulties too well known to need recapitu- 
lation.* With regard to their occurrence in this 
district, notwithstanding the progress of geological knowledge, I may 
quote and apply this passage of Macculloch, written forty-six years ago : 
" It is far easier to show that the most simple and obvious hypothesis 
is wrong or imperfect than to propose a probable one ;" and, further, I 
might almost use his words, " no rational explanation has yet been 
suggested, and I have none to offer/'f 

Though the subject still remains very much in the obscurity which 
surrounded it when that author wrote, a few points bearing upon it 
may be noticed. 

That the mysterious conditions necessary to the production of these 

deposits have been persistent from very early 

Continuance or recur- , . , . . i t i -i 

rence of the salt-produc- geological time, or else recurrent, is established 

^ ^ ^ ' by the local relations, tha red marl and gypsum 

usually (but not always) accompanying rock-salt being as prominent in 
this region as in many more modern ones ; while the saline nature of 
many of the groups would indicate the presence, more or less, of salt- 
producing conditions, from the silurian or pre-silurian epoch up to 
tertiary times. 

Most, if not all, of the groups in the Salt Range series appear to have 
been marine, and saline ingredients of one kind or another effloresce from 
many of their beds, but as the succession is consecutive, or unbroken up 
to the base of the tertiary sandstone group, these saline traces do not 
appear connected with any derivative formation of the newer from the 
waste of the older rocks. 



* It is the less necessary to discuss these causes here, because a similai' subject has 
been noticed recently in describing the Trans-Indus Salt Region : Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind., 
Vol. XI, p. 37. 

t A System of Geology, by John Macculloch, M.D., F.R.S,, Lond., Vol. II, p. 293, 
Longman, &c.; 1831. 

( 82 ) 



SALINE Gl?Oirp. 83 

The regularity with which the red marl, salt, and g-ypsum arc 

overlaid by aqueous deposits, tog-ether with their 
Solar evaporation. 

internal stratification so far as this is exhibited, 

are in favour of the salt having been produced by evaporation^ the 

theory most generally adopted. 

The absence in this vicinity of any known great volcanic vents. 
Distance from any vol- either active or dormant, at the early period to 
which the salt and gypsum belong, is not in favour 
of a strong connection with volcanic causes, and yet the idea is strangely 
associated with the fact that the only igneous rock of the whole Salt 
Kange — one of apparently volcanic origin — occurs absolutely within the 
saline series. The suggestion of high temperature indicated by the 
semi-anhydrite, found not far from that porphyritic rock, bears upon 
this point, as does also the association of dolerites and trachytes with 
the salt-rocks of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf.* 

The internal structure of the salt beds and the numerous indications 

Possibly limited area ^f lenticular deposition, suggest limited areas of 

of accumulation. hcal accumulation on the same horizon ; perhaps 

of similar character to the salt-lakes Professor Ramsay has supposed 

to have existed during the Triassic period. f 

Some modern writers J suggest the existence of enormous salt- 
producing causes, at extremely remote geological periods. This silurian 
or pre-silurian Salt-Eange salt being among the most ancient deposits of 
the mineral known, some trace of these causes of production might be 
expected to show itself, but nothing has been detected to indicate a dif- 
ferent origin from other salt-rock deposits. On the other hand, the 
Trans-Indus salt, so much more recent, if laterally less extensive, has also 

* Mr. Blanford's paper in the Eecords of tlie Geological Survey of India, Vol. V, 
part 2, p. 42. 

t Anniversary Address, 1864, Quar, Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., Vol. XX, p. 47 j also 
Quar. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., Vol. XXVIII, p. 160. 

J See Chemistry of the Primeval Earth, and subsequent correspondence by Dr. Sterry 
Hunt-and Mr..David Forbes, Geol. Mag., Vol, IV, pp. 363, 365, 438, 439, and Vol. V. 

( 83 ) 



m WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALt EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

a much greater development in mass ; and while the tertiary period to 

which it is believed to belong approximates to present time^ this salt itself 

has a much greater structural similarity to the ancient deposits associated^ 

like it, with gypsum, than to any known modern salt formation.* 

Recent salt regions are proverbially azoic, and no organisms 

of any kind have been found in this salt or the 
Absence of organisms. 

accompanying gypsum, nor yet any recognisable 

ones in the succeeding group ; but burrows of Annelides (?) and small shells 
of one genus of mollusca occur in the next newer zone. However, if 
the salt were supposed to have been formed by the dessication of 
pools, there seems no reason why organisms might not be found in the 
saline series. Fossil bones occur in the gypsum of the Paris basin ; and 
in the salt of the Ran of Kach, fish, water-snakes and insects, 
prevented by the brine from undergoing decomposition, may also be seen. 
Doubtless the remains of these would become preserved in the adjacent 
mud of the Ran. 

The enormous quantity of sea-water necessary for the formation of 
Quantity of sea-water SO much saltf and the absence of ordinary detrital 
necessary. stratified deposits formed in that sea are also 

revalent considerations under the supposition of evaporation. 

Purple Sandstone. 
No, 2. — The Purple Sandstone next above the Saline series possesses 

great uniformity of aspect and texture except 
Position. 

in the far western part of the range. Its lower 

* For information regarding modern Indian salt formations, among other sources, 
see Ran of Kach, Trotter ; Appendix to Annl. Sept., Gt. Trig. Surv., 1872-73 ; Kach, 
Mem. Geol. Snrv. Ind,, Vol. IJX, pt. 1 — " Samhur Lake ;" Eept. Admin. Inland Customs 
Ind., 1870-71, pp. 113 — 125 ; Panchpadder Salt Works, Burnes, Journ. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. 
II, p. 365—" The valley of the Pooma River." Records Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. II, pt. 1. 

Salt is stated to cccur in the Hindu Kush Mountains, but whether recent or not I could 
not discover from my native informant, the only person who had seen it to my knowledge. 

t For every cubic foot of salt, it may be taken that 50 cubic feet of sea-water would 
have to be evaporated, or for a column of salt of 275 feet {ante) by 1 foot squai-e a depth of 
more than 2J miles of sea-water should disappear, not to mention the quantity of salt in 
the impure Kallar beds assisting to form the 550 feet of salt rocks at the Mayo mines. 

( 84 ) 



PUKPLE SANDSTONE. 8& 

fifty to one hundred feet immediately succeeding the red salt marl 
are very earthy, but of the usual purple colour, and appear like a transi- 
tion from the marl up Into the sandstone ; the latter is generally soft 
and splintery below, where the lines of bedding are not very clearly 
marked. Above the earthy portion argillaceous inter-stratifications are 
rare or absent, and the beds are all of a nearly equal hardness, 
considerably less than that which is usual in palaeozoic rocks. The 
sandstone is absorbent or hygrometric, frequently covered with a white 

saline efflorescence, and contains both carbonates of 
Composition. ' ^ ... • • jt t i 

lime and magnesia in its composition.* Its colour 

near the top of the group changes from the prevailing dull purple to 

much paler shades, in places banded with warm yellowish streaks. 

Dr. Fleming's and Mr. Theobald's descriptions of this sandstone 
group vary somewhat. The former describes it as containing congljo- 
merate and ripple marks, the latter as never containing a pebble and 
having none of these markings. As a rule, no doubt, Mr. Theobald is 
correct in these particulars, some earthy conglomerate bands in the 
western part of the district being only doubtfully referable to the forma- 
tion; but it would scarcely be safe to assert that ripple marks never 
occur in these sandstones, though they are certainly not characteristic 
of the group. 

In one exceptional instance only, in the eastern part of the range, a 
Exceptional appearance "^^^^ed diflPerence in the arrangenient of these 
of a dark shale band, ijg^jg ^^s met with, a strong band of greenish-gray 

flags and shales appearing to intervene between the red marl and purple 
sandstones at the base of Dandot cliffs. The occurrence being quite 
unusual, it is very probable that a concealed fault or other dislocation has 
placed the next overlying group in an apparently inverted position, and 
even though traces of the break have not been found, its presence may be 
almost presumed from the many dislocations of the rocks of the vicinity. 



* Dr. Fleming's 2nd Report, p. 253. 

( 85 ) 



86 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

The thickness of this purple group varies somewhat, but its prevalence 
Thickness and distri- ^^^ ^^^r the eastern part of the range is very con- 
^'^*io'^- stant ; here it generally forms the first cliff rising 

out from the talus or broken ground^ as at Tilla, Chambal (east), along 
the escarpment from Jalalpur towards Pind-Dadun-Khan and away to the 
west. In this direction it gets very gradually thinner and no longer shows 
itself so prominently amid the dislocated masses of other rocks, but along 
the edge of the plains traces of it appear the whole way to near Musa- 
kh^l, while in places within the glens it seems to have quite died out. 
From this part of the range to the Indus it cannot be said to exist, at 
least not in its usual form, being replaced by a clayey conglomerate of 
metamorphic pebbles. 

The group has always proved unfossiliferous, nothing more than 

obscure and doubtful traces of fucoids occurring 
UnfossUiferous. , . 

in it, and these but seldom. * 

The thickness of the Furple sandstone group varies from two hundred 
to about four hundred and fifty feet. 

Silurian. 
jVb. 5. — The Oholus or 8ipJionotreta beds show prominently in 
all the eastern sections, forming an inclined talus 
along the top of the purple sandstones ; and exposed 
as belts in the cliffs or caps to projecting spurs.* They consist of dark or 
blackish sandy shales drying of a dull purple colour, full of black glisten- 
ing polished surfaces on the planes of lamination. 
They are often micaceous and interstratified with 
crystalline calcareous glauconitic-looking layers or sandy and conglome- 
ratic bands, but the dark shaly character generally distinguishes the 
zone, which is much better defined in some places than in others. 
Strong ripple marks are seen occasionally. 

In two places — one in the Khewra gorge above where the fresh water 

is taken off for the use of the miners, and the 

Organic remains. . . . , o 

other in a deep ravine nearly a mile east oi 

( 86 ) 



SILURIAN — MAGNESIAN SANDSTONE. 87 

Jutdna, close search led me to the discoveiy o£ some little bivalves 
numerously scattered through a small thickness of the sandy micaceous 
shale. The shells are very thin, no pair ever occurring in position, and 
are frequently crushed, flat, and broken. With great care and trouble 
Dr. Waagen was able to free the internal aspect of a few of the valves 
(the outside only being visible in some hundreds of specimens) so as 
to enable them to be determined as belonging to two species of Oholus 
or Siphonotreta, genera only found in silurian rocks. The discovery of 
these led to the hope that some other fossils might be detected, but nothing 
except fucoids or annelid markings has been obtained by further search, 
and I was obliged to rest content with the proof that the Salt Range 
contained even older palseozoic rocks than the carboniferous formation 
. discovered by Dr. Fleming. 

This silurian sub-division is well defined on Mount Tilla, Chambal 

T,, , , Mountain (east), on the north-west side of Diljaba, 

Places where seen, and » / j j 

definition. from Jalalpur to Khewra, and thence to Makrach^ 

but beyond this westward becomes divided by light-coloured sandstone 
bands and loses much of its definite appearance. The characteristic shaly 
portions can nevertheless be often recognised (though of a greener 
colour), bending into the gorges and forming the middle of the cliffs as 
far as the Sungle Wan north of Nalli. 

In a few places — as, for instance, along the track from the Verala 
springs to Pail — conglomeratic bands occur in this group, the included 
pebbles being small, and as is usual in all deposits of the range older 
than tertiary, being exclusively of crystalline rocks. The thickness of 
the group varies from twenty to one hundred and fifty feet. 

Magnesian sandstone group. 

No. 4. — The next group above that with silurian fossils presents a 

strong contrast to it, and in a great measure 
Character. . . . „ , 

owing to the association of the two, forms some of 

the most marked cliff features of the escarpments of the range. In this 

character it replaces the nummulitic limestone wherever the latter is 

( 87 ) 



88 "WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

absent or inconsiderably developed ; but, possessing itself only a limited 
lateral extension, gives place again in this respect to other beds. 

The group is characterised in many places, particularly to the. east- 
ward, by the prevalence of certain hard, light cream-coloured, or whitish 
bands of dolomite and massive calcareous dolomitic sandstone rook, 
sometimes weathering after the manner of limestone, — sometimes showing 
on the weathered surface strangely arranged markings like the sections 
of flat lenticular patches of more compact texture than the rest, but 

never the smallest trace, so far as known, of any 
Composition. i • ■, n • mi • 

kind of organic structure. This variety of rock 

has been called by Dr. Fleming magnesian sandstone, and stated to have 

the following composition'^ : — 

White quartz, sand ... ... ... ... 28-000 

Carbonate of iron with a trace of alumina ... ... 7"313 

Carbonate of lime ... ... ... ... 32-874 

Carbonate of magnesia ... ... ... 31-199 

Loss ... ... ... ,.. ... "614 



Total ... 100-000 



Doubtless its composition varies much, and this analysis appears 

to have been obtained from a highly calcareous and magnesian portion 

on Mount Tilla. The more massive beds frequently present a peculiar 

brecciated appearance, as if the rock had been broken by pressure and 

re-cemented. Associated with these harder beds are strong, light coloured 

sandstones, sometimes with oolitic layers or more flaggy bands, often 

separated by greenish and dark-coloured shales, the flaggy portions being 

occasionally covered with obscure lumpy fucoidal or annelidan markings. 

Unless the oolitic bands should be found to con- 
Organic traces. ... 

tain microscopic organisms, the whole group would 

appear to be unfossiliferous otherwise than so far as stated. 

* I. c, page 255. As the rock contains more than 23 per cent, of carbonate of 
magnesium, it ought, according to Cotta, to be called dolomite. Calcareous dolomite 
sandstone would seem most applicable. 

( 88 ) 



MAGNESIAN SANDSTONE. 89 

The group with its most characteristic rock is well seen upon Mount 
Tilla^ but is hardl}' represented on the neighbouring Chambal Mountain. 
It re-appears on Diljaba and Karangli (where it contains small crystals 
of galena), and is well marked from Jalalpur towards Khewra, but 
beyond Makrach loses much of its individuality. Its sandstones beino- 
often separated by shales, it no louger forms marked features, its 
best exposures being on the spurs or among the dislocations and su])ject 
to the obscurity which they entail. Notwithstanding this, however, 
at Makrach and a little to the westward, greenish and hard white 
sandstones with dark, in places carbonaceous, shales and numerous 
large fucoids on the bedding surfaces, occupy the place of this group and 
underlie the next, proving the succession different from that apparent 
to the east. 

Dr. Fleming unites the group No. 3 with this in one of his divisions, 

although each possesses, where well developed, 
United with the group i • i i • i i n • 

below, &c., by other a strong lithological character of its own ; while 

o serv rs. -^^^ Theobald would, on the other hand, appa- 

rently include the present group with No. 10, with which it is seldom 
in contact ; at least it is difficult to account for the conglomei'ates he 
describes among the magnesian sandstones on any other grounds. 
Conglomeratic layers there may be here and there so trifling as to escape 
notice, but strong conglomerates form no prominent feature of the 
group, even in its western most sandy and most divided portion. 

In the direction of Makrach and to the westward, both this group 

and No. 3 might be included in one; but even 
Why separated. 

beyond that locality, the lower shaly zone being 

traceable much further than the overlying sandstone, &c., and both being 
more closely related to each other than to the beds either above or below 
them, it appears better to preserve the petrographical distinction, prin- 
cipally because the want of palgeontological evidence makes it impossible 
to assert that this group, like the lower one^ is siluriau. 

M ( 89 ) 



90 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The thickness of this dolomitic and sandy group, where well de- 
veloped, is more than three hundred feet, and its average may be 
between one hundred and fifty and two hundred feet. 



If we were to follow the apparently natural and conformable suc- 
cession from this group upwards anywhere about Khewra or the neigh- 
bouring eastern part of the range, the following beds would occur in 
succession : first a brilliant red group, then olive beds, and then a lime- 
stone group finally overlaid by a mass of grey and greenish sandstones 
and reddish clays. The sequence would be true and natural no doubt, but 
not the whole troth, for four other zones having their places between 
this magnesian sandstone and the " olive beds" above-mentioned would 
be unnoticed, not being present in the eastern area. 

Speckled Sandstone. 

No. 5. — Of these four groups the first indications of that which pro- 
perly succeeds the last become visible to the west- 
Commencement. ^ • n • 

ward about Makrach ; the group rapidly increases 

in thickness, and extends throughout the range, its importance growing 
less beyond the Chiderii hills, but the beds appearing frequently along 
the southern edge of the larger elevations culminating in Tredian Hill, 
and being only lost amid the complicated dislocations in the neighbour- 
hood of Mali on the Indus. 

This group of beds consists, as a mass, of light-coloured and reddish 

or purplish speckled sandstones alternating with 

red clays and shales, and including some very 

distinctly marked lavender-coloured and purple or gi-ayish argillaceous 

and gypseous bands. The latter from their deliquescent nature yield so 

rapidly to the action of the weather that the original rock can seldom be 

seen, so thickly is the outcrop covered with its own detritus in the form 

of sun-dried or powdery mud. These bands occur 
Lavender clays. ...... 

at various heights in the group, but are generally 
( 90 ) 



SPECKLED SANDSTONE. 01 

prominent as a thick mass forming- its upper part."^ As might he expected 
from the weathering- of these heds^ saline efflorescences are common on 
their surfaces. 

These lavender clays are the beds appareiitly alluded to by Flemingt 

and TheobaldJ as " cupriferous shaW'' and '' copper 
Copper shales. 

shales/^ some stress being laid u])on their occur- 
rence by these writers more than might have been the case if a 
fancied analog-y had not been perhaps suspected between them and some 
European cupriferous beds of triassic and new or old red sandstone 
age. Dr. Fleming says the occurrence of little nodules of sulphuret of 
copper was first made public by Captain Hollings, Deputy Commissioner 
of Leia. The quantity, however, was insignificant ; it was quite so in a 
commercial point of viev/ according to Mr. Theobald. The ore is said to 
be found in grains " rarely larger than a pea" on the surface of the 
beds, particularly after rain, when the green colour of the nodules brings 
them prominently into view. That they cannot be very prominent 
may be gathered from the fact that after repeated search I have failed 
to discover them in situ, the only specimens I have seen being a few in 
the possession of one of the Salt Customs Officers who did not know 
exactly from whence they came. 

The colour of the whole group of sandstones is very often reddish, 
though the sandstone beds in detail are generally 
speckled, containing greenish or purple patclies, 
or layers, of no great size. This redness is supposed to result partly 
from oxidation of iron in the rock, or more mechanically from the absorp- 
tion of water coloured by the washing of the red earthy bands. Ripple 
marks and signs of oblique lamination may be frequently observed, as 



* The colour, texture, and whole aspect of these clays are very similar to those of 
the lavender clay patches associated with the Khewra and Nilawan trap: they also 
remind one of the lavender-grey portion of the lateritic clay deposits of Kachh, which 
are also often saline.— See Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India : " On the Geology of 
Kach," Vol. IX, pt. 1, p. 68, &c. 

t Second Report, p. 257. % As. Soc. Beng., Cit. 

( 91 ) 



93 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

well as some obscure fucoid markings and plant impressions — the only 
traces of organic life the beds seem to possess. 

If these sandstones have any one peculiarity more likely to aid in 

disting-uishing them than another, it is the occur- 
Peculiarity. 

rence of numerous small wart-like concretionary 

knobs projecting from their weathered surfaces (a feature sometimes 

common also in the Barakar and in some Mahadeva sandstones of 

Central India as well as among the upper beds of the Jurassic series in 

Kach). Mr. Theobald says they are chiefly composed of the sharp sand 

of granitic rocks, and sometimes have a porphyritic aspect owing to 

crystals of felspar being present."^ Some of the coarser beds have an 

arkose look_, but I can hardly argee with him that any general or special 

character of these rocks which I have seen is sufficient to "afford 

imquestionable indications of the simultaneous existence of volcanic 

forces in the vicinity." 

From the Makrach to the Sardi glen the lower part of the group, 

for a thickness of one hundred or one hundred and fifty feet, is often 

seen to consist of brownish and light-coloured 
Conglomeratic beds. i'j-i/i iii 

sandstones with some whitish nags and dark 

shales, as well as bands of conglomerate, the pebbles in which are of 
granite, syenite, and other crystalline, trappean, or metamorphic rocks, 
this portion having a general resemblance to some of the beds of group 
No. 10. 

On reference to the diagram on Plate VIII it will be seen that another 
Irregularity of succes- group ends just about where that under notice 
sion. commences, and the idea may suggest itself whe- 

ther the two are or are not continuous. The sections in this neighbour- 
hood, however, show here and there a red band above the sandstones of 
No. 5, which may possibly be the last remnant of group No. 8. The 
latter before reaching this place gradually diminishes in thickness for a 



* Mr. Theobald's paper to As. Soc. Beng., pp. 661, 662. 
9?w ) 



CARBONIFEROUS. 



93 



long- distance, evidently disappearing- from the series, besides which 
it has hardly a petrological characteristic in common with the o-roup 
No. 5, though both are arenaceous and partly argillaceous deposits and 
both, for all useful purposes, unfossiliferous. 

This group. No. 5, is even at its commencement conglomeratic in 
places. It is occasionally so throughout its extension_, and far to the 
west, where the groups 3 and 5 lose in thickness greatly, the conglo- 
meratic character increases, the paste being often earthy and the enclosed 
fragments large boulders of crystalline rock ; but it is rather uncertain 
whether these beds may not belong to the " Purple sandstone." The ' 
average thickness of the group where well seen is from two hundred and 
fifty to four hundred feet. 

Carboniferous Limestone, &c. 
No. 6. — We come now to a very interesting formation, the carbon- 
iferous rocks of the Salt Range which have attracted so much attention 
The most prominent beds of the group are grey limestones, in colour 
texture, and very frequently in the general aspect of their organic remains 

"undistinguishable from much of the carboniferon« 
Limestone. . . «-^ ^^ u^ 

limestone so largely developed in England and 
Ireland. As in the latter country, magnesian limestones are also com- 
mon. Shales often predominate at the base, sup 
other rocks. . ) '=<^^ 

ceeded by yellowish and reddish sandstones with 
Spirifer and fish remains (teeth, &c.), sometimes containing strono- bands 
of black coaly sandy shale. The upper parts of these sandstones are 
in places often highly fossiliferous with Fusilina, 
Aulosteges, Froductus, Spirifer, &c., and are suc- 
ceeded by limestones, dolomitic or otherwise, with Goniatifes, Geratites 
Strophalosia, Athyris, StreptorhyncJms, several species of Productus 
Spirifer, Retzia, Terehratula, Macrocheilus , Fenestella, Polypora, Rete- 
pora, Crinoids, and many other of the carboniferous forms, such, for 

„ , instance, as are mentioned in the papers of David- 

Sandy upper strata. . ^ 

son and de Koninck already referred to. The 

( 93 ) 



94 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

upper strata are again sandy ; or light -coloured sandstones even^ among 
whieli are intercalated coaly shales and argillaceous beds, reappear^ one 
Different sections in thick sandstone band being crowded with a globose 
different places. species oi Better ophon. The sections differ much in 

different places j occasional sandstone bands may occur anywhere, and not 
unfrequently the solid grey limestone has been found directly overlying the 
lavender clays at the top of the sandstone group below. The limestones 
vary in colour from grey to black, and several of the magnesian bands are 
of a warm yellow colour. The beds are more commonly compact than 
crystalline and are sometimes crinoidal, chert layers and nodules being in 
places very common. 

Dr. Fleming has sub-divided these rocks into three groups, the middle 

one of which he distinguishes as micaceous, fine- 
Fleming's and Theo- • i n -i i • • ^ ^ ^ e 
bald's three-fold sub- grained, fissile sandstone, alternating with beds ot 

dark bituminous shale. "Whether such a divisio^i 

could be carried out or not Trans-Indus seems doubtful, and as no such 

grouping has been found to characterise the Cis -Indus carboniferous 

formation, it is very probable that both Dr. Fleming and Mr. Theobald, 

in forming their triplicate classifications of the beds, took the main part 

of this formation for their two lowest groups, and made their third of 

the triassic beds. 

These writers also allude (the latter with much doubt) to the 

occurrence of both Ceratites and Orthoceratiles in 

Their allusion to 0^- i -r-, -n^i ■ • j • ^ 

thoceratites and Cera- these beds, and Dr. Fleming gives a drawing 

^*'^^*- of a piece of rock in which Ceraf.ites and Orl/io- 

ceratites occur together. Mr. Theobald had never seen an Orihoceratlte 

along the range, but suggested that parts of Belemnites might have 

been taken for them. The fact is that both of these forms do occur in 

the triassic limestones, the Orthoceratites being, however, rare, and the 

forms figured in Fleming's plate are not from the carboniferous, but 

were recognised by Dr. Waagen as from the triassic beds above. 

The CeraiUes, which are most of them new, and all different from 

( 94 ) 



CARBONIFEUOUS. *^'' 

the carboniferous species^ occur iu much the g'rcalest aljumhincc in 
the triassic group. 

But a stranger fact even than that alluded to has been already 
Discovery of Ammon- noticed, namely, the discovery by Dr. Waagen, at 
''^*- a place about a mile north o£ Jabi, in a laud- 

slipped mass, of the carboniferous limestone (belonging to the lower 
portion of its upper part) of an unquestionable but altogether unique 
Ammonite, or, as he has called this form, I'hylloceras, associated with 
Goniatites, Ceratites, Athyris Roi/ssii, several well-known species of 
Producius, Terebratula Hitnalayensis, Feneslella, and other carboniferous 
fossils. In the prog-ress of the survey, several Goniatites and nodose 
Ceratites, closely resembling Ammonites in exterior form, were collected ; 
but here at least a genuine one was found, the oldest known occurrence 
of that genus.* 

The magnesian portions of the limestones are, as Dr. Fleming* says^, 

generally interbedded, and where they cross the 
Magnesian beds. . . i • p i 

stratificationf all the relations or the rocks are 

obscure. The magnesian rocks are in places not wholly unfossili- 

ferous, Echinoid spines, and parts of a few other fossils, often corals 

of silicious composition, weathering out from the surface. 

The carloniferous formation commences in the fine cliffs on the west 
side of the Nilawan ravine, helow the beds 

Commencement and 
development of the form- recorded as carboniferous in that locality by 

Dr. Fleming and Mr. Theobald. The rocks here 

are coarse, light-coloured, yellowish-grey and greenish sandstones with 

coaly laminse and a band of sandy calcareous shales. The sandstones 

contain 'Frodiictus sphiosus, and the whole group, having a thickness of 

sixty or seventy feet, immediately succeeds the lavender clays, &c., of 

the group below. From this westward the carboniferous beds are much 

* See Mem. Geol. Sur., Vol. IX, pt. 2. 

t This vertical arrangement of magnesian portions of carboniferous beds often 
occurs in Ireland. 

( 95 ) 



96 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

concealed, but "they reappear with largely increased thickness in the 
part of the Verala^ scarp towards Pail and in the immediate vicinity of 
that village. Still further to the westward they develope rapidly into 
an important member of the series, having a thickness of at least four 
hundred and fifty or five hundred feet, which would appear to be mantained 
as far as the Chideru hills. In the narrow part of the range connecting 
these hills with the Tredian cluster, the thickness appears less, but 
increases in the latter hills near Swas. With the extension of these hills 
towards the Indus the thickness again decreases, and the formation 
strikes obliquely out towards the plain and disappears at Khyrabad. 

These carhoniferous limestones in their greatest development carry on 
the scarp feature usually formed by the nummulitic 
limestone, but with less regularity, being often 
subject to intense contortion and slippage. The peculiarity of the way 
in which they are sometimes decomposed in situ as mentioned at page 59 
is well seen about Jalar lake and towards the Kavhad glen, while the 
country which they occupy, with its rolling ground, sheeted by frag- 
mentary debris, its steep precipices and deep ravines, has an aspect 
peculiarly its own. 

Triassic Ceuatite Guoup. 

No. 7. — Immediately succeeding the carhoniferous rocks is another 

interesting but smaller formation, the existence of 

which was suggested by the doubts felt with 

regard to the place of some of the fossils sent by Dr. Fleming 

and Mr. Purdon to Europe for examination. The lowest beds of these 

triassic rocks are generally thin limestone with 
Lowest beds. 

Ceratites, succeeded by a thick marly zone, that 

yields much to atmospheric disintegration and weathers of a light greenish 

colour, which enables the band to be distinguished from a considerable 

distance. These are overlaid by grey sandstone 
Succession. 

and flaggy limestone layers with many Ceratites, 

passing upward into grey nodular marls. Hard limestones and calcareous 
( 96 ) 



TRIASSIC. 97 

sandstone beds with spinose Ceratites, marls, limestones, and sandstones, 
form the upper portion of the group, and contain, besides Ceratites, 
numerous specimens of Qervillia, a Cardinia, Rhi/nchonella, dnoplophora, 
OrtJioceras, &c., being generally characterised by a predominance of 
bivalves.^ 

The succession varies frequently as to details, and some of the 

limestones are magnesian, or dolomite bands take 
Magnesian. t • i • i 

their place. Sometimes layers of glauconitic 

limestone (or pisolitic limestone with glauconite) occur, and beds of 

conglomerate, in one instance formed of huge limestone blocks, are 

sometimes present. 

This representative of the Trias first appears in the neighbourhood of 

Kurat and Katwahi, and extends thence to the 
First appearance. 

westward, except where interrupted by dislocation. 

It also occasionally occurs in isolated or surrounding outliers as near 

Virgal. It is well seen near Chideru, and from the vicinity of Sakesar 

accompanies the carboniferous formation everywhere to its disappearance 

at Khyrabad. 

The group is characterised throughout by the number of Ceratites 

which it contains. Certain species of these prevail 
Ceratites. 

m certain zones, and one band is marked by a pre- 
dominance of the genus BellerophonX — an instance of geological history 
repeating itself, the same genus occupying, as has been said, a strongly 
marked zone in the upper part of the foregoing group. 

^hese triassic rocks, though lithologieally distinguishable, present no 

No strong lithological ^"^^ marked contrast to the carboniferous form- 

contrast. ation as exists between the Trias and succeeding 

beds. The limestones are more thin-bedded, and the shales or marls of 

* This information as to fossils is given from Dr. Waagen's notes, 
f This name must be distinguished from Khewra. It is exactly represented by the old 
spelling " Koora." 
X Dr. Waageu, 

N ( 97 ) 



VO WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

different character and somewhat different colour ; but the whole aspect 
of the group is such that, were it not for the palseontological evidence, it 
might pass for a portion of the palaeozoic rocks immediately below with 
which it was classed by Dr. Fleming. The thickness of the formation is 
very much less than that of the carboniferous beds, being on an average 
a hundred and twenty to two hundred feet or sometimes even three 
hundred feet. 

PSEUDOMORPHIC SaLT-CrYSTAL ZoNE. 

jVo. 8. — The thin-bedded and flaggy sandstones with intensely red 
shales or clays which form this group, have 
been separated from the rest of the series, prin- 
cipally on lithological grounds, and although the rocks differ widely in 
appearance from the Ceratite-bearing triassic beds, I have been induced 
Eeasons for supposing *« P^^ce them with or near the latter for the fol- 
these beds Trias. lowing reasons : First, superposition shows them 

to form a newer sub-division than all the rocks up to the Magnesian 
sandstone, inclusive. Secondly/, they thin out towards the sandstone No. 5, 
which comes into the series near their termination but at a lower level 
in the cliffs about Makrach. Thirdhj, they possess no similarity to the 
carloniferous formation, nor yet to the associated triassic rocks, while 
they have some analogies of colour with the succeeding porassic beds, 
and if placed between the two latter might form a transitional group.* 
It will be seen on reference to the diagram that this group No. 8 is 
separated by a distance of nearly forty miles from both the known triassic 
and Jurassic groups ; its position would correspond to that of an outlying 
portion of either of these, or of the carboniferous, but the total absence 
of fossils would seem to dissociate it from each. From above downwards 
it comes into the place of the Jurassic beds, and the only characters left to 
aid in fixing it are its red colour, unfossiliferous nature, and the presence 

* It was after discussion with Dr. Waagen that I was induced to classify this group 
with the Trias. In the absence of palseontological evidence I was inclined to give it a 
separate place by itself, but Dr. Waagen seemed to think there was sufficient probability to 
warrant its being provisionally included as a part of the triassic group. 
( 98 ) 



PSEUDOMORPHIC SALT-CRYSTAL ZONE. 99 

of numerous pseudomorphic casts of crystals of common salt. These 
might be taken to indicate for it a triassic horizon as an isolated deposit 
of the period, to which also its general place in the series would accord. 

It must be admitted that this method of identification is open to 
much objection, as it closely resembles the erroneous reasoning which 
led to the red salt marl itself being thought triassic ; but for want of 
better grounds, in adopting for it provisionally the place here indicated, 
I am compelled to take advantage of all petrographic aid where fossils 
are non-existent, and in classifying the group as triassic, to do so with 
the reservation that it may belong to any of the three formations 
(Nos. 6, 7, or 9) named, and if not to the upper part of the triassic beds, 
possibly to the Jurassic period. 

As in almost every group of the range, the sections in this present 

local differences. Where best developed the lower 
Local difEerence. 

portion is the most flaggy, the flags being out- 
wardly red, but often greyish or whitish inside. Here the upper part of 
the zone, which is thicker than the lower, is formed of red and liver- 
coloured, variegated, argillaceous beds, passing upwards from shales into 
clays. In other places variegated purplish and red clays and shales pre- 
dominate below, and where the group is thinnest, it is generally formed of 
flags, to the exclusion of most of the shales and clays. The more earthy 

portions disintegrate into minute angular fraff- 
Hsematitic concretions. ° 

ments, and sometimes contain little nodules of 

haematite used by native shikaris as bullets. Greenish spots or veins or 

layers are common, as is often the case in ferruginous rocks, but the most 

characteristic marks of the group are the cubical salt pseudomorphs or 

casts which prevail almost everywhere in the more 
Salt pseudomorphs. '' 

flaggy layers. These separate so as to show the 
casts thickly studded over the lower surfaces of the flags, a solid angle of 
each cast generally projecting. Similar pseudomorphs of salt have been 
noticed by Strickland at Blaisdon in Gloucestershire, and by Professor 
Phillips at Spetchly in Worcestershire.^ According to Dr. Warth they 

* Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond,, Vol. IX, p. 5. 

{ 99 ) 



100 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EAN6E IN THE PUNJAB. 

also occur in Cheshire above the salt^ and in Germany in the Keuper 

formation overlying the salt-bearing Muschelkalk, He explains their 

occurrence by the evaporation of brine^ the crystals being formed partly 

in mud left dry sufficiently long to harden. ' Salt 
Formation. i i • • n • 

water or weaker brine again flowing over this mud 

would dissolve the salt and deposit mud or sand in its place, forming 
casts of the crystal moulds, which would adhere to the under surface of 
the upper layers. In the cases quoted first, however^ the casts were 
observed both on the upper and under surfaces of the layers, from 
which it would appear that the crystals were enclosed before they were 
dissolved, or were developed near the surfaces subsequently to the depo- 
sition of these layers, their adhering to one surface or the other being 
a matter of accident. 

The only organic traces observed in these beds were obscure fucoid 

impressions, or tracks like those of worms. They 
Organic traces. p • i 

frequently exhibit very perfect ripple marks, some- 
times crossing each other in different directions. 

Whatever may be its precise place in the general series, the group 

is a local one. It is present from Mount Tilla to 
Distribution. 

Makrach in one direction, appears at Diljaba on 

one side, but is absent at Chambal Mountain (east) upon the other, and 

attains its greatest thickness near Bhaganwala about midway between 

these points. Here unfortunately the beds undulate greatly at low 

angles, so as to render observations of the thickness uncertain, but 

measured sections across the strike, reduced to 
Thickness. 

compensate for possible error, gave a thickness of 

over three hundred feet for the upper earthy portion and one hundred and 

fifty feet or more for the sandstone and flags below, so that from four to five 

hundred feet may be a fair estimate. Where the group is thinner, as at 

Mount Tilla, Diljaba, and towards Makrach, it may vary from one 

hundred to fifty feet and even less where dying out both to the east 

and west. 

( 100 ) 



JURASSIC. 101 

This disposition of the group suggests that it may have occupied an 
Lacustrine and estua- isolated estuai'ine 01" lacustrine situation ; the thin- 
^^°®' bedded and ripple-marked characters point to the 

existence of shallow-water currents, while the mass of clays and shales 
would indicate a change to still and deeper water ; but the source of the 
ferruginous colouring, matter which separates it so decidedly from the 
associated groups is quite unknown. 

Jurassic. 
No. 9. — In upward continuation of the section in which the Ceratite- 

bearing portion of the trias occurs at the western 
Situation. 

side of the district, is a very varied and mingled 

group of arenaceous, argillaceous, and calcareous rocks, liable to consider- 
able change laterally, in thickness and composition, but preserving a 
well-marked individuality of aspect, by which it can generally be 
recognised without difBculty. 

In the lower part of this series strong bands of thick-bedded, 

soft, ferruginous sandstone, of red, variegated, or 
Lower part. . • i t 

yellow colour, alternate in places with liver- 
coloured and grey ripple-marked bands. To these succeed thick, argil- 
laceous, yellow limestone, soft rusty-looking sandstones, grey gypseous 
and pyritous clays and soft, powdiery, white sandstones, apparently 
largely composed of white quartz and felspar grains in a white earthy 
or chalk-like matrix. 

Among these beds and in the body of the group, bands of haematite 

several feet in thickness occur, and thinner layers 

HsBmatite. . , . , • i i 

of " golden oolite, each grain having a burnished 

ferruginous coating (this latter rock exactly resembling in character 

the golden oolite of Kach and resulting from the decomposition of 

an oolitic limestone). Above all these are coarse brown sandstones 

and yellow marls or mudstones, white cavernous sandstones, and 

bands of grey hard limestone of inferior thickness and less constant 

occurrence than those below. 

( 101 ) 



103 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

The sandstones are sometimes conglomeratic^ and limestones are more 

largely developed in the western extension of the 
Composition. „ .,.„ 

group. Frequently the rocks are lossiliierous, 

numerous indefinite plant fragments^ occurring in the sandstones in 
the golden oolite and more calcareous beds — OstreayBxogyra, Terehratulm, 
many Gastropods, unsymmetrieal Echinoid frag- 
ments, and generally in the upper region Belem," 
nites, and possibly Ammonites (these last being locally numerous Trans- 
Indus) . 

There are associated with this group at Chiderii beneath Siran-ki- 
dok and near Kyrabad, a very considerable thick- 
ness of light grey incoherent sandstone or slightly 
compacted sand with many alternations of orange-coloured or drab clays. 
This soft group in some places appears to belong to, and in others to 
be discordant to, the rest of the series, so that I have been unable posi- 
tively to include it with them, more particularly because its whole 
aspect is almost exactly that of one of the upper members of the great 
tertiary sandstone-and-clay series, parts of which might have been 
introduced by fracture or even unconformable deposition among the 
older rocks.f 

The upper limits of this Jurassic group are rather indefinite, a 

gradual transition appearing to take place upwards 
Upper limits. . t . i . • ■ ■, ■, 

mto the newer beds, and the junction with these 

being, as a rule, concealed by a talus of debris from the clifis above. 

In the western parts of the district along the southern side of the 
Tredian hills, these upper beds partake of the 
general contortion and disturbance to a degree 

* At page 269 of his larger Report, Dr. Fleming notes the occurrence of very perfect 
fronds of ferns in the lower argillaceous beds of this group. The general accuracy of his 
observations led me to frequent but unavailing search for these, and only a few imperfect 
fragmentary fern impressions have been found. 

t These possible unconformities have never been established, and the localities are 
among too many faults and disturbances to encourage belief in them. 

( 102 ) 



CRETACEOUS. 103 

which renders their boundary most difficult, and sometimes impossible 
to follow in close detail, throug-h that wild, rugged, and frequently preci- 
pitous country. 

The whole group commences in cliffs west of Jalar lake, reach- 
ing along the southern escarpment of the Son- 
Commencement. 

Sakesar basin, where it is interrupted by fanlts, 

but it reappears in the fine cliffs south of Sakesar summit, and it is also 

exposed by erosion on the northern slopes of that mountain. From 

Sakesar north-westwards it extends with some interruptions along the 

narrow part of the range and through the Tredian hills to Khyrabad. 

The thickness of the formation may be estimated 
Thickness. 

at five hundred feet where fully developed. 

Cretaceous. 

No. 10. — The Jurassic rocks, as has been just now stated, pass up 

with an apparent lithological transition into the 
Passage beds to west. . 

nummulitic series m the west of the district; 

some of the intervening bands just at the base of the eocene, however, 
contain fossils of a different aspect from those of the immediately over- 
lying rocks. Dr. Waagen remarked a typical 
Eonca type of fossils. 

resemblance between these fossils of the lower 

beds and those of the Ronca or Italian eocene.^ They have only been 
observed in the Bakh ravine southwards from Namal, and they may be 
taken to indicate the limit here between the mesozoic and tertiary epochs. 

In the eastern parts of the district, however, there occurs a very 

considerable group of sandstones, of dark greenish. 
Eastern representatives. 

greyish, white-and-yellow striped, yellow-and-grey 

spotted, or olive or whitish colour, in the upper part of which coaly 

seams occur with some shaly bands, while in the lower part are strong 

bands of conglomerate, or thick, dark, trappean-looking shales filled with 



* From information given by Dr. Waagen. 

( 103 ) 



104 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

boulders. The enclosed rounded fragments in these are always of crys- 
talline rocks and sometimes of great size. Passing westwards among the 
upper beds of the group, brown, variegated, and 

Western beds. . i <• i 'i 

dark green sandstones, with granules of phosphate 
of iron, are associated with calcareous layers, marls, and coaly bands, and 
sometimes with bands of haematite. In some of these western localities the 
sandstones and calcareous layers contain large Nautili, long thin spines of 
the genus Cidaris, other Echinidce, Astrea, and the Terehratula Flemingii, 
to which attention was called by Mr. Davidson as 
unlikely to be of carboniferous age. Far below all 
these in eastern parts of the group, thick, greenish-olive, deeply-weathered 
sandstones enclose considerable numbers of the casts of large bivalves 
as yet undeterminable, but, like all the other fossils collected from these 
rocks, possessing a cretaceous rather than a newer aspect."^ 

The whole group, which from its prevailing colour I have called 

the " Olive groiip," resembles many of the others 
Distribution. , . r. •, t , m j- 

01 the range in the irregularity ot its distribution. 

It is absent at Mount Tilla and Chambal Mountain (east) ; may be 
said to commence in the hills near Bhaganwala, and increases gra- 
dually towards the eastern plateau, over which and on Diljaba Mountain it 
is most largely developed. The lower shaly, block- or boulder-conglome- 
rates t are especially well exposed as to quantity at the north-eastern part 
of Chel hill, and the whole group may be traced on 

^VllGPG SG6I1* 

the south side of Karangli hill round the edges 



* Dr. Waagen. I found some small-ribbed protuberances on weathered surfaces of 
tbe sandstones belonging to this group in the Jutana Beat, which struck me as peculiar from 
their always occurring in pairs. Though very indefinite, Dr. Stoliczka, on seeing them, 
suggested at once their being the opened valves of Trigonm lying close together. 

f A block of red granite, of about 100 cubic feet, believed to have been derived from 
these beds, but now lying on the " Saline Series," occurs to the eastward of the Salt 
Collector's bungalow at the Mayo mines, Khewra. Another very much smaller, well- 
rounded boulder, also fairly supposed to have lain in these conglomerates, was discovered 
lately by Mr. Theobald to be glacially striated. He found it near Karangli on the eastern 
plateau. 

( 104 ) 



NUMMULITIC. 105 

and depressions of the eastern plateau near Salowij Kiisak, Choya- 
Saidan-Shah, Pid, above Khewra, and around the Dandot table-land. 
From this westwards by Makrach, Malot^ and Sardi it becomes thin, but 
is still represented in the Nilawan ravine and by a narrow band as far 
as Nursingphoar, beyond which it has not been observed. 

"Where strongly developed, the thickness of the group is fully three 
hundred and fifty feet, declining to a hundred and fifty feet or less in 
other places. 

NUMMULITIC. 

No. 11, — The Numnmlitic group is one of the most largely deve- 
loped and structurally important of the whole 
Large development. . • ^ n 3 e n , 

series, it is mainly lormed 01 fine compact grey 

or white limestone, frequently cherty and sometimes variegated, pink 
and grey, having rarely a curiously waved or concentric banded appear- 
ance marked by lines of lavender, yellow, grey, and reddish tints. 

The highest beds present no great difference of colour or texture 
from those much below them, but the lowest part 
of the group is generally formed of rudely con- 
cretionary, pale yellowish marly beds of great thickness, with some bands 
of light-coloured friable sandstone, grey shale and hsematitic layers. The 
massive and homogeneous character of this limestone as a group has been 
doubtless the cause of some of the most striking physical features of 
the range, of many of its finest cliffs, and of all its plateaux. 

Immediately below the light-coloured marly limestones there is a 

band of dark gypseous shales, very commonly 
Coal shales. 

but not constantly developed ; in these occurs the 

Salt Range coal, in strings and beds of very variable thickness and 

inconstant character. Both shales and coal are very frequently pyrit- 

ous, and in consequence of the destructible nature of this part of the series, 

as compared with the overlying limestone, the latter, being deprived 

of support along the outcrop, has parted vertically and fallen away, 

leaving sheer precipices behind. The coal-shales to the west as exposed 

o ( 105 ) 



106 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

in the Bakh ravine occupy an unusually high place in the series^ being 
more nearly in the middle than at the base of the nummulitic group. 

Just beneath the coaly shales are sometimes a few beds, and some- 
times a greater thickness of friable white or red 
Beds below them. . 

or ohve sandstones with grey shnJes or clays 

interstratified. In some places a thick mass of dark lumpy foramini- 
ferous limestone occupies the place of these, and frequently the base of 
the whole formation is marked by a variegated white and red clayey 
hsematitic band which often assumes the character of pisolitic haematite 
or the brownish look and polished surface of earthy laterite. In the 
eastern parts of the district the beds beneath the solid limestone are 
sometimes over a hundred and fifty feet in thickness. 

Fossils are numerous in the group. In the lower shales and sandstones 
plant fragments are common^ and in the dark shale 
lanceolate and other leaves have been observed, 
while in the light yellow lumpy limestone casts of large Gastropods, such 
as Comos, CyprcBa, Cerithium, Stromhus and others, are frequently found; 
very large JE^<?^^%^W^^ also occur. At higher stages than these, casts of 
Cytherea, Astarte, or Lucina and other bivalves are often met with. 
Nummulites are common throughout, but most prevalent in the lower beds, 
where Orhitolites and Alveolince also occur. The assemblage of fossils, 
though numerous enough to fix the age of the rocks and more numerous 
than in other nummulitic beds of the north-west Punjab, is poor compared 
■with that of distant groups of the same age, — such, for instance, as seen 
in Kach ; and the organisms, as a rule, are badly preserved, existing 
chiefly as casts with little or none of the originally shelly parts remain- 
ing. Small bullet-like concretions of iron pyrites are common in many 
parts of the limestone. 

The coal-shales have a thickness varying from about fifty to more than 
a hundred feet to the westward, and the whole of 

Thickness. i • 7 » , . , ,. 

this lower part 01 the group, including the coaly shales 

and associated sandstones, or limestones where well seen, may be esti- 

( lOG ) 



NUMMULITIC. 107 

mated at a hundred and fifty feet^ becoming nearer three hundred feet 
towards the Indus. The limestones from various measurements and esti- 
mates have throughout most of the range a thickness of four hundred 
to five hundred feet, becoming thicker to the west, tliinner on the eastern 
plateau, and disappearing entirely in the hills between the meridians of 
Bhaganwala and Jalalpur. The whole group is absent from the series on 
Chambal Mountain (east)^ and north-by- west of Jalalpur, but a narrow 
band of the limestones re-appears upon the northern slopes of Mount Tilla. 
The group is more largely represented upon Diljaba Mountain, termiu- 
• ating with dislocations in the Ghoragalli pass ; and a faulted mass of 
these beds is seen again upon the Bakrala ridge over Domeli. At the 
western part of the eastern plateau these nummulitic rocks are discon- 
nected by denudation and faulting from the rest of 
Extension. 

their mass, but from the Choya-Saidan-Shah valley 

they extend continuously throughout the remainder of the range as far 
as Khyrabad, several outlying portions occurring to the southward of the 
main exposure. Beyond Khyrabad these rocks are involved in the 
great dislocation which prevails, and they disappear entirely with the ex- 
ception of a narrow faulted rib in the outer hills close to Mari on the 
Indus. 

This NumrmiliUc group of the Salt Range differs in many respects 

„.„ „ ^, from the nummulitic limestones of other parts of 

Difterence iroui other ^ 

nummulitic limestones. \)^q northern Punjab, chiefly in the absence here of 
interstratified thick zones of dark-coloured shale, in its being uniformly 
of a light grey colour or nearly white, and, so far as seen, in never 
assuming the black or dark colour usual in other places. The general 
assemblage of fossils differs also, and the whole aspect of the group sug- 
gests its having been deposited under circumstances different from those 
which prevailed in the hill region to the north. In this direction it may 
possibly be represented by the light-coloured limestones, which Mr. Med- 
licott has identified as corresponding to part of his Sabathu beds, external 
to and newer than the mass of the limestone seen in the hills. 

( 107 ) 



lOH WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EA.NGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

The petroleum which rises from the nummulitic rocks will be noticed 
hereafter. 

Teetiary Sandstones, Clays, &c. 

Wos. 12, 13, 14, 15. — Everywhere from one end of the range to the 

other, and always on its northern and eastern as- 
General description. 

pects, the uppermost rocks of the Salt Kange series 

are innumerable alternations of grey or greenish sandstones, of no great 
hardness, with red or light-brownish orange clays, more rarely with con- 
glomerates, but frequently with harder fine-grained sandy beds of pecu- 
liar concretionary pseudo-conglomeratic structure. The enclosed con- 
cretions are of hardened, sometimes calcareous clay, of purple and yellow 
colour, in a somewhat calcareous matrix, and give the rock the appear- 
ance of a gravelly conglomerate. The alternating bands of sandstone 
and clay are from seventy to a hundred and twenty feet in thickness, 
being very frequently about a hundred feet each, but some zones are 
much thicker. 

■ Mr. Medlicott, at page 91 of his Himalayan Report, remarks that all 
these sandstones, &c., rest upon a denuded surface 

Supposed unconformity. 

of Salt Range immmiditic limestone; and this 

is supported by an observation in his paper on the Jamu country,'^ but 
without the confirmation that any denuded surfaces of the limestone had 
been observed ; hence, the existence here of an important break in the 
series depends entirely upon the occurrence of an intervening conglo- 
meratic layer " made up of water- worn pebbles of the limestone and its 
flints.^'t 

* Rec. Geol. Snrv., India, Vol. IX, p. 49. 

t Ihid, p. 55. Many of these fragments have the forms of concretions, and none of 
any other than nummulitic rocks appear to occur amongst them. Almost immediately above 
the nummulitic limestone, or within 15 feet of it, a pseudo-conglomerate layer, such as is 
described in the preceding paragraph, contains small chert pebbles and some also of crys- 
talline rocks. It occurs on the hills above Fadiala close to where the limestone conglo- 
meratic bed is seen. This limestone conglomerate appears to belong more to the limestone 
beneath than to the overlying sandstones, &c. 

( 108 ) 



NAHAN OEOUP. 109 

Being aware of the earlier notice of this break, I had sought along 
the range for confirmatory evidence, and noticed the abruptness of the 
change from limestone upwards to sandstone beds, but could never find 
erosion of the lower rock, while I observed in the contact layer, where 
present, a concretionary or nodular band rather than a regular conglo- 
merate, though the latter occurred in the ascending section within 40 feet. 
In the trans-Indus country I also paid considerable attention to the point, 
and have described the junctions of the two groups in several places.* 

I have observed at this horizon as well as both below and above it 
scattered pebbles of nummulitic or alveolina limestone. They were found 
in the intercalated lower nummulitic sandstones trans -Indusf and at 
different stages or horizons in the sandstone and clay aeries cis-Indus, but 
in all cases accpmpanied by the same perfect parallelism of deposition 
among the containing beds. 

Nahan Group. 
No. 12. — The Nahan beds of this district have, comparatively speak- 
ing, a limited exposure in the Bakrala ridge. They are the same beds 
which I had observed to present a strong similarity to some of the 
lower rocks of the north side of the Potwar, distinguished by me as the 
" Murree beds/' Here at the Bakrala ridge they consist of purplish and 
grey sandstones, interstratified with many bands of red clay, which give 
to the whole group a reddish tinge; the sandstones are harder than those 
occurring at higher places in the series. This strong similarity to the 
red " Murree beds'' is not found to the westward, and the character of 
the rocks appears to have changed laterally : many of the intercalated 
greyer sandstones, &c., being, however, identical on the Bakrala ridge 
and generally along the northern slopes of the Salt Range. Both the 
redder and greyer rocks of the Bakrala ridge contain some bone frag- 
ments and occasionally mammalian [Mastodon) teeth. 

* Mem. Geol. Suvv., India, Vol. XI, pt. 2, pp. 64, 65, 66, 91, 102, 105, 114, 116, 118, 
120, 135, 159, 170, 176. 

t Rec. Geol. Surv., India, Vol. IX, p. 83. 

( 109 ) 



110 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

In other places where the Nahan beds have not been recognised, the 
lowest rocks of the Salt Range tertiary sandstone series are slightly 
calcareous, often of the nature of the pseudo-conglomeratic gravelly- 
looking beds found higher in the formation. Their colour is pale purple 
or dull grey, passing rapidly upward into soft coarse sandstones of green- 
ish or dull brownish and grey colours, containing locally crocodilian 
bones, teeth, jaws, scutes, &c., and pieces of exogenous fossil timber in 
considerable numbers. 

Above these beds greyer sandstones prevail, and red clays or shales 
increase in quantity upwards, associated with occasional layers of pseudo- 
conglomerate and lumpy calcareous purple clay until the red beds pre- 
dominate so as to form a marked "red clayey zone^^ with indefinite 
upper and lower boundaries. The bottom of the red zone has been 
adopted as the upper limit of Mr. Medlicott's Nahan rocks in this part of 
the Punjab. 

SlWALIK, 

Lower Siwalik, No. i5.— The "red zone ""^ alluded to is commonly 
observable along the north side of the range, and on both sides of 
the Bakrala ridge, but to the west it is difRcult to trace this red zone 
among the disturbed rocks at the Indus near Mari and Ainwa. The red 
band is succeeded by grey sandstones here and there, containing strings 
of lignite, alternating first with red, and higher up with warm orange 
clays, and some layers of conglomerate, in which mammalian bones, &c., 
occur. The pebbles in these conglomerates are usually of hard quartzose 
sandstone, but sometimes of limestone, and rarely of syenitic rocks ; 
among them, pieces of purple or grey sandstone similar to those form- 
ino" the harder varieties of the tertiary rocks are occasionally met with. 

One of these conglomerate beds among the nearly vertical sand- 
stones south of Mount Tilla between the villages Bidar and Hun was 
searched for evidence of later tertiary denudation of the Mount Tilla 
series, but the only recognisable detritus belonging to that series con- 
tained in this conglomerate were numerous pebbles of limestone enclosing 
( 110 ) 



SIWALIK. Ill 

Nummulites and Alveolina, together with some fragments of purple 
tertiary pseudo-conglomerate ; thus the vertical effect of the erosion 
which produced the pebbles appears to have been limited to the num- 
mulitic and overlying beds. The remainder of the pebbles were chiefly 
of purple and grey quartzite^ quartz^ red syenite^ and earthy ferruginous 
rock. 

The grey sandstones and orange or drab elays continue to occupy the 
surface for a long distance from the Salt Range into the Potwar plateau, 
and they are also observable between the eastern spurs of the range. 
With the red and grey bed below they have been taken to form the 
lower sub-division of the Siwalik group in this country, that con- 
taining the greatest quantity of the fossil bones, for which this group 
has become specially famous. 

Upper Siwalih, No. 14. — ■Resting conformably upon the grey and 
brown or orange beds, and passing into these, is a strong group of con- 
glomerates and boulder beds sometimes consolidated, but often so friable 
as to have weathered down, covering the ground with their hard, mostly 
quartzitic blocks, and concealing their own outcrop. 

The group has often a muck greater thickness than in the vicinity 
of the Salt Range, but wherever its conglomerates are found in situ 
they are unmistakeable. If a local name were wanted for this group, it 
might be found in the word " Chainchal," commonly applied by the 
natives to its debris, from the hard pebbles of which the road metal for 
the neighbouring parts of the Grand Trunk Road is obtained. Such con- 
glomerates as these might be expected to have a more or less local 
distribution, and they appear to be in places represented by a great 
accumulation of drab and pink clays on about the same horizon ; those, 
for instance, of the Kharian hills,* or near the village of Bakrala south 
of the ridge of the same name. Bones, generally worn and rounded, 
are also sometimes found in the conglomerate group, which with some 

* Mr. Medlicott, Records of the Geological Survey, Vol. IX, Part 2. 

( 111 ) 



112 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OE THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

overlyiug" drab or pink clays constitutes the highest known part of the 
Siwalik series. 

The whole of this Siwalik group locally abounds with ossiferous 

mammalian remains, but frequently for long dis- 

The whole sandstone > rj.ii • i, 

.Q^ tauces no iragment worth preserving can be 

obtained. It has recently yielded to Mr. Theobald 

a large collection from the valley between the Tilla and Bakrala ridges, 

and numerous fossils have also been found in the vicinity of Lehri to 

the eastward. 

The Nahan representative sandstones and clays, besides forming the 
northern foot of the Salt Range, rise upon its slopes near Kalar Kahar, 
overspreading a large depression in the limestone plateau and running 
upwards to the very margin of the Sardi glen on its western side. 
Several outlying portions of the group also occur on the top of the range, 
either left by denudation or previously to this having been faulted in 
among the nummulitic limestone rocks. Cases of this kind occur near 
Choya-Saidan-Shah, Dilwal, Sahetti, near the heads of the Bhal portion 
of the Nilawan ravine, close by the villaga of Pail and north of the 
cliffs over Jalar lake, where these lower beds of the sandstone series 
contain large fossil (rib) bones. 

