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OF SIR CHRISTOPHER HATTON, Gentleman Pensioner, 
Captain of the Guard, Vice-Chamberlain, and Lord Chan- 
cellor to Queen Elizabeth, and her distinguished personal 
Favourite, less was known than of almost any other 
Statesman of that period. This neglect of a very remark- 
able person probably arose from the notion that he was a 
mere Courtier, whose life presented no incidents to in- 
struct, and few to amuse mankind. Though noticed by 
NAUNTON, FULLER, LLOYD, and LODGE, as well as in all 
general Biographical Collections, no attempt was made 
to give a detailed account of HATTON'S career, until 
LORD CAMPBELL wrote a Memoir of him in "The Lives 
of the Lord Chancellors and Keepers of the Great 
Seal of England." Since the appearance of that work, 
the transcript of a manuscript, entitled " Booke of Let- 
ters receaved by SIR CHRISTOPHER HATTON, Vice-Cham- 
berlayne to the Quene's Majestie, from sundry parsons, and 
procured by him to be written in this same Booke," was 
placed in the Editor's hands, for the purpose of being 
printed with the usual illustrative Notes. 


It of course became desirable to ascertain whether any 
other Letters from or relating to HATTON could be found, 
besides those in that manuscript; and whether LORD CAMP- 
BELL'S Memoir had rendered any other account of his 
life unnecessary. Numerous Letters, and some of the 
highest interest, were discovered in the State Paper 
Office, consisting principally of his secret Letters to the 
Queen; and there are a few others in the British Museum. 
The examination of the Memoir in the " Lives of the 
Lord Chancellors" shewed it to be remarkable for omis- 
sions and for errors, while it seems that an unfair, if not 
prejudiced, view is there taken of HATTON'S character. 
Under these circumstances, it was determined to write an 
entirely new LIFE OF HATTON, and to illustrate it by 
the Correspondence in the " Letter Book," as well as by 
Letters from other sources. 

The present Memoir contains every fact relating to 
SIR CHRISTOPHER HATTON that could be found, together 
with every Letter from him of which the existence is 
known. It will be seen that LORD CAMPBELL'S statements 
have been treated with the freedom, and it is hoped with 
the candour, that should characterize all literary investi- 
gations ; and his Lordship is of all men the last to wish 
that Historical truth should be in any degree sacrificed to 
feelings of courtesy. His Lordship's mistakes as to facts 
are placed beyond dispute ; and it only remains for the 
public to decide upon the justice or injustice of his 
estimate of HATTON'S talents and character. 

So far from being a vain, idle " scapegrace,' 1 with few 
acquirements and less talents, and the mere ornament of 


a Court, HATTON took a prominent part in all State affairs ; 
and his opinion on public transactions received great con- 
and all the other Ministers. He was for many years what 
is now termed the Leader of the House of Commons ; and 
if he did not adorn the Woolsack, to which he was unex- 
pectedly raised, by great legal learning, he had the mo- 
desty and good sense to consult eminent lawyers in cases 
of magnitude, and obtained the respect of the public by 
the equity and impartiality of his decisions. Unlike that 
of many great legal luminaries of his age, his own conduct 
was pure with respect to bribes ; and, long before he was 
made Chancellor, he dismissed his old Secretary because 
he had taken some small fees from persons who had soli- 
cited his Master's favour. 

SIR CHRISTOPHER HATTON was the constant resource of 
the unfortunate, knowing on such occasions no distinction 
of Religion ; " in whose cause," he nobly said, " neither 
searing nor cutting was to be used." He was the fre- 
quent intercessor in cases of persecution ; the patron 
and, better still, the friend of literary men, who repajd 
his kindness by the only means in their power, thanks, 
" the Exchequer of the Poor," in the dedications of their 
works. All that is known of HATTON proves that his heart 
and disposition were amiable, his temper mild, and his 
judgment less biassed by the prejudices of his age than 
that of most of his contemporaries. 

The Correspondence in the " Letter Book" consists 
mostly of Letters to HATTON on a great variety of subjects, 
both public and private, from QUEEN ELIZABETH, SIR CHRIS- 


MATHEW, afterwards Archbishop of York ; LORD HENRY 
HOWARD, afterwards Earl of Northampton ; SIR PHILIP SID- 
THOMAS HENEAGE, Treasurer of the Chamber ; Secretary 
CHARLES ARUNDELL ; STUBBES, the author of " The Gaping 
Gulf/' for which he lost his hand ; CART WRIGHT and NOR- 
TON, the well-known polemical writers ; THEODORE BEZA, 
&c. Many of these Letters, as might be expected, throw 
much new light upon the history of the times, as well as 
on the characters and conduct of the writers themselves. 

But the Letters to which the greatest interest attaches 
are from HATTON to the QUEEN, which have hitherto en- 
tirely escaped observation, and which certainly breathe 
the devotion and tenderness of a Lover rather than the 
humility and duty of a Subject. These documents, and 
some others in this Collection, will probably raise a strong 
doubt upon her Majesty's right to her favourite and well- 
known designation. 

The " Letter Book" formerly belonged to Mr. UPCOTT, 
but its previous history is unknown. It was purchased 
at the sale of his manuscripts, by the Trustees of the 
British Museum, and now forms the "Additional MS. 
15891." Its genuineness is beyond suspicion, and the 


collection was apparently made before SIR CHRISTOPHER 
HATTON became Lord Chancellor, there being no Letters 
relating to him after 1587, and that dignity is not attri- 
buted to him in the title. The letters seem to have been 
copied by his Secretary, Mr. SAMUEL Cox, who shews the 
nattering opinion he entertained of his own epistolary 
talents by the insertion of so many of his own learned, 
but prolix and pedantic epistles, that it was necessary 
to consign many of them to an Appendix. It may per- 
haps be wished that a few other Letters had been placed 
with them. 

The Editor begs leave to offer his best thanks to his 
friends Sir CHARLES GEORGE YOUNG, Garter, and to ALBERT 
WILLIAM WOODS, Esq., Lancaster Herald, for much useful 
information ; and his thanks are likewise due to ROBERT 
LEMON, Esq., and H. C. HAMILTON, Esq'., for their zealous 
and obliging aid in selecting from the comparatively 
speaking unexplored Historical stores in the State Paper 
Office, all that related to SIR CHRISTOPHER HATTON. 


3(M November, 184G. 



From Thomas Duke of Norfolk to his Son Philip 

Earl of Surrey. .... 2nd February 10 

From Mr. Dyer to Mr. Hatton . . .9th October 1 7 

From Mr. Hatton to the Queen . . 20 


From Mr. Hatton to the Queen . . . 5th June 25 

From Mr. Hatton to the Queen . . . 17th June 26 

From Mr. Hatton to the Queen ... 28 

From Mr. Hatton to the Queen . . . 10th August 29 
From the Queen to the Deputy and Council of 

Ireland . . . . . .29th June 33 

From Mr. Hatton to Lord Burghley . 26th August 38 


From Mr. Hatton to Lord Burghley . . 13th June 39 

From the Lord Keeper to the Queen . . 15th September 40 


From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher Hatton 8th March 44 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 21st April 50 

From Bishop Aylmer to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 29th April 61 

From Archbishop Grindall to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 2nd May ,52 


1578 continued. 


From Mr. Davison to the Privy Council . 8th May 53 

From Bishop Aylmer to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 28th May 55 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 3rd June 57 

From Bishop Aylmer to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 8th June 58 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . . 16th June 60 

From Bishop Aylmer to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 17th June 61 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 17th June 62 

From Mr. Cox to Sir Christopher Hatton 20th June 63 

From Dr. Aubrey to Sir Christopher Hatton 64 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . . 23rd June 65 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . . 27th June 66 

From the Earl of Leicester to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 9th July 68 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher Hat- 

ton 22nd July 70 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 23rd July 73 

From Sir Amias Paulet to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 26th July 74 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton . . . . 29th July 75 

From Dr. Mathew to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 22nd August 76 

From Mr. Stanhope to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton ...... 5th August 77 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton .... 16th August 79 

From the Earl of Sussex to the Queen 28th August 81 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton .... 9th September 89 


1578 continued. 


From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 15th September 91 

From the Earl of Sussex to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . .20th September 92 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord 

Burghley 21st September 92 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

hristopher Hatton . . .9th October 93 

From Mr. Edmund Tremayne to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . 17th October 95 

From the Earl of Leicester to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 97 

From Gherarde de Marini to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 23rd October 97 

From the Archbishop of Canterbury to 

Sir Christopher Hatton . . . 15th November 98 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher 

Hatton . .. . . . .18th November 99 

From Sir Amias Paulet to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 6th December 100 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord 

Burghley 14th December 101 

From Thomas Bynge to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 24th December 102 


From Sir Amias Paulet to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 12th January 103 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 8th February 104 

From the Queen to Sir Amias Paulet . . . . 106 

From Sir Amias Paulet to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 9th February 111 

From Sir Amias Paulet to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 10th March 112 

From the Earl of Leicester to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 113 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . .23rd April 1 1 5 

b 2 


1579 continued. 


From Mr. Henry Howard . . . 1st May 116 

From Dr. Bynge to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 6th May 117 

From the Archbishop of Canterbury to 

Sir Christopher Hatton . . . 22nd May 1 1 8 

From Dr. Bynge to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 3rd August 120 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Francis Wal- 

singham 9th August 121 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Francis Wal- 

singham 9th August 123 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord 

Burghley 9th August 1 24 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 10th August 125 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . .12th August 127 

From Sir Philip Sidney to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 28th August 128 

From Nicholas Saunders to the son of 

the Earl of Clanrickard . . . 23rd September 129 

From the Bishop of London to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 28th September 132 

From Dr. Humfrey to Sir Christopher 

Hatton .13th November 135 

From Dr. Humfrey to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 136 

From Mr. Henry Howard to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 137 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 139 

From John Stubbes to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 1st December 141 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher 

Hatton . . . . . .21st February 144 

From Sir Nicholas Woodroffe, (Lord 

Mayor), to Sir Christopher Hatton . llth February 145 


1580 continued. 


From the Countess of Derby to Sir Fran- 
cis Walsingham .... May 146 

From the Countess of Derby to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . . . . 147 

From the Countess of Derby to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . .148 

From the Countess of Derby to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . . . . 149 

From the Countess of Derby to Queen 

Elizabeth 149 

From Sir Walter Mildmay to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 30th June 151 

From the Earl of Sussex to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 152 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord 

Burghley 22nd July 152 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to the 

Queen September 153 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Sir Tho- 
mas Heneage llth September 155 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to the 

Queen 19th September 156 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Sir 

Francis Walsingham . . . 26th September 158 

From Thomas Norton to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 30th December 161 

From Unknown to Lord Burghley . . . 162 


From Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton to 

Sir Christopher Hatton . . . 14th March 166 

From Sir Thomas Wilson to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 23rd April 167 

From Charles Arundell to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 23rd May 169 

From Sir Walter Mildmay to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . .27th May 169 


1581 continued. 


From Sir Walter Mildmay to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 1st June 170 

From Bishop Aylmer to the Queen . 13th June 171 

From Thomas Churchyard to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 23rd June 172 

From Lord Grey to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 1st July 174 

From Thomas Churchyard to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 10th July 175 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton . ' . . . . 13th July 177 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 15th July 178 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . .17th July 179 

From Thomas Churchyard to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 20th July 180 

From Charles Arundell to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 20th July 1 80 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 23rd July 181 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton .... 27th July 182 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 30th July 183 

From Sir Walter Mildmay to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . .6th August 185 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 7th August 185 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . .10th August 186 

From Lord Grey to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 12th August 187 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . 20th August 189 

From Lord Buckhurst to Sir Christopher 

Hatton ... . 30th August 190 



1581 continued. 


From Dr. Mathew to Sir Thomas 

Heneage ... .7th September 191 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . 12th September 192 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to the 

Queen 12th September 194 

From Sir John Branch (Lord Mayor) to 

Sir Christopher Hatton . . . 20th September 197 

From Dr. Humfrey to Mr. Samuel Cox 21st September 199 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to the 

Lord Mayor of London . . . 25th September 200 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . .26th September 201 

From Mr. Philip Sidney to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 26th September 203 

From the Earl of Leicester to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 27th September 204 

From Dr. Mathew to Mr. Samuel Cox 30th September 204 

From Mr. Philip Sidney to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . .17th October 206 

From Mr. Edward Tremayne to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . .27th October 207 

From Dr. Humfrey to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 13th November 208 

From F. A. to Sir Christopher Hatton . . . 210 

From Mr. Philip Sidney to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 14th November 210 

From Lord Grey of Wilton to Queen 

Elizabeth 28th November 213 

From Sir Henry Cheke to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . .15th December 213 

From Mr. Philip Sidney to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 18th December 214 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 28th December 215 

From Charles Arundell to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 216 


1581 continued. 


From Charles Arundell to Sir Christopher 

Hatton . . . . . . . . . 217 

From Charles Arundell to Sir Christopher 

Hatton . . 218 

From Charles Arundell to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 218 

From Unknown to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 219 

From Unknown to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 222 

From Lady Anne Askewe to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 223 

From Unknown to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 224 

From Unknown to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 225 

From Unknown to Unknown ..... 226 

Lady Leighton to Sir Thomas Leighton . . . 228 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 229 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 229 


From Sir Henry Cheke to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 15th January 229 

From Dr. Clark to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 4th February 230 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . 8th February 232 

Dr. Mathew to Mr. Samuel Cox . . 12th February 232 

From Sir Walter Mildmay to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 20th February 233 

From Mr. Thomas Norton to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 28th February 234 

From Bishop Aylmer to the Lord Mayor 1st March 236 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Mr. 

Egerton . . 17th March 238 


1582 continued, 


From Bishop Aylmer to Sir Christopher 

Ilatton 20th March 240 

From Sir Walter Mildmay to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 26th March 241 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to the 

Earl of Leicester .... 4th April 241 

From Mr. Thomas Norton to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . .10th April 242 

From Bishop Aylmer to the Queen . . . . 243 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 5th May 247 

From Sir Walter Mildmay to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . . 1 2th May 248 

From Sir James Harvey (Lord Mayor) 

to Sir Christopher Hatton . . 3rd June 249 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Un- 
known ...... 6th June 250 

From Sir Walter Mildmay to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 13th June 251 

From Dr. Mathew to Mr. Samuel Cox . 15th June 252 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Mr. 

Egerton 19th June 252 

From Thomas Churchyard to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . . 10th July 253 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Mr. 
Doctor Norgall, Mr. D. Harvey, and 
Mr. D. Hatcher . . . .14th July 254 

From Dr. Mathew to the Countess of 

Warwick 23rd July 255 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord 

Chancellor Bromley . . .27th July 256 

From Sir Thomas Bromley to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . .28th July 258 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 30th July 261 

From the Earl of Leicester to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton . . . . 2nd August 262 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord 
Chancellor Bromley . . . 2nd August 263 

xviii CONTENTS. 

1582 continued. 


From Ann Countess of Arundell to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . .20th Aug. 265 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 1st September 265 

From the Queen to the Earl of Shrews- 
bury 267 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . 6th September 268 

From the Earl of Leicester to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . . 1 1th September 269 

From Frances Countess of Sussex to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . 16th September 271 

From Anne Countess of Bedford to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . 1st October 272 

From Unknown to Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton 3rd October 273 

From Theodore Beza to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 10th October 273 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . . . . 25th October 277 

From Dr. Mathew to Mr. Samuel Cox . 2nd November 278 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . 7th November 279 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord 

Burghley 8th November 280 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 9th November 280 

From Archbishop Mathew to Mr. Sa- 
muel Cox ..... 3rd November 280 

From Unknown to Mr. Cox . . 20th November 281 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton .... 26th November 282 

From Mary Queen of Scots to Queen 

Elizabeth 28th November 284 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . . 22nd December 296 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . .29th December 297 


1582 continued. 


From Dr. Mathew to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 298 

From Dr. Mathew to Mr. Samuel Cox . 300 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton ........ 300 

From Thomas Cartwright to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 301 

From Thomas Churchyard to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 304 


From Mr. Thomas Norton to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton ..... 5th January 305 

From Sir John Norris to the Queen . 9th January 306 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to the Earl 

of Derby and the Bishop of Chester . 10th January 309 

Copy of an Article propounded by Mons. 

La Motte 20th January 310 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 22nd January 311 

From Mr. Davison to Mr. Samuel Cox . 22nd January 313 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 315 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 24th February 316 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord 

Burghley 24th February 316 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 28th February 318 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 4th March 318 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 12th March 321 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 18th March 325 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord 

Burghley 19th March 326 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir 

Christopher Hatton . . .19th March 327 


1583 continued. 


From Dr. Mathew to Sir Christopher 

Hatton llth May 328 

From the Scottish Ambassador to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton ..... 12th May 330 

From Mr. William Herle to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 20th May 331 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 5th July 333 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 2nd August 334 

From the Lords of the Council to the She- 
riffs of Oxfordshire .... 16th August 335 

Prom Archbishop Sandys to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 17th August 338 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Lord Burghley 26th August 339 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton ...... August 340 

From the Lords of the Council . ... 340 

From Dr. Mathew to Sir Christopher Hatton ... 343 

From the Countess of Sussex to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 1 8th September 344 

From the Countess of Sussex to the Queen .... 345 

From the Countess of Derby to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 26th September 346 

From the Countess of Sussex to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 10th October 347 

From Bishop Aylmer to the Earl of Leicester 2nd November 348 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to John Dutton 5 

Esq 16th December 350 

From Dr. William Tresham to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton . 351 

From Unknown to the Queen ..... 353 

From Dr. Mathew to Mr. Samuel Cox . 355 

From Elizabeth to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 356 

From the Archbishop of Dublin to Lord Burghley . . 357 

From Dr. Mathew to Mr. Samuel Cox . . . . 360 

From Dr. Mathew to Sir Christopher Hatton . . 361 




From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 30th January 361 

From Mr. William Dodington to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 4th March 362 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to . . . .29th March 364 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Queen Eli- 
zabeth 3rd April 367 

From Mr. Henry Howard to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 27th April 368 

From Archbishop Whitgift to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 9th May 371 

From Unknown to Sir Christopher Hatton 10th May 373 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 20th May 373 

From Mr. Henry Howard to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 376 

From Lady Leighton to Sir Christopher Hatton 1 7th June 378 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to the Earl of 

Derby and the Bishop of Chester . . 23rd June 379 

From Archbishop Whitgift to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 17th July 379 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to the Earl of 

Leicester 21st July 381 

From the Earl of Leicester to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 23rd July 382 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Unknown 4th August 383 

From Lord Burghley to Sir Christopher Hatton 6th August 384 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to the Earl of 

Hertford 7th August 385 

From Lord Grey to Sir Christopher Hatton 8th August 385 

From the Lords of the Council . . .18th August 386 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 4th October 389 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord Burghley 29th October 394 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Mr. Samuel 

Cox 26th October 395 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Sir Christopher 

Hatton . 26th October 396 


1584 continued. 


From Dr. Mathew to Mr. Samuel Cox Hatton 27th October 397 
From Sir Christopher Hatton to the Bishop of 

Chester 27th October 398 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 29th October 399 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to . . 4tb November 400 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 9th November 403 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 28th November 404 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 20th July 405 

From Dr. Mathew to Sir Christopher Hatton . . 406 


From the Lords of the Council to the Lord 

Deputy of Ireland .... 3rd January 409 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord Burghley 26th January 41 1 

From Mr. Davison to Sir Christopher Hatton 12th February 412 

From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 2nd April 415 

From the Countess of Sussex to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton 12th April 416 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Mr. Egerton 

Solicitor-General .... 15th April 417 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 26th April 418 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton . , . . . 28th April 418 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 29th April 419 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton 1st May 420 

From Dr. Loftus, Archbishop of Dublin, to 

Sir Christopher Hatton . . . . . 421 

From Sir Francis Walsingham to Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton ..... 1st May 426 


1585 continued. 


From Sir Thomas Heneage to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 2nd May 426 

From the Earl of Arundell to Sir Christopher 

Hatton 7th May 427 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to. ... 20th July 405 


From Mr. Samuel Cox to 7th July 441 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to Lord Burghley 2nd September 443 

From Anthony Babington to . 449 

From Sir Christopher Hatton to the Queen . 13th October 450 
From Lord Burghley and Sir Christopher 

Hatton to Secretary Davison . .10th November 453 

From Sir Christopher Hatton and Secretary 

Davison to Lord Burghley . . . 6th January 455 
From Sir Christopher Hatton and Secretary 

Davison to Lord Burghley . . . 7th January 456 
Articles ministered to Secretary Davison by 

Sir Christopher Hatton and Mr. Wolley 12th March 461 
From Lord Burghley to Lord Chancellor Hatton 1 2th May 470 

From Lord Chancellor Hatton to Sir Francis 

Walsingham 27th May 472 

From Lord Chancellor Hatton to William 

Cloptonj Esq^and John Gurdon, Esq., Jus- 
tices of the Peace in Suffolk . . .31st May 473 
From Mr. John Stanhope to Lord Chancellor 

Hatton 474 

From Mr. John Stanhope to Lord Chancellor 

Hatton 18th October 475 


From Lord Chancellor Hatton to Mr. Ser- 
jeant Puckering . . . . .2nd September 482 


From Lord Chancellor Hatton to Lord Burgh- 
ley 15th May 484 


1589 continued. 


Lord Chancellor Hatton to the Earl of Shrews- 
bury . . . . . . 30th July 484 

Lord Chancellor Hatton's Memorial of busi- 
ness to be transacted .... 2nd September 485 


Lord Chancellor Hatton to the Earl of Shrews- 
bury . . . . . .. 2nd January 486 

From the Archbishop of Canterbury to the 

Canons of Lincoln .... 29th June 486 

From Lord Chancellor Hatton to Lord Burgh- 
ley 15th July 488 

From Lord Chancellor Hatton to Lord Burgh- 
ley 20th Nov. 489 


From Lord Chancellor Hatton to Sir Henry 

Unton, Ambassador in France . . 5th September 490 

From Lord Chancellor Hatton to Sir Henry 

Unton 18th September 491 

From Lord Chancellor Hatton to Sir Henry 

Unton .... 1 . 4th October 492 

From Lord Chancellor Hatton to the Earl of 

Essex 5th October 494 

From Lord Chancellor Hatton to the Queen . . 496 

Sonnet by Spenser to Lord Chancellor Hat- 

ton . 500 





From Mr. Samuel Cox to 
From Mr. Samuel Cox to 
From Mr. Samuel Cox to 

20th November 
17th December 
1 7th December 





From Mr. Samuel Cox to . 20th July v 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to . 19th October vii 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to . 2nd November viii 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Sir Henry Lee 2nd November xxxvii 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to .... xii 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Lady . . . xiii 


From Monsr. de la Noue to Lord Chancel- 
lor Hatton ..... 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to his Cousin and 
Namesake . . . 

From Mr. Samuel Cox the younger to Mr. 
Samuel Cox . . . 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to . 


From Mr. Samuel Cox to 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to his Friend that 

had given money for an Office 
From Mr. Samuel Cox to 


Fronf Mr. Samuel Cox to 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Mrs. E. 

16th February xxxvii 
18th April xvi 

20th April xviii 

27th April 
2nd May 

llth May 
12th May 

7th July 
7th July 

15th January 












From Doctor Seames to Mr. Samuel Cox 22nd April xxxiii 
From Mr. Samuel Cox for a Friend .... xxxiv 
From Unknown to Lord Chancellor Hat- 
ton xxxv 

From Thomas Churchyard to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton ........ xxxvi 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to .... xliv 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Mrs. E xlv 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Mrs. E xlvi 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Mrs. E. . ... xlvii 


From Mr. Samuel Cox to . 29th April xlviii 

From King James to the Lower House of 

the Parliament ....... li 

From the Earl of Essex to the Lord 

Keeper Egerton lii 

From the Lord Keeper Egerton to the Earl 

of Essex ......... lv 

Address of the Catholics of England to 

King James the First ...... Ivii 


From Archbishop Hutton to Lord Cran- 

borne 8th December Ix 


From the King of Morocco to the King of 

England 5th November Ixii 

Inscription on Lord Chancellor Hatton's 

Tomb . ... Ixiv 






P. 26, line 36, note, for " 5th," read " 7th " of June. 

P. 63, line 23, dele "and Hatton is said to have consulted the latter in 

all important cases," Dr. Dale having been there mistaken for Dr. 

Swale. A similar error occurs in p. 250, line 4. 
P. 128, line 33, note, for " 1759," read " 1579." 

in that county, from whom descended, through a long 
series of Knights and Esquires of some local but of 
little general fame, Piers or Peter Hatton, of Quisty 
Birches in Cheshire, whose third son, Henry Hatton, 
founded a new line by marrying, in the reign of Henry 
the Seventh, Elizabeth, the sister and eventually sole 
heiress of William Holden, of Holdenby in Northamp- 
tonshire, Esq. Their eldest son, John Hatton, settled 
at Holdenby, and had three sons, William, the eldest; 

VOL. I. B 




From Doctor Seames to Mr. Samuel Cox 22nd April xxxiii 
From Mr. Samuel Cox for a Friend . . . xxxiv 
From Unknown to Lord Chancellor Hat- 
ton xxxv 

From Thomas Churchyard to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton . xxxvi 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to . . . xliv 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Mrs. E. . . xlv 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Mrs. E. . . xlvi 

From Mr. Samuel Cox to Mrs. E. . . xlvii 


From the King of Morocco to the King of 

England 5th November Ixii 

Inscription on Lord Chancellor Hatton's 

Tomb . . Ixiv 





LIKE so many men who have risen to the highest 
stations in England, SIR CHRISTOPHER HATTON owed 
little besides the rank of gentleman to his birth. He 
was the third son of William Hatton, of Holdenby in 
Northamptonshire, by Alice, daughter of Lawrence 
Saunders, of Harrington in that county. The pedi- 
gree of Hatton is traced beyond records, and conse- 
quently to an apocryphal source. Ivo, a nobleman of 
Normandy, the supposed ancestor of the Fitz-Nigells 
Barons of Hatton, and of other families in Cheshire, is 
said to have had a sixth son, Wolfaith, Lord of Hatton 
in that county, from whom descended, through a long 
series of Knights and Esquires of some local but of 
little general fame, Piers or Peter Hatton, of Quisty 
Birches in Cheshire, whose third son, Henry Hatton, 
founded a new line by marrying, in the reign of Henry 
the Seventh, Elizabeth, the sister and eventually sole 
heiress of William Holden, of Holdenby in Northamp- 
tonshire, Esq. Their eldest son, John Hatton, settled 
at Holdenby, and had three sons, William, the eldest; 

VOL. i. B 

2 THE LIFE AND TIMES OF [1546-60. 

John Hatton, of Gravesend in Kent, ancestor of the 
Viscounts Hatton, now represented by the Earl of Win- 
chelsea and Nottingham; and Christopher. William 
Hatton, the eldest son, had, by Alice Saunders, an only 
daughter, Dorothy, who married John Newport, of Horn- 
ingham in Warwickshire, Esquire, and three sons, viz. 
Francis and Thomas, who both died young a and un- 
married; and CHRISTOPHER, who, as heir to his bro- 
thers, succeeded to the estates at Holdenby, b and made 
the name of Hatton historical, if not imperishable. 

CHRISTOPHER HATTON was born at Holdenby in 
1540, and was left an orphan at the age of six years, 
by the death of his father in August 1546. d It does 
not appear how long he enjoyed a mother's care; nor 
can it be ascertained precisely when, by the deaths of 
his two elder brothers, he succeeded to the family in- 
heritance, but probably before he became of age. There 
is some reason to believe that his maternal uncle, Wil- 
liam Saunders, superintended his education; but no- 
thing of his early life is known until he entered as 
a Gentleman Commoner at St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, 6 
when he was probably about fifteen or sixteen years 
old. He quitted the University without a degree, and 
became a member of the Inner Temple on the 26th 
of May 1560, on which occasion he was described " of 

a Francis, the eldest son, was four- d Esch. 1 Edw. VI. Part II. No. 
teen years old in 1548 ; but he and 22 ; by which it was found that 
his next brother, Thomas, are stated William Hatton, Gentleman, was 
to have died in their youth, in the seized in fee of the manor of Hold- 
Herald's Visitations of Northampton- enby, &c. ; that his wife Alice sur- 
shire, in the College of Arms, and vived him ; that he died on the 28th 
British Museum. of August, 38 Hen. VIII., 1546 ; and 

b Pedigree of Hatton in Baker's that Francis Hatton was his son 

History of Northamptonshire. and heir, and was then fourteen years 

c On his monument he is said to old and upwards, 
have been fifty-one at his death in e Wood's Athen. Oxon. ed. Bliss. 

November 1591. i. 582. 


Holdenby in Northamptonshire;"* which tends to show 
that he was then in possession of those estates. Some 
of his biographers have said that he did not enter the 
Temple with a view of studying the law as a profes- 
sion ; but, as has been justly observed, that report 
was probably invented to increase the wonder, b if not 
the obloquy, which his appointment as Lord Chancellor 
created. It is supposed that Hatton was never called 
to the bar; but, though no proof of the fact exists, 
it may nevertheless have occurred. He became eligible 
to be called within five, if not three years after his 
admission as a student ; and, as no book is pre- 
served in which "calls" are registered before 1567, 
Hatton may have been made a barrister between 
1565 and 1567 ; but he was never either a Reader 
or a Bencher of his Inn. c 

The next occasion on which any notice of Hatton has 

a Inner Temple Register of Ad- vanity which always distinguished 

missions. him ; and, being much spoiled as 

b Lodge's Memoir of Sir Christo- the child of his father's old age, he 

pher Hatton. succeeded in prevailing upon the in- 

c From the information,very oblig- dulgent squire to enter him a Gen- 
ingly supplied, of Edw. H. Martin, tleman Commoner at St. Mary's Hall, 
Esq., Under- Treasurer of the Inner although the additional expense thus 
Temple. Lord Campbell, in his incurred could ill be afforded." Upon 
" Lives of the Lord Chancellors," this it must be observed, that the ex- 
vol. ii. pp. 136, 139, says positively pense could not have much affected 
that Hatton was never called to the the "indulgent squire," nor could 
bar. His Lordship gives a very mi- "the news of the manner in which" 
nute account of Hatton's early ca- his son " dedicated himself to dan- 
reer ; but as the Editor has not had cing" at the Temple "have caused 
the good fortune to find the slightest heavy hearts under the paternal roof 
authority for any one of those state- in Northamptonshire, " inasmuch as 
ments, and as none is cited (except Hatton's father died when he was 
Justice Shallow's description of his only six years old. " While at col- 
own life in Clement's Inn), he can lege," his Lordship proceeds to say, 
only observe, that, according to Lord "he was exceedingly popular with 
Campbell, Hatton was " idle and his companions, but he spent much 
volatile" as a child, and "imbibed more time in fencing and archery than 
with difficulty from a domestic tutor in perusing Aristotle and Aquinas ; 
the first rudiments of knowledge ;" arid, from the fear of being plucked, 
that he had already shown " the he left Oxford without trying for a 



been discovered is remarkable, as it was to a similar 
festivity that he owed his fortunes. In 1561 the Inner 
Temple celebrated Christmas by a splendid masque, in 
which the part of " Master of the Game" was played by 
" Christopher Hatton." The scene was honoured with 
the presence of Lord Robert Dudley, afterwards the 
celebrated Earl of Leicester, who, under the title of " Pa- 
laphilos," held the mimic rank of Constable and Marshal.* 
Hattori was then in the twenty-first year of his age, 
handsome, tall, and graceful in his person, of elegant 
manners, and an accomplished dancer qualities that 
never failed to please the eye and gratify the taste of 
Queen Elizabeth. Neither the exact time nor the occa- 
sion upon which he first appeared before his Sovereign 
is known, but it is said to have been in one of those 
masques which the Templars often presented to the 
Queen. u He came to Court," says Sir Eobert Naun- 
ton, on the authority of Sir John Perrot, "by the 
galliard, for he came thither as a private gentleman 

degree." At the Temple he was "in 
truth a noted roisterer and swash- 
buckler ; hearing the chimes at mid- 
night, knowing where the bona robas 
were, and sometimes lying all night 
in the Windmill in St. George's 
Fields ; but while he spent much of 
his time in dicing and gallantry, 
there were two amusements to which 
he particularly devoted himself, and 
which laid the foundation of his fu- 
ture fortune. The first was dancing, 
which he studied under the best mas- 
sters, and in which he excelled be- 
yond any man of his time : the 
other was the stage : he constantly 
frequented the theatres . . . and he 
himself used to assist in writing 
masques, and took a part in per- 
forming them." First Edition, ii. 
136 : Second Edition, ii. 138. 

Lord Campbell's horror of Hat- 

ton's being a good dancer, from its 
apparent inconsistency with the gra- 
vity of forensic, not to say judicial, 
duties, might not have been quite so 
great had he remembered that dan- 
cing was then not merely tolerated, 
but exacted from lawyers. On the 
6th of February, 7 Jac. 1610, " the 
under-barristers of Lincoln's Inn 
were, by decimation, put out of 
commons for example's sake, because 
the whole bar offended by not dan- 
cing on Candlemas-day preceding, ac- 
cording to the ancient order of this 
Society, when the judges were pre- 
sent ; with this, that, if the like fault 
were committed afterwards, they 
should be fined or disbarred." Dug- 
dale's Origines Juridiciales, Ed. 
1680, p. 346. 

a Dugdak's Origines Juridiciales, 
Ed. 1680, pp. 150. 



of the Inns of Court in a masque, and for his acti- 
vity and person, which was tall and proportionable, 
taken into the Queen's favour." This statement, which 
has been generally adopted, though probable in itself, 
may have originated in envy; or Naunton may have 
been misinformed, as his account of Hatton is very 
erroneous/ It is, however, to some extent supported 
by Camden, whose candour was no less great than 
his learning; who says, that, "being young and of a 
comely tallness of body and countenance, he got into 
such favour with the Queen that she took him into 
her band of fifty Gentlemen-pensioners." 13 

The precise date of Hatton's appointment as a Gen- 
tleman-pensioner has not been discovered; nor has 
that of his promotion to the situation of Gentleman 
of the Privy Chamber been ascertained, and which, 
like his subsequent higher offices in the Queen's service, 
Camden says he owed to the " modest sweetness of his 
manners." It is, however, nearly certain that he at- 
tracted the Queen's notice, and was made one of the Gen- 

a Fragmenta Regalia, p. 30, print- the profession of the law, but in- 

ed in 1641. Naunton says, Hatton formed her that he had incurred 

was first made Vice-Chamberlain, debts which were beginning to be 

whereas he had previously held three troublesome to him. She advanced 

other offices. him money to pay them off, at the 

same time (more suo) taking a bond 

b Annals of Queen Elizabeth, ed. and statute-merchant to repay her 

1630, book iv. p. 34. Lord Camp- when he should be of ability. He 

bell's account of Hatton's removal little thought he should ever hear 

from the Temple to the Court wants of these securities, which afterwards 

only the authority for his Lordship's were supposed to be the cause of his 

statement to be interesting ; " The death." 2nd ed., vol. ii. page 140. 

tender heart of Elizabeth was at once However well founded this narrative 

touched by his athletic frame, manly may be in other parts, it will be seen 

beauty, and graceful air; and she hereafter that the sum for which 

openly expressed her high admira- Hatton was pressed by the Queen, 

tion of his dancing. An offer was and which is said to have hastened 

instantly made by her to admit him his death, had nothing whatever to 

of the band of Gentlemen-pension- do with his early debts, nor with 

ers. He expressed great unwilling- those imaginary "bonds "or "statute- 

"ess to renounce all his prospects in merchant." 

6 THE LIFE AND TIMES OF [1568-71. 

tlemen -pensioners between March and June 1564; for 
though his name does not occur in the Eoll of the Band, 
made at Lady-day in that year, yet on the 30th of June 
1564 a a warrant was issued to the Master of the Armoury, 
commanding him " to cause to be made one armour com- 
plete, fit for the body of our well-beloved servant Chris- 
topher Hatton, one of our Gentlemen-pensioners, he pay- 
ing according to the just value thereof," 15 and which was 
probably the usual order for the equipment of persons 
appointed to that situation. In 1568 Hatton was one 
of the " gentlemen of the Inner Temple" who wrote a 
tragedy called " Tancred and Gismund," which was 
acted before the Queen, apparently by the authors of 
the piece. His contribution was the fourth act; to 
which, when the play was printed in 1592, his name 
was thus affixed " Composuit Chr. Hatton." 

a Seven Rolls of the names of were of her Majesty's Right Honour- 

Gentlemen-pensioners in the reign able maidens can testify." Wil- 

of Elizabeth, before 1580, have been mot's friend Webb, who requested 

found ; viz. those of 3rd, 5th, 6th, him to print it, says, " The tragedy 

15th, 19th, 20th, and 21st Eliz., all was by them " (the Inner Temple 

of which (except that of the 5th, gentlemen) "most pithily framed, 

which is in the State Paper Office) and no less curiously acted, in view 

are in the Rolls House. The name of her Majesty, by whom it was then 

of "Christopher Hatton" occurs as princely accepted.' 7 

only in the Rolls of the 12th, 15th, " The brave youths that then, to 

and 19th Eliz. their high praises, so feelingly per- 

b Original in the State Paper Of- formed the same in action, did 

fice. shortly after lay up the book unre- 

c Lord Campbell (ii. 138) says, garded, or perhaps let it run abroad, 

but without giving his authority, (as many parents do their children 

that Hatton "did not act in this once past dandling,) not respecting 

piece himself." The point is not so much what hard fortune might 

very material ; but the dedication by befal it, being out of their fingers, as 

its editor Wilmot, in 1592, as well as how their heroical wits might again 

the other introductory matter, show be quickly conceived with new in- 

that it was performed by the authors. ventions of like worthiness, whereof 

To the fair dedicatees, Lady Mary they have been ever since wonder- 

Petre and Lady Ann Grey, the edi- fill fertile." The names of the 

tor says : " So, amongst others, these actors are not prefixed to the play ; 

gentlemen, which with what sweet- but to the first act is added the sig- 

ness of voice, liveliness of action nature " G. AL," and to the second, 

they then expressed it, they which " Per Hen. No." 


In April 1568, Hatton exchanged his hereditary 
manors of Holdenby with the Queen for the site of 
the abbey and demesne lands of Sulby ; but on the same 
day she granted him a lease of the manors of Holdenby 
for forty years. 8 From this time the Eoyal bounty flowed 
upon him in so copious a stream as to excite wonder, 
if not suspicion; for he had performed no service to 
the State, and to meritorious public servants Elizabeth 
was parsimonious, if not mean, in the distribution of 
rewards. It is said that the favours lavished upon 
Hatton excited the displeasure, if not the jealousy, of 
Leicester; and that, in ridicule of the accomplishment 
which first attracted the Queen's notice, he proposed to 
introduce a dancing-master, who excelled the young 
pensioner. But Elizabeth drew a proper distinction 
between the merit of an artist and the skill of an 
amateur: "Pish!" she said contemptuously, "I will 
not see your man; it is his trade!"* On the 27th 
of July in that year he was appointed Keeper of Eltham 
Park, and of the Park of Home. In 1569 the farm 
of the chapel of Monkton in Pembrokeshire was granted 
to him ; and he was one of the Justices of the Peace 
in Northamptonshire. In February 1570 he obtained 
the reversion of the office of Queen's Remembrancer in 
the Exchequer; 11 and, in 1571, an inn near Temple Bar 
called " the Ship," lands in Yorkshire and Dorsetshire, 
and the wardship of a minor were granted to him. 6 

a Rot. Patent. 10 Eliz.; Baker's Office. In a list of " Gentlemen under 

Northamptonshire, i. 195. the Marquis of Northampton " in 

b Miss Strickland's Life of Queen 1569, the name of " Hatton " was 

Elizabeth, vol. vi. p. 336 ; but the underlined by Cecil. Ibid, 

fair authoress does not give her au- d This grant was repeated in May 

thority. 1 572. 

c List of Justices of the Peace in e Rot. Patent. 11, 12, 13, Eliz., 

October 1569, in the State Paper passim. 


Hatton was returned to parliament for Higham Fer- 
rers a in April 1571, but there is nothing to show that 
he took any part in its proceedings. In May 1571, he 
distinguished himself as one of the challengers in "a 
solemn tournay and barriers," before the Queen at West- 
minster; his colleagues being the Earl of Oxford, Mr. 
Charles Howard, and Sir Henry Lee, "who did very 
valiantly, but the chief honour was given to the Earl 
of Oxford." b In 1572 he presented his Royal mistress, 
apparently for the first time, with a New-year's gift, 
consisting of a jewel of pizands of gold adorned with 
rubies and diamonds, and flowers set with rubies, 
with one pearl pendant, and another at the top. c From 
this time Hatton, like the rest of the Court, never 
failed to make a similar offering to the Queen, on New- 
year's day, obtaining in return silver-gilt plate; and 
it is deserving of remark, that while the largest quantity 
of plate ever given, even to the highest personage, 
never exceeded two hundred, and was seldom more 
than fifty ounces, d Hatton always received four hundred 
ounces on those occasions. Between February and July 
1572, grants were made to him of woods in Here- 
fordshire, of the manor of Frampton in Dorsetshire, of 
the reversion of the house of the monastery de Pratis 
in Leicestershire, of the stewardship of the manor of 

a Willis' Notitia Parliamentaria. of the Duchy, 30 ; Sir Francis Wal- 

b Nichols* Progresses of Queen singham, 60 ; the Treasurer of the 

Elizabeth, i. 276. Household, 25; the Comptroller, 24; 

c Ibid. 295. the Archbishop of York, 35 ; Lord 

d See the lists in Nichols' Pro- Howard, 104; Countesses, 18 to 50; 

gresses of Queen Elizabeth, vols. ii. Lord Howard, 104 ; and the Earl of 

and iii. passim. The earliest is in Ormonde, 165 ounces, which is the 

1578. The Keeper of the Great largest quantity given except "to 

Seal received 34 ounces ; Leicester, Sir Christopher Hatton, Vice-Cham- 

then Master of the Horse, 100 ; the berlain and Captain of the Guard," 

Lord Admiral, 22 ; the Chancellor who received 400 ounces. 


Wendlingborough in Northamptonshire, and of the 
wardship of two more minors. 8 

Though Hatton had then been at least eight years 
attached to the Court, his name has not been found in 
any correspondence of the period ; and his career seems 
to have been marked only by the extraordinary fa- 
vour and liberal bounty of the Queen. That his posi- 
tion rendered him an object of envy, cannot be doubted ; 
but he seems to have made more friends and fewer ene- 
mies than any other Royal favourite. 

Literary men found in him a kind and generous 
patron; and his influence with the Queen had ena- 
bled him to lay some of the highest personages in the 
State under obligations. An affecting proof of his 
friendship for the Duke of Norfolk, who was condemned 
for high treason on the 16th of January 1572, but 
whose greatest crime was a design to marry the 
Queen of Scots, is afforded by a passage in the letter 
which that unfortunate nobleman wrote to his son, 
Philip Earl of Surrey, on the 20th of that month : 
" Mr. Hatton is a marvellous constant friend, one that 
I have been much beholden unto. Write unto him 
and seek his goodwill, and I believe you shall find 
him assured." To this circumstance may be attributed 
the insertion of the following letter, from the Duke 
to his son, in Hatton's "Letter book." It was in- 
tended that Norfolk should have been executed on the 
2nd of February, and early in the morning of that day 
he wrote this pathetic letter in his Bible; but he was 
then respited, and not put to death until the 2nd 
of June. The young Earl of Surrey naturally revered 
the book so bequeathed to him, and wrote in it, " Phi- 

a Rot. Pat. 14 Eliz. 


lip Surreye and this booke ought no waye be sepa- 
rated, but be together alwayes; and I Philip Surreye 
testify the same, beinge written with myne owen 
hande." 8 



Now, my dear son Philip, the hour is come that your 
earthly father must bid you farewell : and so I do with a 
right goodwill, as well yourself as also your loving wife, my 
weU-beloved daughter; your two brethren, my dear children; 
and mine own sweet daughter, with your pretty sisters-in- 
law. 5 For I have, by my most earnest prayers to Almighty 
God, for His dear Son's sake Jesus Christ, committed you 
wholly over to His divine Majesty; whose grace if you call 
for earnestly, with a constant faith in Christ only, no doubt 
you shall receive more mercy and goodness at His hands than 
my natural affection unto you can either think for or wish 
you. Besides, I have by most humble petition to my most 
gracious sovereign Lady, Queen, and Mistress, offered you 

a Harleian MSS. 6991, where his second wife, Margaret, daughter 

another copy, differing slightly from and heiress of Thomas Lord Audley 

the one in the text, occurs. Copies of Walden, the Duke of Norfolk left 

of the Duke's letter to his children on two sons, viz. Thomas, ancestor of 

the 20th of February, bidding them the Earls of Suffolk and Berkshire, 

farewell in the most tender terms, and William, ancestor of the Earls of 

and advising them as to their con- Carlisle, and of Mr. Howard of 

duct in life, as well as of the letter Corby. Both Thomas and William 

of that date to his son, are in the Howard married daughters of Lord 

Harleian MSS. 787, 4808, &c., and Dacre and sisters of their half-bro- 

they may all have been printed. ther the Earl of Arundel's wife, and 

b By his first wife, Mary, only a daughter Margaret, who became 

child of Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl of the wife of Robert Earl of Dorset. 

Arundel, he had his son and heir, The Duke married a third wife, who 

Philip Howard, then styled Earl of died in 1569, and by whom he had 

Surrey, who inherited the earldom of no issue, but who left two daughters 

Arundel from his mother. Though by her first husband, 

then very young, he was married c This petition is in Hayne's 

to Anne, eldest daughter of Tho- State Papers, p. 166. In the Duke's 

mas, and sister and co-heir of letter to the Queen, of the 23rd of 

George Lord Dacre of Gillesland, January, called his "confession," he 

and he died a prisoner in the gratefully acknowledges her " in- 

Tower, under sentence of death for tended goodness to his unfortunate 

treason, in November 1595. By brats. " Ibid. p. 168. 


(as poor orphans cast away) unto the comfort of her High- 
ness' most merciful goodness ; to whom with your hearts, if 
you have not minds fully bent, as your abilities will serve you, 
to make some satisfaction for me your father's disobedience. 
Instead of well-wishing you, I pray God send you short lives; 
but I hope, as it may be an example unto you to take heed 
of undutifulness, so you will remember this my last charge. 
And because by mine own experience I know how forgetful 
youth is, and for fear lest your young years (which I have 
most unhappily overthrown) should utterly sink for want of 
bridling, I have by my earnest petition chosen for you my 
children one a that I hope will be to you another myself: not 
that I can claim any so great kindness at his hands by desert, 
(who have been ever beholden to him, and I never able to 
pleasure him,) but for the former experience that I have had 
of his friendship ; and now, lastly, when friendship was most 
tried, that it pleased him, at my fervent request, to be your 
adoptive father. It is, methinks, no little comfort unto me, 
at this time of my death, that I have so well bestowed you, 
first, to the protection of the most merciful God; secondly, 
to the most gracious and pitiful heart of my most redoubted 
Queen and Mistress; thirdly, to the care of so friendly and 
vigilant a nobleman, now your earthly father. I write briefly 
now, because my mind is wholly bent upon that which I 
have more care of than of yourselves: have regard to my 
meaning, and not to my uncouthed sentences, or perhaps 
unapt words. I have written to you at length heretofore, 
which perhaps is come to your hands ere this. Remember 
my former lessons, as well as if I should repeat them anew. 
They be but short ; but, if you follow them, you shall find 
them sweet, and best for your souls' health, and for your 
worldly profit and quietness. Be obedient to your new good 
father, and to those other my friends that in my letters I 
have recommended unto you ; and be advised by such of my 
servants as have been trustiest unto me, for they are able 
to give you that counsel which shall be fittest for you to 

a Lord Burghley. 


follow. I write thus much unto you in this place of the 
Book, because by godly Job you may learn to be patient in 
this adversity that my desert hath now laid upon you, and say 
with that good man the one-and-twentieth verse in his first 
chapter; and on the other side, of the Psalms of good King 
David, you may select and see many sentences again for the 
comfort of your afflicted minds. But the true cause why I 
send you this Book is, to the end you may study it well, and 
live accordingly, for so shall you be thought to fear to do evil. 
O God, forgive me, I beseech Him, all my misdeeds ! If I had 
done as I now counsel you, this misfortune had not chanced ; 
and yet behold the mercifulness of God, for although I was 
called but at the eleventh hour, yet I hope I have taken 
that instruction of this Book of Life as hath made me fit to 
battle against the devil, death, and all worldly temptations. 
God grant, for His mercy's sake in my Saviour Jesus Christ, 
that I may so strongly in spiritual grace continue till my 
last breath ! O Philip, is not this then a worthy Book, that, 
if you ply it worthily, will keep thee ever from deadly sin ? 
and yet if thou fall, by the frailty of Adam's flesh, in this 
Book thou mayest find comfort to be again and again renewed 
and reconciled to Jesus Christ. Read this Book, study it, 
and meditate upon it, and the Lord will bless you, not only 
in this world, but also in the world to come, where nova 
facta sunt omnia, and where I most humbly beseech Him 
to grant us a joyful meeting. That is the only kingdom. 
Pray most effectually for the long preservation of our most 
gracious Queen, for our Lord save her ! If aught should chance 
otherwise than well to her noble person, your misery shall be 
doubled, and your back friends perchance strengthened. Be- 
ware of factions (whereof there be too many), if you love 
your own life, or will save that little that by hap is left 
you. Farewell, my dear son! as you may think, when you 
see how much time I have bestowed upon you at this instant, 
when time is more precious unto me than all the good in the 
world. And the Lord bless you all, my dear children ! I 
wish this to the rest as well as to you, and send you all His 
grace, which is no ways to be obtained but by faith in Jesus 


Christ; in which faith the Lord of His merciful goodness 
strengthen you now and evermore, Amen ! The 2nd of 
February, which, within four hours after, might have been 
written with my heart's blood. Remember my lessons, and 
forget me. Written between four and five of the clock by 
me your earthly woeful father, but joyful. I most humbly 
thank the Lord, that I hope my time draweth so near that 
my soul shall enjoy bliss, and leave this crooked lump of 
sinful flesh. 


In May 1572, Hatton was elected a Knight of the 
Shire for Northampton, and he continued to represent 
that county b until he became Lord Chancellor. On 
the 13th of July Lord Burghley was made Lord High 
Treasurer; Lord William Howard, Lord Privy Seal; 
the Earl of Sussex, Lord Chamberlain; and Sir Thomas 
Smith, Secretary of State. On the same occasion 
the office of Captain of the Guard becoming vacant 
by Sir Francis Knollys being made Treasurer of the 
Household, he was succeeded by Hatton, c who still 
retained the situation of Gentleman of the Privy Cham- 
ber and of Gentleman-pensioner. 

Though large beneficial grants had been made to 
Hatton, no important office, nor any honour, for he was 
not even Knighted until five years after this period, had 
been conferred upon him; yet the Queen's regard for 
him was so notorious, that he was considered to rival the 
Earl of Leicester in her favour, and scandal was equally 
rife with respect to them both. The earliest allusion 
that has been found to these injurious reports shows 
how prevalent they must have been. In August 1570, 

a Additional MSS. 15891 fo. 149. c Stow, p. 672. Nichols' Pro- 
b Willis' Notitia Parliamentaria. grosses, i. 307. 


several persons were tried, and some executed at Nor- 
wich, for treasonable speeches and designs. " They 
had set out four proclamations : one was touching the 
wantonness of the Court;" and one of the conspirators 
called Marsham, having said that " my Lord of Lei- 
cester had two children by the Queen," was sentenced to 
lose both his ears, or pay a fine of one hundred pounds. 5 * 
Among the traitorous speeches of a person called Mather, 
in 1571, according to Berney's written confession to 
Lord Leicester, was, that the Queen " desire th nothing 
but to feed her own lewd fantasy, and to cut off such of 
her nobility as were not perfumed and court-like to 
please her delicate eye, and place such as were for her 
turn, meaning dancers, and meaning you my Lord of 
Leicester, and one Mr. Hatton, whom he said had more 
recourse unto her Majesty in her privy chamber than 
reason would suffer if she were so virtuous and well- 
inclined as some noiseth her ; with other such vile words 
as I am ashamed to speak, much more to write." 5 In 
a letter from Archbishop Parker to Lord Burghley, 
in September 1572, he says he was credibly informed 
that some man had, in his examination by the Mayor 
of Dover and Mr. Sommers, uttered " most shameful 
words against her" (the Queen), namely, that the 
Earl of Leicester and Mr. Hatton should be such to- 
wards her as the matter is so horrible that they would 
not write down the words, but would have uttered 
them in speech to your lordship if ye could have been at 
leisure." c 

But there were far more distinguished and more 


Lodge's " Illustrations of British Orig., printed in Strype's Life of 

History," 8vo. vol. i. pp. 514, 515. Archbishop Parker, ed. Oxon. vol. 

b Murdin's State Papers, p. 204. ii. p. 127 ; and in Wright's " Queen 

c Lansdowne MSS. 15, art 43. Elizabeth and her Times," i. 440. 


virulent calumniators of the Queen than these obscure 

Mary Queen of Scots' charges must be here repeated, 
however disgusting or untrue. In her celebrated letter 
to Elizabeth, she says, that the Countess of Shrewsbury 
had expressed regret " que vous ne vous contentiez de 
maistre Haton et un autre de ce royaulme ;" but had for- 
gotten her honour with Simyer, as well as with the Duke 
d'Anjou, his master. " Quant au diet Haton, que vous 
le couriez a force, faisant si publiquement paroitre 
1'amour que luy portiez, qui luy mesmes estoit contreint 
de s'en retirer, et que vous donnastes un soufflet a Kili- 
greu pour ne vous avoir ramene le diet Haton, que vous 
avviez envoiay rappeler par luy, s'etant desparti en 
chollere d'auveques vous pour quelques injures que luy 
auviez dittes pour certiens boutons d'or qu'il auvoit sur 
son habit. Qu'elle auvoit travaille de fayre espouser au 
dit Haton la feu Comtesse de Lenox sa fille, mays que 
de creinte de vous, il ne osoit ententre." Mary then 
says that the Earl of Oxford dared not cohabit with his 
wife " de peur de perdre la faveur qu'il esperoit re- 
cepvoir par vous fayre 1'amour ; " that she was lavish 
towards all such people, " et ceulx qui se mesloient de 
telles mesnees, comme a un de vostre chambre, Gorge, " a 
to whom she had given three hundred pounds of rent, 
" pour vous avoir apporte les nouvelles du retour de 
Haton." b 

a Query if the William Gorge or she hated, and at the same time in- 

Gorges, who was for many years one juring Lady Shrewsbury, whom she 

of the Gentlemen -pensioners. detested, a double revenge, too 

tempting to a vindictive and injured 

b Murdin's State Papers, 558. woman to be lost, and perfectly con- 
The admirers of Mary affect to sistent with Mary's temper, ex- 
doubt the authenticity of this letter, plains away most of the objections 
which is said to have been printed taken to it. It receives some sup- 
from the original ; but the opportu- port from Lady Shrewsbury's step- 
nity of exasperating Elizabeth, whom son, Gilbert Talbot, having informed 


Cardinal Allen, in his " Admonition to the Nobility 
and People of England and Ireland," in 1588, charges 
her, in the coarsest terms, with having intrigued with 
Leicester and i( with divers others," and speaks of her 
" unlawful, long concealed, or fained issue." a 

To these facts may be added, that the notoriety of 
Elizabeth's incontinence was alleged by the Duke of 
Anjou as his reason for refusing to marry her ; b and that 
one of Lord Burghley's objections to her marrying Lei- 
cester was, that " it would be thought that the slan- 
derous speeches of the Earl with the Queen have been 
true." c 

Extraordinary evidence on this delicate subject is 
afforded by the following letter to Hatton, from his 
friend Edward Dyer, d written a few weeks after the be- 
fore-mentioned examination at Dover, and by the still 
more remarkable letters from Hatton to the Queen, 
which will be afterwards given. The letter from Dyer 
proves that whatever may have been the nature of 
Elizabeth's regard for Hatton, it was perfectly well 
known to his friends ; and that, a rival having appeared, 
Hatton was thrown into the shade. He therefore con- 

his father of the Queen's flirtation bassadeurs, qui y ont este', qu'il pen- 

with the Earl of Oxford in 1573. seroit estre deshonnore et perdre toute 

a Cardinal Allen's charges are la reputation qu'il pense avoir ac- 

abridged and translated in a note to quise." 

Lingard's History of England, 8vo. c Hayne's State Papers, p. 444. 

vol. viii. p. 535. d Edward Dyer was one of the 

b In a Letter from the Queen Mo- many dependants of the Earl of Lei- 

ther, Catherine de Medicis, to De la cester. He was occasionally em- 

Motte Fenelon, the French ambas- ployed in the Queen's service, and 

sador, (Ed. Cooper, vol. vii. p. 179,) was rewarded in 1596 by the ap- 

she said, " Et pour venir au poinct, pointment of Chancellor of the Order 

c'est que mon ills m'a faict dire par of the Garter, when he was Knight- 

le Roy qu'il ne la veut jamais es- ed ; and died about 1607. An 

pouser, quand bien elle le voudroit, account of Dyer, by the Editor of 

tfaultant qu'il a tousjours si mal oui this work, will be found in " Davi- 

parler de son honneur, et en a veu son's Poetical Rhapsody," ed. 1826, 

des lettres escriptes de tons les am- where this letter was first printed. 


suited Dyer as to the means of maintaining or recover- 
ing his position in the Queen's favour. Finding that 
Hatton contemplated the dangerous plan of reproaching 
Elizabeth for the change in her sentiments, he earnestly 
advised him not to adopt so perilous a course; and, if 
the expressions used by Dyer are to receive their usual 
interpretation, it is difficult to disbelieve the reports 
which were then so prevalent. Hatton's rival was 
apparently the young and eccentric Earl of Oxford, 
who had lately married the daughter of Lord Burgh- 
ley, and whom he cruelly treated in revenge for her 
father's having refused his request to intercede with 
the Queen for the Duke of Norfolk. As Oxford, be- 
sides his illustrious descent, was distinguished for the 
same personal qualities as those which obtained the 
Queen's favour for Hatton, a his jealousy is not sur- 
prising ;- 


SIR, After my departure from you, thinking upon your 
case as my dear friend, I thought good to lay before you 
mine opinion in writing somewhat more at large than at my 
last conference I did speak. And I do it of goodwill, for 
you need no counsel of mine I know right well. But one 
that standeth by shall see more in the game than one that 
is much more skilful, whose mind is too earnestly occupied. 
I will not recite the argument, or put the case as it were, 
for it needeth not ; but go to the reasons, such as they be. 
First of all, you must consider with whom you have to deal, 
and what we be towards her ; who though she do descend 
very much in her sex as a woman, yet we may not forget her 
place, and the nature of it as our Sovereign. Now if a man, 
of secret cause known to himself, might in common reason 
challenge it, yet if the Queen mislike thereof, the world 
a Vide page 23, post. 

VOL. I. C 


followeth the sway of her inclination ; and never fall they 
in consideration of reason, as between private persons they 
do. And if it be after that rate for the most part in causes 
that may be justified, then much more will it be so in causes 
not to be avouched. A thing to be had in regard; for 
it is not good for any man straitly to weigh a general disal- 
lowance of her doings. 

That the Queen will mislike of such a course, this is my 
reason: she will imagine that you go about to imprison 
her fancy, and to warp her grace within your disposition ; 
and that will breed despite and hatred in her towards you : 
and so you may be cast forth to the malice of every envious 
person, flatterer, and enemy of yours; out of which you 
shall never recover yourself clearly, neither your friends, so 
long as they show themselves your friends. 

But if you will make a proof (par ver vramo* as Spanish 
phrase is) to see how the Queen and he will yield to it, and 
it prosper, go through withal ; if not, to change your course 
suddenly into another more agreeable to her Majesty, I can 
like indifferently of that. But then you must observe this, 
that it be upon a by-occasion, for else it were not convenient 
for divers reasons that you cannot but think upon. 

But the best and soundest way in mine opinion is, to put 
on another mind ; to use your suits towards her Majesty in 
words, behaviour, and deeds; to acknowledge your duty, 
declaring the reverence which in heart you bear, and never 
seem deeply to condemn her frailties, but rather joyfully to 
commend such things as should be in her, as though they 
were in her indeed ; hating my Lord of Ctm b in the Queen's 
understanding for affection's sake, and blaming him openly 
for seeking the Queen's favour. For though in the beginning 
when her Majesty sought you (after her good manner), she 
did bear with rugged dealing of yours, until she had what 
she fancied, yet now, after satiety and fulness, it will rather 
hurt than help you ; whereas, behaving yourself as I said 

a Sic. Query For verrano 1 a Portuguese proverb, to see daylight 
through obscurity. b Query Oxford ? 


before, your place shall keep you in worship, your presence 
in favour, your followers will stand to you, at the least you 
shall have no bold enemies, and you shall dwell in the ways 
to take all advantages wisely, and honestly to serve your turn 
at times. Marry, thus much I would advise you to remem- 
ber, that you use no words of disgrace or reproach towards 
him to any; that he, being the less provoked, may sleep, 
thinking all safe, while you do awake and attend your advan- 

Otherwise you shall, as it were, warden him and keep him 
in order ; and he will make the Queen think that he beareth 
all for her sake, which will be as a merit in her sight ; and 
the pursuing of his revenge shall be just in all men's opinions, 
by what means soever he and his friends shall ever be able. 

You may perchance be advised and encouraged to the other 
way by some kind of friends that will be glad to see whether 
the Queen will make an apple or a crab of you, which, as 
they find, will deal accordingly with you ; following if fortune 
be good; if not, leave, and go to your enemy: for such kind 
of friends have no commodity by hanging in suspense, but 
set you a fire to do off or on, all is one to them ; rather 
liking to have you in any extremity than in any good mean. 

But beware not too late of such friends, and of such as 
make themselves glewe between them and you, whether it 
be of ignorance or practice. Well, not to trouble you any 
longer, it is very necessary for you to impart the effect of 
this with your best and most accounted friends, and most 
worthy to be so ; for then you shall have their assistance 
every way ; who, being made privy of your council, will and 
ought in honour to be partners of your fortune, which God 
grant to be of the best. The 9th of October 1572. Your 
assured poor friend to command, EDW. DYER.* 

Though the original letter does not exist, there is no 
reason to doubt the accuracy of the transcript. It 
occurs among the copies of many other letters and docu- 

a In the Harleian MSS. 787, fol. 88. 

c 2 


ments of the period, which were found in the possession 
of Mr. Dell, who had been Secretary to Archbishop 
Laud. The internal evidence of its genuineness is 
strong ; and becomes still stronger when compared with 
Dyer's other letters, especially with his letter to Lord 
Leicester some years later, a giving him advice respecting 
his proceedings in the Low Countries. The danger which 
it might be supposed would attend any person who ven- 
tured to commit such sentences to writing, if they really 
had the meaning which they seem to bear, is some 
reason for suspecting the letter, or for giving a very 
different construction to the passages; but the Queen's 
attachment to Hatton was so notorious that it accounts 
for Dyer's recommending Hatton to consult his "best 
and most accounted friends" on the subject. 

Though there is no date to the following letter from 
Hatton to the Queen, and though he fell under her dis- 
pleasure on subsequent occasions, there can be little 
doubt that it was written at this period; and it shews 
the ostensible cause of his loss of favour. It is super- 
scribed with this cypher, instead of the proper ad- 
dress ; 

A A 

MADAM, In striving to withstand your violent course of 
evil opinion towards me, I might perhaps the more offend 

a Memoir of Sir Edward Dyer, in Davison's Poetical Rhapsody," ed. 
1826, vol. i. p. Ixxix. 


you, because the truth of my cause disagreeth with the rigour 
of your judgment. But the bitterness of my heart in humble 
complaints I trust you will hear, for your goodness and jus- 
tice sake. May it therefore please you, my faults are said 
to be these ; unthankfulness, covetousness, and ambition. 

To the first, I speak the truth before God, that I have most 
entirely loved your person and service ; to the which, without 
exception, I have everlastingly vowed my whole life, liberty, 
and fortune. Even so am I yours, as, whatever God and you 
should have made me, the same had been your own ; than 
which I could, nor any can, make larger recompense. This 
I supposed to have been the true remuneration of greatest 
good turns, because I know it balanceth in weight the 
greatest good wills. Neither hath the ceremony of thanks- 
giving any way wanted, as the world will right fully witness 
with me ; and therefore in righteousness I most humbly pray 
you condemn me 'not. Spare your poor prostrate servant 
from this pronounced vengeance. 

To the second, I ever found your largess before my lack, in 
such plenty as I could wish no more, so that by craving I never 
argued myself covetous ; if any other way it appeared, let it 
be of folly and not of evil mind that so I have erred : yet God 
knoweth I never sought nor wished more wealth than to 
live worthily in your most sacred service, without mixture of 
any other opinion, purpose, or matter. I trust therefore in 
your holy heart this truth shall have his settled place. God 
for His mercy grant it may so be. 

To the third, God knoweth I never sought place but to 
serve you ; though indeed, to shield my poor self, both nature 
and reason would have taught me to ask refuge at your 
strong and mighty hand. These late great causes that most 
displeased your nobles, as of the Duke of N. and Q. of S., a 
the Acts of Parliament for religion, and other strange courses 
in those things taken, were all laid on my weak shoulders ; 
under which when I shall fall, behold then the wretched man 
how he shall pass all pointed at. But to my purpose, if ever 

a Duke of Norfolk and Queen of Scots : vide p. 9, ante. 


I inordinately sought either honour, or riches, place, calling, 
or dignity, I pray to God that hell might swallow me. Be- 
lieve not, I humbly beseech you for your wisdom and worthi- 
ness, the tale so evil told of your most faithful : be not led by 
lewdness of others to lose your own, that truly loveth you. 
These most unkind conceits wonderfully wring me : reserve 
me more graciously to be bestowed on some honourable enter- 
prise for you ; and so shall I die a most joyful man and eter- 
nally bound to you. 

But would God I might win you to think well according 
with my true meaning ; then should I acquiet my mind, and 
serve you with joy and further hope of goodness. I ask 
right of Her will do no wrong ; and yet this hard hap 
doth follow me, that I must make prayer for the blessing that 
every man hath without demand or asking. I fear your too 
great trouble in reading this blotted letter. I will therefore 
with my most dutiful submission pray for your long and 
happy life. I pray God bless you for ever. 

Your despairing most wretched bondman, 


Early in May 1573, Hatton was seriously ill; and, 
however much the Queen's regard for him may have been 
lessened, his indisposition certainly revived her affection. 
On the llth of that month Mr. Gilbert Talbot wrote 
a letter to his father, the Earl of Shrewsbury, filled with 
news; and it affords so much curious information on the 
state of the Court, that a few sentences will be extract- 
ed, besides the one immediately relating to Hatton : 
" My Lord Treasurer, even after the old manner, dealeth 
with matters of the State only, and beareth himself very 
uprightly. My Lord Leicester is very much with her 
Majesty, and she sheweth the same great good affection 
to him that she was wont : of late, he hath endeavoured 

a Autograph in the State Paper Office. 


to please her more than heretofore. There are two 
sisters now in the Court that are very far in love with 
him, as they have been long, my Lady Sheffield and 
Frances Howard: 8 they of like striving who shall love 
him better are at great wars together, and the Queen 
thinketh not well of them, and not the better of him; 
by this means there is spies over him. My Lord of Sus- 
sex goeth with the tide, and helpeth to back others ; but 
his own credit is sober, considering his estate : he is very 
diligent in his office, and takes great pains. My Lord 
of Oxford is lately grown into great credit; for the 
Queen's Majesty delighteth more in his personage, and 
his dancing and valiantness, than any other. I think 
Sussex doth back him all that he can ; if it were not for his 
fickle head, he would sure pass any of them shortly. My 
Lady Burghley b unwisely has declared herself (as it were) 
jealous, which is come to the Queen's ear; whereat she 
hath been not a little offended with her, but now she is 
reconciled again. At all these love matters my Lord 
Treasurer winketh, and will not meddle any way. Hat- 
ton is sick still; it is thought he will very hardly re- 
cover his disease, for it is doubted it is in his kidneys : 
the Queen goeth almost every day to see how he doth. 
Now is there devices, chiefly by Leicester (as I suppose), 
and not without Burghley 's knowledge, how to make 
Mr. Edward Dyer as great as ever was Hatton ; for now, 
in this time of Hatton's sickness, the time is convenient. 
It is brought thus to pass : Dyer lately was sick of a 
consumption, in great danger; and, as your Lordship 
knoweth, he hath been in displeasure these two years : it 

a Daughters of William Lord How- b The Earl of Oxford's mother-in 
ard of Effingham. The Earl of Lei- law. 
cester married the former, and the 
Earl of Hertford the latter. 


was made the Queen believe that his sickness came be- 
cause of the continuance of her displeasure towards him, 
that, unless she would forgive him, he was like not to 
recover; and hereupon her Majesty hath forgiven him, 
and sent unto him a very comfortable message : now he is 
recovered again, and this is the beginning of this device. 
These things I learn of such young fellows as myself." a 

On the 23rd of May, Lord Talbot informed his father 
that the Queen was desirous of making a progress to Bris- 
tol, but that it was wished to dissuade her from going so 
far on account of the unseasonableness of the weather ; and 
he added, " Mr. Hatton, by reason of his great sickness, is 
minded to go to the Spa for the better recovery of his 
health." b On the 29th of May an order was signed by 
the Privy Council for allowing Hatton " to pass over 
the seas for recovery of his health," 6 and the deep 
solicitude which the Queen felt about him was shewn 
by her causing him to be accompanied by Dr. Julio, 
the eminent Court physician. Hatton took leave of 
Elizabeth on the 3rd of June; and few letters have 

a Shrewsbury Papers in the Col- gan her progress Mr. Hat- 

lege of Arms, F. fo. 79, printed in ton (not well in health) took this 

Lodge's " Illustrations of British opportunity to get leave to go to the 

History," 8vo., vol. ii. pp. 17, 18. Spaw, and Dr. Julio (a great Court 

b Hunter's History of Hallam- physician) with him ; whereat the 

shire, p. 84. Mr. Hunter has erro- Queen shewed herself very pensive, 

neously assigned this letter to 1574, and very unwilling to grant him 

because in that year the Queen visited leave, for he was a favourite. These 

Bristol. Strype (ed. Oxford, ii. 449) are some of the contents of a private 

and Mr. Nichols (Progresses, i. letter of the Lord Talbot to the Earl 

388) have fallen into a similar mis- his father," It is certain that Hatton 

take by supposing that Hatton went returned to England in the autumn 

to Spa in 1574. Referring to a let- of 1573, and that he did not go to 

ter from Francis Talbot, dated 28th Spa in 1574 ; and, consequently, 

June 1574, in which he says the both Strype and Mr. Hunter have 

Queen " had been melancholy dis- mistaken the date. Strype has also 

posed a good while, which should misrepresented the contents of Lord 

seem that she is troubled with Talbot 's letter of the 23rd of May 

weighty causes," Strype says, "but, [1574] quoted in the text, 

notwithstanding, that month she be- c Privy Council Books. 


ever been published more curious than those written 
by him to her Majesty during his absence, which now for 
the first time see the light. It appears that she had 
given him the singular appellation of " Lids " or 
"Lyddes;" a that he sometimes subscribed his letters 
with a cypher; and that those which he wrote to her had 
no other address than another cypher. The style of his 
correspondence is that of an ardent and successful lover, 
separated by distance and illness from a mistress, ra- 
ther than that of a Subject to his Sovereign. 

On the 5th of June, Hatton wrote the following reply 
to some letters which he had received from the Queen, 
though only two days had elapsed since he quitted her 
presence : 

A .A 

IF I could express my feelings of your gracious letters, I 
should utter unto you matter of strange effect. In reading of 
them, with my tears I blot them. In thinking of them I feel 
so great comfort, that I find cause, as Godknoweth, to thank 
you on my knees. Death had been much more my advan- 
tage than to win health and life by so loathsome a pilgrimage. 

The time of two days hath drawn me further from you than 
ten, when I return, can lead me towards you. Madam, I 
find the greatest lack that ever poor wretch sustained. No 
death, no, not hell, no fear of death shall ever win of me 
my consent so far to wrong myself again as to be absent from 
you one day. God grant my return. I will perform this 
vow. I lack that I live by. The more I find this lack, the 

a Some expressions in his letters "lids," i. e. "eyelids;" and, if so, 
tend to shew that the name was Hatton's were perhaps peculiar. 


further I go from you. Shame whippeth me forward. 
Shame take them that counselled me to it. The life (as you 
well remember), is too long that loathsomely lasteth. A true 
saying, Madam. Believe him that hath proved it. The great 
wisdom I find in your letters, with your Country counsels are 
very notable, but the last word is worth the bible. Truth, 
truth, truth. Ever may it dwell in you. I will ever deserve 
it. My spirit and soul (I feel) agreeth with my body and life, 
that to serve you is a heaven, but to lack you is more than 
hell's torment unto them. My heart is full of woe. Pardon 
(for God's sake) my tedious writing. It doth much diminish 
(for the time) my great griefs. I will wash away the faults of 
these letters with the drops from your poor Lydds and so 
inclose them. "Would God I were with you but for one hour. 
My wits are overwrought with thoughts. I find myself 
amazed. Bear with me, my most dear sweet Lady. Passion 
overcometh me. I can write no more. Love me ; for I love 
you. God, I beseech thee witness the same on the behalf of 
thy poor servant. Live for ever. Shall I utter this familiar 
term (farewell) ? yea, ten thousand thousand farewells. He 
speaketh it that most dearly loveth you. I hold you too 
long. Once again I crave pardon, and so bid your own poor 
Lidds farewell. 1573 June. 

Your bondman everlastingly tied, CH. HATTON.* 

Soon after Hatton arrived at Antwerp he again 
wrote to the Queen : 

THE time is (as it were) hallowed with me, wherein I may 
in this sort exercise my devotion towards you and ease the 
travails of my mind, which I continually find too much over- 
burdened with the fears and cares that affection layeth upon 
it. Let it not, therefore, with you, Madam, be labour and 
trouble to read these rude lines, that proceed from me with so 

a Autograph in the State Paper since he quitted the Court ; and in 

Office. This letter must have been his letter of the 17th of that month 

written on the 5th of June, because he says that it was the twelfth day 

Hatton says it was the second day since he had seen the Queen. 


pure and holy a thought. I fear you will be offended 
with my boldness, but I know you will excuse me in 
your goodness. I fear you will mislike that I find no other 
matter to discourse unto you: in good faith, if I could 
find a more worthy action, I would deliver it unto you ; but 
accept this, Madam, for in the world (above this) there is 
nothing. This is the twelfth day since I saw the brightness 
of that Sun that giveth light unto my sense and soul. I wax 
an amazed creature. Give me leave, Madam, to remove 
myself out of this irksome shadow, so far as my imagination 
with these good means may lead me towards you, and let me 
thus salute you : Live for ever, most excellent creature ; and 
love some man, to shew yourself thankful for God's high 
labour in you. I am too far off to hear your answer to this 
salutation ; I know it would be full of virtue and great wis- 
dom, but I fear for some part thereof I would have but small 
thanks. Pardon me ; I will leave these matters, because I 
think you mislike them. 

Madam, I have received great honour in these Countries 
for the love they bear you, or rather their fear of your great- 
ness. I perceive they are careful to exercise all good parts, 
how unworthy so ever the person be unto whom they use 
them ; but of these things, and others, I have advertised Mr. 
Heneage, whose report of the same I humbly beseech you to 
hear. I would I saw your world at home, how some seek 
that I have done, which they shall find never. Some hope 
well and haste them on, but waste shall be their hire ; and 
some despair, whom I allow the wisest, but not the most 
happy of these men. But, Madam, forget not your Lidds that 
are so often bathed with tears for your sake. A more wise man 
may seek you, but a more faithful and worthy can never have 
you. Pardon me, my most dear sweet Lady, I will no more 
write of these matters. I wish you like welfare your presence 
might give me ; it is, I assure you, the best farewell that ever 
was given you. Antwerp, the 17th of June 1573. 
Yours all and ever yours, 


a Autograph in the State Paper Office. No address or superscription. 


The following letter to the Queen is without a date, 
but it was probably sent from Spa, in July or in the 
early part of August. It may however have been writ- 
ten at an earlier period, and before Hatton left England. 
Though it is not possible to explain all the extraordi- 
nary passages, there can be no doubt that he represents 
himself as the Queen's sheep, that the "branch " was a 
jewel she had sent to him, and that the " boar " with 
which he contrasts her "sheep" was the Earl of Oxford, 
whose crest was a boar : 


THE lack I feel doth make me know your greatest worth. 
I speak in the presence of God. I find my body and mind 
so far divided, as, yourself shall judge, that melancholy (con- 
ceived by this unwonted absence) hath made myself forget 
myself. Your Mutton is black ; scarcely will you know your 
own, so much hath this disease dashed me. I pray God, you 
may believe my faith. It is the testament of your greatest 
excellencies. It might glad you (I speak without presump- 
tion), that you live so dearly loved with all sincerity of heart 
and singleness of choice. I love yourself. I cannot lack 
you. I am taught to prove it by the wish and desire I find 
to be with you. Believe it, most gracious Lady, there is no 
illud mitius, you are the true felicity that in this world I 
know or find. God bless you for ever. The branch of the 
sweetest bush I will wear and bear to my life's end. God doth 
witness I feign not. It is a gracious favour, most dear and 
welcome unto me. Reserve it to the Sheep, he hath no tooth 
to bite ; where[as] the Boar's tusk may both rase and tear. 
The branch of brass with your most notable word and sen- 
tence, I desire exceedingly to have. But your judgment 
most pleaseth me, that you cannot esteem the untrue es- 


teenier. Pardon me, most humbly on my knees I beseech 
you. The abundance of my heart carrieth me I know not to 
what purpose ; but guess you (as the common proverb is), and 
I will grant. I guess by my servant you should not be well, 
which troubleth me greatly. I humbly pray you that I may 
know it, for then will I presently come, whatever befal me. 
Humbly on the knees of my soul, I pray God bless you for 
ever. Your slave and EveR* your own, 

On the 10th of August Hatton wrote to the Queen 
under the signature of " Lyddes," in reply to a letter 
which he had received from her inclosed in one to Mr. 
Heneage : 

A -A 

MADAM, as your most rare works confirm in me an irre- 
moveable faith, so is my love and band enlarged to an in- 
finite serviceable thankfulness. The lining of Mr. Heneage 
letter warmeth the heart's blood with joys above joys. Full 
sweet will such a life be, that by so noble a sweet creature 
is with so glad and kind devotion asked at the Almighty's 
hands. God grant it you. Not for myself I ask it; but that 
your everlasting bondman, with pure love and careful diligent 
faith, may everlastingly serve you. God grant him grace to 
give you as small trouble as you give him most inestimable 

a The E and R are capitals, and the Queen's initials, Elizabetha 
are so written by him in a subse- Jlegina. 

quent letter, evidently in allusion to b Autograph in the State Paper 



great cause of the contrary. I trust with discretion to cor- 
rect all frail humour. Give your pardon of things bypast, 
and I will even it by amendments to follow. The content- 
ment of mind you give me doth most of all re-cure me. By 
your great bounty and most liberal charge I purchase life 
and health withal. By your oft messengers, carriers of your 
endless cares for my recovery's sake, I enjoy so great a comfort 
in life as never God hath blessed man withal before. For all 
these I can yield you nothing but the beggar's phrase, 
though indeed the best thanks, God save your life for 
ever, and bless you with His glorious thanks for your divine 
merits towards me your so poor and discomforted despairing 
servant. My dear Lady, I amend : some proof thereof hath 
Julio a sent unto you. I find cause to think that much 
greater effects will follow. God be blessed in all His 
works, and you in your most Royal gifts. Upon the knees of 
my heart I most humbly commend my most faithful love and 
service unto you. Adieu, most dear sweet Lady. This 
10th of August 1573. All and EveR yours, your most happy 
bondman, LYDDES. b 

a Doctor Julio the physician. and they are extremely curious in 

b Autograph in the State Paper themselves: 

Office. Though the inquiry after " Even such good health my friend 

letters from Queen Elizabeth to Hat- as never can appair is wished may 

ton has not been successful, it has fall unto your share by one even 

brought to light parts of two very re- wholly yours, if he can be such a 

markable documents, which may pos- one, that scant is found to be his 

sibly have been the " gracious letters" own. Your curious care to know 

to which he alludes (p. 26), because what grief incumbred my breast 

in one of them she speaks of the together with the remedy that may 

health of the person to whom it was cure the sore, is harder for me to 

addressed ; both were written at the utter than write. If my guest were 

same time ; and the conclusion of the not worse than his lodging, the rest 

second of them may have been the were not worse than the travail, 

" last word," which he says was And lest my paraphrase agree not 

" worth the Bible." If these extracts with my text, I will make mine own 

were really made from letters to Hat- exposition. The constitution of my 

ton, they tend to negative the injurious mind's vessel is not so evil framed 1 , 

impressions created by other circum- as whereupon grievous diseases or 

stances, and they ought, therefore, perilous maladies have taken hold. I 

to be here inserted. In the Editor's find not the mixture so evil made as 

opinion, however, they did not form that any one element of all four, 

parts of the Queen's letters to him; overruleth so his fellows, as that the 

but they shew, at all events, that she rest may envy his hap. Since but 

sometimes repressed improper wishes, one other part the divine power hath 

J5T. 33.] 



The exact time of Hatton's return to England is not 
known, but it must have been before October in this 
year; for, on the llth of that month, a religious enthu- 
siast, named Peter Burchet, a student of the Middle 
Temple, deemed it a matter of conscience to assassinate 
Hatton, a because he had made himself obnoxious to the 
Puritans, by whom he was considered " a wilful Papist, 
and hindereth the glory of God so much as in him 
lieth;" b but, mistaking Captain Hawkins 6 of the Queen's 

given us for the best, it followeth 
then that there must be the plaint, 
or gone is all the moan. If your 
request, that seldom I deny, had not 
enforced a custom newly made, it 
would have pleased me well that you 
should not forget how hardly green 
wounds suffer their toucher's hand ; 
but since a nay your firm friend can 
scarce be brought to make you, the 
upper scale you shall touch to sound 
the depth shall serve the feeler's 
part. When I a gathering make of 
common paths and trades and think 
upon the sundry sorts of travellers in 
them both, I find a muse no greater, 
when multitudes be gathered and 
faces many one, amongst the which 
not two of all be found alike ; then 
wonder breeds in me, how all this 
worldly mass so long is made to 
hold, where never a mould is framed 
alike, nor never a mind agrees. And 
were it not that heavenly power 
overcometh human philosophy, it 
would content me well to remember 
that an evil is much better the less 
while it endureth." 


"A question once was asked me 
thus. Must aught be denied a 
friend's request 1 Answer me yea 
or nay. It was said Nothing. And 
first it is best to scan what a friend 
is, which I think nothing else but 
friendship's harbour. Now it follow- 
eth what friendship is, which I deem 
to be one uniform consent of two 
minds, such as virtue links and 

naught but death can break. There- 
fore I conclude that the house that 
shrinketh from his foundation shall 
down for me ; for friend leaves he to 
be, that doth demand more than the 
giver's grant with reason's leave may 
yield. And if so, then my friend 
no more; my foe. God send thee 
mend. And if needly thou must will, 
yet at the least no power be thine to 
atchieve thy desire. For where 
minds differ and opinions swerve, 
there is scant a friend in that com- 
pany. But if my hap have fallen in 
so happy a soil, as one such be found 
that wills but that beseems, and I be 
pleased with that he so allows, I bid 
myself farewell, and then I am but 
his." Contemporary copies in the 
State Paper Office, indorsed " A 
couple of letters of the Qu, endited 
and written at one time." 

a Sir Thomas Smith, writing to 
Lord Burghley on the 15th of Octo- 
ber 1573, says, " It is said here that 
divers times within this fortnight, 
both by words and writings, Mr. 
Hatton hath been admonished to 
take heed to himself, for his life was 
laid in wait for." Wright's Queen 
Elizabeth and her Times, i. 492. 

b Burchet's (or, as he wrote his 
name, Byrchet) autograph confession 
in theLansdowne MSS., 17. art. 88. 

c The celebrated navigator Sir 
John Hawkins ; but neither Camp- 
bell nor Prince notice the circum- 
stance in their accounts of his life. 


navy for his intended victim, Burchet struck that offi- 
cer with his dagger, as he was riding with Sir William 
Winter near Temple Bar towards Westminster. The 
wound, though severe, was not mortal; and, Burchet 
being sent to the Tower, he there murdered his keeper. 
As the false humanity of considering every fanatical as- 
sassin necessarily insane was not then in fashion, or, as a 
learned authority expresses it, a as they did not then stand 
on such niceties," a the criminal was justly condemned, 
and as properly executed. 5 Whether from indignation at 
the act, or terror at the danger from which her favourite 
had so narrowly escaped, Elizabeth ordered a commis- 
sion to be issued for executing Burchet by martial law ; 
and she was with some difficulty persuaded from so illegal 
a measure. 

Only one letter of the year 1573 occurs in Hatton's 
Letter-book. The Lord Deputy of Ireland, Sir William 
Fitzwilliam, had, with the consent of the majority of 
the Council, improperly granted a full pardon to a man 
accused of slaying a gentleman ; and they had, moreover, 
complained of Sir Edward Fitton, one of the Council and 
Treasurer of Ireland, for having objected to the pardon. 
The Queen severely reprimanded the Deputy, and told 
the Council that they ought not servilely to adopt his 
views, but to advise him when they thought he was mis- 
taken ; and she highly applauded Fitton for his firmness. 
The comparison which she draws between the severity 
of Henry the Eighth on a similar occasion, and her 
own " moderate reign and government," is amusing ; 

a Lord Campbell. c Camden's Annals, and Ellis's 

b Stow's Annals, 677*. Strype's Original Letters, second series, vol. 

Annals, ed. Oxford, 427, 428. Cam- iii. p. 27. 

den's Annals, b. ii. p. 62. 



RIGHT trusty and well-beloved, and trusty and well-be- 
loved, we greet you well. We have received your letter of 
the 12th of June, in the which, for the matter of pardon 
granted, and also touching Sir Edward Fitton, having read 
and considered the whole that you have written, and likewise 
that he hath written, of that matter unto us, we cannot but 
mislike that you the Deputy should be so hasty to give such 
and so general a pardon upon the slaying of a gentleman: 
for, where the corrupt jury of the coroner's quest did find 
it but se defendendo, it may easily appear that was no true 
verdict, and that it was a murther; or else you would not 
in that case have made out a general pardon, but a particular 
pardon upon the indictment, and, of course, as in like cases 
are wont. But this pardon is so general, that all treasons, 
murders, and other enormities, and transgressions of laws be 
pardoned, and from the friend of the man murdered all prose- 
cution of law taken away, such a one as we ourself (for we 
have seen the copy of it) would be afraid to grant, nor have 
not granted (to our knowledge) at any time since the first 
day of our reign : for it is not unknown to our Council here, 
and to all that have any doings with us, how seldom, and 
with what difficulty and conscience we be brought to pardon 
any man where suspicion of murther and malice pretensed is ; 
and how curious we be to be informed of the matter when 
any of our subjects be slain, before we will condescend to 
discharge any man of it. That discretion we looked for in 
you our Deputy, and therefore we put you in that place, lest 
the blood of the man slain should cry vengeance upon us and 
our realm not doing justice for it, and that the punishment 
of the murder should be a terror to others to adventure upon 
the like. But if you our Deputy should overslip yourself 
in this, either by hastiness or temerity, yet, as it appeareth, 
you the rest of our Council there have done as little your 
duties to God and us, in that you would put your hands 
unto it; as, whatsoever the Deputy therein for the time 


34 THE LIFE AND TIMES OF [1573-4. 

should do and allow, you would straight run into the same 
rashness, and affirm it with subscription of your hands as 
applauders of our Deputy. You be put there to be grave 
and sage advisers, to temper such sudden affections either 
the one way or the other, of love or of hatred, as may chance 
to our Deputy, being but a man made of flesh and blood, 
who cannot lightly be without them ; and to have regard to 
God first, and then to our honour and the surety and good 
government of our realm. Sir Edward Fitton seemeth to 
us a true and a good Counsellor, who, seeing so unreasonable 
a pardon so unadvisedly granted, made stay of it to bring it 
unto you our Deputy to be better advised of it, not resist- 
ing, but discreetly requiring more mature consultation ; and 
for this you will agree to put him to that shame as to commit 
him for a contemner of your doings, imputing rashness unto 
him in that behalf, where, in truth, he honoured us, in re- 
quiring more deliberation and regard than was had, to be had 
in justice, the which is clean taken away by that rash and 
unjust pardon. He refused to sit with you, and he had 
cause so to do ; for it appeareth you are all rather followers 
of the Deputy's affections, than careful ministers of justice or 
of our honour. If you had done well, you should have done 
as he did, requiring the Deputy to stay to take better advise- 
ment: so should you have showed more care of justice, of 
our honour, and of the good government of that our realm, 
than of following the hasty affection of our Deputy. You 
are adjoined to him from us as Counsellors, and in one 
commission, not to follow one head, or whatsoever the Deputy 
willeth ; but to consider what is just and reason to be done, 
and so agree with him and set to your hands, and no other- 
wise ; and therefore be you more than one, that, if need be, 
one may temper the other. Nicholas White, as appeareth 
by your letter, not daring to dissent against so running a con- 
sent, yet showed his conscience not to consent to affection, 
and would prescribe no punishment to that fact, which in his 
conscience he thought to be the duty of a good Counsellor 
to do. If this had been in our father's time, who removed a 


Deputy thence for calling of one of the Council dissenting 
from his opinion ( churl,' you may soon conceive how it 
would have been taken. Our moderate reign and govern- 
ment can be contented to bear this, so you will take this for 
a warning, and hereafter have before your eyes, not the will 
or pleasure of our Deputy or any other Counsellor, but first 
God's honour, and then justice and our service, which is 
always joined to the good government of the realm, not 
following in any respect any private quarrels or affections. 
And as to you our Deputy, we shall hereafter write our mind 
more at large : so will we not forget to give thanks to our 
good cousin, the Earl of Kildare, for his good service. And 
we could be content that the Earl of Ormond were at home. 
We have written to Sir Edward Fitton, willing him to join 
with you in Council and take his place again ; and do wish 
that, all sinister affections laid apart, you do join all in one 
to do that which may be to the honour of God and of our 
service, to the execution of justice, and to the good govern- 
ment of that realm. Given under our signet at our manor 
of Greenwich, the 29th of June 1573, the 15th year of our 
reign. a 

The Queen visited Bristol in August 1574, attended by 
Leicester, Hatton, and the other officers of her household. 
Churchyard, the prolific versifier, from whom several 
letters occur, published an account of her reception in 
the second edition of his book, called " Churchyard's 
Chips," which he dedicated to " the Eight Worshipful, 
his tried and worthy friend, Master Christopher Hatton, 
Esquire, Captain of the Queen's Majesty's Guard, and 
Gentleman of her Highness's Privy Chamber." His 
motive for thus inscribing his work he thus explains: 
" The long liking and goodwill, with the fast friend- 
ship I find in you, good Master Hatton, procures my 
pen presently to perform that I promised no small 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 22. 

D 2 


time since, touching a book of all my English verses 
in metre. The offer whereof came from myself, not 
for the goodness of the matter, but for the perfect- 
ness of the person to whom I meant to dedicate my 
work." It was in this year that Hatton, with the 
approbation of the Queen, first applied to Dr. Cox, 
Bishop of Ely, for the lease of the episcopal house in 
Ely Place, Holborn. The bishop made, however, so 
vigorous though fruitless a defence of the property of 
his See, a as to call forth this well-known reprimand 
from the Queen : 

" Proud Prelate ! I understand you are backward in 
complying with your agreement, but I would have you 
know, that I who made you what you are can unmake 
you; and if you do not forthwith fulfil your engage- 
ment, by God I will immediately unfrock you. 


Hatton was then so much in debt, that in December 
of this year Mr. Walsingham communicated the Queen's 
commands to Lord Burghley, that, of the note of the 
hundred pounds land that was given to him by Hatton, 
he should apply fifty pounds of it, as he might think 
most fit for her to part with, to him, " for that she is 
content to bestow so much on him presently towards 
the payment of his debts." 6 

In the year 1575 few notices have been found of 
Hatton. He presented his usual New-year's gift to the 
Queen, and her favour to him was manifested by large 

a Strype's Annals, ed. Oxford, i. pt. i. p. 136, where the above copy 

501, 502, 533, 541 ; ii. 259, 564, 584. of it is printed from " the Register 

b There are so many versions o of Ely." 

this pithy letter that its authenticity c Original letter from Walsing- 

becomes doubtful. No better autho- ham to the Lord Treasurer, 12th 

rity has been found for it than the December 1574. Lansdowne MSS. 

Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixxix. 18, art. 96. 


grants. In January he obtained lands in several coun- 
ties : in August the manor of Chapel Brompton in 
Northamptonshire was given to him ; and, on the 5th 
of December, Elizabeth settled four hundred pounds 
a year upon him for life, which donations were fol- 
lowed in the next year by the gift of Corfe Castle in 
Dorsetshire, and other lands in various parts of Eng- 

One of the few occasions on which Hatton appears in 
Parliamentary proceedings occurred in the Parliament 
which met in February 1575-6. Mr. Peter Went- 
worth, one of the members for Tregony, made a speech 
which astonished the pliant Commons. To advert to the 
acts of the Crown or to the state of the Country, except 
in terms of praise, was to speak " unreverend and un- 
dutiful words of the Queen." Wentworth was seques- 
tered; and placed in the custody of the Sergeant-at- 
arms. A committee, of which Hatton was one, was 
appointed to investigate the affair. It made a re- 
port on the 9th; and the offender was sent, b almost as 
a matter of course, to the Tower. c On the 12th of 
March, Hatton was the bearer of a gracious message 
from the Queen, announcing that her Majesty was 
pleased to remit her "justly occasioned displeasure," 
and to refer the enlargement of the party to the 
House. d During that Parliament Hatton obtained a pri- 
vate Act for the assurance of his lands. 6 

a Rot. Patent. 17 & 18 Eliz. It tal to the Tower. His committal 
appears from the Sydney Papers, was moved by the Treasurer of the 
vol. i. p. 159, that Hatton had also Household, not by Hatton. Coin- 
enjoyed a monopoly in Ireland, mons' Journals, i. 104. 
which expired about January 1576- c Commons' Journals, i. 104. 
7, the granting or which was , _, .. 
thought to be of no benefit to that d Ibld - P- 114 > and Parliamentary 
country." History, i. 802. 

b Lord Campbell (ii. 140) says, e Statutes of the Realm, vol. iv. 

Hatton moved Wentworth 's commit- pt. i. p. 607. 


On the 26th of August 1576, Hatton wrote to Lord 
Burghley, from Northamptonshire, in reply to a letter 
in which the Lord Treasurer had thanked him for his 
reception at his house, and advised him to return to the 
Court. It is obvious that Hatton was then in bad health 
and depressed spirits. 


MY MOST HONOURABLE GOOD LORD, Your letters declare 
the great goodness of your noble nature. I have neither 
deserved your thanks, nor can be grateful as I am most 
bound unto you. I will love and honour you as your virtue 
bindeth me, and every honest man that is subject to our most 
gracious Sovereign. I have scarcely had health, Sir, since 
my coming to this country; so that, enjoying not myself, I 
could little joy in those small things I have. Sir Thomas 
Cecil, a I thank him, is pleased to be with me ; whereof, I as- 
sure your Lordship, I take great comfort. He is faithful, 
good, and honest. I pray God you may live long to joy in 
him and his. I most humbly thank your Lordship for your 
loving and grave counsel. I will return to my most bounden 
and dutiful service ever so soon as possibly I can ; your 
honourable wish for the stay of my poor house is that I 
pray to God for, but yet it doth not so please Him that it may 
come to pass. Thus, leaving to cumber your good Lordship 
with my simple occasions, I most humbly take my leave. 
Dene, b this 26th of August 1576. Your good Lordship's most 
bound. CHR. HATTON. C 

The year 1577 was an important era in Hatton's 
life. On the llth of November he was appointed Vice- 
Chamberlain of the Queen's Household, and sworn of 
the Privy Council ; d and in the same month he re- 

a Lord Burghley's eldest son. c Lansdowne MSS. 22, art. 82. 

b Hatton's writing is very illegible. Autograph. 

This word may be either ."Dean" d " At Windsor, llth November 

in Northamptonshire, or " Done." 1577. This day Christopher Hat- 


ceived the honour of Knighthood from the hands of 
his Royal mistress at Windsor Castle. That dignity 
was on the same occasion conferred upon Walsingham, 
one of the Secretaries of State, and upon Thomas He- 
neage, Treasurer of the Chamber. 51 He also received in 
the same year an additional grant of lands in many 
counties. b The only letter that is known to exist from 
Hatton in 1577 is of little other value than from its 
showing that he was then in possession of Ely House, 
of which he obtained a formal grant from the Crown 
in June in the ensuing year. c 


stand that my friend Arden Waferer (whom I have required 
to be busy all this day about certain necessary affairs of mine 
at my house in Ely Place and elsewhere) is warned this 
morning to appear before your Honour in the Exchequer 
Chamber, for what cause I know not ; but I know the man so 
well, and have known him for these fourteen or fifteen years, 
even since my first coming to the Inner Temple, (where we 
were some time both together,) that I verily think he will be 
well able to answer all matters that any his adversaries shall 
object against him. Notwithstanding, for so much as my 
business require present and speedy dispatch, (which, without 
him, being of long acquainted therewithal, cannot well be 
done,) if therefore your good Lordship will show me the 
favour presently to give him liberty to attend my causes, 
I shall think myself much beholding to your Honour ; and I 
will undertake that he shall always be ready, moreover, to 
wait upon your Honour whensoever your good Lordship 

ton, Esquire, Captain of her Majes- Highness's Principal secretaries." 
ty's Guard, was sworn Vice-Cham- Privy Council Books, 
berlain and one of the Privy Council, a Cotton MSS. Claudius, C. m. 

and Mr. Doctor Wilson one of her b Rot. Patent. 19 Eliz. 

c Ibid. 20 Eliz. 


shall appoint me to send him unto you. And so, beseeching 
your Honour to stand his good Lord, and to grant my said 
suit, and not to take displeasure with him, although per- 
chance my occasions cause him to wait somewhat the later 
upon your Honour, (as the bearer hereof shall more largely 
declare to your Honour,) with my humble commendations I 
take my leave of your good Lordship. Court, this 13th of 
June 1577. Your good Lordship's most bound during life, 


The Hatton Letter-book contains only one letter 
written in 1577, and which was from the Lord Keeper 
Bacon to the Queen on the state of public affairs. That 
venerable statesman, who offered his opinions in a simi- 
lar manner on at least two other occasions, 15 died in 
February 1579. 


MY MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN, I with all humbleness 
pray pardon of your Majesty that I presume by letter to do 
that, which bounden duty and service re quire th to be done in 
person. O good Madam, not want of a willing heart and 
mind, but an unable and an unwieldy body, is the only cause 
of this. And yet the body, such as it is, every day and 
hour is, and ever shall be, at your Majesty's commandment ; 
and so should they be, if I had a thousand as good as any man 
hath, mine allegiance and a number of benefits hath so sundry 
ways bounden me. The causes that make me now write 
to your Majesty be the dangerous and perilous times, that 
have continued long, and do now, in my judgment, daily 
greatly increase. For as the two mighty and potent princes, 
your neighbours, and surely your inward enemies, were the 
less to be doubted as long as they had their hands full at 
home ; so doubtless, as they prevail against those that kept 
them occupied, (which, as I understand, they do greatly,) do 
the perils and dangers to your Majesty's state hasten and grow 

a Lansdowne MSS, 25, art. 22. b In November 1577, and May 

Original. 1578. Harleian MSS. 168, f. 9.1, 93. 


on as greatly. Their wills be ready, only these letts defer 
their opportunity ; which being now taken away, it is easy 
to judge that with conjunct force and fury they will execute 
their wills, full of enmity and revenge : for seeing your Ma- 
jesty hath had evident proof of their ill dispositions towards 
you by their practices, and that in weighty matters in the 
midst of their troubles, when they were not able to do you 
any hurt ; what then is to be looked for when opportunity 
and ability shall concur ? Again, it is to be doubted, that, 
when they shall begin to stir coals, there be many both at 
home and abroad that will put oil to this fire ; and the rather, 
because of the glorious and plausible pretext that they pre- 
tend to have to serve their purpose. Most gracious Sove- 
reign, I have been so inquieted with these things when I 
entered into the consideration of them, (whether of over-much 
fearfulness by nature, or over-great jealousy of your High- 
ness's estate, I know not,) that I could not choose but now at 
the last to utter to your Majesty that which I have oft 
intended, and yet never done, partly for fear, and partly 
in hope that things would prove better, which I see daily 
prove worse and worse. And, if remedy be not foreseen 
in time, I doubt it will prove very hard to be holpen by any 
counsel to my understanding. And the best remedies that I 
can think of be these, nevertheless submitting them with all 
humbleness to your Majesty's most grave and wise considera- 
tion : The first remedy is, to make Scotland as sure to your 
Majesty as may be ; for so, beside the aid you may have by 
them, that great peril of annoyance by France will be re- 
moved : and the better to understand what is best to be fore- 
seen and provided, both for theirs and your surety, methinks 
it best that some wise men were sent to confer with the 
Regent and his adherents by your Majesty, and that such 
counsel as shall be agreed upon in that conference be sent to 
your Highness to be considered of, and by you allowed or 
amended. Then resteth nothing but to have it carefully 

executed ; and, handling of this, great care would be 

taken that the who groweth now to years, be 


not transported, but nance of such as shall 

be most assured to your Majesty.* And for the better bring- 
ing of this to pass, I most humbly beseech your Highness, 
that such and so many pensions may be granted as may best 
bring it to good effect. Surely I think that every thousand 
pounds that shall be thus bestowed will save you a hundred 
thousand ; and it may be doubted, whether (if this be un- 
done) any money will be able to bear off the danger. As 
to the second remedy, because the annoyance from Spain 
is like to grow by the Low Countries, I see no way so sure 
for your Majesty as to keep the Prince of Orange in heart 
and life; for methinks his estate towards Spain, and the 
Regent's towards France, stand both in one predicament, and 
therefore require both one course. The States of the Low 
Countries are so divided, that how trust may be reposed in 
them where one trusteth not another, I see not. Marry, if it 
might be brought to pass by counsel from hence that the 
Duke of Arschot and the States might govern the countries 
according to their liberties, and the Prince to have the rule 
of their martial matters, this of all others were the surest 
way : otherwise, whilst the States be in deliberation, it may 
be doubted that their overthrow may happen. The third 
remedy is, to have your musters kept and continued, and 
their certificates carefully perused and wants supplied, so 
as your captains, men, munition, and armour may be in 
readiness against all suddens. Thus I have troubled your 
Majesty, I confess, longer than perchance it needeth, con- 
sidering chiefly your own understanding and wisdom, and 
therewith the grave, wise, and careful counsellors daily at- 
tendant about you. But, good Madam, how can these things 
discharge me of my duty, judging of these times as I do ? 
And although I have before this time signified to some of my 
Lords what I have thought in your matters of state, yet 
seeing now the danger increasing, I could not satisfy my own 

a The lacunae in the text are occa- now in years, be not transported into 

sioned by part of the MS. being torn. France, and that he may for a time 

The passage in the Harleian MS. be in the governance of such as be 

168, reads thus: "Great care is to the most assured to your Majesty." 
be had that the young King, growing 



heart without an advertisement to your self, most humbly 
praying pardon of the length of my letter, my shaking hand 
being so ill, and the rather because I mean not to trouble 
your Majesty often without your license and good favour. 
Thus, wishing to your Highness all felicity both of mind and 
body, I forbear any further to trouble your Majesty at this 
time. From Gorhambury, the 15th of September 1577. 
Your Majesty's most humble subject and servant, 


From the year 1577 Sir Christopher Hatton took a 
prominent part in State affairs. The Privy Council 
was then also, what has since been termed, the 
" Cabinet Council;" and the interest which he felt 
in public business was probably the cause of his hav- 
ing had transcribed, not only his private correspond- 
ence, but also many letters addressed to other per- 
sons on subjects of importance. The letters in his 
"Letter Book" consequently begin about this period; 
and they afford as much information on the policy of 
the Country, and the persons employed in her service, 
as on his own character and conduct. 

