(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Memoirs of the Long Island Historical Society"



1 '• " '' Aj •'-•• 



Mmtm 



£.701 
I to 
L 
32750 



REYNOLD HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTIOM 



\ 



lie 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 1833 




78 3054 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/memoirsoflongislOOIong 



•i i 



MEMOIRS 



OF THE 



jfjm.g |^l.Httd gbf.0nal <f 0mig« 



VOLUME I. 



JOUKN A L 



/ 



VOYAGE TO NEW YOKK IN 1679-80. 

I ....... 



BROOKLYN, N. Y.: 
PUBLISHED BY 'DTE SOCIETY 

18 6 7. 



T63 



* *.>/<* <r oil 



VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 



SANFOItD PUBLICATION FUND 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION. 



RICHARD S. STORKS, JR., D.D. ALDEN J. SPOOXER, 

THOMAS W. FIELD, 

CHARLES E. WEST, LL.D. 



EDITION 



1,000 COPIES, OCTAVO. 
100 COPIES, ROYAL OCTAVO 



MCX3EIX, PRINTEE, AJ.BANT. 



<& 



V 



OFFICERS 

or THE 

ILong Island ?i)istorira! jrocictp 

1866-67. 



President, 

First Vice-President, * - 

Second Vice-President, 
Foreign Corresponding Secretary, 
Home Corresponding Secretary, 
Recording Secretary^ 
Ti'c'.'t'jrcr, .... 
Librarians - 



J. CARSON BREVOORT. 

JOHN GREENWOOD. 

CHARLES E. AVEST. 

HENRY C. MURPHY. 

- JOELNWLNSLOW. 

A. COOKE HELL. 

GEORGE S. STEPHENSON. 

- GEOKGE HANNAH. 



DIRECTORS. 



J. CARSON BREVOORT, 
It. S. STORRS, Jr.. D.I). , 
A. ABBOTT LOW, 
CHARLES E. WEST. LL.D 
JOSIAII O. LOW. 
CHARLES CONGDON. 
MILAN HULBERT, 
THOMAS W. FIELD, 
A. COOKE HULL, M.D.. 
JOSHUA SL YANOOTT. 
A.N. LITTLEJOI1N, D.D., 
JAMES H. PRENTICE, 



JOHN WINSLOW, 
S. B. CHITTENDEN, 
HON. JOHN GREENWOOD, 
GEORGE S. STEPHENSON, 
HON. HENRY C. MURPHY, 
YfftSJAM POOLE. 
HENRY SHELDON, 
ETHELBERT S. MILLS, 
. W. I. BUDINGTON, D.D., 
ELIAS LEWIS. Jr., 
THEODORE L. MASON. M.D. 
HENRY E. PIERREPONT, 
ALDEN J. SPOONER. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



R. S. STORES, Jr., D.D., Chairman. 
JOSHUA M. VAN COTT, JAMES 11. PRENTICE, 

ALDEN J. SPOONER. HENRY SHELDON, 

ETHELBERT S. MILLS. JOSIAH O. LOW, 

GEORGE HANNAH, Secretary. 



COUNSELLORS OF THE SOCIETY 



Krs'GS County: 

HON. JOHN A. LOTT. 
FRANCIS VINTON, D.D., 
HON. TEUNIS G. BERGEN, 
FREDEEICK A. FARLEY, D.D. 
BENJAMIN D. SILLIMAN, 
GEORGE W. PARSONS, 



Queens County : 

WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT, 

HON. JOHN A. KING, 

HUN". RICHARD C. McCORMICK, 

JOHN* HAROLD. 

L. BRADFORD PRINCE, 

SOLOMON D. TOWNSEND. 



Suffolk County : 

HON. SELAII B. STRONG, 
JAMES II. TUTHILL, 
HON. J. LAWRENCE SMITH, 
REV. EP1IER WHITAKER, 
WILLIAM S. PELLET REAU, 
HENRY P. HEDGES. 



HONORARY AND CORRESPONDING- MEMBERS. 



HON. CHARLES GAYARRE, - 

JOSEPH JACKSON HOWARD. I.L.D.. - 

HON. WILLIAM H. TUTHILL. 

HON. EMORY WASHBURN, I.L.D., 

REV. CALEB DAYIS BBADLEE, - 

CHARLES I. BUSHNELL, - 

MISS FRANCES M. CAULKINS. - 

PROF. JOSIAH P. COOKE, 

MAJOR-GEN. JOHN WATTS DE PEYSTER, 

SAMUEL G. DRAKE, .... 

THEODORE GILL, - ' - 

SAMUEL A. GREEN. M.D., 

FRANCIS S. HOFFMAN, - 

JOHN A. MCALLISTER, 

HENRY ONDEKBONK, Jk., 

NATHANIEL PAINE, 

B. WILLIAMS PATTERSON, 

NICOLAS ITKE, - - - - 

JOHN G. SHEA, M.D.. - ; 

EON. ANDREW D. WHITE, - 



New Orleans. 

Greenwich, England. 

Tipton, Iowa. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Boston. 

New York. 

Norwich, Conn. 

Harvard College. 

New York. 

llOfton. 

Washington. 

Boston. 

New York. 

Philadelphia. 

Jamaica, L. I. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Xetcark Valley, X. Y. 

£". S. Consul, Mauritius. 

New York. 

Hyra-juse. 



THE LONG ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



The Long Island Historical Society was incorporated in April, 
1S68, and has, therefore, nearly completed the fourth year of its 
existence. 

It numbers at present 203 Life Members, and 802 Annual Mem- 
bers; with 20 Honorary and Corresponding Members, distinguished 
for their interest and success in historical studies. 

Its Library contains nearly thirteen thousand volumes, with more 
than fifteen thousand pamphlets, exclusive, in both cases, of dupli- 
cates. Many of the volumes are rare and costly ; and the pamphlets — 
especially the large number of them which concern the recent civil 
war — are becoming continually more important to students, and 
more difficult to be obtained. xV considerable collection of valuable 
manuscripts, illustrating the early history of the state and of the 
country, has also been made by the Society. 

The Museum contains many classified specimens, representing the 
Natural History of Long Island, together with a large number of 
medals, coins, and curiosities ; and a Gallery of portraits, busts, 
bronzes, and historic memorials, which was commenced soon after 
the Society was organized, includes already many objects of. inte- 
rest, and is constantly being enriched with additional gifts. 

Fifty-four papers on historical subjects have been presented at the 
regular or special meetings of the Society, besides twenty in the 



Viii LONG ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

particular department of Natural History; and courses of popu- 
lar historical lectures have twice been given — in the winters of 
1864 and 1SG5 — under the auspices of the Society. 

Through the generous and wise liberality of a number of its 
members, the institution now possesses permanent funds, amounting 
in the aggregate to more than sixty thousand dollars, for the main- 
tenance and enlargement of its Library and Museum. These funds 
constitute an endowment, which is designed to be as enduring as the 
Society itself; but the income arising from it is to be annually 
expended, for the purposes specified, under the direction of the 
Board of Directors. 

The Publication Fund, which is not included in the above, and 
by which the Society is enabled to print the volumes which it designs 
to issue, consists of two thousand dollars, given for this specific use 
by Mr. Edwards S. Sanford. This sum, or so much of it as shall 
be needed, will be expended in the preparation and publication of 
each volume in turn ; and when, from the sale of such volume, the 
fund has been reimbursed, another in the series will follow. 

The Directors congratulate themselves on beiug enabled to com- 
mence their work in this department with so unique and attractive 
a volume as that which they now have the pleasure of offering to the 
members of the Society; and they indulge the confident hope that 
through the successive annual publications, of which this is the first, 
the institution will do very much, not only for the gratification and 
the culture of those directly connected with it, but for the furtherance 
of historical studies, and for the extension of a just and lively inte- 
rest in such studies, throughout the land. 

BrooklYxV, N. Y., February 1, 1SC7. 



JOURNAL 



OF A 



VOYAGE TO NEW YORK 



Worn in J&wval of the fSuuwta §olmxu 



in 



1679-80, 



BY 

JASPAB BANKERS AND PETER SLUYTER 
OF WIEWERD IN FRIESLAND. 



TRANSLATED PROM THE OlilOTNAL MANUSCRIPT IX DUTCH FOE THE 
LONG ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AND EDITED BY 

HENRY C. MURPHY, 

F.oreigD Corresponding Secretary of the Society. , 



BROOKLYN 

18 67. 



JOURNAL 



OF A 



VOYAGE TO NEW YORK 



AND A 



%m\x m ikvm\ of t\u %tmkmt Colonics 



IN 



I679-80, 



BY 

JASPAR BANKERS AND PETER SLUYTER 

OP TVIEWERD IN FRIESLAND. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE ORK-LXAL MANUSCRIPT IN DUTCH FOR THE 
LONG ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AND EDITED BY 

HENRY C. MURPHY, 

Foreign Corresponding Secretary of tiie Society. , 



BROOKLYN. 

1 S 6 7 . 



JOURNAL 



OF A 



VOYAGE TO NEW YORK 



SfoMv in gtvml of lite SUumtam Connie? 



in 



i 6 7 9 - 8 o 5 



JASPAR BANKERS AND PETER SLUYTER 

Or WIEWERD IN FRIESLAND. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT IN DUTCH FOR THJ 
LONG ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AND EDITED BY 

HEKRY C. MURPHY, 

Foreign Corresponding Secretary of the Society. 



BROOKLYN 

1 S 67. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by 

Henry C. Mukpht, 

For the Long Island Historical Society, 

la the District Conrt of the United States for the Southern District 

of New York. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE. 

Preface, v 

Introduction, ix 

Voyage to New York, 3 

New York and its Vicinity, 109 

Journey to tee Delaware, 1 07 

The Hudson and its Affluents, 257 

Boston, and the Voyage Home, 3G9 

Index, 429 

List of Plates, . . ' 437 



PREFACE 



The manuscript from which the following translation 
has been made, came into my hands a few years since 
in Holland. In what manner it had been preserved up 
to that time, could not be ascertained. It was in the 
possession of Mr. Frederick Midler, bookseller at 
Amsterdam, when I procured it; but, the probability 
is, it was taken in charge by some member of the 
community, at the time of the dispersion of the Laba- 
dists from Wiewercl, and had been handed down, from 
one person to another, afterwards, until its character 
and value failing to be appreciated, it became at last 
the mere waif he found it. The text appears to be 
a carefully transcribed copy, plainly written in a 
different hand writing from that upon the drawings 
or views which accompany it, and which, as the 
marks upon them show, are the original sketches 
made upon the spot. 

The journal thus fortuitously recovered is a plain 
story, told in simple language, of a voyage across the 
Atlantic nearly two hundred years -ago, and of 



v i* PREFACE. 

journeys to man}' of the American .settlements at that 
time. It was written under the influence of peculiar 
religious views and national attachments, which are 
sought to be explained in the introduction, and for 
which the reader will know how to make the proper 
allowances. My task has been to render it into 
English as faithfully as possible, without suppressing 
any remark however personal or trivial it might seem. 
The names of persons and places have been retained 
in the orthography of the writer, although it is very 
often different in regard to the same word. The italic 
letter has been used by the printer in order to denote 
when it is the same as in the original. The French 
phrases are also the same as in the journal. 

It is proper to remark that a portion of the 
manuscript still remains untranslated. It is a frag- 
ment of a general account of the Indians, and occurs 
after the hiatus mentioned on page 361. It has been 
omitted because it does not purport to give the 
observations of the journalist himself, but is a mere 
compilation for the most part from printed sources, 
of descriptions of the manners and customs of the 
race, presenting little or nothing new. What the 
writer saw and experienced in regard to them is given 
in the journal ; and is all that is of any value or 
interest, from its showing the actual condition and 



PREFACE. v «- 

notions of the Indians, as modified by their contact 

and Intercourse with the Europeans for little more 

than half a century. With the exception of this 

imperfect summary of Indian customs and two of the 

views elsewhere mentioned the manuscript is given 

entire. 

In preparing the notes and introduction, I have 

received much aid in regard to the documentary 

evidence at Albany and Annapolis from Dr. E. B. 

O'Callaghau, of the 'former city, and Mr. George L. 

Davis, of Baltimore, and also valuable suggestions 

from the former in other respects. The rectified 

drawings of the views of New York, are by Mr. J. 

Carson Brevoort, who has also kindly furnished notes 

to the original illustrations. 

". ' II. C. M. 
Brooklyn, Fchruary 1, 1867. 



[//// ->x 



INTRODUCTION 



Upon the liberation of the ecclesiastical interests of Hol- 
land from tfhe hierarchy of Home, there commenced a series 
of controversies in the reformed church in regard to its 
government, doctrines and discipline, which continued for 
many generations, and some of which are hardly settled 
at this day, giving rise, whatever may have been the effect 
upon the cause of religion itself, at least to great dissension 
and strife. At first the questions were confined to the 
authority of the magistracy in the church. Most of the 
ministers adopted the views of Calvin, attributing to the 
state the right only to protect the church and its external 
interests, aud considering the church an entirely distinct 
and independent body, with a law-making power within 
itself; while others favored a system of subordination to 
the civil power, objecting to the maintenance of an inde- 
pendent spiritual authority as a restoration of the papal 
system which had been overthrown. Arminius advocated 
the latter plan, and thence arose, in the first part of the 
seventeenth century, the great controversy in regard to it 
between the Gomarists and Armenians, which came to 
involve finally and almost exclusively the doctrines concern- 
ing fore-ordination, the atonement of Christ and other points 
of faith, which were finally determined by the decrees of the 

B 



x INTRODUCTION. 

famous Synod of Port. The Armenians were there over- 
thrown, and the doctrines authoritatively declared by that 

synod, and definitively established as fundamental dogmas 
of the Dutch reformed church, that election is the un- 
changeable purpose of (-rod, whereby he has, before the 
foundation of the world, chosen from the whole human 
race a certain number of persons to redemption in Christ, 
and that others are passed by in the eternal decree whom 
God has decreed to leave in the common misery into which 
they have plunged themselves ; and that it was the will of 
God, that Christ should effectually redeem those only who 
w^ere from eternity chosen to salvation. These points 
beino- settled, contentions of a different character soon arose, 
relating primarily to the application of the systems of 
scholastic philosophy to biblical science and the method of, 
scriptural interpretation, and afterwards to the interpreta- 
tion itself. Johannes Kok, professor of divinity in the 
University of Leyden, whose name, latinized, according 
to the fashion of the learned at that time, into Cocceius, 
gave the name of Coeceians to his partisans, sought to 
separate theology from the oid philosophy, and to confine 
the expositions of the Bible to biblical terms. In this 
particular beseems to have had the vantage ground ; but 
he maintained other opinions which were considered 
dangerous to religion. He maintained that the events of 
the church in all future time are prefigured in the Old 
Testament, and its words and phrases are to be used in 
any sense of which they are susceptible ; and thus the ten 
commandments were promulgated by Moses not as a rule 
of obedience, but as a representation of the covenant of 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

grace. The commandment in regard to the observance of ' 
the Sabbafli, he held, was abrogated by the sepulture of 

.Christ. These views were combated by Gysbert Yoct, 
called Yoetius, professor of theology at Utrecht, who had 
been a member of the synod of Dort. He held that the. . 
theology of the reformed church must stand or fall with 
the philosophy of Aristotle. He insisted upon a strict 
observance of the Sabbath according to the Jewish law. 
This controversy became general, and all the ministers of 
the church were ranged under the Cocceian or Yoetian 
banner. As a consequence, disorders existed in the church; 
with one, the least domestic employment on the Sabbath 
was a sin; with another, the day was no more holy than 
other days; "the one village on Sunday was a dead house; 
the other a house of feasting.''' 

. The Cocceians were accused of adopting the philosophy 
of Des Cartes which had then come into vogue, and which 
had, however, only this in common with the notions of 
Cocceins, that it discarded the philosophy of the schools. 
The fundamental principles of the Cartesian system, that 
in beginning to philosophize, every thing was to be doubted, 
and the. only axiom to be received was: "I think, there- 
fore, I am/' were deemed .atheistical ;. .and so also the 
proposition that the inspired writers, when they spoke of 
the facts of nature, spoke according to men's understandings 
at the time, which were uninformed, as when they spoke 
of the earth standing still, the contrary being the fact; 
besides other deductions of his, really more liable to the 
charge. The.-e views were falsely attributed to the Coc- 
ceians, however, and served to embitter the controversy. 



X ii INTRODUCTION. 

Such was the condition of the reformed church in 
Holland at the time of the rise of the remarkable sect 
whose history it becomes necessary briefly to present to 
the reader in order that lie may understand the circum- 
stances under which the following Journal was written and 
the spirit which actuated its authors, and be able more 
correctly to estimate its character and value. This nar- 
rative is the production of two persons who visited this 
country in 1679, during the infancy of European settle- 
ments here, with the view of ascertaining the nature of the 
country and government, and selecting a suitable place for 
the establishment of a colony of the religious community 
to which they belonged. This sect, which, originating ten 
years before in the islands of Zeeland and, leaving there, 
was debarred full religious privileges in Holland, had now, 
after wandering in a body first to Westphalia and after- 
wards to Denmark, for the sake of those liberties which the 
magistrates of Middleburgh and Amsterdam had denied 
it, become permanently established with the consent of the 
states of Friesland, at Wiewerd, a small village in that 
province. Its members were known as Labadists, profess- 
inc: a kind of mysticism, regulating their lives by the 
divine light of the inner man, and seeking to bring 
together all the elect of God, separate from the world 
into one visible church, which, as they said, like a city, set 
upon a hill, could not be hid. In doctrine they held the 
tenets of the Dutch reformed church; but they also main- 
tained other opinions and adopted practices not recognized 
by the authority of that church. Its founder, Jean do 
Labadie, born near Bordeaux in 1610, of a good family, 



INTRODUCTION. x \\\ 

was an enthusiast, believing himself, from the first, inspired 
by God, and chosen by him to build up his church on 
earth. Educated in the college of the Jesuits at Bordeaux, he 
became while there a member of that famous order and in 
due time was ordained a priest. During his novitiate he 
had applied himself with great assiduity to the reading 
of the Bible, to prayer and other acts of piety, and at the 
same time had prosecuted his studies of rhetoric and the 
scholastic philosophy, with remarkable success. "With his 
priestly office he claimed to become possessed of the spirit 
of John the Baptist, and like Mm, in the wilderness, lived 
on herbs; which, however, so enfeebled his health as to 
compel him to ask his dismission from the order, which 
was honorably given, lie then assumed the habit of a 
secular priest, and preached at Bordeaux and neighboring 
places with great fervor and eloquence, moving his 
audience to tears and sighs. His fame spread to Paris 

\ whither he was invited by the General of the Oratory. He 

was now thirty years of age, with a mind matured and 
stored with scriptural and profane learning, lie* was not- 
less successful in the French capital than he had been in 
the province. His rare powers attracted great crowds of 
all descriptions of persons; men of state and ecclesiastics, 

j . bishops and priests all thronged to listen to his discourses. 

The bishop of Amiens tendered him the position of pre- 
bendary of the Collegiate church of St. Xicholas in that 
city, which he accepted. Here he distinguished himself 
by his holiness and zeal, especially insisting upon the 
necessity of reading the Holy Scriptures; and, in order to 
facilitate that object, caused, a large number of copies of 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

the New Testament in French to be sold. His views in 
regard to the Jesuits underwent a change, and after several 
years' service at Amiens he retired to Port Royal des 
Champs and entered into full communion with the Janaen- 
ists. From thence he wont to Bazas near Bordeaux, and 
to Toulouse, and finally to Graville among the Carmelite 
friars, at which places he taught the doctrine that a con- 
templative life in which the soul enjoyed the divine grace 
was perfection on earth, and that it was necessary to prac- 
tice mental prayer, and a condition so abstracted from the 
world as to be entirely insensible even to the touch of 
another. As he had charge of a nunnery at Toulouse he 
was accused of teaching this doctrine for base purposes, 
with being a mammillarian and sniilty of other abominable 
practices. These charges seem to have been the inventions 
of his enemies; at all events they are discredited generally 
by the Dutch writers. He now made public pretensions to 
divine inspiration, declaring openly in a sermon that he was 
directed by the Savior himself to assume his name, and he 
did accordingly call himself. Jean de Jesus Christ ; claiming 
also the spirit of prophecy, and wearing the white habit of 
the Carmelites, because it was, he said, the garb of Elias. 
He prophesied that the beginning of the reign of the 
kingdom of grace would take place in the year ] GoG. These 
vagaries subjected him to ecclesiastical censure, which he 
avoided by flight to Montauban, the citadel of Calvinism in 
France; where, on the 19th of October, 1650, he totally 
abjured the Catholic religion. He made a declaration of 
faith at that time, in which he alleged that the spirit 
of God. was leading him to be a reformer; that when he 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

was ordained a priest in the Roman church he feit on the 
occasion that Jesus Christ laid his hands upon him, before 
the bishop did, and he was much more sensible of the 
inward ointment the Holy Trinity poured upon his heart 
than the oil with which the bishop anointed his hands; 
that lie was sanctified from his mother's body to the pur- 
pose of reforming the Christian religion ; that in his infancy 
he had felt the inspiration of the Holy Ghost which, like 

, Samuel, he was not able to understand in consequence of 

his youth: and while living with the Jesuits he had learned 
from the Holy Spirit how to pray and meditate, and through 
heavenly influences was able to write and speak appropri- 
ately of the greatest mysteries of the gospel according to 

S the rule of the true faith. This was the language of the 



blindest enthusiasm; but it furnishes the key to his subse- 
quent life. .After two years of preparation at Montauban. he 
was ordained a minister in the Protestant church; where, 
and at Orange and Geneva, he passed sixteen years of his 
life; discharging the duties of a pastor faithfully, and with 
great acceptance. " He has not only," wrote the consistory 
at Montauban on his leaving that place, " exceeded others 
by the eloquence of his discourses, but by the uprightness 
of his example. He has gone before them like a blazing 
torch placed upon a height whereby the unfruitful works 
} of darkness have been exposed. lie lias excelled others in 

expressing in his life what he taught, in the chancel. He 
J has not sought after the earthly and worldly, or had any 

i desire therefor, but has pursued with zeal heavenly and 

divine things. In short he has been to us a joy, comfort 
aud example/" At Geneva he revived his views iu regard 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

to the approach of Christ's reign upon earth, and his own 
claim to divine inspiration. He was eloquent in denouncing- 

the manners of the times, and the cold and formal religion 
which prevailed among professing Christians. He gained 
converts to his peculiar notions, among whom were two 
who adhered to him through life, Pierre Yvon and Pierre 
du Lignon. The former succeeded to his power and 
position as father of the Labadists, and the latter occu- 
pied as lo'ng as he lived, a position only second in the 
community. 