At the termination of the Salt Range proper on the Indus, the chief 
exposures of the detrital tertiary rocks consist of the Siwalik sandstones 
and clays (with some which may be of Nahan age) . Besides these, the 
only considerable exposure of any other group cis-Indus is of the red 
salt marl : the two extremes of the Salt Range series thus meeting, to 
the actual exclusion of everything else, in places. 

The small quantity of petroleum found in these tertiary rocks and 
the stream washings for gold will be subsequently noticed. 

The thickness of the tertiary sandstones and days in the vicinity 
of the Salt Range must be great : the Nahan beds are about 1,000 feet 
in the Bakrala ridge, the lower Siwaliks may be 7,500 feet, and the 
( 112 ) 



POST-TERTIARY. 113 

Upper cong-lomerates or clays about 2,500 feet,— making in all, roughly 
speaking, 10,500 feet.* 



Post-tertiary and Recent. 

No. 15. — A still more recent set of pebble beds than those of the 

Siwaliks, capping the hills over the Kahan gorge 

near Rotas, has been referred to the post-tertiary 

group, or older alluvial, or high-level river shingle of Mr. Medlicott^s 

paper. t The same group was noticed long previously in the Salt Range 

(but included with the upper tertiary rocks) by Mr. Theobald. J 

I had noticed these beds in the Soan valley in the Potwar and 
in other places. They contain frequently a large percentage of lime- 
stone pebbles and sometimes are almost exclusively made up of either 
these or of the same pebbles which occur in the uppermost Siwalik con- 
glomerate. It has been said that the latter conglomerate wastes away 
so as to furnish an enormous quantity of boulders covering the ground. 
Where these lie thickly and are cut through by streams, the unconform- 
able mass exposed, though perhaps but quite locally derived, has exactly 



* Mr, Medlicott has in his paper (Records, Geological Survey, Vol. IX, p. 49) indi- 
cated much of the difficulty which prevented the full recognition of his groups in the 
Northern Punjab until he was able to traveise the country reaching from the typical Sub- 
Himalayan area to this district and identify them here himself. 

Although the general characters of the Upper Punjab Tertiaries agreed with the whole 
Sub-Himalayan series, I was unable previously to fix the divisions with any certainty, because 
1 could find neither the same stratigraphical breaks in the series, nor an exceptionally ossi- 
ferous upper (or Siwalik) group. 

I had previously pointed out that the whole of the Potwar sandstones, &c., were more 
or less ossiferous from the nummulitic (Sabathu) upwards, and Mr. Lydekker's reference 
to fossils from some of the Mari beds near Kushialgar (Records, Vol. IX, p. 94) shows that 
the occurrence of bones is not sufficient to fix the rocks as Siwalik ; the main characters 
for the determination of the boundary between the Siwalik and the Nahan or Murree beds 
in the field will therefore be position and lithological structure. 

f Records, Geological Survey, Vol. IX, p. 55. 

J Paper on the Salt Range, As= Soc. Beng,, p. 672. 

p ( 113 ) 



114 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

the appearance of the conformable Siwahk conglomerate group. In this 
way I found it difficult to account for the masses of pebbles resting 
unconformably on the edges of the Siwalik sandstone at the Rotas gorge^ 
except on the supposition that the beds had been recomposed. Far away 
to the west at the village of Namal, these unconformable beds are again 
seen and without the accompaniment of Siwalik conglomerate in the 
immediate vicinity. The deposit near Rotas is at about 1^000 feet of 
elevation above the sea ; the Namal pebble beds may be situated 100 
feet higher, but there is a very similar deposit of boulder beds (that 
mentioned by Mr. Theobald in his paper on the Salt Range, p. 672), on 
the Son plateau of the Salt Range near Nowshera at a height of over 
3,500, or even 2,700 feet. 

Besides the ordinary alluvium of the Rivers Jhelum and Indus, there 
are in the eastern parts of this district masses of 
superficial deposits much resembling the river allu- 
vium, but, very rarely, containing fragments of the local rocks and often 
fairly stratified, the stratification being nearly horizontal. As the coun- 
try is so much occupied by soft, easily abraded rocks, these fine deposits 
are very probably the waste of the tertiary sand- 
stone and clay beds. They frequently contain 
kunkur, but 5o not resemble alluvial flats either in position, form, or 
elevation. The very convenient term loess has been applied to them, and 
the idea was suggested that such deposits might resemble those described 
by Richthofen as accumulations formed only by wind. The occasional 
erratic pebbles enclosed showed this view to be untenable. 

The flanks of the hills near Khyrabad towards the Indus are 

covered with a mass of boulder and clay debris, sometimes gypseous, which 

I would assign to the post-tertiary sub-division ; and close to Mari on the 

outer side of the hills^ grey and reddish -yellow sands and clays form 

banks sloping towards the plains from their foot« 
Boulder clays. ^ ^ i , i t i 

These may either have been formed by the Indus 

floods, or may belong to the post-tertiary group, 

( 114 ) 



POST-TERTIARY. 115 

The vevy strongly marked boulder-zoue along tlie southern foot of 
the range (absent where the sands and clays just mentioned occur), 
is evidently due to the action of swollen torrents 
Boulder-zone. bearing down boulders from the hills. This zone has 

a varying width, generally greater where the number or size of the 
mountain streams is largest, and the fragments are, of course, those of 
the hardest varieties of the Salt Range rocks. 

It may commonly be observed that the streams from the hills cross- 
ing this zone terminate about the commencement of the finer alluvium, 
as if this covered a stratum of the coarser debris 

Termination of south- .y ii-iji j /i •j'ji 

em streams. through which the Water (when any exists m the 

channels) would be enabled to percolate more 
readily under ground than to find a way for itself across the slightly 
inclined or level plain. Unless this is the case, it seems almost unaccount- 
able that the streams should not in many cases be able to reach the 
Jhelum river, only eight to twelve miles distant from the range, while 
several of them come from far behind the general escarpment. 

On the north side of the range the most recent accumulations are 

usually either rain-wash, sandv mud, or clean svey 
North side of range. "' •' ■> >^ j 

sand ; and the ground would appear to have been 
once less rugged, small, perched, isolated, remains of nearly level surfaces 
occurring here and there among the rain-worn ' Muddera,' which presents 
throughout a most powerful example of the action of rain water. 

In the lower portion of these ' hhuddera ' streams, where their beds 

are wide and sandy, gold is sometimes washed for 

Auriferous sands, &c. ^^^^^ ^^^^^ . ^j^^ ^j^^^^ pointed out to me have been 

usually freshly formed banks, of coarse material, and the yield was said 
to average from two to four annas a day per man. Close to the range, 
however, it does not seem to be at all a thriving industrial pursuit. The 
tools, method of cradling, and treatment of the results with mercury, are 
fully detailed in Dr. Fleming's report at page 355. 

( 115 ) 



116 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

On the different high plateaux where the angles of slope of the 

ground are lowest, a fine argillaceous silt washed 

Plateaux silt or wash. « .i • i i • i -n • j -j. j j !> 

trom the neighbouring hills is depositea and lorms 

some of the richest soil to be found near the 

range. 

In very many places, and, of course, most frequently in the vicinity 

of the limestone rocks or on their surface, very large 

Calcareous tufa. • o -i o ^ • -ny j ■* 

deposits of calcareous tufa occur enclosing rlanovois 

or Helix-\\kQ land and marsh shells, sometimes fragments of land-crabs, 

and often, as usual in such deposits, beautiful impressions of leaves. 

The salts of the lakes and the ' hallar ' often found along streams, or 

on the ground on both sides of the ranere, beinff 

Salts of lakes, «kallar.' ^ * &^ & 

derived from efflorescence and collected by water 

in many cases, may also be included among the recent deposits. 

South-west of Mari, on both sides of the stream which flows 
through an open hollow in the range near Khyra- 

kSS"^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^* ^^® ^^"^® ^^^^^ rounded or elongated hills 
of drab clay, extensively mingled with gypsum. 
They occur in the neighbourhood of seen or supposed faults, and if not 
a product of local streams which first deposited and then excavated a 
passage through them, they may be re-arranged portions of the red marl 
itself. It has been supposed that this gypsum here was the result of 
decomposition of limestone by sulphurous springs ; if so, the action 
must have taken place to a very large extent. 

The deposit bears no similarity to the Sabathu gypsum of the north- 
ern side of the Potwar, and, on the whole, subterranean waters may 
have been its most likely source. 

In a paper on the former extension of glaciers within the Kangra 

District, Mr. Theobald alludes to Dr. Verchere's 

Supposed glacial period, notice of the erratic blocks north of the Salt 

Range; he assigns to these blocks a different 

( 116 ) 



GENERAL SERIES. - 117 

origin from that previously attributed to them, and connects them with 
the same glacial period which he believes to have left its traces in the 
Kangia valley. 

The blocks alluded to are situated near Trapp or Trab, a village 
eighteen miles distant from the nearest part of the Salt Range, and the 
only other erratics near the Salt Range which, so far as I am aware, 
could be referred to this supposed glacial period are the large one in the 
Khewra valley, another above Baghanwala, most probably derived from 
the boulder beds of group No. 10 in the series; or some crystalline blocks 
found at the foot of the escarpment between Jalalpur and Baghanwala. 
The power which transported these blocks and smaller erratics of the 
Salt Range, if it was not gravitation from the outcrops of the creta- 
ceous (?) boulder beds,"^ aided by land-slip, may be perhaps referred 
to some form of ice flotation which seems the only agency adequate for 
the removal of such large blocks as some of those referred to. 

The general series. — With regard to the general series now described, 
the sections nearest the Indus are known to be the 
fullest, and though local developments have been 
found to differ trans-Indus, the hills in that direction forming the 
continuation of the range still contain parts of the Salt Range series, 
and seem to be most largely formed of the mesozoic and tertiary rocks ; 
portions of the older strata appearing in places. 

Although several of the cis-Indus groups have but a limited lateral 
extension, a general sequence throughout has been shown to exist, unac- 
companied by marked or established unconformity up to the pdst-tertiary 
groups, yet characterised by several instances of transgressive deposi- 

* Whatever may be the cause to which the present situations of these large transported 
blocks is due, it is equally difficult to account for their original position in the cretaceous 
conglomerates without the agency of ice. Mr. Theobald's discovery since the above was 
written, of a veritable ice-scratched boulder on the Salt Range, which he believes to have 
been derived from these boulder shales of the immediate locality, is very suggestive of 
ice action as the transporting power. In other parts of the country too, along the left 
bank of the Indus sotith of Attock, the foreign erratic blocks are too numerous and too 
large to be accounted for satisfactorily in any other way that I know of. 

( 117 ) 



118 ?WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

tion or overlap. Had some o£ these groups extended further, difficulties 
in the way of placing several of the others would have been removed. 

The intervals left unrepresented, by the limited extension of certain 
of the groups, must be very considerable, and each case of the kind 
points to a break in the whole series similar to that contended for by 
Mr. Medlicott with respect to the nummulitic and newer tertiary 
boundary. It cannot be supposed, for instance, that while some causes 
limited the carboniferous rocks to one end of the range, carboniferous 
deposition was not going on somewhere else. If this limitation of 
deposition were observable only with regard to one formation, it would 
seem less strange, but there are here at least six or seven instances of 
circumscribed deposits of different geological ages, from possibly pre- 
silurian upwards. What the conditions were which thus confined the 
deposits of a geological system so extensive in time, with so few indi- 
cations of even local unconformity, and restricted to the comparatively 
small area occupied by the Salt Range, is a difficulty which may be 
pointed out, but which I cannot at present explain, 

Trans-Indus appearances of unconformity are stronger, but, so far 
as yet seen, are chiefly limited to the basal and upper boundaries of 
the cretaceous beds; the junction between the carboniferous limestone 
and tertiary sandstones, &c., of Kaffir Kot (south), is perhaps also 
an instance in which the older rock has been denuded before the deposi- 
tion of the newer formation. 

The general absence of discordance in the series on this side of the 
Indus must be taken as evidence of enormously prolonged tranquillity, 
extending through all the epochs of palaeozoic, mesozoic, and csenozoic 
time ; and yet these tranquil conditions can have been but very local, for 
besides the unconformity just mentioned beyond the Indus, there is the 
most palpable discordance at Sirban Mountain in the Himalayan region 
between the infra- triassic beds and the underlying slates supposed to be 
Silurian — a formation of which the Salt Range representative is perfectly 
conformable with the rest of the series. 
( 118 ) 



PART II. 
DETAILED DESCRIPTION. 

Section I. — Bakrala Ridge.* 

In describing the local features observed at various points in the 
Salt Range, both the form of the ground and disposition of the rocks 
suo-o-est that it will be best to commence to the east where the series is 
least full, passing on westward to its termination as the " Salt Range 
proper '' at Mari on the Indus. 

Most people who have passed that way in the daytime may 

remember on the Grand Trunk Road, about twenty 
Situation. t • 

miles above J helum, a sharp dip into a river valley, 

and then a long ascent over intensely ravined ground, towards a higher 

grey rocky ridge which the road crosses, through a tortuous and not 

unpicturesque defile. This is the Bakrala ridge, taking its name from 

the pass, or a small village on its southern side. The ridge commences 

about four miles northward by east of the road, and may be said to 

terminate at Diljaba Mountain, having a length altogether of some 

thirty-three miles, and an average height of 1,200 to 1,500 feet 

above the lower ground in its neighbourhood; that lying to the 

north being some 400 or 500 feet higher than the open valley to the 

south.f 

In the pass itself a fair section of the beds is seen, showing them 

to form an open, contorted, anticlinal curve, undu- 
Bakrala Pass. 

lating a good deal within the pass, but dipping 

steeply at 40°, 50°, and 60°, to the north of west and south of east 

* The Bakrala Pass lies a little way beyond the limits shown upon the map, but as 
the rocks form part of the oldest tertiary sandstones, &c., near the Salt Range, they are here 
described. 

t Where not stated to be otherwise (as in this case), the heights given arc those 
marked upon the Government maps showing altitudes above sea level. 

( 119 ) 



120 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

respectively^ at either end of this pass. Out in the plains to the north; 
the dips become lower, and sometimes in a contrary direction, showing 
undulation of the beds } while on the Bakrala side they rise to vertical, 
having been apparently sharply folded and cut off by a fault along the 
base of the ridge. The rocks are grey and purplish sandstones, and red 
shales or clays, pseudo-conglomerates, and lumpy, 
slightly calcareous argillaceous bands, micaceous, 
grey and purplish soft shaly sandstones. These beds frequently contain 
a few indefinite plant impressions;* they all belong to the tertiary sand- 
stone and clay group, and are chiefly remarkable for bearing a greater 
resemblance to '^ the Murree" beds than has been found to exist to the 
westward along the northern flanks of the Salt Range, in which region 
they do not seem to have existed. 

This resemblance to the Murree beds is only to be observed along the 
ridge itself and among its lower beds ( {a) of fig. 6, Plate X, {b) being 
Lower Siwaliks) . But in the lower ground on both sides grey sandstones 
and brownish orange clays prevail, a zone of red clays with some sand- 
stone beds dividing the two, or belonging more to the upper group. The 
brown or drab clays predominate just to the southward of the fault 
between the ridge and the village of Bakrdla, and extend thence the 
whole way to the stream (a tributary of the Kaban) crossed here by the 
Trunk E-oad ; they belong to the Upper Siwalik group, being the form 
which it assumes when conglomerates are few or absent. The anticlinal 
structure still characterises the ridge westwards, but is by no means 
regular, the beds being afiected by many subordinate contortions. 

At a distance of about three miles south-by-west from the village 
of Bakrala, and quite on the southern side of the ridge, some nummulitic 



* A small fragment of bone was found in these beds above the road on the south- 
eastern side of the pass by Major M. Gr. Clerk of the N. S. Kailway. Since this 
was obtained I have found a few remains of mammalian teeth and bones higher 
up on the ridge, and again within two miles to the south.west among the hai'der purple 
beds, 

( 120 ) 



GEOLO&icAL Survey of inOia 

Wynne: Salt Ti.uijjr, Mem mr*. Vol : XIV. PI . X 



U»T. B.^ 




Fig;. 6, SketcK Section BaJcraJfl. Tase. 




mii Hill 
818 4- 




Tig. a. Section across Balcrala Hid^e W l>y N. of Domeli. 



BAKRALA RIDGE. 121 

limestone makes its appearance amongst local dislocations^ and may be 

traced at intervals as far as the hill over Dom(^li. The ridge here 

becomes double and much wider, a long valley and other depressions 

dividing it midway longitudinally. The lime- 
Nummulitic limestone. i i • 

stone occurs on the top of the southern elevations, 
being apparently brought up by a greatly compressed and broken anti- 
clinal fold. It contains numerous casts of Gastropoda and some 
Nmjimulites. In a clunchy shale below are large and small Ostrece, and 
the lowest beds seen are of hard red ferruginous and spotted amygdal- 
oidal-looking hsematitic clay of lateritic aspect :* (See fig. 7 (Plate X), in 
which a is nummulitic limestone ; b, Nahan ; e, Lower Siwalik ; d, Upper 
Siwalikj F, faults). 

The chief fracture which has brought these limestones, &c., into 

view is not very easily traceable among a number 
Faults. 

of smaller disturbances, but seems to have had an 

east and westerly direction, north of Domeli ; and the limestones, &c., 

do not continue in this direction across the river, on the banks of which 

that village is situated. 

The anticlinal arch has here lost a good deal of its symmetry and 
Unsymmetrical anti- become normal, the angles to the north being low, 
®^^^^* while those to the south are very high, and the 

beds vertical, or closely crushed. A soft red zone also occurs at the outer 
foot of the hills on the Domeli side, and appears to occupy most 
of the escarpment of Nili hill near the centre of the ridge : ( fig. 8, 
Plate X — a, Nahan ; 5, Lower Siwalik ; F., fault ) . 

The tertiary sandstones and other beds of this part of the range are 

frequently covered by a white saline efilorescence ; 
Saline efflorescence. i i- 

Brine spring. and a considerable sulphurous and salme sprmg 

issuing- from calcareous tufa is situated at the foot of the hill near 



* Probably representing the pisolitic zone of Mr. Medlicott's Jamu paper, I c. 
ante. 

q ( 121 ) 



122 WYNNE : GEOLOGY 01 THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

Kalra.^ The occurrence of this spring is very probably connected 
with the faulting which has allowed the nummulitic limestone to appear ; 
and the sulphur may perhaps be taken up by the water from the 
pyritous shales which usually underlie this rock, although they do not 
appear in their ordinary place above the hsematite nearer Domeli. 
Further to the south-west the ridge maintains very much the same 
character, lower angles of inclination being observed on its northern 
side, and higher ones to the southward ; the beds also on each side are 
softer than those of which the ridge itself is composed, and more 
level ground than the " Khuddera " along the hill-foot has formerly 
existed, as is shown by numerous patches of the older surface not 
removed by denudation. 

The country on each side of the ridge, particularly to the south, 
is covered by immense deposits, chiefly of clay. 

Country on each side. 

the results of atmospheric denudation ; but the 

numerous ravines, streams, and higher parts of the ground occasionally 

expose the soft Lower Siwalik beds of the tertiary series. 

Where the Bunhdr river cuts through this Bakrala ridge at the 

gorge of Ghoragali, the rocks have suffered more 
Ghoragali. mi • i 

than usual disturbance and fracture. Thick, soft 

grey sandstones with occasional pebbles are seen beneath the superficial 
deposits in the river banks at a mile or so from the northern entrance 
to the gorges, dipping to the west-by-north at 10° ; these are faulted 
against greenish and brown sandstones and drab or reddish clays, which 
are folded, vertical, and compressed, and brought by another fault against 
a strong vertical rib of whitish nummulitic limestone ; the latter runs 
up the right side of the gorge, widening, as it goes, to join the limestone 
patch capping Diljaba mountain. At a little distance on the left side 
of the gorge this rib of limestone is cut out by other fractures, and dis- 
appears. Close to the limestone, on its southern side, the grey sand- 
stones and red clays are much crushed, dipping towards it at 45° and 



* This spring is described under the heading " Springs," Part 1, p. 47. 
( 122 ) 



'\.\7yTiTt-& ■. Stxit ^oJiae 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA, 



Memoirs . Vol: XIV. PL XT . 



$ r 






Fig. S/BiJi of Niirnmiilitir:, liTrvestoiLe m GKorag^ally Tafis. 




Tig,". 10- -A-croas DxlialotL itioi-xrutnivu . 

a. Pitryilei s aurfhs bo rr n . 3. SOAjr-Caii . ^.Mfufne-stcU'VSix.riJs-ton.a- S.S'Ldb - ct-l/ st<d xon-c . 10. Olwt gK<nif3 
ll.NurrL.n-ajJ-itu: l>n<^sUnr. J'Z.N.than. IS.LvwP?- .fiiiaUk. 



BAKU ALA RIDGE. 123 

higher angles; but a little further away, assuming the usually hio-h 
dips of the southern side of the ridge. These sandstones become cono-lo- 
meratie with silicious and limestone pebbles, and are overlaid by a broad 
belt of bright red clays with fewer sandstone bands. (See fig. 9, PI. XI.) 

Diljaba mountain, the south-western termination of the Bakrala 
_^ ridge, is much more lofty than any other portion 

of it, having a summit elevation of three thousand 
and fifty-two feet. From the abruptness of its north-west scarp and 
the occurrence of some of the tertiary sandstones close beneath this, the 
mountain appears to have been separated from the rocks of the low country 
upon that side by a continuation of the fracture or fractures seen in the 
Ghoragali gorge. Having passed the thick covering of detritus close 
to the foot of the escarpment, the dull reddish-purple sandstones of the 
group No. 2 in the table are exposed. Over these comes the dark shaly 
zone No. 3, surmounted by the strong magnesian sandstone group, 
overlying which is the red and greenish, flaggy, '' salt-pseudomorph 
zone.^^ This is succeeded by the conglomeratic beds and sandstones of 
the ^' olive group,^' here containing the remains of Ostrece, and passing 
beneath the lower beds of the nummulitic limestone, the talus of which 
probably conceals the coaly shales frequently occurring at that horizon. 
The stronger beds form cliff-benches, and the ground is in places covered 
with sunhetta jungle, so that the section is obscured, or is concealed by 
detrital accumulations on the benches, but can still be made out. The 
nummulitic Hmestone, just on the ridge, is flat or gently undulating, 
averaging from fifty to a hundred feet in thickness ; but almost immedi- 
ately commences to descend the south-eastern 
South-eastern slopes. 

slopes of the hill with a rapidly increasing dip, 
The very summit is formed of the lowest beds of the tertiary sandstone 
lying conformably upon the limestone and stretching up the steep south- 
eastern sides of the mountain in great sheets, which, placed almost on 
edge, form ground too steep for cattle or almost for goats to frequent, 
and consequently a favourite haunt for the " Ooriar,^^ " Meroo," 

( 123 ) 



124 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB^ 

or wild sheep {Ovis cycloceros) of these hills. The beds which more 
immediately overlie the limestone are of grey sandstone^ lumpy shales, and 
pseudo-conglomerate. Some of the sandstones are very coarse, and in one 
of these a short bone, like the humerus of a reptile, was found, which 
broke, however, in the effort to remove it. Overlying these and reaching 
along the base of the hill is the strong red clay zone, before alluded to, 
succeeded by soft grey Siwalik sandstones and light brown clays (see 
fig. 10, PI. XI). 

The most interesting circumstance connected with this Bakrala 
Similarity to Murree ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ identity some of its beds present 
^^^^' to the Murree group, and in consequence to the 

older tertiary rocks of the Sub-Himalayan series, while this identity^, 
together with the occurrence of bones, bone fragments, and Mastodon 
teeth, seems to present in one group the characteristics both of the lower 
tertiary and the Siwalik divisions. 

Section II. — Mount Tiixa Ridge. 

A short paper has already appeared in the Records of the Geological 

Survey* explanatory of the geology of Mount 

Tilla ; ^still, as the ridge claims a place among the 

connecting links between the Salt Range and the Himalaya^ it must be 

noticed. The eastern termination of the Tilla 

Eastern termination. -r,., ,, iin jm iT>ji? 

Ridge just crosses the Grand Trunk Road, irom 

which the hill itself may be plainly seen, looking all the finer because it 

is viewed endways and full advantage given to its height of 3,242 feet 

above the sea. The ridge has a length of 26 miles, but the western part 

only is lofty, a few bungalows upon its summit near the Pir (or sacred 

locality of the ijiatives), with its fine old tank and temples, surrounded by 

various trees (among which a deodar is conspicuous), forming a small 

but picturesque sanatarium for Jhelum station. 



* Records, Geol. Survey of India, Vol. Ill-, pt. IV, p. 81. 

124 ) 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



"WynTie : ScuLb JUxxtt^c. ■ 



Me-ni oir s . Vol : XTV: PlXH » 







^■E. itl^?te BattK of sbraoLm^ LafL Sank RuflLb BarOc 



Ti£. 11. SeoboTi in K ah. aa^ River Gor^s Rjota^s'. Smiles in lei'i^tii , 

-aije, DcniL -ii^ 3ie-hrihi£ . ^ (^<ty Stmrle tanas tzti^ Claims. 5jCo-nxftameyai^ ffost i^-rttoLry) 6 San^stxrriAa ^^. 



M-'r TiUa. 

g24-2 




ri^. '&. Section over M-*: TiUa,. 
2, Pxtrplc. S oMxhs toit-e. . 5, StljuriyCm- ■ 4-, MouprLestxm, •SanJUsUnxe, . fl, irKtS ■ ? .ll, NvumtrvuHtbc 
-Lirruistorun. . 12, Nuhacfv ■ 23 > Lotver Sin'oUA^ F. Fault- ' 



TILLA RIDGE. 125 

Round the termination of the ridge to the eastward is the low 

.„ . , , country and alluvium of the Jhelum, which, follow- 

Alluvium and couglo- '' 

nieratic zone. ing; the course of that river, extends along the 

southern side of the ridge past the wide sandy bed of the Bunh^r river, 
as far as the neighbourhood of Dharapur. Embracing the low extremity 
of the ridge, and rising from this alluvium, is a crescent-shaped belt of 
low pebble-covered hills, derived from the waste of the incoherent 
Upper Siwalik conglomerate rocks. The pebbles in these consist prin- 
cipally of quartzose grit with fragments of other metamorphic or crys- 
talline rocks, and the detritus, apparently of these beds, is found as a 
re-arranged, unconformable, post-tertiary deposit, resting upon the flanks 
of the ridge near Rotas. Where such beds as these occur in open ground, 
it is very difficult to see their relations ; they weather down into beach- 
like slopes, covering everything else from view, and when occasional cliff 
or bank sections occur and total discordance can be seen, the re-arranged 
materials simulate the original structure of the beds so closely that 
appearances cannot always be trusted.^ The horse-shoe arrangement 
of the pebbly ground, however, coincides with an anticlinal structure 
seen at Rot^s gorge in the tertiary sandstones, &e., and conglomerate 
bands are occasionally found intercalated with the latter beds in the 
neighbourhood. 

The gorge of the Kahan river, near the old fortress of Rotas, shows 

„ , both these and the unconformable post-tertiary 

Rotas gorge. _ 

conglomerates, as well as the subjacent tertiary 

sandstone and clay beds (see fig. 11, PI. XII). The conglomerates 

are much more frequent over the country beyond the north-east 

bank of the river; while on the opposite side of the stream they 

* Upper Siwalik conglomerates and their debris, formed more largely or exclusively of 
rounded syenite, quartzite, and other crystalline fragments, are widely distributed along the 
Indus, beyond which river, on the track from Kalabagh to Shakardara, they are seen to be 
perfectly conformable to the upper grey tertiary sandstones, &c., — single pebbles and layers 
of pebbles first appearing, afterwards becoming more numerous, till at last enormous masses 
of conglomerate supervene. 

( 125 ) 



126 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

extend but a short way, the mass of these beds having* been removed 
or never deposited. 

From Rotas to Mount Tilla the Upper Siwalik beds are all on 
From EotSs towards edge, running in a south-westerly direction either 
"Ti^l^- straight for the hill, or so as to pass along its 

southern side^ occupying a width of about three miles. In these rocks 
contortions may exist, but the tops of the arches having been removed 
by denudation, the structure of the ground is obscured; the main 
anticlinal, however, as at Rotas, lies well to the south-east side of the 
broken rising ground. In a southerly direction the country near the hills 
is covered by debris, apparently derived from very soft underlying rocks 
in which clays predominate. Just along the foot of the tertiary hills are 
conglomeratic beds with limestone pebbles, pseudo-conglomeratic and 
grey sandstones, with light brown clays. Ascending the slopes, purple 
and red clays alternate with grey soft sandstones; while about the 
reo-ion of the anticlinal, and on the north-eastern side of this, brownish 
clays, and soft, coarse and fine sandstones, with some gravelly beds, 
again appear. Near the middle of the ridge, where the road from 
Jhelum to Mount Tilla meets the old one from Rotds, a zone of 
ossiferous sandstones is intercalated with the brownish clays and sand- 
stones. Bone fragments are locally numerous in 
this, but as they are embedded in a very frag- 
mentary state, the finding of good specimens must be quite accidental. 

The thickness of the tertiary beds of this ridge and its neighbour- 
hood must be great, but calculations regarding it 

THirkiicss 

are affected by uncertainty as to the existence of 
compressed and concealed contortions. Beneath the Rotas fort these 
beds dip to the north-west steadily for more than a mile at 60° and 70°, 
giving a thickness of 4,700 to 5,000 feet. In the event of plications not 
occurring, that thickness might be fairly doubled, while the softer beds 
beyond the ridge may be at least 5,000 feet more. Hence 10,000 feet 
does not seem too large an estimate for this portion of the tertiary rocks. 
( 126 ) 



TILLA RIDGE. 127 

At a distance of eig-lit miles from Rotas, Mount Tilla commences 

to rise above the lower part of the ridge. Here 
Mount Tilla. • , i i • 

older rocks are brought agamst the beds just now 

described by a fault or faults, the beds of different age in contact being 

greatly crushed, and some of the red tertiary clays 
Faults. 

in the neighbourhood have the rather unusual 

character in this part of the country of being gypseous. The hill being 
high and the southern escarpment bold, instructive sections appear almost 
everywhere upon it, and the geological structure is clear ; but the series is 
repeated in great part twice, if not three times, by slips or faults parallel 
to the main dislocation (see fig. 12, PI. XII) . Along the south-eastern base 
of the hill, the ground, there tolerably high, shows the grey and brownish 
or red portion of the tertiary beds, generally nearly vertical, with an incli- 
nation towards the hill, but sometimes folded. The lowest rocks appear- 
ing along the fault are the earthy basal portion of the purple sandstone 
group No. 2, with here and there possibly the top of the red marl of No. 
1, which shows itself further to the west; but this is so much of the 
colour of the red tertiary clays, observed to be gypseous near Mogli 
village, that it is difficult to distinguish between them. 

Thin purple sandstones, the silurian zone, and overlying magnesian 

sandstones, &c., form the cliffs, above which the 
ai£Es. ' ' ' ^ 

supposed trias group, No. 8, with salt-pseudo- 

morphs, appears, and the summit is formed by an anticlinal roll in the 

hard magnesian group. The red zone No. 8, again 
Series. 

showing itself on the steep bedding-slope of the 

northern side of the mountain, is followed by a thin and uncertain repre- 
sentative of the nummulitic limestone, with some shales below it here 
and there ; above this come the usual grey and greenish lower tertiary 
sandstones and reddish clays. The red clays here (as elsewhere), becom- 
ing locally prevalent, range themselves in se zone along the north base of 
the hill, beneath the soft grey sandstones and brown or orange clays 
forming the Lower Siwalik group. Remnants of the nummulitic lime- 
stone also occur near the summit of the hill. 

( 127 ) 



128 



WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE, PUNJAB. 



Thickness. 



The following" is the estimated thickness of each 
of the groups : — 



Siwalik sandstones and clays, grey, brown, and red zones 

Nahan zone 

Nummulitic limestone 

Salt-pseudomorph zone, variable 

Magnesian sandstone 

Black shaly zone (silurian) 

Purple sandstone group ... 

Red salt-marl with gypsum ... ,., 



Feet. . 

1,200 

800 

15 to 30 

80 to 20 

150 to 200 

100 to 180 

170 to 250 

50 and upwards. 



Nara glen. 



Immediately to the south-westward of the summit two deep ravines 
Magnesian sandstone, ©xpose sections in the beds as low down as the pur- 
pie sandstone, the magnesian sandstone forming a 
narrow edge above a vertical precipice formed by this and the under- 
lying rocks. The same group undulates over a large lobe of the moun- 
tain, between some ravines and the more open glen north of Nara, edged 
by precipices. At the base of these the salt-marl makes its appearance, 
while from their crest the steep north-western 
slopes of the mountain commence. The salt 
marl here is, as usual, accompanied by gypsum and white calcareous bands 
(probably magnesian limestone layers), which contain very perfect casts 
of hopper-crystals of salt.* These are rather numerous close to the 
Mount Tilla experimental shaft, sunk in this gypsum and marl to seek 

the salt which ought to occur beneath it. The site 
Salt marl. 

chosen for this shaft or driving seems to coincide 

exactly with the run of a fault or extensive slip. Appearances outside 
would lead to the expectation that the solid rock should be found much 
within the length the driving has been carried to, instead of which the 
ground it has passed through exhibits a most heterogeneous accumu- 
lation of detrital fragments, of the local rocks. From this fact it 
would seem that the line of division between a great subsided mass 



* First obsei-ved by Dr. Warth. 



( 1^8 ) 



TILLA RIDGE. 129 

of the mag-nesian sandstone and the main mouutaiu, must "hade" or 
" hang" to the north ; but much confidence cannot be felt in speaking 
of debris, which is nearly all that the driving exposes. This debris 
can hardly extend much further, and it is understood the driving is to be 
carried through it^ into the rocks of the mountain^ where its course 
towards the position of the salt will be decided by the lie of the 
beds. As usual in mining operations, where the extension of the beds 
is not known, nothing but a trial could prove the fact of the salt being 
present here or not ; but the probabilities are all in favour of its exist- 
ence.* Salt-springs occur, perhaps on the same horizon, at the edge of 
the Bunh^r river near Pind-Sevika to the south-westward, and also near 
the north-eastern termination of the older groups of Mount Tilla not far 
from Bangial, at a place called Lunada. The occurrence of these brine- 
springs in both places is probably connected with that of the main 
Tilla Fault. 

Beneath the precipices over Nara glen may be observed the first 

indications of the boulder zone which borders 
Boulder zone. . i • i 

the Salt Range along its southern side. 

The south-western extension of the mountain beyond these clifTsj 
South-western exten- though high, is Icss SO than the more faulted por- 
tion, but still it has summits of 2,304 and 2,004 
feet. An open, though incomplete, anticlinal structure occurs here, the 
south-eastern side of which has suffered dislocation and erosion ; and the 
whole mountain having a somewhat broader base, the foundations of 
the wide and undulating arch occupy a larger area. The salt-marl is 
just seen at the base of the escarpment, the purple sandstone forms the 
body of the clifls, the dark shaly silurian zone accompanying it, and 
the hard magnesian sandstone forms rough undulating plateau ground, 
overlaid by the salt-pseudomorph band, here locally thick. The Nahan 
sandstone-and-clay series caps the mountain and contains quantities 

* A special examination of this locality was made and the results communicated to the 
Inland Revenue Department in April 1874. 

E " . ( 129 ) 



130 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

of silicious fossil exogenous wood, a narrow zone of nummulitic lime- 
stone being just traceable beneath it. These upper beds turn down- 
wards on the steep north-western mountain slope and the red earthy 
zone, and softer sandstones with brownish clays occupy the lowest 
ground in this direction, which is, however, much cut up by Tclmddera, 
and ravines, and rendered more rugged than it would otherwise be 
by reason of the steep angles at which the beds pass downwards. 

At the western end of the riijge all the beds are sud!flenly bent down 
Curve at west end of and locally faulted or fractured, describing in 
^^ ^^' plan the half of a semicircular arch with a radius 

of more than two miles, the other half being apparently cut off by the 
Pind-Sevika portion of the Tilla fault. This arrangement of the beds 
is well shown by the topographical ornament upon the one-inch map, 
and the tertiary beds roll over to so great a degree that they often lose 
their outward inclination and sometimes appear to dip towards the 
hill. With this structure it is difficult to conceive much internal or local 
contortion of the beds, and in the absence thereof, this portion of the 
tertiary sandstones and clays, including the Nahan beds, must have a 
thickness of fully a mile and a half, or seven thousand nine hundred and 
twenty feet. 

Here and along the north-western base of Mount Tilla the patches of 

ancient flat surfaces before alluded to are not un- 
Remnants of old plains. 

common, and masses or recent conglomerate appear 

to have once filled the gorge at Pind-Sevika. Between this place, also, 
and Ghoragali Pass, the Siwalik beds appear to be 
auriferous, gold being found in the sand of the 

Bunhdr river, but not in larger quantity than usual. 

With the exception of one group, the " olive group,^' or " cretaceous," 

and some shales below the nummulitic limestone, it will be seen that 

Mount Tilla forms an epitome of the whole of the 

stratigraphic geology of the Eastern Salt Range. 

( 130 ) 



CHAMBAL MOUNTAIN, EAST. 131 

Section III. — Chambal Mountain^ East. 

There are two Chambal mountains, one west of Jutana and the other 

,^, , , ,, . . north of Jalalpur. This latter mountain presents 
"Chambal Mountain, ^ ^ 

East. much peculiarity as to structure. In its vicinity- 

great fractures occur, and it appears to be itself a result of extreme and 

„ ,. .,. „ complicated dislocation, the ordinary anticlinal and 

Feculiar position or ^ ' j 

strata and dislocation. synclinal disturbance being interrupted by faults. 

The disturbance of Mount Tilla is great ; its dislocation and con- 
tortion, however, appear natural and intelligible, but having crossed 
the Tilla fault, the strike of the strata, their inclinations, and 
positions are discontinuous and discordant, the later tertiary beds 
striking so as to run against the earliest rock of the series, the red salt 
marl ; and the only remnants of symmetry left being in the dips 
of these newer beds, those of the two mountains tending to form 
opposite sides of a broken synclinal valley, in which rest the broad 
quicksands of the Bunhar river. 

One spot where extreme results of dislocation can be seen is the 

lowest and last, the Pind-Sevika gorge of the 
Pind-Sevika gorge. 

Bunhar river; on the Tilla side of this are the 

undulating, nearly horizontal, but depressed, older beds of the whole 

series, with a little of the salt-marl at their very base (from whence 

brine-springs issue) ; while on the Chambal side the purple sandstones, 

Silurian zone, and magnesian sandstone incline at an angle of 45° to 

the north-east, being apparently checked by a fault ; the red zone and 

overlying beds of the upper tertiary series dip in the same direction 

at 50°, 60°, and 70°, in such a way that their strike, if prolonged, 

must abut against the older rocks of Tilla. 

Again to the north of Jalalpur the whole series is reduced to the 

similitude of a gigantic breccia, in each frag- 
North, of Jalalpur. n i • i • 

ment of which several groups are included, the 

( 131 ) 



132 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

disturbance first met with north of that town being so complex that 
the one-inch map fails to show it correctly. 

The scarped side of this Chambal Mountain^ unlike other similar 

features in the vicinity, is presented to the west- 
Chambal scarp. 

wardj and bears the nearest analog"y to a step-fault 

on an enormous scale^ repeating the features found in the scarp from 

Jalalpur to Jutana. The escarpment is high and steep, rising over 

the village of Chanod (or Chanad as spelled upon the map) to 2,290 feet 

above sea level. The base of the cliff is covered with a deep talus of 

debris and travertine conglomerate, but the salt-marl and gypsum can 

be seen in many places along its lower part ; and at one place, not far 

from the village named, a subsided mass shows the whole of the purple 

sandstone group capped by the shaly silurian band. 

In the escarpment itself both the purple sandstone and the shaly 

band re-appear and are continuous along it, but the 

Chambal scarp con- 

tinued. magnesian sandstone is only slightly represented, 

its development increasing to the northward. The red zone with salt 
pseudomorphs is absent, and the lower beds of the tertiary sandstone 
and clay series rest directly (where the succession is complete) on the 
representative of the magnesian limestone or on the underlying silurian 
band, without the intervention of either the olive series or the nummuli- 
tic limestone. Three characteristic groups of the eastern succession 
are thus missing, and among those that are present any want of 
development seems to have been the result of thinning out, and not of 
pre-tertiary denudation having removed any portion of them; so that the 
series, limited as it is, still appears to be quite conformable. 

From the crest of the hill the tertiary sandstones, &c., curve 

downwards towards the east at angles of 50° and 
Tertiai-y sandstones, <&c. ^ . , , , ^, t i- i i .n 

60 , grey sandstones and the reddish clays rapidly 

alternating as the beds succeed each other, the clays predominating in 

a soft zone worn away to form the valley traversed by the Jhelum road, 

and following the curve of the hill. An escarpment facing the mouu- 

( 132 ) 



CHAMBAL MOUNTATN, EAST. 



133 



tain borders this valley or pass, and is formed by some stronger bands 
of sandstone^ etc., the dips being still high, and, near the village of 
Nurpur vertical, giving a thickness of more than a mile. Further 
eastward soft grey sandstones and light brownish Siwalik clays with 
conglomerate bands undulate over an intricate and deeply -ravined 
mass of lower hills towards Darapur, some of the sandstone beds 
being extremely soft and weathering down to sand heaps. These upper 
beds form a very wide arch with gentle inclinations, except on the 
banks of the Jhelum, where the dips are generally high. The series is 
as follows : — 

ChjaT,-J,al hill S't" 
2290 



13 




P'ere'^iOOOfb 



Siwalik No. 13 



Nahan No. 12 



Nos. 9, 10, U 



Palaeozoic 



Fig. 13. Section over Chambal Hill (East). 
a, Dolomite bed in Salt-marl. 

■ Grey sandstones, very friable, and light brown marly 
clays ; maximum apparent thickness, which may 
be much below the real amount 
Red zone, chiefly clays 
Lower sandstone, etc. ... ,.. 

r Nummulitic limestone '\ 
) Olive group > Absent 

[^ Salt-pseudomorph zone j 

4. Magnesian sandstone 
1 3. Dark shaly band (Silurian) ... 
)2. Purple sandstone ... 
.1. Red gypseous marl 



Feet. 



... 5,500 
... 1,500 
. . 500 



50 to 

150 to 200 

... 500 

? 



In the dislocated ground between Jalalpur and Vang, the village of 

Rocks of the dislocated ^^^^°^ ^' '^^"^^"^ ^^^^' *^^ "^'^^^^ ^^ ^ faulted 
s^oimd. portion of the rocks, comprising several of the 

local groups. The stream below the village shows the red salt 

( 133 ) 



134 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

marl^ faulted against the upper tertiary beds, and just at the top 

of the marls there occurs a massive band of pale, whitish grey 

dolomite, in places reddish and containing cherty nodules ; hard 

white granular bands occur in it, and it has 
Dolomite in salt-marL ,, , , « t i -,- ■ i -i 

all the aspect or solid grey limestone, and weathers 
in the same form, but does not effervesce with acid . It is well seen in a 
low hill at the southern edge of the plain of Chanod, where its thickness 
seems to vary from one hundred to one hundred and eighty feet. The 
same rock occurs again, brecciated, in faulted ground amongst the red 
marl, at the base of the Chambal scarp west-by-south from the same 
villao'e, these being the only instances in which this bed has been found 
along the whole range. 

The dolomite is overlaid by some four hundred and eighty feet of the 
purple sandstone group, the beds becoming calca- 
reous as they ascend, and including pale purple and 
orange, vesicular and calcareous bands with green specks, some slightly 
micaceous beds being more calcareous than others. These are succeeded 
bv the dark shaly silurian band, here apparently thinner than usual, and 
resting upon it are about forty feet of the compact light semi-calcareous 
sandstones, of the magnesian sandstone group, passing apparently be- 
neath some portion of the tertiary sandstones not well seen at the surface. 

Where the tertiary beds rest upon the silurian band at the south end 
Junction of tertiary of the Chambal hill, the upper fifty feet of the 
and silurian. purple sandstone group below this band is very soft 

and of a whitish colour ; the outcrop of the silurian shales is but ninety 
naces across, with a southerly dip of 50°; and the Nahan sandstones 
resting on them form ground like that on the south side of Diljaba, 
their steeply sloping beds ascending to various heights upon the moun- 
tain side. 

In the neighbourhood of JaMlpur, for a mile to the westward of the 
town, and for several miles to the eastward, the 
^^' tertiary sandstones, couglomerateSj and clays dip at 

( 134 ) 



CHAMBAL MOUNTAIN, EAST. 135 

angles of 40°, 50°, and 55° to the south,* and form most rug-ged hilly 
ground. Up the stream from this town the steady southerly dip of 35° 
and 40° does not long continue, the beds soon commence to undulate and 
are crossed by a line of intense crushing and faulting : for a width of one 
hundred yards the rocks are much mixed, fragmentary portions of 
different groups being brought together, squeezed, slipped, and wedged 
in amongst each other, the most prominent being the purple sand- 
stone and marls and gypsum of the salt series ; and the softer ter- 
tiary clays show saline efflorescence. This line of crushing and fault, 

^ , . bearing south-west, crosses from the southern 

Faulting. 

end of the Chambal scarp, so as to cut off the 
Mangaldeo end of the Jut^na scarp and bring the older rocks against 
the tertiary beds, close to a temple above the village of Dheri. 
Eight or ten other faults occur in the vicinity of the " divide '^ or 
watershed between the Bunhar and Jhelum rivers here, nearly all of 
them bringing groups of most dissimilar situation in the series into 
contact. 

The Kharian or Pabbi ridge on the south bank of the Jhelum, form- 
ing a sort of continuation of the Chambal hills, 

Kharian hills. . . . „ 

IS prmcipally composed of the soft Upper Siwalik 
beds, and, receding from the stream where crossed by the Grand Trunk 
Continuation of Cham- I^-oad, is laid open by the deep cuttings for the 
^^^' Northern State Railway. The sandstones are all 

of soft texture, but are harder inside, and both these and the thick bands 
of warm orange or light brownish red clay crumble away and wear into 
deep ruts under the action of the rain, though " so tough and coherent as 
to have required blasting in making the cuttings.^^ The beds form a 
low open anticlinal arch. 



* The neighbourhood of Jalalpur seems to have furnished some good i-eptilian and 
other fossils during the survey of Dr. Fleming, &c. Although sought for, these highly 
fossiliferous teds have escaped my notice. 

( 135 ) 



136 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

Section IV. — Jalalpur to Jutana. 

The well-marked escarpment from Jalalpur to Jutana exposes very 

much the same section as Mount Tilla. The salt 

scarpmen , ^^^^ shows a thickness of thirty to fifty feet 

beneath the JaMlpur end of the ridge, and on the northern side a thin 

representative of the salt-pseudomorph zone appears in its proper place 

as reo-ards the underlying beds, but overlaid by the tertiary sandstones, 

etc. to the exclusion of the nummulitic limestone and olive groups. 

The beds forming the ridge have steady dips of 30°, 40°, and 50° to 

the north-east, with a tendency to flatten on the 

Thil and to the west. , mi -i i r n i j i • i 

outcrop, as at Thii, a couple ot miles beyond which 

place a thin yellowish calcareous marly bed represents the nummulitic 
limestone. The red salt-marl is not known here, but a portion of it may 
be concealed beneath the debris immediately at the base of the escarp- 
ment. Above this comes the purple sandstone, well developed and suc- 
ceeded by a talus of the dark shaly silurian zone , then the strong beds 
of the magnesian sandstone ; then the red salt-crystal-cast zone, thicker 
than before; the nummulitic band, the grey, gravelly, and pseudo-conglo- 
meratic tertiary sandstones on the northern slope; the tertiary red 
clay zone at its foot, and the brown clay and grey sandstone beds of 
the Siwalik groups down in the Bunhar valley between this and Mount 
Tdla. (See section, fig. 16, PI. XIV.) 

In this neighbourhood, at a considerable height upon the talus at the 
southern side of the ridge, a kind of drift or rain-wash contains numbers 
of small crystalline and metamorphic boulders, the source of which is rather 
mysterious, seeing that the olive group, with its clay-shale conglomerates 
consisting so largely of these fragments, is not represented in the local 
section. The Jhelum river passes through a country in which conglo- 
merates of the tertiary series contain numbers of the same or similar crys- 
talline boulders, and their presence here may indicate their having been 
transported by this river in former times. 
{ 136 ) 












■"vV^: 



V 


3 




-^' 


'il 


1^ 




•-1 


4 

-s; 




^1 


s 


n 








JALALPUR TO JITtXnA. 137 

Westwards towards Bhaganwdla the ridge grows wider, the flattening 

of the beds on the top of it more decided, though 
Towards Bhaganwala. i i • 

undulating, and the strike of the tertiary beds 

trends off to the northwards to enfold the termination of the Eastern. 

Plateau. In this locality, too, the olive sandstones and conglomerates o£ 

the cretaceous zone No. 10 begin to appear. 

The face of the escarpment close to Bhaganwala on the left-hand 
side of the glen has been fractured, or slippage has 

Bhaganwala. 

taken place, so as to present the appearance of a 
double set of lower beds, the fractures and their results being of the 
same character, but on a smaller scale, than those of the Tilla and 
Chambal scarps already mentioned. Within the little glen at Bhagan- 
wala the rocks are much disturbed, the lower earthy part of the purple 
series being seen, and just the top of the gypseous red marl, here not 
sufficiently saline to impregnate a delicious stream of fresh water flow- 
ing through the ravine. The banks of this stream are lined with water- 
cresses, and highly coloured (blue and pink) crustaceans inhabit the water. 

Two paths lead from this gorge up the precipices to more undulating 
ground above. The best of these passes by a small but picturesque 
ruin perched upon the clifi" edge, and the other, which is by no means safe 
or pleasant, ascends obliquely to the eastward the cliff" formed by the 
magnesian sandstone on the northern side of a deep ravine entering behind 
the outer hills. The path leads to the bed of a stream, which must form 
a fine waterfall as it descends over the outcrop. It was dry when visited ; 
but such is the permeable, jointed nature of the strong magnesian sand- 
stone group, that a quantity of water (having evidently percolated from 
the stream bed above) issued from the lower portion of the cliff over 
which the river falls when the stream is full. The undulating ground 
above the cliffs is occupied by the red clays, mottled with green, and red 
stained flags, of the salt-pseudomorph group, from beneath which a lofty 
bedding-slope of the magnesian sandstone rises at angles of 30° and 40", 
(See fig. 14, PI. XIII.) 

s ( 137 ) 



138 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The olive group is apparently only locally developed and not thick in 

the neighbourhood, yet a large syenitic block, or 
Large erratic block. 

boulder, supposed to have come from it, which 

was observed in the stream bed above the fall, measured six feet four 

inches in length. 

Following the tributaries of this stream north-eastwards, the head of 

a ravine is reached, which leads into the Bunhar 
- Coal locality. 

valley near Kotal Kund. High, tertiary sandstone 

and conglomerate hills rise on either side, their beds dipping to the 
north-north-east at 50° and 60°, and just below these rocks is a band of 
nummulitic limestone overlying dark coaly shales, with a bed of good coal 
three feet six inches thick. Underneath it some sandstone occurs, and then 
a band of bluish grey shale, which rests directly upon the red salt-erystal- 
cast zone. This is the Bhaganwala coal locality, the " mines " being repre- 
sented by a few small excavations in the bank at the side of the stream. 

The ground is bad and the ravine steep and so narrow that a fallen 
mass from the limestone had almost blocked it up ; but the flood water 
had found a passage, through which the tape was carried, partly beside 
and partly beneath the block. The following is the section measured at 
this place, which is about two miles in a straight line north-east of 
Bhaganwdla. (See fig. 15, PI. XIV.) 

Ft. In, 

^ fl8. Gray pseudo-conglomeratic sandstone, dip 60°— 70" ... ... ... ... 21 6 

^ . j 17- Conglomerate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 6 

16. Sandstone ... 
S B .{ 15. Conglomerate 

14. Sandstone ... ... ... ... •■. ••. ... ... 6 

2 

... 18 



■< < 



13. Conglomerate 
12. Sandstone ... 
.11. Pseudo-conglomeratic shale ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

f 10. White and brown variegated impure limestone 
9. Shalyband ... 

8. Lumpy limestone, dip 45° (somewhat slipped ?) 
7. Yellow fossilif erous nummulitic limestone . . . 






6. Black shale ... 

6. Coal shale including 3 feet 6 inches coal ... ... i.. 

4. Gray lumpy sandstone ... ... ... ... . 

3. White ferruginous sandstone, coarse quartz grains and unctuous white clay matrix, with 
black shaly and carbonaceous veins, and strings, and delicate purple and green earthy 
layers above, conglomeratic at base ... „. ... .,. 



15 





1 





27 





11 





3 





14 





2 





21 






( 138 ) 



GEOLOGiC/VL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



AV^riijir ■. Si^Zt Kayt-o c 



M *T.i oil • N . \/"oi XI V. n .xwr. 




S by W 



Fi^. 15. Section aofoss £>i a^ an Mr al a^ Coal bed. 



JiuTxhjar K. 




iOOO i-''f.. VerU^,a7, 



Fi^. 16. Seo-L.}o>i ft-oirvi Blafl-^.^LnwiaJ a- to near- ICo b BlTciin d 



JAlIlPUR to JtJTANA. 139 

Ft. In. 

1* 2. Bluish gray shale, red blotches below ... ... ... „. ,.. 29 

J 1. Red and green variegated clay-shale, measured up to 430 feet, but partly undu- 

( lating ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 300 Q 



487 9 



The coal of this locality will be found mentioned at page 8 of Di% 
Oldham's memorandum already alluded to, being the first that he notices. 
It is traceable for about two miles altogether, or less, and with the in- 
cluding beds forms an open curve bulging towards the north. The 
associated shales and the coal itself are pyritous, causing the coal to take 
fire spontaneously. 

In the section from Bhaganwala to near Kotal Kund (fig. 16, 
Nummulitic Umestone ^^- XIV) * the nummulitic limestone has already 
ttickening. gained considerably in bulk and exhibits its two 

characteristics, of solid and lumpy-beds; the latter having much the 
appearance of conglomerates in consequence of the nodular portions 
being surrounded by softer marly rock, which weathers more readily 
and is often crowded with small nummulites. There is here certainly 
no stratigraphic indication that any unconformity exists between the 

nummulitic and succeeding beds. Nor is there 
No unconformity. . . 

any sign of unconformity below the nummulitic 
group ; the gray and white sandstone with carbonaceous streaks occurs 
in other places with the same relations of paralellism to the overlying 
and underlying rocks, though the "olive group'' is entirely absent. 
The gray shale (No. 2, at top of page) appears to form a part of the 
underlying beds of group No. 8. 

Group No. 8 (Nos. 1 and 2 in this measured section) has greatly 

Local thickness of salt increased in thickness, chiefly by the appearance 

pseudomorph band. ^f ^ quantity of shales and clays in its upper part. 

In this place, after making large deductions from the measurements, 

* 1. — Salt marl. 2. — Purple sandstone. 3. — Dark shaly band (silarian). 4.— Mag" 
neslan sandstone group. 8.— Salt-crystal zone. 11. — Nummulitic limestone and coal, 
12. — Tertiary sandstones, &c. 

( 139 ) 



140 WYNNi : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

on account of undulation^ a thickness is found which cannot fall far 
short of 500 feet. The other groups have their usual dimensions ; the 
magnesian sandstone from 150 to 200 feet, the silurian shales 
150 to 180 feet, and the purple sandstone from 400 to 500; its' lower 
70 feet being flaggy and shaly and passing downwards into purple 
marl. 

The tertiary sandstones, &c., dip at high angles, and must be very 

thick, the quantity, however, shown in Fig. 15 
Tertiary sandstones, &c. . . „ , . 

appearmg greater m consequence oi the section 

crossing the line of dip obliquely. The steep dips are confined to the 

northern slope of the ridge ; having gained the summits of which, the 

beds bend over and become horizontal, their outcrop and that of the 

nummulitic limestone terminating in a scarp only 150 or 200 feet deep. 

Where the ground falls rapidly, these rocks are cut into by numerous 

deep ravines. 

The main escarpment about Bhaganwala is a good deal broken, massive 

portions of the cliffs having fallen entirely or par- 

scarpmen . tially slipped from above. (See fig. 17, PI. XIII.) 

Westward of Bhaganwala the ridge rapidly increases in width as 
it joins the Eastern Plateau of the range. The 

Westward of Bhagan- , , .,i - • tit i ^ i j 

wdla. escarpment still continues bold and marked to- 

wards Jutana; the purple sandstones and dark shaly silurian zone 
being everywhere capped by the magnesian sandstone which forms the 

cliffs along this feature. The ground above un- 
Series. . , . i • i 

dulates greatly, much of it being covered with 

the bright red salt-pseudomorph group, and some higher hills are 
formed of the nummulitic limestone, here more than a hundred feet 
in thickness, while to the northwards the highest part of this undulat- 
ing country exposes the lower tertiary sandstones, &c., in the neigh- 
bourhood of Ara. To the east of that village, 
Tertiary sandstones, &c. i i • i 

nearly horizontal tertiary sandstones form a 
( 140 ) 



JALALPUR TO JUTANA. 141 

broken range of hills, some five hundred feet above the plateau, just 

before these beds turn downwards into the vallev 

Silicified wood. -^ 

of the Bunhar. Frag-ments of silicified wood 

frequently occur here in the lower g-reenish beds of this series. 

The boundary lines of the various groups in this vicinity being 
decided almost entirely by erosion, run most irregularly^ forming contours 
of the ground ; patches of the newer beds are left outlying upon those 
below, and wide or narrow portions of the red flags and shales appear 
where the nummulitie and overlying beds have been removed. The 
^ , , boundaries are also sometimes affected by faults 

Boundaries. ^ ■' 

Olive group. bearing north -by- west. Over this region too, 

the olive or brownish sandstones and conglomerates (with crystalline 
pebbles) of tbe " olive group " are to be found, though not always 
exposed, the group being apparently very thin. To the south-west of 
Ara village, the white earthy sandstone at the base of the nummulitie 
series, accompanied by purple and white variegated clays in its upper 
part, has a thickness of 23 feet. The sandstone is very soft, its earthy 
ingredient whitening the fingers ; and the variegated shale or clay above 
it possibly represents the hsematitic clay so frequently seen near the base 
of the nummulitie series in other places. 