The first letter of the year 1578 was to Sir Christopher 
Hatton from Mr. Davison, who was employed in various 
negotiations, and became Secretary of State in 1586, 
but who is now best known as the victim of Queen 
Elizabeth's dissimulation respecting the execution of 
Mary Queen of Scots. In February 1576, Davison was 
sent on a mission to the Low Countries; and, in July 
1577, was appointed the Queen's agent at Antwerp. b 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 1. 
Another copy of this letter, but with 
some variations, is in the Harleian 
MS. 168, f. 52. Lodge, in his me- 
moir of Sir Nicholas Bacon, pays 
that an autograph draught of it is "in 

the Harleian collection, but it has 
not been found. 

b His instructions and great part 
of his correspondence while in Hol- 
land are in the Harleian MSS. 285, 
287 ; Cottonian MSS. Galba, C. vi ; 



SIR, The Duke of Alencon having (as I credibly learn) 
received advice from some of his favourers here that her 
Majesty should either be utterly altered, or at the least so 
coldly affected to embrace the cause of this country as that 
there was great appearance she should break off with the 
States under pretext of their refusing to deliver her the 
Isle of "Walchereii for assurance, hath hereupon taken 
occasion to dispatch hither in post one Lafugiere, a gen- 
tleman of his, to renew his old practice and offer of assist- 
ance unto the States, in hope it will be now accepted, 
partly in respect of their necessity, and partly to show 
that he proceedeth with the greater sincerity and good 
will towards them. He seemeth content to offer them la 
carte blanche, and to accept what conditions they them- 
selves will prescribe. The gentleman had his audience with 
the Prince on Thursday and Friday last, with whom he 
hath been very earnest and full of persuasion to induce an 
acceptation of his master's offered goodwill ; but he hath 
yet no other comfort than general compliments. Neither 
do I think that the Prince, or the rest that be of judgment, 
considering how much they ought to suspect the offers of 
such a Prince, their neighbour, (a born enemy, a Prince 
ambitious, the next heir to the crown of France, one that 
pretendeth a right and interest to the greatest part of 
this country, and that hath long sought to invest himself 
in the government thereof,) will in any sort incline to this 
proposition, unless it be to use him as an instrument to 
divert the succours which the enemy hath and may have 
from that side, till they be so provided as they need not 
doubt them. And yet thus much I may assure your Honour, 
that the long suspense and uncertainty of her Majesty's 

Titus, B. ii. and B. vn ; Lansdowne those collections. A Life of Davison, 
MSS. 2442, in the British Museum: who died in great poverty in De- 
but the above, and the other letters cember 1608, was published by the 
to Hatton, do not appear to be in Editor of this work in 1823. 


resolution (considering the necessity whereunto the affairs 
are here reduced, the promise which her Majesty had made 
them, the hope and comfort wherein she had so long enter- 
tained them, making them reject the former offers of the 
Duke, and neglect other means which they might have used 
for their relief,) hath begun such a jealousy and alteration 
in divers of the greatest that were before enemies to the 
part of France, as, fearing that her Majesty's long delay 
will in fine bring an absolute denial, are now the first that 
would persuade that course. And, to say truly, some of the 
wisest here attend such a desperate resolution, if her High- 
ness should indeed abandon them. For, seeing the King of 
Spain hath resolutely determined to prosecute the war 
against them with all extremity, that he hath an army 
strong at their gates, composed of the expertest captains 
and soldiers of Christendom, that he hath, for the better 
attaining and effecting his purpose, concluded a truce with 
the Turk, and solicited the succour and assistance of the 
Pope, the French King, the Swisses, the Dukes of Savoy 
and Lorrain, with divers other princes and potentates of 
Italy and Germany, conjured enemies to the cause of the 
Low Countries, (against whose forces it shall be hard for 
them to resist without the help and succour of some of 
their neighbours,) they must of necessity strengthen them- 
selves with the alliance of some one or other that may be 
able and apt to protect them. Now, amongst all their 
neighbours, it is indubitable that there is no one whose 
assistance may be so much profitable and little dangerous 
unto them as the help of the Queen our sovereign, France 
being justly suspected, and the calling in of such a pro- 
tector perilous, the Emperor both unable and unassured, 
and the rest of the Princes of Germany hirelings and 
coldly affected. And therefore have they first addressed 
themselves unto her Majesty, of whose favour the interest 
she hath in the success of their troubles, and the expe- 
rience they have of her bounty and clemency, hath not a 
little increased their hope and presumption ; in satisfy- 


ing whereof if her Majesty fail them, such is their hatred 
against the Spaniard, as, rather than they will be forced to 
fall under the yoke of their insupportable tyranny, they will 
run any fortune, be it never so desperate; and especially 
that of France, which though all men esteem full of peril, 
yet will they make it a counsel without counsel, when they 
cannot otherwise choose. Now, seeing that her Majesty can 
neither abandon them without the certain peril as well of 
herself as of them, and seeing that to suspend their hope 
and her deliberations any longer shall be as inconvenient 
for both, (for as there is nothing more dangerous in matters 
of state than to be uncertain and doubtful in deliberation, 
so is there nothing more unfitting to the time and present 
condition of their affairs,) it should in my poor judgment, 
under the correction of your Honour, be much the more 
profitable and honourable for her Majesty the sooner that 
she giveth them her determination ; for, if she mind to assist 
them, it shall be the more acceptable and available unto 
them the more timely her succour cometh to do them good, 
and it shall make their obligation so much the greater 
towards her Majesty, and her merit consequently the greater 
in that respect, if the medicine be timely applied, ere that 
the grief be grown to any hard or rather impossible cure. 
For as the house is easily maintained and repaired that 
is yet strong and in good plight, but being ruined and 
fallen is of far greater charge and travail to be redressed 
and restored to its former estate; and as the sickness is 
the less to be feared, the less that the body is feeble 
and weak : so shall it be an easier matter to support and 
entertain the state of these countries whilst they be strong 
and united, than, being once weakened and dismembered, to 
restore them to their former condition. On the other side, 
if her Majesty have no will to embrace the cause, it were 
better they knew it betimes than too late ; because it shall 
make them the more diligent and resolute to take some 
other course for the supply of their necessity, where now 
their suspended hope doth make them both negligent, un- 


certain, and irresolute, a thing amongst others most perilous 
for them. Now, though I may seem to go too far in judg- 
ing whether of these two resolutions her Majesty were 
best to take, yet shall it not be much amiss that I tell 
your Honour what I observe upon the inclination of things 
hard. To cast them off cannot, in my poor judgment, but 
bring forth a general astonishment in the people, an al- 
teration in the nobility, a confusion of the present union 
and agreement of the Provinces, an advancement of the 
affairs and hopes of the enemy, a hazard, or rather a cer- 
tainty, of losing the hearts of this people; which will be 
so much the more perilous to her Majesty in that she 
shall continue, notwithstanding, in the hatred of Spain, 
and so gain unto herself the enmity of both, and friend- 
ship of neither ; and that which is more, so far unlikely 
it is that her Majesty in not assisting them shall eschew 
war, as she shall rather defer it than otherwise, to her 
greater disadvantage. For the scope of the Holy League of 
these Catholic Princes, long since projected, often renewed, 
and now like to be put in execution, doth manifestly ap- 
pear to reach, not only to the subverting of these countries 
in particular, but also to the ruin of all such as make profes- 
sion of the Reformed Religion in general; amongst whom 
as her Majesty occupieth the chiefest place, so is she the 
mark they principally shoot at; holding it for a maxim, that 
if she, being the chiefest protectrix of our Religion, were 
once supplanted, they should the more easily prevail over 
the rest. Now if this be true, as it is too apparent to be 
called into doubt, I leave to the discourse of others, whe- 
ther her Majesty's own surety do will her to look to the 
cause of this country betimes, or not. There resteth now 
to be considered in what sort her Majesty may best assist 
them. Some men perhaps are of opinion that it were bet- 
ter done underhand with the loan of some money than with 
men ; or, if with men at all, that it were better some few 
should be passed over by stealth than openly ; alleging further 
reason, that if her Majesty do send over any great forces 


under the charge of a personage of quality, it shall draw 
her into an open war against both the Kings of Spain and 
France, with the one, in respect of the injury which he shall 
presume to have therein received, with the other, in regard 
of the jealousy and doubt which he may conceive of our 
neighbourhood, having once set footing in such a country 
as this is ; and therefore they conclude, that to eschew a war 
so chargeable, so uncertain and dangerous, it were better 
her Majesty should assist them underhand than openly. 
But against these reasons may be produced others of far 
more moment and consideration in my rude advice. One is, 
that to give them any manner of succour underhand shall 
not be so profitable for her Majesty as if she proceeded 
roundly and openly; partly because her Majesty, entering 
into the action openly, shall the sooner obtain that she de- 
sireth, which is a peace. For of how much the greater diffi- 
culty the King of Spain shall find his enterprise, so much 
the more easily will he be brought to a peace : partly because 
both her Majesty's merit towards these countries, and their 
obligation and duty, shall be the greater; and partly, (that 
which is not of least consideration,) because her Majesty may 
have, without her charge, a convenient army of her own 
subjects, trained and experienced in the wars of this coun- 
try, of whom she may be the better served in all occasions 
that may occur hereafter ; whereas they be now, of all other 
nations, the most inexpert and ignorant in that behalf. 
Another reason is, that it shall not be so honourable for 
her Majesty, because she hath already passed her promise; 
in performing whereof she shall show a zeal to the cause 
of her poor neighbours, a resolution in counsel, a stedfast- 
ness in promise, a magnanimity in execution. The contrary 
whereof may be perhaps noted and condemned in her Ma- 
jesty if she should do otherwise. Besides that, it is apparent 
she should no less offend, nor show a less evil affection to the 
King of Spain, if she should in any sort assist them under- 
hand. Lastly, seeing it is a resolution here to serve them- 
selves with strangers, I think there is no man would counsel 


her Majesty to lend them money, to entertain the French, the 
Scots, or other foreign nations, and to keep her own sub- 
jects unemployed; the reasons being so manifest as they need 
no disputation. So as by these few circumstances it may ap- 
pear how much fitter it were for her Majesty to succour 
them openly, and with her men, conducted by some person- 
age of quality that may keep them in discipline and good 
order, than either to send over any small troops by stealth, 
which is ill; or to assist them with money without men, 
which is much worse. As for the fear which some men 
apprehend of an invasion pretended in England or Ireland, 
upon occasion whereof they would infer a necessity for her 
Majesty to keep her men at home, it is not to be doubted 
but that the King of Spain, so long as he hath his hands full 
in the Low Countries, shall be an enemy more terrible in 
opinion than in effect unto us. And as for France, how easily 
her Majesty might keep them occupied at home, every man 
that hath any acquaintance with the state of that country 
can tell. In sum, it is in her Majesty's hands to prevent 
and divert, if she list, any peril that possibly may threaten 
her estate by the one Prince or the other. Lastly, to speak 
of the condition of this war in general, such is the nature 
and strength of the country, so many and so inexpugnable 
be the towns and holds in the same, and so resolute and 
desperate is the condition of the people, as there is no man 
of judgment but thinketh the enterprise of infinite difficulty, 
being assisted of her Majesty, and abiding united among 
themselves ; a thing never more hoped and less doubted than 
since the defeat of their camp. Since which misadventure 
they have buried and compounded all their private differences, 
and have showed an universal resolution to withstand the 
common enemy. So as the King of Spain being deceived 
of his chief hope, which was to have sowed such a division 
and zizany a amongst them as that he might have set them one 

a The word is not very legible, micus ejus, et superseminavit zizania 

but it was probably " zizany," from in medio tritici, et abiit." Matt, 

zizanium, cockle or darnel. " Cum xiii. 25. 
autem dormirent homines, venit ini- 

VOL. I. E 


against the other, and so have had the better market of both, 
without which hope it is indubitable he would never have 
taken this war in hand; and finding, besides, the infinite 
charge, peril, and difficulty to entertain as well a great navy 
by sea, as an army by land, without which his enterprise is 
desperate, and with it in manner hopeless, having no one 
port in the whole country at his devotion, no mean to re- 
dress a second navy when the first is miscarried, besides a 
number of other difficulties; it is not to be doubted but that 
once within the year he will be glad of a peace, though it 
cost him very dearly. And therefore I conclude, that if her 
Majesty's surety, honour, profit, and necessity may move 
her, she will no doubt go forward with her promise and 
good disposition to assist these countries, whose union or 
disjunction, prosperity or peril, dependeth upon her resolu- 
tion. And thus, submitting my opinion to the judgment 
and correction of your Honour, I most humbly take my 
leave. Antwerp, the 8th of March 1577 [1577-8.] 


A letter from Lord Burghley, in April, shows the 
Prime Minister in correspondence with one of his col- 
leagues respecting the Queen's tooth-ache; and, as the 
courtly physicians were afraid to inform her of the 
necessity of extracting the tooth, Burghley suggests that 
Hatton should undertake the delicate task, who pro- 
bably, as the writer expected, did so by placing the 
letter itself in the Queen's hands ; 


MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, I heard of her Majesty's indispo- 
sition by some pain in her head ; and then how can any of 
her poor members, having life by her as our head, be without 
pain ? If my coming thither might either diminish her pain, 
or be thought convenient, I would not be absent ; although 

a Additional MS. 15891, f. 23. 


in grief I am present, and do most heartily beseech God to 
deliver her from all grief, praying you to let me know of her 
Majesty's amendment: not doubting but you are careful 
by the physicians to provide the remedy, which is said 
to be only the withdrawing of some one tooth that is touched 
with some humorous cause, and, except that be removed, her 
Majesty's pain shall not be quit. And though her High- 
ness doth not or will not so think, yet I assure you it is 
said that the physicians do of knowledge affirm it, howsoever 
they forbear to impart it unto her. Besides my prayer, 
I cannot tell what to yield for her Majesty's ease more than 
this information ; praying you to examine the truth, and 
further truth to her Majesty's service, and to her ease in this 
point. 21st April 1578. Yours assuredly, 


Doctor John Aylmer, Bishop of London, the learned 
tutor of Lady Jane Grey, a celebrated divine and bitter 
enemy of the Puritans, was a frequent correspondent of 
the Vice- Chamberlain ; and perhaps prelatical hypocrisy 
was never more painfully shown than in some of his let- 
ters. His efforts to place Doctor Chatterton in the See of 
Chester were successful, but not until late in the fol- 
lowing year. " One Goodman," to whom the Bishop so 
discourteously alludes, was no doubt Dr. Christopher 
Goodman, a violent non-conformist, who printed a pam- 
phlet at Geneva in 1558, entitled " How superior 
powers ought to be obeyed of their subjects," which 
Warton describes as being u an absurd and factious 
pamphlet against Queen Mary" ; 


SIR, I have been an importunate suitor to my Lord of 
Leicester and you in the behalf of Mr. Doctor Chader- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 42 b . 

E 2 


ton for his preferment to the Bishoprick of Chester ; not so 
much for my affection to the man, as for the good I know 
he might do in the Church of God, both for his singular 
learning, as also in respect of his zeal to bridle disordered 
persons. It may please you, therefore, at my request to 
help to dispatch the poor man, and send a governor to that 
place ; which I fear, as an unruly family without a steward, 
will, by this long delay* that hath happened, be hardly 
drawn to good order. There is in that country one Good- 
man, who wrote against the government of women, a man 
not unknown to her Majesty ; who, in this vacation, I doubt, 
will build one way more than the Bishop shall a good while 
be able to pull down in that kind of curiosity. I pray God 
bless you and make you happy in His grace, and in all other 
prosperity. From Fulham, the 29th of April 1578. Your 
Honour's most assured to command in Christ, 


Doctor Edmund Grindall, who was made Archbishop 
of Canterbury in 1576, having fallen under the Queen's 
displeasure for refusing to sanction the marriage of 
Dr. Julio, c the favourite physician and dependant of 
Leicester, with another man's wife, he was sequestered 
from his See and confined to his house. Hatton had, it 
appears, used his influence, though in vain, to restore 
him to the Queen's favour, and was thus thanked for his 
exertions : 


SIR, Although your long and instant travail to her Ma- 
jesty for my benefit is not yet come to such fulness of 
effect as you desire and I have long wished for, yet do I think 
myself especially bounden to give you most hearty thanks, 
and that in as ample manner as if I presently enjoyed the 

The See of Chester fell vacant b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 54 b . 
by the death of Bishop Downman c Vide pp. 24, 30, ante. 
in December 1577. 


fruition of the end of my suit; for that I do right well 
understand of your continual, honourable, and most friendly 
cares and travails for me, by the which, as also by your 
sundry comfortable messages at divers times sent unto me, 
I am brought into an assured hope by your good means to 
recover her Majesty's grace and favour in time convenient, 
(the limitation whereof I wholly refer to her Majesty's good 
will and pleasure,) much to the quieting and comforting of 
my mind, so long afflicted for the want of the same. Your 
honourable and friendly dealing herein I shall not fail care- 
fully to lay up in the treasury of a thankful memory. 
And so, taking my leave, I heartily commend you to the 
grace of God. From Lambeth, the 2nd of May 1578. 

Yours in Christ, EDM. CANTUAR.* 

Mr. Davison wrote to the Privy Council about the 
affairs of the Low Countries on the 8th of May ; 

I WROTE lately unto your Lordships from Gant, and 
what hath succeeded since you may somewhat particularly 
understand by this bearer. The traffic with the Duke of 
Alenon doth very much confound their opinions here. 
Four or five thousand arquebusiers of his troops, coming 
through France in twelve days from about Rochelle, are 
already entered the country, and ere this (as it is doubted) 
possessed of Quesny, by the mean of the Count Labaine, who 
hath in plain terms let the States understand that he thinketh 
it fit to receive them in for divers respects which he allegeth, 
wherein he doth rather express his sentence, than desire 
their advice or direction. The Baron of Aribigny is in the 
town, whose partiality that way doth make the matter never 
a whit the better The Duke's Commissioners are sent for to 
come to Brusselles for the more commodious proceeding in 
their negociation with the States; but their answer is not 
yet returned. Whatsoever opinion is had at home of this 
action, it is here held a thing indubitable that this practice 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 30. 


will go forward. Your Lordships do much better perceive 
than I, both the offence and defence of these States, and the 
danger of either. The offence, in my rude observation, 
must be either for the enemy or for himself, both which 
do threaten some unhappy consequent. Their defence on 
the other side must be either in respect of their common 
cause, or of his own particular profit. The first is gene- 
rally suspected, the second is certainly believed. Now whe- 
ther we do in this behalf mean well or ill, the success 
cannot but greatly touch both them and us : them, because 
from one tyranny they shall run to another, or return to 
the same ; and us, in that the weakening of our friends and 
allies must of necessity weaken our estate. Once, however, 
the French proceed, whether in favour of the Spaniard 
or of themselves, it is like to be the seed of a languishing 
war, and the beginning of great alteration; for they must 
here, in fine, either resolve to return and reconcile themselves 
with the King of Spain, or to commit themselves unto the 
hands of some other master, or else translate their State 
into a government popular or aristocratical. The first they 
seem now resolved never to do ; of the other, the question is 
not yet decided. Some, and a great part, (I will put your 
Lordships out of doubt,) are resolute to change their master, 
and to take the French ; others to change their government, 
abandoning both them and the other. But for debate and 
disputation, it will not be long ere this matter grow to exe- 
cution. We may hereof, in the mean time, rather conjec- 
ture than in any sort assure the success. I shall not need to 
tell your Lordships, who can sufficiently shun the danger, 
how much this matter importeth the looking to; but thus 
much I think I may safely say, that the sooner it be met 
withal, the better. Your Lordships can now perceive whe- 
ther her Majesty's forbearing of her open declaration have 
diverted the French; or whether it hath not rather ad- 
vanced their purpose, with the hazard of her friends, and 
perhaps prejudice to herself. But, as it becomes me not, 
so will I wade no further in this discourse. Only this I 


wish, that she may not be constrained, in fine, to fall into 
this action with her greater incommodity and disadvantage 
than if she had entered into it sooner, though if it might be 
with her Majesty's surety and honour, I could rather pray 
she might not have to do with it at all, either early or late. 
I do live here utterly ignorant of the success of things in a 
Court ; and though I have of late in this special matter given 
your Lordships sundry advice, yet have I received no manner 
of direction how to govern myself. If your Lordships do 
think herein I may do any service at all, I would beseech 
the same to let my ignorance be repaired ; knowing what a 
maim it is in service abroad to understand nothing, and 
seldom from home. Of the late accident of Maesterich, of 
the apprehension of three councillors at Gant whilst I was 
there, of the proclaiming of an inhibition against the exercise 
of religion either publicly or secretly, with other particular 
occurrents, I think Mr. Rogers can at length inform your 
Lordships. Concluding, therefore, with my hearty prayer for 
your Lordships' long and prosperous lives, I most humbly 
take my leave. From Antwerp, the 8th May 1578. 


The Bishop of London's character is exSibited in 
the following letter. It would seem, and which is con- 
firmed by a subsequent letter, that one of Hatton's rela- 
tions, or friends, had felt the effects of Aylmer's perse- 
cuting spirit. It appears also that Hatton was the me- 
dium of communicating the Queen's wishes on the pre- 
late's proceedings towards her recusant subjects; 


SIR, I had written unto you before this for divers 
causes, and especially to give you most hearty thanks for 
that mild and calm manner of expostulation which you used 
with me in our last conference, but that the next day after 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 18. 


I fell very sick, and so continued for five or six days toge- 
ther; out of which feebleness as soon as I any whit reco- 
vered, I thought good to salute you with a line or two, 
partly to signify unto you that I will not forget to commend, 
both to God in my prayers and to all men in speech, that 
rare conquest that by great wisdom you have had over your 
affections, which by the motions of flesh and blood must 
needs have been set on fire marvellously against me, had not 
a natural instinct of heavenly and Christian philosophy and 
wisdom quenched the flame thereof; and partly to ask your 
honourable advice in one branch of that speech that passed 
between you and me ; which was, whether it were not the 
safest and profitablest way to cut off (even as her Majesty 
termed it) and to correct offenders on both sides which 
swerve from the right path of obedience, which I set up as 
the mark to aim at, purposing to discipline both the Papist 
and the Puritan in anything wherein (disobeying her Ma- 
jesty's laws) they may be indifferently touched. By which 
course of proceeding I do not doubt but I shall do that ser- 
vice to her Majesty, in suppressing these dangerous people, 
which shall well content her, and bring great unity of go- 
vernment to the Church, which her Majesty in her godly 
wisdom so much thirsteth after. It was her Majesty's plea- 
sure that I should understand her mind by you in these 
things. Let me therefore intreat your Honour to afford me 
some direction, in a word or two, how you think good I 
should deal in these matters, and then you shall see that I 
shall so guide the helm as the ship shall keep the best and 
safest course. Thus hoping you will remember me in this 
point, thatprincipis indignatio mors est, I leave at this time to 
trouble you any further ; remaining most faithfully at your 
commandment. From Fulham, the 28th of May 1578. Your 
Honour's most bound in Christo, JOHN LONDON.* 

The annexed letter from Walsingham refers to the 
attempts of an adventurer, called Stukeley, who, with 

s Additional MSS. 15891, f. 38. 


the assistance of the Pope, from whom he had received 
the title of Marquis of Leinster, and the command of 
eight hundred Italians, attempted to excite a rebellion 
in Ireland. He arrived with these troops at Lisbon ; 
" but," says Camden, " the more potent power of the 
Divine counsel frustrated those designs against England 
and Ireland."* ; 


SIR, I like well of her Majesty's course, being very consi- 
derate and such as answereth to the place she holdeth ; and 
therefore do mind at the next dispatch to acquaint either the 
Deputy or the Governor for the time being with this her 
Majesty's resolution. It needeth no present dispatch, for 
that her letters to the Nobility of that Realm are not yet 
signed : in the delivery whereof there may be that order 
taken, as the Nobility of that Realm may be contained in their 
good devotion, and encouraged (in case any thing shall be 
attempted) to do that which in duty they ought ; without 
public notification, by proclamation or otherwise, of any fear 
conceived here that so weak an instrument as Stukeley is 
shall be able to prevail against a Prince of her Majesty's 
power, armed with the goodwill of her subjects in that 
Realm, as she doubted not but that she is. Thus much I 
thought good to scribble unto you, referring the rest to this 
bearer, and yourself to God's good keeping. From the 
Court, the 3rd of June 1578. Yours most assuredly, 


Upon the following disgraceful letter no comment could 
be too severe. Bishop Aylmer's proceedings seem to 
have disgusted both the Queen and Hatton; and the 
spiritual tyrant appears in the too common character of 
a Court sycophant. His " travails for the government of 
women," to which he alludes, was a tract, printed in 1559, 

a Annals, ed. 1630, p. 93. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 35." 


called " An Harborowe for faithful and trewe subjects 
against the late blowne blaste concerning the government 
of women," and which is said to have been an able an- 
swer to John Knox's " First blast of the trumpet against 
the monstrous regiment of women." It may be inferred, 
from one passage in this letter, that Aylmer, who was 
only Archdeacon of Lincoln when he was elected to the 
See of London, in March 1577, owed his mitre to Hat- 


SIR, I have much desired, and yet do, to receive some 
line or two from you in writing, only to persuade me that 
your displeasure is appeased, as I found it was at our last 
meeting, much to my comfort and more to your honour ; but 
chiefly that I might have some little inkling that her Majesty 
standeth my gracious Lady, without the obtaining whereof, 
what joy can I have in myself? what courage to execute this 
painful service, which is more than the burthen of Atlas ? or 
what lively comfort can I, being as a dead trunk, conceive be- 
fore I take such nourishment as the root sendeth up to the 
tree, and as the head, which the natural philosophers term 
principium motus et sensus, conveyeth to the sinews, and so 
strengtheneth and confirmeth the body. I beseech you, Sir, 
vouchsafe so to deal with me as I may not live but with her 
Majesty's good liking ; otherwise I shall go on like a horse 
that is spurred and not cherished, and so in the end shall fall 
under the burthen. If my fighting against the beasts at 
Ephesus, my travails that I took when I was twenty years 
younger than I am now for the Government of Women, my 
continual setting forth of her Majesty's infinite gift from God 
and unspeakable deserts towards us, have merited nothing ; 
yet it is the honour of a Prince to breathe life into dead 
bodies, and, after the cold and dead winter, to cheer the 
dry earth with the fresh and lively spring time. I study 
with my eyes on my book, and my mind is in the Court; I 



preach without spirit ; I trust not of God, but of my Sovereign, 
which is God's lieutenant, and so another God unto me for 
of such it is said Vos estis dii; I eat without stomach, I 
sleep without rest, I company without comfort, and live as 
one dead. You labour daily to your great commendation to 
cherish other Bishops set up by others, and will you throw 
down him whom you have set up yourself ? You think the 
fault that is past can never be recompensed. If that be your 
conceit, assure yourself it will redound the more to your 
honour and reputation if you can freely forgive it. Caesar 
was sorry that Cato had killed himself, because he could 
not make him bound to him by forgiving and delivering 
him. Let Caesar's noble mind be in you, though Cato's 
mind be not in me ; and think that it shall be the more 
honourable for you, and make my band the greater, if you 
forget and forgive me, whom I commit to God's good provi- 
dence. From Fulham, the 8th of June 1578. 
Your Honour's to command in Christo, 


In June, Walsingham was sent with Lord Cobham on 
a mission to the Netherlands, with the hope, in conjunc- 
tion with the Imperial and French ministers, of ter- 
minating hostilities there; but the negotiation failed, 
and they returned to England a few months after. 
Walsingham being on his way to meet Lord Cobham at 
Cobham Hall near Kochester, wrote the following letter 
to Hatton. The opportunity of making a firm alliance 
with Scotland, so strongly pressed in this letter, was 
the recent removal of the Kegent Morton, and the trans- 
fer of the government to the young King, who had sent 
the Abbot of Dumfermline to acknowledge, " with most 
grateful remembrance, Queen Elizabeth's benefits to- 
wards him." b 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 38. b b Camden's Annals, book ii. p. 91. 



SIR, Finding you absent from Court at the time of my 
leave-taking, I desired our good friend Mr. Heneage to ac- 
quaint you with certain public causes worthy of your know- 
ledge and furtherance, which I would have been glad to have 
imparted by mouth. I nothing doubt but that you will have 
care of them, especially to further a straiter knot of amity 
between this crown and Scotland. I find her Majesty in that 
point, to rest upon some nice terms ; which I hope, by your 
good persuasion, will be removed. Surely, Sir, if her Ma- 
jesty let slip this opportunity, I fear we shall estrange Scot- 
land from us unrecoverably ; and how perilous that will be, 
I leave to your good consideration. For my particular, in 
my absence, I promise that friendship unto myself at Mr. 
Vice-Chamberlain's hands that he would look to receive from 
me, being in like case. And so, wishing unto you as to my 
own self, I commit you to God. At Gravesend, in haste, the 
16th of June 1578. 

Yours most assuredly, FRA. WALSINGHAM.* 

Bishop Aylmer's next letter to Hatton relates to some 
acts of intolerance similar to those before mentioned. 
By the Bishop's authority Mr. Roper's house had been 
searched, and " vestments, albes, and such trumpery," 
found in it. b If, as there seems little doubt, the Mr. 
John Harrington was the author of the papers pub- 
lished under the title of " Nugae Antiques, " Aylmer was 
little indebted to his friendship, for the anecdotes there 
related of the prelate are more curious than creditable. 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 44 b . b Minutes of the Privy Council of 

the 13th of January 1577-8. 



SIR, You have borne so much with me, that I were to 
blame if I should not for your sake bear with your friends, 
among whom Mr. John Roper hath, chiefly in respect of 
you, and partly by seeing and confessing his own oversight, 
won at my hands both forgiving and forgetting of all the 
injuries which he offered me ; which were in number not 
many, but in likelihood to hurt me of such force, as, if 
your good-nature by bearing, and your wisdom in judging, 
had not holpen, the weakest must have gone to the wall. 
It may please you then to remember, not for his hurt but 
for my discharge, and for the confirmation of your good opi- 
nion, that I am none of those that will deal doubly with 
any man, and much less with such a friend as you are. These 
be the points : first, his complaining on me to the Council, 
wherein he did me great wrong ; for God himself knoweth, 
and your Honour can testify, that I wrote to you that we 
two, if it pleased you, should hear and order it, meaning and 
dealing simply. Besides, I was so free from the rifling of 
his house, that, upon the receipt of your letters, I de- 
spatched a pursuivant at midnight to call them back. The 
matter grieved me so much the more, for that I was blamed 
in the hottest time of the paroxysm between you and me ; 
and where he reported that he was, or should be, called 
by my means, I inquired of it, but I found no such matter ; 
and to be sure it should not be done, I forewarned the Arch- 
deacon and my Chancellor, that, if any such thing should 
happen, I might be made privy to it. He wrote unto you that 
he was called before the Commissioners. Upon search, I 
found no such meaning. I left it not so, but inquired again 
of the Archdeacon ; he knew nothing. I sought to learn who 
were his officers; in the end, it was Doctor Forde and 
Babam. I asked of them ; they were ignorant. In the end, 
I found by their clerks that Doctor Forde had excommu- 
nicated them. Thus I was fain to play the spaniel, not 


for his sake, for I was angry with him, but because I would 
justify myself to you, my honourable friend; and so will I 
stand to my justification in all things towards you, (one ex- 
cepted,) wherein no wager of law is to be admitted. And 
therefore, I pray you, Sir, henceforth let me answer before 
you suspect, and I warrant you no crack shall be found in 
my friendship. I joy that your Honour beginneth to put 
Mr. John Harrington in the calendar of your friends ; I assure 
it appertaineth,) but for the security and preservation of 
you, you shall find him honest, wise, faithful, constant, and 
no universal friend to depend upon many, but fast where 
he maketh his choice. I pray your Honour bear with my 
long letters, for I cannot be short in so long a tragedy. God 
bless and prosper you, for, God willing, I mind to stand and 
fall with you. I speak it unfeignedly. From Fulham, the 
17th of June 1578. 

Your Honour's most assured in Christ, as most bounden, 


As soon as Walsingham arrived at Cobham Hall, he 
sent a trustful person to Hatton with the following 
letter ; 


GOOD MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, For that your leisure often- 
times will not serve you to acquaint me with such things as 
were fit for me to know in furtherance of her Majesty's 
service, I have made choice of this gentleman, being wise, 
honest, and discreet, and one that desireth good and sound 
friendship between us, as well for the advancement of her 
Majesty's service as our own particular, to repair unto you, 
and to receive from you such matter as you shall think 
fit to be communicated unto me in respect of my present 
charge ; which, standing as it doth upon hard terms, had 
need of all furtherance. If the matter itself and my skill 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 37. 


did answer unto my care, then would I promise all good 
success ; but the matter (by letting slip the opportunity of 
time, which overthroweth all good causes,) is so far out of 
frame, as I can hardly conceive any hope of good issue; 
which is no small grief unto me, considering the zeal and 
desire I have to do her Majesty some acceptable service, 
especially in a cause that concerneth her Majesty's safety 
so much as this doth. I can but commit the success to God, 
who, blessing my travail, may make me an instrument to do 
that which is contrary to man's expectation ; which I wish 
not for my own glory, (for to him will I render it to whom 
her, which I prefer before all worldly respects. And so, 
wishing unto you as to my own self, I commit you to God's 
good keeping. At Cobham Hall, the 17th of June 1578. 
Yours assuredly, ERA. WALSINGHAM. 

I pray you, Sir, let this gentleman enjoy your good coun- 
tenance, who doth love and honour you. a 

The matter to which the next two letters relate has 
not been ascertained. Mr. Cox was Hatton's secretary ; 
and many remarkably well written letters occur from him 
to his patron. Dr. Aubrey and Dr. Dale were eminent 
civilians; and Hatton is said, when Chancellor, to have 
consulted the latter in all important cases. 


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, Having heard the opi- 
nion of Mr. Doctor Aubrey, and likewise of Mr. Dale, I 
find the law to be this for the matter of false depositions: 
Secunda assertio, extra judicium, non enervat effectum primi 
dicti in judicio, etiamsi testis hoc dicat in articulo mortis. 
The reason that the law giveth is, propter venerantiam jura- 
tnenti et judicis. There is therefore thus much to be said 
for the sick man's protestation on his death-bed, quod valde 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 43. 


minuitur fides primi dicti, sed non omnino tollitur : so that 
if there were no more but this man alive deposed, nee adhuc 
lata sit sententia, then no doubt his last protestation in his 
sickness is of more credit than his first deposition ; but, if 
there were two more sworn as well as he, their depositions 
are still of force, ratione qua supra. If there were but 
one besides this sick man deposed in eodem judicio, non 
valebit primum juramentum, because fides alterius diminuitur, 
and there must be two lawful witnesses at the least. The 
words of the law at large are these : Quando primum dic- 
tum testis est dictum in judicio, et secundum extra judicium, 
si sententia fuit lata per primum dictum, non revocatur senten- 
tia. Si sententia non est adhuc lata, detrahitur primo dicto 
per secundum, et in hoc ultimo casu diminuitur fides testis 
per secundum dictum, sed non tollitur. It was four of the 
clock before Mr. Doctor Aubrey came from the Court of 
the Admiralty, so that I could not make that speed in the 
return of my answer which haply your Honour expected. I 
read the law myself, and desired Mr. Aubrey to turn over 
more books than one, because I would be sure of the soundest 
resolution. I beseech God to bless your Honour with the 
increase of His manifold graces now and ever. From the 
Arches, the 20th of June 1578. 

Your Honour's most humble and obedient poor servant, 

SA. Cox. a 

Dr. Aubrey himself wrote soon after to Hatton on the 
subject ; 


SIR, For answer to the question propounded unto me by 
Mr. Cox, I make bold with your honourable favour to re- 
turn this resolution : That respect ought to be had rather of 
the first judicial and sworn deposition of a witness than of his 
extra-judicial and unsworn revocation thereof in his death- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 54. 


bed ; for the law doth judge, in regard of the reverence that 
ought to be had of an oath, and of the magistrate, that the 
witness did depose the truth at the first, and doth not give 
credit to the revocation, as a thing presumed to be procured 
by the contrary party, whom the first deposition did prejudice. 
Yet such revocation made in the article of death doth greatly 
weaken the first deposition, and there may concur with that 
revocation such vehement presumptions and probabilities as 
may induce a Judge to give no credit to the first deposition. 
But, setting circumstances aside, the first judicial deposition 
by virtue of oath is to be followed. And thus, in haste for 
satisfying my duty to your Honour, I humbly take my leave. 
Your Honour's most bounden at commandment, 


Queen Elizabeth's wavering policy towards the Low 
Countries, and her unwillingness to advance money to 
aid the States in their struggle for independence, caused 
Walsingham so much anxiety, that he wrote privately 
to Hatton, as well as officially to the Council; 


SIR, Your honourable and friendly dealing towards me, 
confirmed by divers of my friends, especially by Mr. Tre- 
mayne, doth give me just cause to be thankful for the same. 
But herein I had rather yield satisfaction in deeds than in 
words. I am greatly grieved, considering the perilous state 
this Country standeth in, to find her Majesty so strangely 
affected as she is. I hope, when her Highness shall have 
duly considered (upon perusing our letters sent as well to 
herself as to my Lords) what dangerous inconveniences are 
likely to follow, and to what confusion these Countries will 
come unto, if she withdraw her gracious assistance, she will 
then prefer her safety and honour before her treasure ; pro- 
testing unto you before God, that, if her Majesty do not 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 57 b . 
VOL. I. F 


look unto it in time, yea, and that out of hand, I see no 
remedy but the French will be masters of the Country. 
Seeing the peril so great, and knowing how careful you 
are of her Majesty's honour and safety, I do assure myself 
that you will take the matter in such sort to heart as the 
cause importeth. Sorry I am to see by your letters her 
Majesty's indisposition to deal effectually in the Scottish 
causes. 8 If the parties presently repaired thither be sent 
away with evil satisfaction, farewell the quietness and good 
days of England. If I stood (as I hear I do not) in her 
Majesty's good grace, which is no small grief unto me, con- 
sidering with what mind I serve, I would then discharge my 
duty plainly unto her, touching the sending away of Dum- 
fermline well satisfied. But my state standing as it doth, 
having no hope to do good, I think it wisdom to forbear to 
offend. And so, for other matters referring you unto our 
general letter sent to my Lords, I commit you to God. At 
Antwerp, the 23rd of June 1578. 

Your assured friend to his poor power, 


As Hatton did not quite understand the communica- 
tion that was made to him by Mr. Heneage respecting 
the affairs of Scotland 6 , Walsingham again wrote to him 
on the subject from Canterbury ; 


SIR, I perceive the message I sent you by Mr. Heneage 
touching the nobleman that is to be sent out of Scotland, 
seemed somewhat dark unto you, being not made acquainted 
with the last letters sent from Mr. Bowes, remaining in Mr. 
Secretary Wilson's hands. You shall therefore do well to 
send for them, and upon the view of the same to take that 
course that to your good judgment shall seem most apt to 
knit the two Crowns in perfect amity. I am the more im- 
portunate in this cause, for that at my departure I found a 

a Vide p. 60, 68. b Additional MSS. 15891, f.45 b . 

c Vide page 60, ante. 


strange disposition in her Majesty (things at home and abroad 
duly considered) touching the entering into any straiter de- 
gree of amity with Scotland, as a matter dishonourable to 
join in any treaty with that Crown during the Queen's life. If 
her Majesty would call to mind her former proceeding in the 
causes of that Country since the deposition of the Queen, 
as the maintenance of such as were the deposers of her, the 
prosecuting of her friends, the disposing of her of the castle 
of Edinburgh, and the retaining of her prisoner; all these 
actions being grounded on reason and justice, considering 
the title she pretendeth to this Crown, and the actual re- 
bellion she procured here within the Realm, there is no cause 
why her Majesty should now make a conscience to strengthen 
herself with the amity of Scotland. Such scruples of con-- 
science are rather superstitious than religious. Scotland is 
the postern-gate to any mischief or peril that may befal to 
this Realm. It will therefore behove her Majesty to look 
well to it. The Scot is a proud nation : if you refuse his 
friendship when he oifereth it, you shall miss it when you 
would have it : and therefore it greatly importeth her Ma- 
jesty to look substantially to the matter; for to my judg- 
ment it toucheth her as nearly as the conservation of her 
Crown amounteth unto. I am afraid I am too troublesome 
to you in this matter of Scotland ; and, though the Country 
be cold, I can neither think nor speak of it but in heat. 
By a letter received this last night from Mr. Secretary, I 
perceive that Monsieur's man is dispatched with good satis- 
faction ; her Majesty doth deal therein very providently ; it 
behoveth her (the time duly considered) to lose no advan- 
tage that by God's goodness is offered unto her. He will 
serve for a good counterpoise of his brother's malice, which 
I always noted to be great, not only towards her Majesty, 
but to the whole Nation. I may not forget to acquaint 
you with the honourable entertainment the Lord Cobham 
and I have received at Mr. Justice Manwood's house in his 
absence ; the same being performed not only very bounti- 
fully, but also most orderly. The man is greatly loved and 

F 2 


esteemed here, for his uprightness and integrity, of the best 
sort of the gentlemen of this shire ; which is a most apparent 
argument of his good and just dealings amongst them: and 
therefore it were great pity that the malice of some few for 
their particulars should blemish the credit of a man of his 
sufficiency for her Majesty's service, and so well able for 
living to bear the countenance of a place of credit. And so, 
with most hearty thanks for the assurance of your good 
friendship, I commit you to God's good keeping. At Can- 
terbury, the 27th of June 1578. 

Your most assuredly, FRA. WALSINGHAM.* 

The date of the following letter from Lord Leicester to 
Hatton is fixed by Mr. Gilbert Talbot having written to 
his father, on the 3rd of May 1578, " My Lord of Leices- 
ter threateneth to come to Buxton this summer." 

On Monday or Tuesday next her Majesty goeth to Lord 
Compton's house at Tottenham; and so to my Lord 
Treasurer's at Theobald's, and there tarrieth three or 
four days ; and from thence to Wanstead, and there four 
or five days." b At Wanstead, a seat of Leicester's, she 
was received by Philip Sidney, and entertained by a dra- 
matic interlude, written by him for the occasion, called 
" A Contention between a Forester and a Shepherd 
for the May-Lady," and printed at the end of the Ar- 


I HUMBLY thank God to hear of the increase of her Ma- 
jesty's good health, and am most glad that she took that 
happy medicine that wrought so well with her, as I perceive 
by your letter it did. I trust it will help to prolong and per- 
fect that which we all daily pray for. I hope now, ere long, 

a Additional MSS. 15891. Though b Lodge's Illustrations of British 
the date in the Letter-Book is 1579, History, 8vo. vol. ii. p. 98. 
it was certainly a mistake for 1578. c Nichols's Progresses, ii. 94 

where the piece is reprinted. 


to be with you, to enjoy that blessed sight which I have been 
so long kept from. A few of these days seem many years, 
and I think I shall feel a worse grief ere I seek so far a 
remedy again. I thank God, I have found hitherto great 
ease by this bath, and hope it will make me a long while the 
better able to do my duty for attendance. One thing hath 
troubled me not a little, to hear that her Majesty should come 
to Wanstead, and her .=. a not there to receive her. I fear 
that little liking to it she had before will through too, too 
many more faults, breed her less love hereafter. If my wish- 
ing could have served, yea, or a little sooner knowing of it 
had come, I think St. Anne should have had a short farewell. 
But God grant I may hear that her Majesty doth both well 
rest, and find all things else there to her good contentment ; 
and that the good man Robert, 5 she last heard of there, were 
found at his beads, with all his aves, in his solitary walk. 
Well, good Captain, I hope you have supplied that which is 
almost impossible, without her great especial goodness, to be 
done. I am now at a point with St. Anne here, and will hie 
me home as fast as I can, not disobeying the great charge you 
have laid upon me : at which Mr. Doctor Baily doth not 
take a little advantage, specially because the late hot weather 
is now here returned again, having had three or four days 
of great heat now together. It will, I suppose, make me a 
little the more obedient also. I have sent you a letter which 
I received yesterday from Casimir; it is of no new date. You 
may see what he writes, and how earnestly. Since my hap 
is not to be in so honourable a voyage, nor , c I would 

be most glad that my nephew d might go to Casimir ; and if he 
may not as from her Majesty, yet after the other sort you say 
her Majesty could like of. I beseech you further it, and 
I shall be most glad it may be obtained. I long to hear of 
Mr. Walsingham's news ; by this you have all, I am sure. I 

a The copyist originally wrote, b Himself. 
" and I not there ;" but the " I " 

is deleted, and the above symbol, c An unintelligible abbreviation 

which occurs elsewhere, and which occurs here, 
is thus proved to indicate Leicester, 
is written over it in another hand. d Philip Sydney. 


will trouble you no further, but to wish you as myself, and 
hope shortly to see you. From Buxton's, this 9th of July. 
Yours assured ever, R. LEICESTER.* 

Davison made another report of the affairs of the 
Low Countries, in his usual prolix style, on the 23rd 
of July ; 


SIR, I have so long forborne to write unto your Honour, 
as I wot not well with what reason to excuse myself that 
shall not rather accuse me, considering mine obligation to- 
wards you in many respects. But I doubt not mine error 
shall obtain your pardon, the rather in that it hath not grown 
from any want of duty. Of the present condition of things 
with us, I can write nothing that your Honour may not 
amply understand from my Lords here. The Duke of 
Alencon being at Mons, is the matter which doth at this 
time most perplex and confound our opinions. Such as con- 
sider the power of France, the unquiet humour of that 
nation, their ready disposition to fish in the troubled streams 
of their neighbours, the occasion that this war doth offer unto 
them both to make their profit abroad and to throw the fire 
out of their State at home, together with the inclination of 
some part of this Country to embrace them, do hold the en- 
terprise of singular moment and danger : others measuring the 
same by the age and quality of the Duke, by the supposed 
difference between him and his brother, by the firm amity 
between the two Kings, by the lightness and negligence pro- 
per to that nation, by the nature and strength of these Coun- 
tries, and in some by the difficulties which great attempts do 
commonly meet withal, do think it a matter not much to be 
feared, unless it tend to the deceiving of these States, in 
advancing the affairs of the Spaniard. But what is like to 
be the success is the harder to judge, in that it dependeth on 
accidents uncertain, and on the will and affection of a nation 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 53. 


most inconstant. He hath, since his arrival at Mons, written 
to divers towns and persons particularly, and to the States 
generally, disguising the cause of his coming down to be 
wholly for their succour; but as they might very well spare 
help, so are the most parts loath to embrace the same, unless 
it be with better caution than is looked for. Howbeit, the 
matter is now grown to that point, that either they must 
accept him as a friend, or reject him as an enemy, a ques- 
tion sure very hard to determine : for if they receive him in 
this sort he desires, which is to have the commandment of 
their forces jointly with his own, they must either depose 
the Archduke, or at the least abridge his authority, either of 
which will be hard to do but with an outward offence 
and inward confusion; besides that, they must put their 
fortune into the hands of a stranger, and, that which is more, 
of a born enemy, of whom they have infinitely to suspect, and 
nothing to trust unto other than a French promise. So as, 
be it that he run a course for the Spaniard, which some sus- 
pect, or that he pretend to serve his own turn, which is 
rather believed, (for other object than one of these two un- 
doubtedly he hath not,) the danger is apparent. On the other 
side, if they should reject him, the doubt is that either 
he will take part openly with the Spaniard, or else, for the 
first induction, impatronize himself of Hainault, which he 
holdeth as already at his devotion, and so have the gap opened 
to invade and dismember the rest of the Country ; either of 
which inconveniences were hard for them to fall into, though 
in common reason they cannot eschew the one or the other, 
unless the remedies be all the sooner applied. The Duke, to 
blear the eyes of this people, hath already put himself in 
action, and sent Bussy d'Amboise with three thousand men 
to the siege of Maubeuge, not far from Mons, wherein is 
a garrison of the enemies; his drift being chiefly, under that 
colour, to draw his prepared forces (which by his ministers 
are bruited to be about four thousand horse and fifteen thou- 
sand footmen) the rather into Hainault ; and yet, in the mean 
time, gives out that he doth nothing but with the liking and 


knowledge of her Majesty, whose name and credit he useth 
as a cloak to colour his ambitious and deceitful pretext, as 
will better appear with time, and is partly to be judged al- 
ready by the manner of dealing of his ministers with my 
Lords here. He hath, since his arrival at Mons, sent one 
Monsieur de Beauier towards Casimir to make fair weather 
with him, but, of all his demonstrations, the scope and drift 
resteth suspicious; and thus much for that matter. The 
Baron of Preinder, last ambassador for the Emperor, is de- 
parted towards his master: the other seems in mind to repair 
towards Don John, to see if there be yet any hope of peace, 
whereby to prevent the danger which the Country is like 
to fall into by the proceeding of this war ; the remedy whereof 
resteth, as it seems, in the retire of Don John, and yielding 
up the places he occupieth into the hands of the States, who 
are otherwise jealous and indisposed to enter into any treaty 
of peace, presuming it shall tend on his part to the gaining 
of time, and wearying of them with entertaining an army so 
chargeable as they have presently in the field, rather than 
to any good and sound composition. Their army, composed 
of eight thousand horse and nine thousand footmen, (besides 
the regiment of our nation and those which yet rest in garri- 
son, through a lack of money to draw them to the camp,) are 
lodged still within a mile of Liege, between the two rivers 
called the Little and Great Nethe, from whence it is thought 
they shall remove within a day or two. The enemy hath 
retired the most part of his forces into garrison, pretending, 
as some think, to make a war defensive, leaving the field 
another while to the States: his forces are esteemed to be 
five thousand horse and twenty-five thousand footmen, ac- 
counting the companies as complete, which indeed they are 
not. He hath abandoned Soigny in Hainault, wherein the 
Count Lalam hath put garrison: the like it is thought he 
pretends to do with Dyest and Arschot, from whence he 
hath withdrawn his munition and artillery, even to the small 
iron pieces. Compiegne certainly affirmed to be rendered to 
the States of Guelders, who are in hope of like composition 


with Dewenter. Casimir should as yesterday begin his mus- 
ters besides Zutphen. The Gauntois, on Sunday morning 
last, surprised by a stratagem the town of Ipre in Flanders, 
which (with them of the three members) is now at their 
devotion. The towns of Hainault, Artois, Lisle, Douay, and 
Orchies, (being practised by the letters of Monsieur,) have 
written hither to the States to know how they should govern 
themselves ; whom the States have in their answer required 
to refer themselves to the general resolution of the Provinces. 
Thus, being as weary with writing as I think your Honour 
will be of reading my tedious letter, I end with the offer 
of my humble service, commending your Honour to the 
protection of the Almighty. Antwerp, the 22nd of July 

Your Honour's humbly at commandment, 


On the 23rd of July Walsingham wrote again to 
Hatton respecting his mission; 


SIR, How we have proceeded here in our charge, what little 
good is like to follow thereof, and how things do stand here, 
this bearer, Mr. Sommers, is able sufficiently to inform you. 
I have amongst other things prayed him to acquaint you with 
my opinion touching the town of Sluse, which I wish were in 
her Majesty's hands in pawn for the money already lent, 
and that which hereafter her Majesty is to furnish them 
withal, as well to withdraw them from the French as to keep 
them from being overrun by the Spaniards. If I do not mis- 
take it, they have put their towns in that strength as the 
King of Spain is too old to see the end of these wars ; so that 
they may have, during their troubles, some convenient sup- 
port from hence, which they shall not lack elsewhere, if we do 
not make sure with them betimes. And yet the matter may 
be so ordered as neither her Majesty shall enter into an 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 107. 


actual war, nor yet remain unsatisfied of such treasure as she 
shall furnish them withal. To make this probable unto you 
requireth the setting down of many circumstances which I 
would be loath to commit to paper, but do reserve them to 
acquaint you withal at my return ; which by your good and 
friendly furtherance I hope will be with speed, seeing no ne- 
cessary cause of stay here at this present, as yourself shall 
perceive by this bearer's report. By her Majesty's especial 
commandment I wrote unto her in a private letter what I 
could discover touching the Prince of Orange's intention con- 
cerning these Countries ; which in effect was, as far as I can 
gather, he meaneth never to be subject to the King of Spain ; 
that he purposeth to annex them to the Empire ; that he is 
not otherwise inclined to the French than to serve his own 
turn ; and lastly, that, though he gave out the contrary, he 
had rather enjoy the Country himself, than either French, 
Spaniard, English, or Almayne. I know her Majesty will 
and hath acquainted you with all, and therefore I pray you 
advise her to keep the matter secret, especially that it be not 
known to come from me. And so, beseeching you to com- 
mit this letter to the fire, I commend you to God's good 
keeping. At Antwerp, the 23rd of July 1578. 

Yours most assuredly, FRA. WALSINGHAM.* 

Sir Amias Paulet, the writer of the following letter, 
was then ambassador at Paris; and, as will appear from 
subsequent letters, soon after used Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton's influence to obtain his recall, in which he succeeded 
in January 1579; but Paulet did not return to Eng- 
land until the spring of that year. 


IT may please your Honour to hold me excused that I 
write not more often unto you, which proceedeth only of 
want of matter worthy of you ; the root and spring of our 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 36. 


actions here being derived into the Low Countries, from 
whence the news of France must be expected hereafter. 
Our only open doings consist in the assembly of men of war, 
which march daily, and want nothing but money ; and he 
may perchance be assisted with Captains of good credit very 
shortly. Our secret drifts and devices are composed of two 
divers factions, and tend to two divers ends : the one, and the 
mightier, seeking to disturb this voyage by all means pos- 
sible ; the other, and the greater in number, sparing nothing 
that may advance the same. Ambassadors are gone to Mon- 
sieur from the Pope, the State of Venice, and the Duke of 
Savoy, to dissuade this journey. Monsieur is the only man 
that must decide this question, and some think that he will 
not be dissuaded. If you in England can bridle the French 
ambition, all will be well ; many here being of opinion that 
your own means will make you able, and that the necessity 
of the time will constrain others to yield to your counsel. 
The Marshal de Biron will not be quiet in Guienne; and 
what may ensue of his doings there, it is yet uncertain. I 
leave to trouble your Honour any further, committing you 
to the merciful protection of the Almighty. From Paris, 
the 26th of July 1578. 

Your Honour's to command, A. PoWLETT. 3 

Walsingham's proceedings in Holland gave great dis- 
pleasure to Elizabeth ; and the ensuing vindication of his 
conduct to Hatton is remarkable for the boldness and 
honesty of the expressions; 


SIR, I most heartily thank you for letting me understand 
by Mr. Tremayne the causes whereon hath grown her Ma- 
jesty's offence. And though I hope I shall be able suffi- 
ciently to satisfy her at my return, yet in the mean time it is 
an intolerable grief unto me to receive so hard measure at 
her Majesty's hands, as if I were some notorious offender. 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 39. 


Surely, Sir, it standeth not with her Majesty's safety to deal 
so unkindly with those that serve her faithfully. There 
is a difference between serving with a cheerful and languish- 
ing mind. If there hath lacked in us either care, faithful- 
ness, or diligence, then were we worthy of blame. It is 
very hard to judge there, (without understanding all neces- 
sary circumstances,) what is fit to be done here. When our 
doings shall corne to examination, I hope the greatest fault 
we may be charged withal is, that we have had more regard 
to her Majesty's honour and safety than to her treasure ; 
wherein we have dealt no worse with her than with ourselves, 
having for her service sake engaged ourselves 5000 thick ; 
which doing of ours being offensively taken, doth make the 
burthen the heavier. Thus, Sir, you see, as my good friend, 
I am bound to open unto you my grief. For our proceed- 
ings here, I refer you to the letters directed to my Lords. 
And so, with most hearty thanks for your faithful, friendly 
dealing towards me, I commit you to God's good keeping. 
Written with a weary hand and a wounded mind. At 
Antwerp, the 29th of July 1578. 
Your most assured friend, 


It appears from Dr. Toby Mathew's reply to a letter 
from Sir Christopher Hatton that he wished to examine 
the records of Christ-Church College, Oxford. Dr. 
Mathew, who was afterwards Archbishop of York, was 
then President of St. John's, and Canon of Christ- 


MY bounden duty humbly remembered to your Honour. 
Immediately upon my repair hither I dealt with my company 
for the search of such evidences as your letter mentioneth. 
We are all not only contented a perfect view be had of all 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 43 b . 


the muniments we have, but would be right glad, every one 
of us, that aught might be found therein to profit or pleasure 
your Honour. And if I might understand by this bearer, 
Mr. Mainwaring, (a man most willing and well able to do 
you much honour,) when it would like you to send hither 
to see the search made, (the sooner the better in my opinion,) 
I would provide our officer for that purpose should not fail 
to be present. For mine own particular, I assure you, Sir, I 
think myself greatly benefited that it please th you in any 
thing to use my poor service ; which is, and shall be, and is 
so bound to be, at your commandment. And even thus 
I humbly commend the continuance and increase of your 
honour to the gracious blessing of Almighty God. From 
Christ-Church in Oxon, 22nd August 1578. 
Your Honour's humble and bounden, 


Mr. Stanhope, of Harrington in Northamptonshire, 
the writer of the next letter, and ancestor of the 
Earls of Chesterfield, was then a Gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber. He succeeded Hatton as Vice- Chamberlain, 
was raised to the peerage by King James the First, and 
left issue two daughters, besides his son and heir, 
Charles, second Lord Stanhope; but no marriage took 
place between any of his children and those of Lord 
Scrope of Bolton. Hatton's " fair house" was Holden- 
by, which he rebuilt in imitation of Lord Burghley's 
seat of Theobald's ; 


SIR, The continuance of your former courtesies embol- 
deneth me to salute you with these few lines, which humbly 
recommend unto you his goodwill whom your virtue and 
friendship have won to be yours in all he may ; praying you 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 35. 


to accept the offer of an honest mind in good part, till either 
occasion give more proof, or time more power, to perform that 
which the whilst must rest in promise. In my journey 
from London I had a little sight afar off of your fair house, 
which I had then gone to view better, had I not been tied 
to such a charge as I could not well part from till I came to 
my cousin Thomas Markham's house, where I assure you, 
Sir, there was as great plenty of every good thing that might 
welcome his friends as could be devised ; and as well can his 
wife skill to entertain them, as I have seen. From thence, 
after two or three days' rest, I took my daughter with me to 
my brother's house ; where leaving her, I came to Carlisle to 
finish in some sort or other with my Lord Scrope our former 
agreement touching the match of our children, whom I find, 
as ever, so still desirous to proceed according to our first 
intent ; and therefore have agreed to meet his Lordship again 
a month hence, in a progress which he intendeth into Lan- 
cashire, where the young couples may see one another, and, 
after a little acquaintance, may resolve accordingly. Where- 
fore, Sir, I humbly pray you to present my humblest service 
to her Majesty's gracious acceptance, imparting to her High- 
ness our proceeding therein, and the cause of my stay here 
upon this occasion ; who either am otherwise to be counter- 
manded by her Majesty, or else to finish this matter as con- 
veniently as I may, and then to return and make an end of 
the remainder of my few years in her Highness's service, 
whereunto I have ever from the first both vowed myself 
and it; most humbly praying the Almighty to prosper and 
defend her ever, to the only comfort of all her true loving 
servants and subjects, as it hath from the first pleased Him to 
bless her above all others with the excellency of most rare 
and singular virtues. Your letter was very welcome to my 
Lord Scrope, and, I can assure you, you may dispose of him 
as of your honourable constant friend ; who is so much the 
more worthy accounting of, as he is her Majesty's very true 
and faithful servant, and the carefullest to discharge the place 
committed to him with all diligence that may be, as may well 


appear ; for that, of so rude and untamed people as these have 
been, I think her Majesty hath in few places better ordered 
or more obedient subjects. And yet surely, Sir, I must say 
that I am very glad I know no truer nor lovinger people to 
her Majesty anywhere than are generally over all these north 
parts as I have travelled ; so as, if their landlords and governors 
be honest men, there is no doubt but the rest will show them- 
selves very dutiful : the which I pray God we may all have 
ever the grace to do. And so, humbly praying you again to 
pardon my long troubling you, I recommend my service to 
your devotion, and your health to the favour of the Almighty. 
From Carlisle, the 5th of August, 1578. 

Yours most humbly to his power, JOHN STANHOPE.* 

Walsingham's next letter to Hatton exhibits the Vice- 
Chamberlain in a very amiable light ; 


SIR, Your most friendly standing in my defence where it 
might do me most good, and your comfortable letter written 
to my poor comfortless wife, do minister unto me just cause 
to acknowledge myself greatly beholden unto you, praying 
you to make account of me as of a most constant and assured 
friend in all fortunes. The desire that now her Majesty hath 
to understand of my doings at Mons, the speedy answer 
she requireth unto her last letters, and the sufficiency of 
this bearer, Mr. Somers, who hath been acquainted with all 
our proceedings here, which I have prayed him to impart 
unto you, doth force me to be much shorter than otherwise 
I would have been if leisure had served. As you dispatch 
this bearer with comfortable or uncomfortable answer, so 
are these people here either to depend or utterly to fall away 
from you, wherein also there is to be used great expedition. 
God therefore direct her Majesty's heart to do that which 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 39 b . 


may be for her honour and safety, to whose protection I com- 
mit you. At Antwerp, the 16th of August 1578. 

Your most assured friend, FRA. WALSINGHAM^ 

In July the Queen set out upon one of her usual Pro- 
gresses, and the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge, hearing 
that her Majesty intended to honour that University with 
a visit, wrote to Lord Burghley, its Chancellor, apprising 
him of the manner in which they intended to show their 
respect, and asking his opinion on other points relating 
to her reception. Burghley, in his answer, advised them 
to provide gloves, with a few verses on a paper affixed, 
for the Earls of Leicester and Oxford and the Lord 
Chamberlain; adding, "that for himself he could spare 
them, so that if Mr. Vice- Chamberlain might have a 
pair with some verses, it should do well to conciliate his 
goodwill, being a lover of learned men." b On the 26th 
of that month the Vice- Chancellor and heads of houses 
waited upon the Queen at Audley End, when the gloves 
were presented. Gabriel Harvey, a scholar, orator, and 
poet, wrote a volume of Latin verses on the occasion ; 
the fourth book of which he divided into three parts, 
and dedicated the first to Lord Oxford, the second to Sir 
Christopher Hat ton, and the third to Philip Sidney. c 

On the accession of Elizabeth's suitor, Henry Duke 
of Anjou, to the Crown of France, in May 1574, the 
title of Anjou was conferred upon his brother, Francis 
Duke of Alenqon, who was then about twenty years old, 
and had for some time succeeded Henry as a candidate 
for the Queen's hand, though she was more than double 
his own age. This ridiculous alliance occupied the 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 35 b . b Nichols's Progresses, ii. 110. 

c Ibid. ii. 111. 


public attention for some years; and in 1578, Camden 
says, " the Duke of Anjou, though his mind were bent 
upon the Netherland war, yet to show that he could 
attend both martial and love matters both at once, pro- 
secuteth his marriage with Queen Elizabeth, which he 
had begun to sue for whilst he was Duke of AlenQon ; 
and first Bacheville being sent for, this cause came to the 
Queen in her progress at Melford, CordalPs house in 
Suffolk." a Elizabeth visited Sir Thomas Cordall, the 
Master of the Kolls, at Melford, early in August b , at- 
tended by the Earl of Oxford, Lord Hunsdori, Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton, and others of her Court; and, a few 
days after, the Earl of Sussex expressed his opinions to 
the Queen respecting her marriage in the following long 
letter : c 


Tuesday last, in the morning, about seven o'clock, Monsieur 
de Bussy came hither to me, and told me, that, hearing (as 
he was to pass through London) I was come hither from the 
Court, he would acquaint me with his negociation, for that he 
doubted that the messenger sent from Mr. Walsingham, since 
his coming from Monsieur, was not come to your Majesty 
before my coming from the Court. The substance of his 
speech consisted upon two points. The one, that Monsieur 
dealt with such sincerity in the matter of the marriage as it 
rested in your Majesty to dispose of him therein as should 
please your self. The other, that he would be directed by 
your Majesty in his action of the Low Countries ; hoping 
that in both these your Majesty would have such respect 

a Annals, b. ii. p. 90. literatedin the transcript in Hatton's 

b Nichols's Progresses, ii. 113 " Letter Book," have been supplied 

116. from the copy in Lodge's Shrews- 

c Some passages, which are ob- bury Papers, vol. ii. p. 107, et seq. 

VOL. I. G 


to his honour and state as the great affection which he bare 
to your person did deserve. He made a long discourse of the 
hard dealing that had been divers times used towards Mon- 
sieur in France, and of the jealousies that from time to time 
were put into the heads of his mother and brother by per- 
sonages of great quality, that sought their own greatness by 
his hinderance. He also declared that Monsieur, by these 
occasions, was necessarily detained from showing himself to 
be himself; but being now in free place, and at his full 
liberty, he would make his value and resolute mind known 
to all the world. And so concluded how necessary it was for 
him to seek greatness abroad, to continue thereby his great- 
ness and surety at home ; and therefore was come into the 
Low Countries to be directed wholly by your Majesty, where 
he might receive and follow your directions without the stay 
or lett of any other person ; which he would do with as great 
sincerity as could be required. He did not directly say that 
Monsieur looked to be made great either by his marriage 
with you or by his actions in the Low Countries ; but surely 
his whole discourse was oftentimes intermingled with such 
speeches as I might certainly gather that Monsieur's mean- 
ing was to be great by the one of these means or by both, 
and that it were a dishonour to him and a peril to lack both, 
and so return home worse than he came forth. This was the 
substance of his speech unto me, which I thought my duty 
to declare unto your Majesty as briefly as I could. And now, 
remembering your Majesty's pleasure to be that upon all 
occasions I should be bold to write to you my opinion, I 
thought it my duty upon this occasion to write somewhat, 
humbly beseeching your Majesty to accept my plain and true 
meaning therein. To enter into this matter, I must first lay 
this foundation (which I think to be as sure as man can lay), 
that Monsieur hath determined to seek to make himself 
great either by the marriage of your Majesty or by the pos- 
session of the Low Countries, or by both; and that the 
French King and the Queen Mother to deliver him out of 
France will by all the possible means that may, help to 


further and advance his greatness in this sort for their own 
benefit, quiet, and surety, and the avoiding of all fires, 
troubles, and perils at home. And if Monsieur by your 
Majesty be put from his hope in both these, and no sure 
peace concluded before, betwixt the King of Spain and the 
States, then will he turn over all his forces to aid Don John, 
and seek his greatness and surety by martial actions that 
way, and by the friendship of the King of Spain, rather than 
with dishonour and peril to return home in worse case than 
he came forth. Wherein also, or in any other action abroad; 
there is no doubt but his mother and brother will further 
him what they may, to keep him occupied abroad, and thereby 
to avoid the peril at home. This foundation being thus laid, 
it is fit to consider of the commodities and incommodities of 
every of them ; that is to say, of the marriage, of the alien- 
ating of the Low Countries, and of the French assisting of 
Don John. 

Touching the marriage, (if your Majesty in your own heart 
can like of it, which I will leave to God and you,) I find 
these commodities to follow. Your alliance with the house 
of France, whereby, besides all likelihood that the French 
King will not attempt anything to the prejudice of you and 
his brother, you shall be assured by yourself and by your 
husband to have such a party in France as the French King 
shall not be able, nor shall not dare to attempt, directly or 
indirectly, anything against you. You shall take away and 
suppress all practices for competition, for Popery, or any 
other seditious cause, at home or abroad ; and so shall you 
at home and abroad assure your person and your state from 
all perils that by man's judgment might grow anyways to 
you by France. You shall also, by the help of your husband, 
be able to compel the King of Spain to take reasonable con- 
ditions of his subjects in the Low Countries, and the States 
to take reasonable conditions of their King, so as he may 
have that which before God and man doth justly belong to 
him, and they may enjoy their liberties, freedoms, and all 
other things that is fit for their quiet and surety in their 

G 2 


bodies, goods, consciences, and lives ; whereby you shall avoid 
great effusion of Christian blood, and shall have the honour 
and reward due in this world, and by God, to so gracious, 
godly, and Christian actions. And herewith, for the more 
surety of all persons and matters, yourself may have in your 
own hands some maritime part to be by you kept at the 
charge of the King of Spain, and your husband may have 
some frontier towns in like sort, and both to be continued 
for such a number of years as may bring a settling of surety 
in all respects ; by which means you shall also be delivered 
from perils at home and abroad that may grow from the King 
of Spain. And if you like not of this course in dealing for 
the Low Countries, you may join with your husband, and so 
between you attempt to possess the whole Low Countries, 
and draw the same to the Crown of England, if you have 
any child by him ; or, if you have none, to divide them 
between the realms of England and France, as shall be 
metest for either. But, to be plain with your Majesty, I 
do not think this course to be so just, so godly, so honourable, 
nor, when it is looked into the bottom, so sure for you and 
your state, as the other, although at the first sight it do 
perhaps carry in show some plausibility. It is also most 
likely, and a matter certainly to be expected, that, if God 
will incline your heart to marriage, He will also bless you 
with children ; whereby both you for your time shall be 
settled in the chair of surety, and all matters that might be 
kindled by mischievous fires shall go away in the smoke, 
et erunt cogitationes malorum sicut somnia. And, by the leav- 
ing behind you of a successor of your own body, you shall 
leave surety and quiet to your realm ; you shall avoid Chris- 
tian bloodshed, like to grow by civil wars; you shall dis- 
burden your conscience ; you shall receive at God's hand your 
just desert for so godly a care, and your fame shall exceed 
upon the earth. So as, to be short, by your marriage you 
shall give law to France, Spain and Low Countries, England, 
Scotland, and, in effect, to all Christendom; you shall settle 
your state surely at home ; you shall be strongly friended 


abroad ; you shall be in estimation over all the world ; you 
shall have a husband as a servant and defender of all your 
causes present; you shall be like a serpent in the sight of 
the evil, and like a dove in the sight of the good ; you 
shall be the peacemaker to all Christendom ; your fame shall 
exceed all other Princes that were ever in Europe ; and God 
will bless you as His own chosen vessel both in this world 
and in the world to come: which be the commodities that 
be like to grow by your marriage at this present. 

The incommodities which may grow for lack of your mar- 
riage be fittest to be left to be by your Majesty considered 
of by their contraries, whereby, and by the knowledge of your 
own heart, you may best judge of them ; and be such as my 
heart trembleth to think of them, and I pray God I never 
live to see them. The incommodities, dangers, and difficul- 
ties that have been remembered might grow by your mar- 
riage be these: 1. Your own mislike to marriage, which 
might breed a discontented life hereafter. 2. The difficulty 
of the choice of a person that might in all respects content 
your mind. 3. The danger that a foreign Prince might with 
time and by degrees bring this realm to his own possession, 
being your husband. 4. The danger that if your husband 
should come to be a King of a foreign country, necessity 
would constrain him to his own from yours, and keep you 
in your own from him, and so by absence the comfort ex- 
pected by marriage should lack. 5. The danger that, if you 
should have but one son by him, he should be heir of both 
kingdoms ; and then would be himself in the greatest, and 
rule the other by a viceroy, which England cannot bear. 
6, 7. The difficulty of religion. The charge that should grow 
to the realm by the maintenance of your husband. 8, 9. 
The general mislike which Englishmen have to be governed 
by a stranger. The danger of your person if your husband 
should but fraudulently seek you first, to possess by treason 
another after. To all which such answers have also been 
remembered as follow : The first and second receive not the 
counsel of others, but must be directed by yourself, whereby 


you be to follow only the counsel of your own heart, where- 
unto all men must leave you ; for it is the judgment of your 
own heart that may make it ill to you, which no other man 
can say to be but good of itself, if your heart can like of 
it. The third is a peril that must have a long time of drift 
ere it come to pass, and indeed can never take effect if God 
take not all senses away both from you and all the states 
of your realm ; and therefore a peril in talk and no peril in 
matter, as appeareth by the King of Spain married to Queen 
Mary. The fourth is not yet in this man, neither doth any 
man know that it ever shall be, and therefore no peril, but 
accidental ; but if it did fall out indeed that he should be 
a King of himself, and thereby his own country require his 
presence, and your country require your presence, yet is it 
not therefore necessary that you should be always absent the 
one from the other ; for, as by the amity of both Kingdoms 
both shall remain in the greater surety, so by that occasion 
and the vicinity of them you may have the better cause to be 
often together without danger to either of you, as appeared 
by King Philip, who came divers times to Queen Maryland 
remained with her certain months, even in his greatest times 
of wars with the French King. The fifth rather seemeth to 
bring honour than peril, and yet is but a supposition, and no 
matter certain ; for it is a hard case to make an assignment 
that you shall have a child, and but one only child. And yet, 
if it so fall out, an Englishman, born in England and King 
thereof, born in his own realm, should also be King of 
France, as heretofore with great honour hath been ; and it 
should not be that a Frenchman, born in France, King there- 
of, should also be King of England, which never was before. 
And so, reducing this matter to the example that hath been, 
it will be honour, and not peril, that shall grow thereby. The 
sixth hath always been answered that the exercise of his reli- 
gion should (so long as he should continue it) be private to 
himself and a few of his own nation, without admitting any 
Englishmen to it ; and he should also accompany you to the 
exercise of your religion in convenient times, which can bring 


no peril to your person or state, nor hath been thought to be 
so intolerable as it should break your marriage, but only by 
such as picked quarrel rather to your marriage than to reli- 
gion, whereof the world hath had good proof. The seventh 
shall rather bring gain than charge, for he hath a great pa- 
trimony of his own to spend here. The example appeareth 
by King Philip. The eighth doth not carry a truth, for 
the realm is to be governed as it was before, and so was it in 
the time of King Philip ; and then the people shall have no 
cause to mislike, but rather a great cause of liking, when 
both your person, your realm, and all your people shall by 
this means be assured from all dangers. The ninth inferreth 
a treasonable dealing not to be thought of by a Christian 
Prince, much less to be executed, and that carrieth no rea- 
sonable sense with it, that a Christian Prince, possessed 
of your godly, virtuous, wise, beautiful, and peerless person, 
and of all your kingdoms therewith, should have in his heart 
to be by treason delivered of you, and that he hath by you, 
to seek to get the same again by another person so far in- 
ferior to you. And, therefore, of a Christian Prince I dare 
not have any such thought ; and he that thinketh of this can 
think of anything that he thinketh can hinder your marriage. 
And so I leave to your Majesty to consider at your pleasure 
of the commodities and incommodities of your marriage, and 
of the incommodities that are like to come if you marry not. 
Touching the alienating of the Low Countries to the French, 
the incommodities be these : The uniting of the whole into 
one Prince's hands, which being divided, either party hath 
been able to match the other, and so by their division the 
realm of England hath never lacked a friend of the one ; 
which hath been a principal stay and surety to England, 
and by uniting of both will be a manifest and present danger 
and peril. The great forces both by land and sea that the 
French shall have when they shall possess both, where the 
French may attempt what they will, and shall have power to 
execute their will. The great danger that may grow to all 
Europe by the greatness of the French. The perils that may 


grow in particular to your Majesty by the French mainte- 
nance of competition, Popery, faction, and other civil divi- 
sions within the realm, and by withdrawing of England from 
your devotion. The disturbing of all your traffic, and impos- 
ing thereupon of all taxes at the pleasure of the French. The 
stop of vent of all inward commodities, and the mutinying of 
the people that shall lack work. The bringing of the realm 
into a perpetual servitude of tributes or other worse matter, 
which discommodities, how they may be encountered with 
any of our commodities, I do not see. By the joining of 
Monsieur with Don John, and no sure peace concluded be- 
tween the King of Spain and the States, I see no commo- 
dities to grow, but these incommodities manifestly to ensue. 
Either the whole suppression of the Low Countries by the 
Spanish tyranny, and thereby your Majesty to be subject to 
many of the perils before rehearsed in the cause of France, 
both for your person, realm, and traffic; or else your Majesty 
to make yourself the head of the war, and so to enter into 
that which my simple head seeth no possibility for you to 
maintain, nor knoweth no way how to bring you out of it : 
which two generalities have so many particular perils de- 
pending on them, as neither I can think of all, neither is it 
fit, for tediousness, to trouble you with those I think of; 
seeing your Majesty doth better know them, and deeplier 
judge of them than I can think. What may be done to 
procure a sure peace between the King and the States, I 
know not ; seeing I see such diffidence on both sides, and 
no likelihood that the States will either yield to reasonable 
conditions, or have any disposition to any reasonable peace. 
But if there might be such a peace made as in honour, truth, 
justice, and conscience were fit, both for the King and the 
subjects before God and man, and sufficient to France of 
the continuance thereof, then do I surely think that many 
of the perils before rehearsed might be avoided foi the time. 
But, if no such, peace be made, then it were fit the States 
(being not able to defend themselves) must cast themselves 
into either your defence or into the defence of France, where- 


upon depend the perils before written. Thus have been 
bold to touch at this time such matter as true and faith- 
ful duty doth find, and to put your Majesty in remembrance 
of; most humbly beseeching your Highness, that, seeing it is 
now time that all men should shake off particular respects, 
and yield themselves wholly to that which is best for your 
service, the surety of your person, and the benefit of your 
realm, you will pardon me at this present for the delivering 
to you by writing that which in substance I have often before 
spoken, and, having by absence the commodity of speech 
taken from me, am forced, for the faithful discharge of my 
duty, to deliver it rather by pen than by mouth, with my 
most humble prayer to God that He may long preserve your 
Majesty to your own heart's contentation, and to put into 
your heart to do that which shall be most for His glory, and 
for your Majesty's honour and surety. The 28th of August 

Your Majesty's most humble and faithful subject and 
servant, T. SUSSEX. 

The decision of the Council on the affairs of the Low 
Countries, and its treatment of the Scottish ambassa- 
dors towards the beginning of September in this year, 
were equally unsatisfactory to Walsingham, who declared 
his sentiments to Hatton on both points with his usual 
candour ; 


SIR, If it be good to have these Countries possessed by the 
French, and alienated in goodwill from the Crown of Eng- 
land, then have you returned Mr. Sommers with a very good 
dispatch; but if nothing can be more prejudicial to the state 
of the Realm than such a resolution as may minister just cause 
of alienation, then have you committed a most dangerous, I 
will not say an irreparable error : for surely those people 
mean no longer to depend upon your uncertainties, who are 
the more grieved for that they shall be forced thereby to 


have recourse to a most perilous remedy, such as may be 
termed medicina morbo deterior. We do what we can to help 
the matter, and to stay them from taking any desperate course. 
We put them in some hope, that upon our return, when her 
Majesty by us shall be thoroughly informed of the state 
of their affairs, she will take some other resolution that shall 
be to their comfort; which, though it breedeth some con- 
tentment in them for a time, yet when they weigh the un- 
certainty of your former proceedings, and how subject they 
are to changes, and how dangerous it is for certain diseases 
to be relieved by uncertain remedies, they then despair to 
receive any good from them. Her Majesty shall never have 
the like occasion offered to do them good, as she might, by 
yielding the relief they demanded ; the estate of their affairs 
standing then upon making, or marring: but things past cannot 
be called back again. Seeing your proceedings with them 
of Scotland, by sending away their ministers discontented, 
maketh me the less to wonder at your dealings with those of 
these Countries. The consideration of both doth give me 
just cause to think that there hangeth over that Realm, which 
hitherto hath been blest under her Majesty's government 
with a rare quietness, some most fearful storm; and the 
rather, I am led so to conceive, for that I am informed by 
Mr. Sommers, that no Prince could be more faithfully and 
earnestly dealt withal by Counsellors than her Majesty hath 
been by hers, wherein he telleth me no man could treat more 
effectually than yourself. When the advice of grave and 
faithful Counsellors cannot prevail with a Prince of her Ma- 
jesty's rare judgment, it is a sign that God hath closed up 
her heart from seeing and executing that which may be for 
her safety ; which we that love her, and depend of her for- 
tune, cannot but with grief think of: particularly my Lord 
Cobham and I have cause to think ourselves most unfortu- 
nate, to be employed in a legation that is like to have so 
hard an issue; but I hope the world can witness that there 
lacked no goodwill in us to do that which duty and our call- 
ing required. Thus, wanting presently any other matter to 


impart unto you, I commit you to God's protection. From 
Antwerp, the 9th of September 1578. 
Your very loving assured friend, 


None of Hatton's friends enjoyed more of his con- 
fidence than Sir Thomas Heneage, the Treasurer of the 
Queen's Chamber; and some remarkable letters from 
him occur. The annexed, however, is unimportant : 


SIR, To say nothing to you, now I go further from you, 
agrees not with my mind, nor, me thinks, were good manner : 
yet hearing nothing from you, I have the less to trouble you 
with ; and if at any time for myself I trouble you at all, it is 
not the nature of my will, but the pricking of my need that 
is the cause thereof. Going now about my journey, which 
will occupy me above a fortnight, I send this bearer princi- 
pally to bring me word truly from you, that are like to know 
best, how her Majesty's perfect health (which of late hath 
been more accumbered than she careth for) now presently 
standeth : for loving her more than my life, I care for her 
health more than my own, and am in little quiet when I hear 
that any thing impeacheth it. Next her Majesty, that your- 
self do well, is that I most desire to hear from you, and most 
heartily wish. And so commend me humbly to you, and us 
both to God's best keeping. From Copthall, very hastily, 
this 15th of September 1578. 

Your own at commandment, 


The particulars of the "controversy" mentioned in the 
following letter from the Earl of Sussex have not been 
ascertained, but it seems to have been of a public rather 
than personal nature : 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 41". b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 56. 



GOOD MR. VICECHAMBERLAIN, I am sorry to perceive 
that there was some matter fallen out of controversy between 
you and Mr. Paginton, fearing it might have bred some 
other disquiet; but, understanding by your letters how dis- 
creetly you have dealt therein, and how well her Majesty 
resteth satisfied therewith, I am greatly eased of that fear ; 
and for my own part do like well that he tasteth some smart 
for his arrogant using of a Counsellor, which in right is due 
to him and to all others in the same predicament, although 
not always expected in like sort. Seeing the treaty by the 
three Princes, ambassadors take theffect, I would be glad to 
hear of a better sequel of the Emperor's sole treaty. I 
hope the report of the King of Portugal's overthrow is not 
true. I do hear of late that the Queen's Majesty hath been 
somewhat ill-disposed : if it be so, God shortly give her per- 
fect health; for with her good estate we all breathe and live, 
and without that we all stifle and perish. This soil bringeth 
forth no matter worth writing, and therefore for this time I 
end, and wish to you, good Mr. Vicechamberlain, as to my- 
self. From Bath, the 20th of September 1578. 

Your assured friend, T. SUSSEX.* 

When the following letter was written, Hatton was 
in attendance on the Queen at Loughton Hall in Essex, 
the seat of Mr. Francis Stonard, whence she proceeded 
to the Earl of Leicester's house at Wanstead, where the 
progress ended : b 


MY VERY GOOD LORD, In consideration that her Majesty 
is not willing to hearken to any other suit made unto her by 
Sir John Smythe for his better enabling and recompense of 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 31. b Nichols's Progresses, ii. 222. 


his service, her Highness is well pleased to release unto him 
the mortgage of his lands upon the debt which he oweth her, 
with this order, that your Lordship shall take good bonds of 
him for the payment of 2000/. at Michaelmas come twelve- 
months ; to the end, that his said lands being set free from 
mortgage, he may, either by making sale of them, or some 
other convenient means, endeavour to discharge and satisfy 
the debt the sooner. And whereas Mr. Secretary told your 
Lordship, that all his lands should stand bound for the said 
debt, there was no other meaning in it, than that by the bonds 
abovesaid his whole livelihood should be liable to her Ma- 
jesty's execution ; as the morrow, waiting upon your Lord- 
ship at dinner, I will give you to understand more at large. 
In the mean while, with my very hearty commendations, I 
commit your good Lordship to the Almighty. From the 
Court, at Mr. S toner's, the 21st September 1578. 
Your good Lordship's most bound poor friend, 


Walsingham's next letter was written soon after his 
return from the Low Countries. He was probably only 
restrained by respect or fear from adding another epithet 
to " hatred," when speaking of the Queen's "wooing 
matters," for it must have been a subject of ridicule 
throughout Europe : 


SIR, I know by the inclosed from Mr. Davison, you shall 
be thoroughly informed what alterations are happened in the 
Low Countries since our departure from thence. God dealeth 
most lovingly with her Majesty in taking away her enemies ; 
it requireth at her hands thankfulness, which is the only 
sacrifice He attendeth 5 from her. By the reason of her in- 
disposition, being continually troubled with the pain in her 

a Autograph in the State Paper Office. b i. e. expects. 


face, there hath as yet been no consultation for the Low 
Country causes. I find her Highness greatly altered from 
that I left her touching those causes, so that I am out of 
hope of any good resolution ; for the which I am very sorry, 
knowing that upon this resolution dependeth either the con- 
servation or alienation of the Low Country people's hearts 
from her Majesty. The French ambassador, having received 
letters from the King and the Duke of Anjou, require th 
audience. I would to God her Majesty would forbear the 
entertaining any longer the marriage matter. No one thing 
hath procured her so much hatred abroad as these wooing 
matters, for that it is conceived she dallieth therein. I have 
discharged my duty in that behalf, but in very temperate 
sort, for that she hath been heretofore jealous of my liking 
of her marriage ; and therefore cannot speak so frankly as 
others may. Finding her Majesty daily subject to the pain 
in her face, she was content, through my persuasion, that her 
physicians should confer with some of the best experimented 
physicians in London, which was performed accordingly ; but 
yet are they not resolved either touching the disease, nor the 
remedy. Thus, Sir, (as my leisure will give me leave,) have 
I scribbled unto you such things as I think meet for your 
knowledge ; and so commit you to God. At Richmond, the 
9th of October 1578. 

Your most assured friend, 


I should yesterday have moved you, at the request of my 
brother Dodington, to appoint some day of access unto you 
for the Bishop of London ; as also to recommend unto you 
Mr. Man wood, to be by your good means furthered to the 
Chief Baronry b ; both which I forgot, and am therefore charged 
with my unmindfulness of my friends. I pray you let me 

a Sic, sed quaere " misliking ;" or it b Sir Roger Man wood succeeded 

may mean that the Queen suspected to the office, but was not appointed 

he did not like her intended mar- until the 24th of January 1579. 


hear from you, or else perhaps we may be both blamed. 
And so God keep you. 

Your assured friend, FRA. WALSINGHAM.* 

Mr. Edmund Tremayne, the writer of the annexed 
letter, appears to have been the person of those names 
who is deservedly memorable for his fidelity ; and if so, 
he was the second son of Thomas Tremayne, an Esquire 
of a very ancient family in Devonshire, and entered 
the service of Edward Earl of Devon, afterwards 
created Marquis of Exeter. When that nobleman and the 
Princess Elizabeth were sent to the Tower, on suspicion 
of being privy to Wyat's rebellion, Tremayne was placed 
on the rack to extort from him a confession of their 
guilt; but he bore the torture without compromising 
either of them : and after Elizabeth came to the throne, 
she rewarded him with many marks of favour, and ap- 
pointed him a Clerk of the Privy Council. b He married 
Eulelia, daughter of Sir John St. Leger, by Katherine, 
daughter of George Lord Abergavenny, who appears to 
have been his mother-in-law, the u little lady" with a 
" noble mind" of whom he speaks so kindly : 


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, Though no man be more 
unwilling to trouble his friend with suits than myself, yet 
in such a case as this is, of my poor mother-in-law, which dif- 
fereth not much from the state of a widow or an orphan, 
not to be remedied but by the help of a worthy gentleman 
that will do it of his benevolence, I am bold to press upon 
your Honour, to whom if it were known as it is to me what 
a noble mind there is within that little body, I am assured 
you would not but use all means to keep her from calamity. 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 44 b . * b Prince's Worthies of Devon, Ed. 1810, 

p. 740. 



If her husband were in state, as he hath been within these 
twenty years, that little lady were easily induced to bestow 
upon her Majesty at an instant a present as great as this 
that she now desireth, rising to her Majesty to be paid by 
years. Besides the marriage of her daughter, I have been 
ever singularly bound unto her ; and in my greatest adversity 
I found in her a rare disposition to travail for my comfort. 
And therefore, besides the relief of the hard estate of her 
husband and herself, the good that she shall receive by my 
means shall greatly pleasure me and increase my band to- 
wards you. I have no doubt your Honour will do what you 
can. If her Majesty cannot like to pardon the debt, I hope 
yet her Highness will be pleased at the least to respite it, 
without danger to incur further forfeiture. If nothing else 
will be had, yet, I beseech you, vouchsafe the poor gentle- 
woman a dispatch with her Majesty's good favour ; which of 
late days hath been the especial comfort of her life, and the 
least doubt thereof, I assure you, will shorten her days and 
hasten her death. I am very loath to trouble you with many 
words, and yet much desire her good success in that she 
sueth for. In hope whereof, craving pardon of my bold- 
ness, I humbly take my leave. From Aukerwick, the 17th 
of October 1578. 

Your Honour's most assured at commandment, 


The following letter from the Earl of Leicester has no 
date ; and as he incurred the Queen's displeasure, the 
only fact mentioned in it, on more than one occasion, 
there is nothing to prove when it was written. It pro- 
bably, however, referred to Elizabeth's anger on being 
informed of his second marriage, in September 1578, to 
Lettice, widow of Walter Earl of Essex, and daughter 
of Sir Francis Knollys. The letter occurs among those 
of 1578 and 1579; but as the letters are copied without 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 34 b . 


much regard to their dates, little reliance can be placed 
on its position ; 


MR. VICECHAMBERLAIN, Even as I had dined, Wrothe, 
my Lord Chamberlain's man, came to me that immediately 
I should come to the Court. My Lord of Hunsdon was with 
me, to whom he did the like message and other of her Ma- 
jesty's Council I perceived were sent for also, whereby I con- 
ceived the message was general for some Council causes. I 
did make show I would come presently; but I partly de- 
sired my Lord of Hunsdon, as I do now most earnestly to 
you, to excuse me that I forbear to come, being, as I wrote 
to you this morning, troubled and grieved both in heart and 
mind. I am not unwilling, God knows, to serve her Ma- 
jesty wherein I may, to the uttermost of my life, but most 
unfit at this time to make repair to that place, where so many 
eyes are witnesses of my open and great disgraces delivered 
from her Majesty's mouth. Wherefore, if by silence it may 
be passed over, (my calling for being but in a general sort,) I 
pray you let it be so ; otherwise, to be commanded for her 
Majesty's service, I will be most ready to it, if in time I 
may know it. Fare you well. In haste, this afternoon, one 
of the clock. 

Your very assured, R. LEICESTER.* 

No information that can be relied upon has been found 
respecting Gerard de Marini, the writer of the follow- 
ing letter, and nothing is known of the " fault" for 
which he asks Hattoii's pardon : 


SIR, I could wish that these my dutiful lines should attend 
some time of your Honour's leisure before they should pre- 
sume to trouble you; but knowing how hardly they may 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 54 b . 
VOL. I. H 


then find such opportunity, as I crave they might, to present 
my humble service to your noble favour, I fear me they shall 
be constrained to press more boldly into your presence than 
becometh them, unless they should, through pusillanimity, 
leave that unperformed for which they come ; in which case, 
I trust your wonted courtesy will hold them favourably ex- 
cused. After they have kissed your virtuous hands (as with 
due reverence I also do in heart), they are first most humbly 
to desire in my behalf your honourable pardon for my long 
silence; and then to represent unto the same the good and 
due remembrance which I have of all the favours which your 
goodness hath bestowed on me at my divers needs, for which 
as I acknowledge myself most bounden unto your Honour, 
so am I, and will be always, ready to employ the uttermost of 
my small power in your service, and repute it a great grace 
when you would vouchsafe to command it. Hastily, and to 
conclude ; they shall advertise you that I shall ever have in 
mind to beseech Almighty God for the preservation of your 
happy estate, with increase of honour, fruition of your con- 
tentation, and all perfect felicity. Thus having confessed 
my fault, desired pardon, and insinuated my duty unto your 
Honour, with most lowly request of continuance of your 
accustomed favour towards me, I now think it meet to for- 
bear to interrupt your honourable affairs any longer. From 
Paris, the 23rd of October 1578. 

Your Honour's most affectionate poor servant, 


In November, the Archbishop of Canterbury renewed 
his application that Hatton would again intercede for 
him with the Queen : 


SIR, As the remembrance of your honourable friendship 
and travails for me in this my long distress do restrain me 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 


from importunity, so the respect of my duty towards her 
Majesty, and the great desire I have to recover her gracious 
favour, will not suffer me long to be silent; but still, at 
convenient opportunity, to renew my old suit unto you for 
the continuance of your honourable intercession for me to 
her Majesty, for the attaining of her princely benign good- 
ness. I do assure myself that your Honour pretermitteth no 
convenient time, and so I understand also by relation from 
some of my very good friend? ; but yet have I been bold, for 
these respects which I tell you, to pray you to do that which 
of your own honourable inclination you are always most will- 
ing to do. So, ceasing further to trouble you at this present, 
I heartily commend you to the grace of God. From Lam- 
beth, this 15th of November 1578. 

Yours in Christ^ EDM. CANTUAR. a 

The " cousin Cheke," who brought Mr. Davison's next 
letter to Hatton, was Sir Henry Cheke, some time Secre- 
tary to the Council in the North, first cousin to Davi- 
son's wife, and nephew of Mary, daughter of Peter Cheke, 
of the Isle of Wight, Lord Burghley's first wife : 


SIR, This bearer, my cousin Cheke, can so particularly 
inform your Honour of our success at Ghent, together with 
such other particularities as have occurred since my last, as 
I forbear by him to trouble you with a long letter ; and the 
rather, because the subject presently offered is such as I am 
sure would little delight you.. I beseech your Honour, there- 
fore, to excuse this my shortness ; and at all times to dispose 
of my poor service as of him that resteth faithfully at your 
Honour's devotion, whom I most humbly commend to the 
grace and providence of God. From Bruges, the 18th of 
November 1578. 

Your Honour's humbly bounden, 


a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 30 b . b Ibid. 15891, f. 106 b . 


Sir Amias Paulet wrote to Hatton from Paris, in 
December, informing him of the approaching arrival of 
Simyer to negotiate the Queen's marriage with the 
Duke of Anjou, and who arrived in January following/ 
Paulet's letter shows also the distracted state of France : 


IT may please your Honour to pardon my long silence, 
which I could excuse in reasonable manner, if I did not 
believe that your good opinion of me would not easily admit 
any sinister impression ; and therefore presume upon your 
favourable interpretation, I will say no more but that in my 
last packet my leisure would not permit me to write unto 
any other than to the Secretaries, saving two or three words 
to my Lord of Leicester ; and, in my other dispatch, I may 
say truly, that I know no matter worthy of you ; and now 
it must suffice you to be advertised that Simyer hath taken 
his leave of the King, and cometh unto you accompanied 
with ten or twelve gentlemen, and his whole train, esteemed 
to amount to forty horse, or near thereabouts. The Pro- 
testants continue in their accustomed jealousies, and especi- 
ally of [? the] Queen-Mother, whose painful journey into 
Languedoc hath been with small profit hitherunto, the Pro- 
testants refusing to come to any conference with her. The 
other subjects of the Realm seem to be no better satisfied, 
requiring with threatenings to be restored to their ancient 
form of government. They will pay as in the time of Louis 
the Twelfth, and no more. It may be doubted lest this dis- 
contentment have such furtherers and favourers as will bring 
the same to some dangerous issue ; and I would believe it, if 
I did not think that by the cunning and policy of some great 
personages the full rage of this storm will fall upon the Pro- 
testants. It seemeth that the King is not greatly troubled 
with these alterations, and it perchance fareth with him as 
with those who, being sick in extremity, feel not their own 

a Lodge, Illustrations of British History, ii. 143. 


sickness. His troubles and dangers are so thick and so many 
as he cannot easily judge which require th the speediest re- 
medy. The game is already begun in Gascony, where La 
Reulle hath been lately surprised by the Catholics, not with- 
out some slaughter. It may please your Honour to be mind- 
ful of my revocation ; wherein you shall show your good-will 
towards me, and shall bind me to be at your commandment, 
as knoweth the Almighty, who always preserve your Honour. 
From Paris, the 6th of December 1578. 

Your Honour's to command, A. PAULETT.* 

It appears from the following letter that Lord Burghley 
had disapproved of some suit of Hatton's arising out of 
a grant which the Queen had made to him : 


MY VERY GOOD LORD, I humbly thank you for your most 
honourable letters. I am fully persuaded that duty to her 
Majesty, and not any other private respect to me or against 
me, hath led you into the course you hold. I heartily com- 
mend you for it, and reverence you in that, as in the rest of 
your faithful and most diligent dealings in this estate, you 
rightly deserve, and I in truth am bound to witness. 

My poor case hath no defence ; demisso vultu dicendum, 
rogo. I ask, because I want : my reward is made less, but I 
confess my unworthiness. I do my service with diligence and 
travail, according to God's gift in me ; and therefore in chari- 
table goodness I should not in any reasonable cause be so 
contemptuously rejected. Evil men are made examples; but 
I, that made no offence, should not be punished for Grey's 
fault. I seek a debt which grew to me through her Majesty's 
reward; but your Lordship's direction will lead me to fur- 
ther charge, without any comfort of her Majesty's care and 
goodness in the gift she made to relieve me. But, Sir, if this 
be for her general service, I, in my little particular, most 
humbly submit myself not only without offence towards 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 108. 


your Lordship, but with sincere and hearty good liking of 
your Lordship's proceedings ; and, touching my present state, 
I will justify it to be reasonable and every way agreeable 
with my duty and estate. How it is hindered, I hear by her 
Majesty ; but by whom I know not : but I know and feel it is 
an easy thing to do harm, and therefore will pray to God 
to give us grace to do good each to other, while we may. 
I hope your Lordship will not hinder me, because my doings 
are direct in this suit ; I offered her Majesty what I am 
able, to the advancement of her ordinary revenue. I did 
acknowledge my gain, through her goodness, for my com- 
fortable relief. I made your Lordship privy, and you mis- 
liked not. But now this little is thought too much, and so 
do content myself with what shall please her I am most 
bound to. I humbly beseech your Lordship not to conceive so 
hardly of me, that I will so rashly forget my duty toward you. 
I love you according to your worthiness, and I will serve 
you for your goodness towards me heretofore, so long as I 
live. No cause shall lead me to mislike you, for I believe in 
my heart you will do nothing but that is good and honour- 
able. And so, with the commendation of my faithful good- 
will, I humbly take my leave. This 14th day of December 

Your good Lordship's most bound poor friend, 


Doctor Thomas Bynge, the writer of the next letter, 
was Master of Clare Hall, Cambridge, and was the 
Chancellor of that University in 1572 and 1578 : 


THOUGH I doubted not, Right Honourable, but this bearer 
would not only advertise your Honour sufficiently of his late 
success in our election of Fellows, but also report of my 
duty therein accordingly; yet I was right glad to take the 
occasion by him to be the presenter thereof myself; the 

3 Murdin's State Papers, p. 318. 


rather, for that I am therewithal to render to your Honour 
my most humble thanks for the great courtesy which your 
Honour vouchsafed me this last summer at the Court at 
Audley End ; a whereby I have ever sithence accounted myself 
so much indebted unto your Honour, that I heartily wish my 
poor service in any respect could be such as might seem 
worthy your Honour's acceptation. Howbeit, what it is, or 
how simple soever it is, I am to crave that it would please 
you to reckon it to be at your commandment. And so, most 
humbly taking my leave, I commit your Honour to the blessed 
tuition of the Almighty. From Cambridge, this 24th of De- 
cember 1578. 

Your Honour's humbly at commandment, 


Sir Amias Paulefs first letter to Hatton, in 1579, is 
only remarkable for the notice it contains of the Order of 
Saint Esprit, which was instituted by Henry the Third, 
on the 30th of December 1578 : 


IT may please your Honour to bear with these few lines 
until my hand shall be strengthened with the news of my 
successor ; and I trust to trouble you with longer letters, if 
any good occasion be ministered. This Christmas yieldeth 
no new thing worthy of the writing, and this winter season 
serve th for a bridle to our French humours ; and yet the 
same break out in some places into dangerous accidents. In 
Provence, no quietness; open wars in Languedoc, in Guyenne, 
towns surprised of both sides ; and yet Queen Mother per- 
sisteth to urge a conference, whereof no good effect is ex- 
pected. Burgoigne, Normandy, and other provinces are 
nothing appeased, and will accept no moderation of their de- 
mands; and some think that the King shall be forced to 
yield to the malice of the time. The new Order of Knight- 
hood hath been celebrated with great solemnity ; and although 

a Vide ante. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 46. 


this Order be especially affected by Knights of the Romish 
religion, yet the Bishop of Rome hath not yet allowed thereof, 
and his ambassador hath refused to assist at the ceremonies. 
The Duke of Guise will see the next spring before he come 
to the court. I am advertised divers ways of your friendly 
furtherance to my revocation ; most humbly praying you to 
take hold upon every good occasion occurring. And thus I 
commit your Honour to the merciful tuition of the Almighty. 
From Paris, the 12th of January 1578 [1578-9]. 

Your Honour's to command, A. POULETT. R 

The departure of the Duke of Anjou from the Low 
Countries, in February, was announced to Hatton, with 
other intelligence, by Mr. Davison, on the 8th of that 
month : 


SIR, If I seem slow in remembering your Honour with my 
letters, 1 beseech you excuse it with the want of leisure, 
which doth many times restrain my will. Now, in part to 
make the amends, the best news I can send unto your Honour 
is the flight of the Duke of Anjou from hence to Ale^on, I 
wot not whether with his greater discontentment, or this 
Country's good liking. He was appointed to stay a time at 
La Fere, upon the frontier of Picardy ; but that deliberation 
was suddenly altered upon the return of his secretary out 
of England. His ambassador remaining here doth, notwith- 
standing, make great instance to have the Deputies of all 
the Provinces assembled, to deliberate upon the renouncing 
of their subjection to the King of Spain, and accepting of his 
master for their Prince, in case they do intend to change 
masters, as they have often borne him in hand. But this 
motion is not without impediments. The new solicited peace 
hangeth in suspense. The Emperor's ambassador is returned 
once again to the enemy to break with him in that behalf, 
upon whose success dependeth the burying or reviving of the 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 34. 