While de Labadie was at Geneva he was heard by John 
Godschalk van Schurman, minister at P>asle. This clergy- 
man was originally from Utrecht, whence his zeal in the 
cause of religion had led him to German v. and thence to 
Switzerland. He visited Geneva in 1662, where he heard 
cle Labadie; and wrote enthusiastically to Holland, in rela- 
tion to his piety, devotional zeal, and his efforts to reform 
the church. He returned to Utrecht two years afterwards, 
and repeated the story of the marvellous gifts, spiritual 
fervor and reformatory labors of de Labadie; and, at his 
request, a correspondence was opened with the preacher, 
which led to his call in 16G7, to take charge of the 
Walloon church at Middleburgh, in Zeeland, through the 
instrumentality of Voetius and other professors at Utrecht. 
Xot less distinguished even than Voetius for piety and 
learning was the sister of John Godschalk, Anna Maria 
van Schurman, of Utrecht, a lady also of rare genius and 
elegant acquirements. She wrote both prose and verse, 
in Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, Greek. German, Italian and 
French, as well as in Dutch, her mother tongue; and 



INTRODUCTION. ^ 

enjoyed an extensive correspondence with learned men at 
hofiu and abroad. Captivated from the first with the 
eloquence and religious devotion of de Labadie, she at 
once embraced his views, abandoned her home and her 
associations with the learned, followed him in his persecu- 
tions from place to place, sitting, as she declared, " at 
the tcot of her beloved minister, like Paula at the feet of 
1 i r highly prized Hieronymus in a foreign land," and, after 
. Iti.3 death, cloistered herself with the rest of his followers at 
IS iewerd, where she died in lull communion with this 
extraordinary sect, always regarded by them as the greatest 
triumph of their religion. On his journey to Middel- 
burgh, de Labadie stopped at her house in Utrecht, where 
he spent ten days in conference with Yoetiua and other 
eminent professors. But he did not impress the mind 
of Voetius favorably: on the contrary, that learned and 
pious man, who prayed and labored for reform in his be- 
loved church, discovered in de Labadie the schismatic and 
fanatic, and quickly repudiated all connection with him, 
notwithstanding his asrenev in calling him to Holland. 
De Labadie proceeded to Micklel burgh by the way ol 
Amsterdam, preaching everywhere reformation in the 
church- " If Christianity/ 3 he said, " will, it can J>ecome 
what it has been. Itisjust that the hist coming of Messiah 
►uld be in the condition in which it was left bv the first."' 



Ho was now fifty-seven years old, and had reached a 

I of his life when the purpose of his enthusiasm if 

u ■' of his ambition, wins matured; or, to speak more 

ling to his own language, the year had arrived when 

Lurches of Chri.-t were to be collected together, and 

c 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

the reign of the true church was to commence on earth, 
under his guidance, as the chosen instrument of God for 
that purpose. His power over the popular mind had been 
nowhere exhibited more strongly than it was now in 
Holland. His intense religious fueling, his fervent elo- 
quence addressed to the "Walloons in their own language, 
and his simplicity, bordering on austerity of manners, 
touched the hearts and imaginations of all who listened to 
him, and produced an unexampled excitement wherever he 
appeared. He preached at Middelburgh to immense 
crowds, deploring the decay of the church, attacking 
abuses and exhorting to a more holy life. He seemed now 
fully to address himself to the great work of reform, and 
would brook no interference. As he had left Geneva 
without testimonials of dismission, so he commenced his 
ministration at Middelburgh in defiance of the require- 
ments of the Walloon church, refusing to sign its con- 
fession of faith and discipline, and alleging as a reason that 
Christ was declared in it to have suffered on the altar of 
the cross, whereas nowhere in the Bible is the cross of 
Christ called an altar. He denounced, several eminent 
divines of the Hutch church as unsound, and inveighed 
particularly against a book written by the minister of the 
Walloon church at Utrecht, on the interpretation of the 
scriptures, pronouncing it infamous and heterodox, and 
demanding from a synod held at Xaardcn its condemnation 
for that reason ; but the synod declared it to be orthodox, 
and condemned de Labadie to make reparation to the 
author, which he refused. The synod then passed a 
decree suspending him from the ministry until the meeting 



INTRODUCTION. x ] x 

of the itexl synod. Be disregarded their decree; another 
synod was held at Dort, called by the states of Zeeland for 

the purpose of determining the controversy, when, after a 
session of eight days, which he attended, he was absolutely 
deposed. This also lie set at defiance. Returningto Middel- 
burgb with his friends, they forced open the doors of the 
church, and he preached in it and administered the Holy 
Communion. The magistracy had now to interfere, and he 
was compelled to leave the city. 

In this controversy there were on both sides deeper 
causes which hastened the catastrophe. De Labadie 
himself was intractable, and with the mission he claimed 
from God, he could not be otherwise. To admit the 
supremacy and control of this church over him involved 
the abandonment of the great purpose of his life. He 
could acknowledge no higher church than the one which 
under his instrumentality was to collect all the truly 
pious together into one membership apart from the 
world. He seems, from the first moment he put his 
foot on Dutch soil, to have contemplated there the fulfill- 
ment of his prophecy, and the reformation or conversion 
of the churches of Holland, as the beginning of the end. 
Therefore it was that Toetius and Essenius, when they 
beard his sentiments from his own lips, discovered in his 
purposes an inevitable schism. On the other side there 
w^re jealousies and suspicions of him as an innovator. He 
not only offended the Dutch and "Walloon ministers by 
the freedpmand arrogance of his remarks concerning them, 
but he had emptied their churches. Their congregation-, 
rich and poor, hud forsaken their pews andtheir old pastors, 



XX INTRODUCTION, 

to listen to the pious and persuasive words of this foreigner, 
and to lament with him the abuses of the ehureh and the 
absence of spiritual religion. He led them into his views 
of returning to the model of the primitive church; and to 
helieve that there, in the islands and marshes of the 
Northern ocean, the truth was to hurst forth and, as from a 
centre, to irradiate the world. The ministers were, there- 
fore, alarmed for their influence over their people. Thus it 
was, impelled by his own convictions and purposes on 
the one hand, and opposed by the clergy on the other, de 
Labadie became an outlaw of the Dutch church. He was, 
however, sustained by a powerful party in Middelburgh, 
who regarded his condemnation as illegal, and he still 
preached to them. They met daily for religious services, 
morning and evening, and on Sundays three times, sitting 
without any distinction of rank or position promiscuously 
on benches, he and the elders like the rest, except that his 
seat was a little more elevated for the sake of enabling 
them to hear and see him better when he spoke. " There 
is so much modesty, union, zeal and piety," he wrote in a 
private letter, " that we cannot sufficiently admire and 
praise God for having enabled us to see such a church 
springing up, composed of such leaders, for we have many 
doctors and other eminent persons, but all humble, fervent, 
pious, marvellously edifying; so that all the world agree 
there are no better or more exemplary members than ours, 
well informed and enlightened, and prepared for all conse- 
quences, be it the loss of goods, houses and conveniences. 
We do not permit any abuse or excess either in dress or 
ornaments, or in the business which they follow. We 



INTRODUCTION. xx ; 

regulate every thing evangelically and aposiolically, bciiu' 
determined, as far as we can to restore the living image of 
the primitive church as well as the pure doctrine which 
astonished the world. Many persons, moreover, arc 
attracted to us from other places; for God has made every- 
where an union with us and with oar manner and spirit, 
so that we hope the Lord will soon display his virtue and 
power in grace which we call the coming of the king." 

Banished from Middelburgh, de Lahadie betook himself 
with many of his adherents to the neighboring city of 
Veere on the same island about five miles distant. At the 
present time an utterly insignificant place, Veere was 
then a city of some importance and trade, and enjoyed 
independent municipal privileges. Its civic authorities 
received the outcast with honors. They conceived the idea 
of founding a church to be under his administration, as an 
important addition to their city. Meanwhile the Dutch 
and Scotch churches there opened their doors to him. A 
new day of prosperity seemed dawning upon the place. 
Many of the principal Middelburghers, including the minis- 
ters of the Walloon consistory, removed thither with their 
families and property. The new church, under the name 
of the Evangelical church, now declared itself independent 
of all human authority, and to be free to follow no other 
rule than the pure doctrines of the gospel according 
to the examples of the Apostolic church. De Lahadie, 
they said, had not abandoned one popedom to assume 
another. Thus the separation of the Labadists from the 
authority of the reformed church was complete ; though 
they avowed their adhesion to its cardinal doctrines. 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

Many 1 persons of Middelbnrgh who adhered to de 
Labadie, eould not change their residence and follow him; 
but the distance between the two cities was so short they 
could easily go to Veere and attend his preaching, 
especially on the Sabbath, which they did in large numbers. 
It was a melancholy spectacle ior the ministers and 
magistrates of Middelburgh to see their own temples 
deserted, and the roads on Sunday and week days even, 
filled with people on foot and in vehicles, leaving their 
city; and it could not be endured. There arose, in conse- 
quence, a contest between the cities, which was the more 
serious, in consequence of the political rights which 
attached to the cities of the Low Countries, of independence 
of each other, and of any common superior in their 
municipal affairs. The magistrates of Middelburgh de- 
manded of those, of Veere, the expulsion of de Labadie ; 
and on the refusal of the Veerians to comply with their 
demand, applied to the states of Zeeland, which ordered 
the authorities of Veere to expel him. The Veerians stood 
firm upon their chartered privileges, and still refused; and 
bound each other by an oath to maintain and defend their 
rights. The walls were put in a state of defense; the 
gates were closed ; and the burghers placed under arms, 
to await the attack which the Middelburghers were pre- 
paring to make. Every sign betokened a bloody conflict. 
At the critical moment de .Labadie appeared as the man of 
peace, appealing to the citizens to abstain from force. 
The kingdom to which he belonged was not of this world. 
He would leave the city for the sake of order, and in 
obedience to the suggestions made to him bv the Lord. 



INTRODUCTION. yx]][ 



Such self-sacrifice won still more on their regard 
extoiled admiration even from Lis opponents. The 

Yeeriana finally complied with his request, and he immedi- 
ately left the city. 

He turned his eyes and steps toward Amsterdam. Per- 
haps that was the original destination he had contemplated. 
Kich, powerful, tolerant, receiving law from no other city, 
hut giving high example at least to all, it was the pride 
and glory of the Dutch capital to open her gates to all 
good citizens of whatever sentiment. She had sheltered 
and protected the Brownists, and others not in communion 
in doctrine or practice with the reformed church. Shielded 
by the enlightened magistracy of that great city he would 
he safe in building up the new church. He arrived there 
in August, 1669, accompanied by Yvon, du Lignon, 
Menuret, and other disciples and adherents, male and 
female. They hired the upper part of a large house, 
containing a commodious hall, where they all met, morning 
and evening, for religious exercises. They also eat their 
meals there together as one family. 

The Labadists were well received at Amsterdam, and 
enjoyed, at first, every protection from the burgomasters. 
The clocjuence of de Labadie was not forgotten, and the 
circumstances attending his sojourn in Zeeland had 
increased his fame. He was permitted to preach publicly, 
which he did iu the large hall before mentioned. The 
members of the new church increased rapidly. He sent 
out his disciples to other cities, Utrecht, the Hague and 
Rotterdam, where proselytes were made and societies formed, 
as branches of the church at Amsterdam/ His particular 



and 



X xiv INTRODUCTION. 

doctrines wore promulgated; 1 that by certain inspirations 
of the Holy Spirit, Christ could be seen in God, and God 
enjoyed and glorified; the exoteric or external in religion 
way distinguished from the refined or elevated, the former 
only was contained in the scriptures, the latter was inspired 
in the elect by God. It behooved men to stand every 
moment of the day, according to the special influence of 
God's spirit, which is bound to no time or place, and, 
therefore, Sunday was no holier than other days of the 
week, nor was the reading of the ]>ible actually necessary; 
but, at all events, they should give less attention to its 
literal meaning, than to the. suggestion of God's spirit. 
The members of the true church were to be discovered 
by their zeal and fervor in glorifying God and Jesus 
Christ, by the purity of their lives, their humility and 
patience, their union in spirit, their communion in every 
thing, even in temporal goods. His converts were, therefore, 
to join, their fortunes with his, or abandon his church. 
Many persons accordingly prepared to go and live in his 
community, by selling their property, and even abandoning 
their families, for one of the true faith could not, with 
propriety, live even with a husband or wife, who was not 
of the elect, as such marriages were not Christian, and, in 
fact, were null and void by the law of God. In some 
respects his views assimilated to those of the quakers; and 



1 Among others who embraced the new faith at this lime was Ch. de 
Ilocbefbrt, minister of the Walloon church at Rotterdam. He is known 
as the author of the work bearing tin- title of" Bistoire Xahm-lle et Morale 
des Antilles de VAmericiuc," which was first published at Rotterdam, in 
1CG5, and afterwards with additions in ISG7 and 1681. He. however, soon 
abandoned Labadisni and became one of its greatest opponents. 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 



Robert Barclay and George Keith, well known preachers 
of that sect, went over from England to Amsterdam, to 
confer with him, and offered to take him into their Bociety, 
which he declined. 1 The success of the new church 

alarmed the ministers of Amsterdam, and they made 
frequent applications to the burgomasters to silence him, 
but in vain, until a change of a portion of these magistrates 
took place the next year. Then the burgomasters issued 
an edict, forbidding any one from attending the services of 
de Labadie, who was not a member of his household- 
community. This order was, seemingly, a compromise, 
by which the purposes of the clergy might be attained, 
and the members of the society not interfered with in the 
enjoyment of their religious convictions. But it deprived 
de Labadie of the opportunity of preaching to the public 
at large. Shut up within the walls of his own house he 
could make no converts. To remain, therefore, at Amster- 
dam any longer was incompatible with the progress of the 
church. 

In this extremity the Labadists were not without friends 
elsewhere, able and willing to afford them full religious 
liberty. Among others who favored them was Elizabeth, 
daughter of the Elector Palatine, and abbess of the free 

1 " Either on that account," says Gerard Croc?, " or in derision by their 
opponeats, the name of quakers was applied to the Labadists at that time, 
and followed them from Amsterdam to Herford, where they were often 
1 .' itcd with the name, and stones thrown at them."— Historia Quateriana, 
516. William Penn, who afterwards visited them, both at Herford and 
Wicwerd, declared that "they were a plain, serious people, and came 
iu air to Friends, as to silence inmeeting, women speaking, preaching by the 
spirit, plainness in garb and furniture in their houses."— Penn'i TraKls,4 
ed., OS. 

D 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

abbey of Herford in "Westphalia. This princess, eminent 
for her piety, was a friend of Anna Maria Van Schurman, 
who had joined her fortunes with the community at 
Amsterdam, and through whom she tendered them the 
freedom of Herford, which was accepted. They prepared 
to leave; some sold their property ; such as could not now 
go, supplied the others with money, and amid tears and 
sorrowing of a large crowd who witnessed their departure, 
de Lahadie and his little hand left Amsterdam. 

At Herford every thing promised well. The Princess 
Elizaheth was charmed with de Lahadie; he taught her 
the vanity of the world; he consoled her in sickness. 
Having entire freedom to preach he gained converts rapidly. 
A printing press was established. .Religious excitement 
prevailed so in the town that the inhabitants neglected 
their ailairs, rejoicing in the inward light. Most reprehen- 
sible practices, however, were indulged in. On one occasion, 
after having partaken of the Holy Communion, some of 
them, men. and women, drank and danced together for 
spiritual joy. Some of the most intelligent of the society, dis- 
gusted at the circumstance, abandoned the society altogether. 
Marriages were formed in private without conforming to 
the law of the country; being regarded as spiritual unions, 
emblems of the highest degree of communion with Christ, 
that is between the truly pious, the elect. In consequence 
of these proceedings the intervention of the Imperial Diet 
was asked, and orders were given to the Princess Elizabeth 
to cause the Labadists to leave Herford. 

They accordingly removed in 1672 to Altona, in 
Denmark, where entire freedom of religion existed by 



INTRODUCTION. yvv ;j 

royal decree. Id 1674 de Labadie died there, satisfied his 
mission on earth wagaceomplished and the church estahlisheiL 
u Nothing," said he, "remains for me to do except to *o 

to my God." "Death is merely ascending from a lower 
and narrower chamber to one higher and loftier." Yvon 
succeeded to his position and title of Father : hut the society 
did not remain at Altona much longer after that event. 
Disputes arose with the authorities of the place in regard to 
a tax for the benefit of the Lutheran church. Besides a war 
was impending between Denmark and Sweden and they 
wished to avoid the scene, perhaps the levies. They 
therefore in the spring of 1075 made another migration aud 
their final one, to Wiewerd in Friesland. 

Anion £ those who. like- Anna Maria Van Schurman, 
had followed the fortunes of de Labadie from Amsterdam, 
were three ladies of gentle birth, sisters, who had resided 
at the Hague, and had abandoned ease and affluence as 
well as rank and position in society, in order " to be of 
those who should sit down with him in a separation from 
the vain and dead worships of this world.'' "We are a 
family, " said one of them to "William Penn, on his visit to 
Wiewerd, " that live together in love — of one soul and one 
spirit, entirely given up to serve the Lord." 5 They were 
the daughter? of Cornells van Aarssens, Lord of Sommels- 
dyk, who was considered the richest man in all Holland ; 
and sisters of Cornells van Aarssens, his son, also Lord of 
Sommelsdyk, who was governor of Surinam, and was 
killed in a mutiny of the soldiers there in 1688. 
mother was Lucia van Walta, through whom they inherited 
from their grandfather the castle called Thetinga-State, or 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

"Walta House, at Wiewerd. This property was appro- 
priated by these ladies to the use of the Labadists, who 
there, amid its groves, were more completely separated 
from the world than they had ever been before. 1 The 
synod of Frieslaud, not forgetful of their past history, 
applied to the estates of that province for an investigation 
into their doctrines. That body committed the inquiry to 
Witsius, a learned professor in the University at Fraueker, 
who made report that their creed was in conformity with 
the tenets of the reformed church. They were, therefore, 
permitted to exercise the privileges of that church in the per- 
formance of the marriage ceremony, the ringing of bells for 
public service, and other acts of ecclesiasticalauthority. They 
now, at last, enjoyed repose from persecution; and, though 
frequently threatened, they were never afterwards disturbed 
by the civil power. It happened, too, that their return to 
the ^Netherlands was signalized by a great accession to 
the community. Persons flocked from all the provinces 
and from Germany, seeking membership among them ; 
many ministers left their positions in the reformed church, 
Peter Dittelbach, who afterwards wrote the account of 
the decline and fall of the Labadists, being of the number. 
They were a great household, of which Yvon was the 
father, Anna Maria van Schurman was the mother, and 
the others were brothers and sisters, subdivided into 
teachers or speaking brothers, choristers, overseers, waiters 
on the table, and the like. Some attended to the sick, 



1 Tketinga-State was, at that time, surrounded by trees; and the place 
was afterwards familiarly called the Labadists' woods, and the Labadists 
were styled the people of the woods— bosch-lieden. 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

others superintended the clothing, or the provisions, or the 
education of the children, or labored on the farm. 15 ut, 
- after all, the means of sustaining so large a body of persons 
were not certain. The addition of poor ministers and poor 
men brought no capital to the common stock; and their 
labor was not sufficient to supply all their physical wants, 
simple as they w^ere. To provide for the deficiency, as 
well as to secure a safe retreat for the society and extend 
the boundaries of the church, the community, shortly after 
their removal to Wiewerd, resolved upon colonization in 
America. They set their eyes upon Surinam, which had 
just been surrendered by the English to the Dutch, by the 
treaty of Breda, in 1667, as a compensation for the sur- 

1 render of Stew York to the English. The new West India 

company had become the proprietors of the recently ceded 
territory, and after reserving one-third to themselves, dis- 
posed of the other two-thirds, one to the city of Amsterdam, 
and the other to Cornells Van Aarssens van Sommelsdyk, 
brother of the three sisters before mentioned, who had 
been appointed governor, and was residing here. The 
country feeing the only place in America under Dutch 
jurisdiction, it was deemed the most eligible for a colony, 
and measures were accordingly taken to establish one 
there. The colonists left "Wiewerd in high hopes and with 
high encomiums. They were designated as the founders 

P of the great work of God in America. Lucia van 

Aarssens, the youngest of the So'mmelsdyks, seizing hold 
of the hand of Dittelbach in rapture, exclaimed, u The 
Lord calls us to great things, and gives us, also, great 
hearts for their accomplishment." The colonists reached 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

Surinam in safety. The deep green foliage and exuberant 
fertility of the soil induced them to pronounce it at once 
another Eden. They sent most favorable reports accord- 
ingly back to "Wieword. They had laid the foundations 
of a town called Providence, and now required more 
settlers. A second company followed, under the direction 
of Jaspar Bankers, the writer of the following journal. 
They were, however, unfortunate ; the ship in which they 
embarked was taken by the pirates ; who, after robbing 
them of all their stock, permitted them to proceed. They 
arrived at Surinam, only to cause sore disappointment to 
the colonists, who had expected to receive, and not to 
give succor. The truth now came out; the selection of 
Surinam was really most unfortunate. The country was 
subject to deadly malarias, which clearing the land only 
would mitigate. It was covered with heavy timber of the 
hardest wood; which, once cut down, the growth was 
so rank that in four or five years it was all covered again. 
It produced sugar abundantly, by means of slave labor, 
and that was all. The necessaries of life had to be im- 
ported, save the roots of which, after the Indian mode, 
they made their bread. The first settlers soon sickened, 
and many of them died, and to those who survived, the 
residence was intolerable. They were not only harrassed 
by the mosquitoes and other poisonous insects, but " the 
snakes crept through the houses as the mice did in 
Holland." The colony was a complete failure in every 
respect, and was soon abandoned. 

The former Dutch dependency of Xew Xetherland, 
although surrendered to the English, presented abetter pro- 



INTRODTJCTION. xxxi 

mise for carrying out the plan. It would have heen preferred 
in the firWt instance had it not Leon for several reasons: 
first, because vessels sailing thither from Holland were 
compelled to stop in England on their voyage, for the pur- 
pose of paying duties; secondly, the trade in tobacco, 
which was the principal staple of commerce, was objec- 
tionable, as the use of that article was prohibited in the 
community ; a third reason was that Andros, the governor, 
was a papist. The necessity of the case, however, now 
overcame these objections. In order that a proper situation 
might be secured, Jaspar Bankers who had conducted the 
second company to Surinam, and Peter Sluyter who was 
one of the ablest members of the community, were sent, as 
a measure of precaution, on a tour of observation through 
New York and the adjoining colonies, as detailed in the 
journal. Sluyter, or more properly Schluter, was from 
AVesel in Germany, and with his brother Hendrik and 
sister Elizabeth joined the Labadists at Amsterdam. The 
| two brothers, theologically educated, occupied prominent 

positions in the society. Hendrik, however, became dis- 
gn.-u-d with the practices at Altona and left it. The two 
travelers after visiting the settlements in the colonies of 
New York and Yew Jersey, along the Delaware and as 
far as the Chesapeake, were most pleased with a tract of 
land called Bohemia Manor, situated at the junction of the 
> Elk river and Bohemia river at the head of Chesapeake bay 

and lying mostly in the present state of Maryland, but partly 
in the state of Delaware. A patent for this land, embracing 
nominally four thousand acres, but, in fact, upwards of 
twenty thousand, had been issued in 16G0 by the proprie- 



xxxii INTRODUCTION. 

tary of Maryland to Augustine Hermans or Heermans, a 
Bohemian by birth and a surveyor by profession, who had 

formerly lived among the Dutch at New Amsterdam and 
obtained some distinction there, as a compensation for his 
services in preparing for Lord Baltimore a map of the 
country. The grant also conferred manorial privileges 
and rights upon Hermans and his heirs and assigns. 1 
Sluyter and Bankers returned to Friesland and made a 
favorable report to the community at Wiewerd on the sub- 
ject. They were again dispatched to Xew York for the 
purpose of establishing the colony. They left "Wiewerd 
accordingly on the 12th of April, 1683, embarking at 
Amsterdam in the ship Xew York, Captain Rich, and 
arriving at the city of Xew York on the 27th of July 
following. 