A deep narrow coomb or glen'^ is cut back from the escarpment east- 
ward of Jutana, and seems to coincide with an 
Jutana 'Kas.' 

east-by -north rault, the rocks on the southern 

side having sunk considerably. The groups from the red marl upwards 
to the top of the magnesian sandstone, and part of the group above, 
are seen here; and here also, in an old mine, is the most easterly 
Most easterly salt known exposure of salt-rock in the range, a bed 
^^°^"- of bad salt with large crystals of pure salt em- 

bedded in it. t 



* Such a steep-sided ravine as is elsewhere called a ' khad ' (khud), is here spoken of 
as a 'kas ' (kuss), a word very generally used in the Upper Punjab. 
t Dr. Warth's Eeport, page 181, 1872. 

( 141 ) 



142 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The depth of this cliff-enclosed ravine appears, from aneroid measure^ 
ment, to be nearly 1,000 feet, made up of purple sandstone 450 feet, 
the dark shaly (silurian) band 300 feet, magnesian sandstone 250, 
and some 50 feet of the red, flaggy group No. 8, from which the red 
oxide of iron is washed down over the face of the hard cliffs, staining the 
light-colored underlying beds as deep a red as the overlying red zone 
itself. The remaining 50 feet may be allowed for the salt marl which 
appears nearly midway up the glen. 

This locality is interesting also as one of the two at which the 
silurian fossils, referred to Obolus or Siphonotreta, 

Silurian fossils. p t mi ^ • i 

have been found. They were obtained on the 
southern side of the glen, where one or two cross-faults or slips seem to 
have let down the black shaly zone to the stream-level, not far from the 
salt-station and well within the glen. The fossiliferous beds are tough, 
dark, shales ; thin brecciated sandstone layers occur near the bottom of 
the group, often of a greenish color, and some soft and light-coloured 
clays are used for washing by the natives. 

In the magnesian sandstone group a coarse pisolitic or concretionary 
structure was observed throughout some ten feet 
of hard thin-bedded calcareous sandstone, and on 
some of the bedding surfaces slight traces were found resembling the 
tracks of annelids or mollusks, or sometimes having a fucoidal bunch- 
like grouping. Thin beds of coarse purple and white breccia also occur 
in places in this group, 

I^or a mile and a half westward of Jutana the same sections are 

exposed by the escarpment and the ground above 
West of Jutana. . ^^ • ^• • i i 

it ; the nummulitic limestone in the latter position, 

having increased in thickness by 50 feet or more, projects southward 

from the main mass, accompanied by the underlying white sandstone, 

Nummulitic limestone liere with a ferruginous, red, and variegated 

and beds below it. ^j^^gy ^^^^^ ^.j^g farmer 16 feet and the latter 12 

feet thick. Over this the coaly shales are represented by about eight 
( 142 ) 



EASTERN PLATEAU. 143 

feet of dull brown oMve shales, so far as seen without coaly layers. The 
lumpy part of the nummulitic limestone above this contains nodules 
of pyrites, and the rock seems to be very incoherent, the ground being- 
covered by its debris.* 

The metamorphic-pebble conglomerates, shales and sandstones of the 
" olive group ■" are apparently only locally present, but the underlying 
red zone with salt pseudomorphs is well seen : still largely composed of 
red shale at the top and more flaggy below. Here is its last appearance 
in force. From this country westwards it is much thinner, the upper 
clays mostly disappear, and it is evidently dying out. Some lumpy, 
brecciated, shaly, pebble-bands, seen hereabouts, are of unusual occurrence 
in the group. 

Section V. — Eastern Plateau. 

Between Diljaba mountain and the country last described, the convex 

contour of the Eastern Plateau rises with the dip 
Outline to east. 

of the tertiary sandstones, &c., at angles of 25,° 30° 

and 40"; but except at Ara these beds do not extensively overlie the 

plateau. Some outlying patches, however, occur near Saida Leri and 

Umrala (Oomrala of the maps). On that part of the border of the 

plateau facing the north in this neighbourhood, the angle of dip is 

steeper, up to 60°; and from the higher hills the sandstones and clays 

can be seen forming a broad synclinal trough which opens to the east, 

one side resting on the flanks of Diljaba, and the other upon the 

edge of this plateau, and the red clay zone occupying the hollow 

along the foot of the hills. The surface of the plateau undulates 

in places very considerably, the undulations f re- 
Nummulitic limestone. 

quently coinciding with the stratification of the 

gray nummulitic limestone, which, stripped of the overlying beds, 

* The effect of violent rain, evidently recent, was well seen on a steep hillside covered 
with this debris — the loose stony covering having been, as it were, ploughed by the rumielsy 
and the contents of the channels thrown off, forming ridges on either side of the furrow. 

( 143 ) 



144 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

is most deeply eroded along the southern side of the table-land. The 
limestone is frequently fossiliferous, but its fossil-remains/ as usual, are 
in bad preservation. Some beds^ however, contain numbers of a small 
deeply marked oyster [Ostrea Flemingi?) in a much better state;' large 
Echinoderms and Gastropods are also common. 

On the north-western side of the plateau the narrow ridge of 

Chel rises 800 feet above it, having a summit 
Chel. 

elevation of 3,701 feet, and a length of about four 

miles. The ridge is formed by a much displaced and broken anti- 
clinal of the magnesian sandstone group and would appear to have been 
faulted along both sides, slightly on the south-eastern, and to a much 
greater extent on the north-west side. (See section, fig. 18, PI. XV.) 

Along the south-eastern flank the nummulitic limestone rises gently, 

though forming ground difficult to cross in places. Close to the ridge 

a little valley intervenes, at the northern end of which, on the plateau 

side, are some bands of red, purple, and variegated, ferruginous sandstones 

passing downwards into coarse white sandstones, with red veins, and 

upwards into some black shales (doubtless the beds next below the 

limestone, on the usual horizon of the coal shales) . They are of no great 

thickness, but remarkable for containing several 

Tertiary plant leaves. i,t,ii ^ o 

well preserved lanceolate, dicotyledonous, leaves oi 

small size. 

Not far from the place where these were found, on the north-east 

prolongation of the ridge, and down its northern 

slope, is a mass of greenish brown splintery and 

gravelly shale, having a peculiar appearance, weathering like soft 

trappean amygdaloid, containing white specks, metamorphic grains, 

pebbles, and even boulders of crystalline rocks. Layers of brown sandstone 

and conglomerate occur in and with this shaly mass, which appears to 

succeed the Chel hill beds without the intervention of the salt-crystal 

group. The bedding when seen conforms to that of the nummulitic 

limestone and passes below the lowest beds of that group. 

( 144 ) 



6 EO LOGICAL SUrtVFV OP (NOIA. 



WViir.a SuU fit 



Mciru-. it- s : Vol . y.W n iC\' , 




Uaiui-ml ScvUn 



Fijtf-. 18. gecUoM. across CViel Htll ■ 
-t, itaonjtsiMTL Sun^s^^^^ ■ ^^ 1 Olzi'ti grrouf . 11, NianmiuJitic. LinuaetoTi^ . 12, Tartuxrtf 
Siin-cLsto-n^. A- -^ VoSSth LattfCS- 



KflrsJi£li Hill 
3 628 




lODO fmet. 



7i£. 19. Karan£H Hill Section. 

1, /fcrf. Tiiar-T- ■ 2, Ptiyplr SarrJ-ttoTtj! . 3, Dm-k. ^>.jaiej . SiUiruai.- 4, Ua^ftt-ti^aix- Stai3-eLon 



EASTERN PLATEAU. 145 

Tiie hill of Cliel itself, at least at its uortlieru end^ seems to be 

mainly composed of the magnesiau sandstone 
Magnesian sandstone. 

beds, typical varieties of this rock, the brecciated 

dolomitic and pisolitic or concretionary forms, occuring there ; some of 

the beds are more sandy, some more compact and silicious, and here and 

there are red layers, with soft micaceous, dark and pale-gray sandstones 

having annelid bm-rows or fucoidal markings. In some spots too, dark 

micaceous sandy shales occur, a few beds together, of the entire aspect 

of the shaly silurian zone below. They are sometimes lumpy and flaggy, 

and on being narrowly examined were found at one place, south-east 

of the summit, to contain small, indefinite, plant fragments (probably of 

fucoids) and some small broken fish teeth (?), pointed like those of sharks.*' 

As the axis of the stratigraphic curve forming the hill bends downwards 

towards both ends, these may be among the lowest beds exposed. On 

the north-western side the crushing and disloca- 
Crushing, 

tion is extreme, the beds next in contact with the 

magnesian sandstone, &c., just described, being flaggy gray sandstones, 

with some coarse red layers and semi-calcareous grits, over which come 

conglomerates, and some of the conglomeratic shale, just now mentioned, 

at the point marked A in the section (fig, 18). Here another fault 

occurs, and a mass of crushed nummulitic limestone is let in between 

conglomerate and red Nahan beds, the junction of the latter with the 

limestone, being also a line of crushing and dislocation, cutting these 

limstones out entirely within a short distance. 

The whole of the Choya-Ganj-Ali-Shah valley below is occupied 

by the Nahan tertiary beds (sandstones, &c.), 
Choya valley (East). . i t i i • i i 

which are much disturbed, particularly along 

a transverse line of fault between this and the head of the Phadial 

valley. 



* Tbese fossils being very obscure, and possibly belonging to detacbed upper beds of 
the Oholus or Siphonotreia zone, tbey bave not been previously mentioned witb either of 
these groups. 

T ( 115 ) 



146 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Towards the south-west end of the Chel ridge the plateau lime- 
South-west end of stone rests upon a thin red band, probably repre- 
^"®*- senting the salt-crystal zone, beneath which are 

the conglomerates and shale- conglomerate of the olive group ; all dipping 
gently towards the plateau. These beds are brought up along the fault 
on the plateau side of Chel ridge, in contact with the rocks of this hill. 
Crossing the low arch formed by these beds, to the opposite side of the 
ridge, another fault is met with which brings a vertical portion of the 
same red bands against the ends of the Chel beds, and beyond these a 
mass of the underlying shale-conglomerate with metamorphic pebbles 
appears. A third fault places these in contact with the dark plant 
shales (?), overlying red and white, variegated hsematitie clay^ both of 
which are overlaid by the nummulitic limestone with a gentle dip 
towards the Potwar plateau. 

The latter rock forms a large outlying mass, resting on the north- 
eastern flanks of the Karangli hill, turned up and faulted at both sides, 
but passing gently under steeply scarped Nahan sandstones, &c., towards 
the low ground. The limestone only occurs towards the northern end 
of Karangli hill, being there cut ofi" by a prolon- 
gation of the most extensive fault of the whole 
range. From beneath it crop out gray, brown, and olive sandstones 
and flao-s, with bands of dark shale and conglomerate, in which nothing 
oro^anic could be detected. Below these are other dark, shaly bands, in 
places flaggy, which contain a few small and fragmentary plant remains, 
and beneath all are strong conglomerates of metamorphic-pebbles, and 
shales, resting directly on the magnesian group, in a hollow at the 
south-west end of the Chel ridge; the intermediate red zone No. 8 
having apparently died out. 

These magnesian sandstones, &c., rise (see section, fig. 19, PI. XV), 
to the escarpment and form the summit of 
Karangli Hill,* (3,528 feet,) where they contain 



* This elevation, and indeed all conspicuous heights on the Salt Range, including 
Salcpsar itseU', can be recognised from Murree on a clear day. 

( 146 ) 



EASTERN PLATEAU. 147 

a few small scattered crystals of galena.^ They are here rather more 
than 200 feet thick, and make a fine vertical cliff below the sharp 
top of the ridge. Beneath them comes the dark shaly Oholus zoi-\q, 
nearly 200 feet, and then 450 feet of the purple sandstone, from 
under which some of the red gypseous marl crops out, in faulted 
contact with the tertiary sandstones, occupying the mouth of the 
Choya-Saidan-Shah valley. The strata forming Karangli hill belong to 
the western side of an open synclinal curve, the axis of which slopes at 
a considerable angle to the north-east. As the beds crop out from under 
each other, they also rise on the western slope of the hill, striking 
obliquely towards the fault at its foot in such a manner that the section 
is most full towards the southern end of the ridge.f 

The mouth of the Choya-Saidan valley is filled with the lower part 
Structure of Choya of the tertiary sandstone series, embracing on the 
valley (west). western side a broad anticlinal of the nummulitic 

limestone, along which the tertiary sandstones occupy the low ground as 
far as the village above named. These sandstones, &c., are cut off to the 
south-eastward by the continuation of the long line of fault striking 
from the direction of Diljaba up this valley. The magnesian group is less 
calcareous here than to the eastward, and from the prevalence of shaly 
and sandstone bands, in the absence of the salt-pseudomorph zone, is 
not easy to separate from the conglomeratic olive series No. 10. The 
nummulitic limestone has been denuded, but apparently it originally 
attained a thickness exceeding 150 feet. 

From Karangli to the south-westward, the strike of the rocks on the 

Eastern Plateau side of the Choya valley coincides 
Karangli to south-west, p i • i • i 

pretty much with the course of this depression, the 

* As noticed by previous observers, this galena is much valued as surma by the 
natives in the vicinity. 

t Mr. Theobald mentions {loc. cit.) a dyke of intrusive trap in tne fault under the west 
side of Karangli mountain. The locality was searched, but no rock of the kind was found. 
Doubtless some of the same volcanic rock as occurs in Khewra gorge exists in connection 
with the salt marl, both here and at Gamthala (or Goddala) ravine. Its occurrence as 
dyke would be interesting j it certainly has not that appearance at all at Khewra. 

( 147 ) 



148 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

hilly ground rising immediately from the fault exhibiting the series above 
the purple sandstone in a dislocated state. In the sides of one of the hills 

here^ north-east from the village of Choya-Saidan 
■ Choya-Saidan-Shah. • i • 

Shah, the '^ olive group with its shales and con- 
glomerates appears to be much thicker than usual (perhaps 150 feet), and 
the hill is capped by nummulitic limestone, within a synclinal fold of 
which, close by the village, is a narrow basin of the tertiary sandstones. 
At the eastern side of the hill upon which the upper Diliir bungalow 
stands, the shaly conglomerate of the olive group, with its metamorphic 
pebbles, is seen, and a narrow, red, flaggy band representing the salt 
crystal-east zone, partly occupies the southern face of the hill above, and 
overlies the magnesian group ; the last is here chiefly composed of sand- 
stones, and forms the floor of a long valley extending from Wahali to Pid. 
In the low, scarped sides of this valley the groups Nos. 8 and 10, and 
the dark shales immediately beneath the nummulitic limestone, may be 
traced ; the hsematitic clay band at the base of the dark shales also 
appears occasionally. 

South-west of Choya, the ground between the Eastern and Kahun 

South-west of Choya- Plateaus is very much broken, its most marked 

Saidan-Shah. feature being a steep ridge, in continuation with 

the Dilur bungalow hill, one side of which slopes steadily at an angle 

of 35° into the Gamthala glen. 

On the northern side of this glen the clifis expose all the series from 

the purple sandstone up to the nummulitic lime- 
Oamthala Kas. 

stone ; on a narrow neck of which, faulted so that 

the beds dip in opposite directions, is built the village of Choya-Saidan 
Shah. .Further down the ravine the red marl crops out from beneath 
the purple sandstone, so that in this locality all the groups of the eastern 
series are visible. On the southern side of the glen are tertiary sand- 
stones, faulted against the " purple sandstone "" and " red marl,^^ as if to 
dip beneath them ; these tertiary beds rest upon a bare surface of num- 
mulitic limestone deeply furrowed by numerous parallel rain-channels run- 
ning directly down its dip. The limestone forms a ridge, the scarped side 
( 14-8 ) 



EASTERN PLATEAU. 149 

of whicli overlooks the Pid end of the long- valley previously mentioned 
as bounding" the Eastern Plateau. Above the opposite side of that valley, 
the termination of the plateau undulates much_, following the bedding of 
the nummulitic limestone^ but the deeper excavations pass through the 
latter and expose the '^ olive group/' the " red salt- crystal " zone, and the 
magnesian sandstone group below. 

The southern side of this Eastern Plateau is remarkable for the 
Southern side of quantity of salt-marl exposed^ and the suddenness 

as ern a eau. with which it makes its appearance in force west 

of Jutana. (See section, fig. 30, Plate XVI.) 

Doctor Warth is of opinion that sudden increase of the salt-marl is 

due rather to undulation of the strata than to any 
Jutana neighbourhood. 
Sudden development of dislocation. During the examination of the ground, 

some disturbance was observed in the glen north- 
west of Jutana, just where the red marl commences to show itself strongly : 
but this was more like the results of slipping than of violent faulting, 
and no great fault could be traced, intersecting the plateau north- 
wards ; where such a fault would in all probability have existed if 
dislocation were the structural cause of the development of this red 
marl in the Jutana ' beat.''^ A certain amount of disturbance has never- 
theless occurred, and where landslips are less numerous, such appear- 
ances as the small outlying hill of the magnesian group, upon which 
a chowki (No. 4) stands, west of Jutana village, and the abrupt way 
in which different groups abut against each other in the glen further 
north, would be taken as sufficient evidence of fracture, although 
here they are referable rather to the mere presence of the marl 
and the tendency of this rock to produce landslips than to faulting. 
In this and the next (the Kusak " beat'') the largest exposures of the marl 

, , . , , in the whole range occur. This salt-marl rises at 
Large size and height ^ 

of marl exposures. the Chambal (west) hills between the two '^ beats " 



* The southern side of the Salt Range is divided into " beats " for patrolling purposes 
by the Salt Department. 

( 149 ) 



150 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



to an elevation of nearly 1,500 feet, and is singularly placed, an 
enormous slip or fault having allowed the mass of a whole group of 
hills, formed of the overlying strata, to subside so much below the level 
of the marl, on the crest of the ridge, that, either from subsequent 
atmospheric degradation, or from original displace- 
ment, the marl for a short distance absolutely 
overlies the magnesian group. 



Abnormal position. 




Fi|?. 2L Abnormal position of salt marl at Chambal hill (west). 
1. — Salt marl. 4 — Silurian and magnesian groups. 

It seems most likely that the salt-marl was left standing as a cliff 
when the subsidence took place, and afterwards under atmospheric de- 
gradation and superincumbent pressure, the cliff being destroyed, its ma- 
terial first formed a talus, and finally the heap now overlying the newer 
beds. 

In the large exposure of the marl on the east slopes of these (western) 
Chambal hills, mines are not now worked, and 
but little is known about those which formerly 
existedi Old mining works, however, occur in several places, and Dr„ 
Jameson in his paper* states that, at about two miles distance from 
Jutana, three mines were open in 1843. The inclined "shafts" which 
varied in length from 140 to 180 yards, passed through several small salt 



Jutana beat inines. 



* Page 198. 



( 150 ) 



EASTERN PLATEAtT. 151 

beds from three to six feet iu thickness before reaching the large deposit, 
then being minedj and which had a thickness of one hundred and seventy 
to two hundred feet. The salt was, as usual, accompanied by gypsum, 
and the mines were situated about forty-five feet above the bed of a 
small stream. 

Judging from the distance between these mines and Jutana it does 
not seem likely that Dr. Jameson referred to the bad salt in the ravine 
eastward of the village, but rather to some of the old workings to the 
westward ; at one of these localities there is a twenty -foot layer of bad 
salt, but the others, forming a group of three or four, and lying to the 
westward still, are probably those visited by Dr. Jameson. From the 
height at which these mining localities are situated, if they contain the 
gi-eat mass of salt recorded by this writer (very nearly the same thick- 
ness as the Khewra beds), it may prove advantageous to re-open them. 

The marl of this beat often shows considerable masses of greenish 

gray colour, generally broken up and confused, but 
Salt marl. 

probably the remains of such gray dolomitic and 

gypseous layers as are found in other places to the west. In the more 

gypseous parts, horizontally undulating stratification may be occasionally 

seen. 

The sections exposed by the clifis above this marl are very much the 

same as those nearer to Jutana,'^ but owing to 
Cliff sections. ... 

slipping are sometimes much confused; the next 

rock to the marl, for instance, on the road to Salowi from Jutana, being 

the salt-crystal band, here abounding with the sandy pseudomorphs, and 

* There is a large space of ground near the ruined mining village of Jutana bearing 
the marks of having been cultivated. On the removal of the miners to Khewra their fields 
may have been abandoned ; but according to the statement of a native of the present village, 
this land was irrigated by means of the more easterly of two streams running close together 
from the north. This, he said, had suddenly become salt, and thus the cultivation had to be 
discontinued. It seems probable that the stream may have worn a passage down to some 
salt bed in the marl. There are numbers of ruined villages all along the foot of the range, 
about which nothing is known ; they are all presumed to have belonged to miners of early 
periods, 

( 151 ) 



15a WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

overlaid by some dark shale and whitish sandstones of the ''olive group/' 
with carbonaceous markings. At other places, the succession is natural, 
but both of the last-mentioned groups are comparatively thin. 

On this road, overlooking a little valley much filled with calcareous 
tufa, and on the ascent up to Salowi, the sand- 

Eoad to Salowi. „ , n ^ ^ ,1 

stones of the " olive group" not tar below the 

nummulitic limestone, were observed to be studded with scattered 

projecting knobs, which if concretionary had a very organic aspect, and 

much resemblance both to one another and to the opened valves of a 

Tfigmiaj^ Above these sandstones, variegated, reddish, and conglomeratic 

sandstones intervened below the limestone. In this neighbourhood the 

plateau-limestone has been cut down into long valleys, exposing the 

underlying beds, and the junction of the limestone and the latter at one 

place is as follows :— 

Feet. 
Part of the nummulitic limestone ... ... 30 to 50 

White marly limestone ... ... ... 100 

Black shale ... ... ... ... 6 

White sandstone and black shale ... ... 50 

The lower part of these rocks belongs apparently to the " olive group^^ 
and the representative of the coaly shales has dwindled away to the few 
feet mentioned ; the strong and very white sandstone seen above Baghan- 
wala having disappeared. Indeed, the rocks forming the lower part of 
this exposure are so obliquely bedded, that one band of sandstone, fully 
fifteen feet thick, thins out entirely within a hundred yards along the 
cliff face ; where the stratification is so irregular, it is not surprising that 
much difference should be found in different sections. 

Southward of this place, an extremely dislocated group o£ hills rests 

upon the outer edge of the red marl, a couple of 
Sadowal. 

miles to the north of Sadowal. These hills are 

evidently formed of portions of the series slipped from their places, and 

disconnected, mainly by the fault along which the red marl for a few 



* As suggested by Dr. Stoliczka; 
( 152 ) 



EASTEUN PLATEAU. 153 

yards overlies the magnesiau group (fig. 21), as already mentioned 

(p. 150). Although greatly broken and displaced, the whole series may 

be traced in these hills, from the red marl up to 

the nummulitic limestone, a small patch of 

which is present. 

On the western side of this outlying portion of the series, a moun- 
tain stream coinciding nearly with the faulted 

Sucession. , . 

junction of the red marl and overly mg groups 

gives the following succession (see section, fig. 22, PI. XVI) : — 

Fault. 

1. Red salt marl, abnormally placed. 
4. Magnesian sandstone. 

3. Black shiily band, silurian. 

2. Purple sandstone. 

Fault. 
Nummulitic limestone, not seen here, but present at a short distance to the east. 

Feet. 
10. Olive group, sandstones and conglomerate, fossils in lower beds... 220 
8. Red clays, shales, and flags of the salt-pseudomorph zone ... 100 to 160 

4. Magnesian sandstone, compact and calcareous ... ... 150 to 200 

3. Shaly silurian band ... ... ■■• .•■ 100 

2. Purple sandstone, shaly below ... ... ... 500 

1. Red salt marl ... ... ... ... ... 1,500? 

Boulder zone at foot of hills. 

The red marl on the right-hand bank of this stream again overlies 

newer rocks ; here a portion of the flaggy salt-crystal zone, with much 

crushing and apparent faulting. The purple sandstones on the other 

bank of the stream become light-coloured at top, and the overlying 

silurian shaly band contains interbedded purplish sandstone and greenish 

shaly layers. The magnesian sandstone beds are sometimes very 

compact and of a gray color marked with red, and some of them expose 

on weathered surfaces the strange lenticular sections observed on Mount 

Tilla, the markings in the present case lying at 
Peculiar markings on 
surface of magnesian different angles in the matrix, crowded together, 

and having sometimes a length of three inches by 

a quarter of an inch broad : some of the beds are brecciated. 

u ( 15S ) 



li 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SxlLT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



At the base of the " salt=crystal zone^^ is a coarse gravelly sandstone 
band, and further up many of the harder bands have a purplish gray 
colour. The salt-pseudomorphs occur here again^ with ripple marks 
and casts of desiccation-cracks on the flags, and there is a considerable 
development of the red clays or shales belonging to this zone, some of 
which are variegated with green spots. The largest part of the shales 
here occur (unlike those to the east) in the lowest half of the group. 
The "olive group ^^ above contains boulder conglomerates, some of the 
boulders in which measure two and three feet in their longest diameter, 
and in a bed of soft, weathered green sandstone are the casts of large 
bivalve shells, before alluded to as of cretaceous appearance. 



Olive gi'oup. 



The following section .of the ^^ olive group" 
in these hills is from Dr. Waaffcn's notes : — 



H 1 



•17. 

16. 
15. 

14. 
13. 

12. 
11. 
10. 



7. 
I 6. 






Fault. 

Gray and yellow thin -bedded sandstone, with irregular papery layers 

of coal ... ... ... 

Light yellow nodular sandstone, with indistinct coaly plant-remains ... 
Yellow and gray spotted, thin-bedded sandstone, with a few traces of 

coal 
Whitish yellow sandstone, with coaly plant-remains 
Strong coaly, sandy layers, with lenticular small masses of coal 
Yellow and gray spotted, thin bedded sandstone 
Black sandy bed, with much coal 
Hard yellow sandstone, with brown ferruginous veins 
Gray shale, with coal 

Irregular bed of impure resinous coal, average 
Yellow brittle sandstone, ferruginous veins ... 
Thick white sandstone, with yellow stripes ... 
Thick greenish soft sandstone, few traces of coal ... ... 

Dark greenish gray sandy shale and thin -bedded sandstone ... 

Thick grayish green sandstones, with irregular beds of gravelly 
conglomerate, and, in the lower part, the bivalves of the olive gi'oup 
Conglomerate, blocks of crystalhne rocks 
Dark pui-ple shale, with thin bands of greenish sandstone 

Red thin-bedded sandstones and flags with salt-pseudomorphs 
Magnesian sandstone group 

154 ) 



Ft. In. 



6 





2 





12 





6 





5 





7 








8 


10 





6 





1 


3 


4 


6 


20 





4 





Feet. 


30 to 40 


15 to 20 


3 to 30 


50 




100 




150 


? 



EASTERN Pl-ATEAU. IfiSc 

From tlie prevalence of coal}' beds iu the upper part of this section, 
which is unusual iu the group, it may be doubted whether the upper 
portion with a separate bracket is not a local representative of the coaly 
shales beneath the nummulitic limestones. 

In the Kiisak " beat/^ westwards of the Jutana one, the salt-marl is 

even more largely exposed than in the latter, 

Kusak'beat.' and two outlying portions of the overlying rocks 

form hill-groups surrounded by it. In the upper 

part of this marl, at the western side of the " beat/^ there are strono- 

o 

purple bands, and also a sort of gypseous pseudo-breccia. Salt is seen 
„ ., in several places, even near the mouth of the 

western of the two streams which drain the 
*' beat :^' and there are several old mines within its valley. In one of 
these, Dr. Warth found a seam of salt (with some marly bands) one 
hundred and fifty feet in thickness, dipping at a high angle to the 
west-north-west.* 

Other old mines occur also in the eastern portion of this " beat,^* 
mostly inaccessible, and the natural exposures of the salt by streams, 
&c., show little that is instructive, any stratification marked by the 
gypsum being contorted. 

The two isolated hill-groups referred to show the series as high as 

the magnesian sandstone, the rocks being much 
Series at Chak Shaffi. 

disturbed. At the east side of the largest of 

these exposures on the road from Chak Shaffi to Kusak, the following 

were noted : — 

Poet, 
4. Semi-calcareous sandstones, light in colour, belonging to the magnesian 

group ... ... ... ... ... ... 120 

3. Black shaly band (silurian) ... ... ... ... 12 

2. Purple sandstone, part of the upper fifteen or twenty feet pale, nearl_v 
white, and overlaid by a coarse white conglomeratic layer, base not 
seen, measured ... ... ... ... ... 172 

* Dr. W-arth's Report, 1872, page 184. 

( 155 ) 



156 "WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

The cliff-sections above the marl^ where not disturbed by sHpping^ 
show the same series, the hard sandy dolomitrc 
Cliffs. 13608 forming the cHff edge, overlaid by the " salt- 

pseudomorph zone/^ and this again by the con- 
glomerates and sandstones of the "olive group/' the whole covered 
over by the nummulitic plateau-limestone. Where this spreads over 
the higher portions of the ground, under the action of the atmosphere 
and rain, its fretted, gnarled and jagged surface forms narrow tortuous 
channels, in which one can walk more than waist deep, and which are 
most difficult to cross when covered by scrub jungle. 

At the head of the western Kusak glen, not far from the village of 

Batli, the cliffs exhibit the series as follows — the 
Near Batli. • i i 

thickness being estimated, as the ground was too 
steep to be measured ; — 

Peet. 
11. Nummulitic limestone, with some white beds below ... 250 



10. " Olive group " sandstone and conglomerates, varying up to 

8. Red flags " salt-pseudomorph-group "... 

4. Light-colored sandstone and dolomitic beds 

3. Black shaly zone, silurian 



200 
150 
150 
100 



2. Red and purple sandstone ... ... 300 to 500 

The " olive group " seems here to be very thick in some localities, 
and very thin in others. It consists of dark gray and olive sandstones, 
olive-black shales and some beds of red shale, doubtfully referred to this 
group on account of slipping, these probably forming the top of the 
group below. Conglomerates of metamorphic pebbles occur as usual. 
Some red sandstone and shaly bands also appear just beneath the 
nummulitic limestone, but they are of subordinate character, and the 
coal shales, if present, are generally concealed by the talus at the foot o£ 
the limestone scarp. 

The old fort of Kusak, a stronghold of the Sikhs, is perched upon 

the lofty and precipitous southern end of a spur 

^"''^* from the plateau (see fig. 23, PI. XVII). The 

neighbourhood is much disturbed by slips or small faults, and the pre- 

( 156 ) 



GEOLOGICAL 
'VKFy-nn. e ■. S ojjt Tjjxit-g c . 



SURVEY OF 



INDIA. 
Memoirs :VcaXrv7. PIXVH . 




Fi^". 2,3. K-u-sal^ FeaJi & Fort. 




^ . X . 



= lO00 f^ 



Tl^.Zi-. SkritolT. Section of KheursL Gleia iroi-rt 1 iiicli Tnaj> and aMS sXetoliby D'K Vv.'Brtl-i 

fCbrr&oteii to ■AiLCfiLBt^ 1072) Tievefhts -rrvuah, ex;tzgfc/era/x.<i-. 
I.SoU' TrKai'h.inclurXiJif;- 2.:SiLUvv,clcL, secern- j^rohahhj l<jii-est ? S.SaZt m^vurh I i-0 '? i^.ScJJb 
So f'^T'hu^r-wUa-a .f^errr^. S .Tn^iT-l K) O f ^ B . S cdjt, SovjawoU. S'-txni- Stf^l -rwa-rl iRf'^ i S ixJA ICO i':. 
(Tiitj Btujgy se.u-n',.). 9 .mjtrt lo t^ .JO.Salt ZJi'i- (Sjshans scayrv) Jl.U'hUc gypsum. 200 fS 
l'2,.lif<,n.ll^ yyj,su3tL, J4-0 J':'f JS.B-rij^k. i-ej. gypssaus mwl J30 ff^ H-'Pltn.-vc. of Trcga-asH- cmtl tvhUe 
ffj^ysum. A/".* tt7i.(i. ztpi-ftwa&. -JT-Tufjil^ ^cattJ^ioni'.. ITt. SiliLrian,. Jf- l[fa.rfn£sian- Sartjcisiort^ . 
VnC. Sail -ai'yataZ i.ono . X.OIitrB yrtuia. 



EASTERN PLATEAU. 157 

cipices arc inaccessible, but the section seems to be generally the same 
as eleswhere, though the group, No. 3, looks thicker, and seems to 
contain some harder beds than usual. 

The red marl is seen far below the fort, the purple sandstone follows 
next above ; and the dark shaly zone (No. 3) is capped by the magnesian 
sandstone, on which rests a small patch of the red flaggy pseudomorph- 
zoue. 

Between the fort and the plateau the rocks are much broken, and 
the ground is covered by heaps of disintegrating rock. The '^ olive 
group " and " salt-crystal zone " skirt the base of the " nummulitic lime- 
stone ■'■' cliffs, and a fault seems to extend from the eastern side of Kiisak 
peak, up the shallow valley in the plateau-limestone, through which the 
road from the fort passes northwards. 

On the spur which separates the Kusak from the Khewra " beat " to 

the west, and along the neighbouring part of the 
Spur to west. . 

plateau, the ground is much broken and very hilly, 

the same series as before being traceable in the cliffs and higher emi- 
nences as well as the upper portion of the underlying beds, exposed by 
denudation, beneath the limestone of the plateau. 

In this direction, too, where a high peak of limestone rises to the 

north-north-east of the Mayo mines, there is a 
Coal shales. 

small exposure of the coal-shales dipping to the 

north-west at 24*^, just beneath the nummulitic limestone. Coal was 
said to occur here, but it was not visible. In the vicinity of the road from 
Khewra to Kusak, the rocks are greatly dislocated, as well as to 
the southward; several fragmentary outliers of the nummulitic lime- 
stone, patches of the red flaggy zone, the lateritic variegated clay, 
and even a small portion of the coaly shales just now alluded to, 
occurring detached, and probably none of them actually in situ. 
Further out towards the plains, the least disturbed ground is occupied by 
the massive beds of the magnesian group undulating in many directions, 
but the hill-slopes are greatly covered by debris. Both the silurian 

( 157 ) 



158 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

shales and the purple sandstones appear to have lost much of their 
thickness in their last exposures towards the plains. 

The Khewra valley is much smaller than either of the last men= 

tioned " beats/' and the main scarp of the plateau^ approaching* nearer 

to the plains, the glen appears deeper (see frontispiece). Having 

passed a narrow defile between outlying hills, 
Outer^hills. -, , , , ■, . .i t i 

overspread by the purple sandstone or the dark 

shaly Silurian zone, and capped by the dolomitic sandstone or its detritus, 

the valley opens somewhat, but is still hemmed in on all sides by high 

ground ; that to the westward only being entirely composed of the red 

marl. The strata appear from their present disposition to have had 

originally a dome-shaped arrangement, dislocated along the inner side of 

the outer hills, or else a general landslip of the overlying beds in that 

direction may have taken place ; narrow glens along the strike among 

these outer hills show on one side the overlying rocks, and on the other 

red marl and gypsum only. The marl is quite of the same kind as 

already described, having a decided similarity of 

Marl. 

aspect throughout, but its arrangement, so far as 
it is connected with the rock-salt beds, is better known through the 
exertions of Dr. Warth, whose report, mining plans and sections show 
that there is a regular sequence in the upper part of the group, though 
one which may not be minutely recognisable in other localities. 

The mines have been so often described and with so much detail* that 

it will be unnecessary to do more than state that 
Mayo Mines. , . 

they are the largest and most important of the 

whole range,_and probably the most extensive salt mines in the world. 

Old chambers occur in them of 80, 120, 240, and 320 feet in width, 

and 40, 60, and up to 130 feet in height, besides natural shafts formed 

by rain water, one of which is 212 feet deep. 

These old workings have long been in a most dangerous condition. 
That they ever grew so large, was owing to the ignorance of system 

* Authorities cited, ante, 

158 ) 



EASTERN PLATEAU. 159 

exhibited by the old workers, and the result has been constant danger 
and tremendous falls — a large one having taken place so late as 1870, in 
consequence of a huge supporting pillar having been undermined, and 
left standing over a lower chamber, upon a comparatively thin shell, 
which it eventually broke through. When the mines were visited in 
1869-70^ the position of some of the miners was anything but enviable; 
perched upon a lofty tripod of slender sticks, picking at the roof of one 
of these high chambers, a roof probably full of fissures and utterly un- 
supported for many yards ; while in other places, considered still more 
dangerous, huge masses of salt-rock between the fissures impended like 
the displaced key-stones of enormous arches.* The heavily-laden women 
and children struggling up the well-made incline of " Purdon's tunnel ■" 
had evidently, bad as it was, the better place. 

The beauty of the interior of these mines has often been noticed ; their 
extent appears more impressive than their smoke-begrimed sides and 
roof, but the effect, when they are lighted, is very fine ; lines of small 
lamps at difierent levels and inclinations marking those places in the vast 
chambers where footing can be had, while some hay set on fire here and 
there, for a few moments, lights up portions strongly, others vanishing 
in distance or in smoke. 

The mines have been excavated, some in the same and some in differ- 
ent beds of salt, all of which lie in the upper 
Position of the mines. 

portion of the marl, though most of the worked 

bands occur at a considerable depth from the surface. The following is 
their arrangement according to Dr. Warth, from the purple sandstone 
downwards (see section fig. 24, Plate XVII). 

Feet. 
14. White gypsum, average .., ... ... ... 5 



13. Brick-red marl or gypsum (i. e., gypseous marl) 
12. Brown gypsum (? purple gypseous marl) 
11. Lower layer of white gypsum 

Salt marl and salt ... ... 



... 130 

... 140 

... 200 

550 to 600 



* I was told that the workmen preferred these localities to places where the salt was 
more solid, because a single blast in such a situation detached more of the mineral. 

{ 159 ) 



Marl and Gypsum. 


Salt, 




Feet. 




-25 


10 


... 




100 


25 


... 




50 


100 






50 


140 





160 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The latter is grouped as follows : — > 



10. Salt bed (Rehan's seam) 

9. Salt marl 

8. Salt bed (Big Buggy seam) 

7. Salt marl 

6. Salt bed (Soojeewal seam) 

5. Salt marl 

4. Salt bed (Phurwalla seam) 

3. Salt marl 

2. Salt bed (Billiwala seam ?) 

1. Salt marl 



Total ... 275 275 

The colour of the salt is red and white ; red earthy^ or merely coloured, 
layers being very numerous in some of the beds^ generally from tea 
inches to a foot apart^ and about one inch thick. As a rule, these layers 
of deposition are parallel. The salt beds and alternating marls appear 
to be nearly flat in the southern part of the glen, and towards that side 
of the salt mines' hill ; but within this hill they curve rapidly downwards, 
dipping at 60° and 70° towards the west of north, an undulation of the 
strata bringing them again at a low^er angle beneath the cliffs at the 
head of the glen (see section fig. 24, PI. XVII). The main mass of 
the gypsum overlies the salt, and is succeeded by the purple sandstone 
and other groups in their proper order. 

These can only, however, be considered the general relations of the 

salt-bearing part of the marl ; and it is probable 
Relations of the series. 

that there are still other salt beds on different 

horizons, one of these occurring in a side ravine, on the left of the 

Khewra glen at the junction of the gypseous portion of the marl with 

the purple sandstone. 

* Dr. Warth has some doubt about this last seam ( No. 2 ). The section is known down 
to the bed No. 3, and the last is assumed as probably another bed. 
( 160 ) 



EASTERN PLATEAU. 161 

Leaving the mines and proceeding along the upper gorge, the top 
of the marl, which is all more or less gypseous, has in places a dull 
purple colour (probably representing that portion of the group described 
as "brown gypsum" by Dr. Warth). Flaggy bands of dolomite and 
massive layers of gypsum also occur in the marl, the uppermost being a 
white band of the last mineral, immediately beneath the " purple sand- 
stone group/* 

Associated with this gypsum is the volcanic rock of Khewra, and 

near it are some grey gypseous and carbonaceous 
Volcanic rock. ./ o./ 

shales, as already mentioned (page 75). This upper 
portion of the salt-marl seems to be highly saline, for the stream which 
comes from the plateau above as soon as it enters the deposit becomes 
so charged with salts that the pebbles in its bed are all frosted over 
with a thick incrustation, growing for some inches upwards in fantastic 
pedunculated and other dendritic forms. 

Ascending this stream, its narrow ravine exposes a good section 

in the purple sandstone, marly or shaly as usual 
Overlying rocks. 

below, and its upper beds forming the lower part 

of the cliffs between the glen and the plateau. Its thickness hereabouts 

is estimated at from 450 to 600 feet. The dark shaly zone above it is 

also well marked all along the cliffs. In the main ravine, where the 

track upwards leaves the stream bed, is the locality at which the Silurian 

fossils, 05oZm5 or (Si^-^o^o/^-eif^, where first discovered. 
Silurian fossils. 

These little shells occur in numbers in dark sandy 

micaceous shale, but some layers contain them in greater quantity than 

others. No fossils besides these could be found in their neighbourhood, 

except obscure fueoids or Annelide markings on flaggy layers ; some of 

these layers are calcareous and glauconitic. 

The dark band which contains these fossils is here fully 150 feet 

or more in thickness. It is immediately succeeded by the magnesian 

sandstone band, as usual prominent in the cliffs and exhibiting well the 

northerly inclination of the beds, at angles of 35° and 40°. The group 

w ( 161 ) 



16-2 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PLTSTJAB, 

chiefly consists of fine grey, gritty, light-coloured sandstones, and the 
more compact dolomitic rock is not so prevalent as it is upon the outlying 
hills to the southward. The group is about 250 feet in thickness. Over 
it comes the red salt-crystal zone, in places as thin as 30 feet, but still 
so strongly ochreous that the rain washes the iron oxide out and stains 
the rocks below. 

The olive conglomeratic shale with metamorphic pebbles belonging 
to the " olive group " overlies this red zone, and in the same group 
are included many massive soft sandstones, the whole exceeding 150 
feet in thickness. These beds and the red group lie chiefly behind 
or on the plateau side of the general escarpment. Near the head of the 
ravine a narrow vertical mass of nummulitic limestone is brought in by 
a north-east south-west fault, together with some soft black and grey 
gypseous shales having an apparent thickness of about fifty feet. 
These overlie the ^' olive group," conglomerates, &c., and come just beneath 
the limestone. Further northwards, undulating, inclined, and disturbed 
masses of the nummulitic limestone rest upon this olive group and the 

intervening shales (which, again, contain layers of 
Coal. , . , . 

coal m their outcrop), extending from this valley 

to the neighbourhood of Pid. At a distance of about half a mile south- 
wards from the latter village, some mining operations have been carried 
out upon the coal, beneath a displaced mass of the limestone. 

The coal-shales here dip with the limestone at 40° to the northward, 
and rest upon soft friable whitish sandstone — some of the basal beds of 
the nummulitic series. The section measured as follows : — 



7. Nummulitic limestone, part .. . 

6. Rotten, white, and grey shale 

5. Coal ... ... ... ... ... 3 ft 

4. Dark -coloured shale ... ... 

3. Coal 

2. Black shale 

1, White earthy sandstone, full of plant-fragments. 

162 ) 



Ft. 


In. 


. 100 





. 10 





. to 3 


9 





11 


1 


2 


.. 23 






EASTERN PLATEAU. 363 

In these dark carbonaceous sbales there is much pyrites^ aud a white 
aluminous efflorescence occurs, enclosing plant-stems and pieces of brown 
lignite. In another place close by, the thickness, from the shale No. 6 
to the coal No. 3, was ten feet, and the upper coal was three feet six 
inches, the lower being one foot nine inches thick ; the black shales 
below were only six feet, and an underlying whitish clay bed ten feet, 
so that the coal and associated beds appear to have been very irregularly 
deposited. The shales contain nodules of hard clay enclosed in gypsum, 
and the lowest rock of the series exposed is a thick mass of rapidly 
weathering, variegated, white, green, and red clays answering probably 
to the hsematitic beds of other places. 

Sections of the rocks are frequently exposed on the turnpike road 

leading from Pind-Dadun-Khan and Khewra north= 
Pid road. Ascent. 

wards via Choya-Saidan-Shah. The first ascent 

exposes much-broken beds of the purple sandstone, overlying the red 
and purple marl, and overlaid by the flaggy and shaly silurian fossil 
zone, its laminse being often marked by black glossy surfaces. Above 
these are grey sandstones, and a fifty-feet band of fine hard oolitic rock, 
belonging to the magnesiau sandstone group. Higher up, the beds are 
dark and shaly, with thin layers of pale green-banded sandstone, glauco- 
nitic, and bearing obscure Annelide markings, and above all are fine- 
grained strong white sandstones which might make good building stone, 
but are much shaken. 

To the northward, the salt-marl is brought into contact with the beds 
just described by the slip or fault which has been noticed as running 
along the back of these outer hills. The marl, which contains hard flaggy 
compact layers of an apparently calcareous or dolomitic rock, is here 
intersected by a deep road-cutting exposing quantities of gypsum and the 
usual want of structure. Further up the ascent, the road leaves the marl^ 
and the purple sandstone is again seen in its proper position, followed by 
the two succeeding groups. Still higher up the slope, slipping of the beds 
has taken place, and the red salt-crystal zone is seen to contain a mass of 
hard, sandy, metamorphic-pebble conglomerate, of exceedingly confused 

( 163 ) 



164 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

aspect^ including portions of its flaggy layers^ looking as if detached by 
river action. The thickness of this red zone is about 40 or 50 feet, but the 
*^ olive group " above it is still very largely developed, and includes some 
reddish sandstone bands in its lower conglomeratic portion. Layers of 
this metamorphic-pebble conglomerate, 19 feet in thickness, occur, and 
the whole group may be over 200 feet thick. The beds become flatter as 
the plateau is reached, the road passing hereabouts chiefly through this 
olive group and slipped masses of the nummulitic limestone. The glen to 
the westward below the road is so full of fallen and displaced masses 
of the series that it is difiicult to say which rocks are in situ. 

Section VI. — Dandot Plateau and Spuk. 
The undulating table land of Dandot forms a sort of continuation 
„ -„^ of the Eastern Plateau, but at a lower level, and is 

Dandot. ' ' 

covered as usual by the nummulitic limestone, 
detached portions of which cap the spur extending from the plateau to 
the west and south of the glen of Makrach. The village of Dandot 
is perched upon the edge of lofty cliflPs which over- 
look the plains and expose a fine section of the 
rocks (fig. 25, PI. XVIII) ; the arrangement, however, presented by this 
differs much from others in the neighbourhood, and in one respect, from 
all others of the range, — namely, in the occurrence of a dark zone of sandy 
and shaly beds apparently near the base of the 

Peciiliar shaly band. 

purple sandstone. This zone so exactly resembles 
the silurian one above those rocks, as to afford reason for the supposition 
that it has been faulted into its present position, although the dip of the 
whole cliff-section seems regular, and would indicate a sequence from top 
to bottom. 

Either such faulting would seem to have occurred, or else there is an 
unusual development of the shaly group No. 3, accompanied by a great 
diminution of the purple group No. 2, and a sudden appearance of 
another large group of red sandstones, overlying the silurian zone, and. 
interposed between this and the magnesian sandstone. 
( 164 ) 



OEOI-O-GIC/O ! SDRV/KY OF INDIA 



' Wyivna . S'alf^ Rtni^c 



M"nieir«-. V^IXJ-V Fl. 3CVT1I. 



Dnn.rlot VitUg;* 




Fit. ^6. SBctioTi Qxi-oTcg,"]! DanAob village 







Fi^. 26. S6otrio]'\ 'West of Dandot. 



dand6t plateau and spur. 165 

The gypseous marl at the base of the cliffs is greatly eroded, harder 

masses projecting from one to two hundred feet ; 
The series. . . 

deep gullies are also cut in it, and some of these are 

naturally bridged over in places by the marl. This is succeeded by thick 
purple and greenish variegated clays or shales^ passing upwards into 
purple sandstones. Then comes the dark olive and blackish shaly zone 
above mentioned, passing downwards into thin light-coloured sandstones, 
and containing some markings like those of Annelides. Black and 
greenish films separate many of the beds, and the shaly part contains a 
thirty-feet red band ; the shales are generally micaceous. Owing to the 
supposed fault or slips, these beds appear to be succeeded by a thick mass 
of reddish purple sandstone exactly similar to No. 2, becoming flaggy 
towards the top, and, from its great thickness, this is supposed to be 
nearly doubled by other slips or faulting. More red sandstones overlie 
this, shaly underneath, and in this shaly portion is a bed or vein of 
reddish and white gypsum, 30 feet thick, and in character quite resem- 
bling that of the red marls below. Grey, silicious, and calcareous coarse 
grits succeed, very dark in colour and alternating with dark shales below ; 
the silicious and calcareous beds may represent the magnesian sandstone 
No. 4, and the lower portion would occupy the place of the silurian zone 
No. 3. Then follows the red, flaggy, salt-pseudomorph zone No. 8, 
including layers of grey shale and thin grey sandstone, in the lower 
part. Over this is a considerable thickness of dark shales, with a twelve- 
■ feet band of metamorphic-pebble conglomerate evidently that of the 
olive group. No. 10, and above these are reddish and white sandstones, 
projecting from below the shaly talus, at the foot of the Wychler clifi^, 
the vertical portion of which, at the fine springs below the scarp, 
measured 179 feet. 

Section below Dandox viiiage and cliffs. 
Groups. Ft. 

f Nummulitic limestone ... ... ... ... 200 

I Coal-shales, traces to westward 
Talus ... ,,, ,,. room for 150 feet of beds 

( 165 



166 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



Groups. 

f Red shales 
Light-coloured sandstones . . . 
Shales ... 

No. 10. — <j Whitish sandstones ... 

Red clay or shale 
Greenish shales ... 
LMetamorphic-pebble conglomerate 



Red shaly and flaggy zone (salt-pseudomorph band) 

Silicious and calcareous grits 

Dark sandy beds 

Red sandstones and shales, with a thirty 

Red shaly sandstones 

More solid, red sandstones , . , 

Thick and flaggy red sandstones 

? Fault or slip. 
Black shaly band, with whitish flaggy sandstones below, probably 
exceeds 
( Red shale 




feet band of gypsum 



Ft. 

56' 

20' 

20'. 

14' 

36' 

28' 

12' 



No. 3?- 

No. 2.— 

part of ? 

No. 1.— 



(. Purple and green variegated shale and sandstone 
Gypseous salt marl. 



■ 186 
120 

200 
100 
200 
400 

probably 
repeated. 
Ft. 

150 
30 



...70 to 250 
? 



Westward of section. 



To the westward of this line of section, within a mile, the faulting 
and slipping- seem even greater, giving the ap- 
pearance of an enormous thickness of the purple 
sandstone. The red gypseous band marked in the section continues for 
some distance along a curving line, and appears discordant to the bedding, 
as if filling a reversed line of fault or fissure in the western part of the 
course. (See figure 26, Plate XVIII.) 



Further still to the westward (fig. 26) at the head of a deep narrow 
glen opening to the south, the section seems more 
normal as to thickness, and the gypseous dark 
coaly shales are seen beneath the limestone escarpment of the plateau. 



Gypseous band. 



Dandot coal. 



Near the head of this ravine, a narrow neck of limestone connects 
that of the plateau with its lower continuation 
westward, and upon both sides of this neck the 
coal-shales are exposed. At the southern locality, they are more than 
( 166 ) 



WjTiTie: SoJt Rcvip 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



ilemoii-s.Vol.XlV.PhXVni-Z 






;/ 




s^r- 1'^ 



Fig: 27. Mariala- Coal driving, 

Ct.Linies-ion.e clifri &. 6'Qyirf,sto/te/ f. Coal-dr-i/'i.. 



dand6t plateau and spur. 167 

100 feet tliickj but are gTeatly split up by thiu saudstone bauds. Thege 
shales rest on red sandstones, and are overlaid by light-coloured sandstone 
beds ; more shales overlie the latter, becoming flaggy above. A fault 
brings the whole against the nummulitic limestone; just beneath 
which some of the uppermost of the dark shales, and some two feet of 
the coal* are badly exposed. The coal burns with difficulty, giving off 
much gas and sulphurous fumes. 

Northwards from this locality, on the opposite side of the neck of 
Sammidri-" buQo-alow, nummulitic limestone, the coaly shales are seen 
locality. again, near a dilapidated bungalow. Some larger 

openings have been made into them here. In three of these the coaly por- 
tion was found to differ ; in one, there were three small bands and three or 
four, 4 to 6-inch strings of coal ; in another, the coal and shale were so 
blended that the thickness of the former was undefined ; and in the third, 
the coal was 6 feet thick, but divided almost in the middle by a 7 -inch 
band of grey shale. The coal weathered away rapidly owing to its sul- 
phurous character, and some parts of the coal-shale had taken fire and 
burned red. Just beneath the coal a hard, yellow, slightly calcareous rock, 
deeply weathered, and blue within, contained some obscure Bivalves and 
some Rotal'm(2. Underneath these are some coarse reddish and white soft 
sandstones, which may belong to the same series. The coal seemed here 
in greater quantity than in the other places in the neighbourhood ; but 
as the limestone under which it lies is very limited in extent, so also must 
be the coal. 

Within a mile to the westward there is another locality, where the 

coal-shales and limestone are faulted against hard 
Mariala. 

grey sandstones, capped by 100 feet of red sand- 
stone and shales. The cliff in which the coal occurs was inaccessible, 
the road to the old driving having slipped away, but the entrance to the 
mine could be seen on the opposite side of a ravine (Plate XVIII2). It 

* The guide who pointed it out ate some spoonfuls of the coal with apparent relish, no 
doubt regarding it as a medicine, and did not seem the worse during the rest of the day. 

( 167 ) 



168 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

d[d not appear here that the junction of limestone and shales was 
regular, these having- been crushed into irregularities of the under surface 
of^the]^limestone by slipping of the whole mass. 

The red sandstone brought against the limestone here seems to 

succeed the grey sandstones below regularly ; but 
The sandstone. 

as the latter are oi the character or those belong- 
ing to^the magnesian sandstone group, and no such strong red sand- 
stones are known in a similar position among the upper beds to the east, 
it is most likely that they belong to the group No. 5, which comes into 
the succession not far to the westward. 

There is yet another locality at which the coal-shales are visible in 
this neighbourhood, rather more than a mile to the 
westward, under the salt miners^ old hot- weather 
village of Nila, on the northern scarp of the tongue of limestone which 
caps this spur of the hills. The coal is rather more than a foot thick, 
occurring in the upper part of six or eight feet of black shales, under- 
neath which a yellowish calcareous rock reappears, similar to that noticed 
at the northern Samundri locality ; grey and ferruginous shales overlie 

the coal, and above them, just beneath the lime- 
Associated rocks. . p, 1 •, 1 , 

stone, IS some line powdery sort white sandstone 

with carbonaceous markings. The whole group of beds associated with 

the coal from the limestone downwards is twenty-eight or thirty 

feet in thickness. 

Beyond the small capping of limestone, the rest of the ground 
forming this spur is very much broken. The 

Oi^ripr rocks 

salt-marl rises high on the southern flanks of the 
hills, and is much exposed in the deeper glens : the purple sandstone 
cliffs start immediately from it, but the most of the higher ground 
is covered either with light-coloured rocks, very generally sandstone, 
of the magnesian sandstone group, or with their debris and that of the 
overlying rocks. 
( 168 ) 



dand6t plateau and spur. 169 

Od the Makrach side, this spur is bold aud steep^ huviug- more the 

character of an escarpment than the'other side. 
Makrach side of spur. 

The rocks, too, dip to south-by-east at hig-her 

angles than on the outer slopes. The purple sandstone [shows a 
thickness of some three hundred feet_, but the shaly group No. 3 is in- 
significant, being apparently united with the light- coloured sandy beds 
of No. 4. A thin red band or two occur near the base of the " olive 
group/' overlying the possible representative of the group No. 5, this 
being near the place where it commences. The whole sandstone 
series below these red bands is about three hundred to four hundred 
feet thick, and at the eastern end of the Makrach salt-marl valley the 
beds are bent into an anticlinal curve, which on its south-eastern side 
passes below the Dandot plateau, and to the north-east under the long 

limestone ridge from Choya-Saidan-Shah, which 
Anticlinal in glen. 

forms the inclined southern side of Gamthala glen. 

Near the mouth of this glen just beneath the nummulitic lime- 
stone, there is strong development of the coaly 

Coal series i i • i i • i 

shales with their coaly band, here two feet three 
and beds below. ., n • t * iiif.i.. 

inches thick. A good deal of slipping m the 

vicinity obscures this place, and the dip is very high to the north, so that 

the shales appear unusually thick, the outcrop being 130 yards wide 

with a dip of 70°. The shales include some white, lumpj^, sandy, and 

gypseous beds, and the lower part contains plant fragments. Underneath 

the coal-shales are soft white sandstones and red shales overlying a thick 

mass of the usual metamorphic-pebble conglomerate and sandstones 

of the "olive group^^ with which these red beds are provisionally placed. 

The whole group is thick, but much concealed. From beneath these 

beds, the red, rippled, flaggy and shaly rocks, with micaceous layers and 

Annelide tracks, representing the " salt pseudomorph zone,^' make their 

apppearance ; and in the undulating light-coloured semi-calcareous beds 

o£ the " magnesian group " the white oolitic bands with a thickness of 

twenty feet (the same as on the turnpike road near Khewra) were 

again observed. 

X ( 169 ) 



170 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Section VII. — The Kahun Plateau. 

This wide portion of the table-land of the Salt Range is almost 

entirely occupied by the nummulitic limestone, 
Description. 

whicH IS not unfrequently eherty, as in the neigh- 
bourhood of Dilwdl. The maximum heights of the plateau are at nearly 
the same level, and the central part is occupied by flat east and west 
valleys, with limestone ridges between, the southern edge being tilted 
somewhat and sloping to the north with the bedding of the rocks. The 
valleys are occupied by fertile soil washed from the higher portions. 
With regard to fossils, the limestone is quite the same as that to the east. 