Duke of Anjou's motion. The Marquis of Haurech is em- 
ployed in Artois to hinder the intended reconcilement of 
those frontier provinces with the enemy, where it is doubted 
he shall effect little. In Flanders the boors have taken arms 
against the soldiers in respect of the spoils committed amongst 
them, and have this last week disarmed two companies of 
French, and defeated three companies of Scots with one 
Campbell their colonel, in the villages of Isegem and 
Mespelare, between Alst and Dendremond. The rest of the 
soldiers do upon this accident fortify themselves as they best 
may for their surety and defence, and I doubt the mischief 
will not rest where it is. A cornet of the D. Casimer's 
reystres hath been this last week defeated about Guyeck 
upon the Maes, by the enemy ; the Walloons lie yet in Meinen 
and Cassels, attending their first two months' pay promised 
them by the accord. The enemy is passed to the hither side 
of the Maes, having abandoned the enterprise of Guelder, 
which he made a countenance to besiege. Some think his 
drift is, to cut off as many as he can of the States' reystres, 
and other forces, which lie straggling over the country. The 
Colonels of that Nation do solicit hard for pay, but hitherto 
to little purpose. If they be dismissed ill-contented as they 
are yet, it is doubted they will take a sluttish farewell. Here 
is news out of Spain of the death of another of the King's 
sons, the certainty thereof may be known of his ambassador 
Mendoza. Here, commending your Honour to the provi- 
dence of the Almighty, I most humbly take my leave. At 
Antwerp, the 8th of February 1578-9. 

Your Honour's humbly at commandment, 


Queen Elizabeth's instructions to Sir Amias Paulet, 
which are not dated, but were probably sent about Fe- 
bruary in this year, respecting her marriage with the 
Duke of Anjou, are extremely interesting, and bear evi- 
dent marks of having been dictated by Elizabeth herself. 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 37 b . 


After stating her objections to the conditions proposed 
by Simyer, she expresses her suspicion that the youth- 
ful suitor sought her "fortune" and not her "person,' 7 
in terms which a wealthy heiress would now use towards 
a lover who had shewn rather too much attention to the 
marriage-settlement. The hint that the Duke ought to 
have come to England, and the satirical allusion to the 
discreditable termination of his proceedings in the Low 
Countries, are very neatly conveyed, while the com- 
placency with which she adverts to her own attractions, 
personal and mental, is perfectly characteristic. Her 
praise v of Simyer, whom Camden calls " a most choice 
courtier, exquisitely skilled in love toys, pleasant con- 
ceits, and court dalliances," will not pass unnoticed by 
those who remember the Queen of Scots' remark respect- 
ing her conduct towards him a : 


TRUSTY &c., Finding De Simyer, at a certain late con- 
ference between him and some of our Council about the treaty 
of marriage between the Duke his master and us, to insist 
very peremptorily upon certain articles that have always 
heretofore been denied to such Princes as in former time have 
sought us in way of marriage, as also to the King, the said 
Duke's brother, (a thing falling out far contrary to our ex- 
pectation,) considering that before his repair hither we caused 
one of our Secretaries to advertise him (upon view of certain 
letters of his directed to the King's ambassador here, by which 
he signified unto him that he was to repair hither about the 
interview and the concluding of the articles,) that our mean- 
ing was not to enter into any treaty of articles, being re- 
solved not to yield to any other than were before agreed on 
between us and other Princes that have sought b like 

a Vide ante. b The MS. is torn away in these and other places. 


case, and therefore advised him to forbear to if 

he were sent to any such end; only thus that 

in case any of the said articles were doubtful or obscure, to 
explain and make them more clear. We have therefore 
thought meet, for that we know not what to judge of such a 
strainable kind of proceeding, even at that time when to 
our seeming we were growing to a conclusion touching the 
interview, to acquaint you therewith, to the end that you 
may let both the King and Monsieur know what we conceive 
thereof. And for that you may the more substantially and 
fully deal therein, you shall understand that the articles, 
upon which he did at the said conference with certain of 
our Council insist, were three. The first, that the said Duke 
might jointly have authority with us to dispose of all things 
donative within this our Realm and other our dominions. 
The second, that he might be, after marriage, crowned King ; 
offering certain cautions, that nothing should be done thereby 
to the prejudice of our Realm. And lastly, that he might 
have threescore thousand pounds' pension during his life. 
Touching the first, the inconveniencies were laid before him 
by our said Council, who declared unto him that it was a 
matter that greatly toucheth our Regality, insomuch as Mon- 
sieur might have thereby vocem negativam ; and also, that, 
in the marriage between the King of Spain and our late 
sister, the contents of that demand was by an especial article 
prohibited in the treaty between them, which afterwards was 
ratified by Parliament: yet was he not without great diffi- 
culty drawn to desist from urging us to yield our consent 
therein, notwithstanding he was plainly given to understand 
that our consenting thereto could not but breed a dangerous 
alienation of our Subjects' goodwill from us. And, for the 
other two articles, it was showed unto him, that, the con- 
sideration of the said articles being committed to our whole 
Council, it was by them after long deliberation had thereon 
resolved, that they were not presently to be granted or con- 
sidered of, but by the Counsel of the whole Realm in Parlia- 
ment, without whose consent they could no wise be accorded 


unto, and therefore thought meet to be held in suspense until 
the Duke's coming over ; with which answers he not resting 
satisfied, did still peremptorily insist in pressing the granting 
of the same, plainly protesting as well to ourself as to our 
Council, that though he had very ample and large authority 
to treat and deal in the cause, yet durst he not take upon him 
(considering what curious eyes there were bent to behold his 
actions and doings in this cause) to qualify the said articles. 
And th . . . would no otherwise be satisfied unless he might 
have our private allowance and assurance that the said .... 
articles should be both pro ed by con- 
sent of Parliament ; wherein, though it was very 

unto him, .... dishonourable it would be for us to give any 
such private assurance in a matter that rested in the allowance 
and consent of others, and how much the same would mislike 
our subjects that any such thing should be yielded unto be- 
fore such time as it were seen what contentment of our per- 
sons might grow by the interview, yet did he not forbear still 
to press us therein. Whereupon, we finding that by no per- 
suasion that could be used, either by us or by our Council, 
he could be induced to allow of our answers, both we and 
certain of our Council did plainly let him know that such a 
kind of insisting upon such articles as had been denied to 
other Princes, (specially having before his repair hither let 
him understand that our meaning was not to alter former 
articles, but only to clear such as were obscure and doubtful,) 
did minister unto us just cause of suspicion, either to think 
that they had no mind of further proceeding (by standing 
upon such hard points as in reason we could not yield unto), 
or else that they sought this match to some other end than 
hitherto hath been by them pretended, having always here- 
tofore, as well by letters as by most earnest speeches and 
protestations, given out, that not our fortune but our per- 
son was the only thing that was sought: which, upon the con- 
clusion seeming to fall out otherwise, as manifestly appeareth 
by their insisting upon points chiefly incidental, and depending 
upon our fortune, giveth us just cause to suspect that the 


mark that is shot at, is our fortune and not our person; for 
if the affection were so great as is pretended, neither would 
the Duke have directed him, his Minister, to have stood upon 
so hard conditions, nor himself made so great difficulty to 
have come over and seen us without standing upon so many 
ceremonies, being persuaded that a Duke of Anjou could 
receive no dishonour by taking a journey to see a Queen of 
England, whatsoever success the end of his coming took; 
when as, at the least, there could not but grow thereby in- 
crease of friendship. For we are well assured that his repair 
unto us could not be accompanied with harder success (we 
will not say with so great dishonour) than his late voyage 
into the Low Countries ; and therefore we saw no cause why 
the one might not be performed with as little difficulty as the 
other, if they were both sought with like goodwill and devo- 
tion. It was also declared unto him, that if they had to deal 
with a Princess that had either some def .... of body, or 

some other notable defect of nature, or 1 ts of 

the mind fit for one of our place and quality, such a kind of 
strainable proceeding (carrying a greater show of profit than 
of goodwill) might in some sort have been tolerated. But, 
considering how otherwise, our fortune laid aside, it hath 
pleased God to bestow His gifts upon us in good measure, 
which we do ascribe to the Giver, and not glory in them as 
proceeding from ourselves, (being no fit trumpet to set out 
our own praises,) we may in true course of modesty think 
ourself worthy of as great a Prince as Monsieur is, without 
yielding to such hard conditions as by persons of greater 
quality than himself (being denied upon just cause) hath not 
been stood upon. And so we concluded with him, that 
seeing we saw apparently by their course of proceeding that 
we were not sought either with that affection or to that end 
we looked for, that we had just cause to think ourselves in 
this action not so well dealt with as appertained to one of 
our place and quality; having not without great difficulty 
won in ourself a disposition to yield to the match, in case 
upon the interview there should grow a liking of our persons. 


Wherein we showed him, that if the Duke his master knew 
what advertisements were received from Foreign parts, what 
effectual persuasions were used towards us at home, to dis- 
suade us from the same, and how carefully we travailed to 
win our subjects to allow thereof (who are not the best 
affected to a Foreign match), he should then see what wrong 
he had done us (we will not say unto himself) to stand so 
much upon terms of profit and reputation. Assuring him 
therefore, that seeing we saw we had just cause to doubt that 
there was not that account made of our plain and friendly 
dealing in this action towards him that we looked for, and 
as we conceived that we have deserved, that the Duke his 
master should perhaps hereafter hardly draw us to yield so 
far forth as we have already done, unless we should find him, 
and that by effects, to be otherwise affected towards us than 
as yet we can perceive he is ; wishing him therefore, and 
rather advising him, to proceed in the other matches that 
by some of his nearest friends are (as we be not ignorant of) 
embraced, whereof it should seem, by the manner of dealing, 
both he and they have better liking. And as for the gentle- 
man himself, De Simyer, whom we found greatly grieved 
for that he saw we could not allow of his insisting upon the 
said articles as a matter very offensive unto us, we did assure 

him that we had no cause to mislike of him, who 

in no other sort than either he was directed; 

otherwise, (though his authority were large,) he could 

not, without peril to himself, in respect of such as are not 
the best affected towards him, follow his own discretion and 
affection to the cause ; having found in him otherwise so great 
fidelity towards his master, so rare a sufficiency and dis- 
cretion in one of his years in the handling of the cause, and 
so great devotion towards the match itself, as we had both 
great reason to like of him, as also to wish that we had a 
subject so well able to serve us. And therefore we would 
have you let both the King and the Duke his master under- 
stand how well we conceive of the gentleman, and how happy 
his master may think himself to have so rare a servant. 


Having thus at large laid before you the whole course of our 
late proceeding with De Simyer, and the effect of such speech 
as both by ourself and our Council have been delivered unto 
him, we nothing doubt but that you will report the same both 
to the King and to the Duke in that good sort as both they 
may be induced to see their error, and we discharged of such 
calumniations as perhaps by such as are maliciously affected 
towards us in that Court may be given out against us* 


In February, and again in March, Hatton was made 
acquainted by Sir Amias Paulet with what had taken 
place in France ; but those letters are not of much in- 
terest : 


IT may please your Honour to be advertised that I have 
received your courteous and friendly letters of the 20th of 
the last, and may perceive by her Majesty's letters of the 
same date, signifying her gracious pleasure touching my revo- 
cation, that your travail in my behalf hath been no less friendly 
than effectual. This is not the first time that I have tasted 
of your favour ; and can remember, and will not forget, that 
at some other time it hath pleased you to use me with like 
roundness. I presume to find you in this good disposition 
towards me at my coming into England, where I trust to be 
shortly by your good furtherance ; and here, and there, will 
be always at your commandment. No change here of late. 
The governor chased out of Provence. La Reulle rendered 
to the Protestants. Queen Mother urgeth the conference, 
and yet no hope of any good success to ensue. The Deputies 
of the Provinces are here, attending the King's resolution, 
and continue peremptory in their demands. The castle of 
Beaucaire is in danger to be rendered to Domville. The 
return of Monsieur into those parts will discover the humours 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 6 b . 


of this unquiet people, and now perchance the King will be 
more careful to conserve the goodwills of his subjects. As 
knoweth the Almighty, who always preserve your Honour. 
From Paris, the 9th of February 1578 [1578-9]. 

Your Honour's to command, A. POWLETT." 


IT may please your Honour to give me leave to trouble 
you sometimes with the occurrents of these parts during the 
time of my abode here ; which I trust will be the shorter by 
your good means, wherein I have tasted of your favour al- 
ready, and do not doubt of the continuance thereof. The 
troubles of Guienne and Languedoc are said to be appeased, 
and many things granted in the favour of the Protestants ; so 
as Queen Mother returneth to the Court, and now it is likely 
that those of the religion here shall pass this year in quiet- 
ness. Queen Mother is resolved to see Monsieur before she 
come hither, and perchance will do her good-will to bring 
him with her. We say here that Monsieur will be in Eng- 
land very shortly, and that the King alloweth of his journey. 
The Provinces continue their complaints ; and now the other 
Provinces, which had yet said nothing, make haste with 
double diligence to overtake the foremost. The murmuring 
is great, and cannot end without danger or loss. The Duke 
of Guise is reconciled, and will be at the Court within seven 
or eight days. The Low Countries must look for a fresh as- 
sault, to which purpose the Spaniard is said to make great 
preparations by sea and land. I would think myself happy 
if I might be the messenger of my next advertisements from 
hence. And thus, resting at your commandment, I commit 
your Honour to the mercy of the Highest. From Paris, the 
10th of March 1578 [1578-9]. 

Your Honour's to command, A. PowLETT. b 

Neither the date nor the circumstances mentioned in 
this letter have been precisely ascertained. It is evi- 

* Additional MSS. 15891, f. 47 b . b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 55. 


dent that Hatton had taken an active part in suppress- 
ing some riots near London ; and, from the remark that 
the affair was not " a trifling Pale matter," it is probable 
that the riots were those which are thus mentioned by 
Stow, a and that this letter was written early in April, 
1579 : " A 1579. The 4th of May were arraigned at 
Barnet in Hertfordshire certain men of Northall Minis, 
and the parts near adjoining, for pulling down a pale at 
Northall, late set up (on the common ground) by the 
Earl of Warwick. Eight of them were condemned : two 
were brent in the hand, two were hanged betwixt Barnet 
and Whetstone, and other four condemned remained 
prisoners in Hartford Gaol long after," &c. This conjec- 
ture is the more likely to be correct from Hatton being 
then with Sir Ralph Sadler, whose seat was in Hert- 
fordshire, not far from the scene of the disturbance, 
which evidently arose from an attempt to inclose a com- 
mon. The subject is again noticed in another letter. 


I MUST begin with her Majesty's commandment, as duty 
bindeth me; which is to signify unto you, Mr. Vicechamber- 
lain, in how gracious part she taketh this your careful and 
diligent service done for the dispersing and quieting of these 
rebellious and tumultuous persons lately gathered together 
in those parts. Her Highness hath been informed of the 
great pains you have taken, of the wise and discreet orders 
which you have prescribed, as well for the establishing of 
good and assured ways to prevent any further inconvenience 
by these lewd people for their proceeding, as to search 
out what hath been the cause, as also their further intent 
in following this enterprise. These your doings, I assure 
you, she takes in most gracious sort. And, leaving to tell 
you what particularities she understandeth of your doings 

a Annals, p. 685. 
VOL. I. I 


by sundry means, I must let you know what her express 
pleasure is for herself to do. Albeit she was most desirous 
to hear of your speedy return, having brought all things 
to so good pass as you have done, yet being advertised of 
your travail and watch you have sustained in this business, 
she would have you in anywise rest you at least all day 
to-morrow, notwithstanding some of us did let her know 
that her former desire to have you to return was written 
by us unto you before ; and hath charged me thus spe- 
cially to signify her pleasure that she would have you 
take some rest ere you put yourself to travel again; and 
for that purpose hath she sent this bearer with her own 
commandment to you beside, who can also declare unto 
you how acceptable your service is unto her : and thus 
much by her Majesty's direction. Now, Sir, to the mat- 
ter; for my part I think you in a most happy hour to 
prevent so great and dangerous a mischief as this lewd 
enterprise was like to have grown unto, both to her Ma- 
jesty's person and to her estate. I perceive you find it 
was more than a trifling Pale matter ; and I fear, if this 
be not made a full example, you shall hear of far more 
greater of this sort : but her Majesty is bent to make her 
subjects know that she can and will mix justice with mercy. 
It is time, you see, for us to look further into the dispo- 
sitions of the common people further off, when so near 
hand they will so audaciously take the Prince's authority 
into their hands, I trust you have been the instrument 
to save both treasure and blood, and that is a happy piece 
of service. For my brother's private respect and mine, 
wherein you have showed yourself a most faithful friend, 
I will say no more, but, what may lie in so small powers 
to requite, either you must be sure of it, or God send 
shame upon us. I will here end, and pray God to send 
you all good hap, even as I can wish for myself; and refer 
the rest to this bearer, who must excuse my brother, for 
that it was late, and I willed him not to stay for any letter 
from him, for he was a-bed and asleep, and now past 11 


o'clock, and besides troubled with his gout. God be with 
you, and commend me to Sir Ralph Sadler. Your most 
assured, Ro. LEICESTER.* 

Walsingham also wrote to Hatton about the riots in 
Hertfordshire ; and his letter proves not only that he 
was familiarly called by the Queen her " Mutton," but 
that the term was well known to the Court ; 


SIR, I acquainted her Majesty this afternoon with the par- 
ticular letters you sent me, who did very greatly commend 
your discreet manner of proceeding ; and willed me to let you 
understand, that, upon report made unto her of an outrage 
committed upon certain of Sir John Brockett's sheep, she 
feareth greatly her Mutton, lest he should take some harm 
amongst those disordered people. I am glad, Sir, that mat- 
ters are so well appeased that her Majesty may be merry 
withal, and no further cause of your absence from hence ; at 
whose return, upon conference with you, her Majesty and 
my Lords mean to take order for the extending of such 
punishment upon the offenders as the quality of their offences 
requireth, and may serve for a terror to others. And so, pray- 
ing you, good Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, to commend me to Sir 
Ralph Sadler, your colleague, I commend you to God's good 
protection. At the Court, the 23rd of April 1579. 


Postscript. We are at this present so troubled with St. 
George's ceremonies, b as we cannot thoroughly consult upon 
matters of substance. 

Several curious letters occur from Henry Howard, who 
was apparently the second son of Henry Earl of Surrey, 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 46 b . 

b The observance of the Feast of St. George by the Knights of the Garter. 
c Additional MSS. 16801, f. 36 b . 



and was created Earl of Northampton by James the First. 
His eminent talents did not procure him any share of 
the Queen's favour until the latter part of her reign, 
though he used all the usual arts to propitiate her. It 
is not certain that this curious letter, which was accom- 
panied by a present for the Queen, was addressed to Hat- 
ton, whose relationship to Howard has not been traced ; 


As I have ever been too well acquainted with my own de- 
fects to challenge any place among the chosen, so, lest by 
negligence I might be cast among the reprobate, I thought 
good (my own dear Cousin) to require your favour in pre- 
senting my humble service to her Majesty, with assured 
warrant that a number, which have made more curtesies, have 
not said so many prayers for her Majesty as I have done since 
her departure from this place; for men's minds are never 
more inclined to contemplate than while the senses are sus- 
pended from their chief felicity. There is no bush nor flower 
in this garden which yieldeth not a comfort or a corrysine. 
Violets are gathered to make conserve. Rosemary begins to 
bloom, but it is too common. Primroses seem more pleasant 
for their season, than sweet by their favour. Eglantine hath 
ten delights for every other's one, if it had no prickles ; and 
heartsease is so raised upon the tops of the walls as I cannot 
reach it. The grace which cometh from the windows is most 
welcome, for by this mean I can say what was, though wiser 
men than I can hardly tell what shall be. Every favour 
brings a thirst, but the streams retire ; and every fancy 
putteth us in hope of fruit, but Tantalus is famished. This 
sharp sauce to my sweet conceits enforceth me to write and 
seek that comfort, by assurance of her Majesty's good health, 
which cannot be conceived by my deepest meditations in her 
absence. And though among so many heaps of dainty pre- 
sents as other men's abundance may bring forth according to 
x the merit of her Majesty's great bounty, this simple pledge 


and token of my duty may be driven to shrink aside, and 
hide itself for fear of some disgrace ; yet, if it please her to 
conceive that some things are as welcome for their figure as 
other for their weight, and that the sender of this token 
deemeth not the richest crown in Europe worthy of that 
head which closeth in itself the treasures of true wisdom, and 
letteth out the springs of happy government, I doubt not 
but her Majesty will accept the same ex congruo, though 
neither I nor anything of mine can claim her favour ex con- 
digno. The fancy, many years agone, hath been derived from 
the Franciscans; but I am much deceived if, by the turning 
of one loop or two, her Majesty may not convert it to a 
truelove's knot. The mean I know, but not the manner, 
further than that I am assured that no woman of less virtue, 
grace, and beauty than the best can make this change, be- 
cause it passeth more by skill than sleight, by wisdom than 
by hazard: only this I promise, that whatsoever knot her 
Majesty doth bind shall be my fast in faith; and whatsoever 
band her fancy shall not like, shall be my loose at liberty. 
And thus, my dear Cousin, requiring you in my behalf to kiss 
that sacred hand, whose print is here, though the pattern be 
not extant ; and withal to recommend my faith, my life, and 
service to herself, who bindeth me more ways than she shall 
ever know, I take my leave, kissing the soil where her foot 
hath left impression of so rare a personage. From White- 
hall, this 1st of May 1579. H. HOWARD.** 

It does not appear who the person was to whom 
Dr. Bynge gave the following letter of introduction to 
Sir Christopher Hatton : 


SIR, Your honourable message that it pleased you to send 
me by Mr. Hamond, a Fellow of our House, doth draw me 
eftsoons to renew that duty which I justly acknowledge I owe 
unto you. And therewithal I have taken further boldness 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 96 h . 


even to be a solicitor to your Honour in the behalf of 
another ; wherein, nevertheless, if I seem perhaps to presume 
too far as I am humbly to crave pardon for the same, so 
upon monition I shall be easily reformed: and yet at this 
present I could hardly avoid to yield to the petition of this 
bearer, who, being an humble suitor unto your Honour, de- 
sired only my testimony in furtherance of his cause; the 
report whereof as I leave to himself, so for his person I can 
truly say, that I know him to be both discreet and learned, 
and, in the faculty, fit for the room he desireth. He is this 
year to proceed Doctor, and hath to that end already done 
acts in the public schools. Now, if his good hap may be such 
as to find favour with your Honour, I shall be doubly glad: 
first, for my friend's sake, whose preferment I wish; next, 
for myself, in that my dutiful meaning hath been well ac- 
cepted at your Honour's hands. Even thus humbly taking 
my leave, I commend your Honour to God's most blessed 
tuition. From Cambridge, the 6th of May 1579. Your 
Honour's humbly to be commanded, THO. BYNGE.* 

The unfortunate Archbishop of Canterbury again 
besought Hatton's intercession with the Queen in May 
of this year. The great man to whom he alludes was 
the Duke of Anjou : 


SIR, The consultation about the coming of yonder great 
man (being a cause of greatest importance) hath long occu- 
pied her Majesty and your Honours of her Council ; in which 
time I thought it my duty to abstain from troubling you 
with suit in my private cause. That Foreign matter being 
(as I hear) clearly laid aside, so good opportunity of time 
being offered, I am bold to renew my suit, praying your 
Honour to renew your intercession to her Majesty for my 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 55. 


restitution to her favour and execution of mine office. I 
trust that the remembrance of my two years' restraint of 
liberty in this my old and sickly age will move her Majesty 
to some commiseration over me, according to her accus- 
tomed most gracious inclination to all benignity, goodness, 
and clemency, and the rather by your honourable and good 
mediation. So, ceasing further to trouble your Honour at 
this time, I heartily commend the same to the grace of God. 
From Lambeth, the 22nd of May 1579. Yours in Christ, 


On the 17th of July a circumstance occurred which 
placed the lives of the Queen, the Earl of Lincoln, the 
French ambassador Simyer, and Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton in some danger. Being in her private barge on the 
Thames, between Deptford and Greenwich, accompanied 
by those persons, a shot was fired out of a boat, which 
struck one of the rowers within six feet of her Majesty, 
and passed through both his arms. The wound was 
so severe as to cause him to scream piteously ; but the 
Queen did not lose her presence of mind in the slightest 
degree, and giving her scarf to the wounded man, bid 
him be of good cheer, saying, he should want for nothing. 
When it was insinuated to Elizabeth that it was an 
attempt to murder her or Simyer, she magnanimously 
observed, "she could believe nothing of her people 
which parents would not believe of their children ;" and 
though the author of the accident was condemned 
and brought out for execution, he was pardoned. b A 
few days after this affair, the Duke of Anjou arrived 
privately in England, and came unexpectedly to Green- 
wich, where he had some secret conferences with the 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 31 b . is little doubt it was entirely acci- 
b Stow's Annals, p. 685. There dental. Speed, 1159. 


Queen, and returned soon after to France, " being seen 
but of few. a 

Although Hatton did not become High Steward of 
Cambridge until after the Earl of Leicester's death in 
1588, he seems to have taken much interest in the 
affairs of the University long before that event : 


UPON receipt of your Honour's letters directed to me, and 
to other Assistants and Visitors of Gonville and Caius Col- 
lege, in the behalf of Mr. Booth, one of the Fellows of that 
House, who found himself grieved with some hard proceed- 
ing (as he took it) of the Master and certain other of the 
Fellows there in a cause of defamation against him, for 
further examination whereof we were required by your 
Honour to call before us the parties different, the better to 
understand the truth of that matter. May it please your 
Honour to be advertised that, upon Saturday last, being met 
together about that business, and intending, according to the 
purport of your Honour's letters, to send for the Master of 
the College and other parties, Mr. Booth there, in presence 
of us all, made earnest request that we would not enter to 
deal further that way, alleging that otherwise he might incur 
the danger of perjury, by reason of a statute of their House 
whereby it is ordained, as he said, that no Fellow ought to 
decline the order of the Master and the Company unless they 
do it by appellation, and that to be made unto none other 
Judge but to their Visitors only. Upon this his information 
I stayed to proceed, and wished him to use advice of some 
that might sufficiently direct him in his doings. What course 
he is resolved to take I know not ; but this much I thought 
best to advertise your Honour, remaining ready to yield unto 
the same what duty I can: and so most humbly I take my 
leave. From Cambridge, the 3rd of August 1579. Your 
Honour's humbly at commandment, THO. BYNGE. b 

a Camden's Annals, b. ii. p. 96. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 33 b . 


Lord Burghley having gone into NortK iptonshire 
in August, he transmitted his opinion on the affairs of 
Ireland and the Low Countries to one of his Colleagues, 
and apparently to Secretary Walsingham, in the follow- 
ing letter. James Fitzmaurice, who had raised a rebel- 
lion in Munster, went to France and thence to Spain 
for assistance, and landed from three ships with two 
priests, to one of whom, called Nicholas Saunders, the 
Pope had given a consecrated banner, and some soldiers 
at St. Mary Wick, in Kerry, where he erected a fort. 
He placed his vessels close under it, where they were 
gallantly boarded and taken by one of the Queen's 
vessels, commanded by Captain Courtenay a . 


SIR, I most heartily thank you for acquainting of me with 
your advertisements both from Ireland and the Low Coun- 
tries, which came hither to me this foul rainy morning, being 
Sunday, at Althorpe. I do return all your letters, having 
made Mr. Chancellor 15 acquainted therewith. And for the 
matters of Ireland, I am of opinion that it is still necessary 
that the ships should go on, and that they should be double- 
manned, for to be able to set two or three shot on land, 
as occasion should serve, and as the Justice might think 
meet : for if the enemy tarry still at the Dingle, it must be 
the force of the ships that must remove them ; for, as I re- 
member, there is no good access by land through Kerry to 
approach the Dingle ; whereof my Lord of Ormond can best 
inform you. If the enemy should not now be removed, from 
his settling in Ireland, though presently his forces be small, 
yet his holding, and taking of footing and of a haven, would 
be dangerous to receive from Foreign parts further forces to 
offend her Majesty; whereof I am very jealous, if discoii- 

a Camden's Annals. b Sir Walter Mildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer. 


tentation grow betwixt France and us upon a breach of this 
interview, or if the King of Spain shall be free from his 
troubles in the Low Countries, and have his will there for 
religion. This small entry of Fitzmorris will be a gate for 
any of those two Princes to offend her Majesty in Ireland in 
recompence of former offences offered unto them. And, 
besides that, the sufferance of Fitzmorris with his Papistical 
forces, and offers for restoring of religion, will undoubtedly 
be a continual comfort to all lewd and discontented people 
of Ireland; whereof I think three parts of four, or rather 
nine parts of ten, are for matter of religion evil satisfied with 
the English Government : and thus you see I cannot forbear 
to write my conceit, submitting it nevertheless to the better 
judgment of others. For the Low Countries, I think surely 
you shall find that the articles of peace sent from Cologne will 
draw all the people to accept the conditions, saving only the 
people that are well devoted in religion ;. so as surely the war 
that shall continue will be for religion : and I pray God they 
that are Protestants be not also divided among themselves by 
provocation of the Lutheran Princes of Germany. When 
I consider the articles of Cologne, and the accord of Gant 
established, (whereby Holland and Zealand are to continue 
their religion, and the strangers to depart,) I could rather 
yield to the acceptation of these articles than to have the war 
continue ; wherein if the Prince should quail, then surely the 
pacification of Gant will also fall. I pray you, Sir, with my 
hearty commendations, tell Mr. Vice- Chamberlain that Mr. 
Chancellor and I, in our way to Northampton, mean to sur- 
vey his house at Holdenby, and, when we have done, to fill 
our bellies with his meat, and sleep also, as the proverb is, 
our bellies-full all Monday at night ; and on Tuesday in the 
morning we will be at Northampton where after noon we 
mean to hear the babbling matters of the town for the causes 
of religion, wishing that we may accord them all both in 
mind and actions ; at the least we will draw them all to follow 
one line by the rule of the Queen Majesty's laws, or else to 
procure the contrariant to feel the sharpness of the same laws. 


And so, praying you to commend us humbly to all our good 
Lords and others of the Council, we also do pray for her 
Majesty's prosperity in all her actions. From Althorpe, the 
9th of July [August 3 ] 1579. 

Your assured loving friend, W. BuRGHLEY. 5 

Despatches having reached Burghley relating to Ire- 
land after he had written the preceding letter, he 
answered them in the afternoon of the same day : 


SIR, This morning afore dinner I wrote to you in answer 
of your letters, by which you made mention of your direction 
to Bland and to Mr. Tremayne to stay some part of the 
victualling, upon some opinion that you conceived of the 
smallness of James Fitzmorris' forces. And now this after- 
noon I have received your later letters, with copies of writings 
from the Lord Justice and Waterhouse, by which I see that 
the peril is presently greater than before appeared, but surely 
no greater than in time coming would prove if the matter be 
not at the first rooted up, as by my forenoon's writing to 
you I did pronounce. But now no cost is to be spared nor 
time lost, for, if haste be made with the ships, I hope they 
shall come thither before the Pope's nuncio and Saunders 
shall return with their supplies from Spain ; which surely 
they will, with their large reports of their likelihood of 
success for the matter of religion, procure out of Spain under 
colour of the clergy and holy-house of Spain with con- 
nivance of the King Catholic. Therefore, the more haste 
be used with the ships, the more sure to withstand the new 
supply ; and the forces of footmen from England are as 
necessary to withstand the inward revolts in Munster, where- 

a The date of " July" in the on Monday ; and on Monday the 

" Letter Book" is certainly a mis- 10th of August he wrote to Hatton 

take. Burghley says the day he from that place. See also Hatton's 

wrote was "Sunday." The 9th of letter of the 9th of August, welcom- 

July did not, and the 9th of August ing him to Holdenby. 
did fall on Sunday. Moreover Burgh- b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 110 b . 
ley says he should sleep at Holdenby 


in I fear more the authority and rooted malice of Sir John of 
Desmond than the untruth of his brother. The departing 
thither of the Earl of Ormond is worth the sending of five 
hundred men : the loss of Davill* is very great. Mr. Chan- 
cellor is privy to this my writing, in testimony whereof I have 
required his subscription. 


Pursuant to the intention announced in one of the 
preceding letters, Lord Burghley went to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton's new mansion at Holdenby, and its owner 
not being able to receive his distinguished guest in per- 
son, he welcomed him there by the following letter. As 
Holdenby was built in imitation of Burghley's seat at 
Theobalds, he requested his Lordship to mention to the 
surveyor any improvements that might occur to him : 


MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, I yield you as friendly and 
thankful a welcome as may be given you by any man or in 
any place in this world. I fear me that as your Lordship 
shall find my house unbuilt and very far from good order, so 
through the newness you shall find it dampish and full 
of evil air ; whereof I pray God your health be not im- 
peached. Before God, Sir, I take great comfort of your 
most honourable courtesy to visit your poor friend in so 
kind manner. I pray God I may deserve it by my true 
service towards you. I humbly beseech you, my honourable 
Lord, for your opinion to the surveyor of such lacks and faults 
as shall appear to you in this rude building, for as the same is 
done hitherto in direct observation of your house and plot at 
Tyball's, so I earnestly pray your Lordship that by your good 
corrections at this time, it may prove as like to the same as it 

a Henry Davill, " an English gen- vill's servants : and boasting of the 

tleman and stout soldier," and deed to Father Saunders, the priest 

Arthur Carter, Lieutenant of the commended it " as a sweet sacrifice 

Marshal of Munster, were murdered in the sight of God." Camden. 
in their bed at Traly by John Des- 
mond, who afterwards killed all Da- b Additional MSS. 15891, f, 111. 


hath ever been meant to be. I beseech you, Sir, use patience 
in your too too rude entertainment, and think how much he 
doth honour and love you that would have wished it to have 
been much better and fit for so honourable a personage. 
Your Lordship will pardon my lack of presence to attend on 
you, because you know my leave cannot be gotten. God 
bless you for ever my good Lord, and a thousand and ten 
thousand times I humbly bid you farewell. Mr. Secretary 
telleth me he hath written the news unto you, and, therefore, 
I will no further trouble your good Lordship. Her most ex- 
cellent Majesty hath good health, God be praised for it ; and 
hath commanded me to write her most gracious and loving 
commendations unto you. Order is in part given to pre- 
pare against Monsieur's coming. And thus my honourable 
good Lord I humbly bid you my dutiful farewell. Green- 
wich, this 9th of August 1579. Your Lordship's most bound, 


Before Lord Burghley left Holdenby, he wrote to 
thank its owner for his hospitality ; and his description 
of the house shows its magnificence. In a postscript he 
acknowledged Hatton's letter of the 9th : 


SIR, I may not pass out of this good house without thanks 
on your behalf to God, and on mine to you, nor without 
memory of her Majesty, to whom it appeareth this goodly, 
perfect, though not perfected work is consecrated; and all 
this 1 do in mind largely conceive, and in writing do mean 
but to touch, because I am hastened to Northampton, and 
I will reserve matter to enlarge at my return, to yourself. I 
came yesterday in the afternoon to your house with Sir 
Walter Mildmay, who came with very good will to visit this 
house. I was first met on the way with Mr. Colshill, and 
your good uncle Mr. Saunders, b your cousin Mr. Tate, and 

a Autograph in the Lansdowne Lord the Lord High Treasurer of 
MS. 28, art. 63, addressed to " The England, at Holdenby." 
Right Honourable my singular good b William Saunders of Harring- 
ton, his mother's brother. 


others, and then with a great multitude of your gentlemen 
and servants, all showing themselves, as by your direction, 
glad of my coming. But approaching to the house, being 
led by a large, long, straight fair way, I found a great mag- 
nificence in the front or front pieces of the house, and so 
every part answerable to other, to allure liking. I found 
no one thing of greater grace than your stately ascent from 
your hall to your great chamber ; and your chambers answer- 
able with largeness and lightsomeness, that truly a Momus 
could find no fault. I visited all your rooms high and low, 
and only the contentation of mine eyes made me forget the 
infirmity of my legs. And where you were wont to say it 
was a young Theobalds, truly Theobalds I like as my own ; 
but I confess it is not so good as a model to a work, less 
than a pattern, and no otherwise worthy in any comparison 
than a foil. God send us both long to enjoy Her, for whom 
we both meant to exceed our purses in these. And so I 
end with my prayer for her health, and thanks humbly for 
her Majesty's remembrance of me her weak Spirit. 8 From 
a monument of her Majesty's bountifulness to a thankful 
servant, that is, from Holdenby Queen Elizabeth's memory, 
by Sir Christopher Hatton her faithful servant and counsellor. 
10th August 1579. 

Yours most assuredly, W. BURGHLEY. 

Postscript. The abundant memorials of your house had 
almost made me forget to thank you for your kind letter, 
which came to me in the midst of a sumptuous supper. b 

The disturbances in Ireland, to which Sir Thomas 
Heneage alludes in the following letter, have been al- 
ready mentioned. That Queen Elizabeth translated parts 

a Queen Elizabeth had a peculiar and Hatton was certainly " Lyddes" 

name for most of her ministers and and her " Mutton." 
favourites ; Burghley was her " Spi- b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 32. 

rit," Walsingham was her " Moon," The date in the Letter Book is " 19th 

and Lady Norris was her " CroAv." of August, 1578," but it was ob- 

There is some reason for supposing viously a mistake of the copyist, 
that Leicester was called her "Turk," 


of Seneca is well known ; and a copy of her translation 
of the 107th Epistle, which she gave to her god-son, 
Sir John Harington, in 1567, is printed in the " Nugse 
Antique :" 


SIR, Being here yet much worse than I looked for, and, I 
think, than you would have me, it would make me the better 
to know that you did well, and her Majesty did best; for 
which cause 1 have sent my man unto you. How the fire 
made by the rebels and runagates in Ireland now grows to 
flame, (yet I trust but like a wisp of straw,) the Country 
takes knowledge of, and I doubt not but the Court takes 
care of. Her Majesty, of those that love her, shall have 
leave to think of these things according to her wisdom, but 
not to take thought for them according to their wrong. So 
may these things rather touch her than trouble her. And 
surely, Sir, by the great goodness of God, which hath led her, 
and whereon she leaneth, and by her Highness' fore-ordained 
felicity and virtue, whereof we have tasted, I am persuaded 
that there is no mischief nor harm meant her but shall turn 
to her honour ; so as that shall be verified of her that Seneca 
wrote wisely, and her Majesty translated more sweetly, of 
adversity and virtue, illustrat dum vezat, it graces whom it 
grates. More lines my bad health will not afford you, but 
more goodwill shall no man alive bear you ; which I beseech 
you to accept until I can send you a better token. And the 
Lord of Life send you long life with great honour, accom- 
panied with most continuance and conteiitation. From Cop- 
thall, the 12th of August 1579. Your own so bound, 


The first letter from Philip Sidney to Hatton related 
to his memorable quarrel with the Earl of Oxford, the 
particulars of which, though fully described by Lord 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 36 b . 


Brooke,* are imperfectly told by later biographers. While 
Sidney was playing in the Tennis Court belonging to 
the Palace, Oxford came in, and after some conversation, 
peremptorily ordered him to quit the place. Sidney 
having refused to comply with so rude a request, the 
Earl twice called him a "puppy." Sidney then gave 
him the lie, which Lord Brooke gravely says he had a 
right to do, inasmuch as puppies are the produce of 
dogs, and not of men, and then left the ground. Not 
hearing from Oxford in the manner he expected after 
so public an insult, Sidney sent on the following day " to 
awake him out of his trance," and thus incited, the 
Earl challenged him. The matter was immediately 
taken up by the Privy Council, who tried in vain to 
induce Sidney to make submission ; and the Queen herself 
remonstrated with him on the impropriety of quarrelling 
with so high a personage. But he properly felt that he 
was the guardian of his own honour, and having posi- 
tively declined to make any concessions, withdrew from 
the Court, to his sister, the Countess of Pembroke's 
seat at Wilton, and there composed the ,' Arcadia." 


SIR, The great advantage which I have by the singular 
goodness and friendship it pleaseth you to show me (which 
in truth I do, and have a good while reputed amongst the 
chief ornaments of my life and fortune,) makes me find my- 
self at as much disadvantage when my heart, longing to show 
myself grateful, can present nothing which may be service- 
able unto you. But as I know, and have well found, that 
you do esteem a true goodwill of some value, in that kind 

a Lord Brooke does not say when date of this letter be correct, it took 
this affair occurred. Dr. Zouch as- place in August 1759. 
signs it to the year 1580 ; but if the 


only can I show myself, and assure you that the little that I 
am, is and shall be at all times and fortunes so to be disposed 
by you as one that hath promised love, and is bound by desert 
to perform it. This is all therefore I can say ; though you 
lose me, you have me. As for the matter depending between 
the Earl of Oxford and me, certainly, Sir, howsoever I might 
have forgiven him, I should never have forgiven myself if I 
had lain under so proud an injury as he would have laid upon 
me ; neither can anything under the sun make me repent it, 
nor any misery make me go one half-word back from it. Let 
him therefore, as he will, digest it. For my part, I think 
tying up makes some things seem fiercer than they would 
be. Sir, let me crave still the continuance of my happiness 
in your favour and friendship ; and I will ever pray unto 
God, that, among those I most honour, I may ever see you 
have prosperous causes of contentment. 28th August 1579. 
Your Honour's to be commanded, even by duty, 


Nicholas Saunders, the writer of the following letter 
to one of the sons of the Earl of Clanrickard, and pro- 
bably to his second son John Burgh, afterwards created 
Lord Leitrim, was the celebrated priest before men- 
tioned, b who aided Fitzmaurice in his rebellious pro- 
ceedings in Ireland, and to whom the Pope entrusted the 
consecrated banner. In the " Letter Book" this letter 
is thus described : 


THE more I am unacquainted, the more I am to be borne 
withal ; forsomuch as I write, not for any private commodity 
of my own, but rather for yours and the Commonwealth's. 
God, permitting your father (for whose preservation I heartily 
pray) to be taken prisoner, meant to warn you, his son, to 

a Additional MSS. 15891, fo. 31 b . b Vide p. 121, ante. 

VOL. I. K 


provide as well for his liberty as your own. Look then which 
is the safest way for both, and that are you bound to take. 
Protections of men are neither liberally always granted, nor 
faithfully always kept, nor available when the granter dieth ; 
and least of all to be trusted when they are granted for fear. 
The protection of God is that which can never fail ; and there 
is no way under heaven sooner to obtain God's protection than 

the defence of God's honour. For if you will . . . 

.... protection of him that hazardeth his goods and life 

what will God do, or rather what will He not do, 

for him who fighteth and warfare th for His glory ? IS ow-a- 
days the heretics, as you know, do so violently oppress God's 
honour in this world, that they overthrow His temples and 
places, cast down His altars, take away His sacrifice, deny 
His priesthood, burn His image, abandon His vicar, contemn 
His sacraments, and, by false pretence of God's word, cut off 
and wipe away whole books of the Holy Scriptures. They 
also refuse to come to General Councils, to keep unity of 
faith with other Christian Princes and Countries, to follow 
the ancient Doctors of the Church, and, to say all at once, 
they would have none other judge, rule, or law to be tried 
by than their own fantasy and sensuality. And what a dis- 
honour to God and to our Saviour Jhesu Christ is it, that He, 
instituting a kingdom in this world which is commonly 
called His Church, should be thought to leave it so dis- 
ordered that there should be in it neither altar for God's ser- 
vice, nor any chief pastor or governor to whom the rest of the 
Christians should be bound to obey. Would any good or 
wise man order such a commonweal in any part of the world ? 
If, then, they make our Saviour Christ so ungodly as not to 
leave an altar whereupon we might offer sacrifice to His 
Father, and so indiscreet as not to leave an order and a Judge 
to end all our controversies if this opinion be to the great 
dishonour both of God and of Christ His Son, our Saviour, 
seeing we fight against them that do and teach these blas- 
phemies, and seeing we fight against them, not of our own 
heads, but by the most lawful authority of him to whom, as 


to the true successor of St. Peter the Prince of the Apostles, 
Christ committed the keys of the kingdom of heaven, that 
is to say, the supreme government of His Church, which 
is a kingdom not of earth but of heaven ; if it please you to 
join with us in this holy quarrel, (as I pray God to give you 
His grace so to do, and without His grace it cannot be done 
as it ought,) you shall doubtless be under the protection of 
Almighty God, and of that Prince whom God shall set up in 
place of this Usurper that now unjustly reigneth, and of 
God's Vicar, who will see every man rewarded for the ser- 
vice that he doth to the Church. You also shall deserve well 
of your Country, which, having fed and nourished you, re- 
quireth you again that you help to deliver her from the 
tyranny of heretics. The time yet is such that you may 
deserve thanks and reward; but when our aid is come, 
which we look for daily, when the Scottish and English 
nobility are in .... as we doubt not they will be shortly, 

and when begin to invade England itself, as divers 

of the self English nobility labour and procure, afterward 
I say it shall be small thank before God and man to be of our 
company, seeing that the very heretics will then hold with us, 
at the least for fear of us. Certainly God meaneth better 
to your Worship if you know the time of His merciful call- 
ing and gracious visitation. Touching the controversy of in- 
heritance which is said to be betwixt your brother and you, 
where may you hope to know that better decided than in 
his Holiness's camp, where so wise and discreet governors be 
as you know the Earl's brethren are ? There lack not also 
other grave and learned men whose advice may be profitable 
in that behalf. Once, whatsoever service I may do you, 
either in counselling or testifying your readiness in this cause, 
or otherwise, it shall never fail, God willing ; whom I beseech 
to direct and prosper you in all your doing. The 23rd of 
September 1579. Yours to command always, 


a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 8. 



Though there is ample evidence of the aversion of 
the people of this Country to the Queen's marriage with 
the Duke of Anjou, it is nowhere more strikingly shown 
than in the annexed letter from the Bishop of London : 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, I thank God your travail and mine 
with the preacher hath taken good effect; and the instruc- 
tions which you ministered unto him were very zealously and, 
I doubt not, profitably remembered, and with such earnest- 
ness advisedly uttered, that it hath much stayed the heady, 
confirmed the good and the wise in the great good opinion 
conceived generally of her Majesty, and somewhat quenched 
the sparks of murmuring, misliking, and misconstruing of 
matters of State, wherewith the seditious libeller had kindled 
many of the busier sort. The preacher accused stoutly, and 
sharply reproved the author of this seditious pamphlet of 
arrogancy and lack of charity ; that he, being a private man, 
durst so far presume to look into the secret bosom of Princes* 
councils and high Magistrates, and to meddle with matters 
both above his reach, and that did not belong unto him; 

that so uncharitably he would or could 

not only conceive himself, but set abroach evil 

and ingrate a conceit 

thing that should tend a 

of the Gospel, which she hath both carefully and happily 
maintained ever since her entry into her most gracious reign ; 
and that he or any man should think or mistrust her that she 
will not continue ever herself, and the same wherein she hath 
been bred, and adventured so far with the misliking of the 
greatest Potentates in Europe, with many arguments tending 
to that end : accusing also some of the people of curiosity 
and unkindness, that they could not read as much in the book 
of her Majesty's dealing in government, written by the ex- 
perience of twenty sweet peaceable years, to confirm them 

11 These laeunse are caused by the MS. being torn. 


in a good and assured opinion of her great love and care over 
them, to comfort and to warrant them in the good continu- 
ance thereof, as they could learn out of such a seditious 
treaty, devised and hatched by some green head to make 
them to doubt of her who giveth unto us all most apparent 
shows and demonstrations, that, as she hath been bred and 
brought up in Christ, entered and reigned by Christ, so she 
will live and die in Christ, &c. Whereat the people seemed, 
even as it were with a shout to give God thanks ; and, as far 
as I could perceive, took it very well, that she was com- 
mended for that her zeal and constancy. I have understood 
since the sermon, that as the people well liked of the com- 
mendation attributed to her Majesty with the great hope of 
her continuance, so, to say plainly, they utterly bent their 
brows at the sharp and bitter speeches which he gave against 
the author of the book; of whom they conceive and report 
that he is one that feareth God, dearly loveth her Majesty, 
entered into this course being carried with suspicion and jea- 
lousy of her person and safety. Whereby I perceive that 
any that bend their pen, wit, knowledge, or speech against 
the foreign Prince, is of them counted a good patriot and 
plus subditus ; and, so long as their eye is fixed upon her, 
they find themselves as it were ravished : but looking aside 
at the stranger, (though without cause peradventure,) they 
are like them that by long looking on the sun, their eyes 
are become so dazzled that they judge everything else to 
be monstrous. Of the people of London I hope well, that 
by the good instructions of the preachers they will stay them- 
selves from all outrages. But I am informed that abroad in 
the country (and the further off the worse) the preachers are 
.... in speech against Monsieur, and the people to .... 
edit to hear any blemish in that nation. But I have sent 
for some of them, and would send for more, but that I am 
afraid to have too many irons in the fire at once ; for, if 
by sending for them in the country the Londoners should un- 
derstand of the grudging and groaning abroad, it would make 
them the worse, and I am greatly careful of my own flock. 


Of one synod and conventing of the ministers yesterday this 
fell out, that upon my discourse to them in recital of the 
Queen's Majesty's zeal and good nature, blessed gifts of 
wisdom, learning, and happy government, many of them 
wept, and drew down my tears for company, which was not 
the best part of an orator ; but, in the end, some of them 
told me that they could not but move their people to prayer 
and fasting for her Majesty's good estate, which they feared 
was now like to be in great peril, praying God upon the 
knees of their hearts that they might be deceived. Whereby, 
to tell you truth, there is singular love towards her, and great 
heartburning towards him. To mitigate that their evil opin- 
ion, I showed a piece of the Tocsin, bitterly written against 
the massacre of the French Protestants, wherein the very 
Protestants do appeal to Monsieur, and also to her Majesty, 
for their patrociny and defence against the tyranny of the 
enemies; which wrought somewhat with them, but not so 
much as I wished. Thus, praying you to bear with Mr. Cox's 
so long tarrying, (for I could not but with some leisure gather 
any likelihood of the people's and preachers' humours,) I bid 
your Honour most heartily farewell. From Fulham, this 
28th of September 1579. Your Honour's most assured at 
commandment, JOHN LONDON/ 

A large part of the correspondence in the " Letter 
Book " is without any date ; and the difficulty of ascer- 
taining in what years letters were written which con- 
tain no particular fact, and allude to obscure trans- 
actions, is extremely great. In many cases it is indeed 
impossible to fix the precise date of such letters; and 
there is scarcely any better reason for assigning the fol- 
lowing ones to this period, than that they occur among 
others of the years 1578 and 1579; but which, as has 
been before observed, cannot be relied upon as proof that 
they actually belong to those years. 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 5. 


Dr. Humfrey, Dean of Gloucester, the Queen's Pro- 
fessor of Divinity, and President of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, the writer of the two following letters to Hatton, 
was appointed to that Deanery in March 1570; and, 
some time after, he wrote to complain of an infraction of 
the liberty of his Church by the Mayor's having executed 
civil processes within its precincts : 


MY DUTY HUMBLY REMEMBERED. Some occasions have 
lately fallen out, of great importance and of no small weight, 
especially to the church of Gloucester, and presently a grief 
to me, a poor Dean of a very poor company during her Ma- 
jesty's pleasure ; which state I could be glad to maintain and 
further for the best, and no way diminish. The substance 
and circumstances I will not particularly declare, because it is 
an incumbrance to your Honour, and Mr. Olds worth our 
solicitor, a good gentleman and a wise lawyer, can certify 
you thereof; and we have already signified the matter to the 
body of the Right Honourable Privy Council. It is in effect 
a new attempt of the Mayor of Gloucester and others lately 
against our old liberties, in arresting a gentleman of my Lord 
of Leicester's within our own precinct, in beating and im- 
prisoning our servants and officers defending the privilege, 
and other many outrages in articles specified, which touch 
generally all Cathedral churches. And because I know your 
Honour of yourself well inclined to the preservation of right, 
and hath of your goodness accepted the patronage of our 
Church, I beseech you let the matter be examined, either 
by your Honour or by the ecclesiastical commission, at your 
pleasure: and I will shortly attend you of purpose. In your 
other matter in Southwark order is taken, as at my coming 
I will declare.- The Lord Jesus preserve us. Oxon, Nov. 
13. Your Honour's to command, L. HUMFREY.* 

a Additional MSS. 15891, fo. 118. 


Sir Christopher Hatton's nephew, mentioned by Dr. 
Humfrey, was William Newport, the son of his only 
sister, who was born about 1565, and who seems, when 
this letter was written, to have belonged to Magdalen Col- 
lege. On his uncle's death, he succeeded to his estates, 
and assumed the name and arms of Hatton. Dr. 
Humfrey was made Dean of Winchester in October 
1580, which promotion was probably the fulfilment of 
the Vice-Chamberlain's promise alluded to in this letter : 


IT may be your Honour desireth to hear from your ne- 
phew, being far from us ; and therefore I could not but 
certify you of his welfare and well-doing at this time by this 
messenger. The continuance of them both 1 wish in the 
Lord, the Giver of all grace, and will further as I may. I 
perceive, for the French, Mr. Gyles taketh good pains ; and 
the gentleman will learn well both that and other things, if 
he may have time, and good and godly instructions. I may 
not forget thanks in humble manner to your Honour, for 
that I am by friends certified of your good meaning and late 
promise for my preferment : which as it is before desert of 
my part, and of small acquaintance with me or my qualities, 
so must I account the more of your goodness; hoping, for 
the one, you shall find me not unmindful, and touching the 
other, upon further knowledge and experience you shall have 
no cause to repent for any good word or deed bestowed on me. 
This benefit, above all things, I humbly request of you ; that, 
whatsoever bruit or complaint cometh to you against me, (as 
the malice of this world is great, yea, against the greatest, 
and spareth not us poor men,) it would please you to hear my 
answer before credit be given. It was the worthy virtue of 
great Alexander, and it is one of the best and wisest parts in 
a nobleman ; whereof nothing doubting of yourself, I cease, 


desiring the Lord long to preserve your Honour in all pro- 
sperity. Your Honour's to command, 


It is impossible to say whether the annexed letter 
from Henry Howard preceded or followed the one before 
inserted: b 


SIR, It may please you to understand, that as it grieved 
me not a little to perceive by your most courteous and 
honourable lines that any man could deal so hardly and un- 
justly with me as to report unto a person of your quality 
how forward I had been in preferring discourtesy so near 
unto a place, the very sight whereof alone were able to stir 
up a reverend and dutiful respect in any well-disposed mind, 
so can I not esteem this as the least of many your most 
friendly favours towards me, that you, whom I desire to 
satisfy in any doubt, vouchsafe to call me to mine answer 
before you yield to their unjust reports, which seek to cover 
with the greatness of their countenance, in comparison of 
me, what cannot be defended in the presence of a better than 
us both. Wherefore at this time I will only complain unto 
yourself as mine assured friend, that all respects of duty 
which I used in that place, perhaps against my nature, (which 
sometime is no less ready to reject a wrong than other men 
to proffer it,) cannot so far shield me from reproof but that 
my greatest merit is perverted to my most disgrace : and to 
suffer wrong is not supposed to be punishment enough for 
me, unless I be accused of a double guilt in suffering. This 
six years' space I have remained in this Court without so 
much as proffer of disgrace to any man. I look for nothing 
but the grace and favour of the Queen (which till the last 
drop of my blood I will deserve by duty). To my friend I 
seek to be reputed constant, and as open to my enemy. No 
day passeth over without some wrong conceits, which need 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 56. b Vide p. 116, ante. 


no other answer but their own uncertainty. Mine able friends 
are few, my mighty foes are many; the plight wherein I came 
first to the Court I keep in every man's belief that disdaineth 
not so poor a friend. And notwithstanding false reports and 
wrong surmises of divers sects, the time is yet to come that 
either I was touched with default in duty to my Prince, or in 
desert to my approved friend. Wherefore, good Mr. Vice- 
Chamberlain, let these examples move you to believe, that, 
after so long harbour in a calm, I find but small delight in 
storms of quarrel, further than I am enforced by discourtesy ; 
which I love as ill to bear as to proffer : assuring you, that if 
their lives, which sought to lead you from well-wishing to- 
wards me by this report, were so precisely looked into, their 
causes canvassed, their steps observed, and their dealings deci- 
phered, as mine have been these many years, either they 
would not be thought so clear, or I should not be accounted 
and reputed faulty. But because I mean so quickly to attend 
on you myself, and my defence requireth some discourse, I 
crave no more but that you will suspend your judgment 
either way till you hear what may be answered. God I take 
to witness, and as many as were present, that in this matter I 
gave no more cause of just offence to any man than he that 
was as far from Greenwich at that instant as myself was 
from London. And touching my well-meaning to yourself, 
I beseech you humbly to persist in this conceit, that as I 
never faulted towards you in any thought, so can you not 
employ me further than my service shall be ready to discharge 
your pleasure. There were no cause for me to wade in this 
apology, were it not that proof hath taught me in what bitter 
sort some persons have dealt with me, whom you hold in 
great account too, far meaner than yourself in calling, and 
weaker in authority. Notwithstanding, as an honest, plain, 
and constant course fears no encounter ; so doubt I not, by 
good desert, to let you understand the difference between my 
friendly meaning and the malice of mine enemies. Thus 
humbly craving pardon for my posting lines, and reposing 
that assured trust in your upright and honourable friendship 


that you will not otherwise advise me than may stand with 
honour, which I am resolute to keep unstained till the last 
spark of my life, I recommend both myself and all I have 
to your devotion. In haste, from my lodging at Ivy Bridge.* 
Your Honour's faithful and assured friend at commandment, 


There is nothing to show when the following letter 
was written : 


SIR, Because I am to no man more bound, I am of no 
man more bold, than of yourself, whereby in good right no 
man hath more interest in me ; and though my state and 
fortune make my letters less worth unto you than I would, 
yet your great goodness to me is your praise and my band ; 
and my true good-will shall never fail to love and honour 
you to the uttermost of my power. Wishing you all you 
would, now and ever, 

Your own, most bound at commandment, 


The next letter of the series refers to a proceeding 
which stands disgracefully conspicuous in the annals of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign. From religious as well as pa- 
triotic feelings the French marriage was, as so many of 
these letters show, extremely unpopular in England ; and 
in the autumn of this year a pamphlet was published by a 
gentleman of Lincoln's Inn, called John Stubbes, " with" 
what Camden calls " a stinking style/' entitled " The 
Discovery of a Gaping Gulph wherein England is like to 
be swallowed by another French marriage, if the Lord 
forbid not the bans by letting her Majesty see the sin 
and the punishment thereof;" d in which the alliance was 

a Near Plymouth. c Additional MSS. 15891, f. 46 b . 

b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 40 b . d Small octavo, August 1579. 


denounced as dangerous to the Protestant religion, and 
the French Prince and nation were grossly abused. A 
proclamation immediately appeared, defending Monsieur, 
and declaring that the book " was nothing else but a 
fiction of traitors, to raise envy abroad and sedition 
at home," and commanding it to be publicly burnt. 
The Queen's vengeance fell upon its author, the pub- 
lisher, and the printer, who, under an Act passed in 
the reign of Philip and Mary <c against seditious words 
and rumours," 3 were condemned to lose their right 
hands. The printer was pardoned; but Stubbes, and 
Paget the publisher, both underwent this barbarous 
punishment in the market-place at Westminster on the 
3rd of November. Camden says he was present, and 
that " their right hands were cut off with a cleaver 
driven through the wrist with the force of a beetle;" 
and that, as soon as the execution was over, Stubbes took 
off his hat with his remaining hand, and exclaimed with 
a loud voice " God save the Queen!" Well indeed may 
Camden be believed that " the multitude standing about 
was altogether silent : either out of horror of this new 
and unwonted punishment ; or else out of pity towards 
the man, being of most honest and unblameable report ; 
or else out of hatred of the marriage, which most men 
presaged would be the overthrow of religion." It is re- 
markable that both Camden and Stow should assign this 
transaction to the year 1581. b Though Hatton had 
taken an active part in Stubbes' prosecution, he ne- 
vertheless applied to him to intercede with the Queen 
for his release from further persecution. 

a Stat. 1 & 2 Phil. & Mar. cap. 3. lating to Stubbes' work and punish- 
b In Park's edition of the " Nugae ment occur. 
Antiquae," some curious papers re- 



SIR, The round dealing which your Honour used at my first 
examination, and your severe sifting out of that fault which 
bred me all my woe, doth not, for all that, affray me from 
coming to your Honour with some hope of pitying me, now 
fallen into the extremity of affliction. For as your service to 
her Majesty's commandment, and place in high counsel, re- 
quired at that time all diligence and wisdom to discover the 
author of so great offence to her Highness ; whereupon hath 
also followed a time for Justice to do that which was her part 
in giving and executing judgement according to law ; so 
now I humbly pray that it may not seem out of time for the 
poor offender, after his pains endured, to sue for pity, and to 
crave that Mercy might save so much as Justice hath left ; 
which thing, next under God, lieth in her Majesty's gracious 
hands to do. For truly, Sir, though my imprisonment hath 
been long; mine expense great, even to the disordering and 
almost undoing of my poor estate ; the cutting off my hand 
and healing most painful and dangerous, the perpetual want 
thereof a loss most piteous and inestimable ; yet is the con- 
tinuance of her Highness's indignation more to my heart's 
grief, and pincheth me more nearly than all the rest. And, 
indeed, as under this burden I can but fall ; so, if it might 
please her Majesty of her accustomed and great grace to 
release me thereof, the greatness of that new joy would 
swallow up all mine old sorrows. I humbly beseech your 
Honour to say for me that you found me no perverse exami- 
nate. For albeit upon the first examination the terror of a 
Prince's wrath made me tremble to accuse myself, yet did I, 
without any accuser, after a while lay myself open. The 
judgement-seat, which gave sentence against my fault, will 
yet testify my humble and dutiful reverence throughout all 
my defence and answering for myself. The scaffold of exe- 
cution can witness my loyal care to give all good example of 
meet obedience ; insomuch as, notwithstanding the bitter pain 
and doleful loss of my hand immediately before chopped off, 


I was able, by God's mercy, to say with heart and tongue, 
before I left the block, these words, " God save the Queen !" I 
dare report myself to my very keepers, under whom I was 
severally a prisoner, what was my obedience ever unto them 
in regard of her Majesty, in whose name I was committed; 
as also for all my other usage, how far it was from any work- 
ing or practice for intelligence with any by message or writ- 
ing, whereof I thank God I had no need. But all these 
duties are such, and so due, as their desert endeth in the 
doing of them, and reacheth no further than the very per- 
forming. It will affect her tender royal heart to understand 
that my poor wife and little child, who had no community 
with me in the fault, have yet their society and satiety in 
these lamentable troubles ; in whose favour I humbly crave 
the rather your mediation. But this the only thing that I 
can put in your Honour's hands wherewith to move her Ma- 
jesty's mercy, even my poor heart sorrowing to have offended 
and troubled her Majesty's person, laws, and state, humbling 
itself at her feet in all submission, and vowing henceforth 
such religious and careful obedience as may show how much 
I love that most honourable, profitable, and necessary ordi- 
nance of God, wherein we are commanded to obey our sove- 
reign magistrates, especially the government of the Queen 
of England, by whom the Lord hath dispensed such benefits 
to our country, both bodily and spiritually, as five hundred 
years past cannot speak of. If in tender mercy of these 
things, or rather by natural motion of her Majesty's natural 
clemency, it may please her to show some grace, she shall 
enlarge the number of her benefits towards him, whose duty 
of humble thankfulness is already owing unto her Majesty 
in such measure as it cannot be increased. And if by your 
mean I may obtain so great a good as is the relief of her 
heavy offence and of my grievous imprisonment, your Honour 
may so be a mean also to save my life, which, in these terms 
of extremity, hasteth fast to an end. The Lord bless her 
Majesty with health and peace, with long life and honour ; 
and grant you the grace of God, and continuance of her 


Highness's favour, by serving the Lord and her in all single- 
ness of heart, which is the truest honour! From the house 
of my strait imprisonment, the 1st of December 1579. 
Your Honour's humble suitor and suppliant, 


Very few particulars of Sir Christopher Hatton in the 
year 1580, except what may be derived from his corre- 
spondence, have been preserved. Though generally sup- 
posed to have been unfavourable to the Queen's marriage, 
his letters do not convey that impression ; and the Arch- 
bishop of York, writing to the Earl of Shrewsbury from 
London, in March of this year, says, " the Earl of Leices- 
ter, Mr. Hatton, and Mr. Walsingham have earnestly 
moved her Majesty to go forward with the marriage as 
her most safety." b In June, a private conference took 
place with the French Ambassador at Nonsuch, at which 
only Leicester and Hatton were present, but in the even- 
ing they were joined by Lord Burghley. c In July a 
slanderous book was secretly printed at Paris, similar to 
one called a " Treatise of Treasons," being a requital of 
the attacks made on Monsieur, to which the lives, 
being no doubt scurrilous accounts, of Leicester and 
Hatton were added. d The only grant which is re- 
corded to have been made to Hatton in this year was 
that of Keeper of the Manor of Pleasaunce, in Kent, 
for life. e 

The first letter to Sir Christopher Hatton in 1580 is 
from Mr. Davison, respecting some monopoly that had 
been granted to the Vice-Chamberlain, which proved 
injurious to the merchants of the Low Countries : 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 25 b . d Letterfrom William Parry to Lord 

b Lodge's Illustrations, ii. 162. Burghley, in the State Paper Office. 

c Strype's Annals, ii. 319. e Rot. Patent. 22 Eliz. 



SIR, I should do a wrong to the sufficiency of this bearer, 
your Honour's servant, to write you any news by him, that 
may particularly inform you of the course of our doings 
here. Only hereof I have thought it my duty to acquaint 
your Honour in a word or two, that on Thursday night last 
his Highness sent unto me a couple of counsellors, known 
to this bearer, to communicate with me a complaint against 
the patent of one Typper, containing an exclamation of 
wrongs under that pretext offensive to the merchants of this 
Country trading to England. Though I knew not then that 
the matter did any way touch your Honour, yet made I 
them such answer as you may see by my letters to Mr. 
Secretary ; which not satisfying them, it seems they are in 
mind to send over some one or other to seek redress of her 
Majesty. If your Honour should relent in the cause, I 
doubt not but you and the rest of my Lords there will, in 
regard thereof, take order that her Majesty's subjects trad- 
ing hither may be uncumbered of such wrongs as are from 
time to time offered them here ; for, otherwise, I see not 
but that they will rather increase than diminish. Of this, 
and all other particularities, this bearer may more at large 
inform your Honour: of whom, with remembrance of my 
duty, I most humbly take my leave. At Antwerp, the 21st 
of February 1579 [1580], Your Honour's humble to com- 
mand, W. DAVISON.* 

A letter from Sir Nicholas Wooderooffe, the Lord 
Mayor of London, to Hatton, shows that courtiers had so 
frequently applied for the Freedom of the City for their 
dependants, that it was at last necessary to refuse the 
request : 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 42 b . 



IT may please your Honour, I have imparted to my bre- 
thren your letters of request for the Freedom of London 
to be granted to Richard Bateman, wherein we thank you 
that you so honourably refer the same to our customs, 
orders, and considerations. Surely, Sir, our granting of 
Freedom is by the excess thereof grown grievous to the 
Commons of this City, being already so overpressed with 
multitudes, that the meaner sort are not able to live one 
by another. Wherefore, the rather for that we lately 
granted one in like sort at your request, and, upon our let- 
ters signifying the hardness of those grants to our Citizens, 
you were contented so to esteem the matter, and to promise 
forbearing to press us with the like ; it may please you to 
take in good part that in our consideration we have not 
thought convenient for the City to increase the number of 
Freemen with admitting Bateman into that Society. And 
so I commit your Honour to the tuition of the Almighty. 
At London, the llth of February 1579 [1580]. Your 
Honour's assured, NICHOLAS WOODROFFE, Mayor. a 

Four very interesting letters occur in the "Letter 
Book/' from Margaret Countess of Derby, one to the 
Queen, and three to Sir Christopher Hatton, which bring 
to light another instance of Queen Elizabeth's rigour 
to those who had the misfortune of sharing the Blood 
Royal. This "poor wretched abandoned lady, 1 ' as she 
touchingly calls herself, was the only surviving child of 
Henry Clifford second Earl of Cumberland, by his first 
wife Eleanor, daughter and co-heiress of Charles Duke 
of Suffolk, by Mary Queen of France, daughter of King 
Henry the Seventh ; and she was consequently first 
cousin, once removed, to Queen Elizabeth. She mar- 
ried, in February 1555, Henry Stanley fourth Earl of 
Derby, by whom she had four sons, of whom Ferdi- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 56 b . 
VOL. I. L 


nando and William were successively Earls of Derby; 
became a widow in 1594, and died in 1596. These 
letters contain the only notice that has been found of 
the Countess of Derby's having incurred the Queen's 
displeasure, and which probably arose from some suspi- 
cion of her conduct in relation to the succession. It 
appears that she was long a prisoner, though she was 
never publicly accused of any crime. None of those 
letters have any date ; but the following letter from the 
Countess to Sir Francis Walsingham, in another collec- 
tion, shows that they must have been written about 
May 1580 ; and, as they cannot be assigned to their 
precise dates, it has been thought advisable to place 
them together. Hatton was, she says, the only person 
in the Court that had shown any compassion for her; 
and he exerted himself successfully in obtaining some 
alleviation of her sufferings. 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, If but one and not many afflictions 
and troubles were laid upon me at once, I would then en- 
deavour myself to bear therewith, and forbear for remedy 
thereof to trouble any of my good friends. Sickness and 
weakness in my body and limbs I have of long time been 
accustomed to suffer ; and, finding small remedy after proof of 
many, lastly upon information of some about me that one 
Randall* had a special remedy for the cure of my disease by 
applying of outward things, I had him in my house from 
May until August next following, in which time I found 
some ease by his medicines : but since I have understood by 
report that man to have lived in great wickedness, wherewith 
it hath pleased God to suffer him among other not a little to 
plague me with his slanderous tongue whilst he lived. What 
repentance he took thereof before his death God knoweth. 

Stow mentions the execution of impostor alluded to above was dead 
a William Randall for conjuring when this letter was written, 
towards the end of 1580 ; but the 


Good Sir, the heavy and long-continued displeasure which 
her Majesty thereby, and by the accusation of some others, 
hath laid upon me, doth more vex my heart and spirit than 
ever any infirmity have done my body. And yet I ever have, 
do, and will confess that her Majesty hath dealt both gra- 
ciously and mercifully with me in committing of me unto such 
a place where is wholesome and good air, without the which I 
had perished ; and unto such a person, whom I find, as he is, my 
good kinsman. The last affliction tormented my soul with the 
continual clamour and outcry of many of my poor creditors, 
for whom I find no remedy unless it may please her High- 
ness to license my Lord and me to sell so much land of my 
inheritance as may discharge the same ; whereof though her 
Highness be in reversion, yet be there about twenty persons 
inheritable thereunto as heirs of the body of my grandfather 
Charles Duke of Suffolk. I humbly pray you to be a means 
unto her Highness herein, and for her Majesty's clemency 
and mercy to be extended towards me, whom I take the 
High God to witness, that I ever have feared and loved, and 
so will continue whilst my life endureth. Thus committing 
myself to your good consideration, and us both to God, I 
cease to trouble you. May 1580. 

Her Majesty's prisoner and your assured friend, 



SIR, Your honourable dealing hath bound me so much 
unto you as it is unpossible you should make a gentlewoman 
more beholding unto you than I am ; for the liberty which 
I have attained unto at her Majesty's hands (whose feet I 
lie under) I do freely acknowledge to have only proceeded 
from her goodness by your honourable mediation. You are 
the sole person in Court that hath taken compassion on me, 
and hath given comfort unto my careful heart, and, under 
God, kept life itself within my breast. All these noble 
kindnesses are derived from your virtue and good favour 

a Copy, in the Harleian MSS. 787, f. 16. 



towards me, a poor wretched abandoned lady, no way able 
to yield you thankfulness worthy thereof. You are the 
rock I build on. That made me yesterday so bold to send 
Bessy Lambert unto you to deliver you at large the state 
of my body and the poverty of my purse, whom you heard 
with that willingness as I am double and treble beholding 
unto you, and humbly thank you for it. I well hoped by 
your good means unto her Majesty to have placed myself in 
that air that I best agree withal. These sudden faintings 
and overcomings which I am seldom out of, have so weak- 
ened and afflicted my feeble body since my coming hither, 
that I am many times as a woman brought to death's door 
and revived again beyond all expectation. My cousin Sack- 
ford* hath built him a house at Clerkenwell, which is not 
yet thoroughly finished. I would be very gladly his tenant; 
for the air, as I take it, cannot be much unlike to that of his 
house at St. John's : but I hear now they die of the sickness 
round about it, so that though I could and would, yet I 
dare not adventure to take it ; but I hope it will stay ere it 
be long, and in the mean while I purpose to provide me of 
some house about Highgate to remain in until Michaelmas. 
If I can find out any, I will embolden myself upon your 
pleasure to trouble you with my letters, beseeching you to 
move her Majesty for mercy and favour towards me when 
time shall serve you ; for in effect, as I am now, I live dying, 
and death were much better welcome unto me than life, if 
I must be still in her Highness' misliking. Pardon me, I 
pray you, for my tedious lines; and God send you as much 
happiness as ever had noble gentleman. Your most bounden 
friend, MARGARET DEREY. b 


SIR, I am altogether most beholden unto you for your 
honourable care of my man's miserable cause, whose adver- 
sary God amend ; neither is his better void of enemies. 

Mr. Sackford, Master of Re- in the Sidney Papers, also calls him 
quests. Sir Henry Sidney, in a letter his cousin. 

b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 84 b . 


But God alone can revenge the injury, and regard his in- 
nocency. Myself at this instant sickly, in heart perplexed, 
and in mind as it were exiled, somewhat amazed, but not 
altogether ainated. In good sooth, the hope of her High- 
ness' favour is only my relief; the regard of her gracious 
goodness towards me in my suit shall most comfort me and 
depress the rage of my enemy. Well, to God and our good 
Queen I commit both cause and creature ; and yourself, my 
friend, bind me ever yours. Thus, scribbling rudely, I leave 
hastily, but heartily, with my loving salutations. Yours as 
faithfully as you to me, MARGARET DERBY.* 


I HAVE sent you by this bearer my loyal and most humble 
lines unto her most excellent Majesty, which I beseech you 
of all nobleness of mind, for that you may see the wretched 
estate of a poor woman therein described, and my unable- 
ness to perform so great a part of duty by pen as is due, 
and should have been done before this time. That now you 
will vouchsafe I may commend me to your honourable aid 
and favour for the amendment of anything which you shall 
find amiss in my letter to her Majesty: which I beg for 
God's sake that you will do, even as you tender justice and 
the dignity of the place that you are called unto. When you 
have seen it I expect the return of it, with your pleasure 
and good advice ; which when I have written as well as I 
can, I will speedily send it you again to be exhibited to her 
Majesty, whom God long preserve, and send you great hap- 
piness in honour. Your bounden friend, 



all clemency and justice, I do prostrate myself, and most 
humbly crave that it will please your Highness favourably 
to read, and mercifully to conceive of these few lines and 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 32. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 69 b . 


wretched estate of a very poor distressed woman, whose heart, 
God knoweth, hath long been overwhelmed with heaviness 
through the great loss of your Majesty's favour and gracious 
countenance, which heretofore right joyfully I did possess ; 
the only want whereof hath made me eat my tears instead of 
bread, and to endure all griefs beside that your gracious 
high wisdom may imagine. But, most dear Sovereign, I 
confess and acknowledge that I have found great mercy 
and goodness at your hands, in that, of your merciful con- 
sideration, you sent me to the house of your Majesty's grave 
officer the Master of Requests, my very good friend and 
kinsman ; and now from thence it hath pleased your High- 
ness, according to your accustomed benignity and rare good- 
ness, to give order unto your honourable Counsellors, the 
Lord Chancellor and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, for my deli- 
very to Isleworth House : for all which sweet branches from 
the tree of your Majesty's mercy I am, and so take myself 
to be, most dutifully bounden and thankful unto your High- 
ness, as I trust they will testify whom I besought with un- 
feigned tears upon my knees to be earnest mediators to 
your Majesty for more plenty of your most noble favour, 
pity, and mercy towards me ; without the good hope where- 
of I do account myself, and heart and mind, to be as in 
the black dungeon of sorrow and despair. And therefore, 
with more of loyalness of heart than my pen can express, 
I lie most humbly at your gracious feet, and pray to God 
that shortly my heavy and dry sorrows may be quenched 
with the sweet dew and moisture of your Majesty's abun- 
dant grace and virtue. Your Majesty's most woful and 
miserable thrall, MAR. DERBY. 3 

Sir Walter Mildmay, the writer of the annexed letter, 
was Chancellor of the Exchequer. Of the disorder 
mentioned in this and some other letters, a corre- 
spondent of the Earl of Shrewsbury gave an account 
on the 1st of July : u We have here in London, and at 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 72. 


the Court, a new strange sickness. It does grieve men 
in the head, and with a stitch over the stomach. Few 
do die thereof, and yet many are infected. I do hear it 
credibly reported that forty students of Lincoln's Inn 
were taken with the said malady within the space of 
twenty -four hours. At the Court, the Lady Lincoln, the 
Lady Howard, the Lady Stafford, the Lady Leigh- 
ton, are at this instant troubled therewithal. The 
Lord Lumley is sick there, and many of the inferior 


SIR, According to her Majesty's pleasure, I mean to attend 
upon my Lord Treasurer and you to-morrow at eight of the 
clock in the morning; albeit I thought it my duty to let 
you know what hath happened. In the very next house to 
mine, here in this town, one is dead of the plague, and an- 
other sick ; so as, whether it were convenient that I should 
meet with you or no, in respect of your continual access to 
her Majesty's presence, I am doubtful, and refer the same 
to your consideration. That occasion doth hasten me out 
of town sooner than I thought, and therefore it may please 
you to send me your opinion. The matter of your meeting 
will be well enough performed without me; but I say not 
this to be excused from any service of her Majesty, to whom 
I owe all that I have, and my life too. Thus, praying to 
receive some few lines from you for answer, I commend 
you and all your actions to God's merciful government. 
From London, the 30th of June 1580. Your most assured 
and faithful friend to my power, WA. MiLDMAY. b 

The following letter without a date from the Earl of 
Sussex, the Lord Chamberlain, was perhaps written 
about this time : 

a Lodge's Illustrations, ii. 174. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 34. 



GOOD MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, I do most heartily thank 
you for your letter, and am very sorry that her Majesty is 
forced to remove by an infectious accident ; but better in my 
opinion to make any remove to a clear place, than in any 
respect to remain in the danger of the infection, which by 
degrees may grow nobody knoweth how near to herself, 
whom God always defend from that, and from all other evils. 
I am sorry that my unhappy accident, and the state of my 
own body, do at this time keep me from doing of her Majesty 
any service in that place : nevertheless I rest ready to do any 
thing that an absent man may do ; and will pray to God to 
preserve her in all good contentation. 

Your assured friend, 

T. SUSSEX. 81 

A letter from Hatton to Lord Burghley, in July of 
this year, contains two facts relating to his history of 
some value, namely, that his estate had been entirely 
ruined, and that he ascribed its restoration to Burgh- 
ley's favour ; meaning, no doubt, that the Lord Treasurer 
had rather encouraged than opposed the Queen's repeat- 
ed grants to him of lands and monopolies : 


MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, My term in the impost of wines 
draweth (after this year) to expiration. I have therefore 
humbly moved her Majesty for the renewing of my lease ; 
in the which I earnestly beseech you of your good favour 
towards me. The course I hold is, to pass my bill according 
with my present demise verbatim, upon the same covenants 
and rents expressed in this book already passed, if so, with 
your Lordship's good advice, it may like her Majesty to grant 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 88. 


it to me. I humbly pray your Lordship that you will adver- 
tise me your good pleasure herein, and give me leave to go 
on with the suit as it may please your Lordship to direct me. 
I do acknowledge with all thankfulness the recovery of my 
poor estate, in effect all entirely ruined, to have grown out 
of your great goodness and favour towards me ; for the 
which I will honour and serve you and yours so long as God 
giveth life in this world. And thus, with the remembrance 
of my bounden duty, I pray God bless your Lordship for 
ever. Oatlands, this 22nd of July 1580. Your good Lord- 
ship's most bound, CHR. HATTON.* 

Two more of the Vice- Chamberlain's extraordinary 
letters to the Queen were written during his absence 
from the Court in this year; but the annexed is not 
quite so romantic as some of his former ones : 


A A 

I MOST humbly with all dutiful reverence beseech your 
sacred Majesty to pardon my presumption in writing to your 
Highness. Your kingly benefits, together with your most 
rare regard of your simple and poor slave, hath put this pas- 
sion into me to imagine that for so exceeding and infinite 
parts of unspeakable goodness I can use no other means of 
thankfulness than by bowing the knees of my own heart with 
all humility to look upon your singular graces with love and 
faith perdurable. 

I should sin, most gracious Sovereign, against a holy ghost 
most damnably, if towards your Highness I should be found 
unthankful. Afford me the favour, therefore, most dear 
Lady, that your clear and most fair eyes may read and register 
these my duties, which I beseech our God to requite you 

a Autograph in the State Paper Office. 


The poor wretch my sick servant receiveth again his life, 
being as in the physician's opinion more than half-dead, 
through your most princely love of his poor Master, and holy 
charitable care, without respect of your own danger, of the poor 
wretch. We have right Christian devotion to pray for your 
Highness, which God for His mercy's sake kindle in us for 
ever to the end of our lives. 

I should not dissemble, my dear Sovereign, if I wrote how 
unpleasant and froward a countenance is grown in me through 
my absence from your most amiable and royal presence, but 
I dare not presume to trouble your Highness with my not 
estimable griefs, but in my country I dare avow this fashion 
will full evil become me. I hope your Highness will pardon 
my unsatisfied humour, that knoweth not how to end such 
complaints as are in my thoughts ever new to begin ; but duty 
shall do me leave off to cumber your heavenlike eyes with my 
vain babblings. And, as most nobly your Highness preserveth 
and royally conserveth your own poor creature and vassal, so 
shall he live and die in pure and unspotted faith towards you 
for JSveR. God bless your Highness with long life, and 
prosper you to the end in all your kingly affairs. At Bed- 
ford, this Wednesday morning,* September 1580. Would 
God I were worthy to write 

Your bounden slave, CHR. HATTON. b 

The surprise which is likely to be felt that Hatton 
should have written the following letter c to any one ex- 
cept to the Queen herself, or even to her unless he 
were as highly favoured as he is supposed to have been, 
will cease when it is remembered that Heneage was, as 
will appear from other letters, certainly the confidant of 

a In September 1580, the 7th, " Antiquarian Repertory," where it 

14th, 21st, and 28th, fell on a Wednes- is said to have been addressed to 

day. This letter was probably writ- Sir Thomas Smith, though he died in 

ten on the 7th of that month. 1575. A few words are illegible, 

b Autograph in the State Paper and the last figure of the date is 

Office. obliterated, but it was certainly 

c This letter was first printed in the written in 1580. 


their intimacy, and was often the transmitter of com- 
munications between them. Perhaps not the least re- 
markable part of this letter is the passage in which 
Hatton presumes to compare his love for the Queen with 
that of the Duke of Anjou, and which from any other 
of her Subjects, except perhaps Leicester, would have 
been perfectly ridiculous : 


MY GOOD SIR THOMAS, I thank you much for your happy 
letters, assuring our dear Mistress her present health unto 
me ; pray God continue it for EVER. I have one servant yet 
free of infection, which I trust I may use to deliver my 
care and duty, to my singular comfort and satisfaction. I 
have presumed to send him, that I may daily know either 
by my own or yours the true state of our a Mistress, whom 
through choice I love no less than he that by the greatness of 
a kingly birth and fortune is most fit to have her. I am like- 
wise bold to commend my most humble duty by this letter 
and ring, which hath the virtue to expel infectious airs, and is, 
as is telled to me, to be wearen betwixt the sweet dugs, the 
chaste nest of most pure constancy. I trust, Sir, when the 
virtue is known, it shall not be refused for the value. 

Since my coming to this town, two other of my poor ser- 
vants are fallen sick ; what their disease will prove is not yet 
discerned, but the physician feareth the small-pox. By this 
occasion I am determined to disperse my little company, and 
to take my way to Sir Ed. BricknelTs, b to view my house 
of Kirby, which I yet never surveyed; leaving my other 
shrine, I mean Holdenby, still unseen until that holy saint c 
may sit in it, to whom it is dedicated. I beseech you, Sir, 
acquaint her Highness herewith. I will be gone in the morn- 
ing betimes, and so pass on a solitary pilgrimage for my folk's 

health, until all peril of infection may with the open and 

be thereby purged out of my disconsolate body. Within 

a Query. b Sic. e The Queen. 


six days I will return to Eltham, and there abide the good 
call in time opportune. 

My commendations to yourself are most abundant in 
good- will. I pray you therefore impart of them to such of 
my friends as you shaU think worthy of them. And so a 
thousand times farewell, my good noble friend. September 
llth, 158 , [1580.] Yours most assured, CHR. HATTON.* 

The receipt of a gracious letter from the Queen pro- 
duced a reply much more like his correspondence from 
Germany six years before, than his letter of the 7th of 
September. He now again mentions himself by her 
familiar appellations for him of " Lids" and " Sheep." 
It is evident that Elizabeth also used a significant mono- 
gram or cypher when writing to him ; and, though some 
of the passages are very obscure, her intended marriage 
with the Duke of Anjou is obviously alluded to. His 
remark that "against love" as well as against "ambi- 
tion," those " violent affections that encumber the hearts 
of men," the Queen had held " a long war," is some 
evidence that her favour to himself had never been in- 
consistent with her honour : 


A A 

THE gracious assurance which your Highness's grave letters 
do most liberally give me of your singular favour and inesti- 
mable goodness, I have received on my knees with such rever- 
ence as becometh your most obliged bondman ; and with like 
humility, in my most dutiful and grateful manner, I do offer 
in God's presence myself, my life, and all that I am or is me, 
to be disposed to the end, and my death to do your service, 
in inviolable faith and sincerity. 

11 Autograph in the Harleian MSS. 416, f. 200. 


The cunning of your Highness' style of writing, with the 
conveyance of your rare sentence and matter, is exceedingly 
to be liked of; but the subject which it hath pleased your 
Majesty to endite for my particular, exceedeth all the elo- 
quence, yea, all the eloquence of the world. Your words are 
sweet, your heart is full of rare and royal faith : the writing 
of your fair hand, directed by your constant and sacred 
heart, do raise in me joy unspeakable. Would God they did 
not rather puff up my dejected spirits with too much pride 
and hope. I most humbly thank God for these admirable 
gifts in your Majesty ; they exceed and abound towards your 
Highness unequally in the measure of His graces amongst 
men, so far as, God knoweth, there is not your like. I crave 
most humbly your gracious favour and pardon for the offence 
I have made you. Frogs, near the friends where I then was, 
are much more plentiful, and of less value, than their fish is : 
and because I knew that poor beast a seasonable in your sight, 
I therefore blindly entered into that presumption, but Miseri- 
cordia tua super omnia opera tua. 

God bless your Highness in all your kingly affairs, and 
direct them through your wonted wisdom in that course that 
shall EveR succeed to your comfort. I find the gracious 
sign of your letters of most joyful signification, and the 
abbreviation of delays will breed a much more delightful 
hope in that great cause. Against love and ambition your 
Highness hath holden a long war ; they are the violent affec- 
tions that encumber the hearts of men : but now, my most 
dear Sovereign, it is more than time to yield, or else this love 
will leave you in war and disquietness of yourself and estate, 
and the ambition of the world will be most maliciously bent 
to encumber your sweet quiet, and the happy peace of this 

a Among Queen Elizabeth's trin- conceit was a love-token from the 

kets was " one little flower of gold Duke of Alen^on [query, Anjou ?] to 

with a frog thereon, and therein his Royal beV amie, and the frog 

Monsieur's physiognomy, and a lit- designed, not as a ridiculous but a 

tie pearl pendant." (Ellis' Royal sentimental allusion to his country," 

Letters, first series, iii. 52.) Miss is supported by Hatton's enigmatical 

Strickland will probably think that remark. 
her suggestion, " that this whimsical 


most blessed Realm. I pray God bless your kingly resolu- 
tions whatEve.K. I trust your Highness will pardon this part 
of my presumption, because your little a siphere hath proffered 
the occasion. And so your Highness' most humble Lydds, 5 
a thousand times more happy in that you vouchsafe them 
yours, than in that they cover and conserve the poor eyes, 
most lowly do leave you in your kingly seat in God's most 
holy protection. This 19th of September 1580. Your Ma- 
jesty's sheep and most bound vassal, 


On Hatton's return to London he expressed his 
opinion on public affairs to Walsmgham, especially on 
the state of Ireland, and the dangers that beset this 
Country and the Protestant religion : 


MY GOOD MR. SECRETARY, My zealous care over her 
Majesty's safety, now fearfully stirred up with this evil news 
of the affairs of Ireland, doth give me dutiful occasion in my 
absence to write some little of my simple opinion, though I 
know it needeth not, but only for my duty's sake. The long- 
expected mischief, maliciously conspired by the great and 
most dangerous enemies of her Majesty, and of her Royal 
estate, towards that Kingdom of Ireland, is now, I hear, in 
action: wherein, though that maxim of Kings, which con- 
taineth the counsel of Providence in this sentence, DuUa pro 
certis decent timere reges, hath been by our gracious Sove- 
reign and her most politic foresight very gravely observed in 
sending out her ships to resist these intended treacherous 
attempts; yet that direction, by their untimely and unfor- 
tunate return contrary to order, having taken no place, we 
are again and again to prosecute our course, (as of necessity 

a Part of Hatton's New-year's b Lids, 
gift to the Queen in January follow- 
ing, was a pair of gold bracelets, c Autograph in the State Paper 
with twelve esses of small diamonds, Office. 
&c. Nichols' Progresses, ii. 300. 


we be violently urged,) with a resolute perseverance of her 
Majesty's most noble beginning, wherein there remaineth 
that her Highness, through her Kingly courage, should timely 
and victoriously resist this rabble of rebels and traitors ; and 
to let nothing be spared, either of treasure, men, munition, 
or whatsoever else, to save that Kingdom, being, as you know, 
the principal key of this her Royal seat, by which means she 
should crown this her most happy government with con- 
tinuance of felicity over all her Dominions. In which great 
and important cause the best counsel is, according to the old 
rule, to resist the beginning ; and so, if it were possible, to 
end this mischief before her other potent enemies might find 
opportunity to work their malice upon us. For when we 
behold the great prosperity of Spain through her peaceable 
possession of Portugal, we ought justly to fear, that, his 
affairs being settled there in some good sort, he will then, 
no doubt, with conjunct force assist this devilish Pope to 
bring about their Romish purpose. Let us not forget that 
his sword is presently drawn, and then with what insolent 
fury this his victory may inflame him against us, in whose 
heart there is an ancient malice thoroughly rooted and rankly 
grown for these many years, apparently known to all men 
that do bend their eyes to behold the course of his actions ; 
and therefore we ought not only timely to foresee, but in 
time most manfully to resist the same. In all which proceed- 
ings God's cause and her Majesty's stand jointly to be de- 
fended ; the consideration whereof persuadeth me that there 
is no man that will spare travail or expense in any sort to re- 
duce them to good end. Cease not, good Mr. Secretary, to 
put her Majesty in continual remembrance of these perils, 
and with importunacy stir up her most earnest princely care 
over God's cause and her own. How that matter in Scotland 
goeth, I do not well know; but this rule I hold in all cer- 
tainty, that in Ireland and Scotland the entries and ways to 
our destruction most aptly be found. If there we safely shut 
up the postern-gate, we are sure to repulse the peril; but, if 
our enemy make himself the porter, it will be then too late 


to wish we had the keys. Would God, some wise man were 
sent with the grave instruction of her Majesty to reclaim that 
country of Scotland unto us. The malice of France is there 
ever made up against us, and of those mischiefs they are ever 
the executioners. How they trouble us in Ireland we often 
see and feel; but if that King should be conveyed into 
France, and so governed and directed by the Guisians, I dare 
not remember, much less speak of, the dangers would ensue 
upon us. One thousand pounds employed now in time might 
haply not only buy her Majesty's present safety, but undoubt- 
edly save her the expense of threescore thousand before many 
years. With the disposition of France, which lieth now in 
her Majesty's arbitrament, I dare not meddle, for she only 
knoweth what shall become thereof; and so her judgment 
therein must needs be most sound, which in truth maketh 
much to all these matters before mentioned. But if her 
Highness mean to marry, I wonder she so delayeth it. If 
she do but temporize, and will leave it at the last, what may 
we look for then, but that the Pope, with Spain and France, 
will yoke themselves in all ireful revenge, according to their 
solemn combination so long ago concluded on against us ? 
Now therefore, weighing the present accidents of the world 
together in an equal balance, how hurtful they may be to the 
safety of her Majesty's most Royal estate and preservation 
of her blessed government, first, the weak and broken estate 
of Ireland, then the uncertain, suspected amity of Scotland, 
the dangerous action of the French, tending to the subversion 
of the Protestant, the irrecoverable losses and overthrows re- 
ceived lately by the States of the Low Countries, and the 
fortunate and victorious success of the King of Spain in Por- 
tugal, I cannot but mourn in my heart to see us beset on all 
sides with so great and apparent dangers. I beseech God 
continue her Majesty's most careful and provident course to 
resist these so imminent evils in good time, and to make us 
ever thankful towards her for such her most gracious and in- 
estimable goodness conferred on us her poor subjects, through 
her most Kingly care over us. God bless you, Sir ; and so, 


with a thousand thanks for your honourable letters, I bid you 
most friendly farewell. From Hatton House, the 26th of 
Sept. 1580. Your true poor friend, CHR. HATTON.* 

Thomas Norton, the busy informant of the following 
letter, was a stern Calvinist, and wrote many works 
against Popery. He was also the author of twenty- 
seven of the Psalms in Sternhold and Hopkins' collec- 
tion, and of part of a tragedy called " Gorboduc," 
of which the remainder was written by his patron and 
friend Lord Buckhurst: 


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, Without all displeasant 
humour, and specially without the base disposition to afflict 
the afflicted, but only of true zeal to her Majesty's service, 
I am bold to inform you that long since I have seen a book 
written in French, intituled Le Innocence de la tres illustre 
Royne, &c. ; in the end whereof is a treatise touching the 
cause of the Duke of Norfolk, written to the defamation of 
her Majesty and of his Peers, and of some special persons 
of her Highness' Council. This book is there pretended to 
be written in French by a stranger, and to England, and not 
by an Englishman, for speaking of England he saith, vostre 
paie, and vostre Roigne, and such like ; and yet in truth it is 
written by an Englishman, as by Robin Goodfellow and 
Goodman Gose, and an over-slipped title, and otherwise, as I 
am able to prove. The whole course is very seditious, and 
defamatory to her Majesty, her Council, and Nobility. He 
chargeth the Council with treason ; and her Majesty with 
abandoning herself to be abused, to the disturbing of Christen- 
dom, to the maintenance of rebels, to the robbing of Princes. 
It may be that your Honour will think it good to inquire 
the author, and not unfit to examine the gentleman now 
in restraint. The book is not only an Englishman's, but 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 18. 
VOL. I. M 


also originally written in English and translated into French. 
Mr. Doctor Hamond is well acquainted with his style, if it 
please you to understand his opinion of it. Your Honour 
may also send for Mr. Dalton, and ask him whether the same 
party have not used at Mrs. Arundell's to maintain open dis- 
putations in defence of Papistry, and challenged Mr. Dalton 
and others in that case upon wagers. There goeth also un- 
derhand abroad an English treatise written, wherein her Ma- 
jesty's ancestress is termed base in contempt, the Queen is 
threatened with rebellion of Nobility, some great persons are 
charged that under her Majesty's favour they have, as it 
were, tyrannized over the people. If the book be his, it is 
not good. Out of these books, great matters of charge may 
be gathered to the author. It were pity he should be untruly 
burthened with them ; but greater pity that he or any should 
carry such things clearly. And so I leave to trouble your 
Honour any longer. At London, the 30th of December 
1580. Your Honour's humbly, THO. NORTON.* 

A more convenient place cannot be found for an 
undated letter, apparently to Lord Burghley, on the 
subject of the French marriage. The writer was, no 
doubt, a Puritan divine, and his sentiments are ex- 
pressed with fervid eloquence : 

MY VERY GOOD LORD, Seeing my duty requireth it, and 
your goodness hath so bound me, and the present dangers 
now impending over the Church of God and this Common- 
wealth do constrain me, I trust your Lordship, of your ac- 
customed clemency, will accept it well that at this time I 
presume to take occasion to testify my dutiful remembrance 
by these rude messengers. I hope you will not examine my 
writing otherwise than by my simple meaning and your ac- 
customed gentleness. For I protest before God and His holy 
angels that stand as beholders of all men's actions, I do it 
only in His fear, having first called upon His name; and 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 75. 


partly for the honour that I bear unto you, that the ill-success 
of those dangers which all the world may see now not only 
to hang over your head, but over the whole Realm, may, 
through the gracious goodness of God, by doing our duties, 
be wisely prevented, and, if it be His will, speedily turned 
from us. For, seeing the whole house is set on fire, why 
should any man be suspected or misliked that bringeth water 
to quench it? seeing the city of God is assaulted, why 
should our watchmen hold their peace ? O my Lord, I be- 
seech you in the bowels of Christ, as you tender the Church 
of God, love your Country, and honour her Majesty, so set 
yourself, and as many as you can procure, to stop this devilish 
device of her Majesty's untimely, unfit, and unseasonable 
matching. For if it be plain and manifest to be most danger- 
ous to our Country in the regard only that he is a stranger, 
what shall it be in respect of him that is unstayed and many 
ways tainted, greatly dishonoured with a bloody race, with the 
breach of faith, having drawn even from the teat the milk 
of cursed treachery, and having been schooled up in the con- 
tinual practice of godless policy grounded upon that incarnate 
devil Machiavel, even yet witnessed in the fresh bleeding 
wounds of God's saints crying still for speedy vengeance 
against the whole generation of cursed persecutors ? Be not 
deceived, I beseech you, my good Lord, in this weighty 
cause ; recompense the honour that God hath bestowed upon 
you by means of her Majesty with this fidelity, to hold her 
back from the gulph of her destruction. The Lord give you 
wisdom to quench the fire that is already kindled by this un- 
happy attempt, which already burneth in such sort as it 
breaketh out into violent flames, and, unless the Lord stay it, 
giveth evident signs of the general subversion of our whole 
Country. For as warmth giveth life to the cold, and starveth 
the slowworm, so the likelihood of this mischievous attempt 
hath made our cold-starved Papists to gather great life. They 
begin now to threaten us by open libels, by setting signs 
upon the doors of many professors of the Gospel in divers 
places, by hanging and lowering countenances, as though our 

M 2 

164 THE LIFE AND TIMES OF* [1580. 

summer were past, and their harvest come ; as though our 
day of destruction were at hand, and their golden day, so 
long looked for, present. But this is our hope, that God 
reigneth and liveth ; and though it be very likely that our 
great sins, and un thankfulness, and wretched profaning of 
holy things have drawn upon us His fearful judgments, yet 
He knoweth those that are His, and will keep them and will 
defend them for His name-sake, howsoever He may punish 
their sins in seasoning and purging them from their corrup- 
tions. O my Lord, never forget the lamentable effects of 
that unhappy contention in the days of King John, when those 
unfortunate Barons sought for aid into France, when our 
Country was wasted, the nobility dispersed, and had been 
utterly destroyed, had not God made the mouth of one of the 
conspirators themselves to detect that treasonable treachery. 
Wha.t should I speak of the miserable end of Richard the 
Second, through his doting love, when the blood, as I have 
said, is not yet dry that was shed by that cursed marriage de- 
vised to the overthrow of so many millions of innocents. Be- 
tween the King of Navarre that now is, and the French 
King's sister, doth your Lordship think that they rather seek 
her Majesty than her Crown and Kingdom? and do you 
doubt but that they will spoil and impoverish our Country, 
if they seek for her Crown and Kingdom, and that, doing the 
one, they must not of necessity shed the blood of the other ? 
Though all the world should speak the contrary, yet I hope 
we are not such blocks as to believe it. Was it thought un- 
meet that they should settle in Scotland when they began 
to nestle there ? and by her Majesty's good means, to her 
immortal praise, were they driven from thence ; and can it 
be good now that they be joined with us in marriage ? 
These are quite contrary. Good my Lord, pardon me : I lay 
open myself the rather to your Lordship, because you are in 
place to do good, and by my mouth may learn the common 
opinion of the best, and I have no small confidence in your 
assurance and staidness towards them. I hope God hath 
given you wisdom to make you see the end whereunto this 


device tendeth. And I beseech you, seeing it is a matter of 
weight, which concerneth not only our lives and goods, but 
stands upon the hazarding of our souls, that you will wisely 
look about you, and look up to God in true repentance, that 
being reconciled to Him you may be assured of His protec- 
tion and presence, for in vain is man's help without His as- 
sistance. Beware whom you trust ; for, in your place, it can 
not be but many will follow you for another end than they 
pretend ; their lucre is not your safety, but their own com- 
modity. Treason is never committed but where there is 
trust: falsehood is always in friendship and fellowship: every 
fair beck is not a seal of a faithful heart : poisons are mingled 
and ministered with honey that they may be the less sus- 
pected. The fairer the colours are without, the more sus- 
picious is the ground ; and harlots use more painting and 
decking than sober and honest matrons. Crocodiles have 
their tears, and they are very dangerous. O my Lord, this 
platform cannot be but perilous, and specially to your Lord- 
ship and many others, the undoubted professors of His glo- 
rious Gospel. In which respect if you stand grounded, your 
strength is assured; and though Papists should not join with 
you, yet commonweal Papists, that is, such as are but civilly- 
wise, will not, for their own safety, in this cause leave you. 
Howsoever it be, one godly man shall be stronger than ten 
enemies. The Lord is with them that stand sincerely for His 
name and for a good cause ; yea, the death of the righteous 
is with honour, and what death soever they die that stand for 
God, for their country, and for their Prince, they shall go to 
their grave with peace. Wherefore, my Lord, be of good 
courage ; faint not ; the time will come when you shall feel 
the fruit of constancy in this good cause, to your high honour 
and immortal fame. Good my Lord, remember them that 
are in bands, and mitigate as much as in you lieth the hard 
hand that is holden upon the best sort. I dare call them so 
in respect of their religion, zeal, fidelity, and truth ; whom 
to touch is to touch the apple of God's own eye, that cannot 
but draw upon the whole land a terrible vengeance. Beware 


of these elbow -informers : I mean not those that suggest good 
things, but such as labour to bring into disgrace good men, 
that thereby they may the better establish their own credits, 
and build up their houses with other men's ruins. If either 
the one or the other tell you of present danger, hear them 
willingly ; if of perils to come, wisely prevent them. I pray 
God give your Lordship the spirit of wisdom and counsel, 
that you may stand stout and faithful to defend the peace of 
the Church, the preservation of this common-weal, and the 
safety of her Majesty's royal person, whom God ever maintain 
and continue to His glory and all our comforts ! 

Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton was appointed Lord 
Deputy of Ireland after the death of Sir William Drury 
in 1579, and several letters occur from him to Hatton on 
the affairs of that Country. 


SIR, I hope you have understood at large, by my letters 
which I have sent unto my Lords, what composition of peace 
is taken with Turlogh Leinigh. 8 Since which time I have 
received advertisement that Thomas Nugent, brother to the 
Baron of Delvyn, hath banded himself with the O'Connors, 
and is newly revolted, being no doubt enticed and heartened 
thereunto by Thurlow; with whom, I am by secret intelli- 
gence informed, there was a messenger of his seen not many 
days before he withdrew himself from her Majesty's obedi- 
ence : whereby it appeareth how dangerous a back he is unto 
all rebels and disordered Subjects which shall attempt any- 
thing against this State ; beside the peril wherewith he threat- 
eneth us daily by bringing in the Scots in great numbers, 
and the preparation he maketh to strengthen himself by all 
means possible, which plainly argueth in him great intention 
of mischief. I beseech you therefore, for the speedy repress- 

a Vide Camden's Annals, b. ii. p. 118. 


ing of this man's insolency, that you will be pleased to help 
forward, through your honourable solicitation to her Majesty, 
with more forces, and to hasten them hither with all possible 
expedition : which being once well arrived, I hope they shall 
give an end to all this war ; so we may be therewith relieved 
with a new supply, and such money and victuals as shall be 
needful, whereof we have exceeding great want at this present: 
and so I commit you to God. Dublin, the 14th of March 
1580. [1581.] Your most assured friend and loving cousin. 