In the course of their former visit Sluyter and Bankers 
had been assiduous in making converts to the faith and had 
been in some measure successful. 2 Among those who 



1 A confirmatory patent made in 1GG2, is in the records of the Land 
Office in Maryland in Liber C. B., Xo. '6, fol. 15, 10. 

2 Rev. Henricus Selyns, the minister of the Dutch church in Xew York, 
writing from that city under date of 28tli of October, 1G82, to the classis 
of Amsterdam, mentions the tact that there were some Labadists at that 
time in Xew York, who attended his morning and evening preaching on 
the Sabbath, and in the afternoon assembled by themselves. Domine 
Selyns arrived in Xew York in the summer of that year, but Sluyter and 
Bankers had before his arrival returned to Holland, and were in Fatherland 
at the time of his letter; which proves that Sluyter and Hankers had 
succeeded in securing converts in New York, during their first visit to 
this country, independently of what is shown to that effect by their own 
journal. When they returned to Xew York in 1683, they attended Selyns's 
preaching with the others, but he exposed in a letter to William a Brakcl 
both their purposes and their true names.— Anthology of New Netherland, 
92-G. As to the existence of the Labadists in Xew York in 1002 as a 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

became Impressed with their views was Ephraitii Hermans, 
the oldest son of Augustine Hermans, and to whom and his 
issue Bohemia Manor was by the will of Lis father to be 
entailed. He was clerk of the courts on the Delaware and 
hud Income acquainted with the two Labadists while ho 
was at Xew York for the purpose of consummating his 
marriage. He had promised them before they left Xew 
York to return home, that if they would come back again 
and establish their church in this country they should not 
fail for want of land, as Bohemia Manor should not with 
his consent be applied to any other purpose. It was there- 
fore through his son's instrumentality that Augustine 
Hermans agreed to convey a large portion of his manor to 
Sluyter, Bankers and others, promising himself by this 
measure the building up immediately of a large com- 
munity adjoining his domain. The names of the other 
parties were John Moll of Xew Castle, a judge of the courts 
on the Delaware; Arnoldus de la Grange, a trader to that 
river, and Peter Bayard, a hatter of Xew York, son of 
Annake Bayard, the sister of Governor Stuyvesant. Augus- 
tine Hermans, however, repented of his bargain, before 
executing the- deed, apprehending no doubt the names were 
ns.'d as a device to secure his conveyance, and refused to 
fulfill the contract, until he was compelled to do so by the 
court. 1 

di>u«ct M-ct, see also extracts from the Memoirs of M. Lamothe- 
( .. I I--, in if. r. Documentary History, II, 559. They are there called 

! Tlw final deed of conveyance was executed by Augustine Hermans on 
the lltli of August 1684, to Peter Sluyter alias Vorsman, Jasper 
Daaekacrid ■'-"'< Schilders, of Friesland, Petrus Bayard of Kcu iTork, 
E 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

Secure in the possession of this targe tract of laud, 
Sim-tor and Dankers took immediate measures to provide 

shelter for the colonist.--, and to establish the community. 
A company of men and women came from Wiewerd, 
including in it several families. A few persons residing in 
Xew York also removed thither. Ephraim Hermans, 
abandoning his young wife and bright worldly prospects, 
submitted to this secluded life. 1 Sluyter sent to Friesland 
for his wife, who came over and was installed a kind of 
abbess over the female portion of the establishment. Two 
of his brothers also came. Thus really was formed not onlv 



and John Moll and Arnoldus de la Grange of Delaware, in company. 
The land conveyed embraced tour necks, bounded on the west by Long 
creek, north by the great carl road, leading to Reedy island in the 
Delaware, east by the Appoquinimink path leading from the great cart 
road to the head of Bohemia river, and south by Bohemia river. This 
piece of land was afterwards known as the Labadie tract and contained 
3,750 acres. Moll and de la Grange immediately released their interest in 
the land to Sluyter "and Dankers. which indicates that they had allowed 
their names to be used for the purpose of decciYing Augustine Hermans. 
Bayard held on till 1688, when he also assigned his interest to the same 
parties. Finally the whole title was concentrated in Peter Sluyter by n 
conveyance from ©ankers to him in 1093, executed in Holland whither 
Dankers had then returned. Sluyter and Dankers were naturalized by 
act of assembly o( Maryland, together with Peter Bayard and Arnoldus 
de la Grange on 26th Sep., 1684. — JJac on, sub anno 1664. Dankers is called 
Dauntrees, aud Sluyter, Slayter, in the act. 

1 Not only did Ephraim Hermans forsake his family to join the Labadists, 
but Peter Bayard did the same, leaving his wife in Xew York. Ephraim 
Hermans soon repented of his folly and returned to his wife, but in less 
than two years was taken suddenly sick, became crazy, and died, fulfilling 
by hi.- untimely end, the malediction of his father who, as if was said, pro- 
nounced the curse upon him that he might not live two years after uniting 
himself with the sect. Augustine Hermans died in 1686, having a will in 
which he speaks in emphatic terms of condemnation of the connection 
of his son with the Labadists. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

a new colony in America, bill the daughter church, do 
gemeente, as they themselves were pleased to style it, of the 

Labadists of Walta House, of which Peter Sluyter declared 
himself the bishop under Yvon, archbishop at Wiewerd. 

Sluyter was now both sole proprietor of the land and sole 
director of the church, lie seems to have exercised the 
severest discipline over the members — thetucht kinderen or 
novices. He at the same time carried on a brisk trade in 
the planting of tobacco and in employing and selling slaves. 
In tact he was absolute lord and master. The position was 
desirable for a man of less pretensions to separation from the 
things of this world, than a Labadist with his penances. 
When Strauch. a leading brother at Wiewerd, died, Yvon 
sent for Sluyter to come to "Walta and take his place. 
Sluyter refused, reasoning with Yvon according to the logic 
of their religion: what God has once willed he will not 
recall, and God having, according to their comprehension, 
manifested his will that his children should live here, they 
could not consistently with his will leave the country. 

The members belonging to this community did not at 
any time exceed an hundred, men, women and children, 
which appears to have been the number shortly after its 
commencement, and also fifteen years later. Two con- 
temporaneous accounts of it have come down to us in 
print, one of which affords an interior view of the 
establishment, exposing its management and discipline, 
and the other an external picture, such as it appeared to 
an outside observer. The first is from no friendly hand. 
Pctrua Dittelbachj before mentioned, was at TViewcnl : I 
the time of the sendini;' out of the colony, and for some 



XTXVl INTRODUCTION. 

lime after it was organized, lie, however, abjured La- 
badism afterwards, on account of its baleful doctrines in 
regard to marriage, and wrote a work exposing the 
character of the sect in that respect more particularly. 1 As 
he Lad been one of their number, and understood their 
sentiments thoroughly, he could speak more boldly. He 
says : 

" A friend of mine, arriving from Sluyter's community, 
in Kew Xetherland, has made many revelations to me in 
regard to their doctrine of marriage; for it appears that 
there they go to work more boldly when necessity requires 
it, than in this country, where they proceed more pru- 
dently, lie went there with a full surrender of himself, 
family, goods and effects. His penitence, Sluyter wrote, 
was unusual. The letter was read to us at Wiewerd, and 
we rejoiced exceedingly over his conversion ; but now, 
since he has left them, they charge and blacken him with 
sin. lie was compelled to submit not only to the mortifi- 
cations imposed by Sluyter, but also to those imposed by 
Sluyter's wife, who had shortly previous arrived from 
"YYiewerd, and took a little hand in mortifying. "What 
they thought of at night had to be done some how or other 
during the day. Indeed, they made it so sharp, that a 
brother, who had been sent over from Wiewerd, would 
stay with them no longer, and returned to Wiewerd, where 

"Terval en Val der Labudisten of derselver leydinge en wyse van doen 
in haare huys-houd'mire, en kerk-formering als ook haren op-cn aedergang 
in hair- colonien tff volk-plantingen, nader ontdekt, voornamehk derselver 
lecre en leydinge omtrent het Chrislelyk huwelik uitgehall en tegenge- 

sproken alles in 3 brieven. Door Petrus Dittelbaeh." Sin. 4to, Anist., 
1G02. 



INTRODUCTION". . XXXVII 

also he was humiliated. Tliis abasing cannot continue a 
long time among those people. My friend's wife had five 
small children, whom she Drought with her to this new 
cloister discipline. "Whenever she kissed one of them she 
was rebuked for showing so naturally her fleshly cleaving. 
They threatened to chill the mother, who had Drought 
some small tuba of butter there, and put syrup on their 
bread, and to sell their negress slave, whom they had 
brought with them, because she took a small pot of beer 
and bread, without the knowledge of the abbess, to her 
sick master, who, however, did not partake of them. I 
could tolerate at "Wiewerd, in some measure, that there 
should be no lire made in the cells, although it is cold there 
in the winter, because turf is dear, and so many families 
could not be supplied unless at great expense ; but this 
friend told me Sluyter would not allow them to have any 
fire, in order to harden them and to mortify and subdue 
the sins of the body, while there was so much wood there 
that they were obliged to burn it in the fields to get it out 
of the way; but Sluyter had his own hearth well provided 
night and day. My friend had never suffered more cold 
and hardship than among those people, and he frequently 
made a tire in the woods in order to warm himself. His 
wife had no mind to remain in this cloister life under such 
an abbess, who censured her at the time she had a child 
nursing at her breast, because she drank too much at the 
table ; and when afterward she drank less, because she left "if 
too soon. As they sow these things did not please his wife, 
they began to talk to him somewhat more plainly and freely 
concerning marriage, arguing that hell was full of ordinary 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

marriages, saying, among others, those abominable words: 
It was for God alone to judge whether he cofiabiled with a harlot 
or with his wife. The wife, fearful lest they would take 
her husband away from her, of which there had been at 
that place more than one instance, sought every- oppor- 
tunity to speak with her husband privately, and to exhort 
him to steadfastness, as she had come away with him from 
Amsterdam, and was there in a strange land with her little 
children. They had succeeded, however, with him so far, 
that he began to keep himself away from her. His wife, 
being very angry about it, the abbess jceringly asked her 
if she could not be one night without her husband? The 
husband finally began to attack their doctrine about 
marriage out of the Scriptures, showing that the apostles 
had not taught so. He asked Sluyter what marriage he 
came of? Whether his parents were not married in the 
ordinary way ? They began to wonder at this man's 
opposing them out of the Scriptures, until, finally, he told 
them roundly that all connection between him and them 
was severed. They were confounded, and went at him 
another way, saying, we have several times spoken about 
marriage, which is a delicate subject, but we must also say 
to you that when there are any who cannot conduct them- 
selves in that way in their marriage relation, we still tole- 
rate them. But how tolerate, as a brother? Xo ; but 
only as regards community of goods and living together. 
This was a new trick to get. him in ; but they had already 
blabbed too much, and he had heard too much. They did 
not look favorably upon his going back to Holland, and 
attempted to frighten him from it, asking him if he were 



INTRODUCTION. j^j 

not afraid to trust himself on the sea, and fall from one* nil 
into another ': But he persevered, and the Lord helped 
him and his, in an especial manner, to reach the Fatherland 
in safety. 

" ^\ r e learn also from this friend how the colony has nm 
down and is detested by the people of the country, so that 
Slnyter can do nothing there for the furtherance of the 
work which they call the Lord's. But as regards himself 
he has good times there with his wife, and the question 
which he once proposed to this friend, whether he did not 
see that these people did not fare badly? shows clearly 
enough that he has good things there. But in the mean- 
while what is done for the Lord ? Or is it no great matter 
that he has taken one Bayard, an innocent man, idiom ire 
have seen here, away from his wife who is now living in Kew 
York. It is wonderful how Sluyter can he easy when he 
reflects upon the manner in which the Lord has dealt with 
one of his novices, whom also he had enticed away from, 
his wife, hut finally permitted to go back to her, supposing 
they had him sufficiently confirmed in the marriage disci- 
pline. They regarded him as one who listened to them, 
and he went everywhere in their meetings. He began to 
cry out to his wife, ' God, I can live no longer, I can live 
no longer; wherever I go Satan pursues me V i I have told 
you that all the time, 5 answered his wife; ' why have you 
allowed yourself to be so deluded by these men?' lie 
went one day to Sluyter's exercises, and found a horse oi 
one of the neighbors loose in the woods, which lie took 
along with him for the purpose of delivering up to tin' 
owner. The horse pleasing Sluyter, he caused it to Ik- 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

tied in order to Lave it ridden after the wo r skip was over 
in order to see whether he could exchange one of theirs 
for it. They put the man on its hack, hut in galloping 
along he struck his head against a tree in turning too 
shortly a corner of the road, and fell dead to the ground. 
They had good hopes of him, however, they said, because 
he had remained firm in the way of the Lord; but for 
Ephraim Hermans, who had obtained the land from his 
lather and secured it to them, they had not much hope." 1 

The doctrine of marriage of the Labadists to which we 
have before alluded, and out of which these practices grew, 
was, as expressed by themselves, simply this : that both 
parties must be born again, because otherwise, the marriage 
was not holy, and a believer must not put on the yoke with 
an unbeliever; therefore it was right for them to separate 
if they were not both endued with grace. They, however, 
might live together if both were not so endued, but the 
believer must love Christ more than his worldly spouse; 
for whoever loved father or mother, wife or husband more 
than Christ, was not worthy of him. It seems also that no 
person could be admitted into full membership as a brother 
or sister at Bohemia Manor, unless upon the direction of 
the father at Wiewcrd, and for that purpose the proofs of 
true conversion were sent to him for such direction. Most 
of the persons attracted to the community under Sluyter 
were novices, or probationists, who were undergoing the 
discipline and mortifications which were necessary to 
prove their faith. 

The other account of the colony before alluded to, gives 

1 Venal en Yul,~io-7. 



INTRODUCTION. x ]\ 

us i rfimpse merely of their manner of living. I< 
written by Samuel Bownas, the quaker preacher, who 
visited Bohemia Manor in 1702. He thus briefly de- 
scribed his visit, after leaving Chester in Maryland: 

"After we had dined we took our leave, and a friend, 
my guide, went with me, and brought me to a people 
I Labadies. where we wrere civilly entertained in their 
way. "When supper came in, it was placed upon a long 
table in a large room, where, when all things were ready, 
came in at a call, twenty men or upwards, hut no women. 
We all sat down. :: : y j Lacing me and my companion near 
the head of the table, and having passed a short space, one 
pulled on his hat, but not the rest, till a short space after, 
and then one after another they pulled all their hats . 
and in that uncovered posture sat silent, uttering no words 
"/ t we eould hear, near half a quarter of an hour: and as 
they did not uncover at once, so neither did they cover 
themselves again at on ; but as they put on their hats, 
fell to eating, not regarding those who were still uncov 
so that it might be ten minutes' time or more, between 
the first and last putting on of their hats. I ^i'lci wards 
queried with my companion, concerning the reason of their 
conduct, and he gave for answer, that they held it unl 
to pray till they felt some inward motion for the same ; 
and that secret prayer was more acceptable than to utter 
words: and that it was most proper for every one to 
::- moved thereto by the spirit in "their own mil. I 

'•1 likewise queried if they had no women am gsl 
'.' He told me they had, but the women eat by 
thi mselves, and the men by themselves, having all tl 
r 



xlii INTRODUCTION, 

in common respecting their household affairs, so that none 
could claim any more right than another to any part of 
their, stock, whether in trade or husbandry; and if any 
had a mind to join with them, whether rich or poor, they 
must put what they had in the common stock, and after- 
wards if they had a mind to leave the society, they must 
likewise leave what they brought, and go out empty 
handed. 

" They frequently expounded the scriptures among 
themselves, and being a very large family, in all upwards 
of an hundred men, women and children, carried on 
something of the manufactory of linen, and had a large 
plantation of corn, tobacco, flax and hemp, together with 
cattle of several kinds/' 1 

The. colonists conformed in most respects to the mode of 
living adopted at AYiewerd. They slept in the same or 
adjoining buildings, but in different rooms which were not 
accessible to each other ; but were ever open to the father, 
or such as he appointed for the purpose of instruction or 
examination. Their meals were eaten in silence, and it is 
related that persons often eat together, at the same table, 
for months, at Wiewerd, without knowing each others' 
names. They worked at different employments in the 
house, or on the land, or at trades, and were distributed 
for that purpose by the head of the establishment. Their 
dress was plain and simple, eschewing all fashions of the 
world. Gold and silver ornaments, jewelry, pictures, 



1 "An account of the life, travels and Christian experiences in the work 
of the ministry of Samuel Bownas." 8vo, London, 1750, p. 53-9. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xliii 



hangings, carpets, lace and oilier fancy work were 
prohibited, and if any of the members had previously 
worked at such trades, they had to abandon them. They 
worked for the Lord, and not for themselves. The product 
of their labor was not to satisfy their lusts and desires, but 
like the air, simply for their physical existence, and hence 
all their goods and productions should be as free and 
common as the air they breathed. 

They were to live concealed in Christ. All the desires 
or aversions of the flesh were, therefore, to be mortified, 
or conquered. These mortifications were to be undergone 
willingly. A former minister mi ght be seen standing at 
the wash-tub, or a young man of good extraction might be 
drawing stone or tending cattle. If any one had a repug- 
nance to particular food, he must eat it, nevertheless. 
They must make confession of their sinful thoughts in 
open meeting. Those who were disobedient were pun- 
ished by a reduction of clothing, or being placed lower 
down the table, or final exclusion from the society. There 
were different classes among the members, which were to 
be successively attained by probation, in conforming to the 
rules of the establishment, and the final position of brother 
obtained by entire severance from the world. 

Sluyter departed from the principles of the society, es- 
seniiallv in cultivating tobacco and in dealing in slaves. It 
was charged against him particularly that he was extremely 
cruel towards his slaves. 

While Sluyter was building up the colony at Bohemia 
Manor, the seeds of dissolution were developing themselves 
iu the mother church at Wicwerd. The residence of the 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 

Labadists at WaltH could, of necessity, be only temporary, 
that is, during the lives of the sisters Sommelsdyk. When 

they should die, the estate would devolve upon other 
members of their family. In the meantime, the number of 
children in the community "was increasino;, and nothing: 
was being added to the common fund. In 1688, some of 
them, particularly Henry van Deventer, an esteemed 
preacher at Wiewerd, began to agitate the division of the 
common property, and giving eacli his own, in order that 
such of them as chose might go out again into the world 
for the purpose of providing for their families. Nature 
thus began again to assume her proper sway, and the arti- 
ficial bonds in which she had been bound began to give 
way. Godly reasons were not wanting to justify the pro- 
posed change. It was the will of the Lord that they 
should remain together no longer, but should separate and 
go abroad into the world, and disseminate their doctrines. 
The church of Jerusalem had been scattered over the 
earth, and so must theirs be; and, like its members, they 
must go everywhere, and build up the house of God. The 
resolution to divide the property was accordingly taken, 
and carried into effect. The poor and moneyless of the 
community left the establishment, while those who were 
able to do so remained at Wiewerd, using their portion of 
the property to pension out their lives. Yvon, and Thomas 
Servaasz, who succeeded him as father on his death, and 
some others of the leaders, staid behind. On the other 
hand, there were no additions to the community, and it 
now became only a question as to the duration of the 
lives of the sisters Sommelsdvk to determine when 



INTRODUCTION. x j y 

the whole congregation would he separated ; and so it 
happened. 1 

The partition of property does not seem to have been 
immediately followed by the colony at Bohemia Manor. 
It had not taken place, according to Bownas, fourteen years 
after it had been made at "Wiewerd. Yet in 1698, a kind 
of division was made of the land, for in July, in that year, 
Slnyter, who, as we have seen, had become sole proprietor 
of the entire lands, conveyed three of the necks to Herman 
van Barkelo, Xicholas de la Montaigne, Peter de Ivoning, 
Derick Kolchman, John Moll, Junior, llendrick Slnyter 
and Samuel Bayard. It is readily discoverable from these 
names that they were members of the community. Slnyter 
retained one of the necks himself, and became a wealthy 
man in his own right. He died in 1722, after his wife, 
leaving by will all his estate, the plantation and land belong- 



1 Anna Maria Tan Schurman died in 1G78. Yvon survived her nearly 
thirty years, till 1707, when he was succeeded by Servaasz. The 
last of the three sisters Sommelsdyk passed away about 1725, when 
Thetinga-State reverted to Count Maurice, of Nassau, son of Isabella, 
their elder sister, not a Labadist, spouse of Hendriek, Count of Nassau. 
From him, it pas-ed to Baron Ailva. who died in 1738, and whose heirs 
allowed the building to go to entire decay. We, ourselves, visited 
Wiewerd in 1861, and found hardly a vestige of the Labadists remaining 
there. The church in which they worshiped was still standing, but not 
a stone marked the site of Thetinga-State, although it was pointed out to 
us as preserved by tradition. In a vault under the church are eleven 
bodies, which have been for generations marvellously preserved from 
decay, through some unexplained natural cause, atmospherical or other- 
wise. The coffins were opened, and the bodies exhibited to us, and still 
and light, lifted out on their feet. One of them thus exhibited, the old school- 
m l-t.T who had the graafkeldt r in charge, said was that of Anna Maria van 
Schurman. But that could not have been so. Wiewerd now contain • . -- 
than 20Q inhabitants, mostly boors, living in small cottages, and does not 
afford t-v.n a residence tor aminister. Its religious interests are attended U; 
by a neighboring clergyman, who preaches in the church at stated int< 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 



1 This will is signed Peter Sluyter, alias Yorsman. 

2 Bownas.oO. Johannes Sluyter and Henry Sluyter, Who survived him, 
were probably the last ol'the sect' who resided there, and with them, there- 
fore, passed away the last disciples ot'de Labadie in America. They were 
both dead in 173(>, as we learn from the proceedings on the admission of 
the will of Peter Sluyter, to probate a second time. This will is recorded 
in the cilice of the Registrar of Wills, at Annapolis. 



ing to it, negroes, horses, cattle, household stuff, and what 
had been belonging to his apothecary shop and chemistry, 
to his son-in-law, Petrus Boucholl, subject to certain legacies, 
and bequeathing to his brother, Johannes Sluyter, his 
papers and books, and to his cousin, Henry Sluyter, his 
watch. He makes no mention of any son, and he, therefore, 
probably has no descendant of his name living. AVe 
gather from his will that he died in the faith in which he 
had lived, and, obscurely, that he left some of the believers 
behind him still living. " Andfor my body," hesays, " I leave 
it to be buried after our own humble way, in the garden of the 
so-called Great House, where several of my brethren and 
sisters in Christ Jesus are expecting the general resurrection 
of the dead and eternal life of the soul and body, in the 
everlasting communion with God and all his saints, through 
Jesus Christ, our gracious Lord, Saviour, king-head, and 
all what can be wished and expected." 1 The Labadists 
were certainly all scattered and gone, and nothing of them 
remained as a religious community on Bohemia Manor 
five }~ears after his death. 2 

* And thus both in Fricsland and Maryland the mother- 
church and daughter-church expired about the same time. 
The sincerity of the founder of Labadism and of his 
followers may be conceded, the charges made against 



INTRODUCTION. x \ v :[ 

t] cir Hvcs may be admitted to be the in volitions of 
malicious minds, conceived from what might have been, 
rather than from what were the abuses of the system, yet 
the doctrines which they preached, and the discipline 
which they practiced, were repugnant to the wise purposes 
of the Creator in placing man upon earth. They were 
the refinements of a subtle mind, following the idea that 
the world had reached the last condition of the church, 
before the coming of Christ. Maintained with great 
success by the eloquence and zeal of de Labadie, and the 
marked ability of Yvon, his successor, they failed when 
these supports were withdrawn, showing it was. their 
personal influence, rather than its adaptation to the 
spiritual wants of man, that constituted the strength of 
Labadism. Like a ship without a pilot, it soon drifted 
upon the rocks, went to pieces and disappeared. 1 



1 The principal authorities "which we have consulted are : HistorUch 
Ytrhad JS'optn'k dcr Labadisten Schcuringh. Door Jacobus Koclman. 
Amsterdam, 1683. Verted en ml der Labadisten, &c, Door Petrus 
Dittelbach. Amsterdam, 1G92. Wouveau Dietionnaire Eistoriquc. Par 
Jiu-iiuesGconre de Chaufepie. Amsterdam, 1753. Vadertondsch Wo&rdcn- 
' ek. Door Jacobus Kok. Amsterdam 1794. Geschiedenis.der JSfederlandsdie 
Ihrvormde Kerk. Door A. Ypey and J. J. Dermout. Breda, 1824. />■: 
hthuUc en de Labadisten. Door II. Van Berkum. Sneek, 1851. Anna 
Ifuriti van Schiirman. Door G. D. J. Scliotel. 's Hertogenbosch, 1833. 
V> •• have not spoken of the Mennonists, a sect occasionally referred to in 
tin? journal, as they owe their origin to a period just anterior to the Dutch 
h ' rm<-d. It may, however, he stated that their founder, 3Ienno Simonis, 
n : raced the leading doctrines of the Anabaptists, especially in holding 
'.V.i infants were not the proper subjects of baptism, Christ's second 
. r on earth, and a rigid habit of living; but he opposed the attempt 
•• ■ made at Minister and other places to abolish civil government by 

■' ■*. tUmtirh adhering to the doctrine that no magistrate should be 
" •'■• ; i '•> the church. This sect differs little at the present time in 
•■ li :ioin views from the Baptists of our own country. The Mcnnon- 
uplwl a settlement on the Delaware in 1622, (post p. 220-1, note). 



vaa 



J O U E N A L 



VOYAGE TO OW KETHERLAND 

BEGX r X IN TTtK 

NAME OF THE LORD AXD FOE HIS GLOUY, THE 8TH OP JUNE, 1CT9, 

ANT) UNDERTAKEN 

Jn the small Flute-ship, called the Charles, of which Thomas Singleton icas 

Master ; but the superior Authority over both Ship and Cargo teas 

in Margard Filipse, who icas the Owner of loth, and with 

whom ice agreed for our Passage from Amsterdam to 

JScw York, in Xew ^Netherlands at seventy-five 

Guilders for each Person, payable in Holland. 