All along the northern side of this plateau, the lower (Nahan) beds 

of the tertiary sandstone series dip from it 
Northern side. 
Tertiary sandstones. northwards, passing under the Potwar country at 

angles varying from 30" to 50°, These beds have not at all the general 
look of the Murree or of the Bakrala pass rocks ; the purple sandstones of 
the latter and general purplish colour are both wanting. The lowest beds 
are strong grey sandstones, in places greenish, having a calculated 
thickness of 4,500 feet. Above these comes the '' red clayey zone," 
between 300 and 300 feet in thickness, and then the " orange and grey 
series," with some conglomerate beds, in places a good deal contorted, 
and occupying much of the country to the north. Just on the flanks 
of the range there is in places a set of more recent-looking conglome- 
rates and sandstones, with a steep dip to the north, and resting with 
doubtful conformity upon the older tertiary sandstones. These may 
probably be referred to a post-tertiary period. As is usual in such ground, 
ravines or " Jchudderas " prevail extensively in the lower situations, and 
the harder sandstones rising on the flanks of the range form numerous, 
more or less continuous, escarpments. 

The eastern end of the limestone of the Kahun plateau, as already 
mentioned, forms an open anticlinal curve, the 

Eastern part. 

axis of which sinks to the eastward, so tliat it is 

( no ) 



KAHtJN PLATEAU. 171 

embraced by tbe tertiary saiidstoues outside of and witbiii tbe Choya- 
Saidaii-Sbah valley, west of the fault which brings these against the 
older beds underneath Karangli hill and. else where. 

A synclinal, corresponding with this anticlinal curve, its axis dipping 
also to the eastward, terminates the valley portion of these tertiary 
sandstones, close to the bungalow of Choya-Saidan-Shah, where the 
limestones rise out from beneath them. The termination of the sand- 
stones is concealed by a great quantity of calcareous tufa, on a high 
cliff of which the district bungalow is built. 

Towards the western end of the Kahun plateau the lower beds of 

the tertiary sandstones rise upon the limestones. 

Western part. _ ^ ' 

become horizontal, and bend over, — dipping gently 
to the south, forming strongly scarped hills, with heights over 3,000 
feet. A brine-spring is reported to exist among these hills, but my 
guide could not point it out. 

To the west of Dilwal (the largest village upon the plateau) , and very 
much in the strike of the Choya tertiary sandstone synclinal, are two 
isolated patches of these beds, let down by faults into depressions of 
the escarpment above the western arm of the Makrach valley. 

The southern escarpment of this (Kahiin) plateau extends from Choya- 

„ ,, Saidan to Kharder, projecting so as to form a very 

Soutnern escarpment. x o o j 

open angle between the two branches of the 
Makrach defile, south of Dilwal. At the head of the Gamthdla glen, 
near Choya, it presents a fine clifF-section of the series, from the " purple 
sandstone" up to the "nummulitic limestone,''^ including the *^ salt-crystal 
zone" (see section, fig. 20, PI. XVI). The cliffs continue, but the 
section changes ; and within a mile and a half of the mouth of this 
glen the salt-marl appears, so that the following succession is seen — 

Feet. 
Group No. 11. Nummulitic limestone, lumpy below, more than .. 200 

(Talus, place of coal shales, &c,) 
„ No. 10. White, red and purple sandstones and olive metamorphic- 

pebble conglomerates, estimated ,., ... 150 

( in ) 



172 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OP THE SALT EA.WGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

Peetv 
Group No. 8. Red " salt-crystal zone," flaggy and shaly layere ... 40 

„ 'No. 4. Light-coloured semi-calcareous sandstones of magnesian 

sandstone series • ... ... ... .. 200 

„ No. 3. Dark micaceous shaly band, part flaggy ... 100 to ISO 

„ No. 2. Purple sandstones, flaggy, earthy and shaly below 200 to 300 

,i No. 1. Purple and red gypseous marl — seen ... ... 150 

Further to the westward the succession is different; the "olive 
group/' so strong in the neighbourhood of Choya-Saidan, is still present, 
but much thinner, and the " salt-crystal zone " disappeai-s, giving place 
to another rock-group. The magnesian sandstone is no longer of uniform 
character, but becomes, as it were, blended with the silurian zone, by the 
presence of other dark shaly bands, which render the distinctive character 
of the sandstone group less apparent. 

The purple sandstone and the underlying salt-marl retain their 
characters unaltered. Sandstones and shales of the magnesian and 
Silurian groups, however, continue to the westward ; the latter extending 
beyond the former, and^ in the absence of the stronger sandstones, pre- 
senting still the character of the lower group (silurian). 

The new zone. No. 5, increases in thickness rapidly to the west, the 
salt-pseudomorph zone is not met with again, but the " olive group,'' 
much diminished in thickness and somewhat altered in appearance, holds 
on westward, maintaining its place just beneath the nummulitic rocks. 

Around the glen of Makrach the cliff-sections exhibit some local 

,, , , differences, most marked along- the southern edge 

Makrach glen, ' . 

of the Kahiin plateau. One of these sections has 

just been given, and the following will serve to show their variation in 

the vicinity : — 

Groups. Feet. 

■^ -.-. ("Nummulitic limestone, compact above, marly and nodular below ... 200 

I (Talus and debris, concealing 50 feet and upwards) ... 

i Yellow nodular marls, no nummidites, some corals 
Green glauconitic sandstones, with a few pebbles of crystalline' 
rocks, hajmatitic below: contain TerebratulcB ... 5 to 10 i 
Nodular pseudo-conglomeratic bands ; calcareous, friable, light- > 60 
coloured, flaggy, striped, micaceous sandstones, with black I 
shaly partings ... ... 50y 

( 172 ) 



75? 



KAHUN PLATEAU. 1]$ 

Groups. Feet. 

»j e ( Keddish nud white, coarse, speckled sandstones, thick-bedded, with ) 

I red shaly alternations ... ... ... ,^. j 

'Greenish and white sandstones, tvith black shales ; sometimes coaly, 
pyritous and ferruginous nodules large and numerous ; fucoids I 

^°- ^--i on surfaces ... ... > 200 

^Lumpy, gravelly, conglomerate ; pebbles of crystalline rocks 
No. 3. — Dark shaly beds ... ... ... ... .. jqO 

jj 2 f Dark red or purple sandstone, alternating below with layers of red ) 

1 shale; generally earthy beneath, near junction with next group.' 

No. 1. — Gypseous, red salt-marl ... ... _. ^ gQQ 



250 



Nearly below the old Makrach customs-bungalow standino- on the 
cliff edge, there is a thin band of red flaggy sandstone, apparently at the 
base of No. 1 in the above section, which may possibly be one of the 
last remnants of the salt-crystal zone. No. 8. Some other thin red rocks 
have been before mentioned high in the series, on the opposite side of 
the glen, under Nila, and eastward ; but in the sections to the west all 
traces of this band are unknown. 

In the western branch of the Makrach glen, along which a fault 

^ ^^ - „ , appears to pass towards Kalar-Kahar, the sections 

West branch oi glen. 

are in places concealed by slips and by accu- 
mulations of calcareous tufa, as near Malkana; but light-coloured 
sandstone beds, of the aspect of the magnesian group, still divide the 
series. Dark shales occur both above and below these sandstone beds, 
the upper band, of about fifty feet, having some six alternations of sand- 
stone and shale. The sandstones were estimated at from 250 to 300 feet 
and the dark shales below at 100 feet. Underneath the latter are, first, the 
" purple sandstone,^^ and then the " red salt-marl.^-' Over the lio^ht- 
coloured sandstones is as great a thickness of coarse white, reddish 
and speckled, strong-bedded sandstone, with red shaly layers. This 
is group No. 5. Above it the talus of the nummulitic limestone 
chff greatly conceals the beds, but there is room for both the coal-shales 
and the diminished " olive group. ^* 

The red salt-marl occupies the whole interior of the Makrach valley, 

and the gorge which leads from it south-west- 
Salt-marl. " ° 

wards. Small portions of the marl occur in the 

( 173 ) 



174 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Gamthala glen, and it extends for two miles up the Kharddr branch. 
The marl, as usual, is gypseous ; its upper portion towards the mouth of 
the gorge, under Nila cliffs, presents some of the most distinct stratifi- 
cation to be found in the group ; the gypseous interlaminations, to which 
the stratified appearance is due, dip, like the rest of the cliff, to the 
south-east at 35° to 40°. 

Large salt-mines were once opened in this Makrach glen, but 

have long since been closed, the miners working 

Mines. ^ ' ^ 

now at Khewra. It appears from Dr. Warth's"^ 
report that, west of the miners' old village, there is a band of salt, 
150 feet tbick, including several small layers of marl, the whole 
dipping at a high angle to the north. At another mine, to the south- 
west of the old village, the salt beds are thinner, an upper one being 
twelve feet thick, and consisting of a mixture of white granular salt and 
two-inch cubes. An old mine is also said to exist in the Gamthala 
gorge, but none are known in the Kharder branch. It will be seen 
from this that, while the general situation of the salt is much the 
same, its section cannot be closely identified with that of the Khewra set 
of beds. 

The great eastern fault of the range bends here, or two faults 

meet, one coming down each branch of the glen. 

Faults. . . . 

The dislocation caused by these faults is every- 
where irregular. Its effects in the Gamthala glen will be seen in the 
section, fig. 20, Plate XVI ; but in the Kharder ravine the only result 
seems to be that the strata to the south-west are left at a rather higher 
level than those on the opposite side of the glen ; while higher up, 
about Kharder itself, the beds on both sides being of the same lime- 
stone, there is little or no apparent " heave " on one side or the 
other. 

The fractures, which have allowed some of the tertiary sandstones 
to subside among the limestones and other beds of the north-eastern 



* Report, 1871, page 212. 



( 174 ) 



MALOT TABLE- LAND. 175 

cliffs of this valley, differ entirely in direction from the main break, 
but may be branches from it, running more east and west. Their 
throw is not considerable. 

There may possibly be some connection between the " line of weak- 
ness " along which these faults took place, and the reputed prevalence 
of earthquakes about Dilwal. One of these is said to have destroyed 
the Salt Officer's old bungalow on the cliff edge, only the northern half 
of which, forming a poor habitation, was standing when I visited the 
place. 

Section VIII. — Malot Table-land. 

The Malot table-land is a lofty and broken rocky spur, parallel with 

the Kharder branch of the Makrach glen, and 
Described. _ _ ^ 

rising between it and the plains. The south- 
eastern portion undulates much, while in the opposite direction the 
ground slopes gently eastward from the Simbal escarpment, overlooking 
the Sardi gorge ;^ northward, towards Kandoya, the plateau undulates, 
is hilly, or slopes to the north-westward. 

The upper portion of this table-land is occupied by the light grey 

nummulitic limestone, differing but little from 
Nummulitic limestone. 

that of the Dilwal and Kahun country, except that 

it is perhaps less cherty. Its fossils are, as in other places, chiefly 
casts of large Gastropods and bivalves with some large Echinoderms, 
all in an imperfect state. The cliffs which bound this plateau to the 
southward and west are more lofty and bold than those to the eastward; 
and the thickness of the limestone, with some allowance for denudation, 
may be assumed at 250 to 350 or even 400 feet. Parts of the escarp- 
ment sometimes seem, as at Malot, to have slipped downwards between 
small parallel fissures or faults. 



* This gorge is generally known by the first name, and the salt mines are spoken of as 
the Sardi mines. Dr. Fleming calls it the " Serai " gorge (p, 241), and natives of the country 
spoke of it as the Seriarik Wan, 

( 175 } 



176 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

All along these southern cliffs the sections are much confused by 
land-slips, and the rocks are for larg-e spaces 
concealed by debris. The talus at the cliff foot 
conceals the beds next below the nummulitic limestone, but the strong- 
bedded sandstones of No. 5 (already much thicker) generally project, 
skirting" the base of the limestone cliffs, or form- 
ing under-cliffs themselves ; further out upon the 
spurs are broad patches of the nummulitic limestone which have subsided 
to lower levels, and then beneath these the reddish, or white, or 
speckled, sandstones of No. 5 are sometimes seen : but the slopes are 
often covered with quantities of debris derived from the light-coloured 
sandstones, &c., of group No. 4. The black shaly lower portion of these 
beds or the representative of group No. 3 is seen occasionally ; and below 
all there is generally a well-marked strong feature formed by the purple 
sandstone group overlying the red salt-marl. 

In this marl salt is known to occur in several places, and old mines 
exist in a broad valley due south of the village of 
Vadala on the edge of the plateau above. The 
mines being closed, no information could be obtained about them on 
the ground; but they are noticed in Dr. Warth's Report for 1870-71 
(previously quoted), in which he mentions a resemblance between the 
arrangement of the salt and salt-marl at this place and that at Khewra, — 
" the white and red gypseous marl overlying the salt, which is underlaid 
by compact salt-marl.^'' He also gives a rough sketch showing several 
alternations of red and grey salt with brick-red gypsum, in a vertical 
position ; and he mentions one of many dislocations and disturbances 
by which the salt and gypsum seem to overlie the superior strata. From 
the arrangement of the guard-posts in this glen, it is evident that the 
salt lies in the upper portion of the marl, conforming to the outcrop 
of the purple sandstone. In the Karuli glen, again, westward of the 
last, where slips are also common, extensive but concealed deposits of 
salt are said to exist. 
( 176 ) 



MALOT TABLE-LAND. 177 

The sections of these southern cliffs and spurs are very unsatisfac- 
tory ; towards the south-east end of the scarp they resemble the section 
west of Makrach. In other directions the sandstone group No. 5 appears 
to have increased, being- from 250 to 300 feet thick. 

In the Karuli glen, the red marl may be exposed to a depth of 

from 460 to more than 500 feet; numerous ap- 
Karuli glen. . 

pearances of discordance caused by slips fronts 

above occur in the overlying strata. The purple sandstone above the 
marl is about 300 feet thick, and atone spot contains, just at its upper 
limit, a thin band of granular red haematite. A commanding and 
rather detached peak of about 900 feet altitude shows a large portion 
of the series horizontally bedded, the upper half being formed of light- 
coloured massive sandstones, with a dark shaly band at their base, 
resting on the purple sandstone ; the whole being capped by some of 
the reddish sandstone of No. 5. 

Underneath Malot, at the head of this glen, there are vertical cliffs 

showing sections at least 300 feet thick of the light- 
Malot sandstones. -si, i i t i 

coloured, speckled, and reddish sandstones of the 

last-named group (No. 5) , alternating eight times with bands of red and 
crimson shale^ and overlying brownish sandstone, or sometimes conglom- 
eratic bands, probably the locally uppermost portion of the group No. 4>. 
Within this thickness of sandstones, &c., there is some diversity ; the 
majority of the beds are whitish, some greenish or purple or darkly 
speckled, some are soft, and some silicious and ferruginous. All varieties 
of sandy lamination occur in them, and all are much ripple-marked, the 
red colour which pervades them being less apparent on the freshly 
broken than on weathered surfaces. 

Above this group are whitish flags with black filmy layers, and 

some few bands of greenish shale, with marks like 
Overlying beds. 

worm-tracks, these beds becoming gravelly and 

conglomeratic with metamorphic pebbles in a soft olive sandstone 

matrix. At irregular positions in the upper part of these beds are also 

Y ( 177 ) 



178 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OE THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

some very red shaly bands, and higher up, the coal shales, below the 
mass of the nummulitic limestone, are seen just under the village of 
Karuli in the subsided portion of the cliff on 
which this village stands. The section is th-us — 

Feet. 
6. Lumpy white limestone, part of a cliff of more than 130 

5. Black coaly shales, with much pyrites ... to 34 

(In these coal-shales is a lenticular mass of limestone 
from 18 inches to 3 feet thick). 
4. Lumpy limestone ... ... •■• ••• 6 to 8 

3. Black shale ... ... ... ■•• ^ 

2. Hsematitic and lateritic hand ... .. .•• 3 to 30 

1. Eed and pale purple, and ferruginous shale, with plant 

fragments ... ... ... ••• ^" 

The coal is merely in strings and lenticular layers in the shale. 

Some of it was tried in my tent-stove at night, but the fumes were too 

sulphurous to be borne. The general section near Karuli is as follows : — 

Groups. Feet. 

f Nummulitic limestone, lumpy and cherty below ... ... 300 

No. 11 .^Coal-shales ... ... ... ... ..- ••• 20 

I Lateritic band, hsematitic clay ... ... ... ... 3 to 30 

*{ Pale purple clay or shale ... ... •■• ••• 1" 

I White flaggy beds, with black filmy layers and") 

I beds of red clay ... ... ... r" ••. 30 

I ■' ,1 

Olive conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone ) 

No. 5. Reddish, speckled and whitish sandstone with many alterna- 
tions of red shale ... ... ... ... 300 

Light coloured, flaggy and strong sandstone ... ... 250 

Black, clunchy, micaceous shales, parts flaggy ... ... 100 

Purple sandstone, marly below ... ... ... 300 

Red salt-marl — seen ... ... ... 300 to 500 

The great gorge of Sardi (or the Seriarik Wan), west of Karuli, 
is cut back into the plateau country for a distance 
of six and a half miles from the plains in a north- 
erly direction ; three miles more of excavation wpuld have carried it 
right across the whole range. Its depth is not marked upon the map, 
but appears from aneroid observation to be from 1,500 to 1,600 feet. 
( 178 ) 



No. 


4. 


No. 


3. 


No. 


2. 


No. 


1. 



MALOT TABT,E-LAND. 179 

The sides of the gorge expose high cHff-seetions from the nummulitic 

limestone downwards to the red salt-marl, which 
Cliffs. 

runs up the glen for a distance of nearly five miles. 
It is evidently the horizontal disposition of the strata that leads to the 
exposure of the salt-marl, so far up this and other glens intersecting 
the plateau-country, which is itself a result of the horizontality of the 
bedding between the southern escarpment and the line along which the 
rocks assume a northerly dip. 

As noticed by Dr. Fleming and others, with regard to this gorge, 

the strata have a low dip from the valley towards 
Anticlinal. .^ 

the east and west; and, as Dr. Warth has ob- 
served, there are masses of brick-red gypseous marl on the east side 
of the glen, near the mines, which are unrepresented at its western side. 
This can hardly be accounted for except by slipping or by supposed len- 
ticular irregularity in the stratification of the upper part of the marl. 
Disappearance of the salt beds by solution should have caused a smaller 
development of the whole group on the eastern side of the glen, and 
faulting would not be tenable on the presumption that the beds of salt 
and gypsum retain the arrangement attributed to them, at Khewra and 
elsewhere, by Dr. Warth. There is, however, another and more feasible 

T , ,. ,. explanation of the difiieulty ; for, to the westward 

JUancl-slip, concealing ^ "^ 

part of section. of the mines, a great land-slip has taken place ; a 

tract of the nummulitic limestone, two and a half miles long, having 
subsided from its continuation with that of the cliffs of Mavjhang. 
In consequence of this dislocation, which can hardly be supposed limited 
only to the nummulitic limestones, the underlying strata appear to 
have been pushed out over the marl, so as to conceal the portion of the 
latter which is really uppermost in the vicinity of the mines ; and the 
salt beds of Sardi, if on nearly the same horizon as those of Khewra and 
south of Yadala, would seem to have above them a local development 
of the gypseous red marl unknown in those localities. 

As is often the case with regard to slipped masses along the escarp- 
ment, that under Marjhang, although it is broken and confused, and 

( 179 ) 



180 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

the ground is often concealed by debris, does not seem to repeat the series 
regularly. From anterior or subsequent landslip portions of the same 
limestone mass rest on different groups of the older rock. 

The thickness of the salt beds mined at Sardi does not seem to be 

known ; one bed of W feet, with a north-westerly 
Salt. 

strike, is mentioned by Dr. Warth; another of 

the same thickness, but of bad salt, dips at a steep angle to the north- 
north-west ; while good salt above the latter is shown for some 40 feet, 
and below for about 75 feet^ in thickness. There has alwaysb een diffi- 
culty in working these mines on account of their low situation^ the 
excavations leading downwards below the level of th^ stream, and con- 
sequently rendering them liable to flooding. The small bi-pyramidal 
quartz -crystals mentioned as occurring in the gypsum here by Dr. 
Fleming {l. c. p. 351) were stated by people knowing the locality to 
occur but very rarely. 

The sections on both sides of the gorge are very much the same^^ 

except that, at the head of the glen, the nummuli- 
Sections. % , , 

tic limestone suddenly increases in thickness owing 

to the introduction of a quantity of soft marly beds below, nearly 

double the depth of the same group, at the sides of the glen, midway 

between the head and the mouth. That the group has not been reduced 

at the latter place to any great extent by denudation would appear from 

the occurrence of the conformable tertiary sandstones, &c., close to the 

edge of the cliff at the village of Sardi. 

The general section exposed in the glen where the rocks are not 
confused by dislocation or concealed by debris is as follows : — 

Groups. Feet. 

No. 12. Tertiary sandstones close to the edge of cliff to the west of glen ? 

No. 11. Nummnlitic limestone, grey, compact, and lumpy, or marly 

below ... ... ... ... ... 250 to 400 

(Talus and debris, room for ... ... ... 150) 

r Shales and clays, light lavender or darker coloured ... 80 

No. 5. ^ Sandstones, speckled, ferruginous, and whitish, with red clay 

*- or shale bands ... ... ... ... 250 to 300 

( 180 ) 



ifAI.UT TABLE-LAND. 181 

4 , 

Groups. Feet. 

No. 4. Brownisli and light coloured or grey sandstones, passing into — 150 to 200 

No. 3. Black slialy band ... ... ... ... 80 to 100 

No. 2. Pnrple sandstone, slialy or marly below ... ... 250 

No. 1. Red salt-marl ... ... ... ... ... ? 

The outcrops round the glen are nearly horizontal^ the beds dipping 
gently away from the excavation to the east and west ; but at the head 
of the glen they dip at 20° and 35° to the north. Just beneath the 
nummulitic limestone talus on the road from Karuli to the Sardi salt 
mines^ a mass of variegated, hsematitic, earthy laterite, projects. From 
this rock, it is supposed, the native artificers procure the material 
which they cut into letter-weights, &e., for sale. In several parts of 
the Sardi glen there are deposits of calcareous tufa. 

On the hilly part of the plateau above the northern end of the 

ravine, there are some peculiarly veined concre- 
Varlegated striped beds. . 

tionary beds high up in the nummulitic limestone. 

They are of a reddish grey tint, the structure being marked by irregu- 
larly concentric rings and thin bands of purple and yellow colour ; their 
thickness is at most 20 feet. From these are taken those parts in 
which the lines are most strongly developed, for knife handles, weights, 
and such ornamental uses. The exposed parts of the beds are much 
jointed, but, if large blocks could be obtained, they would doubtless 
work up into a pretty marble. It is _said that the church at Shahpur 
is flagged with stone obtained from this place, and the remains of old 
quarries are visible.'^ 

Close to the locality at which these beds occur, there are some rem- 
nants of the tertiary sandstones, and one consi- 
Tertiary sandstone. 

derable outlier forming hilly ground; here the 

lower beds contain a number of reptilian remains and some fossil wood. 
Bones are numerous, and parts of the heads of crocodiles have been 
found; but none of the fossils discovered were in very perfect preserva- 
tion. Due north of this outlier, the underlying limestone rolls up and 

* The polished specimens of this stone sent to the museum at Calcutta were presented 
by Mr. Marshall, late of the Salt Department, Sardi. 

( 181 ) 



1 83 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

then turns steeply down northward, forming the hills south of the pic- 
turesque neighbourhood of Kalar-Kahar. 

By the road from Sardi to Kalar-Kahar, both the uppermost num- 

mulitie beds and the lowest tertiary sandstones can 
Kalar-Katar junction 

of nummulitic and ter- be seen. The junction beds of the latter are at 

tiary sandstones, &c. ippi-ji-i 

most a couple oi leet m thickness, and are of 

pseudo-conglomerate, calcareous and lumpy, and of a greyish purple 
colour. Sections of small concretions resemble Nummulites ; and a few 
of the latter are scattered through the rock, but whether originally 
belonging to it, or derived, there is nothing to show, and the junction 
presents every appearance of conformity. In some places, this junction 
rock appears more conglomeratic, with pebbles of a dun-coloured lime- 
stone, and overlies some 15 feet of purple marly rock, directly under 
which is the nummulitic limestone. This limestone dips at 35° and 40° 
to the north on the hill side, and appears to be cut off by a small fault 
bringing it against the sandstones, &c., close by, west of the descent 
to the Kalar-Kahar bungalow. 

The bungalow at this place seems to stand upon an exposure of the 

. red salt-marl, which, strange to say, is seen in 
Salt-marl. 

connection with the nummulitic limestone, in a 

hillock over the shore of the lake just east of the bungalow, and is 
again seen among the gardens and vineyards near the police station 
to the west. The place abounds with fresh-water springs, which pro- 
bably indicate faulting of the rocks and exhaustion of any saline im- 
pregnation near their sources. 

Some brine-springs, however, issue from the marl close by the foetid 
black muddy shore of the lake. Tracing this marl to the eastward, it is 
found at first between the limestone and the tertiary sandstone beds, but 
afterwards turning to the southward between apparently nearly vertical 
walls of the limestone, in a direction which would exactly coincide with 
the run of the fault up the Kharder arm of the Makrach glen. The 
marl is so weathered, recomposed, and cemented by calcareous infil- 
trations, that it is very hard to get a decent specimen of it, but its 

( 183 ) 



MALOT TABLE-LAND, 183 

internal colour and the association of gypsum identify it with that of the 
south side of the range. 

At its last exposure in the Makrach direction, there are associated 
with the marl a few beds of friable^ whitish and reddish,, or purplish 
sandstones, probably of group No. 5, dipping to the northwards on that 
side of the marl at about 35°, and the upper portion of these beds is 
dark and shaly. The limestone on both sides of the marl dips also 
northwards, or east of north, at nearly the same angle, and the whole 
exposure has a width of a hundred feet or so. From the occurrence of 
these few beds of sandstone, it may be presumed that the marl (the 
softest rock of the series) was forced by pressure into an open fissure 
caused by disturbance along the western continuation of the Makrach 
and Choya fault. The water which flows by this fissure from the salt or 
salt-marl near the lake, is so strongly saturated, that an ordinary gurra 
full (more than two gallons) boiled down, yields two seers (4 lbs.) 
of salt, according to the account of the natives, and information supplied 
by Mr. Marshall of Sardi. Other springs on the same line of fracture 
and in the same association are, however, fresh. 

In some places where no limestone intervenes between the marl 

Junction with sand- ^'^d the sandstones of the tertiary series, the latter 

^**^'^®^- are contorted, contain redder clays than usual, and 

dip sharply at the fault, while elsewhere, where the limestone does 

intervene, it is separated from the sandstones by smaller dislocations. 



Pig. I^.—Skeieh Section, S.-E.fro7n Kalar-Kahdr. 
1— Salt-mavl ; 2— Sandstones ; 11— Niimmulitic limestone ; 12— Tertiary sandstone series : all faulted. 

( 183 ) 



1 84 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNjXb. 

The remainder of the lower tertiary sandstones in the vicinity are of 

the usual kind^ intercalated with red shales or clays, and the " red clay 

zone^^ passes just north of the lake, holding its east and west course 

along the northern flanks of the hills. Some coal 
So called coal. . 

has been mentioned as occurrmg at a place called 

Nurwa, north of Kalar-Kahar. This is in the overlying thick, grey, 

sandstones and orange clays, the coal being merely a few strings of 

lie-nite, the fossilized remains of trees or branches, and of no economic 

value, occurring at the base of a thick band of sandstones. 

The Kalar-Kahar lake has a very small catchment area, receiving 

the surface-water of the hill-slope to the south- 
Kalar-KaMr lake. <i ii , 

ward, and very little more ; a considerable stream 

with which it is not connected passes close by to the north-east, and 
another within a mile to the westward. The lake would seem, therefore, 
to be principally supplied by springs, both fresh and salt, the water 
from which accumulates in a nearly circular sheet, a mile in diameter, 
but of only two or three feet in depth, or perhaps four when full. 

In dry weather, the water almost all evaporates, leaving deep black 
mud covered by a thin saline incrustation. The odour from this mud 
poisons the air in the vicinity, and, as might be expected, fever is said to 
be then very rife in the adjacent village. 

The salt naturally formed here is impure, of the kind called ' halar ' 
by the natives. Five hundred grains of the lake 

T4-Q CQll^g 

water, according to Dr. Fleming (/. c. p. 250), 
contain 14"97 grains of saline matter, consisting of sulphate of soda and 
cblorides of sodium and magnesium, with a trace of chloride of calcium. 



IX. — NtrRPuR Plateau. 
This plateau, about twelve miles long by ten broad, presents some 
variety of structure, the tertiary sandstones over- 
Area j structure. \fm^ a large part of it, as well as being brought 
into faulted contact, with the limestone beds of the plateau. Faults also 
( 184 ) 



NljRPUR PLATEAU. 185 

have caused the re-appearance of the salt-marl iu situations as unusual as 
at Kalar-Kahar. 

Like other plateaux of the range, the surface undulates much, the 

northern side being the highest by from 400 to 
Tertiary sandstones. 

500 feet. Everywhere, along the northern side, 

the tertiary sandstones and clays rise upon the flanks of the hills at 

angles of 30° and 25°, the lower greenish beds having a calculated 

thickness of 2,500 or 2,600 feet. The red clayey zone still maintains 

its place along the hill-foot, having very much its normal thickness of 

about 1,250 feet. 

The softer grey sandstones, and drab or orange clays, overlie these, 
and form the lower ground of the Potwar country. To the north- 
east, in the vicinity of Kalar-Kahar, the lower beds of the sandstone 
series rise upon the northern sloping edge of the plateau, and becoming 
horizontal extend to the southward, occupying a broad, open and nearly 
circular basin, one part of the edge of which impinges upon the western 
cliffs of Sardi gorge. 

A rough contour-line from this spot marks the boundary of the 
sandstone basin, the whole of which is occupied by good soil, the waste of 
these tertiary sandstones and clays, supplemented by rain-wash off the 
limestone, which rises out from beneath them. At the northern side of 
the basin the sandstones contain small fragments of bone particularly 
in pseudo-conglomeratic layers ; and many of the beds are covered by 
patches of white saline efflorescence [kalar], which collects along the 
smaller streams in sufficient quantities to be gathered unmixed with the 
sand and earth. 

A long narrow strip of the tertiary sandstones, 60 to 150 feet in 

thickness, is let down below the level of the ad- 
Saheti fault, 

joining limestone by a north-west fault from 

the head of the Nilawan ravine, passing by Saheti and to the 

southward of VasnaL Other denuded outlying masses of these 

rocks, once doubtless continuous with the faulted portion, overlie 

z ( 1S5 ) 



186 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNjIb. 

the nummulitic limestone westward of the Nilawaa ravine and just 
above its chffs*. Near Bhal, almost the very lowest of these beds 
are red clays, above which bone-fragments occur in the sandstones. 
The rest of the plateau is mainly occupied by the nummulitic limestone, 
generally compact, sometimes cherty, and sometimes, as near Vasnal, 
of a pinkish colour, with red veins. The lower beds are, as usual, 
nodular, marly, and lumpy. The fossils have a general similarity 
to those of more easterly situations, but occasionally occur in larger 
variety and somewhat better preservation, as at the edge of the cliffs 
overlooking the north-east corner of the Nilawan ravine, where several 
large CyprcRORy Echinoderms and other forms are found. From four 
to five hundred feet may be allowed for the average thicknes of the 
Thickness of nummu- ^^ummulitic limestone on the eastern half of the 
litic limestone. plateau, its thickness increasing, however, to the 

westward. 

The long, narrow, flat valley, in which the village of Sar ( or Surr ) 
is situated, coincides in direction with the Saheti 
fault. It is occupied by cultivated ground and 
bounded by broken outcrops of the limestone ; but, from the appearance 
of some reddish sandstone beds in its northern cliffs, it appears very 
probable that the limestone has been denuded, the floor of the valley 
being termed by the sandstones of group No. 5. 

The lofty cliffed escarpment which bounds the Niirpur plateau to the 
„ ^1 , n south is very complicated ground, owing to the 

Southern edge oi ./ j. o ^ o 

plateau and cliffs. huge dislocation and irregular and unequal sub- 

sidences which have taken place. It is only here and there, at the heads 
of valleys, that the cliff which rises above the broken ground is of 
sufficient magnitude to give sections through the whole series, and it 

* In one of Dr. Fleming's sections, tertiary sandstone outliers are shown upon both 
sides of this ravine. Although I crossed the ground where the eastern patch is marked, it 
may have escaped observation from darkness, and some fields there may be formed of its 
debris ; nor could I see this outlier from higher ground in the neighbourhood commanding 
the place. 

( 1B6 ) 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CF INOIA 



Wy:»iTie-. S <iXi-^ Rtxruj^ 



Miornoirs ; Vol. Xrv. n. XI5C 



ITakci. 

Z651 




S. N. 

R^.3S-Dia|;rain. to represent, ijlijijiedface of Eacarjmient. in Section South of Mafcan. , 



Stjtj^ ^ixUdy 



lTt.ar NaJuL 
11 




/.Vjc X 



'-f'^ I' 



S.S.W- N.N.E. 

lig. 30.iS«ct7O3^ of slipped, ^xrttijvd Soiitli of S aX over the E scax'pirient-, 

J, SffJJi'-Tn^trrl' . 2. Pxcrpl^ S emits f:oTi-c- . 3, Sdivrirm,. 4, J^fa^y^-«■flt<m S'«rt«tflf«nr . 5, Slpco^Zed 



NIJRPUR PLATEAU. 187 

is always doubtful whether the portions exposed on the spurs and lower 
eminences are ew sitic or not. 

In the Samli hills, south of Sardi and near Morghaug, the talus of the 
nummulitic limestone cliffs conceals the beds 
immediately below them ; but a thick band of lilac 
and variegated clay, very characteristic of the upper part o£ the '^speckled 
sandstone" group (No. 5) is exposed to a depth of 150 feet, and is even 
thicker to the westward near Matan. Beneath this are fully 300 feet of 
the speckled reddish sandstones, some of which are used for mill-stones, 
they are less alternated with red shale bands than to the eastward ; a 
few of the rocks are white and conglomeratic, with hard quartzose and 
crystalline-rock pebbles, and ripple-marks are very common on the sur- 
faces of the finer beds. 

The magnesian sandstone group is also represented by about 150 feet 
of light-coloured sandstones and darker shales, overlying a black shaly 
zone of 90 feet, representing the silurian band. Under this are 300 feet 
of the purple sandstone series, and then, at the base of all, the salt-marl 
is seen. 

In this neghbourhood, the rocks beyond the escarpment have a slight 
„ , t d" to- tendency to dip towards the plains, but they have 
wards plain. ^11 been SO affected by slips that this appear- 

ance cannot be trusted as original. Over the lower hills, the harder 
grey sandstones and their fragments are more exposed than in the cliffs, 
while great masses of the nummulitic limestone and other beds have 
been transplaced, in some instances having slipped down to the very 
foot of the hills (see Bg. 29, Plate XIX). 

The red marl is seldom seen on the outer sides of these land-slips, along 

the edge of the boulder-zone, but appears in the valleys between the fallen 

masses. The lines along which these slips have 

an -s ps, taken place, though apparent enough upon the sur- 

face, can seldom be followed downwards so as to discover their " hade '' 

or throw, and in some cases the only apparent plane of transplacement 

( isr ) 



No. 5. 



188 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

is one corresponding with the bedding of the rock, as in the case of out- 
lying patches of the nummulitic limestone (see fig. 30, Plate XIX). 

It cannot, of course, be assumed that the lines of slip are as regular or 
straight as those in the diagrammatic sections figured ; the irregulari- 
ties being concealed, these are only approximate indications. 

The general section between the Nilawan and Sardi ravines is 
thus : — 

Groups. Feet. 

No. 11. Nummulitic limestone, compact above, marly and nodular below ,. 450 
(Talus concealing the lower part of it). 

Lavender and variegated clays ... 160 
I Eeddisb and white coarse thick -bedded sandstones, sometimes conglo- 
meratic, generally speckled and ripple-marked, alternating with red 

clay or shale bands . . . 350 
No. 4. Light-coloured and compact sandstones, frequently separated by bands 

of dark shale ... 150 

No. 3. Black shaly and flaggy band (silurian) ... 90 

No. 2. Purple sandstones, earthy below ... 300 

No. 1. Red, salt-marl, and gypsum • ... ? 

At a short distance to the eastward of the mouth of the Nilawan 

, , ravine, the group No. 4 retains only the light 

Magnesian sandstone , . 

group. colour which this hand generally possesses, the 

dolomitic character is all but gone, and sandstones, frequently alternating 
with shaly bands, compose the group, which appears to be losing thick- 
ness rapidly towards the west, shales frequently replacing the sandstone 
portions. 

The Silurian dark shaly group below has still much of its usual 

appearance, and occupies its usual position above 
Silurian. ^, , , , ' 

the purple sandstone. 

The grand gorge of the Nilawan (see sections on Plate XX) pene- 
trates this plateau in a northerly direction for a 

Nilawan ravine. „ ,i n i i ir -i i 

distance oi more than five and a halt miles, reach-. 

ing up to Bhalial near Niirpur. Its depth is estimated at from twelve 

( 188 ) 









StOLOGICXiL SUfVEV OP 



NILAVNAN RAVINE 

()>.,.. ^Ttrl J ft«^- mjlcA- from m„ulh. 
F.ujlt 




Uomoirs Vol: XIV. PI 5C X . 



Ne^xT- ,Cofc/)r PoTnt 
aai2 













On^ "ma La fio-^TKi^-niat- 



1000 f^Ves'ticaZ. 



7i£. 31 



NtLAWAN RAVINE 

ilfxj^'ly th-i^r^G TntZfS jfhorrt- rrLtyufh^ 




B.ZS' S. 



Sct^rve. scaia. aus iJte .S'ectiiJTl/ above. 



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1000 f- Va-bicoU. 



?if 33 



NtJRPUR PLATEAU. 189 

to eighteen hundred feet, and its width, at one place midway up, is only 
three-quarters of a mile. Just within its mouth is a narrow throat or 
gorge, entering between high under-cliffs of the purple sandstone group, 
which approach so closely that there is no room left for the salt 
marl, although this crops out both before entering and after passing 
the throat. 

Beyond the narrow portion the ravine opens to a width of more than 
a mile, and above the purple sandstones of the 

Scries of Nilawan. 

eastern side, which are lully 400 feet or more m 
thickness, and of lighter colour towards the top, the dark, lumpy, 
micaceous shales of the zone No. 3 are seen, with a thickness of 90 or 
100 feet. Over this band are 50 feet of light-coloured sandstones, 
alternating above with three bands of dark shale having a thickness 
of some 80 or 90 feet, and an aspect very similar to those below. The 
thick speckled sandstone and red shale group succeeds, and then comes 
the talus, a high clifl" of nummulitic limestone rising above all. 

Down in the gorge, just here, and in the narrow part beyond, there 
is evidence of extreme crushing, and a crooked bifurcating fault occurs, 
the displacement accompanying which does not appear to be great. 

The angle formed by the branching of this fault is occupied by the 
purple sandstone, on the left bank of the stream vertical, and striking 
west-north-west to north-west ; while on the right bank it is nearly hori- 
zontal, dipping at a low angle into the hill. 

On the western side of the gorge, at the same place, the lower part 
of the section is, as before mentioned, the purple 

AVcst side 01 £*or2['G 

sandstone, which is somewhat contorted, and the 
group No. 4 only slightly represented, if at all, but high up beneath 
the limestone cliffs some of the intervening beds between it and the 
'' speckled sandstone " are exposed, a new member of the series having 
made its appearance. The same rocks occur also in the Bhal arm of 
the gorge at right angles to, and on the west side of, the main glen. 

( 189 ) 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



This new group, which first appears in the Nilawan, is the carboniferous 
Carboniferous in Nila- formation, occupying such an important and large 
wan ravme. place in the geological series to the westward. The 

section at this place is as follows, chiefly from Dr. Waagen's notes :— 

Ft. Ft. 

Groups. Average. 

( Nummulitic limestone of the plateau, forming a compact ') 

limestone; clifi ... ... ... •■• 200 

Thin-bedded grey nodular limestone ... ... 50 

Talus, black coaly sbales and coal layers ... .. 50—60 

Ho. 11 A Brown marls with hard concretions, and — Nummulites ... 20 )■ 372 

Hard grey limestone, well bedded ... ... 10 — 15 



Grey nodular marls with irregular hard layers 
Section obscure for 20 feet, blocks of limestone with 
i^ TerebratulcR ^Q2ix\j in situ ... ... ... 

f Dark-green thick sandstone with granules of phosphate 
of iron, many specimens of lai'ge Nautili, long slen- 
der spines of Cidaris, small bivalves and gigantic 
No. 10. -! CoMMS, a foot high (probably cretaceous) 
I Pisolitic haematite ... 

I Coaly shales, very irregular, with some appearance of 
L discordance to beds below ... ... ... 

f Coarse sandstone, light yellowish grey, with Froductus 
j spwosMs, bivalves and corals .. . 
No. 6. -{ Coaly, sandy shale ... 

j Light greenish sandstone with coaly laminae, one bed of 
(_ this sandstone is 20 feet thick 

''Lavender clay 
Greenish and blackish shales, many indurated marl beds, 

containing a yellow mineral (? an ore of lead) 
Lavender clay and thick white and yellowish sandstone. 
No. 5. "I interstratified ... ... ••- 

Red sandstone 

Lavender clay, dark-coloured ... 

Eed sandstone with many alternations of red and purple 
shale 



15 
20 j 



15 
6 



1 27 



6 J 

10 ! 

10 j- 

50 J 
6 1 

60 



70 



100 
30 
10 



'. 286 



80 J 



f Soft green sandstones with pebbles of crystalline rocks -i g^ 

Nos. 3, 4. I p^j.3^ g^^ly ^^^^ ... ... ... ...J 



75 



t Purple sandstones (200 feet, seen) 
' X Purple shaly lower portion ,., 
No, 1. Red gypseous salt marl. 

( 190 ) 



70 } ^^^ 



NURPUR PLATEAU. 191 

A little to the northwards the gorge again becomes very narrow, 
and there is much appearance of crushing, the purple sandstone again 
approaching on either side so as to leave little or no space to be occupied 
by the salt-marl; slips from above often conceal the true thickness 
of the rocks, and the purple sandstone in some sections appears earthy 
or shaly for nearly half its thickness, but for much less in others. 

The magnesian group, where separable, has a thickness of more 

than 50 feet, but the light sandstones are so inter- 
Group No. 4. . 

calated with dark shales that they seem rather to 
form a part of the shaly zone below, the whole hardly amounting to 
100 feet. Above this the speckled and red-banded sandstone occurs, but 
can hardly be seen from the bottom of the narrow gorge, while the 
talus of the nummulitic limestone cliff obscures the softer beds beneath 
that zone. 

In this narrow part of the gorge, as at Khewra, there is again seen 

the same sort of volcanic, lavender, ash-like rock 
Volcanic rock. 

with an irregular thickness of a few feet, under- 
lying a gypsum band just at the top of the salt-marl, and associated also 
with a decomposing layer of the more solid volcanic rock, the same as 
occurs, in quite a similar situation, at Khewra. 

Where this narrow part of the gorge opens a little, to the northwarci. 
Salt at narrow part of ^ ^^'^^^^ ^^^ ""^ rock-salt is seen at the surface 
S^^S^- on the right bank of the stream. It contains 

thin laminae of different colour, and forms four or five beds lyino- 
quite parallel to the stratification of the overlying purple sandstone 
close to the base of which it occurs, with a band of the lavender 
clay just noticed intervening. Kock salt is seen again a little further 
to the north, with two strongly marked white beds, and a thickness of 60 
feet. It is also known to exist in very many other parts of the red 

,, . marl of this gorge, and the lavender clay and 

Utner salt mines. *' 

volcanic trap-rock occur pretty generally. The 
latter was found by Dr. Warth at one spot interposed between some thin 
layers of bad salt below, and a 30 to 50-feet bed of white gypsum 

{ 191 ) 



1 92 WYNNE ; GEOLOGY OE THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

above, just beneath the purple sandstone. The trap here was 15 feet 
thick, much decomposed, and contained a layer of talc. It would appear 
that the overlying gypsum band is of irregular thickness, and not con- 
stantly present, as at Khewra glen. 

Where the narrow part of the gorge opens and joins the southern 
side of the Bhal ravine, the purple sandstones appear to be faulted 
along a north-westerly line, and the beds are vertical. This disturbance 
would also seem to have affected the salt beds in some of the neighbour- 
ing mines, where Dr. Warth describes them as likewise vertical, having 
nearly the same strike and a thickness of 60 feet, two beds of 30 feet 
each being separated by a 10-feet bed of bad salt. 

On the opposite side of the stream in the Bhal gorge, and at a con- 
siderable height upon the foot of the spur between this stream and that 
from Bhalial, other old mines occur, in which the same observer found 
the rock-salt bearing north and south, nearly vertical, but dipping 
slightly to the east ; and in another mine further northwards the salt 
beds were disturbed, striking south-east and north-west as far as could 
be made out. 

Hence it may be inferred that, notwithstanding the prevalence 

of steady horizontal or inclined stratification, all 
Disturbance. 

round the lower portion of the glen the softer salt 

marl has yielded to disturbance which has left much less impression 

upon the massive series overlying ; the lines of disturbance, too, coincide 

so nearly with the directions in which the glen has been excavated, as 

to suggest their having conduced to this result. In both this and the 

great Sardi glen (the two largest excavations of the kind) it may be 

-r, ■, J. . n observed that the beds dip away from each side 

Eeds dipping away irom ^ -^ 

this and Sardi glen. towards the east and west as if there had been 

formerly an anticlinal arrangement of the strata ; but this may with 
more probability have resulted from other disturbance, accompanied by 
slight dislocation of the ground out of which the valleys have been 
eroded. At the heads of both of these large glens the beds dip steeply to 
the northwards below, but are nearly horizontal above the cliffs, so that 
('192 ) 



NtJRPUR PLATEAU. 19S 

the two glens have a certain amount of stratigraphic resemblance ; from 
this it may be inferred that similarity of conditions induced the denuda- 
tion to follow certain lines. 

The streams in the Nilawan drain by far the largest part of the 

Niirpur plateaUj notwithstanding which the struc- 
Drainage. 

ture of that plateau seems to indicate the former 

existence of an up tilted rim or edge along the whole of its southern side, 
which must have been broken through in order to allow the drainage to 
escape. This might have been effected by a fissure^ coinciding with the 
general course of the glen being either left open or filled with portions of 
the superincumbent beds, easily removable by denudation. Otherwise, 
it can only be supposed that the superior height of the limestone and 
underlying beds at the northern side of the plateau so influenced the 
general disposition of the formerly overlying tertiary sandstones, &c,, 
that a southerly drainage was initiated. The Saheti fault with its 
subsidence of a couple of hundred feet obliquely crossing the direction 
of this southerly outflow may have increased the tendency, or, if conti- 
nued along the course of the future Nilawan, may have depressed a 
portion of the tilted limestone rim, so as to decide the point at which the 
erosion of the ravine commenced.'^ 

* In tlie case of tlie Sardi ravine, a longitudinal break coinciding with tlie axis of 
an anticlinal, or what would otherwise have been an anticlinal curve, seems even more likely 
to have taken place, for though the general inclinations are lower than down in the narrow 
part of the Nilawan, there is a very general dip away from the edges of the excavation. 
The drainage of the Sardi ravine also comes from a small basin to the northward, so small 
that it seems quite disproportioned to the size of the gorge, and it is possible that much of 
the eastern part of the Niirpur plateau may have discharged its rainfall into the Sardi ra- 
vine before the streams to the northward through the soft tertiary sandstones were deepened 
iSuflBciently to lead the water in that direction. Within little more than half a mile to the 
westward of the latter ravine, a parallel stream to that within it runs due north for nearly 
four miles, into the small basin above the head of the glen, and none of the water from 
above the eastern edge of the Sardi glen escarpment, except some small streams about 
Simbal, finds its way into this catchment basin. Here, too, the progressive destruction of 
once overlying tertiary sandstones and clays may have led the denudation along the line of 
the gorge ; but if this denudation had acted in the same manner as in many other cases over 
the plateau country, it would have left the limestone surface of the anticlinal (if thia 
latter existed) almost intact, instead of cutting a deep gorge right along the highest part 
of it. The probabilities seem all in favour of erosion along fissures, or else of unequal 
subsidence of the adjacent country around these glens, 

A 2 ( 193 ) 



194 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

The tertiary coal and its accompanying shales are seen beneath the 

high cliff of nummulitic limestone, along the face 

of which the patrol road has been carried up the 

ascent which leads out of the northern part of the gorge on to the 

Kurpur plateau. The coal is in very small quantity, and occurs in the 

shales.* 

The sides of the Bhal branch of the Nilawan are much covered by 

debris below the nummulitic cliffs, but at the 
Bhal carboniferous. . . ■, -n 

head of this part of the ravine, the carboniferous 

and locally next overlying beds form a ledge on which a confused mass 

of great limestone blocks rest, concealing the basal portion of the 

nummulitic series. The way to this exposure lies through a fissure 

parallel to, and at the very edge of, the cliff south of Bhal. Descending 

this, the talus at the foot is reached, and a further descent leads to the 

ledge. 

The following is the section here, measured, where practicable, along 
the bed of the Chellintun stream.f 



^ r 13. Nummulitic limestone of cliffs and plateau ... 300 ft. (and upwards.) 
g ^ J (Fallen blocks concealing tbe section, place for many 
^ ►^ (^ feet of rocks), 

r 12. Hard sbaly calcareous beds ... ... ... 7 „ 

111. Sandy dark limestone or highly calcareous beds ... 6„ 

10. Hard sandstone band ... ... ■•• 1 » 

I 9. Sandy and lumpy limestone with shark's teeth, Tereb- 

*^ j mtoZcE and Echinid spines ... ... ... 4 

8. Dark-gTcen ferruginous sandstone 



12 



< 7. Pisolitichfematite ... ... from 4 to 8 

6. Lenticular layer of lavender shale ... ... 1 

5. White micaceous fine sandstone with black markings ... 15 
4. Hard blue sandstone with gypseous clay bands ... 6 

3. Soft-green sandstone ... ... ••■ 4 

2. Black shaly and ferruginous sandy beds ... ... 4 



* Dr. Oldham's Memo. " Mineral Resources, Salt Range, &c„" previously noticed, 
t Visited by Dr. Waagen and myself together and separately. Tliis section is taken 
chiefly from the notes of the former, as they are more detailed than my own. 
( 194 ) 



NURPUR PLATEAU. 195 

^ f 1. Hard thick -bedded calcareous sandstone full of fossils, 

o S ! Beleroplion, Productus, Fusulina, &c., &c. ... 41 ft. (and upwards.) 

n O •{ V J. / 

§ B3 I More beds of the same group (?) concealed below by a 

^ ^ L talus. 

From the mouth of the Nilawan ravine westward stretches the lofty 
, but greatly concealed Verala scarp. In the upper 

portion of this hardly any rock can be pronounced 
in situ among the masses of debris, but lower down, here and there, small 
exposures of the red marl, purple sandstone, and next overlying groups 
occur. Where seen, the rocks appear to have been much affected by dis- 
location, some of the fractures being probably connected with the large 
and fine springs of fresh water beneath the escarpment, called the Verala 
Chashma. Just above these, a portion of the limestone of the plateau 
has sunk along two small parallel north -north-west faults, through which 
water percolating and arrested by shaly beds below, might easily burst 
from the escarpment in the form of springs. In the neighbourhood of 
these springs many of the fragments are of sandy limestone, full of 
Fusulina, Spirifers, Crinoid rings, and other carboniferous fossils, the 
parent beds of which doubtless exist in the escarpment, and from the 
quantity of the debris would appear to form a strong band. 

Along a track leading obliquely up the escarpment from the Verala 

escarpment to Pail, the dark shaly silurian zone 
Track to Pail. ^ , ^ . •„ p ii -, a r. 

is exposed, and is seen still fully 100 feet in 

thickness in the face of some fine cliffs to the westward. The beds are 
micaceous, and more sandy and clunchy than in the east, and they con- 
tain conglomeratic bands with pebbles of crystalline rock. Many of the 
flaggy and thin sandstones are whitish and speckled, their surfaces being 
covered with ripple-marks and tracks like those of Annelids. 

In this neighbourhood, both the purple sandstones below and tLe 
speckled sandstones immediately above the silurian beds are largely 
developed, and of more than usual thickness. Further up the track, 
near the pass leading on to the plateau, the carboniferous beds 
show themselves in the escarpment to the right of the road, with a 

( 195 ) 



198 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

thickness of about 150 feet. The Fusulina baud here has a thickness 
ol 12 feet, and overlies some 80 feet of sandy^ massive calcareous 
beds. All the beds within reach of examination here were of very 
sandy limestone ; soft, shaly beds were seen to overlie these, just 
Ijeneatli the nummulitie limestoneSj but none of the coal shales were 
visible. 

Wmm the crest of this pass towards Pail the path lies through a flat^ 
narrow valley at about the level of the top beds of the carboniferous 
group ; two similar little valleys running off to the west-south-west, and 
the whole being closed in by considerable hills of undulating nummuli- 
tie limestone. 

The interval between the Niirpur plateau and the commencement 
p., , f 1 t a of the Son country near Chamil may be considered 
country. ^^ ^^ extension of either, or a sort of lower step 

between the two. 

After descending from the Nurpur country over an escarpment of the 

nummulitie limestone, the flat, cultivated, long and 
Nurpur. i ^ • i t • 

narrow valley of Badrar is entered, extendmg m a 

north-easterly direction towards Vasnal. At the Badrar end the valley is 
divided into two by some hills of contorted nummulitie limestone, and 
between that village and Dheri the red gypseous salt-marl forms rounded 
hillocky ground, without any of the intervening rocks between it and the 
nummulitie limestone on one side ; but on the other, just below the escarp- 
ment, some rolling beds of the speckled sandstone group are seen. The 
dislocations which produced this exposure in such a place must have been 
both large and complicated, but unfortunately the cultivated flat ground 
renders it impossible to trace them, or to say which are the rocks in 
contact with the salt-marl. On one side the nummulitie limestone is 
steady, dipping at a low angle to the south-east; on the other it is 
considerably contorted, so as to suggest the existence of a line or lines 
of fracture, coinciding with the long valley stretching towards Vasnal, 
and meeting other faults intersecting the main fracture between Dheri 
and Pail. 

( 196 ) 



NtJEPUR PLATEAU. 



197 



Vasnal. 



At the north-eastern eud of this valley there is abundant evidence of 
faulting, and the ground is greatly broken. One 
fracture coinciding with the direction of the valley 
forms the boundary line between the nummulitic limestone and the tertiary 
sandstones for a distance of nearly three miles. This fault crosses the 
mouth of the strange little oval valley of Vasnal, surrounded by high cliffs 
and broken hills of the nummulitic limestone, and occupied within by a 
mass of the red salt-marl, through which deep gullies and ravines lead 
out of the valley, beneath the high and conspicuous limestone peak of 
Tirwar. At the south-west corner of the valley only are there a few 
ledges of purple and speckled sandstone seen, linking the marl with its 
proper associates, and these appear to be, like the marl itself, cut off 
everywhere around the exposure by faults. 

The whole of the marl seen here is little less than a mile in length, 
and rather more than a quarter of a mile wide, so 
that it has an area of about a quarter of a square 
mile. No good salt beds are known to occur here, but in one place 
an impure saline portion of the marl is 30 feet thick. A strong fresh 
stream which traverses the marl, after rain, is said to become saline. 
Any appearance resembling stratification seen in the salt-marl is 
nearly horizontal, but the limestone surrounding the marl, though also 
generally horizontally bedded, is in some places a good deal disturbed. 



Salt marl. 



Timv-ar Fe a-k 



Vajna-l 




OTxX.*f.lXy 1 MlZ* 



Fig. 34. — Section across Visual valley. 
1. Salt marl. 11. Nummulitic limestone. 12. Tertiary sandstone. 

In one or two spots the debris of some soft shaly beds is seen mixed 
with some broken portions of the beds above the salt marl, but hardly 

( 197 ) 



198 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

in a recognisable state. The lower part of the nummulitic limestone 
is as usual nodular and lumpy, and among its upper beds about Vasnal 
village are some peculiar, vesicular, ferruginous, and slaggy-looking 
layers ; pink, compact, and red-veined limestone bands also occur. 

The nummulitic limestone on the north-western side of the little 
valley is quite cut out, under Tirwar peak at the mouth of the glen, by 
one or other of the faults between which this limestone occurs, and the 
beddiog both here and along the face of the peak is much disturbed, 
being in places quite vertical. The tertiary sandstones outside are in- 
clined sharply along the fault, but at a little distance assume their usual 
low northerly dip ; the lower part of this group being as usual succeeded 
by the red clay zone and other overlying beds. 

Towards Jaba to the west-south-west, the dip of the tertiary sand- 
stones is low, becoming more nearly horizontal 

"'^ ^ ^ ^ as the table-land about Pail is reached. The slop- 

ing beds rise to this table-land forming a well marked escarpment north- 
wards, overlooking the limestone ground. The basal sandstones are very 
commonly greenish, and red earthy bands rarely occur. Northwards of 
Badrar the nummulitic limestones form a broad dome-shaped mass, dipping 
in all directions ; but south-west of this, and north of Pail, the country is 
a wide level plain, bounded towards the Son district by one of those long 
narrow straight valleys in the nummulitic limestone, which look so 
much as if they had been excavated upon lines of fault. This valley 
strikes to the north-north-west, and immediately beyond it, the tertiary 
sandstones encroach still further upon the plateau ground, and form a 
mass of horizontally stratified hills. 

Close to Pail a fault, running a little to the east of north certainly 
occurs ; for some of the tertiary sandstones form- 

Fault 

ing a low ridge, dip towards the carboniferous 
limestones, which form the northern face of the hills, rising imme- 
diately south of the village. Here the carboniferous group has already 
increased much, the slope of the hills showing a thickness of at 
least 250 feet of ferruginous, magnesian, and sandy limestones, dipping 
( 198 ) 



NURPrU PLATEAU. 199 

south-south-east at 30° and 25°^ and the upper beds containing numerous 
specimens of Spirifera and other carboniferous fossiJs. These beds are 
overlaid by the nummulitic limestone with a few intervening sandy 
and shaly layers^ some of which may possibly represent the " olive group/^ 
or cretaceous beds of the Nilawan ravine. The nummulitic beds are at 
first parallel with the carboniferous, but soon undulate, and on the 
southern side of the hill, where they form an escarpment, dip to the 
northward by west. 