A. GREY.' 

In April, the Commissioners appointed by the King 
of France to treat for the Queen's marriage arrived in 
England; and Lord Burghley, the Earls of Lincoln, 
Sussex, Bedford, and Leicester, Sir Christopher Hatton, 
and Sir Francis Walsinghain, were constituted her Ma- 
jesty's Commissioners to confer with them. 

Sir Thomas Wilson, the writer of the annexed letter, 
was made one of the Principal Secretaries of State, and 
sworn of the Privy Council, in 1577, on the same day 
that Hatton became a member of that body. He was 
also Dean of Durham: and died in 1581, leaving a son, 
Nicholas, and the two daughters of whom lie speaks; 
namely, Mary, who married, first, Robert Burdett of 
Bramcote, and secondly, Sir Christopher Lowther; and 
Lucretia, who became the wife of George Belgrave, of 
Belgrave in Leicestershire. 


SIR, I received upon Friday such a message from you by a 
gentleman your servant as was greatly to my comfort, and 
though you had sent me no such word, yet should I never 
have doubted of your friendship ; for where I have once con- 
ceived a good impression, my nature is like iron and marble, 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 


that never changeth without altering the substance : and 
though I have received hard measure of some, of whom in 
truth I have best deserved, yet can I not alter my disposition ; 
and love, once offered in faithful manner, requireth love 
again ; and yet where it shall fail on either side, the party 
grieved cannot but show that flesh and blood can hardly bear 
it. I sent you word that I would have been yesterday at the 
Court, but then I was ill, and am yet nothing amended ; so 
you see man purposeth, and God disposeth. As soon as 
God shall make me able, I will not fail to see you. In the 
meanwhile I have sent thither my two daughters, my only 
treasure ; which I write unto you as a bachelor, to whom 
maidens cannot be unwelcome. And so I commit you to 
God. From my house, the 23rd of April 1581. Your very 
assured friend, THO. WiLSON. a 

Of Charles Arundell, whom Strype b calls a "busy 
man/' the writer of the following and of several other 
letters to Hatton, little is known, except that he was 
one of those unfortunate Papists who were the constant 
objects of persecution. He was arrested and imprisoned 
for some offence, real or imaginary, and sought the Vice- 
Chamberlain's interest to obtain a trial. In a letter 
from Monsieur Mauvissiere, the French Ambassador, to 
his Sovereign, in December 1583, he says, speaking of a 
conspiracy which had been discovered to take the 
Queen's life, "Meanwhile I must not omit to tell you 
that a great many persons are committed to prison on 
account of this conspiracy ; and that Lord Paget, Charles 
Arundell, and several more noblemen and principal gen- 
tlemen of quality in this Kingdom, fled four or five days 
ago, and embarked at night on board a vessel at 
Arundell, which still more astonished the Queen and her 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 79. b Animls, iii. pt. 1. p. 273. 


Council." On the 17th of January following, Mauvis- 
siere informed the King, that the Queen thought, that 
" if his Majesty were even inclined to deliver up to her 
Lord Paget, his brother Charles Arundell, and her other 
subjects, whom she calls rebels, he (Mauvissiere) would 
prevent him from doing so," a 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, As one no less willing to remember 
you than mindful of your great goodness, I have stayed this 
bearer by the sleeve to increase his burden by the weight of 
this short letter, and to release myself of a greater debt than 
ink and paper can acknowledge. My meaning is not to be 
cumbersome, nor to trouble you with my cause till time may 
serve ; only, to exercise the duty I owe you, I have sent you 
these few lines, and that the bearer should not return empty- 
handed without some show where he had been. Touching 
my affection to yourself, I crave no more (till time may yield 
you better trial) but that your virtue may in this time of 
distress both plead and promise for your poor friend, that 
wanteth means, not will, to make his faith more evident. 
And so with humble remembrance of my duty I end, wishing 
the happy supply of your desires, and myself ability to do 
you service. From Sutton, the 23rd of May 1581. Your 
Honour's more faithful than fortunate, C. A. 

The subject of this letter, from Sir Walter Mildmay, 
is not mentioned : 


SIR, I did yesterday speak with my Lord Chancellor, 5 and 
have satisfied him in such things as he was not rightly in- 
formed of. I found his usage towards me very good and 

a "Letters of Mary Queen of Scots," 18th of January, as it was evidently 
by Agnes Strickland, vol. ii. p. 733. written in 1583-4, and should have 
The Editor of that collection has mis- followed all Mauvissiere's letters of 
placed the Ambassador's letter of the 1583. 

b Sir Thomas Bromley. 


courteous, so as I trust the matter shall receive a reasonable 
conclusion ; the rather if it please you to take knowledge of 
thus much to him, and to pray the continuance of his good 
favour. You see how ready I am to trouble you, for the 
which I have nothing to yield you but my thanks, and that I 
will do ever ; and so leave you to the Lord Almighty. From 
London, the 27th of May 158J. Yours very assured, to my 
little power, WA. MILDMAY.* 

Unless the question between Sir Christopher Hatton 
and the City arose out of one of his monopolies, it is dif- 
ficult to suggest, and there is nothing to show, what the 
matter was to which Sir Walter Mildmay alludes in the 
following letter : 


SIR, This afternoon there came unto me Mr. Recorder, 
Mr. Alderman WoodroofFe, and Mr. Alderman Martin, sent 
from my Lord Mayor and the City touching the matter in 
question between you and them. The sum of their message 
was, that by common consent they had agreed to submit 
themselves in that matter to the judgment of my Lord Chan- 
cellor, my Lord Treasurer, and me, who, taking the advices 
of some of the Judges, might fully determine the cause. To 
this end they required me to be a mediator unto you ; but, 
lest I should either misconceive or misreport their message, 
I have thought it best they report it to you themselves ; for 
which cause they are come unto you. What an answer you 
shall think fit to make them I must refer to your own consi- 
deration, but for my poor opinion I do not see but that this 
way the conclusion may be good enough for you. And 
therefore, as hitherto you have yielded very reasonably unto 
them (whereof I am a witness), so, if you hold that course 
still, the end will fall out well on your part, as I think. Thus, 
wishing unto you always as unto my very good friend, and 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 85 b . 


ready for you in anything I can do, I leave you in the keep- 
ing of the Lord Almighty. From London, the 1st of June 
1581. Your very assured to my little power, 


Bishop Aylmer's report of his persecutions in this 
year, are alike characteristic of himself and his times : 


MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN, I have thought it my bounden 
duty both to God and to your Majesty to acquaint you with 
the state of a part of your charge, committed unto you by 
the Lord as His lieutenant in His Church and spiritual Go- 
vernment. So it is, most gracious Lady, that we have daily, 
to our great grief, brought before us out of Gloucester diocess 
certain men of strange, erroneous, and perilous opinions : 
whereof some hold that Christ took no flesh of the Virgin, 
of whom we have presently one in prison ; other some there 
are which most shamefully and slanderously rail against the 
authority of magistrates; and some other, which do assemble 
conventicles, study only for innovations, and do deride and 
jeer at all good orders, and drive their course to so licen- 
tious a liberty, as it is to be feared that without speedy 
controlment (which can hardly be done by us who are so far 
off) this canker will creep and spread itself so far, as it will 
not only grow incurable there, but fall out in time to infect 
other countries also next adjoining. I find the cause of this 
corruption to be no other but percusso pastore disperguntur 
greges, and as the Scripture said in one sense, quia non est rex 
in Israel, so say I in the like sense, quia non est pastor vel 
Episcopus in Ecclesia, men dare be bold with widows / and 
that Church being so long a widow, who dare not insult upon 
it? Therefore even for the tender care that your Majesty 
hath ever had over your Subjects, and for the princely zeal 
that you bear to the unity of the Church, provide that see 
of a Bishop, that flock of a pastor, and that decayed house 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 75. 

17-2 THE LIFE AND TIMES OF [1581. 

of some good architect, lest the ruin grow irreparable ; which 
will bring great dishonour to God, anxiety of mind to your- 
self, and much harm to your people and subjects. I most 
humbly beseech your Majesty, therefore, to remember it, and 
then undoubtedly God will remember you with the richest 
blessing of His providence ; which shall stand your Highness 
in more stead than all earthly treasure, politic counsel, and 
warlike provision, ever more to your own safety and our 
comforts, who live in you and look to die miserably without 
you. From my poor house at Fulham, the 13th of June 
1581. Your Majesty's most humble and dutiful poor Chap- 
lain, JOHN LONDON.* 

So little is known of the poet or rather versifier 
Churchyard's life, that no light can be thrown on some 
of the passages in the annexed letter; but a marginal 
note in the " Letter Book " thus explains one part of 
it : " This Monsieur Mauvissiere was then the French 
Ambassador resident in England, who used Churchyard 
as a spy for English news and advertisements of Court, b 
and entertained him with money to that end; and, to 
do him some service in that kind, he sent him into 
Scotland about some exploit agreed on between them 
two, which was the cause that Mr. Randall, the Queen's 
Ambassador at that time in Scotland, much disliked his 
being there, suspecting that he was there for no good to 
the State of England." Churchyard's application to the 
Scottish Parliament is not noticed in its " Acts." 


SIR, Having tried my uttermost fortune, and passed the 
fire of affliction, through a perilous pilgrimage not void of 
many deadly dangers and imminent mischiefs, I am now 
come prostrate in mind, and falling devout on my knees be- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 83. b Query. 


fore my Lord Governor of Berwick, submitting myself to the 
Queen's Majesty's mercy and my Lord's good favour, always 
hoping that your Honour hath in mind the promise which I 
made you for a piece of service that I meant with hazard of 
my life to discover for the discharge of my duty to my Prince 
and Country ; leaving certain notes by word of mouth, and also 
in paper, for that purpose with you, and yet hearing no 
answer of sundry letters which I sent you after my great 
misfortune, I remained three months in England, drawing 
myself down towards Scotland (as I wrote unto you) by the 
mean of Monsieur Mauvissiere, of whom I spake with you 
many times before my departure. But when I was entered 
Scotland, I found things fall out far otherwise than I looked 
for. And so I must either swear to be true to the King in 
that extremity, or else depart, I know not whither. If I had 
practised with Mr. Randall, a it had been present death to me ; 
besides, he disgraced me all he could : and if I had written to 
your Honour, I had surely smarted for it ; so that sufferance 
and silence were my only succour. All which notwithstand- 
ing, I obtained licence at length to make my supplication to 
the noble Parliament house ; but I could find no messengers till 
Sir John Seton went, whom I importunated daily to obtain 
me favour for my return home again. But God knoweth 
every thing went awry, and I stuck fast in the stocks among 
many wild wolves and cruel tigers in the shapes of men, who 
would have worried and torn me in pieces had not the King's 
goodness guarded me; such is their uncivil manner and 
malice, and such cankered stomachs they bear to an English- 
man. I gave the King a book before I departed thence, 
which manifested much their rudeness. If I had tarried 
there never so little longer, no doubt it had cost me my life ; 
but God be thanked for a fair escape, most miserable wretch 
, that I am. How cursed may I seem after all these storms 
if I have lost her Majesty's favour. I desire not to live longer 
than I may enjoy her good opinion. I crave no more for all 
my service than her gracious countenance ; and, that not 
granted, I wish I were either buried quick, or that the seas 

a Thomas Randolph. 


had swallowed me. I never meant to offend her Highness 
willingly, 1 take God to witness ; and when I was sworn at 
the Council-board of Scotland, 3 all the Lords can testify that 
I protested openly I would never be false to the Queen's 
Majesty and my Country. And so, with a true face and clear 
conscience, I have humbled my body and life to her mercy. 
Wherefore, as I have ever boldly reposed my hope only in 
your honourable goodness, so I beseech you vouchsafe me 
some comfort, who still prayeth for the increase of your good 
gifts of grace in preservation of honour. From Berwick, 23rd 
June 1581. Your Honour's humbly at commandment, 


Lord Grey finding, like so many of Queen Elizabeth's 
servants, that his most zealous exertions did not satisfy 
her, he, like them, used his private influence to be re- 
moved from his employment, and for that purpose wrote 
to Hatton: 


SIR, Because I have certified my Lords in a general letter 
of the present estate of this Country, and of the fruit of my 
last journey, I have not thought good to trouble you further 
therewith at this instant, but to refer you wholly to that 
advertisement. Wherein perceiving, that, notwithstanding all 
my endeavour and continual pains which I have taken here to 
advance her Majesty's service, I can no way so well satisfy 
her Highness as I have dutifully sought and ever wished for, 
my most earnest desire is, to be now disburdened of so thank- 
less a place, and that some other, that with better liking and 
more sufficiency can answer that expectation, may be called 
hither. I am moved herein to crave your furtherance, both 
in regard of her Majesty's service, which I wish might take as 
happy success as herself desireth, as also for her better con- 
ten tation and my own quietness. And yet my conscience 

a A marginal note says, " He Scotland to be true to the King." 
was sworn at the Council-board of 

b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 64. 


in the comfortless impression of this disfavour will always 
bear me witness that I rest simply blameless herein towards 
her Majesty, whose service never forslowing, I have ever fol- 
lowed with all dutiful care and travail, as faithfully as the 
power of my body and mind would give me leave. If the 
sway have been beyond my strength, the blame is justly theirs 
whose choice was no better; and not mine, that did plainly 
and simply at the first reveal that little which I found in 
myself for so great a charge. In this cause, that toucheth 
me so dear, I am now forced to fly to your promised friend- 
ship for the removing of me from hence ; whereof I make 
the more assured account, for that I have ever found it 
ready in my causes of less importance. And so, earnestly 
praying herein your honourable solicitation and good fur- 
therance, I commit you to the grace of God. From Dublin, 
the 1st of July 1581. Your most assured friend and loving 
kinsman, A. GREY. a 

Churchyard, having it appears slain a man, was im- 
prisoned, and, being nearly destitute, he made a very 
ingenious application to Hatton for relief. The " poor 
present," of which he speaks, was no doubt one of the 
innumerable effusions of his prolific pen : 


SIR, Your honourable and courteous taking of my small 
pains, with the great regard which you had of my patience in 
these troubles, doth comfort me so much, as my happiness in 
sending unto you and your goodness in accepting my letters 
are at strife, the one with the other, which of them both do 
best deserve the victory. But finding it folly by late experi- 
ence to depend on fortune, and resting wholly upon God's 
direction and on the goodness of my friends, your favourable 
acceptation of my poor present doth richly reward me for my 
work, and conquereth both my fortune and all other vain hope 
that my presumptuous pen might give me. God, that work- 
eth all goodness by worthy instruments, hath offered me great 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 64. 


good hap, and wrought a perfect means to restore me to li- 
berty. The man's wife whose husband I slew is contented to 
abandon her suit, and henceforth to surcease her malice, 
so that I hope 1 shall presently depart from prison, though 
not able (poor wretch as I am) to depart with any money. 
The divers occasions of expense in my restraint have 
taken from me the best part of my purse, and only left me 
the bare strings to play withal. I blush, being old, to 
beg ; and yet not ashamed to crave, being a courtier. A 
soldier should rather snatch than stand at world's benevo- 
lence ; but no man appoints his own portion, and men often 
fare the worse for snatching too boldly. Well ! I want, and 
how to get requires a cunning reach ; and then is simplicity 
but a very blunt hook to take that which may supply a man's 
necessity. Why fear I my feebleness ? the fortune of Poets 
hath been ever poor and needy. Homer had but one eye, and 
knew not where to dine ; Ovid had two eyes, and yet could 
see but few that did him good ; Virgil, Petrarch, Dante, Mar- 
shall, Marot, and many more, were poor and rich, but not to 
continue ; and may not I presume among them, as poor as the 
best, and a writer not always among the worst? Though not 
a Poet, yet one that hath used both pen and sword with Poet's 
fortune, as well as they, to my own hindrance. Your Ho- 
nour seeth my defects, and may easily help them, when you 
please, with some small remembrance of your bounty and 
goodness. I write not this to crave, but only desire some 
means to enlarge me, the sooner to drive away this indigence. 
Your Honour's servants, or whosoever please you, may now 
be welcome and visit me when they will in this sweet com- 
fort and expectation of present liberty, and bring that with 
them which a prisoner is glad to see, and will be ever most 
joyfully willing to receive, whatsoever shall proceed from 
your accustomed goodness, whom I commit to the grace of 
God. From the Palace of Repentance, the 10th of July 
1581. Humbly at your Honour's commandment, 


<* Additional MSS. 15891, f.60 b . 


The Earl of Oxford's ill-treatment of his wife, who 
was Lord Burghley's daughter, has been already men- 
tioned; 3 and, Hat ton having interested the Queen in the 
lady's behalf, her father wrote to thank him for his 
exertions. The " disaster betwixt two great Planets " 
was no doubt a quarrel between the Earls of Leicester 
and Sussex: 


SIR, Though I cannot always pay my debts, yet I use to 
acknowledge them many times to move my creditors to ac- 
cept my good-will in towardness of payment ; and so at this 
time, though I know myself many ways indebted unto you 
for your good-will, except you will accept for acquittal my 
reciproque good-will, I shall not be able to pay you that I owe 
you. Yet yesterday, being advertised of your good and ho- 
nourable dealing with her Majesty in the case of my daughter 
of Oxford, I could not suffer my thanks to grow above one 
day old ; and therefore in these few lines I do presently 
thank you, and do pray you in any proceeding therein not 
to have the Earl dealt withal strainably, but only by way of 
advice, as good for himself; for otherwise he may suspect that 
I regard myself more for my daughter than he is regarded for 
his liberty. I know only the Queen's Majesty's motions shall 
further the cause, and more than her motions I wish not. You 
see, being a debtor, I prescribe my manner to increase the 
debt; but, if I cannot acquit it, I know it belongeth to Al- 
mighty God to do it. I am most sorry to hear of the disaster 
fallen out yesterday betwixt two great Planets ; but I hear 
they know their Jupiter, and will obey her Majesty, rather to 
content her than to follow their own humours. It is far out 
of season to have these breaches; our adversaries are ever 
ready to make them greater, and to leap in also to our com- 
mon harm. I am not yet fully recovered ; this north-west 

a Vide p. 17, ante. 
VOL. I. N 


wind keepeth me back from my port of health, which God 
send you ever, with increase of honour. 13th July 1581. 
Yours assuredly, W. BURLEIGH.* 

Sir Thomas Heneage also alludes to the quarrel of 
Leicester and Sussex, in the following letter. Lady 
Heneage was Ann, daughter of Sir Nicholas Poyntz, 
and died in November 1593 : 


SIR, My extreme pain of the stone will make me write 
shorter than I would or should. For your buttons, which I 
bought for you, and would never have worn if I had thought 
you would after have used them, I refer to your own best 
liking whether I shall return them, or pay for them ; and, 
how well soever they like me, I like better to please you than 
myself in a greater matter than this, as you shall ever find. 
For your favour in commending my duty to her Majesty, 
which showeth the nobleness and goodness of your condition 
towards them that dearliest love you, I think myself princi- 
pally bound unto you ; and though her Highness' liking as 
well for myself as her service shall ever be a law to me, yet 
my wife's leg, that still holdeth her in her bed, as well as my 
own present and sudden sickness of the stone, will hold me 
here longer than I meant. I leave to tell you my mind of 
the matter of quarrel till my body be more quiet, taking it 
most kindly that you will but some time wish him with you, 
that will ever love you; and so I commend me all unto you, 
and us both to the Lord Jesus. The 15th of July 1581. 

Your own, sick and whole, T. HENEAGE. b 

When the next letter was written, Sir Francis Wal- 
singham was at Bologne, on his way to Paris to assist Lord 
Cobham and Mr. Sommers in persuading the French King 
to agree to certain propositions respecting the Queen's 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 73. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 73 b . 


marriage, and to consent to a League offensive and de- 
fensive between England and France. Walsingham's 
instructions, and great part of his correspondence (but 
not his letters to Hatton), while on this mission, are 
printed in " The Compleat Ambassador." a 


SIR, Upon better consideration of the request I made 
unto you before my departure, to have moved her Majesty 
for the stalment of my debt due unto her Majesty, (to 
which purpose it was resolved between us that I should 
have written a letter unto you to that effect, whereby you 
might have taken the better opportunity to have moved 
her therein,) I have now changed my opinion, meaning to 
stay until my return. In the mean time, notwithstanding, 
I cannot but most heartily thank you for your honourable 
offer made in that behalf. Hitherto my success, both by 
sea and by land, (I thank God for it,) hath been such as I 
could desire. But I fear in the end, when I shall come 
to the matter, I shall not perform that which is looked 
for by her Majesty ; not for lack of care or due endeavour 
in me, but through the weak and slender direction I am 
sent withal: and yet, perhaps, if the success fall not out 
according to expectation, the blame will be laid upon the 
poor Minister. This my doubt is greatly relieved through 
the assurance I have of your honourable and friendly de- 
fence of your absent friend. And so I commit you to God. 
At Bologne, 17th of July 1581. Your assured friend, 


Poor Churchyard's situation again compelled him to 
implore his patron's assistance. The importunity of all 
who were in distress, for on the same day Hatton re- 
ceived a similar letter from Charles Arundell, must have 
been extremely painful; but they justify an inference 

a Edited by Sir Dudley Digges, folio, 1655. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 70. 

N 2 


highly favourable to his character, since the wretched 
rarely appeal to the obdurate or heartless. 


MY duty most humbly remembered. Your Honour know- 
eth my calamity long letters purchase small benefit, as the 
weight of my sorrow showeth. God and good men must 
help; and, in the number of the good, yourself is one in 
my poor judgment that may and will do what may most 
relieve me. I beseech you then weigh my affliction, and 
so work as the world may behold your integrity and up- 
right dealing, to God's glory and to your own immortal 
fame. I live in misery ; stained in credit, cut off from the 
world, hated of some that loved me, holpen of none, and 
forsaken of all ; for what just cause I know not. My 
distress is great, my calling simple, and not able to avail 
anything without the assistance of your goodness. For 
God's sake, bring me to my answer ; and, as you shall see 
it fall out, my accusers can prove nothing against me. 
Vouchsafe me speedy remedy, or, at the least, the justice 
of the law and the benefit of my Country ; and, "if I have 
failed of my duty willingly, let me feel the price of it. I 
crave no pardon, but humbly sue for favourable expedi- 
tion ; for the which I appeal to your honourable judgment, 
and pray for your good success in all your desires. From 
the Marshalsea, the 20th of July 1581. Your Honour's 
in all faithful devotion, T. CHURCHYARD.* 


SIR, It is a fault in grief, that either it complaineth 
too much, or else saith nothing : and yet, for my own part, 
I seek as much as I can to shun extremities. I have largely 
unfolded my whole estate to this bearer, because I would 
not be cumbersome unto you; only craving of charity and 
justice that my trial, which hath been long promised, may 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 63. 


not be any longer deferred : for then shall my enemies sink 
with shame, and I depart out of the field with honour; 
and whatsoever either malice hath unjustly built, or a fool 
devised upon a false ground, must play castle-come-down, 
and dissolve to nothing. And all that I have said or set 
down shall be confirmed by the formal depositions and oaths 
of those who were present when he talked idly, and told 
wonders. I will say no more until either trial or liberty 
may be obtained, which I wish to enjoy by your media- 
tion, whom I commit to the grace of God. From Sutton, 
the 20th of July 1581. Your Honour's fast and unfeigned 
friend, CHA. ARUNDELL." 

Sir Thomas Heneage was Treasurer of the Chamber, 
from whose office payments for couriers and special 
messengers were made, which explains this letter : 


SIR, I understand Mr. Secretary goeth presently into 
France ; and therefore, both for her Majesty's service and 
mine own discharge, I have thought good to let you know 
that in his absence I can grant no allowance to any 
gentleman, or courier that shall carry letters to or from him, 
except they be signed with the hand of my Lord Treasurer, 
my Lord Chamberlain, or yourself. Wherefore, as occasion may 
fall out for her Majesty's service, I beseech you my servant 
may attend on you to inform you of the right order of these 
dispatches for my discharge. And so I pray God to bless 
you with health, and honour, and the happiness I would my- 
self. From Copthall, the 23rd of July 1581. Your own 
bound to love you, T. 

When the manner in which the Queen was importuned 
by her Courtiers for grants of every kind is remember- 
ed, the fact stated by Walsingham when making a 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 79 b . b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 63 b . 


request for his brother-in-law, Mr. St. Barbe, that he 
had never asked a favour during the eight years he had 
been in her service, is very remarkable; but it is con- 
sistent with the integrity of his character, and accounts 
for the honourable poverty in which he lived and died : 


SIR, The Dean and Chapter of Winchester are content at 
the request of this gentleman, my wife's brother, to grant 
him a lease in reversion of their parsonage of Hursley in the 
county of Southampton for fifty years, in respect of the well- 
deserving of their house, as well of his father as of his elder 
brother deceased, who were both their Officers for the re- 
ceiving of their rents ; a matter usual and common among 
them to pleasure those gentlemen with such like grants that 
have any doings for them touching their lands. But they 
desire, for their more orderly granting of the same, that her 
Majesty, to whom the lease is to be passed to his use, would 
write her letter unto them in commendation of the suit ; 
upon the receipt whereof they will not fail to grant it, being 
of themselves already very forward to pleasure him therein. 
My request unto you therefore is, that it would please you to 
favour the gentleman so much for my sake as to move her 
Majesty in the matter, and procure her hand to the letter 
to be directed to the Dean and Chapter, which I send you 
herewith inclosed ready for her signature ; not doubting but 
that by your good means her Majesty will easily be drawn to 
yield to so reasonable a suit, being no way any loss or hin- 
drance to herself; and the now tenant of the thing no old 
tenant, but one that bought it very lately, and otherwise 
of so great wealth and ability that he may well forbear the 
profit of it, without any such prejudice to his estate as may 
justly be drawn into consideration to move her Majesty to 
mislike of the suit ; .wherein I am besides persuaded she will 
the rather incline to do the gentleman good, for that he is 
brother to a gentlewoman of whom she seemeth to have a 


good liking. In the moving of the matter it may please you 
to put her Majesty in mind, that, in eight years' time wherein 
I have served her, I never yet troubled her for the benefiting 
of any that belonged unto me, either by kindred or otherwise; 
which I think never any other could say that served in the 
like place. And so, once again praying you that it will please 
you to deal effectually in this cause, for your travail wherein 
I shall think myself greatly beholding unto you, I commit 
you to God's good keeping. At Bologne, the 27th of July 
1581. Your very assured friend, 


Dr. Mathew, then a candidate for the Deanery of 
Durham, was the Dr. Toby Mathew from whom several 
letters have been inserted. Many others will be found 
from him on this subject; and, though he succeeded in his 
wishes, it was not until August 1583. He was after- 
wards Bishop of that diocese, and in 1606 became 
Archbishop of York : 


SIR, I received a message from you by Lee, my man, yes- 
terday, that when I liked to come to the Court, if you might 
know it, you would make my way to be presently welcome. 
Surely, Sir, it is a place I do honour and esteem, and would 
be glad to be welcome to ; but to come thither before I should 
be welcome accordeth little with reason, and less with my 
liking, except it were to do service to such as I am bound 
to love, which is yourself and a few others. By letters which 
my Lord of Leicester wrote unto me from Wanstead, (which 
I have sent you to peruse,) it appear eth that her Majesty 
is neither well pleased with my absence, nor in anywise con- 
tented I should come over soon. My wife's sickness and 
lameness, so as she could not stir out of her bed, was the 
cause I could neither in reason nor honesty come out from 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 70 b . 


my house till she were better amended. And now, to come 
before her Majesty thought it fit, you know it were very 
inconvenient ; wherefore I beseech you let me know your 
mind how long or short my return may be with her Majesty's 
best expectations, and I shall appoint myself so as I may 
know from you how best to please her. Sir, by my entreaty, 
Mr. Secretary Walsingham hath been a mean to her Ma- 
jesty for the Deanery of Durham for Mr. Doctor Mathew, 
and found her Highness well-disposed therein. He hath 
prayed me to be a means likewise unto you to further him, 
which he will deserve with his prayers and all thankful ser- 
vice towards you. A man of the Church more fit for the 
Church than himself I know not in all England, nor more 
worthy to be preferred. My most earnest desire therefore is, 
that it would please you to help him, as a man well deserving 
advancement, and one whom you may command. Besides, 
I am most humbly to pray you for a poor man of mine, John 
de Vique, (that useth with great diligence to carry the 
Queen's packet,) that it would please you to grant him the 
next dispatch to Mr. Secretary, or otherwise but your own 
letters of advertisements unto him, which he will carry with 
all speed and faithfulness ; and they, with my Lord of Leices- 
ter's, which I will procure, may draw him some little allow- 
ance. Further I will not trouble you, but ever love and 
honour you. From my house at Copthall, 30th July 1581. 
Your own bound to you, 


The wardship, which led to the imprisonment of the 
person mentioned by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
seems to have been granted to his son, Mr. Mildmay; 
whose interests, under that iniquitous and tyrannical 
system, were in some way affected by the conduct of 
the lady's husband, most probably in defence of what 
would now be considered to have been his own property. 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 63. 



SIR, Being informed that Mrs. T. is an earnest suitor at 
the Court by means of her Majesty for the enlargement of 
her husband, committed by the Lord Treasurer in the Court 
of Wards for such a contempt against her Majesty's authority 
in that Court as none before this durst ever attempt, I have 
thought good to send up this bearer, my son, both to hearken 
to her doings and to impeach anything that she goeth about 
to work indirectly upon untrue surmises ; and because my 
son in this matter from the beginning hath been much bound 
unto you, I am the rather bold to make you thus far ac- 
quainted, and therewith also to pray you to favour and 
further him as he shall have occasion to desire your aid. I 
trust her Majesty will be gracious herein, and not to in- 
cline to favour them that so unjustly have sought to benefit 
themselves to the manifest injury of others, and now seek to 
conceal the proceeding of that whereby they claim ; the 
matter also toucheth her Majesty, for, if this may be suffered, 
it may reach to her prejudice in greater things. And so, 
recommending the cause to your friendly and good remem- 
brance, I leave to trouble you any further; but with most 
hearty commendation do wish unto you all prosperity in God 
Almighty. From Apthorpe, the 6th of August 1581. Your 
assured loving friend, W. MILDMAY.* 

"Danger of infection/' the constant bugbear of the 
time, was the principal theme of numerous letters : 


SIR, I perceive by your letter her Majesty's pleasure is, I 
should, ere I came to her presence, remove from my own 
house to some other air. To obey her Highness's liking, which 
I esteem as my life, as soon as I can conveniently I will get 
me hence, though I know not yet whither to wander. You 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 80 b . 


shall still understand what becometh of me ; and I most 
earnestly beseech you that I may know from you from time 
to time how her Majesty and yourself doth. And so, wish- 
ing you in my banishment the company most contents you, 
and none that loved you worse than myself, I commend me 
humbly unto you ; and so doth my wife, your poor friend, 
not yet all recovered. From Copthall, the 7th of August 
1581. Your own at commandment, 


Upon the day on which Walsingham wrote the an- 
nexed private letter to Hatton, (if its date be correct,) 
he made two reports of his proceedings, one to the 
Queen, and the other to Lord Burghley, b but in neither 
did he mention the same facts. His other letters from 
Paris are also silent about Monsieur's having relieved 
Cambray, which was besieged by the Prince of Parma ; 
but on the 24th of August Lord Burghley informed 
Walsingham of the Queen's satisfaction that Monsieur 
had " entered Cambray according to his honourable in- 
tention and promise, so as her Majesty rejoice th greatly 
with this his fruits of so great an enterprize." c 


SIR, The matter of the treaty of the League is now brought 
to this pass with Monsieur, that he hath wholly referred the 
same to the King, to be proceeded in without marriage if it 
shall so like him, so that there be nothing concluded in the 
said treaty that may anyways be prejudicial to the marriage ; 
whereupon it will shortly appear what issue the matter is 
like to have. There came news yesternight to this town, 
that Monsieur was entered into Cambray, which were very 
well welcome to all those that are sound and well affected to 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 85. 
b Compleat Ambassador, p. 392. c Ibid. p. 397. 


this State, but as ill-come to divers that are at the devotion 
of Spain. This happy beginning was accompanied with the 
mishap of the loss of the Viscount of Tureen, who, hazard- 
ing himself to have entered into the town with fourscore 
and ten horse, or thereabouts, was charged and taken by the 
enemy, and all his company (some very few only excepted 
that got into the town) taken or slain. The loss is great of 
the gentleman, being of that virtue and value that he was, 
and one so earnestly devoted to her Majesty as no nobleman 
in France more. And thus I commit you to God. At Paris, 
the 10th of August 1581. Your very assured friend, 


Lord Grey gave Sir Christopher Hatton further infor- 
mation of his proceedings in Ireland, on the 12th of 
August : 


SIR, As your manifold courtesies have given me cause, 
so could I not choose, reputing you in the number of my 
best friends there, but yield you my right hearty thanks 
for the same ; taking the opportunity of this messenger ex- 
pressly to salute you. I forbear to trouble you with the 
particulars of my late journey into the North parts, for be- 
cause I know you shall be partaker of them by my letters 
which I sent unto their Lordships. If her Majesty would 
have been pleased to have granted my demands, I would 
not have doubted, with the assistance of God, but to have 
settled some better order in this journey, as well in sup- 
pressing the pride of Tirlough, as also in expulsing the 
Scots. But being now tied to those directions, which were 
set down by the table there, and her Majesty's disposition 
to peace, I have done my best endeavour to follow the 
one and to satisfy the other. I have, against my will, 
concluded, or rather patched up, a peace with Tirlough ; 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 96. 


being such, indeed, as I can neither repose any assurance 
in the continuance of it, nor for the honour of it justly 
commend it. The best is, that by this occasion some time 
may be won, to yield us the more liberty to deal with 
the mountain rebels; against whom I purpose, with God's 
help, to bend myself with all present speed. I beseech 
you to have in remembrance the gentleman whom, before 
my departure thence, you so often commended unto me ; 
I mean Ned Denny ; that through your honourable media- 
tion he may find her Majesty gracious in his old suit, 
without the which, his forwardness to countenance her Ma- 
jesty's service will bring him to late repentance, and deeply 
touch him in credit. I most earnestly pray you, therefore, 
to stand to him, and you shall no less increase my band 
towards you through your good favour vouchsafed him 
therein, than bind the gentleman himself to remain ever 
yours in all faithful devotion. And so I commit you to 
God. From Dublin, the 12th of August 1581. Your 
assured friend and most loving cousin, A. GREY.* 

Hatton seems, from the following letter, to have wish- 
ed that his nephew, Mr. Newport, should make a cam- 
paign under the Duke of Anjou in the Low Countries ; but 
Wulsingham considered that his reception by the Prince 
would depend upon the Queen's acceding to his Highness 1 
request for a loan. Elizabeth's usual parsimony showed 
itself about the expenses of Drake's voyage; and Lord 
Burghley wrote to Walsingham on the 18th of August, 
" Now that all things are ready, as ships, victuals, men, 
&c., the charge whereof cometh to 12,000/., she hath been 
moved to impart 2000/. more, as a thing needful for the 
full furniture of this voyage; wherewith she is greatly 
offended with Mr. Hawkins and Drake that the charges 
are grown so great above that was said to her when the 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 85. 


5000/. was demanded of her." a On the 24th of August 
Burghley informed him that " her Majesty seemeth reso- 
lutely bent not to exceed 5000/., whereby your charge is 
the greater, which I have essayed to qualify as if it had 
been my own case." b 


SIR, After the closing up of my former, I received your 
letters by your servant Pyne, wherein you recommend your 
nephew unto my favour, and best advice for his preferment 
into Monsieur's service in this journey for the Low Coun- 
tries. Concerning which matter I am to let you understand, 
that, at Mr. Sommers' late being with Monsieur, he pro- 
posed a motion for a loan of money to be granted him by 
her Majesty, for the better furnishing of his necessities in 
those actions he is entered into. If this request be heark- 
ened unto by her Majesty with effect, then is it well to 
be thought that any English gentleman that shall come to 
serve him shall be well accepted ; but if it happen other- 
wise, no doubt their entertainment will be cold, and not 
worthy the embracing. In which respect my advice is, that 
it were first best to attend how her Majesty will resolve 
that way ; which falling out accordingly to the P 's c desire, 
I will then both advertize you what I think meet to be 
provided there, and send over for this gentleman ; and fur- 
ther give him the best advice and direction how to carry 
himself there, and the best address to be well received, 
that I can. I hear that I stand in so hard terms with her 
Majesty as I fear any persuasion I can use in furtherance 
of Sir Francis Drake's voyage will rather hurt than help. 
I am blamed as a principal counsellor thereof ; and though 
I did concur with the rest in matter of advice, yet I do 
assure myself that her Majesty shall, ere a few months 
come to an end, have more cause to allow of the authors 

a Compleat Ambassador, p. 388. b Ibid. p. 395. 

c A cypher, rather than a word, occurs here. 


of that council than of the dissuaders thereof. The mis- 
chief will be, that the remedy will not be allowed of until 
it be too late to apply it. And so, with my hearty thanks 
for your friendly and courteous letters, I commit you to 
God. From Paris, the 20th of August 1581. Your assured 
loving friend, FRA. WALSINGHAM.* 

The learned and accomplished Lord Buckhurst, after- 
wards Earl of Dorset, in asking Hatton's patronage for 
another, expresses the deepest sense of his own obliga- 
tions to him : 


SIR, I know well enough, that, of your own good dispo- 
sition towards this gentleman, you are forward of your- 
self to further his poor suit now in hand. But I that do 
haply see more than another how much it importeth him 
to have a speedy end, and that delay and protraction of 
time will easily consume both him and the benefit which, 
with the help of your goodness, he is like to reap by the 
same, cannot but earnestly intreat the continuance of your 
favour toward him, and that you would be pleased to bind 
for ever unto you so worthy a gentleman. Good Mr. Vice- 
Chamberlain, remember that without your help and honour- 
able mediation he is like to sink in his adversity, and that 
it is needful he should in some sort be relieved. Your- 
self was first pleased to become the only mean to her 
Majesty for him: there wanteth nothing now but that you 
would effectually perfect so noble a work as you have vouch- 
safed to begin in his favour ; for which God shall reward 
you, the gentleman shall serve you, and I shall for ever, 
as you have bound me, both love and honour you ; adding 
this to the great heap of the rest of your favours towards 
me, which burden me so much, as, being unable to requite 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 91. 


>m, I must be forced to sink and fall down underneath 
them. And thus, resting ever your own, I forbear any more 
to trouble you. 30th August 1581. Your own assured for 
ever, T. BUCKHURST.* 

The Deanery of Durham became vacant by the death 
of Sir Thomas Wilson, the late Secretary of State, in 
1581; and Dr. Mathew, as has been already observed, 
was a candidate for the appointment, which he obtained 
in August 1583, when the office had been vacant two 
years. His letter to Sir Thomas Heneage shows the 
great competition there was for the Deanery, and the 
natural indignation of the learned divine, that a physi- 
cian, and "such a man, by such means," should have 
had the least chance of success : 


SIR, I beseech you first accept my humble thanks for 
that exceeding great care which I do hear it pleaseth you 
to continue in my cause ; very tedious, I am sure, to you, 
and almost desperate to me, if that be true which is re- 
ported. It is said, great and mighty means are made for 
one Mr. Bellamy a physician: I pray God, with aU my 
heart, that country stand more in need of physic than of 
divinity; not that I wish the people sick in their bodies, 
but saved in their souls. If aurum potabile be so full and 
effectual in operation, I can find no fault with so many 
that have spent so much to make elixir, the philosopher's 
stone, whereout is to be drawn quidlibet ex quolibet : and 
then that old paradox, omnia sunt unum, is verified by a new 
device. But, good Sir Thomas Heneage, is all your good 
purpose, your great persuasions, your favourable letters, 
your open and often speeches, come to this issue, that Doc- 
tor Bellamy, professed in physic, a stranger at Court, never 
seen there yet, never heard of till now, and now spoken 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 78 b . 


of abroad, and broadly enough, shall run away with such 
a room ; I say not from me, that am less than the least, 
but from all the chaplains her Majesty hath, from all the 
learned known reputed preachers in Oxon, in Cambridge, 
in all this realm ? Have I (poor man ) in treated my Lord, 
mine old Master, chiefly by yourself, by my Lord of York's 
grace, by my Lord of Sarum, by Mr. Captain Horsey, 
Mr. Philip Sidney, &c. ; hath my Lord of "Warwick been 
contented to stay his own suit for Mr. Griffin, in respect 
of me, that a third man, and such a man, and by such 
means, may prevent both us and all others ? I humbly be- 
seech you, Sir, continue forth your favour yet still, till the 
success and event be seen. Hit I or miss I, I shall all one 
most bounden unto you, though not able alike to be thank- 
ful unto you. There be good causes that move me to be 
now more earnest than ever I was. I would before this 
have been at the Court, but for your absence: if you be 
now returned, and think my presence might lessen your 
labour, or further the suit, I will, upon any the least word 
from you, repair thither, and so expect Mr. Secretary's 
arrival. And so I humbly commend you and the good vir- 
tuous lady to the Lord Jesus. Sarum, 7th September 1581. 
Yours, humble and bounden, TOBIAS MATHEW. a 

Walsingham's and his colleagues' official report of his 
last interview with the French King, as well as his 
private letter, both written on the same day as the 
following one to Hatton hitherto imprinted, are in the 
" Compleat Ambassador" : 


SIR, I write the less unto you at this present, for that I 
hope to see you shortly, having taken this day my leave of 
the King and Queen Mother. The only comfort I can take 
of this voyage is, that though I have done no good, yet have I 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 87. 


done no harm, otherwise than that I spent the King and 
Queen's money. I mean, in my way homeward to visit the 
Duke of Anjou ; at what time 1 will not fail to recommend 
your nephew, as also your particular desire you have to do 
him honour and service. By a letter I received this day 
from him, I do find that he meaneth, notwithstanding that 
there are divers of his troops gone away from him, to con- 
tinue in the field the space of six weeks ; in which time 
your nephew shall taste the incommodities of the war, espe- 
cially now that the winter approacheth. And so, hoping 
shortly to see you, I commit you in the meantime to the pro- 
tection of Almighty God. From Paris, the 12th of Sep- 
tember 1581. Yours, most assuredly, 


Sir Francis Walsingham's letters to the Queen form a 
striking contrast to those of her other Ministers. Neither 
Burghley nor Leicester, nor even Hatton, ever presumed 
to remonstrance so firmly, nor to vindicate themselves so 
boldly, as Walsingham did, whenever he thought it was 
his duty to speak the truth either in relation to her 
interests or his own character. There is also an honest 
frankness in his style, which is quite refreshing after 
reading the vapid adulation of his contemporaries ; and 
in no part of his correspondence is this more remarkable 
than in the following fine letter. Who but Walsingham 
would have dared to reproach Elizabeth for having con- 
demned him unheard, or, after justifying his own con- 
duct, have ventured to tell her plainly, that, if she really 
meant to marry at her " years," she had no time to 
lose ; that her meanness about money ruined all her pro- 
jects ; that it had lost her Scotland, and that it was likely 
to lose her England ; that no Foreign power valued 
her friendship, because whenever money was wanted, 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 95 b . 
VOL. I. 


she would do nothing unless it were " underhand," 
and that her predecessors never acted in such a manner? 
While on that subject, he adverted to her treatment 
of the Earl of Shrewsbury, whose allowance for keeping 
the Queen of Scots, whom Walsingham calls " the bosom 
serpent," it was proposed to reduce, though the Earl 
was then driven to such extremity as to have contem- 
plated the sale of all his plate ; a and he concludes with 
the emphatic declaration, that, if the Queen persisted in 
such a course, every one of her true counsellors would 
prefer being in the furthest part of ^Ethiopia, to the 
enjoyment of the finest palace in England. It was, 
however, no small merit in Elizabeth to have appreciated 
Walsingham's integrity of purpose, for, though rarely in 
favour, she was fully conscious of his merits. 


IT may please your most excellent Majesty, the laws of 
Ethiopia, my native soil, are very severe against those that 
condemn a person unheard, but most sharp against such as do 
judge amiss of those that sit in Princely chair, as Gods here on 
earth. To tell your Majesty what others conceive upon the 
late stay here of our proceedings (who can not think that such 
effects should grow upon naked and weak causes), I hope is 
not, to condemn, as by your letter, which it pleased your Ma- 
jesty to vouchsafe to write unto me, it seemeth you conceive. 
When I either look into your Highness's own princely judg- 
ment (who for your own honour's sake ought to have care to pre- 
serve your Minister's credit), or consider my own duty, which 
teacheth me not to condemn those whom I am bound to de- 
fend, I should then be worthy to receive the sharpest punish- 
ment that either the Ethiopians' severity or Draco's laws 
can yield, if I should wittingly by wrong supposal grow to 

* See a Letter from the Earl of February in this year, in Lodge's 
Shrewsbury, dated on the 23rd of Illustrations, ii. 196. 


so hard a censure as to think that your Majesty should prefer 
in a matter of trust a stranger, before a servant who in loyal- 
ty will give place to neither subject nor stranger. I cannot 
deny but I have been infinitely grieved to see the de- 
sire I have had to do your Majesty some acceptable service in 
the present charge committed unto me, to be so greatly 
crossed. But I will leave to touch my particular, though 1 
have as great cause as any man that ever served in the place 
I now unworthily supply ; being at home always subject to 
sundry strange jealousies, and in foreign service to displea- 
sure, though I dare make the greatest enemy that I have the 
censurer of my actions and proceedings in such foreign 
charges as have been committed unto me. But now to your 
public, wherein if anything shall escape my pen that may 
breed offence, I most humbly beseech your Majesty to ascribe 
that it proceedeth of love, which can never bring forth ill- 
effects, though sometime they may be subject to sharp cen- 
sures. And first for your Majesty's marriage ; if you mean 
it, and your proceeding therein doth give the world cause to 
judge the contrary, remember then, I most humbly beseech 
you, that by the delay your Highness useth therein you lose 
the benefit of time, which (your years considered) is not the 
least thing to be weighed ; if you mean it not, then assure 
yourself it is one of the worst remedies your Highness can 
use, howsoever you conceive that it serveth your turn. And 
as for the League that we were in hand withal, if the King 
would have assented that the same should have proceeded in 
general terms according to such direction as we have lately 
received from your Majesty, I am for sundry causes led to 
think that it would have proved as unprofitable as general. I 
know that there is a precedent to confirm the same : but if in 
that time a King of Scots, pretending title to the Crown of 
England, were like, by matching with Spain, to have wrought 
that peril toward your Majesty's father as he is towards you, 
he would not then have stood upon generality, as your Ma- 
j-esty doth now; for in diseased bodies there is not always 
like use of medicines. Sometime, when your Majesty doth 

o 2 


behold in what doubtful terms you stand with Foreign Princes, 
then do you wish with great affection that opportunity 
offered had not been overslipped ; but when they are offered 
unto you, then, if they be accompanied with charges, they are 
altogether neglected. Common experience teacheth that it 
is as hard in a politic body to prevent any mischief without 
charges, as in a natural body diseased to cure the same with- 
out pain. Remember, I humbly beseech your Majesty, that 
respect of charges hath lost Scotland ; and I would to God I 
had no cause to think that it might put your Majesty in peril 
of the loss of England. I see it, and they here stick not to 
say it, that the only cause that moveth them not to weigh 
your Majesty's friendship is, for that they see you do fly 
charges otherwise than by doing somewhat underhand. It is 
strange, considering in what state your Majesty standeth, 
that, in all the directions that we have now received, we have 
special order not to yield to anything that may be accom- 
panied with charges. The general league must be without 
any certain limitation of expense ; the particular, with a vo- 
luntary, and no certain charge ; as also that which is to be 
attempted in favour of Don Antonio. 8 The best is, that if 
they were, as they are not, inclined to deal in any of these 
points, then were they surely like to receive but small com- 
fort for anything we have direction to assent unto. Hereto- 
fore your Majesty's predecessors in matter of peril did never 
look into charges ; when their treasure was neither so great as 
your Majesty's is, nor their Subjects so wealthy nor so willing 
to contribute. A person that is diseased, if he look only 
upon the medicine, without regard of the pain he sustaineth, 
cannot but in reason and nature abhor the same : if there be no 
peril, then it is in vain to be at charges; but if there be 
peril, it is hard that charges should be preferred before immi- 
nent danger. I pray God the abating of charges towards the 
nobleman that hath the custody of the bosom serpent hath 
not lessened his care in keeping of her. To think that in a 
man of his birth and quality, after twelve years' travail in a 

a King of Portugal ; vide p. 202, post. 


charge of so great weight, to have an abatement of allowance, 
and no recompense otherwise made, should not work some 
discontentment, no man that hath reason can so judge ; and 
therefore to have so special a charge committed to a person 
discontented, everybody seeth that it standeth no way with 
policy. What dangerous effects this loose keeping hath bred, 
the taking away of Morton, the alteration of the King, and 
a general revolt in religion intended, wrought altogether by 
her policy, doth show ; and therefore, nothing being done to 
help the same, is a manifest argument that the peril that is 
likely to grow thereby is so fatal as it can no way be pre- 
vented. I conclude, therefore, (be it spoken in zeal of duty, 
without offence to your Majesty,) if this sparing and unprovi- 
dent course be holden on still, (the mischiefs approaching 
being so apparent as they are,) there is no one that serveth in 
place of a Counsellor, that either weigheth his own credit, or 
carrieth that sound affection to your Majesty that he ought 
to do, that would not wish himself rather in the furthest part 
of ^Ethiopia than to enjoy the fairest palace in England. The 
Lord God, therefore, direct your Majesty's heart to take that 
way of counsel that may be most for your honour and safety. 
From Paris, the 12th of September 1581. Your Majesty's 
most humble, obedient subject and servant, 


Another instance of persons being forced by the Court 
upon the City for appointments, and of the difficulties 
with which the authorities had to contend, is shown by 
the following letter from Sir John Branch, the Lord 
Mayor : 


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, Upon the receipt of your 
letters signifying her Majesty's commendation of William 
Parker's request to be an alnager, or surveyor of search of 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 93. sador," p. 426, where it is said to 
This letter, with some trifling varia- have been dated on the 2nd of Sep- 
tions is in the " Compleat Arabas- tember. 


cloth in this City, we did consider what we reasonably could 
for the relieving of Parker, in such manner as might be con_ 
venient, without hurt of this City, and our market, and the 
commonweal. Some difficulty we find in it, with some other 
matters touching Parker as we thought meet to inform your 
Honour toward her Majesty's satisfaction ; and for that cause 
we did appoint some of our brethren to attend upon you, by 
whom we had report that they supposed your Honour to be sa- 
tisfied ; so as we hoped we should not have had further follow- 
ing thereof on his behalf, unless he could by agreement with 
the other that came in by Parker's nomination have made 
a place empty for him. Since that time we perceive that he 
hath said that we would make him pay 1601. for the office, as 
though we, for ourselves, or the City, would take money of 
him for an office which we never meant ; and therein he 
oiFereth us wrong. Howbeit, because we have again received 
your second letters in his favour, and the same thing also pre- 
ferred to her Majesty, and commended to us by our right ho- 
nourable the good Lord, the Lord Treasurer (as appeareth in 
the postscript of your former letters), we have likewise ap- 
pointed some of our brethren to attend upon his Lordship, to 
inform him also of the state of the causes, as your Honour 
hath been, to the intent that her Majesty may have the better 
conceiving of our dutiful proceeding. We are therefore 
humbly to beseech you to join with his Lordship therein for 
satisfying of her Majesty. Nevertheless, we still retain at the 
commendation of his Lordship, and specially for the consider- 
ation of her Majesty's favour, a purpose to do Parker any 
good that we reasonably may ; and therefore because, as our 
brethren that attended on you have made report unto us, 
your Honour, allowing their answer on our behalf to be rea- 
sonable, did require their private promises some other way to 
relieve him ; which because they had no warrant to grant, yet 
they have promised to move it among us ; we have been 
contented, in respect of those from whom he is commended, to 
give him at our common charge a pension of 301. yearly during 
his good demeanour, and so long as he shall not alien the 


same, but keep it to his own use. And this we trust her 
Majesty will take in gracious part, and your Honour think 
well of our thankfulness towards you. And so we commit you 
to the tuition of the Almighty. At London, the 20th of 
September 1581. Your Honour's to command. 


From Dr. Humphry's letter to Hatton's secretary 
Mr. Cox, which seems to belong to this year, it appears 
that Cox had, through his patron's influence, in an unu- 
sual manner obtained some piece of preferment in the 
gift of Magdalen College, and that it was very unwil- 
lingly conferred. 


SIR, I have hastened from Winton to Oxford about your 
matter, and would before have moved it if I could; you 
know that I must follow my course, and keep my time of resi- 
dence. And now the thing in effect is yours, if by law it 
may be conveyed unto you. My company desireth the 
Queen's Majesty's letter, as usually is accustomed ; best for 
our warrant in such an extraordinary case, and most safe for 
yourself. Mr. Dr. Bayly was in that piece of policy very 
wise, with whom, if it please you, you may consult. We 
have drawn all things according to the letter and motion of 
my honourable friend Mr. Vice-Chamberlain; but yet we 
could not seal it in the absence of others. I am sorry it was 
your luck to find out this, which I have denied to my dearest 
friends in that shire, being now in the occupation of one who 
was my predecessor and president here. The rest you shall 
hereafter, and that shortly, understand. God keep you ! 
Oxon, September 21. Your assured friend, 


Though the Lord Mayor of London has still many 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 80. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 83. 


anomalous duties to perform, he is no longer expected 
to lecture the City clergy. It will be seen that the pro- 
ceedings of Branch's successor on this subject called forth 
an indignant letter from the Bishop of London : 


AFTER my hearty commendations to your good Lordship. 
Her Majesty being doubtful that certain of the preachers of 
the City under your charge, provoked perhaps thereunto by a 
lewd book lately published and seditiously scattered abroad, 
not only in the City, but in sundry other parts of this Realm, 
may be drawn to envy against the marriage now in treaty 
between the Duke of Anjou, the French King's brother, and 
her Highness, hath therefore thought meet that your Lordship 
should assemble them to-morrow, and severely to admonish 
them to have due consideration how they intermeddle in 
matters of State not incident to their profession and calling ; 
putting them in mind, that, if they would call to their remem- 
brance the most Christian and singular care her Majesty 
hath always had for the maintenance of true religion, having 
thereby exposed herself to the malice of the mightiest poten- 
tates in Christendom, as one that hath wholly depended upon 
God's protection, they should then have no cause to doubt 
that either this match now in treaty, or any other cause, can 
draw her to do anything that might tend to the prejudice of 
the same ; as one that doth acknowledge that the happiness of 
her government hath proceeded only from the goodness of 
God, whom it hath pleased to make her a nurse to his 
Church ; assuredly persuading herself, that, when she should 
any way decline from the faithful embracing thereof, she 
should then provoke God in justice to withdraw His merciful 
and fatherly protection from her. And as she doth think it 
agreeable to their duties that they forbear to intermeddle 
with any such matters, so is she pleased to say and conceive in 
her gracious wisdom that it is meet for men of their callings, 
in case they shall understand that either by the publishing of 



this book, or otherwise by the sinister persuasions of such as 
would be glad to breed some disquiet in this state, that any 
of her subjects should be carried into some doubt of change 
and alteration of religion, that they should seek by all good 
and dutiful means to remove all such undutiful and lewd 
attempts and conceits of their Prince and Sovereign, under 
whom, through God's goodness and her provident care, they 
have enjoyed so many peaceable days with liberty and free- 
dom of conscience. Thus much her Majesty hath willed me 
to signify unto your Lordship, not doubting but the good 
and godly preachers of that City, upon knowledge of her 
Majesty's good-will and pleasure in this behalf, will bend 
themselves, as in duty appertaineth, to do that which shall be 
most to her Majesty's contentment. And so I commit your 
Lordship to the grace of God. From Collier Row, by Rum- 
ford, the 25th September 1581. Your Lordship's very loving 
friend, FRA. WALSINGHAM.* 

Mr. Newport did, it seems, join the Duke of Anjou's 
army, in which Philip Sidney was also serving : 


SIR, By the inclosed from Mr. Sidney, you may perceive 
how desirous he is to return, and what is the impediment : 
wherein I am to pray you on his behalf to procure her 
Majesty's assent, for that without the same lie doubteth he 
should offend. I send you also a letter from your nephew, 
by the which you may perceive that the Duke was the 22nd 
of this present at Pontdormi, but is now, as I am otherwise 
informed, departed from thence to a place called Blangy, 
in the way to go to Dieppe ; which maketh me to conjecture 
that his determination for the Low Countries holdeth not. 
I fear that a letter which her Majesty wrote unto him about 
ten days past hath wrought that alteration in him ; and, if it 
fall out so, it will breed a great change in the Low Countries, 
such as cannot be but very perilous to her Majesty : so 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 57. 


that it is apparent that danger on all sides groweth fast upon 
us ; which, if it grew not through our own default and lack 
of providence, I should fear the less. The haste this bearer 
maketh, forceth me to make an end. At Barn Elms, the 
26th of September 1581. Yours most assuredly, 


" The King," upon whom Philip Sidney describes 
himself to have been in attendance at Dover in No- 
vember in this year, must have been Don Antonio, 
who had been elected King of Portugal by the peo- 
ple; but, being driven out of his dominions by the 
Spaniards, came to France and thence to England in 
this year. According to Camden, Elizabeth received 
him with kindness, and " bountifully relieved him 
as a kinsman descended from the House of Lancas- 
ter ; " but this statement does not agree with the ac- 
count given of the unfortunate Prince's condition by one 
of his English servants in 1582, who writing to Burgh- 
ley said, " The King, my master, lies in London in the 
greatest misery that ever any man lay, desolate not only 
of necessaries, but of comfort: for he, feeling extreme 
sick at Uxbridge, sent hither to have the help of one of 
her Majesty's physicians." No one came however; and 
he adds, that, if the French Ambassador had not supplied 
him daily, " the poor Prince had remained altogether 
without any comfort." Though the Queen had ordered 
two rooms to be furnished for him, he was then living 
" between four bare walls, void of all good comfort." b 
Don Antonio was in England several years, and many 
letters are preserved about his affairs, but it appears 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 83 b . relating to Don Antonio are in the 
b Wright's Queen Elizabeth and same volume, and in the Lansdowne 
her Times, ii. 176. Other letters MSS. 


from Sidney's letter that in September of this year he 
was at Dover waiting for his ships from the Thames. 
It was intended that Sir Francis Drake should assist the 
Prince in taking the Azores.* 


SIR, The delay of this Prince's departure is so long, as 
truly I grow very weary of it, having divers businesses of mine 
own and my father's that something import me ; and, to deal 
plainly with you, being grown almost to the bottom of my 
purse. Therefore your Honour shall do me a singular favour 
if you can find means to send for me away ; the King him- 
self being desirous 1 should be at the Court to remember him 
unto her Majesty, where I had been ere this time, but, being 
sent hither by her Highness, I durst not depart without her 
especial revocation and commandment. The Queen means, 
I think, that I should go over with him ; which at this present 
might hinder me greatly, and nothing avail the King for any 
service I should be able to do him. I find, by him, he will 
see all his ships out of Thames before he will remove. They 
are all wind-bound, and the other that came hither, the wind 
being strainable at the east, hath driven them toward the Isle 
of Wight, being no safe harbour here to receive them ; so 
that he is constrained to make the longer abode, if it were 
but to be wafted over. I beseech you, Sir, do me this favour ; 
for which I can promise nothing, seeing all is yours already. 
At Dover, the 26th September 1581. Your Honour's 
humbly at commandment, P. SIDNEY.** 

In appearances at least Hatton and Leicester lived on 
good terms with each other ; and every letter that passed 
between them was, like the annexed, full of expressions 
of courtesy and good- will : 

a Lansdowne MSS. 31, art. 81, b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 61. 
82, 83. 



MR. CAPTAIN, I have received both your letters at one 
time, and touching your request in the one for your servant, 
albeit I did move her Majesty long ago for a very tall and 
good footman that is my own servant, and one her Majesty 
did very well allow of, yet for your sake, knowing how far 
you may dispose of anything in my power, you shall com- 
mand and be sure of my furtherance for your man before all 
men. I trust her Highness will give me leave, as all other 
my predecessors in this office have done, to place these rooms 
with such persons as I shall prefer ; and, if I place any 
unfit men, let me have blame with their removal : and so, Sir, 
make your reckoning for your man as far as I have power. I 
thank you for the comfort you sent me that her Majesty 
remaineth in her gracious disposition ; I will pray for no life 
to give just cause to the contrary. So, commending me to 
you as heartily as I can, I bid you as myself farewell, in some 
haste, greatly occupied with affairs such as you may guess at 
about this poor house. This 27th September 1581. Yours 
always assured, R. LEICESTER.* 

If success be the proper reward of perseverance and as- 
siduity, Dr. Mathew well deserved the Deanery of Durham. 
His letter on this subject to Hatton's Secretary explains 
his motives for so earnestly seeking the appointment : 


SIR, For your good friendship I have greatly to thank you 
already, which if you in my absence continue towards me, 
you shall doubly make me beholding unto you; in hope 
whereof, now going to Oxon for a week or more, I think it 
necessary to put you in remembrance by these few notes. 
The causes that move me to desire Durham be these, as 
I have imparted to you, and pray you to inforce them, as you 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 63 b . 


can right well, to Mr. Vice-Chamberlain at his good leisure. 
First, I seek it not in any ambitious or covetous respect, as 
being in degree a place of no greater name than I have 
already, and assuredly promising to resign for that alone all 
the promotions I have; but rather to deliver myself of a 
troublesome room in Oxon full of contention, a kind of life 
far from my disposition and further from my profession. 
Secondly, the Livings I presently possess, though they be not 
so great as they are reported, yet be they more than I would 
they were, whereby my body is overtoiled in travailing up 
and down, my conscience less quieted, and duty less done in 
many than it might in that one. Thirdly, my good friends 
have persuaded me, whom I credit well, it is no small touch 
to my poor reputation among men best given in religion, and 
to myself not worst affected, that I keep Livings ecclesiastical 
so far distant; that albeit I have, nor never had, but one 
benefice with cure of souls, yet those other things I have, 
being so far distracted, make me more than almost infamous, 
especially in their eyes who look not upon the nature but 
into the number of them. Hereto may be added, if you so 
think it good, that if to seek and not find be either a folly in 
the beginning or a misfortune in the end, or rather both, as 
the wiser sort esteem it, I must reckon myself not singly 
disgraced to see a physician preferred before a divine ; a 
mere stranger before an old servant; one that will depart 
from all he hath, rejected for him that hath nought to leave ; 
one by whose preferment many may be gratified, for him 
by whose preferment none can be pleasured but himself 
alone. This minute if you will enlarge, and descant with 
your cunning upon my plain song, you may make this of mine 
with more of your own well serve the turn. What shall I 
further say ? Though there be no cause why I should im- 
portune Mr. Vice-Chamberlain but his own honourable and 
favourable goodness, whereof no man hath tasted more deeply 
than myself, (he hath my daily service and prayer to God 
for it, and shall have while I live, however this succeed,) yet, 
that I cannot with modesty say by word to his Honour I 


am bold to crave you to discourse as opportunity will serve* 
Sir Thomas Heneage I hope will once again debate it with 
him ; and that Mr. Vice-Chamberlain be not alone, and so 
wax the wearier, I trust my Lord of Leicester and Mr. 
Secretary will bear the burden with them, or the one of them 
at the least. Well, good Mr. C., want not you for your 
part, but make me ever beholding to you and ever bounden 
to your Master. And even so now and ever I wish you to 
fare well in the Lord. At London, the last of September 
1581. Your assured friend, 


Philip Sidney appears in his next letter as a suitor 
for the lands of Powerscourt in Ireland for a friend. 
Nothing could more strongly mark the contempt which 
was then felt for the Irish than his saying that the man 
of whom he speaks was " indeed a good honest fellow 
according to the brood of that nation ! " 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, I have spoken with my father 
touching Powerscourt, which Mr. Denny sueth for. He 
tells me assuredly that it is most necessary some English- 
man should have it, being a place of great importance, and 
fallen to her Majesty by the rebellion of the owner. As 
for him that sueth for it in the Court, he is indeed a good 
honest fellow, according to the brood of that nation ; but, 
being a bastard, he hath no law to recover it, and he is 
much too weak to keep it. So that your Honour may do 
well, if it please you, to follow this good turn for Mr. Denny, 
who can and will endeavour to deserve it of her Majesty, 
and do you service for it in all faithful good-will when- 
soever you shall command him. And so I humbly take 
my leave, and rest at your devotion. From the Court, the 
17th of October 1581. Your Honour's humbly at com- 
mandment, as you have bound me, P. SiDNEY. b 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 94 b . *> Ibid. 


Mr. Tremayne, the writer of the following letter, has 
been before mentioned.* The particulars of the suit are 
not stated. 


SIR, Upon an opinion that my poor credit in Court may 
do some good in the reasonable suit of a country gentle- 
man, there is occasion taken, through some former friendly 
acquaintance that the party hath had with me, but espe- 
cially by the near neighbourhood, and consequently the 
loving intercourse of friendship daily practised with my 
brother, the Treasurer of the Church of Exeter, b to desire 
my advice and help for the procuring of a quiet end in a 
cause very vehemently followed in your Honour's name ; 
the course and state whereof I am bold to send you herein 
inclosed. When I was told this matter was carried and pro- 
secuted principally under the countenance of your favour, 
to whom I am both especially bound in duty, as also for 
many loving and favourable usages towards me ; and that 
the forfeitures (if any grow) do appertain to the executors 
of Mr. Colshill, deceased, and to Mr. Mackwilliam, my 
especial good friend, that hath always, and upon all occa- 
sions, showed himself desirous of my well-doing; I have 
been in mind in this case to leave both friend and bro- 
ther, and in country manner to attend to my own quietness, 
or, at the least, not to busy myself with that wherewith I need 
to have little or nothing to do. Considering, nevertheless, 
with better advice of the discourse of the matter as it was 
laid down before me, and imagining that you might be other- 
wise than rightly informed, or haply than the truth will fall 
out upon due and indifferent proof ; and holding such opi- 
nion of your integrity, and likewise of the good conscience of 
Mr. Mackwilliam, as no respect of gain to your friend can be 
able to draw you from justice; I have not thought it imper- 

a Vide p. 95, ante. 
b Richard Tremayne, who was installed in 1561, and died in 1584. 


tinent to my duty towards your Honour, much less to pass 
the bonds of an honest friend to Mr. Mackwilliam, to send 
the case unto you as it was delivered unto me, desiring 
nothing for the party but justice with indifferency ; a matter 
due to every Subject, and the more aptly to be ministered 
when both parties are heard. And thus, though I hold the 
gentleman as wise a man as any in this country, a good Jus- 
tice, and well liked of the better sort that be best inclined to 
the State and to true religion, and is besides a friend to me 
and to my nearest friends ; yet I protest unto you, as I am a 
true man, that no respect doth so much move me thus to 
trouble you as the zealous regard that I have of your Ho- 
nour, of whom I desire so good a fame to be spread, and so 
much advancement in all happiness, as to him that I am most 
bound to honour and love in all faithful devotion. And so, 
beseeching you to accept of my true and plain meaning 
herein, I shall ever pray to God to prosper you according to 
your noble heart's desire. From my poor house at Collo- 
cumb, the 27th of October 1581. Your Honour's most 
bounden and assured at commandment. E. TREMAYNE. a 

Mr. Dyer, for whom Sir Christopher Hatton interest- 
ed himself with Winchester College, was no doubt his 
intimate friend Edward Dyer, from whom a remark- 
able letter has been given. b On the 1st of December in 
this year, Edmund Campion, a celebrated Jesuit, and two 
other Priests, were executed for high treason. Dr. Hum- 
frey's reply to Campion, of which he speaks, was his 
"Jesuitism! Pars Prima, " which appeared in 1582. 


MY duty in humble wise remembered to your Honour. 
Receiving a letter from your Honour at Winchester, to me, 
and the Fellowship being then tied there by residency, I 
returned with as much convenient speed as I could to Ox- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 89. b Vide page 17, ante. 


ford, and have so dealt for Mr. Dyer that I trust he is satis- 
fied, and the party the farmer well contented. I thought the 
way which is taken most commodious for all parties, and so I 
hope your Honour will accept it. The circumstances were 
such by the provision of corn set down in statute, and by 
space of years which the old tenant hath, and by the small time 
by our statute received to the next incumbent, that a present 
payment in my mind was better than a long expectation 
and an uncertain event. And so it is concluded, except 
your Honour will otherwise advertise me; wherein I shall 
be always ready as much as shall lie in me to accomplish 
your commandment. I have written long since to your 
Secretary Mr. Cox, unwilling to trouble your Honour un- 
til some reasonable conclusion did appear, and therefore 
humbly request pardon for my long silence ; the rather for 
that I have been of late occupied in making a reply to Cam- 
pion and his accomplices, whose case I lament, and crave of 
God his reformation ; and would beg further mercy here, if I 
durst, upon repentance, if it might be wrought in him. The 
Lord Jesus be merciful to us all, direct us in His ways, pre- 
serve her Majesty from all privy and apert practices, and 
keep your Honour for ever in all felicity. Oxon, November 
13th. Your Honour's always most bounden, 


All the printed accounts of the Lords Montjoy state, 
erroneously, that James the sixth Lord died in the 
thirty-fifth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 1592-3, 
and the manuscript pedigrees are silent on the subject ; 
but it appears b that he died in 1581, to which date the 
following letter may be referred. The wardship of his 
son, William the seventh Lord Montjoy, was of short 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 69 b . Montjoy, on the 9th of November 
b Letters of administration were 1581. 
granted to his son, William Lord 

"VOL. I. P 


duration, as he was of full age in the ensuing year,* arid 
died unmarried in 1594: 


SIR, I am now to address myself as a suitor unto you, out 
of the conceit I hold of your just and plain dealing with 
such as have cause to use you : in so much as, being so sick 
myself at this present of an ague as I durst not go to the 
Court to speak with you, I determined more willingly to take 
a plain denial from you than a fair unsound promise from any 
other. My suit is this : My Lord Montjoy being lately dead, 
his son is thereby, as I take it, become her Majesty's ward. If 
it might now please her Majesty, of her favour, to vouchsafe 
the same in gift on me by your honourable mediation, for 
the preferment of a niece of mine that I love and greatly 
care for, I should acknowledge myself infinitely bound to her 
Highness, and greatly indebted to your goodness, whom I 
earnestly beseech to afford me your favour in moving it to 
her Majesty ; and, whatsoever the success shall fall out to be, 
to conceal it from all others, as a thing never spoken of to 
any but to yourself, whose honourable happiness I wish most 
heartily may accompany all your actions. 

Your assured friend, F. A. b 

It ill accords with the popular idea of the chivalrous 
Philip Sidney, to find him, like the shoals of obscure 
Courtiers, whose names are either totally forgotten or 
remembered only to their discredit, saying that " need 
obeys no law and forgets blushing," confessing himself, 
like them, overwhelmed with debt, and beseeching Hat ton 
to obtain the Queen's signature to some grant by which 
he might extricate himself from his difficulties : 


SIR, I do here send you my book ready drawn and prepared 

a Inquisition on the death of his grandmother, Anne Lady Montjoy, in 
October 1582. b Additional MSS. 15891, f, 86 b . 


for her Majesty's signature, in such order as it should be ; 
which I humbly beseech you to get signed accordingly with 
so much speed as you may conveniently. For the thing of 
itself in many respects requireth haste ; and I find my present 
case more pitied now than perchance it would be hereafter, 
when haply resolution either way will be hard to get, and 
make my suit the more tedious. Mr. Popham thought it 
would be little or nothing worth unto me, because so many 
have oftentimes so fruitlessly laboured in it ; and this is the 
general opinion of all men, which I hope will make it have 
the easier passage. But indeed I am assured the thing is 
of good value ; and therefore, if it shall please you to pass any- 
thing in my book, you shall command it as your own for as 
much or as little as yourself shall resolve of : it will do me no 
hurt, that seek only to be delivered out of this cumber of 
debts ; and if it may do your Honour pleasure in anything of 
importance, I shall be heartily glad of it. I pass nothing by 
any other instrument than by your own servant, and it shall 
greatly content me that the fruit is of such nature as I may 
have means at the least to show how ready I am to requite 
some part of your favours towards me. If it be not done be- 
fore this day sevennight, I shall be in great fear of it ; for, 
being once known, it will be surely crossed ; and perhaps the 
time will not be so good as it is at this present, which, of all 
other things, putteth me in greatest confidence of good suc- 
cess, with the help of your honourable favour. If you find 
you cannot prevail, I beseech you let me know it as soon as 
may be, for I will even shamelessly once in my life bring it 
her Majesty myself. Need obeys no law, and forgets blushing : 
nevertheless, I shall be much the more happy if it please you 
indeed to bind me for ever by helping me in these cumbers. 
And so, praying for your good success in everything, and in 
this especially, my greatest hope of comfort, I humbly take 
my leave. From Baynard's Castle, the 14th of November 
1581. Your Honour's humbly at commandment, 

P. SlDNEY. a 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 60. 

p 2 


In November the Duke of Anjou arrived in England, 
and was received with every mark of confidence and 
honour. The Queen's conduct towards him, especially 
her having publicly taken a ring from off her own finger 
and placed it on one of his, " upon certain conditions 
betwixt them two," a convinced her Courtiers that she 
really intended to make him her husband. " At home," 
says Camden, " the Courtiers' minds were diversely 
affected ; some were astonished, and some were cast down 
with sorrow." Though Leicester, Hatton, and Walsing- 
ham were commissioners for the treaty, and though Hat- 
ton had often alluded to, even if he did not urge, the 
alliance, yet, according to Camden, when they thought 
it would actually take place, " Leicester, who had begun 
to enter into a secret conspiracy to cross the marriage, 
Hatton Vice- Chamberlain, and Walsingham, fretted as if 
the Queen, the Eealm, and religion were now undone/' 
Moved by the wailings and weeping of her women, as 
well as by their representations, the Queen passed a sleep- 
less night, and the next day, sending for the Duke, a pri- 
vate conversation ensued; after which, retiring to his 
apartments, "he cast the ring from him, and soon took 
it again, taxing with one or two quips the lightness of 
women and the inconstancy of Islanders." The sequel 
is too well known to be here repeated. After dallying 
for three months in uncertainty, the Duke of Anjou 
quitted England for ever ; and the Country was spared 
a most unpopular alliance. 

Sir George Bourchier, thus flatteringly recommended 
to the Queen by the Lord Deputy of Ireland, was the 
son of John second Earl of Bath, and had com- 

a Camden 's Annals. 


manded the Queen's troops in Munster before Lord 
Grey's arrival : 


George Boufchier, upon advertisement received from some of 
his friends out of England, of a conveyance intended by my 
Lord of Bath for the inheritance of his lands, whereof he 
formerly passed a promise to this gentleman before his coming 
over, hath craved license of me to repair into England for the 
space of three months ; which I was the more willing to grant 
him, both for that the cause concerneth him deeply, and 
chiefly for that the heat of this service beginneth now 
somewhat to be assuaged. Nevertheless I could not let him 
pass without delivering to your Highness such commenda- 
tion of him as, by his good service in this country, and 
ready forwardness in all occasions of employment, he hath 
well deserved : humbly beseeching your Majesty hereby to 
take knowledge thereof, and to show him such gracious fa- 
vour and countenance as he may be confirmed in his well- 
doing, and others thereby encouraged by the like means to 
deserve your Majesty's good opinion. And so, with most 
humble remembrance of my bounden duty, praying God for 
your Highness' long health and happy prosperity, I humbly 
take my leave. Dublin, the 28th of November 1581. Your 
Highness' most humble servant and faithful subject. 

A. GREY.* 

Sir Henry Cheke's letter from York may be inserted 
without comment : 


SIR, I have ever since my coming to York been entertained 
in such sort between sickness and business as I have not had 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 

214 THE LIFE AND TIMES OF [ 1581 - 

any good opportunity to write unto your Honour, unto 
whom I must confess I have ever desired, as I am bound, to 
show myself dutifully thankful ; and, as the present time 
falleth out, I have now more good-will to write unto you 
than matter worthy wherewith to trouble you. The country 
here yieldeth few occurrences, and I find they are blown 
hither from other places with a scant wind. I had some news 
not long sithence which were strange unto me and unex- 
pected ; but I hope God will direct all things to the best, 
and make your Honour a good instrument thereof, according 
to the expectation generally conceived of you. I will not 
cease continually to remember your Honour in my prayers, 
nor forbear to do you any other service I may ; unto whom 
wishing most happy success in everything, and, above all, the 
grace of the Highest, I humbly take my leave. From York, 
the 15th of December 1581. Your Honour's most assured to 
command, HENRY CHEKE.* 

Philip Sidney appears in the following letter in a 
character perfectly consistent with his reputation; de- 
clining, as when he received his death-wound, to allow 
his own necessities to be relieved at the expense of 
others, still less to become the instrument of impeding 
the Queen's mercy to the unfortunate : 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, I must ever continue to thank you, 
because you always continue to bind me, and for that I have 
no other mean to acknowledge the band but my humble 
thanks. Some of my friends counsel me to stand upon her 
Majesty's offer touching the forfeiture of Papists' goods: 
truly, Sir, I know not how to be more sure of her Highness 
in that than I thought myself in this ; but, though I were, in 
truth it goeth against my heart to prevent a Prince's mercy. 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 74 b . 


My necessity is great ; I beseech you vouchsafe me your 
honourable care and good advice ; you shall hold a heart from 
falling that shall be ever yours ; and so I humbly take my 
leave. At Salisbury, the 18th of December 1581. Your 
Honour's humbly at commandment, 


Mr. Davison had, by Katherine, sister of Francis 
Spelman, of Bolebrook in Sussex, several sons, of 
whom Francis Davison, the eldest, was the editor of the 
" Poetical Khapsody ;" to which work he and his brothers, 
Christopher, who, it now appears, was Sir Christopher 
Hatton's godson, and Walter, b were contributors : 


SIR, I have received many favours at your Honour's hands, 
which have already infinitely bound me unto you : amongst 
which this is not the least, that it hath pleased you to send 
down this gentleman expressly, in your behalf, to give the 
name to my young son ; whom, as a testimony of my own 
devotion, I have desired to offer and dedicate to your service. 
And because I know your Honour is both an enemy to cere- 
monies, and of judgment sufficient to discern the affection of 
such as your deserts have bound unto you, I do forbear in 
these any other testification of my thankfulness than that 
which I trust your Honour doubteth not of, which in a 
word is a faithful and dutiful offer of myself and all that 
I have, to be, whilst I live, at your Honour's good devotion ; 
whom beseeching God to bless with all increase of happiness, 
I most humbly commend to His good providence. From my 
poor house at Bolebrook, this 28th of December 1581. Your 
Honour's most humbly bounden, WILL. DAVISON. 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 74 b . to the last edition of the Poetical 
b Memoirs of these sons, and of Rhapsody." 
the other contributors, are prefixed 


Postscript. Though the suddenness of this gentleman's 
departure from me hath half broken my charity, yet acknow- 
ledging myself greatly bound unto him in taking so foul a 
journey to do me this pleasure, and not able otherwise to 
deserve it, I must beseech your Honour to supply my want 
in giving him thanks, till I may myself in some sort be able 
to make him the amends. 3 

Of the numerous undated letters, the following appear 
to belong to this or to the early part of the next year, 
though with respect to some of them the date is very 
uncertain. The first four are from Charles Arundell, 
from whom two letters on the same subject have been 
already inserted : 


SIR, I have conceived such comfort of your last message 
sent me by this bearer, as I am emboldened thereby most 
humbly to crave your honourable aid and good favour in my 
cause ; and, of your goodness, either to procure me trial, that 
I am sure will acquit me, or to release me of my bands, with 
free enlargement, that would greatly ease and relieve me. If 
her Majesty shall pretend to take a pause upon your motion, 
or require time to be advised, as she hath done all this while 
without fruit, it may please you to do me the favour (if in 
your wisdom you shall think it meet) to answer that excuse 
by alleging unto her my eight months' imprisonment, a more 
grievous punishment to him that either regardeth the com- 
fort of her Majesty's favour, or his own poor reputation, 
than an honest mind is able to bear without many tears and 
continual affliction. I hope her Majesty will not deny you 
the sweetness of her princely goodness in the behalf of me 
her poor distressed servant, lightly suspected, nothing faulty, 
and never offending her so much as in thought, I take God 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 71. 


to witness ; seeing she hath lately vouchsafed the same to 
some others in the favour of my most hateful and wretched 
adversary, a person convicted, as you know, of great abomi- 
nation, and notably detested of all men for his wickedness. 
Well, I must and will ever rest obedient in all lowliness of 
duty, as becometh me, to her Majesty's commandment ; and 
what in her wisdom she shall think most reasonable, I will 
always repute most just and full of princely goodness. And 
so, expecting still, as I have done long, the happy hour of 
my deliverance through your honourable mediation, I humbly 
take my leave, and commit you to God. Your Honour's 
wholly to command and dispose at your pleasure, 



RIGHT HONOURABLE, I may not forget my humble duty, 
but let it always occupy the chiefest place in my letters, as a 
thing most fit for me, and most due to your Honour. 1 was 
glad to understand by this bearer of your good acceptation 
of my last, but so much comforted by your honourable mes- 
sage as this paper sufficeth not to let you understand at full. 
And my hope is, that my innocent cause, that hath long lain 
asleep, shall be shortly awakened and remembered by your 
Honour as convenient opportunity shall serve you. Because 
I would not be cumbersome unto you, I have requested this 
gentleman to unfold unto you my poor estate, and how I 
live, which is much harder I assure you than I com- 
plain of. But God and truth being on my side, is all my 
comfort ; and I now know well, that whatsoever the devil or 
his ministers could devise against me was not wanting, and, if 
there had been any probability in my enemies' accusations, 
I had been ere this time past laudate. What I know, and of 
whom, I will say more unto you, when time shall serve, than 
to any person living. In the mean while I humbly take my 
leave, and commit you to God. Your Honour's most assured, 


Additional MSS. 15891, f. 58. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 73 b . 

218 THE LIFE AND TIMES OF [1581-2. 


SIR, Though hitherto I have had small means to declare 
my good affection towards you, yet hath there not wanted 
good-will to wish well with the best ; and so wishing as with 
effect I might express it, and leave you satisfied of my good 
meaning. I speak not this to merit the more, but only for 
the due respects I owe you, by whose aid only I have been 
enabled to live the better ; praying you to esteem of me as 
truth shall try me, and as hereafter upon better proof you 
shall find me. The hope I had to see you here hath stayed me 
thus long from writing ; my case requireth your favour, and 
myself your comfort. I have most plainly unfolded before 
you my knowledge in all points, not concealing anything to 
excuse myself, nor adding more than is truth to harm others. 
I therefore humbly crave your favour in this my perplext 
estate. My restraint of liberty trouble th me nothing ; but 
the disfavour of her Majesty grieveth me so much, as 1 would 
rather choose to die, than thus to continue my lingering 
sorrows in suspense, without assurance of any certain remedy. 
God I take to witness I never faulted against her Majesty's 
person ; and as no man hath more cause to honour and 
serve her than I, so hath no man held her virtues in more 
admiration, nor defended them further when some other have 
not been so forward to perform that towards her Highness 
which in duty they ought to have done. As this is true, so 
God deal with me, and dispose your mind to do me good, who 
resteth more yours than I am able to express. Your Honour's 
humbly to dispose and command, C. ARUNDELL.* 


SIR, Your desire to do me good can do no more than con- 
firm my former intent and readiness to deserve as well as 
I can of you and your friends. My case requiring in- 
differency will abide any trial, and I account it not my least 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 95. 


good hap that you shall have the hearing of my "cause. As 
I have already most plainly and sincerely betrayed my know- 
ledge in all points of my examination, so I beseech you with 
all humility to be the mean to restore me to my former 
liberty, and to her Majesty's good favour, without the which 
I desire not life ; and, if plain and open confession may pur- 
chase pardon for my former offences to the law, I will, as I 
have begun, unfold unto you what I meant to impart to her 
Majesty ; and, because the offence was not committed wilfully, 
I presume of pardon through your mediation easily. And so, 
recommending myself and cause to your honourable direction, 
I humbly take my leave, with full and faithful vow to be 
yours in all service. Yours more bound than I have mean 
to acknowledge, CHARLES ARUNDELL^ 

The name of the writer of the following letter, to 
whom Hatton had given permission to state his opinions 
on public affairs, has not been discovered : 


SIR, Being so much bound unto you as I am, I were much 
to blame to be slack in obeying your commandment, es- 
pecially at this present, when, in respect of your singular 
favour to me and mine, I must confess my band to be greater 
towards you than ever it was at any time, and my debt much 
increased by your late goodness. It is no small grief unto 
me, that, beholding your virtuous and godly disposition, I 
am not any way able by my poor service to further it ; never- 
theless, seeing you were pleased to give me leave, whensoever 
occasion should occur, to deliver my simple opinion, I will 
humbly obey your direction, and beseech you to excuse my 
presumption with the authority of your own commandment, 
which I embrace with that reverence and regard of duty, as 
to neglect it were a manifest argument that I little respected 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 90. 


my own comfort. I will not, for all that, be so bold as to 
take upon me to judge what were needful and convenient for 
you to do in the consideration of these great causes, though 
your courtesy hath vouchsafed me that liberty, and greatly 
encouraged me to that end. It shall suffice that 1 presume 
no further than to declare what reasons induce me to hope 
of some good conclusion of peace between her Majesty and 
the French King; which, how simple or weak soever they 
may seem, shall argue notwithstanding an honest desire of 
a good effect, and such cannot but greatly redound to the 
general quiet and preservation of the state of Christendom. 
It is not likely that (the state of France being such as it is 
now) the King will be brought to yield and conform himself 
to peace, unless he may have Milan ; and to make them aban- 
don the wars of Italy by force, were a hard course, and such 
as they themselves (who always make their hope a certainty) 
will sooner wilfully perish than endure. Experience hath 
already taught us that it is no easy matter for her Majesty to 
draw that people by violence to forsake their right. And 
though it were, yet it is not to be wished that her Highness 
should build up her own estate with the ruins of so mighty 
a Prince, who hath both power and will to do what he can, 
and as much as any King in Christendom is able to do, 
against the Turk, our common enemy ; whose forces he 
would never cease to oppugn by continual war, if he found 
not all other Princes so contrarily addicted as that they will 
rather (to wreak their malice against him) choose to stand to 
the mercy of the Turk, than suffer him to recover his right, 
which they cannot detain from him in justice. Her Majesty 
hath already given him sufficient cause to fear her ; and 
though there be no warrant to be assured of the insolency of 
that nation, yet may I boldly say, that, being so much 
afflicted and broken with troubles as they have been lately, 
they will have now the more reason to make account of those 
that have power to hurt them. And of this (if I may speak 
it without offence) I dare adventure my life, if it were worth 
the least part of her Majesty's favour. If I should speak all 


that I think, and that needfully occurreth to be considered of, 
I should hold you too long, and yet say nothing that you do 
not see much better than I am able to imagine. I will there- 
fore here conclude ; only beseeching you to pardon my bold- 
ness, and to vouchsafe me the favour to think that my desire 
of her Majesty's quiet and greatness, and not any trans- 
portation of passion, hath moved me to make this motion. 
And so I commit you to God. a 

Nothing can be stated in illustration of the two fol- 
lowing letters : 


SIR, I have taken no small comfort to understand that the 
State of Venice hath called you to so honourable a degree, 
with such fame and reputation as your faithful service hath 
worthily deserved. To express my joy and gladness for this 
fortune which your virtue hath laid upon you, I have pre- 
sumed to send you these few lines, which shall testify unto 
you as much as paper and ink can specify for my hearty 
good-will towards you. I rejoice even in my soul, that in 
your most tender years your virtue, accompanied with fortune, 
hath brought yoji to that good state of credit and favourable 
opinion with the world, which many men, even in their 
ripest age, have laboured to get with long study, and could 
never attain to. I do not doubt but that the effects of your 
actions will correspondently answer the expectation which 
your value promiseth. One thing I will be bold to tell you 
for the especial love I bear you, which is such as can suffer 
no increase ; and this it is : that the same Glory, with whose 
beauty you were in your youth and tender years so greatly 
enamoured, may purchase you perpetual fame and comfort, if 
with your study and painful industry you will now carefully 
follow and continue it; whereby myself, with the rest of 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f, 52 b . 


your friends and servants, which are infinite, shall rejoice to 
be partakers of your honour and well-doing. God keep you 
in health, that you may be always an instrument to minister 
good to many men, as you have done hitherto by your gravity 
and virtue. Your loving friend. 


SIR, I will not violate the law of our ancient familiarity 
and friendship by recommending this gentleman, my friend, 
unto you with long and ceremonious letters, for so should I 
do injury both to your grave judgment and goodness ; the 
party being a man of quality as he is, and accompanied with 
such rare and singular conditions. I shall not need to say 
any more but that he is my friend, and worthy of your 
favour and acquaintance. The rest you shall gather of your- 
self; which when you have done upon further trial and 
proof of his desert, I am assured you will not only love him, 
but likewise embrace and accept his faithful devotion towards 
.you in most thankful part. He is now come from Venice 
upon the occasion of some private business of his own, for 
the expedition whereof he shall stand in need of your good 
favour and assistance. I know your gentle nature, being so 
officiously disposed to do good as it is, will work as much 
readiness in you as I wish for ; and so will the merit of the 
gentleman, not so much in respect of my entreaty, as by the 
instigation of your own virtue and of his desert. I shall be 
glad that he may know you by this occasion to be a free and 
liberal steward of the benefits of courtesy and wisdom that 
God hath given you, and you him to be a grateful and kind 
receiver in requiting you with the like, as his poor ability 
will suffer him ; in which respect, to be plain with you, I 
think you to be as much beholding to me in acquainting you 
with a gentleman of so rare virtue, as he is unto you for en- 
joying of the possession of your friendship, and in receiving 
this pleasure at your hands by my mediation. God prosper 
you in the highest degree of happiness ; whom I beseech so to 


direct your mind as that I may always have place in the 
bosom of your love and good favour, so far forth as yourself 
doth desire it, and I may deserve it. Your vowed true friend. 

The lady who solicits Hatton to prevent, if possible, 
the inconvenient and expensive honour of a visit from 
the Queen, was, no doubt, the Lady Anne Askewe who 
presented the Queen with a gold anchor ornamented 
with diamonds, hanging to a gold bodkin, as a New- 
year's gift in 1581 : 


SIR, This short warning, and my unfurnished house, do ill 
agree ; for, besides her Majesty's diet, there be many things 
which I know to be fit for her ease that I want : wherefore, if 
her Majesty's pleasure would otherwise determine, my shame 
were the less, and my band to you the greater. Neverthe- 
less, if it be her Highness's direction, I with my little might 
will do all with the best will I can, and pray you, my honour- 
able friend, to help by your commandment that otherwise is 
beyond my reach. And so, expecting her Majesty's pleasure, 
I beseech God to bless you with all happiness. Your true 
friend in her ability, A. ASKEWE. 

Post. I would gladly Mr. Killigrew would take the pains 
to come to-day and appoint what were fittest for her places 
of ease, and how they should be ordered. 3 

None of the following undated letters can be illus- 
trated, either by identifying the writers, or by explain- 
ing the several matters mentioned in them : 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 87 b . MS. 25 ; and two other letters from 

A letter from Lady Anne Askewe to her, written in October and Decem- 

Lord Burghley in September 1577, ber 1582, are in the Lansdowne MS. 

asking for some concealed lands for 36. 
her husband, is in the Lansdowne 



SIR, It is thought by those that know us that I may do 
much with you ; which is an opinion rather grounded upon 
the reciprocal good-will which we bear to each other, than 
either upon any merit on my part, or any duty other than of 
love and kindness on yours. Howsoever it be, I may boldly 
assume thus much -to myself, that the sincereness of my good 
meaning towards you deserve th your friendly acceptation, 
which is enough to make me think that I may do somewhat 
more with you than commonly other men can do. Pardon me, 
I pray you, if I trouble you oftener than I would ; it is only 
my earnest desire to benefit and pleasure my friends in their 
honest causes that moveth me thus to importune you. My 
good affection to this party makes me most careful in com- 
mending him to your favourable and good opinion ; wherein 
if I should use but my wonted and ordinary words of en- 
treaty, I should neither satisfy his need nor my own desire. 
The gentleman meriteth much, and reposeth great confidence 
in my poor furtherance ; therefore I pray you, whatsoever you 
shall find wanting in my letters to express my earnestness to 
pleasure him, let your goodness supply it with your own be- 
nignity and wisdom in vouchsafing him courtesy, whose 
virtue is worthy of all favour and advancement. Himself shall 
deliver his own careful cause and complaint unto you. Let me 
be so much beholding to you as to make him know that his 
hope which he conceive th of me is not deceived, and that I 
may assure myself of the comfort which your love hath always 
promised me ; so shall he have cause to acknowledge a per- 
fect obligation unto me, and I yield you infinite thanks in his 
behalf, as you have bound me. God give you all good 
effects of your honourable desires, and the due reward be- 
longing to your virtue ! 

Your friend, ever one and all your own. a 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 102. 



SIR, If the malice of men were not sooner supplanted by 
silence than by words, I should be as forward to speak as I 
am now willing to hold my peace. But seeing most men in 
Princes' courts are subject to slander ; to be passionate with 
those and such other abuses, were but to complain without 
remedy, and to call your wisdom and grave judgment into 
doubt, which I will not do. I will shut up my lips, therefore, 
to avoid all further danger ; and rather endeavour with pa- 
tience to suffer wrong, than give them cause to exasperate 
their malice by answering to their reproachful speeches. As 
near as I can, I will have care of my own reputation, howso- 
ever other men's tongues are led to report of me ; neither will 
I much regard the opinion of such persons, whose commenda- 
tions cannot greatly increase my credit, and whose discom- 
mendations cannot turn me to imputation of blame by their 
obloquy and infamous reports. It was never the office of ill- 
will to speak well ; and such is the condition of malice, that 
it ever worketh trouble where it is least deserved. I am 
content they shall excel me in ill words, so I may be able by 
good deeds to keep myself harmless. It is enough for me 
they know that I hold not my peace for fear ; and that, if they 
have their tongues prompt and prepared to utter evil, I have 
my pen as ready as they when wisdom will so command me. 
But wise men are of opinion that words should not pass the 
circuit of a parlour or a chamber, and man's talk is the image 
of his mind ; I will therefore use my ears, and forbear my 
tongue. Wishing you health and all other happiness now 
and ever. Your poor, oppressed, unfortunate friend,* 

It would be vain to attempt to explain the following 
well- written letter of counsel to some one who had en- 
tered a foreign service : 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 103. 




SIR, You do wrong to the love I bear you to pray me to 
do that which in duty I am bound to do without any entreaty. 
The only remembrance of your goodness had been a suffi- 
cient commandment of itself to move me to do anything that 
concerneth your service. The trust which you seem to re- 
pose in me is my greatest comfort in this world ; and I hope 
I shall so well discharge it, as, what fortune soever shall befal 
you, you shall never have cause to change your opinion of 
me, or repent you of the favour which you have thought me 
worthy of. Because you ask my advice, I will be bold in the 
sincereness of my good-will to give it you ; but with entreaty 
of pardon that my dutiful thankfulness, and your own cour- 
teous disposition, may excuse me if, in saying freely what I 
think, I shall happen to give occasion of offence in doing that 
which yourself hath commanded me. To natter or dissemble 
with you in a matter that so much impo^teth you were plain 
treachery, and a course of dealing as unpleasant unto me as 
it is unworthy of your virtue and wisdom. It may please 
you therefore in direct terms to give me leave to tell you 
that your departing from the service of this State is like 
to prove most prejudicial unto you, as well in respect of the 
bounty and goodness which you had cause to hope for in 
regard of your merit, as for the singular satisfaction which 
all men reaped through your wise and discreet government 
in the place you served. In few words, you have done your- 
self injury, and forsaken the flesh to take the shadow, in 
preferring the service of this King before that famous Com- 
monwealth that hath so liberally rewarded your virtue, to 
the increase of your reputation and fortune. If he were 
such a Prince as loved our Nation, or his people such as 
would be content in the justice of our deserts to give us our 
due, there were no cause I should dislike your determina- 
tion ; but finding that he maketh a virtue of necessity, and 
only to serve his turn by your service, it moveth me to think 
that you will soon repent you. I know there is reason you 


should hope to win the love of one much sooner than of 
many; and that where there are many linked in society 
together, they are neither always all virtuous, nor equally 
disposed to remunerate and advance those which in all duty 
of faithful service have well deserved. But when I consider 
that as your merit increaseth, so the envy of the Prince will 
be every day more eagerly bent against you to overthrow and 
supplant your reputation and credit in the midst of your 
best endeavours, I cannot imagine how you might better 
your fortune without manifest peril of your own decay and 
disgrace, by serving this King, as you have undertaken. It 
is not the least reproof that our Nation sustaineth, to become 
servants and tributaries, as we do daily, to strange and bar- 
barous people; even to such as our predecessors were wont 
many ages since to lead bound and captive before their 
chariots, fraught with chains and fetters, in their victorious 
triumphs. Your own wisdom can consider that Kings are 
mortal, and though their sons are heirs to their paternal 
estates and inheritances, yet are they not commonly succes- 
sors in the distribution of virtue and love to their fathers by 
favouring and affecting their ancient servants ; but a popular 
estate, which is perpetual and never dieth, because there 
reigneth no King, always thankfully remembereth and boun- 
tifully rewardeth those that have truly and faithfully served, 
and will acknowledge it both in the father, in the son, and 
in all their posterity. It is superfluous that I trouble you 
so long in showing you my poor opinion of a matter which 
you may govern as please yourself, and see much better in 
the glass of your own wisdom than I can be able to imagine. 
It is my good-will, and the earnest desire which I have to 
increase your reputation, that makes me thus bold ; which it 
may please you to pardon and accept in good part, vouch- 
safing me that favourable opinion of my service which I hold 
of your virtue and kindness. Your assured friend. a 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 103 b . 


Elizabeth Lady Leighton, the writer of the annexed 
letter, was the wife of Sir Thomas Leighton, Captain of 
Guernsey ; and was a distant kinswoman of the Queen, 
being the daughter of Sir Francis Knollys by Kathe- 
rine arey, whose mother was the sister of Queen Anne 
Boleyn. Except the little compliment to the Queen's 
attractions, there is nothing so remarkable in this letter 
as to account for its having found a place in Hatton's 
"Letter Book:" 


MY MOST WORTHY HUSBAND, Though I feared you had 
forgot me, (for which I must crave your pardon,) seeing as 
they say such effects proceed from the greatest love, yet I 
perceive you will always be yourself in keeping that con- 
stant course as not to cast off your poorest friend, whom 
you have once well thought of ; which indeed is none of the 
smallest of your commendations. And so kindly do I now 
take your careful inquiry of my well-doing, witnessed by 
your friendly letter, as I must tell you my love is great 
towards you ; and though it be fruitless, and unaccompanied 
with such pains as I have lately felt, yet shall it be such as 
shall ever joy in your contentment, and desire you may in- 
crease in all happiness. These be the poor acquittals, my 
dear Husband, that my good-will can yield you for all your 
honourable favours ; but I hope you will accept the mind 
from me, whensoever you receive the effects, and persuade 
yourself that nothing you can wish to be added to your 
fortune shall want my consent, though it were for the favour 
of her Majesty, which is much for a wife to agree unto. 
Notwithstanding, I leave you to her good grace, and myself 
to your wonted good opinion. 

Your faithful Wife, and well-wishing friend, 

E h . LEYGHTON. a 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 78. 


Two letters from Mr. Davison to Hatton, the one writ- 
ten while on one of his missions, and the other soliciting 
his interest to obtain some favour from the Queen, as well 
as a letter from Sir Henry Cheke, need no observations : 


SIR, I wrote nothing unto your Honour by the last post, 
by reason of his sudden departure ; and though I doubt not 
but that want of mine was otherwise supplied, yet I beseech 
you to excuse the same. Now what doth occur in the broken 
and confused estate of things here you may perceive by the 
particulars herewith sent ; to the which referring your Ho- 
nour, and beseeching the same to reckon me in the number 
of those whom your favours have faithfully devoted to you, 
I most humbly take my leave. Your Honour's humbly 
bounden to do you service. W. DAVISON.* 

SIR, You know my modesty in pressing the favour of my 
friends in my own particular ; I beseech you, Sir, let it not 
hinder that disposition you have ever had to do me good. 
My state I have oft laid open to you, which to renew in these 
were needless. It is enough that the common report of my 
best friends do testify of it as worthy her Majesty's gracious 
consideration, since neither my purse, my body, nor my time 
hath been spared for her service ; my experience of whose 
gracious bounty to others and favour to myself doth assure 
me that there wanteth but good offices from my friends ; 
which as your Honour hath not hitherto been spare of in 
my behalf, so do I beseech you to continue it till I may 
gather some fruit thereof, to my perpetual obligation and your 
own honour. W. 


SIR, The aptness of this bearer hath very easily enticed me 
to write these few lines unto your Honour, rather for a tes- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 108 b . b Ibid. f. 101. 


timony of my duty towards you than for any good advertise- 
ment I have to send you, wherein I hope the barrenness of 
this country shall excuse me. The latest thing which hath 
happened here of any moment is the death of Sir Thomas 
Boynton, old Mr. Gooderick, and divers other gentlemen, 
who have been taken away on the sudden ; wherein her Ma- 
jesty in my opinion hath received great loss, the most part of 
them being very sound in religion, and well affected to her 
Highness 1 service. For myself, I hope I have escaped for this 
year, and shall live a while to do your Honour some service, 
either here or wheresoever else it shall please you to com- 
mand me. And so, recommending the good and happy suc- 
cess of all your actions to the Highest, I humbly take my leave. 
From York, the 15th of January 1581 [1582]. Your Honour's 
most assured at commandment, H. CHEKE.* 

Dr. Bartholomew Clark, Dean of the Arches, was, it 
seems, a suitor to Hatton for the Archdeaconry of Wells, 
which fell vacant by the death of John Rugge in 1581; 
but, as the register is defective 1 * until the appointment 
of Dr. Langworth in February 1588, the result of his 
application is unknown. The learned civilian's remark, 
that though he had not performed any services to en- 
title him to the Queen's favour, yet that he was always 
ready, and that if he obtained this preferment he should 
be the better able to do so, is ingenious : 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, It may please you to understand 
that one Mr. Upton of Wells, who exerciseth the ecclesiasti- 
cal jurisdiction under the Archdeacon there, hath written to 
my good Lord of Buckhurst that Mr. Rugg lay speechless and 
at the point of death the first of this present month of Feb- 
ruary ; whereof I am now bold the rather to advertise your 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 96. 
b Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesise Anglicanse, p. 44. 