Oar Sanies were registered, that of 

my Friend m P. Yorstman , and 

my own as J. Sehilders. 



VOYAGE TO NEW YORK 



On the eighth of June, 1679, we left home l at four o'clock 
in the morning, taking leave of those with whom God hud 
joined us fast in spirit, they committing us, and we them, 
with tenderness of heart, unto the gracious protection 
of the Highest. Although, for a time, separated in body, 
we remained most closely united in soul, which is, al- 
ways and everywhere, one and the same. We went on 
foot to Oost[erend], expecting there to take the canal boat, 
which we did, at six or half past six o'clock, after waiting 
an hour. We took leave finally of those of our beloved 
and very worthy friends who had accompanied us, and thus 
far made it a pleasant journey for us. Our hearts had been 
strengthened in discoursing", on the road, of God and his 
will concerning us, and of the disposition and readiness of 
our hearts, as we then felt, to endure whatever might hap- 
pen, although we foresaw there would be enough to mortify 
us. "We arrived at B[olsward] about eight o'clock, where 
we discovered the reason why there were so few people 
in the boat and tavern. The ringing oi' the bells announced 
it was a holiday, namely, Ascension day, which suited us 
very well, as we thus had an opportunity of being alone in 
the tavern, and eating out of our knapsack a little breakfast, 
while waiting for the treckschuit to leave. We were pleased, 
while we were in the tavern, to see some persons come in, 
on behalf of the sellout, who was then on a visit to ail 

•Tin ill "a-Stato, at Wiewerd, m Ftiesland. 



4 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

the inn? in tile city, looking after drunkards and other dis- 
orderly persons liable to punishment. When the lime 
arrive J, we stepped on board the canal boat, where we found 
few people: hut these passed the whole way in tattling, 
principally about a certain miser who had died and cheated 
his friends, leaving them to find more than they believed 
could be found. As our own thoughts were otherwise 
employed, this talk was very annoying tons. We reached 
Wforkiina] 1 before the hour fixed for departure from there. 
Meanwhile, however, we went to the Amsterdam packet, 
on board of which there were different kinds of people, 
but all wicked. Among them was a family consisting of 
father, mother and children, who even after the manner of 
the world, were not spoken of much better. They had two 
daughters of a very easy disposition. We had the good 
fortune to have the cabin to o ursel ves, where we were perfectly 
accommodated. We left "Workum at twelve o'clock with 
a strong head wind, but open sailing, so that it was six 
o'clock before we passed Enkhuisen. We came to anchor 
before Amsterdam about eleven o'clock at night. 

9M, JPriday. We stepped ashore early and went first to 
look after our ship, the Charles, which we found lying in 
the stream. There were some passengers already on board. 
We inquired when they intended to sail. The mate, who 
like the captain, was a quaker, answered, " to-morrow," 
that is, Saturday. We went immediately to the house to 
which our chest had been directed, taking another with us. 
We lodged there as long as we were at Amsterdam. The 
proprietor made no objection to deliver us the chest which 



1 Workum is the port, on the west shore of Friesland, where they took 
the packet to cross the Zuider Zee to Amsterdam. The omission of the 
name of the place of their departure, Wiewerd, and giving only the 
initials of Oostcreiuh, Bolswarcl and Workum, indicate some prudential 
motive for concealment of their movements on the part of the travelers, 
probably the same as induced them to ^rivc themselves fictitious names, to 
prevent a discovery of the plans of the community, which might happen 
in case their journal should be lost. 



AMSTERDAM, BUIKSLOOT. - 

had arrived before us, upon our sh6wing what webrought. 
Thin done, we went to Margaret's, 1 to whom we spoke of 

ourselves, voyage and purpose, and who showed us some 
attention. All this was accomplished before noon-time, 
when we went to our lodgings to rest ourselves. The house 
I), : :r_r full of people the whole time, it was very difficult 
f> »r ns, though we obtained a bed room, to be tolerably alone 
during the day; but as the people who carried on this 
busi ness would have been willing* to have much money spent, 
and as it was not for us to do so, we went out a great deal 
into different parts of the city, and returned there in the 
evening, where we slept together. 

10//', Saturday. We performed some errands, and also 
spoke again to Margaret, inquiring of her when the ship 
would leave. She answered she had given orders to have 
everything in readiness to sail to-day, but she herself was 
of opinion it would not be before Monday. We offered 
her the money to pay for our passage, but she refused to 
receive it at that time, saying she was tired and could not 
be troubled with it that day. We had some conversation 
with her, and she asked us if we were not such and such 
persons, who lived at such a place, to which we generally 
answered, yes. 

h\ the afternoon we took on board our chest and what 
we deemed necessary for the voyage, by means of an ordi- 
nary row-boat. We reached the boom without the least 
remark, as the officers of the customs were employed with 
a lighter inspecting some vine of which they needs must 
taste! We selected our berth, put our bed-clothes in it, 
and requested the mate to keep the berth for us, which 
*vai next to the large hatchway, according to Margaret's 
orders. We then returned to our lodgings. 

11''. Sunday. Xot being able to do anything in the city, 

>! i r ....rvi Filip^-. 



G VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

we determined to cross over the Y 1 to Bniksloot, where 
we went to hear the preaching, which was wretched. Jt 
was by an old minister and according to the doctrines of 
Voetius. His text was of the seed sown among thorns. 
"We had hitherto eaten out of our provision basket without 
refreshment, and we therefore took the opportunity now to 
refresh ourselves a little. \W went at noon to Nieuwendam 
and heard a sermon by a person who had recently settled 
there. He gave a short exposition of his opinions, from 
which we clearly saw that he was a Cocceian ; andhe seemed 
zealous, hut not serious or earnest enough. AVe recrossed 
the liver in the evening and went to our lodsniurs. 

12/A:, Monday. This whole day we were in expectation of 
the ship's leaving, and therefore went out continually to 
see about it ; hut it was to no purpose. I went again to 
inquire at the house of Margaret, hut could ohtain no 
assurance. Our lodging house was the while constantly 
full of drunkards, and we did as well as we could to avoid 
them. 

13$, Tuesday. The ship still lying in the stream : we 
expected she would sail; hut no word coming from her at 
the time, we went on hoard and found there more passen- 
gers than before. We inquired again of the new mate 
when they had determined to leave, but we could obtain no 
information. The mutes advised us to go to the Texel and 
wait there for the ship, and this, for other reasons, we c<>m 
el tided to do. I. saw to-day a certain cooper who had visited 
us several times at A[ltona] and who conversed very 
familiarly chcz la famine rcforme, and I beheve comes also to 
the assembly of Mons. B. He looked at me, but made no 
salutation, and passed along. This is the only one of my 
acquaintance whom I have seen at Amsterdam. 

14 th, Wednesday. Having resolved to go to Texel to-day, 
whether the ship left or not, we prepared ourselves for the 

l Tiie river or inlet upon which Amsterdam is situated, is s< 



THE ZUIDER ZEE. ~ 

j ..'.ini-v. We took dinner with our host and paid him for 
pur hulking them About seven o'clock we went in the 
T« xvl bai go, where we found many passengers, but it wag 
t, ii o'clock at night before we got off. After leaving the 
pili s we had a strong head wind, which gradually increased 
\<> blow so hard that we could scarcely keep before it, fear- 
in- otherwise to sail ashore. 

].VA, Thursday, We passed Enkuisen early in the morn- 
ii _>-. and had then to proceed against the wind with hard 
weather. We kept tacking with great assiduity till about 
midday, when the tide compelled us to stop, and we came 
to anchor under the Ylieter. 1 The boat being full of 
drinking people, there had been no rest the whole night. 
My good friend [Sluyter, or Vorstman] was sea sick, 
and particularly suffered from the tooth ache, but felt better 
after taking a little of his usual medicine. The wind sub- 
siding somewhat, and the tide having fallen, some of our 
passengers were put on board a ship-of-war, which was 
riding at anchor under the Ylieter, and then we pro- 
ceeded on our course to Texel. Tacking until in the eve- 
ning, as far as the Oude Schild, we came near being run 
down, which happened in this way. There came a small 
English ship in from sea, when an English galiot, lying 
close .in shore, weighed anchor and set sail in order to speak 
to her. Coming down close before the wind, they were just 
going to speak to the ship, when we lay on their bow in 
order to wear about. They kept on their course taking no 
notice of us, when we shouted and screamed out to them; 
but they did not hear us until we came close to them and 
red< mbled our cries, when they hauled off. It was a narrow 
'-•-ape, as they were within, two inches of being right upon 
iw; but as there was a ship-of-war's boat on our vessel, we 
were probably in no great danger of losing our lives, since 
by means of that we could have saved ourselves. We landed 

1 A [»hoal in the ZuMer Zee, opposite Hie island of Wicriugen. 



8 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

at the Gude Schildabout half past nine in the evening, and 
took loggings at the Jfqf van Vricslmt} one of the princi- 
pal inns, although we had been recommended to the 
Moriams llooft 2 but that did not suit us, because it was 
mostly frequented by tipplers. Having taken something 
to eat, we retired together to rest in a quiet little "chamber 
which they prepared for us. 

16fJi, Friday. My companion still suffering from the tooth 
ache and also a pain in the stomach, remained in bed till 
noon, when he found himself better. We dined with our 
landlord and then wrote a letter home, which we posted. 
"We were in momentary expectation of the arrival of our 
ship, for which we were constantly on the look out; but as 
it continued blowing hard with a contrary wind, we did 
not discover any thing of her, and, by force, took this time 
to recruit ourselves a little. 

17///, Saturday. Waited for our ship the whole day, but 
saw nothing of her. 

18//', Sunday. Went to hear preaching this morning at 
Oude Schild by a very poor man, both in body and mind. 
He was crooked in lace and feet, up and down, in and out; 
but displeasing as he was to look at, he endeavored to 
pi ea se everybody. His text was, ' ' humble yourselves un der 
the mighty hand of C4od. ,J We went in the afternoon to • 
the lJurgh, the principal village on the island, walking 
along ^ dunes and sea shore, where we were amused by 
the running about of an incalculable number of rabbits. 
We went along the outside of the strand, and had a view 
of the breakers of the Forth sea, which were driven 
against the shore by the northwest wind. In going around 
the Burgh we came to, a brewer, the only one. not only 
in that place, but on the island. We drank of his beer, 
winch in our opinion was better than any we had found on 

1 Court of Fricsland. 

2 Moors Head. 



TEXEL. ON BOARD SHIP. () 

our journey. Being a Mennonist he would gladly have 
entertained us with pleasant conversation, bul admonished 
of the time, we returned to our lodgings at Oude Schild. 

1 ()//>, Monday. We looked out again for our ship, going 
along the dyke to Oostereind, a considerable village, but 
we saw no signs of her. We therefore left the shore and 
returned home inland, passing through another small 
village, called Seelt. 

20//?, Tuesday. Perceiving nothing of our ship we began 
to feel very anxious, for besides being at much expense for 
our lodgings, we were sometimes compelled to eat with 
very godless men. Our lodo'inii* house was the one most fie- 
quenteel by the superior officers of the ships-of-war, of 
which there were seven or ei<rht lvin^ there ready to con- 
voy different fleets to various parts. 

We went in the afternoon to the Hoorn, quite a large 
village west of the Oude Schild. When we had passed 
through it, we found ourselves near the dunes, over which, 
we crossed to the beacon, walking upon the shore to the 
extreme point of the island, from whence we saw the 1 [elder 
before us on the other side, and between, the two mouths of 
Texcl's deep, observing how the lines agreed with the 
beacons. Time running on, we returned to the Hoorn, 
where we were compelled to drink once. The landlord of 
[lie house was a papist, who quickly took us to be Roman 
ecclesiastics, at which we laughed between us for his so 
deceiving himself. He began to open his heart very freely, 
and would have told us all his secrets if we had asked him; 
bnl we cut off the conversation, and answered his questions 
with eivility. When we reached home in the evening, we 
paw some ships had arrived, and supposed certainly one of 
them was ours; but, as it was dark, we were compelled to 
wail tiii next morning. 

2'lffj Wednesday-. As soon as we had taken a little break- 
fast we wvnt along the dyke to Oostereind, near which the 

Q 



10 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

ships had come to audio •. As we approached tlie place, 
we could no longer doubt our.- was there, which we were 
the first to discover. We therefore hired a boat immedi- 
ately and went on board, when we not only found it was our 
ship, but that she was full and overladen. She was so full of 
passengers of all kinds, and so stowed, that we saw no 
chance of finding a place in which to sleep, and there were 
scarcely any of our goods to be found. The berth, which 
we had selected, had been taken by others, which there was 
no use of resisting; but it caused us no regret, as we 
thereby secured another near the cables, almost entirely out 
of the way, and always removed from the greatest noise. 
"Wo determined to go ashore and come back the next day : 
but after taking our dinner there and paying our landlord, 
we returned on board. When we came on the ship, they 
began immediately to inquire of us about everything, and 
we answered them discreetly and civilly. Among others 
who thus made themselves conspicuous, was Jan, whom we 
did not know, and whose deportment did not accord with 
what we had imagined of him: but Ave supposed he was 
one of the passengers, and one of the best, and most slovenly. 
He asked my comrade if we were not of such a people, 
expressly naming them, who answered him according 
to his and our condition. After we had been on board 
some time, seeing we obtained no place, 1 went my .-elf to 
look after one and observed where we could make a berth. 
I spoke to the captain, who had the chests removed and a 
berth arranged for us on the larboard side near the fore- 
hatch; but as the cable was lying there so that il could not 
be stretched out as long as it ought, and as there was room 
enough, I took a little old rope and set to work to lengthen 
it out, which I accomplished before evening, so that we 
could sleep there that night. Certainly we had reason to 
thank the Lord that lie had given us a berth in a more 
cpiiet place than we ourselves had chosen, which he had of 



SETTING SAIL. n 

his Trill allowed to be taken IV >m us. Hia providence truly 
extends over all things and his foolishness is wiser than the 
.wisdom of men, and sometimes even of his children. 

22d, Tl'jtrtdo'i. "We slept little during the night in con- 
sequence of the clatter of so many godless and detestable 
men. and the noise of children and others. AVe had, how- 
ever, to content ourselves. I went in search of our chest, 
which was stowed away in the how, but to no purpose, as 
it was necessary lo creep on hands and knees to get in 
there. AVe remained in the hope it would come to light at 
Falmouth. The ship was so low between decks, that sit- 
ting on the chest we could not sit upright even between 
the beams, for it was only about three feet high. But we 
were here in the forecastle well content. 

2ort, Friday. My comrade wrote a letter home. Our cap- 
tain having caused the boat to be made ready in order to 
go with his wife to another English ship, we requested per- 
mission to accompany him ashore. He roundly refused us ; 
and we had to wait for a boat to pass and hail it, 
which we did. Having posted the letter on shore, and 
refreshed ourselves somewhat, we started to go on board 
again. We found our boat, when our captain and the 
captain of the English ship came up. Our skipper asked 
us if we would accompany them, to whom we civilly 
replied, and so went on board with them in the evening. 
The sailors had caught some plaice which were i'ov the 
guests in the cabin. I assisted in cleaning them. 

24?/t, Sat'irday. The wind was southeast, the same as yes- 
terday, which made us all very anxious for Margaret to 
arrive, so that we might not miss a good wind. Jan and 
some others of the passengers were much dissatisfied, and 
paid : "AVe know very well where she is. She is in Erics- 
land. " Upon this Jan declared, "if this wind blows over 
our heads, I will write her a letter which will make her 
ears tingle," and used many other rude expressions. He 



12 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK 



/ 



. 



was oho of the greatest of grumblers, and even against 
her. He revealed liiinseif more freely in a conversation 
with my companion, from which we could clearly discover 

that lie was of the feelings of Boheem, 1 though he denied 

he had ever read Lis Looks, lie also expressed himself 
profanely and in very foul language, worse than the foulest 

sailor or dock-loper would have done. The wind changed 
towards evening, and thus this day passed with murmuring, 
and we doubted no longer that this was Master John. 2 

25//?, Sunday. It blew very hard from the wes-f so that 
we had to lower the topmasts and let drop -the sheet anchor. 
We saw at daylight a yacht coming down to us before the 
wind and were rejoiced to find that Margaret was on hoard, 
with some oilier females. The yacht not coming well up, 
our captain sent a boat to her, hut they could not reach her 
on account of the current. However, the yacht succeeded 
in coming along side of us, and Margaret came on board 
with her little daughter, and a Westphalian woman, who was 
a widow, and a girl, both of whom were in her service, and 
to go as passengers. They were welcomed by all, and all 
of them came and shook us by the hand. Some said they 
thought she had been to Friesland. Whereupon she 
answered: "How do you know where I have been?" 
TV~c had nothing to detain us now, except the wind. 

20//', Monday. The wind began to blow a little from the 
south, but calmly. It veered round more and more to the 
southeast so that we determined to get under sail. AVe 
therefore took a pilot, weighed anchor, and set sail about 
ten or eleven o'clock. We sailed smoothly onward to the 
Ilelder. The pilot had a brother who was older, and had 
been a pilot longer than he* had, and who sailed ahead of 

1 Jacob Boehme, the German theosophist. 

- The reference to Friesland alludes, no doubt, to the community at 
AViewi'i-il; but the connection of both Margaret Filipse and .Tan with that 
society, so distinctly hinted in this day's journal, and more obscurely befi >rc, 
are left wit! ; • (, ' ! - 



SHIP AGROUND. 13 

us in ll-i<* pilot boat, continually sonhding the depth of 

water with the deep load. "/.vTieii we wore going by the 
Oude Sehild there came a barge oil' with two more women 
who desired to go with us; but as they could not reach the 
ship, the pilot boat went after them and took them on board 
of her, where they had to remain until the ship arrived out- 
side. It was about two o'clock when we came in the chan- 
nel of the Land's-diep or Xicuwe diep. You run from 
Oude Sehild strait to the Holder, and so close to the shore 
that you can throw a stone upon it, until you have the 
capes on this point opposite each other, namely, the two 
small ones : for to the westward of these there is a large 
one which is not to be regarded. Having the capos thus 
Opposite each other, you are in the middle of the channel 
and by the first buoy. The current runs outside along the 
shore, east and west, to wit : the ebb tide westerly, and the 
, flood easterly, and also very strong. The ebb runs until it 
is half flood. There are still two other channels, the old 
one which is the middle one, and the Spanish channel 
stretching to the east. We had readied the middlemost 
buoy when it became entirely calm, for which reason we 
co aid hardly steer the ship, and, in the meanwhile, the cur- 
rent was steadily setting us OA r er to the west bank. Here- 
upon a dispute arose between the pilot m our ship and 
those in the pilot boat going ahead of us. The one in the 
ship on throwing: the lead and finding; it be<nn to be shal- 
low, and seeing, moreover, that the current was driving us 
more upon the shoal, was of opinion that we should wear 
ship, which his brother was not willing to do, saying that. 
*he (should stand over further. This continued so long that 
at last it became entirely dry, when he wished to tack about; 
but it eould not then be done in consequence of the cur- 
rent running with so much force upon shallow ground, and 
(•arryiij** rfte ship violently against the shoal, where the cur- 
rent ran obliquely. They got out the boat at the bow of 



14 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

the ship to row, which Would not yield in consequence of 
the strong current wlii. U also drove the boat as well as the 
ship: so that, in a word, we were aground on the west bank 
of the channel, and although the water was nearly at its 
lowest there was still a strong ebb tide. Immediately there 
was great clamor and running to and fro both of seamen 
and those not acquainted with navigation. Every one was 
alarmed, and every one did his best in that respect, the 
more so, because there was not. far from us the wreck of a 
ship with her masts sticking out of water, though it was on 
the east side of the channel. ZSeverth el ess, we remained 
fast, and the ship began to thump hard and fall entirely on 
one side. They ran straitway to the pumps, but found 
no leak. The pilot remained in good spirits,, though put 
out and angry with his brother, who had misled us, and who, 
in consequence of the strength of the current, and the light- 
ness of the wind, could not come on board of us. They 
said we were in no danger, although it looked very strange, 
as the current had washed the sand very much from under 
the lee of the ship whereby she had foil en much on her side. 
But we hoped with the ilood tide she would come off again. 
There were several passengers, not only women, but men, 
and some of the bravest, who began to secure the best they 
had, and were ready and looking out how they might safely 
reach the land. But the Lord possessed us with his grace. 
Though seeing all this and knowing the danger, I was dis- 
turbed by it. Margaret proposed throwing some of the 
cargo overboard, but the pilot and I dissuaded her from it. 
The captain wished to start the tanks of fresh water, but 
we hindered him. Of all the men in the ship 1 saw no one 
who was so frightened as .Tan. He ran backwards and for- 
wards and hardly knew what he said or did. This hap- 
pened about hall' past ihree o'clock in fnQ afternoon, and 
as we had not yet taken any dinner, and could effect 
nothing as long as the ship was last, the victuals were 



DESCRIPTION OF TEXEL. 