From the summit of this hill the complicated structure of the 
Structure of country surrounding country can be seen to advantage. 
seen to north. Northwards is the flat cultivated plain, bounded 

by the tertiary sandstone escarpment; to the left low undulations of 
the nummulitic limestone rise gradually from the flat to the margin of 
the long valley previously mentioned ; to the right are swelling hills 
of the same limestone, and the complications about Badrur and Dheri 
(where the salt-marl appears) divided from the Pail hill by cultivated 
tracts of low ground ; while the carboniferous group of this hill itself 
is covered by nummulitic limestone, and cut off to the west by a fault 
bringing it against tertiary sandstones. The closer relations of the 
carboniferous group must be connected with dislocation, but they are 
concealed by the earthy deposits of the plain below. 

Looking southward, another nummulitic limestone hill, covered by 
"souhetta^^ (Dodonaa Burmanniana) iuno-le is 

To south. ,. -1 , n T. -1 1 -n 1 1 

seen, divided from the rail hill oy a deep narrow 
valley, and by a similar valley from yet another, still further south, the 
Bieot hill, composed of the same limestone, which also caps the cliffs 
westward of the Verala scarp. Both of these hills are formed of 
undulating and nearly horizontal beds, from which they receive a 
tabular appearance. To the left hand are the long escarpment lines 
of the Niirpur plateau, and on the right, nearly in front, a deep open 
gorge or ravine leading down to the southern plains, from the right 
hand side of which rises the bold escarpment of the Chamil nummulitic 
limestone. 

( 199 ) 



200 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

At the head of this gorge the beds are all much broken and slipped, 

Ravine leading to ^^^ ^^®^® ^''^ ^^S^^ ^^ ^^^®^ having been dammed 
^^^*^' upj in some black clays and whitish calcareous 

sandy beds containing sub-recent marsh shells. Further down, the 'car- 
boniferous beds protrude from the debris at the foot of the nummulitic 
cliffs, being still sandy, ferruginous, and calcareous, the most sandy beds 
occurring at the top and bottom of the exposure. On the talus beneath 
the cliffs, some dark, gypseous, shaly and hsematitic masses indicate the 
presence of the coaly shales near the base of the nummulitic series. 

Ledges of the " speckled sandstone " (No. 5) project from beneath 
the carboniferous group, and the greenish and dark micaceous silurian 
zone appearing under these speckled sandstones, shows white saline 
efflorescence ; it has still a thickness of a hundred feet or somewhat more. 
The purple sandstones come out from below this zone, and the section 
terminates below, as usual, with the red gypseous marl. 

From the situation of the latter group at the west or Cha.mil side 
of the glen, and the partial absence of the " purple sandstone," it would 
seem that the Pail fault is continued in this direction. There is also a 
decided appearance of another fault at right angles to this, crossing the 
middle of the glen and running eastwards up a deep ravine, so as to 
bring the lower part of the local series against the red marl. 

Near the mouth of the glen the arrangement of the lower rocks 
is complicated, either by faulting or slips, or both; a mass of the 
" purple sandstones " being let into the marl longitudinally in the middle 
of the ravine. The hill rising above the left bank of this ravine exposes 
East of the moutli of ^^® whole local section from the red salt marl up to 
^''^^"^®' the nummulitic limestone, including groups 1, 2, 3, 

5, 6, 10 and 11 ', but these are much confused by landslips, particularly 
on the south or outer side of the hill. 

The ground to the right slopes much more gradually southwards 
West of the mouth of towards the plains from Chamil scarp, and is 
'"'^^^"®- greatly concealed by masses of coarse debris, very 

( 200 ) 



SON PLATEAU. 20 1 

much of which comes from carboniferous rocks. The " purple sand- 
stones " are seen in gullies, and further up the " speckled sandstones " 
crop out ; but close to the scarp there is but little seen of the carboni- 
ferous and overlying beds till the nummulitic limestone, thick and 
massive, rises in bold cliffs to the edge of the plateau above. 

Section X. — Son Plateau. 
The Son Sakesar plateau is the largest and broadest in the whole 

range: it includes the country about Chamil, 
Situation. . . 

Sodhi, the hilly tract near the latter place, to 

the southward, and the larger area, chiefly occupied by the carboni- 
ferous limestone, between the southern escarpment of the range and the 
S6n valley proper. The principal place within the plateau is Naoshera, 
nearly in the centre. The table-land possesses this peculiarity^ that 
while the northern half presents the greatest sameness and simplicity of 
geological structure (if the formation of the lake basins be excepted), 
the southern side, particularly beneath the escarpment, is one of the 
most complicated tracts in the whole range, owing to the heterogeneous 
disposition of the groups by reason of dislocation, land slips, contortions, 
and erosion. 

For 26 miles westward from the Pail country last described, the 

Tertiary sandstones and s^me relations prevail between the tertiary sand- 

hummulitic Umestone. g^^^^g ^^^ ^^^^Qs and the underlying nummu- 

litic limestone. Within this distance the whole border of the Potwar 
plateau rises gradually, and throughout most of it the plateau of the 
range and that to the north are separated by a less marked and less 
abrupt declivity than usual. 

The tertiary sandstone ground being high, its excavation, where 
formed of the softer sandstones, &e., into gullies, ravines, and Ichud- 
dera, has necessarily been extreme; this hhuddera ground always 
ending at the boundary of the nummulitic limestone. About Jaba 
where the softer beds encroach upon the limestone, more or less hori- 
Kontality of stratification obtains ; but further west, steeper, yet still 
B 2 ( 201 ) 



202 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

gentle, northerly inclinations at angles of 15°, 20°, and 30° carry the 
lower beds of the sandstone, &c., from the flanks of a long anticlinal 
of the nummulitic limestone, beneath the red, shaly, and clayey, tertiary 
band, above which the grey sandstones and orange clays of the next 
portion of that series constantly occur. 

In the Jaba country the lower sandstones are very often of a greenish 
or grey colour and thick-bedded, sometimes pebbly, and with but few red 
bands. Calcareous pseudo-conglomerates occur, also a few beds of greyish 
shale, and some concretionary beds, from which the small nodules weather 
out and strew the ground. The same characteristics, with slight and 
local variation, extend everywhere throughout the group on the northern 
flanks of the range. 

Either in the nummulitic limestone at the base of the sandstones, 

or in the lower 30 feet of the latter, traces of 
Rock-tar. 

petroleum or rock-tar, in very small quantities, 

are to be found at three or four localities on the northern flanks 
of the Son plateau. These places are, — three and a half miles north-east 
of Kabaki, two and a half miles north-west of Dhuddhur ; two and 
a half miles north-west of Mardowal; and a questionable locality a 
couple of miles east of a salt chowki situated northwards of Sakesar 
mountain.^ Petroleum also occurs southward of this mountain in 
an outlying fragment of the sandstone beds. The quantities issuing 
from the rocks are small and worthless as sources of supply, but being 
found both in the uppermost beds of the limestone, and in the lowest 
of the overlying sandstones, the occurrence of this mineral oil may per- 
haps indicate continuity of deposition of these groups, rather than the 
existence of any marked break between them. 

The width of the lower sandstone and clay band is in many places 
greater than usual, but its thickness probably does not average more 
than 1,500 feet.f The red earthy zone above may be rather more than 

* See Report on the Punjab Oil Lands by Mr. B. S. Lyman, pages 43 to 46. 
f Nearly 1,000 feet greater than at the eastern end of tlie range. 

( 302 ) 



SON PLATEAU. 203- 

1,000 feet thick^ but its upper and lower limits are not sharply defined, 
and the orange and grey overlying rocks must be enormously thick;, 
extending far into the Potwar with northerly inclinations. 

The nummulitic limestone has everywhere the same aspect, the 

same prominent light colour, compact and some- 
Nummulitic. . i i • 

times cherty texture above, but is always nodular 

and lumpy below ; soft and marly between the nodules, and of a warm 

yellowish colour. Its fossils also are still the imperfect casts of bivalves, 

large Gastropods, and Echinoderms and Nummulites throughout. It 

extends everywhere over the northern half of the plateau with a most 

irregular southern boundary, and occurs also as outlying masses. 

The increased contortion of the beds in this portion of the range 
becomes apparent even on the plateau, where the nummulitic beds 
roll along numerous east and west anticlinal axes, in bold, open or closer 
curves, which very generally coincide with the features of the ground;^ 
and sometimes form considerable hills. 

The country which exhibits most of this north and south compression 
is that around Sodhi. Along the valley of the Nursingphoar river and 
to the south, for some distance, a long rugged hilly strip of nummulitic 
rocks similarly contorted stretches from this Sodhi vicinity towards 
Sakesar, roughly dividing the .plateau into nearly equal parts ; while on 
the northern side of the table-land the limestone beds roll up in a great 
wave, some two miles wide, and then turning over to the northward^ 
rapidly disappear beneath the sandstone series. 

The southern edge of the nummulitic limestone usually forms a 
bold escarpment with a gentle northerly inclination for some distance, 
and, unlike the Nurpur plateau, the northern side of this Son plateau is 
rather lower than the south, as a general rule. Numerous large and 
small outliers of the nummulitic rocks, frequently connected with dislo- 
cation, are to be found beyond its general southern escarpment, which 
maintains a very irregularly indented east and west direction. 

( 203 ) 



204 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

At the western end of the plateau the nummulitie limestone beds rise 
rapidly with the broad anticlinal wave on the Potwar side, and form the 
summit and steeper acclivities of Sakesar mountain. Its thickness over 
the whole plateau may average 500 feet. 

South of the east-and-west dividing ridge, and extending further 

westward than the Son country, is a wide, elevated. 

Carboniferous. . -i i • n o 

and greatly undulating tract,'^ formed chiefiy ot 

the carboniferous limestone, which has here its largest exposure. Deep 

valleys and ravines intersect this ground, all leading out upon the 

plains to the south, and all of them showing more or less perfectly the 

succession of the underlying rocks. 

In this country two new groups enter the series, and two which have 
continued hitherto from the east disappear. The 

Triassic and Jura. 

first which dies out is the cretaceous or ^'' olive 
group,"t then the dark shaly silurian band. Within two and a half 
miles or so of the place where the former disappears, the triassic beds 
begin to show themselves, and ten miles further westward, these are 
overlaid by the commencement of the Jurassic group, the only one 
wanting to make up the full number of the Salt Range sub-divisions 
and formations. 

Near where the valley from Pail towards Katta opens on the plain, 

but a little to the westward, is the mouth of the 
Nursingplioar. . ^ ■, n-, -i ■ i i • 

Nursingphoar defile, a deep cut, through which 

the stream from Sodhi escapes. Down in the bottom of this gorge, and 
a mile or more from the mouth of it, the red salt-marl appears, but is so 
slightly saline as not to render the water of the stream unfit for drinking. 
The groups above the marl are seen on both sides of the glen, first the 
" purple sandstone,^' lighter coloured at top ; then the dark shaly silu- 
rian band, here about 80 feet in thickness, or rather more. Group 



* The " Pati^l hills." 

t Some beds doubtfully representing this group occur far to the westward at one spot, 
on the Katwahi road to Shahpur. 
( 204 ) 



'VJy-v -n e. , Salt Ran g R . 



GEOLOOrCAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 




CLIFF AT CHAMIL COAL LOCALITY 



SON PLATEAU. 205 

No. 4 is no longer present. The coarse and often conglomeratic 

sandstones of group No. 5 are strongly developed and overlaid by 

nearly 180 feet of the upper lavender-coloured clays, the whole group 

considerably exceeding 300 feet. Above this is No. 6, the carboniferous 

group, limestones, &c., quite 300 feet or more thick, and the nummulitic 

limestones as usual form the high cliffs of the escarpments, having a 

thickness of about 300 feet also. A considerable fault extends along the 

e-len and turns with it above Nursing-pho^r. This 
Fault. *= . . . 

fault has displaced a portion of the northern side 
of an east-and-west anticlinal curve, formed by the groups Nos. 2, 3 
and 4, in the cliffs opposite to the Pir — a sacred and picturesque 
locality where there are fine springs overlooked by some Fakirs' residence 
and temple perched upon a ledge more than half way up the cliffs. 

On the left side of the glen the stream from the Chamil part of 

the plateau falls over the lofty vertical limestone 
Coal stales, &c. 

cliffs of the escarpment into a small rock-basin, 

the sides of which expose a section in the basal beds of the nummulitic 

group (fig. 35, Plate XXI). The readings of the aneroid barometer 

(uncorrected for temperature), indicated a difference in elevation between 

the basin and the cliff-edge above of more than 500 feet, most of this 

being made up of the following section : — '^ 

f Compact nummulitic limestone in two bands 
A thin shaly band 
Thick limestone ... 
Earthy, thin-bedded, lumpy, and shaly limestone 



Nummulitic 



Black shales, part sandy, with a few coaly layers below 20 
Sandy and shaly beds of dark or ferruginous colour, with 
pyrites ... ... 

Coal from 6 inches to a foot 
Black sandy bed, carbonaceous and pyritous 
Black shales 
(^Coal ... ... ... ... ... 6 



Ft. 


In. Ft. In, 


200 





10 





28 





50 







— 288 


20 





8 








9 


1 


6 


2 






* Part of this section also appears in Dr. Oldham's paper, " On the Mineral Resources 
of the Salt Range, Bannu and Kohat districts ;" previously noticed. 

{ 205 ) 



206 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY JF THE SALT KANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 



Ft. In. Ft. Id. 



f Black, sandy, and lumpy shales, feiTUginous and 
pyritous 
Black shales, friable 
Hard calcareous sandstone . . . 
NUMMULITIC,— J Dark shales 

' Hard calcarecms sandstone 

Sandy shale 

Lumpy dark-coloured limestone ; Nummulites 

Greenish-grey calcareous sandstone 
I Ferruginous calcareous beds ... 
CaebonIFBEOTTS ...J Grey limestone ... 

' Calcareous beds with three beds of black shale, the 
thickest 3 feet 



45 



35 





15 





45 





20 






53 3 



45 



115 



The uppermost part of the greenish-grey calcareous sandstones may 
represent the cretaceous series, but there is nothing here to warrant their 
separation from the strata beneath them. Other rocks of the carboni- 
ferous formation project below those of the above list, and the speckled 
sandstone group could be seen from above ; but the cliifs formed by the 
lower part of the series were too precipitous to descend to the place 
of its exposure. 



Further to the west and still on the left side of the ravine below the 
temple of Nursingphoar, the following section was 
noted by Dr. Waagen : — 



Farther into the defile. 



Ft. 
50 
50 



NXTMMXTIITIC ...-^ 



Cbetaceous 
( 206 



fPart of the strong nummulitic limestone 
Yellow calcareous marl and marly limestone 
Grayish-yellow marls with numerous Nummulites, also Fusus 
and other fossils ... ... ... ... 15 

Black coaly shale ... ... ... ... 20 

Brown sandstone with small Nummulites .„ ... 2 to 3 

Variegated sandstones with interlaminated shales, also varie- 
^ gated ... ... ... ... ... 15 

/ Brownish-yellow limestones and calcareous marly beds with 

} Terehratula Flemingii, Ostrea, and Echinids ... 20 

/ Haematite, partly changing into pisolitic iron ore ... 10 

) 



SON PLATEAU. 207 

/' Thill -bedded limestone with intereahitions of bhick eoaly Ft. 

_ ) shale; contains many carboniferous fossils. It changes 

Cahbontt^p'rott^ */ 

into compact limestone, on the upper surface cavernous and 

corroded ... ... ... ... ... 200 



I 



The carboniferous rocks are faulted here, and seen in the stream bed at 
the foot of the cliff. 

Furtlier down the glen on its right-hand side, a stream course enters 
from the west showing a little of the red salt-marl 

Eight side of glen. 

and some slipping and crushing of the overlying 
rocks. The purple sandstones here appeared to contain, at the top of the 
group, a 50-feet bed of coarse conglomerate, the pebbles being all of old 
crystalline or metamorphic rocks. The dark, shaly silurian band is 
much obliquely laminated, contains fine black and white ribband layers 
of sandy shale with hsematitic nodules and some sandstone bands, the 
whole group having a greenish aspect. Thick and thin bedded speckled 
sandstones succeed, and are overlaid, first by the carboniferous and then 
by the nummulitic group stretching along the glen side up towards 
Nursingphoar. On this side of the glen, just after passing the gap 
through which the river crosses the " purple sandstone,'^ Dr. Waagen found 
greenish thin -bedded soft sandstones, partly coaly, with a thick band of 
conglomerate of crystalline pebbles, the group being about 50 feet in 
thickness, and most probably the same as that just now noticed. Above 
this succeeded a great mass of thin-bedded reddish sandstones and 
red shales, over which came about 100 feet of lavender clay, with 
sandstone and marlstone layers. In its upper part this lavender clay 
became coaly and black, and was overlaid by yellow and grey sandstones 
with £ellerop/ion, produdus, &c., of the carboniferous group. The laven- 
der clays, hitherto very thick at the top of the " speckled and reddish 
sandstone " series, here begin to grow thinner, but they are often subject 
to local variation in this respect. 



Further up the stream than Nursingphoar, and just where it bends 

Above Nursingphoar. 



from west to south-east, the fault is seen bringing 



the nummulitic and carboniferous beds discordantly 

( 207 ) 



208 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



together; the former only slightly fossiliferous, hut containing in 
places numbers of globular Foraminifera, of about the size of peas, 
and the latter group being varied a good deal along the oblique line 
of fault at the contact with the newer rock. 



NurrL-mAJuiUjjc Jx^n^sbo 



iro-r^g 



SijW 




Ni,yE. 



fig. 36.— Diagramatic section, Nursingpho&r Valley. 

At this place there are some slight traces of the black coaly shales 
beneath the nummulitic limestone, while just across the fault crinoidal 
carboniferous limestone is seen. On the opposite bank of the stream 
some ferruginous beds dip steeply (at 75*) towards the high ground 
above, and are overlaid by two black shaly layers of about a foot each, 
separated by two feet of sandy limestone. Over these are 20 feet of 
greenish shales, succeeded by 80 feet of purple and white shaly beds, 
above which come greenish, arenaceous, and argillaceous limestones, the 
ordinary grey, or bluish, compact, thick carboniferous limestone over- 
lying the whole and passing beneath the talus at the foot of the num- 
mulitic limestones which cap the hilL 

Somewhat further up the stream, the nummulitic limestone forms the 
left bank, and on the southern side of the glen 
white carboniferous, crinoidal limestone dips at a 
very high angle under a quantity of purple clays, alternating three times 
in the upper fifty feet with greenish sandy beds. A few hundred yards 
further, on the same side of the stream, the carboniferous group is 
formed of 180 to 200 feet of pale pinkish-white sandstones with cal- 
careous beds, containing in the upper part some carbonaceous and mica- 
( 208 ) 



Further up the glen. 



SON PLATEAU. 209 

ceous black shaly layers, and near the top a purple clay band. In the 
sandy limestone-layers crinoid fragments and numbers of small Fusidince 
occur, while in the river bed are fallen masses of greenish weathered, cal- 
careous -S^Mv^er-sandstones, and sandy beds with large annelid tracks. 
Still further up the stream the fault crosses it, cutting out the carboni- 
ferous beds obliquely in the hill side to the south, and the river runs 
between steep' nummulitic limestone cliffs, exhibiting much crushing and 
disturbance, the beds being turned upwards towards the fault and dipping 
at angles as high as 50° from the northern flanks of the hills. The same 
limestone forms the country as far as Sodhi,* and it extends much 
beyond this place. Quantities of calcareous tufa 

Sodhi. 

fill the gorge southward of the Sodhi bungalow. 

At about a mile to the westward of the Upper Katta village^ which is 
situated opposite to the mouth of the Nursinsr- 

Katta. ^^ . . . *= 

phoar gorge, there is a considerable salt-spring, 
conspicuous from a distance, on account of the quantity of calcareous 
tufa which it has deposited. It issues from the " purple sandstone, " of 
which there is rather less than usual here, and the spring seems to 
come from the lower part of this formation, purple marly and shaly layers 
being seen in the vicinity. 

On the hill above this spring the following section is seen (taken 
from Dr. Waagen^s notes), the "olive group ^' or cretaceous beds bein^ 
no longer present : — 

Feet. 
1. — NuMMUiilTlc... Nummulitic limestone capping the hill ... 280 to 300 

/'Note. — Upper surface of carboniferous beds much cor-^ 
3 roded on uneven surfaces, and white sandstone > 

( occurs in pockets covered by haematite. j 



* There are two places of so nearly the same name, or one which sounds so exactly 
similar, that it is difficult to distinguish them. The other one lies a mile and a half west- 
ward of Katwahi, and is spelled on the map Sothe. 

c 2 ( 209 ) 



210 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT KANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



6. — Carbonifer- 
ous. 



Feet,- 
jCompact carboniferous limestone ... ... 50 

Grej sandy raarls, Bellerophon, &c. ... ... 3 

Thin -bedded grey limestone with marly intercalations ... 8 
Rusty dolomitic limestones ... ... ... 50 

Hard grey sandstone with Fusulina, Spirifer and Pro- 

ductus spinosus ... ... ... ... 6 to 10 

Thick, soft yellow sandstones, fossils in places numerous, 

Fusulina, Productus, &c. ... ... ... 25 

Reddish nodular sandstone ... ... ... 3 

Black coaly sandy shale ... ... ... 10 to 12 

Yellow sandstone with many fish- remains and Spirifer a... 10 
.^Greenish sandy shales ... ... ... 6 



About 



175 



-Speckled 
sandstone. 



Lavender clay with numerous irregular bands of grey 

marlstone changing downwards into ... ... 50 

I Red sandstones with many alterations of red marl or 

earthy bands ... ... ... ... 50 



100 



3. — Dark shalt f Green sandstones and shales, in places numerous pebbles 



r 



' of metamorphic rocks 

2. — Purple sandstone 



60 to 100 
... 200 



There appear to be (doubtfully) two hsematitie bands in the country 
Doubtfully two zones hereabouts, one above the carboniferous and 
of hajmatite. another at the base of the nummulitie series, but 

both are rarely present tog-ether; and where fragments only of one of 
them are seen, it is difficult to refer them to their proper place ; besides, 
the vertical distance between the two being- small, one might be taken for 
the other. 



Speckled sandstones. 



The lavender clays of the speckled sandstone group are of irregular 

thickness, some sections showing them, as above, 

only 50 or even 30 feet thick, while others expose 

them with a depth of very much more than 100 feet. The sandstones 

of the same group are sometimes conglomeratic, sometimes not, and are 

generally much more developed than their representatives in the section 

( 210 ) 



SON PLATEAU. .M 1 

given above. The greenish sandstone and shaly zone No 3 appears 
to pass into the light-coloured top beds of the purple sandstone, nnd 
has lost all the characters which in its upper part to the eastward 
indicate the last extension of group No. 4. 

In the carboniferous group, which has here assumed considerable 
proportions, the thickness of different very distinguishable zones varies 
much, the stroug limestone bands of some places appearing of much greater 
thickness than in others. These strong bands are often cherty or crin- 
oidal, and vary from thin-bedded or lumpy to thick solid limestone ; 
the associated greenish, variegated, pale pink, coarse, or ferruginous 
sandstones are evidently inconstant both in place and character. 

A great mass of the nummulitic limestone has slipped down the 

cliff on the south-western side of this Katta hill, and 

on the spurs below the " purple^^ and " speckled^^ 

sandstone groups are seen divided by the shaly zone No. 3, a little of 

the red salt-marl appearing here and there below all in the smaller glens. 

Other slips occur in the deep limestone valley west of Arara, and 

among the debris lying heavily at the base of 
Coals. 

its enclosing cliffs. There are one or two small 

slipped exposures of the coaly shales below the nummulitic rocks ; two 

thin coal seams occur in these. The group beneath the carboniferous 

does not run far up this glen, but holds on westward into the northern 

side of the Sangal Wan"^ greatly covered with debris and obscured by 

land-slips along the cliffs : all the larger local groups are, however, seen. 

In the Sangal Wan, west of Katta, there is evidence of both 

disturbance and dislocation. On its left side 
Sangal Wan valley. 

the purple sandstone and superior groups show 

themselves, but on the right, at its mouth, is a mass of white, 

splintery, compact carboniferous limestone, forming a horizontally bedded 

f 

* Tliere seems to be rather a confusion of ideas as to where the Sangal (or Sungle)' 
Wan really is. Its name is not marked upon the map, and the glen so called by natives of 
the country is not that west of Arara, but an east-and-west gorge nearly two miles north of 
NalL 

( 211 ) 



n-z 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



cliff 85 feet high. The beds soon begin to undulate^ and some of the 
underlying speckled and red sandstones are placed by slips or faulting 
amoug the limestones. Further on along the north side of the -Wan 
or glen^ the lavender clay beds o£ the speckled sandstone group 
predominate, grey clays and ferruginous bands with white efflor- 
escences appearing among them. At one spot the dark greenish shaly 
Silurian zone is only 30 feet thick, the overlying " speckled 
sandstones^' having an apparent thickness of only 40 or 50 feet. The 
hard sandy beds of the carboniferous group are seen in the little 
amphitheatre at the head of the glen, beneath lofty nummulitic lime- 
stone cliffs, the bedding of which rises rapidly towards the Kanda- 
wala peak, and the carboniferous rocks also cover the high ground 
between this and Nali. They are white, grey, thin and thick bedded 
limestone, with many strong beds of fossiliferous, drab, earthy and sandy 
calcareous rocks, separated by shale partings. The Fusulina here occur 
in grey compact limestone far down in the group, and also in more 
sandy beds at a still lower horizon. The " speckled sandstone ■'' group 
below these limestones is more shaly than usual, earthy bands predomi- 
nating in its upper part, and occurring again within 30 feet of its base. 
On the side of the hill over Nali this group (No. 5) has a thickness of 
150 to 200 feet, and is surmounted by an escarpment-cliff of carboni- 
ferous limestone, much acted upon by the weather, as is shown by a 
poised fragment 15 feet in height, which has been gradually separ- 
ated from the cliff by atmospheric waste. 



''''Ik 




Fig. 37.— Balanced masB on limestone cliff, Nali. 



( 21S ) 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



Wynne . S alt. Hang e 






Memoir sVolXDr.iaate XXK 










.•Pi, J 






i 


■'.' '-"'''"v :'..; v'.l.V. 






I 


'''Jig: 






{ 






■■*i^-;^-'' 







LOOKING DOWN THE WARRU KUSS 

Fig -.38. 



tJMiS^y 



% 



„ 1^ V%^ 






v:<." .i.. 








;W4^ 












*^^i"^^ 

■4"* 









DISTURBAtMOE IN DOKRI OR KAVMAD GLEN (NEAR JA61 



Pig- 39. 



SON PLATEAU. 213 

The hill sidoj fmrn the speckled sandstone outcrop downwards, is 

covered with debi-is in places, and where it is 
Nali. 

steeper, the rocks are found displaced, a dyke- 
like mass of the red marl being- enclosed by parts of the purple sand- 
stone on each side. Westward of this villag-e of Niili much confusion 
prevails on account of this dislocation. A talus of debris conceals all 
the beds immediately below the nuramulitic limestone, except a band of 
white friable sandstone 30 feet in thickness ; while about 80 feet of 
decaying brown sandstone below this slope is probably the highest part 
of the carboniferous group. This latter group and the speckled sand- 
stones beneath have here an estimated thickness of 300 feet each. 

Not only are the rocks disturbed by slipping, but they are affected 

by a strong though local anticlinal curvature, the 
Warru Kuss. 

axis of which appears to coincide with a line of 

fault or other dislocation in the Warru Kuss, three miles west-by-south 
from Nali. At the north of this hiss or ravine the beds are much 
dislocated, and a narrow strip of the red marl eon- 
Salt, tains in its upper part several beds of salt, dipping 
north-20°.west at 50°. 
The volcanic-looking, lavender, ashy clay of the Nilawan ravine, &c., 
re-appears here as a band of a few feet, just in the red marl beneath the 
purple sandstone group. 

The salt is much exposed at some height in the banks of the ravine ; 
it is of good quality, and some 114 feet in thickness; much of it occurs 
"at daylight," but the old mines have not been opened since the 
commencement of the English rule. 

This Warru glen has been excavated, like the larger ones of Sardi 
Anticlinal and fault ^^^^ Nilaw^n, along the axis of the local anticlinal, 
**^ ^ *P' and this nearly coincides with a line of slip or 

fault along the northern slope of the glen (see fig. 38, PI. XXII). 

The uppermost 50 to 80 feet of the purple sandstone is here quite 

„ . light-coloured and massive, and a thin represent- 

Series. _ _ _ '- 

ative of the silurian shaly zone continues to 

( -^is ) 



214 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

appear above it. The speckled sandstone group (No. 5) is cong-lomeratic^ 
containing also eartliy beds both above and below, and there is a regular 
transition upwards from its variegated and dark grey clays (here 130 
feet thick), through 100 feet of black sandy shale, with hard muddy, 
thin, calcareous and cherty bands, into the limestones of the carbon- 
iferous group. At the head of the ravine this limestone forms a surface 
wild and broken by small cliifs, crags and escarpments. The nummulitic 
limestone generally rises above the carboniferous in long scarps with 
outlying portions here and there. 

On the sides of these outliers towards the plains, masses of the car- 
boniferous limestones still occur, shaken and 
Country about Morah. , . , , c i t> 

slightly out 01 place, isetween these masses the 

red sandstone group No. 5 is seen predominating towards the escarpment 
and supporting large slipped fragments and outliers of the limestone. 
Above the village of Morah in the broken limestone ground, the car- 
boniferous limestones are often fossiliferous, the weathered state of the 
beds enabling numbers of Uliynclionellce, small Terebratula, and other 
Brachiopoda to be collected, as well as many corals ; certain white lime- 
stones being crowded with Lithostrotion. 

Among the carboniferous fossils found here (and in other places also) 

there occurs a peculiar form with a large flatfish 
Peculiar fossil. 

palmate structure, having on one side a well-defined 

midrib, from which smaller deeply separated ribs diverge in opposite 

directions, sometimes at right angles, sometimes more obliquely placed. 

What this fossil is has not been discovered, but there is a similarity in 

some small curved specimens to internal casts of Belerophon decipiens, 

DeKonink. 

A great boulder conglomerate of crystalline blocks occurs here just 
above the now greenish shales of the silurian zone, and bands of light 
grey sandstone occur in the lower part of the purple group No. 2. 

Between Morah and the gh^t (or ascent) on the road from Shahpur 
Country eastward of ^^ Sakesar, the escarpment of the hills is greatlj^ 
Kund Ghat. broken. The speckled sandstones occur in force, 

( 214 ) 



SON PLATEAU. 215 

but the sbaly zone No. 3 is very inconsiderable. The upper part of the 
carboniferous limestones are sandy^ containing nunabers of Producti, 
and there are fully 80 feet of sandy, calcareous, rusty and earthy beds 
overlying these and beneath the shaly base o£ the nummulitic series. 
A cliff of the carboniferous limestone measures 230 feet, although it 
includes only a part of the group, which may be altogether over 500 feet 
in thickness. The speckled sandstones are some 350 feet thick, and the 
purple sandstone group below, 300. The greenish shaly band between 
these two is scarcely 20 feet in thickness. 

The salt-marl is seen at the foot of the hills, its relations being 
much confused by slipping of the next overlying beds ; and in one deep 
ravine or i'uss to the east of the Sakesar road it contains the hard 
dolomitic layers found with the gypsum at Khewra, and here studded 
with nests of iron pyrites. 

On the ascent from the plains to Katwahi the " red marl/^ " purple 

sandstone," " speckled sandstone," carboniferous 
Kund Ghat. tj.- i ,, 

limestone, and nummulitic rocks are all seen. 

Land-slips have occurred, consequently some groups appear thicker than 

they really are. The section at this place over the crest of the pass and 

descending towards Shahpur is as follows, taken from Dr. Waagen''s 

observations and my own : — 

Groups. 

^Nummulitic limestone (part of) ... 
No. 11. ■< Yellow nummulitic marls 

(_ These change slowly into : — 
Brown marls with concretions and many fossils — Beloptera (?), Nauti- 
lus, Gastropoda, corals, and bivalves (cretaceous ?) 
Variegated ferruginous soft sandstone ... ... 

Variegated clay or shale and grey shales 

Band of limestone or hard marlstone with many fossUs — Orhit- 
No.lO?-^ oliies (?) or Wummulites (?) ... ... ... ... 3 

Grey clays, with large spheroidal concretions like the Lias of Lyme 

Regis: calcspar veins ... ... ... ... 15 

Grey cavernous limestone, dark brown on fracture, filled with Orbit- 

olites{?) ... ... . ... ... 30 

i__H8ematitic irregular band .. ... ... ...15 to 30 

( 215 ) 



Ft. ] 


[n. 


100 





15 to 20 





40 





30 





40 






216 WYNNE ; GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



Ft. In. 



No. 6. 



''Bellerophon sandstone of the carboniferous upper beds, with Tere- 
Iratula, Froducti, Gastropods, tubes like Dentalium, and small 

fragmentary fish teeth ... ... ... ... 100 

^Limestones chiefly ... ... ... ... ... 200 

C Speckled sandstones and soft lavender and red clays, showing two 

'v. slips downwards ... ... ••• ... .•• 300 

No. 3. Greenish shaly zone ... ... ... ... ••■ 35 

No. 2. Purple sandstones ... ... ... ... . ... 250 

No. 1. Red salt marl ... ... ... ... 200 to 300 

The red marl, in the glen opening on the road from the west, just 

where the ascent commences, alternates (unless the 
Alternation of lower . i i i v \ 

purple sandstone and salt appearance IS produced bj shps) two or three 

^^^' ■ times with dark purple bands of exactly the same 

character as the lower part of group No. 2. The rest of the groups 

succeed in their regular order, but on the south side o£ this glen a mass 

of the carboniferous limestone has slipped, or is faulted, so as to conceal 

everything else, and to be in contact with the red-marl group. About a 

mile and a quarter northwards of the pass are the hamlet and serai of 

Katwahi, situated among hills of carboniferous and 

nummulitic limestone. Some of the ground about 

the village is either flat or cultivated, so as to cause difficulty in defining 

the boundary lines, one hill being of one limestone, and another of a 

different kind, with here and there small patches of red beds, belonging to 

the group No. 5 below the carboniferous, appearing in an obscure manner. 

Where the road to Sakesar ascends a hill from the immediate vicinity 
of the serai, some coaly gypseous shales which are 
exposed in the sides of the road-cuttiug, belong, 
most probably, to the nummulitic limestone which forms the adjacent 
hill. The two higher hills, one to the southward and the other east of the 
serai, are both of nummulitic limestone also ; but between their beds and 
the underlying carboniferous rocks, some greenish shales and calcareous 

beds, containing a few Ceratites, make their ap- 

Ceratite beds. , , „ , , t ; , ; 

pearance ; these are some oi the earliest traces to 
the eastward of a new (triassic) group which further west always accom- 
panies the carboniferous rocks. 
( 216 ) 



SON PLATKAU. 217 

The southern hill is part of a g-reat outlying' patch or basin of the 
nummulitic rocks around the escarpment of which the carboniferous 
limestones appear^ the two tog-ether forming* quite inaccessible cliffs some 
hundreds of feet high in a narrow gorge south of Sodhi (or Sothe) and 
south-west of Katwahi. At the head of this gorge, where it leaves the 
flatter ground between nummulitic limestone hills, there are the remains 
of a tolerably thick bed of purple gypseous clay associated with sandstone 
layers and blackish shales. The gypsum or selenite is in clear plates, 
and the beds are probably a fragmentary portion of the upper part of 
the speckled sandstone group brought into this position by concealed 
faults. 

The hills to the eastward are partly formed of carboniferous limestone 

and partly of an extension of the main mass of the 
Hills east of Katwabi. 

Son nummulitic limestone. At the base the latter 

is hard, grey, compact and lumpy, overlying 15 feet of white powdery 
sandstone. A small band of shales occurs below, and under these the 
hsematitic clay bed which is often found near the base of this series. The 
layer is here 5 feet in thickness, but is always rather irregular, and 
in this neighbourhood sometimes entirely absent. Below the hsematite 
are dark and light grey triassic shales, with some gypsum and ferru- 
ginous nodules and bands, the whole being 20 feet thick. Near these, 
and apparently coming from beneath them, is strong crinoidal lime- 
stone of the carboniferous group, weathering quite red, overlying a 
mass of the compact fossiliferous limestones of this group. In a little 
valley between two carboniferous limestone hills here, and leading 
down to the Katwahi stream, close to the village, there is a green 
and red soft shaly band near the top of the speckled sandstones, 
without the usual quantity of lavender or other clays that usually inter- 
vene between these and the carboniferous group. Some 60 or 80 feet 
of these sandy and red clay beds of group No. 5 are visible, but are 
obscurely exposed. The rest of the hills in this neighbourhood form 
very rugged ground, and the limestone beds are frequently sharply 
contorted. 

D -2 ( %U }. 



218 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY 0¥ THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



No. 11.— NuM- 

MUIITIC. 



Between Katwalii and the village of Khdra (pronounced Khoora) to 

^ the north-north-east, there is a small flat plain 

Khura, Katwahi. 

entirely concealing the rocks, but the carboniferous 

limestones rise in abrupt cliffs on its north-west side. Close to the west 

of the village a section is seen of the junction between the triassic 

group and the nummulitic limestone. The rocks dip west of north at 

40° and 20°, and the section is as follows* : — 

Feet. 
rCompact nummulitic limestone, ^foeoKwa beds ... 10 

Precipice 50 to 60 feet high of compact nummulitic 

limestone ... ... ... ... 50 

Soit J eWow msLvls, with Nummulites ... 60 to 80 

Brown marls, with many corals ... 15 to 20 

^ Soft yellow sandstones, with Ostrea ... ... 30 

White and yellow and red variegated soft sandstones, 

with plant fragments, partly covered by debris ... 20 (?) 
Olive calcareous sandstones, with Conus, small shell 

fragments, and lumpy nodules ... ... 30 

Strong ferruginous soft sandstones ... ... 40 

f Greenish and gi-ey shales, variegated, red, yellow and 

blue at top ; Ceratites ... ... 20 to 30 

Ceratite limestone ... ... 3 to 4 

l^Yellow sandy calcareous beds, with Rhynchonellce ... 5 
C Brown dolomite, like that at Pail ... ... 3 

Grey and greenish calcareous and micaceous sandstone, 
with limestone bands, weathering red in parts and 
containing Bellerophon, Productus, &c. 90 to 100 

Compact carboniferous limestone very rich in fossils, 

StropJialosia Morisiana, Productus, Athyris, &c, 60 (?) 
Debris 

Yellowish red sandstones and brown dolomitic limestones 
like those at Pail 
(^Gap ... 
No, 5 ... Lavender clay appearing 

It is possible that some of the beds above included in the nummul- 
itic group may be cretaceous ; Conus is found to the eastward in other 
rocks, believed to be of this age ; but these, for wrant of sufficient evidence, 
are not separated here as a different group. 



No. 7.— Tbias ...-{ 



No. 



6. — Caebon- 

IPEKOUS. 



* From Dr. Waagen's and my own observations. 



( 318 ) 



SON PLATEAU. 219 

Eastward of Khura the uummulitic limestoues soon close in round 
Nummiilitic east o£ ^he end of the small plain. Northwards, they 
Kbura and to the north. uu^ukte, and at one place on the road to Sodhi 
are not only bent into a sharp curve, but also faulted, some of their 
underlying shaly beds appearing in the side of the road at the steep 
descent leading to the Sodhi valley and bungalow. 

The post-tertiary deposits of the upper part of this Sodhi valley have 

Post-tertiary conglo- ^®®° already alluded to; they are well seen near the 

'^^^^*®- junction of the road from Khilra with the Sodhi 

and Sakesar road ; where drab clay and coarse brown, soft, sandstone, 

with limestone pebbles, lying on the south slope of a nummulitic 

limestone hill, dip at so high an angle as 20" to 
Naoshera. 

soutb-by-west, and are unconformable to every- 
thing below. The same beds occur again in the country near Naoshera. 

Westwards from Khura the upper carboniferous beds and overlying 

trias continue along the indented boundarv of 
West of Khura. v • , i 

the nummulitic rocks, a long narrow promontory 

of which juts out to the east-by-south for about four miles from their 

main mass; small outlying patches also occur. The direction of this 

extension of the newer limestone is almost exactly parallel to a laro'e 

fault running from near Katwahi to the westward, and bringing the 

carboniferous, the nummulitic, and tertiary sandstone groups into 

abnormal junction. 

From this fault another is supposed to start in a south-westerly 

direction through some undulating or flat ground 
Kavhad. , . ^ , , 

till it reaches the Kavhad gorge, down which it 
passes out towards the southern plains. In the flat ground, of course, 
this fault is concealed, but nearer to the gorge nummulitic and carboni- 
ferous rocks are brought against everything lower than the latter. To 
the right of this Kavhad ravine the ground is hilly and covered with 
broken masses of carboniferous limestone and the " purple sandstone " is 
seen overlying a large exposure of the salt-marl. On the left-hand side 

( 219 ) 



220 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

of the stream the carboniferous bedsj slipped and faulted here and there, 
form abrupt ground several hundred feet higher than the bottom of the 
g'len and are covered by the nummulitic limestone. Further down the 
stream, some of the speckled sandstone beds crop out on its left bank 
beneath the " carboniferous beds," while on the opposite side of the stream 
these carboniferous limestones are in junction with the '' red marl." The 
latter ends suddenly, and for some distance the bed of the river is in the 
speckled sandstones, which, with the underlying purple group No. 2, 
diverge to the southward along a slip or fault, and again the carboni- 
ferous beds of the left bank are in discordant junction with " red marl," 
"purple sandstone," and " speckled sandstones," while carboniferous lime- 
stones form the most of the right bank and steep hill side above it. These 
groups continue in a most shattered state nearly to the mouth of the 
gorge, where the stream bends to the south and the fault continues 
onwards up the light bank. 

The sketch (fig. 39, PI. XXII) will convey an idea of the lower part 
of this glen, through which it is not often easy to trace the geological 
boundary lines. The ground to the right of the view is almost all of 
carboniferous rocks much displaced, that to the left above is of the same, 
while below are the " speckled '^ and " purple sandstones " and the " red 
marl" in a most confused state. Old Sikh salt-mines were worked in this 
glen, and some of the compact thinly laminated, dolomitic layers, 
observed elsewhere, recur here in the red marl. 

The escarpment country along the southern face of the hills, between 
Between Kund ghat ^he Kavhad ravine and the road from Shahpur to 
and KavMd glen. ° Katwahi, is extremely disturbed, numbers of 

slips having taken place, and the rocks having given way generally 
alono- rough contours of the ground. Great sheets and scarps of the 
bare carboniferous limestone, thrown into curves and basins with various 
dips, form bold cliffs rising above the broken ground, and lower terraces 
are also covered with decomposing masses of the same rocks displaced ; 
while the deeper glens and under-cliffs show various comphcated 
arrangements of the ^' red salt-marl " and the two overlying sandstone 
( 229 ) 



SON PLATEAU. 231 

groups. The slips and alternations of the rocks are too confused for 
close description ; much of the ground is covered by debris chiefly of 
the carboniferous group, projecting from beneath which, isolated por- 
tions of any of the local rocks may be found. 

There is here very commonly a zone of sandy, olive, micaceous beds 50 
feet or so in thickness at the base of the carboniferous formation, and 
the strong limestones above may be estimated at 500 feet at 
least, if not more, — the repeated step-cliffs making its depth appear 
much larger than it really is. The lavender and grey clays again form 
a thick band at the top of the " speckled sandstone " group ; they are 
gypseous, and in places contain light olive, micaceous sandstone layers, 
ferruginous beds, and layers of black and grey shale. The thickness 
of this portion of the group varies from 50 to more than 100 feet, 
and the underlying red, white, and speckled sandstones and clays are 
from 250 to 800 feet. Between these and the purple sandstones below 
there is still sometimes an eight-feet greenish shaly zone on the silurian 
horizon ; and in the red marl beneath, thin purple sandstone and grey 
gypseous and cherty-looking dolomitic flaggy layers occur. 

Great masses of white clay occur in the debris on the end of the 
Jabi spur above the left side of the Dokri gorge. 

Jabi spur. 

Some disintegrating nummulitic limestone near 

the place suggests that the clay may result from the decay and re-arrange- 
ment of its lower marly beds, but the local debris conceals the relations. 

About a mile north of Jabi, portions of the carboniferous rocks. 
Ammonite or Phyllo- slipped, fallen, and displaced, still retain sufficient 
ccms.— (Waagen.) continuity of relation to enable their former place 

in this series to be recognised. In a broken-down mass, belonging to the 
lower part of the upper beds of this carboniferous formation. Dr. Waagen 
found the oldest known Ammmiite, or, as he has since determined it, Thyllo- 
ceras j which unique and interesting fossil forms the subject of a short paper 
in the Geological Survey Memoirs, Vol. IX, p. 351. It was associated in 
the limestone with the following: At/i^ris Ropsii, Productus costatus^ 

( 2^1 ) 



222 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

P. spinosus, p. com, P. Humholclti, a Betzia described by Davidson, Terebra- 
tula Himalayensis, Fenestella, Macrocheilus, Goniatites, Ceratites, and many- 
other carboniferous forms. 

From the mouth of the Dokri gorg-e a steep path near a salt ehowki 
leads up the cliffs on the right side of the glen to the undulating 
plateau above. From this path the broken and dislocated positions of 

the 'several groups can be seen. Where the rocks 
Carboniferous rocks 
north-west of Kavhad begin to appear in situ at the cliffs of the escarp- 
and Dokri gorge. ., -, ,^ • ^ ^ -.in 

ment, greenish and thinly laminated liags occur in 

the upper part of group No. 5, and the white and red variegated clays 
of that horizon are sometimes hard and jaspery, the beds with the harder 
layers being 50 feet thick. Over them are 55 feet of grey calcareous 
sandstone with a one-foot fossiliferous band containing Spirifera, Fro- 
clucti, small Bellerophon, Terebratula, &c. Succeeding to this band are 
10 feet of greenish clay, overlaid by 12 feet of sandy limestone, 
weathering brownish, with Fusulina. This limestone is overlaid by 
30 feet of greenish micaceous clay, then 150 to 200 feet of solid 
limestone with corals, passing upwards into 120 feet of brown, rusty, 
thin-bedded BelleropJwn hmestone, forming the cliff-edge. Other rusty 
calcareous beds succeed and undulate over the neighbouring hilly 
plateau, the nearest prominent elevation of which is capped by the 
whitish-yellow disintegrating lower beds of the nummulitic series. 

Viewed from one of these heights, the plateau appears like a grey 

limestone sea thrown into huge waves, some turn- 
Plateau. 

ing over as if about to break, and the slopes of 

all " dressed,^^ or rendered smooth, with detritus. Among all these grey 

rocks the whiter debris of the nummulitic limestone can be occasionally 

detected, and some smoother greenish slopes show where the soft triassic 

strata may be found. 

To the north-eastward the country between the Kavhad gorge and 

Between Jalar and Jalar Kahar is most peculiar. It is, as usual, hilly 

^'^^^^^^ and covered with the detritus and masses of the 

carboniferous limestone in such a state that it is almost impossible to 

( 222 ) 



SOX PLATEAU. 223 

say which ground is formed of rock in situ, and which merely of debris ; 
in fact one form so closely resembles the other that no hard line of 
demarcation exists. Over this ground are scattered patches of the num- 
mulitic limestone which have to a great extent undergone degradation 
and yet retain much the appearance of being in situ. One tract north- 
west of Sothi is covered by the triassic beds, generally much broken, 
but in places actually i?i situ resting on the upper beds of the car- 
boniferous limestone ; while some of the hills and all the deeper valleys 
show the " speckled sandstone " exposed by denudation. Near Gogra 
the underlying " purple sandstone " appears with patches of the " red 
gypseous marl/^ all in a very confused condition, the nearest rock to the 
marl being sometimes its proper associate, the purple sandstone, but 
sometimes the nummulitic limestone or one of the other groups. This 
confused and much disintegrated ground extends north-westward in and 
along the valley of a stream which runs from near Nanga west of Jalar 
into the larger gorge near Kavhad. Towards the upper part of the 
stream, and between it and Nanga, nummulitic limestone in an almost 
detrital state prevails; but the red sandstones, &c., of group No. 5 are 
seen in the stream bed. 

In the neighbourhood of the village and so-called fresh- water lake 

(which is, however, saline) of Jalar, the carbonifer- 
Jalar. 

ous limestone forms hilly ground to the south, and 
cliffs to the northward, of a little plain, which ends at a complicated and 
deep clay khuddera to the eastward. There seems to be an east-and-west 
. fault passing along the foot of the northern limestone cliffs, and exposing 
some of the underlying speckled and reddish sandstones here and 
there. To the north of these cliffs and rising obliquely on the north- 
erly slope of their beds, a narrow (triassic) 
Ceratite band is occasionally seen, succeeded by 
the nummulitic limestone. The whole of the latter is present, dipping 

also northwards at 55" and overlaid by a long 
Tertiary sandstones, &c. . • i i • 

narrow basin of the lower tertiary, bone-bearing, 

greenish sandstones, etc., with a few red clay bands. These sandstones, 

( 223 ) 



30 to 50 


20 to 30 


6 to 10 


4 to 5 


10 


10 



224 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

some 200 feet in thickness, are very soft and friable, and consequently 
occupy the bottom of a valley. The basin is incomplete, being- faulted 
in an east-and-westerly direction against a narrow strip of the BelleropJion 
beds of the carboniferous limestone, which forms an escarpment overlaid 
by the triassic and nummulitic beds. 

This locality was visited by Dr. Waagen, whose notes on the detailed 
section are given below : — 

Feet. 
( Compact nummulitic limestone 
j Yellow marls with Nummulites 
Nummulitic 1 Brown marly layers with a few traces of corals , . . 
I Grey and yellowish clays with concretions and 
I Vulsella-\ik.e bivalves 
( Hsematite 
Hard limestones with Bivalves 
Thin-bedded hard limestone with different species 
of Ceratites ... ... 

Trias _] Brovfn sB.ndstone yvith Ceratites JFlemingi 

Brownish and light yellow sandstone with few 
Ceratites. In the upper pai't of these sand- 
stones is the Bellerophon bed of this Ceratite 
group ... ... ... ... 80 

"Ceratite marls and hard thin Ceratite limestones ... 20 

Carboniferous I Brown eandstones and sandy limestones of the 

Bellerophon group, very thick ... ... 100 to 150 

Northwards from this the nummulitic limestones undulate with a good 
deal of northerly dip into the Son Sakesar Kahar basin. To the east- 
ward they are more violently contorted, and in the hills behind Naoshera 
they are covered by unconformable detrital beds (similar to those of the 
head of the Sodhi valley) dipping northwards at low angles generally of 
about 10°. 

Westwards of Jalar the carboniferous limestone cliffs which 

overhang the lake extend for several miles^ and 
Jurassic. 

are more palpably faulted along their base. The 

limestone is overlaid by the Ceratite zone, and this by a new group of 

white, red, and yellowish soft sandy and variegated beds, the commence- 

( 224 ) 



L. 



SON PLATEAU. 225 

ment of the Jurassic group. Here iu their first exposures the Jurassic 
beds are thin^ faulted, and much concealed. South of Nanga (to 
the west of Jalar lake) there is a considerable hill (beyond the broken 
belt of disintegrating- nummulitic limestone) at the base of which 
carboniferous limestone appears; and further up the triassic Ceratite 
band, overlaid by a few sandy beds representing the Jurassic rocks, and 
capped by nummulitic limestone with a southerly dip. 

These beds are cut off by a west-north-west fault bringing them 
against the carboniferous limestone, here forming a wide hilly tract, 
its beds dipping both to the north-east and south-west, and its chief 
lines of hill and valley trending west-north-west. 

South-westward of this tract, and westward from Virgal, is a 

narrow elongated basin formed by a synclinal 
Virgal. 

curve in the carboniferous limestones, but occupy- 
ing high ground. Within it, the triassic beds, a few Jurassic layers, 
and an outlier of the nummulitic limestone, lie, each surrounded by its 
adjacent lower group, their outcrops forming escarpments on the north- 
eastern side and south-eastern end of the basin, but being overtopped 
by higher limestone hills in other directions. The north-east side of 
the outlier presents the following succession according to Dr. Waagen : — 

Feet. 
rCompact nummulitic limestone, over yellow nummulitic marl- 

'l stone ... ... ... ... ... .20 

Nummulitic ...^ Gray clays with very much gypsum, hard concretions with 

I fossils ... ... ... ... ... 12 

^Haematite ... ... ... ... ... 4 

f Variegated sands and sandstones ... ... ... 10 

T Brown sandy marls with Twrritella ... ... 5 to 6 

JUEASSIC ,..■{ •' 

I Soft red sandstone with greyish and greenish clays, pyritous 

L and gypseous ... ... ... ... 15 to 20 

f Grey limestone with numerous Bivalves ... ... 2 

Thin -bedded hard sandy limestone, no fossils ... ... 6 

I Ceratite sandstone, thin-bedded soft yellow sandstone with 

"' ' gypsum ; a JBeMero^7<o» bed in the upper region ... 50 

Green Ceratite marls ... ... ... ... 60 to 70 

l_ Thin-bedded limestone with CeraiiVe* ... .- 8 

e2 ( 225 ) 



228 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



f Grey sandstone layers ... ... ... ... 6 

Black coaly, shaly beds, micaceous... ... ... 3 to 6 

Thick light grey concretionary sandstones with nests of 

CaeboNIFEEOTJS...^ iossils, small Frodueti, Bellerophon, and Gastropoda ... 6 
Brown sandstone and limestone with BelleropAon, Produetus 

costatus, and a, Dentalium ... ... ... 200 (?) 

L Compact limestone with corals ... ... ... 300 

I found some of the Ceratites in the shaly beds on the south-west side 
of the basin to be of large size, occasionally measuring thirteen inches 
across. At this side of the basin there are also seen some 30 feet 
of white sandstones above the haematite zone, succeeded by 20 to 
30 feet of dark-coloured shales beneath the yellow marly beds of the 
nummulitic limestone. At another place the haematite band measures 15 
feet and is overlaid by 25 feet of white sandy beds, both being displaced -, 
and at the south-eastern end of the basin an old pit was shown to me in 
w^hat appeared to be a dislocated fragment of the haematite : from this 
pit-alum shale was reported to have been raised. Alum workings are 
not, however, now carried on here. 

The grey limestone with numerous bivalves, marked as 2 feet thick 
in the above table, is nearly 10 feet on the opposite side of the trough, 
and the shaly beds are covered with saline efflorescence. 

The high hill south-west of this (3,408 feet) is scarped towards 
the basin and formed of the hard fossiliferous (carboniferous) lime- 
stone, folded so as to add much to its apparent thickness, which would 
be great even if undisturbed. The limestone of the carboniferous forma- 
tion is frequently dolomitic in this neighbourhood, in the lower country 
along the escarpment of the range. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Choya (Chua) more than the usual 
amount of disturbance and dislocation prevails. 

On the right side of the Dokri gorge, within a mile from its 

mouth, there are four large and many minor 

ground slips, one of which is probably along a 

continuation of the KavhM fault. Further west the entanglement of 

( *26 ) 



GEOLOGICAU SURVEY OF I N O I /A 



Wyttne SaiL llanyt 



Memoirs Vol-.XIV.Plate.X'XKr. 



SlAppecb m^cur^ of 




■Mouth, of Gorge 



cxboujtloooff: 

Scale l.tachtx) a Mile Horizontal,, .V^grtical. 

South. WottVi 

Fi^'. 40. Section on ri^Tit side of CKoya £ovge and up to Trias-sic & Nvnaaiin i jjitic oxitliei:'. 



\, 



-B i'^t 






Pi^; 43. Greenish Is an m Red mar-l Varclia G-len . 




South, 



Ti^ 44. Top of Ka'n^arawila Hill. 



SON PLATEAU. 227 

the rocks from the same cause becomes intensely comphcated. The 
succession is the same, but the " purple sandstone '^ is much less seen, 
except in the cliffs nearest to the main escarpment, where it still retains 
its thickness of about 350 or 300 feet. Even here there is occasionally 
a thiuj greenish, shaly, micaceous band, between it and the " speckled 
sandstoue,^^ the thickness of which last appears much to exceed that of 
the former groups. Along the foot of the hills the '' red marl '^ and the 
" purple sandstone" are frequently but not well exposed underneath the 
debris. 

In the Choya gorge many singular complications occur, the lower 

rocks of the overlying series having slipped down- 
Choya gorge. 

wards over the salt-marl^ sometimes producing 

the appearance of alternation, whilst sometimes nearly isolated masses 

from above have reached the bottom of the glen. The " red-salt marl " is 

much exposed, and crops out on the shoulder of the 

Salt-marl, 

spur between the gorge and the village of Choya, 
at a considerable elevation above the latter. The water is all salt with 
the exception of a small driblet, issuing at the left side of the mouth 
of the gorge from the gypseous red marl ; a hollow which might hold 
a pint having been formed to receive the supply around this, a cluster 
of the village children stood waiting their turn to obtain a tardy lotah- 
ful, warm and not particularly good when gained. The " red marl" 
has a more stratified appearance than usual owing to the prevalence of 
gypsum, the layers dipping at high angles on account of much dis- 
turbance of the rocks (see fig. 40, PL XXIII) . 

At some distance within this glen, bands of the grey cherty-looking 
Dolomitic flags and dolomite and grey (weathering greenish) clays or 
shaly layers in marl. shales with ferruginous strings, occur quite ver- 

tically bedded in the salt-marl, the flaggy dolomite bands alternating 
frequently with dark brownish grey thin shales. At one place these beds 
measure 50 feet, and present in their regular stratification a strong 
contrast to the adjacent marl. 

( 111 ) 



228 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Further on, the stream runs through the sandstones, &cc., of 

group No. 5, and between masses of the carbon - 
Slip fault. . • 1 i • 1 n ,1 

iferous hmestone, that on the right side oi the 

stream being displaced, shaken, and brought against the " purple sand- 
stones " by a fault along which the lavender clays of the group (No. 5) 
are crushed into contact with the lower purple sandstone beds. 