Honour, lest haply any man (not knowing of my advowson) 
should make suit unto her Majesty for the Archdeaconry 
before the breath were out of his body, and so breed me 
great vexation and trouble in law by opposing her Highness* 
prerogative against my former right. If her Majesty shall 
find it strange that any man that hath not served her in 
greater causes than myself should enjoy spiritual Livings, it 
may please your Honour to remember that I am not only as 
ready as any man to serve her Highness to my small power, 
but shall be made the more able by this accession of living to 
serve, either in these places or otherwise, as shall be best 
pleasing to her most excellent Majesty. And as the statutes 
of the Realm do make especial and express mention of the 
Master of the Rolls and the Dean of the Arches, touching 
the retaining of ecclesiastical livings, so hath it been a con- 
tinual use from time to time that the Deans of the Arches 
(myself only excepted) have been furnished with many spiri- 
tual promotions ; for that they have invested in them, by 
the statutes of this Realm, spiritual jurisdiction, which is a 
far greater matter than an ecclesiastical living without cure 
of soul thereunto annexed, as an Archdeaconry is by the 
common laws. To end : that all our whole profession may 
ever acknowledge you their honourable patron, it may please 
you, as occasion shall serve, to take notice that by the 
statute of 31 of King Henry the Eighth a Doctor of Law is 
qualified for two benefices with cure of soul, much more 
without cure and so great a charge ; which argueth that those 
times thought always the men of that profession to be very 
necessary members of our Commonwealth, and worthy by all 
good means to be cherished and supported : which opinion if 
your Honour do likewise conceive of us, you shall bind both 
myself and all the rest to be ever thankfully ready in all 
faithful devotion to do you service. And so I beseech God 
to prosper you in all your honourable actions. From the 
Arches, the 4th of February 1581 [1582]. Your Honour's 
ever to command, B. CLARK.* 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 59 b , 



I THOUGHT good to send you the enclosed, which I received 
sithence my return unto my lodging, to the end you may send 
the same unto her Majesty, by the which she may perceive 
that the advertisements given of the accord between certain 
of the towns in Flanders and the malcontents are untrue. 
It is likely that, if the Duke had not repaired thither, there 
might have fallen out there some strange alteration, hav- 
ing settled their hope altogether on him. God bless her 
Majesty, and send you well to do. At my lodging, the 8th 
of February 1581 [1582]. Yours most assuredly, 


Another letter was written in February by the per- 
severing Dr. Mathew to Mr. Cox, Hatton's secretary, 
about the Deanery of Durham: nor is it the last by 
many from him on the subject : 


MR. Cox, Were it now possible, post multa tandem sacula, 
to hear a comfortable word or two from the Court, of a 
suit so long forlorn as that of Durham hath been ? Hath 
Monsieur's departure brought on any more seasonable times 
than during his abode such as poor I did find ? Could Dr. 
Bellamy's friend steal occasion to get a new grant, and cannot 
anybody for me have opportunity to satisfy her Majesty's 
former promise ? Good Mr. Cox, let me boldly desire you 
to learn as you can what the terms were her Highness gave 
my Lord of Hunsdon in the cause.' The comfortable words Mr. 
Vice-Chamberlain vouchsafed me at my departure from the 
Court (which if you remember I did impart unto you) were, 
me thought, sufficient to assure me of the place. I cannot as 
yet persuade myself her Majesty would so revoke or could 
so forget her word ; or if her Highness, so many ways affaired, 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 63 b . 


hath past unawares any such half-allowance of my Lord of 
Hunsdon's petition, I trust upon good instruction I may be 
restored to my former possibility. Little thought I (God 
wot), when I came up hither, but I should with the first have 
been dispatched, not from it, but with it. And my heart yet 
serve th me, that all Mr. Bellamy giveth out by reports are 
but rumours, rather of crack than of cause. I pray you, Sir, 
take some time with Mr. Vice-Chamberlain to consider of me. 
I have great hope in his Honour to her Majesty, and in you 
to him. As hitherto you have especially friended me, so I 
trust you will earnestly further me now at a pinch ; for 
although I doubt not but it liveth and will recover, yet I fear 
it bleedeth and lieth in danger. If I wist the Court would 
have any long continuance in those parts, and that my pre- 
sence would further the expedition or assurance of the matter, 
I should upon your direction soon be there. But howsoever, 
I heartily request to receive a few lines from you by the next. 
If her Majesty be disposed hitherward, I hope we shall the 
better and sooner meet, and further confer in more particular. 
And so I recommend me to your remembrance, and you as 
myself to God. London, 12th of February 1581 [1582]. 
Your debtor and friend assured, TOBIE MATHEW. a 


SIR, Understanding by this bearer, my cousin Wiseman, 
that he hath made suit unto you to move her Majesty for 
him, I am bold, by these few lines, to recommend his cause 
unto you ; praying you heartily, as time and opportunity may 
serve you, that it will like you to remember it, and to further 
him so far as you may. . !*or the which he shall be greatly 
bound unto you, and I be ready with my poor good-will to 
be thankful unto you for your good favour towards him. So, 
praying you to bear with me in troubling you in such mat- 
ters, I leave both the gentleman and his suit to your good 
consideration ; wishing you ever all felicity in the Lord 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 119. 


Almighty. From London, the 20th of February 1581 
[1582]. Your assured in all that I may for ever, 

. MlLDMAY. a 

Even a prison did not restrain the controversial spirit 
of the Puritans ; and Norton, who has been before men- 
tioned, though in disgrace for his dangerous zeal, writes 
to Hatton, that though he lay " on the ground and cried 
on his knees to his Sovereign," if he were only per- 
mitted to do so, he would let the Papists know, " that 
yet Norton, with a true man's heart and face, can and 
dare speak on tiptoe ! " 


IT may please your Honour before any answer to your 
letter to receive answer to your goodness, and that is nothing 
but thanks unto your virtue and my prayer to God for your 
prosperity ; beseeching you to be assured that I am still, as 
you have ever known me, a true fool at the worst. For the 
matter of your letter, I am so thrown down in heart, and in 
loathing of mine arrogance in offending Her whom I least 
should, and never wittingly would, I take God to witness 
that since my last check I never durst enter into any matter 
of State uncommanded ; and I do so flee the peril of offence 
that way, that I have not conceived the hardiness once to go 
about any such work. I fear lest the Queen's old enemies 
and mine, the Papists, have spread this rumour of me to 
increase my trouble, as of one that even in restraint cannot 
have grace or patience to be silent. Nevertheless, if I were 
commanded by my Lord Treasurer, my singular good Lord, 
to deal in it, whom it toucheth especially, and who by em- 
ployment in her Majesty's service that way hath some under- 
standing of this case, the Papists should know, that how- 
soever I lie on the ground, and cry on my knees to my Sove- 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 84. 


reign Lord and Lady, God and the Queen, that yet Norton, 
with a true man's heart and face, can and dare speak on 
tiptoe. And though I desire not to undertake any such 
work, but do shun it as storms in a broad sea for a weak 
vessel ; yet at commandment I will refuse no adventure, and, 
having once performed it, I will then offer it to my Lord 
Treasurer and your Honour to be done withal as they shall 
think best. And, for the printing, I must not forget that I 
have your Honour's letters. In the mean time I commend 
you to the Almighty, and myself under Him to your good- 
ness ; beseeching you to give me your good testimony to my 
Lord Treasurer of my obsequiousness in her Majesty's service. 
At my close prison-house in London, the 28th of February 
1581 [1582]. Your Honour's most humbly bounden, 


Scarcely any letter in this work is so curious as the 
Bishop of London's remonstrance with Sir James Har- 
vey, the Lord Mayor. It will be remembered, that his 
predecessor, Sir John Branch, was commanded to repri- 
mand the City clergy for their sermons about the Queen's 
marriage; and his successor seems to have obeyed the 
injunction with singular pleasure, adding personal re- 
proaches and abuse to his admonitions. Harvey in his 
zeal spared neither his own diocesan, the fiery Aylmer, nor 
Home, late Bishop of Winchester 1 * ; and it is amusing to 
find a Lord Mayor calling a scholar " lack-Latin," and 
somewhat natural that Aylmer's want of hospitality in not 
entertaining the City functionaries should be a sin in the 
eyes of the citizens. Though the Bishop of London says 
he is obliged to submit to part of the Lord Mayor's of- 
fensive conduct so long as he remained in office, yet he 
promised to remember it in the ensuing year when lie 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 81 b . b Bishop Home died in June 1580. 


should still be as he was, but when Harvey would be 
somewhat inferior. The threat to teach the Lord Mayor 
his duty in a sermon at Paul's Cross, when he would 
be obliged to listen without being able to reply, was, 
in those days, more than a brutum fulmen ; and, coming 
from such a man as Aylmer, was not to be despised : 


MY LORD MAYOR, I hear that you deal very hardly with 
the preachers and clergy of whom the charge and oversight is 
committed unto me by God and her Majesty's gracious 
direction. I must therefore needs foresee, as chief Pastor 
both to you and them, that in their function they suffer no 
injury ; in which respect I am to desire you to use them as 
the Ministers of God, and as the keepers and rulers of your 
souls, which I hope you esteem to be the better part of you : 
of whom the Holy Ghost hath said, that they are worthy of 
double honour, the like whereof cannot be found spoken of 
you. And yet I hear (whether it be true or not I know not,) 
that you tJiou them, and taunt them as base, contemptible, 
and abject persons : yea, such as by calling are Archdeacons, 
and in quality, justice, and desert nothing inferior to yourself 
when you are out of your office, your son raileth and rageth 
at them with all reproachful and uncomely speeches ; which 
he is like to answer, haply little to your comfort, and less to 
his own credit, if any complaint be presented against him. 
You are not only content thus indiscreetly to triumph over 
the meaner sort, but you presume farther to reach at those 
which are always as good as yourself, even now in your 
Mayoralty when your reputation is at the highest, and some- 
what your superiors when you are out of office. ' That Home ' 
(as you term him), a worthy grave Prelate, you call him * hypo- 
crite and lack-Latin* with many other unreverent and disdainful 
speeches, no less untrue and shameless for you to utter than 
slanderous for him to receive ; whose virtue, learning, wisdom, 
and good government hath, in the general opinion of the 


world, deserved as great fame and commendation as ever 
did any man in this age ; and therefore not to be maligned 
after his death (especially by a man of your place), having 
in his life-time been so well loved and embraced of all men 
for his integrity, that had either judgment or justice to give 
every man his right. Her Highness, whose person you do re- 
present (the Lord preserve her Majesty) would not so speak 
of him, nor of any other Prelate within this Realm. I pass 
over myself, whom it hath pleased you of your goodness to 
term familiarly by the name of Aylmer, as unreverently as if I 
should omit the title of your office and call you Harvey ; 
which, to teach you good manners and what you ought to do, 
I mean not to do, God willing. You say, that, when Aylmer 
was in Zurich, he thought a 100. was enough for any Minis- 
ter. Admit he said so : so thought you, peradventure, in 
your prenticehood that 100^. by year had been enough for a 
Merchant. It pleaseth you, as a curious censor of other 
men's faults, to glance at my poor housekeeping, objecting 
that the Bishop of London was wont to feast the Lord Mayor 
and his brethren. Your Lordship in your wisdom ignorantly 
mistaketh the nature of a custom. This wont was but once, 
and not usual ; neither convenient nor necessary for me to 
follow it as a precedent. And yet, as little as you make of 
Aylmer 's hospitality, if you compare five years of yours with 
five of his, his may chance to overreach you 4000/. thick. 
My Lord, I have never spoken nor so much as thought 
unreverently at any time of your Lordship, neither have I 
been so used at any of your predecessors' hands ; and there- 
fore I must needs say, that this is a great forgetfulness in you 
of that dutiful goodness, that, both by the law of God and 
man, you owe to your Bishop and Ordinary ; the lack where- 
of though I ,bear it now for your office sake (which I need 
not unless I will), yet the next year I may haply remember 
it when by God's grace I am like to be as I am, and you some- 
what inferior to what you are now. Well, to end as I begun : 
I pray you use the Ministers according to their calling; 
though not for their own sakes, nor His whom they serve, yet 


for the laws of the Realm, which do provide for their safety 
and in respect of her Majesty's commission, which is chiefly 
committed to our charge to the end we might see that they 
be not misused ; and think that the meanest of them is richer 
than you in that sort of wealth which in God's sight shall 
shine as gold, when yours shall .be accounted as dross. I 
could not but as one that hath the chief charge of your soul 
admonish you, that, by the despising of His Ministers, and so 
consequently of Him that sent them, you provoke not His 
wrath and offend her Majesty, who would have them reve- 
renced and well used ; making, besides, all wise men think 
that there is some want in you of that gravity and discretion 
that should be in him that hath the Royal sword carried before 
him. If you take this in good part, as coming from him that 
hath charge over you, I am glad of it; if not, I must then 
tell you your duty out of my chair, which is the pulpit 
at Paul's Cross, where you must sit, not as a judge to 
control, but as a scholar to learn ; and I, not as John Aylmer 
to be taunted, but as John London to teach you and all that 
City, and, if you use not yourself as an humble scholar, then 
to discipline you as your chief Pastor and Prelate. And so I 
bid your Lordship heartily farewell. 1st March 1581 [1582]. 
Your Lordship's loving friend and Bishop, 


Mr. Egerton, to whom the following letter was ad- 
dressed as the Queen's Solicitor-General, was afterwards 
the celebrated Lord Ellesmere : 


SIR, "Where it hath heretofore pleased her Majesty to 
grant a warrant for the revealing and finding out concealed 
lands to the value of 100/. per annum, by virtue whereof 
there have been found out and discovered certain other 
lands to be concealed, over and beside the said 1001. per 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 58 b . 


annum, to the yearly value of 407. or thereabout, which it 
hath pleased her Majesty, at my humble suit and petition, to 
grant unto Theophilus Adams my servant, and James Wood- 
shaw, in fee-farm; I have therefore thought good to desire 
you, that, according to her Majesty's gracious pleasure, you 
will have care to make a Book thereof with what speed you 
may conveniently, that it may be ready for her Highness' 
signature wheresoever it shall please her to call for it. You 
shall receive the particulars of the grant by this bearer, 
whom I have sent unto you expressly to satisfy you in any 
thing that you shall doubt touching this matter. And so 
I commit you to God. From the Court at Greenwich, this 
17th of March 1581 [1582]. Your very loving assured friend, 


Postscript. Sir, Her Majesty is pleased to grant the 
averages of these concealed lands. I pray you draw the Book 
accordingly, for such is her pleasure.* 

According to a marginal note in the " Letter Book," 
the object of Bishop Aylmer's next letter to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton was the Bishoprick of Ely, and the " old 
tired father" whom he wished "eased of his place," was 
Dr. Cox; but the accuracy of these marginal notes can- 
not always be depended upon. As this letter is dated 
on the 20th of March 1581, it was presumed to have 
been in fact written in 1582 ; but, if Le Neve be 
correct in saying that Bishop Cox died in July 1581, 
Bishop Aylmer or the copyist must, however unlikely, 
have used the historical instead of the ecclesiastical or 
civil computation. The style of this letter from Hatton's 
"own creature," as he disgustingly calls himself, and, 
indeed, the whole of Bishop Aylmer's correspondence, 
makes it satisfactory to know, that though the Bishop- 
rick of Ely was vacant more than eighteen years, it was 

a From the Egerton Papers, ed. Collier, p. 87. 


never held in commendam by the grasping Bishop of 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, The time draweth nigh for you to 
remember your honourable promise unto me, that I may like- 
wise perform mine unto you ; wherein if you should show 
any remissness, it may haply hurt us more than either of us 
is like to gain by the bargain. I pray you be as earnest 
now in taking the burthen on yourself as you were willing at 
the first to lay it upon me. I beseech you send me word 
whether you mind to deal in it, or no ; and what hope or de- 
spair you find to speed. You may use divers arguments to 
help forward the matter : as, the crookedness of the old tired 
father, whom if her Majesty do not soon ease him of this 
place of service, she must shortly lose him, either by death, 
where she can have but the bones, or by unableness of ser- 
vice; in which case she shall be sure deceived, and I by 
weariness compelled, not as the common saying is, to hang 
up my hatchet, but as infirmity, and not lack of duty, will 
force me, to yield up my rochet. Sir, if you will have her 
Majesty well served, your own creature somewhat in life pre- 
served, and your credit kept uncracked for commending me 
first, and now retaining me still in state of reputation by this 
increase of advancement, put to your hand resolutely ; pro- 
tract no time, lest danger ensue delay ; forget not yourself in 
failing your friend, that liveth unfeignedly at your devotion, 
whom I commit to God's good providence. At Fulham, the 
20th of March 1581 [1582 ?]. Your Honour's in the best, the 
surest, and humblest manner, JOHN LONDON.* 

The " Lord Dyer," whose death Sir Walter Mildmay 
speaks of, was Sir James Dyer, Lord Chief Justice of 
the Common Pleas, to which office he was appointed in 
January 1560. He was succeeded on the 2nd of May 
1582 by Sir Edmund Anderson: 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 71 b . 



SIR, I am credibly informed this morning that my Lord 
Dyer is dead, and therefore I have entreated my brother Gary 
to take so much pains as to let you know it if you have not 
heard it before, and therewith to say unto you a few words 
from me what I would desire that it might like you to do in 
that matter, which, nevertheless, I refer to your own con- 
sideration, who seeth better what is to be done there than 
I can. And so, praying you to bear with me in troubling 
you thus much, I wish unto you all felicity in God Almighty. 
From Condon, the #6th of March 1582. Your assured to 
use as your own, WA. MILDMAY. a 

Nothing more is known about Don Antonio's ring 
than is stated in the following letter and in the mar- 
ginal note : " Don Antonio was the banished King of 
Portugal, who impawned this ring to her Majesty while 
he was in England for a lack of money ; 


MY VERY GOOD LORD, For that it is doubtful whether 
the ring may be sold in France, it were very convenient that 
Don Antonio's agent were dealt withal to send to the 
King's Majesty to procure means for the redeeming of 
the said ring, who, considering the value thereof, (being of 
far greater price than it is impawned for,) when he shall see 
that it is determined to be put to sale, will strain himself to 
redeem the same. Herein it shall be requisite that the said 
Agent be pressed to use expedition, for that the time will 
draw fast on, and the King is now in the furtherest parts of 
France. And so, referring the ordering of this cause to your 
Lordship's best direction, I most humbly take my leave. The 
4th of April 1582. Your Lordship's to command, 


Additional MSS. 15891, f. 72 h . b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 95 b . 



Hatton again appears in the amiable light of aiding 
the unfortunate ; and it seems that it was mainly to his 
influence that Norton owed his liberation : 


you pardon this boldness that I write unto you, which I am 
forced to do, for that you are in her Majesty's Court, a place 
where I, a wretched publican, dare not presume to enter, and 
lift up my eyes ; and yet must I take hardiness to open unto 
you my heart one way or other, or else to fall into a much 
greater fault of unthankfulness. My heart always assured 
me that your Honour did bear me a charitable mind, for so 
you ever made appearance ; and I am well acquainted with 
the nobleness of your nature not to seem other than you are, 
specially that affection that you have borne openly towards 
me, being grounded upon your persuasion of my fidelity to 
her Majesty: yet how much and in what sort particularly in 
my late wretchedness I have been bounden unto you I had 
no mean to understand by the closeness of my restraint, 
whereunto I beseech you impute my silence. Itfow, since 
her Majesty hath extended to me her merciful grace for my 
enlargement, I have attained to hear some part of your great 
pity towards me, beside the comfort that my poor wife re- 
ceived of your gracious speeches in her heavy extremity. I 
have no mean to acknowledge it to you but by my prayer, 
and that can be no more hearty for you than it was before ; 
and so you have obtained of me no more but to be the 
more indebted. But of honest esteemers in the world you 
have won a more knowledge of your nobleness ; and with God, 
I trust, a blessed acceptation of your goodness done to me 
for His sake. Now, Sir, see again the hardness of my case ; I 
so over-bound must yet be ever bold, not only to pray you to 
vouchsafe the taking of my most lowly thanks to yourself, 
but also to help me yet more to give thanks for me to my 
Lord Treasurer, to whom I am most highly bounden for my 
delivery by his mediation ; God render it in mercy to him 


and his. O noble Sir, if the heaviness of my case in respect 
of her Majesty's displeasure (which I could never lightly 
esteem, regarding her so highly and dearly) had been known 
unto you, and the sorrow of my soul for giving triumph to 
the enemies of God, speaking little of so great loss to so 
poor a man, so burthened with charge as I am ; and the la- 
mentable estate of my poor wife, whereof I am not yet in 
full hope of recovery (and her loss were my utter worldly 
destruction) ; your honourable nature would in pity soon re- 
cord my misery, and therewith see what cause I have both to 
thank you and to beseech you, and all those that have been 
good unto me, to help me, that my Lord Treasurer may know 
how deeply the thankful remembrance of his goodness sit- 
teth in a poor man's heart, that daily shall pray to God for 
her Majesty, his Lordship, and for your Honour, whom I 
forbear to trouble any longer. At London, the 10th of April 
1582. Your Honour's most humble and bounden, 


The Bishop of London's letter to the Queen, about 
April or May 1582, is deserving of attention. A per- 
son of the name of Rich, accused of having favoured 
Stubbes and of keeping his book contrary to the procla- 
mation, was committed to prison, but was admitted to 
bail by Bishop Aylmer, for which he incurred the 
Queen's displeasure. In his defence Aylmer needlessly 
states that he would not have released Rich if he could 
lawfully have kept him longer in prison; and the ac 
count which the prelate gives of himself is not a little 
curious : b 


MOST GRACIOUS PRINCE, God hath placed you in His 
own throne of justice to deliver unto His people equal mea- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 92. 213, 214. Life of Bishop Aylmer, 
b Strype's Annals, in. pt. i. pp. pp. 56 60. 

* 2 


sure of indifferent judgment, as He doeth unto you ; wherein 
you have hitherto so honourably carried yourself, as I doubt 
not but you shall be to all posterity a mirror of magistrates, a 
pearl of princes, and a true pattern of princely virtue, to be 
followed of many, and attained of few. Whereof as all sorts 
of men have most plentifully tasted, so I beseech you in the 
bowels of Jesus Christ to vouchsafe the favour to me, your 
most humble chaplain, God's poor minister, and your Ma- 
jesty's faithful subject, that you will be pleased to hear me, 
and to read these my letters, as yourself would be heard at 
His hand who is much more above you than your princely 
Majesty is above me. Your Highness is persuaded by my 
ill-willers (for it cannot proceed from your own gracious na- 
ture) that my service is all in words, and nothing performed 
in deeds. I let pass my words ; my deeds are these : While I 
was a private man in Lincolnshire and Leicestershire, 1 thank 
God there was none whom, either by rigour of law, by gentle 
persuasion, or weight of argument, I brought not to the 
Church, and to the level of God's obedience and your Ma- 
jesty's devotion. Since my departure from thence and my 
coming to the Sea of London (for so I may justly call it in re- 
gard of the tempests that continually afflict it) things are 
much altered and fallen to ruin. I suppressed the private 
conventicles, which were very rife ; and the deformed, or, as 
they termed them, reformed churches, which were many, 
and far out of order, I reduced them to conformity, agree- 
able to the establishment of your Majesty's proceedings. In 
the country where I lived I brought the greatest towns to 
unity ; I made the ringleaders and guides of those seditious 
sects build up that which their disobedience had destroyed ; I 
made them to gather where they had dispersed, and sow the 
seeds of obedience where they had trodden down the corn ; I 
have had ever such watch upon Paul's Cross, that in my time 
there came never any Puritan in that place. The ministers 
and preachers in London are brought to that pass, that at 
this day they be the most staid men that commonly live in 
your Kingdom. To speak of punishment for disorders and 


corrupt opinions, was it ever heard of that any of my prede- 
cessors did either deprive, imprison, or banish so many as I 
have done ? Did ever any man stand so much with them in 
disputation, or sustain by them and for them so great ma- 
lice, so many slanders, yea, or so great dangers as I have 
done ? These be deeds, with your Majesty's favour, and no 
words. Is there any man in England whom they take to be 
so professed an enemy unto them as they hold me to be ? 
Whom ever have I preferred of that faction, either by myself 
or by my friends on that side ? 1 am called a Papist, a tor- 
mentor of God's children, a Bonner and butcher, a clawback, 
a man-pleaser ; and I am reported to your Majesty to be a 
favourer of them, a milksop, and to fear such as be their 
friends above the reverence and fear that I owe unto you. 
No, no, most gracious Sovereign ; I have learned to have but 
one king, one faith, and one law, and that only will I fear. 
And, for those which your Majesty thinketh do carry me in 
their sleeve, I thank God the csbse standeth so with me, that 
of a good time they have had, and yet have, a contrary 
opinion of me ; they know I am too inforceable, and not 
easily to bend or stoop to their unlawful requests. But if I 
did fear such as be of so great power, have I not great cause to 
do it, when other much meaner than they shall carry your 
noble and princely nature so far from itself as what they re- 
port that you believe, and what I answer in truth that you 
cannot credit? If the meaner sort can thus much prevail 
against us, what may we fear of such as your Highness hath 
made so great? But if God would breed in your sacred 
breast such a princely inclination as that you would be 
pleased to hear us and them alike, their accusation and our 
defence, then your Majesty should see whom we would be 
afraid of, when we might hold ourselves assured that we shall 
come to our answer before such a Princess and so loving a 
mother as will in justice hear the parties before she pro- 
nounce judgment of either. This Rich, for whom I suffer 
this heavy displeasure of your Majesty, is he not my deadly 
enemy ? doth he not doggedly bark against me wheresoever 


he comes ? What should move me to bail him, if with any 
lawful regard I might have justly detained him prisoner any 
longer ? But admit (with your Majesty's gracious favour) 
that I had erred ; is there any Judge under your Highness 
that walketh so uprightly as at some time or other he may 
not be thought to trip or stumble ? Shall all men taste 
of your mercy save I ? Have I not sustained these five 
years the importable burden of both" the Sees of Can- 
terbury 3 and London, behaving myself so in that charge 
as I dare justify my service before God and man ? If in all 
this time I have stumbled but once (if it were so), shall all 
my former service be so soon forgotten, and this peccadillo 
written in marble ? Your Highness thinketh that the Bishop 
of London may do what he will, and see everything reformed 
as he listeth in the government of the Church ; wherein I 
beseech your Majesty to inform yourself better, and not to 
suppose my authority under you greater than it is, thereby to 
aggravate and make greater your indignation against me. I 
can do nothing by your commission without two more, and in 
these odious matters every man is commonly wont to shrink 
from me. And we Bishops, what can we do ? Only ex- 
communicate them, and that they hold for an advantage to 
keep them from the Church. If we do imprison them, or fine 
them, it is a premunire, or an action of false imprisonment 
may be brought against us. If we do anything in the com- 
mission, or leave anything undone, who bears the burden but 
I only ? when other men are at the doing of it, and have as 
great authority as myself. There is nothing grieveth me 
more than to see you unquieted with these sinister reports, 
whereby your good blood is dried up that should water your 
life in your old years, which I trust to see many, and pray 
God that they may be many more than by me I am like to 
see. I take God to witness, I had rather spend ten ounces of 
my own than one drop of yours should be dried up by any 
defect of mine. God grant your Highness may see men's 
faithful service with your own eyes, and not by others, who 

a In consequence of Archbishop Grindall's suspension. 


commonly use such insinuations as they think you like to 
hear, to further such suits of theirs as they desire to obtain ; 
against whom and against all men I stand thus resolute, that 
I will always justify my doings, and for that I crave no mercy, 
but justice. Consider, I most humbly beseech you, what 
service I can be able to do you without your gracious coun- 
tenance ; how little my sentence shall be regarded ; how those 
that you will have bridled will insult, if you turn from me 
your favour and countenance. Then turn me out of my place, 
take again your commission, let me lead a private life, con- 
tinually to pray for you ; seeing it is not my good hap, with 
your good liking, publicly to serve you. And thus I beseech 
God, who directeth Princes' hearts ut rivos aquarum, ever 
abundantly with His grace to bless and preserve your Ma- 
jesty, and to frame your princely heart to read these my 
follies without offence. JOHN LONDON.* 

Lord Burghley's servant, Henry Maynard, whose suit 
he requests Hatton to support, was one of his Secreta- 
ries. He was afterwards knighted, and his son was 
raised to the peerage : 


SIR, As I meant by my speech to have recommended unto 
your favour this bearer, my servant Henry Maynard, in a 
suit that he hath conceived, which he will declare to you, to 
have the same of her Majesty's grant, being no charge to her 
Highness' coffers or revenue ; so being tied here by my ac- 
customed adversary, the gout, in such sort as I durst not irri- 
tate his further malice by journeying to the Court, I do, as 
you see by my writing, trouble you with my earnest request 
unto you, that, if you shall not mislike his suit, you will the 
rather for my sake, and so much the more as indeed his ser- 
vice under me is specially and only for causes appertaining to 
her Majesty, and in no part appertaining to myself, show 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f,76. 


your favour to prefer his suit to her Majesty ; and in your so 
doing you shall bind both me in friendship, and him in ser- 
vice, to be mindful to requite your goodness. From my 
house at the Strand in Westminster, the 5th of May 1582. 
Your most assured, loving friend, W. BURGHLEY.* 

Mr. Yelverton was probably Christopher Yelverton, 
of Northamptonshire, an eminent lawyer, afterwards 
Queen's Serjeant, Speaker of the House of Commons, 
and a Justice of the King's Bench : 


SIR, Upon some things conferred of between you and me 
yesterday, I did this morning speak with Mr. Yelverton, who 
at your next repair to this town will attend upon you. In 
the meantime he doth assure me that he is utterly guiltless of 
any of those matters whereof her Majesty hath been in- 
formed against him, and doubteth not fully to satisfy you 
when it shall like you to hear him, which my request to you 
is that you will vouchsafe to do ; for it will be grievous unto 
him that her Highness should retain any such opinion of 
him, whereof he hath given no just cause. Touching the 
matter I wrote of to you for him, I assure you it was alto- 
gether without his knowledge or privity. I remain of opi- 
nion as I was, that there is not a fitter man ; and, these im- 
pediments being removed, I trust her Majesty will be his 
gracious Lady. And so, without troubling you any further, J 
leave all to be ordered as you think best, and commend you 
to the Lord Almighty. From London, the 12th of May 
1582. Yours for ever most assured to my power, 


The desire of Sir James Harvey, the Lord Mayor, to 
stand well with Hatton, and the Vice-Chamberlain's 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 89 b . b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 85 b . 


jealousy that the City should apply to any other person 
at Court than himself, are shown by the following 
letter : 



MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, It is to my great grief 
informed me that your Honour hath conceived, that where a 
letter was directed unto you, praying your favour according 
to your accustomed goodness to this City, before any suit 
made to any other of the most honourable Council, and that 
the same was stayed by me, whereupon have proceeded such 
solicitations of the matter as I hear have been offensive unto 
you : for my own part, I am not privately so interested in 
the cause as that I could have any reasonable occasion to draw 
your displeasure upon me ; and the letter that was written 
to sue for your favour was subscribed and sealed by me only, 
which could not be without intention to be a suitor unto 
you. The complaint was made to me by the Companies, and 
is a thing that concerneth not the general Corporation of the 
City, and Mayor and Aldermen, but the Mysteries, praying 
the aid of me and my brethren. Now in their own suit it was 
reason to hearken to themselves ; and, being informed that it 
was their own advice among them to stay the sending of that 
letter, I followed their own opinions in their own matter, 
thinking it reasonable not to make any other suit for them, 
nor in other manner than I understood themselves to desire. 
Which being so, as it was told me that it was, I beseech your 
Honour to retain good opinion of me, as one greatly beholden 
unto you, and desirous in what I may to deserve your good 
favour. And so I commit your Honour to the tuition of the 
Almighty. From London, the 3rd of June 1582. Your Ho- 
nour's to command, JAMES HARVEY, Mayor. 3 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 63. 


Mr. Swale, the person thus warmly recommended by 
Hatton to the head of his College to be elected Proctor 
of the University of Cambridge, seems to have been the 
eminent civilian before mentioned: 


AFTER my very hearty commendations. Understanding that 
one of the Proctors of the University, to be chosen to supply 
that place this next year, is to be nominated and appointed out 
of your House ; and being informed by some of my good friends, 
and partly by mine own knowledge, that Mr. Swale is the 
next that, both in seniority and by the statutes of your Col- 
lege, ought to be elected before any other to exercise that 
office ; I have thought good to commend him in that respect 
to your good favours : not for that I have any way cause to 
doubt that any of you, by occasion of faction or any other 
private regard, will be moved therein to offer him any wrong, 
or to keep him from his right ; but especially for the good 
opinion which I have conceived myself of his great sufficiency, 
gravity, and good government, which I must justly say is 
such, and so well to be accepted of all those that will do him 
justice, as no man in your House, of his time, can deserve 
more commendation. In consideration whereof, I have the 
rather taken this course to intreat you to have due regard of 
his right in this behalf, that (without making any further 
moans to her Majesty to move you to that which otherwise 
you ought of your own good disposition willingly to yield 
unto) he may enjoy the place, according to the statutes of 
your College ordained directly in that behalf ; wherein not 
doubting of your careful and friendly accomplishing, I bid 
you right heartily farewell. From the Court at Greenwich, 
the 6th of June 1582. Your very loving assured friend, 


I am the rather bound to move you earnestly in Mr. Swale's 
behalf, because he is towards me, and a man in truth in whom 


I repose great confidence : I pray you, therefore, do him all 
right with your good favours.* 

Sir Robert Stapleton, whose disgraceful conduct will 
cause him to be again mentioned, married to his second 
wife Olive, daughter and coheiress of Sir Henry Shering- 
ton, of Lacock in Wiltshire, and widow of John Talbot, 
of Salwarp in Worcestershire, the " Mrs. T." of this 
letter from Sir Walter Mildmay : 


SIR, I have great cause, and so I do most heartily thank 
you for the care I find you have of me and mine. And, for 
this matter of Sir Robert Stapleton's suit, it is true that he 
is a gentleman whom I have and do love and like of as well as 
of any in the North parties, whereof I trust he hath no cause 
to doubt; and therefore, seeing Mrs. T. is a woman very 
likely to marry again, I can wish her rather to light in the 
hands of my good friend, such a one as I take him to be, 
hoping surely, that, the rather by his promise made unto you, 
he will be a constant mediator to bring all these unnatural 
quarrels to a quiet end, which is the thing that I have desired 
from the beginning : and therefore any favour that it shall 
please you to procure for his furtherance at her Majesty's 
hands shall not discontent me ; so as to yourself, and if you 
think good to my Lord of Huntington also, he will again 
confirm that which he hath so faithfully promised touching 
my daughter and those causes. If it would please her Ma- 
jesty to show herself likewise desirous that a reasonable end 
might be made, I think the same would take the better suc- 
cess ; and I and mine should be most bounden unto her 
Highness for so much favour in so just a matter. I am 
greatly beholding unto you for this most courteous and 
friendly dealing toward me, which, to my power, I will be 

* Autograph in the Lansdowne MSS. 36 art. 38. 


always ready to requite. And so I commend you ever to 
the merciful Lord. From Hackney, the 13th of June 1582. 
Your most assured to my power, 

. MlLDMAY. a 


SIR, I left my man to attend upon you from time to time, 
to desire you in my behalf to travail with Mr. Vice-Cham- 
berlain for my despatch. I pray you let me obtain the 
continuance of your extraordinary care, travail, and friend- 
ship ; and let me still use you herein, as you shall command 
me wherein you list. I would be glad and am desirous to 
receive by the next a line or twain from you ; blame me not 
if I be somewhat importunate now and henceforth, it is not 
for haste, but for shame, the suit being superannuate 
already. Mr. Vice-Chamberlain I know can do what he will ; 
and my request is to you, to move his Honour to be as 
willing as he is able : I trust, if it would like you earnestly 
to follow him to the point, you should find his Honour as 
favourable in mine absence as in my presence. I have ever 
received of him better deeds than words ; and yet I wish 
I could do but a quarter so well as he can speak. To be 
short and true, I am his and yours ; but in degree, his at 
commandment, and yours in friendship. If you will so advise 
me, I will send you a bill drawn for Durham, which it may 
please his Honour to present at opportunity. The while, till 
I hear from you, I betake you most heartily to the grace of 
God. Christ-Church in Oxon, 15th of June 1582. Your 
assured loving friend, 


SIR, Understanding by my servant, Adams, of your most 
friendly pains which you have taken in the matter of con- 
cealed lands now in question betwixt him and the Companies 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 86. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 76. 


of London, I could not forbear in these few lines to yield 
you that thankfulness, in all perfect good-will, which I find 
due to your most kind and courteous dealing. If I may in 
any respect requite it, I hope you shall well perceive I will 
not be ungrateful unto you for it; and I pray you, as 
you have hitherto made me much beholding unto you, 
continue still your friendly endeavour therein, that, of this 
good beginning of your acceptable and good advice, the end 
may be agreeable to the same in the accomplishment of 
equity and justice, which I doubt not shall be the sooner ob- 
tained through the furtherance of your travail and favourable 
assistance. And so I bid you heartily farewell. From the 
Court at Greenwich, the 19th of June 1582. Your very 
loving, assured friend, CHR. HATTON.* 

While in the Marshalsea, Churchyard sent Hatton 
what he calls " a card," apparently the mariner's compass 
drawn by some mathematician, who was perhaps the 
Poet's fellow prisoner : 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, My boldness is great, and my hope 
in your goodness not small, which makes me the bolder 
to present this simple work to your honourable favour, 
humbly desiring that it may be safely kept, though it be not 
the best liked ; and yet I could wish that the best here living 
saw it. I am requested by an honest gentleman to present 
you a card of his own drawing : if I may presume to entreat 
your favourable acceptation of it, you shall bind us both at 
once to honour and serve you for it. The party seemeth to 
bear you singular affection, and only craveth that you will 
vouchsafe him the goodness to know him. These respects, 
with the many good parts in him (especially for navigation), 
make me bold to endeavour myself to pleasure him in pre- 

a From the Egerton Papers, p. 88. 


senting unto you his serviceable labours; humbly praying 
your Honour to receive in good part his small gift which he 
sendeth you, and hereafter to know and accept of his offered 
good- will, according to the honourable fame which all men 
give you for your courtesy. And so I beseech God to in- 
crease His grace in your worthy person. From the Mar- 
shalsea, the 10th of July 1582. Your Honour's humbly 
during life, T. CHURCHYARDE^ 

The election of Mr. Swale to the Proctorship of the 
University of Cambridge was the subject of many let- 
ters, part of which are printed in this work, and others 
are in the Lansdowne manuscripts in the British Mu- 
seum : 


AFTER my very hearty commendations. Understanding that 
the Master and Fellows of Caius College in Cambridge have, 
by the consent and good liking of the greatest part of them, 
made choice of my servant Swale, according to the statutes 
of their College, and partly for his sufficiency and great for- 
wardness in virtue and learning, as one of the meetest men 
among them to supply the place of Proctorship in the Univer- 
sity this next year ; and being credibly informed, that, not- 
withstanding all good order hath been observed in that elec- 
tion, and nothing done therein which hath not been in all 
respects agreeable to the true meaning of the statutes of 
that house, there have been some of the Fellows there, which, 
either for ill-will or other private regard, do oppose them- 
selves against it, intending to bring the matter again into 
question, which seemeth in itself so plain and apparent 
as it needeth not further consideration ; I have therefore 
thought good, in case it shall be further urged and referred 
unto you, who are the Visitors appointed in this behalf, to 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 61 b . 


commend the right of my servant in this case to your good 
and lawful favours ; desiring you that (as I would be loath for 
my own part that any man should be hindered or injured by 
his advancement otherwise than as the order of that College 
shall justly allow of), so that you will be likewise pleased, 
the rather for my sake, to afford him indifference and justice, 
and not to suffer him wrongfully to be troubled, or the late 
election to be frustrated or overthrown, if there appear suffi- 
cient and good cause unto you to approve and confirm it ; 
which referring to your good considerations, I bid you right 
heartily farewell. From the Court at Nonsuch, the 14th of 
July 1582. Your very loving assured friend, 


It appears that Ann Countess of Warwick (the 
daughter of Francis Earl of Bedford, and third wife of 
Ambrose Earl of Warwick, the brother of the Earl 
of Leicester,) had greatly interested herself for Dr. 
Ma the w : 


What words may I use to give your good Ladyship sufficient 
thanks for your so careful and honourable furtherance of my 
suit ? But, what pen or tongue cannot express, that my faith- 
ful and dutiful heart shall perform, as during my life I am 
most bounden. The while, presuming upon the continuance 
of your Ladyship's favour, I am so bold as to send you these 
inclosed, which are my Lord of Hunsdon's letters to Mr. 
Vice-Chamberlain, to signify unto him, that as her Majesty, 
long si thence, did answer him, as touching Dr. Bellamy, 
that she liked not to bestow the Deanery of Durham upon 
him, so he hath utterly surceased his suit, and is well content 
that my friends shall, without any let of his Lordship's part, 
proceed in obtaining the same for me ; which himself also, he 

a Autograph in the Lansdowne MSS. 36. 


saith, would do, but that he hath already named Dr. Bellamy 
unto her Highness, and therefore cannot well deal for any 
other. Truly, Madam, I find, that if my Lord of Hunsdon 
had been entreated by anybody to my behoof heretofore, he 
would have easily yielded me his consent, especially sithence 
he had received his answer against Dr. Bellamy. And I as- 
sure your Ladyship his Honour in talk giveth me just cause 
to suspect lest I have been, and may be, most abused where 
a great while I best trusted. Wherefore it may please your 
good Ladyship so to bestow my Lord's letters, and your fa- 
vourable speeches withal, as now no longer delay be made, 
this only hindrance all this while pretended being thus re- 
moved. And thus humbly referring both my suit to your 
wisdom and experience, as also myself to your direction and 
commandment, I betake your Ladyship to all the good bless- 
ings of Almighty God. Christ-Church in Oxon, 23rd of 
July 1582. Your Ladyship's most humble and most bounden, 


No other information has been found on the subject of 
the next letter than this marginal note : " Mr. Knyvett 
had slain a man of the Earl of Oxford's in fight." 
Thomas Knyvett, the person in question, was a Groom 
of the Privy Chamber ; and the interest which the Queen 
took in the matter was shown, in what would now be 
considered an unconstitutional manner, by Hat ton's let- 
ter to the Lord Chancellor. It will afterwards be seen 
that this affair led to a quarrel between the Earl of 
Oxford and Knyvett in the following year, in which 
another man was killed : 


MY VERY GOOD LORD, Mr. Knyvett hath informed her 
Majesty of his desire to have his cause of se defendendo deter- 
mined by a privy sessions in this vacation-time. It seemeth 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 105. 


he hath found your Lordship not to like of that manner of 
proceeding, in which respect your Lordship hath refused to 
grant forth the commission. Her Majesty, in that she think- 
eth Mr. Knyvet's request to stand in ordinary course, mar- 
velleth not a little that your Lordship should deny her servant 
the same that is usual, and that every other subject may ask. 
It hath pleased her, therefore, to command me to signify unto 
you that she looked for justice, with favour at your hands, 
towards this gentleman. ' You know,' saith she, ' who he is, and 
where he serveth ; and therefore, in a cause so little impor- 
tant as this, you might have restrained the malice of his 
enemies well enough.' Haply, she thinketh, they would have 
his trial at Newgate amongst common thieves, or in the 
Bench in like sort, of purpose to make him suffer as much 
public reproach as they could lay on him. In this, without 
defrauding the law, her Highness supposeth, and is persuaded, 
he might be better dealt withal, and find ordinary favour, 
without just offence of any. It may, therefore, please your 
good Lordship to return by your letters the cause that moved 
you to stay the commission, and what way you can best devise 
for the help of the gentleman, to her Majesty's better satisfac- 
tion. It is her pleasure to have your answer in these two 
points. Mr. Knyvet likewise re quire th bonds, which he 
and his friends, as it seemeth, have acknowledged before your 
Lordship of some very great sums ; he is earnest to have 
them redelivered, and hath alleged his reasons to your Lord- 
ship therefore, wherein I have no doubt but you will deal 
with him according to your goodness. My good Lord, it is 
very necessary you take care to please the Queen in this case, 
for, in truth, she taketh it unkindly at your hands that she 
should be strained to meddle and be seen in this matter. At 
our meeting I will tell you more of her Highness' conceit ; 
and so God bless you for ever, and command my service, for 
it is due to your Lordship. Haste ; this 27th of July 1582. 
Your good Lordship's most bound poor friend, 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 65 b . 



The Lord Chancellor's reply was not discreditable to 


GOOD MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, I received this 28th of 
July your letters dated the 27th of the same ; by the which I 
do perceive that Mr. Knyvet hath informed her Majesty of 
his desire to have his cause of se defendendo determined by 
a privy sessions in this vacation-time ; and that he found me 
not to like of this manner of proceeding, and therefore that 
I refused to grant forth the commission. True it is that I 
misliked of his suit ; but, that I did expressly refuse to 
grant the commission, that is not so. Marry, not finding 
his suit in my opinion reasonable, nor fit for me upon 
his bare request, being the party, to yield unto without 
further commandment, I asked him what counsel he had 
that so advised him; he answered me that Mr. Recorder 
of London gave him that counsel. I prayed him, there- 
fore, that he would cause Mr. Recorder to come and con- 
fer with me ; and that which in justice and conveniency I 
might do I would be ready to perform. Since which time I 
neither heard of Mr. Recorder, nor of any other of his coun- 
sel, nor of himself, touching his cause. It seemeth further, 
that her Highness should be informed that Mr. Knyvet's 
request should be a matter of ordinary course, and therefore 
marvelleth that I should deny unto her servant that which is 
usual, and every other subject may ask. This suggestion to 
her Majesty riseth, as I think, of ignorance ; I will not say of 
untruth, though indeed the matter be not true. I never 
knew, nor I never heard, that any party supposed to be an 
offender might of ordinary course have a special commission 
at his proper suit ; neither is it reason it should be so, for 
that were to open a gap to let offenders pass through without 
due punishment : for this commission being secretly awarded, 
haply to commissioners not indifferent, may sit, touching the 
execution of their commission, without the notice or know- 


ledge of the adverse party ; without which it is impossible to 
produce the proofs against the offender, and for lack of proof 
he must necessarily be acquitted. Indeed, in case some great 
or notable robbery, murder, or other offence be committed, 
at the suit of the parties that seek the punishment thereof, 
then upon advertisement from the Justices of Assize in the 
county where the fact is committed, or at the complaint of the 
Justices of the country, or by commandment from higher 
authority, sometimes such commissions be granted for the 
speedy punishment of the offence. But, at the suit of the 
party who is supposed the offender, I have not known any 
such commission granted, neither did I think it fit to be 
granted, until I were further satisfied by his counsel, or were 
otherwise commanded ; the rather for that I well knew I was 
greatly suspected by the adverse party and his friends of 
favour and friendship to Mr. Knyvet ; which whether I did 
bear and show unto him before the Coroner's inquest gave up 
their verdict, or not, I leave to his own conscience and re- 
port, and to the testimony of others, his friends, who were 
travailers in his cause ; the regard and respect whereof, lest 
I should incur some further note, made me the more advised 
and circumspect touching Mr. Knyvet's desire. Lastly, in 
my own opinion, I could not understand how his suit for a 
special commission could in anywise have satisfied that which 
he sought for, to wit, the clearing of himself; because he 
standeth subject to the appeal which the brother of him 
that was slain may bring at any time within the year and 
day after the fact, notwithstanding any trial that might have 
ensued upon that special commission. If Mr. Knyvet were 
loath to be brought in public to plead his pardon, which he 
may have of course, touching the indictment before the Coro- 
ner that findeth it se defendendo, that small matter I could have 
devised easily to have holpen, without special commission. 
If he were afraid of any other indictment to have ensued by 
the procurement of his enemies, her Majesty's pardon, or 
else her warrant to her Attorney- General, would easily have 
cleared him of all those troubles which might have grown by 



any such indictment. And thus I have briefly touched unto 
you the causes that moved me to defer and respite Mr. 
Knyvet's suit. Touching the granting of any special com- 
mission, far be it from me that I should so much forget my- 
self as to deny any of her Majesty's servants that which is 
ordinary or of course for every common Subject to ask : I 
should thereby leave my duty to her Highness, forget that 
which belongeth to my office, and be injurious to the party, 
which faults by the grace of God I will never willingly com- 
mit ; and in this case now in question I am well assured I 
have not offended in anywise. It is happy that we serve and 
live under a Prince of that wisdom and bounty of nature as 
is not easily carried with such surmises and suggestions, 
otherwise the time were too miserable to serve in. For the 
clearing of the state of the gentleman against all that may 
seek his peril in this matter, I see no other way but to quit 
himself, and to expect whether the brother of the party slain 
will commence his appeal within the year and day ; which I 
think in respect of the verdict already given before the Coro- 
ner, and the truth of the case, he never will. If he do not 
then, to be out of all danger of malicious practices of his 
enemies, her Majesty's pardon shall be needful, though the 
matter of itself require it not. If the brother be disposed 
to sue his appeal, there is no device (to my understanding) to 
keep him from it; if Mr. Knyvet's counsel know therein 
more than I do (as they easily may), I would gladly confer 
with some of them, and be ready to do all the good for him 
that conveniently I may. Concerning Mr. Knyvet's bond 
true it is he required me to deliver the same. I prayed him 
to content himself till the whole cause were ended, and I 
would in the meantime keep the bond from enrolment, as I 
still intend to do, whereby he should not fear any danger ; 
which answer might well have contented him without trou- 
bling of her Majesty. It had been some rashness in me to 
have delivered his bond, the cause not ended. And thus, 
heartily praying you to acquaint her Majesty with this my 
answer, whom I would be loath to offend in the smallest 


point that may be, I commit you to God. From Weld Hall 
in Essex, the 28th of July 1582. Your loving and assured 
friend in all I can, T. BROMLEY, CANC.* 

Former letters from Sir Christopher Hatton show the 
interest he took in the affairs of the University of Cam- 
bridge, especially with relation to Dr. Swale; and it 
now appears that Lord Burghley found it necessary, as 
its Chancellor, to interfere : 


SIR, After my hearty manner I did yesterday, lacking lei- 
sure, send to my wife, then being at the Court, that she should 
do a message to you, being a request that you would forbear to 
deal in a cause whereof I made you privy concerning some 
disorder in Gonvill and Caius College in Cambridge ; but for 
that by her report of your answer (the conclusion whereof 
was that you would forbear, as I desired,) you did explicate 
to her, as she saith, being ignorant, the state of the case 
otherwise than I and the University take it to be, which I 
know is, by the information of Swale the President, contrary 
to the manifest truth. I have thought good at this time 
briefly to inform you, that as both Doctor Legge the Master, 
and this Swale, hath, for my courtesy showed to them (they 
both deserving correction), abused me many ways, and spe- 
cially have maintained covertly in the College a faction 
against the true religion received, corrupting the youth there 
with corrupt opinions of Popery ; and for that I doubt that 
Swale and his partners will (to colour their dissimulation) 
inform you otherwise than truth, I do send you my servant, 
Vincent Skinner, who is a member of that University, to show 
you briefly the state of the case, and to declare unto you the 
proofs thereof, and consequently the true judgments against 
these men, one by the Visitors and superintendents of the Col- 
lege, the other by all the Heads of the University ; so as I am 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 


bound to oppugn these two men's crooked proceedings, and yet 
therein mean no way to proceed but according to the statutes 
of the University and College. And at this time I have more 
cause to mislike them, for that they would never vouchsafe 
to come to me, although they have been in the City ; and 
Swale, who is, as I perceive, now your man, (though I think 
he was not when he was called before me,) hath two or three 
times posted to this city within these few days, and that 
twice since I spake with you at the Court ; whereby they 
seem to mistrust their cause, or else do presume to find some 
indirect favour against me, who am their principal Officer. 
Whereof I trust they shall be deceived, and specially at your 
hands, now that you are by me thus informed, according to 
your friendly answer given me at the Court. And so to end, I 
do send you the warrant for yourself signed, according to 
which I had subscribed your book ; and pray you to procure 
Mr. Secretary to seal it with the signet, and to return it to 
me by this bearer. From my house, 30th July 1582. Your 
assured loving friend, W. BURGHLEY.* 

The following short letter from the Earl of Leicester 
was accompanied by a buck, which Hatton was to pre- 
sent to the Queen : 


MR. CAPTAIN, I am most humbly bold to send to her sa- 
cred Majesty a poor beast bred in this soil, because it was the 
first was killed, and yet not the greatest I meant should have 
been killed ; but being well killed, and the first, I sent hii 
now to her Highness. I beseech you, Sir, present him, if h( 
come in good order, to her Majesty, whom I trust to see 
kill forty of his fellows in this place; which are, and shall 
be preserved for her Majesty's best pleasure as long as I live, 
with my continual prayer for her most blessed preservation. 
I do mean very shortly to send again, and therefore to tak( 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 65. 


leave of you now, with my most hearty commendations. 
Fare you well. This 2nd of August 1582. Your assured 
friend, R. LEICESTER.* 

Sir Christopher Hatton's letter to the Lord Chan- 
cellor respecting Mr. Knyvet, in a former page, b and 
his Lordship's reply, sufficiently explain the following 
letters : 


MY VERY GOOD LORD, I have showed unto her Majesty 
your honourable and grave letters in answer of those which 
by her Highness' direction I sent unto you of late touching 
Mr. Knyvet, which were in all respects so acceptable, and 
amply satisfying her expectations, as it pleased her very gra- 
ciously to commend them ; allowing your judgment for the stay 
and respite of the special commission to be no less consi- 
derate and agreeable to justice than this answer of yours im- 
porting the same effect to be wise and full of all honour- 
able and orderly dealing ; wherein her Majesty, with her 
great good liking, taketh especial notice of your Lord- 
ship's most discreet and careful service, for the which she 
yieldeth you her most princely thanks. When I had 
showed her Majesty your letters, she commanded me to 
make Mr. Knyvet privy to them, who, finding them writ- 
ten with all honourable care and declaration of the due 
course of justice, resteth likewise exceedingly well satisfied 
in all respects ; saving only in the error which I had com- 
mitted in my former letters to your Lordship, wherein I 
termed and mistook the fact to be manslaughter, which in 
very truth was found by the Coroner's inquest to be se defen- 
dendo. In which case he was advised by his learned Counsel 
to be an humble suitor to her Highness for her gracious 
favour in requesting your Lordship by letter, or otherwise, 
to vouchsafe him a special commission, whereby he might in 
ordinary course plead the statute, and without any suit of 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 71 b . b Vide p. 256. 


pardon or further trouble be forthwith delivered and relieved 
by virtue thereof. According to which direction he made 
her Highness privy to the state of his cause, and humbly be- 
sought her princely goodness to signify her pleasure to this 
effect to your Lordship, by whose favour he might the rather 
obtain the commission which he sued for: wherein if her 
Majesty have proceeded more roundly than the cause re- 
quired on your Lordship's behalf, he is soriy for it, and 
humbly beseecheth you not to impute it to any complaint or 
want of duty in himself, but to her Majesty's own direction 
and most gracious care of the good success of his troubles ; in 
the which as he confesseth that your Lordship hath dealt 
very honourably with him in aifording him the comfort of 
your good favour from time to time, so doth he protest, and 
for my own part I may boldly affirm as much unto you, that 
he never uttered any word, either by himself or any other, 
to irritate her Majesty's displeasure in any respect against 
your Lordship, but thinketh himself so greatly bound unto 
you, as, he saith, he must and will make known the goodness 
you have showed him unto her Majesty, and endeavour in all 
faithful service and good-will to deserve it. And so, most 
earnestly craving that anything passed in this action may not 
diminish your Lordship's good opinion of the gentleman, who, 
in truth, resteth clear from any such suspicion of ill-deserv- 
ing, I commit your Lordship to the grace of God. From the 
Court at Nonsuch, the 2nd of August 1582. Your good 
Lordship's most bound assured poor friend, 


The writer of the next letter was Anne, wife of Philip 
Howard Earl of Arundell, whose father, Thomas Duke 
of Norfolk, had particularly recommended him to culti- 
vate Hatton's friendship. 13 The Countess of Arundell 
was the sister and coheiress of George Lord Dacre of 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 67. b Vide page 9, ante. 



GOOD MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, Having at this time so 
convenient a messenger, and never wanting at any time cause 
to remember how much I have been beholding unto you, I was 
loath either to omit the opportunity of the one, or to show 
myself unthankful for the other ; and therefore, since I found 
that writing was the best mean to satisfy me in either, I de- 
sired to recommend my letters to this bearer, and myself by 
them to your good opinion ; which, as I have often said, and 
now must needs repeat, is one of the greatest comforts I have, 
and the greater, because I rest assured that the constancy of 
your friendship, and the goodness of your nature, is such as I 
shall never lose it without desert ; and I know myself so well, 
as, by the Grace of God, I never mean willingly in the least 
respect to deserve the contrary. I am loath to trouble you 
with long letters, and the less careful to enlarge the good-will 
I owe you, because, as I hope, it is sufficiently known unto 
you ; and therefore will here conclude, wishing you all good 
hap. From Arundell Castle, the 20th of August 1582. Your 
most assuredly ever, A. ARUNDELL.* 


WHEREAS her Majesty, as I understand by your letter, 
would be advertised from me of the circumstances and rea- 
sonableness of a suit of a certain number of her poor tenants 
in Huntingdonshire being copyholders, who, seeking to have 
purchased their several poor tenements from her Majesty, 
upon the exchange passed to Sir Henry Darcy, wherein her 
Highness had a beneficial bargain ; so it is, that, though the 
greatest number of these tenants held their tenements under 
twenty shillings by year, as some at seven pence, some at 
twelve pence, fourteen pence, twenty pence, and so at very 
small values under ten shillings, yet, their small rents being 
cast up altogether, there arose in one hamlet a sum of seven- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 63. 


teen pounds' rent by year, and another of twenty-seven 
pounds, and the third to twenty-eight pounds; whereby, hav- 
ing regard to those of three entire values certified by the 
auditor, without knowing how the same did grow of such 
small parcels, the same tenements in one total sum were rated 
to be holden of her Majesty in capite, which otherwise, if the 
parcels had been expressed and severally purchased, should 
have been only socage, for that there is never reservation of 
any tenure in capite upon any lands but where the parcel 
purchased is of the value of ten pounds and upwards. But 
now, whereas these poor silly souls sought to purchase their 
several tenancies by purchases alone to every of them, they 
took themselves to be abused, having paid their money, and 
yet to be charged with a tenure in capite, a thing unknown 
to them ; whereas they were as good, or rather better, to give 
up all their tenements freely to her Majesty, than for so 
small values to be charged upon every licence of alienation, 
and upon every death of the tenant, with so much as 
may extend at every time to ten pounds of fifty years' pur- 
chase, yea, to make all the rest of their lands subject to like 
charge ; which is a thing to be pitied, and against all good 
meaning and conscience, as I take it. And therefore I doubt 
not but her Majesty will be pleased to relieve them of this 
their burthen by changing their tenures into socage, whereby 
her Majesty shall not lose anything which she had before; 
for none of all those tenements were ever otherwise holden 
but by base tenure in socage, neither will any man take them 
at that burthen of free gift. And so I leave to trouble you, 
although the poor tenants trouble me daily with their con- 
tinual pitiful complaints, as being deceived in their opinions 
in laying out their money to have purchased their quietness, 
where, by this accident, they are with their own made subject 
to a charge unreasonable. From my house at Theobald's, 
this 1st of September 1582. Your assured loving friend, 


a Additional MSS. 15891, f.61 b . 


The " Peerages " do not give the exact date of the 
death of the young nobleman upon whose decease 
the Queen wrote the annexed consolatory letter to his 
father, the Earl of Shrewsbury; but a letter from the 
Earl of Leicester* on the same subject, written on the 
5th of September 1582, shows it had taken place 
shortly before that day : 


RIGHT trusty and right well-beloved Cousin and Counsellor, 
we greet you well. We had thought, immediately upon un- 
derstanding of the death of the Lord Talbot your son, to 
have sent you our letters of comfort, but that we were loath 
that they should have been the first messengers unto you of 
so unpleasant matter as the loss of a son of so great hope and 
towardness, that might have served to have been a comfortable 
staff unto you in your old years, and a profitable pillar unto 
this our estate in time to come, whereof he gave as great 
hope as any one of his calling within this our Realm ; which 
we know, in respect of the love you bear us, cannot but 
greatly increase your grief. But herein, We, as his Prince 
and Sovereign, and you as a loving and natural father, for 
that we both be interested in the loss, (though for several 
respects,) are to lay aside our particular causes of grief, and 
to remember that God, who hath been the worker thereof, and 
doeth all things for the best, is not to be controlled. Besides, 
if we do duly look into the matter in true course of Christi- 
anity, we shall then see that the loss hath wrought so great a 
gain to the gentleman whom we now lack, as we have rather 
cause to rejoice than lament; for if the imperfections of this 
declining age we live in be truly weighed, and the sundry 
miseries that we are daily subject unto be duly looked into, 
we shall then find more cause to judge them unhappy that 
live, than to bewail those as unfortunate that are dead. But, 

a Lodge's Illustrations, 11. 235. 


for that the weakness of frail flesh cannot so rest upon that 
comfort which the happy estate of his change hath wrought 
but that nature will have her force, We cannot therefore but 
put you in mind how well God in His singular goodness hath 
dealt with you, in that He left you behind other sons of great 
hope, who through the good education that you have carefully 
given them, and the good gifts of nature they are plentifully 
endowed withal, are like to prove no less comfortable unto 
you than serviceable unto us. And, therefore, for your 
comfort you are to remember, that, of four sons that He hath 
given you, He hath taken only one to Himself. These reasons, 
which we have thought on and used with good fruit as means 
to lessen our own grief, we have thought meet to impart them 
unto you, and do hope they shall work no less effect in you, 
whose case we tender as much as our own, having made as 
great trial of your care and fidelity towards us as ever Prince 
hath made of servant. And, therefore, we do assure ourself 
that in this discomfort there is no earthly thing can yield you 
more comfort than the assurance of our gracious favour to- 
wards you ; whereof you may make full account to receive the 
same from us in as full measure as a well-deserving servant 
and subject may in true gratuity look for at a gracious and 
thankful Prince's hands. Given under our signet.* 

Walsingham seems to have neglected no opportunity 
of recommending that acts of courtesy should be shewn 
to the Earl of Shrewsbury, while the Queen of Scots 
was in his custody : 


SIR, I send you herewithal a letter directed to the Earl of 
Shrewsbury from her Majesty, containing such points as were 
prescribed by your letter. I pray you help to excuse such 
defects as are fallen out in penning of the same, which may 
work, without your good and friendly endeavour therein, 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 88 b . 


some dislike in her Majesty. I could wish that this letter 
were sent by an express messenger. The Earl is a great per- 
sonage, and employed in service of greatest trust, wherein he 
hath both honourably and faithfully acquitted himself, and 
therefore deserveth some extraordinary regard to be had of 
him. In such a time of discomfort, such an unwonted kind 
of favour doth work a singular contentment in one of my 
Lord's birth and desert. Now, having delivered my opinion 
unto you, I refer the use thereof to your good consideration, 
and so commit you to God. At Barn Elms, the 6th of Sep- 
tember 1582. Yours most assured, 


The " hearty noble couple, " from whose house Leices- 
ter wrote the following letter, were Henry first Lord 
Norris of Rycot, and his wife, Margery, daughter and 
coheiress of John Lord Williams of Thame. It appears 
that they expected to have been honoured with a visit 
from the Queen : 


GOOD MR. CAPTAIN, Having so convenient a messenger I 
thought good to salute you, and withal to let you know I 
found a very hard journey yesterday after I departed from 
you. It was ten of the clock at night ere I came here, and a 
more foul and ragged way I never travelled in my life. The 
best was, at my arrival I met with a piece of cold entertain- 
ment at the Lady's hands of the house here ; and so had you 
done too, if you had been in my place ; for she was well in- 
formed ere I came that I and you were the chief hinderers of 
her Majesty's coming hither, which they took more unkindly 
than there was cause indeed. But I was fain to stand to it 
that I was one of the dissuaders, and would not for anything, 
for the little proof I had of this day's journey, that her Ma- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 94. 


jesty had been in it ; being, indeed, the very same day her 
Highness should have come hither, which I remembered not 
till this question grew. Well, I did, I trust, satisfy my Lady, 
albeit she saith she cannot be quiet till you have part of her 
little stomach too. Trust me, if it had not been so late, I think 
I should have sought me another lodging, my welcome 
awhile was so ill ; and almost no reason could persuade but 
that it was some device to keep her Highness from her own 
gracious disposition to come hither. But I dealt plainly with 
her, that I knew she would have been sorry afterwards to 
have had her Majesty come at this time of the year to this 
place. I assure you, you should find it winter already. Thus 
much I thought good to tell you, that, when my Lady comes 
thither, you may satisfy her, as I hope I have done ; but her 
Majesty must especially help somewhat, or else have we more 
than half lost this lady. To help to make amends, I offered 
her my lodging there, if her Majesty stayed at Oatlands. They 
had put the house here in very good order to receive her Ma- 
jesty, and a hearty noble couple are they as ever I saw to- 
wards her Highness. I rest here this Sabbath-day to make 
peace for us both ; what remains you shall do at their next 
charge upon you. God grant I find her Majesty no worse 
than I left her, and you as well to do as myself. From 
Rycott, the llth of September 1582. Your old assured 
friend, Ro*. LEICESTER.* 

The Earl of Sussex was long afflicted with a painful 
disease, and died at Bermondsey, in Southwark, on the 
9th of June 1583. His Countess, who so affectingly 
describes his sufferings, was his second wife, Frances, 
daughter of Sir William, and sister of Sir Henry Sidney, 
K. G., and the foundress of Sidney- Sussex College, Cam- 
bridge ; 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f, 58 b . 



GOOD MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, I heartily thank you for 
your friendly letter, wherein you do as well bemoan my 
Lord's painful sickness as comfort my grieved mind. I would 
I saw cause to write to you that either the consultation of 
the physicians about his estate, or their medicines applied to 
his feeble body, did procure him any ease ; but, to be plain 
with you, as with one that I presume loveth my Lord much 
and wisheth his well-doing, with heart's grief I must briefly 
advertise you that his strength generally is decayed, his pain 
greatly increased, and his physic hath offered him rather tor- 
ment than remedy ; so as he is at this present determined for 
a few days to forbear medicines, and to see what good office 
nature is able to work for his ease. I suppose no man be 
more grieved than my sick Lord ; nevertheless he armeth his 
mind in that resolute manner, that with all humility he 
thanketh God for his visitation, and with all patience he en- 
dureth the painful torments of his disease. God, I humbly 
beseech Him to send him shortly to recover, and me some oc- 
casion to requite the great courtesy that you have now show- 
ed me. And so I commend me heartily unto you. From 
Newhall, the 16th of September 1582. Your loving friend, 

FRA. SussEx. 8 

A marginal note states that the following letter, to 
which there is no signature, was written by "the old 
Countess of Bedford," meaning Bridget, daughter of John 
Lord Hussey, and widow of Sir Richard Morison. She 
was the second wife of Francis second Earl of Bedford, 
and died without issue by him in January 1600. The 
interest she manifests about the Lord Deputy of Ire- 
land, Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton, is explained by his 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 77 b . 


having married her daughter, Jane Sybilla Morison, 
widow of her step-son, Edward Lord Russell, the son and 
heir-apparent of the Earl of Bedford, by his first wife 
Margaret, daughter of Sir John St. John of Bletshoe; 


GOOD COUSIN, I have by many experiences approved that 
such is the nature of envy as it ceaseth not by all endeavours 
to darken the worthy actions and services of those that have 
dutifully and faithfully with their great perils and exceeding 
toil performed all good offices in their callings, and in those 
affairs wherein they were employed for their Prince and 
Country. And therefore, though my conscience persuadeth 
me that my Lord Grey hath by his travails in Ireland done 
as well, and governed those parts as painfully, carefully, and 
justly as any man that ever exercised that place before him ; 
yet, I fear me there hath not wanted some such as have ex- 
tenuated his Lordship's good services : for this cause I could 
not but earnestly recommend unto you the preservation of 
his Lordship's well-deserved honour and credit with her Ma- 
jesty against such as have, or may seek to impair the same. 
I am loath often to trouble any of my best friends (in which 
number I reckon yourself) ; but, when I have cause, I make 
full account they will not be slack to further such reasonable 
requests as I make unto them : and both the party, (who par- 
ticularly is very dear unto me,) and the matter, assureth me of 
your best favour herein towards the one and the other ; and 
though I be not ignorant of your special affection to his 
Lordship, many ways witnessed by your friendship, neverthe- 
less I might not be satisfied unless I had said somewhat for 
him : neither could I bethink or make choice of any to whom 
to write, that for both our sakes would be more willing to 
yield furtherance to all his Lordship's actions than yourself. 
And so I pray God to increase in you all true honour and 
happiness. 1st October 1582. Your assured friend. a 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 97. 


No clue exists to the name of the writer, nor to the 
subject of the following letter : 


SIR, I have briefly set down, as you may see in this paper 
herein inclosed, the state of the note which I gave you intelli- 
gence of at my last being in Court ; wherein, considering the 
great conscience and reason that the case carrieth with it, in 
all appearance there may easily some good be obtained in my 
poor opinion. But if it should happen otherwise, and that the 
success should not fall out to be so fortunate, either in this or 
in any thing else that I should give you notice of, as I would 
wish for, yet I hope that of your wonted noble mind and 
great wisdom you will not make it my fault, nor measure my 
good meaning and faithful heart by any unhappy event, much 
less by any undeserved gall that fortune may mingle with 
your honourable actions, whom I know to be far more wise 
to judge, and better able to compass, than I am or ever shall 
be ; assuring you, that if either well wishing, or a poor man's 
earnest devout prayer might do you service, your noble heart 
(that hath so often wrought my good) should never fail of 
that which it most desireth. Whom I commit to God's pro- 
vidence. 3rd October 1582. Your Honour's most bound.* 

The name of Theodore Beza, one of the most cele- 
brated of the Eeformers of Germany, is well known. 
When the following letter to Hatton, requesting aid 
from England, was written, Beza was Chief of the College 
at Geneva, founded by Calvin. 



QUOD ipsa necessitas, tentare nos cogit, minime tamen 
auderemus, nisi nobis ad te illustrissime Domine aditum 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 97 b . 


patefaceret ilia singularis tua, sermonibus omnium celebrata, 
humanitas; qua non tuse tantum gentis homines sed etiam 
peregrinos, et procul natos comiter excipere atque adeo labo- 
rantes sublevare consuevisti ; facile igitur ut spero excusa- 
tionem apud te, haec audatia nostra inveniet. Quod autem, 
cogente summa necessitate petimus partim ex ipso hujus 
reipublicae legato nisi molestum est cognoscere, te velim ; par- 
tim etiam, illustri tuae amplitudini brevibus exponam. Ve- 
teres Sabaudicie domus, cum hac civitate, intra ipsius di- 
tionem sitae, inimicitias quales nimirum Philippus cum 
Atheniensibus et reliquis Graeciae civitatibus, tantisper ex- 
ercuit dum illarum libertatem opprimeret, juvenis hie prin- 
ceps, quorundam conciliis usus, violatis pactis quae pater 
ipsius nobiscum adhibito jurejurando, sanciverat, renovavit, 
nobis proditione primum multiplici, tentatis, mox etiam 
aperta vi aetate superiori, impetitis, proditiones dominus admi- 
rabili prorsus ratione patefecit, et sapientissimi magistratus 
manu vindicavit. Vim illatam, patientia fregimus ; civitatem 
communire contend et praesidium intra urbem continere tan- 
tisper dum copias justas, partim ex Helvetiis quorum ille 
tamen partem sibi conciliarat, partim ex Gallicis ecclesiis 
colligeremus : Ecce vero, cum jam jam, ad irruption em, una 
cum sociis Bernensibus faciendam parati essemus, factum 
est Helveticarum septem civitatum interventu, ut data utrim- 
que fide, futurum est (quod unum semper cupivimus) omnes 
controversies jure, non vi, coram Helve tiorum concessu, deci- 
dantur arma deponerentur. Et hie quidem est, presens nos- 
trarum status quo nihil sane optabilius contingere nobis po- 
tuit, si modo convenire de sessuris minime suspectis judici- 
bus inter nos possit ; qua de re hoc ipso tempore apud Ther- 
mopilas, Helveticas disceptatur. Sed dum, quod sit hostium 
ingenium, quod sit verum illorum consilium, consideramus 
Tridentini videlicet conciliabuli executionem in his regioni- 
bus a civitatis Genevensis hac deinceps quatuor Evangeli- 
carum Helvetiae civitatum oppressione, Sabaudicarum licet 

vix spetiem preferentium, controversiarum, prae- 

textu quid aliud, nisi longe quam a tates 

a Sic. 


possimus expectare. Ne dum. Ut quicquam sermi possi- 
mus ex ista juridicae cognitionis simulatione, quam ab hoste 
necessitas extorsit polliceri : ad hoc malum accedit et aliud, 
quod videlicet ita jam sit exhaustum hujus reipublicae asra- 
rium quse publicum longe, maxima ex parte, prevent um, con- 
sueverat ecclesise impendere ut nisi aliunde fulciatur coactura 
sit illam necessitas maximo cum plurimarum ecclesiarum 
detrimento curam illam si non totam abjicere (absit enim illud) 
tamen non minima ex parte, abrumpere, quod sese nimirum 
tutari et tantis in res illas, sumptibus, sufficere non possit. 
Haec sunt illustrissime mi Domine, quae nos cogunt, tarn pro- 
cul subsidium aliquod ab his petere, quorum pieta tern et cari- 
tatem scimus nunquam afflictis piis desuisse. A vobis in- 
quam Anglis quibus cum nobis peculiaris quaedam veteris 
hospitii necessitudo intercedit, petitione nostra ut spe- 
ramus, licet in verecunda tamen propter periculi saltern 
magnitudinem facile excusationis locum inventura. Bene 
vale illustrissime mi Domine. Dominus Jesus Deus et 
Servator ille noster exaudit suorum gemitibus, rabiem Sa- 
tanae coerceat, suas ecclesias adversus exteros et domesticos 
omnes hostes quam diutissime tueatur. Genevae, decimo 
Octobris 1582. Amplitudini tuae addictissimus, 


Post. Oro te mi domine, ut quod aliena manu ad te scri- 
bam, tremulae meae vaccillationi tribuas. a 

The annexed mysterious letter from Sir Thomas 
Heneage to Hatton may, with the assistance of two mar- 
ginal notes, the one stating that by " water " Sir Walter 
Ealeigh was indicated, and the other, that the Queen 
sometimes called Hatton her "bell-wether," and "pecora 
campi," be fully explained. It appears that Hatton, 
jealous of being superseded in the Queen's favour by 
Raleigh, had sent her a letter expressing his fears on the 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 113 b , 



subject, accompanied by three " tokens," namely, a di- 
minutive bucket, (typical of his rival,) a bodkin, and a 
book. These were committed to Heneage to deliver to the 
Queen, who found her going into the park to kill a doe. 
Expecting that Raleigh would soon approach, Heneage 
immediately presented the tokens and letter. On seeing 
the bucket she perfectly understood its import, and ex- 
claimed "There never was such another!" Elizabeth 
then tried to place the bodkin in her hair, but failing, 
gave it back, with the letter unread, to Heneage. After 
walking a little distance, the Queen asked for the letter, 
which she perused "with blushing cheeks," and said 
many things, as if doubtful "whether she should be angry 
or well-pleased;" but she at last expressed "her settled 
opinion of the fidelity and fastness of his affection, and 
her determination always to give him good cause not to 
doubt her favour." Heneage was then commanded to 
inform Hatton that she was so ill pleased with his letter, 
that she had little desire to look at his tokens ; that 
Princes should be like Gods, and suffer no element so to 
abound as to breed confusion, meaning that Ealeigh's 
influence would have no undue effect; that u pecora 
campi was so dear to her that she had bounded her 
banks so sure as no water or floods could overflow them," 
i. e. that she loved him too firmly for Ealeigh to super- 
sede him in her regard : and to prove that he need not 
fear " drowning," she sent him a dove, " the bird that, 
together with the rainbow, brought the good tidings and 
the covenant that there should be no more destruction 
by water." She moreover bids him remember how dear 
her " sheep " was to her, and sends Mr. Killigrew speci- 
ally to carry this token and Heneage's letter to him, 
with directions to bring her word how he did : 



SIR, Your knowledge of my love shall suffice, I trust, to 
satisfy you of my best endeavour to do that which may best 
content you. I received your letters, with your token toher 
Majesty, before ten of the clock this morning, which I carried 
up immediately to her Highness, then ready to ride abroad to 
kill a doe in the parrock of the great park ; and desiring to 
furnish her Majesty with the bucket, because I thought (as it 
happened) water should be so nigh her as soon as she came 
out of her drawing chamber, I presented her withal to- 
gether with the letter you wrote, which she took in her hand, 
and smiling said ' there was never such another.' And seek- 
ing to put the bodkin in her head, where it could not well 
abide, she gave it me again, and the letter withal ; which when 
she came into the standing in the parrock she took of me and 
read, and with blushing cheeks uttered many speeches (which 
I refer till I see you), the most of them tending to the dis- 
covery of a doubtful mind, whether she should be angry or 
well pleased ; in the end showing upon conference her settled 
opinion of the fidelity and fastness of your affection, and her 
determination ever to give you good cause nothing to doubt 
her favour. That which I was willed to write unto you is 
this : that she liked your preamble so ill, as she had little list 
to look on the bucket or the book ; and that if Princes were 
like Gods, (as they should be,) they would suffer no element 
so to abound as to breed confusion. And that pecora campi 
was so dear unto her that she had bounded her banks so sure 
as no water nor floods could be able ever to overthrow them. 
And, for better assurance unto you that you should fear no 
drowning, she hath sent you a bird, that (together with the 
rainbow) brought the good tidings and the covenant that 
there should be no more destruction by water. And further 
she willed me to send you word, with her commendations, 
that you should remember she was a Shepherd, and then you 
might think how dear her Sheep was unto her. This was all 
that I was willed to write, which she commanded me with her 


token to deliver to Mr. Killigrew, whom she meant to send 
to bring her word how you did. Since you went, her Majesty 
hath had very sharp disposition, as it appeared to Sir Thomas 
Leighton and my Lady Tailboys. Yesterday all the after- 
noon Stanhope was drawn in to be with her in private, and 
the Ladies shut out of the Privy chamber. To conclude, 
water hath been more welcome than were fit for so cold a 
season. But so her Majesty find no hurt by it, I care the 
less, for I trust it shall make neither me nor my friend wet- 
shod : with which hope I commend me wholly to your taking 
pity of Jacques' long and late journey. From the Court, has- 
tily, this 25th of October 1582. Your own so bound ever, 


Dr. Mathew, and his suit about the Deanery of Dur- 
ham, again appear in November of this year : 


MR. Cox, For your direct and loving letter in answer to 
mine I am far in your debt. But, under the reformation of 
his Honour, I think it will not appear by any note of my 
hand that ever I meant to withdraw my suit for Durham. 
Only it may seem how great lack I should sustain by depend- 
ence of the suit till Michaelmas was past, whereby the former 
years' fruits must grow rather to the Residentiaries of that 
Church than to the next Dean, and so he be the less able a 
good while after to keep that hospitality which would be ex- 
pected. Howbeit, since a man cannot have as he would, I 
would as I can. It may please you to peruse my note again, 
if it be kept. I dare assure you it will be found none other 
in effect than I have now declared, for it were hard I 
should write that I never thought. But now that Mr. Vice- 
Chamberlain resteth already, by your good persuasion, satis- 
fied in the point, and signifieth unto me by you the full con- 
tinuance with increase of his honourable disposition to my 
preferment unto that place before all other, with a careful 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 97 b . 


regard to be mindful of so poor man, I beseech you, Sir, do 
me this favour to return his Honour, with my bounden duty, 
most humble thanks, and re-assure him in your best and 
truest manner you can possible, that as my good success hath 
and doeth depend upon his favour in the furtherance thereof, 
so shall I never omit any occasion to do his Honour all duty 
and service. To yourself, for the pain you take therein 
to do me this pleasure, I shall be more and more beholden, 
and accordingly bounden to requite your friendship. And 
so, waiting a good hour, not of death yet, but of despatch at 
last, I most heartily recommend you, as my very self, to the 
grace of God. Sarum, 2 Novembris 1582. Your assured 
loving friend, TOBIE MATHEW.* 

On the 7th of November 1582, Lord Burghley lost 
his son-in-law, Mr. William Wentworth, eldest son of 
Lord Wentworth, who had married Elizabeth Cecil, 
Queen Elizabeth's god-daughter ; b and it is to this 
event that Sir Francis Walsingham alludes in the fol- 
lowing letter. Burghley 's other son-in-law, the Earl of 
Oxford, had for some time been in disgrace; and this 
was thought a favourable opportunity to move the Queen 
to restore him to her favour : 


SIR, At my arrival at my poor cottage, I met with this 
woeful letter, and because I cannot perform his request of 
excuse touching his lady, nor repair to Hertford, by reason 
of my absence from Court, I have thought good to lay the 
burden upon you. It would be some comfort to his Lady, if 
it might please you so to work with her Majesty as his 
other son-in-law, that hath long dwelt in her Majesty's dis- 
pleasure, might be restored to her Highness' good favour. I 
leave this to your best consideration. Besides my particular 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 26 b . 
b Murdin'e State Tapers, pp. 746, 755, 756. 


grief for the loss of that virtuous young gentleman, I am 
sorry, for her Majesty and the Realm's sake, that so towardly a 
member should be taken away. 7th November 1582. Your 
most assured friend, FRA. WALSINGHAM.* 

The following are Hatton's letter of consolation to 
Lord Burghley on Mr. Wentworth's death, and his Lord- 
ship's reply : 


MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, Her Majesty standeth so much 
moved with your sorrowful letters, as she findeth herself 
more fit to accompany you in your grief than to comfort you 
in this your irrecoverable loss. Your Lordship so well and 
holily instructed in God's fear, and so well exercised with the 
mutable accidents of this wretched world, will call reason to 
your relief, with thankfulness that God the Creator of us all 
hath called this His virtuous and zealous creature to the par- 
ticipation of His heavenly inheritance. We should lack of 
duty towards our Redeemer in resisting His will, and show 
a kind of envy in lamenting his most glorious exchange out 
of a frail and sinful life to an everlasting mansion and Heaven 
of joys. My good Lord, cast off this woe ; let it not touch 
your heart, in which the wisdom of this world and state hath 
found her seat for many years, to God's glory, the Realm's 
safety, and your mortal renown. Her Majesty sendeth your 
good noble friend, Mr. Minors, to you, who will more largely 
impart her pleasure unto you; and so, with my humble 
prayers to God for your long life and comfortable being, I 
most humbly take my leave. In haste, this 8th day of No- 
vember } 582. Your good Lordship's most bound poor friend, 



GOOD MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, I have great cause to thank 
you for your letter, full of good counsel and godly advice, 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 
b Autograph in the Lansdowne MS. 36, art. 7. 


which God give me grace to follow, knowing it necessary for 
me to obey His will in all things ; but yet a hard lesson for 
flesh to learn, and herein my case diifereth from all others. 
For though I know I ought to thank you, yet, contrary wise 
to all other causes that require thanks, which are given with 
joy from the heart, in this I cannot but sprinkle my thanks 
with tears and sobbings ; and yet from my heart. I will not 
defend my passions, but beseech God to be my comfort, as in 
some part I feel thereof, by the comfortable messages sent to 
me and mine by His principal minister, my Sovereign sweet 
Lady the Queen's Majesty, whom I pray God to preserve 
from all grief of mind and body, whereby her poor people 
may long enjoy her, as a mother and a nurse of general peace, 
both worldly and heavenly, by the free teaching of God's will 
out of His holy word. And so abruptly I end, without end 
of quietness. And truly, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, I do not 
lament so much the loss of a son-in-law, (which was very 
good,) but of a virtuous gentleman, in whom I took so great 
delight as now my grief is the more increased. From my 
poor house at Theobalds, the 9th of November 1582. Yours 
and yours, WM. BuRGHLEY. a 

The two following letters do not require any re- 
marks : 


IF you were as careful to perform as you are ready to 
promise, you had long ere this time tasted of our sweet and 
pleasant air; and your poor friends here had enjoyed your 
company, which they have so often wished for. Seeing it 
will not please you to come upon the motion of your own 
desire, do me the favour, I pray you, to come at my entreaty ; 
and so shall you make me the more beholding unto you, in 
respect that you have done me this pleasure, to take this 
pains rather to satisfy my contentment than your own liking, 
especially in a time when your coining can yield you no other 
delight than the only sight and hearty entertainment that 
a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 26 b . 




your faithful true friend can give you, whose comfort shall be 
greatly increased by your presence. Let me put you in mind, 
therefore, as I have done often, to be careful of your promise, 
and endeavour somewhat, as you may, to answer my expec- 
tation, and to satisfy the debt which you owe me in respect 
of the love I bear you ; otherwise you shall make me chal- 
lenge the commendation of courtesy and good-will before 
you, which neither my desert can in truth attain unto, nor 
your gentleness and wisdom suffer without apparent note of 
injury. If you will make me worthy of this favour, then, to 
increase my debt, let me intreat you to bring your brother 
with you. So shall I acknowledge myself doubly beholding 
unto you, first for your own coming, and then for his com- 
pany, unto whom I wish all happiness, as I do to you the 
fortunate supply of all your desires. From the Court at 
Windsor, the 20th of November 1582. Your assured friend. a 


declaring your noble kindness and remembrance of me, 
together with the notice of her Majesty's but once thinking 
graciously of so poor a man as myself, doth bring especial 
comfort unto me, that otherwise, in this unthankful and for- 
getful age, should be very little displeased to be both forgot- 
ten and contemned, which the high and great minds of the 
world so much scorn and hate. Yet this same base contempt 
and withdrawn life is found full oft to be no unsafe shadow 
from very great displeasures, which the pride and disdain that 
accompanieth praise, and the business of much action and 
greatness of place, doth bring unto men. And sure, Sir, this 
earthly mind of ours, entangled with pleasures which all 
flesh delights in, and entrapped with great hopes of honour 
and praise which the best wits are caught with, can seldom 
have leisure to look into itself, much less up to Heaven, 
whither till he come, none can be happy. Then, to miss our 
desires, to fail in our expectations, to be forgotten of our 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 98 b . 


friends, to be left of the world, and so to be carried home to 
look up to God, what loss is in this reckoning ? And if it 
be, as it is said, that the way to Heaven is rather upon 
crosses than carpets, what cross can be so light as this, (both 
without shame or pain,) not to be cared for, specially when 
we see that God, of His unspeakable goodness, is most ready 
to take them to His favour and care that the world hath cast 
off, yea, and that care not for themselves ? But whither run 
I out of Seneca's school, where I learn, ' to speak well is easy, 
to do well is hard, but to be well is happy,' which God grant 
you long on earth with honour, and at last in Heaven with 
glory. From Copthall, 26th November 1582. Your own 
ever bound, &c. T. HENEAGE.* 

Were it not the plan of this work to give the whole 
contents of Sir Christopher Hatton's " Letter Book," the 
fact that the following memorable remonstrance of Mary 
Queen of Scots has been often published, as well in the 
original French as translations, together with its great 
length, might have made it doubtful whether it should 
be now reprinted, even though this is a contemporary 
translation, and differs from all the others. But no one, 
who peruses this beautiful letter, could wish it excluded 
from any collection in which it once found a place. Its 
touching eloquence; its solemn admonitions; its pathetic 
description of the feelings of an imprisoned Queen de- 
barred from her rights, and of the yearnings of a 
mother for her only son ; its imperative demand for 
justice; its bold, if not convincing, assertion of inno- 
cence, and its burning reflections upon her oppressor, 
impart to this document an interest which it is as im- 
possible to describe as to exaggerate : b 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 29. vii. f. 54. An abstract was printed 

b The original letter is preserved by Camden, in his "Annals of Queen 

in the Cottonian MSS. Caligula C. Elizabeth," and it is given at length 



MADAM, Upon the intelligence I have received of the late 
conspiracies executed in Scotland upon my poor son, and 
being occasioned to fear the consequence thereof by mine 
own example, it behove th me to employ that small part of 
my life and power that I have remaining, in disburdening 
my heart, before I die, of my just and lamentable complaints; 
whereof my desire is, that this my letter may remain unto 
you, as long as you live after my death, as a perpetual wit- 
ness and imprinted seal in your conscience, as well for my 
discharge to all posterity, as to the shame and confusion of 
all them that by your privity have so cruelly and unworthily 
intreated me unto this day, and brought me to that ex- 
tremity where now I am. But because their purposes, prac- 
tices, actions, and proceedings, how detestable soever they 
were, did always prevail with you against my most just 
defences and sincere behaviour ; and because the power 
which you have in your own hands hath carried away cre- 
dit amongst men, I will have recourse to the living God, 
our only Judge, who hath equally and immediately esta- 
blished us under Him over His people to govern them. I 
will call upon Him in this extremity of my most urgent 
afflictions to render to you and me, as He will do in the 
Last Day, the portion of our merits and deserts, the one as 
well as the other. And remember, Madam, that 110 masks, 
nor paintings, nor policies of this world will help us before 
Him ; though mine enemies under you may for a season cover 
their subtle and malicious inventions and godless sleights 
from the eyes of men, and peradventure from yours. In 
His name, therefore, and as before Him sitting as Judge 
betwixt us both, I will call unto your remembrance, first, 
how by the agents, spies, and secret messengers sent under 

in Adam Blackwood's " Martyre de tion, in Miss Strickland's "Letters of 

Marie Stuart, Reyne d'Escosse." It Queen Mary," and in some other 

is in Jebb and Whitaker, and of works, 
course in Prince Labanoff's collec- 


your name into Scotland whilst I was there, my Subjects 
were corrupted, practised withal, and stirred up to rebellion 
against me to seek the destruction of my person ; and, to 
be short, to do, enterprise, and execute all that was done 
in that country during the troubles: whereof I will make 
no particular recital more than of that which I drew out 
by the confession of one of them that was most advanced 
afterwards in respect of that his good service, and by wit- 
nesses brought face to face unto him, whom if I had at that 
time executed, as in justice I should have done, he had not 
afterwards by means of his old intelligences renewed the 
self- same practices against my son, neither had he been a 
mediator unto you for my traitorous and rebellious Subjects 
for aid and support to be yielded them from hence, as they 
had ever since my imprisonment here ; without which sup- 
port I think the said traitors could not have prevailed 
then, nor afterwards have made their part good so long as 
they did. During my imprisonment at Lochleven, Throck- 
morton, that dead is, counselled me in your name to sign 
this release, which he told me should be offered me, assur- 
ing me that it would not be good. And since that time 
there is no place in all Christendom where it hath been so 
reputed and taken, but only here, where the authors of it 
have been assisted with open force. In conscience, Madam, 
would you acknowledge such like liberty and power in 
your Subjects ? And yet, notwithstanding, my authority 
hath been by my Subjects cast upon my son at these years 
when he was not able to execute it; and since, when I 
would have established him lawfully in it, being of age to 
help himself for his own good, it was upon a sudden plucked 
out of his hands, and given to two or three traitors that 
have already taken away the effect of it, and will in fine 
take away the name and title, as they have done from me, 
if he gainsay them never so little; yea, and his life too, 
if God be not watchful to preserve him. And as soon as 
I had escaped out of Lochleven, and was ready to give my 
rebels battle, I sent unto you by an express gentleman a 


diamond which before you had sent me for a token, and 
to assure me that you would aid me against my rebels ; and, 
that more is, in case I would withdraw myself from thence, 
you would come to the borders to assist me in person: and 
this was confirmed unto me by divers other messengers. 
This promise coming from your own mouth, and often re- 
peated, (though I had been oftentimes abused by your 
Ministers,) caused me to put such trust in the effect thereof 
as that, when my camp was broken, I came straight to cast 
myself into your artas, if I might have come unto you as 
well as my rebels did. But, as I purposed to repair unto 
you, I was taken by the way, and delivered up to a guard, 
and shut up in divers castles, and, in fine, brought past 
all shame into that captivity wherein I stand at this day, 
languishing with the sufferance of a thousand deaths. I 
know you will object against me the matter that passed 
between the Duke of Norfolk, that dead is, and me. But 
I will stand in it and make it good, that there was nothing 
done therein to your prejudice, nor against the good estate 
of this Realm. And the treaty was first allowed of by the 
advice and seals, yet extant, of the chiefest that were then 
of your Council, assuring us that they would procure your 
favour and good liking to it. How durst such personages 
enterprise to have made you consent to the taking away of 
your life, honour, and crown ? for so you make semblance, 
to all Ambassadors and others that talk with you of me, 
that you are persuaded. In the mean season, (my rebels 
perceiving that their outrageous headiness carried them fur- 
ther than they purposed, and the truth of those slanders 
that they spread of me appearing to the world by that 
conference whereunto I submitted myself voluntarily in this 
country to discharge myself publicly in the full assembly of 
your deputies and mine,) behold the chiefest among them, 
being now reclaimed and sorry for their former error, pur- 
sued by your forces, and besieged in the castle of Edin- 
burgh, with others that held with me ; and one of the 
chiefest amongst them imprisoned ; another, less guilty than 


any, most cruelly hanged ; after that I had twice caused 
them to disarm themselves at your request, upon assurance 
of accord and agreement, which God knoweth whether my 
enemies ever meant. I resolved a long time by experience 
to try if patience would amend the rigour and ill entreaty 
which had been used towards me, especially the space of 
ten years, conforming myself exactly to the order that was 
prescribed me for my captivity in this house, as well in 
respect of the number and quality of my servants which I 
keep, having dismissed the other, as for my diet and neces- 
sary exercise for my health. I have lived hitherto more 
peaceably and quietly than any one of much baser quality 
than I am, and more bound than by such entreaty I ought 
to be, forbearing to make request to have any intelligence 
with my son and Country, and only because I would minister 
no occasion of suspicion or mistrust unto you ; a matter 
that by no right or reason could be denied me, especially 
against my son, who against reason and nature was by all 
means possible persuaded against me, to the end that by 
our division we might be weakened. But you will say 
that I was licensed to visit him above three years ago : 
his captivity at that time, under the tyranny of Morton, 
was the cause of it, as his liberty since was of your re- 
fusal to give me leave to visit him in like sort all this 
year past. I did oftentimes make motions for an esta- 
blishment of good amity betwixt us, and a sure intelli- 
gence betwixt these two Realms for the time to come. At 
Chatsworth, about eleven years since, there were certain 
Commissioners sent unto me for that purpose. The mat- 
ter was dealt in with yourself by the Ambassadors of 
France and mine. I myself, the last winter, offered by 
Beale as large conditions as possibly I could. And what 
is come of it ? My good meaning despised ; the sincerity 
of my behaviour neglected and misreported; the state of 
my business thwarted by delays, surmises, and such other 
sleights ; and, to be short, worse and more unworthy usage 
from day to day, whatsoever I could do to deserve the 


contrary : my too long unprofitable and hurtful patience 
having brought me to this point, that mine enemies, through 
their wonted custom to do me ill, may now by right of pre- 
scription use me, not as prisoner, (as in reason I ought 
not to be,) but as a slave, whose life and death, without all 
respect either of God's laws or of man's, dependeth upon 
their only tyrants. I cannot suffer it any longer, Madam, 
but must needs, being in way of death, discover the causes 
of my death ; or if I live, as God shall give me any longer 
respite, assay under your protection to extinguish by what 
means soever the cruelty, slanderous reports, and traitorous 
purposes of my foresaid enemies, to the end I may purchase 
myself some little better rest for the small time I have to 
live. And therefore, first of all, to clear the pretended 
occasions of all differents that are betwixt us, rip up and 
unfold, I beseech you, if you please, whatsoever hath been 
reported unto you of my behaviour towards you, cause 
the depositions of the strangers taken in Ireland to be 
perused, let the examinations of the Jesuits lately executed 
be laid open before you, give all men liberty that will to 
charge me openly, and suffer me likewise to answer for 
myself. If I be found guilty, let me suffer for it ; which 
I shall more patiently abide when I know the occasion. If 
I be guiltless, cloak it not any longer ; and suffer me not 
to be so evil recompensed any more, to your great burthen 
both before God and man. The vilest malefactors that are 
in your prisons, and born under your obedience, are brought 
to their trial; and their accusers, and matters wherewith 
they are charged, always brought before them. And why 
cannot I, in like order, be proceeded with ; being a Sove- 
reign Queen, nearest of your blood, and your lawful heir ? 
I think that this last quality hath been hitherto the prin- 
cipal cause of mine enemies, and of all the slanderous 
speeches that have been cast out of me, to the end to set 
us at variance and to cover their unjust pretences withal. 
But alas, they have now small reason and less need to 
torment me any longer in this respect ; for I protest unto 


you upon my honour, that, at this day, I look for no other 
Kingdom but the Kingdom of my God, which I see pre- 
pared for me, for the better end of all my afflictions and 
adversities by-past. It shall behove you to discharge your 
conscience towards my son for that in this behalf shall 
belong to him after my death; and in the mean season 
not to suffer the continual practices and secret drifts, which 
our enemies m this Realm daily go about for the advance- 
ment of their pretensions, to prevail to his prejudice, labour- 
ing on the other side with our traitorous Subjects in Scot- 
land by all the means they can to hasten his ruin. Where- 
of I require no better proof than the charge given by your 
late Ministers and Deputies sent into Scotland, and that 
they have treated and seditiously practised there, without 
your privity as I will believe, but with good and earnest 
solicitation of the Earl my good neighbour of York. And 
to this purpose, Madam, by what law can it be maintained 
and made good, that I, a mother, should utterly be forbid- 
den, not only to help my son in this so extreme necessity 
wherein he is, but also to be made acquainted with his 
state ? Who can be more dutifully and sincerely careful for 
him than I ? Who can be more near him than I ? At the 
least, if by sending to him to provide for his safety, as the 
Earl of Shrewsbury gave me to understand of late from you, 
it had pleased you to have received therein my advice, you 
might with better occasion, me thinketh, and with greater 
bond of my part, have dealt in the matter. But consider 
what you have given me occasion to think, when, upon such 
a sudden forgetting of the offence that you pretend against 
my son, even then, when I prayed you that we might send 
to him together, you despatched a messenger to him where 
he was prisoner, not only not making me privy to it, but 
also restraining me at the same time from all liberty, to the 
end I might in no sort have any news of him. But if their 
meaning which persuaded you thus suddenly to visit my son, 
was for the preservation of the quiet state of that Country, 
they needed not to have been so careful to have kept it secret 



from me, as though it had been a matter wherein I would 
not have concurred with him ; and they have caused you to 
lose the thanks that I would in that behalf have given you. 
And, to speak more plainly unto you, I pray you, use no 
more such means nor persons. For although I make this ac- 
count of Sir George Carey, in respect of the place whence 
he cometh, that he will not engage his honour in any vil- 
lainous act, yet had he an assistant, a sworn partisan of the 
Earl of Huntingdon, by whose ill-offices so wicked an account 
could not but bring forth answerable effect. So that this 
only shall suffice me, that you would not suffer my son to re- 
ceive any hurt out of this Country, (which was all that I ever 
required of you heretofore, especially at such time as an army 
was sent to the frontiers to stay justice that was executed 
upon that detestable Morton,) nor that any of your Subjects 
either directly or indirectly do meddle with the affairs of 
Scotland without my privity, to whom only the authority of 
those matters belongeth, or without the assistance of some 
one from the French King, my good brother, whom, as our 
principal confederate, I desire to make partaker of all this 
cause, notwithstanding the small credit that happily he hath 
with the traitors that at this present have my son in prison 
amongst them. In the mean season, I tell you plainly that 
I esteem and account this last conspiracy and innovation as 
mere treason against the life of my son, the good estate of his 
affairs and of his Country ; and that, as long as he shall re- 
main in this estate, (whereof you are privy,) I will never 
repute and take any word, writing, or any other act that 
cometh from him or passeth under his name, to proceed from 
his free and voluntary disposition, but only from the foresaid 
conspirators, who, with the hazard of his life, make their 
profit of him to serve their own turns. But, Madam, besides 
all this liberty of speech, which I foresee may haply displease 
you in some part, although it be nothing but a truth; you 
will take, I am sure, more strange that I come to importune 
you with a request much more important, but yet very easy 
for you to grant, and this it is : that whereas I could not 


hitherunto, by accommodating myself patiently so long a 
time to the rigorous entertainment of this captivity, and car- 
rying myself most sincerely in all things, even to the least, 
that might any ways concern you, purchase myself any assur- 
ance of your good favour towards me, nor give you any of 
my sincere affection towards you, whereby I am out of all 
hope to be anything better used the rest of the small time I 
have to live; it would therefore please you for the honour 
of the painful passion of our Saviour and Redeemer, Jesus 
Christ, to give me leave to withdraw myself out of this 
Kingdom into some place of rest, where I may seek some 
comfort for my poor body so much tormented with continual 
grief, and with liberty of my conscience prepare myself to 
God who daily calleth for it. Believe me, Madam, (as the 
physicians also which you sent me the last summer be of like 
opinion,) I am not like to live long, so that you can have 
no just ground of any jealousy or distrust on my part, and 
yet, notwithstanding, take of me such assurances, and condi- 
tions so just and reasonable, as you shall please, which you 
may enforce me always to keep by reason of the great ability 
and power you have, though I would not break them for 
any thing in the world. You have sufficient experience of 
the keeping of my simple promises, though sometimes pre- 
judicial to me, as in this behalf I showed you about two 
years since. It may please you to remember what I wrote 
unto you at that time, how that you could by no means, save 
only by gentleness and by a mild course, bind my heart firmly 
unto you, though you would confine my poor languishing 
body for ever between two walls ; considering that those of 
my quality and nature cannot be forced by any rigour. Your 
wrongful prisons, void of all rightful ground, have already de- 
stroyed my body, which you cannot but shortly see brought 
to an end in case you continue it there but a little longer, 
and mine enemies shall not have much time to satisfy their 
cruelties upon me. I have nothing but the soul left, which 
cannot be captivate by any power you have. Give it leave, 
therefore, freely to breathe a little after her safety, which she 

u 2 


only seeketh at this day more than all worldly honours* Me 
thinketh it should be no great satisfaction and advantage unto 
you to have mine enemies tread my life under their feet, 
and to stifle me before your eyes ; whereas, if in this ex- 
tremity, though too late, you have delivered me out of their 
hands, you should make me greatly beholding to you, and all 
that belong unto me, and especially my son, whom peradven- 
ture by this means you might make assured to you. I will 
not cease to make this request unto you continually until 
you have granted it me. And, therefore, I pray you that I 
may understand your pleasure herein ; having for your better 
satisfaction attended this two years' space until this day, and 
forborne to refresh the same, whereunto the miserable estate 
of my health presseth me more than you can conceive. In 
the mean season provide, I beseech you, that my entertain- 
ment here may be amended, which I can no longer bear ; and 
put me not off to the discretion of any other but to your own, 
to whom alone, as I wrote of late unto you, I will hence- 
forward take myself beholding, and impute the good or evil 
that I shall receive in this Country. Do me this favour, 
that I may have your pleasure in writing, or the Ambas- 
sador of France for me ; for to trust to that that the Earl 
of Shrewsbury, or any other, shall say or write to me in 
your behalf, I find by experience it will be no assurance 
for me : the least occasion in the world that they can devise 
will be sufficient to alter the whole between this night and 
to-morrow in the morning. Moreover and besides, when I 
wrote last to your Council, you willed me that I should 
not refer myself to them, but to you only. And, therefore, 
to extend their credit and authority only to do me hurt, it 
were no reason ; as it fell out in this my last restraint, where, 
against your meaning, I was too unworthily used. Which 
thing cause th me to doubt lest that some of mine enemies in 
your Council have an eye to beware and take heed that 
other of your Council be not partakers of my just com- 
plaints, seeing haply that some of their companions like not 
of their wicked attempts against my life, or, in case that they 


should come to the knowledge of them, they would oppose 
themselves both for your honour and for their duty towards 
you. Two things, in fine, I am principally to require of you : 
the first, that, as I am ready to depart out of this world, I 
may have with me for my comfort some honourable church- 
man daily, to put me in mind of the way that I am to make 
an end of, and to instruct me to finish it according to my 
religion, wherein I am resolutely bent both to live and to 
die. This is the last duty, that cannot be denied to the 
veriest caitiff that goeth upon the earth. It is a liberty 
that you give to all Ambassadors of foreign nations, as in 
like sort all Princes catholic do give to yours, exercise of 
their religion; and I myself never forced my own Subjects 
to do anything contrary to their religion, although I had 
Sovereign authority over them. And if I should in this 
extremity be deprived of this liberty, you cannot justly do 
it, (and what should it profit you to deny it me ?) I hope 
that God will excuse me, if, being oppressed in this sort by 
you, I render him that duty in heart which is only left me. 
But you shall give a very ill example to other Princes of 
Christendom to use the like rigour towards their Subjects 
as you use towards me, being a Sovereign Princess and the 
next of your blood, as I am and will be as long as I live, in 
despite of all mine enemies. I will not be troublesome unto 
you at this present for the increase of my household, which 
I shall not have so great need of during my time I have to 
live here. I only pray you that I may have two chamber- 
maidens to help me in my sickness, assuring you that I 
could not be without them if I were the poorest creature 
that goeth upon the earth. I beseech you grant me so 
much even for God's sake, and that mine enemies may know 
that they have not so much credit about you against me as 
to wreak their vengeance and cruelty in a matter of so small 
consequence, and depending upon a simple office of humanity. 
I come now to that wherewith the Earl of Shrewsbury did 
charge me, to wit, that against my promise made to Beale, 
and without your privity, there hath been some dealing be- 


twixt my son and me to surrender to him my title of the 
Crown of Scotland, having bound myself not to proceed 
therein without your advice and by one of my servants, who 
was to be directed by one of yours, in whose company he was 
to go. These be the very words, if I be not deceived, of 
the said Earl. Touching this matter, I will tell you, Madam, 
that Beale had never any simple or absolute promise of me, 
but only certain conditions of motions, which I am not in 
anywise to be bound unto unless the conditions be first per- 
formed which I joined with them. To which conditions I am 
so far from having received any satisfaction, that contrarywise 
I never had any answer to them, neither yet any mention 
of them from you. And to this effect I remember very well, 
that when the said Earl of Shrewsbury, since Easter last, 
would have had me to confirm that that I said to Beale, I 
answered him plainly, that it was only upon condition that 
the said conditions should be granted me, and thoroughly per- 
formed. They are yet both alive to witness the truth of the 
matter, in case they will deliver the truth. Since that time, 
seeing I could receive no answer, and contrarywise that mine 
enemies did by delays and surmises continue, more licenti- 
ously than ever they did before, these practices, built from 
the time that Beale was with me, to traverse my good mean- 
ing in Scotland, as by effects hath well appeared that by 
these means the gate lay still open to the destruction of my 
son and me ; I took your silence for a denial, and discharged 
myself by express letters both to yourself and to your Coun- 
cil of all that that had passed betwixt me and Beale. I ac- 
quainted you with that that the King my brother, and the 
Queen my mother-in-law, wrote unto me with their own 
hands touching this matter, and plainly requested your ad- 
vice, which is yet to come : by direction whereof, in truth, 
I meant to have proceeded, if you had thought good to have 
let me known it in time ; and would have suffered me to have 
sent to my son, assisting me with those motions which I had 
acquainted you withal for the establishing of a good amity 
and perfect intelligence in time to come between these two 


Kingdoms. But to bind myself barely to follow your advice 
before I knew what it would be, and to submit my minister 
for the voyage to the direction of yours, especially within 
my own Country, I was never so simple as once to think 
'of it. Now I will refer to your consideration, in case you 
have been acquainted with the false play that my enemies on 
this side have played in Scotland to bring their purposes to 
that pass they are at, whether of us two went the soundest 
way to work ? Let God be judge betwixt them and me, and 
turn from this Island the just punishment for their deserts. 
Look over once again the advertisements that my traitorous 
Subjects of Scotland may haply have sent you, you shall not 
find amongst them, which I will maintain before all Princes 
Christian, that there hath passed anything from me sounding 
to your prejudice or against the quiet estate of this Kingdom, 
which I affect as greatly as any Counsellor or Subject you 
have, having greater interest in it than any of them. There 
was speech to gratify my son with the title and name of King, 
and to assure him in that title, and the rebels of free pardon 
of their former offences, and to set all things in good quiet 
and peace for the time to come, without any alteration or 
change of anything. And was this to take away the Crown 
from my son ? I think mine enemies would not have him es- 
tablished in it, and therefore are very well content that he 
should hold it by the unlawful violence of certain traitors, 
ancient enemies to our whole race. And was this to seek 
to punish the former offences of the said traitors, which 
my clemency did always surmount? But an ill conscience 
can never be at rest, carrying always about with it fear 
and trouble. Was the seeking and procurement of a ge- 
neral reconciliation betwixt our Subjects by a merciful for- 
getting of all former things, a means and purpose to alter 
the quiet estate of the whole Country ? What prejudice 
had this been unto you ? Tell me, then, and let me plainly 
understand, if you please, wherein you will have me answer 
upon my honour. Oh, Madame, will you suffer yourself 
to be so much blinded with the cunning sleights of mine 


enemies as to establish after you, and peradventure against 
yourself, their unjust pretensions to this Crown ? Wil 
you suifer them wittingly and willingly to ruinate and 
cruelly seek the destruction of them that are so near you 
both in heart and blood? Can it ever be any honour to 
you, or profit, that by their means my son and I should 
be separate so long the one from the other, and we both 
from you ? Lay hold upon the old earnests and pledges 
of your good nature; bind your own unto you: give me 
this contentment before I die, that I may see sound good- 
will and amity betwixt us ; that, when my soul shall depart 
from this body, it be not constrained to pour forth sighs and 
sobs to God for the wrong that you have suffered to be done 
us here on earth ; but contrarywise, departing in peace and 
concord with you out of this captivity, it may go to Him, 
whom I pray to inspire you aright with due compassion of 
my foresaid most just and more than reasonable complaints 
and grievances. At Sheffield, this 28th of November, 3 1582. 
Your very disconsolate nearest relation and cousin, 


Walsingham seems to have been more exposed to mis- 
representation than any of his colleagues, possibly be- 
cause it was well known that the Queen always disliked 


SIR, In men's absence from Court envy oftentimes doth 
work most malicious effects ; and therefore I am to pray you, 
as my honourable good friend, to procure that I may enjoy 
the ordinary course of justice, not to be condemned un- 
heard. I trust there will be no fault found with my absence, 
for that I see no use for the present of my service. And, if 

a The date of this letter in the places, it is dated on the twenty- 

original is the eighth of November eighth of that month. 
1582 ; but in Hatton's " Letter 

Book," and in Blackwood, and other b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 9. 


there were, I hope as it hath not been hitherto, so shall it 
never be found that I shall prefer my particular before the 
public. This day the Earl of Leicester took my poor house 
(where he dined) in his way to London ; where, as I gathered 
by him, he is to be occupied about the provision of New- 
year's gifts. He desireth, that, if there be any fault found 
with his absence in this present nakedness of your Court, you 
will excuse him. And so, Sir, praying you to have us both 
in your protection, I end. At Barn Elms, the 22nd of De- 
cember 1582. Your assured friend to command, 


Sir Thomas Heneage's next letter relates to a similar 
proceeding, and contains the same allusions as those in 
his letter of the 25th of October. Still jealous of Ra- 
leigh, Hatton intimated his feelings this time by a jewel 
or token, in the form of a " fish prison," instead of a 
" bucket ;" on receiving which, with his letter, the Queen 
again expressed her preference of him to his rival, by 
the same silly conceits about " water," " fish," " flesh," 
and " sheep," as on the former occasion : 


SIR, There is no office I more willingly execute than to 
satisfy your desire, or to testify unto you the service of my 
best good-will. The fine fish prison, together with your let- 
ter this bearer brought me, I presented immediately to the 
delightful hands of her sacred Majesty, who read it, well 
pleased to see you a little raised from your sour humour ; and 
hath willed me to write unto you that the water, and the 
creatures therein, do content her nothing so well as you ween, 
her food having been ever more of flesh than of fish, and her 
opinion steadfast that flesh is more wholesome ; and further, 
that if you think not pecora campi be more cared for of her 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 37. 


both abroad and at home, and more contenting to her than 
any waterish creatures, such a beast is well worthy of being 
put in the pound. Besides, but for stirring choler in you, 
that for the most part carrieth men too far, her Highness 
told me she would have returned to you your token; but 
worn it is with best acceptance. And to conclude : to please 
you and not to play with you, by her looks and words, which 
be no charms of guile, but the charters of truth, I am fully 
persuaded you are so sure of her blessed favour as may com- 
fort your life, content your heart, and conclude you to be 
most happy. In which estate God long hold you till He take 
you to Himself. From the Court, 29th of December 1582. 
Your own, whilst I am anything, T. HENEAGE.* 

Several undated and not very important letters occur 
in the "Letter Book," among those of this period; 
arid, it being impossible to assign them to their exact 
places, they will be added to the correspondence of 
this year. As all the writers and the subjects of their 
letters, where material, have been before mentioned, no 
illustrations are necessary. 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, What furtherance I have found by 
your especial favour in my suit for the Deanery of Durham, 
I shall never forget while I live, but ever acknowledge 
with all the thankfulness and service I may possibly show. 
Howbeit, as I have divers times and divers ways been sounded 
so deeply, as some could reach to my shallow bottom, what 
assistance therein I have found at your hands ; so, the more 
curious they were to understand thereof, the more was I still 
fain and forced to suppress how singularly I have been 
bounden to your Honour, and thereupon constrained in sort 
(not without grief of mind and danger of your evil opinion) 
to withdraw myself, both further than I would and longer 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 30. 


than was meet, from presenting to your Honour my humble 
due thanks for your secret and assured favour. But such is 
your experience in this place, and your wisdom such in 
causes of weight, as, all circumstances considered, I trust 
you will make an honourable and favourable construction 
both of mine absence and of my silence : and give me leave 
withal to beseech your Honour, as well to continue her Ma- 
jesty's resolution upon me, as also to further my more 
speedy despatch, to my more credit here and my less loss at 
Durham; whence I am credibly informed that many things 
there (besides the government of the Church) go daily to 
rack ; the mansion-houses decayed, the woods wasted, the 
game spoiled, and the grounds unlet, but not uneaten, and 
as much havoc made as may be of all that might be benefi- 
cial unto me. To this if the season be added, which now 
more and more hasteth on, as well for carriages as for other 
provisions necessary to be made for the whole year ensuing, 
it may partly move her Majesty to the more tender conside- 
ration of the poor estate of her humble servant, leaving be- 
hind him all the living he hath, and departing so far off, as 
it were, into another world ; and although it may seem to 
savour of presumption both to crave the benefit and to 
assign the time, yet verily, Sir, I am nothing so importune 
with your Honour to be gone, as many good men of that 
country and Church been earnest with me to be there, who 
suppose the delay rather to grow upon some slackness in 
myself, than of any slowness in my good friends and honour- 
able intercessors : among whom as I have to reckon you, Sir, 
for one of the chiefest of all in many respects ; so, might it 
please you to expedite the matter, as I know you may, I 
should not only be double bounden unto you, both for my 
happy success in the end and for my good speed the while, 
but accordingly be both directed and commanded by your 
Honour, whom I thus humbly recommend to the grace of 
God. Your Honour's at commandment, humble and bounden, 


a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 91 b . 