15 



brought outtobe eaten. "We sai bcfbrc the hut and eat; 
bra we had not finished when tpc reived the ship dragging, 
as bad been predicted, I sprang up quickly and cried out : 
" We are afloat; the ship's afloat.'' Immediately thereupon 

the whole ship was in commotion. The victuals were 
removed, the boat put to the bow, and every one did his 
bust, rowing' as Well as he could. The ship, floating more 
and mure, gave some good pushes and was brought into 
four fathoms of water, in the middle of the channel, and 
there anchored. My companion and myself thanked God 
in our hearts, and all were very much rejoiced. . But no 
sooner was the danger over, which had somewhat bridled 
the godlesfcttess of these bad men, than they returned to 
their old courses, with cursing and foul language. They 
were not affected in the least by what had happened, nor 
by God's gracious preservation of us. Truly was his hand 
visible, for it remained perfectly calm, so the ship labored 
very little. It would otherwise have been all over with 
us, for our ship not being the strongest, and being more- 
over very heavily laden, if the wind had changed to the 
east and forced us on a lee shore, she would have soon 
gone to pieces: or if we had grounded on the opposite side, 
which might easily have happened, there would have been 
little probability of^ her getting off, because the flood tide 
would have driven us higher up, especially if it had blown 
somewhat hard. The flood having run in and a light 
breeze springing out of the S. E. and 8. S. E., the anchor 
was raised and in a short time we came outside, having 
been there about six hours. The pilot was paid, and 
he left the ship; the women whom be had taken in his 
boat were put on board and we .bid him adieu, and set 
our course. 

Before we proceed further we will say a word concerning 
the island of Texel, where we were about eight days, 
although the island is well known. It is -aid to be twenty- 



16 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

eight miles 1 in circumference, and is nearly oval in Conn. 
The shore, .inside aloi^ the Texel deep, is dyked.; on the 
outside, along- the North sea, it is beset with dunes. There 
are six villages, 2 namely Oostereind, Seelt, the Hoogh, the 
Burgh, which is the principal one, and lias privileges like 
a city, such as that of inflicting capital punishment and 
others ; the Oude Schild, which is mostly resorted to by ships, 
the Iloorn, and also the West End, which has now fallen 
into decay. We saw four of them but not the Hoogh which 
lay out of the way, and the West End which had fallen 
into decay. Inland the country is rough, and some of it 
high, so that there are few ditches, except in the low lands 
for the most part on the side of Texel's deep. Otherwise 
they protect their land with small dykes of earth. The 
soil is sandy, which affords very good water in the high 
places. The meadow lands are somewhat dry, hut yield a 
fine grrass. The inhabitants s;ain their livelihood, for the 
most part, by raising sheep and making Texel cheese. The 
shoe]) are smaller, but fatter and more hardy than they are 
in Fricsland. They seldom bring forth two young at a 
birth, and when they do, one usually is killed in order that 
the other may he better nourished. The inhabitants have 
cows for their own use. The dyke is not high or thick, hut- 
is lined with mkr, a kind of sea-grass, which they put together 
and lay against the dyke somewhat higher than the earth 
work. Piles are driven outside to hold this wier against it, 
and prevent the sea from washing it away. This dyke is 
repaired every year by contract. Many fishermen and 
pilots live along it, both qualifications generally being in 
the same person, as well as the other pursuits pertaining to 
navigation. There are about five hundred, pilots in all 

x Tlio distances and measurements will continue to be rendered, as in 
this instance, according to the English scales. 

2 There were according to this enumeration, seven villages ; live instead 
of four of which were vfeited by them. 



PILOTS. OUTSIDE THE COAST. 17 

living on the island oi' Texel, as can be seen by the num- 
bers which they cany on their sails or wings. 

The law is that no ship can go in or out without a pilot; 
and in case any captain, will not take a pilot, he is never- 
theless bound to pay the fees of one, and in case the 
captain will not pay them, the pilots can go to Amsterdam 
and there obtain it at the expense of the captain. And if 
the captain take no pilot and an accident happen, the con- 
sequences fall upon him ; but I believe this first rule only 
applies to ships belonging to Amsterdam, or other ports in 
Holland; and that foreign ships are more free in that, respect, 
but cannot relieve themselves from the second. The 
pilots who bring in ships from the outside bring fhein to 
the Texel roadstead or the Holder, and others take them to 
Amsterdam or elsewhere ; and those who take them from 
Amsterdam, go no further than the Texel roadorthe Ylie, 
and other pilots carry them out to sea. The fees of the 
pilots is a guilder a foot for every foot the ship draws, 
though any sum may be fixed by agreement. 

During the whole time we were there we saw few or no 
fish, though we supposed this was the place for fish. We 
remarked further that the inhabitants of Texel wcru more 
polite than the boors of Friesland. A large portion of 
them are inclined to Rome. There was no home brewed 
beer tapped in the taverns, but it was all foreign beer, and 
this I suppose was for the purpose of saving the excise. 
They are under the jurisdiction of West Friesland and the 
1 'articular government of the city of Alckmaer, whose 
weights and measures they use. West of the Oude Schild 
there is a small fortification with four points and two 
redoubts on the dyke, and some small batteries; hut they 
aiibrd little protection to the place, and still less to the 
harbor. It was closed and without men, when we were 
then'. When we first came there, the people, unaccus- 
tomed to see such persons, regarded us as some individual.-, in 
3 



18 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

particular. The innkeepers took us to be farmers of the 
revenue, especially of brandies, and supposed our presence 
there was to prevent their smuggling, as they themselves 
told us. The Roman Catholics, as they declared, looked 
upon us as priests ; the Mennonists, as a class of their ex- 
horters ; and the ordinary Reformed, as preachers ; whereby 
they all showed they did not know us in truth, according 
to the word in Christ Jesus. 

Leaving Texel and the land we came outside the coast, 
laying our course S. W. with a S. E. wind, with which we 
sailed some distance from the shore. Towards evening 
the wind began to blow from the S. and S. 8. T\ r . quite 
hard, and so we stood off through the whole night. I do 
not know that I ever had in my life so severe a pain in the 
breast as I had this evening, whether it was from hard 
work or change of our condition. 

27th, Tuesday. The wind from the same quarter as 
before, but blowing harder, for which reason we reefed 
our topsails. We had twenty-six and twenty-eight fathoms 
of water. By evening it was somewhat calmer: but as 
the wind was not steady we stood off from the shore. 

28//?, Wednesday* Finding ourselves in twenty-five and 
twenty-six fathoms of water and the wind still south 
and southwest we sailed over by the wind. It continued 
to blow hard, and we sailed for the most part X. by E. 
and X. X. E. It annoyed me that I could not get at our 
chest, in order to obtain my charts and books of naviga- 
tion. Our mate and others observed the latitude, and 
found it to be 52° 1G' ; and we tacked about. The wind 
continued in the same quarter, sometimes a little lighter, 
sometimes sharper. We kept mostly a S. S. E. course, 
with hard weather the first part of the night. 

29th, Thursday. Having twenty-six and twenty-seven 
fathoms of Water we lay over again. Every day there 
were many mackerel caught, which for several days were 



COAST OF FLANDERS* DOVER. 19 

for tlic cabin only, whatever number were caught, because 
they were taken with the captain's Looks ; but the passen- 
gers and sailors began to get their hooks ready also and 
thus every one began to catch and eat. The weather was 
delightful. I had obtained rny things out of the chest, and 
found the latitude 37° 18'. We stood over to the Flemish 
or Zeelandish coast, calculating Ave were not far from Sluis 
and Bruges. I therefore went, aloft frequently to look 
out for land. "We saw several fishing boats, one of which 
we hailed toward evening. lie was from Zierick zee, and 
told us Walcheren was about twenty-eight miles E. S. E. of 
us, and we could see it from the mast head, as was the fact. 
We laid over again immediately. It now began to blow 
more from the S. TV", and S. W. by W. We had sailed 
the last night w r est hx north, according to reckoning:, 
twenty-eight miles. This result agreed with my observa- 
tion less than four miles, and that of our mate, named 
Evert. But the captain's and the English mate's calcula- 
tion brought us before the Maes, as Evert told me. 

We sailed now for a day or two among great quantities 
of chub fish and crabs which had been driven off from 
the land and drowned, which caused us to reflect noon 
what God did formerly in Egypt and elsewhere, and still 
often does, for his power is always the same, although it 
is not always understood. 

80$, J^riday, We tacked over to the Flemish coast this 
morning in twenty-dive fathoms of water; but it was so 
calm that we made little progress. It was too cloudy to 
take the latitude. The wind was very variable, and we 
could not keep on S. W., or even south, and so drifted for 
the most part with the tide. 

July Is*. Saturday. We had drifted the whole night in 
the calm, and had gone backwards instead of forwards « 
but in the morning the wind began to blow out of the X. 
W. and X. X. W. with a. stiff breeze. "We therefore set 



20 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

all pail, and went ahead tolerably well on a straight course 
W.by S. and W. S. AV. against the current. We saw land ' 
many times about two hours distance, both on the star- 
board and larboard, that on the starboard being the point 
of Dover, and on the larboard, the point of Calais. There 
was a free wind and fine weather, though a little haze on 
the horizon. The land began to loom up more distinctly, 
and I sketched it twice with crayon. We continued to 
catch plenty of mackerel, and also peterman and whiting. 
We arrived before Dover at sunset, when we fired a gun, 
and a boat came off to us immediately, by which the cap- 
tain sent some letters ashore. We inquired of them the 
news, and they answered us all was well : but they told 
the captain privately that 30,000 Scotch papists had taken 
up arms for the conspirators. 1 

It is proper I should say something here of the Xorth 
sea. In case you are driven about by strong contrary 
winds and cannot obtain the latitude, and, indeed, under 
any circumstances, you should use the deep lead frequently, 
for the depth is well shown on the chart, and often you 
cannot get sight of the land. The Flemish coast is the 
least dangerous, although the English is the most surveyed, 
because the water becomes shoal gradually. You may get 
into thirteen and fourteen fathoms of water. In the true 
channel it is twenty and twenty-two fathoms, and in the 
middle it is deeper, namely, twenty-six and twenty-eight 
and over, but it is somewhat more uneven. In approach- 
ing the English coast the shoals are more even as twenty- 
six, eighteen, seventeen fathoms. To navigate the channel 
it is best to keep nearest the Flemish coast, because it 
affords a better course, and the current makes it easy to 
go north, and the sandbars such as the Galper and others, 
especially Goyn, are more to be avoided than the 



■^TMs refers to the conspiracy to murder Charles II, charged by Oates. 



ISLE OF WIGHT. oj 

!■"!> -!!ji-}j Innfte*: and, moreover, close by the shore if is very 
iWn vH hv the setting of tlic current to the north von 
ru;iv *oon be upon thcm,Jhat is, with an ebb tide. 

•J-/, Suntfay. Made fair progress during the night, We 
tf»tm<] ourselves in the morning before the point of Beve- 
titw, 1 \s liic-li I sketched. The wind was northerly with a 
tool air. About breakfast time a large English ship came 
iiji luhind us, which we hailed. She was from London 
untl hound for the Straits. She had much sail on, and 
after passing us. set all she had; but not long; afterwards a 
small breeze blowing offshore, she was compelled, to begin 
to take in her topgallant-sails and upperstay-sails. This 
was scarcely half done when her maintop-mast andmizzen- 
toivmast went by the board, and remained hanging on the 
side of the ship. The man who was taking in the topgal- 
lant-sail fell overboard. When this accident happened she 
was only a short distance ahead of us; and we, therefore, 
all ran forward to the forecastle to see whether there were 
any pieces of wood at our bow to damage us. "We sailed 
hv her, close under her lee, and saw somewhat of a crowd 
running about the ship. Finally they launched their jolly- 
boat for the purpose of looking after the man who had 
fallen overboard with the top-mast. "Whether there were 
a«y more we did not know, and as we sailed ahead of them 
with considerable speed, we could not see whether they 
fished any one up or not; but the ship sailed before the 
wind the best she could, when her top-mast went overboard; 
we took in very quickly our own topgallant-sail, which we 
had set, but more from precaution than necessity. Shortly 
afterwards it was so calm that we merely drifted along; 
and being nearly midway between Bevesier and the Isle of 
Wight, and the ebb tide running out, we were compelled 
by the current to anchor about a mile from the shore. 

1 Beachv IleiMi 






22 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

About four o'clock in the afternoon Margaret came to 
mewfcilelwaa engaged in, sketching the Isle of Wight. 

"We talked over various matters which were almost the 
same as those about which she had conversed with my 
companion the day before, and I therefore met her with 
the same objections. 1 

3d, Monday. We did not advance any during the night, 
and had drifted along ; but a breeze springing up we went 
ahead a little. It was very foggy, so that we could not see 
the land. It cleared up in the afternoon, when we found 
ourselves off against the Isle of Wight.; but the wind sub- 
siding, and the tide being spent, we ran for the point of the 
island, and came to anchor in ten or eleven fathoms near 
some other ships which were waiting there for a good 
wind and tide. The jolly-boat was launched and our 
Dutch mate and two other persons went ashore in order to 
see if they could obtain some fresh provisions. The tide 
having passed, and the wind shifting, we signaled to them 
to come on board again, which they did in the evening, 
when we were already most under sail. They brought 
nothing with them, except a little milk which served us as 
a good refreshment for this evening. Sailing ahead, we 
steered above the point with the wind W. S. W., and so 
gained the open sea. There is a very strong current here, 
and hard beating along the shore and around the point. 
The current sent us ahead more than the wind. The coast 
is epiite good and it is deep enough close up to the shore. 

4th, Tuesday. We found ourselves in the morning oppo- 
site Wight with the wind S. S. E., and quite still. After 
a while there came up a breeze. We passed Pcvcril 
point, however, with the ebb. About noon a flute-ship 
came near us which we hailed. She was from Amsterdam, 
bound to Cadiz. It was so calm in the evening that we 



1 What these subject-matters were do not appear. 



THE EHDYSTOXE. 



23 



liiird. ;!!k) turned roan<l several timesi We pereeivedd 
fifteen or eighteen large ships on tlie Frenea coast, which 
saluted ends other with many heavy guns. The ebh being 

spent, we came to anclior again in twenty-one fathoms of 
water, about two miles from the shore. The flood having 
run our by evening, we weighed anchor, and before we were 
under sail had a fresh wind astern. We therefore set all 
the sail we could, having a favorable wind and tide, by 
which means we came before Portland. 

bth, Wednesday. We still had a fair wind and kept our 
course W. by S. We passed Portland, and came in sight 
of Goldstar!, 1 and arrived off against it about noon. Our 
mate was of opinion that we had run by the rock of 
M eensteen or Jetstone, 2 and should have it on the larboard; 
but on looking out afterwards we found it right before us, 
about four miles oft*. We had therefore to hold up and 
leave it on the starboard. It is a large rock having its 
head just above the water. It rises up straight, but is very 
much hacked, which makes it look like a reef. Whenever 
the sea is rough it is under water. It is dangerous enough, 
and lies far out in the channel, farther than it is marked 
down on my chart. We certainly had reason here again 
to observe the care of the Lord, and his protection through 
his good providence, which always watches paternally over 
his children, shown in our becoming aware of this rock 
before the evening, and just before the evening, for we 
had not weli gone by it before it was dark. If we had been 
sailing so at night, or if we had not now discovered it, the 
mate's calculation being as it was, we certainly would not 

l Siart Point. 

5 Tii< K«hly stone is here meant — formerly one of the most dangerous 
ri« fr on the south eoast of England. There was no light-house upon it at 
'•' ■• time. The first one was commenced in 1G9G; the present famous one 
in 175a, The Dutch name, Meeusteen, signifies Mewstone — a name 
uvrivcO iV-. :i; the gull or sea mew. 



24 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

missed Bailing upon it; for when wo first saw it, it was 
straight before us, and we were sailing with a fair wind 
and lido up to it. We wore tlieroforo touched, and thankful 
to the Lord. This passed, wo still, while the sun was 
going down clear, made Deadnian's head, a point jutting 
out from England, so that we reckoned we were still 
twenty-eight or thirty-two miles from Falmouth hay ; hut 
the wind had fallen off some. My calculation was, that we 
were about twelve or sixteen miles from Falmouth. 

G(h, Thursday. During the night I heard the ship tack 
close ahout, and therefore supposed that the wind had 
changed, or that the ship had run too for, or, what was 
more probable, I was afraid, the wind being about S. E., 
we had foil en more to the shore. Our mate Evert and I 
thought we should stand off a little till daylight; hut the 
captain tacked about again, so that we then sailed N. E., 
intending thus to enter the harbor of Falmouth, but we 
found no opening, and when the day broke, discovered 
that they had made a mistake, and had taken the point of 
Deadman's head for the point of Falmouth bay. When 
the sun rose, they saw they were deep in the bay, on a lee 
shore, where it all looked strange, and they had a tolerably 
hard wind. Tvhon they saw they were wrong it continued 
so some time before they became informed. They then 
wore ship, and sailed with quite easy sheets out of the bay. 

This mishap was mainly caused by Master .Tan, who 
wishing to play the part of a wise man, though truly it 
was from fear, had been on deck several times during the 
night, in order to look out, afraid, as he said himself, that 
we might sail upon the point of the Lizard. Coming up 
at this time with drowsy eyes, and catching a glimpse of 
the land, through, the mist, he began to call out, that we 
had passed by Falmouth, and would certainly sail upon 
the Lizard, h was the English mate's watch, who was 
not very well acquainted with him, and could not keep 



DEADMAX'S HEAD. FALMOUTH. 0.3 

him >tilJ. The captain was tlierefore called, who also 
< amc up rubbing his eyes, and unable to .see the land well 

in the mist, lie coincided with Jan, being apprehensive 
that the ship had sailed more than they thought, and as I 
myself considered might well be the case, and so let the 
si iip tack about. I deemed it better, however, to keep off 
from the shore till daylight, when they could see where 
they were ; but the captain relying more upon Jan's 
opinion, and wishing to accomplish half a master piece, by 
going into Falmouth in the dark, and surprising the 
people there to whom the ship was consigned, and so 
to pass hereafter as a good and skillful captain, insisted 
npon sailing in, and so they went in, as has been mentioned. 
It is no part of the business of a good seaman to run into a 
place by night, or when it is dark, where he is not well ac- 
quainted ; but in such case he should work off shore slowly, 
waiting until day and light, and know where he is, and 
then see what can be done. Thus the fear of one danger, 
and the rashness accompanying it, brought us into another, 
greater than the first. 

Sailing then out of this bay, around the west point, we 
saw at once the neck from which this point of land takes 
iis name of Deadman's head. It is slurped like a coffin or 
the mound of earth which peasants form over a grave, 
one end a Utile higher than the other, and going up sharp 
on either side ; hut it is on the top somewhat jagged. It 
is on the east side of the point, three or four cable lengths 
trora the main land. We had a third mate (Titus), on 
hoard the ship who was to go on the other ship at Fal- 
mouth, and who was well acquainted here. lie said he 
had passed through the opening between the rock and the 
main land, and that it was a mile wide and tolerably 
clear and deep enough. After having passed Deadman s 
-••ad and this rock, we came to a small pretty sand-bay, 
1 »ul it lies open. From Deadman's head you can see, on 
4 



26 VOYAGE TO XPW YORK. 

Che point of Falmouth bay, a church with a small spire, 
and near it a stone wind-mil!, which forms a good land 
mark, for along flic whole coast there are few or no 
steeples. As yon sail along this point the castle 1 comes 
into view standing upon the west point of the harbor of 
Falmouth, where also there is a stone wind-mill. The 
easterly point should be avoided, for it runs out consider- 
ably. It is hard bottom, and at 1 ow tide there is three fathoms 
water always; and we sailed in with that depth. As 
soon as yon perceive it is deeper, yon have passed the east 
point. Then keep along this shore if the wind be fair, for 
there is a rock almost directly in the channel. Ton can 
go around it close enough, but this should not be done. As 
it Was low water when we entered, it stuck up -out of the 
water. At high tide it is covered. There is a spar or 
pole upon it, which cannot be seen far, but the breakers 
are sufficiently visible. Wben you sail in, in this manner, 
yon see the other cattle 2 also, tying on the east side, on a 
point inside. After having passed the rock, keep a little 
again on the inside, and then to the west, so as to 
avoid the second point, upon which the east castle is situ- 
ated. As soon as yon have passed that, yon have deeper 
water and softer bottom; and yon must then look out 
that you do no damage to the shipping, for the roadstead 
commences there, and you can see the city or village of 
Falmouth lying upon the west side of the bay, and appear- 
ing somewhat prettier than it is in fact. TThen we arrived, 
we found a large number of vessels lying there ; but being 
desirous of sailing high up, several ships received good 
thumps from us, in passing by them, and our endeavoring to 
keep off the shoals. It would have resulted much worse, 
if our sheet anchor, which was lying up forward, had nut 
caught between the rails of a small vessel, whose mizen- 



1 Pendcnnis. 

2 St. MaTvcs. 



UNLADING THE SHIP. PENHYK 27 

mast wo alsA came foul of, whereby our ship turned round, 
am] at the same time our anchor fell, and we touched 
Utttoin in the mud, with lino weather and still water. We 
thanked our God again, with our whole hearts, for the 
double mercy shown us this morning, having not only in 
:i fatherly manner preserved us from an apprehended 
danger, but delivered us from this one into wdiich we had 
truly fallen, and had then caused us to arrive so well. To 
him belongs all praise and glory, from all his children, 
and especially from us, to all eternity. Amen. 

Our anchor had not yet touched bottom when the in- 
jectors or tide-waiters all came on board to examine. 
( u:r captain and Margaret went immediately ashore ; and 
after the cook had served the breakfast, most all the pas- 
sengers, both old and young, putting on their best clothes, 
did the same. My comrade also went to see if any letters 
had arrived for us, whilst I remained on board to look 
after things a little ;. for all our goods were in the berth, 
and otherwise within reach, and the ship was constantly 
full of strange people. My comrade soon returned, but 
brought no letters. This morning while we were launch- 
Lng the boat, I hurt myself in the loins, on my left side ; 
the pain extended through the whole of that side of my body, 
t<> my left breast, and across the middle to the right breast. 
I w;w all bent up while standing, and had to sit down. I 
•• >uld scarcely draw a breath or move myself; but I felt it 
w;;~ my old complaint, forced upon me anew when I hurt 
myself. This pain continued for some days, when it gradu- 
ally passed over. At high water wc towed the ship higher 
":>. to the warehouse, where we had to unload. The 
« i*Umi house officers, and Mr. Rogers, came on board 
*onie other persons, and when they left, they promised 
53- the ship should be unladen by Tuesday, for which we 
were (ehul. 

1 -,; ' Fitihitj, They began early to break open the hatches 



23 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

and discharge the ship. My comrade and T went ashore to 
a place called Penryn, a little further up the haw and as 
far as they can go with any vessels. We walked thence 
into the country, over and among the hills, for the purpose 
of recreating and recruiting ourselves, which refreshed us 
very much, after having been so long in an overburdened 
ship and with such wicked men. 