The stratification of the rocks at the head of this glen is well seen, 
Head of Choya glen the '^ purple '' and " speckled '^ sandstone groups 
and ascent to the north. dipping at 50° to the northward and rising into a 
high hill overtopping the plateau country. The northern slopes of this 
hill are on the dip of the bare rocks, lessening with the descent, until 
nearly at the foot they pass beneath an outlying patch of the carboniferous 
limestone, partly horizontal and partly taking the opposite inclination 
of a synclinal curvature. Two or three streams meet here ; following the 
most northerly over rough ascending ground, the " purple sandstone " 
and overlying groups are passed, and a curious narrow, deep, winding cut, 
which can be touched at once on either side, leads through the carboni- 
ferous limestone cliffs, up over a " bad step '•' and into the basin occupied 
by the triassic and overlying groups of the Choya section (fig, 40, PI. 
XXIII). Immediately over the village of Choya, much "red marP^ and 
several hetereogenous, fragmentary patches of the other groups are exposed. 

To the westward in the gorge between the village of Choya and 
Gorge between Choya ^^rcha (often called Wurcha) the red salt-marl is 
and Varcha. again largely exposed ; here it contains salt and 

produces a white eflSorescence from saline portions called by the natives 
tur. It is much cut up by slips, but there appears to be an 80-feet 
band of purple marl and thin sandstone below the uppermost 30 feet of 
the red marl ; the gypsum in this causes it to retain some traces of 
stratification in the neighbourhood. The lower 60 feet of the overlying 
purple sandstone group is unusually argillaceous, and this appearance of 
an alternation between an upper baud of the red marl and the lower 
portion of the purple sandstone is also seen in a few other places in the 
vicinitj'. 

( 228 ) 



>, 



S 1 







CO 

I — I 

"cuo 

Cm 



SON PLATEAU. 229 

Just in the neighbourhood of Varcha (Wureha) the rocks are again 

,, , .„ tremendously broken and slipped, great shifted 

varcha village, . . _ ri j & 

disintegrating masses of the carboniferous lime- 
stone directly overlying the red marl^ and portions of the other rocks 
being entangled with this marl, at many points, without any of their 
consecutive relationship being preserved. The shaken and displaced 
limestone overlying the salt-marl can be continuously traced into 
connexion with that which is still in situ, horizontally undulating 
over the higher ground, the transition from one condition to the other 
being imperceptible. Open fissures and chasms, of great depth but in- 
considerable width, occurring in the limestone are probably due to the 
instability of the underlying salt marl. 

Between the village of Varcha and the Varcha gorge to the northwards 
Between Varcha villao-e ^^® " ^^^ salt-marl " is seen, forming a part of the 
and gorge. Varcha exposure of the Saline group, one of the 

largest in the western part of the range. 

The red marl here is conspicuous from the plain at the foot of the 
escarpment, and fills a small rugged valley. Gypseous interstratifications 
occur, and parts of the formation appear in many places to have subsided. 
The marl lies very high, entirely forming hills, which measured by aneroid 
740 feet in height above the plains (see fig. 41, Plate XXIV). 

Crossing these hills into the Varcha gorge the same marked appearance 
of interstratifieation at its junction with the purple beds above, was again 
observed, there being more than one alternation of bands each about 
50 feet in thickness. 

The ground in this neighbourhood is, however, greatly dislocated, so 
that some doubt attaches to the occurrence of alternations ; an appearance 
which might very easily be caused by subsidence along concealed lines 
of slippage. 

Within the Varcha gorge itself there is again much disturbance and 
dislocation ; portions of the purple sandstone are so 
slipped or faulted on the left-hand side of the gorge 

( 2^9 ) 



230 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

as to be entirely included in the marl, giving with the doubtful interstra- 
Alternation at upper tification mentioned the appearance of at least three 
part of salt-marl. alternations of "red marl" with the lower beds 

of the " purple sandstone."* Besides this, masses of the " speckled sand- 
stone " group have subsided between portions of the latter rocks, which 
appear much thinner than usual, and both at the mines and towards the 
head of the gorge, complicated landslips cause the carboniferous lime- 
stone to rest on the " salt-marl," with only the intervention of the upper 
lavender clays of the "^ speckled sandstone" group. At one place on the 
right side of the gorge, northwards from the mines, there are some 

greenish sandy beds intercalated between the 
Greenish sandy beds. , ,, , „ i i i ■» -, , • ,, , 

" purple and " speckled ' sandstones m the place 
of group No. 3, which as a continuous band disappears far to the east- 
ward about Khund Ghat on the road to Sakesar from Shahpur. 

Above the speckled sandstone and its lavender clays, the carboni- 
ferous limestone appears everywhere on the 
heights surrounding the glen. Near its mouth, 
faulted or slipped and disintegrating masses of the same rock in imme- 
diate junction with the salt-marl form the low outer hills. 

The thickness of the purple sandstone may be partly concealed by 
slips here, but at the head of the glen it seems to have diminished to 
150 or 200 feet. The speckled sandstone group is also apparently 
thinner, the sandstones being from 100 to 150 feet, and the clays above 
from 50 to 80 feet, or for the whole group from 130 to 250 feet. The 
thickness of the carboniferous limestone, from its manner of exposure 
making differently sized cliffs in different places, is not very easy to 
estimate, but the hard cliff limestone may be about 250 feet or less, 
having some 50 feet of sandstone beds below, and 80 to 100 feet of other 
sandy calcareous beds with Belleroplion, kc, above, making the whole 
group 350 to 400 feet. 



* These appearances, at one place on this left side of the glen, certainly have very 
much the aspect of natural and successive alternation, 

( 230 ) 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



Wynne. SaltRaaig'i 



Me nvo ir s"Vo~l; JCIV. Pla.teXXV. 




J- S <ihja.iA.rfihvf:r<^ , ZjUh^ - 



SHAFT VARCHA MINE 



SON PLATEAU. 231 

The Varcha salt mines are situated on the right side of the gorge, not 
far from its mouth, the entrance to the mines 

I' TrOilfl. silt 1X111169 

having been excavated through the lavender clays 
at 'the top of the speckled sandstone group. For 100 feet into the mine 
these beds and purple clays, or marls, are passed through, too irregularly 
stratified to afford much information, but the general dip is to the west 
at 30°. Within, the mine is worked in the usual salt and salt-marl : 
it is a very extensive excavation which follows a 20-feet bed of salt 
dipping at 20° to west-20°-north, and also to the north-west, the angle 
growing steeper as the salt bed descends. The general strike is from 
east-north-east to north-east, and the length of the mine is some 450 feeto 
The salt is of the usual reddish white colour. In one part of the mine 
old workings exist, without pillars, to support the roofs of the large and 
dangerous chambers left by the old miners. At the north-eastern end of 
the mine is the old Sikh entrance, and near it are some large vertical 
natural shafts with curiously fluted or moulded sides, showing the great 
thickness of the salt. (See fig. 42, plate XXV.) 

Salt is also known in other places in the glen, but on its left side, just 
opposite to the mines, the salt bed (i£ present) is concealed, probably by 
land-slips. 

At some distance up the gorge beyond the mines, the flaggy and 
Flaggy beds in red shaly, grey gypseous and dolomitic bands occasion- 
™^^ ■ ally met with in the red marl, appear more fre- 

quently than is usual, and at one spot, though contorted and slipped, close 
on the bank of the stream, they have the following arrangement (see 
fig. 43, plate XXIII) :— 

Variegated purple clays ... ... .,, 10 feet. 

Gypseous layer ... ... ... ... 1 „• 

Purple and green and grey clay ... ... ... 5 „ 

Strong rugged bands of wbite gypsum ... ... 4 „ 

Greenish grey clay shale, black where wet, weathering 

whitish ,,. ... ... ... 5 „ 2 inches, 

(? 10 feet if not slipped.) 

( 231 ) 



232 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Hard dolomitic flaggy bands alternating with thin grey 

shales, having yellow partings ... 3 to 5 feet. 

Dark grey gypseous shale ... ... ... 5 

Red marl again underneath ... ... ... (?) 

Still further up the glen a similar group of beds is again- seen with a 
25-feet band of salt immediately above the upper purple portion of the 
saline marl ; the same kind of greenish beds^ but without the salt, re- 
appear where a stream from the east enters the main channel. As there is 
a large quantity of the salt-marl exposed here, and these thin-bedded bands 
are generally seen in the lowest situations, it might be inferred that they 
occupy a low horizon in the group, but their association in this place with 
rock salt, which is usually found near the top of the marl, and the 
possibility of slips having taken place, render the relation of the flaggy 
layers a matter of doubt. 

The large glen of Varcha is separated from an upper and smaller one 

^^ , by a cliff of the carboniferous limestone, which 

Upper glen. 

must have subsided considerably, for the underly- 
ing speckled sandstones are slightly visible, forming the floor of the upper 
valley. On both sides of the smaller glen the carboniferous beds are 
fossiliferous, containing, with other forms, some fine specimens of a large 
Streptorhynchus. In the upper part of this glen, where crossed by the 
road to Uchali (hardly passable) , the greenish trias 
beds occur in a synclinal of the carboniferous 
rocks, the latter being much folded about this part of the Son plateau. 

Between the mouth of the Varcha glen and that of the Amb valley 
Between Varcha and there is another large oval exposure of the " salt 
marl/^ the " purple^' and the " speckled" sandstone, 
and the carboniferous gi'oups, evidently much dislocated and not in consec- 
utive order. At the north-western side of this exposure there is again 
the appearance of some of the red marl overlying a lower portion of 
the purple sandstones, but the country is so slipped that appearances 
cannot be trusted. Between these two glens the red marl is very 
generally traceable along the base of the hills. 
( 232 ) 



SON PLATEAU. 233 

North-west of Varcha is the extensive, wild, and beautifully 
_ situated glen of Amb. The main srlen runs 

Amb glen. _ _ 

from the low plaius in a curving north-easterly 

direction up to the southern foot of Sakesar mountain. It is a deep rocky 
gorge buried among lofty hills and joined at different points by three 
other valleys from the south-eastward. In this glen, its sides and its 
branches, the whole of the Western Salt Range series is to be found ; 
but so intense is the dislocation from which the rocks have suffered, that 
in no place is a regular unbroken section observable. In addition to the 
difficulties caused by faults and very numerous landslips, violent con- 
tortion has in places affected the rocks. 

The " red marl " is seen in many places in the main gorge, and in 

that branch in which Amb village is situated; 
Series. 

but only one place was indicated by the natives, 

at about half-way up the main glen, where salt is said to occur, and there 

are no mines open. 

The " purple sandstone" is capriciously distributed; there is a good 
deal of it seen about the mouth of the glen, and immediately within the 
gorge, but further up it is either absent or very thin in comparison 
with its usual development. In the gorge, too, just above this group, 
are some greenish shaly beds in the place of group No. 3, but only 
locally present. 

The "speckled sandstone" group is largely present, having an as- 
sumed thickness of 300 feet, and showing some slight local changes of 
character, the lavender clays still forming its upper zone. The car- 
boniferous limestones are sometimes magnesian, and are often inter- 
calated with sandstone beds and even in places with coaly shale bands ; 
and in these limestones the most remarkable contortions in the glen 
occur. The triassic beds appear either in isolated faulted exposures, 
or in their proper place in the series, on the southern side of Sakesar, 
where the overlying Jurassic rocks are also exposed. The nummulitic 
limestone surrounds the head of the main glen, and stretches along its- 
F 2 ( 233 ) 



234 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

northern side^ forming' the higher part of Sakesar mountain. Far to 
the south, in one of the small tributary vallejss to the left of the 
gorge, an isolated, faulted, and subsided fragment of these rocks occurs, 
associated with some of the coal-shales beneath, and in junction 'with 
a remnant of the overlying petroleum-bearing tertiary sandstones, the 
manner of their exposure being singular, and the connexion between 
their present position and their original mode of occurrence not easy to 
trace. 

Of many faults in the glen the principal one runs down the left 

bank of the main stream, crossing it north of 
Faults. ^ . . 

Amb, and obliquely ascending the opposite side 

of the glen. This fault appears to be a continuation of that at Jalar. 
Another runs up the branch glen beneath Amb village, and there are 
others besides. Two or three principal lines of land-slippage coincide 
with the general run of the main glen, former cliffs having slipped 
down the south face of the Sakesar mountain ; while nearer the mouth 
of the glen, the number of these dislocations and the variety of their 
directions give the whole mass of the rocks a most confused arrange- 
ment. 

The hill to the east of the mouth of the gorge is capped by the 

Hill east of gorge carboniferous limestone, undulating or dipping 

™°^*^' northward. This limestone is surrounded by its 

own debris, below which the ''speckled sandstone,^'' " purple sandstone,''"' 

and " red marl " groups appear. Towards the gorge the two latter 

alternate along nearly north and south lines of slippage, none of the 

groups being entirely exposed. On the opposite side of the glen^s 

mouth, gently rising ground is covered with 

West of mouth of glen. ,. , p , i - r- . i .• c 

limestone iragments, but lurtuer up portions ot 

the speckled sandstone and carboniferous limestone appear, none of 

which, perhaps, are in their proper situations. High up on this ground a 

narrow shifted band of the salt-marl crosses out from Amb glen, and 

runs along to the west, partly occupying high ground and partly the 

first depression behind the outer hills. It is associated with numerous 

( 234 ) 



SON PLATEAU. 235 

broken portions of the speckled and reddish sandstone or carboni- 
ferous groupS; one little triangle being occupied by triassic beds. 

Just within the mouth of the gorge the crushed and broken rocks 
exhibit some most complicated folding, and the 
beds above the " purple sandstone " differ some- 
what from the usual aspect of the " speckled sandstone " group ; the 
following succession being observed : — 

Groups. Feet. 

TBright red aluminous beds ... ... ... 30 

I Greenish, greyish, and white flaggy sandstones and sandy 

I shale with some red bands ... ... .. 100 (?) 

(^ Hard white sandstone and grey shales ... ... 30 

No. 3?. Greenish grey, sandy, shaly, soft beds ... ... 50 

^DuU purple sandstone ... ... 80 to 100 

Purple shaly and earthy part of the group ... 60 to 80 

No. 1. Kedsalt'marl ... ... ... ... 80 



No. 2. i 



This is on the west side of the gorge. A little further on, an isolated 
block of the carboniferous limestone, 40 feet in width, projects from 
the red salt-marl. Near this place, where the bottom of the gorge is 
occupied by the red marl, the purple sandstone forms the lower 
part of the right bank, and a slipped or faulted portion of the same 
occurs on the left, running in between masses of the carboniferous 
beds, which in this part of the gorge almost everywhere form its left 
side. 

The second stream of any size above the mouth of the gorge on this 

side, enters the main one from a little valley, the south-west side of 

which is formed of the carboniferous limestone, dipping north-east at 

45° and 50°, and the opposite side chiefly of limestone debris. About 

three-quarters of a mile up this smaller valley is 
Salgi coal locality. 

the Salgi coal locality."^ 



* Described at page 15 of Dr. Oldham's " Memorandum on the results of a cursory 
examination of the Salt Eange, &c.," previously referred to. 

( 235 ) 



336 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Here the isolated mass of the nummulitic limestone^ before men- 
tioned, occurs on the right bank of the stream for about 100 yards. At 
the north-western end it is in contact with some of the greenish 
triassic shales, the limestone being overlaid (instead of underlaid as 
might have been expected) by a 4-feet bed of white sandstone, succeeded 
by a conglomerate of possibly recomposed nummulitic limestone pebbles. 
Eesting upon this are a few beds of tertiary sandstone of two kinds, 
purple, and grey pseudo-conglomeratic, coarse, soft, or speckled sand- 
stone. The coal-shales beneath the nummulitic limestone are greatly 
crushed, the coal being very bad, rather a highly carbonaceous shale 
with a few plant fragments, and the most coaly portion varying from 
3 inches to a foot in thickness. Beneath these shales Dr. Oldham 
seems to have observed some of the salt-marl, which may probably 
have been subsequently concealed by the stream deposits. It occurs, 
however, a little way north-east of the nummulitic limestone, away 
from the stream. A few yards further up the course of this, some more 
beds of the tertiary sandstones come in over the limestone, the section 
being as follows, and the beds dipping east-north-east at 30° : — 

f5. Eed clay. • Feet. 

14. Grey soft sandstone ... ... ... 30 

^sakdS)NE. 1 3. Brown sandstone ... ... ... 10 



.„. (1. Liraest 
Nummulitic (?) s 

V. (An on 



i2. Grey sandstone... ... ... ... 35 

Limestone conglomerate ... ... ... 21 

(An original rock or recomposed from debris ?)* 



From the brown sandstone. No. 3, a small quantity of mineral tar was 

oozing out and running down the bank for 15 
Mineral tar. ^ mi i ■ ' i i • 

feet. The rock is very tough and strongly im- 
pregnated with the petroleum or tar, which burns with a red flame, 
sputtering much, doubtless in consequence of the presence of water. 
Beyond this the carboniferous limestone forms both sides of the valley, 
but to the north-east of the coal and tar locality, within a mile, denu- 
dation and dislocation have exposed some of the " speckled sandstone '■ 



* This conglomerate may perhaps represent the similarly placed detrital junction- 
rock at the top of the nummulitic limestone of the East Salt Range, on the hills south of 
Phadial. See p. 108. 

( 236 ) 



SON PLATEAU. 237 

beds and the "red marl" beneath. Returning" to the main gorge, the 
lower portion of it still exposes the red salt-marl, rising considerably above 
the bed of the stream, the occurrence of salt being indicated by a chowhi. 
Here the path to Amb leaves the bottom of the glen and ascends a steep 
hill of limestone (the ascent having given a barometric depression of '6 of 
an inch by aneroid) ; after which a slight descent leads into the smaller 
valley within which that village is situated. The fault which longi- 
tudinally traverses this smaller valley branches in 
Amb village. 

. the neighbourhood of the village so as to include 

a wedge-shaped mass of the " speckled sandstone '^ gi'oup, having on one 
side the '' red marl '' upon which the village stands, and on the other a 
portion of a basin of the Jurassic, triassic, and carboniferous rocks. The 
red marl is gypseous and stratified, dipping towards the north-east at 40° 
to 50°, and just above it only the lower or shaly portion of the "purple 
sandstone^^ is represented. The succession of the beds at the village is 
as follows : — 



6. Caebonifeeous . . . Carboniferous limestone. Feet. 

[ Grey clays, yellow partings .,, ... ... 40(?) 

j Wbite sandstones, weathering greenish ... ,.. 79 

' I Greenish shaly lavers and conglomerates of meta- 
STONE ... I J J o 

L morphic pebbles ... ... ... 50(?) 

'' Grey lumpy, sandy, shale ... ... ... 1"5 

2. PUEPLE SAND- I .^ , , , . , , ^^ , , „ 

STONE ^ Dark purple and greemsn clay ... 80 to 100 

(^ Purple flaggy shale ... ... ... 100 

r Compact white gypsum ... ... ... 25 

1. Salt-mael .,,.{ Grey and red shaly marl ... ... ... 4 

l^ Red salt-marl, gypsum veins ... ... ... 70 

The representatives of the " purple ^^ and " speckled ^^ sandstones (No. 3 
Change in the Purple ^^^ ■^*^' ^) extend up the valley in an east-south-east 
Sandstone group. direction, until they disappear beneath the car- 

boniferous limestone. A fractured segment of a basin containing newer 
rocks than these lies below Amb, along the stream on the northern side 
of which the village stands. From the heights above the village the 
carboniferous limestones may be seen on the opposite hill-side dipping 
in northerly directions, and passing beneath the newer and softer beds 
along the course of the stream. 

( 337 ) 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



The instructive section whieli this valley affords is as follows (accord- 
Section inside valley i^g" ^o my notes and those subsequently made by 



below village. 



Dr. Waagen): — 



JUEASSIC (?) 



9. Jtjeassic 



1 



rNummulitic alum-shales with few fossils (same as 

11. NUMMFLITIC -; at Chichali pass, Trans-Indus) TwrrJ^eZ/ajTrocAMs 

(^ and little corals. 

White soft sandstone with numerous fragments of 

lignite ... ,., 

("Alum-shales thicker than above and with more 

C pyrites ..- ... ... ... 

^Strong red ferruginous sandstone with Ostrea, 
Exogyra, some indistinct Gastropods and frag- 
ments of unsymmetrical JEcliinidcB ; section not 
quite clear, and part seems as if some grey 
sandstones came in above these ferruginous ones. 
,. ■{ Grey and variegated sandstones and shales, coarse 
yellowish flaggy sandstone with numerous 
TerehratulcB 
Variegated red shales 
Thick white sandstones 
l^Variegated shales, blackish, grey and red . . . 
fHard limestones, numerous species of bivalves, cal-'^ 
careous sandstone with spinose Ceratites, sandstones I 
with C. Flemingu, Bellerophon bed of the Ceratite I 
group with many Cera^j^es... ... ... f 

Ceratite marls, grey and green .. , ... ..^ | 

l^ Lower Ceratite limestone ... ... ... ) 

fSoft white sandstones intercalated with coaly shales, 
fossils numerous, Bellerophon, small bivalves,"&c.... 

Compact carboniferous limestone 
TeUow dolomitic sandy limestones 



Feet. 



50 



50 



V 100 to 150 
I 



7. Teiassic ...•{ 



160 



6. CAEBOiriFEEOtrS i^ 



100 

200 
150 to 200 



Grey sandy brittle layers with numerous StrophalosicB 

and LeptcBtiee ... 
Rusty -brown, coarse, ferruginous sandstone, Spirifer, &c. ") 
Fine white sandstone with Fusulince, Orthis, &c. ... ) 

Black coaly sand or sandstone, with much pyrites and 

many fossils, Aulosteges, &c. 

f Lavender clay 



5. Speckled sand- j ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ sandstone 

STONE ... I 

(^Lavender clay 

( 238 ) 



6 
15 



10 
30 



SON PLATEAU. 239 

The rocks are so disturbed and overrun by debris in some places, 

that a fairer estimate of tbeir tbickness could not be formed. Besides 

tbis, tbe sections are often oblique^ giving* an apparently greater tbickness, 

wbile slips and sligbt local cbauges in tbe beds make tbe order appear 

somewbat different in different places ; tbe above table, bowever, gives a 

general idea of tbe succession. Tbe alum-sbales at the top of the section 

are divided into two bands by a zone of white 
Alum-shales. 

sandstone, and though this might be merely an 

accidental occurrence, the arrangement coincides with tbe fine Cbichali 

section Trans-Indus, suggesting the possibility that these two zones o£ 

alum-shale may represent the larger bands of Cbichali, and that the 

intervening sandstone may be of cretaceous age. A break or irregularity 

in the succession which is seen Trans-Indus is not, however, observed 

here, and the similarity, so far as it extends, must only be taken for 

what it may be worth. 

East-north-east of Amb village, a track leads by some Buddhist 

ruins up to Kangrawala summit, a lofty hill of 
Kangrawala hill. , • /. 

carboniferous limestone, 3,920 feet above the sea. 

The strata of this hill are most curiously arranged in an inverted fold, 

the outcrop being to the north and producing fine cliffs of 400 and 500 

feet high at least (see fig. 44, plate XXIII) . At the summit of this bill, 

too, there are some strange natural funnels ; these when visited, late in 

the evening, were emitting volumes of hot damp 
Exhalations. 

air, the moisture of which condensed upon mosses 

and other damp-loving plants which surrounded their mouths. The 
reason of this occurrence was not clear ; some decomposing pyritous beds, 
whence heated air or gases might ascend, may have been caught in the 
fold, or may exist in the limestones ; the weather was hardly suflSciently 
warm or the eveniog suflSciently cold to have produced the difference of 
temperature and an upcast draught, supposing the air had access below. 
To the east-by-north of this hill, a long fault, apparently the con- 
tinuation of that passing north of Jalar, separates the carboniferous 
from tbe nummulitic limestone along a line parallel to the course of a 

( 239 ) 



240 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

rocky stream. At the point where this fault enters the Amb gorg-e^ 

some nummulitic limestone forms a crag, resting 
Head of Amb glen. 

against the foot of a lofty cliff of carboniferous 

limestone, and near this crag about 150 or 200 feet of soft sandy beds be- 
longing to the Jurassic group are also crushed against the limestone ; 
some of the same beds as occur in the neighbourhood of Amb being 
thrown into a nearly vertical position, close to a place where old alum- 
works were reported to have existed. At this point were seen — 

Feet. 
r4. Black shales, gypseous and pyritous ... ... 54 

j 3. Lumpy lower nummulitic limestone ... ... 27 

NtrMMTTLlTlC .. . -^ (Variegated red band witb some flaggy shales wanting 
I here.) 

L2 White sandstones with black shales ... ... 28 

Jurassic ... 1. Crimson clays and soft white sandstones 
And in another place close by — 

^6. Lumpy nummulitic limestone 
5. Variegated red band, flaggy beds and shales 

NUMMTTLITIC . . . -{ 4; y^^y y^^^^^ ^y^^y^^ 

3. Dark grey shales 
L2. Eusty-shaly beds ... 

Jttbassic ... 1. White sandstone 

The difference between these two small portions of the series shows 
how these beds are liable to vary and how little their detailed character 
is to be depended upon, their identification in the absence of fossils 
being only determinable from general features. 

Eound the head of the glen, faulted against the nummulitic lime- 
stone by an east and west fracture not far from the main fault, and 
also reappearing among the hills of the nummulitic country between 
this and Uchali, the white and red, sandy and argillaceous, Jurassic beds 
may be seen cropping out from beneath the whiter nummulitic lime- 
stones, and they also appear along the main Jalar fault southward of the 
last-named village. The triassic beds below are also occasionally visiblcc 

These Jurassic and triassic beds pass also from the head of the 

Amb o^len along- the southern brow of Sakesar 
Southern glen along ^ ^ 

the Sakesar. mountain, the variously coloured bands of the 

( 240 ) 



50 

j- indistinct. 

Feet. 

12 

15 

30 
100 



SON PLATEAU. 341 

Jurassic series forming a sort of escarpment below the talus of the 
nummulitic cliffs, while the underlying triassic rocks are more concealed. 
The carboniferous group forms another ledge of 200 to 300 feet in depth, 
below which the " speckled sandstones " appear, with a thickness of 250 
to 300 feet, the lower 50 being of coarse white sandstones. The '^purple 
sandstone " below is but slightly represented, and it is doubtful if in some 
places here that group is not entirely absent. Where represented it 
sometimes consists of 90 feet of dark shaly conglomerate with metamor- 
phic pebbles. Beneath the " speckled sandstone ■'■' group the lower slopes 
are greatly confused by the long lines of slipping already mentioned, 
but the " red salt-marl " is frequently seen. The stream at the bottom 
of the glen flows for more than a mile among vertically bedded, craggy, 
displaced masses of the carboniferous limestone, forming a hard bar 
in the valley, and extending together with a part of the triassic beds, 
to west-by-south along the Sakesar side of the main fault. On 
the opposite side of this the " speckled sandstone " and " red marl " 
come together, with but a small representative of the '^purple sand- 
stone^'' between, or in places without any of it at all. The main 
stream having left the vertical part of the carboniferous limestone, 
crosses the sandstones and marl, then crosses the Amb village fault, 
and flows between banks of carboniferous rocks again ; below these 
it has the limestones on the left and the " red marl " on the right 
down to the place where the rocks on its banks have been already 
described. 

High up above the glen of Amb and on the opposite side from 

Amb village is the small hamlet of Siran-ki-dok, 
Siran-ki-dok. 

Situated on a spur from Sakesar. Hereabouts the 

higher ground is all formed of nummulitic limestone, undulating or 

dipping to the northwards, towards the nummulitic synclinal of Sakesar 

peak, while in a north-westerly direction these beds dip at high angles 

to the north-east. This nummulitic limestone sends out a tongue to the 

southward from the village (nearly on the watershed between the Amb 

glen and the Bazar Wan) around which both the Jurassic and triassic 

g2 ( 241 ) 



242 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OE THE SALT KANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 



beds crop out, resting on the carboniferous limestone, the whole series 
passing off on one side along the Amb glen, and on the other along the 
north-eastern side of the Bazar Wan. From the high ground looking 
in the latter direction the four groups, Nos. 6, 7, 9 and 11, can be well 
seen striking steadily off to the north-west, with much less of the confu- 
sion and concealment occurring on the northern side of the Amb valley. 

The following succession occurring in the vicinity of Siran-ki-dok is 
taken from the notes of Dr. Waagen and myself, many of the details 
beins" from the former : — 



( Nummulitic limestone 
Alveolina beds 
Nummulitic limestone 
Yellow nodular marls, Nummulites 
Brown marls, upper part hsematitic 
Grey nodular marls, no fossils 
Variegated cavernous sandstones ... 

(^Haematite 



Ntjmmxtlitic ...^ 





1- distui'bed 


...j Feet. 


20 




15 




8 to 9 




25 




10 



19 



JUEASSIC 



Feet. Inches. 
' Alternations of brown sandstone and hard yellow miirl 12 to 15 

Brown coarse sandstone 

White cavernous sandstone ... 

Coarse rusty sandstone, conglomeratic in parts 

White sandstone 

Haematite 

Yellow sands and sandstones with chalcedony 

White sandstone, many ferruginous spots,.. 
*) Liver-coloured sandstone 

Soft rusty sandstone 

Light rust-coloured sandy limestone with pebbles or 
concretions of grey marlstone 

Soft sandy bed ... 

Liver-coloured sandstone with ripple-mark 

Eust-eoloured soft sandy beds ... 
{^Hard sandstone, ripple-marked 



30 





3 





45 to 50 





6 





5 





6 





50 





10 





8 to 10 





2 


6 


1 





2 





1 





1 


6 


199 






( 242 ) 



SON PLATBAU. 



243 



Tbiabsio 



..,' 



''Very hard rusty limestone \vith numerous sections of 
Ceratites or Ammonites, gastropods and bivalves... 

Soft yellow sandy beds 

Hard rusty-coloured layer 

Grey cavernous sandstone 

Very bard grey limestone, glauconite, and bivalves 

Soft yellow sandstone 

Tbin bed of sandstone witb many indistinct bivalves ... 

Hard brown bed with numerous pebbles of limestone... 

Grey limestone witb numerous bivalves ... 

Thin-bedded limestone with C'era^i^es 

Sandstone and limestone with <7era^i<e5 ... 

Ceratite marl, badly seen 
(^ Brown conglomerate bed 



Feet. 


Inches 


3 





3 





1 


6 


3 





6 





60 








3 


1 


6 


3 





10 





20 





30 





1 


6 


147 


9 


6 






Caebonipeeotts •{ 



About 



f Rusty dolomite ... 
Light coloured sandstones, Bellerophon, Athyris sub- ] 
tilita, Dentalium &c. 
I Compact dolomitic, sandy and fossiliferous, grey, car- ^ qkq q 

boniferous limestone ... ... ... 

l_Sandy and ferruginous beds . . . ... ... J 

PECKLED SAND- S gpe(.yed sandstones with coarse white sandstones below \ 300 



STONE, 
PUEPIE SAND 

STONE. 

Saline geotjp. 



< Purple sandstone, conglomeratic shale 
Salt-marl 



...jlOO 

Uncertain. 



Sakesar. 



Sakesar mountain rises above everything else in the Salt Range or 
adjacent country. It has somewhat of a crescent- 
shape in plan^ the convex side being turned to- 
wards the south ; a spur to the north-east connects it with the most lofty 
portion of the anticlinal lying in that direction; and high ground, 
but gradually declining, stretches away as a narrow ridge to the north- 
west. From the higher points the stony ridges of the nummulitic 
limestone country and the Son plain with its salt-lake are overlooked to 
the eastward ; more abruptly broken country to the south ; the long 
valley, between nearly parallel chains of hills, called the Bazar Wan, to 
the westward ; and to the north long undulating slopes, broken here and 
there by crags, lead the eye downwards to the great Potwar plateau. 

( .243 ) 



244 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The nummulitic limestone of the summit of the mountain does not 
form a horizontal cap^ hut is bent into anticlinal and synclinal curves^ 
having an east-and-west direction or following the crescent-shaped form 
of the hill; valleys having been excavated and minor ridges left between, 
with only a very slight relationship to the contortions of the strata. On 
the crest of the mountain the nummulitic limestone beds dip generally 
southwards, but are so curved, at some distance down the hill-side in 
that direction, as to crop outwards from the surface. On the northern 
slopes the beds are inclined with the ground, but they have been cut 
through by denudation, leaving some of the basal nummulitic hsematite 
exposed, as well as one large and several smaller patches of the Jurassic 
rocks. The latter are here chiefly white sandstones and rusty-yellow 
earthy beds with calcareous layers containing TerebratnlcB, Belemnites, &c. ; 
they are conformable to the nummulitic beds, and dip with the northern 
slope of the ground. At the foot of the mountain in this direction and 
for some distance up its flanks, the surface is covered with debris of 
the nummulitic and tertiary sandstone groups, the latter rocks being 
exposed in the deeper stream-courses at a considerable distance from the 
limestone of the mountain side.* The structure of Sakesar and adjoin- 
ing ground will be seen from the section, fig. 45, Plate XXVI. Near 
the base of the red earthy zone overlying the lower tertiary sand- 
stone beds and in a direction north-by-east from 
Salt chowki. 

Sakesar summit, is a salt watch-house placed to 
guard some saline streams and efflorescence similar in character to that 
which frequently occurs in the lower portion of these tertiary sandstones 
and clays, but in larger quantity than usual. 



* Some very good bungalows liave been built near the summit of Sakesar to supply 
the want of a sanitarium for Shabpur and Miawali stations. A good road leads to these 
from the Son plateau, and a very bad one down the northern slopes via Miawali Dok to 
Namal. The situation is lofty but bleak, there being little vegetation, and supplies have to 
be brought from Uchali, a distance of several miles. 



{ 244 ) 



''.■ -.'iitLe . Sidt 




Fi£::4-5.; 



at SuxxxTn-it to 'W". of Noi'th. 



l>r G .and S V. 



Memoir s. Vol.. XIV. naLcXXVl 



iT'^rOi. 



ITear Na^'3. viH.ag'e. 




Jfosth. East . 



ncssea are also 



i ~ c 



yvve vjroiaw^aia- 



keri or Dhoda. (See fig. 46, Plate XXVII.) 



( 245 ) 



'"■Vnne; Suit Ran 



t-EO LOGICAL SURVEY OF 



¥fmoirs.VoI XIV. FlateXXVl 







rig-:4f5.;;ectiOTi across Spkesir cmO. oArer Eastside of Glen Am"b nearly on natural Scale of 1 lach to a mile ,- elevations; estimated and Section deflected at Suitvxmt to ^- of North 



Sw&s village 




Hear Nava vdla.g'e 



Jfui tb Ea«t 



Fi^. tS Secijon fro-m S-was to (he NE . across t3\e liiUs. Scale.liorizontal l.lncK =l-tn.xle,vertn;iili IncTi^lOOOfeet. Hei^ltts iemg exag^geraUd thKikiiosses are also 



{ 244 ) 



ClIIDERtJ HILLS. 245 

Section XI. — Chideri^ Hills and narrow part of the Salt Range. 

The hills to the westward of Sakesar are divided into two principal 

„.„ , „ „ , groups by the rug-g-ed valley of the Bazar Wan 

Hills west of Sakesar. _ 

running in a north-west direction towards Mu.sa- 
khel. Both of these groups are closely connected with the Sakesar 
mountain^ the north-eastern one being a continuation of it and the 
other united by the spur of Seran-ki-dok. 

The latter group has been alluded to as the Chideru hills. These 

are in places lofty, one summit rising to within a foot of 3^000 feet, and 

the group has a general north-west and south-east extension. All over 

these hills the carboniferous limestone is laro-elv 
Series. , S3 J 

exposed, the beds rolling or contorted, dipping in 
various directions ; the rocks consisting of the usual light-coloured com- 
pact or crinoidal, and sometimes magnesian, limestone, some more sandy 
rocks and shaly beds. Beneath these the "speckled sandstone'" group, 
with its coarse conglomeratic sandstones, grey and lavender clays, and red 
ferruginous shales, very frequently makes its appearance. The " purple 
sandstone " group is thinner and more fugitive in its occurrence, and the 
" red salt-marl " is seen in very many places, both among the hills and 
along their outer portions. Above the carboniferous limestone near 
Chideru, there is a considerable development of the triassic rocks and 
at one spot on the opposite side of the hills from that village a small 
fault-enclosed patch of the nummulitic limestone occurs in the Bazar 
Wan. 

Two considerable but irregular lines of fault traverse these hills and 

coincide generally with the direction of the ranges 
Faults. • 1 • 1 e 1 ^ 

on either side of the most lofty ground ; there are 

also, both in the lower outer regions and within among the hills, very 
numerous dislocations of the character usual along the whole southern 
face of the range. These dislocations are most numerous and most com- 
plicated from the opening of the Amb glen to the hills above Golawala- 
keii or Dhoda. (See fig. 46, Plate XXVII.) 

( 245 ) 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNjIb. 

Near the latter place the outer slopes of the hills are covered with 

dehris and displaced masses of the carboniferous 
Clolawala-keri. 

limestone, and in the gorge opening there upon 

the plain, the rocks are much affected both by slipping and by contortion. 
The dark greyish purple conglomeratic shale representing the " purple 
sandstone ^^ in places in the Amb glen is so entangled with the red marl 
as to appear to dip beneath it; and near this, for 80 or 100 yards, vertical 
white and purple sandstone, red shaly bands and liver-coloured sandstones, 
are crossed by the stream. In a slipped mass perhaps somewhat inter- 
nally disarranged, the following succession occurs : — 

Shaly clays and white sandstone layers of the " speckled 

sandstone" group, thickness obscure. 
{Slip or faulty 

Feet. 
rS. Greenish grey, hard, sandy shales or clays with 
Teiassic ,.,i^ orange bands (very like some of the upper tertiary 

*- rocks) ... ... ... ... 200 

r7. Sandstones and silicious limestone ... ... ? 

6. Dark limestone and shales ... ... ... 100 

5. Dark grey compact limestone with shale bands ... 90 

4. Black shales ... ... ... ... 12 

' 3. Coarse sandy limestone with occasional black shale 

patches, corals and crinoid fragments ... ... 5 

2. Black shales, with yellow partings, and small white 

sandy layers ... ... ... ... 15 



Caebonifeeous 



L 



Speceled sand- 
stone. 



> 1. Purple and grey shales or clays. 



From this it would appear that the carboniferous group is growing 
Lower part of car- thin. Amongst the lowest of its beds here are a 
bomferous. ^^^ dark-coloured sandy limestones with large 

Producti, Fusulinoe, &c., underlying a thirty-feet rusty, silicious, band 
with Spiriferi. The junction with the upper part of the underlying 
''speckled sandstone'^ is thus : — 

Feet. 

fDuU earthy compact limestone, with spines of Echi-1 
Caebonifeeotts i t, „ 7 i. ! 

MMBSTONE "^ noderms, ^eWeropAow sections, &c. ...\ about 280 



l^Wliite crinoidal limestone 



( 346 ) 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



'A/yntie SaltlH-angc 



vr.moirs .Vol', xiy. Plate xxvir. 




U '■:; 



:,-,;>jiacs^^sfc"---^' 



■-•'^.^- -^ 



/?f# 



:*, 






'^M 



m 



■. '^^i,'' 






-^.Sr.--.»:',.^t'.-A^'%--V-^Ta"tf-.,^.-.--'.i-'^'"K v...v -..--,W-'. 



IN EAST BRANCH OF GOLAWALA GORGE 



Pl^.-46. 



'-^«K l,^ 









.':M'i^~ 



'a. ' 






f^ .^^^ 



^ % -, 



^m---/^- ^^ 



.^^„ . . ^ *«a. 



v,.^i»-" 7%-^ ^ 



•T. ScTvax^rriit^'ymliijJz,: 



PLACE OF THE COAL SHALES IN BAKH RAVINE. 



Fl^:4 7. 



CITIBERtj HILLS. S47 

Feet, 
rSoit, white, crumbling sandy beds and bard bluish 
Carbonifeeotts I micaceous sandstone ... ... •■• 50 

I'l^^ESTONE- <| Eusty limestone ... ... ... ■■• 30 

l^ Greenish sandy earthy beds ... ... ••• 80 

Speckled SAHD-W^^g^^er clay ... ... ... partly exposed. 

STONE. J 

Within the hills northward of the village a large broken tract 

of ground, lower than that on either side, fol- 

North of village. ^^^^ ^^^ direction of one of the faults previously 

mentioned. In this tract there is much of the red marl, some purple 
sandstone, and a broad space is occupied by the " speckled sandstone " 
group, the red marl cropping out into the Bazar 
valley. Westward of this ground, the carboni- 
ferous beds have been a good deal eroded, allowing the speckled sandstones 
to appear even high up among the hills. 

Between Golawala and Chideru the outer hills are often formed 
of the carboniferous limestone, behind which 
stretches a narrow crooked zone of the salt-marL 
associated with about 150 feet of the '' purple sandstone " and portions of 
the overlying sandstone group supporting other masses of the carboni- 
ferous limestone. 

East of the village of Chideru these groups occupy the outer face 

of the hills along the upper part of which the 

Chideru. ti i r> j v e 

carboniferous limestone forms a well-detined iine oi 

cliffs about 250 feet in height, and on the slopes behind there is a thick 

mass of the triassic beds sloping downwards into a longitudinal hollow 

among the hills. The following is the succession across these beds, part 

of the list being extracted from Dr. Waagen^s notes. 

The ''red marl,'' "purple sandstone,'' "speckled sandstone," and 
carboniferous limestone occur here north-east of a fault. South-west- 
wards of the same fault are — 

Feet. 

jGreenish grey marls ... ... ... ••■ ^ 

7. Teiassic ... ^Rusty-coloured dolomites ... ... ... |- 30 

LGreenish grey marls .. . ... ... ...J 

( 247 ) 



348 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



7. Triassic— 
contd. 



6. Caeboni- 

FEBOTJS. 



-Hard limestone with many bivalves and fragments of 



Greenish ferruginous sandy marls and sandstone with 

Qervillice, Ceratites, and Orthoceras 
Hard sandstone with spinose Ceratites 
Greenish sandy shales and sandstones 
Bellerophon bed, calcareous sandstone 
Soft greenish sandstone 
Green marls 
V Lower Ceratite limestone 
rBrown dolomitic sandstone with Bellerophon 
Calcareous layer with numerous fossils, Producti and 
Ceratites 
J Yellow dolomitic sandy beds 

iGrey clays 
White compact limestone 
(^Debris ... 
r Lavender clay 



Feet. 

10 

-10 

5 to 6 

50 

1 

20 

20 to 30 

.10 

100 

10 

30 

20 

200 



...1 



5. Speckled 
sandstone 



, Red, grey, and greenish sandstone, with lenticular masses I 
I of yellow quartzite; light-coloured sandstones and shaly, i 
t_ flaggy bands ... ... ... ...J 

2. Purple ( Deep pui-ple sandstones 

SANDSTONE. I purple g]ialy lower part 



450? 

200 
100 



Gypseous salt-marl 



250 to 300 



The salt-marl disappears beneath the boulder-zone of the plains 
beyond the faulted lower groups named immediately before this list, 
the ground is chiefly formed of carboniferous limestone the whole way 
across the hills to the Bazar Wan. 



Triassic section. 



East-by-north of Chideru in a country likewise mainly occupied 
by carboniferous limestone, the following section 
across another part of the triassic beds was noted 
by Dr. Waagen : — ■ 

Feet. 
Debris. 
fVariegated sandstones 
Peehaps BASE oeJ White sandstones .. 



JUBASSIC. 



I Purple and red ferruginous sandstones with sulphur- 
l_^ coloured stripes 



( 248 ) 



10 
3 



10 



CIllDEKU HILLS. 



249 



Feet. 

Hard rusty dolomite, with a Cardinia and Ano}jlophora 3 

Green marls ... ... ... ... 

Rusty dolomite ... ... ... ... 3 

Green sandy marls, with thin sandy layers and gypsum 20 — 30 

Hard limestone with many bivalves ... ... 3 

Rusty sandstone, fucoids • ... .,. ... 3 - 

Grey sandstones with CeraUtes, Oervillia, Orthoceras ... 3 

Rusty sandstone, with fucoids ... ... ... 2 

Teiassic •^ Grey marls with flaggy limestone ... ... 2 

Grey marls, nodular marls, and hard limestones, with 

spinose Ceratites ... ... ... 50 

Ceratite sandstone, not clearly seen, with extremely large 

species of C. Flemingii ... ... ... 10 — 20 

Green Ceratite marls ... ... ... 60 — 80 

Flaggy lower Ceratite limestone ... ... 3—5 

Grey sandstone ... ... ... ... 6 

[ Green mai-ls ... ... ... ... 4 — -5 

r Yellow soft sandstones, with concretions ; filled with fossils, 
6. Caebonifeeous ■{ Bellerophon, Athyris, Dentalium Serculaneum, &c. 

^_ (Top of the carboniferous limestone group.) 

Some of the grey and rusty beds in tliis patch of the triassic rocks very 
much resemble the upper tertiary sandstone beds, and the white and 
variegated beds at the top of , the series detailed may be probably the 
base of the Jurassic group. 

To the north-west of Chiderii the carboniferous rocks cover nearly all 

the hilly ground, and form besides a small outlyiug 
North-west of Chideru. n ^ -r, ^ tkt ' 

hill, opposite to the mouth oi the ±5azar Wan, 

in which the following succession of beds was observed : — 



Caebonifeeoxts. H 



fS. White crinoidal and grey compact thin-bedded limestone... 

7. Red marbled vesicular limestone ... 

6. Light-coloured compact limestone, with Echinus spines and 
Bellerophon 

5. Compact limestone 

4. Cherty limestone ... ... ... , 

3. Reddish limestone 

2. Cherty, yellowish, magnesian limestone 

1. White crinoidal and coral limestone, 6 feet seen, but 
i may be ... 



Feet. 

36 

3 

7 

10 
15 

2 

5 

60 



250 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Ill the dry stony channel here the banks expose many slips, and 

some of the limestone is brecciated-looking' and 
Mouth of Bazar Wan. . , • i i ji i />; -i <? .1 

ma^^nesian, certain beds on the leit side 01 tne 

channel near its mouth being- crowded with finely-weathered corals, &c. 

Just beyond this a fault, or perhaps two, are marked by the wedging 

into the section of a small mass of the speckled sandstones. Further 

up the stream on the side of the hills next the open stony flat of the 

Bazar valley, the red salt-marl is exposed, and here some old salt-mines 

are said to exist but to be inaccessible. Small portions of the purple and 

speckled sandstone groups are also seen, much cut up by faults (or slips), 

and the hills above the right side of the Wan are covered by contorted 

carboniferous limestone. 

The Chiderii group of hills ends in some small isolated elevations 

rising from the stony zone east-by-south from 
End of these hills. ... 

Musakhel. The same limestone m these is contort- 
ed, in places rusty, cherty, and magnesian, or pink, whitish, crinoidal, or 
grey ; the hard rusty-coloured bands having small ferruginous project- 
ing pieces of corals, crinoids, or Ecbinid club-spines; and the grey beds 
containing sections of Bellerophon or Goniatites and some other fossils. 

The Bazar river between these Chideru hills and the narrow part of 
the range from Sakesar north-westwards does not seem to flow out at 
the natural mouth of the valley, but turns to the south and escapes 
through the hilly country towards the Tliar and the Indus plains. On 
this side of the glen at the upper waters of a tributary branch of the 
main stream, is the small mass of the cherty nummulitic limestone previ- 
ously mentioned, faulted into the carboniferous limestone and nearly 
surrounded by it, without any appearance of the intervening beds. 
Whatever the process by which this mass became so placed, it must 
have undergone considerable disturbance, for its layers are much con- 
torted, being in some places vertical and in others horizontal. 

Where this Bazar river-valley becomes contracted and hilly, the 
Where valley becomes stream flows between high banks of the carboni- 
contracted. ferous limestone above which, on the side of the 

( 250 ) ' • 



(•Ill Dint u in LLP. 2.")1 

glen forming- the north-western extension of Sakesar, tbe triassic^ 
Jurassic^ and nummulitic formations dip at hig-h angles to the north-east, 
the following being* the general arrangement of the rocks : — 



,, „ S Nummulitic 

11. NUMMUIilTIC < 

( Soft light-c 



Feet, 

itic limestone ... ... ... 300 to 400 

-coloured calcareous clays ... ... 55 

r White and red and rusty sandstones alternating with 

purple and hffimati tic shaly beds ... ... 230 to 300 

Yellow earthy beds ... ... ... 90 

'"' Light-coloured sandstone and red shale... ... 100 

Rusty-yeUow sandy and clayey beds ... ... 25 

I White coarse and fine sandy beds ... ... 120 

{Green shaly and flaggy limestone and sandstone 

beds ... ... ... ... 300 to 350 

Caebonifeeotts. Carboniferous limestone ... ... ... 250 to 300 



The groups below the carboniferous where this valley opens 

.„., „ „ , ^ present a different appearance from those to the 
Kidge from Sakesar to ■* ^ *■ ^ 

Namal. eastward of Amb. The red salt- marl is succeeded 

by dark brownish-purple splintery conglomeratic clay ; the pebbles 

being of red granite, quartzite, amygdaloid, trap, and so forth, the 

metamorpbic varieties predominating; so that it would seem as if the 

" purple sandstone " was not only growing thinner to the westward, but 

„, . , also changing its character in a north-easterlv 

Change in purple o » j 

sandstone group. direction, the usual type of these beds being 

generally found along the outer or southern side of the hills ; bat the 
conglomeratic shaly mass (for there is but little stratification in it) being 
developed at a distance of a few miles, and more within the hills. It 
must, however, be observed that no good example of transition has 
been detected, even though the conglomeratic shale occurs close to some 
of the " purple sandstone ^^ beds at Golawala; hence I cannot assert 
that these conglomeratic shales are absolutely a part of the lower purple 
sandstone; they might just as well belong to group No. 5. 

Just above these boulder-beds, which vary a good deal in thickness, 
being" sometimes 100 feet or even more, there is frequently a fifty-feet 

( 251 ) 



25£ WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT BA.NGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

band of green conglomerate, likewise formed of crystalline fragments^ 

and above it, here and there, are seen peculiar 
Carboniferous layers. 

black, powdery, carbonaceous, shaly or coaly 

layers, from a few inches to nearly a foot in thickness. These are 

again overlaid by the lower coarse white sand- 
General observations, 

stones and red earthy alternations of gi^oup No. 5. 

The carboniferous limestones succeed ; the upper lavender clays of 

the inferior groups are not so strongly represented as to the east^ 

and the overlying limestone is frequently dark and thin-bedded, the 

whole carboniferous group being apparently thinner than previously. 

The triassic beds present their usual character, with perhaps less of the 

greenish marly shales; but the Jurassic formation has increased, its 

strong white sandstones contain quartz pebbles, and its more flaggy 

beds many obscure plant fragments. The lower soft white beds of the 

nummulitic limestones are strongly developed, the whole group is 

much contorted towards Sakesar, and the junction of the nummulitics 

with the overlying sandstones is concealed. 

From the place where the Bazar valley commences to open, onwards 

to where the narrow part of the range is crossed 
Musakhel. 

by the Bakh ravine between Namal and Musakhel, 

the red salt-marl is but little seen, and the overlying rocks show a 

tendency to form an anticlinal curve, the lower strata on the south-west 

side of the •■ ridge being more or less nearly horizontal, but the dip 

increases as the ridge is ascended, until at the crest (which partly 

coincides with the lower boundary of the nummulitic limestone), the 

whole of the beds dip at 45°, 50°, and 55°, to the north-east. Above the 

left bank of the Bakh ravine, the summit of the ridge is formed by the 

Jurassic beds here containing bands of limestone, in addition to the rocks 

above mentioned. The nummulitic rocks still keep their high angle of 

dip, and the lower parts of the tertiary sandstones run upwards on 

their steep slopes. These two last groups form a deep longitudinal valley 

with almost inaccessible sides, excavated along the strike of the softer 

tertiary beds. The north-east side of this long valley is capped at a 

( 253 ) 



CHIDEIIU HILLS. 253 

height of about 1,150 feet by a thick unconformable patch of coarse 
conglomerate of much more recent aspect than the grey and o-i-eenish 
tertiary sandstones underneath it, and probably of post-tertiary ao-e. 
The escarpment of this conglomerate, which is more sandy below, forms 
cliffs of nearly 100 feet close to the town of Namal, which is built upon 
it, and a smaller portion of the same deposit, showing the uncon- 
formity still better, rests above the opposite bank of the stream (see 
Plate XXIX). 

The Bakh ravine here gives an interesting and complete section 

„ , , . through all the beds forming the narrowest part 

Baku ravine. ° ijo-xu 

of the range, from the carboniferous limestone 
upwards. It is not, however, practicable to follow the stream the 
whole way through the gorge, on account of the precipitous character 
of its channel. On the Namal side the highest rooks seen are the 
unconformable conglomerates just mentioned. Underneath these is a 
thickness of 1,200 feet of grey and greenish tertiary sandstones, with 
the usual argillaceous beds, dipping north-eastward at 60°, in immediate 
and parallel contact with the upper surface of the nummulitic lime- 
stone. Rather lower than half-way down in this limestone is a 
strong band of black, coaly and pyritous shales (see fig. 47); and the 
underlying part of the limestone is as usual lumpy and nodular. Just 
at the base of the group are some beds filled with fossils of the Val Eonca 
eocene type,^ very few of which can be extracted from the rocks. 

Below these are ferruginous white and purple sandstones, yellow 
mud-stones, yellow earthy limestones and coarse sandstones of the 
Jurassic rocks underlaid by the greenish shales and flaggy limestone 
beds of the trias, the carboniferous limestone forming an anticlinal arch 
below all. The section is as follows (see fig. 48, Plate XXVIII) : 

Feet, 
13. POST-TEETI- > „, , 1 , 

AEY. j Strong sandy conglomerate ... ... ...80 to 100 

Unconformitt/. 

12. Tertiary \ Grey and green sandstone with some reddish and greenish > 

SANDSTONE.^ clay bands ... ... ... .,, > -^'^^^ 

* According to Dr. Waagen. 

( 253 j 



^254 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SILT RANGE IN THE PUNJAEv 



r White and pink marble ... ... 

Thin-bedded white cberty limestone 

White limestone with black chert 

White and grey calcareous shales, fossils scarce, Gastro- 
pods and crustacean fragments 

Hack pjritous and coaly shales 

Darker limestone, and "grey shales with pyrites, beds lumpy 
below and one sandy bed : about 
11. NUMMUIITIC S Yellow and white sandstone, no fossils 

Grey clay with three layers of brown sandy limestone, 
small Nummulites very scarce. Nautilus, Nerita, Turri- 
tella, Natica, CrasateUa, &c., difficult to obtain 

Cavernous brown sandstone, no fossils 

Grey clay with gypsum, large oval concretions and hsema- 
titic veins 
LHajmatite ... ... ..." 



Feet. 

100 

80 

50 

100 
150 

60 
9 to 10 



15 
& 

40 



White and yellow splintery limestone with many small^ 
fossils, Nucula, Natica, &c., 15 feet ... ... 

Variegated reddish and light-coloured sandstones, dark j. 
grey shales and 'flags with plant-remains in bad pre- j 
servation ... ... ... ... i 

Yellow limestone, grey inside, crinoidal below, earthy and 
9. Jurassic ..A magnesian in places ... ^ ... 

Grey and variegated hard sandstone, thick white ferrugin- 
ous and banded sandstone 

Dark micaceous flags and soft and hard white sandstone, 
conglomeratic in places ; dark gi-ey and yellow crinoidal 
limestone bands in the above ; grey, white, and purple 
l^ sandstones, limestones, shales and flags 



617 



200 



150 



80 



lOO 



530 



r Thin grey limestones 
Sandstones 
7. TriaSSIC ... i Thin grey limestones with Ceratites 

I Calcareous sandstones and gypseous shales, weatherinf 
1 green, Ceratites ... ... 



6 

8 

13 

250 

277 



( 254 ) 



PECLOGIGaC S«JfV£V OF INDIA. 



Wyiui/-. Salt Jian^c 



Memoirs, V,.l: XJV.Pl,XX.Viir 



UotUK of Hall 



Bakh. Jt 








?ig. 50 Roiig'h sketch of a section close by Swa* _ to show oontortion 




Tig. 51. Another roug'h sketch of a. section near Swas. 



CHIDERU HILLS. 255 

Feet. 

f Tluu-bedded limestones and shales, sandy limestones, tbick- 

I bedded black and dark-eolovired limestones, with a few 
G. CaEBONIFEEOUS .{ ^ • .•. ^ ^, c ■ -^ J} J , 

I shales, Gonuitites, Orthoceras, t>pirijer, Frodiiatus, 

\^ Feiiestella, Terebratula, Crhioids, &c. ... ...250 to 300 

The principal differences between tliis section andtbose of tbe coun- 
try previously described are, that in the Jurassic formation a strong- bed 
or zone of limestone is present, and the coaly shales of the nummulitic 
jo-roup, instead of occurring^ near its base, are at a considerable height in 
the formation, showing a lateral change in the earlier conditions of 
that period. The hot and sulphurous springs of this Bakb ravine 
have been already mentioned (page 48) ; they do not seem to be dii-ectly 
connected with the presence of any particular formation, as they occur 
in three of these — the carboniferous, Jurassic, and nummulitic groups — 
in different parts of the ravine. 

The tertiary sandstones north of the ravine have a white_, saline 
efflorescence, which may also be observed where the stream traverses 
tlie Jurassic beds. At a height of 450 or 500 feet (by aneroid), over the 
right cliff-bank of the gorge, rounded river-pebbles were found in sufficient 
quantity to suggest their having remained there since the stream ran at 
that level. For about nine miles in a north-westerly direction, along- the 
North-west of Bakh Namal ridge, the nummulitic limestone retains its 
^^^^^^- steep steady dip to the north-east (fig. 47, Plate 

XXVII), and its hard beds form scarped projections overlooking- lono^i- 
tudinal vallevs cut out of the softer bands to the south-west. Hio-h 
ground on the western sides of these valleys is occupied by the Jurassic 
rocks, and below these the triassic and carboniferous groups are much 
disturbed, broken, and concealed, small masses of the " salt-marl " and 
adjacent sandstones being introduced by faults among the sandy and 
compact limestones with Fusulina, &c., of the carboniferous group. To 
the eastward of the ridge the ground forms part of a wide, flat plain, in 
which, for want of fall, Jchudderas have not been excavated by the 
atmospheric waters. Behind the village of Budi-khel the gypseous " salt- 
marl^'' forms a hill 350 feet or so in height, at the back of which is a 

( 255 ) 



256 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

considerable quantity of the dark conglomeratic shale, with metamorphie 
pebbles,, forming or replacing the lower part of the "^ purple sandstone^' 
group. 