SIR, Although, either by your absence from the Court or 
lack of leisure, I receive no news from you of my bill signed, 
yet, knowing how much you have steaded me therein from 
time to time, I cannot but remember you with letter thanks 
until I may see you at the Court, which I hope to do the end 
of the next week ; for by that time I hope to be delivered of 
an impediment I am letted withal, as this bearer may better 
tell you than this ink and paper will well bear. The while, I 
pray you deliver these enclosed, and furnish out their defects 
with the supply of your accustomed friendly words. And so, 
for this time, I most heartily betake you to the grace of God. 
Your ever assured friend, 



SIR, I have read your letters of the 17th, by which you de- 
clare her Majesty's gracious conceiving of the good service of 
her servant, Mr. Middlemore, to be such as she vouchsafeth 
him the Searcher's office void by the death of Gray ; and to 
that end she willed you so to advertise me, and therewith to 
let me understand, that herein having (as your words are) 
partly encroached upon me to do her servant good, I shall find 
her Majesty graciously willing to pleasure any man of mine 
to whom I intended the same. For answer to thus much, I 
know my duty is to obey anything that her Majesty shall 
command, as well in any other thing as in this ; specially con- 
sidering the disposition of this Office dependeth upon the 
Office which I hold but at her pleasure, and thereof I confess 
myself unworthy for all respects but for good-will, wherein I 
may as a gnat compare with a camel. True it is, that as mj 
predecessor disposed of this to a man of his own, so I had a 
meaning to have done the like upon one that serveth under 
me, but not principally for myself; and yet, now her Majesty 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 


knowing this my intention, minding it otherwise, I shall with- 
draw my own mind therein, and conform myself to her Ma- 
jesty's pleasure, neither regarding the relief of my servant 
that hath lived long in expectation, nor yet any small scrupul- 
ous point of my own estimation, not doubting of any meaning 
in her Majesty hereby to diminish my poor credit. And, so to 
conclude, I will presently, as once already I have done, give 
strait charge to all the inferior Officers to have good regard to 
this charge. And for Middlemore's placing, at my coming to 
the Court, (which shall be very shortly,) I will do that which 
shall serve to the execution of her Majesty's commandment; 
and so have I told Mr. Middlemore, the bringer hereof. 
Praying you, Sir, to interpret my writing to the best sense to 
content her Majesty, whom to please I know it my boundeii 
duty, and that simply, even both for God's cause, (whose 
image to me she is,) as also for her own particular goodness 
showed largelier to me than I can deserve : and yet without 
hypocrisy, I dare say, there is no servant, from her Porter's 
lodge to her Chamber door, hath more care in conscience and 
in deeds to serve her than I* You see my cogitations are 
somewhat stirred, to enlarge thus much to you my good friend. 
Your assured loving friend, W. BURGHLEY.* 


YOUR Honour's love to the doctrine of the Gospel, with 
hatred of Foreign power and Popery, whereof I have conceived 
opinion by report of some persons of right good credit, (your 
sincere proceeding wherein I beseech God may make you 
truly and perfectly honourable,) hath put my pen in my hand 
to write unto you for the obtaining of some of that grace of 
which you have so great store with her Majesty, to my es- 
pecial relief in a cause, the equity whereof I leave to your 
Honour's judgment after it shall please you to inform yourself 
of the same. For, seeing all Godly truth is so near of kin one 
to the other as no sisterly bond is to be compared therewith, 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 90 b . 


the door of your harbour being open to the one, I trust shall 
not be shut up against the other. Having laid hereupon the 
principal ground of my encouragement, there came to my 
mind for my further confirmation therein, that, if it be of 
honourable report to do good to many, it is much more that 
your goodness should light upon those that are trodden under- 
neath the foot : which is so much the more acceptable to God, 
as He hath more especially commanded the care of those than 
of any other ; and so much the more welcome unto men, as 
every one hath a nearer sense and greater gladness of his 
change from a troublesome estate unto a quiet, than from a 
quiet unto a more commodious. My trouble, if it like your 
Honour, is not only the restraint of my liberty these six 
years, but especially, as that which lieth much heavier upon 
me, the suspicion of disloyalty whereof I stand accused to her 
Majesty. The matter is this: First, I do with most humble 
thanks, chiefly unto the Lord our God, and then to her Ma- 
jesty, which is His good hand towards us, acknowledge the 
estimable treasure of the doctrine of the Gospel that shineth 
amongst us. Then, I cannot deny but that I have written 
some things which run into the evil speeches of divers other- 
wise well-disposed ; the cause whereof is the clamorous and 
unconscionable reports of certain which love themselves too 
much ; who have learned too well this point of husbandry, to 
sow their seed of slanderous speeches thick and threefold, to 
the end that some at the least may take. For I am charged 
with things which not only I did never write, but which never 
entered so much as into my thought. As, to give the attempt 
of the overthrow of all good government in the common- 
wealth ; to mislike of Magistrates, and especially of Monarchs ; 
to like of equality of all Estates, and of a headless ruling of 
the unruly multitude. In the Church, to persuade the same 
disorder of setting no difference between the people and their 
governors ; in their governors to leave no degrees ; to give to 
the Ministers in their several charges an absolute power of 
doing what them liketh best, without controulment of either 
civil or ecclesiastical authority ; and, for the present estate of 


our Church, that I carry such an opinion of it as in the mis- 
like thereof I dissuade the Ministers from their charges, and 
the people from hearing the word and receiving the sacra- 
ments at their hands, unless it might be in such sort as I my- 
self would have it. All which judgments as I utterly detest, 
so for the maintenance of them there shall not be found, 
without open and violent wresting, so much as one sentence 
in any of my books that have been published : whereas to the 
contrary there are divers sentences of that clearness that none 
can deny but he will say that it is not light at noon-day. If 
haply your Honour will ask after proof, it cannot be more 
certainly had than of my books written in this behalf. If 
that may seem too long, let the trial be by the Ecclesiastical 
Discipline a written in Latin, which as it handleth the same 
matter, so, by a preface set before it, I have testified my agree- 
ment therewith. If yet a shorter way be sought, the prefaces 
to my several books, containing the sum of the matter in de- 
mand, will answer of my dutiful meaning in these causes. If 
any other more reasonable way may be advised of, I will there- 
unto most willingly submit myself. Only my humble suit is, 
that I be not condemned in silence, but there may be a time 
of trial, as there hath been of accusation. Her Majesty hath 
an ear open to her poorest Subjects : I am one of that num- 
ber ; in humble submission with the poorest, in affectioned 
good-will towards her long reign and heaped felicity with the 
richest, as that which I have daily most humbly commended 
unto the Lord from the first time that ever I had any feeling 
knowledge of the Gospel until this present. Others have 
audience at her Majesty's hands when their goods are but 
touched; my name, which is a much more precious posses- 
sion, is rent asunder : their causes concern but themselves ; 
mine reach unto many and divers persons: theirs is in earthly 
matters ; mine is in heavenly. Being, therefore, in dutiful al- 

a " A full and plain Declaration of wright," 4to., 1574. A Reply to 
Ecclesiastical Discipline out of the this work, by Dr. Bridges, was pub- 
Word of God, and of the declining lished in 1584 ; and a Defence of it, 
of the Church of England from the in answer to the Reply, in 1588. 
same ; with a Preface by Cart- 


legiance equal, and in a matter which I complain myself of 
above others, my humble suit is, that in indifferent hearing 
and information of the cause I may not be inferior unto them 
all. I desire nothing more than that the cause itself, so far 
as it shall be proved good, might so appear unto her Majestv. 
My next desire is, that, if I must needs remain in her High- 
ness' suspicion, (the grievous sorrow whereof I shall not lay 
down but with my life,) yet that it may be according to that 
which I have written, and not according to that which I am 
reported of ; so shall I be sure to be eased of the slanderous 
surmise of my disloyalty to her Majesty's estate and to the 
Commonwealth, likewise of my love to Puritanism and 
Church confusion ; the contrary of both which I do most ear- 
nestly protest, with this offer, that if either be proved against 
me, I will refuse no extremity to be practised upon me. This 
is my humble suit ; wherein whatsoever your Honour shall 
bring to pass, for that you shall not have me alone, but num- 
bers of others favouring the truth, bound unto you. And 
thus I humbly commend your Honour to the Lord's gracious 
keeping, whom I beseech daily to increase in you all godliness 
and honour to His glory. Your Honour's humbly to com- 


SIR, Though I am over-bold so often to write, yet having 
ill hap by God's visitations, and hoping your honourable 
favour will excuse this my hardiness, I have presumed, as you 
see, to trouble you with these few lines. I trust now my long 
suit will shortly be answered to my desire, and I believe 
assuredly that order was taken for my release before I fell 
sick ; but, as I have ever seen and found, some takes tin 
wood from the fire when I seek most to be warmed ; and 
yet all these hinderers of hap cannot take away the love 
which I bear unto my dear friends, nor appal 110 part of my 
honest mind. I know it is miserable to crave, servitude to 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 22. 


receive, and beggarly to want ; which three afflictions my 
betters are visited with, and my inferiors cannot avoid : but 
yet I would it might have pleased God that I had never 
known them. My late imprisonment is cause presently both 
of my necessity and gout ; God forgive them that clipped 
my feathers, and hindered my health, when I might have flown 
where I had listed. To come home for mercy, and have im- 
prisonment presented to me ; to serve truly, and to be coldly 
considered ; to lie sick, and not visited, is a strange destiny ; 
but yet much more strange to live long in liberty, and no 
one man living to help me. Thus do I, poor abandoned 
wretched creature, bear the insupportable burthen of all 
sorrowful imaginations, as God Himself knoweth best, who 
send me health and increase your Honour. 


The " Company " mentioned in a letter from Norton 
to Sir Christopher Hatton, was clearly the Stationers' 
Company, whose privileges a printer called Bynneman, 
" his servant," had infringed : 


IT may please your Honour, your servant Henry Byn- 
neman, being charged by complaints of some of his Com- 
pany for obtaining her Majesty's privilege for printing 
of certain books, hath in his defence exhibited her Majesty's 
letters patents under the Great Seal of England, to which it 
becometh every good Subject to yield due reverence and obe- 
dience. And, for my own part, I would be loath not to be 
found an obsequious acknowledger of her prerogative and 
authority. He hath yet, upon charitable motions, for relief 
of poor men of that Company, yielded some good part of his 
right ; and the rather, that your Honour may have cause to 
think him an honest man and worthy of your favour. This 
being true, and he desirous that you may know that for your 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 


Honour whom he serveth he would do what becometh an 
honest man, I am bold to signify it unto you, that you may 
find yourself in your honourable disposition to have the more 
cause to continue to him your accustomed goodness in de- 
fence of that right whereunto her Majesty by your media- 
tion hath entitled him, and which he so reasonably offereth 
to use. And thus, humbly commending you to the grace of 
God, I forbear any more to trouble your Honour. At Lon- 
don, the 5th of January 1582 [1583]. Your Honour's 
humble at commandment, THO. NORTON.* 

All that Camden says of the affair of which Sir John 
Norris gives so full an account in the following report to 
the Queen, is that, when the Duke of Anjou " had spent 
in the Netherlands a great mass of money supplied 
out of England, and that with no success, and found 
that there were bestowed on him bare and idle titles 
only, and that the government and managing of matters 
rested in the Estates 7 hands, he attempted, with a rash 
design, to force Antwerp and other Cities, but all in vain, 
and not without loss of his own men; and shortly after 
left the Netherlands with dishonour :" b 


MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN, It may please your most 
excellent Majesty to understand that on Saturday night last 
past, being the sixth of this present, the burghers of this town 
of Antwerp being in some jealousy of the French, who were 
lodged in the town in great numbers, increased their watch 
to the double number they were ordinarily accustomed, 
causing every household to hang out lights into the streets, 
and withal in the evening gave warning at the Court to sucl 
gentlemen as were lodged in the town to repair to theii 
lodgings by nine of the clock. The Duke took not this 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 42. b Annals, b. iii. p. 13. 


dealing in good part, but seemed much discontented that any 
jealousy should be conceived of those of his train ; and the 
next morning about nine of the clock, repairing to the 
Castle, had conference with the Prince touching that matter, 
which was executed in as good sort as might be, and the 
occasion thereof imputed to some light dealings and indiscreet 
speeches lately let fall by some of the French ; and, that all 
might be appeased, proclamation was presently made that 
all those of the French which belonged to the army should 
forthwith repair to the troops at Burgherhault, whither the 
Duke determined to go after dinner to take a view of the 
whole forces between one and two of the clock, accompanied 
with the most of the gentlemen of his Court. His Highness 
passing through the gate that leadeth to Burgherhault, sud- 
denly those of his train which came after began to seize the 
gate, and fell to some blows with the burghers which that day 
guarded the port ; having caused eight ensigns of the French 
to be in a readiness and to come forward, who also entered the 
gate, and had advanced themselves within the town as far as 
St, Jaques Church and near to the Great Bourse. The alarm 
being given throughout the town, the Burghers immediately 
took arms, and so well acquitted themselves, that in some- 
what less than three quarters of an hour the gate was re- 
covered, and the French caused to retire with the loss of 
eight or nine hundred at the least, besides Messieurs De 
Fervaques, Chamount, De Fargie, L'Averne, Beaupre, La 
Ferte, La Rasseliere, and some others, whose names I have 
not learned, which, being dismounted from their horses, were 
brought into the town by the Burghers, and remain under 
guard in several houses. The Marshal Biron was the night 
before gone out of the town to set all things in order against 
the Duke's coming to Burgherhault; the Duke of Mont- 
pensier accompanied his Highness, and so did the Count De 
a Vail. The Count De la Marshe, not thinking of any 
such matter, was playing at tennis, and from thence con- 
ducted by the Burghers safely to his lodging. In this tumult 
h ath been slain men of name : the Count Chasteaureux' 

x 2 


son ; the Count St. Aignon and his son ; Monsieur De Tyan, 
governor of Alost ; a son of the Marshal Biron's ; Secevalle ; 
Biragues; and many others of good account. The Duke 
went straight to Berckham to a castle one mile from Ant- 
werp, where he yet remaineth ; from whence this day he sent 
letters to the Prince excusing the attempt of the soldiers, 
being driven thereunto, as he saith, by the great misery and 
extremity they had long endured ; offering to employ himself, 
and such means he had, to the benefit and defence of their 
country if they should think good to accept thereof. The 
messenger, being a Maister d'hostell to his Highness, with 
a Colonel of the town, are returned back again with answer, 
the effect whereof I cannot yet understand. About the 
same time of this attempt in Antwerp, the French possessed 
themselves of Dermound, Dixmuyde, Dunkirk, and Vilvor- 
den; and, attempting to do the like at Bruges, it is said 
the Burghers of the town have cut all the French in pieces. 
Letters were immediately sent from the Prince and the 
States here to others their towns of garrison, advising them 
to stand upon their sure guard for the better preventing of 
any French practice against them. There was slain of the 
Burghers in this tumult between forty and fifty persons, and 
some few hurt ; and of the French better than a thousand ; 
as it is judged, besides three or four score hurt, which have 
been found alive under the dead bodies when they were 
carried to their burial. This being as much as I can presently 
advertize your Majesty touching this late accident, it may 
please you to give me leave to end with my most humble and 
hearty prayers to Almighty God to defend and keep your 
most excellent Majesty against the practices of your enemies, 
to bless your estate, and to grant you a long and prosperous 
reign amongst us. From Antwerp, the 9th of January 1582 
[1583], Your Majesty's most dutiful subject, 

J. NoRRis. a 

a Additional MSS. 1589], f. 48. 


Another proof of Hatton's amiable disposition is 
afforded by the following letter : 


MY VERY GOOD LORDS, Whereas the Lady Egerton of 
Ridley standeth bounden for her appearance before your 
Lordships to answer such matter as she is charged with touch- 
ing her disposition in religion, I am credibly given to un- 
derstand, that albeit she hath not hitherto conformed her- 
self to her Majesty's proceedings, upon a certain preciseness 
of conscience incident to divers of her sex, without reason 
or measure oftentimes ; yet in other respects she hath always 
showed herself very dutiful and of a good behaviour, so far 
forth as she continually entertaineth a chaplain in her house, 
who usually says the service both for her household and 
neighbours according to her Majesty's laws. I am further 
informed the gentlewoman is very aged, and in very weak 
disposition of health, troubled oftentimes with sundry infir- 
mities, the which of late are much increased upon her; in 
consideration whereof I think her case rather to be pitied, 
and that haply it may fall to better purpose to seek to reduce 
her by a mild and gentle course, than to endanger her health 
by imprisonment or other of the said proceedings against her. 
I am therefore to recommend her to your Lordships' favour- 
able considerations, and to desire you (if in your wisdoms 
it may be thought convenient) to be pleased to give her a 
further time of toleration until Michaelmas next, in hope 
that, by such convenient means as in that space may be 
wrought, she may be easily brought to better conformity. 
Wherein what course it shall please your Lordships to take } 
together with the grant of this her humble request (wherein 
I am earnestly pressed by special friends), I shall think my- 
self much beholden to your Lordships for it, and be ready to 
requite the same in what I may, as it shall please your Lord- 
ships to use me. And so, wishing to you, my Lords, most 
happy fortune, I take my leave. From the Court at Wind- 


sor, the 10th of January 1582 [1583]. Your Lordships' 
poor friend, most assured, 


La Motte Fenelon and Manninville were sent to 
Scotland by the King of France in 1582, to endeavour 
to deliver the young King out of the hands of the Earl 
of Gowrie and the other conspirators, and to confirm 
him in the French interests. The article proposed by 
La Motte is mentioned by Camden : 


To congratulate greatly with him on their parts, in that 
the Queen of Scots, Dowager of France, his mother, which is 
sister-in-law and daughter-in-law to their most Christian Ma- 
jesties, after many obstacles and difficulties presented, hath, 
with a good and motherly affection, most willingly declared 
that she will that her said son be called by the title of King 
in her life-time, and associate with her in this Crown ; a thing 
which maketh far more lawful, and out of all contradiction, 
and well approved of all other Christian Princes, the happy 
reign of the said most noble King her son : which is a matter 
that ought to be published throughout this Realm, according 
to the form of the declaration, to the intent to remove the 
partialities and divisions that might be in the same. b 

La Motte's and his Colleague's proceedings in Scotland 
are thus described in a letter to Sir Christopher Hatton 
by Mr. Davison, who was sent on a mission to the King 
of Scots in December 1582, with the object of counter- 
acting the French Ambassadors : 

Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, p. 130. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 100. 



SIR, I shall not need to excuse unto your Honour my 
silence used towards you since my coming hither, because 
your own good-nature, and experience of the honest devotion 
I bear you, will not, I am sure, impute it to my want or for- 
getfulness of my duty towards you. It shall be enough that 
the sufficiency and diligence of my good friend Mr. Bowes, 
who I know faileth not to visit your Honour often with his 
letters, and my own rawness yet in matters of this State, do 
therein purge and excuse me. Now, presuming your Honour 
is there particularly acquainted with that I have written 
hitherto since La Motte's entry and' mine, I will in these 
only discharge some piece of my duty with such matters as 
hath happened since our last to Mr. Secretary. Upon Man- 
ninville's arrival and receipt of some letters from him, La 
Motte began to speak more frankly than before, and the very 
next morning delivered in a new article in writing, containing 
a congratulation with this King touching his mother's con- 
sent that his Highness should be called by the title of King 
in her lifetime, and associate with her in the Government, 
&c. ; a thing to be published according to the form of the de- 
claration (which yet is not come to our sight) for avoiding of 
the inconveniences might otherwise happen, &c. The copy 
of which article I herewith send your Honour, that by their 
own acts you may the better aim at their scope and intent. 
Yesterday he followed the King on hunting, and on the fields 
had large conference with him of many things, where, press- 
ing the King to deal plainly and frankly with him touching 
his private estate and liberty, he let fall many speeches both 
of his Council and Guard ; showing him that he understood 
this Guard and the commanders thereof were entertained at 
the Queen's our Sovereign's charge, which being, as he said, 
a thing perilous and of rare example among Princes, made 
him the more suspicious that his Highness was not in that 
free condition and liberty which became his estate of a 
King ; offering him, if he had any mislike thereof, and would 


deal plainly with him, there should be remedy enough found 
for his relief. Which the King answered in like terms as he 
had before, that there was no cause to suspect either his 
Council or his Guard (being of his own choice and approba- 
tion) of any indirect dealing against the freedom either of his 
person or government ; assuring him he was abused in his 
information thereof, as also in that point concerning her Ma- 
jesty, which he excused to have grown only of some par- 
ticular dealing between his treasurer and Mr. Bowes, of 
whom (without her Majesty's privity) Go wry upon a sudden 
necessity had borrowed some little matter, for which he had 
given his own particular bond, and remained his debtor; 
which being afterward employed in his Highness* service, he 
had taken order with Gowry to see Mr. Bowes answered, so 
as the charge was his own, and not her Majesty's. Many 
other things to like purpose passed between them, in all 
which La Motte, plucking down his vizard by degrees, 
makes sufficiently appear to such as are anything clearly- 
sighted the concurrency of their negotiations here with the 
doings in Flanders, though that poor Country hath at this 
time played the first part in this common tragedy ; which I 
pray God that her Majesty, and others whom it specially 
concerns, may give that heed and regard unto that apper- 
taineth. Manninville, landing at Leith on Sunday night, 
came yesterday to this town. His train is to the number of 
twenty-two or twenty-three persons ; amongst which is one 
Dormes, a gentleman reported to be of the house of Lor- 
raine, and of the French King's chamber, (a gallant at all 
sports to entertain this young King withal,) who, whilst Man- 
ninville attends his business here, being sent, as his men give 
out, to remain Ambassador resident for his Majesty, is ap- 
pointed to make a progress into every part of the Country ; 
but the scope of that journey well enough foreseen will, I 
think, be otherwise met withal than lie looks for. They have 
brought with them a massing priest ; which, known in the 
town, hath greatly moved the common people, whose fury it 
will be hard for him to escape if he be taken abroad : which 


the King understanding, hath forewarned La Motte and the 
other to look unto it, as a thing very hard for himself other- 
wise to provide for ; whereupon they have all this day kept 
close their doors, standing on their guards with as much fear 
as discontentedness. There is some order given for La Motte's 
dispatch, but his departure is yet uncertain. Gowry is come 
this evening to this town ; the rest of the Lords written for at 
La Motte's request have excused themselves. The Lord 
Harris died here on Sunday last very suddenly of an apo- 
plexy (as some think), which he had fallen into once or twice 
before. To-morrow afternoon is Manninville appointed his au- 
dience ; his charge, as La Motte pretends unto us, is none 
other than his own, which appears ill enough, if he may have 
time and means to execute it. What I shall further learn of 
these things I will not long conceal from your Honour, whom 
in this meantime I beseech the Almighty long to preserve, 
with much increase of honour and health. At Edinburgh, 
the 22nd of January 1582 [1583]. Your Honour's most 
humble at commandment, W. DAVISON.* 

It appears that Davison had urged some private suit 
in a postscript to the preceding letter, but it was 
not copied into the "Letter Book;" on which subject 
he also wrote to Hatton's secretary : 


MR. Cox, I pray you let my business excuse at this time 
the shortness of these to yourself, whom I would not leave 
uiivisited with a line or two, having some occasion to write 
to my honourable good friend Mr. Vice-Chamberlain. For 
public things I refer you to his ; and herein will only put you 
in mind of my particular, which I trust you are no less mind- 
ful to commend and further to his Honour, than I am willing 
to be thankful for any courtesy you shall do me. I have, in 
a postscript to his Honour, touched it somewhat generally, 
which you may help and supply with such particulars as you 
think agreeable to the matter, and answerable to our friend- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 100. 


ship. The sum and place (I mean the Duchy) last resolved 
on I pray may be followed ; other direction you need not, 
that can better skill thereof than myself, on whose care and 
friendly travail reposing myself in this behalf I do heartily 
commend you for this time to the grace of God. Edinburgh, 
22nd January 1582 [1583], Your own assured, 


The three following letters relate to one of the most 
disgraceful transactions of Elizabeth's reign. Sir Robert 
Stapleton, of Wighill, in Yorkshire, the representative 
of an ancient and affluent family, and who is described by 
a contemporary " as a man well spoken ; properly seen in 
languages ; a comely and good personage ; had scarce an 
equal, and, next to Sir Philip Sidney, no superior in Eng- 
land," basely conspired with an innkeeper, called Sysson, 
and his wife, to extort money from Dr. Sandys, Archbishop 
of York, by accusing him of adultery. The circum- 
stance is thus related by Strype: " In May 1581, 
while the Archbishop lodged at Doncaster, on his jour- 
ney, one Sysson, the host, caused his wife to go by night 
into the Archbishop's bed to him, and he, presently 
after, followed, with his dagger in his hand, into the 
chamber, which he put to the Archbishop's breast, 
with Alexander his man, and Maud, that had been the 
Archbishop's servant, saying, ' God's precious life, I will 
mark a whore and a thief.' Stapleton then made his 
appearance, and after requiring 800/., the Archbishop 
agreed to give 600/. and a lease of some lands to hush 
the matter up ; but afterwards, when they proceeded to 
demand more lands, manors, and benefits, the Archbishop 
refused to go any further, but resolved to send the whole 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 47 b . 


case, with all their horrible dealings, to Burghley, and 
through him to the Queen." 

Proceedings being instituted against Stapleton and 
his accomplices, he was heavily fined and committed to 
prison; and he continued in confinement until the fol- 
lowing year : 


SIR, My servant shall show you why I must write so evil 
and so little. Sir Robert Stapleton required to come to me, 
and so the Examiners thought good ; afore whom charging 
him with Sysson's confession, he protested against Sysson as 
against a bankrupt and a beggar. Yea, he could tell of the 
late intent to have had a preacher treacherously used; he 
rested upon Maude and Mallory as gentlemen. But now, 
coming to me, he yieldeth to his offence, and asked God 
mercy ; and thus far he yieldeth, that Sysson first, and after- 
ward also his wife, opened to him the device to have the Bishop 
entrapped, she pretending that the Bishop had moved her to 
evil : the same was also imparted to Mallory and Maude. 
And Sir Robert, having conceived displeasure against the 
Bishop, confesseth he yielded hereto, as thereby to have the 
Bishop under his girdle. He denied not to have had 200 of 
Sysson by way of loan, which, he saith, Maude procured to 
be repaid to Sysson, which he now thinketh was the 200 
that Maude had last of the Bishop. To conclude : he peni- 
tently asketh God mercy for exercising his malice in this sort ; 
but yet he termeth his offence but a sufferance of the practices 
begun by Sysson and his wife to proceed as it did. He desir- 
eth pardon of her Majesty, offering his life in service to redeem 
it ; he also desireth that he may be used so as Mrs. Talbot a 
may continue her affection, by whom, he saith, he is to have 
1200 by year for thirteen years. I have quieted him, that 
there is no cause to doubt of his fleeing ; and truly his tears 
do move me to have compassion of him, being myself well sa- 

8 Vide a former Letter. 


tisfied with the purgation of the Bishop. His further exa- 
minations do stay ; he confesseth the combination at York 
with all the parties to agree upon one compounded tale. 
Sysson saith, his speeches of looking in at the keyhole were 
false, and of the Bishop kissing of his wife. Yours assur- 
edly, W. BURGHLEY. 3 


MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, Her Majesty yieldeth her 
most kind and gracious thanks unto you for your grave and 
wise handling of this great cause ; only she resteth not satis- 
fied that Sir Robert Staple ton is not more straitly looked 
unto than hitherto he hath been. Her good pleasure is, that 
your Lordship send for the Master of the Rolls, and give him 
most earnest charge, upon peril of her Highness' uttermost 
displeasure, to intend to his safe keeping; the rather because 
her Majesty pretendeth to know more than hitherto she will 
be pleased to speak of. There will no favour be found as 
yet in the accommodating of his cause with Mrs. Talbot, but 
through your goodness hereafter haply somewhat may be 
wrought; but surely he cannot escape without public note 
and severe punishment, for such is her Majesty's censure 
moved for justice sake both for the man and matter. My 
Lord of Leicester will be at London the morrow, when I 
think the Queen will direct him to speak with you. Thus, 
with all humble duty, I pray God for your health, and com- 
mend my service unto you. Haste, at Richmond, this 24th 
of February 1582 [1583]. Your good Lordship's most bound, 



MY VERY GOOD LORD, I thank God from my heart that 
your travail in this great cause hath brought forth so blessed 
effects. Innocency is delivered, and truth hath prevailed, to 
God's glory, and the due commendation of your wisdom and 
goodness. Her Majesty rejoiceth exceedingly in it, and 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f . 104. b Autograph in the State Paper Office. 


yieldeth her most gracious thanks to your Lordship for your 
so great and wise proceeding in it. My Lord of Leicester 
hath her Majesty's directions to signify thus much of her 
pleasure, with further matter unto your Lordship, as I sup- 
pose. And, for present answer to these your last letters, (con- 
sidering this and her Majesty's business in receiving La 
Motte, and after in the sermon, in which my duty of attend- 
ance is of necessity,) I cannot deliver as I dutifully would ; 
but, so soon as is possible, your Lordship shall receive her 
Majesty's further pleasure. I pray God restore your health, 
and bless your Lordship with a long and happy life. The 
24th of February 1582 [1583]. Your good Lordship's most 
bound, CHR. HATTON. a 

Lord Burghley's answer to Hatton's letters respecting 
the Archbishop of York is preserved : 


SIR, For answer to your two letters of this day, I pray 
you in my behalf to render my recognition to her Majesty of 
my comfortable acceptance of her gracious and favourable 
allowance of my careful proceeding to the discussing of the 
truth in the Archbishop's cause, which was very cunningly 
covered, and made almost desperate to have been disclosed: 
but, in the end, God, the father of truth, left the adversaries in 
fear to be otherwise convinced by the contrarieties of their 
own answers ; for so indeed it has fallen out by discrepance in 
their own answers, that, if none of them had confessed their 
offences, the comparing of their contrarieties would have 
condemned them in any ordinary place of judgment. But 
now, Sir, considering that truth hath the victory, her Ma- 
jesty's honour is advanced by her princely care taken to have 
her Prelate protected ; and the Bishop himself, a churchman 
and preacher of mercy, following the example of Christ his 

a Autograph in the Lansdowne MS. 32, art. 22 ; and partly printed in 
Strype's Annals, vol. HI. pt. i. p. 148. 


Master, that forgave all offences without revenge. I wish that 
some such course might be taken by her Majesty in clemency, 
as truth may enjoy the victory, her Majesty dilate her 
honour, and the Bishop that hath suffered the wrong may 
give an example for the place he holdeth, rather of remission 
than of revenge. And how all these things might be done with- 
out the utter ruin of Sir Robert Stapleton, a man of good 
service in his country, and never to my understanding 
touched with any dishonest action, I leave to be further con- 
sidered by her Majesty's wisdom, whereunto I humbly sub- 
mit this project of mine as becometh me, forbearing further 
to trouble you at this time, in respect of my present feeble- 
ness not able myself to write unto you ; for which cause I 
have been bold to use the hand of one at my commandment, 
derived as it were by propagation out of mine own, making 
him now my scribe, whom I wish hereafter to do her Majesty 
some service, as a remembrancer of mine, when both my 
hands shall be under the earth. From my bed in my house 
at Westminster, the 28th of February 1583. 


Davison wrote several letters to Hatton detailing his 
proceedings in Scotland, where, notwithstanding his 
request to be recalled, he continued until about Septem- 
ber 1584 : 


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, I have by every post of 
late looked for my revocation, finding no great cause of my 
particular stay here, to the increase of her Majesty's charge, 
and some incommodity to myself ; but, because your Honour 
hath yet rather given me hope than assurance thereof, I 
must beseech you that in your next I may fully understand 
her Majesty's good pleasure in that behalf. Mr. Bowes's 
experience and acquaintance with the affairs of this State 
enableth him sufficiently alone to go through with any ser- 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 51. b 


vice is to be done here, without any great want of language 
for any negotiation between us and Manninville ; whose stay 
we hope will not be long here if things frame not all the 
sooner to his full contentment, which will appear shortly 
after the coming of the rest of the Lords looked for this 
week. In the mean time the people here have much to do 
to contain themselves from hastening his departure by some 
rude entreaty, which they have been willing to offer him ere 
this, and had surely done it, had not the masters and some 
discreet Burgesses hitherto stayed them, so great is the 
prejudice they have of his traffic here to the hurt of religion 
and disquiet of their State ; and now forbear only in ex- 
pectation of his despatch upon the coming of these Lords, 
according to the promise made unto them by such as were 
intercessors to the King for them in that behalf: and yet 
it seemeth that himself is determined to ride out here, if he 
may, till he hear further out of France. By our common 
letter your Honour shall understand all these things more 
particularly; as also of our apprehension of one William 
Holte, a Jesuit, entertained secretly here by the Lord Seton, 
and appointed to a voyage into France and from thence to 
Rome, who, being ready to take passage with the first fair 
wind, we caused to be apprehended at Leith. About him we 
found divers ciphers and some two or three letters, whereof 
(the originals being delivered to the King) we send you here- 
with the copies : divers other letters he had and should have 
received here, but where he hath bestowed them we cannot 
yet learn. By these we send your Honour you may pick 
out English enough touching the doings and employments of 
himself and others of that crew, but in his examination we 
cannot yet draw him to any further particularities. In general 
only he confesseth to Mr. Bowes and myself, that he think- 
eth there is some purpose in hand by the Pope and divers 
Princes Catholics for a war against England, and that they 
have a party strong at home ; that the pretext will be re- 
ligion, and liberty of the Queen of Scots ; that they hold 
the enterprize easy, considering their own preparations and 


the factions at home ; that the Pope hath gathered a great 
mass of money, and collecteth daily, as he heareth, to the 
same use ; that the King of Spain, as appeareth by the letter 
deciphered, is also to furnish a part; but of the time, the 
instruments to be used, and other particularities, he can say 
nothing, as he pretendeth. This day my Lord of Dunferm- 
ling and others (who have been with us to the same end 
once or twice already) are appointed to be with us again, 
with some special articles of his more formal and precise 
examination, of the proceeding wherein your Honour shall 
hear more by the next. Manninville doth storm at his 
apprehension and detaining with us, and hath been earnest 
with the King to remove him out of our hands ; both he, 
Seton, and the rest of that part, fearing lest their doings 
by this means may come to light. Alexander Seton, Prior 
of Pluskett, a and third son to the Lord, author of one of these 
letters, is sent for, and to be examined thereupon before his 
Majesty and the Council, who is able to discover more than I 
think they shall easily get from him. With this Holte we 
took two others; the one a Scottishman, his servant, whom 
we have delivered over to the Colonel Stuart ; the other an 
Englishman lately come hither, whom, after his first appre- 
hension, we used as a stale to entrap the other, wherein he 
served us to great purpose. His name is Roger Almond, one 
that was taken about two years past at Dover, and examined 
before your Honour at the Court, and afterwards sent down 
to my Lord of Huntingdon to York, and hath, as he saith, 
been an instrument to decipher and discover divers of that 
party ; howsoever it be, his doings in this deserveth favour. 
Thus, referring your Honour's more particular satisfaction to 
our general letters, and that you shall else receive from Mr. 
Bowes, I do most humbly take my leave. At Edinburgh, 
the 4th of March 1582 [1583]. Your Honour's most 
humble at commandme ; t, W. DAVISON.* 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 49. Pluscardine : he was afterwards High 

b Alexander Seton, younger son of Chancellor of Scotland, and Earl of 

George fifth Lord Seton, was Prior of Dunfermling. 


The Earl of Oxford had, as has been before said, in- 
curred the Queen's serious displeasure ; and he now ap- 
pears to have been involved in a fray with Mr. Kny vet, 
in which a man was slain. It does seem extraordinary, 
as Burghley naturally thought, that his intercession for 
his son-in-law should be unsuccessful : 


GOOD MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, My lack of health and 
strength serveth me not to write as much as I have cause ; but 
yet many urgent necessities constrain me to write somewhat 
for ease of my mind, which I pray you to interpret after 
your friendly manner. I perceived yesterday by my Lord of 
Leicester that you had very friendly delivered speeches to 
her Majesty tending to bring some good end to these trouble- 
some matters betwixt my Lord of Oxford and Mr. Thomas 
Kny vet ; for the which your doings I do heartily thank you, 
and beseech you to continue your former good meaning, though 
the event expected and desired hath not followed. And now 
perceiving by my Lord of Leicester some increase of her Ma- 
jesty's oifence towards my Lord of Oxford, and finding by Mr. 
Thomas Knyvet that he only being called and demanded of 
her Majesty what he would say herein, he did, as served his 
turn, declare to her Majesty that his men were evil used by 
my Lord of Oxford's men, and namely that one of his men 
was killed by a man of rny Lord of Oxford's, and no redress 
had, I cannot but think that her Majesty had just occasion 
given by such an information to be offended towards my Lord 
of Oxford, or his man, and did therefore, like a Prince of jus- 
tice and God's minister, command the matter to be examined, 
which was done yesterday at great length by my Lord of 
Leicester, to his trouble and my grief; and I doubt not but 
my Lord of Leicester will honourably declare to her Majesty 
how my Lord of Oxford resteth untouched, or at least un- 
blotted, in any kind of matter objected by Mr. Knyvet, 



whom we heard at great length, and his men also. But be- 
cause Mr. Kny vet's man, called Long Tom, that once served 
and was maintained by my Lord of Oxford, a bad fellow to 
serve any honest man, came to his death, I am bold to send 
to you the inquisition before the Coroner of London, with 
the verdict of the jury and the depositions of the ocular wit- 
nesses ; by all which, and by a new acquittal at Newgate, 
Gastrell, the party named my Lord of Oxford's man, and yet 
was not then his man, nor yet is, though Mr. Knyvet report 
him so to be, was and standeth acquitted of the death of the 
said Long Thomas ; so as, where her Majesty had just cause 
to conceive somewhat hardly of my Lord of Oxford, I doubt 
not but when her Majesty shall be informed by my Lord of 
Leicester of the truth which he hath seen and not disproved, 
her Majesty will diminish her oifensive opinion : and I trust 
also, after you shall have read these writings, which I will on 
my credit avow to be true, you will be of the same mind, 
and, as opportunity may serve, will also move her Majesty in 
this case to think otherwise hereof than the informer meant 
to induce her to think. As to the rest of the brabbles and 
frays, my Lord of Leicester can also declare upon what small 
occasions of repute and light carriages of tales, whereof my 
Lord of Oxford is nowise touched, these brabbles are risen. 
And for the quarrel of one Roper, of the Guards, against 
Gastrell, my Lord of Oxford's man, it is confessed that 
Roper challenged Gastrell that he had complained of him ; 
whereas in truth yourself knoweth it was my Lord of Oxford 
that did complain to you of Roper and of one Hall, so as 
Roper was therein too busy. And hereupon he wrote a long 
epistle to Gastrell to challenge him to fight, and so also 
Costock made the like challenge, whereby appeareth that 
these frays grow by challenges made to my Lord of Oxford's 
men : and yet it must be informed that my Lord of Oxford's 
men do offer these frays. Good Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, these 
things are hardly carried, and these advantages are easily 
gotten, where some may say what they will against my Lord 
of Oxford, and have presence to utter their humours ; and 


my Lord of Oxford is neither heard, nor hath presence 
either to complain or defend himself: and so long as he shall 
be subject to the disgrace of her Majesty (from which God 
deliver him), I see it apparently, that, how innocent soever he 
shall be, the advantages will fall out for his adversaries ; and 
so I hear they do prognosticate. It hath been also informed 
her Majesty that he hath had fifteen or sixteen pages in a 
livery going before him in Cheapside ; but, if these tongues 
that uttered this were so much lessened by measure in their 
mouths as they have enlarged in their number, they would 
never be touched hereafter with making any verbal lie. In- 
deed I would he had less than he hath, and yet in all his 
house are, nor were at any time, but four : one of them waiteth 
upon his wife, my daughter ; another in my house, upon his 
daughter Bess ; a third is a kind of a tumbling-boy ; and the 
fourth is the son of a brother of Sir John Cutts, lately 
put to him. By this false, large, lying report, if her Majesty 
would cause it to be tried, she should find upon what roots 
these blasphemous branches do grow. But I submit all these 
things to God's will, who knoweth best why it pleaseth Him 
to afflict my Lord of Oxford in this sort, who hath, I con- 
fess, forgotten his duty to God, and yet I hope he may be 
made a good servant to her Majesty, if it please her of her 
clemency to remit her displeasure ; for his fall in her Court, 
which is now twice yeared, and he punished as far or farther 
than any like crime hath been, first by her Majesty, and then 
by the drab's friend in revenge to the peril of his life. And 
if his own punishment past, and his humble seeking of for- 
giveness, cannot recover her Majesty's favour, yet some, yea 
many, may think that the intercession of me and my poor 
wife, so long and importunately continued, might have ob- 
tained some spark of favour of her Majesty ; but hereof I 
will in nowise complain of too much hardness, but to myself. 
I would I could not, in amaritudine animce, lament my 
wife's oppressing of her heart for the opinion she imprinteth 
therein of her misfortune, a matter not to be expressed 
without mistaking : and therefore both I and she are deter- 

Y 2 


mined to suffer and lament our misfortune, that, when our 
son-in-law was in prosperity, he was cause of our adversity 
by his unkind usage of us and ours ; and now that he is 
ruined and in adversity, we only are made partakers thereof, 
and by no means, no, not by bitter tears of my wife, can 
obtain a spark of favour for him, that hath satisfied his oifence 
with punishment, and seeketh mercy by submission; but 
contrariwise, whilst we seek for favour, all crosses are laid 
against him, and by untruths sought to be kept in disgrace. 
But, good Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, pardon me herein, for my 
heart too full to stay my pen, and yet I will end, because 
I will no further trouble you with my troubles, which are or- 
dained of God for myself; and so I will patiently take them 
and lap them up to carry with me to the grave, where, when 
I shall be, I am sure they shall not follow me. When I 
began to write, I neither meant nor thought I could have 
scribbled thus much ; but the matter hath ministered me the 
cause, for I take no pleasure therein. God preserve her Ma- 
jesty, and grant her only to understand the true hearts of my 
poor wife and me, and then I doubt not the sequel of her 
gracious favours in far greater matters than we have required. 
We have not many years to live, perchance not many days, 
and the fewer I am sure to find lack of her favours, of whom 
we seek to deserve well by our daily services. From nr 
house in Westminster, this 12th of March 1582 [158 r 
Yours assuredly, as you see, very bold, W. BURGHLEY. 

Albertus Alasco, free Baron of Lasco, Palatine of 
Saradia in Poland, arrived at Harwich, and proceeded 
on the 30th of April to Winchester House, in South- 
wark, where he mostly resided while in England. 15 Cam- 
den says he was " a learned man, of a good feature of 
body, a very long beard, and very comely and decent 
apparel, who, being graciously welcomed by the Queen, 
and entertained by the nobility with great honour and 

a Additional MSS 91, f. 50. b Stow's Annals. 


feastings, and by the University of Oxford with learned 
delights and sundry pageants, after four months' abode 
here, withdrew himself secretly, being run far in debt." 


SIR, Upon my Lord of Leicester's speeches with me this day 
of some things, I have thought meet to write to you my mind 
thereof, only to remit the use of them to your own considera- 
tion. I perceive that a Count of Polonia, named the Palatine 
Laschi, is either arrived, or shortly will, at Harwich to come 
to her Majesty ; and if he be the very Count Palatine of 
that House of Laschi, he is a personage of great estimation, 
such as few are subjects to any Monarch in Christendom, 
few in the Empire of the greatest exceeding him in sove- 
reignty and power : and he is also one that, as I find by late 
observations since this King Stephanus' reign, hath carried 
great authority ; and before his time, in the interreign, none 
that had greater than he, but only the great Palatine of 
Lineland. This I write unto you, wishing that her Majesty 
might please to command some nobleman in Essex, as my 
Lord Rich or Lord Darcy, with the attendance of some 
gentlemen, to conduct him to the City, where it were good he 
had some lodging on the water-side, as Baynard's Castle, 
whereunto my Lord of Leicester doth assent ; but you may 
say actum ago, for this and more is foreseen; yet, Sir, I 
pray you mislike not a poor remembrancer. Another matter 
is, that I find by my Lord of Leicester that her Majesty 
hath a disposition to leave her own stately palaces, and to 
vouchsafe to survey my poor house after Easter ; which, I 
am sure, if it had sense as the Master hath, would stoop down 
with so much pride to be possessed of her Majesty, as here- 
after it would scantly know the Master. I confess it is my 
comfort to have anything that may like her Majesty, but 
in very truth I know there is nothing worthy of her steps 
but only the goodwill of the owner, who will yield both soil, 
house, and all appurtenants to be serviceable to her Majesty. 
And lastly, my grief is, that neither my health and strength, 




nor my wife's presence, can serve to supply the wants that 
will be there, but they must be all covered with the serenity 
of her Majesty's countenance. A last matter whereof my 
Lord spake was a divers answer to my expectation for my 
Lord of Oxford, whose infortunes increase my wife's griefs 
and mine more than I will mention, because I see not the 
way to remedy them, otherwise than by continuing in the 
beaten heavy ways of forced patience. And now I end my 
scribbling with my hearty commendations. From my house 
in Westminster, the 18th of March 1582 [1583]. Yours as- 
sured at commandment, W. BuRGHLEY. a 

Hatton's reply to Lord Burghley's letter shows that 
there was some uncertainty at Court respecting the 
Palatine's rank : 


I MOST humbly thank your Lordship for your honourable 
advertisement touching the coming in of this great Person- 
age. Her Majesty deferreth all her direction for order to 
receive him, until she be more fully informed both of his 
quality and occasion of access. She seemeth to doubt that 
he departeth from his Prince as a man in displeasure, because 
in one sentence of his letter to her Majesty he calleth her 
the refuge of the disconsolate and afflicted, &c. Worthe, 
my man, that brought these letters, is not here, neither do I 
know where to find him, so as I know not how to learn what 
information I might give the Queen in this matter; only I 
must stay until the return of my Lord of Leicester, and then 
I hope her Majesty will resolve. Her Majesty accepteth in 
most gracious and good kind part the offer of your Lordship's 
house, unto the which, (although yet she will give us no order 
to lay in her provisions,) I assuredly think she will come in the 
Easter week ; but as I learn the more certainty, so will I 
readily advertise your good Lordship. My Lord of Oxford's 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 52. 


cause standeth but in slow course of proceeding to his 
satisfaction ; but yet, for my own part, I have some better 
hope than heretofore, wherein as a preservative you must all 
use patience for a while. His Lordship wrote to me a very 
wise letter in this case of his, the report whereof her Majesty 
took in reasonable good gracious part. By the next messen- 
ger I will briefly write .... the answer. I pray God bless 
your Lordship with all His heavenly graces. Haste, from the 
Court at Richmond, this 19th of March 1582 [1583]. Your 
good Lordship's most bounden CHR. HATTON/ 

In 1583, Philip Sidney married Frances, the only 
child of Sir Francis Walsingham ; and it appears from 
Walsingham's letter to Hatton, that the Queen had 
opposed the match : 


SIR, As I think myself infinitely bound unto you for your 
honourable and friendly defence of the intended match be- 
tween my daughter and Mr. Sidney, so do I find it strange 
that her Majesty should be offended withal. It is either to 
proceed of the matter or of the manner. For the matter, I 
hope, when her Majesty shall weigh the due circumstances of 
place, person, and quality, there can grow no just cause of 
offence. If the manner be misliked for that her Majesty is 
not made acquainted withal, I am no person of that state 
but that it may be thought a presumption for me to trouble 
her Majesty with a private marriage between a free gentle- 
man of equal calling with my daughter. I had well hoped 
that my painful and faithful service done unto her Majesty 
had merited that grace and favour at her hands as that she 
would have countenanced this match with her gracious and 
princely good-liking thereof, that thereby the world might 
have been a witness of her goodness towards me. As I 
thought it always unfit for me to acquaint her Majesty with 

b Additional MSS. 15891. 


a matter of so base a subject as this poor match, so did 
I never seek to have the matter concealed from her Majesty, 
seeing no reason why there should grow any offence thereby. 
I pray you, Sir, therefore, if she enter into any further 
speech of the matter, let her understand that you learn gene- 
rally that the match is held for concluded, and withal to 
let her know how just cause I shall have to find myself ag- 
grieved if her Majesty shall show her mislike thereof. And 
so, committing the cause to your friendly and considerate 
holding, I leave you to the protection of the Almighty. At 
Barn Elms, the 19th of March 1582 [1583]. Your most as- 
suredly to command, FRA. WALSINGHAM. 

Postscript. I will give order that my cousin Sidney shall 
be forewarned of the matter, who, as I suppose, will not be 
at the Court before the next week. If her Majesty's mislike 
should continue, then would I be glad, if I might take know- 
ledge thereof, to express my grief unto her by letter, for that 
I am forced, in respect of the indisposition of my body, to be 
absent until the end of this next week, whereof I made her 
Majesty privy. a 

Dr. Mathew was, it seems, deputed to convey the 
Archbishop of York's thanks to Hatton, for having so 
zealously defended him against Sir Robert Stapleton's 
accusation ; but the candidate for the Deanery of Dur- 
ham did not fail to press his own suit on the same occa- 


RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR, Now that your greatest busi- 
nesses of this, term are well over-blown, I beseech your Ho- 
nour give me leave among other to present you mine humble 
thanks in my Lord Archbishop's behalf, who as he was and 
shall be much bounden to the rest, so to none more than to 
yourself; specially for that excellent oration of yours (for it 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 101 . 


was no less) in his purgation and punishment of his accusers, 
to the glory of God, the honour of her Majesty, the credit of 
our calling, the furtherance of the Gospel, the confusion of 
our adversaries, the comfort of all true professors, and per- 
petual testimony of your zeal to religion, j ustice, and inno- 
cency. If he should be unthankful, or we unmindful, of that 
day's word or work of yours, yet God shall both regard you 
and reward you for it. I presume thus far to be bold to 
write, for that your Honour vouchsafed to impart with me of 
the matter when it stood most suspicious, which now Truth, 
the daughter of Time, hath discovered to be but slanderous. 
Whereof, suspicion I mean, and slander touching our fame or 
infamy, such is the condition, as, although we may be glad 
when it is dead, yet might we rejoice more if it had never 
been born. But how happy a man (of a man most unhappy) 
had he been, had he never been drawn into the danger of this 
discredit. Howbeit, sithence God the author of all good 
things, and the sufferer of all wicked practices, would needs 
permit that so it should be for causes best known unto Him 
and least unto us, amidst so many mishaps, what happiness 
had he to light upon so gracious a Prince as is our Sovereign, 
so sacred a Senate as is that board, so plain, so dear, so honour- 
able a friend and advocate as was your Honour. Truly, Sir, 
I can hardly hold mine idle pen from further enlarging in this 
behalf your goodness towards him, and his debt to you. But 
what speak I of his debt, being, if that may be, myself much 
further indebted to your Honour ? which yet I am forced 
now to increase against good manner, but more against my 
will, for that my competitor, after he hath fled the field, doth 
begin to give a fresh assault, as by this bearer it may appear 
unto your Honour. Wherefore I humbly beseech you, Sir, 
to work my dispatch ; the rather, for that the more delay is 
made, the more danger is mine, the more trouble yours. So 
shall you more favour, more bind me to do you all honour, 
duty, and service, besides my daily prayers for your prosper- 
ous estate. From the Savoy, the llth of May 1583. Your 
Honour's most bounden, TOBIE MATHEW.* 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f, 106. 


Camden a says, as soon as the French Ambassadors 
left Scotland, " the King offered all kindness to the 
Queen of England by Colonel William Stuart and John 
Colville, and asked her counsel and advice for com- 
pounding the commotions and contracting of marriage :" 


SIR, It hath been always our great mishap, since our arrival 
in this Country, to find your Honour ever occupied when we 
have thought to deliver unto you his Highness' letters, with 
the credit committed unto us in the same. This day it was 
our purpose to have given ourselves wholly to have attended 
on your leisure ; but, being called to dinner by my Lord of 
Leicester, certain of the Lords of her Highness' Council 
being met there, detained us with them all this afternoon, ad- 
vising and conferring with us upon the heads given in by us 
in writing on Thursday last: where, having given us some 
feeling of our answer by a plot and project thereof, where- 
with it was their pleasures to let us be acquainted, we found 
it so far disagreeable to his Majesty's expectation of our suc- 
cess, and to the towardliness of good hope which we have al- 
ways had since our coming, that, if they should be given us as 
they are projected, it should not be without great prejudice 
and apparent alteration of the good course which his Majesty, 
by the earnest travails of faithful and good instruments in 
both the Realms, hath with no small difficulty been persuaded 
to like of and follow as his best. The only comfort which 
armeth us against this wound resteth in her Majesty's better 
disposition towards his Highness, with some more amiable 
kind of dealing than this giveth us appearance of: which, if 
her Highness' other occupations might give her leisure, we 
would be very glad to move unto her ourselves this afternoon, 
praying your Honour very heartily that we may have her 
audience, and therewith to yield us at this time your wonted 

a Annals, A. D. 1583. 


favour and good disposition, which you have ever professed, 
to the furtherance of the wished effects of these good over- 
tures, which we have partly already, and do mean to move 
more plainly to her Majesty ; the good success whereof, as it 
will give likelihood of an unspeakable benefit to the prosper- 
ous estate of both the Realms, so is it very difficile to conjec- 
ture what may fall out upon the contrary. But, praying God 
to inspire her Majesty and her grave Councillors otherwise for 
the better preservation of the common benefit and tranquil- 
lity of both Kingdoms, we take our leaves, committing your 
Honour to God's good protection. From London, the 12th 
of May 1583. Your Honour's assured faithful friends, 


Mr. Herle, who informs Hatton that the Count Pala- 
tine had visited the library of Dr. Dee, the celebrated 
mathematician and astrologer, at Mortlake, and re- 
ports the Count's answer to some communications 
made to him, was frequently employed in the public 
service, and was, on several occasions, an Agent for 
conducting business abroad. The Count, like Dr. Dee, 
was a professor of the magic art ; and Dee accompanied 
him to Poland, where their proceedings excited so much 
attention, that the Queen ordered Dee to return to 
England : 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, May it please you to understand, 
that yesternight, upon my return to Winchester House, I 
found the Count Palatine Laschy absent, who, in the morning* 
before, was privately gone to Mr. Dee's to recreate himself 
with the sight of his library, so as it was past ten of the 
clock before he came back to his house. And I being careful 
this day how to break with him discreetly for the under- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. . 


standing what course he would hold in his journeys, Mr. 
Athye came opportunely with a message from her Majesty 
about the same; touching the which, he is determined to 
morrow to advertise my Lord of Leicester of his whole in- 
tention, taking her Majesty's gracious care had of him in 
very good part ; but withal he knows of no Parliament, he 
saith, to be holden shortly in Poland, neither concerns it him 
much in business or duty whether any be holden or no be- 
fore his own pretended return ; which I thought my part to 
certify your Honour of, reserving somewhat to impart with 
you herein by mouth at my next attendance on you. In the 
mean time, I do very humbly pray your Honour to join with 
you Mr. Secretary, and some other of the Council, (if you 
think good,) for the stay of the outlawry in Oxfordshire that 
will otherwise be pronounced on Tuesday next against my 
kinsman John Herle : his fact not great, but the harm and 
stain much, if your Honour of especial goodness do not 
vouchsafe to assist him at this pinch. You shall find the 
man to have valuable parts in him, which he shall employ 
from henceforth in service of her Majesty, and in all thank- 
ful duty to acknowledge his preservation to proceed from 
your only mean ; and me your Honour shall bind (in regard 
I have of the party and of my name) as for a benefit merely 
bestowed upon myself. I would have waited on you to-day, 
but that I was constrained to take physic ; but by this bearer, 
my servant, I recommend the cause and myself to your hon- 
ourable consideration and dispatch, for it requireth speed, 
as your wisdom seeth, meaning to send one down in post with 
the letter procured touching the premises. Herewith finish- 
ing, I crave most truly pardon for this bold presumption 
of mine, grounded upon the favour I hope you bear me : and 
so the Almighty God have you ever in his tuition. From 
my lodging, the 20th of May 1583. Your Honour's ever to 
command, W. HERLE.* 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 109. 


Towards the end of May, the Queen, attended by the 
Marchioness of Winchester, the Ladies Cobham, and 
Stafford, the Earls of Leicester and Warwick, the Lord 
Admirals, Lords Howard and Hunsdon, Sir Christopher 
Hatton, and a large retinue, visited the Lord Treasurer 
at Theobald's, and remained there five days. Lord 
Burghley has left, in his own hand, a description of the 
arrangement of the lodgings of his guests, whence it 
appears that the Queen's apartments were at the north- 
west end of the gallery; and that the gentlewomen of 
the bedchamber, Mrs. Blanch Parry, and Hatton, pro- 
bably from his office as Vice-Chamberlain, occupied 
rooms near to her. a 

Sir Thomas Heneage's description of Holdenby agrees 
with that of Lord Burghley some years before, and raises 
a high opinion of its magnificence : 


SIR, Being neither Momus nor Aristippus, but a poor true 
friend of yours, having seen your fair house with great desire, 
1 send you word hereby with best contentment. For my own 
opinion, Holdenby is altogether even the best house that 
hath been built in this age ; and it more showeth the good 
judgment and honour of the builder than all the charge that 
hath been bestowed upon stones by the greatest persons and 
the best purses that hath been in my time. Shortly, if the 
praise of a house consist in the seat, beauty, and use, both 
within and without, (howsoever it may be cavilled with,) 
Holdenby shall hold the pre-eminence of all the modern 
houses I have known or heard of in England. This is all I 
will say of it ; saving, your out-houses make me remember my 
noble old master the Earl of Arundell, that made his gar- 

a Nichols' Progresses, vol. n. p. 403. 


ments most beautiful and rich where the common sort least 
looked for it. There is nothing better pleaseth me than 
your park, which you dispraised; your green and base 
court, that you devised : and your garden, which is most rare ; 
but all the steps of descent must be of stone, which it lacketh. 
The honourable entertainment it hath pleased you I should 
receive here, with excessive cheer, (fit for the best man of 
England,) together with the diligent attendance of your good 
servants, deserveth more than my thanks, but can receive no 
more but my love, and that have you as great an interest in 
as any man alive, and withal my prayers to the Lord of all 
that with God's best blessings, her Majesty's best favour, your 
friends' most joy, and your own most honour and comfort, you 
may be longest owner of this earthly noble house, and after 
possess perpetually the most happy habitation in heaven. 
From your Holdenby, very late this 5th of July 1583. Your 
own more and more bound unto you, T. HENEAGE.* 


SIR, This second of August I have received your letters of 
the 23rd of July, wherein I find your most honourable and 
kind remembrance of your poor true friend, that, when he 
seeth you not, desireth nothing more than to hear from you. 
As for your best built house of Holdenby, which I particu- 
larly affect, not for the partial love I bear to the owner, 
whom I will ever honour and hold dear, but for the many 
just causes I find to like it, I will say, as I think, that for a 
gentleman's dwelling of most honour and estimation it is the 
best and most considerate built house that yet mine eyes have 
ever seen. The Lord Jesus, whose the earth is and the ful- 
ness thereof, make you long to enjoy it with most honour 
and comfort. For the news you sent me of Scotland, I hum- 
bly thank you ; though in very troth I take them to be the 
heralds of our greatest harms without timely prevention. 
The manner of Sir Robert Stapleton's behaviour and sub- 

8 Additional MSS. 15891, f. 109 b , 


mission at York, as it was even now sent unto me, I send 
you here inclosed, which for my own poor opinion I see no 
cause to like of : of this matter and of that country, when we 
meet, I shall tell you my mind. The whilst, and ever, I will 
love and honour you, as I have cause ; and having no more 
leisure to write unto you, through the hasty departure of this 
bearer who is a stranger unto me, I do commend myself all 
humbly unto you. From Hatfield, where the only princely 
game of red deer is that ever I saw, this 2nd of August 1583. 
Your own so bound for ever, THO. HENEAGE.* 

On the 4th of August Sir Christopher Hatton wrote 
to Sir William More, of Loseley Hall, in Surrey, that " in 
ten or twelve days the Queen intended to go to Loseley 
for four or five days, and desired that every thing might 
be got in order, and the house kept clean and sweet. " b 


AFTER our hearty commendations. These are to give you to 
understand that her Majesty, having partly by her own hear- 
ing, and partly by report of others of credit, considered of a 
cause of long time depending in controversy and suit between 
John Croker, Esq., plaintiff, the son and heir of Sir Gerard 
Croker, deceased, and Richard Lee, Esq., defendant, late 
husband of the Lady Croker, late wife of the said Sir Gerard, 
concerning certain leases of divers manors, parks, rectories, 
tithes, lands, and hereditaments in Hocknorton in the county 
of Oxford ; and finding the said cause somewhat doubtful 
without some further proceeding, to be resolved directly, for 
any of the said parties ; hath thought good to have the profits 
thereof growing to be sequestered from both the said parties 
until the end of Michaelmas term next, and therewith also 
mindeth and hopeth to have the same controversy determined 
before that time, either by way of arbitrament of friends, or 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 112 b . b Nichols' Progresses, n. 412. 


otherwise by some ordinary course of the law. And for this 
purpose her Majesty hath straitly commanded us by her 
own speech to take* order in her name that the profits of all 
the said lands, tenements, tithes, rectories, and heredita- 
ments should be sequestered. And therefore, in her Majesty's 
name, and by her express commandment, we do will and 
require you, and by these presents do authorize you, being 
her Majesty's High Sheriff in the County of Oxford, to re- 
pair to the foresaid manors, lands, rectories, tithes, tenements, 
and hereditaments so held on lease by the said Sir Gerard 
in Hocknorton aforesaid, and there to enquire by all good 
means what persons do hold and possess any such houses, 
manors, parks, parsonages, tithes or tenements, or any other 
hereditaments in Hocknorton, which the said Sir Gerard 
Croker held by leases, and which after his death the Lady 
Croker his wife held during her widowhood, which after her 
death the said Richard Lee hath also held and possessed or 
takes the profits thereof, and to charge all manner of persons 
that do now hold, occupy, or possess any part thereof to pay 
unto you as by way of sequestration all manner of rates that 
shall be due or payable by them betwixt the feasts of Mi- 
chaelmas and All Saints next, and the same to retain with 
yourself. And if any persons be charged with the payment 
of any tithe which heretofore was answerable to the said Sir 
Gerard, that you first cause a valuation to be made thereof, 
and then to charge them to retain the same in their own 
hands, without rendering the same either to the plaintiff or 
defendant, or to any other claiming any title to them, so as 
every one be answerable to render the same, or the just value 
thereof, to such as hereafter by law or order it shall be deter- 
mined to be restored. And if any of the said persons so 
answerable for any tithe shall appear to you to be of dis- 
ability hereafter to answer the same, or the value thereof, 
you shall then order the same to be sequestered from their 
possession, and to be put into the custody of such other able 
and indifferent persons as shall be now able to answer for the 
same ; and of your doings you shall make certificate unto us 


as soon as you can conveniently execute the premises. And 
if any person, being not the tenant and occupier, have since 
Midsummer last taken any such tithes from the occupiers of 
the grounds, you shall view the same and make thereof a just 
value, and in her Majesty's name charge the parties to be 
answerable for the same. And because there are rents to be 
paid for the said lands, leased to such as have the reversion 
thereof, our meaning is, that you shall enquire to whom any 
such rents are due, and thereupon to give order that tenants 
and occupiers shall pay so much as the rents shall amount 
unto ; and, if need be, you shall make sale of so much of the 
tithes as shall be requisite to pay the rents. And if any per- 
son shall charge for payment of any debt wherewith the said 
leases are charged, you shall advertise us thereof, whereby 
you may have our direction how to pay the same as the case 
shall require. Furthermore, if there shall appear to you that 
there be any houses or grounds, parcel of the premises, not 
granted out for any rent, you shall commit the same to the 
custody of such fit persons as will answer a yearly rent to the 
most advantage. And also you shall demand and receive of 
the tenants which have any in their hands already not paid, 
and the same also you shall safely keep in your hands. And 
whereas we are informed of some suits depending betwixt 
some tenants of Richard Lee and some belonging to John 
Croker, for which there is to be some inquisition at a sessions 
now shortly to be holden, you shall also cause a stay to be 
made of any proceedings at the said sessions ; and generally 
you shall on your part,. and therewith also you shall in her 
Majesty's name, move the Justices of Peace that care be had 
for conservation of her Majesty's peace betwixt the said 
parties, their servants and tenants. So fare you well. From 
the Court at Oatlands, the 16th of August 1583. Your lov- 
ing friend. a 

It appears from Archbishop Sandys' letter to Hatton, 
that he was greatly dissatisfied with the termination of 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 113. 


the affair with Sir Robert Stapleton and his confederates ; 
and that, though they had made a "submission," yet 
that it was done in terms which tended more to their 
justification than his own innocence: 


SIR, I had in mind to have imparted unto you, ere this, the 
disordered and scornful submission made here at York by the 
insolent Knight and his godless confederates ; but I forbear 
so to do, for fear lest I should be over-troublesome unto you. 
Yet now this bringer, my son, passing by London to Oxford, 
who was auritus testis, I have commanded him to attend upon 
you, and to declare unto you how the matter was here used, 
if it shall please you to hear him. The submission was made 
in such sort as tended only to my condemnation and their 
j ustification ; but I doubt not that this their disordered doing 
will be looked into, if it be but in respect of the common 
cause. My state and condition here standeth hard ; but I will 
fly to my good God for help, comforting myself that the 
Queen's Majesty is my most gracious Sovereign, and will not 
suffer my enemies to triumph over me. And how much I am 
bound unto you for the greatest favour I have received at 
your hands, I can better remember than requite ; yet will I 
never be found unthankful. And so I commend you to the 
good direction of God's Holy Spirit. From Bishopsthorp, 
the 17th of August 1583. Yours in Christ, ever to use, 


In August Sir Francis Walsingham was sent by the 
Queen to the King of Scots, "out of her kind care lest 
he should," says Camden, " by corrupt counsels, in the 
very flexibility of his age, be alienated from the amity 
of England, to the damage of both Kingdoms/' On his 
arrival at Newcastle he made a report of what he 
heard, apparently to Lord Burghley: 

!l Additional MSS. 15891, f. 113. 


MY VERY GOOD LORD, The letter you sent me, directed 
unto Colonel Stuart, is written to singular good purpose ; 
but I fear he hath made shipwreck both of conscience and 
honesty. He guideth altogether the King his Master, (as it is 
now reported,) and therefore there is small hope of his re- 
covery when misrulers become guiders. As I pass through 
these parts, I learn that the ill-affected are altogether inclined 
to that King, being now resolved that his Mother cannot live 
long. They defend his proceedings, and wish no good friend- 
ship between the two Crowns, which I fear will fall out ac- 
cording to their desire. Mar, as your Lordship will find by 
the last from Mr. Bowes, showeth himself to be a very con- 
stant gentleman ; and the deputies for the Church, that have 
been lately with the King, have taken a wise and a Christian 
resolution. If such Ministers as are employed were well 
backed by her Majesty, there might be more good done than 
I can now hope after ; and yet am I persuaded that this dis- 
sembling King, both with God and man, will not long stand, 

though, before his ruin, he some trouble unto her 

Majesty. I hope, within a few days now, to give your Lord- 
ship some taste what is to be looked for in that Realm. And 
so, in the mean time, I most humbly take my leave. At 
Newcastle, the 26th of August 1583. Your Lordship's to 
command, F. WALSINGHAM.* 

On the 24th of August the Vice-Chamberlain wrote 
again to Sir William More, stating that " the Queen in- 
tended to dine at Woking on the 27th, and to go to bed 
at his house; that he should have everything made 
sweet and meet to receive her; remove his family, and 
have everything ready ; that the Sheriff need not attend, 
but that he, Mr. Lyfield, and some other gentlemen 
should meet her at Guildford." b The annexed letter was 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 117 b . b Nichols' Progresses, n. 412. 

z 2 


probably written a few days after Walsingham had left 
the Court for Scotland, and possibly before the letter 
just inserted : 


SIR, You have rightly conceived her Majesty's meaning, 
for that it agreeth with the charge she gave me herself. It 
may please you to let her Majesty understand, that, within an 
hour after I departed from her, I despatched letters unto 
Mr. Bowes to the effect she commanded, which I pray God 
may arrive at a good season. This last night I was troubled 
with an extreme pain in my right side, which did bereave me 
of my sleep ; it continueth with me still, and therefore I 
mean to use both Grifford's and Hector's advice. I find the 
pain accompanied with an unaccustomed faintness, and a dis- 
position altogether subject to melancholy. I hope I shall 
enjoy more ease in another world than I do in this. And so, 
forbearing further to trouble you, I commit you to the pro- 
tection of the Almighty. [August] 1583. Yours most as- 
suredly to command, FRA. WALSINGHAM.* 

By Statute of the 27th Hen. VIII. c. 6, the owners 
parks were bound to keep brood mares; and in the 33rd 
Hen. VIII. an Act was passed that all Peers and other 
owners of lands should be obliged to keep a certain num- 
ber of horses of a prescribed height ; and it was enacted 
that every other person whose wife wore any French hood, 
or velvet bonnet, or any ornaments of gold or jewellery 
on their dress, should maintain one stone trotting horse, 
upon pain of forfeiting ten pounds. The exportation of 
horses was prohibited by several statutes : 


AFTER our right hearty commendations. Whereas, by 
virtue of the Queen's Majesty's commission to us and others 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 110. 



directed, we deputed you to rate as well yourselves as all 

other persons within the County of that ought to 

keep horses or geldings for service, according as their livings 
be indeed in yearly value, which is the law provided for this 
case, and not to be abused by a pretence of such values as are 
accustomably taxed in the times of assessments for subsidies, 
which how far under the full they may be is most manifest, 
whereof we do not at this time make any certain account, 
which rates you have also set down and certified hither, al- 
though in some parts not so full as was required and ex- 
pected of you ; yet, to the intent her Majesty may be truly 
informed how that rate, so by your last letter certified, is ob- 
served, and how sufficiently the mares and horses set down 
therein are appointed and furnished, as by some former in- 
structions you are directed, if present occasion of service at 
any time should so require, it hath pleased her Majesty at this 
time to will us to signify unto you (which we do by these pre- 
sents), that her Highness' pleasure and strait commandment 
is, that upon the 20th day of September next you do cause a 

general muster to be made at of all the lances and 

light horsemen within the County of , according 

to the last rate you certified hither. And for that it may hap- 
pen that some persons lastly by you certified and rated to have 
horses or geldings be since that time departed out of this life, 
or otherwise removed and not resident in the Country, whereby 
there may be want of the said horses or geldings at this your 
muster, we will and require you that you have due considera- 
tion hereof beforehand ; and, in place of them that are dead, 
to devise how the heirs and wives of the parties deceased, or 
any other possessing the lands of the deceased, may be rate- 
ably by you assessed to supply the want, and in her Majesty's 
name to signify to them how far forth you shall think it con- 
venient to charge them ; and therewith to give them command- 
ment to send such horses or geldings, with able men, to the 
musters, and of your doings herein to certify us. And if any 
persons be removed from their dwelling to some other habita- 
tion unto any Shire near unto you, we will that by your let- 


ters you shall certify the Commissioners of that County how 
far forth that same person was charged, and to will them to 
warn the party to appear afore them at their musters with the 
furniture requisite. And so also, if any other Commissioners 
shall certify you of the like, you shall summon the party to 
do his duty therein. And if any person heretofore rated and 
certified, or any person now to be newly rated by you for 
supply of such as are deceased, shall make default, we will 
that you command the same parties in her Majesty's name, on 
pain of one hundred pounds and further punishment, that 
the same persons appear before us the seventh of October 
next. Finally, if it shall seem to you that by the largeness 
of the Shire it will be difficult to have all persons appear at 
one place and at one day, we leave to your consideration that 
you appoint several places for the said musters, so as ne- 
vertheless the day by us fixed be straitly kept ; and to that 
end you may divide yourselves, so as at every place there may 
be a convenient number of you to be present to view and to 
take the same musters, except some of us that are in commis- 
sion shall give you knowledge, days before, that we 

will be there present at the same musters. We require you, 
also, to have in remembrance to certify us the number of 
parks and enclosures within that County, and how many horses 
and mares for breed are kept in every of them according to 
the statute, and, according to our former instructions, to give 
order for the manner of the impress of horses and stallions 
upon commons, so as, against the next spring, all persons 
chargeable to provide stallions for that purpose may have 
them against that time in a readiness, as by the laws is pre- 
scribed : and if there be any newly come to inhabit the 
County, being able by their possessions to find horse or geld- 
ing, whereof at the time of the former musters there was no 
mention made, that you by your discretion consider thereof, 
and make some reasonable rate for horses or geldings, and to 
charge them to show and prefer the same at these next mus- 
ters ; and if they shall refuse, then to advertise your opinions, 
and to command such recusants to appear afore us the 7th of 


October next. And so we bid you heartily farewell. Your 
very loving friends.* 

At last Dr. Mathew succeeded in obtaining the 
Deanery of Durham; and his letter of thanks to Sir 
Christopher Hatton was probably written about Au- 
gust, as he was installed on the 31st of that month; 


RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR, Having such present impedi- 
ment as I conveniently may not travel to yield her Majesty 
and your Honour my manifold and most humble thanks for 
my dispatch to Durham, (according to my bounden duty and 
just desire,) I presume upon your accustomed good favour 
to do that by writing which by word I cannot yet ; that is, 
to acknowledge how much I know myself in that bill of mine 
indebted double and treble to your Honour, as without whose 
plain importunity (for so I am informed) it could not pass 
to signing, so many sundry turns and thwarts it suffered. But 
it cometh soon enough now, and well enough too, for that 
it cometh with her Majesty's gracious liking and good con- 
tentment, which I am to hold at an higher price than all the 
profits and promotions of this world. I beseech God I may 
so there bestow my time and behave myself as I may dis- 
charge my duty in glorifying of Him, in serving of her, in 
profiting of that people, and in verifying some part of those 
good speeches it hath ever pleased your Honour to bestow 
upon me ; which I hope in Christ I shall endeavour to do 
to the uttermost of my small power, as well in conversation 
and hospitality as in doctrine and government. And so, with 
an unfeigned profession of my thankfulness to your Honour, 
together with my readiness at your commandment, I humbly 
betake you for this time and for ever to the grace of Almighty 
God. Your Honour's humble and bounden, 


a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 114. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 110. 


A remarkable fact in the life of the Earl of Sussex is 
brought to light by the following letters from his widow 
to Hatton and to the Queen, written in September 
1583, a namely, that some malicious persons had, in his 
last illness, alienated his affections from his wife : 


SIR, Knowing the great good-will that it pleased you to 
profess unto my dear Lord deceased, together with the great 
courtesies and honourable speeches which you have often 
vouchsafed me; and now finding myself in an unfortunate 
estate, trodden down on all sides by cunning adversaries, and 
most wrongfully disgraced as undutiful to her Majesty ; for 
that I know right well your aptness to do good to everybody, 
and of what value your friendship is amongst all others 
where you promise and profess, I have thought good to com- 
mit myself and my whole credit to your defence and protec- 
tion. And albeit I neither have nor ever am likely to be 
able to deserve that favour and goodness which I now require 
of you, yet assure yourself that, if God spare me life, I will 
be most thankful for it, both to you and yours, to the utmost 
reach of my small power. In the mean time let this be a 
sufficient testimony and reward of your virtue, that they who 
know no cause nor desert had rather put themselves in their 
estimation into your hands, than into theirs of whom they 
have much deserved. I have herein inclosed a letter to her 
Majesty for the clearing of my undutifulness, the which I 
pray you read, to the end you may be the better acquainted 
with my cause ; and at your best opportunity I earnestly de- 
sire you, with my true and humble duty, to deliver it, with 
your best assurance of my vowed faith and loyalty to her 
Highness; and, if it please you any further to know the par- 
ticularities of my unhappy estate, this bearer, my dear friend, 
and one that much honoureth you, shall let you understand 

a Vide a former page. 


it at large. Thus, only intreating your protection as far as 
truth and justice shall bear, for which I will never be proved 
unthankful or ungratefully-minded towards you, I commit 
you to the merciful goodness of God Almighty. From my 
desolate close at Bermondsey, the 18th of September 1583. 
Your poor friend to be made most bound to you, 



humbly beseech your Majesty to view these few lines, written 
with many tears, and even in the bitterness of my soul, with 
that pitiful regard wherewith God hath viewed your Majesty 
at all times and in all cases. And albeit I am now beaten 
down with many afflictions and calamities hardly to be borne 
of flesh and blood, yet is there no grief that pierceth me so 
deeply as that by sinister suggestion I should be defamed 
to be undutiful to your most excellent Majesty, and injurious 
to the honour of my dear Lord lately deceased. For the first, 
I appeal to God himself, the searcher of hearts, and revenger 
of all disloyalties : for the second, I appeal to none but unto 
my most gracious Queen, whether I have not from time to 
time been more careful of his health, honour, and well- doing 
than of mine own soul and safety ; refusing all friends and 
friendships in this world for so dear a Lord, whom I followed 
in health and sickness, in wealth and woe, with more care than 
becomed a true Christian to owe unto any worldly creature. 
The which if it be true, (as I trust your Majesty in my right 
and your justice doth acknowledge it is,) marvel not, most 
dread Sovereign, if the vigilant malice of those who have long 
complotted my ruin, who espied their time, when my Lord 
through anguish and torments was brought to his utmost 
weakness, to break the perfect band and love of twenty-eight 
years' continuance, have also, by cunning sleights devised, and 
by slanderous speeches, instilled into your Majesty's ears the 
want of that duty, the which I pray God may sooner fail by 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 112. 


lack of life than want of loyalty. And thus, most noble Prin- 
cess, am I trodden down by my inferiors, not only in worldly 
maintenance, which I nothing esteem (having far more, by 
God's goodness, than I deserve), but also am touched in the 
chiefest point of honour, and the highest degree of duty, 
which bringeth on every side such a sea of sorrows as, were it 
not for the fear of God's revenge, I could, with all my heart, 
redeem them with the sacrifice of my life. Wherefore, most 
gracious Lady, even for the pity which ever hath been en- 
grafted in your Princely heart, I most humbly beseech you, 
see not your Majesty's poor servant trodden down by the ma- 
licious speeches and unconscionable extremities of those who 
take the advantage of my Lord's painful weakness to work my 
disgrace, nor increase my just and perpetual griefs with your 
heavy displeasure ; praying God that I may rather presently 
die while I write these lines, than that I may live wittingly to 
deserve your Majesty's just dislike. In the meantime, I will 
not cease to pray to the Almighty for your Majesty's life, 
health, and prosperity. From the poor careful close of Ber- 
mondsey. Your Majesty's poor, but true faithful servant, to 
die at your feet, F. SussEx. a 

The rigour of the Queen's displeasure towards the 
Countess of Derby seems to have been at last some- 
what softened : 


of your honourable favour, obtained that grace as to present 
myself to the view of her Majesty at what time her Highness 
removed from her house of Sion to Oatlands, my humble suit 
is now, you would happily find that good leisure and oppor- 
tunity as to let it be known unto her Majesty that thereby I 
received that hope of her gracious farther good-liking, which 
since hath not only kept life in me, but also embolden me 
more and more to prostrate myself as a loyal and faithful Sub- 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 


ject unto my so good and gracious a Princess. , Wherefore, 
that I may at length desist and leave off, (though ever most 
bound unto your noble courtesies,) my request at this instant 
once again is, that by means of your happy motion I may 
come to the kissing of her Highness' hand, which would yield 
me that comfort as no earthly thing the like. Good Mr. 
Vice-Chamberlain, let me not seem tedious (though so in- 
deed) unto you ; for were it that I possessed all things, yet in 
this her Majesty's disgrace I esteem myself as possessing 
nothing, insomuch as I take her Highness unto me as life 
with her gracious favour, but as death with her heavy displea- 
sure. Thus, holding you as my surest hold, and most honour- 
able good friend, from whom must proceed my chiefest good, 
I humbly take my leave. From Clerkenwell, the 26th of 
September 1583. Your assured and most bounden poor 

It may be inferred from the Countess of Sussex's 
next letter to Sir Christopher Hatton, that she had 
been involved in a lawsuit with her husband's execu- 
tors, and that her proceedings were disapproved of by 
the Queen, whose displeasure her former letters show 
she had incurred : 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, I understand by my dear friend 
Mr. Dean of the Arches, how much I am bounden unto 
you, and how honourably you have satisfied mine expectation 
and the true opinion that the world conceiveth of you. And 
although I confess there is no reason to trouble you in this 
action any farther, yet will I not cease by all good ways and 
means to seek and crave her Majesty's favour, even with as 
much duty and humility as the poorest creature that ever lay 
at her Highness' feet. And if her Majesty did indeed know 
how far undutifulness was ever from my heart, or how little I 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 


suspected her Highness' heavy displeasure, knowing mine 
own innocency, or how far my thoughts are from law and 
trouble, if I might find any indifferency and courtesy in my 
Lord's executors, truly her merciful heart would never have 
refused my letters written with so many tears, nor mine 
humble duty so unfeignedly tendered ; which albeit her Ma- 
jesty hath done, yet will I not omit eftsoons to do the part 
of a true servant and humble subject : the which I beseech 
you most heartily, upon every good occasion, to signify unto 
her Highness ; of whose grace if I only am born to fail, with- 
out my desert to my knowledge, I can do no more but pray 
unto God that it be His holy pleasure to shorten my unhappy 
days, wrapped and overwhelmed with many sorrows, but es- 
pecially with the heavy indignation of my Prince, whom I 
beseech God long to prosper to His goodwill and pleasure. 
And so, eftsoons thanking you of your great goodness, I 
commit you to the mercy of the Almighty. This 10th of 
October 1583. Your friend most bound, F. SUSSEX.* 

In what manner Bishop Aylmer gave offence to Lei- 
cester has not been discovered ; but the following letter 
shows his habitual subserviency : 


MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, It grieveth me not a little that 
this mischance should happen between you and me, consider- 
ing that I ever meant to stay myself upon your good and 
honourable favour in all manner of office and duty belonging 
to such a personage. I have always found you my very good 
Lord till this unhappy paroxysm so shook the former sound 
state of your honourable friendship that I might half despair 
of the full recovering thereof, but that I have ever observed 
in you such a mild, courteous, and amiable nature, that you 
never kept as grave in marble, but written in sand, the 
greatest displeasure that ever you conceived against any man. 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 17. 


I fear not, therefore, my good Lord, in this strait that I 
am in, to appeal from this Lord of Leicester, whom either my 
oversight, or other mistaking and misreport of messengers, 
or both, have incensed with displeasure, unto mine old Lord 
of Leicester, who in his virtue of mildness and of softness 
(which the Apostle so commendeth) hath carried away the 
praise from all men. Admit, I pray your Lordship, this poor 
appeal of mine, seeing it is but to yourself who in former time 
have bound many unto you with the golden chain of love, 
rather than carried or driven any with the boisterous tem- 
pests of terror, wherein, my good Lord, is hidden this danger, 
as oft is said, quern metuunt oderunt, &c. You hate ingrati- 
tude, I cannot blame you ; for I assure you, if I found it in 
myself, I would not spare to hate myself; for qui ingratum 
dicit, omnia dicit. Let not (my good Lord) the Bishop of 
London in his old age (when, though he is not the happiest, 
yet ought to be the wisest) lose that good Earl whom he so 
comfortably enjoyed in his younger years. I hope these two 
arguments will forcibly move you to reconciliation. The 
good and kind nature of our God, who loved us His enemies, 
and daily forgiveth us our offences, without any reliques of 
remembrance or desire of revenge. Our gracious Queen, 
when she was highly displeased with me for Mr. Rich, yet 
the beams of her grace, soon upon my humble writing to her 
Majesty, as it were dispersed the clouds of her indignation. 
Oh, my Lord ! will God forgive and her Majesty forget, 
and my Lord of Leicester retain and keep that which is not 
worth the keeping, I mean the remembrance of offences ? I 
believe you will not ; I know you cannot ; and I assure you 
in this profession you may not. To end : if it may please your 
Lordship to appoint me any time, I will attend upon you, if 
I may better satisfy you, whom God bless now and ever with 
His gracious goodness. 2nd November 1583. Your Lordship's 
to command assuredly, JOHN LONDON. a 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 118. 



SIR, The return of my cousin and servant, your son Peter 
Dutton, after his long and dangerous travel abroad, hath been 
cause of exceeding comfort unto me, both for the good affec- 
tion which I bear him, and for the virtuous disposition which 
I have always noted in him ; the which being now much con- 
firmed in him both by judgment and staidness of behaviour, 
I cannot but earnestly recommend him to your goodness upon 
occasion of this present repair unto you, and heartily entreat 
you to receive him with the regard of good and fatherly af- 
fection, which I trust you will judge him very well worthy of, 
both in respect of his dutiful disposition towards you, and 
also for many other good parts which justly crave the con- 
tinuance of your good favour towards him. Her Majesty 
doth very graciously accept of the gentleman's travel, liking 
also very well of his return, with assurance that he will prove 
a man meet to be hereafter employed in service to the benefit 
of his Country. In which respect, Sir, I must entreat you 
to make much of him, and to encourage him to hold in that 
good course which he hath already begun, to the great con- 
tentment of his friends ; whose expectation I doubt not he 
will perform honestly in every point to his own credit and 
commendation, and in time do much honour and reputation 
to the House he cometh of. I have always thought myself 
beholden unto you in that it pleased you (upon very good 
will, I take it,) to bestow him in my service ; for which your 
kindness I very heartily thank you. And even so I do assure 
you that he shall not want my best friendship and favour 
wherein I may do him good, or any way further the toward- 
ness of virtue which I find in him to due perfection. 

After he hath been with you a while, and discharged some 
part of his duty by presence towards you, in case I may per- 
ceive any desire in him to follow the life of a courtier yet 
for a time, he shall have my best furtherance for his prefer- 
ment, doubt you not, as occasion shall be offered ; accounting 
that whatsoever I shall do for him I shall do for one of my 


best friends and kinsmen. I pray you, Sir, once again, 
cherish him and make much of him for my sake. And even 
so, offering my like readiness to yourself to pleasure you in 
what I may, with my heartiest commendations I commit you 
to God. From the Court at St. James's, the 16th of De- 
cember 1583. Your very loving assured friend and cousin, 


About the end of April 1582, Sir Thomas Tresham, 
the brother of Dr. William Tresham, the writer of the 
following eloquent letter, heard mass said by a seminary 
priest, called Osborne, in Lord Vaux's chamber in the 
Fleet prison, 5 and was convicted of recusancy in Janu- 
ary following. It is without date, but may be assigned 
to this year. The warning he gives Hatton of the Earl 
of Leicester is remarkable : 


IF there be no greater grief to the heart of man than un- 
kindness offered where it was never deserved, and where as- 
sured friendship hath been looked for, then, Sir, marvel not 
at me if I be fraught with infinite woe and full of heaviness ; 
for I am persuaded that in all the world there was never 
any man that bare more perfect affection to another than 
William Tresham to Sir Christopher Hatton long and faith- 
fully before he was a Counsellor, and never ceased (oh that I 
am inforced to declare it !) until so strangely I was rejected. 
It was not my own desert, I take God to witness. My heart 
was too much devoted yours, not so much as in thought to 
wish amiss. There was never any man's good-will purchased 
at so dear a price as I bought the favour of Mr. Vice-Cham- 
berlain : and however, not with the benefit of giving much, 
(yet greatly pleasuring you as any man that hath gained most 

a Desiderata Curiosa, I. 142. Sir Thomas Tresham was committed 

b Ellis' Original Letters, 2nd se- and fined for having harboured Cam- 

ries, vol. HI. p. 88. pion, and been privy to his treason- 

c Wright's Queen Elizabeth and able designs. Annals, HI. pt. i. pp. 

her Times, n. 187. Strype says that 180-181. 


by you,) but by often and serious protestations, with many 
humble and earnest requests, with much sincerity of mind, 
great integrity of heart, with resolute avowing not to tarry in 
Court if you once disliked my continuing there; yea, and 
more than all that, lamenting with many grievous tears when- 
soever upon any small occasion or simple surmise you had 
conceived any displeasure against me : such was my grief 
to have your ill-will, and my care to entertain your good 
liking. Ah Sir, you have often sought to cast me off when 
I would not see it, so faithfully dear were you always to me 
in all fortunes. But oh blind affection that never deceiveth 
but with late repentance ! How may it be thought that ever 
you would have rejected me, your devoted poor friend, for 
the sole pleasure of the Earl of Leicester, without any occa- 
sion or small suspicion given on my part to yourself, knowing 
especially, as you do, that he affecteth you only to serve his 
own turn ? Take heed of him in time ! I speak it for good- 
/ will ; and all the harm I wish you is, that you will with the 
eyes of wisdom look into him thoroughly; and then you 
shall find that he knoweth only to gain friends, and hath not 
the good regard or grace to keep them. I pray you, Sir, 
\ deceive not yourself so far as to think that Counsellors only 
are wise ; for there are many other men of great judgment 
and understanding, whom fortune never advanced to so high 
degree, sapientissimus enim ipse qui discrete seipsum videt, 
and deemeth not vainly or passionately of others. I make 
small account in what sort you scorn my letters now in my 
absence, considering how little grace my speeches had in your 
ears when I was present with you. For myself, I know, 
being a banished man, you can pleasure me little ; but my 
poor brother, detained now in prison for the remorse and 
liberty of conscience, may haply fare the better if he find 
favour in your sight ; which if it shall please you to vouchsafe 
him in this discomfort and heaviness of affliction that he now 
lieth in, you shall both requite with courtesy a friend that 
hath ever loved you with constancy, and bind me with my 
devote prayers to God to be thankful unto you for it. I 


pray you, Sir, remember, that the bee gathereth honey of 
every flower, and of many travails frameth a sweet and com- 
fortable being for herself and young ones all the cold winter ; 
but the grasshopper all the summer-time joyeth with gallantry 
in the pleasant meadows, and dieth commonly with the cold 
dew of Bartholomew. You know that the high cedar-trees 
on the tops of huge mountains are most subject to the danger 
of storms, and therefore have most need of many and sure 
roots. We are all in God's hands, to be raised or pulled 
down as it shall please Him ; and there is none so high now, 
but may one day, through affliction, stand in as great need of 
comfort as now my poor brother and your dear friend doth. 
I beseech you think of him, and vouchsafe to bind us and our 
posterity unto you by the goodness that you may now afford 
him in furthering his enlargement. The day may come that 
you may find either him, or his, better able than now they are 
to acknowledge in all good sort, and thankfully to requite 
your kindness. God bless you with all good favour, and 
grant you the happiness to love your friends with that faith- 
fulness which is due unto them, and without the which you 
cannot keep them ! Your Honour's to command, 


No light can be thrown upon the following letter, 
which is without either signature or date: 


vouchsafe with your gracious and pitiful eyes the reading of 
these few lines, and by them to understand the unhappy 
estate of me your Majesty's most humble and loyal Subject, 
who was long in debating with myself what course I might 
devise which was most agreeable to express the duty which I 
did owe unto your Majesty, and most likely to relieve the 
misery which I did feel within myself. And, at the last, call- 
ing to mind how ready your sacred hands have been to receive 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 81. 