We returned to Penryn at noon in order to see if we 
could obtain some place or other to lodge and rest ourselves 
for a time. By chance we came to an inn in that place, 
called The English Ship, the landlord of which was named 
Master Jean, who spoke a little .Dutch, and, as we afterwards 
discovered, better French, so well indeed that we could 
converse with him. We took dinner there, and agreed 
with him to lodge there for several days, with the privilege 
of a chamber to ourselves. 

8/A, Saturday. Having slept on board the ship we went 
in the morning to our new lodgings, where we breakfasted, 
and then rambled into the country to divert ourselves, and 
thence to Falmouth, and so returned by evening to our 
lodgings, 

9///, Sunday. My companion being disposed to write, I 
went to the Episcopal, church where I was surprised to find 
in the churchyard a great crowd of people sitting together, 
smoking tobacco and waiting for the last toll of the bell. 
On entering the church I was still more astonished at the 
ceremonies which indeed did not differ much from those of 
popery, and continued quite long enough. Then followed 
a sermon, if it may be called such, delivered in a white 
gown, as were the first services and oilier ceremonies in 
like vestments. The sermon was read out of a little book, 
without the addition of a single word. It began about ten 
o'clock, and was not very edifying. The text was from 
2 Cor., .\iii, 11. It continued till about half-past eleven, 
when church was over, and the burgomasters or mayor-, 



LETTERS FROM HOME. POSTAGE. 09 

with two golden royal sceptres, were carried Lome. In 
tlie afternoon I look a walk to the skip, and thence 
in a small half-hour to Falmouth. She was lying mid- 
way between the two places for the purpose of being 
unladen. 

10//'., Monday. We remained at our lodgings almost the 
whole day writing letters. Our ship was nearly discharged, 
which I went in the evening to ascertain. 

llih, Tuesday. T\ r e continued still at our lodgings, but in 
the afternoon visited the ship in consequence of their 
telling us that our chest would be examined, as indeed 
took place. There were some passengers on shore whose 
chests were broken open, because they did not attend to 
them, and the inspectors w r ould not wait. They cut to 
pieces the cords of their berth under which they found 
some things ; but although there were more berths so 
arranged, and still better furnished than this one, they did 
nothing to them, as they well knew beforehand whose they 
were, and why they did what was done. "When they exam hied 
our chest, they took almost all our goods out of it. However, 
they did not see our little box, or perhaps they thought it 
contained medicines, as they found in the other one. The 
two small pieces of linen were entered, and my name signed 
to them. They went to our berth, but did nothing; nor 
was any thing there. 

12th, Wednesday. This whole day was a writing day for 
the post, which would leave to-morrow. They began to 
reload the ship in the afternoon. I went on board, and 
also went to see if there were any letters for us, which 
turned out to be the fact; for, on finding the captain, he 
gave me a letter for which I paid twenty-two pence postage. 
This was the first letter we had received from home, It is 
unnecessary for me to say that I was rejoiced, or that we 
thanked the Lord that he still thought of us. I went 
immediately with it to my companion, who was as glad as 



30 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

I was, for the letter came just in time to be answered, as 
we did with joy ami tenderness of heart. 

13//:, Thursihnj. As the post was soon to leave, we took 
our letters to the post office at Penryn, next to The White 
Dolphin. The package was weighed, and was one ounce 
aud a quarter in weight, for which we paid fifteen pence 
postage to London; aud they informed us it would reach 
London on Monday. Our ship being almost laden again, 
we paid our landlord and returned on board ship. "We 
could have easily remained a day or two longer at our 
lodgings, but our landlord had given us reasons for 
leaving. Coming on board the ship, we began to arrange 
our place a little for keeping house again. Mean while I 
helped fill the water casks. There was also some beef to 
be salted in barrels. 

14th, Friday. Our ship was entirely laden, that is, with 
the goods she had to take, for there was a large quantity of 
them which had come out of her, remaining for the other 
ship which Margaret had bought there, and which was to 
be made ready there to go to the Isle of May, and thence to 
Barbadoes. She was a large but very weak ship, short 
and high, small and meagre as regards bulk, not altogether 
old, but misbuilt. She sniled tolerably well, but was very 
lank. Two of our crew went with her, namely, Titus, who 
was to be boatswain, and one of our carpenters, named 
Herman, who was the best one we had. They went, from 
the first, to work upon her, for she was lying in winter 
quarters. Our ship being laden, our captain went on board 
the large one with an English lad, the cabin hoy, and his, 
the captain's wife. This captain had obtained a quaker for 
his mate, a young man and a very poor seaman, as I have 
been able to observe. Hereupon our English mate, named 
Robert, who also was a quaker, became captain in the 
place of the other, and our Dutch mate, or rather Xew 
jSTethcrland mate, named Evert van J) i like — for he was a 






PETOKNISnS CASTLE. oj 

New Netherlander born, and his parents and relations 
were still there, though he had married at Amsterdam and 
had lived there a long time, but was now taking his wife and 
children with him to New Netherland — became mate 
in place of the other. In return for the three persons and 
the hoy who had gone from our crew, we obtained only 
one in their place, a poor creature, called Jan, the doctor, 
of Boston, who seemed more a charlatan in his behavior 
and gestures than a good seaman. Meanwhile we went 
walking, to see the country, and in the afternoon came 
to the east castle, where a soldier conducted us from the 
gate and took us before the governor, who asked us who 
we were, where we came from, what flag our ship bore, 
When and with whom we had arrived, and for what purpose 
we had come to the castle. We answered him politely ; but 
we could not make ourselves well understood by him, for 
he spoke nothing but English, which we could not do, or 
very little, though we could understand it pretty well, 
lie "finally ordered the soldier to conduct us around the 
castle, in order that we might look at it. Having satisfied 
the soldier, we left, and went clown the hill. The beer 
brewed at the castle is very poor ; there is little or no fresh 
water up there, and what there is, does not amount to 
much. The castle is otherwise strong and well provided, 
having over an hundred guns in different batteries, which 
command the harbor and the entire roadstead. 1 When we 
reached the ship she was laden. 

1 On the restoration of the gtmarts, Hichard, Lord Arundcll, was made 
governor of Peridennis castle, which his father had bravely defended to 
the last extremity against the parliamentary forces hi 1646, the garrison 
having been reduced to the necessity of eating the flesh of dogs and horses 
I n'fun the sturdy old governor surrendered. Richard was succeeded by 
hi •■ n.John, Lord Anradell, andoneof these two was, no doubt, governor 
iiMhr time of the visit of our travelers. The castle was built by Henry VIII, 
« n the site of an old fortification, for the purpose of defense against the 
Kr< ml*.— Lysorfs Mig. Brit., iii, 104-5. 

Falmouth at that time contained about 2;0 houses, and soon alter 



32 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

Wth, Stotifirday, As our ship was now full, and orders had 

come to haul the ship at high water from before the ware- 
house and off from the ground, they did so this mornine:. 
We went to Penryn to buy some butter, and when wo 
returned the boat was sent for fresh water, which was 
brought on board, and the ship then towed to the road- 
stead below, where she arrived in the evening, somewhat 
late, and was moored at once. 

16c A, Sunday. The weather was misty and rainy. We 
went ashore with one. of the passengers and one of the 
sailors, a young fellow, a Scotchman, by birth, from the 
Orkneys, and a presbyterian by profession, named Robert, 
who took us, at our request, to the presbyterian meeting, 
wMcli we left quite satisfied with the zeal of the preacher. 
Their mode of service is not different from that of the 
Reformed in Holland, but the common people sat there 
with very little reverence. At noon we went to dine at a 
very good inn, called The Golden Fleece, and in the 
afternoon we attended the meeting of the episcopalians, of 
whose church, sendee we have before spoken, and so in the 
evening returned on board the ship. 

17//', j\h.>n<Ja<j. We went this morning again with some 
passengers to Penryn, where the yearly market da}- was 
held, with the intention of laying out a little money in 
some purchases, having rid ourselves of Mr. Jan, who had 
sought to gei it out of oar hands, and would by that 
means have cheated us. He promised us, if we would let 

became a place of some importance as the port of the post office packets 
to the West Indies and elsewhere. In 1755 there were two packets 
employed between Falmouth and New York, and, in 170;J, four. 

Penryn is a very ancient town, older than Falmouth. It had a court 
lect before the Norman conquest, and sent two members to parliament. 
The borough was incorporated by James I, and by its charter it could 
hold three talis annually, namely : on May 1st, July 7th and December 
21. The town has no trade or commerce, but is -aid to be beautifully 
situated on a ridge, which, on the northern side, goes down into a valley 
watered by a branch of Falmouth harbor. — llimmnj of Cornwall, 128-0. 



CUSTOM HOUSE OFFICERS. qo 

him have the money, thirty per cent interest payable in 
New York, or ducats there at twelve guilders of za-wau 
each ; ! but the Lord, who lias care over the least of his 
children, saved us from this fox, and excited the attention 
of another passenger, namely, Jan Theunissen, who lived 
on Long Island, and who advised us what to do, 2 * 

We bought several things on which we thought we 
could make a profit, because the peril of the sea was to be 
encountered. The Lord, who as I have said, takes care of 
the least of his children, so ordered it that we not only did 
not lose any thing by our Dutch money, which commonly 
brings not more than five shillings for a ducat ; but we 
received for almost all that we u.->ed, five shillings and six 
pence, that is 67 stuivers. The reason of this was, that 
the man who took our money was about going to Xorway, 
lor timber, where he could pay it out at a higher rate 
than English money. Having made our purchases, we went 
to Falmouth, but as we could not take our goods on board 
the ship without first declaring them, we had to take 
them to Mr. Rogers's, where one Mr. Jacobs lived, who had 
assisted in inspecting the ship's lading, and who would do 
the same with these. Thinking over the purchases we had 
made at Penryn, we discovered there was a mistake in the 

1 A. due*! was a small gold coin of Holland, worth about two dollars 
our currency. 

2 This was Jan Theunissen van Dykbuis, who married Aagje (Apulia) 
•laughter of Elbert Elbertsen, of Aniersfoort, now Flatlands, on Long 
l-!:vn<l. He does notappear to have been any way conspicuous ; but his 
father-in-law was at this time a man of considerable note, having risen 
from a low condition to be one of the most substantial citizens of the 
rolony. He came to New Xetherland as a servant to Wouter Van 
T wilier, at a very tender age, and was afterwards in the service of 
Kiliaen Van Rensselaer. He was one of the nine men appointed by 
lliv I'olonUt* in ir>49 to represent their grievances to the States General. 
lie Ittcame proprietor of Bergen's island, and other lands, in FJatlamfc, 
died about 1686'. — Genealogy of ffte Bergen Family, by Hon. Teuni* 
'• li* rg< n. p. 0'.;. 



34 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

payment of a bill, arising from the counting of the money 
by our Dutch male and Jan Themiissen. The difference 
amounted to one pound sterling. We, or our friends on our 
account, had paid the bill. We discovered the mistake at 
Falmouth, and immediately went back to Penryn, informed 
the merchant of the mistake, which lie did not have much 
trouble in comprehending. He gave us back the money, 
for which we were glad, and returning, arrived by evening 
on board the ship. 

18th, Tuesday. One Mr. Lucas, the most rigid of the 
inspectors and custom house officers came on board this 
morning. We spoke to him, told him what we had bought, 
and requested him to examine them. We said we might 
buy something more and he could assess them all together. 
He replied he did not wish not to examine our chest, or 
what we might have bought previous!}'; but would go 
ashore with us and look at what we had there. lie told 
us also that he had a small piece or two of stuffs, which, if 
w T e would buy, he would let us have at a bargain. We 
went to Mr. Jaeobs's where he looked over what we had 
bought. lie told us we had paid dear for them, although 
we thougbt we had bought them cheap. Mr. Jacobs said 
he had a remnant of tin which he would sell, us for ten 
stuivers a foot, and we had paid twelve for ours. We 
were directed to pay Mr. Jacobs three shillings English for 
duties upon the goods we had. there, whenever we should 
have all our merchandise together. Mr. Lucas went with 
us to a shop over the door of Mr. Logers, where lie bought 
several things for us at a low price; he even compelled 
the merchant almost to give us the goods for what he 
chose, for the merchant did not dare to refuse or disoblige 
him. They were always good purchases, lie also brought 
us something of his own which he sold us on favorable 
terms. I supposed these were confiscated goods, which 
they wanted to get rid of; and that this was the reason 



SHIP CLEARED FROM ENGLAND. 35 

ilw.-v were so accommodating to us. Our purchases 
being completed, lie took us to an inn where we regaled 
him tor the trouble he had token with the above- 
mentioned merchant. We were compelled this evening 
to eat and sleep ashore, which we did at the inn, The 

"We had heard a great deal said for some days past, and 
to-day, of great danger from the Turks, who had taken 
four Dutch ships. This caused no small apprehension in 
our ship, and especially in Mr. Jan. 

19th, Wednesday. My companion wrote a letter home 
from on board the ship. "We did our best this whole day 
to get our little merchandise on board, but without 
success, because it was not yet declared. However, every 
thing concerning the ship and the lading was finished 
to-day ; and the passengers obtained the bills of their 
goods, and paid them. Having accomplished nothing the 
whole day, we returned on board the ship. 

20///, Thursdm/i My comrade having finished the letters, 
we went on shore to Mr. Rogers's, in order to post them 
in time, and paid the postage to London. "We bought 
also some brandy, viuegar and other articles, for Ave began 
to see it would s;o slim with us on the vova<re. We were 
engaged the whole day in declaring our goods and 
carrying them on board, which was completed early in 
the evening, and the goods stowed away. We then paid Mr. 
Lucas a ducaton 1 for the duties on our goods. He told us 
what the duties on the whole of the ship's cargo amounted to, 
and gave us various other information, all very willingly, 
taeause, after he heard that I was somewhat acquainted 
with t\\Q wine business, he desired some particulars in 
regard to it from me, which I gave him in writing to his 
satisfaction. We were now all cleared. 

1 A silver coin at that time of Holland, worth about a dollar and a 
quarter. 



30 VOYAGE TO N15W YORK. 

21*/, Frithy* Tins morning it was very misty. The 
wind was well to the X. £*., but quite still, and they talked 
of leaving immediately. The bow anchor was therefore 
raised, and we got under weigh, and ran to the mouth of 
the bay, where we eame to anchor again under the castle. 
The eaptain, Margaret, and many of the passengers went 
ashore, but my comrade and I remained on board. For 
some days past we had heard it rumored that our. ship's 
boat was to he taken from us, and we were to have the 
boat of the large ship in its place, or that we would go to 
sea without a boat. Whichsoever it might be, it was a 
matter of importance to all who might be in our ship. 
As to going to sea without a boat, it could hardly be 
thought of, for how much depends upon one, experience 
has fully shown. It was evident we must submit to take 
that belonging to the other ship, or hold on to our own by 
force. We had seen the other ship's boat several times, 
and we knew she was very badly built, and not only not 
serviceable, but very incommodious. All tilings considered, 
it would be causing us a great inconvenience to put this 
boat upon us, by reason of the little or no service which 
we could derive from it. "We were also afraid of it, as 
it was much larger than ours, and ours was already too 
large for the slap; for when it was hauled on hoard there 
was scarcely room at the main hatchway or the forehatch 
to climb out; and if the other boat, which was much 
larger, were placed there, the hatches would certainly have 
to be closed entirely. What an inconvenience that would 
have caused to all the passengers, who, in such a great 
number lodged between the two decks, can not be fully 
expressed. It would in all probability have produced 
sickness. In the next place the boat was so heavy, that 
with the small number of our crew remaining, namely : 
ten men with the captain and mate, it could not have 
been properly managed. But the worst of all was, it was 



TROUBLE ABOUT THE BOAT. 37 

bo rotted that you could not keep it above water, and you 
could tread holes in it with your feet. We could not, 
therefore, consent to an exchange. It only remained 
for us to oppose the measure, and. point out its injustice: 
that the boat of the ship in which we had taken passage 
was a part of the vessel, and in depriving us of it, they 
would take away from us what was ours by agreement. 
There was no person in the ship who did not object to it, 
except Margaret and the captain of the old ship, or rather 
the captain of the other ship alone, who was master here. 
lie never did any tiling except to please these miserable, 
covetous people, namely: Margaret mid her husband, who 
would not have another boat built in Falmouth, but it 
must be done in Xew York, where timber was a little 
cheaper. Our captain, who had been only made captain 
for this voyage, durst not set himself against it and thus 
induce the other captain, and consequently the merchant, 
to oppose Margaret. Everybody else was opposed to it. 
Mr. Jan, who did not enquire much after the merchant, 
having a great fear of him, and whom Margaret conld 
compel, also opposed it. But now, when it came to the point, 
no one dared to spe<nk; the sailors, who are very tightly 
bound and severely treated on board of English ships, dared 
not say any thing; and the passengers grumbled among 
themselves; but when it was necessary that something 
should be said, no one was willing to be the first to 
speak out. They stood like children and let themselves be 
easily appeased. We, however, considered the matter, and I 
resolved rather to speak out now, than, at the best, to sit in 
the dark, to be stifled with the heat and stench, to be sick 
and not have a breath of air, as must have been the 
consequence to us in the bow of the ship. Finally, our 
<; ld captain and our two former sailors, who went with 
him on board the other ship, brought their old boat in 
order to take ours awav with them. Mr. Rogers, Mr. 



38 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

Lucas, Mr. Jacobs and others came also on board. I 
thought I would do nothing until the last moment, and no 

one else opposed it. It seemed to me to be my duty then, 
for the general welfare, and especially for my worthy 
companion and myself, to do all I could. Our boat then 
coming along side with the captain and passengers in it, 
I told the passengers to remain in and keep it, and not to 
come out of it, for nothing was easier in case they 
came out of it, than for the old captain to take possession 
and carry it away; yet they all came out, notwithstanding 
I had requested them to remain. I know not why it was, 
whether they did not understand me, having drank once, 
or whether they dared not do so. I therefore jumped into 
the boat myself, when the captain inquired what I had 
said, and I answered that we were determined not to let 
our boat go. He then stood up, laughing derisively, and 
opposed me in an angry manner. I told him that rather 
than part with the boat, and subject ourselves to the danger 
of the other one, we would see him thrown overboard, and 
my opinion was, he deserved to be shipwrecked, if it should 
so happen to us as was contemplated. I do not know 
whether he well understood me, or whether I had expressed 
myself properly, for 1 did not speak good English. I was 
amazed at seeing all the other passengers standing round like 
children, lla came running from the stern of the boat to 
the front, where 1 was, with his cane uplifted, and saying : 
" You will throw me overboard, will you?'' Seeing the 
quaker wished to strike me, I sprang into the middle of 
the boat and grappling him, held him so tight that lie 
could not do it, when the others separated us. He went on 
board the ship, and declared lie would have me put in 
prison, because I had threatened to throw him overboard, 
as he said; but lie was better informed by some of the 
passengers, who heard and understood what I had said 
better than he did. Otherwise there was not a passenger 



LEAVING FALMOUTH. go) 

who ventured to say a word. Some wives only cried and 
bawled aLout what was proposed to "be done. The mate's 
wife, who, with two small children, was placed directly 
opposite our berth, and would there have suffered much 
also, ran with another woman, screeching into the cabin, 
and there bemoaned herself. Mr. Jacobs spoke against me, 
and said the captain was right in his acts and throats ; 
miserable time servers, encouraging any one in .what they 
are convinced in their own hearts is not right, as our 
captain and Margaret themselves afterwards acknowledged. 
I came out of the boat myself, not being able to accomplish 
any thing alone; when,. finally, the passengers began here 
and there to say a word. But, ' nevertheless, the old 
captain ordered his sailors to put the gear in our boat, in 
order to take her away. Ma?; Jan, standing nearest by, 
prevented that being done, and then ran forward to the 
cabin, where there was a violent wrangling going on. At 
last the mayor or burgomaster came upon deck, and 
promised us all that we should retain our boat, and told us 
henceforth to rest easy. I went up to him and thanked 
him politely, and offered him an apology for speaking 
hastily perhaps, which he accepted, and gave me his hand. 
Afterwards our old captain came to me and said, "Well, I 
did not think you were such a man;" for he had to say 
something. 1" replied, that he must in conscience say if 
he were in our place he would not have permitted it. lie 
said, " Xo, I would not have permitted it, and yon did 
right in opposing it, though you could have done so in a 
little different manner." "Yes/' said I, "and we might 
in the meantime have lost our boat." At which he went 
away, repeating that he was not surprised that we had 
opposed it. Finally all became quiet, and were glad we 
bad held on to the boat. Even our own captain said, this 
same day, that he was as glad as any one onboard the ship 
could be, though he was sorry it happened as it did. The 



40 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 






1 Falmouth, like other sea ports of England whose names have the 
same termination, such as Plymouth, Dartmouth and Yarmouth, takes 
its name from being the mouth of a river, that of Fal, the little stream 
which here empties itself into the sea. The town is so called from the 
bay; and, as has already been observed, is of comparatively modern date. 
The locality was at an early period called Pcnnycomequick, a popular 
expression, it is said, composed of three Cornish words pen, room, ick, 
signifying, narrow valley by the creek. — British Gazetteer. 

2 A class runs half an hour. 









sailors who came from 1hc otlior ship, raved and swore 
about the old boat in a way not tp.be repeated; but said they 
were glad on our account, and also their own, because it 
would be the means, perhaps, of their obtaining a new 
boat; that they had roiled out so against the old boat 
because as we had refused to have it, they would have to 
use it to lift the large anchors, and even to unload and 
load the ship, for which it would be still less serviceable. 
The matter certainly went off well, and we thanked the 
Lord in our hearts. 

~We then weighed anchor and got under sail, leaving on 
the left hand the rock which lies in the mouth of the 
harbor. It is on account of this rock that this place is 
called Falmouth, or Foulmbiitn, that is, fold mouth. 1 The 
wind was about S. E., but when we reached outside, it 
shifted more and more to the south, and became quite 
light, so that by evening we were opposite Black point. 
It then became entirely calm, and we had to keep off and 
on, and the ship herself afterwards tacked about. After 
supper the watch was set. Another passenger, named G errit, 
and myself, were added to the mate's watch. While we 
were in the first watch, and four glasses 2 had not yet run 
out, black clouds began to rise, accompanied with heavy 
thunder and lio-htnimr. It was frightful. The crew were 
immediately called on deck, the topsails taken in, the 
other sails furled, and every thine: made fast, when it 





ALARM ABOUT THE PIRATES. 41 

began to rain so exceedingly hard, that I do not recollect 
ever to have seen it rain Larder. We were thoroughly 
wet through. It continued the whole night. Whenever 
it lightened we could see a great distance from us, and 
perceived several ships, two or three large vessels and 
some small ones, which increased our fear of the Turks. 
When there was no lightning we could not see our hands 
before our faces. I remained up the whole night, as there 
was no opportunity to sleep. 

22(7, Saturday. The wind during the day-watch changing 
from the west to the north, we tacked towards the shore 
in order to run in again, and about eight o'clock we came 
to anchor inside the castle. Towards evening our carpen- 
ter and his wife having forgotten something, went ashore, 
and on their return brought the news that a small ship 
which had run out to sea further than we did, and had 
come in again after us, had seen in the morning a ketch, 
which went to sea with us, taken by the Turks ; for which 
reason they had now come inside. This news produced 
not a little consternation in our ship. "Whether it were 
true or not, we did not know ; but we were overwhelmed 
with a .sense of the careful providence of God, who perhaps 
for the preservation of his children, had directed, this storm 
and caused the wind to change, "whereby we were com- 
pelled to come inside again; for otherwise, if we had seen 
any opportunity of proceeding, we would have remained 
outside. 