The water used at this village is brought from a glen about a mile 

and a half to the northward, in which the thin_ 
Budi-khel. iiiii n -to 

bedded, brown, rusty, lossihierous and grey lime- 
stones of the carboniferous group are seen, resting immediately upon 
the upper clays of group No. 5, here brightly coloured and variegated, 
a band of grey clay coming next below the limestone. In this glen 
also some of the red gypseous salt-marl is directly in junction with 
beds of the " speckled sandstone " group, all the rocks being much dis- 
turbed. In the hills above, the white and grey shaly clays of the 
nummulitic group have again hard limestones both above and below 
them ; and in the Jurassic group below, ferruginous, purple and white, 
flaggy or solid, fine and coarse or conglomeratic sandstones alternate 
with hard yellow marls, or lithographic limestone bands, containing 
brown crystalline hsematitic nodules. The triassic group occurs in its 
usual place, and a large tract among the interior hills is occupied by the 
carboniferous limestones, &c. 

In an angle of the hills about two and a half miles north-west of 

Budi-khel is the Shuriwali glen, round which the 
Shuriwali glen. . , . . . „ . 

carboniferous, triassic, and. jurassic formations 

bend in a horse-shoe form. Beneath the carboniferous limestone some 500 

feet of the " speckled sandstones " crop out. They are dull crimson and 

white, variegated and grey, with purple bands above, while the lower part 

is a mass of dark conglomeratic shales and clays, with green layers and 

black carbonaceous bands. The junction between 
Carbonaceous bands. i i • i • i i 

these beds and the underlying highly gypseous 

red "^ salt-marl '' is very indistinct, and there are indications of one or two 

narrow bands of the red marl alternating with the lower part of the 

blackish conglomeratic shale. It is, however, hard to speak with certainty 

of so incoherent and soft a mass in a country where dislocation prevails to 

the extent which it does all along the outer hills of this neighbourhood. 

( 256 ) 



TREDIAN HILLS. 257 

An old mine occurs bere^ said to be in red salt^ but it has not been 
worked for many years, and the ground having 
slipped, the mine is inaccessible. The rocks around 
this glen dip at high angles on all sides away from the excavation. 



Section XII. — Tredian Hills. 

The ridge from Namal expands where it joins the Tredian hills, and 

the nummulitic limestone which forms the steep 

eastern slope of the former spreads out with many 

undulations and contortions over the higher ground. At the termination 

of the Namal ridge west of Thambawali, a narrow, sharp, anticlinal 

curvature of these limestones occurs, a synclinal 
The heights. . 

between this curve and the main nummulitic mass 

being occupied by the tertiary sandstones faulted against the latter. 
On the opposite or western side of this mass faults also occur, dropping 
portions of the nummulitic limestone among the Jurassic rocks, which 
here, partly from increased thickness and partly from undulating hori- 
zontal extension, occupy a much greater space than they do anywhere 
else on the range. These rocks consist of coarse conglomeratic red 
and white sandstone, red and variegated clay, ferruginous sandy beds, with 
obscure plant fragments and yellowish or grey calcareous mudstone or 
fine-grained earthy limestone, like lithographic stone. (The red and 
white and ferruginous rocks of the Tredian hills present striking litho- 
logical similarities to the Jurassic rocks of Kachh (Cutch).) 

Some hard limestones in these beds form a horizontal escarpment 
overlooking Budi-khel from the north-west, and 

Towards Swas. ,i i . /> r -i l • r 

among other obscure traces oi lossils contain a lew 
fragments of strongly-ribbed Ammonites. At the foot of the escarp- 
ment the Ceratite beds of the trias occur, following the sinuous m.argin 
of the Jurassic group to the north-west, and surrounding some out- 
lying patches of that formation resting on the carboniferous limestone 
hills over Swas. The outer edge of the latter formation, the whole way 
from the Suriwali gorge to Swas, is greatly broken and dislocated, sorae- 
i3 ( 257 ) 



258 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

times extending outwards to the plain and sometimes interrupted, allowing" 
the " red salt-marl'' and the overlying "speckled sandstone'' groups to 
appear below it ; but the " purple sandstones^ " unless represented here 
and there by the dark conglomeratic shales with crystalline blocks (as 
at Swas village), are entirely absent. (See section, fig. 50, PI. XXVIII.) 

In the neighbourhood of Sw^s the whole of the rocks are greatly 
contorted ; they are very often vertical or even 
inverted, the carboniferous limestone here making 
some of the roughest and most impracticable country in the range ; but 
the general succession and the dip of the rocks is from south-westward 
to the north-east and north-north-east. The trias is less strongly 
developed than before, and much less in thickness than the Jurassic 
group. The carboniferous limestone hills are often capped by the 
lowest beds of the trias, and fine precipices are composed entirely of 
the former. The " speckled sandstones " still have their accompanying 
clays above, while beneath them is a mass 150 feet in thickness, 
of the purplish black conglomeratic clay with metamorphic pebbles, 
associated with and underlying which is the gypseous red salt-marl. 
(See sections, figs. 50 and 51, Plate XXVIII.) 

Further north-west the triassic beds may average only about 100 

feet in thickness. The carboniferous limestones 

Succession near Ghari. 11,1,1111 -, 

below often contain much chert, both black and 

white ; while grey conglomerates and sandstone bands occur in the dark 
conglomeratic purple clay above the salt-marl. In this dark conglomer- 
atic mass near Ghari some grey limestone pebbles were observed^ and 
also layers of a calcareous nature with thin shaly bands, the dark earthy 
lower portion being 188 feet thick. Immediately over the earthy part 
is a large boulder-conglomerate containing blocks of granite, syenite, and 
other crystalline rocks two feet in diameter ; this conglomerate, if it has 
not slipped upon itself, may be 155 feet in thickness. The speckled 
sandstone succeeding is not particularly well exposed. 

The carboniferous limestone is thinner-bedded and of darker colour 
than usual ; it is magnesian in places, and contains brown sandy bands 
( 258 ) 



TRF.DIAN HILLS. 359 

and a fiue dark shale in its lower parts. Prodtieti, Sjnri/eri, Corals^ and 
several other fossils occur in it. 

Overlying this group are 100 feet or so of flaggy limestone crowded 
with sections of Ceratites, BelleropJion, he, and passing upwards into 
80 feet of shales, weathering to a greenish clay, and containing thin 
layers of limestone and flaggy sandstone, hard and rugged, with annelid 
tracks and other markings on their surfaces. Among these some more 
prominent bands of sandstone also occur, the whole representing the 
triassic group. 

In the lower part of the Jurassic beds, a thick, rusty, soft sandstone 
contains carbonaceous markings^ and a few plant fragments sometimes 
resembling fronds of ferns. These are more numerous, though still 
indefinite, in a two-feet bed of shale which overlies the sandstone 
and passes beneath some hard calcareous bands, the whole, so far, 
being about 110 feet in thickness. Above these beds are 230 feet of 
grey and yellowish, compact, splintery, cherty limestone, overlaid by 
the upper, sandy, flaggy, rusty and variegated beds of this Jurassic 
formation, in which contortion and crushing often obscure the succes- 
sion. In the very highest part of the group are 60 or 70 feet of 
dark, compact, fossiliferous limestone, full of bivalves, succeeded by 
10 feet of lumpy, grey, compact limestone containing Corhula, and 
divided by a few bands of greyish calcareous sandstone. A small blank 
space then occurs in the section, above which are red haematitic and blue 
shaly bands, passing up into 30 feet of thin, earthy, nummulitic limestone, 
immediately succeeded by 300 feet of the more solid beds of that 
formation, which seems in this vicinity to have much more than its 
usual thickness. 

One of the wildest glens in the country^ is that called the Bargir 

Barffir Teas and ^'^^' ^^ ^^ ^^^ practicable to ascend this ravine 
neighbouring hiUs. f^.^^ ^^g mouth, the way being barred by clifis of 

* The hills on the south-west side of the Tredian group between the neighbourhood 
of Ghari and that of Sw^s seem, in addition to numerous others given them, to possess the 
two names " Jella" and '• Bargir." 

( ?59 ) 



2G0 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



the carboniferous limestone wbicli near this runs out upon the plaiii^ 
but the upper part may be reached by ascending over some " red salt- 
marl/^ up a slope of the "speckled sandstone/"" No. 5 (the intervening 
" purple sandstone " being absent) , edged by cliffs of the carboniferous 
beds which dip towards the valley, and support the shaly and flaggy 
beds of the Ceratite-bearing trias. The latter being passed, the 
variegated and calcareous beds of the Jurassic formation are reached, 
the section, so far, being as follows, according to my own observa- 
tions and some notes of Dr. Waagren^s made in this neighbourhood : — 



Gi'oups. 



No. 9. 



No. 7. 



/Variegated beds of the Jurassic much broken up 

T ello wish marly layers ... 

Comi:)act splintery limestone, dolomitic, brecciated, light grey, 
yellowish or reddish (this rock would make a pretty marble) 

Yellowish red sandy limestone or calcareous sandstone, con- 
torted 

Two beds of rusty limestone 

White sandstone, flaggy in upper pai-t 

Grey and rusty limestone with many bivalves ... 

Thick-bedded red sandstone 

Whitish thin -bedded sandstone 

(Glauconitic pisolitic limestone, the grains of lime not iron, 
Ceratites and Itht/nc7ioneU(B 
(In this band is a bed of conglomerate, mostly of large lime- 
stone fragments, some of crystalline rocks.) 
Greyish -green sandy marls 
Lower Ceratite limestone indistinct and mostly concealed by a — 



Feet. 
200 to 300 
15 

100 

50 

6 

30 

10 

15 to 20 

3 

10 



50 



No. 6. 



No. 5. 



Fault. 

Upper carboniferous, very slightly developed but full of fossils 
Compact carboniferous limestone, more than 
Dolomite 

I Lower carboniferous, sandstones full of fossils ... 
Lavender clay. 



6 to 10 

100 

50 

? 



Further up the ravine leads through a natural tunnel made by the 
stream throuo-h a mass of the carboniferous limestone, introduced 
by faults or slips. Beyond it the Jurassic rocks are again reached, 
occupying one side of the valley, while high up on the other is the 

( 260 ) 



TKEDIAN HILLS. 



2()1 



escarpment of the nuuimulitic limestone. Amon^- the lii^'hest of the 
Jurassic beds here the following" were observed^ di[»[)ing' at G5° to north- 
by -east : — 



Group, 



II 



No. 9. 



Feet. 

Variegated red and white sandstones ... ... 130 

Yellow clay rock ... ... ... ... 12 

Clierty compact limestone ... ... ... 150 to 200 

Soft sandstones with black shale layers, carbonaceous mark- 
ings, and yellow partings ... ... ... 15 

Yellow brecciated limestone ... ... ... 16 

Blue shale with grey flaggy layers ... .. ... 3 

Hard calcareous sandstone and limestone, magnesian, yellow 

and crinoidal ... ... ... ... 20 

Soft white sandstone, blue-black and grey stales ... 5 



From the upper part of the above list there was room for 200 feet 
of beds before reaching the base of the nummulitic limestone, in 
which space only a twenty-feet band of red clay was exposed. Blocks 
of g'rey gypseous clay or shale, probably from the lower concealed 
nummulitic beds, layabout the ground. It is very probable that some 
part of this section is represented in that previously given, but the 
whole of the Jurassic group may be fairly estimated at from 550 to 
somewhat over 600 feet. The trias formation was estimated in this 
country at 90 or 100 feet; it is composed of dark grey or greenish shale, 
and thin limestones as usual, the junction with the Jurassic beds in 
another place being as follows : — 

Feet. Inches. 
rLight-coloured purplish sandstone alternating with 
[ dark-grey shales 

„ ^ ^ Lumpy thin limestone with shell fragments 

No. 7. Lower | ^-^ " 

PAET OF JuEAS-"! Black shale with a lenticular bed of sandstone ... 

Black shales, grey flags, and white sandstones, 
flaggy parts with obscure plant remains 

Grey shales and flags 
rThin limestone, shaly and flaggy with Ceratites ... 
I Shaly and flaggy beds 

Comparing this with the foregoing sections, it will be seen that within 
short distances these Jurassic beds are liable to a considerable amount 
of change. Although not prominent in the ground so far described, there 

( 361 ) 



No. 9. Teiassic 



90 





9 





2 


6 


20 





20 





50 





50 






262 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

is still to be noticed a thin calcareous band of golden oolite^ entirely 
resembling that found in Kachh, and here also fossiliferous, with indefi- 
nite bivalve shells. This band lies between soft, white, red or yellow 
sandstones, with many obscure plants, and some compact limestone, 
with red and yellow hard argillaceous bands. It was found over the 
right bank of the Bargxr has, not far from the place where the passage 
up the glen is first interrupted. 

North of the latitude of Ghari, the whole series of the Tredian 
hills strikes north-west out upon the plains, the boundary of which 
here takes a northerly direction ; but a faulted local anticlinal curva- 
ture of the rocks towards Khyrabad a«rain exposes 
Khyrabad. 

below the prevalent nummulitic rocks, the 

Jurassic, triassic, and some of the carboniferous beds. The axis of 
this anticlinal has an oblique direction differing by some 15° from that 
of the margin of the hills, so that the lower beds are exposed along the 
outer Q^^Q of these for a couple of miles, the carboniferous strata 
making a feeble effort to form the usual cliffs capped by the triassic 
and Jurassic formations, overlaid in turn by the nummulitic beds. 
The section seen here* is — 

Feet. 
No. 11. NuMMULi- ( Nummulitic limestone (coaly beds not seen, perhaps 
^^*^ ••• C covered by debris at junction). 

[ Yellow and brown marls, badly seen ... ... 50 

Variegated sandstone ... ... ... 20 

Glauconitic sandstone, with numerous Belemnites and 
Gr^phaoe in \owev 'portion ... ... ... 30 

Grey clay, badly seen, canaliculate Belemnites ... 6 

Grey and yeUow limestone, with irregular lenticular 
jNo- 9. JUEASSIC... .^ masses of golden oolite, EhynclionellcB, Terebratulce, 

Astrece, Ammonites (fragmentary), and canaliculate 
Belemnites ... ... ... ... 30 

Variegated sandstones ... ... ... 3 

Yellow and grey limestones, with numerous fossils which 
cannot be got out ... ... ... ... 20 

(^Variegated sandstones, with coaly bands ... ... 20 

* This section is taken from Dr. Waagen's notes. 
{ 362 ) 



TREDIAN HILLS. 



263 



( Yellow and brown sandy limestone, with irregfulur layers 
of golden oolite within ten feet, EhijnchoneLlcB and 
Belemnites; fossils rare 
Yello\vish fine sandstone 



No. 9. Jurassic,— j White coarse sandstones 



conid 



Feet. 



52 
10 

20 
50 



10 



50 



No. 7. Tbias 



No. 6. Caeboni- 

PESOUS. 



Red and purple coarse sandstones 

Brown and reddish splintery hard limestone, partly sandy, 

partly dolomitic ... 
Grey vesicular dolomite, with casts of small bivalves and 
L gastropods 
Space of a quarter of a mile occupied by (discordant ?) 
soft orange and gi-eenish sands and marly beds exactly 
like some upper tertiary beds : place and relations 
obscure : thickness fifty to eighty feet. 
Variegated sandstones and marls (Jurassic ?) faulted. 
Very hard, brown sandy limestone and sandstone 
Space covered by debris. 

Glauconitic limestone, with Cera^iYe* ... 6 to 10 

] Sandy marly bed ... ... ... ..^ 1 

[Thin-bedded brown limestone, with Mhynchonella and 

Ceratites ... ••• •■• ... 3 

/"Grey sandstone, with Bellerophon and Dentalium, badly 
\ seen, 

J Carboniferous limestone, compact and full of fossils, which 
V in the upper portion are very difficult to extract. 



100 



Khyrabad hills. 



On tlie western side of the hills here, particularly along the Barki 
nulla, there is a thick deposit of rubbly stream- 
like conglomerate and clay, forming cliffs 200 
feet high, the fragments being of the local rocks. A couple of 
small mound-like hills near Khyrabad are formed by brecciated (and 
magnesian ?) limestone, with some sandstone and shales of the 
Jurassic group, indicating the direction in which these rocks pass 
into the plains. The mass of the hills here is cut off from those towards 
Mari, by the open valley of a nameless river coming from behind the 
hills towards J aba. On the south-eastern side of this gap the massive, 
thin-bedded, and lumpy layers of the nummulitic limestone are seen 
to dip pretty steadily towards the east-north-east at 30°, underneath 
heavy masses of light, drab-coloured, gypseous clay, which lie along the 

( 263 ) . 



264 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

iiortli-eastern flanks of the hills. The origin of this gypseous clay is not 
clear. It appears ajrain in the neighbourhood of faulted ground^ on 
the northern side of the gap which separates these hills from those 
near Mari, and it may be traced at intervals on the north-east flaiiks of 
the Tredian hills as far as the petroleum spring behind Jaba (west). 

The north-eastern aspect of the Tredian hills is generally abrupt 
North-eastern side of ^^^^ steep, the undulating nummulitic limestone 
Tredian hills. dipping at high angles beneath the tertiary 

sandstones of the Potwar or Rawalpindi plateau. The latter rocks are 
exposed at several places close to the flanks of the hills, those beds nearest 
the nummulitic limestone being as usual greenish and grey sand- 
stones ; in places containing small pebbles, purple pseudo-conglomerate 
and red and greenish-grey shales, of the (locally) lower division of the 
tertiary sandstone group. These beds extend with many alternations 
along the base of the hills ;* they are about 1,000 feet thick and are 
overlaid by the red, soft, clayey zone, here having a thickness of 1,200 or 
1,400 feet. The softer grey sandstone and orange clay beds succeed, 
occupying the rocky portion of the neighbouring plateau and forming 
the sides and mass of many of its kJmdderas. 

Towards the base of the red tertiary zone in the lower sandstones 
and pseudo-conglomeratic beds, only imperfect fragments of bone and 
one part of a reptilian tooth were found, the search for fossils in these 
rocks being generally almost fruitless. 

In the neighbourhood of Jaba west, on the north-east side of the 

Tredian hills, and five miles from their termination, 

are the two petroleum localities referred to by 

others and fully reported upon by Mr. Lyman (Report on the Oil 

Lands of the Punjab, p. 38 et seq.). The oil comes from that part of the 

* Detailed sections of these rocks measuring about 1,000 feet each are given by Mr. 
Lyman and Mr. Theobald, the former near Jaba west, the latter near Jabbi (see Mr. 
Lyman's report, p. 39, and Mr. Theobald's paper, p. 671). As the word " alternation " 
expresses almost the whole character of sections in these greenish-grey and red sandstones 
and clays, time was not taken up in measuring them. 

( 264 ) 




00 



■■oD 




TREDIAN HILLS. 265 

nummulitie beds which forms their last undulation before passing 
downwards at a steep angle beneath the plateau. The petroleum issues 
out of a zone from 50 to 150 feet below *^the top of the lime rock" 
according to Mr. Lyman ; but when I visited the place, it seemed to 
spring from a position nearer to the uppermost layers of the limestone. 
How deep-seated the sources might be, there were no means of deter- 
mining. The oil is at first green, afterwards changing to black, and the 
amount capable of being collected here from both localities was little 
more than one gallon daily. The springs are situated at the edges of 
the channels of the Chota and Bara Katta brooks, as they leave the 
hills, and just where these hills rise steeply from the lower ground. 
The oil-springs are so near the water — on which, indeed, much of the oil 
floats — that when these streams are in flood the whole accumulation of it 
is washed away. The oil does not issue by itself, but accompanied by 
water, and the locality would be a good one for making trial borings, as 
suggested by Mr. Lyman, though the existing springs are ill situated on 
account of the loss occasioned by floods. (See fig. 53, Plate XXX.) 

The bed of the sandstone series which immediately succeeds the num- 
mulitie limestone is itself calcareous and concretionary, containing a 
few nummulites and bearing more or less resemblance to the pseudo- 
conglomerate layers higher up in the series. 

Native sulphur was formerly collected at Jaba from gypseous clay- 
deposits close in the vicinity of the petroleum springs, the water of 
which is charged with sulphurous gases ; but when I visited the locality, 
the places pointed out, on being dug into, yielded only microscopic grains 
of a yellow mineral which might have been sulphur. The presence 
of the sulphur here and the gypseous nature of the superficial clay 
suo'gest the agency of sulphurous springs as a cause for the similarly 
gypseous condition of the great clay mounds before mentioned along the 
base of the hills north-by-west from this place. 

Between Khyrabad and Mari the older rocks form only low and not 

continuous hills along the margin of the plains, 
Mari neighbourhood. , ^ ■ ,, u i -n p Ti/rr . , , " 

the largest being the salt-hiU of Man, and the 
K a ( 265 ) 



266 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

principal elevations of the neighbourhood being well-marked escarpments 
of the tertiary sandstones cropping to the south-west and dipping in an 
opposite direction at angles of 20° and upwards to 45°. The whole space 
is traversed by complex and often obscure faults, abnormally placing 
fragmentary portions of the series inconsecutively among others. The 
continuation of the range is here indistinct, the highest ground being 
a parallel ridge, three miles to the north-east, formed of the tertiary sand- 
stones, &c., dipping in that direction, generally at low angles. Coming, 
as it were, from beneath these to the south-west are various red and grey 
sandstone and earthy beds, among which the red pseudo-conglomeratic 
bands contain small bone fragments and sometimes fragments of croco- 
dilian teeth. These were observed at the foot of the ghat, on the road 
from Mari to Niki, eastwards of Sumbla-ki-Vandi. 

In the neighbourhood of the latter village'the beds of the tertiary 

red zone predominate, undulating at low angles, 
Sumbla-ki-Vandi. 

and being cut"off near Ainwa by a fault from the 

Indus towards the village of Khyrabad. This fault appears to be a com- 
pound fracture made up of many breaks, and enclosing within a mile 

southwards from Ainwa a little of the " red salt- 
Nummulites in lime- 
stone-pebbles of tertiary marl " containing some rock-salt. The lower part 

of the greyer sandstones westward of this fault 
is much contorted, and contains bands of conglomerate in which lime- 
stone-pebbles full of nummulites occur. 

Further southward along the run of the fault is a high mound of 
the drab gypseous clay previously noticed, appearing reddish near its 
base ; and yet further on, near the mouth of the Sumbla-ki-Vandi valley, 
the fault seems to include a broken brecciated mass of the nummulitic 
limestone, forming a small hill. 

Just near this place, towards the plains, are some small exposures of 

the gypseous salt-marl containing rock-salt and associated with reddish 

sandstones, like those of group No. 5, and dark conglomeratic shale or 

clay with the usual metamorphic pebbles. Here the earthy matrix of 

( 266 ) 



TREDIAN HILLS. 267 

the pebbles weathers and breaks up very mucli as au earthy trap- 
rock mio'ht do. These older rocks are faulted on one side ag^ainst 
tertiaiy sandstones, &c., and on the other ag'ainst low, reef-like, brecci- 
ated masses of the nummulitic limestones bordering the plains. 
Northwards of this faulted area the low ground is edged for a mile 
or so by the tertiary sandstones and red or reddish cla3^s, but beyond this 
distance the road into Mari leads through a defile, on the eastern side of 
which are high cliffs of the same sandstones, &c. ; while on the west is 
a narrow, broken, ridgy mass, a mile and a half in length, of the lower 
nodular nummulitic limestone with some of the Jurassic beds. These 
rocks are strangely smashed and wedged on their eastern side among 
the tertiary sandstones and clays ; they are bordered by a stony low 
bank of debris towards the plains to the west, while they abruptly ter- 
minate to the north against the salt-hill of Mari, with the intervention 
at either end of the line of junction of small fragmentary portions of 
the tertiary sandstone group. 

The Mari salt-hill is an isolated mass of red rock-salt and gypseous 

marl, having an area of somewhat more than half 
Salt-hill, Mari. ° . 

a square mile, and rising from the left (or south) 

bank of the Indus to a height estimated at between 500 and 600 (more 

nearly 540) feet. All round the hill, salt and gypsum are seen at 

intervals in the marl, the stratification of which is extremely obscure, 

but indicated here and there by certain hard flaggy or thin-bedded 

dolomitic zones with dark shaly partings, these being nearly always 

highly contorted and impossible to trace for more than a few yards. In 

the harder of these bands, cavities are sometimes seen, perhaps formerly 

occupied by cubical salt-crystals, or crystals of pyrites ; and sometimes 

the beds contain black, apparently carbonaceous, markings. These 

flaggy ^ones are generally associated with gypsum layers and sometimes 

with beds of salt, but they appear more frequently below than above the 

salt-beds. They are often several feet or in places even a few yards in 

thickness. The salt-beds vary considerably, up to 20 feet ; they are of 

the usual red or white salt, and in many exposures seemed to be earthy 

( 267 ) 



268 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB, 

or impure {Kalar). On all sides of the hill the stratification, where 
seen, appears to be greatly crushed and folded j besides which, slipping 
of the rocks has evidently taken place frequently, so that it is impossi- 
ble to be certain whether the greater part of the hill is formed of salt 
and gypsum, or whether contortion and slippage have not multiplied the 
appearance of one large and important group of salt-beds. At the time 
the place was visited no salt-mines were open, but there was abundant 
evidence of old workings and an enormous quantity of the mineral 
showing at every side of the hill. The atmospheric waste of the salt, 
and consequent displacement and confusion along the outcrop, make 
many parts of the ground not alone difficult to understand, but fre- 
quently inaccessible. (See fig. 53, Plate XXX.) 

At many places on the hill, but by report in some more than in others, 

the gypsum contains numbers of small bi-pyra- 
Quartz crystals. to tit iti 

midal crystals of transparent or slightly reddish 

quartz, frequently of great beauty and regularity. They are sometimes 
known by the name of Mari diamonds, and are used for ornamental pur- 
poses by the natives. The quantity of these must be enormous, to judge 
from the extent of ground at the foot of the hill which glitters with 
reflected light from their facets. Near the summit of the hill, and lower 
down on the M^ri side, are some old Buddhist temples in ruins, having a 
more than usually antiquated appearance in consequence of being built 
of blocks of calcareous tufa, which occurs 2» situ not far off", and which 
probably hardened on exposure to the atmosphere ; otherwise its dura- 
bility would appear strange. On the opposite bank of the Indus bcr 
neath this hill the continuation of the salt-marl may be seen at the base 
Kalabdghbank of the ^^ a much higher elevation, and the thin flaggy 
^^^^^- and shaly zone, vertical and greatly twisted on 

the Mari bank, as far as it can be followed by the eye on the other side 
of the river, seems to form an open, contorted, synclinal bend, beneath a 
thick but broken band of salt, partly concealed and not continuous. 
Immediately overlying this salt and its associated marl are soft, greenish- 
grey and orange, sandy and clayey tertiary beds, thrown into bold 
( 268 ) 



Vymib: ScM Ravi.ge.' 



GEOUOei CAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



Memoirs .Vol . XIV . Pi, XXXI . 



Kalai> ag'' 



un or Gosai tiala 




L Grey S.olon-niia layer?. 2 Red Marl , 3 Roelt Salt .4 Tertiaj-y Sands-tones, Oi'aiag© y8]f;i«s . 
5 CoTiQlonierate . Siwalik?./. <i Conc.6aiedfnu.lt . 7 I' ang-ote Cjf lutervenin.g Tertiary beds. 

Fig' 54. Roucfh 5'keicli of Kalaloagh Side of Indus Gorge dfmounisan above. 



Fig 5 5. Sketcii Section in the Cliicliali Pass 



Kiisuiola 




JUirCLS SU' CrBtaCCOUyS Nw»W«i Te^OW-y SV»sO>n/. 



TREDIAN HILLS. 269 

eurves_, cut off above b}' a Hue iuclined to the east, coiueidiiio; witli the 
base of a thick unconformable capping* of coarse eono-loraeratej chiefly 
composed of limestone pebbles. (See fig. 54, Plate XXXI.) 

The sketch, fig. 53, Plate. XXX, will serve'to show how little stratifi- 
cation generally appears in the marl, and how 
Stratification of marl. . • i /> i t ^ ■ ^ 

strongly this shows itself when the thin-bedded 

dolomitic bands and shales are present. The nearly horizontal beds, to 
the left over the salt-chowki, within a short distance further on in that 
direction, become vertical and bent backwards upon themselves, as may 
be seen at the edge of the Indus, where the vertical layers are cut across 
by a horizontal plane. In places along this bank of that river, large 
quantities of air or gas bubble up from under water, and a portion of 
the sandy, hard, river-bed, when the water has retreated, sounds hollow 
beneath the feet of men or horses, as if salt had been dissolved and 
removed from below. 

The ground along the edge of the plains just outside the salt-hill 
Plains side of the salt- ^nd the limestone ridge near it is formed of regu- 
^'^" larly stratified red and green sandy alluvium, or 

debris, perhaps taking its colours from the preponderance of the same 
tints in the neighbouring tertiary sandstones, &e. The latter beds 
rise above the side of the little valley of Mari, opposite to the salt-hill, 
and indeed approach this hill within a few yards in some places. 

Ascending the River Indus from Mari, orange and brown clays and grey 

sandstones, some of which are very thickly bedded. 
Up the Indus, 

alternate repeatedly, dipping to the east-by-north 

at 45°. About two miles up the stream the rocks are seen to be faulted ; 
sandstone beds, alternating with redder clays, coming against those with 
the brown or orange clays between. Further on near Dangot (called 
DundhotJ cliffs, thick sandstones weather into cavities, and the cliffs 
are formed of extremely thick-bedded grey sandstone, a few pebbles 
occurring in thinner beds below. What could be seen of this magni- 
ficent cliff, nearly 2,000 feet in height, appeared to consist entirely of 

( 269 ) 



270 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

sandstone beds without any bands of clay. Clay bands occur again 
between the sandstones further up stream, and within the next couple 
of miles two or three other faults occur, one of which lies in the bed of 
the river. Beyond this the stratification undulates at more gentle angles, 
and the cliffs are capped here and there by the debris of conglomerates 
formed of crystalline pebbles, among which grey syenite is most 
abundant j but the conglomerates themselves do not occur in the river 
until near the town of Makad. 

In the bed of the Indus, within a mile or so below Kalabagh, gold 
is washed. At one spot, pointed out by the Malik 
of this place, the bank in which it was sought 
was at some distance out in the stream, and the material to be washed 
was taken from a coarse sandy layer mixed with large pebbles. The gold- 
washers were not at work, but their troons (or cradles) and a few 
other rude implements were lying on the bank. The success attending 
the washing was said (as usual) to be very various, and when great 
a man might obtain from three to four annas a day. 

The entire neighbourhood of this village of Mari is most peculiar, 

^ . , , , J -, the very lowest and some of the highest rocks of 

NeighbournooQ ot -^ ° 

Mari. the range being here brought into contact. Dr. 

Fleming (report, page 252) at one place saw some tertiary strata dipping 
as if they would pass beneath the salt-marl ; but the general arrange- 
ment is different. The strong escarpment of the tertiary sandstones 
faces the salt-hill, but the dip is in the opposite direction. These tertiary 
beds within the Mari valley frequently strike towards the hill, but with- 
out showing any inclination to underlie it. 

That the main features of the present arrangement of the rocks 
here are the result of violent dislocation, rather than the tranquil 
change of conditions marked by unconformity, appears to be proved 
by the occurrence of some fragmentary portions of older groups than 
the tertiary sandstones, in close proximity, evidently parts of once 
larger developments of these rocks, which existed in their proper places 

( 270 ) 



TREDIAN HILLS. 271 

before the dislocation occurred. Though this is the case at Mari^ on the 
opposite side of the river the salt-beds and red marl are directly overlaid 
by decidedly unconformable tertiary sandstones and clays, in a way 
which is difficult to explain by land-slip only ; and it is equally difficult 
to imagine the thick nummulitic, the Jurassic, triassic, carboniferous and 
" speckled sandstone '^ groups all to have died out naturally at one spot, 
while they are each represented at distances of from two to eight miles 
Cis-Indus, and some of them occur again in the neighbouring country 
Trans-Indus. 

It is also as hard to suppose that such a thickness of these beds 
can have been removed by denudation from one small tract, while the 
softest of the whole series — the red marl, &c. — had stability enough to 
resist that agency. 

The presence here of the great river Indus might do somethino* 
to explain the peculiarities of the place so far as the upper (possibly 
fresh water or lacustrine) deposits are concerned, for an original line of 
water-discharge and removal of material might have existed here at a 
remote tertiary period ; but any influence this could have had with reo"ard 
to the disposition of the strata could not have obtained durino' the 
deep-sea deposition of the nummulitic period, or during the older marine 
conditions of the Jurassic, triassic, or carboniferous times ; so that there 
is nothing left to be supposed but that there was here dislocation so 
intense that the traces of the exact or progressive manner in which the 
results were eflPected have been destroyed.* 



* If the salt-rocks of this locality could be looked upon as a newer deposit belonging 
to the tertiary period, the general relations might be more readily understood ; but against 
this there is their identity, in most characteristics, with the salt-rocks of other parts of 
the range, and their association at no great distance on both sides of the river with other 
rocks of the Salt Kange series, while the apparently newer salt beds to the northward 
differ decidedly in colour and association from those of this locality. 



( 371 ) 



27^ WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

XIII. — Appendix: Trans-Indus Hills. 

Although the Jild or Cis-Indus Salt Range terminates at the Mari 
Geology of country ^auk of the river, it may be briefly mentioned 
Trans-Indus. ^]^jj^^ ^j^ ^]^q mountains on the other side of the 

Indus, the geological structure is very similar to that of the western part 
of the Salt Range. The southern escarpment of the latter continues in 
a more strongly pronounced form, but no longer always presented to the 
southwards. The cliffs are still contrasted with more gentle slopes in 
the opposite direction, and these slopes, instead of sinking into an open 
plateau, like the Potwar country north of the Salt Range, face a mass 
of hills, some of which are lofty, and all towards the Indus possess a 
rather defined east-and-west arrangement. These hills are not distant 
from the Trans-Indus continuation of the Salt Range, and approach it 
so nearly as to coalesce in the vicinity of Kalabagh ; but further west 
they are separated by the whole of the wide valley on the further side of 
which Bannu is situated. 

At a little distance from Kalabagh the geology of the Trans-Indus 
regions presents some new features, the principal 
of which are — a larger development of the num- 
mulitic and Jurassic rocks, the latter being now more calcareous, 
and the intercalation of a distinctly cretaceous band between these 
groups a few miles to the westward. There are also among the newer 
formations some apparent unconformities unknown or, if present, 
concealed in the Salt Range proper. 

Disturbance can hardly be called a new feature, yet its intensity 
appears to be even greater beyond the Indus, and the succession is so 
much broken that, in the small part of the ground as yet examined, 
incomplete sections only could be found. 

Unfortunately when the officers of the Geological Survey visited 
Mari or Kalabagh, at three different and considerably separated periods, 
( 272 ) 



TRANS-INDUS HILLS. 



878 



severe sickness prostrated tbemj and limited their labors until it was, 

found necessary to leave tbe place. Durincj one of 
Section. _ "^ ^ f 

these visits, however, Dr. Waag-en, with difficulty, 
made his way to the mountains north-east of Kalabagh and noted the 
following succession"^ : — 



NxrMMxriiTic 



Cbetaceous 



fNummulitic limestone (part of) ... ,.. ... 50 to 

Soft grey marl 
Thin -bedded marly limestone 

Ashy grey calcareous marl with numerous Conoclypeus 20 to 
Alum-shale, inferior quality, with a little coal and many 

fossils ... ... ... ... ... 20 to 

Yellow nodular limestone irregularly bedded : many 

Niimmiilites ... ... 

Alum shale with Nummulites (many pits, but only 

a few beds workable) 
Haematite 



. Dark grey glauconitic sandstone with Belemnites, badly 



60 feet. 
20 „ 
15 „ 
30 „ 

30 „ 

10 „ 

50 „ 
10 „ 

10 „ 



Jtjeassio 



TJncontoemity. 

r Grey clay with gypsum in thin beds, numerous canali- 
culate Belemnites and Pleurotomaria ... ... 6 to 10 

Yellow marly limestone, numerous Mi/tili and other 

bivalves ... ... ... ... ... 20 

Ashy grey nodular marls ... ... ... 6 

White hard splintery limestones ... ... ... 10 

Yellow thin limestone with Fecten and * indistinct 

Myacites ... ... ... ... ... 50 

Variegated sandy clays ... ... ... ... 10 

Sandstone and limestone in alternating layers ... 30 

Soft yellow sandstone with whole beds of fossils ; 

Nerinma, Cerithium 2ia.dihiva\.Yes ... ... 50 

Variegated sandstones and shales with thin coaly layers 
i_ and alum-shales on three horizons ... ... 300 



* Portions of this section are three times repeated by faults and contortions. 
Besides the unconformity and irregularity it shows, there is also the unconformity of the 
tertiary sandstones upon some of the above beds in other places, and upon the salt-marl 
on the right bank of the river at Kalabagh. 

l3 { 273 ) 



274 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Along the Ldn nala (or ' Drung Gorge' of Dr. Warth-'s report, 

and Gossai nala of Dr. Jameson) which comes from the north-by-west 

behind the Kalabagh hills, down to the Indus 
Lfin (or salt) nala. . t..-^., fi-i ^• I'l 

opposite Man, the salt of this locahty has been 

traced for a distance of about two miles from the Indus, and is reported 
to occur again nine miles up the valley. The salt is being worked at day- 
light in open quarries or small drifts, and was observed to dip at angles 
of 40° and even higher towards the westward. From Dr. Warth^s report 
it appears that the worked seams vary from 4 to 10 or 20 feet, and that 
there are generally three alternations of good and bad salt, some of the 
working-places having been abandoned on account of the crystalline 
nature o£ the mineral. This crystalline salt was, however, being exten- 
sively raised when I visited the place, many beautifully transparent cubes, 
of several inches on the side, being observed in the heaps awaiting ship- 
ment across the river to Mari. As to the salt nine miles up the glen, 
if it exists, it is as yet unknown whether it may not belong to the saline 
series of the Kohat district rather than to that of the Salt Range. 

A great fault is believed to exist crossing the River Indus and extend- 
ing up this Liin valley, letting in masses of the carboniferous lime- 
stone and other rocks along its course, and also extending some way into 
the Mari glen ; but as this fault traverses in the low ground, its exact place 
is concealed. The reason for inferring the existence of this fault is, that 
there is not room for the Salt Range series to intervene between the red 
salt-marl and the tertiary sandstones seen on opposite sides of the Lijn 
glen, the discordant strata belonging to the latter series, occurring on 
the hill to the west, being apparently newer than the tertiary beds on 
the east side of the valley, and being themselves capped by a mass 
of very recent tertiary or post-tertiary conglomerate. The coal of 
Kalabagh is mainly Jurassic, but thin coaly strings occur also in the 
nummulitic alum-shales. That from the Jurassic beds continued till 
lately to be raised and sold in small quantities for the use of the river 
steamers. The alum is obtained from the black shales near the base 
of the nummulitic rocks. 
( ^74 ) 



TKANS-INDUS HILLS. 275 

At a distance of about nine miles to the westward of Kalabagh, 
the southern escarpment of the continuation of 
the Salt Range is intersected in a north and 
south direction by the fine gorge of the Chichali Pass, at one part 
of which, where it crosses the nummulitic limestone (called the 
* Barwdza' or gateway, by the natives), the shallow stream finds 
its way over a bed of flat sand between vertical rocky walls 250 or 
300 feet high, and only 14 feet 6 inches apart at the narrowest 
place. 

In this gorge near its mouth there is a good section exposed, showing 
extraordinary disturbance, and to a certain extent inversion of the 
strata (see sketch section. Fig. 55, PI. XXXI). At the entrance, crushed, 
contorted, and faulted beds of the purplish-grey tertiary sandstones and 
dark-brownish red clays (Nos. 16 and 17) are seen, and the passage into 
the glen lies between vertical masses of the nummulitic limestone 
(No. 14) occupying a space of 150 yards across; parts of this limestone 
show the most intense crushing and compression within the mass. 
Black, flaggy, and olive-weathering alum-shales (No. 12), containing 
limestone-nodules, and nearly vertical, are next met with ; then another 
mass of nummulitic limestone (No. 11), the strata of which, inclining 
at a high angle to the north, are faulted against some reddish-purple 
cretaceous sandstones (No. 9), with carbonaceous patches. These are 
inverted so as to dip steeply underneath dark-greenish olive sandy 
clays with Gryphaa and non-canaliculate Belemnites (No. 8), associated 
with which are some greenish sandstones with Ammonites and Belemnites, 
apparently underlying and passing into black alum-shales (No. 7) with 
canaliculate Belemnites. These, by reason of a reversed, crooked, 
angular, fault, partly underlie thin-bedded Jurassic limestones (No. 5), 
with Pectens, &c., and these beds are again obliquely faulted and 
brought beneath more thin-bedded impure Jurassic limestones and 
dark shales, red clays, and white sandstones (No. 4 ?) containing a 
few fossils such as Gervillia. Another fault, yet more oblique than 
the last, nearly coincides with the axis of an inverted anticlinal fold 

( 275 ) 



^1% 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



in the adjoining' beds, which are the lowest of the whole section, but 
still Jurassic."^ 

Above this point in the glen, the section is regular without inversion, 
and the following is the description of the series arranged in natural 
order, the thickness given being partly estimated and partly measured 
or calculated : — 



Teetiaet sand- 
stones, &c. ... 



NUMMULITIC 



Ceetaceods 
(Neocomiau) 



Jurassic 



r Red clays (17) and grey and greenish tertiary sand- 
^ stones (16), with some beds of pseudo-conglome- 
V. rate (15) containing bone fragments 
14. Strong compact light-grey nummulitic clifE-lime- 

stone of the t^arwasa 
1 13. Nummulitic marls and (12) dark shales 
111. Lower nummulitic lumpy limestone 
10. Alum-shales resting parallel on an eroded sur- 
face of the beds below 



Very thick, 

500 feet. 
? 150 „ 
150 to 200 „ 



30 to 40 



Slight Unconeoemity. 
9. Strong light-coloured sandstone eroded at top, 

lower third black 
7. Dark, blackish-green, sandy and shaly bed, tough 

inside, passing down into 
6. Dark olive sandstone and clay with Oolitic 
patches (equivalent to upper band of golden 
oolite ?) contain Rhynchonella, large planulate 
Ammonites, Belemnites, &c. 
5. Splintery hard, white limestones 

Shale band ^ 

4 Calcareous shaly and sandy beds and yellow lime- 
stone 
Grey limestone... 
Brown marly limestone 
3. Shales with thin sandstones ; a two-feet bed con- 
taining fucoids : — sulphuretted hydrogen spring 
Hard sandy limestone and shales, Rhynchonella and 
fish teeth. 
2. Lower golden oolite, variegated sandstone and thin 

coaly shales. 
1. Grey and blue thin limestone and grey shales. J 



60 



137 
180 



}- 400 



* A quantity of carboniferous limestone is sho-wn at this point in Dr. Fleming's section. 
None, however, as he observes, occurs in the glen ; nor do the triassic beds appear. 



( 276 ) 



SUMMARY. 377 

The lower part of the cretaceous band and the upper part of the 
Jurassic seem to form one thick bed of 137 feet, the Ammonites and 
Belemnites from the upper part having a neocomiau character, while 
those from the lower part of the zone are Jurassic."'^' Two chief bands 
of alum-shales occur, one above and the other below the lower lumpy 
nummulitic limestone ; and there are other less distinct bands besides, 
in the lower variegated part of the Jurassic series, near No. 3 in the 
section. 

Alum is manufactured from the lower nummulitic bed at a village 
within the mouth of the glen. 

Summary. 
Having now described, with some attention to details, the various 
local relations of the rocks along the Salt Range, a few brief general 
observations may be added with a view to conveying a comprehensive 
idea of the series as a whole. 

Notwithstanding that the Salt Range geology is peculiar and differs 
greatly from that of neighbouring countries, so far as they are known, 
and that the series comprises various consecutive palaeozoic, mesozoic, and 
tertiary formations, and even includes among the older rocks a group of 
Silurian age, there is a remarkable degree of continuity preserved 
throughout the deposits. Though many pages of the record are doubt- 
less missing, the succession is absolutely more continuous and complete 
than in many other parts of India itself, or in many equal areas of distant 
countries ; and further there are indications that throughout the long 
lapse of time during which the successive stages of the series were formed, 
some very similar conditions obtained, resulting in the reproduction of 
the same kinds of rock. Thus, so far back as the formation of the group 
next succeeding to the salt-marl in the western 

Conglomerates. 

part of the district, abrasion of old metamorphic 

rocks and transport of their detritus to this region must have been 
* From Dr. Waagen's field determinations while we were examining the glen together. 

( 277 ) 



278 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

taking place, an action which, was continuous or repeated through all 
except the more highly calcareous formations. Conglomerate or con- 
o<lomeratic bands of similar metamorphic blocks and pebbles are 
found largely in group No. 2, or in its place; in less quantity, in the 
Silurian band No. 3, and in No. 4 ; frequently in No. 5 ; in one place 
in the triassic No. 7 ; in another in No. 8 ; occasionally in the Jurassic 
No. 9 ; again largely in the eastern portion of No. 10 (cretaceous ?) ; while 
in parts of the tertiary beds No. 12, crystalline pebbles, of diflFerent 
aspect collectively, and probably derived from different sources, occur on 
several horizons and form very massive bands in some of the upper 
Siwalik beds. 

Again, the conditions necessary to the production of coal and car- 
bonaceous rock have not been confined to one 
Coaland coaly beds. . i i i i • i. vi. 
group or the series, such bands bemg met witn 

in the gypsum with the salt-marl of Khewra; in rocks but a short 
way above it, mentioned in Section XI ; in the upper part of the speckled 
sandstone and lavender clays No. 5 at Nursingphoar ; in the carboni- 
ferous, Jurassic, and cretaceous formations; and so largely as to form coal- 
beds in the uummulitic group. 

Certain varieties of lavender-coloured argillaceous rock, generally 
yielding rapidly to the atmosphere, are also 
distributed. They occur in the salt-marl, as- 
sociated with its layers of volcanic rock ; in many places and with a very 
similar aspect in the " speckled sandstone series,^' notably at its upper 
limits ; in the carboniferous limestone group, in the glen of Nursing- 
phoar ; in the probably cretaceous beds of the Bhal branch of the Nila- 
wan ravine ; and associated with the hsematitic or lateritic band frequently 
but not always present at the base of the nummulitic group. 

Nor are hsematitic bands confined to one horizon. They prevail in the 
situation just mentioned (below the nummulitic), 
but occur also frequently in the supposed creta- 
ceous rocks, more rarely in those of Jurassic age, and in other situations. 

( 278 ) 



SUMMARY. 279 

A circumstance which is not peculiar to the Salt Range alone may 
be mentioned in connection with these haematites, namely, that they 
appear to mark places where some cessation or interruption of deposition 
took place. For instance, although there is no unconformity strono- 
enough to be conspicuous at the base of the nummulitic formation, 
the probably cretaceous rocks beneath are but feebly represented ; and 
if the presence of the lateritic haematite is indirectly connected with the 
want of cretaceous deposits, the occurrence of a hsematitic band here and 
there in these rocks and in the lower groups may represent a greater 
development of strata on the same horizons in other places. At all 
events, where some slight appearance of discordance, hardly amountiuo- 
to unconformity, occurs, between the carboniferous and the succeeding 
(cretaceous ?) formation at Nursingphoar, and again at the top of the 
carboniferous beds near Kutta, haematite in the first instance, and with a 
little white sandstone beneath in the second, is the rock immediately 
supervening. 

Salt is characteristic of the lowest group, but traces of saline materials 

in the form of efflorescences are to be found in 
Salt and Gypsum. 

places m every succeedmg zone (except perhaps 

the strong limestone bandsj, and in the newest formation of the whole 

series the sandstones and marls of the tertiary rocks are sometimes 

sufficiently saline to impregnate the water of the streams. Gypsum 

too, occurs in the clays of group No. 5, in those of the trias, and in some 

quantity in the nummulitic coaly band. The presence of lime and 

magnesia dates back to the time of the red salt- 
Lime and Magnesia. 

marl, and the same substances are found again in 

group No, 4, the magnesian sandstone series; but calcareous and 
magnesian rocks prevail most largely in the carboniferous, western 
trias, western Jurassic and tertiary (nummulitic) formations. The hard 
silicious and aluminous rocks of most palaeozoic formations are but 
poorly represented, slates and such common accessories as quartz veins 
being here entirely unknown, notwithstanding the pressure and disturb- 
ance which the strata have in many places suifered. 

( 279 ) 



S80 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OE THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The absence of igneous rocks, too, with the exception of the vol- 
canic-looking varieties occurring in a few places 
gneous roc s. ^^ ^^^ eastward, though unusual in such disturbed 

palseozoic rocks, may be very possibly connected with the continuously 
tranquil deposition shown by the general parallel conformity of the 
strata. 

From what has been already said, it will be seen that there is 
considerable difficulty in conjecturing under what 
^^^ ' circumstances tlie salt-marl was accumulated. Por 

the stratified portion and its associated layers, however, estuarine or lacus- 
trine conditions may have prevailed. The succeeding purple sandstone 
group contains no organisms to indicate its orgin, which, nevertheless, 
may have been marine. The next group contains a few marine (silurian) 
fossils. The " magnesian arenaceous group " and the " speckled sand- 
stone o-roup " may also have been deposited in sea water, subject to land 
floods, bringing down earthy matter. The carboniferous group and 
western portion of the trias are certainly marine, while the beds supposed 
to form an eastern representative of tbe latter group may have been 
deposited in an isolated tract of saline or of salt water. The Jurassic, 
cretaceous, and nummulitic groups were also marine, or largely so, some 
plant beds in the first and the leaf-bed at the base of the latter, together 
with those bands in which coal or coaly shales predominate, being by 
no means necessarily exceptions ; and the great mass of tertiary sand- 
stones and clays have furnished nothing to contravene the supposition 
that, notwithstanding their great thickness, they were deposited under 
fresh or brackish water conditions. 

The. Salt Range rocks then form a continuous series, embracing 
alternations of calcareous, earthy, and arenaceous 
deposits, chiefly marine, but possibly in part of 
fresh-water origin — a series (including the more recent beds) compris- 
ing thirteen main divisions, of which nine are distinctly referable, each 
to one of the thirteen principal formations known to geology ; and the 
ages oi four are less accurately ascertained. Two of the latter are as 
( 280 ) 



SUMMARY. 281 

old as Silurian^ if not older ; aud two others, if not of this age, or car- 
boniferous, must be intermediate. 

From the top downwards, seven of these thirteen groups are syn- 
chronous with the five newest systems of the geological scale ; the 
permian is not represented, but the carboniferous is largely developed in 
comparison with some of the others. 0£ the two groups immediately 
beneath the carboniferous formation, there is no reason why either should 
be called devonian or " old red sandstone.-" The lowest, however, appears 
to have a close relation, in some parts of the range, with the silurian zone 
beneath ; and of the remaining two, nothing can be said as to whether 
one or both may be silurian or older. 

Of this series, there are no close petrographic representatives known 
Eelations to neighbour- i^ the neighbouring parts of the Punjab hitherto 
iug geology. inspected, if we except the tertiary sandstones and 

clays. The nummulitie limestones difier considerably from the large 
development of these rocks to the north. The cretaceous beds are dif- 
ferent, both in character and fossils, from others met with, as are also 
the Jurassic rocks ; the mixed and variegated arenaceous, argillaceous, 
and calcareous group of the Salt Range bears no similarity to the 
Spiti-shales of the mountains on the outskirts of the north-west 
Himalaya. The triassic rocks with their abundance of Ceratites are also 
different from the strong limestone series of the latter region ; and the 
underlying groups have no representatives around, so far as known, until 
the countries of Kashmir and Spiti are reached.* In the former, the 
carboniferous rocks have yielded to Captain Godwin-Austen some half a 
dozen or eight fossil species, known already to occur in this formation in the 
Salt Range ; and from Dr. Stoliczka^s Memoir on the North-Western 



* The resemhlance of the purple sandstone group to some red sandstones below, or 
in, the trias near Abbottabad, is much too slight to rely upon as any proof of their identity j 
and the carboniferous rocks mentioned as occurring near Abbottabad, in Dr. Verchere's 
paper, previously quoted, have no existence. See Memoirs of the Geological Survey of 
India, Vol. IX, part 2. 

-M.% ( ^81 ) 



282 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Himalaya it appears that four carboniferous forms are common to the 
formation as known there and in this Salt Range district.* When the 
Survey collections made in this country have been examined, it is possible 
that not only the carboniferous, but also the newer formations, may be 
found to contain other Himalayan forms. 

The development of the whole Salt Range series is not at any place 
complete, the groups changing along their outcrop, in thickness^ if not 
also in character ; and the same series^ from the fourth to the seventh 
group (in ascending order) ^ or omitting the eighth, from the fourth to 
the ninth, extends westwards, Trans-Indus. The tenth group does not 
extend recognisably to the west 5 the eleventh covers all below it, except 
in the extreme east or west ; and the twelfth (or part of it) is super- 
imposed throughout. The latter group includes some representatives of 
the " Sub-Himalayan " divisions of Mr. Medlicott's Memoir "On the 
country between the Ganges and the Ravi;" but it is doutbful 
whether the Subathu rocks northward and eastward of the Potwar 
plateau are represented to any extent along the range except by a few 
thin layers in its eastern sections. Even though some similarity in the 
Bakrala ridge has been pointed out, the close identity of the lower 
tertiary Salt Range sandstones with the Nahan group is not at present 
strongly insisted upon, while there is sufficient reason to suggest it. 
The Siwalik beds above these have been lately shown to belong to the 
same group both here and in the country extending hence to the Sub- 
Himalayan area. 



* Captain Godwin-Austen's specimens, similar to those of tlie Salt Range, are Athyris 
subtilita, Spirifera MoosakJiailensis, Rhynconella plewrodon, Streptorhynchus crenistria, 
Productus semireticulatus, and P. Mumboldtii (See Mr. T. Davidson's list in Part I of this 
Eeport ; and Note on the carboniferous Brachiopoda collected by Captain Godwin-Austen 
in Kashmir, by Mr. Davidson, Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., Vol. XXII, p. 29). 

Dr. Stoliczka's specimens, identical with Salt Range ones, are Spirifera MoosaJcJiailensis, 
Productus longispinus, P, semireticulatus, P. Purdoni. — Memoirs, Geol. Survey of India, 
Vol. V, Part 1, page 27. 
( 282 ) 



economic resources. 9>s'6 

Economic Resources. 
The economic resources of the Salt Range are numerous and varied ; 
several of them are of minor importance, but one, the rock-salt, for which 
it is famous, occurs in a quantity and possesses a value which may be 
called incalculable. These salt-deposits, together with those of other 
parts of the Punjab, are some of the largest and purest in the world, 
yet their origin is equally with others involved in obscurity. 

In Mr. Baden, PowelFs " Economic Products of the Punjab," all the 
mineral economic resources of the Salt Range and its neighbourhood are 
alluded to, though the references are to be found amongst matter relat- 
ing to building materials,, salt, &c., from other places as well. A 
passage given as an extract from this work,* in the preliminary copies 
of the Punjab Gazetteer, mentions the following minerals as occurring 
in the range : " salt, coal, sulphur, petroleum, .... copper, gold, 
lead, and iron, the latter as rich hsematite very abundant in some parts, 
to such an extent that the rocks containing it prevent by their attraction 
the indications of the magnetic compass.''^ This passage gives a very 
exaggerated idea of the products of the range. The coal of the Salt 
Range is not great in quantity; it is poor in places and pyritous 
and shaly, besides being difficult to work. The sulphur occurs in the 
smallest quantities, native and otherwise. The petroleum is likewise 
very limited indeed, as may be gathered from the several reports on 
the subject by Mr. Lyman (see List of Authors). The copper men- 
tioned at page 9 of Mr. PowelFs work is quite inconsiderable. The 
stream-gold yields but a scanty return for much labour. The lead 
(pages 11 and 12) occurs only as small disseminated crystals of galena 
in the peculiar dolomitic rock of Karangli Hill. The iron, so far as I 
am aware, occurs generally as common haematite, forming inconstant 



* Gazetteer of Jhelum District ; Geographical and Physical Section, Geology of the 
Salt Range. Extract from Mr. Baden-Powell's " Economic Products of the Punjab,"' 
pp. 131-135 ; end of extract, p. 15. 

( 283 ) 



284 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

layers, often so earthy as to resemble laterite, and I never found it 
affect the magnetic needle of my compass. 

In his introductory chapter (foot-note, p. xii, and again at p. 8, 
para. 33) Mr. Powell mentions a new discovery of a first-class iron-ore 
in hills belonging to the Salt Range^ made by Dr. Henderson, Civil 
Surgeon of Shahpur, who had procured from it bars of the metal. This 
ore was obtained from the Korana (Kot Kerana) hills, previously men- 
tioned, not from the Salt Range itself. " The ore was very abundant 
in several of the hills, and attempts to work it appeared to have been 
made/^ Dr. Henderson believes it to contain at least 70 per cent, 
of iron, which was favourably reported upon by Mr. Bocquet, of the 
Punjab Railway, and Mr. Harrison. Dr. Henderson only smelted a few 
maunds of the iron, with a primitive apparatus, as fuel was scarce in the 
vicinity, and he estimated the cost of production at Rs. 7 per cwt."^ 

Salt. 

The places of the occurrence of the salt, its composition, position, 
and general relations, have been noticed in the 
preceding pages, and reference has been made to 
the memorandum by Dr. Oldham, to the reports of Dr. Fleming, to the 
full report of Dr. Warth (the latest published), and those on the admi- 
nistration of the Inland Customs Department, in all of which much de- 
tailed information may be found. 

Where so much has been already written, it seems superfluous to 
add further remarks upon the salt-mines of the range ; some general idea 
of them may, however^ be briefly conveyed, rather than that they should 
be left altogether unnoticed ; mining details are taken from Dr. Warth^s 
reports. 

It appears that the mines were formerly much more numerous, and 
under native management merely consisted of small openings at first. 