A A 


the supplications of the poor, and how rightly noble your 
princely heart hath ever showed itself in pitying the state of 
the miserable ; nay, remembering what undeserved clemency 
you have sometimes showed to those which have offended, 
and what unspeakable favour you have ever used to such as 
have been innocent, I was emboldened (though mine own un- 
worthiness dissuaded me), lying prostrate at your Majesty's 
feet, to present this humble supplication of mine, and in it 
neither to protest further than I can with a good and sound 
conscience warrant, nor to desire more than your Majesty 
shall in your grave and deep judgment think me worthy. 
And because that which is past and known is sometime a 
mean to explain that wfiich is present and not manifest, 
I most humbly beseech your Majesty to consider, how, at my 
first entrance into the world, I was laid open to all danger 
and only protected by you ; how I was assaulted by malice 
and defended by you ; how I was overthrown by misfortune 
and upholden by you ; how I must acknowledge all that I 
have to proceed from your goodness, and how I do confess 
that which I am to be by your favour. And if your Majesty 
do consider this, I know the gracious disposition of yours 
(which is easily moved to believe the best though it be doubt- 
ful, and hardly drawn to conceive the worst though it be 
manifest) will not suffer you without open and evident proof 
to condemn me of so great and horrible ingratitude as that I 
should think a thought which might displease you, much less 
do a thing which should offend you. Wherefore, seeing I am 
not only bound to your Majesty in that universal and highest 
band which is common to me with all your other subjects, 
but in this special and particular band which is peculiar to 
myself alone, as I must acknowledge myself unworthy to 
live if I have willingly offended your Majesty in the smallest 
matter, so, if it may be lawful for me with all humility to 
sue for so much favour at your Majesty's hands as that I 
might, with your gracious licence, speak unto yourself, I 
doubt not but so to lay open the sincerity of my mind and 
the integrity of my dealing from time to time in anything 


which concerned my duty to your Majesty, that I shall appear 
far different from that which, peradventure, the malice of 
some would have made me. And in the mean time I most 
humbly beseech your Majesty that I may protest with your 
favour thus much ; and, for confirmation of it, I will call God 
to witness that mine own thoughts cannot accuse me of the 
least undutifulness to your Majesty; that I am ready and 
willing to hazard my life, whensoever, howsoever, or where- 
soever it pleaseth your Majesty to command to employ me ; 
that the whole course of my life is bent to serve you ; that it 
is my daily study how to please you, and my only desire by 
any mean to content you; that I have no comfort in this 
world but your favour, and that no earthly thing either doth 
or can grieve me so much as your displeasure. To conclude 
all in a word, that I desire God so to prosper me in this 
world, and to bless me in the next, as I have been in all my 
words, intents and actions, true, faithful, and dutiful unto 
your Majesty. And thus, craving pardon with all humility if 
either I have been in this supplication more tedious than be- 
comes me, or have done in anything otherwise than agreed 
with your Majesty's liking and pleasure, I beseech God from 
the bottom of my heart ever to send your Majesty that happi- 
ness which your most incomparable virtues do deserve, and 
your most affectionate subjects do desire. 3 

Dr. Mathew never appears except as an importunate 
suitor ; but the precise nature of this application is not 
stated : 


MR. Cox, I never call upon you but when I have need to 
use your friendship ; and, when I need it, I ever find it. I 
thank you for it. My good friend Mr. Doctor Lougher will 
let you know the cause, and let you see the letter that now 
doth move me to solicit Mr. Vice-Chamberlain. I pray, Sir, 
most instantly direct Mr. Doctor what course he shall take in 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 118 b . 

A A 2 


discoursing with him, which I have entreated him to do ; for 
that I dare not come to the Court, as well lest I should exas- 
perate mine adversaries, as also being in this place so subject 
to the sickness as I know not with what safety or duty I may 
approach unto his Honour. My especial affiance, you know 
where it is, and I beseech you answer my expectations once 
for all. I do more than marvel that we have no word of an- 
swer to the letter written to the Prebendaries of Durham, in 
her Majesty's name, from my Lord of Leicester and Mr. Vice- 
Chamberlain. If you understand anything thereof, I pray 
you impart it to this bearer, as all other things that you would 
to myself. So fare you most heartily and friendly well. Your 
assured friend, TOBIE MATHEW.* 


GOOD MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, This messenger your ser- 
vant having given me some little warning to wait on you, I 
have adventured to trouble you with my ill-written letter, 
false English, and matter as little to be regarded as the pro- 
fession of her good-will who wrote it, who is herself little or 
nothing worth. Nevertheless, when I remember your courtesy 
offered even then when Fortune most showed her despite 
against me, I am persuaded a certain planet reigned that 
then assured me, and so doeth still, that I should receive 
some good of you, though the storms of my ill-fortune have 
shed since many drops untimely for me to gather fruit of 
your favour. I have nothing to present you with but the 
thought of the heart by the pen's description, in what thank- 
ful manner I take your good and kindly offer to do me plea- 
sure ; holding that opinion of your great virtue that I have 
ever conceived, which is, that you love faithful plain-dealing, 
and hate dissimulation. I am grievously sorry for her Ma- 
jesty's heavy displeasure so kindled against me, as I fear it 
is. If God will make my prayers worthy to enter into His 
ears, I will with all lowliness of mind incessantly beseech 
Him to prosper her estate ; and for my offence, which she 
a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 105. 


supposeth to be heinous in her judgment and justly deserv- 
ing her disfavour, I appeal to the Highest, that is best able 
to look into the bottom of my heart, whether my innocency 
have not always dreaded only to conceive so much as an ill 
thought of her. God bless her ! and give me grace to serve 
Him, that by His goodness it may plainly appear unto her 
how unjustly I am afflicted with her disgrace and indigna- 
tion. It shall make me less careful than I have been (but 
only for duty sake) for that life of courting. But, country- 
woman or courtier, as long as Mr. Vice-Chamberlain will do 
me the honour to judge me worthy to be esteemed an honest 
poor friend, I will ever, with all honour that any tongue can 
express, think I do right to myself in giving you that which 
your virtue deserveth. Yours, as ever vowed during life, 


POST. I hope, Sir, that if a poor pilgrim, wandering in 
the Park with a long bow, shoot at rovers, and hit a buck 
where the sign is, and die of it, you will not make it a pre- 
tended murder. a 

The following letter, relating to some proposed changes 
in the Church of St. Patrick, which will be again no- 
ticed, was written by Adam Loftus, Archbishop of Dub- 
Jin from 1567 to 1605: but the date is not given, and 
it may have been written in 1584, or even in 1585 : 


May it please your Lordship, Upon the return hither of the 
Archdeacon of Dublin, with report of his success in the 
humble suit exhibited in his behalf of the Church of St. 
Patrick, I did not only find the gracious resolution that 
was set down there by the Lords and others of her Majesty's 
Privy Council, but the especial favour showed by your Lord- 
ship, so honourable and conscionably vouchsafed as deserveth 
the perpetual prayers of my brethren and me; the same reso- 
lution tending to this end, that nothing should be done in the 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 62. 


dissolution of the Church without a conference between the 
Lord Deputy and me, and a consent in me (as I take it), is now 
brought over, as I hear, by Sir Lucas Dillon, but is not 
hitherto, neither I think shall be, imparted to me by his 
Lordship. I know, my good Lord, that nothing but zeal and 
care of the common good doth carry my Lord Deputy into 
the settled purpose to change the ancient institution into such 
an alteration as he conceiveth to be more beneficial to the 
Commonwealth, by establishing public lectures in several 
studies and sciences ; which if it might be without overthrow- 
ing the great for the less, or with the expense and diminish- 
ing only of mine own private, and not with the ruin in man- 
ner of all the Professors of Divinity in the land, I would not 
stand against his Lordship (whom I honour and love) in a 
cause that hath so good appearance for the public wealth. 
But this, my good Lord, is the case : My church standeth not 
upon temporalities, as all churches in England do, but every 
dignity and every prebend is a parsonage with cure of souls, 
saving a little demesne land in the country for the dean and 
the chaunter ; no impropriation belonging to all St. Patrick's ; 
but the dean, the two archdeacons, chaunter, treasurer and 
prebends are all persons without vicars endowed, and ought 
to be all divines, for so the foundation requireth. The 
church of Christchurch neither hath, nor is able to maintain, 
one preacher. Then, my Lord, behold the state of this 
wretched Country; in all the whole Realm there is not one 
preacher (three bishops excepted, of whom two were pre- 
ferred out of this church, but only in St. Patrick's.) These 
preachers must be removed, and as it were banished, in hope 
that, twenty years hence, some divines may spring out of a 
lecture to be instituted out of this intended college. In the 
mean season, the several cures of the incumbents of the 
church must be left to unlearned stipendiaries. The arch- 
bishoprick must neither have archdeacon to visit, (for Christ- 
church hath none,) neither hath he one church in the Realm 
whereunto to present a learned man ; a perpetual indignity 
to all my successors, Archbishops, which since the Conquest 


have been all Englishmen (one only excepted), and all in 
more than ordinary credit here with their Sovereigns. Now 
your Lordship in all godly wisdom looking into these things 
may see my estate : either I must contend with him, whom I 
highly esteem, and ought in all dutiful love to obey, or else I 
must neglect my personal charge, or leave myself to all my 
successors a perpetual blot and infamy, that the endowments 
of the church, founded by noble Princes, and continued in so 
many ages, should determine in my time, and a present evil 
to grow upon hope of a future good. I might say, schools 
are provided for in every country here ; Oxford and Cam- 
bridge are not far off, all under one dominion ; but this will 
not satisfy. Therefore, my dear Lord, I conclude, that if her 
Majesty by her private letters do not expressly forbid this 
dissolution to be talked of in Parliament, I foresee (as things 
are like to be wrought) the ruin both of this See and of this 
Church, with a general discontentment of the people, her 
Majesty having never given the like example. And there- 
fore, if that letter may not by your only favour be procured, 
it shall be best for me (being old, and not suffered longer to 
do good,) to avoid the present evil, and to resign the bishop - 
rick with all duty and humility to one more worthy than my- 
self, that can frame reason for the time ; which is my determi- 
nate purpose with your Lordship's good advice and favour, 
whereupon I depend more than any worldly man. I have 
given order to Mr. Bancroft, the bearer hereof, and one of 
the prebendaries of my church, not only to deliver these 
letters to your Lordship, but also to attend on you for this 
cause, in such sort and at such time as it shall please you to 
command him. And so, commending your Lordship to God's 
gracious favour in my humble prayers, I forbear to trouble 
you any longer.* 

The Bishop of St. David's, to whom Dr. Mathew com- 
pares himself in this letter on the old subject, was Mar- 
maduke Middleton, who was translated from the See of 
Waterford in December 1582 ; 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f, 143. 



MR. SAMUEL Cox, I trust you will license me with good 
leave to challenge your promise at my departure, not only to 
have consideration, but care, of my suit. I cannot but re- 
member your words full of friendship and good affection ; 
and by this time, it may be, you can beyond conjecture send 
me some good hope of better expedition than I found at my 
last being there, yet too soon methought by so sudden an 
alteration as seemed very strange, no more to myself than to 
sundry others. But all things have their times, arid that 
time was not the time of that thing. But will it be in any 
time, trow you ? Can Mr. Michael Stanhope win the time to 
write two letters to Doctor Sprint my friend and countryman, 
and assure him that he shall have the Deanery of Durham if 
he will come, or send his brother to enter as one authorized 
for such a matter, and so to carry it away without delay ; and 
cannot Mr. Cox see, or foresee, or aftersee what cause or 
colour might work such alteration ? Am not I an old man ? 
he is younger. Am I married ? he is once more married 
than I. But what speak I of age, or marriage ? when, to let 
all other answers pass, her Majesty was pleased amidst those 
exceptions to advance, I say not to a Deanery, but to the 
Bishoprick of St. David's, as young a man as myself and mar- 
ried ; wherefore, some other matter of stay there must needs 
be than these. I pray you, Sir, do me the friendship to learn 
it, and write it, or say it to this bearer as to myself. Be as 
good to me towards Mr. Vice-Chamberlain as his Honour 
hath been towards her Majesty for me. If there be any 
secret, desire it may be discovered, that so you may the less 
trouble him, and he her Majesty, and I my friends. Howso- 
ever this fall, I trust you will love us as we like you. Your 
assured loving friend, TOBIE MATTHEW.* 

Another letter from Dr. Mathew, expressing his grati- 
tude to Hatton, without any date, may also have been 
written about this period : 

a Additional MSS. 15891. 



RIGHT HONOURABLE, Your special favour towards me hath 
many ways appeared, but most singularly of late, to my great 
comfort, amidst my sickness ; for the which your goodness and 
bounty albeit no length of words or writing would suffice 
me to be worthily thankful to your Honour, yet such is, you 
know, my present occasion, as I must think the rest, and only 
say, that, if ever such a one as I were most bounden to such a 
person as yourself, I am the man, both sick and whole, both 
in your presence and in your absence, as finding your Honour 
my best physician, and your cook my best apothecary. Now 
would to God, Sir, I were as worthy to enjoy my health as 
you may be assured to command my life. And even so, with 
my humble thanks unto you, and mine unfeigned prayers for 
you that God will increase your Honour to His glory, I take 
my leave. Your Honour's most bounden in all duty, 


The earliest letter in 1584 relates to the persecution 
of some unhappy Roman Catholic : 


SIR, Though for my own part I do very well allow of the 
course you were entered into touching the examining of 
Keeper, yet, seeing the Earl of Leicester doth not hold it 
best, I think it best forborne until we may confer with him 
to-morrow what way he shall think meet to be taken with the 
said party. In the mean time, I doubt not but that you will 
have care, both that he may be forthcoming, as also that he 
may be kept from intelligence. They that have given adver- 
tisement that he is a priest do take upon them to be most as- 
sured of it, as the Lord of Hunsdon telleth me ; and therefore 
I find it strange that his answers be so peremptory. It may 
be, when he shall be pressed with oath, he will yield another 

* Additional MSS. 15891. 




answer. If he prove to be a priest (as is reported), then will 
he not greatly weigh his allegiance, having, as the rest of his 
associates have, a very unreverent opinion of her Majesty's 
authority. Thus, Sir, I am bold to scribble some more lines 
than were necessary, and so do commit you to the tuition of 
the Almighty. At Seething Lane, the 30th of January 1583 
[1584], Yours most assuredly to command, 


A marginal note gives this account of the writer of 
the following letter, who was, he says, " a sworn officer 
touching the Queen's revenue:" " This was that Wil- 
liam Dodington, that wilfully brake his neck by casting 
himself down headlong from the battlements of St. 
Sepulchre's steeple, upon the sight of certain depositions 
touching a cause in controversy between him and one 
Brunker in Chancery." And a letter is preserved, en- 
titled " A lamentable ejaculation of W. Dodington's 
distressed soul;" b intimating his intention to commit 


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, The morrow after my 
departure from you my late Master sent for me, and showed 
me the order devised by Mr. Manners, being the same which 
I had read to you the day before. He told me that he 
received it of the Lord Treasurer, with earnest desire to have 
the cause so laid as the lands might come again to her Ma- 
jesty, and so to Mr. Manners' hands. I prayed him not to 
deal with you to that effect ; I told him the harm and shame 
would grow to me thereby, and that for my part I would 
never agree to it whilst I lived. He wished me not to la- 
bour you to the contrary, and said he knew what he would 
do therein ; and this was all our talk : sithence I hear by 
Mr. Carey that your Honour is drawn to that course, as a 

Additional MSS. 15891. 

b Lansdowne MSS. 99, art. 32. 


thing whereunto I should have also yielded my consent. I 
most humbly beseech you to weigh my hard case. Mr. Man- 
ners hath of record accused me (her Highness' sworn Officer 
touching her revenue), first of fraud, of deceit, of cunningly 
and closely inserting and shifting into a bill, to be signed by 
her Majesty, matter to her great loss and hindrance in the same 
revenue : this is in his bill. In his replication he particu- 
larly entertaineth his slander, and not obscurely in the end 
charge th me with perjury, to make me amends withal. But 
I am in a sort discharged of all this matter, saving the per- 
jury ; and now Mr. Manners must have the land again by Wil- 
liam Dodington's consent. But whether I consented to re- 
assure the lands to the intent to be discharged of the fraud, 
or were discharged without consent, that must remain for 
ever a question ; and, make the best of it that may be made, 
the conclusion is, if I be washed at all, it shall be yet, Sir, (as 
the proverb is,) but with Sowler's ink. Touching the land, 
it is your Honour's now, and you may do with it as it 
pleaseth you, always reserved that my consent shall never be 
that Mr. Manners shall have it ; and be it spoken without 
offence, I take it not convenient that your Honour should 
yield to no good friend of yours such a favour, for hurting of 
him that would, if he might, be your good servant. Your 
Honour did once friendly for him, as much as he now re- 
quireth, and it liked him not to have it that way. Be you 
sure, that, when he hath it, he will neither esteem you nor 
care for me ; and that which he could not hitherto win of me 
by other means I shall now be forced to yield by your prece- 
dent. This I say, Sir, over boldly, as I am wont in your gal- 
lery at London ; and, if I were afore you in place of judg- 
ment, I would then challenge you to do me justice, and to 
grant me damages at my accusers' hands. Marry, this is 
another course not fit for that place ; for now the party that 
hath done the injury shall be benefited, and he that is already 
wronged shall be further punished. But, Sir, God's will be 
done and yours, and follow that which is best for yourself. 
As for me, it is no great matter ; and it would be more grief 


unto me to have your Honour disquieted, than pleasure to see 
mine enemy requited. If the worst befal me, I shall fly to 
Chaucer's borrow, sit down and sigh, and drink mine own 
sorrow. Having troubled your Honour too long, I humbly 
pray you to forgive me, if I have said anything amiss : in 
truth, in this case I am not mine own man. God evermore 
prosper you ; and so I make an end. From Brearmore, in 
the New Forest, the 4th of March 1583 [1584]. Your 
Honour's, as I am bound, WILLIAM DODINGTON.* 

Mr. Cox, Hatton's Secretary, seems to have prided 
himself upon his epistolary talents, for several letters b 
from him occur in the " Letter Book," which, like the 
following, are remarkable for nothing but their style : 


SIR, I am sorry to hear of the heavy news of your father's 
departure out of this life, a gentleman to whom 1 was in many 
respects much beholding, and one whom I have ever especi- 
ally honoured for his integrity and virtue ; the lack whereof is 
the chiefest cause that now justly moveth me, as much as any 
man, to lament the loss of so rare and faithful a friend. But, 
seeing God hath thought good in His high wisdom to take him 
from the earthly tabernacle of this worldly mansion, as fitter 
to be placed with Him in the heavenly inheritance of His 
glorious Kingdom, where he remaineth eternally happy, than 
to dwell here any longer amongst us in this vale of worldly 
vanities, there is no cause, in the true course of Christianity, 
why we should mourn so much for his death, as we should take 
comfort and rejoice for his happy change ; neither ought we to 
murmur at the divine pleasure of God, who hath so ordained 
it. I understand, by the report of such as seem to know 
much, that he died intestate, whereof is like to ensue some 
dissension and unkind debate between you and your breth- 
ren ; which I should be sorry were true, as well for the slan- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 120 b . few others of a miscellaneous nature, 
b Most of these Letters, with a will be found in the APPENDIX. 


der which by this means might be raised against your dead 
father, (whom the world might judge, through this lack of 
providence, to be inconsiderate in his death, though grave 
and wise in his life,) as also for the particular love I bear 
you, both for his sake and your own ; in which respect I 
wish that these unnatural quarrels might be far from you. 
It is said he made a will, but not orderly and perfect ; be- 
cause therein some part of the solemnity of law was omitted, 
the intervention whereof was necessary. It was written 
plain and at large, with the subscription of his hand, but 
there wanted the seal and witnesses ; for which cause, in the 
strict censure of law, he is in truth judged to die intestate : 
paria enim sunt, aliquid omnino non fieri aut minus rite 
fieri. Other some say that he left a direct and a perfect will 
behind him ; but pronuntiabatur irritum et injustum,, prop- 
ter secundi testamenti factionem ; in which case the law find- 

eth him likewise to die intestate, idem enim est 

mentum omnino non facere vel facere quod 

pronuntietur. But, this day, a friend of mine advertised me, 
a man of good learning and judgment, that he made a will, 
but did not nominate therein any certain executor ; which 
being true, the law is directly apparent, in the opinion of all 
men, that he died intestate : nam intestatus est cujus hcere- 
ditas adita non est. It is the executor that giveth consum- 
mation and effect to the will, without the which the true 
meaning of the testator cannot be observed ; and therefore 
the law esteemeth it to be a vain and frivolous will, and no 
will at all indeed, where the executor to the testator is not 
expressly mentioned, wherein I would wish you to take good 
advice, with the best endeavour and expedition. The great- 
est scruple that might justly trouble you most, if it were 
true, is the report that he died distracted and furious ; and 
that there was a will readily made and framed by some about 
him, without his privity or direction, who afterward brought 
it unto him, and, putting the pen in his hand, constrained 
him to subscribe it by leading and guiding the same, accord- 
ing to their own corrupt fancies. If this should fall out to 


be proved by witnesses, it is indubitable also, in my poor 
opinion, that he died intestate, nam fiiriosus, pupillus et 
prodigus testamenti faciendi jus non habent ; and so he will 
be found to make no will, though in this case he be not 
proprie intestatus, but intestabilis, cum nullus testandi prcs- 
cesserit habitus. Thus you see how my good-will hath made 
me bold to deliver you my rude and simple advice ; which, 
though it be not worthy of your notice, yet, I pray you, 
accept of it well, because it was well meant to do you 
good in that which might best satisfy the effect of your 
virtuous desires ; the increase whereof, and of all other 
prosperity, wishing ever to you as to myself, I remain yours 
unfeignedly at commandment. In haste ; from the Court 
at Greenwich, the 29th of March 1584, Your poor fast 
true friend, SAMUEL Cox. a 

The following letter from Hatton to the Queen shows 
that in April of this year he had taken offence at her 
Majesty's proceedings, and withdrawn from the Court ; 
the cause of which is thus stated in a marginal note : 
" A man of his, Mr. George Best, was slain in fight a 
little before by one Mr. Oliver St. John, and, as it was 
suspected, scarce manfully arid in good fight, which Mr. 
Vice-Chamberlain took very grievously ; and finding the 
Queen unwilling that he should prosecute the offender 
in course of justice, but rather desirous to save him, 
Mr. Vice-Chamberlain took this, and some other hard 
measure offered by the Queen, very unkindly, and there- 
fore forbore his wonted access and attendance, and 
withdrew himself from the Court to his house at Hol- 
denby, in Northamptonshire, where he remained in great 
sorrow and perplexity many days, until at the length 
she was pleased to take some pity of his grief, and to 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 134. 


send for him." It is remarkable, that, though his letter 
is full of humility and contrition, and though he admits 
his " too high presumptions " towards her Majesty, yet 
he prays of her to remember the " causes," which were, 
he says, as " unfit for him as unworthy of her" ; 


ON the knees of my heart, most dear and dread Sovereign 
Majesty, I beseech pardon and goodness at your princely 
hands. I fear I offend you in lack of attendance on your 
princely presence, wherein, before our God, frowardness 
and obstinacy of mind are as far from me as love and duty 
would have them ; but that the griefs and sorrows of my 
soul so oppress me as I cannot express unto you, and so 
entangle my spirits that they turn me out of myself, and 
thereby making me unfit to be seen of you, is the true cause 
that I forbear access. I most humbly thank your sacred 
Majesty for your two late recomfortations. Would God I 
had deserved your former goodness ; for, God knoweth, your 
good favour hath not been ever, or at any time, evil employed 
on me your poor disconsolate wretch. I will leave all former 
protestations of merit or meanings ; only I affirm, in the 
presence of God, that I have followed and loved the foot- 
steps of your most princely person with all faith and sin- 
cerity, with a mind most single, and free from all ambition 
or any other private respects. And though, towards God 
and Kings, men cannot be free of faults, yet, wilfully or 
wittingly, He knoweth that made me, I never offended your 
most sacred Majesty. My negligence towards God, and too 
high presumptions towards your Majesty, have been sins 
worthily deserving more punishments than these. But, Ma- 
dam, towards yourself leave not the causes of my presump- 
tions unremembered ; and, though you find them as unfit 
for me as unworthy of you, yet, in their nature, of a good 
mind they are not hatefully to be despised. I humbly 
prostrate myself at your gracious feet, and do most heartily 


recognize that all God's punishments laid on me by your 
princely censure are taken by me with singular humility ; 
wherein I stand as free from grudging of heart as I am full 
of intolerable and vain perplexity. God in Heaven bless 
your Royal Majesty with a long life, a joyful heart, a prosper- 
ous reign, and with Heaven at the last. April the 3rd, 1584. 
Your Majesty's most lowly subject and most unworthy ser- 
vant, CH. HATTON.* 

Philip Earl of Arundell, the head, and many mem- 
bers of the House of Howard, were supposed to have 
been implicated in Throckmorton's treason ; and, though 
Catnden mentions that Mr. Henry Howard, whom he 
describes as " a man of most noble blood, a bachelor, 
passing Popish, and in very great favour amongst the 
Papists, afterwards Earl of Northampton, was often 
examined on the subject," neither he nor Howard's bio- 
graphers notice his sufferings and imprisonment, as 
described in this and in other letters to Hatton. He 
was, however, suspected of a design to marry the Queen 
of Scots, and of being elected King of England by the 
English Catholics*; 


THOUGH you were none of those, good Mr. Vice-Chamber- 
lain, to whom it pleased her Majesty to recommend the trial 
and examination of my cause, yet now that my Lord of Lei- 
cester, mine especial good Lord, and Mr. Secretary, my most 
assured friend, have given their faithful and honourable pro- 
mise to deal for my liberty, I cannot omit your Honour in 
the number of my constant friends, whom during my last 
suit I found so willing to do me good, and so favourably bent 
to recommend and further my petition. Six months com- 
plete I have endured all kinds of sifting and examining, with 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 121 b . b Camden's Annals, B. iii. pp. 34, 41. 


what integrity I could rather wish you should receive at their 
mouths (as I doubt not but you have done already) who were 
acquainted with the matter from the first beginning, than by 
mine own report, who may be deemed over-partial in mine 
own particular. Only thus much I will note, that neither I 
spake ever with one Throckmorton (with whose familiar 
acquaintance I was charged) more than once, and then of 
nothing otherwise than fell out by chance, without offence to 
any man alive ; neither did I ever receive any ring from the 
Queen of Scots, whereof I was accused. This long and close 
endurance hath already brought me to that extremity of the 
stone, as, I protest to God, I had rather yield my life in the fa- 
vour of Almighty God to any sudden stroke of fortune whatso- 
ever, than languish in this endless maze of pain and misery. 
Wherefore I most humbly beseech you, good Mr. Vice-Cham- 
berlain, first for charity, and then for the pity and compas- 
sion which is engrafted in your honourable mind, and, last of 
all, for that favour to myself whereof (to my inestimable com- 
fort) your own mouth assured me, that it will please you to 
adjoin your favourable help to the rest of my good friends 
for the procurement of my liberty. You shall by this mean 
bind a gentleman to rest at your commandment during life, 
who no less earnestly calleth on you for your assistance in 
this cause, than he esteemeth you most worthy of all service 
and honour. Thus, beseeching God to increase and prosper 
you in all good haps that your own honest and honourable 
heart can desire, I most humbly take my leave, this 27th of 
April 1584. Your Honour's most humble and assured at 
commandment during life, HENRY HOWARD.* 

The annexed letter from John Whitgift, who was 
translated from Worcester to the Archiepiscopal See 
of Canterbury on the death of Archbishop Grindall, 
is elucidated by a passage from Camden's Annals : 

a Additional MSS, 15891, f. 122 b , 

B B 


To him [Whitgift,] the Queen (who as in civil matters, 
so also in the ecclesiastical laws, thought that no relenting 
was to be used) gave in charge, that before all things he 
should restore the discipline of the Church of England, and 
the uniformity in the service of God, established by au- 
thority of Parliament, which, through the connivance of the 
prelates, the obstinacy of the Puritans, and the power of cer- 
tain noblemen, was run out of square, while some of the 
ministers covertly impugned the Queen's authoiity in ecclesi- 
astical matters, separated the administration of the sacraments 
from the preaching of the word, usurped new rites and cere- 
monies at their pleasure in private houses, utterly condemned 
the liturgy and the administration of the sacraments esta- 
blished, as contrary in some points to the Holy Scriptures, as 
also the vocation of Bishops, and therefore refused to come to 
Church, and made a flat schism, while the Papists stood at 
pleasure, and drew many to their side, as if there were no 
unity in the Church of England. To take away these incon- 
veniences, and restore unity, he propounded these articles to be 
subscribed unto by the ministers : First, that the Queen had 
the highest and supreme power over all persons born within 
her Realms, of what condition soever they were ; and that no 
other Foreign Prince or Prelate had, or ought to have had, any 
civil or ecclesiastical power in her Realms or Dominions. 
Secondly, that the Book of Common Prayer, and another Book 
of ordaining of Bishops and Priests, contained nothing con- 
trary to God's word, but might lawfully be used ; and that 
they should use that, and no other form either of prayer or 
administration of the sacraments. Thirdly, that they ap- 
proved the Articles of the Synod at London, published by the 
Queen's authority in the year 1562, and believed the same to 
be consonant to God's word. By occasion hereof, incredible 
it is what controversies and disputations arose, and what 
hatred, what reproachful speeches he endured at the hands of 
factious ministers, and what troubles, yea and injuries also, 
at the hands of noblemen, who, by promoting unmeet and 
unworthy men, raised trouble in the Church, or else hoped 


after the Livings of the Church ; nevertheless through con- 
stancy, fortitude and patience he overcame at last, and re- 
stored peace to the Church, so as not without good advise- 
ment he may seem to have usurped that motto, Vincit qui 
patitur, that is, He overcometh which suffereth with pa- 
tience." a 

The Archbishop "in his weighty business," observes 
Strype, "had the encouragement and cordial friendship 
of Sir Christopher Hatton, who had sent to the Archbishop 
a paper of notes, containing, as it seems, the sum of those 
petitions for reformation that were to be brought into 
the Parliament house now ere long to sit, that so the 
Archbishop might the better understand the import of 
them, and get replies ready upon occasion. The Arch- 
bishop made use of Mr. Bancroft, his faithful Chaplain, 
as his messenger to Sir Christopher ." b In a letter from 
Dr. Bancroft to Hatton, on the 4th of November 1584, 
subscribed "your honour's most bounden and dutiful 
Chaplain/' he says " I have been with my Lord's Grace 
as your pleasure was, and have returned your notes 
according to your commandment" ; 


RIGHT HONOURABLE, I am bold to use that great friend- 
ship and courtesy which you most honourably offered 
unto me, especially at this time in the public cause of the 
Church and State. Yesterday certain gentlemen of Kent 
were with me to entreat release of some of the Ministers 
whom I had suspended for not subscribing to the Articles 
according to the order taken ; and because, upon great and 
weighty considerations then declared unto them, I refused to 
grant their request, they said they would make their petition 
to her Majesty, or to the Lords of her Highness' most ho- 
nourable Privy Council; some of them also after a sort 

a Camden's Annals, B. iii. p. 27. b Strype's Annals, in. pt. i.p.333. 

B B 2 


threatening me otherwise than they durst have done in times 
past to men of my calling. I have in my diocese in Kent 
one hundred preachers and more, whereof ten only, or there- 
abouts, have refused to subscribe, and eight of them never 
licensed to preach by any lawful authority ; who besides their 
refusing to subscribe, have spread abroad and published 
certain articles tending not only to the defacing of the Book 
of Common Prayer by law established, but also to the al- 
tering and changing of the whole state of government in 
matters ecclesiastical, to the discrediting of the religion now 
professed, and disturbing of this most happy and quiet regi- 
ment : wherefore I heartily beseech your Honour to foresee 
(as much as in you lieth) that these men receive no encou- 
ragement from thence, and (if need require) to signify this 
my petition to her Majesty. If these few, being of none 
account either for years, learning, or degree, (which I speak 
of knowledge, whatsoever the gentlemen in their favour shall 
report to the contrary,) shall be countenanced against the law, 
against me, and against all the rest of the preachers in my 
diocese, it will not be possible for me either there or any- 
where else to do that good in procuring the peace of the 
Church, obedience and observation of good orders, which I 
am assured I shall bring to pass, if I be suffered without such 
overthwarts to proceed as I have begun. Unless such con- 
tentious persons were some way animated and backed, they 
would not stand out as they do. And yet, (God be thanked) 
the number of them in this province is not great, and indeed 
of no account in comparison of the rest, wherefore my hope 
is, the rather by your Honour's good means, that nothing 
shall be done prejudicial to the order set down by her Ma- 
jesty's consent and according to the laws established, which I 
most heartily desire you by all ways and means you can to 
procure. And so, remaining yours most assuredly in any- 
thing that shall lie in my power, I commit your Honour to 
the tuition of Almighty God. From Lambeth, the 9th of 
May 1584 Your Honour's as his own, JOHN CANTUAR.* 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 123. 


The name of this supplicant to Hatton is unknown : 


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, Such hath been your 
goodness towards me as I must acknowledge for due the offer 
of my life in your service. I presented unto Mr. Secretary 
on Sunday last my petition to your Honour and the rest of 
my Lords for my liberty and mitigation of fine, together 
with the reasons that constrained me to that boldness. I 
humbly beseech you, even for God's cause, to prevent my 
ruin and utter overthrow, with your honourable furtherance 
for the safety of my goods. The Lord of Heaven knoweth 
I entreat not for the ease of my person, but for the preser- 
vation of my poor house and children. Alas, Sir ! in reason 
I can say nothing for myself, having so highly offended such 
a gracious Prince and so honourable a Government, but do 
simply appeal to her Majesty's mercy and your favourable 
goodness. I dare not crave according to the measure of my 
necessities, but do commend my humble suit, my service, and 
life, to your honourable favour ; and so do take my leave, 
beseeching God to preserve you in all happiness. From the 
Fleet, the 10th of May 1584. Your Honour's in all duty.* 

Mr. Cox might well suppose that his learned dis- 
quisition on the difference between Deputies and Am- 
bassadors would " offend by tediousness." He says 
nothing to show in what manner Calveley had given 
offence, nor has any information on the point been 
found elsewhere : 


SIR, I am sorry you have conceived so great offence and 
displeasure against my poor kinsman, Robin Calveley, for 
dealing in a just cause more roundly with the Deputies of 
the Low Countries than was expedient he should have done, 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 124. 


in respect of their place and calling. I confess it was an 
error in him to use violence, or any such rigorous course, 
against personages whom we ought in common duty to re- 
gard and reverence ; but, where it pleaseth you to call them 
Ambassadors, and to privilege them under the protection of 
so honourable a title, and so to make his fault the greater, 
I am of opinion, under your favourable correction, that they 
ought not justly to be so esteemed, nor aptly to be so termed, 
considering what they are and from whom they come. I say 
not this to extenuate vainly the error of the offender, but 
to let you know, that, not taking them for Ambassadors, but 
for Deputies, himself was the rather induced to think he 
might the more boldly proceed with them as he did. They 
are not all Ambassadors that are sent to any Prince or people 
to deal with them in matter of state ; neither ought they to 
enjoy the privileges of Ambassadors. Subjects in time of 
rebellion, revolted from their natural Sovereign King, may 
authorize and send Commissioners unto him to treat of peace, 
whom we cannot properly call Ambassadors, but Deputies ; 
for no Prince or State can, in the justice of law, assume unto 
himself the right of legation unless he be absolute and Sove- 
reign of himself, not depending upon the Imperial authority 
of any other, or any way tied by any oath of fidelity or obe- 
dience to any other Prince or superior power whatsoever. 
Subjects cannot constitute or send Ambassadors to their 
own Prince, for the law will not give them any such autho- 
rity ; neither can they send any to a Foreign Prince, without 
peril of treason : populi et civitates quce alterius imperio 
parent suis auspitiis legates mittere non possunt. When the 

great sedition, ob leges agr arias Rome, 

Fulvius Flaccus and Lucius Craccus, the authors thereof, 
sent the son of Flaccus as Ambassador to treat with the 
people and Senate for a composition of peace. As soon as 
Opimius the Consul heard he was come, he was so far from 
entertaining him as an Ambassador, that, by the decree and 
order of the Senate, he caused him to be committed to prison. 
The Romans would not receive those men as Ambassadors 


whom Spartacus sent unto them, a man famous, as you know, 
for the fortune of three notable victories. Tiberius rejected 
likewise, and would by no means give them the reputation 
of Ambassadors, which Talpharinus sent unto him, a man 
so mighty and potent that he possessed almost all Africa 
with his infinite huge host which he had of bondmen. When 
John, who usurped the Empire of the West parts, did send his 
Commissioners to Theodosius, Emperor of the East, Theodo- 
sius would not receive them as Ambassadors, but cast them 
into prison ; whereby it is manifest that the Romans would 
not allow them for Ambassadors which were sent unto them 
from their rebellious subjects ; they were not reputed legate, 
but selecti, whom the Subject sent to their Prince, and there- 
fore not to be accounted sacrosancti, or inviolabiles, because 
they came not from any Sovereign, Kingly state, or absolute 
Commonwealth. Legati enim a Regibus, imperatoribus, rebus- 
ve pub. qua superiorem C&sarem non agnoscunt mittuntur, 
atque, ob id, sacrosancti et inviolabiles sunt. Neither are they 
properly called Ambassadors, whom the Prince sendeth to the 
Subject, but missatici, juridi ci, or delegati; and yet we read, 
that when Marcus Antoninus was condemned of treason, the 
Romans, considering how many legions he had under his com- 
mandment, sent Servius Sulpitius and many other Ambassa- 
dors of quality and honour unto him, fearing lest they might 
otherwise have provoked him to take up arms : but Tully will 
not admit this for a legation, but for a denuntiation, quoniam 
paratum erat illi exitium nisi Senatui paruisset. Thus you 
see how my honest meaning and defence of my friend maketh 
me offend by tediousness, where I least should and would. 
Unless it please you, therefore, to use your accustomed benig- 
nity .... in good part, I fear my long vain letters, which 
are written to entreat pardon for him, will be accusations 
against myself to declare my unworthiness to speak for ano- 
ther. I must refer all to your goodness, without the which 
my friend and I both are like to fall into the peril of your dis- 
favour, which would grieve me more than I will now mention. 
And so I commit you to God's eternal providence and best 


direction. From the Court at Greenwich, the 20th of May 
1584. Your assured poor friend, SAMUEL Cox. a 

In his letter of the 27th of April, in a subsequent 
page, Mr. Howard says he had then been subjected to 
six months' confinement ; and as in the following one, 
which has no date, he states that he had "lain seven 
months in prison," it was probably written about the 
end of May or beginning of June in this year : 


IT was no small comfort unto me, good Mr. Vice-Chamber- 
lain, to understand by Mr. Tresham of your favourable ac- 
ceptance of my letter ; hoping rather by plain deeds than 
words, if ever it may lie in my power, to make good my mean- 
ing. And where I perceive by the same friend that some 
have sought to put into your head (as I heard before) some 
jealousy of my devotion towards you, I can say no more than 
that their tales are both false and slanderous ; desiring thus 
much only for my further trial, that, whosoever hath been 
author or inventor of the same, he will take the pain to avow 
them in this quarter, and, as we can agree 'upon the price, so 
you will vouchsafe to settle and to frame your judgment. I 
protest that never doubtful thought against you lodged in my 
heart ; but if you found me not so forward in appearance or 
following, (as I know myself most clear and innocent from 
harm,) impute the same rather to the plainness of my nature, 
which could not serve in divers camps, nor look one way 
(like a cunning bargeman) when I stretch mine arms another, 
than to the malice of my meaning. God can witness mine 
upright conceit of yourself, and of your plain and honour- 
able dealing, when I swerved furthest from your course ; and 
often would I wish but one such friend as you, when I found 
scant answerable offices to my devotion. I am not ignorant 
that some, which promise great good-will to you, were ever 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 136. 


opposite in private inclination against me, and would never 
suffer any sound conceit of my good-will to settle in your 
judgment. But if none dare avow such prefye fancies as 
they have suggested by report, then credit simple truth, that 
hath none other armour than good faith ; and think my mind 
to be so great, howsoever fortune bear me down, that, if I 
carried any spark of grudge to you, I would not seek to be 
beholding to you for one dram of favour. I pray God you 
may live as happily as yourself can wish, till 1 ever stoop to 
seek for favour of mine enemy, or with a servile shadow cover 
an unfaithful meaning. I have lain seven months in prison, 
and yet am not privy to the least offence either to my Prince 
or country. All the world acquitteth me from sight of any 
gewgaw. Stevens is not yet a Jesuit, much less he was then. 
My Lord of Southampton can avow upon his honour that I 
never heard mass with him, and yet I must be kept in prison. 
Good Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, according to my trust reposed 
in your friendship, rid me from these manacles which I never 
merited. You know my case, and therefore I will urge no 
further, but desire you to conceive, that as I have received 
wrong concerning public causes, so have I done by private 
whisperings, to drive matters nearer to the quick. I rest 
yours, and so will do, in spite of those that labour to im- 
print another fancy in your favourable judgment. And so, 
with as many wishes of good success as my pen can utter or 
yourself desire, I end in haste, this Saturday morning. Your 
poor friend most assured at commandment, 


Lady Leighton has been already mentioned. Her 
present letter is only remarkable for what she says of 
the Queen's " grief and solitariness," which agrees with 
Camden's statement that Elizabeth was greatly affected 
by the death of the Duke of Anjou, which took place 
on the 10th of June, seven days before the date of this 
letter : 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 119 b . 



SIR, I am sorry, for mine own sake, you are any way hin- 
dered of your honourable proceeding in my suit, but specially 
that it should happen by so ill an accident as the grief and 
solitariness I hear her Majesty gives herself to of late. But 
I hope that time and her wisdom will overcome that which is 
both so harmful to herself, and helpless to the cause that pro- 
cures it. And as the extremity of her sorrow decreaseth, so I 
hope you shall have your wonted opportunity to do good to 
those that have their affiance in you ; as myself, for one, that 
will ever ground my assurance upon your faithful promise. 
And I beseech you think, that my often troubling of you with 
my scribbling riseth not of any mistrust I have in the perform- 
ance of your word, but to show myself thankful for your 
favour, howsoever I speed. And so I leave you to as great 
honour and happiness as my opinion thinks you worthy of. 
Charter-house, this 17th of June 1584. Your poor friend, if 
it please you, E. LEIGHTON.* 

When it was resolved to destroy a theatre, in June 
1584, Hatton, as well as the Lord Chamberlain, vainly 
endeavoured to befriend the poor players. Serjeant 
Fleetwood, Eecorder of London, in one of his gossipping 
letters to Lord Burghley, dated on the 18th of that 
month, says, "Upon Sunday, my Lord" (apparently 
the Lord Chief Justice Anderson) " sent two Aldermen 
to the Court for the suppressing and pulling down of 
the theatre and curtain ; for all the Lords agreed there- 
unto saving my Lord Chamberlain and Mr. Vice- Cham- 
berlain : but we obtained a letter to suppress them all. 
Upon the same night I sent for the Queen's players 
and my Lord of Arundell's players, and they all well 
nigh obeyed the Lords' letters. The chiefest of her 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. ]35 b . 


Highness's players advised me to send for the owner 
of the theatre, who was a stubborn fellow, to bind 
him. I did so." In the same letter, Mr. Fleetwood 
said, " The eldest son of Mr. Henry, I hear, upon Mon- 
day, being yesterday, fought in Cheapside with one 
Boat, a that is, or lately was, Mr. Yice-Chamberlain's 
man ; and all was, which of them was the better gen- 
tleman, and for taking of the wall." b 

Hatton again appears as an intercessor : 


MY VERY GOOD LORDS, Whereas I am informed that your 
Lordships have taken bonds of Richard Massy, of the County 
of Chester, gentleman, to appear before you concerning mat- 
ters Ecclesiastical at the feast of St. Bartholomew next, I am 
moved (upon some consideration, but specially in hope of his 
conformity and better disposition to her Majesty's proceedings 
hereafter than he hath showed heretofore,) to intreat your 
Lordships to be pleased once again to extend your favour to- 
wards him ; as namely, upon the removing of his bonds to 
forbear his appearance before you till Candlemas next; by 
which time I am persuaded your Lordships shall find such token 
of reformation in him as, I trust, you shall think your good- 
ness herein well bestowed on him, and be glad of this course 
of lenity taken presently with him in hope of his amendment. 
Wherein praying your Lordships' favourable acceptance of 
this my request, I commend you, as myself, to the grace of 
Almighty God. From the Court at Richmond, the 23rd of 
June 1 584. Your good Lordships' very loving assured friend, 



RIGHT HONOURABLE, I give you most hearty thanks for 
that most friendly message which you sent unto me by your 

a Sic. c Desiderata Curiosa, I. p. 150. 

b Wright's Queen Elizabeth and 
her Times, ii. 229, 230. 


man, Mr. Kemp. I shall think myself bound to you for it as 
long as I live. It hath not a little comforted me in respect of 
some unkind speeches lately received from those who, I little 
thought, of all others would have taken offence against me 
only for doing my duty in this most necessary business which 
I have now in hand. I marvel how it should come to pass 
that the self-same persons which will seem to wish peace and 
uniformity in the Church, and to mislike of the contentious 
and disobedient sort, cannot abide that anything should be 
done against them ; wishing rather that the whole ministry of 
this land should be discountenanced and discouraged, than a 
few wayward persons, of no account in comparison, should be 
suppressed and punished. Men, in executing of laws accord- 
ing to their duties, were wont to be encouraged and backed 
by such as now, in this weighty service, do partly impugn the 
due course of justice. It falleth out in these days clean con- 
trary. Disobedient and wilful persons (I will term them no 
worse) are animated, laws contemned, her Majesty's will and 
pleasure not regarded, and the executors thereof, in word and 
deed, abused. Howbeit, though these thwarts something 
grieve me^ yet I thank God they cannot withdraw me from 
doing that duty in this cause which, I am persuaded, God 
himself, her Majesty, the laws, and the state of the Church 
and Commonwealth do require of me. In respect whereof I 
am content to sustain all their displeasures, and am fully re- 
solved to depend upon none but upon God and her Majesty. 
And therefore your Honour, in offering unto me that cu- 
racy, offereth me as great a pleasure as I can desire. Her 
Majesty must be my refuge ; and I beseech you that I may 
use you as a mean, when occasion shall serve. Whereof as- 
suring myself, I commit you to the grace and favour of God, 
to whom you shall ever have my most hearty prayers for your 
health and prosperity. From Lambeth, the 17th of July 1584. 
Your Honour's assuredly, JOHN CANTUAR.* 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 124. 


The Earl of Leicester's only legitimate child, Kobert 
Lord Denbigh, died at Wanstead on the 19th of July 
1584; and the following admirable letter from Hatton 
on his loss, with Leicester's reply, form additional evi- 
dence of their having lived on terms of friendship with 
each other: 


MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, Your excellent wisdom, made 
perfect in the school of our eternal God, will, in the rule of 
Christian reason, I trust, subdue these kind and natural affec- 
tions which now oppress your own loving heart. What God 
hath given you, that hath He chosen and taken to Himself, 
whereat I hope you will not grudge ; as well for that it is the 
executor of His divine will, as also for that He hath made him 
co-heir of His heavenly Kingdom. When in the meditation of 
your religious conceits it shall please you to weigh the singu- 
lar blessings and benefits which God hath conferred on you in 
this world, I nothing doubt you will be joyfully thankful ; 
and accept this cross as the sign of His holy love, whereby you 
shall become happy and blessed for ever. Unto the Gospel 
of Christ His poor flock do find you a most faithful and mighty 
supporter ; in the State and Government of this Realm, a grave 
and faithful Councillor ; a pillar of our long-continued peace; 
a happy nourisher of our most happy Commonwealth; flou- 
rishing in the stirp of true Nobility abundantly in all virtuous 
actions towards God and men ; all which are the high gifts of 
the High God. Leave not yourself, therefore, my dear Lord, 
for God's sake and ours. Go on in your high and noble la- 
bours in the comfort of Christ, which no man can diminish 
nor take from you ; cherish yourself while it shall please God 
to let you dwell on earth ; call joy to dwell in your heart, and 
know for certain, that if the love of a child be dear, which is 
now taken from you, the love of God is ten thousand times 
more dear, which you can never lack nor lose. Of men's 


hearts you enjoy more than millions, which, on my soul, do 
love you no less than children or brethren. Leave sorrow, 
therefore, my good Lord, and be glad with us, which much 
rejoice in you. I have told her Majesty of this unfortunate 
and untimely cause which constrained your sudden journey to 
London, whereof I assure your Lordship I find her very sorry, 
and wisheth your comfort, even from the bottom of her heart. 
It pleased her to tell me that she would write to you, and 
send to visit you according to her wonted goodness ; and there- 
fore she held no longer speech with me of the matter. Thus, 
remaining humbly at your Lordship's commandment, I for- 
bear any longer to trouble you ; beseeching God to comfort 
you, in your lamentation and grief, with the remembrance of 
His gracious goodness. From the Court at Nonsuch, the 21st 
of July 1584. Your good Lordship's humbly to command, 



MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, I do most heartily thank you 
for your careful and most godly advice at this time. Your 
good friendship never wanteth. I must confess I have re- 
ceived many afflictions within these few years, but not a 
greater, next her Majesty's displeasure : and, if it pleased God, 
I would the sacrifice of this poor innocent might satisfy ; I 
mean not towards God (for all are sinful and most wretched 
in His sight, and therefore He sent a most innocent lamb to 
help us all that are faithful), but for the world. The afflic- 
tions I have suffered may satisfy such as are offended, at least 
appease their long hard conceits : if not, yet I know there is 
a blessing for such as suffer ; and so is there for those that be 
merciful. Princes (who feel not the heavy estate of the poor 
afflicted that only are to receive relief from themselves) sel- 
dom do pity according to the true rules of charity, and there- 
fore men fly to the mighty God in time of distress for com- 
fort ; for we are sure, though He doth chastise, yet He for- 
saketh not, neither will He see them unrewarded with the 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 128. 


highest blessing. I beseech the same God to grant me pa- 
tience in all these worldly things, and to forgive me the neg- 
ligences of my former time, that have not been more careful 
to please Him, but have run the race of the world. In the 
same sort I commend you, and pray for His grace for you as 
for myself; and, before all this world, to preserve her Majesty 
for ever, whom on my knees I most humbly thank for her 
gracious visitation by Killigrew. She shall never comfort a 
more true and faithful man to her, for I have lived and so 
will die only hers'. 23rd July 1584. Your poor but assured 
friend, ROBT. LEICESTER. 3 

The Mr. Drake to whose son Hatton was god-father 
was Richard Drake, Equerry of the Queen's stable, 
ancestor of the family of that name, which was long 
seated at Shardeloes, in Buckinghamshire ; 


SIR, It hath pleased God to bless my good friend Mr. 
Drake with the birth and comfort of a young son, and he 
hath earnestly entreated me to christen him ; which being a 
holy office and full of piety in itself, hath easily persuaded 
me to satisfy his desire, but much the rather for the love and 
good- will I bear him. And because among many friends of 
mine in those parts which wish me well, and with whom I 
may be bold, I know none more zealous, kind, or fitter than 
yourself to testify so sacred an action, I have been moved 
before all others to request your favour and presence in sup- 
plying my place in this Christian and religious office : 
wherein as you shall do an acceptable deed to God, and to 
the parents of the child, in witnessing and receiving of him 
into the congregation of the faithful by the apposition of 
that gracious seal of God's promised mercy, so shall you 
particularly make me much beholding to you as one whom 
you shall find thankfully willing to requite this kindness with 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 129. 


the like courtesy in any occasion wherein you shall think good 
to use me. And so I commit you to God. From the Court 
at Nonsuch, the 4th of August 1584. Your very assured 
friend, CHR. HATTON.* 

Sir Christopher Hatton's chaplain, Dr. Richard Ban- 
croft, afterwards Bishop of London and Archbishop of 
Canterbury, was a candidate for the Rectory of St. An- 
drew's, Holborn; 


SIR, I perceive by your courteous letters your desire to 
procure your Chaplain, Mr. Bancroft, to succeed in the place 
of the parson of St. Andrew's, lately deceased, the patronage 
whereof is belonging to the Earl of Southampton, now in 
wardship, and so, as you suppose, to be disposed of by us. 
Herein I am very willing, both for your own sake and for Mr. 
Bancroft, being very meet for the place, to do what in me 
lieth. The doubt 1 have is, that the patronage appertaineth 
to the Earl in right of his house in Holborn, that was afore- 
time the Bishop of Lincoln's ; and then the right of present- 
ation belongeth to the executors, whereof one of the heirs is 
principal, and Edward Caye another, and one Wells another, 
with whom you may do well to deal ; and, if it be not in 
them, you shall have my assent. And for better knowledge 
hereof I have given your Chaplain my letter to the Auditor of 
the Wards, who can best inform whether it remains to the 
Queen or to the executors. From my house at Theobald's, 
the 6th of August 1584. Yours assuredly as any, 


The " young child" mentioned in this letter was one of 
the numerous children of Sir Richard Knightley of Faws- 
ley, in Northamptonshire, by his second wife, Elizabeth, 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 126. b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 270. 


daughter of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, the 
Protector, whose widow was one of the other sponsors : 


MY VERY GOOD LORD, I have been requested by my dear 
friend Sir Richard Knightley to christen his young child, which 
it hath lately pleased God to send him ; an office godly and 
full of piety in itself, and such as I could have been right glad 
to perform in person, if her Majesty's services here did not 
otherwise dispose of me by her own commandment. I have 
therefore made bold (not finding any nobleman in Court at 
this present fit to accompany my Lady's grace, your mother, 
in that holy action) to entreat you to supply the place for 
me, and to do me the favour to bs a witness, in baptism, of 
God's goodness participated through that holy Sacrament 
to this young infant, of whom I hope another day you shall 
receive both thanks and comfort for it; and, in the mean 
while, of myself a grateful acknowledgment of this honour- 
able courtesy, which I will be ready to requite with all faith- 
ful good-will in anything I am able. I will send a gentleman 
unto you to-morrow, at one of the clock, to wait on you with 
such duty as is fit and belonging to the ceremony of this ac- 
tion ; which commending to your honourable regard, I wish 
ever to your Lordship, as to myself, the gracious favour of the 
Almighty. From the Court at Nonsuch, the 7th of August 
1584. Your Lordship's very loving assured friend, 


Lord Grey of Wilton, from whom several letters have 
been inserted while he was Deputy of Ireland, had been 
superseded by Sir John Perrot : 


SIR, If convenience of a messenger had been as ready as 
cause and good-will, you had not been so long without re- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 126. 

C C 


ceiving from me the due thanks that your great courtesy hath 
merited of me. I have found, by your officers and keepers 
hereabouts, your frank and friendly pleasure for my taking of 
sport in the games here under your commandment ; of which 
offer as I have been bold to make trial, so have I found more 
than required therein afforded. Thanks is the least therefore 
that I can render, and yet thanks is all that for the present I 
can yield you in requital of your gentleness, which I give 
you in infinite wise, and do further bind the uttermost of 
my power upon any occasion to be ever acknowledging 
your honourable kindness. In the mean while hold me still, 
I pray you, in your good love and opinion, as you shall un- 
feignedly rest with me not the least beloved and esteemed. 
And so, wishing you and my other great friends there at 
Court, with your great honours, part of that quiet yet which 
I here in my poor lodge enjoy, which makes me in private 
not to envy your fortune's babe there, howsoever for other 
cause I little brook him, I betake yourself to all welfare and 
happiness. From Northampton, this 8th of August 1584. 
Your most fast friend and loving kinsman, A. GREY.* 

A reference to the former Order of Council respect- 
ing horses affords an explanation of the following docu- 
ment : 


AFTER our hearty commendations, Where, in the beginning 
of this summer, we and some others, authorised by her Majes- 
ty's commission under her Great Seal, did, by virtue of the said 
commission, name, ordain, and depute you to cause all man- 
ner of persons within that County (who, by their abilities in 
lands or goods, were, according to the Statutes, chargeable to 
have and keep horses and geldings for service, and mares for 
breed,) to put in readiness such horses, with meet horsemei 
furnished accordingly with armour and weapon, and to sho) 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 6 b . 


them before you this summer at times convenient, to be ready 
at her Majesty's commandment for the service of the Realm. 
And to this end we did send to you, with our letters and com- 
missions, certain instructions in writing, hoping that you have 
had due regard thereof. But yet, doubting that by reason of 
some impediments in this summer and harvest-time this service 
hath not been put in such due execution as was meet ; and yet 
not doubting but if you have not already mustered them, and 
given order for reforming the defects, yet you have made out 
your precepts to all persons to charge them against some day 
prefixed, before the end of this month or shortly after, to 
come before you with their horses ; and therein we pray you 
to continue such a course as the service may take good place, 
as well to increase the number as to make the same service- 
able as near as may be both for the horsemen and the horses. 
And notwithstanding that you shall have thus determined of 
some especial day for your musters before the receipt of these 
our letters, yet, to the intent that all abuses may be avoided, 
and all suspicion that no horse or gelding shall be showed in 
muster at several places and times to supply two rooms by 
way of borrowing or lending; it is determined that one 
especial day shall serve in all parts of the Realm for the full 
and perfect muster, which shall be upon the last day of Sep- 
tember next. And so we will and require you, that (notwith- 
standing any other shows and musters to be made before you 
at any time before the day which we allow and think needful 
to be done to make the service more perfect,) that in anywise 
you direct and command the universal muster for that Shire to 
be made the last day of September. And we require you, as 
earnestly as we may, that none of you being put in trust for 
this service, be absent from the said musters without great 
and necessary cause ; and that if you cannot finish the same 
upon that one day, in reforming the defects, we can allow you 
to continue the same until the next day, and then also to con- 
tinue the said muster, so as you receive the bills, according to 
our former instructions, of all the horses the first day ; and 
that, if time may serve, you do also view them at the least, 

c c 2 


whereby no abuse be of answering two rooms with one horse ; 
and, after that you have made this last muster, we require you 
to make your books and certificates thereof ready, and to 
send them to us as soon as you conveniently may, that her 
Majesty may be certified thereof, according to that she expec- 
teth. And we could be content to have your opinions who 
are meet and skilful persons within that shire to take charge, 
to lead any bands of these horsemen, as well for leading of 
twenty-five, fifty, or five hundred, so as hereafter, when her 
Majesty shall understand thereof, she may determine her plea- 
sure for the same. And thus we bid you farewell. From the 
Court at Oatland's, this 18th of August 1584. Your loving 


About September in this year, Hatton appears, from 
the following well written letter, to have been so much 
displeased with Mr. Cox, his Secretary, as to have sus- 
pended him from his employment. Cox's offence was 
his having taken fees to obtain his Master's influence 
with the Queen in granting suits ; and it is curious to 
observe, that such was the universal corruption that 
Cox says the Clerk of every Judge in England took 
gratuities for what he calls the "expedition" of justice; 
adding, that such bribes formed their only means of 
support. Hatton's integrity is certainly placed in a 
favourable light by this letter; but he does not appear 
to have treated his dependants with much liberality. 
Several other letters occur on this subject, which show 
that Cox had quarrelled with his fellow-servants ; 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 20. 



MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, I most humbly beseech 
you to vouchsafe so much favour to my poor painful unworthy 
service as to afford me your honourable patience in reading 
these disordered lines at your fittest leisure, and to pardon my 
boldness therein, or rather my just cause of grief that presum- 
eth thus far to trouble you. I find, greatly to the touch of 
my poor credit, that my adversaries' accusations are of such 
force and moment with your Honour, that it should seem they 
do every day more and more kindle your displeasure against 
me, and increase my disgrace ; and that there want not some 
charitable, well-disposed ministers in store, (according to the 
course of the world,) who, taking opportunity of time, as de- 
lighting to fish in other men's troubled streams, are glad to 
put oil to this fire, in hope, by bringing it sooner to a flame, 
they may the better work me a quick dispatch out of your 
Honour's service. Of these men I will say nothing, but that 
I assure myself your justice and wisdom will easily distinguish 
them from other men by their manners, and conceive of them 
in the end as they deserve. For my own particular, I thank 
God I need not fear their malice ; for I know I am innocent, 
and I have as little cause to doubt of justice, for that I am 
sure of the goodness of an honourable and a just judge, who 
will not credulously believe whatsoever ill-will shall say, that 
never said well ; but will, in the equal balance of indifference, 
according to the fame of his virtue and worthiness, judge that 
only to be true, against his poor servant especially, which by 
honest, credible, unsuspected persons is substantially proved 
and testified. I know not what the witnesses are which, in 
these false objected crimes, are appointed to be censors of my 
shame and ill-fortune. I only crave that they may be more 
than one for one matter, and not such as are said albo reti 
aliena capture bona; men seeking to please and win favour 
by slander, or such as have borne spleen and former malice 
against the man accused ; which if they have, I hope your 
Honour will not think them fit men to condemn me, but such 


as make up their own buildings with other men's ruins, and 
delight to say anything that may entrap the guiltless. What- 
soever they are, I dare boldly say thus much, with your ho- 
nourable favour and patience, that if some of them shame not 
to say that again which they have many times spoken hereto- 
fore, they shall confess in your own presence that I have 
served you as carefully, and with all honour possible, both in 
word and deed, by my duty and diligence, as any man in 
Court that had so little countenance of his Master as myself 
in the poor place which I supplied. 1 understand I am charged 
to have sold such justice and favour as your Honour was wont 
to afford to your friends and poor suitors. It is a great fault, 
I confess, to sell the favour of so noble a personage, and a 
greater to sell justice ; I know it well. Yet I hope your Ho- 
nour will be pleased to think, and I may speak it truly with- 
out offence, that there liveth not so grave nor so severe a 
Judge in England, but he alloweth his poor Clerk under him, 
even in the expedition of matters of greatest justice, to take 
any reasonable consideration that should be offered him by 
any man for his pains and travail. It is the poor man's whole 
maintenance, and without it he could not live. I know your 
Honour will think it reason he should have it. If this be to 
sell justice and favour, sometimes to take a gratuity of 10s. 
for one letter among one hundred, sometimes more, sometimes 
less, according as the party was benefited, or as myself had 
deserved, I then confess with all humbleness, that as a poor 
scribe under your Honour (though unworthy), not knowing 
else how to live, I ignorantly erred, (as all the rest of your 
servants have done,) where I thought in that kind I should 
never have offended ; and so might I in truth justly deserve 
this shame, which in Court and Country your Honour hath 
heavily laid upon me. Yet am I induced to think in reason, 
that if all the letters and other matters which I have written 
for you, early and late, were laid together before your Honour 
in your chamber, that you might but take a view of them to 
see how large and infinite they were in number which have 
passed my pen, howsoever this accusation (as it were to make 


up the tale) is inserted among the rest, you would, in the virtue 
of your own nature and noble condition, rather pity the 
writer, and vouchsafe him a far more large reward than think 
him unworthy of such little benefit as, through his painful 
attendance, he hath reaped in your service towards the relief 
and comfort of his poor estate ; which though it be very small, 
and in respect of other men's gains under you not worthy 
speaking of to trouble your Honour withal, yet, as it is, it 
may be happily one day a sufficient cause to an honest, grate- 
ful servant, when sickness shall by course of nature fall upon 
him, to make him pour out his prayers to God for the comfort 
and goodness of so honourable a Master. And I beseech your 
Honour, that I may say thus much without your dislike of 
him that accuseth me in this point, who hath most deeply, and 
greatly to your dishonour, as I will show you when place and 
time shall serve, offended in that which he now objecteth, to 
the reproach of his fellow. If he had spent seven summers 
and as many winters with that continual attendance and pains 
that I have done, (though I humbly acknowledge I did no 
more than my duty,) and had reaped no more fruit of his tra- 
vail, in recompense of his service, than I have gotten since my 
first repair to Court, I am sure he would either have thought 
him a very malicious man that should have repined thus at his 
poor relief, or would, ere this, have shamelessly importuned 
you for some more honourable increase of your bounty and 
goodness. The silliest soul that is would be glad to eat, and 
to better his estate if fortune served. If, now and then, I got 
some small relief towards my charges, (which God knoweth 
was very small, and sometimes not 10s. in a twelvemonth,) 
which, being little or much, is left as the only and ordinary 
mean to your poor men wherewith to help themselves in your 
service, shall this be imputed to me as a corruption, or a buy- 
ing and selling of justice, when neither I nor any of your 
servants (I except not those whom you have enriched by your 
offices and liberal ways) either can do or will live without it ; 
and when other Masters in Court (considering the hardness of 
this age) allow it commonly to their servants, without the 


least dislike, as a necessary succour ? I most humbly crave of 
you, that in your honourable patience you will vouchsafe me 
leave to be plain with you, without offence, in the submission, 
reverence, and duty of my honest poor love towards you. I 
neither let nor set your lands nor leases. I am no Deputy 
Officer to enrich myself with continual fees ; I never charged 
you with any kind of wages, nor other gift or bounty of your 
own whatsoever ; I was never worthy to be any of those whom 
you have advanced to reputation and wealth by your service. 
In seven years my ill-fortune would not that ever I should 
obtain anything by your goodness of her Majesty, but only a 
lease in reversion, which hath yielded me, I confess, two hun- 
dred and odd pounds. I have had nothing to help myself but 
the labour of my pen and the diligence of mine own study, 
which your Honour knoweth, much better than I can imagine, 
is able at this day to get me in .... living. I only thirsted 
to please my Master, as a matter which I made my greatest 
wealth in this world. How should I possibly maintain myself, 
or in truth serve your Honour, with the comeliness which is 
fit, having no more relief than the ordinary contentment of 
your service, and being barred of such small benefit for soli- 
citing of suits as I am now blamed for ? It is no honest man's 
part, but a base disposition, to accuse any man, much more his 
fellow ; yet, if I should say generally in this point what I 
r think, I am persuaded your Honour would have few left to 
\ serve you in your chamber, or to wait on you at Ely House, 
! if it should please you to be as severe to all those as you have 
\ been to me, which might be any way touched with taking of 
rewards for soliciting of suits. Your wisdom foreseeth more 
than I can conceive ; and no doubt you do it all to a good 
end. I must, therefore, and will think the best of the course 
you take, and bear my burden with patience and duty. Some 
of my friends have let me understand that your Honour 
meaneth nothing less than my discountenance in this inter- 
mission of service, nor will leave me to the infamy of my ac- 
cusations, whatsoever should happen. I do herein acknow- 
ledge in most dutiful part, as becometh me, your singular 


goodness. God make me thankful for it, and requite it in you 
with increase of His manifold graces and richest blessings. It 
is some comfort to a man in misery to enjoy his favour that 
hath cast him down : but, fides semel amissa nunquam rediit ; 
and a man once wounded in his fame shall never rid of the 
scar. What other men's stomachs will digest in matter of 
shame and infamy I know not ; but for mine own part I pro- 
test (such is my folly) that if I did conjecture any man's 
malice could so much vanquish the noble disposition, which 
hath been always commended in your Honour, as to make you 
think any one part of those calumniations to be true, which 
you know his spleen and ill-will only hath objected against 
me, who hath ever hated me, God is my witness, I would 
rather banish myself to the uttermost parts of Egypt, to eat 
my tears instead of bread among the barbarians, than live 
tainted with villany and infamy in England in the best favour 
and countenance that it might please you to afford me : no, I 
hope I shall never live to be reputed so shameless as to look 
my Master on the face every day in Court, that shall every 
hour judge me in his heart a villain and a varlet. I beseech 
God rather shorten my days than suffer me to live in such re- 
proach. I most humbly crave pardon of your Honour for my 
bold presumptuous writing. It is my fault, I confess to my 

shame, and yet in yourself I have ever thought 

.... virtue. I will be so no more, if it mislike you. I will 
do everything with all humility and duty that may best con- 
tent you. I will, in the devotion of my heart, hold up my 
hands, and make my prayers to God to bless you, and to 
abridge their days that love you not, and love those that wish 
you all prosperity and happiness ; not desiring to live longer 
myself than your Honour may conceive I have, and will 
ever serve you faithfully and truly. From Northall, the 4th 
of October 1584. Your Honour's most humble, poor, dejected 
servant, S. Cox. a 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 129 b . 


Considering the mess on which the Queen had break- 
fasted, it is not surprising that it disagreed with her. 
The delivery of the staff was apparently the appoint- 
ment of Lord Hunsdon to the office of Lord Chamberlain, 
which had become vacant by the death of the Earl of 
Sussex in the preceding year ; but, singular as it must 
appear, no list of the great Officers of State has ever 
been compiled, the accuracy of which can in any degree 
be relied upon ; 


MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, Her Majesty, since your 
going hence, hath been troubled with much disease in her 
stomach. The cause thereof, as both herself thinketh and we 
all do judge, was the taking in the morning yesterday a con- 
fection of barley sodden with sugar and water, and made ex- 
ceeding thick with bread. This breakfast lost her both her 
supper and dinner, and surely the better half of her sleep. 
But, God be thanked, I hope now the worst is past, and that 
her Highness will shortly recover her old state of health, to 
the comfort of us all. 

I have considered the speeches your good Lordship used to 
me touching the great Office at your last being here ; and find- 
ing the time of this great feast of All Saints most apt for the 
accomplishment of so great a grace from her Majesty, and 
that my Lord might receive much the more honour by this 
occasion taken of so timely a calling, I thought it not amiss to 
put your Lordship in remembrance thereof, to the end that, if 
it pleased you to be here somewhat the timelier on Saturday 
next, you might possibly work the delivery of the staff either 
that even, or in the morning before her Majesty's going to the 
closet. My Lord Chancellor is looked for here, and many 
more Lords, in respect of the solemnity of the day; and we 
agree here the time will be most fit. I assure your good 
Lordship that your earnest kindness herein will be most grate- 
fully taken ; and if the cause should fail, yet this course in 


your good-will cannot be but most acceptable. And so, your 
pardon prayed for this hasty rude letter, I humbly take my 
leave. In the Privy Chamber on the Queen's side, where 
now her Majesty is determined to lie, this 29th of October 
1584. Your good Lordship's most bound, 



As I am right sorry for your separation from my poor ser- 
vice, so should I have been very glad to have found you more 
desirous of the same. In the sight of your letters I have 
found some show of your love towards me, but in the dispo- 
sition of your actions there appeareth not so much as a prof- 
fer to make good your reconciliation with me. It is true, 
that through the height of your heart and disdain of your 
fellows in domestical conversation, you have given them cause 
to fear your credit and hate your person ; besides that, they 
have discovered some petty practices of yours, tending rather 
to their undoing than disgrace. But of these their griefs it 
seems you be not only reckless, little weighing me, whom the 
quiet of this concord might most comfort, but them also, 
whom it doth most concern ; but God would it were other- 
wise ; and for your duties' sake in Christianity I was persuaded 
this office should not have been neglected. Pride and wrath 
have brought forth these malicious dissensions to the great 

ature and discretion, and to the great grief and 

offence of me your poor friend. But, for conclusion, I say, 
alter the course, or you may not be mine. That you have 
been hardly handled, I will not deny ; and that you have de- 
served it, I must likewise needs confess. Appease your 
nature, with the even and considerate weighing of all matters 
on both sides, and then do that you ought, and you shall find 
of me what you would wish. For causes touching myself I 
will first tell you, I find them not so forcibly proved, as they 
were plainly informed ; neither am I of so light belief that 
thereby I will be carried to leave the men I have loved for 

a Autograph in the State Paper Office. 


such reports as have been uttered. I will not touch your 
fame without the warrant of justice, nor be your enemy be- 
fore I feel your injury. I know you to be wise, and there- 
fore these few may suffice you. I have showed you the way; 
I trust therefore, you will travel therein so as you may bring 
peace home with you, and so should I be right glad of such a 
servant. As sedition is a thing most dangerous, so is domes- 
tical faction most pernicious, and to me most hateful. Know 
me thus hereafter and please me for ever. Return your pur- 
pose of proceeding herein to Mr. Bruskett and then shall you 
receive my further resolution and determination towards you. 
From the Court this 26th of October 1584. Your loving 
master, CH. HATTON.* 


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, I find that the long sus- 
pense of your favor, hath bred an opinion amongst most men, 
that my offence towards you is so great and notorious, as you 
have utterly cast me off, for an unworthy servant, which the 
world taking notice of daily to my shame, increaseth my grief 
more than I will mention, and my discredit more than I am 
sure you wish for. Your Honour easily seeth it yourself in 
your wisdom. I most humbly beseech you, (if that faithful 
poor merit past, of your disconsolate servant may anything 
move you,) to redress it timely in your wonted goodness. All 
I crave, is an end for mine own discharge, to restore me again, 
to your good opinion, without the which my languishing mind, 
looking back continually to storms that are past, shall have 
small comfort to serve you cheerfully : though I hope, as 
carefully, as any man towards you. God I take to witness 
(whose only wisdom sifteth the cogitations of all men's hearts) 
I have been always so far from detracting anything from 
your worthiness, that I never wittingly offended you so much 
as to conceive an unreverent thought of you. What I have 
often spoken to others, of the rare and singular blessings 
which God hath given you, I will now forbear to say to your- 

a Additional MSS, 15891, f, 126 b . 


self, for modesty. They are tokens of his divine love and 
fatherly goodness in you, such as all men see, have made you 
a most worthy minister under her Majesty, to dilate His glory 
and her Highness's service. God increase them manifoldly in 
your Honor through the access of his highest favor, and make 
me, and many other poor wretches, as thankful for them as 
we ought to be in respect of the inestimable fruit and comfort 

which in the of our Country, we have liberally 

reaped by them. And so wishing all prosperity to your honour 
agreeable to your virtue and worthiness, most humbly craving 
pardon for my presumption, I commend you in my prayers to 
God, who ever bless you. From my lodging in Cornhill, 
the 6 of Oct. 1584, Your Honour's poor servant, most hum- 
bly devoted in all faithful duty, 

S. Cox. a 


MR. Cox, Now I wish I had staid my last letter for answer 
to both yours, I wrote upon Monday last, by reason Mr. 
Walby remained longer at Newcastle, than that I looked 
for him again here, knowing nothing of his going thither, but 
doubting he had been departed southward. But at his return 
hither within two hours of my said letter sent, we conferred 
at the full of both those things, that you made choice of. 
The particulars whereof, I dare refer to the report of his in- 
diiferency ; albeit to say the truth, he hath been more impor- 
tune on your behalf, than I think was needful. If that accord 
which he and I have agreed on, do like you I am glad, and 
shall be to perform it ; if otherwise I shall be sorry, and yet 
ready to yield you, if not a better yet a sooner satisfaction. 
But if you had been mine own natural brother, as I have . . 

my very good friend I could have used no 

more either inquisition into the state of the lease, or expedi- 
tion to compass it to your hands than I have carefully and 
faithfully done, the late death of the lessee, and present 
childhood of his widow considered. I hope only to find in 
you that courtesy, as to regard partly my credit, though spe- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 125 b . 


cially your profit ; which truly I shall be as willing to fur- 
ther, as yourself to desire. It will be near Easter before I 
can call for the lease to be shewed in court, which I am cer- 
tainly informed is either none or nought. If between this 
and that, it please you any further to impart unto me, I pray 
you do it by this gentleman, with whom (for his experience 
and faithfulness to you) I do best like to deal. In Easter 
term, I hope to bring you your lease, under seal, as I have 
said to him ; taking his word for the performance of your 
part thereof. I offered him his charges that (as you wrote) he 
might not return empty handed ; but I could fasten nought 
upon him. And thus I most heartily betake you to God. 
From Durham, 27th October 1584. Your assured ever, 


Mr. Dutton was the father of the Peter Button whom 
Hatton, in a former letter, calls " his cousin and ser- 


MY GOOD LORD, I am let to understand to my exceeding 
great grief, there is some matter of suit depending before 
your Lordship, between my very good friends Mr. John 
Dutton of Dutton, and Mrs, Eleanor his wife, upon certain 
complaints which she hath lately exhibited against him. And 
(for the earnest good will which I have always borne them, 
both in respect of alliance and of other good friendship pass- 
ing between us) I am moved to write these few words unto 
you, and heartily to entreat you to be pleased to take some 
careful regard of this cause and of the weightiness of the 
sequel thereof, in case it be not timely prevented. Your 
Lordship knoweth how ungodly a course of proceeding this 
is between man and wife, like to breed utter discredit to them 
both if it should go forward as it hath begun. If therefore it 
might be stayed and the cause ended with quietness through 
your Lordship's good and godly means, I should have cause 
greatly to rejoice thereat. But if this may not conveniently 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 132. 


be brought to pass, then am I earnestly to pray your Lord- 
ship, to set such good order for a direct course of proceeding 
to be observed therein, as the cause may be dealt in with all 
the indiiferency that may be ; so as there ensue no obloquy 
or to touch the name of Mr. Dutton, which other- 
wise would leave too great a scar in his credit and reputa- 
tion, being a principal gentleman of the Shire, who may 
hardly endure any such disgrace, and the same perchance be- 
cause of further inconvenience hereafter. Herein your Lord- 
ship shall do a most Christian act, worthy of your calling and 
function, and make me exceedingly beholden unto you for it. 
The performance whereof I refer to your most grave and wise 
consideration, with this addition only, that concerning the exhi- 
bition to be allowed unto Mrs. Eleanor it may please you to 
set down such an indifferent rate therein as may be to the 
good contentment of them both, if this possibly can be 
performed. * And even so, recommending your Lordship 
to the gracious protection of Almighty God, I take my 
leave. From Hampton Court the 27th of October 1584. 
Your good Lordship's very loving assured friend, 



MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, I am grievously sorry to 
perceive by your most honourable letters that you still remain 
in opinion that the factious quarrels risen of late in your ser- 
vice have been chiefly moved by me, whom you suppose to 
be a principal author and stirrer of the same; and that, un- 
less I will reconcile myself to my enemies who have sought 
my destruction and ruin, you have determined utterly to 
abandon me as unworthy to be accounted yours. God, who 
pardoneth the heaviest sins of us all, forgive them I humbly 
beseech him, and I do even as freely as yourself would wish 
me, that have cast these nets to ensnare me, poor wretch, of 
purpose to bring me, through your disgrace, to confusion. 

Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, vol. I. p. 157. 


The revenge is not mine, but his only ; and it is enough I 
know there is a blessing laid up for those that suffer. To 
obey your Honour's commandment, the rather concurring in 
this point with my duty to God, to whose Holy table I may 
not approach with malice in my heart, I will direct my 
prayers to his fatherly goodness to give me patience and grace 
to quench the passions which flesh and blood have kindled 
within me against the injuries of my unkind fellows, which I 
am now willingly content to tread under foot, as desirous 
from henceforth to forget and forgive them, after the example 
of Christ himself, who most graciously forgave us all. And 
for mine own particular cause of grief, in respect of your 
Honour's displeasure, which I would God had not so wrath- 
fully stirred up against me, I conceive it was but my unwor- 
thiness to serve you that hath justly laid the burden thereof 
upon nie. You have but deservingly disgraced a poor silly 
wretch, in whom, I confess, there is nothing to merit any bet- 
ter regard at your hands, much less the love and favour 
wherewith you are wont to embrace and advance those whom, 
for their necessary service, you are pleased especially to af- 
fect. God give me comfort and more quiet after these storms 
to serve your Honour cheerfully : more faithfully, and with 
greater zeal of. love, I shall never do than I have done : and 
so I most humbly commend your Honour to the heavenly 
blessings of his grace and favour. From Cornhill, the 29th 
of October 1584. Your Honour's obedient poor servant. 3 


GOOD MR., I perceive by your last that it should seem you 
understand by my Master that I misinterpreted the sense of 
his honourable letters which he wrote last unto me, in think- 
ing that he intreated me to a reconcilement with my fellows 
where it were rather my part, of myself, to seek it. I would 
be loth to be reputed so simply graceless, or so grossly undu- 
tiful, as to think it fit for a Master, especially of his quality, 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 126. 


to in treat his servant, whom he may justly command, much 
less so poor a wretch as myself, who am infinitely bound to 
his goodness, to lay down my life at his feet to serve him. I 
rejoiced greatly at his letters, for that they were indeed to me, 
a disconsolate poor man, most sweet and comfortable ; tending 
partly (as I took them) to rebuke me, that I had so long 
omitted such charitable Christian office of reconciliation with 
those with whom he thought it my duty to God and himself 
to make atonement, which I was gladly willing to yield unto, 
and in every respect to show myself careful to satisfy his 
Honour, as well in this as in any thing else that might here- 
after increase the quiet of his service, or breed friendly good- 
will and acceptation between me and my fellows ; being so 
far from imagining he should intreat my return again, by his 
letters, as in mine to his Honour (if you remember) I did duti- 
fully acknowledge mine own unworthiness to serve him ; and 
that he had deservingly laid his disgrace upon an abject, un- 
fortunate poor wretch, whose merit had not deserved any 
better regard at his hands. I have often most humbly sought, 
and will ever seek to please and submit myself to his Honour 
in all singleness of heart and faithful duty, as becometh me ; 
and when any of my fellows which have taken offence against 
me shall be content, as I am, to cast off former malice, and to 
end all private jars and unkindnesses, his Honour shall find 
that, (how hardly soever they have dealt with me,) I will yet 
freely forgive them all their discourtesies whatsoever, as more 

worthy (respecting that even have wrought) 

to be written in dust than in marble : nay, more than that, if 
I had caused the disgrace of any of them as (with the peril of 
my utter ruin,) they have procured mine, or if I had brought 
any of them into the open scorn and rebuke of the world, 
through the disfavour and ill-opinion of my Master, as they 
have done me, to my greater grief and touch of credit than 
ever they will be able to repair, I assure you I would have 
sought them all England over, long ere this, but I would have 
craved pardon of them ; and should have thought it my duty 
to have done so, howsoever they disdain once to make any 

D D 


proffer of good-will or satisfaction to me, that am made by 
their means a spectacle of shame and infamy ; and this I know 
standeth with the course of justice, and his Honour cannot 
but conceive of it so in his wisdom, nor, I am sure, will not. 
I refuse not to be as ready to reconcile myself as any of them. 
I would be glad matters were so justly weighed as they might 
receive a peaceful and a charitable end ; but, to be plain with 
you, (as with one whom I love,) I should think it hard mea- 
sure to do sacrifice for another man's sins, or acknowledge a 
fault in desiring favour, where the Judge himself hath justly 
acquitted me. I will only seek and serve my Master, whom I 
have offended, and endeavour to deserve the love of my fel- 
lows, either by way of reconciliation, or by any other honest 
mean as they shall think me worthy of it. Some of them 
sent me word of late that they will bring me to their bent, or 
I shall never come more into service. Truly these words are 
no good workers of concord, for the dutiful love and regard I 
owe to my Master I should grieve in my heart to leese him ; 
but whatsoever should happen, better or worse, I promise you 
I think I should sooner forsake life, liberty, and what favour 
soever, than be a footstool to the frowardness of those that 
hate me, especially of such as seem, by their own sayings, to 
rule the reins as they list, and have credit to check and dis- 
grace me when they please. If there be not some order taken 
to bridle these men's tongues, or liberty given to other men 
to speak what they will as well as they, for mine own part I 
shall have small comfort to serve, especially, finding that all I 
am able to say or do, and that the honest, painful duty of my 

many years' service so much regarded as the blast 

of one word only from the mouth of my accuser. This I say 
boldly to you, my good friend, who I hope will interpret it 
well. Think not much if my tongue do more liberally deliver 
than is requisite, what my heart conceiveth without any ill 
meaning. I have already borne so much, that my back is al- 
most broken with the burden of it ; and yet I must go pray 
forgiveness of the workers of my woe, to make them insult 
the more over me. There is a better and more indifferent 


mean, as you know, than this to effect our reconciliation, 
which I pray you further with your best care of your poor 
friend, to keep our Master from offence, and myself from scorn; 
for the which I will ever love you and thank you accordingly. 
And so I commit you to God. From Cornhill, the 4th of 
November 1584. Your most beholding poor friend, 

SAMUEL Cox. a 


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, according to my obe- 
dience and bounden duty in seeking to do that which might 

best content you, I have used means to speak with Mr 

twice or thrice since the receipt of your most honourable 
letters, of purpose, to grow to some such reconciliation and 
agreement with him as might be charitable and fit for us 
both in course of Christianity to accept of. At the length 
he sent me word he "was presently to go into Northampton- 
shire, at his return from whence he would appoint time and 
place where we should meet and talk together ; in which, 
mean while, I have thought it my duty the rather to avoid all 
suspicion of slackness, in these few lines to signify thus much 
to your Honour, whose commandment shall bind me as a law 
while I live to do that which may best please and satisfy your 
most grave and honourable desires endea- 
voured to do the like towards my fellows Mr. . . . and . . . 
who finding your disgrace to lie so heavily upon me as it 
doth, are animated I doubt, to insult the more over me, and 
will by no means be intreated to have conference with me. 
When my friends come to move them to any such end, 
they cast them off slightly as if I were unworthy of their 
society, and themselves of better account than to regard the 
good-will of so poor a man as myself. To show your Honour 
their indecent speeches were too much trouble to you, and if 
you heard them, I am bound to believe by the experience I 
have of your goodness, that you would not think well of 
them in your justice. I see it is your honourable pleasure I 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 127 b . 

D D 2 


should suffer all, and so I will do with patience, but yet ill 
words are no good workers of concord. And I most humbly 
beseech you to regard me among the rest as your poor ser- 
vant, who in the place which I supply under you, hath been, is, 
and ever will be as careful to serve you, as the best of them, 
though as insufficient I confess as the meanest, but yet not 
unworthy of better usage than they have given me, which 
referring to the wisdom of your Honour's grave judgment, 
and myself and service to your further pleasure and direction, 
I beseech God to bless you with health and with the comfort 
of his highest favours. From my poor lodging in Cornhill this 
9th of November 1584. Your Honour's most bound, unfor- 
tunate poor servant, SAMUEL Cox. a 


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, Yesternight Mr. Flowers b 
and I met together at your house in Holborn, where, accord- 
ing to our bounden duties, and your honourable pleasure 
directed to me in particular, we made such reconciliation and 
good end of all unkindnesses as was fit for us both to yield 
unto in regard of our faithful obedience to your Honour's 
service, and hath amply satisfied and contented each of us 
with all due respect of charity, to which effect Mr. . . . court- 
eously wrote his letters to Mr. Marb and John, friendly 
wishing and advising them therein to take the like course 
with me, and to come to Mr. Bancroft's chamber at your 
Honour's house as we did, to satisfy and agree ourselves in 
anything that had bred cause of discontentation and ill liking 
heretofore betwixt us : whereunto they returned him answer, 
that they had business to attend of their own and could not 
come ; for so Mr. Bancroft hath told me. Thus have I will- 
ingly sought them there three or four times in the zealous 
care of my duty to testify the most humble and earnest desire 
to do all that I can to please your Honour ; but I fear it 
is labour lost and not unlikely to turn to smoke, unless you 
shall think it meet in your wisdom to interpose your com- 

a Additional MSS. 15891, fol. 128 h . b The name is, however, deleted. 


mandment and authority, without the which I fear my devo- 
tion to serve you shall hardly receive that comfort which I 
have ever greedily thirsted to [enjoy through] the wonted 
favour and goodness of your Honour, which of all mortal 
blessings I repute the greatest that can happen to so poor a 
wretch, and without the which I shall think all life to be 
woful and miserable : and so, I end with all humility and 
most humble intreaty of pardon for my presumption herein : 
commending your Honour and your most virtuous actions to 
the favourable regard and protection of the Almighty. From 
my poor lodging in Cornhill the 28th of November 1584. 
Your Honour's faithful, most bounden poor servant, 

SAM. Cox. a 

Another letter from the prolix Mr. Cox will be in- 
serted here, though it belongs to the next year : 


SIR, I am sorry to hear that, of late, you are grown more 
subject to melancholy, and more desirous of solitariness than 
heretofore you have been. You shall find it (if I be not de- 
ceived) an humour sooner come than gone, and such as breed- 
eth more contention for awhile, than bringeth good or commen- 
dation in the end. I pray you remember, that the wise 
patient must as well consider what will hurt him as what will 
help him, and always eschew the one and insue the other. 
If you think to receive any solace by means of a solitary life, 
you greatly deceive yourself, and fill your body full of raw 
humidities and ill affected humours, which having once taken 
root in you, will ever lie ready in wait, to search out secret 
and solitary places conformable to their nature, and forcibly 
keep you from all mirth and good company. Such false ima- 
ginations, instead of consuming and starving your evil, will 
give it nourishment, and as the fly, which flieth about the 
candle with pleasure, is burnt at the last, so will they at the 
length, purchase you pain, yea and death too, if you seek not 
remedy the sooner. Take heed to it therefore in time ; as 
hidden flames kept down by force are most ardent, so these 

Additional MSS. 15891, f. 131 b . 


corrupt humours, covertly lurking, do with more force con- 
sume and destroy the fair palace of man's mind. If you love 
yourself, have regard to redress this evil, and to change the 
order of your proceeding in the course of your health, which, 
if you will do to your comfort, you must then account solitari- 
ness for a poison, and company for an antidote and the foun- 
dation of life, frame yourself to cast off the one, as a concu- 
bine, and take the other into your favour as a lawful spouse. 
Go unwillingly to melancholy, as the tortoise doth to the 
enchantment, she will make you lean, forlorn, and fill you full 
of putrefied blood, and in the end, draw both your life and 
manners into corruption. The hasty departure of this mes- 
senger will here force me to close up my letter, you see how 
bold I am, where I think my poor advice may be welcome. 
It is a duty of courtesy, which I was loth should be wanting, 
when I thought it might do good and be acceptable to so dear 
a friend as yourself, whom God ever bless with his manifold 
gracious favours. From the Court at Greenwich the 20th of 
July 1585. Your assured poor friend, SAMUEL Cox. a 

The following letter is without any date, but it seems 
to have been written towards the end of 1584: 


MY humble duty remembered unto your Honour. Al- 
beit, since my placing in Duresme, it hath not pleased you to 
command myself or my service in anything ; yet, for that I 
cannot but acknowledge my preferment thither was greatly 
furthered and specially followed by your honourable means, 
I thought it the part of a thankful man to renew my acknow- 
ledgments thereof unto your Honour, and withal to make hum- 
ble offer of what I may do there, to be ready at your devotion, 
as the person whom I do much honour, more for your many 
virtues than for your place ; and to whom I am much bound- 
en, not for this alone, but for divers other favours. That I 
have not oftener attended upon your Honour, and visited 
you according to my duty and ceremony of Court, hath not 

a Additional JVISS. 15891. 


proceeded from any forgetfulness of that I owe you, but 
rather of some scruple that I make to be cumbersome to 
such persons as make more precious account of their time 
than to idle it out in entertainments. And so, trusting this 
will be taken, if not for a sufficient amends, yet for a rea- 
sonable excuse both of my silence and of my absence, here 
would I put an end to my letter, but that I cannot so refrain 
my pen from scribbling somewhat of the abundance of my 
heart, not as one curious in your causes, but yet bound to be 
careful of your estate. I am very sorry, Sir, to hear you 
give yourself to be more private than you have been wont, 
for solitariness is a certain humour sooner come than gone ; 
and it rather bringeth contentation for a while, than breedeth 
commendation or good in the end. You be not the first, Sir, 
that have lost a good servant, or kept a bad ; or that have 
found both friends unfast and neighbours unthankful, undu- 
tiful followers, and professed enemies. These thwarts are 
incident, yea, and convenient too sometimes, not only to 
check our joys and to prove our patience, but to let us see 
and make us feel the odds between God and men, between 
this and that other world. And happy is he that with a 
good stomach can brook the perils of these unkindnesses, 
which are not piecemeal to be eaten and fed on, but rather to 
be swallowed and devoured whole. Happy is he at last that 
is occasioned at first to try all before he need trust any, and 
so to make both proof of his friends and profit of his foes. 
A nobleman of Germany gave for his words concussus surgo, 
and bare for his device a great stone in a palm-tree, to show 
that as the palm riseth against and resisteth the burthen, so 
it becometh men of council and courage, such as he was, (and 
such as you be,) the more heavy they be laden the more 
strongly to overbear it. Like advice gave Sybilla to -ZEneas 
before his travel, amidst his trouble, Tu ne cede malis, sed con- 
tra audentior ito. But to your Honour I will say no more 
but * Show yourself to be yourself, and give to your adversary 
no one foot unless it be to gain two.' I am not of the sword, 
but of the robe ; neither is mine ability much, though mine 


affection be great : but what I am is at your commandment, 
as I have good cause and am desirous to make some proof as 
it shall like your Honour to minister the occasion. And thus, 
not doubting but as after close weather the sun shines brighter 
and warmer too, so your condition of honour and virtue shall 
daily increase from good to better before God and man, I 
will humbly crave pardon for my boldness, and so betake you 
to the gracious protection and direction of the Almighty. 
From the Savoy, this Thursday morning. Your Honour's 
humble and most bounden, To. MATHEW.* 

Sir Christopher Hatton gave a remarkable proof of 
his religious zeal in this year. A bill against Jesuits 
and Seminary Priests having passed the Commons, it 
was proposed, on the 21st of December, that the mem- 
bers should repair to their own homes ; but, before sepa- 
rating, " Hatton stood up again, and putting the House 
in mind of her Majesty's most princely and loving kind- 
nesses signified in her former messages and declarations," 
of which he had always been the bearer, " of her High- 
ness's thankful acceptations of the dutiful cares and 
travails of this House in the service of her Majesty and 
the Kealm," moved the House, " that, besides the render- 
ing of our most humble and loyal thanks unto her High- 
ness, we do, being assembled together, join our hearts 
and minds together in most humble and earnest prayer 
unto Almighty God for the long continuance of the most 
prosperous preservation of her Majesty, with most due and 
thankful acknowledgment of his infinite benefits and bless- 
ings, poured upon this whole Eealm through the media- 
tion of her Highnesses ministry under Him." He added, 
that he had " a paper in writing in his hand, devised 
and set down by an honest, godly, and learned man; 

8 Additional MSS. 15891, f. 122, 


and which, albeit it was riot very well written, yet he 
would willingly read it as well as he could, if it pleased 
them to follow and say after him, as he should begin 
and say before them; which, being assented unto most 
willingly of all the whole House, and every one kneel- 
ing upon his knees, the said Mr. Vice-Chamberlain 
began the said prayer."* 

Sir John Perrot, Lord Deputy of Ireland, proposed 
to the Government to found a University in Dublin, 
and to appropriate the revenues of St.- Patrick's Church 
to its support. 11 This was naturally resisted by the 
Archbishop of Dublin and the Prebends, and some letters 
from the Archbishop will be found on the subject. 


AFTER our very hearty commendations to your good Lord- 
ship. Whereas among other matters appertaining to the good 
government of that Realm, your Lordship hath, as we well 
perceive by sundry your late letters, a very special care to 
have a University erected there, according to an article of 
instructions given you in this behalf, before your departure 
from hence, for the converting of the revenues of the Cathe- 
dral Church of St. Patrick in that Realm towards the erecting 
of a University, and the maintenance of certain Readers and 
Scholars : for as much as we are given to understand that the 
said revenues do consist altogether of tithes, and that the Pre- 
bendaries there are persons impersonees, and have peculiar 
charges of sundry parish churches, the tithes whereof do 
make the revenues of the said College, without any tempora- 
lities or lay fees, we cannot resolve to dissolve or suppress 
the state of such a Church, considering it is of such pastoral 
cures, and to turn the living due to the Minister for the said 

a Parliamentary History, vol. i. p. p. 385 ; and Monk Mason's History 
827. of the Cathedral of St. Patrick. 

b Vide Harris' History of Dublin, 


cures to other uses, without further information how the 
same may be more lawfully done, and without inconvenience. 
Therefore we have thought good to require your Lordship to 
call unto you the Archbishop of Dublin, and together with 
him to consider somewhat better thereof, as well of the 
means how the said revenues growing of tithes might be 
converted in some part to such use as your Lordship hath set 
down ; as also, if any alterations may be suffered, how much 
thereof may be converted, without taking from the ministry 
and the cures that which appertaineth unto them by all right 
and conscience ; as also of those letts which shall appear 
unto you to hinder that alteration, and the inconveniences 
that thereby might arise : whereof we pray your Lordship 
we may receive from you, and from the Archbishop of Dub- 
lin, particular information, with your advice therein, to the 
end that we may be thoroughly instructed in the cause, and 
better able to yield you some resolution therein ; and we 
will not fail, as we shall see cause, to let your Lordship under- 
stand of our opinion, and what we shall think convenient to 
be done in that behalf. But, upon the debating thereof with 
Sir Lucas Dillon, we do think that by Parliament there might 
be some device made of a contribution out of parsonages 
impropriate, and some other ecclesiastical promotions, not 
subject to the charge and cure of souls, to serve for mainte- 
nance of certain Public readers both in sciences and divinity, 
and for relief of some convenient number of Scholars, where- 
by some beginning might be seen of a kind of public 
schools, and by access of men's devotions it might be hoped 
to have such a University planted in that Realm, rather than to 
make a spoil of parishes with cures, as we see the intention 
of dissolving of that College would work. And yet we can 
wish that the disorders and misusages of those cures by the 
Prebendaries (if any be) were reformed, to the which we will 
yield our helps. So, until we receive further information from 
your Lordship, we do bid you right heartily farewell. From 
Greenwich, the 3rd of January 1584 [1585]. Your Lordship's 
loving friends.* 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 144. 


The meeting of Parliament, about which the Queen 
was anxious, took place on the 4th of February ; but it 
was prorogued on the 20th of March, and dissolved on 
the 14th of September : 


MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, I have moved her Majesty, 
according to your Lordship's desire, touching the office of 
the Duchy. I find she hath passed her gracious grant of the 
same unto the Lord Willoughby two days since, for the which 
she blameth your Lordship, and is right heartily sorry. Her 
Majesty marvelleth that, having any liking to those small 
things, you caused nobody about her to speak of them. I 
perceive she hath some desire to reclaim her promise, wherein 
what will be done I am not able to certify your Lordship. I 
can assure your Lordship her Majesty dealethmost graciously, 
kindly, and lovingly towards you in her speeches and meaning, 
whereof I beseech you take comfort according to your wisdom. 

The Queen requireth your good Lordship, with the Lord 
Chancellor and the Lord Steward, who is presently at Lon- 
don, to be here the morrow at night, about the matter of Par- 
liament, wherewith I find her Majesty somewhat troubled. 
Her pleasure is, Sir, that you should advertise these Lords, 
that they fail not to be here ; at which time I shall attend 
you according to my love and duty. And so I humbly take 
my leave in haste, this 26th of January 1584 [1585]. Your 
good Lordship's most bound poor friend, 


Mr. Davison was sent, early in 1585, to the Elector 
of Cologne, to deliver to him 6000/. ; and he remained 
in the Low Countries until April, when he was com- 
manded to return to England : 

a Autograph in the State Paper b Harleian MSS. 285, f. 122, 129. 



IT may please your Honour, Since the last dispatch of this 
bearer my servant, I have had little to write unto your 
Honour, the mean time affording us nothing from the States 
Commissioners in France since their departure from Abbe- 
ville, so as hitherto we remain in a doubtful expectation 
what issue their ambassade will take ; whereof all men here, 
of any judgment, do in the mean time carry a very hard 
and jealous opinion, as of a remedy far more dangerous than 
either helpful or proper to the disease of this troubled and 
languishing commonwealth. Of the late attempted surprise 
of Bois-le-duc, succeeded with dishonour and loss of four or 
five hundred men at the least, amongst which was a brother 
of the Elector Truchses a , this bearer can particularly inform 
your Honour. Since the enemy hath recovered the forts 
before Zutphen, some by force, the rest by composition, and 
hath now free passage into De venter, where the States 
are driven by this means to reinforce their garrisons, Brus- 
sels is reduced to some strait, and without hope to hold long, 
being only sustained with the vain expectation of the un- 
likely or untimely succours of their new-chosen saint. In 
Gueldres there is some doubt of alteration by the means of 
some principal seduced or corrupted by the enemy. In 
Flanders he turneth all upside down : he hath begun to 
redress and enlarge the old citadel at Ghant, already de- 
fensible, and hath projected another (as we hear) about St. 
Peter's within the same town, to hold the people the better 
in devotion. At Bruges the necessities are said to be great, 
especially through the want of Sluse, where the garrison is 
now in mutiny for their pay. There was of late some expecta- 
tion of a meeting at Liege by the Archbishops of Mentz and 
Treves, with other Princes and Commissioners of the Empire, 
to revive some motion and treaty of peace ; but, since the 
bruit is that their Commissioners should be deputed into 
France, whether to effect the same the better with that King's 
concurrency, or else to divert him from embracing the cause 

a Sic. 


or, under either pretext, to resolve something else that hath 
been long since in hatching against the surety of religion and 
the state of others, I leave to the better and more certain 
advertisement of our Ambassador in France. Some here, 
that pretend to know something, do give out that the Spa- 
niard, willing to leave a peaceable estate behind him, is both 
inclined to peace, and minded to bestow these Countries, with 
his eldest daughter, upon the Cardinal of Austria, now in 
Spain, the better to satisfy other Princes jealous of his 
greatness, and to incline this people the rather therewithal 
to a reconcilement ; in which respect, as some think, or rather 
to countermine the doings of these States Commissioners, the 
Prince of Parma hath sent thither the Marquis of Haverech 
and Berques with the Prince of Chimay. But that this over- 
ture hath any better scope, or will yield any better fruit than 
the last treaty or colloquy, is of all wise men suspected ; the 
disposition whereof I leave to His providence that overruleth 
all, to whose safeguard and protection I humbly commend 
your Honour. And so, in haste for this time, I take my leave. 
At the Hague, the 12th of February 1584 [1585]. Your 
Honour's most bounden to do you service, W. DAVISON. 

Postscript. The fleet prepared in Zealand for the relief 
of Antwerp is, as we hear, gone up, with the only loss of 
four vessels, whereof the one is sunk, the other taken. I 
have likewise even now received advertisement that Brussels 
is entered into some treaty with the enemy; and look to 
hear by the next of their agreement, so as their expected 
succour out of France shall come to them a day, as we say, 
after the fair. a 

In December 1584, when the bill against Jesuits and 
Seminary Priests was read in the Commons, a Dr. 
William Parry, " a man," says Camden, " passing 
proud, neat, and spruce," was the only member who 
spoke against it, declaring the proposed laws to be 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 140. 


"cruel, bloody, full of desperation, and hurtful to the 
English nation." For this offence he was committed 
to custody, and afterwards charged with treasonable 
matters. Being examined by three members of the 
Privy Council, Lord Hunsdon, Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton, and Sir Francis Walsingham, he acknowledged 
his fault, and begged the Queen's forgiveness. On 
the 25th of February 1585, Parry was tried for high 
treason before a Special Commission, consisting of Lord 
Hunsdon, the two Chief Justices and Chief Baron, 
the Master of the Eolls, Sir Francis Knollys, Sir James 
Croft, Sir Christopher Hatton, and Sir Thomas Hene- 
age, and pleaded guilty. Hatton took a very promi- 
nent part in the proceedings ; a and, according to Cam- 
den, " When the prisoner's confession was recorded, 
and judgment demanded him, Hatton thought it neces- 
sary, for satisfaction of the multitude that stood round 
about, that his crime might be manifestly laid open out 
of his own confession. " b Parry was executed in Great 
Palace Yard on the 2nd of March. 6 

Sir Thomas Heneage was again made the channel of 
conveying some "tokens" and a letter from Hatton to 
the Queen. He sent her a true love's knot, with which 
she was much pleased, and wrote him a gratifying ac- 
knowledgment; but the most curious part of this letter 
is that which relates to Sir Walter Raleigh, and Eliza- 
beth's indignation that he should be supposed to equal 
Hatton in her estimation. Varney will be recognised by 
all readers of " Kenilworth." The " priest" was Higgins, 
who is often mentioned : 

a State Trials, i. 133. c Stow, p. 701. 

Camden's Annals, b. in. p. 45. 