2:>/, Sunday. The weather was calm. At noon my 
companion went ashore, while I remained on board. In 
the afternoon several ships came in, all bringing bad news 
of there being such and so many Turks on the coast. 
One said five and another two large ships, and that they 
bad fourteen captured vessels with them ; that twenty-three 
had sailed from Algiers, and would blockade the entire 
Channel to the Flemish islands. This news was brought 
6 






42 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

by a small ship from the straits, and had reported it to 
one of those vessels which had run inhere. But in*the 

afternoon a ketch came in and sent a boat up to Falmouth 
to land some persons, and ran out again immediately, 
without coming; to anchor. The hoat came alone; side of 
us. Mr. Lucas, who came out to our ship with this hoat, 
said that the ketch was cruising for English East India- 
men, some of which had arrived, and had been cruising 
several days without seeing any suspicions ships; hut had 
met some French vessels from the straits, winch had fired 
a shot for him to come oft' to them, because they wanted 
to speak to Lim, which he did. He spent an hour with 
them, for which reason other English ships, which had 
observed this at a distance, supposed these French ships 
were Turks and this ketch had been captured by them ; 
and therefore they had saved themselves by flight. The 
boat went to the other ships, and on her return brought 
still more news than we had yet heard, so that we were 
still in doubt. In the meantime my comrade came on 
board, and related how he had been to the Ojiiakers' meet- 
ing, and gave me an account of their devotions, preaching, 
and meals. 

24$, Monday. The wind being northeasterly this morn- 
ing, we rtilsed the bow anchor early; and the other was 
also wound up. The boat went once more ashore, to ill! 
the remaining empty water casks, in order that we mighi 
get immediately under sail: but before the casks were 
tilled, the wind shifted round, and we had to remain where 
we were. In the afternoon I went with some others to 
assist in hauling off Margaret's other ship which was 
aground, and take her to the shipyard. , 

Before we leave England and the channel, a word in 
regard to them may be useful. As to the channel, it is 
well to observe, that those who have to sail through it 
should keep nearest the English coast., because it is safer 



SOUTHERN COAST OF ENGLAND. 43 

thaw the Freiieh; but to keep as close as we did I do not 

consider best, because there is miicli calm wind made 
from the sbore, wbcreby there is slow progress ; and, in 
the second place, storms or tornadoes sometimes come 
over the high land during these calms, and as there is 
then usually much sail set, they fall upon the ship, and 
r.-mse mucb inconvenience, as we experienced. Thirdly, 
because when the wind comes from the sea, you are on a 
lee shore, and in some danger; and sometimes if the wind. 
continues, you are compelled to make a harbor where you 
would hardly otherwise be willing to do, and from whence 
"you can not always readily come out again. It is well to 
throw the lead in dark and foggy weather, in order to 
ascertain the bottom, and whether there be any current; 
also to calculate the tides at the place where you may be, 
so as to make good reckoning ; and when the tide stops, 
to make sail. In case it happen you are compelled to run 
in anywhere, you should know well where it is, or if you 
do not, and it is so that you cannot by reason of the night 
or other obscurity, obtain sight of the land, it is better to 
lie with light sail on from the shore until it clear up, so 
that you may not be at a loss when you approach the 
land, as we were. It is always the practice of a good 
seaman, and it is proper, to keep well away from the 
Hi»Hv, beeause there are several rocks which lie farther 
orit than they are laid down upon the charts, as we have 
observed, and you are therefore in danger of sailing upon 
them. 

As to this part of England, and the places of Falmouth 
ami Penryn, where we have been for about three weeks, 
we have to observe, that from the. straits (of Dover) to 
hand's End the laud is high, but higher in some places 
than others, and is diversitied with man}- hills and dales. 
1 he coast is broken and rocky. From Dover to i)u> Isle 
" ! ' Wight it is chalky white; from thence it is red and 



44 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

harder; and towards Land's End, it in Mack as if it were 
burnt. Extending inland, the country is beautified with 
green fields and cultivated farms, among* and out of which 
rise the spires of churches, presenting, as you sail along 
them, as we did, in the summer time, a pleasant and 
agreeable prospect. And as the children of God can see 
the hand of their Father everywhere, they clearly and 
lovimdv see it in this glorious exhibition; beholdincr here 
his power, wisdom, goodness, majesty and purity, and 
being drawn by it to him; a sight which for six days long 
we had now enjoyed. Happy the souls which find God 
in his works ! What do not they enjoy, wherever they 
may be, when God lifts, only a little, the curtain, and lets 
Ms creatures see him ? Or when he, even before we know 
it, looks from behind the wall or through the lattice, how 
soon they know him. and how soon they are with him ; 
how quickly they adore and glorify him; and how soon 
they unite themselves with him and are lost in him ! But 
what shall I say ? This is for those who truly experience 
it, and not for every one. " Heaven is for man to behold, 
who goes with head erect; the earth, with what is below 
upon it, is for the beast, which carries its head down. 
The country around .Falmouth and to the west of it is 
called Cornwall because it is so fruitful in corn. 1 Its hills 
are tolerably high, and it has deep valleys supplied with 
running streams of fresh water. Although, at some depth, 
below the surface, and in some places deeper than others, 



1 This derivation is not more fanciful than that given in the Illustrated 
Itinerary qfthe Count)/ of Cornwall, referring it to the figure of the county, 
" which is that of a cornucopia, or horn of plenty." " The truth seems to 
be that the country -was called," says a good authority, 3 Mag. Brit., Ill, 
"by its ancient inhabitants Kernou, or as the Welsh write it Kemiw or 
the Hern, from its projecting promontories; that it was Latinized to Cor- 
nubia; that, when the Saxons gave the name of Wealas to the Britons, 
they distinguished those who had retired into Kernou or Cornubia by the 
name of Corn weal is and their country, Cornwall, that is Cornish Wales." 



CORNWALL. FALMOUTH. PENRYN. 



45 



there is much rock, and indeed almost nothing else, there 

is nevertheless much produced from the soil. We saw 
growing on the highest hills flue wheat, rye, huckwheat 
and oats, hesides good grass, on which cattle were pas- 
tured, and from which long hay was mown. There were 
few fruits or garden productions. The fields are not set 
off by ditches or woodeu fences, hut hy small dikes formed 
either partly with stones collected from the fields and 
placed upon a little earth, or entirely of earth, on the top 
of which they plant small trees and shrubbery, so that 
their roots may hold them firm. This is not only suitable 
for inclosing the land, hut it affords a pleasant sight like a 
neat seam on a green or other colored garment. 1 The 
hind also yields very good tin, of which there is a flue 
mine near Penryn, where we saw the workshop and mills. 
The town of Penryn, that is, eyelid, as well as Falmouth, 
are open towns (not fortified), quite long, having one or 
two streets laid out on the side of the hill. Penryn is 
larger than Falmouth, aud has a surface stream of fresh 
water running through its whole length, from one end to 
the other, affording great convenience to the inhahitants. 
The town appears very neat and pretty outside, hut inside 
it does not signify much. The houses are built for the 
most part of stone in their rough state, laid in loam, and 
plastered on the outside, entirely white, with lime ; upon 
tins plastering they throw small pebbles for the sake of 
ornament, and then draw lines in squares, so as to make it 
look as if the houses were constructed of large blocks of 



'This fertility of some parts of Cornwall and almost up to Land's End 
is fully confirmed by modern statements. u From the f amar to the 
Fowey," says the Itinerary, " on the southern side of the county, there is 
a wry fertile district producing: immense crops of corn : for here climate, 
wil, and convenience of lime carriage, all contribute to the fertility. By 
Mount's bay sixty bushels ot % wheat have been raised on au acre, and it is 
NfcM tliat 1,000 acres around Penzance now let for £10,000 per annum." 
Mount's bay and Penzance are between the Lizard and Land's End. 



4G VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

stone. The best bouses arc floored with plank or stones : 
in the others there is nothing but earth. The people are 
quite civil, but very ignorant in religions and godly things; 
though very shrewd in worldly affairs, especially in en- 
trapping strangers. Fisli is good and cheap. There was 
once a fisherman along side of as, who asked only ten 
stuivers 1 for a codfish, which is esteemed there, as in 
many other places, the choicest of fish. "We offered him 
eight stuivers, but did not obtain it. You cannot procure 
much merchandise in these towns, as it has to be brought 
from other places. English goods even, can he bought 
cheaper in Amsterdam than here, as they have to he 
carried upon poor small horses, for wagons cannot he used 
for the purpose in consequence of the steepness of the 
hills. As to the commerce carried on in their own ships, 
it is not large, and is with small vessels. The hay or river 
is navigable to Penryn and no further, where it stops. 
Falmouth lies in front. It has many inns and taverns, 
but few churches. The beer brewed here is not heavy, 
but light and sour, and not very good-tasted. Fuel is 
extremely dear ; so that bakers, brewers and others who 
use much tire, burn for the most part, a certain kind of 
weed or thorn, which stows along the roads and fences, 
and give out a great heat. From all this yon may, in some 
degree, gather the condition of these places, of which I 
myself had previously the impression they- were large and 
capital towns. 

25///, Tuesday. The wind being X. and X. N. AY., we 
did not conclude to leave. Air. Jan alone opposed leaving, 
so much afraid was he: but the wind blowing fresh, the 
captain ordered them about noon to weigh anchor, and we 
o-ot under sail. We were scarcely outside, when we 
perceived two large ships and several others around the 



ir J\n cent; 



SCILLY ISLANDS. 47 

point of the Lizard, at which Mr. .Jan was filled with fear. 
Seeing a ketch coming from there, we bore up to her, and 
inquired what ships they were. They answered they 
were English ships-of-war, which was confirmed by a 
iisherman engaged in fishing there, whom we spoke. 
Whereupon our ship was as full of joy as it had before 
been of fear. On approaching these si dps we found it to 
be as reported, although we did not speak to them, which 
was an oversight in the captain, it seems to me, on several 
accounts. What reasons he had for not doing so I do not 
know, although they might he easily guessed. .They both 
sailed to the west. When we came off the Lizard, we 
laid our course for the Scilly islands, although it was near 
the wind. We sailed thus the whole night W. and W. 
by S. During the first watch the two ships came close 
along side of us, and passed us without our speaking to 
them. They were heating up the channel. 

26th, Wednesday. The wind same as before, and we sailed 
on our former course. In the morning we could still sec 
the Scillv islands behind us. The sun shining; we observed 
the latitude at 49° 4/. We then set our course west by 
south, reckoning our longitude to be 10° 10'. We had a 
very light breeze. We still saw several ships, but one 
ship-of-war was still to the larboard of us, which at evening 
beat before the wind to look, as it seemed, after her com- 
panion which had fallen behind. We had a light breeze 
all night, and kept on the same course. 

27//*. Thursday. Early this morning we saw a ship on 
the larboard about eight miles off under full sail, which 
i-ireumstance revived the fears on board of our ship, for 
elie did not appear to be, as she was, the before mentioned 
-hiji-of-war. She was sailing on the same course as our- 
selves; a practice which privateers or pirates adopt in 
order to see whether they can sail faster than those they 
nave their eyes upon. But as regards us in particular, 



48 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

the Lord caused its to put our trust in him, and held 
onr hearts quiet in him. • This fear gradually subsided 
when it was observed that the ship came no nearer 
to us. At noon there was a fog, so that the sun 
could not shine through it, and we could not take the 
latitude well; but according to what we did obtain, the 
latitude did not differ much from that of the day before, 
only some minutes further south. We continued on 
our course a distance computed to be sixty-four miles, in 
longitude 8° 6'. By evening the before mentioned ship 
was almost out of sight. We had no longer any doubt 
that she was the ship-of-war. 

23//;, Friday. The wind still N. and ST. JS T . W., with a light 
breeze, and we proceeded W. and "W". by X., in order to 
keep due west. The before mentioned ship had come up 
during the night, and was now almost in front of us, and 
continued thus sailing with us. At noon it was entirely 
calm; the latitude observed was 49° 24': the distance 
now was computed to be sixty-eight miles, and found to be 
sixty miles ; our course was a little more southerly than 
west; and the longitude calculated to be 7° 6'. In the 
afternoon the ship-of-war ran south on the other bow, and 
by evening was so far to the leeward that we could hardly 
see her. It was very calm, and in the evening and first 
part of the night, the wind became more and more 
westerly, so that when the watch was set we could only 
sail "W. S. W. The ship was tacked about in order not to 
fall too far off to the south ; and we could then sail X. 
and ST. by E., but the wind changed again more to the 
north, so that we were compelled to keep more easterly. 

29//<, Saturday. The wind as we have said, drawing to 
the north, the ship was tacked about at eight o'clock, sailing 
with a fine topsail breeze AY. by K. At noon we found 
the latitude was 50° 8', so that our reckoning was twenty 
or twenty-four miles further west than the westerly poinl 



A BLOW 



40 



of livbml that is, in longitude about 4° 40'. The before 
mentioned skip had left us the past night; but before we 
leave her in our thoughts, we cannot omit to observe how 
we were touched by the good and fatherly care of God, the 
Lord, over his children, sending her to this same place, 
where the danger of the enemy, the Turks, was always to 
be feared; sending her there, I say, through his mysterious 
providence, as a good convoy to meet their weakness; for 
otherwise he alone, and his faithful care are sufficient, albeit 
he was pleased to work it out by such means as pleased him. 
Thus we have not only discovered no enemy, but were 
conveyed by this ship-of-war, or ships, through the most 
dangerous part where the enemy was most to be feared; 
although these ships intended nothing else than to execute 
their commission, which was to cruise after the East India 
sliips. Certainly if we did not sec the hand of God 
in this, we were truly blind; if we were not touched by 
if, we were indeed insensible; and if we did not tenderly 
acknowledge it, we had been the most unthankful men in 
the world. Xo, no, his spirit inclines and works in us to 
other things. "What reason Ids children have to rely upon- 
him, to lose themselves and their ways in him! Praise 
the Lord, all ye who have so often experienced this, for 
his faithfulness endures for eternity. Yea, praise the 
Lord, for he shows himself to be what he is. But this is 
sufficient, and leaving you to him and in these thoughts, 
wt> will, in the same trust, resume our voyage. By 
evening it was very calm, and the wind westerly, so that 
we could sail only W. by S., and did so half the night, 
except Avhen we tacked, and then we sailed, X. by "VT., and 

X. x. w. 

30//{g Sunday, It remained quite calm until in the morn- 
ing, with the wind SL X. E., and our course set 
west by north. About eight o'clock, however, the 
wind shot out of the south with such a stiff topsail breeze 



50 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

thai we In rued the helm again, and in the afternoon were 
nljlc to sail freely W. by N. The weather being overcast 

we could not ascertain the latitude, but calculated it to be 
50°, and the distance run ninety-six miles. The course 
was west, a little southerly, and the longitude 3°. At 
evening it began to blow hard; our topsails were first 
reefed; and afteiwards taken in entirely. We were in the 
first watch, during which it began to rain so hard, and we 
shipped so much water from the sea, that there was not a 
dry place anywhere to sit down; for walk or stand we 
could not, and so let the water run under us. The man at 
the helm had the tiller knocked out of his hands two or 
three times. Our sails, though small, had as much as they 
could bear, and. I wondered why either the sails did not 
burst, or the masts break ; for our mate let them stand so 
that every thing that was on them shook and shivered. 
Before our watch was out the weather appeared to moderate 
gradually; and when it was out I crept, all wet as I was, 
into the berth, for there was no other course. I had lain 
there hardly half an hour, when we shipped a heavy sea, 
whereby many articles were thrown over to the lee side. 
My comrade requested me to feel whether any of our sroods 
and clothing which were lying upon our chest, before the 
berth, were thrown off which I did; but I could not find 
either goods or chest. I arose, and went groping about 
for them; I found, the chest below the middle of the 
forehateh, and lifted it as well as I could, again to the 
windward. The other articles I found mostly under thc^ 
berth of the persons opposite to us: when the boatswain 
coming along with a light, to see whether any of the ship's 
property was injured, we brought every thing in order 
again, and found that no damage had happened to the 
medicine.--, as we had apprehended. 

81$/, Jlo/u'ci/. The wind having become more calm we 
sailed \\ . by X.. but it veering Gradually round to the 



MEETING SHIPS. 51 

west, wo tacked about again, sailing then about W. S. W. 
with a rolling sea, and making little progress. We 

calculated our latitude was the same as yesterday. The 
distance run was seventy-two miles, and the longitude about 
1° 18'. By evening took the wind again gradually till we 
had to furl in our topsails. Course X. X. W. ; in the first 
watch X. W. : in the second X. W. by W.; and in the 
third W. X. W. ; and so the wind by degrees changed to 
the south. 

August 1st, Tuesday. It still blew hard from the S. W. 
"We saw a ship ahead of us to the leeward, coming towards 
us under full sail, and steering for us in order, apparently, 
to speak us; but in consecpience of the rolling of the 
sea, she could not come close to us. She ilcw the Hag of 
the Prince (of Orange), and Ave the English flag. She then 
sailed by us, so that we could distinguish the vessel. She 
was the Eendracht (Union) of Flissingen (Flushing), the 
same one which the East India ship took from the English, 
and carried to Hamburg in the year 1678. We found the 
longitude at noon 49° 4'. The wind increased more and 
more till it blew a storm. We not only took in the topsails, 
but had to reef in the lower sails, and so lay over the whole 
night, X. X. W., making little progress. There was a 
great noise, moaning, and lamentation among the women 
between decks in the dark, for they could not lie down, or 
sit or stand, in. consequence of the tossing of the ship. 
But we kept up our spirits and courage. We had several 
hard showers of rain, accompanied with wind; but after 
midnight the weather besran to moderate, and the sea to fall. 
It was very cold the whole night, and although it was in 
the middle of summer, and Ave were further south than 
Holland, we had to clothe ourselves well. 

2d, Wednesday. The wind subsided a little in the day 
watch, and we made sail again, being able to sail W. by -N., 
with f.ir speed. The latitude at noon was 50° 39'; the 



52 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

distai ice was computed to be eighty-eight miles; the couwse 
\V. X. N.j and K W. by W,, and the longitude 358°. 
During tlie night the wind blew sharper again. 

Ud, Thursday. This morning, the wind being very fresh, 
we tacked about and sailed S.; but about noon, observing 
two ships to the leeward of us, we tacked back again. 
These ships observing us, immediately tacked about with 
us, causing again no little fear in our ship. One of them 
was a large ship, the other a ketch ; but in about an half 
an hour they both left us. They were without doubt ships 
on their homeward voyage, and would have spoken us, for 
they laid their course towards the channel. We sailed X. 
*WV, and gradual!)' more westerly. We were in 51° 21/ of 
latitude, and 357° 10' longitude; our course was X. W. by 
W., and distance seventy-two miles. In the afternoon the 
wind increasing and blowing in gusts, we reefed the topsails 
and let them stand so for the night. 

4th, Fr>Jo>i. The topsails were taken in during the day 
watch, for though the wind was in the same direction as 
before, it blew harder and we had to lie to a little in a 
good rain, thus making but little progress. We found the 
latitude 51° 40' ; the distance we calculated at eighty miles, 
the longitude 355° 30', and the- course X. W. by W. At 
noon the wind was due west, so that we could only keep 
to the north. At evening we tacked over on the other 
bow, and could then sail S, W. and S. W. by S. But the 
wind crept back again to the west, with heavy squalls, 
during the whole night, and finally was W. S. W. 

5 th, Saturday. In the day-watch the wind fell off, and the 
topsails were again set. The wind was more and more 
southerly. Our latitude was 51° 9'; the course S., so that 
we had kept the same longitude and progressed as much 
as the difference in latitude. The reefs of the topsails 
were let out and the cross-sails made. The wind then 
was Si E. and E. S, E., and we held our course with a 






WHALES. 53 

stiff backstay breeze, carrying all sail) and making line 
headway. 

nV//, Sunday. The wind favorable with a thick mist, 
which cleared up about nine o'clock, when it was quite 
calm. A girl attempting to rinse out the ship's mop let it 
fall overboard, ivhcreupon the captain put the ship 
immediately to the wind and launched the jolly-boat, into 
which two sailors placed themselves at the risk of their 
lives in order to recover a swab, winch was not worth six 
rents. As the waves were running high, there was no 
chance of getting it, for we could not see it from the ship. 
Yet the whole voyage must be delayed; these seamen 
be sent roving at the risk of their lives; we, with all the 
test, must work fruitlessly for an hour or an hour and a 
half, and all that merely to satisfy and please the miserable 
covetousness of Margaret. Such wretched man-servers 
were these quakers. The jolly-boat came back, and we 
could not, without great difficulty and damage get the sailors 
out of it, and haul the boat on board again. They looked 
as pale as if they were dead; one of them was poor ftobin. 
Every thing being secured we again got under sail. It 
was so foggy at noon, we could not take the latitude. The 
calculation was, it was four miles less than yesterday. 
Our course had been W. S. AY. and W. by S. ; the distance 
rim was about eighty mites; the longitude 358° .20''. In 
the afternoon the wind being ahead we had to lay over on 
The other bow, and then we could only sail "\Y. Y. W.; but 
bv evening it began to blow and rain so hard that the 
top -ails had to be taken in, and the mainsails struck. AYe 
were sailing on a cross sea, by reason of which our ship 
pitched so much that we could not stand or sit; but about 
midnight the weather moderated, the sky became clear; 
th nigh the ship tossed still more than before. 

77, Monday.. At day-break it was entirely calm, witli 
the wind to the west, so that we drifted, with muzzled 



54 VOYAGE TO KE\Y YORK. 

sails, in fine weaklier and snnsMne. The latitude observed 
to-day was, 50° 58'; the dsstanee run was calculated to be 
thirty-two miles; the entire course held about west. It 
remained calm the whole day and the following night. 

Sth, Tuesday. We had drifted in this way all night ; but 
in the morning, there sprung up a light breeze from the 
east, which shifted a little to the north, and increased so, 
that we soon set sail, and for some hours made good 
progress. About nine o'clock we saw a large iish, some 
said it was a pots-hop* others that it was a Xorth-caper 
whale. 2 lie had remained long enough, with his back 
above water to he seen, spouting the sea-water high up in 
the air, like smoke, lie swam close by the ship, before 
and behind; so that we all looked at him, his tumbling 
affording us a sweet and innocent amusement. In the 
meanwhile it continued misty and rainy. The wind was 
K E., and the course S. W. by AY. We calculated the 
latitude to be 50° 30'; the distance forty miles; and the 
longitude 351° 50'.. The wind Ml off towards evening; 
though while the sails remained wet, we went ahead 
tolerably fast, which encouraged the passengers as well as 
the others. 