* Information kindly supplied by Dr.j Henderson, under date Rawalpindi, September 
lOth, 1877. 

( 284 ) 



ECONO:\[IC RESOURCES : SALT. 285 

afterwards unsystematically enlarged, until tliey became dangerous. 
Since the annexation of the Punjab, it has been found useful for facility 
of collecting the revenue, to lessen their number greatly ; and still 
further reduction has been proposed or lately carried out. 

The mines open during the progress of the Survey were those of 
Khewra, Sardi, and Varcha on this side of the Indus, and the open 
quarries of Kalabagh beyond that river. Besides these, an experimental 
driving was being sunk (and is intended to be carried on from time to 
time) beneath the southern cliffs of Mount Tilla, in order to prove the 
existence or absence of workable salt within reach, that point being 
so much nearer than the others to the Northern State Railway — not 
yet completed, but in progress. Up to the latest information the salt 
had not been reached. 

The largest mines of the range are the Mayo mines at Khewra, so 

called to commemorate the visit of a late Viceroy. 
Mayo mines. 

In these, vast but dangerous chambers had been 

left by the old Sikh workmen, who either knew or cared so little how 
or where they worked, that two heavy pillars supporting the roof of one 
excavation were left resting upon a thin crust of salt, spanning another 
large chamber below. It has been remarked that most of the roof- 
falls of the mines took place at night, and the miners, who work only 
in the day time, may have relied on this poor chance for safety. As it 
was a matter of great uncertainty how long these pillars would remain 
supported, instead of supporting the roof above^ their removal was 
ordered, when suddenly on Sunday the 5th of June 1870 one of them 
broke through, carrying with it a large part of the roof, and forming a 
crater on the hill in which the mines are situated. The fallen mass of salt 
and marl was estimated (by Dr. Warth) at half a lakh of maunds, from 
which the damage that might have been done had there been miners 
at work beneath ioaay be imagined. 

The present state of these mines differs widely indeed from that which 
existed during the earlier visits of the Geological Survey Officers to the 

( 285 ) 



286 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EA.NGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

place, and still more from the state of things described by Dr. Fleming- 
and Mr. Theobald or previous writers. When I was going through them 
first with the Deputy Collector formerly in charge * his kindly warnings 
not to remain in certain places were repeatedly given; but now/ even 
though the mines are far from being everywhere safe, the alteration in 
them is so great that an air of security is derived from the regularity of 
the new works, and the business-like manner in which the operations are 
being carried on. Since Dr. Warth took charge, this great improvement 
has been effected, though improvements upon the old systemless plan of 
working were of course in progress ever since the British rule began, as 
evidenced by the very names of workings like " Thompson's drift,'* 
" Purdon's tunnel," '' Matthew's drift," &c. Only a few years since, 
entrance to the mines was gained down a slippery incline or through an 
adit, but now one can drive in upon a tramway, through a spacious 
passage, and observe a system of regular pillars and openings, with 
various inclined and other drifts, leading to a main passage, through 
which the salt is taken out of the mine in trucks. In former days, the 
two principal mines here (the Baggi and Sujewal mines) were discon- 
nected, and both of them ill ventilated : a passage has now been opened 
from one to the other, which not only gives a fine rush of air through 
the mine, but offers an additional means of escape for the numerous 
workmen in case of danger. 

The old chambers, however, still remain to contrast with the new 
system, and when lighted up the effect of these great caverns is very 
picturesque, particularly under the influence of coloured lights or that 
from the magnesium lamp ; but it is only in very strong lights that 
the brilliant reflections from the facets of crystals become at all 
prominent, though frequently spoken of by previous writers, before 
blasting powder was so much used ; nor are stalactitic masses so common 
as one might expect. 



* The late Mr. Mathews. 

( 286 ) 



ECONOMIC RESOURCES : SALT. 287 

The method of working" in these Bagg-i and Sujewal mines is 
described by Dr. Warth in his first paper previously referred to, from 
which the following is condensed :— 

The miners work in three different ways in the Baggi mine. First, 
forward from a certain floor into the rock salt. This is called the Icatti 
(htttee) , and is the most troublesome. It is nearly as hard as cutting 
drifts, there being a good deal of pickwork before the men can blast. As 
the hatt'i is carried forward, they gradually work the roof down, sitting 
upon tripods, some of which are 25 feet high. This is called chhat 
(cJiutt^J work. When they have advanced with the kaiti and chhat, 
they begin to work from behind downwards. This is called the par 
(pnr), or deep working. This jmi' ought to be very easy work, but it is 
not, because from want of space it cannot be carried on in regular ad- 
vancing steps; instead of this, the miners work the par down directly 
over are as marked out to them, both in Baggi and Sujewal mines.f 

Dr. Warth proposed to operate in a contrary manner, namely, to 
work the kaiti on the roof of the salt seam, and the remaining salt 
down to the bottom as par by steps. The improvements are being 
gradually carried out, and the appearance of the mine is yearly changing 
in consequence, so that in course of time there is little doubt the system 
will become as perfect as possible. Not very long ago, gunpowder was 
never used ; now its advantages are fully felt, and Dr. Warth has fired 
some large blasts, separating hundreds of maunds of the salt at once 
with perfect safety. 

From one of the smaller mines called Phurwalla, men, women, and 
children had carried full 40 lakhs of maunds of salt up a narrow steep and 
crooked drift, and from the whole Mayo mines Dr. Warth estimates the 

* From the word pronounced " Chutt, " meaning roof, or ceiling. 

t The Khewra miners use the following names : Salt, Loon. Impure earthy salt, 
Kuller. Crystallized salt, Sheesha. Red marl, Lai muttee. Cracks across the salt, 
Unge. Red lines marking the stratification. Purree. Small salt, Soor. Waste salt, 
in small pieces, Malba. Fallen salt used for sale, Kunnee. Dangerous state of roof, 
Chiddhur. Drift, Saan. These are spelled here as they are pronounced. 

( 287 ) 



S88 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

gross amount of salt removed at 300 lakhs of maunds ; but notwith- 
standing' the length of time these mines have been extensively worked^ and 
though each season adds a concentric belt to the excavated area^ they 
show as yet no signs of becoming exhausted."^ 

In order to facilitate the cariage of the salt from the mines. Dr. 
Warth^s tramway has been extended to the mouth of the gorge, and 
thence a wire-rope tramway has been constructed (under the superintend- 
ence of Lieutenant DeWolski, E,.E.) to the villageof Chak Nizam, on the 
southern bank of the Jhelum, above Pind-Dadan-Khan, and ten miles from 
the Khewra gorge. This has been for a few months completed and is 
occasionally in working order, but diflSculties have had to be contended 
with in the unusual length of the line, and the effect of the water of the 
country upon the boilers of the engines that supply the motive power. 
When fairly at work, this tramway will be an important aid in the rapid 
distribution of the salt by means of the Northern State Railway. 

The Sardi mines to the west (ten miles or so north-westward from 
Pind-Dadan-Khan) are smaller and less favourably situated for working, 
being sunk below the bottom of the glen instead of in a hill side like 
those of Khewra. They were more recently opened than the latter, and 
were originally constructed on a better plan, flights of steps being cut out 
of the salt, and the roofs supported. Owing to their low situation they 
have been at times stopped by access of water, and I believe they are 
now altogether closed. 

The Varcha (or Wurcha) mine is in the hill on the right-hand side 
of the Varcha gorge, about thirty miles west-north-west from Shahpur. 
The mme is at a considerable elevation and is large, though only about 
20 feet of salt are excavated out of a bed of much greater thickness,t 
the remainder of which is not sufficiently good for commercial purposes 

* For very full descriptions of the mines, modes of working, outturn, etc.. Dr. Warth's 
papers, noticed in Chapter I, may be referred to. 

t Dr. Warth remarks that the salt mines of Cheshire are being excavated in the same 
thickness as the Varcha bed, — 20 feet. 

( 288 ) ■ 



ECONOMIC RESOURCES : SALT. 289 

at the Salt Rang'e. There are large remains of old Sikh workings and 
great natural shafts or vertical water-courses, a sketch of one of which 
has been given (see PI. XXV). The old workers here, as elsewhere, 
left the roof unsupported, and it is falling in, but in the modern mine 
this is provided against. While the salt-bed continues to dip, as it at 
present does (30° toN. W. ), no alternation in the mode of working 
(according to Dr. Warth) will be needed. The mine is well ventilated 
and clean, and has two modes o£ ingress, but no low-level water-escape. 

The Kalabagh workings are all " at daylight,'^ in a thick group of 
salt-beds, ranging from 4 to 10 or even 30 feet each. They run along 
the right side of the Lun or Gossai Nala (or Drung gorge), the salt 
being found to extend from the base of the hill as high up as 200 feet; 
but the beds are not all sufficiently good to be worked, 20 feet being the 
largest known thickness of a workable salt-bed here. All the beds dip 
west at nearly 70°. The salt outcrop extends for some two miles up the 
glen, and there are fourteen working places or quarries.'^ 

Besides those mentioned there are numbers of old mines, about which 
nothing is known, while some that have been inspected were found to pro- 
mise large supplies of salt. Several of the old mines occur in the Jutana 
and Kusak beats, four in the Makrach beat, three in that of Malot; 
eight in Sardi beat, four in the Nilawan ravine, three in the hills about 
Musakhel, and several at Mari. 

The old Jutana mines were being worked when Dr. Jameson visited 
the Salt Range in 1843, and had then been open twenty, thirty, and 
thirty-five years. The descent into the body of the mine was accomplish- 
ed by steps cut in the salt, and the workings seem to have been i^rge, but 
as irregular as usual in the Sikh excavations. The salt was removed in 
masses, two of which were a load for a camel ; also in smaller pieces with 
which to load oxen. The miners were paid one anna per maund for ex- 
tracting the salt, and this was sold for a rupee per pucka maund. The 

* Dr. Warth's Report, already quoted. 

n2 ( 289 ) 



290 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



price of a camel-load was Rs. 6 to 8, and before it reached Umballa, 
paying- hire, duty, &c., it cost from 8 to 20 rupees.* 

The best idea that can be given of the quantity of salt produced 
by the Salt Range mines will, perhaps, be obtained from the value 
according to the subjoined abstract of the receipts for four years (taken 
from the report on the administration of the Inland Customs Depart- 
ment for the official year 1870-71, page 14). The rate at which the 
salt is sold at the mines is Rs. 3-1 per maundf :— 

Receipts from the Salt Range Mines. 



Tears. 


Names of Min-bs. 


Totals. 


Mayo. 


Sardi. 


Vurcha. 


KaabSgh. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Es. 


1867-68 


28,97,530 


1,91,819 


2,83,783 


2,16,189 


35,89,321 


1868-69 


29,10,338 


2,50,506 


4,16,292 


2,03,445 


37,80,581 


1869-70 


35,03,171 


4,26,485 


3,99,856 


1,61,946 


44,91,458 


1870-71 


27,99,092 


2,20,686 


4,45,040 


1,99,584 
Total ... 


36,64,402 




1,55,25,762 



This total is equal to £1,552,576, or an annual average amounting to 
the large sum of £388,144.| It appears from the same report, page 15, 
that the average amount of salt cleared from the depots during the 
above years was 12,91,1 48 maunds. 

With regard to the continuity of the salt-beds, the indications, so 
far as can be judged at present, point to the occurrence of several 
sets of beds, rather than the extension of any one group, and the quantity 
of salt, as now known or exposed, probably bears only a small proportion 

* Dr. Jameson's Report quoted; see list of previous publications. 

t Rs. 3-l=six shillings and one and a half pence. A maund is equal to 82 fibs. 

J This is the average taken from the above figures ; that given by Mr. Wright, the 
former local head of the Salt Department, is smaller by nearly £5,500, but he may have 
deducted some working expenses of the Department, 

( 290 ) 



ECONOMIC RESOURCES : SALT. 291 

to that whicli is concealed or which may have been destroyed. Mines 
have been worked along the range from periods so remote that their date 
cannot be ascertained^^ and very much of the salt 
has been both naturally and artificially removed, 
yet if the present outturn were increased many times, the supply might 
still be considered inexhaustible, so far as quantity is concerned. The 
salt-marl appears so frequently that its continuity, for a distance of 134 
miles, more or less, can hardly be doubted, and it occupies a breadth 
which, on the same sort of evidence, may be fairly assumed at from four 
to five miles ; while its reappearance on the north side of the range in 
two places would indicate its underlying the mountains everywhere, with 
a breadth of from twelve to sixteen miles, or it may extend to a much 
greater width. Allowing a breadth of five miles, this estimatef gives an 
area of salt-bearing marl 670 square miles in extent, in which the 
salt-zones vary from nearly 100 to 275 feet in thickness ; separate beds 
or groups' of beds of salt, where the size of the bands collectively is 
least known, having thicknesses of 20, 30, and 40 feet. 

Excepting for about twelve miles in length, at the eastern end of 
this area, salt is seen or known to exist within almost every mile where 
the marl is fairly exposed, so that although little or nothing is known 
as to the manner in which the salt-zones are laterally extended or ter- 
minated, the quantity of the mineral present must be enormous if it is 
considered that (a roughly shaped cubic foot of salt weighing about 136 
pounds) the solid contents of a bed of salt, only 30 feet in thickness and 
one square mile in area, would amount to over 50,778,514 tons. 



* " Dr. Fleming records that the mines were first worked in the reign of Akbar, and 
mention is made of them in the Ain-Akbari, hut this is all the information existing upon 
the subject. The native tradition is that Akbar was informed of the existence of the salt 
by a certain Asp Khan on condition of his receiving, as a reward, during his life-time, a 
sum equal to the whole of the wages of the miners employed in digging it. Salt was sold 
in Lahore during the reign of Akbar at the rate of 6 annas per maund." — Panjdb Govern- 
ment Gazetteer, Jhelum District. 

f A smaller estimate was made previously in order to be well within the mark (see 
Chapter III, p. 81). 

( 291 ) 



292 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The detailed accounts of the mines given in publications already 
referred to being very copious, it has been sought to convey here a fair 
o-eneral impression of the deposits, rather than reiterate all the details 
previously published. 

The new facts ascertained by the latest explorations are chiefly 
these : — 

(1.) Where the workings have been most carefully surveyed, the 
salt has been found in zones, consisting of several distinct beds, within 
distances of about 600 feet, 200 feet, and less, of the top of the marl 
and gypsum. 

(2.) That the arrangement and thickness of the beds, and the quantity 
of marl and gypsum (more or less intermixed) intervening between the 
salt-zones, and between the group superior to the marl and the salt 
itself, indicate more variability than sameness of the exact horizon upon 
which the salt is found. 

(3.) That there seems to be a larger development of so-called bad 
salt in the western than in the eastern part of the district (which bad 
salt would, however, in other districts be extremely valuable). 

(4.) The recent and most detailed explorations by the Salt Depart- 
ment have been chiefly confined to the old workings, and other beds of 
salt have not been sought for, except at Mount Tilla, where none has 
yet been found. Without regular prospecting operations it would be 
impossible to hope for information about the salt-rock in this or other 
directions, partly on account of the tendency which the marl has to 
conceal the enclosed salt ; and whether the lower part of this "' red marl " 
does or does not also contain valuable beds of salt is quite unknown. 

Should it ever become necessary, the best place, perhaps, for ascer- 
taining this would be the ground about Chambal hill (west) between 
the Jutana and Kusak Beats. 

Though the method of mining the salt is being improved, and 
arrangements for its transport by wire-tramway and rail from Khewra 
( 292 ) 



ECONOMIC RESOURCES : COAL. 293 

are in progress, the old system of carriage still exists elsewhere, 
too-ether with the waste this occasions. The salt is reduced to rough 
spherical lumps, to prevent the corners being rubbed off during its rough 
transport in open nettings or hair-cloth bags. So long as the merchants 
prefer, and can obtain, the salt in blocks, it does not seem likely that 
any steps will be taken to utilise the enormous quantity of valuable 
salt now wasted. 



Coal. 

The coal of the Salt Range has formed one subject of a detailed 
report by Dr. Oldham in the memorandum 
on the mineral resources of the district, already 
noticed. It occurs at eighteen or twenty localities, including Kala- 
bagh, but at only a very few of these in fairly workable quantity. 
The coal of the Salt Range proper generally comes from near the 
base of the nummulitic rocks, and is most largely developed at a short 
distance from Bhaganwala. It has been worked here, at Pid, and 
to the westward at Samundri, besides small quantities being raised 
at other places. The coal is not of bad quality in some places, but 
the amount of the best kind is very small and becomes deteriorated 
by mixture with the more sulphurous and shaly portions of the beds, 
so that the fuel obtained falls to pieces and it is liable to spontaneous 
combustion. 

The Kalabagh coal or lignite is of Jurassic age and of better 
quality than the former; it is composed of portions of trees in a 
fossilised state, not forming a bed, but distributed in both shales and 
sandstones, from the former of which the coal collected for sale has been 
obtained. 

As to quantity. Dr. Oldham estimated that there might be raised at 
the Bhaganwala locality 16,20,000 maunds of coal, and at Kalabagh 
some 45,000 maunds. It appears from the mineral statistics by 
Dr. Oldham, in Vol. VII of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey, that 

( 293 ) 



294 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

the following quantities o£ coal were raised at the Salt Range (the 
localities not being given) : — 



In the year 1863 ... 


199 maunds. 


„ 1864 ... 


... 9,742 


» 1865 ... 


... 27,528 „ 


„ 1866 ... 


... 14,596 


„ 1867 ... 


710 




52,775 maunds, or 




1,937 tons, 11 cwt. 



In nearly all of the localities given in Dr. Oldham^s list (see below), 
and in a few besides, the coal of the lower nummulitie beds was found to 
be so dull and weathered on its outcrop that it was only by cutting into 
the beds the mineral could be seen. In some spots the waste-heaps had 
spontaneously ignited, but this did not appear to have occurred in the 
beds. At no locality were works being carried on, and the largest of 
the abandoned excavations were those at Pid and Samuiidri, where bun- 
galows had been built j that at the former place was occasionally used, 
but the house at the latter, to which there were but faint traces of a 
road, was fast falling into a ruinous state. It is supposed that these 
were the places whence the nineteen hundred and odd tons just men- 
tioned were extracted. 

Everything connected with these deposits of coal and shale which 
has been ascertained during the examination of the ground, tends to show 
that they have a very general but not continuous existence, and there 
are circumstances to the westward which show either the occurrence of 
a higher band of coaly shales, as at the Bakh ravine, or that, from 
increase of the lower portion of the nummulitie limestone, the place 
of the band has been shifted higher up in this group. Westwards 
of this place, the basal portion of the nummulitie beds is still earthy, 
and the form of the talus, at the foot of the cliffs in which the limestone 
terminates, shows the beds to be soft, the rocks next below the num- 
mulitie group in this region, when seen, being often earthy and shaly. 
Some traces of gypseous clay, and the gypseous nature of the lowest 
( 294 ) 



ECONOMIC EESOURCES : COAL. 295 

nummulitic beds at the Bakh ravine^ as well as the occurrence of the 
haematitic zone near that place (and further westward) j would indicate 
the continuance of the same characteristics at the base of this series. 

In very many, or perhaps in most cases, the debris at the foot of the 
nummulitic limestone cliffs conceals everything- just below it, but several 
sections, g-iven in the foregoing- pages, will show the local absence of these 
coaly shales, or else that their importance and coal-bearing character is 
locally diminished. The frequency of their occurrence and the larger 
development of the coal layers towards the eastern parts of the range, 
render it very probable that if it were ever worth while to institute trials, 
the coal would be found in many places now concealed over that country. 
The fact, however, should be borne in mind, that the soft shaly nature 
of the associated rocks and the occurrence of the hard nummulitic lime- 
stone, more or less nearly horizontally extended over the coal-bearing- beds, 
would always present much difficulty in carrying on mining operations. 



From Dr. Oldham^s memorandum (being a report to Government) 
the following particulars are abstracted to supplement those already 
embodied in this Memoir : — 

Bhaganioalla. — Extent of coal along outcrop, two miles; thickness, three feet six 
inches. Coal greatly cracked and jointed ; when exposed to the atmosphere, disintegrates 
and falls to pieces. Crystals and flakes of gypsum common in fissures of coal, and iron 
pyrites, which, decomposing, gives rise to spontaneous ignition of the coal. Much care 
needed, if the place (or any of the Salt Range coal) be worked, to keep galleries quite clear 
of dust and small coal. Good masses of bright coal can be obtained from this place, to 
work which, successive galleries would be required, one over the other. Locality inaccessible, 
but improvable in this respect. 

2. Keora {Khewra). — Above the gorge, coal poor, full of iron pyrites, and with layers 
and irregular masses of clay interbedded. Thickness two feet eleven inches. Coal divided 
into two by a layer of shale. 

3. Pid. — On side of hiU facing the south. Dip to north, 60° or 64° : thickness of coal, 
three feet when pure. Good bright fuel ; falls into fragments after exposure to the air. Not 
quite so much pyrites here as in other places. Locality close to a good road and easily 
accessible ; probably a fair amount of good fuel here j a thick covering of debris prevents 
its being traced. 

4. Baudot (No. 1). — Coal seen on edge of a fault or slip; coal two feet six inches • 
only a small fallen mass of rock and coal, useless as a permanent source of fuel. 

( 295 ) 



296 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OE THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJIb. 

5. Baudot (No. 2). — A mile further north, in a fallen under-cliff, thicknesses of two 
layers fifteen to eighteen inches and from ten to twelve inches. Beds squeezed out to south 
and cut off to north ; fuel not had ; coal divided hy a band of sandy shale. 

6. Baudot (No. 3). — Further to the north and west, same general character j no 
gi'eater prospect of successful exploration. 

7. Nila. — Coal poor in quality, dip 30° to 35° to south-east ; coal more than fifteen 
inches thick ; eight feet of blackish shales below it with thin layers of flaky coal. 

8. Karuli.— Goal slipped with the rocks on which the village is placed; useless as well 
as very limited in extent. 

9. Nurpur (Nilawan). — Northern end of main gorge under high cliff, along which 
patrol road has been carried ; little prospect of any successful working. 

10. Sowa Khan. — On the edge of a slip fault, which has brought the nummulitic 
limestone into contact with the red and purple marly beds of the salt series. Section 
concealed to a great extent by debris ; only a portion of the rocks, far removed from 
their natural position. 

11. Beiwal. — A little patch of coal and coaly shale in one of the lower spurs of the 
hills a few mQes from Deiwal village, but said to be within its boundaries, perfectly use- 
less as a source of fuel. The coal occurs in a heap of debris of all kinds, only a few feet 
in length, and varies from an inch or two to nearly two feet in thickness. 

12. Katia. — At the base of a large cliff of nummulitic limestone under the Chamil 
hill, near its base, both limestone and coal broken. No prospect of any continuous supply. 
The bed of no thickness. 

13. Chamil. — Under the lofty scarp of the nummulitic limestone at the north- 
eastern corner of the line of cliffs which form the southern face of the Chamil plateau ; coal 
and associated shales in their true position unfallen, dip 12° to north 5° west. Two coal 
seams, one from six inches to ten or twelve in thickness, the other fine jetty coal, six inches. 
Place not very difiicult of access, but no workable quantity of coal. 

14. Sungle Wan. — Or one mile west of village of Arar, close to Diliali hamlet, at level 
of water in bank of stream. Two thin seams, upper six inches, lower ten to twelve inches, 
dip south-east 30°. Beds a small patch under a large talus of debris ; at foot of high 
scarps of limestone, one mass of broken debris. Same beds again seen not far off ; much 
broken up ; no prospect of being profitably worked. 

15. Amh or Umh. — The Sulgi coal locality; coal of no value and no extent (see 
detailed descriptions foregoing). 

16. Kalabagh. — Irregular strings and patches of coaly matter in the alum shales, 
especially in the lower group of the shales, not extracted. (This is not the place whence the 
Kalabagh coal is taken, the latter being Jurassic ; this is nummulitic.) 

17. Kotli. — Southern end of the Chichali Pass, similar to the nummulitic locality of 
Kalabagh. Specimens of the coal have been analysed. It is for the most part rather diiB- 
cult to ignite at first, throwing out a large quantity of dense smoke (in most cases with a 

( 296 ) 



ECONOMIC RESOURCES : PETROLEUM. 297 

marked sulphurous odour), but when ignited it burns well with abundant flame ; does not 
cake much, and, with ordinary care, yields but little clinker. Tried practically in the loco- 
motives o£ the Punjab Railway, both at Lahore and Mooltan, it proved very successful ; 
it was found to answer well, both in getting up and maintaining steam for an ordinary train 
travelling twenty-five miles per hour. It answered well at Mooltan, but required screening 
and foreign matter picked out. There was dust from its brittle nature, and the fire-bars 
required attention. It was tried in the steamers on the Indus, and favourable opinion of its 
quality was given, it having been calculated to be, weight for weight, four times as effective 
as wood. 

" The coal would prove a very efiective fuel, though it cannot be considered a first-rate 
coal, one maund of it being equal in effective work to 2*5 to 4 maunds of ordinary wood." 



Petroleum. 
The position and circumstances of the petroleum and mineral tar 

situated in the western part of the range have 
Petroleum. , ^ . , . . 

been mentioned in the loregomg descriptions^ and 

all but one locality have been fully reported upon by Mr. Lyman (see 

List of Authors) . This is the Sulgi coal locality, where the rocks which 

contain the tar are only an isolated and widely separated mass of the 

tertiary beds, the exact continuation of which it would be impossible to 

point out. The quantity of the tar exuding- here is not commercially 

valuable, but the saturated sandstone rock, if continuous beyond what 

can be seen at the surface, could easily be quarried. 

The petroleum near Jaba at the Chota and Burra Kutta glens comes 
to the surface in greater quantity than in most other places in the 
mineral oil region of the Upper Punjab (the workings near Fatehjang 
of course excepted), the natural supply being about four and a half 
quarts a day. 

The localities are in some respects well situated for boring, and the 
distance from the Indus at Kalabagh, where water-carriage could be had, 
is only about nine miles. A tolerable foot-road exists hence to the vil- 
lage of Jaba, less than two miles from the springs. The oil is dark 
green, and the water which accompanies it evolves sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The other localities produce such trifling quantities of petroleum as to 
be of little or no economic value. 

o2 ( 297 ) 



298 "WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNjXb. 



Building-stones. 

The stones chiefly used for building- along the range are the smooth 
fine-grained sandstones of the purple sandstone 
group. These dress well, but being often soft and 
sufiiciently saline to take up moisture are not so good as some other rocks 
which are less easy to work. It is stated that these furnished the material 
used to raise the memorial obelisk on the battle-field of Chilianala (com- 
monly called Chillian walla). 

A white sandstone, seen on the ascent from Pind-Dadan-Khan to Pid, 
just after leaving the plains, seemed likely to make a good and handsome 
building-stone. Many beds of the dolomitic sandstone group appeared 
also well fitted for use, though not likely to dress so well as the purple 
sandstones. 

The limestones of the carboniferous and nummulitic groups, and, 
indeed, some of the more regularly bedded triassic or Jurassic lime- 
stones, would furnish excellent building materials. 

Putting aside the softer sandstones, and the more shaly or saline beds 
of any of the sub-divisions, there is hardly one group of rocks above the 
salt-marl in which durable and easily worked building-stone could not be 
found, and a mixture of the many different-coloured stones procurable 
would form handsome ashler walls. Blocks of large size could be obtained 
from many of the sandstones of the dolomitic group No. 4, or from the 
formations containing limestone. The group No. 8 furnishes good flags, 
some of which have been used in the new fortified barracks at Rawal- 
pindi. Lime can be obtained from one or other of the formations almost 
everywhere. 

Although there is no scarcity of strong building-stone, the builders 
of the ancient Salt Range temples (probably Buddhist) generally 
disregarded all others in favour of the calcareous travertine found in many 
parts of the range. This, although brought from a distance, seems in 
some cases to have been preferred to any material nearer at hand. This 
( a98 ) 



ECOXOJ[IC llESOURCES : ORNAMENTAL STONES. 299 

light and porous stone was probably easily cut while fresh, hardening 
to a certain extent on exposure. It is not, of course, calculated to 
retain fine sculpture or tracery, but it appears in exposed situations 
to have withstood the action of all weathers wonderfully well. The 
blocks are rough and often much decayed in places, but still they retain 
their positions in the body of the buildings, being, perhaps, more closely 
bound together by calcareous infiltrations. The material at best is liable 
to decay (less so, perhaps, in the Salt Range climate than elsewhere), 
and from its porous nature can oppose little resistance to crushing force ; 
hence it would be unsuitable for large modern works. 

Ornamental Stones. 
The variegated and banded concretionary limestone of the num- 

mulitic rocks on the plateau above the head of 
Variegated limestone. citiii 

Sardi glen has been a good deal quarried for 

ornamental purposes. Knife-handles of various kinds and paper-weights 

are made of it, and the church of Shahpur is said to be flagged 

with it. When polished, the curved laminae of the stone are plainly seen ; 

thin, purple, and yellowish or grey lines often simulating the structure 

of fossil wood. Some of this stone is also reported to have been used 

in the construction o£ the houses of wealthy natives along the southern 

face of the range and at a distance towards Lahore. The stone is also 

said to be found in one or two other places in the neighbourhood, but 

the exact localities could not be learned. 

Another stone used much in the same way as the variegated limestone 

is a part of the hsematitie band at the base of the 
Haematite. 

nummulitic limestone; portions of this when 

polished exhibit red, greenish, and white markings which often resemble 

sections of amygdaloid. 

The chert or flints of the limestone-beds, particularly of the 

nummulitic limestone, are used as chak-maks 
Chert. 

to procure fire, and the Sikhs are reported to 
have made gun- flints from them. 

( 299 ) 



800 WYNNE: GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

The bi-pyramidal quartz crystals either transparent, reddish, or 

more opaque, found in quantities in the gypsum 
Mari diamonds. „^^, . •,.,.,, t i • , ii -■, I^ 

of Man salt-hill, are worked into necklaces by the 

natives, consequently those longer than usual or more regular are valued 

to some extent. The mine in which the best are said to occur was 

closed when Mari was visited. Dr. Jameson (Report, page 206) says 

they were also found in the rock-salt ; but this has not been confirmed 

by any recent observations. 

Some of the opaque salt is often turned or cut into ornamental 
Salt. utensils. 

Gypsum. 

The gypsum of the salt-marl exists in enormous quantities, and 

much smaller developments of the mineral are 

to be found among some of the other groups, 

chiefly as selenite in the shaly beds associated with the coal. It is, 

generally speaking, a pure sulphate of lime, and the only uses to which 

it is known to be applied are for mixing in a powdered state with mortar 

(as mentioned by Dr. Fleming) ; some of the more compact varieties 

near Sardi are turned to form plates or other rude ornamental utensils. 

Some use must, however, be made of the transparent variety, for it is 

reported to fetch Rs. 3-14 per maund at Lahore. 

f 

La VENDEE Clay. 

The lavender clay-ash or decomposed rock found with the volcanic 

rock of Nilawan, &c., is used by the natives as 
Clay. . . 

soap or to assist in washing. 

Galena. 

A small quantity of galena, in little nests and crystals, is found 

disseminated through the dolomitic sandy rock 

of the escarpment at the top of Karangli hill. 

Here a sort of mine, some yards in length, leads out to the face of the 

( 300 ) 



ECONOMIC BESOURCES : ALUM. 301 

cliff, on which side it is inaccessible, and to enter it a descent of several 
feet has to be made by the help of a branching portion of a tree. 

The galena, when collected, sells for Rs. 4 or 5 per tolah,"*^ 
to be pounded up and used as hhol for blackening the eyes of the 
natives, who call it by the rather loosely-applied name surma. It is 
also said to occur in the same rock on the right side of Khewra gorge, 
near a temple. (Dr. Fleming^s Report, page 256.) 



Alum. 

The manufacture of alum is not now carried on in the Salt Range 

proper, but formerly alum was made at a place 
Alum. . 

about two miles westward of Virgal, on the Son- 

Sakesar plateau, and also beneath Sakesar mountain, at the head of the 
Amb glen. In both these places the alum was obtained from the black 
shales at the base of the nummulitic limestone. It is probable that 
these would have answered the purpose in other places, but the experi- 
ment apparently has not been tried. 

Trans-Indus at Kalabagh, and again in the valley of the pass of 
Chichali, there are alum works in active operation, the shales being the 
same as those Cis-Indus. Interesting and detailed accounts of the manu- 
facture of the alum west of the Indus may be found in Dr. Jameson's 
(page 212) and Dr. Fleming's two reports (pages 522 and 335, respect- 
ively). The process appears to he the same everywhere, and is effected 
thus : A layer of brushwood (Tamarisk or JDodoncea) is spread on the 
ground, on which are placed alternate layers, each about a foot thick, of 
alum-shale and brushwood. The heap so formed is ignited from below, 
and fresh layers of shales and brushwood are added above until a large 
heap in a state of ignition is formed. This is left for several months, 
and when thoroughly roasted, the red burned shale or rol is lixiviated 

* This, from local information. 

( 301 ) 



302 WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT EANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 

in vats with water. The solution obtained is drawn off and allowed to 
deposit any mud it may hold. This process is repeated, and then the 
liquid is boiled with an impure alkaline salt called jamsan obtained by 
lixiviation from JcuUer, the sulphate and carbonate of soda efflorescence 
so common in the country. It is afterwards allowed to settle and 
slowly crystallize, the crystals being removed, washed, dried, and melted 
in iron pans in their own water of crystallization; the fluid is then 
transferred into earthen ovoid jars for eight or ten days to re-crystallize ; 
after this time the mass, which is generally hollow, is tapped and the 
unerystallized alum solution drained ofiF, when the jars are broken and 
the alum is ready for sale. 

This account has been abbreviated from Dr. Fleming's, which, on 
comparison, was found to possess his general accuracy of observation. 

Kahi Mitti. 
A shale containing sulphate of iron and alumina, probably from the 

Chita Wan, near Ghari, in the Salt Range, is 
Kahi mitti. . • »■ 

mentioned in Mr. Baden-Po well's work already 

quoted. It is most likely that these shales are part of the soft alum 

shale group just below the nummulitic beds. At all events, some 

shales associated with the black alum-shales are said to contain 

silky crystals of anhydrous protosulphate of iron. The shale is 

pounded and mixed with the mother liquid from the crystallization 

of the alum, after which the mixture is allowed to dry in the sun 

and again treated in the same way, the substance thus obtained assumes 

a tawny yellow colour, and consists of a mixture of alum and sulphate 

of iron, the latter largely predominating. This is called kahi, and is 

used in dying leather or cloth grey or black."^ The black mud of 

the sulphurous springs in the Bakh ravine is also used (in this way 

probably) by dyers. 

* Economic Resources of the Panjab, p. 67. Mr, Baden -Powell (1, c, p. 11) gives 
the price at 7 tolahs 10 mashas to 10 tolahs per rupee. 

( 303 ) 



ECONOMIC RESOURCES : GOLD. 303 

In Mr. Powell'8 book there are several references to ochre from the 
Salt Range, &c. ; the only instance, however, in 
which the use of any of the ochreous beds of the 
district came under notice was in the colouring of cotton cloths of a dirty 
red, by soaking them in the muddy water of pools upon the red ground, 
formed of the flaggy and shaly group No. 8, in the eastern part of the 
range, near Sadand, above Jutana. 

Gold. 

Gold is washed for in the Indus at Kalabagh, sometimes also in the 
Bunhar river bed at the other end of the range, 
and in several small streams along its northern 
flanks ; the present source of the precious metal being the tertiary sand- 
stone formation, and apparently among the beds of the Lower Siwalik 
group. The process is not continuous, being only carried on after heavy 
falls of rain in the smaller streams, and in the Indus when floods 
permit. The amount realised can hardly be closely ascertained, for as 
the industry is taxed, it is the interest of the operators to conceal 
their gains. According to the best information obtainable, these fluc- 
tuate from 3 to 4 annas worth a day per man, this being generally 
thought rather above the average measure of success. 

Conclusion. 
I cannot conclude this record of the results of the examination of 
the Salt Range without acknowledging the valuable assistance received 
by the Ofl&cers of the Geological Survey, from the Political Officers of 
the Jhelam and Meawali districts ; from the Salt Department Officers — 
Mr, Wright, Mr. Matthews, Dr. Warth, Mr. Hickie, Mr. Weldon, Mr. 
Bolster, and others ; as well as from Lieutenant DeWolski, R.E., on 
duty connected with the wire-rope tramway. 



( 303 ) 



INDEX. 



Abnormal position of salt marl 
Absence of organisms in salt series 
Accumulation area of salt limited 
Age of salt marl 
Agba Abbas on Salt Range . 



Page 

150 

84 

83 

73 

6 



Alluvium 



silts older tban 



114, 115, 125 
. 114 



Alternations of salt marl and purple 

sandstone . . . 216, 230 

Altitudes of range . . .37 

Alum, 277 ; factories, 7 ; sbales, 239, 273 
Amb glen . . . 233, 240 

village . . .237 

Ammonites in carboniferous forma- 



tion 
Analysis of salt 
Anticlinals near Sardi 

. ■ of Bakrala 

of Makracb 

. of Mount Tilla 



Appendix, Trans-Indus bills 

• to Inland Customs Report 



95, 221 

. 77 

179, 192, 193 

. 121 

169 

11,12 

. 272 

29 



Area of Nurpur Plateau . . 184 

• of salt exposures . 81, 291 

Arrangement of rock groups . 65 

Ascent from Khewra to Pid . 163 

Ascesines River . . .14 

Assistance from District and Salt 

Officers . . . .303 

Atmospheric influences . . 60 

Auriferous sands . . . 115 



Page. 
Baden-Powell, references to Salt 

Range . . . .27 
Baganwala . . • 137, 140 
Bakb ravine . • . 253 
Bakrala ridge . . .38 
Banded limestone . . . 181 
Bargir Kas .... 259 
Bazar Wan . . • .250 
Beds below coal shales . . . 106 
• dipping from axes of Nilawan 

and Sardi ravines . . 192 

Belief that the saliferous masses had 

been produced by eruptive agency . 15 
Between Jalar and Kavhad . . 222 

Kand ghat and Kavhad . 220 

Yarcha and Amb . . 232 

■ andthe mines gorge 229 

Bhal carboniferous rocks . . 194 

Blanford, H. P., Upheaval of Salt 

Range .... 232 
Bone beds near Rotas . . 126 

Boulder clays . . . 114 

zone . . . 125 

at Nara glen . . 129 

large erratic at Khewra . 117 

near 

Baganwala . . . ib. 

BiidiKhel . . .256 

Building-stones . . . 298 

Burnes, Lieut. A., account of Salt 

Range .... 5 

( 305 ) 



306 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



Calcareous Tufa 

Captain Strachey 

Carbonaceous bands, Shuriwali 

Carboniferous formation 

— I limestone 

■ associated beds 

. sandy beds . 

. fossils 

. • sections 

. — divisions by Fleming, 

&c. 

. ortboceratites and 

ceratites 

. . ammonite 

. magnesian rocks 

. . ground, features of . 

«__ — . commencement of 

. at Varcba 

.. nortb-west of Kavbad 

. ■- of Son plateau 

— — appearance of, in Nil- 

awdn 
Ceratite beds, Katwabi 
. carboniferous 



Page, 

119 
10 

256 
12 
93 
93 
93 
98 
94 

94 

, 94 
68,95 
68,95 
. 96 
. 95 
. 230 
222 
204 

190 
216 
95 
155 
132 
133 
133 



Chak Sbuffi, series near 
Cbambal scarp 

i section at . 

. ~ dislocated ground near 

— Mountain . 100, 107, 135 

west . 53, 149 

Cbanges in purple sandstones 
series • • • 237, 251 



Cbaracters of salt-crystal zone 
CbelHill . 

. Tertiary fossil leaves near 

Cbideru section 

Trias near . 

. — country nortb-west of 

■ carboniferous 

( 306 ) 



98 
144 
144 

247 
248 
249 
249 



Cbideru bills, end of 
Cbicbali Pass 

Cboya Ganj Ali Sbab valley 
Cboya-Saidun Sbab . 

' — ■ valley 

soutb-west ,of 



Cboya, west 

Gorge and salt marl of 

Classification of rocks of Salt Range 
by Dr. Flem- 



Pfigc. 

250 

275 
145 
148 
147 
148 
226 
227 
69 

13, 94 



layan rocks 
Clay, lavender 
Cliffs near Batli 
Dandot 



plateau 



Dangot 

sections Sardi 

Kartili 

soutb of Nurpur 

escarpment soutb of range 

Coal of Salt Range, Dr. Oldbam on 

at Pid ... 

so-called, of Nurwa 

and coal sbales 

Shales 

■ of Chamil 

series of Makracb 

Kariili . . . 

of Baganwala, and section 

west of Arara . . . 

at Kbewra 

■ sbales, fossils of 

Katwabi 



Color of copper shales 



ing . 
by Mr. Theo- 
bald . 17 
by D'Arcbiac 

and Haime 16 
by Dr.Warth 29, 30 
■ of Sub-Hima- 

20 
300 
156 
164 
269 
180 
178 
186 
39 
295 
162 
184 
278 
293 
105 
205 
169 
178 
138 
211 
157 
106 
216 
91 



INDEX. 



307 



Commencement of speckled sandstone 
Composition of salt marl 

■= of magnesian sandstone 

■ of potash salt . 

Conditions of production of salt 
Conglomerate bands in siluiian 

near Mari 

zone, Siwalik . 

Conglomerates 

Connexion of Salt Eange with outer 

Himalaya 
Copper shales 

Cost of carriage of salt in 1837 
Country each side of Bakrala ridge . 

above Makrach 

—^ west of Khewi'a 

' on each side of range 

east of Kund ghat . 

Cretaceous formation 

■ passage beds to west 

western beds, fossils 

■ distribution, where seen . 

at Chichali Pass, 

Crushing and dislocation, eastern 



Page, 

90 

71 

88 

80 

82 

87 
266 
125 

27 

2 
91 

6 
122 
214 
219 

42 
214 
103 
103 
104 
104 
276 

145 



plateau 

Crystalline boulder beds, 87, 104, 117, 258 
Crj'stals, pseudomorphic, after salt . 98 



Dandot cliffs 

plateau 

• coal 



. 164 
. 41 
. 166 



D'Archiac and Haime on Salt 

Eange fossils . . .15 

Davidson, Mr., ditto . .15, 20, 21 

de Koniuck Salt Eange fossils . 22 

Devonian, so-called . . .12 

Diagram of Salt Eange series . 69 

Difference of carboniferous sections . 94 



Page. 

Difference of Salt Eange nummuli- 
tic from that of other nummulitic 
areas .... 107 

Disappearance of range at Indus . 40 
Diljaba Mountain . . . 123 

Discovery of carboniferous ammon- 
ites . . . .05 
Disintegration south of range . 59 
Disparity between Salt Eange and 

Himalayan series . . .64 

Distance of volcanic sources from 

area of salt marl . . .83 

Distribution of cretaceous . . 104 

of salt mai'l . • 72 

Disturbance . ' -52, 102, 192 

north of Jalalpur . 131 

Dolomite in gypsum . • 74 
i in salt marl • 133, 231, 277 
Doubtfully two zones of haematite . 210 
Drainage, Sardi glen . • 193 
of Salt Eange . 43, 45 



E 

Early acquaintance with importance 
of Salt Eange 

conditions of accumulation of 

salt marl . 
Eastern part of range 

plateau 

termination of Mount Tilla 

■ cretaceous . 

■ limestone of Kahiin plateau 



Economic resources 
Effect of rain (foot-note) 
Elevation of Korana hills 
— '■ of Salt Eange 



Elphinstone's Caubul 
Eocene 

Epitome of Eastern Salt Eange 
geology at Mount Tilla . 

i 307 



280 

52 

40 

124 

103 

170 

283 

143 

14 

32, 56, 57 
4 
69, 105 



130 



308 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



Tage. 

Erosive agency . . .61 

En-atic blocks . . .117 

Escai-pment structure . . 59 

at Jalalpur . . 136 

west of Baghanwala . 140 

Essential features of the range . 36 

Exhalations, Kangrawala hill . 237 

Extension of nummulitic . . 107 

F 

Falconer, fossils determined by .18 

Faults . . .58,54,55,66 



Bakrala ridge 

■ near Jalalpur 

Mount Tilla 

Warru Kas 

Makrach 

PaU . 

— — - Varcha 

Sakesar 

Features of Salt Eange 
of carboniferous ground 



. 121 
. 135 
. 127 
. 213 

. 174 
. 198 
, 234 
. 245 
36, &c. 
. 96 

First appearance of carboniferous . 97 
Fleming's Reports, &c. . 9, 14, 14 
and Theobald's sub-divi- 
sion of carboniferous formation . 94 
Formation of salt pseudomorphs . 100 
Fossiliferous beds . . .68 
Fossils determined by de Verneuil . 27 

D'Archiac and 

Haime . . .16 

^ of carboniferous beds 93, &c. 

of Jurassic beds . . 102 

' of Eonca type . . 103 

of cretaceous beds . . 104 

■ of lower nummulitic . 106 

leaves near Chel hill . 144 

Fresh springs . . .47 

From Rotas towards TUla . . 126 

• Jalalpur eastward . . 38 

( 308 ) 



Page, 



G 



Galena . . . .300 
Gamthala Kas (Gadala) . 148, 169 
General description tertiary sand- 
stones 
section near Karuli . 



Geographical situation of Salt Range 
Geological examination of Salt Range 
Geology, stratigraphic, of Salt Range 

of country trans-Indus 

Glen leading from Pail to Katta 
Golawali Keri section 
to Chiderii 



108 
178 
2 
2 

50 
272 
200 
246 
247 
303 
270 
122 
228 
229 



Gold 

in Indus bed 

Goragali Pass 

Gorge between Choya and Varcha 

at Varcha 

Greatest contortion in west of 

range . . . .52 

Gredi hills . . . .42 

Greenish sandstone, Varcha gorge . 230 
Gypseous band in Dandot cliffs . 166 
Gypsum . . .73, 308 

semi-anhydrite in . .74 

between Nilawan and Sardi 188 



Hsematitic concretions . .99' 

in Jurassic . . 101 

Head of Choya gorge . . 228 

of Amb glen . . 240 

Height of salt marl at Chambal W. . 150 

of Tredian hills . . 257 

Hill shading . . .2 

Hills near Katta . . , 200 

east of Katwahi . . 217 

' west of Sakesar . . 245 

Hot springs . . . .48 



INDEX. 



309 



Page. 
I 

Igneous rocks . . . 280 

Important character of range . 1 

Incoherent Jurassic beds . . 102 

Intensity of disturbance at Indus . 53 
Interior of Mayo mines . 77, 285 

Varcha mine . . 231 

Iron . . . 283,284 
Irregularity^ of speckled sandstone . 92 
of boundaries . . 141 



Jabi spur .... 221 
Jalalpur . . . 134, 136 

Jalar trias . ., . , 223 

jura . , , . 

Lake .... 

Jameson, Dr. . ... 

his reports . . 

Jogi-ka-Tilla . . 3, 

Jood mountains 

Junction of tertiaiy sandstone and 

nummulitic at Kalar Kahar 

of salt marl with tertiary 

of jura and trias, Ghari 



Jurassic 



lower part of 
upper limits 



~ disturbance of 
•- commencement of 
— thickness of 



" Kahimitti" 
Kahdn plateau 
Kalabagh salt workings 

sections 

up the Indus from 

Kalar Kahar 
Kangrawala hill 



224 

63 

7 

8 

, &c. 
2 

182 
183 
261 
101 
101 
102 
102 
103 
103 



. 302 
- 41 

268, 289 
. 272 
. 269 

182, 184 
. 239 



Page. 

Karangli hill and south-west of 146, 






147 


Karsten, Dr. 


. 


9 


Karuli glen 




- 177 


Katta section, &c. . 




209, 210 


Katwahi 




. 216 


Khura section 


. 


. 218 


Kharian hills 




. 135 


Khewra valley 


. 


. 158 


Khuddera 




37, 115 


Khyrabad hills section 
Kieserite 




262, 263 
. 80 


Kohistan of Sind Saugur 


Doab 


2 


Kuud ghat to Kavhad 




. 220 


Kusak 


, 


. 156 



Lacustrine or estuarine trias . 101 

Lakes, Son plateau . . .62 

Land slipping . . . 187 

Large erratic blocks , .138 

size of marl exposure . 149 

Lavender clay . . . 278 

Lime and magnesia . . . 279 

Limestone nummulitic . . 105 

List of previous publications . x 

of fossils. Dr. Falconer's . 18 

by de Koninck . 23 

by de Verneuil 15, 24 

by Mr. Davidson . 20 

Lithological similarity of trias to 

carboniferous . . .97 

Local differences in salt-crystal zone . 99 

thickness of ditto . . 130 

of salt pseudomorph 

zone .... 130 
Lower part of carboniferous , 246 

Siwalik . . .110 

Lowest tertiary sandstone, Nahan . 109 
Lun or Gosai Nala . . . 274 

( 309 ) 



.310 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OF THE SALT RANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



Page. 



M 



Magnesian sandstone 87, 89, 90, 

128, 142, 145, 153, 181 



beds in trias 



Major Vicary 
Makracli 
salt marl 



Malot plateau 

Map used 

Mariala coal locality 

Mari and neighbourhood 

Marine erosion 

Mass of salt sent to Vienna 

tion 

Mayo salt mines 

position in series 

section of 

relations of salt 

near 



. 97 

. 10 

169, 172, 173 

. 173 

. 174 
41, 175 
2 
. 167 
. 265 
. 62 



exbibi- 



131 

158 
159 

ib. 

60 
19 



Medlicott, H., on Salt Eange 
Mines. Ij 5, 6, II, 28, 77, 141, 150, 

158, 162, 167, 174, 191, 231, 285, 294 



Most easterly salt 
Mount Jogi-ka-Tilla 
Mouth of Bazar Wan 
Munsbi Mohun Lai . 
Murree beds 
Musakhel . 



. 141 
3, 38, 124, 127 
. 250 
. 7 
. 124 
. 252 



W 



Nali 

Namal 

Naoshera post-tertiary 

Neighbourhood of Kalabagh 

Nila coal locality and rocks . 

other rocks near . 

Nilawan ravine, silurian 

' series west of gorge 

carboniferous beds appear 

ing in 
( 310 ) 



213 
252 
219 
270 
168 
168 
188 
189 

190 



Nilawan sections in . 

magnesian groups . 

- volcanic rocks in 

salt in gorge 

salt mines in 

disturbance in 

— beds, dipping from 



— drainage of 

— coal in 

— Bhal carboniferous beds 



Page. 
190 
191 



ib. 
192 

ib. 
193 
194 

ib. 

264 

53, 115 

255 



North-east of Tredian hill . 
Northern slopes of range 
North-west of Bakh ravine . 

Nummulitic limestone . . 105 

thickening . . 139 

large development of . 105 

coal shales below . ib. 

other beds below . 106 

thickness of 

■ extension of . . 107 

differences of . . ib. 

west of Baghanwala . 142 

of eastern plateau . 143 

clifEs . . .175 

of Son plateau . . 203 

north of Khiira . 219 

pebbles in other terti^ 

ary beds . . .266 

Ndrpur plateau . . .41 

Nursingphoar . . . 204 

: fault . . ,205 

sections at 206, 207, 208 



Obolus or SipJionotreta 

Observations on Salt Range series 

Ochre 

Older silts than alluvium 

Oldham, Dr., on Salt Eange 

on silurian salt 

Olive group sections 



87 
117 
303 
114 
24 
32 
154 



INDEX. 



311 



Page, 
Organic traces in magnesian sand- 
stone . . . .88 
Origin of rock salt . . .82 
Ornamental stones . . • 299 

in salt-pseudomorph 

zone .... 100 

Orographic position of Salt Range . 51 
Outer hiUs o£ Ivhewra vaUey . 158 

Outline of eastern plateau to east . 143 
Overlying beds of No. 5 group . 177 



Pail . . 195,196,198,199 

Passes and valleys of the Salt Eange 43 
Peculiar position of strata, disloca- 
tion . . . .131 
— — — markings on magnesian 

sandstone. . . 153 
fossil of carboniferous lime- 
stone 



— — — shale band in purple sand 

stone 
Peculiarities of copper shale . 



Petroleum of Salt Eange 27, 48, 264, 297 



Phylloceras, cai'boniferous 

Physical features 

Pid . 

Pind Sevika gorge . 

Plateau of salt range 

silt 

■ above Dokri gorge 



2i4 

164 
92 



Post-tertiary 

Potash salt . 

Powell, Baden, Mr., on Salt Eange 27, 284 



221 

36 

162 

131 

40 

116 

222 

113, 219 

32,80 



Previous publications 
Pseudomorphic salt-crystals . 
Pubbi or Kharian hills 
Purple sandstone group 

exceptional shale in . 

thickness and distribution 

unf ossiliferous character of 



3 

98 
3 

84 
85 
86 
ib. 



Q 

Quantity of sea-water necessary for 
the formation of Salt Eange salt 
Quartz, bi-pyramidal crystals 



Page 



84 
268 



R 

Eainfall 

Eange, variety of form of . 

Eecent accumulations 

Eed sandstone near Mariala 

salt pseudomorph group 

salt marl 

composition of . 

stratification of and thickness of 

distribution and age of 

minerals in . . . 

Eelations between form of ground 

and structure 
' with outer Himalayas 

with neighbouring geologi- 

cal structure 

at Mayo mines 

Remarkable features 

Eemnants of old plains 

Eesume 

Eevenue from salt mines 

Eidge from Sakesar to Namal 

Eock salt 

tar north of Son plateau 

Eocks of Bakrala ridge 

of Pail country 

Eotas gorge 

bone beds near 



S 



Sadowal 

Saheti 

Sakesar hill . 

Saliferous system 

Saline series 

Salt 

structure of 



. 61 

. 37 

113, 115 

. 168 

. 143 

. 70 

. 71 

ib. 

73 

ib. 



59 

2 

281 
160 

39 
130 
280 
290 
251 

70 
202 
120 
198 
125 
126 

152 

185 

243 

7,10 

70 



12, 13, 76, 213, 231, 284 



( 311 ) 



m 



WYNNE : GEOLOGY OP THE SALT UANGE IN THE PUNJAB. 



Page, 

77 

46 

279 



Salt, composition of — see Analysis 

lakes . 

of lakes 

springs 

biU of Mari 

and gypsum 

deposits, size of 

of Sardi 

■™~ of Shuriwala glen 

series at Kiisak 

of potassium 

of range not connected with 

tliat of trans-Indus salt region 
— — of Mayo mines 

Sardi mines 

■ Varcha mines . 

Kalabagh workings 

at old Jutana mines 

receipts from mines 

supply of 

mines, new information 

marl . . . 

marl, stratification of . 

, Varcha 

" among nummulitic 

tertiary rocks 

— — sudden development of 

■ of Kkewra 

Saltpetre .... 

Samundri coal locality 

Sangal Wan .... 

Sar valley .... 

Sardi .... 

Schlagintweit, R. de 

Series above salt-marl 

of the Salt Range, d'Archiac 

and Haime . . . 

in escarpment of Baghanwala 140 

Sections in carboniferous . . 249 

Dandot , , . 165 

of Sardi cliffs . .180 

( 312 ) 



269 
279 
81 
180 
256 
155 
32,80 

3 

285 

288 

ib. 

289 



290 

291 

292 

151 

269 

228, 230 

and 

. 182 

149 

158 

7 

167 

211 

186 

178 

24 

134 



16 



Sections in Chellintun stream 

across Vasnal valley 

at Nursingphoar 

at Warru Kas 

— — - Sulgi coal locality . 

at Amb (two) 

soutb of Sakesar 

west of Sakesar 

at Siraii-ki-dok 

at Balvb ravine 

at Bargir Kas 

another at Kas 

at Cbicbali Pass 

Short arrangement of groups 

range 
Shuriwala glen 
Silicified wood 
Silurian 



of 



Fage. 

194 
197 
208 
213 
235 
238 
240 
245 
242 
253 
260 
261 
278 



65 
256 
140, 141 
86, 161, 188 
Similarity of its rocks to Murree 

beds . . . .124 

Siphonotreta . . 87, 142 

241 
119 
3 
228 
209 



Siran-ke-dok 

Situation of Bakrala ridge . 

and length of Salt Range 

Slips, Choya gorge . . 

Sodhi 

Solar evaporation theory to account 

for formation of salt 
Son plateau 

Southern slopes of range 
• escarpments of range 



South-east slopes of Diljaba Mt. 

South-west extension of Mt. Tilla 

Speckled sandstone . 

Stoliczka, F. 

Strachey, Capt. 

Sub-Kimalayan rocks 

Sudden development of salt-marl 

Sumbla-ki-Vandi 

Supposed glacial period 

Sylvine 



. 83 
41, 201 
37, 171 
53 
123 
129 
90, 210 
25 
10 
20 
349 
266 
16 



INDEX. 



318 



Fuge 



T 



Table of Salt Eange series . . 69 

Tarrock . . . .202 

Tendency of rocks to dip towards 

plains .... 187 
Tertiary rocks . . .69 

sandstones, &c. 132, 140, 170, 

181, 185, 201, 223 



— and silurian in junction 

— silicified wood in 



134 

140 

16 

17 

128 
186 

Thil and to the west . . 136 

Trap and volcanic . . 75, 161 

rocks overlying . . 161 

Trias . . 65,69,223,232 

■ Ceratite group , . 96 



Theobald, Mr. 

his classification 

Thickness of groups near Mt. Tilla 
of nummulitic limestone 



Trias salt-pseudomorph group 
and Jura of the Sou . 

U 

Up the Indus from Kalabagh 

Upper Siwalik 

glen, Varcha • 

V 

Variety in form of the range 
Varcha gorge 

mines 

trias 

Virgal outlier 



W 



Warru Kas 
Warth, Dr. 



his classifications 



Water parting 
Wychler cliff 



Page, 

98 
204 



. 269 

. Ill 

. 232 

. 37 

. 229 

. 288 

. 232 

. 225 

. 213 

28, 287 
29,30 

. 45 

. 156 



( 313 ) 



Wyme: Gcolooy of tlio Suit Rang. 



GEOLOGICAL SUHrEY 




mmmsm 



r-.- 




\0F INDIA 



Memoirs. Vol. XIV. 




GENERAL'S OFFIOE, 



ammmllm^ institution LiBRAnleT