SIR, Your bracelets be embraced according to their worth, 
and the good-will of the sender, which is held of such great 
price as your true friend tells you, I think in my heart you 
have great cause to take most comfort in, for seldom in my 
life have I seen more hearty and noble affection expressed by 
her Majesty towards you than she showed upon this occasion, 
which will ask more leisure than is now left me particularly 
to let you know. The sum is, she thinks you faithfullest and 
of most worth, and thereafter will regard you : so she saith, 
so I hope, and so there is just cause. She told me, she 
thought your absence as long as yourself did, and marvelled 
that you came not. I let her Majesty know, understanding 
it by Varney, that you had no place here to rest yourself, 
which after standing and waiting you much needed ; where- 
upon she grew very much displeased and would not believe 
that any should be placed in your lodging, but sending Mr. 
Darcy to understand the matter, found that Sir Wa. R. lay 
there, wherewith she grew more angry with my L. Chamber- 
lain than I wished she had been, and used bitterness of speech 
against R. telling me before that she had rather see him 
hanged than equal him with you, or that the world should 
think she did so. Messengers bear no blame ; and though 
you give me no thanks, 1 must tell you, that her Highness saith 
you are a knave for sending her such a thing and of that 
price, which you know she will not send back again ; that is, 
the knot a she most loves, and she thinks cannot be undone; 
but I keep the best to the last. This enclosed, which it pleased 
her to read to me, and I must be a record of, which if I 
might see surely performed, I should have one of my greatest 
desires upon earth ; I speak it faithfully. The Queen is glad 
with me that the priest is taken ; I pray God you may make 
him open all truth that may advance her surety, and to your 
Honour, which I wish in all kind as long and as happy as any 
man's living, and so commend me all unto you till I see you, 
a " The true love knot." Marginal note. 


which I hope and think best to be as her Highness cometh 
home to-morrow at night. From Croydon the 2nd of April 
1585. Your own ever sure so, THO. HENEAGE.* 

The Countess of Sussex's applications to be restored to 
the Queen's favour having failed, she renewed her eiforts 
in a letter to Hatton in April of this year : 


SIR, I must and will confess while I live, that I have 
found that virtue, courtesy, and friendship in you that I have 
wanted in many others of whom I have deserved better than 
I have or ever shall be able to deserve of you : and therefore 
have thought good to make bold of you and to beseech your 
pains once again in soliciting her Majesty's most gracious 
favour towards me, the which if I found to be taken from me, 
by any my wilful offence towards her excellent and incom- 
parable goodness, I would hate my life and think myself the 
most accursed creature that ever had breath ; but for as much 
as my greatest fault (I hope) is nothing else but some error 
or oversight (in the midst of my miseries being overwhelmed 
with sorrow) which might have made the wisest and perfectest 
to slide, and yet perhaps my sliding, enforced and aggravated 
by evil will, (and made much more than it was) I trust in 
God, her most gracious nature and princely heart will not 
keep so straight an eye upon any oversight of mine, that 
spareth to see and to know and to revenge many offences and 
offenders in higher degree. Howsoever it be, I have with all 
humility and duty sought her Majesty; and though I be eft- 
soons repulsed, yet will I ever seek her with as great lowli- 
ness as ever poor wretch that lay prostrate at her feat. And 
if any particularity have been sinisterly brought to her sacred 
ears, that I have not heard of, if it might stand with her gra- 
cious favour to be satisfied from mine own mouth, I shall for 
ever think myself most bound to her excellency : and if I clear 
not myself of the most of that I have been charged withal, I 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 147. 


will condemn myself as unworthy of her princely presence, 
and live for ever in exile and disgrace. And if I be able to 
perform this and to disprove the sinister informations of my 
contraries, alas ! why should I wear out my life with this 
note of her Highness' indignation by which the world cannot 
but fancy some great enormity in me ? Sir, I beseech you, 
let me entreat you once again to plead mine innocency to her 
Majesty with a most humble mind to submit myself and to 
satisfy her Highness. And if my hap be so hard as to be the 
only unfortunate woman of the world, your deserts and good- 
ness are not the less, and my bond to you greatly increased, 
as knoweth the Almighty. Bermondsey, the 12th April 
1585. Your assured friend, FRAN. SUSSEX.* 


SIR, Her Majesty being moved lately touching Mr. Doctor 
Dale's bill for his right of presentation in the Hospital of 
Sherborne, is graciously contented to sign the same, so the 
proviso contained therein be a sample as it ought to be, 
which if you shall find to be so, her Majesty's pleasure is, you 
shall subscribe his bill with present expedition, that it may 
be returned immediately, for such is her Highness' direction. 
And so, I commit you to God. From the Court at Green- 
wich the 15th of April 1585. Your very loving assured 
friend, CHR. HATTON. 

Sir, If you find not this bill formally drawn according to 
the law, you must presently make up another and deliver it 
to Mr. Dale, subscribed with your own hand. 5 

Philip Sidney had married Sir Francis Walsingham's 
daughter, and not only was the Queen reconciled to the 
match, but she Knighted Sidney at Windsor Castle in 
January 1584: 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 135. b Egerton Papers, p. 113. 

E E 



SIR, Before my departure from the Court I did recom- 
mend unto her Majesty a suit of Sir Philip Sidney's, where- 
unto it pleased her to give a very favourable ear and to pro- 
mise speedy resolution therein, now for that by reason of my 
absence it may depend longer than the necessity of the gen- 
tleman may well bear : I am therefore to pray you as my 
good and assured friend, to put her Majesty in mind thereof, 
and so shall you bind us both to be at your devotion. This 
bearer shall acquaint you with the suit, and in what sort the 
same hath been proceeded in. And so, not doubting of your 
most friendly furtherance therein, I commit you to God. At 
Barn Elms the 26th of April 1585.. Your assured friend, 


This and the following letter appear to relate to the 
arrest of the Earl of Arundell. The severity of the 
laws against the Catholics induced the Earl to take 
measures for quitting England, but he was apprehended 
through the treachery of his own followers, and commit- 
ted to the Tower on the 25th of April. He wrote a long 
and eloquent letter b to the Queen, which was not to have 
been delivered until after his departure ; but, being found, 
the reproaches it contained exasperated his enemies. He 
was tried and condemned, but the sentence was not ex- 
ecuted, and he died a prisoner in the Tower in November 
1595. The person indicated as "D" of this and the 
following letter has been identified : 


SIR, I have perused the examination it hath pleased you 
to take of D , and finding by your report of the man that 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 146. b This letter is printed at length 

by Stow, p 702706. 


he is but simple, and that the last year he was somewhat dis- 
tracted of his wit, I see no cause but upon bond of good be- 
haviour he may be set at liberty. And so, I commit you to 
God. At Barn Elms the 28th of April 1585. Your most 
assured friend, FRA. WALSINGHAM.* 

The Earl mentioned in this letter was clearly the Earl 
of Arundell: 


SIR, I return unto you D 's examination ; it were hard 

(though it might be sufficiently proved,) that the Earl's recon- 
ciliation should be urged against him, being a matter rather 
of conscience than of State. And seeing her Majesty hath 
heretofore (in point of conscience) dealt gratiously towards 
Jesuits and Seminaries, men of worse desert, it would be ill 
thought of that one of the Earl's quality should receive harder 
measure than those that are reputed the poisoners of this 

estate. Touching the wherein it is said there were 

certain hallowed grains, I received it from my Lord Trea- 
surer, who can give particular information about whom it was 
found. And so praying God to send you continuance of 
health, which I lack, I commit you to his protection. At 
Barn Elms, the 29th of April 1585. Your most assured 
friend, FRA, WALSiNGHAM. b 

Arundell seems, in his misfortunes, to have shejvn a 
magnanimity becoming his race, though Walsingham 
says he was by nature fearful. The Lieutenant of the 
Tower was Sir Owen Hopton, who was not, however, as 
Walsingham recommends, removed from his office. Mr. 
Henry Macwilliani, to whose custody the Earl of Arun- 
dell was entrusted, was one of the Gentleman Pen- 
sioners, and his eldest daughter and co-heiress married 
Sir John Stanhope, from whom several letters occur : 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. ]47 h . b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 146. 

E F. 2 



SIR, The view of your letter hath made me change my 
opinion, touching the proceeding with the Earl, whose courage 
is to be abated, and no advantage to be lost until he be drawn 
to use some other language, seasoned with more humility. 
You shall do well to advise Mr. Macwilliam to look well to 
his charge : it cannot be but that he receiveth some comfort, 
and that not from mean persons, that putteth him in this cou- 
rage. No man is of his own nature more fearful. It will 
behove her Majesty to make choice of some other, to supply 
the place of the Lieutenant of the Tower: it sufficeth not for 
him that shall hold that place to be only faithful, but he ought 
to be wise. I know it now to be the corruptest prison in Eng- 
land ; which in these dangerous times standeth not with policy. 

The force of the Guisans increaseth, and so much the more 
for that he daily getteth into his hands the King's treasure. 
The Queen Mother adviseth her son to grow to a peace: at 
the said Duke's price, few or none are willing to serve the 
King, but those whom he dare not use. Cardinal Montalto, a 
sometime a grey friar, by the favour of the Spanish faction is 
elected Pope : a man most furiously bent against those of the 
religion. There lacketh now, to bring our danger to the 
height of his pride, only the King of Spain^s full possession of 
the Low Countries, which in the course we hold, will in a few 
days come to pass. And so with my most hearty thanks for 
your promised favour to Sir Philip Sidney, I commit you to 
God. At Barn Elms, the 1st of May 1585. Your most 
assured friend, FRANCIS WALsiNGHAM. b 

The Archbishop of Dublin's second letter respecting 
the proposed University was probably written in April 
or May of this year : 

Felix Peretti, Cardinal of Mont- of April, 1585, and took the title of 
alto, was elected Pope on the 24th Sixtus the Fifth. 
b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 147. 



IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, It pleased the Lords of her 
Highness' Privy Council in February last, by letters sent 
over by Sir Lucas Dillon to my Lord Deputy, to signify their 
opinions touching the Cathedral Church of St. Patrick's, that 
it should remain in the state wherein it was ; notwithstanding 
which letter, my Lord Deputy hath ever since continued his 
former purpose to dissolve the same and to convert it to a 
University. And because in the livings of that Church 
I have a special interest, (being ordinary Patron of the most 
of them,) his Lordship acquainted me with his intention, 
namely, that the Church should be turned to a place for the 
Temporal Court, and the Prebends to the maintenance of 
Colleges to be erected ; which motion when I misliked for 
many reasons heretofore signified by me unto your Honour 
and the rest of her Highness' Council, his Lordship conceived 
great offence and displeasure against me, threatening me 
with these terms, that, if herein I would not yield unto him, 
he would be my utter enemy, sift me, disgrace me, and make 
me lose as much as I might lose in Ireland. And whereas in 
the letter sent from the Lords his Lordship was required to 
call me unto him, and to confer privately with me touching 
that matter, the letter was detained by his Lordship and 
kept from me until the llth of this instant. These things 
proceeding from a man of his authority and ability, and the 
due care I had of that poor Church, whereof I have the pas- 
toral charge, enforced me to solicit my dearest friends in Eng- 
land for the procurement of her Majesty's letter to his Lord- 
ship to stay him from that attempt ; which being lately deli- 
vered unto his hands was so grievously taken, that I find 
thereby his Lordship's displeasure to be increased against me, 
and have just cause to fear, that whatsoever things can be 
devised for my disgrace with her Majesty, or to discredit me 
with their Lordships, shall not be omitted. 

After the delivery of her Majesty's letter concerning her 
express resolution for the continuance of the Church in the 


state wherein it is, the llth of this instant his Lordship sent 
for me, and then, first showing the letter of the Lords sent in 
February, required me to enter into conference with him how 
most conveniently either the whole Church, or some good 
part thereof, might be converted into an University ; withal 
laying before me a platform of a University drawn by himself, 
consisting of many impossibilities, and for sundry just causes 
to be misliked. Mine humble answer to his Lordship was 
this : that, forasmuch as her Majesty had signified her gra- 
cious resolution touching my Church (for the which I most 
humbly thank God and her Highness), I would not now pre- 
sume to enter into any new device in this matter. His Lord- 
ship, being grievously offended with this my answer, forthwith 
burst forth into these speeches, * So I think ; nor in any 
other good things.' 

I am secretly informed his Lordship intendeth to seek 
some advantage out of this mine answer against me, and that 
he doth inform the same into England by Mr. Secretary Fen- 
ton, of whose forwardness in aggravating any cause against 
me I nothing doubt, for that he hath professed himself an 
utter enemy to me and my poor Church, by the ruin and 
overthrow whereof he hath conceived an undoubted hope to 
enrich himself. 

I have further learned, by secret intelligence from some 
which are familiarly acquainted with his Lordship's dealings, 
that, upon this his Lordship's offence conceived against me, he 
taketh occasion to seek my utter discredit with your Honour 
by certain most untrue and malicious informations suggested 
by mine enemies, the effect whereof ensue th : That in this 
cause of the Church I oppose myself against his Lordship 
only in respect of the private gain and commodity which 
yearly I reap out of the same, thereby to pamper myself and 
my children ; that I have purchased one hundred pounds per 
annum ; that I have matched in marriage four of my daugh- 
ters to four principal gentlemen, and am in readiness to bestow 
the fifth ; that I have builded a house, which already hath 


cost me fifteen or sixteen hundred pounds ; that all this wealth 
and substance I have gained by corruption in mine office of 
Chancery, and in the High Commission for the Ecclesiastical 
Causes ; and, finally, that I am altogether degenerate, and be- 
come mere Irish. 

The information, I confess, is of itself most odious, espe- 
cially against a person of my place and calling ; but because it 
containeth manifest untruths, and is reported to my honour- 
able friend, whose knowledge of my life and conversation suf- 
ficeth to disprove so malicious suggestions, I have conceived 
firm and stedfast hope that before mine answer I shall not be 
condemned, but shall be admitted to use my purgation in sort 
as followeth: First, protesting before Almighty God that 
private respect have not induced me to stand in the defence 
of my poor Church, or therein to oppose myself against his 
Lordship, whom I honour ; but the pastoral charge thereof 
committed unto me, which in conscience pricketh me there- 
unto, with many other reasons which have been alleged. I 
confess I do enjoy out of the livings of the Church an hun- 
dred pounds per annum, granted unto me by special com- 
mendam from her Highness under her Great Seal of England; 
the confirmation whereof my Lord Deputy at sundry times 
hath offered unto me during my life, in case I would yield my 
consent to the suppression of the Church ; which honourable 
offer, made to me at sundry times and by sundry messengers 
of special trust and credit, I always refused, having had a 
greater care of the charge committed to me than mine own 

The value of my purchase wanteth a good deal of two hun- 
dred marks per annum, which, by keeping of her Majesty's 
Great Seal in the time of Sir William Fitzwilliam's go- 
vernment, by her Majesty's entertainment, I gained; and now 
do humbly thank the Lord that it is so well bestowed for the 
relief of my poor wife and fifteen children living, which, 
otherwise, after my death would live in extreme beggary. Her 
Highness' entertainment was the only means thereof which, 


during my life, I will acknowledge. My four daughters are 
in truth married, and the fifth I hope shall be, to the sons and 
heirs of five honest and virtuous English gentlemen. But 
God is witness that all this hath been wrought by God's spe- 
cial providence with a small sum of money, in regard rather 
of their favour to my religion, they being all Protestants, (for 
which I thank God and the good education of my daughters,) 
than of any portion of money, which, in respect of the slen- 
derness of my living, I was able to disburse. 

The building of my house, which is newly reared, hath not 
in truth been half so chargeable as is suggested ; but, whatso- 
ever it hath cost me, I do confess that I gained the same 
wholly by her Majesty's bountiful entertainment bestowed 
upon me in the time of the late joint Government, committed 
to my partner, Sir Henry Wallop, and me; wherewith I 
have builded a poor castle, of threescore feet long, for the 
maintenance of my poor wife and children. The only founder 
under God of this poor work was her Majesty's liberality, 
which I and my children will never forget. 

The Lord doth know right well that this hath been the only 
mean of my gain or lucre I have attained since my coming 
into this land, which, I trust, hath been bestowed upon good 
and godly uses ; for as for the suggestion of indirect or cor- 
rupt means by me used to enrich myself, either in the Chan- 
cery or in the High Commission, (my duty and reverence re- 
served to the informer and his plan,) I do defy the whole 
world, and stand wholly upon my innocency, refusing no cen- 
sure, but most humbly beseeching that my dealings might be 
tried at the Council-board, either to my utter discredit and 
undoing, or to the shame and confusion of mine enemy and 
accuser, whatsoever he be. Lastly, concerning that most 
odious suggestion that I am now degenerate, and become 
mere Irish, I refer the trial of this report to the long experi- 
ence which both you and the rest of the Lords of her Majesty's 
Council have had of my faithful and loyal service in most dan- 
gerous times, wherein I dare be bold to challenge your Honour 
to be my witness how far I have hazarded my whole estate ; 


and, to disprove this malicious and most untrue suggestion, I 
am contented to submit myself to the meanest gentlemen of 
our nation. 

These causes of my grief and great discomfort offered by 
his Lordship, I have made bold truly (even as before God 
bemoaning mine estate) to set down before your Honour, pro- 
testing before God that I am innocent of any evil or unkind 
practice towards my Lord Deputy, being no oppugner, but 
the defender in this cause both of myself and of my poor 
children. I have from time to time most diligently sought, 
both by my obedience and service, his Honour's favour ; but 
by no means can obtain the same. My professed enemy is 
the Master of the Rolls, (who, even for religion itself, doth 
chiefly hate me,) and beareth so great a sway with his good 
Lordship, both in this particular cause and in many other 
against me that he daily incenseth his displeasure, and gene- 
rally almost in all actions concerning her Majesty's service, 
that as many others are very much discontented, so in parti- 
cular I find myself very much discouraged. I have no refuge 
to fly unto in these or any other injuries but only her High- 
ness and that honourable Board, to whom I must and will 
appeal, referring the consideration of my twenty-eight years' 
service to her and their grave wisdoms. I wish from my heart 
the comfort of my Lord Deputy's favour and friendship, 
which in most humble manner I have required, and daily do 
sue for, praying your Honour to be a means to his g od Lord- 
ship for the procurement thereof. And for my Cathedral 
Church, since her Highness hath signified her gracious resolu- 
tion that it shall continue in the state wherein it is, without 
any innovation, I humbly beseech your Honour to persuade 
his good Lordship to desist from the purpose he hath con- 
ceived for the suppression and dissolution of the same. Your 
Honour's most humble to command.* 

This and the next letter arose out of the persecutions 
to which Catholics were exposed after the passing of the 
Act against Jesuits and Seminary Priests : 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 150 b . 



SIR, I will give present order, throughout the ports for the 
stay of the party, according to the description contained in 
your letter. It may please you to give some charge to your 
servant Pyne, to look well to the port of London, for that 
most of the profession do pass that way. And so I commit 
you to the protection of the Almighty. At Barn Elms, the 
1st of May 1585. Your most assured friend, 



SIR, I have showed her Majesty your letter, this bearer 
brought me for answer, whereof her Highness's pleasure is, I 
should let you know, that she would have Isaac Higgins, now 
in your custody yet detained three or four days, and in the 
mean season, that he should be again better examined ; and 
that Mr. Secretary should be sent to, and likewise Mr. Top- 
cliffe with those in that commission, to know if the name of 
this man be in any of their rules, which they keep of such 
bad fellows as carry and re-carry books and letters into this 
Realm, and out of it, which being certainly known, that he be 
kept or let go, as shall be thought best by you for her Majes- 
ty's service. This is all I was willed to say, but this withal, 
that her Highness thinketh your house will shortly be like 
Gravesend barge, never without a knave, a priest, or a thief, 
&c. So loving you and leaving you, I commend me humbly 
to you. From the Court at Croydon, this 2nd of May 1585. 
Your own at commandment, THO. HENEAGE. b 

Only thirteen years had elapsed since the Duke of 
Norfolk, when under sentence of death, advised his eld- 
est son to rely upon Hatton's friendship, before that son 
was himself a supplicant to Hatton to save him from a 
similar fate : 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 147 b . b Ibid, f. 148 b . 

c Vide p. 9, ante. 



I PRAY pardon me good Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, that I sent 
not this letter yesternight. The cause of my stay was, because 
I have greatly offended her Majesty, and therefore am desirous 
for as full a satisfaction as lieth in me to make, truly of myself 
to confess the sum of my offence, wherefore I staid this morn- 
ing to see if I could any way call to mind anything that yester- 
night I had forgotten. That I have been both confessed and 
absolved, I cannot deny ; but I protest, led unto it merely 
by conscience, without intending either to offend her Majesty 
or her State. My sending to Doctor Alien, 3 I have already 
acknowledged. Two things only I am now to add. The first, 
that I offered to be at his direction. The second that I wrote 
a letter unto him, and that was the only letter which ever I 
wrote, wherein I did signify, as much by writing of my being 
at his direction, and in this I must needs confess I offended 
her Majesty. And I protest afore God was so sorry for it 
after myself, as when the messenger which should have carried 
it, had not opportunity at the first to go over, I desired that it 
might be burnt; and what is done with it, I know not, but 
Brydges told me it was burnt. Now having in these points 
laid open fully and thoroughly wherein I have offended her 
Majesty, I protest afore God, as far as I can call to remem- 
brance, I do utterly deny and disavow, that ever I was privy to 
any plot or practice laid or made against her Majesty, or her 
state ; and if it can be proved, that I was made privy either to 
any former plot, or any new practice, I desire no favour, other- 
wise, I hope so much in the goodness and mercy of her Ma- 
jesty, as she will take some pity and compassion upon me. I 
must confess I was slipping, but not fallen. I call God to 
witness she hath raised many that have slipped more, and 
therefore I cannot despair but that she can raise me, and as 
her goodness in that shall be exceeding great towards me, so 
I doubt not but my deserts towards her shall be such, as her 

a Cardinal Allen, vide p. 16, ante. 


Majesty shall well find, that I desire to be thankful, and that 
I strive by all means to make satisfaction for this my offence. 
And thus laying myself at the feet of her Majesty's mercy, 
and commending my cause to your favour, I cease further to 
trouble you. From the Tower, the 7th of May 1585. Yours 
most faithful and assuredly for ever, ARUNDELL.* 

During his long career, though exposed to all the 
jealousies that attend a Eoyal favourite, Hatton had 
hitherto preserved an unsullied reputation. An event, 
however, occurred which afforded his enemies an op- 
portunity of fixing a suspicion upon him ; and, though 
the charge may be safely pronounced scandalous and 
untrue, it is nevertheless material for Hat ton's justifi- 
cation that all the facts of the case should be stated, 

On the 21st of June 1585, Henry Percy, Earl of 
Northumberland, who had been for a year a close pri- 
soner in the Tower for high treason, was found dead 
in his apartment. An Inquest was held in the Tower 
on the day of his death before the Coroner and a Jury, 
who found that the Earl, intending to kill himself, had, 
five days before, caused a kind of pistol called a " dag," 
with bullets and gunpowder, to be brought into his cham- 
ber by one James a Price a yeoman, and had hidden 
the dag in the mattress under the bolster of his bed; 
that, between the hours of twelve and one in the night 
of the 21st, he " did bolt the door of the aforesaid cham- 
ber, and the inner part of his chamber towards himself," 
lest any one should prevent his effecting his design ; that 
the Earl then lay down in his bed, and, taking the dag, 
which was ready loaded with three bullets, in his 
hands, " put it to the left part of his breast, near unto 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 148 b . 


the pap," and then discharged the contents " into his 
body and heart, and through his chine bone even into his 
right shoulder;" thereby "giving unto himself one 
mortal wound of the depth of twelve inches, and of the 
width of two inches, of which he instantly died." a Cam- 
den says that the Jury " found the dag, or pistol, with 
gunpowder in the chamber, and examined his man, who 
had bought the dag, and him which had sold it." 

Two days afterwards, many Peers and Privy Council- 
lors 11 met in the Star Chamber ; when Sir Thomas Brom- 
ley, the Lord Chancellor, stated the cause of the Earl of 
Northumberland's imprisonment, and the manner of his 
death; " but, to satisfy the multitude, which are always 
prone to believe the worse," he desired the Queen's At- 
torney and Solicitor- General to state plainly all the 
facts. After specifying the particulars of the offence 
for which the Earl was imprisoned, " the manner of his 
death was related out of the testimony of the Inquest, 
the Lieutenant of the Tower, certain of the warders, 
and Pantins; and therefore it was concluded that he 
had murdered himself with his own hands, out of fear 
lest his house should be quite overthrown and attaint 
ed." After saying that the Earl was, by many good 
men, much lamented, Camden cautiously adds, " What 
the suspicious fugitives muttered of one Bailiff that was 
one of Hatton's men, and was a little before appointed 
to be the Earl's keeper, I omit as being a matter alto- 

a Stow's Annals, pp. 706, 707, James Croft, Comptroller ; Sir Chris- 

where a full copy of the Inquisition topher Hatton, Vice-Chamberlain ; 

is given. the Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's 

b Namely, the Lord Chancellor, Bench, and Chief Baron of the Ex- 
Lord Burghley, the Earls of Shrews- chequer, and the Master of the Rolls 
bury, Derby, and Leicester, the Lords and others : the audience very great 
Howard of Effingham and Hunsdon ; of Knights, Esquires, and men of 
Sir Francis Knollys, Treasurer; Sir other quality.Somers "Tracts, i. 213. 


gether unknown unto me, and I think it not meet to 
insert anything upon vain hearsays. " a 

The proceedings to which Camden refers are, how- 
ever, more fully stated in a pamphlet 5 printed in that 
year, and apparently by authority, the object of which 
publication may be inferred from the opening para- 
graph : " Malice, among other essential properties ap- 
pertaining to her ugly nature, hath this one not inferior to 
the rest, and the worst incredulity wherewith she com- 
monly possesseth the minds and affections of all those that 
are infected with her; so blinding the eyes and judgment 
of the best and clearest sighted, that they cannot see or 
perceive the bright beams of the truth, although the 
same be delivered with never so great purity, proof, cir- 
cumstance, and probability." The author says, he was 
present in the Star Chamber when the statements respect- 
ing the Earl of Northumberland's death were made, and 
took notes of the several matters declared by the Lord 
Chancellor, the Attorney- General and Solicit or- General, 
the Lord Chief Baron, and the Vice-Chamberlain. Great 
part of the pamphlet is occupied with proofs of North- 
umberland's treasonable conduct ; and it was then said by 
the Solicitor-General, that, while the Earl was a prisoner 
in the Tower, he had, by corrupting his keeper, kept up 

a Annals, Book in. pp. 50, 51. tions of sundry persons touching the 

b "A true and summary Report of manner of this most wicked and vio- 

the Declaration of some part of the lent Murder, committed upon him- 

Earl of Northumberland's Treasons, self with his own hand in the Tower 

delivered publickly in the Court at of London, the 28th day of June 

the Star Chamber by the Lord Chan- 1585. In sedibus C. Barker, Printer 

cellor and others of her Majesty's to the Queen of England her most 

most Honourable Privy Council and excellent Majesty." Reprinted in 

Council learned by her Majesty's Lord Somers' Tracts, ed. Scott, vol. 

Special Commandment; together i. p. 212; and in Howell's "State 

with the Examinations and Deposi- Trials," vol. i. p. 1111 et seq. 


a communication with Shelley, through his servant James 
Price, and had thus learnt, on Friday or Saturday before 
Trinity Sunday, (i. e. the 4th or 5th of June,) that Shel- 
ley had in his confessions so deeply implicated him, that, 
" fearing the justice and severity of the laws, and also the 
ruin and overthrow of his house, he fell into desperation, 
and so to the destruction of himself:" that one Jacques 
Pantins, a groom of the EaiTs chamber, had stated, that, 
on hearing of Shelley's confession, the Earl had declared 
he was undone, often with tears lamenting his condi- 
tion, and wished for death. The Lord Chief Baron then 
described the particulars of the Earl's death, "and in 
what sort he had murdered himself." After mentioning 
the Coroner's inquest, he said, that, "upon the discovery 
of the intelligence conveyed between the Earl and Shel- 
ley, it was thought necessary, for the benefit of her Ma- 
jesty's service, by such of her Majesty's most honourable 
Privy Council as were appointed Commissioners to ex- 
amine the course of these treasons, that Jacques Pantins, 
attending upon the Earl, and the Earl's corrupt keepers, 
should be removed ; whereupon Thomas Bailiff, gentleman, 
sent to attend on the Earl of Northumberland upon the 
removal of Palmer and Jacques Pantins from about the 
said Earl, who, from the beginning of his last restraint, 
attended on him, for the reasons lastly before mentioned, 
was, by the Lieutenant of the Tower, on the Sunday, 
about two of the clock in the afternoon, being the 20th 
of June, shut up with the Earl as appointed, to remain 
with him, and serve him in the prison for a time, until 
Palmer, Pantins, and Price, then committed close pri- 
soners, might be examined how the Earl came by such 
intelligences as were discovered to have passed between 


the Earl and Shelley, and between the Earl and others. 
Bailiff served the Earl at his supper, brought him to 
his bed about nine of the clock ; and after some services 
done by the Earl's commandment, departed from the 
Earl to an outer chamber, where he lay part of that 
night; and being come into his chamber, the Earl rose 
out of his bed, arid came to the chamber door and bolted 
the same unto him on the inner side, saying to Bailiff, he 
could not sleep unless his door were fast. And at about 
twelve of the clock at midnight, Bailiff being in a slum- 
ber, heard a great noise, seeming unto him to be the 
falling of some door, or rather a piece of the house. The 
noise was so sudden and so great, that he started out of 
his bed, and crying out to the Earl with a loud voice, 
said, l My Lord, know you what this is?' The Earl not 
answering, Bailiff cried and knocked still at the Earl's 
door, saying, 4 My Lord, how do you? ' but finding that 
the Earl made no answer, continued his crying and call- 
ing, until an old man that lay without spake to him, say- 
ing, c Gentlemen, shall I call the watch, seeing he will not 
speak?' c Yea,' quoth Bailiff, < for God's sake.' Then did 
the old man rise and called one of the watch, whom Bai- 
liff entreated with all possible speed to call Master Lieu- 
tenant unto him. In the mean time, Bailiff heard the 
Earl give a long and most grievous groan, and after 
that gave a second groan ; and then, the Lieutenant being 
come, called to the Earl, who, not answering, Bailiff 
cried to the Lieutenant to break open the Earl's cham- 
ber door, bolted unto him on the inner side, which was 
done, and then they found the Earl dead in his bed, 
and by his bed-side a dagge, wherewith he had killed 
himself." Sir Owen Hop ton, the Lieutenant of the 
Tower, deposed upon oath, that on Sunday night, about 


a quarter before one o'clock, he was called up by the 
watch to come to the Earl of Northumberland, who had 
been called to by Mr. Bailiff, his keeper, and would 
not speak (as the watch told him) ; whereupon he went 
to the Earl's lodgings, opened the outer doors till he 
came to the chamber where Mr. Bailiff lay, which was 
next to the Earl's bedchamber; and when he entered 
the room, Bailiff said to him that he was wakened with 
a noise as if a door or some large thing had fallen, and 
that he had called to the Earl, but could obtain no 
answer. Hopton then went to the Earl's chamber; 
and, " finding the same bolted fast on the other side 
within the Earl's lodging, so as he could not go into 
the Earl," he called to him, telling him the Lieutenant 
was there, and prayed his Lordship to open the door. 
" But, receiving no answer, and finding the door fast 
bolted on the inner side of the Earl's chamber with a 
strong iron bolt, so as they could not enter into the 
same out of the lodging where the said Bailiff lay with- 
out breaking up the chamber door, caused the warders, 
wha were with this examinate, to thrust in their hal- 
berds, and to wrest the door thereby as much as they 
could, and withal to run at the door with their feet, 
and with violence to thrust it open, which they did 
accordingly. And when this examinate came into the 
chamber, in turning up the sheets, he perceived them 
to be blooded; and then, searching further, found the 
wound, which was very near the pap, not thinking at 
the first sight but that it had been done with a knife. 
This examinate went thereupon presently to write to 
the Court, and took the warders into the outer cham- 
ber, and left them there until he returned, bolting the 
door of the Earl's bedchamber on the outside. And, 

F F 


as soon as this examinate returned from writing of his 
letter to the Court, he searched about the chamber, and 
found a dagge on the floor, about three feet from the 
bed, near unto a table that had a green cloth on it, 
which did somewhat shadow the dagge ; and, after turn- 
ing down the bed-clothes, found a box, in the which the 
powder and pellets were, on the bed under the coverlet. 
And saith, that the chamber where the Earl lay hath no 
other door but that one door which was broken open 
as aforesaid, save one door that went into a privy, 
which hath no manner of passage out of it ; and that 
the Earl's lodging chamber and the entering into the 
privy are both walled round about with a stone wall 
and a brick wall ; and that there is no door or passage 
out or from the said Earl's bedchamber or privy but 
that only door, which was broken open by the appoint- 
ment of this examinate." 8 

Sir Owen Hopton then mentioned the names of the 
four warders, who, with his own servant, were present 
with him " at the breaking up of the Earl's chamber 
door," all of whom were likewise examined, and who con- 
firmed Sir Owen's statements in every point. With re- 
spect to there being but " one door in the Earl's chamber, 
saving the door of the privy, which, together with the 
chamber, was strongly walled about with stone and 
brick, the Lord Chief Baron confirmed the same, having 
viewed the chamber himself where the Earl lodged, and 
was found dead." 

At the Coroner's Inquest, James Pantins, the Earl's 
groom, confessed that James Price had given the 
dag or pistol to the Earl in his, (Pantins') presence, 
on which he suspected that his Lordship " meant 

a Page. 221. 


mischief to himself, and did all he could to persuade 
the Earl to send away the dag, but could not pre- 
vail; 1 ' but that he was commanded to hide it, where- 
upon he hanged it on a nail within the chimney 
in the Earl's bedchamber; where the Earl thinking the 
same not to be sufficiently safe in that place, it was by 
the Earl's appointment taken from thence and put into 
a slit in the side of a mattress, that lay under the Earl's 
bed, near to the bed's head ; and that the same Sunday 
morning that the Earl murdered himself at night, he saw 
the dag lying under the Earl's bed head. The dag 
was bought not many days before of one Adrian Mulan, 
a dag-maker, dwelling in East Smithfield, as by the 
said Mulan was testified, viva voce, upon his oath, in the 
open Court, at the time of the public declaration made 
of these matters in the Star Chamber." 

It was declared by the Lord Hunsdon and the Lord 
Chief Baron, " that the dag wherewith the Earl mur- 
dered himself was charged with three bullets, and 
so of necessity with more than an ordinary charge of 
powder, to force that weight of bullets to work their 
effect. The Earl, lying upon his back on the left side 
of his bed, took the dag charged in his left hand, (by 
all likelihood,) laid the mouth of the dag upon his 
left pap, (having first put aside his waistcoat,) and his 
shirt being only between the dag and his body, which 
was burned away the breadth of a large hand, discharg- 
ed the same, wherewith was made a large wound in his 
said pap, his heart pierced and torn in divers lobes or 
pieces, three of his ribs broken, the chine bone of his 
back cut almost in sunder, and under the point of the 
shoulder-blade, on the right side within the skin, the 
three bullets were found by the Lord Hunsdon, which he 





caused the Surgeon in his presence to cut out, laying all 
three close together within the breadth and compass of 
an inch or thereabout. The bullets were shewed by his 
Lordship at the time of the publication made in the 
Court of the Star Chamber." The Lord Chief Baron 
then noticed the reports that were spread abroad, that 
the Earl had grown sickly and become weary of his life, 
from the small and unhealthy apartments in which he 
was confined, which he refuted by stating their size, 
having himself measured them ; adding, that during the 
day the Earl had the range of live large chambers, and 
two long entries. 

When the Chief Baron had concluded his address, 
Sir Christopher Hatton, who, "as it seemed, had 
been specially employed by her Majesty, among others 
of her Privy Council, in the looking into and examining 
of the treasons aforesaid, as well in the person of the 
Earl as of others, and was at the time of the Earl's com- 
mitment from his house in St. Martin's to the Tower of 
London, sent unto him from her Majesty, to put the Earl 
in mind of her Majesty's manifold graces and favours in 
former times conferred upon him, proceeding from the 
spring of her Majesty's princely and bountiful nature, 
and not of his deservings, to advise him to deliver the 
truth of the matters so clearly appearing against him, 
either by his letters privately to her Majesty, or by 
speech to Master Vice-Chamberlain, who signified also 
unto him that if he would determine to take that course, 
he should not only not be committed to the Tower, bu1 
should find grace and favour at her Majesty's hands, ii 
the mitigation of such punishment as the law might 
upon him. And here Master Yice-Chamberlain repeal 
at length the effect of her Majesty's message, at thai 
time sent to the Earl, beginning first with the remem- 


brance of his practice, undertaken for the conveying 
away of the Scottish Queen, about the time of the last 
Rebellion, (as hath been declared in the beginning of 
this tract,) and that he confessing the offence, being 
capital, her Majesty nevertheless was pleased to alter the 
course of his trial by the justice of her laws, and suffer- 
ed the same to receive a slight and easy punishment by 
way of mulct or fine of five thousand marks, whereof 
before this his imprisonment (as it is credibly reported) 
there was not one penny paid, or his land touched with 
any extent for the payment thereof; which offence was 
by her Majesty not only graciously forgiven, but also 
most christianly forgotten; receiving him not long after 
to the place of honour that his ancestors had enjoyed for 
many years before him, and gave him such entrance into 
her princely favour and good opinion, that no man of 
his quality received greater countenance and comfort at 
her Majesty's hands than he; insomuch that in all exer- 
cises of recreation used by her Majesty, the Earl was 
always called to be one; and whensoever her Majesty 
showed herself abroad in public, she gave to him the 
honour of the best and highest services about her person, 
more often than to all the noblemen of her Court." a 

The evidence that the Earl of Northumberland com- 
mitted suicide is so satisfactory, that it seems difficult 
for even religious bigotry or sectarian malice to have 
raised a doubt on the subject. Independently of the 
design to destroy himself, and the delivery of the dag, 
as stated by his servant Pantins, the testimony of Sir 
Owen Hopton, whose integrity has never been ques- 
tioned, corroborated by that of five other persons, that 
the door of the Earl's chamber was so strongly fast- 
ened on the inside as to require considerable force to 

a Somers' Tracts. I. 223. 


break it open, that there were no other means of access 
to it, and that he himself first discovered the Earl's 
body pierced with bullets, is not to be controverted 
by such remarks as that " the change of his keeper, 
the great difficulty of conveying fire-arms to a prisoner 
in the Tower, and even the solicitude of the Court to 
convict him of suicide, served to confirm in the minds 
of many, a suspicion that his enemies, unable to bring 
home the charge of treason, had removed him by assas- 
sination." a But Dr. Lingard's account of Northumber- 
land's death is not written with the impartiality which 
distinguishes the earlier part of his valuable work. He 
does not state the cause of the removal of the Earl's ser- 
vants or keeper, nor that it was done by a committee 
of the Privy Council ; no notice is taken of the evidence 
of Sir Owen Hopton and the warders; the delivery of 
the pistol by Price is doubted; and he refers to a letter 
from Sir Walter Raleigh to Sir Robert Cecil, in 1601, to 
show that "it was assumed as a fact known to them both, 
that the Earl was murdered by the contrivance of 
Hatton." In that letter, which was written by Ra- 
leigh, to advise Cecil not to relent toward the " tyrant" 
Essex, from any fear of consequences to himself, he 
says: "For after-revenges, fear them not; for your 
own father, that was esteemed to be the contriver of 
Norfolk's ruin, yet his son followeth your father's son, 
and loveth him. Humours of men succeed not, but 
grow by occasions and accidents of time and power. 
Somerset made no revenge on the Duke of Northumber- 
land's heirs. Northumberland that now is thinks not 
of Hatton's issue. Kelloway lives that murdered the 
brother of Horsey, and Horsey let him go by all his life- 

a Lingard ; History of England, vol. viii. p. 237. Murdin's State Papers, 
p. 811. 


time." Here Raleigh (who was, it may be remarked, 
Hatton's rival, if not enemy) first enumerates the 
persons whose ruin, not murder, had been caused by 
political enmities; and there is no more reason to believe 
that Raleigh meant it to be inferred that Hatton had 
assassinated Northumberland, than that he meant to say 
that Burghley had murdered Norfolk, or that Dudley had 
killed the Protector Somerset; and when Raleigh did 
really mean to allude to " murder," he expressly said so 
in a separate sentence. 

Bishop Keimett relates two traditions in the Percy 
family, respecting the Earl of Northumberland, which, 
however valueless, show at least that they did not 
believe in the assassination of their ancestor. It 
should be remarked, that the Earl of Essex, who had 
married this Earl's granddaughter, being a prisoner in 
the Tower on account of the Rye House Plot, he com- 
mitted suicide in the same chamber in which Northum- 
berland killed himself. " I have heard a tradition," says 
Bishop Kennett " from some of the family, that the dag 
or pistol was sent him inclosed in a cold pie, carried to 
his table without suspicion. I have heard Dr. Mapletoft, 
who travelled with the last Earl of Northumberland, say, 
that it helped much to confirm him in a belief of the 
Earl of Essex murdering himself in the Tower, because 
he had seen him pointing at the picture of this Henry 
Earl of Northumberland, and telling the then heir of the 
family, * You owe more to that brave man than to any 
one of your ancestors ; he had the courage to save your 
estate for you," a Meaning that, by having taken away 
his own life, he had saved his lands from forfeiture. 

It has been pertinently observed, 51 that Price, who, ac~ 

b Lansdowne MSS. 982, f. 75 b . 


cording to Pantins, brought the dag to the Earl, was 
" not produced, though in custody." It certainly is not 
expressly stated that Price was examined ; but the printed 
accounts of the transaction do not give the names of all 
the witnesses at the Coroner's Inquest, and it is impossi- 
ble to believe that Bailiff was not one of the principal, 
though his name, like that of Price, is not mentioned. 
The insinuation as to the presumed non-examination of 
Price is, that the dag, instead of having been brought to 
the Earl, belonged in fact to his assassin, which involves 
the whole question of the manner of the Earl's death. 

The suspicious circumstance of the removal of the 
Earl's keeper and servants is explained by their having 
conveyed communications to his confederates ; and it was 
the act of the Privy Councillors, who had been appointed 
Commissioners to investigate the subject. Hatton was 
no doubt a member of that commission, and may probably 
have recommended one of his own retainers to supply their 
place, from being well acquainted with his trustworthiness. 
That very night, however, the prisoner is found dead in 
his bed of a gun-shot wound; and if it were inflicted by 
any other hand than his own, suspicion would of course 
fix itself very strongly upon Bailiff, as the person nearest 
to him, and in whose custody he was; and if he were 
thought guilty, it is not surprising that Hatton should 
have been suspected, by his enemies, of having prompted 
the deed. 

To these remarks it will only be added, that there 
is not the slightest evidence of any enmity or unkindness 
having ever been between the Earl of Northumberland 
and Hatton ; that, as is well remarked in the pamphlet, 
"if men consider the inconvenience happened thereby, as 

d Lingard. 


well in matter of State as commodity to the Queen's 
Majesty lost by the prevention of his trial, who can in 
reason conjecture the Earl to have been murdered of 
policy or set purpose, as the evil affected seem to con- 
ceive ? If the Earl had lived to have received the cen- 
sure of the law for his offences, all lewd and frivolous 
objections had then been answered, and all his goods, 
chattels, and lands by his attainder had come unto her 
Majesty, and the honour and State and prosperity been 
utterly overthrown ;" that, if it were desired to assassi- 
nate a prisoner, poison or the dagger were far preferable 
instruments to fire-arms ; and that, though Hatton and 
other courtiers might, and probably would, have gained 
by the forfeiture of the Earl's lands had he been exe- 
cuted, they derived no advantage whatever from an act 
which secured his estates to his family. 8 

The Letter Book contains few letters written in 1586, 
and scarcely any of them are of much interest. No 
fact relating to Hatton has been found before August, 
except that in February, when the Earl of Leicester had 
excited the Queen's anger by his proceedings in the Low 
Countries, Hatton, knowing her weak point, advised 
him " to bestow some two or three hundred crowns in 
some rare thing for a token to her Majesty. " b 


SIR, Your letter being so full freighted with matters of great 
moment, makes me fear what to write, in respect of my inabi- 

a It is much to be regretted that great weight. As, however, his Lord- 
Lord Campbell did not, as might ship has merely mentioned facts, in 
reasonably be expected of the bio- a single sentence, without referring 
grapher of a Lord Chancellor charged to any authority whatever, it may be 
with so foul a crime as assassination, doubted if he even saw the Inquisi- 
investigate all the evidence on this tion in Stow, or the pamphlet in So- 
subject ; for, had it been sifted by his mers and Howell. 
great legal acumen and practical ex- 
perience, the conclusion to which he b The Hardwicke State Papers, i. 
might have arrived would have had 299. 


lity to answer it to your good contentment. Your news of the 
blustering winds abroad, threatening (as you fearfully suspect) 
some approaching inward storms at home, will, I hope, de- 
ceive you, and show you to be no great divine. The Pagan 
philosophers that would take upon them to prognosticate over 
boldly, would yet plainly affirm for truth, that nulla est astro- 
rum necessitas. I am no philosopher, but your poor friend, 
and I may say to you, I hope, without offence, man's conjec- 
tures of future things, are but dreams and mere imaginations, 
no divinations when reason hath well wakened his spirits. 
Our long blessings of peace are the wonderful graces of God, 
collated upon us, his unworthy people, for the which I 
beseech him to make us thankful. Yet am I afraid, that they 
do many times fare with us, as our sweet things do with man's 
body ; which corrupt nature with their great dulcetness, and 
filleth the blood with undigested waterishness, making it apt 
to boil and putrefy : such peril carrieth security with it, and so 
sweet hath our peace been, that I fear it will bring somewhat 
with it, that will be sour and loathsome in the end. Dulce 
things are nourishing, but yet (as the physician saith) accom- 
panied with loathing, honey is sweet and comfortable, but yet 
it inflameth swiftly, engendereth choler : our long happy peace, 
through her Majesty's provident care and goodness hath been 
a restorative, or rather a preservative as you term it, of the 
Kingdom and poor people ; but I doubt greatly that (as dulce 
things carry with them their dregs, which we take great de- 
light to taste of notwithstanding, whereof oppilations do rise in 
the stomach, through the operation of the gross substance, 
wherein the savouriness of sweetness is grounded,) so will the 
over sweet food of our long tranquillity so comfort and restore 
the liver and spleen of our estate and country, (members 
naturally thirsting after sweetness,) that the pure fine blood 
of it (which is religion and justice) will be corrupted, and the 
lungs, lights, and the very heart itself, shortly putrefied, if 
(like good physicians) we look not to the nocuments in time, 
and first remove their causes, whereby to avoid the perilous 
effects, which otherwise must needs ensue ; which I pray God 


her Majesty may do happily and timely, but ever safely for 
the preservation of her royal person, whose health is our 
earthly life, and whose death will be the destruction and deso- 
lation of us all, as in the which we shall most miserably 
stifle and perish. God direct it from us in his clemency and 
goodness, to whose gracious favour I commit you. From the 
Court at Greenwich, the 7th of July 1586. Your poor friend 
fastly faithful, SAMUEL Cox. a 

The following letter shows that Hatton, being seri- 
ously ill, had retired to Holdenby towards the end of 
August. The "horrible practices" to which he alludes, was 
the well-known conspiracy of Babington to assassinate 
the Queen ; 


ASSUREDLY, my good Lord, I find myself much bound to 
you for your oft and most honourable letters. I find thereby 
the time is deferred, and I fear the cause in this course will 
receive some prejudice. Is it not possible that, with the eye 
of her Majesty's wisdom, these most horrible and dangerous 
practices may be thoroughly looked into ? Surely, Sir, if she 
did, there would be no days given to the prevention of them. 
God hath mightily defended us. He is all and EveR one. I 
beseech Him that these our negligences may not tempt Him. 

I am come sick to my poor house, full of a fever, with 
stitches, spitting of blood, and other bad accidents. I must 
commit myself to God and the physician for awhile ; and 
though your access hither be further off than before, yet, Sir, 
by reason of my sickness I cannot return ; whereof (because 
such it seemed was her pleasure,) I most humbly beseech you 
to excuse me, for in truth I am very evil. God bless your 
good Lordship for EveJl. Haste, from my poor house at Hol- 
denby, the 2nd of September 1586. Your good Lordship's 
most bound poor friend, CHR. HATTON. b 

a Additional MSS. 15896, f. 137. b Autograph in the State Paper Office. 


Sir Christopher Hatton was, it appears, also one of 
the Privy Councillors by whom Mary's secretaries, Nau 
and Curie, were examined ; for on the 4th of September, 
Burghley wrote to him, " that they would yield some- 
what to confirm their mistress, if they were persuaded 
that themselves might escape, and the blow fall upon 
their mistress, betwixt her head and shoulders."* 

Ill as Hatton describes himself to have been on the 
2nd of September, he was able to return to London, and 
to sit as one of the Commissioners on the trial of the 
conspirators, Babington, Chidoke, Titchbourne, Savage, 
Abington, Ballard, Gage, Donn, and others, for high- 
treason, at Westminster, on the 13th, 14th, and 15th of 
that month. It is deserving of attention, as accounting 
in some degree for his subsequent elevation to the Wool- 
sack, that Hatton took as prominent a part in those pro- 
ceedings as any of the Judges. b When Savage had 
pleaded " guilty" to two and " not guilty" to one of the 
charges against him, and was told by Chief Justice 
Anderson and Chief Baron Manwood, that he must 
answer directly "guilty" or " not guilty," Hatton added, 
" To say that thou art guilty to that, and not to this, is 
no plea; for thou must either confess it generally, or 
deny it generally; wherefore delay not the time, but 
say either guilty or not ; and if thou say guilty, then 
shalt thou hear further, if not guilty, her Majesty's 
learned counsel is ready to give eyidence against thee." 
On the Attorney-General's saying " Now I hope is 
Savage's indictment sufficiently and fully proved," 
Hatton observed, " Savage, I must ask thee one ques- 

a Lingard's History of England ed., "although the two Chief Justices 
1838, vol. VIII., p. 219, who refers and Chief Baron were present, Hat- 
to this letter in Leigh's collection. ton took the lead in the conduct of 

b Lord Campbell considers, that, the trial," p. 142. 


tion: Was not all this willingly and voluntarily con- 
fessed by thyself, without menacing, without torture, or 
without offer of any torture ?" to which he simply replied 
"Yes." a When it was proposed to adjourn the Court, 
Hatton signified its consent, and stated what would be 
the course of proceeding on the next day. 

On the 14th, Ballard was called upon to plead, 
and saying " I answer as my case is," he, like Savage 
on the preceding day, was told by the Chief Justice 
either to deny the indictment generally, or to con- 
fess it generally; and Hatton added, " Ballard, under 
thine own hand are all things confessed ; therefore 
now it is much vanity to stand vaingloriously in deny- 
ing it." " Then, Sir, " said Ballard " I confess I am 
guilty." The Vice-Chamberlain's indignation against 
the prisoners was sometimes displayed in a manner 
which would not now be considered decorous in a Judge, 
though such conduct was then by no means uncommon. 
Donn confessing, that, when he was made privy to those 
treasons, "he always prayed unto God that that might be 
done which was to his honour and glory;" Hatton ob- 
served, " Then it was thus, that they said ' The Queen 
should be killed,' and thou saidst ' God's will be done P ; " 
and Donn answering, " Yes, Sir," Hatton exclaimed, " 
wretch! wretch! thy conscience and own confession 
show that thou art guilty." " Well, Sir, then I confess 
I am guilty." 

There was much, of natural pity in Hatton's re- 
mark on Babington's statement, that he was partly 
seduced by Ballard's persuasions. "0 Ballard, Bal- 
lard, what hast thou done? A sort of brave youths, 
otherwise endued with good gifts, by thy inducement 

a Lord Campbell says, " the poor tive and the eagerness of the reply 
wretch, in the vain hope of mercy, are known only to his Lordship, 
eagerly replied ' Yes ;'" but the mo- 




hast thou brought to their utter destruction and confu- 
sion." Ballard finished his reply to Babington's charge 
with the words " Howbeit, say what you will; I will say 
no more :" on which Hatton said "Nay, Ballard, you must 
say more, and shall say more, for you must not commit 
high treasons, and then huddle them up. But is this thy 
Religio Catholicaf nay rather it is Diabolical" 

Barnwell declared that what he had done was only for 
conscience sake, and that he never intended any violence 
to her Majesty's person ; on hearing which Hatton broke 
out with, " Barnwell, Barnwell, didst thou not come to 
Richmond, and, when her Majesty walked abroad, didst 
not thou there view her and all her company, what wea- 
pons they had, how she walked alone? and didst traverse 
the ground, and thereupon coming back to London, didst 
make relation to Babington how it was a most easy mat- 
ter to kill her Majesty, and what thou hadst seen and 
done at the Court : Yes, I know thou didst so. How 
canst thou then say that thou never didst intend to lay 
violent hands on her Majesty? Nay, I can assure thee 
moreover, and it is most true which I say, that her 
Majesty did know that thou didst come to that end, and 
she did see and mark thee how thou didst view her and 
her company ; but had it been known to some there as 
well as unto her, thou had never brought news to Babing- 
ton. Such is the magnanimity of our Sovereign, which 
God grant be not over much in not fearing such traitors 
as thou." a Barnwell replied. " What I did was only for 
my conscience sake, and not for any malice or hatred to 

a Upon this speech Lord Camp- 
bell, with some justice, remarks, that 
Hatton, "taking all this for con- 
fessed, he then, without being sworn, 
gives some evidence himself." It is, 

however, probable that most of the 
facts had been stated by Barnwell in 
his previous examination before the 
Privy Council. 


her Majesty's person," upon which Hatton said, " Then 
wouldst thou have killed the Queen for conscience. Fie 
on such a devilish conscience!"* 

At the conclusion of the proceedings "then began 
Sir Christopher Hatton, and made an excellent good 
speech in opening and setting forth their treasons, and 
how they all proceeded from the wicked priests, the 
ministers of the Pope. And first he showed how these 
wicked and devilish youths had conspired to murder the 
Queen's most excellent Majesty; secondly, to bring in 
Foreign invasion ; thirdly, to deliver the Queen of Scots 
and make her Queen; fourthly, b to sack the City of 
London ; fifthly, to rob and destroy all the wealthy sub- 
jects of this Realm; sixthly, to kill divers of the Privy 
Council, as the Earl of Leicester, the Lord Treasurer, 
Mr. Secretary, Sir Ralph Sadler, Sir Amias Paulet; 
seventhly, to set fire on all the Queen's ships ; eighthly, 
to cloy all the great ordnance; ninthly, and lastly, to 
subvert religion and the whole state of government. 
The inventors and beginners whereof were these devil- 
ish priests and seminaries, against whom he doubted 
the Parliament had not yet suificiently provided, who 
now a days do not go about to seduce the ancient and 
discreet men, for they (as the priests say) be too cold; 
but they assail with their persuasions the younger sort, 
and of those the most ripe wits, whose high hearts and 
ambitious minds do carry them headlong to all wicked- 
ness. In the end he concluded with remorse for the youth 
of some of these unhappy men, and with detestation of 
the facts of Ballard; and also shewed forth a notable proof 
of the falsehood of these lying Papists, which was a 
book printed at Rome, and made by the Papists, wherein 

a Page 134. bell observes, " unsupported by any 

b These charges were, Lord Camp- evidence." 


they affirm, that the English Catholics, which suffer for 
religion, be lapped in bear-skins, and baited to death 
with dogs, a most monstrous lie and manifest falsehood. 

"Then spake my Lord Anderson to the like effect, 
almost in every point, in abhorring the abomination of 
the Jesuits and Seminaries; and in the end concluded 
with an exhortation for the health of their souls; and 
last of all pronounced the terrible sentence of their con- 
demnation." a 

On the trial of Abington, Tilney, Jones, and others, 
on the 15th of September, Sir Christopher Hatton again 
took a prominent and less creditable part. When 
Abington asked to be allowed a pair of writing-tables, 
to set down what was alleged against him, and was 
informed by the Clerk of the Crown that "it was never 
the course here," Hatton said, " When you hear anything 
you are desirous to answer, you shall speak an answer 
at full, which is better than a pair of tables." In the 
course of the proceedings, the Attorney-General, address- 
ing Hatton, said, " Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, you desired 
Abington to set down the truth of these things; there- 
upon he set down a great deal in writing, and yesterday 
he tore it in a hundred pieces, and here Mr. Lieutenant of 
the Tower hath given me the pieces, and here they be." On 
which Sir Christopher Hatton observed, " Abington, you 
be very obstinate, and seem indurate in these treasons." 
The prisoner then answered the charges at some length ; 
and concluded by saying that Babington's accusation was 
of no weight, for, having committed and confessed treason 
in the highest degree, "there was no hope for him but to 
accuse." " For Babington's hope thereof," said Hatton, 
" I am persuaded he hath no hope at all ; and my Lords 
here can assure there is no hope at all of his life : but 

a Hargrave's State Trials, folio I., pp. 127-134. 


he confessed what he knew for discharge of his con- 
science, and what he did, he did it willingly and volun- 
tarily ; for had not Babington voluntarily named Abing- 
ton, who could have named Abington? and had he not 
also willingly accused Tilney, who could have accused 
Tilney?" Hatton showed some kindness to one of the 
conspirators called Charnock, for when he entreated him 
to induce the Queen to pardon him, he said, " Charnock, 
thy offence is too high for me to be an obtainer of thy 
pardon, but I am sorry for thee, if thou hadst applied 
thyself the best way, thou mightest have done thy Coun- 
try good service." The prisoner said, " I beseech you 
then that six angels, which such a one hath of mine, may 
be delivered unto my brother to pay my debts." " How 
much" asked Hatton " is thy debts ?" and being told 
that the six angels would discharge it, Hatton replied, 
" then I promise thee it shall be paid." 3 

The following letter from Babington was probably 
addressed to one of the conspirators, two of whom were 
called Robert, namely, Barn well and Gage : 


ROBYN, Non solicited possunt cures mutare rati stamina fusi. 
I am ready to endure what shall be inflicted: Et facer e et 
pati magna, Romanum. What my courses Jiave been towards 
Mr. Secretary you can witness ; what my love towards you, 
yourself will confess. Their proceedings at my lodging have 
been strange. Look to your own part, lest of these rriy infor- 
tunes you bear the blame. I am the same I pretended. I 
pray God you have been and ever remain so towards me. Est 
exilium inter malos vivere. Farewell, my sweet Robyn, if (as 
I take thee,) true to me ; if not, adieu, omnium bipedum ini- 
quissimus. Return thine answer for my satisfaction, and my 

a Howell's State Trials, vol. i. pp. 11271162. 

G G 


diamond, and what else you wilt. The furnace is made, 
wherein thy faith must now be tried. Farewell till we meet, 
which God knows when. Yours, you know how far, 


The disclosures of the conspirators caused a Commis- 
sion to be issued on the 6th of October for the trial of 
the Queen of Scots. Hatton was appointed one of the 
Commissioners, and they left London for Fotheringay 
before the 8th, and assembled there on the llth of that 
month. It appears, that when not engaged in the pro- 
ceedings, Hatton remained at Apthorpe, the seat of Sir 
Walter Mildmay, another of the Commissioners, which 
was about five miles from Fotheringay ; and that on the 
13th, Mr. Conway arrived from the Queen, with some 
special communication which had a " little daunted" him, 
and who brought back the following reply : 



goodness towards me is so infinite, as in my poor wit I am not 
able to comprehend the least part thereof. I must therefore 
fail in duty of thankfulness as your Mutton, and lay all upon 
God, with my humble prayers to requite you in Heaven and 
Earth in the most sincere and devout manner, that, through 
God's grace, I may possibly devise. Your Majesty's good 
servant, Mr. Conway, hath taken a wonderful sore journey. 
He hath from your Majesty a little daunted me. I most 
humbly crave your Majesty's pardon. God and your Majesty 

a Additional MSS. 15891, f. 135 b . 


be praised I have recovered my perfect health ; and if now 
for my ease or pleasure I should be found negligent in your 
service, I were much unworthy of that life which many a time 
your Royal Majesty hath given me. I might likewise sustain 
some obloquy, whereof I have heard somewhat ; but my will 
and wit, and whatever is in me, shall be found assuredly yours, 
whether I be sick or whole, or what^JveJ? become of me deem 
they what pleaseth them. God in Heaven bless your Ma- 
jesty, and grant me no longer life than that my faith and love 
may E\eR be found inviolable and spotless to so royal and 
peerless a Princess. At Apthorpe, this 13th of October 
1586. Your Royal Majesty's most bounden poor slave, 


Mary, having refused to acknowledge the competency 
of the tribunal, or to appear before it, Hatton represented 
to her on the 13th, that she "was accused (but not con- 
demned,) to have conspired the destruction of our Lady 
and Queen anointed. You say you are a Queen. Be 
it so. But in such a crime the Royal dignity is not ex- 
empted from answering, neither by the Civil nor Canon 
law, nor by the law of nations nor of nature. For if such 
kind of offences might be committed without punishment, 
all justice would stagger, yea, fall to the ground. If you 
be innocent, you wrong your reputation in avoiding trial. 
You protest yourself to be innocent, but Queen Elizabeth 
thinketh otherwise, and that neither without grief and 
sorrow for the same. To examine, therefore, your inno- 
cency, she hath appointed for Commissioners most ho- 
nourable, prudent, and upright men, who are ready to 
hear you according to equity with favour, and will re- 
joice with all their hearts if you shall clear yourself of 
this crime. Believe me, the Queen herself will be much 

a Autograph in the State Paper Office. 

G G 2 


affected with joy, who affirmed unto me, at my coming 
from her, that never anything befel her more grievous 
than that you were charged with such a crime. Where- 
fore lay aside the bootless privilege of Royal dignity, 
which now can be of no use unto you, appear in judg- 
ment, and show your innocency, lest, by avoiding trial, 
you draw upon yourself suspicion, and lay upon your 
reputation an eternal blot and aspersion." 

The next day, Mary sent for some of the Commission- 
ers, and said she consented to appear, as " she was very 
desirous to purge herself of the crime objected against 
her, being persuaded by Hatton's reasons, which she had 
weighed with advisement." b The trial accordingly took 
place on the 15th; and at its conclusion Mary, being 
asked if she wished to say any more, replied that " she 
required that she might be heard in a full Parliament, 
or that she might in person speak with the Queen and 
with the Council ; " and then, " rising up with great con- 
fidence of countenance, she had some conference with the 
Lord Treasurer, Hatton, Walsingham, and the Earl of 
Warwick, by themselves apart." The Commissioners 
re-assembled at Westminster on the 25th of October, 
and pronounced their iniquitous sentence. 

To the new Parliament, which met on the 1 5th of Oc- 
tober, but was adjourned to the 29th, Hatton was again 
returned for Northamptonshire ; and he resumed his po- 
sition as Leader of the House of Commons. On the 5th 
of November he declared, that the principal cause of 
summoning Parliament arose out of the late conspiracy 
against her Majesty, at the instigation of the Queen of 
Scots, tending to the ruin of the true religion established, 

a Camden's Annals, b. iii. p. 37. b Ibid. p. 88. c Ibid. p. 96. 


the invasion of the Realm, rebellion and civil wars : 
" Yea, and withal, which his heart quaked and trembled 
to utter and think on, the death and destruction of the 
Queen's most sacred person, to the utter desolation and 
conquest of this most noble realm of England!" After 
dilating, at some length, on the execrable treacheries 
and conspiracies of the Scottish Queen, he said, that 
" speedy consultation must be had by this House for the 
cutting of her off by course of justice; " for that other- 
wise the Queen's person would not be safe; and con- 
cluded his speech with these words, " Ne pereat Israel, 
pereat Absolon." a Both Houses agreed to present a pe- 
tition to the Queen, entreating her to order the execution 
of the Queen of Scots; and the following letter, which 
was marked to be sent " with all possible speed/' relates 
to the presentation of that petition, which took place on 
the 12th of November. Davison had been made Secre- 
tary of State, and sworn of the Privy Council on the 
30th of September :- 


MR. SECRETARY, Whereas I the Treasurer perceive by the 
report of me the Vice-Chamberlain, that her Majesty could 
be content that the coming of the Lords of Parliament and 
the Commons should be rather to-morrow than on Saturday. 
In very truth so would we both have it ; but the dispersing of 
both Houses is such, as the Lords have prorogued their Ses- 
sions until Monday or Tuesday, and therefore not possible to 
give the Lords appointed warning to come afore Saturday, 
and in like sort it will be to-morrow nine o'clock before the 
Commons assemble ; wherefore we both pray this night you 
to make our excuse herein to her Majesty, and in the morning 

a Parliamentary History, vol. i. p. 836. 


also there will be two or three Lords with her Majesty, to re- 
quire audience of her Majesty ; and thus being late in the 
evening, this Thursday, the 10th of November 1586, we bid 
you farewell. Your assured loving friend, 


On the 14th of November, after the Speaker had re- 
ported the Queen's answer to the petition, Hatton rose, 
and having first affirmed that the Speaker's report was 
true, he added, that the Queen had commanded him 
that morning to signify to the House, " that her High- 
ness, moved with some commiseration for the Scottish 
Queen, in respect of her former dignity and great for- 
tunes in her younger years, her nearness of kindred to 
her Majesty, and also of her sex, could be well pleased to 
forbear taking of her blood, if by any other means, to be 
devised by the Great Council of this Realm, the safety of 
her Majesty's person and government might be preserved 
without danger of ruin and destruction. But herein she 
left them, nevertheless, to their own free liberty and dis- 
positions of proceeding otherwise at their choice ; for as 
her Majesty would willingly hearken to the reasons of 
any particular Member of this House, so, he added, they 
might exhibit their thoughts in that case, either to any 
of the Privy Council, being of that House, or to the 
Speaker, to be by him delivered to her Majesty." He 
then reminded the House, that at the commencement of 
the Session the Queen had intimated her pleasure that no 
laws should be made in this Session ; and moved the ad- 
journment of the House to the 18th of November, during 
which interval the Queen might, he said, send some 
other answer to their petition, which she had not yet read. 

Original in the State Paper Office. 


On that day the House again met, and, after many 
speeches, came to the resolution, " That no other way, 
device, or means whatsoever could or can possibly be 
found or imagined, that such safety can in any wise be 
had, so long as the said Queen of Scots doth or shall 
live." a 

The French Ambassador was suspected of having 
tampered with William Stafford, the son of one of the 
Ladies of the Queen's bedchamber, to take away her 
life, through Du Trapp, his secretary ; " but Stafford as 
detesting the fact refused to do it, yet commanded one 
Moody, a notable hackster, a man forward of his hands, 
as one who, for money, would, without doubt, despatch 
the matter resolutely :" b 


have had Moody before us, with whom notwithstanding we 
have dealt very roundly, yet can we draw nothing of sub- 
stance from him. We have, therefore, thought it convenient 
to send to Mr. Randolph for his prisoner to be brought hither 
to-morrow, very early in the morning, to the end, that if we 
find this man to persist in his denial, he may be confronted 
with him as one that hath opened matter enough to touch 
them both by his own confession. We have likewise thought 
it fit to send very early in the morning for the keeper of 
Newgate, and one Romane his servant, with two other prison- 
ers named by Stafford to have been by at his access to Moody, 
to examine them, touching the point of Du Trapp's resort unto 
him, wherein, as in the rest of our proceeding, we will use 
that care of secrecy which both the matter requireth, and her 
Majesty expecteth, and in the meantime beseech your Lord- 
ship to advertise us, whether you think this course of con- 
fronting the parties fit or no for this first meeting, that we 

a Parliamentary History, i. 843. b Cainden's Annals, b. iii. p. 105. 


may proceed accordingly. And if in the morning we find any 
further matter worthy the advertisement, we will not fail 
immediately to make your Lordship partaker thereof, other- 
wise, at our return to the Court in the evening, to bring the 
report ourselves how we find the same. And so we humbly 
and heartily take our leaves this Friday night, at ten of the 
clock the 6th of January 1586 [1587.] Your Lordship's at 
commandment, CHR. HATTON 



I the Secretary did signify to your Lordship this morning, 
Du Trapp was brought very closely to this place; where, 
after some little stay, we thought it good for the better clear- 
ing of the truth to sound what he could say to the matters ob- 
jected against him by Stafford; who, after some vehement pro- 
testations, that he would deal plainly, as before God, respecting 
more his Honour than either Ambassador, or any other whatso- 
ever, he offered to set down as much as he could say with his 
own hand, which we thought not amiss to yield unto, till we had 
prepared some other matter to offer unto him by way of exa- 
mination ; whereof at the return of me, the Secretary, to the 
Court this evening, your Lordship shall receive the particu- 
larities. Since, we have again called Moody before us, and 
spent some time and labour with him, who standing resolute 
in his denial at his first coming, doth now begin to relent ; and 
having confessed the access of Du Trapp unto him, we no- 
thing doubt his coming on with the rest. We find already 
that Stafford's discoveries are no fables ; albeit Moody seems 
resolved to lay the original and ground of this practice upon 
Stafford, protesting his own fault to be chiefly in concealment 
thereof; which, as he saith, he did for the respect of his bro- 
ther being his master, and the rest of that honourable House 

a Original in the State Paper Office. 


of which Stafford is descended : he hath now likewise offered to 
discourse the whole cause in writing, wherein he is presently 
occupied. What it will fall out to be, your Lordship shall 
understand this evening. In the meantime it may please your 
Lordship to acquaint her Majesty with our proceeding thus 
far, to the end we may have her Highness 1 most gracious di- 
rections for our dealing in this unhappy action. And so we 
humbly take our leaves. At Ely-place, this 7th of January 
1586 [1587]. Your Lordship's at commandment, 


Parliament met on the 15th of February; arid on the 
22nd Sir Christopher Hatton, by the Queen's command, 
acquainted the House of Commons with the threatened 
invasion by Spain. In a long speech he said, that the 
dangers the Nation then stood in arose from ancient ma- 
lice against the Queen, and traced them to their root, the 
Council of Trent, " which agreed to extirpate the Chris- 
tian religion, termed by them heresy, to which divers 
Princes had assented, and solemnly bound themselves." 
He divided his speech into five heads ; the Catholics 
abroad, the Pope, the King of Spain, the Princes of the 
League, the Papists at home and their Ministers. After 
adverting to the various proceedings against this Country 
by the Pope, and the intended invasion by the King of 
Spain, he observed, that, u if we serve God in sincerity of 
heart, we need not fear." He then stated the force of 
the Spanish Armada in ships and troops, and pointed out 
the expediency of assisting the Low Countries, " the head 
of whose miseries was the Spanish Inquisition, by pla- 
card, using strange tortures not to be suffered." He 
repeated that "the great grief was religion," said, 
that all godly persons were bound to defend it; and 

a Murdin's State Papers, p. 578. 



concluded his address by commending the Queen's cou- 
rage, " which was not less than that of the stoutest Kings 
in Europe." 4 On the 1st of March, several questions were 
submitted by Mr. Wentworth, respecting freedom of de- 
bate, b which the Speaker refused to put; but having 
showed them to Sir Thomas Heneage, Wentworth, and 
four other Members who had spoken on the subject, were 
committed to the Tower. On the 4th of March, it was 
moved that the Queen be petitioned to restore those Mem- 
bers to the House, when Hatton said, " that if the gen- 
tlemen were committed for matter within the compass of 
the privilege of the House, then there might be room for 
a petition; but if not, we shall occasion her Majesty's 
further displeasure." He rather advised them to stay till 
they heard more, which could not be long ; and further, 
as to the book and petition, her Majesty had, for divers 
good causes best known to herself, thought fit to suppress 
the same, without any further examination of them ; and 
yet he conceived it very unfit for her Majesty to give any 
account of her actions. Parliament was dissolved on the 
23rd of the same month. 

Between the years 1582 and 1587, Hatton received 
large grants of lands. In August 1582, he obtained the 
manor of Parva Weldon, in Northamptonshire, and va- 
rious lands in other counties; in 1585, the keepership of 
the Forest of Buckingham and the Isle of Purbeck were 
granted to him; in 1586, the site of the monastery of 
Buer, in Oxfordshire, and several manors in other parts 
of England; in January 1587, the domain of Naseby, in 

a Parliamentary History, i. 847 of England," says, " No historian 

850. takes notice of the commitment of 

b Dr. Parry, in his very accurate, Mr. Wentworth and his companions." 

useful, and learned, though little 8vo. 1839, p. 230. 
known, " Parliaments and Councils c Ibid, pp. 852, 853. 


Northamptonshire ; and in July, being then Chancellor, 
the manor and rectory of West Drayton, and a tenement 
called Perry Place, in Middlesex, part of the lands for- 
feited by Lord Paget, were bestowed upon him. a It ap- 
pears, moreover, that he had partaken largely 'of the 
estates forfeited by the rebels in Ireland, as, in Septem- 
ber 1587, he held the castles and lands of Knockmoan, 
Cloyne, Kill, and Ballynecourty, alias Courts Town, with 
various baronies and other lands in the county of 
Waterford, which had belonged to Eichard Fitz Morice, 
the Fitz Thomases, or to the Earl of Desmond. b On the 
21st of May he was authorised to grant letters of deni- 
zenship to aliens, at his discretion, during the Queen's 
pleasure, though it is laid down in the strongest terms 
by Lord Coke and Blackstone, that the Crown cannot 
delegate that power to any Subject, "it being by the law 
itself so inseparably and individually annexed to the 
Eoyal person;'' and on the same day he received a war- 
rant for the payment of the "fees, reward, and diet " ap- 
pertaining to his office of Charicellor. d On the 12th of 
September he was appointed Lieutenant, or as that officer 
is now called, Lord Lieutenant of Northamptonshire. 6 

In the proceedings respecting the dispatch of the 
warrant for the execution of the Queen of Scots, Hatton 
took a prominent part. On the 2nd of February 1587, 
when Davison began to feel uneasy about the Queen's in- 
tentions, he went to the Vice-Chamberlain and communi- 
cated all the circumstances, adding that he was deter- 
mined not to proceed any further in the affair by himself, 

a Rot. Patent, 27, 28, 29, Eliz. the 4th of September, 1587, in the 
passim. State Paper Office. 

c Seventh Report 25 b . Calvin's Case. 

b Book entitled The Under- d Rot. Patent, 29 Eliz. 
taker's Lands in Munster," sent on e Ibid. 


but would leave it to Hatton and others to determine 
what should be done. The Vice- Chamberlain then said, 
that, " as he was heartily glad the matter was brought 
thus far, so did he for his own part wish him hanged 
that would not join with Davison in the furtherance 
thereof, being a cause so much importing the common 
safety and tranquillity of her Majesty and the whole 
Kealm ;" and resolved to go with Davison to Lord Burgh- 
ley, and confer with him on the subject. They accord- 
ingly did so, when it was determined to assemble the 
Council the next day; and in the mean time Burghley 
undertook to draw up the letters necessary to accompany 
the warrant, which Davison delivered into his hands. 
The next morning Burghley sent for Hatton and Davi- 
son, and showed them the draught of the letters; but 
Hatton finding them " very particular, and such as, in 
truth, the warrant could not bear," showed his disappro- 
bation of them, and appeared to dislike -their contents 
even more than he expressed. Burghley offered to write 
others in more general terms by the afternoon ; and they 
agreed to assemble the Privy Council immediately, which 
met within an hour in Burghley 's chamber. His Lord- 
ship then addressed them on the Scottish Queen's of- 
fences, and the necessity of executing the sentence ; said 
that in signing the warrant, the Queen had done all that 
either reason or the law required of her ; stated what had 
taken place between Her Majesty and Davison, but that 
Davison had refused to act alone; that as they were all 
equally interested, he thought they should make it a ge- 
neral and common cause ; and that the warrant should be 
despatched without any further reference to the Queen. 
Each of the members of the Council having offered to 
take his share of the responsibility, it was resolved to for- 


ward the warrant by Mr. Beale, the Clerk of the Council ; 
and the letters proposed by Burghley to accompany it, 
being approved, they were ordered to be drawn up by 
the evening. The Council then separated, and went to 
dinner, but met again at two o'clock, when the letters 
were signed, and given to Beale, with express and urgent 
directions to use the utmost expedition in proceeding to 
Fotheringay. a The Privy Councillors who were present 
at those proceedings, and who signed the letters, were 
Lord Burghley, the Earls of Derby and Leicester, Lords 
Howard, Hunsdon and Cobham, Sir Francis Knollys, 
Sir Christopher Hatton, Sir Francis Walsingham, and 
Mr. Davison. b No sooner had information arrived that 
the sentence was executed than Elizabeth sent for 
Hatton, and assured him that she was ignorant of the 
act, and that it was entirely against her intentions. 
Though her assumed indignation lighted upon all her 
Ministers, it fell principally upon Davison, who was 
committed to the Tower on the 14th of February; and 
while in confinement he underwent three examinations. 
Sir Christopher Hatton and Mr. Wolley, were first sent 
to him on the 12th of March, when the following " arti- 
cles were ministered to him :" 

WHETHER upon signing of the warrant, her Majesty gave it 
not in express charge and commandment unto you to keep the 
same secret, and not to utter it to anybody ? He answereth that 
he hopeth her Majesty doth not forget how she commanded 
my Lord Admiral to send for him to bring the warrant to her, 
having, as his Lordship told me, resolutely determined to go 
through with the execution. Upon my coming to her, it 
pleased her to call for the warrant, and voluntarily to sign it, 

a Life of Davison, 8vo. 1823, Ap- b Ibid p. 97, and Ellis's Original 
pendix A and B. Letters, Second Series, vol. HI. p. 1 1 1 . 


without giving me any such commandment as is objected, 
which he confirmeth in the presence of God. Other interro- 
gatories made and bold answers given, 16th March 1586-7. 3 

Davison's own account of the examinations contains 
the " other interrogatories," and his " bold answers/"* 
It does not appear by whom the examinations on the 
14th and 16th of March, were made; but, as is well 
known, Davison was sacrificed to the Queen's cruel and 
selfish policy. It is remarkable, however, that neither 
Hatton nor any other of the Queen's Ministers, who 
signed the letters that accompanied the warrant for 
Mary's execution, was present in the Star Chamber on 
the 28th of March, when Davison was sentenced to be 
heavily fined and imprisoned, except Sir James Croft, the 
Comptroller, who, however, had the modesty and good 
sense to say little on the occasion. 

Great as had been the favours lavished upon Hatton 
by his Sovereign, the Country was not prepared for the 
extraordinary promotion which raised him to the highest 
office in the Kealm, and imposed upon him judicial duties 
of the most important nature. On the 12th of April, 
Lord Chancellor Bromley died, and the Great Seal wag 
sent in the evening to the Queen, at Greenwich; and 
except on two pressing occasions, it remained in her 
hands. The Queen appointed the Earl of Rutland, " a 
profound lawyer, and accomplished with all excellent 
learning," to succeed Bromley, but he died six days 

a Lansdowne MSS. 982, f. 97. landiae Comes ex Maneiorum," &c. 

b Life of Davison, Appendix E. In his own translation, Camden's 

c Camden, b. in. p. 127. In his words are, "And the sixth day after 

original work (ed. 1615, p. 475) [died] Edward Earl of Rutland, 

Camden, after mentioning the death whom the Queen had appointed to 

of Chancellor Bromley, says, "Et be his successor," &c. This posi- 

sexto post die, qui illi successor a tive statement of a learned contem- 

Regina destinatus, Edward us Rut- porary writer is thus misrepresented 


afterwards, before he had received the Great Seal ; and 
on Saturday, the 29th of that month, she delivered it to 
Sir Christopher Hatton, and appointed him Lord Chan- 
cellor of England. The ceremony is thus described : 
the Court was then at the Archbishop of Canterbury's 
palace at Croydon ; and about four o'clock in the after- 
noon, in a private ambulatory or gallery, near her pri- 
vate chamber, and in the presence of the Archbishop and 
some other personages of high rank, her Majesty took 
the Seal, which was lying in a red velvet bag in a win- 
dow, into her own hands, and carried it to the centre 
of the gallery. She then delivered it to Hatton, but 
immediately received it back again, and commanded it 
to be taken out of the bag. The Seal was then affixed 
to an instrument, and replaced in the bag, when the 
Queen re-delivered it to Hatton ; and she " then and 
there made and constituted the said Sir Christopher 
Hatton, Lord Chancellor of England."* 

It was to be expected that the appointment of any 
one, except an eminent lawyer, to the office of Lord 
Chancellor, would excite the astonishment, if not the en- 
mity of the Bar. " The great lawyers of England," says 

by Lord Campbell: "Camden says, ing to become an orator and a states- 
there was a speculation likewise at man." " Love and gratitude filled 
Court, that Edward Earl of Rutland the mind of Elizabeth, arid after some 
would be appointed Chancellor, had misgivings, whether he who would 
he not suddenly died," p. 137. have made a most excellent Lord 
a Rot. Claus. 29 Eliz. p. 42, d Chamberlain, was exactly fitted for 
printed in Lord Campbell's Life of the duties of Lord Chancellor, re- 
Hatton, p. 147. No authority has solved to appoint him. The inten- 
been found, and his Lordship does tion was, however, kept a profound 
not cite any, to justify the following secret from all except Burghley, till 
observations. After the execution the time when the deed was done." 
of Mary, says the noble biographer, " Some of the Courtiers at first 
" balls and masques were resumed, thought that this ceremony [the de- 
and being still the handsomest man livery of the Great Seal] was a piece 
and the best drest, and the most of wicked pleasantry on the part of 
gallant, and the best dancer at Court, the Queen," &c. pp. 146, 147. 
he gained new consequence, pretend- 


Camden, "took it very offensively, for they, ever after 
the ecclesiastical men were put from this degree, had 
with singular commendations for equity and wisdom, 
borne this highest place of gowned dignity, bestowed in 
old time for the most part upon churchmen and noble- 
men. But Hatton was advanced thereunto through the 
cunning Court practices of some, that by his absence 
from Court, and troublesome Office of so great a magis- 
tracy, for which they knew him to be insufficient, his 
favour with the Queen might be abated. Yet bare he 
the place with the greatest state of all that ever we saw, 
and what was lacking in him in knowledge of the law, 
he laboured to supply by equity and justice." 3 

Speaking of Hatton's appointment, Fuller says, " The 
gownsmen grudging hereat, conceived his advancement 
their injury, that one not thoroughly bred to the laws, 
should be preferred to the place. How could he cure 
diseases, unacquainted with their causes, who might 
easily mistake the justice of the Common law for rigour, 
not knowing the true reason thereof? Hereupon it was 
that some sullen Serjeants at the first, refused to plead 
before him, until partly by his power, but more by 
his prudence, he had convinced them of their errors and 
his abilities." 13 No letter or other document exists to 
shew that Hatton himself sought this great Office ; and 
it may be inferred from Camden's remark, that it was 
given to him through the intrigues of his enemies : nor 

a Annals, b. in. p. 127. Chancellor ; but a few who looked 

b Fuller's Worthies ed. 1811. vol. eagerly for advancement, dissented," 

ii. p. 165. Lord Campbell, who p. 148. All that has been found on 

quotes part of the above passage, the subject is stated in the text ; 

erroneously assigns it to Naunton, and there is nothing whatever to 

and says that " Meetings of the bar show that there were " any meetings 

were held, and it was resolved by of the bar," or any general resolu- 

many Serjeants and apprentices that tion of the profession not to plead 

they would not plead before the new before the new Chancellor. 


has any allusion to his appointment been found in the 
correspondence of the period. 

The Chancellor, on the 3rd of May, the first day of 
Trinity Term, rode from Ely Place, in Holborn, in great 
state to Westminster, to take the oaths. He was pre- 
ceded by about forty of his gentlemen, uniformly dressed 
in a blue livery, wearing gold chains, and by several 
Pensioners and other gentlemen of the Court, on foot, 
arid was attended by the officers and clerks of the Chan- 
cery. On his right hand rode Lord Treasurer Burghley, 
and on his left the Earl of Leicester ; and he was fol- 
lowed by some of the Nobility, the Judges, many 
Knights, and a great troop of their retinue. a The fol- 
lowing account of Hatton's reception in the Court of 
Chancery, stands only on the authorities referred to; 

"It is said," by Lord Campbell, " that Hatton was 
received in the Court of Chancery with cold and silent 
disdain. Nevertheless, there was, from the first, some 
little business brought on before him. The Attorney and 
Solicitor-General, lest they should themselves be dis- 
missed, were obliged, however discontented they might 
be, to appear to countenance him. He made no public 
complaint of his reception, and gradually gained ground 
by his great courtesy and sweetness, to say nothing of the 
good dinners and excellent sack, for which he was soon 
famous. It would appear that there was much public cu- 
riosity to see i the dancing Chancellor ' seated upon his 
tribunal; and the crowds of strangers in the Court of 
Chancery were so great, that there came out an order 4 by 
the Right Honourable Sir Christopher Hatton, Knight of 
the Most Noble Order of the Garter, and Lord Chancellor 
of England,' in these words : i For the avoiding of such 

a Stow's Annals, p. 741. 

H H 




great numbers of suitors and others as do daily pester 
the Court in the time of sitting, by reason whereof here- 
tofore it hath many times happened that the due rever- 
ence and silence which ought to be kept and observed in 
that honourable Court hath been undutifully neglected, 
and contrariwise much unmannerly and unseemly beha- 
viour and noise hath been there used, to the hindrance of 
the due hearing of such matters and causes as were there 
to be handled, and to the great derogation of the honour 
of this Court, and due reverence belonging to the same ' 
-Then follow regulations, by which none were to come 
into Court but counsel, attorneys, officers, and their 
clerks and parties, who were i to continue so long as the 
cause shall be in hearing, and no longer; and all other 
suitors whatsoever (except Noblemen, and such as be of 
her Majesty's Privy Council) were to stand without the 
Court, and not suffered to come in without special li- 
cence.' 3 He was quite at home when presiding in the Star 
Chamber, where he had before been accustomed to sit as 
a Privy Councillor, and he had the Chiefs of the Common 
Law to assist him. To this Court, according to usage, h< 
dedicated Wednesdays and Fridays. On other days he 
sat for Equity business in the Court of Chancery; in 
Westminster Hall in the mornings, and in his own house 
in the afternoons. He made an order that four Masters 
in Chancery should always attend, and sit on the bench 
with him in Court, and two in his own house. b 

" He was exceedingly cautious, ' not venturing to wade 
beyond the shallow margin of Equity, where he could 
distinctly see the bottom.' He always took time to con- 

a "Reg. Lib. B 31 and 32 Eliz, b "Ordo Curise, decimo viii. die 
1589, p. 498." Lives of the Chan- Aprilis Anno Regni Elizabeth* Re- 
cellors. ginse xxx. " Ibid. 


sider in cases of any difficulty; and in these he was 
guided by the advice of one Sir Eichard Swale, described 
as his 'servant-friend,'* who was a Doctor of the Civil 
Law, and a Clerk in the Chancery, and well skilled in all 
the practice and doctrines of the Court. By these "means 
Lord Chancellor Hatton contrived to get on marvellously 
well ; and though suitors might grumble, as well as their 
counsel, the public took part with him, and talked with 
contempt of ' the sullen Serjeants,' who at first refused 
to plead before him. All were dazzled with the splen- 
dour of his establishment; and it was said, that he 
made up for his want of law by his constant desire to 
do what was just. b But the more judicious grieved ; 
and, in spite of all his caution and good intentions, 
he committed absurd blunders, and sometimes did in- 

Upon this statement it may be observed that as 
" none of Hatton's decisions have come down to us," d and 
as there is no report of his proceedings in his Court, the 
evidence of those "absurd blunders," and of his occa- 
sional "injustice," is wholly wanting; while even his 
learned biographer admits, that, in the cause of which 
a report 6 is preserved, he " presided with great gravity, 
and, with many apologies for the leniency of the sen- 
tence, he fined the defendant 2000/., and directed the 
Judges to testify this punishment on their circuits, to 
the end the whole Realm might have knowledge of it, 
and the people no longer be seduced with these lewd libel- 
lers." As Hatton " shewed great industry," and " made 
himself tolerably well acquainted with the practice of 

a Fuller's Worthies. d Ibid. p. 158. 

b " Camden." Regina v. Knightly, in the Star 

c Lord Campbell's Life of Hatton, Chamber. Howell's State Trials, 
pp. 149151. i. 1270. 

H H 2 


the Court of Chancery;" and as he "issued several 
new orders to improve it, which were much applauded," 
it may be inferred, with more probability, and certainly 
with more candour, that he performed the duties 
of his high office with satisfaction to the public and 
credit to himself. The fact, that none of Hatton's de- 
crees were reversed, is met by the remark, that, " if he 
and his adviser, Dr. Swale, had erred ever so much, 
there were hardly any means of correcting them; for 
there was no appeal to the House of Lords in Equity 
suits till the reign of Charles II., and there was no chance 
of bringing, with any effect, before the Council the 
decree of a Chancellor still in power. " a 

" To give the public a notion/' says his biographer, 
"that he had attended to the study of the law, he ac- 
tually published a 'Treatise concerning Acts of Par- 
liament, and the Exposition thereof; ' b but it was well 
known to be written by another, and was withal a very 
poor production;'' but the fact is, that the work thus 
positively said to have been u actually published " by 
Hatton, with so unworthy an object, was not printed 
until he had quietly reposed in his grave for eighty- 
six years! Even the boldest and most important act 
which a Chancellor can be called upon to perform, 
the refusal of his Sovereign's command to affix the 

* Lord Campbell, p. 157. seen the book, has formed a higher 

b Ibid, p. 158. opinion of its merits than Lord 

c "A Treatise concerning Statutes, Campbell. Speaking of Hatton he 

or Acts of Parliament, and the expo- says, " There is also a short Trea- 

sition thereof; written by Sir Chris- tise on the Construction of Statutes, 

topher Hatton, late Lord Chancellor which was printed in 1677, after his 

of England. London ; printed for death ; if this was really written by 

Richard Tonson, at his shop under him, it must be allowed not to be 

Gray's-Inn Gate, next Gray's- Inn entirely destitute of merit." Obser- 

Lane. Anno 1677." 12mo. Bar- vations on the more Ancient Sta- 

rington, who appeals really to have tutes, p. 405. 


Great Seal to letters-patent, conferring an unconstitu- 
tional office upon the most powerful man in the Realm, 
elicits no other praise than that it showed the mis- 
take of supposing that " he would be utterly dis- 
graced by the incompetent manner in which he must 
discharge his judicial duties;" and it is insinuated, that 
but for the opportune death of the party, he might have 
been induced to comply.* Though represented as hav- 
ing been so incompetent a Chancellor, Hatton is never- 
theless said to have been so incessantly occupied with 
his judicial duties, as to have lost the Queen's regard 
by his absence from Court, where he was supplanted by 
Essex and Ealeigh; and "on his occasional visits to 
Whitehall, or St. James's, to Eichmond, or Greenwich," 
he had, it is added, " the deep mortification of finding 
himself entirely neglected and slighted for younger 
men. b " It was " on one of these occasions " that " he 
saw" Raleigh attract the Queen's notice by throwing 
his " brave silken cloak " before her when he was " in- 
stantly taken into favour by her, and appointed to the 
post which he himself had once held ;" and so intimately 
acquainted is the noble biographer with the Chancellor's 
private feelings, that he says, Hatton " would now have 
been delighted to exchange " that post" for the Great 
Seal. 6 " 

It unfortunately happens, however, that there is 
not the slightest foundation for this pathetic story, 
inasmuch as Raleigh was taken into favour by the 
Queen, and was an object of Hatton's jealousy, at least 
five years before the Vice- Chamberlain was raised to the 

a Lives of the Chancellors, p. 153. c Ibid. p. 155. 

b Ibid. pp. 154, 155. 


woolsack ; a and Raleigh had obtained the post of Captain 
of the Guard nearly twelve months before that event. 
On the 12th of May the Lord Chancellor received the 
following letter from Lord Burghley : 


MY LORD, I am sorry that my pains are such as I cannot 
attend on you to-day in the Star Chamber, having yesterday, 
by more zeal of service in the Exchequer Chamber, than of 
regard to my harms, so weakened and pained my leg, as I can- 
not stir it out of my bed ; but this my declaration of my state 
is to no purpose to occupy your Lordship withal. This great 
matter of the lack of vent, not only of clothes, which present- 
ly is the greatest, but of all other English commodities which 
are restrained from Spain, Portugal, Barbary, France, Flan- 
ders, Hamburgh, and the States, cannot but in process of 
time work a great change and dangerous issue to the people 
of the Realm, who, heretofore, in time of outward peace, 
lived thereby, and without it must either perish for want, or 
fall into violence to feed and fill their lewd appetites with 
open spoils of others, which is the fruit of rebellion ; but it is 
in vain to remember this to your Lordship, that is so notorious 
as there need no repetition thereof. The evil being seen and 
like daily to increase beyond all good remedies, it is our duties 
that are Councillors to think of some remedies in time, before 
the same become remediless ; and briefly the best means of 
remedy must follow the consideration of the causes of this 
evil, and so " contrariis contraria curare" The original cause 
is apparently the contentions and enmities betwixt the King 
of Spain and his countries, and her Majesty and her coun- 
tries. The reduction hereof to amity betwixt the Princes, 
and to open traffic according to the ancient treaties of inter- 
course, would be the sovereign remedy ; but this may be wished 
sooner than speedily effectuated. But yet, seeing there is a sig- 
nification notified of the good inclination of both the Princes, 

8 Vide, p. 275278, ante. 


and a great necessity to press them both thereto for the sou- 
agement of their people, it were pity any course should be 
taken either to hinder this or not to hasten it, which surely in 
the Low Countries would be done, with whatsoever a reason- 
able cost may be, to keep the enemy from victuals, and to 
withstand his enterprises against our friends until this next 
harvest; and by this proceeding against him, there is no doubt 
but he will yield to all reasonable conditions meet both for 
her Majesty and her protected friends ; otherwise, if the good 
fortune of our friends do decay, and the enemy recover that 
which he now lacketh, that is store of victuals, he will either 
underhand make peace with our friends, whom he shall find 
both weak and timorous, and leave her Majesty in danger for 
recovery of all that she hath spent, and in greater charges to 
maintain her two cautionary towns against the whole Low 
Countries than two Boulognes were, or else he will, being 
puffed with pride, make a very Spanish conquest of Holland 
and Zealand, a matter terrible to be thought of, but most 
terrible to be felt. But to insist upon this remedy is as yet in 
vain, and therefore such other poor helps are to be thought of 
as may somewhat mitigate the accidents present, and stay the 
increase thereof, whereof when I do bethink myself, I find no 
one simple remedy, but rather compounded of divers simples, 
and to say truly they are but simple remedies, until peace may 
ensue, which is the sovereign sole medicine of all. To have 
vent increase, there must be more buyers and shippers than 
there are, and seeing our merchants say that they cannot have 
sales sufficient, 

1. It were good that the Steelyard men were licensed to 
trade as they were wont to do, with condition upon good 
bonds that our merchants adventurers shall have their former 
liberties in Hamburgh. 

2. These Steelyard merchants must also have a dispensation 
to carry a competent number of unwrought cloths that are 
coarse, which are the cloths whereof the great stay is in the 

3. Beside this, the merchant strangers might have a like 


dispensation for the buying and shipping of a competent num- 
ber of like white coarse cloths. 

4. And if her Majesty, for some reasonable time, would 
abate only 2s. upon a cloth, I think there would grow no loss 
to her Majesty, having respect to the multitude of the cloths 
that should be carried, whereas now the strangers carry few, 
but upon licences, for which her Majesty hath no strangers' 
customs but English. 

5. The strangers also must have liberty to buy in Blackwell 
Hall, or else there may be a staple set up in Westminster, out 
of the liberties of the City of London, which, rather than 
London would suffer, I think they will grant liberty to stran- 
gers in respect of the hallage money which they shall leese. 
Notwithstanding all these shows of remedies, I could wish 
that our merchants adventurers were made acquainted here- 
with, and to be warned, that if they shall not amend the prices 
to clothiers for their coarse cloths, whereby the clothiers may 
be reasonably apparent gainers, and that to be put in practice 
this next week, that then her Majesty will give authority to 
put the former helps in practice. Thus, my good Lord, 
because I understand you are to go to the Court this after- 
noon, I have thought good to scribble, as I do (lying in pain), 
these few cogitations, submitting them to a more mature dis- 
quisition. Your Lordship's most assured, W. BURGHLEY.* 


SIR, This afternoon Sir Rowland Hay ward and Sir Edward 
Osborne have been with me to deliver an answer in the mat- 
ter of buying and selling of cloths in Blackwell Hall. They 
have assembled their Common Council upon this cause, 
wherein by a general consent their resolution is this That 
with all reverent duty they submit themselves to anything it 
shall please her Majesty to command them. But in this mat- 
ter, that Strangers and other Subjects not being of their Com- 
pany should have to do in Blackwell Hall (the same being an 

a Original in the State Paper Office, indorsed, " 12th May, 1587." 


express breach of their liberty,) they most humbly crave to be 
excused. It is directly (as they affirm) against their oath, to 
admit any others into this freedom, and the only recompence 
reserved for their servants, in hope of this future benefit and 
commodity, which being taken away by communicating the 
same indifferently unto others, would exceedingly discourage 
them, and perchance enure to farther inconvenience hereafter. 
They do therefore earnestly entreat me to be a mean their 
humble excuse may be received in this behalf, and that her 
Majesty will graciously vouchsafe to accept thereof. It may 
please you, Sir, in your wisdom, to deliver the effect hereof to 
her Highness, in such terms as may best be fitting with the 
cause, which referring to your good consideration, 1 bid you 
most heartily farewell. From London, the 27th of May 1587. 
Your assured loving friend, CHR. HATTON, CANC.* 


AFTER my very hearty commendations, by this 

I am informed of some unseemly and unnatural contention 
growing between this gentleman and his mother, for the sup- 
pressing whereof (being a matter of much rebuke unto them 
both) I find an honest disposition in him to have the cause 
taken up by any indifferent gentlemen for the avoiding of such 
a trouble or obloquy unto them in this behalf. I have there- 
fore thought fit (being very desirous to further so good and 
godly a purpose) to refer the consideration of this suppliant 
grief unto you, as gentlemen of whose integrity and upright 
dealing in causes of like trust I am right well assured. Ear- 
nestly praying you upon the receipt hereof to call both parties 
before you, and upon due examination of the matter and ori- 
ginal cause of their strife and unkindness, to seek (if you can) 
to reconcile the same, and to take such indifferent course for a 
final end between them as you shall find to be most agreeable 
with equity and justice. And in case that either of them 

a Original in the State Paper Office. 


shall refuse to stand to your order therein, then my desire is 
you should advertise me thereof, and by whose default the 
same shall happen, to the end [that I] may take such other 

course as in that behalf shall fit and convenient. 

And so not doubting of your w pains and travail 

for so good a purpose, and the rather st for 

which I shall have cause to thank you, and 

you to some good course of love and friendship be- 
tween them if you possibly may, I bid you very heartily fare- 
well. From London, the last of May 1587. Your very 
loving friend, CHR. HATTON, CANC a . 

As the " Peerages" do not mention the death of any 
child of Sir John Stanhope, afterwards Lord Stanhope, 
there is nothing to fix the date of the next letter, except 
that in his letter of the 8th of October 1587, he speaks 
of " untimely death having bereft him of the fruit of 
his youth and stay of his age." His son and successor 
was born in 1592; 


SIR, It is God's pleasure I should be left a sorrowful and 
desolate father, by the death of my only child, and since it is 
his doing, I must bear the cross thereof as quietly as he will 
give me grace, though nature being strong, in a weak mind, 
work according to natural passions; which, being unfit to be 
spent in this place, makes me desirous to wait on you afore my 
going, at your good leisure ; hoping to find such continuance 
of your favour, as I have ever, since my first coming hither, 
been partner of. In requital whereof, I can but rest yours, 
and pray for the continuance of your health, with increase of 
all honourable comforts. Your Honour's humbly, 


a Autograph in the Harleian MSS. 286, f. 112. 
b Additional MSS. 15891, f. 119. 



SIR, Since it hath pleased you something to relieve my 
afflicted spirits with the honourable offer of your friendly deal- 
ing, I thought it my part for your better remembrance, to add 
such notes thereunto, as, bearing a true date, may induce a 
readier dispatch in all good consideration. My time of attend- 
ance hath been here about sixteen years, with extraordinary 
charges, and all dutiful and ordinary care, without either fee, 
pension, or wages, during all which time I can never remem- 
ber that I was so much as six weeks absent at once, and that 
not past twice in all. And though I know all is but duty, and 
nothing worth, yet have I been ever ready to supply one place 
or other, to be commanded as there was cause of service, never 
without that faith that was fit, nor such diligence as might 
deserve good opinion. Her Majesty's goodness being infinite, 
I humbly acknowledge to have been singularly bound unto 
her, and do rest with the burthen of an infinite debt ; but for 
any portion befallen either to my preferment or profit I have 
never reaped any but that which yourself best knoweth of, 
who were the chiefest means to further in my behalf the fruit 
of her Majesty's gracious favour. Since which time (which is 
seven years past and more,) believe me, Sir, it is too true, I 
have both spent the last penny of that benefit, and sold /. 
land of inheritance, which was my mother's gift. Yet still in 
debt, but not out of heart, if untimely death had not bereft me 
of the fruit of my youth and stay of my age, by whose conve- 
nient match I might have reared something to my advantage. 
But it hath now pleased the Almighty to leave me wholly to 
her Majesty's goodness, whereof, as I never had cause to 
doubt, so this, my present suit, being without charge to her 
Majesty, and without trouble to any, may both in part repair 
my ruin, and settle my mind to some better stay, which shall 
then be most quiet, when I shall know myself fittest to serve 
her Majesty as I desire, contented ever with the mean estate 
of a well-measured mind. In the meanwhile my humble 
prayer shall never cease for her prosperous and blessed estate, 


nor my good-will to do you any service I shall be able. From 
the Court at Whitehall, the eighteenth of October 1587. 
Your Honour's humbly, JOHN STANHOPE.* 

So far from Hatton having lost any part of the Queen's 
regard, he received a distinguished mark of her favour in 
April 1588. On Saint George's Day, in a Chapter of the 
Order of the Garter, held at Greenwich, four Knights were 
elected by the Companions ; but the Sovereign's pleasure 
was not made known until the following day, the 24th, 
when Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, Thomas Butler, 
Earl of Ormond, President of Munster, and Sir Christopher 
Hatton, the Lord Chancellor, were declared Knights of the 
Order. Being introduced into the Chapter, the Knights 
Elect fell upon their knees, and were severally invested 
with the insignia by the Queen's own hands ; and they 
were installed on the 23rd of May. It appears, how- 
ever, that on Saint George's day, in the preceding year, 
Hatton received eight, being the greatest number of votes; 
but, as the Queen refused to attend when the scrutiny was 
taken, on the pretence that she was not attired in the 
mantle of the Order, no election took place. b 

Lord Campbell's researches have discovered an admir- 
able speech which was made by Lord Chancellor Hatton 
on the elevation of Mr. Robert Clarke, to the dignity 
of Sergeant -at-law, who attained that degree on the 12th 
of June, 1588:- 

" 'No man can live without Law, therefore I do exhort 
you, that you have good care of your duty in the calling, 
and that you be a father to the poor ; that you be careful 
to relieve all men afflicted. You ought to be an arm to 
help them ; a hand to succour them. Use uprightness 

a Additional MSS. 15891. b History of the Order of the Gar- 

ter, 4to. p. 199. 


and follow truth. Be free from cautel. Mix with the 
exercise of the law no manner of deceit. Let these 
things be far from your heart. Be of an undoubted reso- 
lution. Be of good courage, and fear not to be carried 
away with the authority, power, or threatenings of any 
other. Maintain your clients' cause in all right. Be not 
put to silence. As it is alleged out of the Book of Wisdom, 
6 Noli qucerere fieri Judex, ne forte extimescas faciem 
potentis, etponas scandalum in agilitate tua. 9 Know no 
man's face. Go on with fortitude. Do it in upright- 
ness. ( Redde cuique quod suum." 1 Be not partial to 
yourself. Abuse not the highest gifts of God, which no 
doubt is great in equity. These things be the actions of 
nobility. He that doth these things duly, deserves high 
honour, and is worthy in the world to rule. Let truth be 
familiar with you. Regard neither friend nor enemy. 
Proceed in the good work laid upon you. And the last 
point that I am to say to you, use diligence and careful- 
ness. And although I have not been acquainted with the 
course of the Law, albeit, in my you