9///, Wednesday. The wind and course the same as before; 
the weather misty and rainy; and the progress good. 
Although we were now midway between the Land's End 
and. .Xewloundlaud, we saw to day a small bird, a sort of 
snipe. It was a little smaller than a virvltan. I think I 
have seen the like in Friesland; but we had noticed 
every day so many other water fowl, that I did not observe 
this one particularly. In consequence of the fog, we took 
no latitude, but computed it 49° 30'; the distance sailed 
one hundred and twentv mile; 



1 The sperm acet i whale: 

2 The ordinary whale from the North cape. 



PORPOISES. 55 

an«l the course S. W. by TT. In. the afternoon it was still ; 
tu the evening more so; and at night, we drifted along 
becalmed, 

10th, Thursday. In the day-watch the wind was from 
the west. "We had for some days perceived fish, and did" 
again to day, hut we could not catch any. There was also 
a large whale or fin-fish near the ship, which we could see 
fully. Ahout eleven o'clock, we ohserved a large ship 
ahead of us on the larboard. Every one immediately was 
alarmed a^ain. The wind being at the same time from 
tin.' east, we sailed S. and S. by E., in order to remain to 
the windward of the ship, which continued sailing in 
company with us thus the whole day. We found the 
latitude at noon, 49° & ; the progress made was calculated 
at seventy-two miles; the longitude 347° 20', and the main 
course TT. by S. Towards evening, the ship hoisted her 
sails, which still more excited suspicion, xsight coming 
on, and she being yet to the leeward, almost out of sight, 
the wind too being south, we ran straight before the wind, 
due north, without any light in the binnacle, in order that 
no flickering might be produced which would enable it to 
he seen from a distance. It was calm, with occasional 
breezes, and we sailed so the whole night. 

11//*, Friday. The wind during the day-watch again S. 
K., and more easterly, arid*, we accordingly lay upon our 
old course, S. S. Y\\ We looked after ships, but could see 
uone, which allayed the fears of the passengers, and 
especially of Mr. Jan, who, however, imagined lie laid 
seen the other ship yet this morning. We obtained tin: 
latitude, which was 49° IG' ; the course about W. by K; 
the distance according to the log-board of yesterday till 
now, was about thirty-two miles. At times we had a light 
wind, at others it was calm, and so it continued the whole 
night. Tire longitude was 346° 20'. 

1-7', S>i.!ordiv/. We were somewhat aroused at night, by 



56 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

two large whales, which swam in flic dbg^watch 1 close up 
to the ship, and drove slec*p from our eyes by their hard 
blowing. It was pleasant and diverting in the clear 
atmosphere to see them. In the day- watch the sky began 
to be overcast, and a good wind to blow, which kept 
increasing till noon. During the morning; there were many 
tunny fish around the ship or sea-hogs, for their heads and 
snouts are just like those of swine, and when they are cut 
open, so are their entrails. 2 They amused us with their 
quick swimming and tumbling. The harpoons and pikes 
were made ready, but none of them were struck. We 
found the latitude at noon 48° 58'; the course, W. S. TV" ., 
the calculated distance forty-four or forty-eight miles ; and 
the longitude 345° 25'. In the afternoon the breeze 
increased still more, and put all in good spirits; but our 
hearts ascended higher, and adored the giver of the wind, 
who brings it. forth from his treasury when it pleases him. 
The breeze was fresh out of the northeast, and our course, 
W. X. W, ; and so we advanced. 

loth, Sunday. This morning the wind and course were 
the same as before, with misty and rainy weather, which 
made the sails tight, and aided our progress. There 
were many tunnies this morning around the ship, which 
again diverted us by their exhibitions and celerity; but 
none of them were harpooned. It was so foggy Ave could 
not obtain an observation of the sun, which we preferred 
to miss rather than lose the headway we were making. 
We computed it to be 48° 20'; the distance run one 
hundred and twenty miles; the course W. S. W., a little 
more west; the longitude 342° 30'. We had now for 
several days had an entirely different air, which felt sweet 
and agreeable, especially when the weather was clear and 

1 The two short watches between 4 and G o'clock, and G and S o'clock 
r. M; are called dog-watches. 

2 Porpoises. 



HALF-WAY ACROSS. 57 



fine; and even when ii was cfoudy and mi. sty it was not 
so cold or sharp, but very pleasant and desirable, I knew 
I breathed differently from what I did before. There was 
no moon, and we made rapid progress; and it seemed the 
whole night, as if we were sailing through fire, in 
consequence of the sparkling of the water. 

14/A, Monday. From noon yesterday, and so on the night 
through, we had made very good progress, though not so 
great as the day before, the wind being somewhat lighter 
and more northerly, and during the night X X. W. 
Last evening we had a great many porpoises around the 
ship, which, after supper, again amused us. At night the 
sea sparkled, and other fish appeared near the ship, bennets, 
dolphins and others, but we could not catch any of them. 
Our course was still W. S. W., with a light breeze. As it 
was cloudy we could not obtain the latitude, but calculated 
we were in 47° 30'; our progress one hundred and four 
miles; longitude 340° 30'; the course W. S. W. The sea 
had been for several days so smooth that the ship went 
ahead almost as gently as if we had been sailing on a 
river; but to-night we feared this would not last long, 
for we be^an to have some great threatening out of the 
X. X. W. The wind also pulled so we could not sail 
sharp by the wind. So we ran B. "W. by W., with fair 
progress. It began to blow a little more, and we took in 
the lop gallant sails. 

15///, ffoesclay. The wind >\ r . X. ~\v ., so we kept on our 
ohl course, and made rapid headway. About ten o'clock in 
the morning, we saw a ship ahead of us to the leeward, 
doing her best to come up to us; but not seeking or 
earing for that, we sailed a point higher, that is "W. 8. W., 
°ur old course: and continuing on this course, we saw that 
we outsailed her, and she fell off directly behind us. The 
pun broke out occasionally, and v\ r o endeavored to obtain an 
.observation, but we could not hit it exactly, in consequence 
8 



58 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

of the clouds and rolling sea; and I dared not, therefore, 
trust my owu altogether. It "was -Ji.>° 6'; the computed 
distance one hundred and thirty-six miles; the main course 
S. "W. h)' AY., a little westerly. A\ r e reckoned we had at 
noon to-day completed half our voyage, and we raised our 
hearts to God in thankfulness that he had hitherto preserved 
us hy his fatherly care. Being now out of danger from 
the Turks our enemies, and as we thought, for the most 
part, from storing, we supplicated, him to continue his 
blessings towards our persons, and towards the purpose to 
which lie has called us, in order that we may perform it 
with gladness and sincerity of heart, to his glory, unto 
the going down of the sun. The sea he^an to he smooth 
again, and the wind to abate. 

16//?, Wednesday. In the day -watch it was perfectly calm. 
At day-light, we found ourselves between two ships, one 
lying close by us to the windward, withmizzen sail hoisted, 
and the other lay astern of us to the leeward, they beino- 
in company, as it appeared afterwards. We perceived still 
another vessel as far as we could see, behind us. We did 
not know what to think of all this; sometimes we kept up 
good courage; at other times we were fearful, the more so 
because when we showed our colors none of them did the 
like. The one astern of us, being the largest, did her 
best to pass us, or rather to get up to her companion. As 
we hauled oil" a point or two of the wind, our course 
being thus 8. S. W., and a little breeze springing up at the 
same time, each one went her way; and as they sailed 
off by the wind, we gradually separated from them. We 
had no doubt they were French ships bound for Newfound- 
land or Canada. In looking at the water we saw the 
color was changed as if we were on soundings, which we 
did not doubt, because our reckoning or calculation made 
us against the false bank of Newfoundland. About ten 
o'clock we saw another ship ahead of us, sailing on the 



BANKS OF NEWFOUNDLAND. ;,<, 

Kiimc course as tlie others, so that wc mn across her. As 
[f was sunshine and calm, it was a good opportunity to 
take the latitude. I found it 44° 35*. The course was S. 
W. by W. and V. S. W., which entirely agreed withourbciug 
as we thought this morning, upon the false bank of Terrc 
Xeuf. The distance run was one hundred and twelve miles, 
and the longitude 335° 30'. Although I heard that I 
differed in hit reckoning from all the others, except the 
mate, which I did not know, I adhered nevertheless to my 
own. At noon we saw a piece of wood drifting, similar 
to a hanging ladder with which they climb trees, and some 
Sharks swimming in sport and continually tumbling around 
it. We threw out a hook baited with a large piece of pork, 
hut could not catch any of them. By evening it was quite 
calm, and in the night still more so. 

17th, Thursday. In the day-watch the wind was 8. E., 
and S. S. E., but light, though we could keep our course. 
The water was smooth and the sky clear, with an entirely 
different atmosphere from that over the sea in Holland. 
The breeze, however, began to increase gradually, and at 
noon we went forward finely. Wc saw another ship ahead 
of us, on the larboard, sailing west, like ourselves. "We 
were able to take the latitude very exactly, and found it 
41° W. Our progress we calculated at thirty-two to 
thirty-six miles, but setting our plan on the chart of 
increasing degrees upon the obtained latitude, according 
to the course sailed, we found we must have gone a greater 
distance. There must either have been some current, or 
the plan of the foregoing dav did not stand southerly 
enough; for it should have stood at 35' and did stand at 
58', that is 23' difference. The longitude was 333°. We 
expected to see some signs of the bank of Newfoundland, 
as we had for a day or two sailed through very many 
fpiallcn or galls, besides some little mizzens ov galleys, which 
are a kind of galls, drifting or sailing upon the water, 






GO VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

having membranes like a small sail, in the form of a 
mizzeii or galley sail, lrum which bhey arc so Galled. 1 These 
were all signs of the banks of Newfoundland. However, 

I dared not trust myself entirely, because others who had 
so much more experience in those things than I had, did 
not make us so far west* At noon it blew harder, and we 
had a rolling sea from the 8. 8. TY\, so that our topgallant 
sails were taken in. The sea did not look entirely blue nor 
black, as it does where there is no bottom, but a clearer 
green, almost the same as you see in running out of the 
channel; but about six o'clock in the evening, we observed 
the water had perceptibly changed greener, but by dark it 
was all gone again. AVe judged from this circumstance, 
that we had sailed certainly over a point of the great bank, 
as our calculation showed. 

18//'., Friday. The wind continued X. X. E. and X., and 
we kept our course. "We observed some paleness in the 
water. My good friend having eaten last evening some 
salted fish, cold, and only with a little vinegar, was seized 
in the night with a severe pain in his stomach, but having 
taken about nine o'clock a little warm wine, with Spanish 
soap, he vomited and felt better, and began to rest and 
recover, for which we were tenderly sensible of the goodness 
of our Father. This morning a ship ahead of us to the wind- 
ward, came straight down upon us, evidently with the design 
of speaking to us. Wq braced the foresail to the mast and 
waited for her. As she approached she let fly the English 



1 Besaenties of gallcytm. Reference is here made to a species of vivified 
substance, — the fitiy&ilis pefa.gicu$, commonly called, by sailors, the 
Portuguese man-of-war, which floats like the nautilus upon the surface of 
the sea, with its body inflated in order to catch the wind, as a sail, and 
with tentacles extending below to guide it. The common stinging gall of our 
waters belongs to the same family. Our word gall as applied to such 
fishy matter, seems to be a local word, handed down to us by the Dutch 
settlers. 



IN LATITUDE OF SANDY HOOK 



f.1 



!la«X, and we immediately did the same. She ran astern of 

u>. mid we hailed lier. She was froju the YVc. i Ludta 
Inlands, hound for England. Ave told them where we 
were from and where hound, and how it stood with 
England and France; with which they were content, and 
sailed on their course, and we on ours. We found the 
latitude at noon 43° 34'; the distance eighty miles, and the 
longitude 334° 20'. In the afternoon it hegan to blow ha rd, 
and we reefed our topsails. The wind kept increasing 
more and more, and at evening we could sail only AW by 
S., and in the first watch, only west. It blew so hard that 
the topsails were taken in. ; and the wind sharpening ap 
still more, we wore around about midnight and steered & 
S. "W., making little headway in consequence of the rolling 
of the sea and the short sail on. 

19th, S'liurdajf. The wind abating somewhat at day-light, 
the topsails were set again; but the wind afterwards 
springing up on the other bow, we could at last only sail 
southerly. The latitude at noon was 43° 12'; the whole 
distance run from noon yesterday was sixty miles, and the 
longitude was 330° 20'. In the afternoon we saw weeds 
drifting, which grow on the bottom of the sea, and in 
Holland, on piles which stand in the salt water, by which 
we were confirmed in our belief that we were on the banks. 
We had not had for a day or two those heavy swell.-, hni 
short and pushing ones as they are in the Tsorth sea, heating 
against each other. "We could now sail only S. by E. and 
S. S. E., but the wind afterwards running out we sailed S. 
by W. and S, S. W. 

20///, Smulay. The wind being still westerly, we sailed 
S. by W. and S. S. ~\V ., and it blowing a little harder, we 
reefed our main topsail again. A whale aroused us for 
a while with his tumbling around the ship. We saw also 
flying fish, from which, we supposed there were dorados or 
other lish near by, but we neither saw nor caught any. 



62 • VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

Wo found the elevation of the pole above the horizon al 
noon to be42° Yl' ; the 1 course due south; the distance from 

bestek to beskkf sixty to sixty-four miles; and of course the 
same longitude as before, 330° 20'. The wind continued 
westerly, and we made no great progress. 

21st, Monday. The wind kept the same, and we 

continued the same course. The latitude was 40° 34', 
being that of Sandy Hook in New Xetherland. and we onl\ 
wished now an easterly wind which might carry us about 
twelve hundred miles westerly. The distance traversed 
was eighty to eighty-four miles ;" the longitude 330°; and 
the course nearly S. by W. Our cooper was a little 
Friesland boor from Bolswart, whom Margaret had hired 
for four years, for twenty-eight dollars a year. Tie bad to 
work bard at his trade on board the ship, although his 
wages were not to commence until he reached land, 
It has been frequently a wonder to me that he has not 
recognized me, for he has at * * * * *. 2 
Hendrick, the ship's pump-maker, worked a little at our 
house, where I have seen him myself, and although he 
claimed no acquaintance, he complained to me at times 
how Margaret had cheated him, and all who were now in 
her service. He began to-day to make some buckets in 
which he could not succeed very well for want of tools, I 
had compassionating blood, and helped him make them right. 
I made him a bucket, at which Mr. Jan and the captain 



1 We adopt this word from the Dutch of the journal for the sake of 
convenience, as there docs not appear to be any corresponding word in 
}-2nglish. It is used to indicate a plan or plot marked out on a chart for 
the purpose of designating the course of a ship during the preceding day, 
or any other given time, and the point attained in sailing, during that 
period. It is employed in the present instance in the text, metonymically, 
to signify the time of day of making the plot or plan. From bestek to 
bestek therefore means here, from noon of the preceding day to noon of the 
J" y under mention. It seems to have been a kind of traverse table. 

*This blank occurs iu the original, in which it is hit purposely unfilled. 



A SUNSET AND FULL MOON. (33 

wore highly pleased, and that perhaps was the reason why 
Mr. Jan was so liberal of Margaret's properly, for he gave 
every one of our mess a glass of Madeira wine, which was 
quite a wonder, for we had never seen any thing of the 
kind in him. Towards evening the ship w T as washed out, 
and in doing it, they found a sea-cat asleep which was not 
longer than a finger, but really monstrous. AVe supposed 
from this circumstance we were near dorados or dolphins, 
but we discovered none. The wind was somewhat northerly, 
so that we could sail S. V. and ~W. S. "W., but it changed 
back again afterwards. The sea, which was exceedingly 
smooth, and a very clear and soft sky, made the evening 
hour extremely fine. The sky, with thin transparent snow- 
white clouds upon its glittering blue, was adorned by 
a bright, clear setting sun, which, in proportion as il 
declined and departed to another world, there to display 
the splendor which' the creator has bestowed upon him, 
changed these clouds from white to shining brightness, 
and imparted to them for a while the golden luster of 
his fire. The sky around was not a pure sky-blue, but 
was of a mixed blue and green, sparkling like the flame 
when copper is brought to a glowing heat; that which 
was nearer the sun being more like the sun, and that 
further removed from him, gradually fading into bright 
blue mingled with silver; so that we not only saw all the 
colors of the rainbow, but all hues and colors, all shining 
according to their natures, with a brilliancy of their own, 
displaying them in that perfect splendor, which is so 
agreeable, and capable of enrapturing man. But one of 
the greatest beauties to be observed was their wonderful 
unity or harmony, or blending together; for although these 
colors and shining splendors were as manifold as the 
degrees and minutes, yea points of removal from their 
**entnythe sun, which shone the brightest and most, yvt 
one could not discover where they separated or where they 






64 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 



united, or even a point where one could be distinguished 
from the next, so united were they all, and so manifold 
and distinct was their unity without being divided. And 
although all this had a great and starry brightness, it was 
nevertheless so moderated and tempered through all the 
diversity of colors that w r e could not only look at each 
one in particular, but also the whole together, yea even at 
the sun itself, the centre of this lordly perspective, and 
distinct from these surrounding splendors, as the extreme 
point of their concentration, $To part lost any thing by 
viewing the whole, and the wdiole lost nothing by viewing 
a part, nor did any one part lose by viewing any other 
part, nor the most excellent by viewing the least, nor the 
least, by viewing the most excellent, so exact was their 
unity in their multiplicity, and their multiplicity in their 
unity. Xo sooner had their glorious beauty left us, than 
turning around we saw not indeed the same, but its 
expression and projection, in a full moon, coming up in 
the cast, as the sun was setting in the west. And as the 
one had shown himself like burning gold, the other showed 
herself as well polished, or burnished silver, upon the same 
field as the sun had done, but according to her nature and 
power and color ; for as the sky and the clouds which were 
next the sun participated most in the color of the sun, so 
those nearest the moon had the greatest resemblance to 
the moon. These indeed were as white as snow and 
transparent, so that the light of the moon shining through 
their white thinness gave them a luster like silver and that 
upon a heaven's blue field. The outermost clouds were 
black or dark, while the outermost of the other (the sun) 
were a pure white, so that the one began with a color and 
srlory with which the other terminated. 

The peculiar feelings which the Lord excited in us over 
these and the like occurrences are not the material for the 
relation of a voyage. They can be expressed in some 



PORPOISES AND FLYING FISH. ,;- 

other pb.ee or perhaps never. lie is master, and does as 
it pleases him. 

I have strayed far out of my course, and must look 
again upon the eompass and sec how we sailed. It was 
about S. S. W, and S. AY. by S., through the whole night, 
during which it was very warm. In the day-time we were 
on deck, under the sails, which threw down upon us much 
of the wind they received, so that we did not feel the heat; 
but at night and in our berth it was much greater, because 
there were so many persons shut up close together, the 
greater portion of whom were women and children. Right 
over our berth was the mate's wife with one child sick with 
the measles, and another one which we expected every 
moment to die, and to which we rendered our services by 
giving our medicines, as well as to others; yes, and even 
to Margaret, after providence had shown they were needful 
to any one, as well as any thino* else we nimht have which 
the Lord had given us by his goodness. 

22d, Tuesday. The wind having shifted a little, as we 
have said, we could sail only 8. T\ r . and S. AY. by S., with 
a light breeze and a smooth sea. The weather was fine and 
pleasant, but warm, so that we were dressed in somewhat less 
than our summer clothino'. Many bejran to go bare-leered ; 
and to sleep out of their berths. We found the latitude at 
noon 89° 27 r , the course S. ~Vv ., the distance computed at 
>•>!!< ■■ty-two to ninety-six miles, and the longitude 328° 24'. 
V\ hen we came from table at noon, we were diverted with 
i very pleasant exhibition upon the smooth and level 
surface of the sea. A great ileet of porpoises came from 
the south, extending as far off as we could see, leaping 
l *ttil tumbling with such swiftness and speed towards our 
"iip, that it seemed as if they would certainly have taken 
■*■ by .-term. It is incredible how far they sprang up into 
Iho air; hut us they came near to us they cheeke<1 
li *ni««elve3, and went swimming, leaping and txiiul King 
9 



GG VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

around as. One of the largest of them sprung full the 
length of a man high out of the water, and cutting capers 
in the air, made every one laugh ; then fell backwards 
hetween two waves and disappeared heneath them, and 
we saw him no more. This was the final exhibition in the 
scene, which lasted half an hour, and then they all left. 
There were flying fish also flying out of the water while 
the others were swimming in it. Some are of opinion 
that these do not fly, hut only spring out of the water; but 
I am certain such persons have never well looked at this 
fish, or observed how it flies. It is about the size of 
a herring, though we saw none as large as that during the 
voyage; it is more like the smelt. Close behind the head 
where other fish usually have two small tins, the flying fish 
has two long ones, which when stretched out, reach nearly 
to the tail. The fins have five or six little bones in them, 
which beginning at the end of the fin run finer and finer 
to nothing, and constitute the strength of the fin. You 
never see this fish spring out of the water like other fish, 
and fall in. it again ; but it comes from the water not upward, 
but like an arrow shot from a bow,, spreading its two tins 
like wings which it does not flap as the feathered tribe 
does, for it is not of that nature; but moves them quickly 
and gently* the same as a certain insect winch 1 have seen in 
Europe, and which in Friesland they call eoolwackter and in 
the land of Cleves rontbouL It is true it does not fly high, 
although sometimes it flies as high as a ship; nor far, yet as 
far as a musket shot ; but whether it be true that it cannot 
fly any further, because its wings arc dry, or because it 
has no power to sustain its body longer in the air, which is 
more probably the truth, or for both reasons, I cannot say, 
nor do I believe any body can. It ilies seldom alone, but 
in sehools sometimes of hundreds together. Fish in the 
sea swim together much in sehools or fleets, and it seldom 
happens when you see a fish of a certain kind alone that 



A MONSTER MACKEREL. ,;7 

there are not more of the same sort to "be seen about. 
When a school of other iisli, whether dorados or others, 
come among a school of Hying fell, which serve as food 
Tor them, and the large fish hunt the flying fish for this 
purpose, the flying fish strive to save themselves by flying. 
This is en passant. The view of these fish was much more 
agreeable than the sight and smell of a quantity of spoiled 
salted fish among our provisions, which was so offensive 
you could not stand near it, and which was being dried so 
that it might he used in the ship. The wind freshened up 
in the evening so that we could only sail S. S. W. and 
S. Ay. by S., and thus we proceeded the whole night. 

2Sd, W@iiiekdfflf~ The wind continuing almost the same, 
ear course was nearly the same, sometimes a little less, and 
sometimes a little more than S. TV. by S. There was a 
light breeze, beautiful and clear weather, and a. smooth sea. 
This was delightful. If one could always have such sailing 
on the sea, it would be a very agreeable business. The 
cheerfulness which such fine weather excited in us was dis- 
turbed when we saw the captain, looking like a dark cloud, 
beat our cook severely with a rope, for some trifling reason, 
as they said; but as he is a quaker, we will take occasion 
to describe him. and his, in an oilier place. The latitude 
to-day was 37° 51' the course kept S. S. W., the calculated 
distance 112 miles, and the longitude 327° 30'. At noon 
we saw a turtle drifting past the ship, quite large, and lying 
asleep on the surface of the water. We saw also a school 
of flying fish. The wind and our course continued the 
same, not only until evening, but all night. 

24/7*, Thtrs&ay. The wind being still westerly, our course 
was mostly S. AY., with a light breeze, calm sea and clear 
^ky; but the wind began to shift gradually to the north so 
that we could sail S; W. by A\\, and finally W. S. AW 
Towards noon the wind ran X., and X. by E., but we con- 
tinued to hold our course. Our latitude at noon was 3(»° 



08 



VOYAGE TO NEW YORK, 



S-2', the course S. W., the distance i 04 miles, and the longi- 
tude 325° 56'. In the afternoon the wind improved still 
more, so that it was due east, when we sailed "W. by S., and 
this continued all day and night, with a good top-sail breeze. 

25(h, Friday, "V\ r c sailed till eight o'clock in. the morning 
"W. by, B.j when we changed our course to the west, having 
sailed upon the former course according to calculation 88 
miles. The wind was now E. X. E., and thus for the most 
part we sailed before it, and therefore our bonnet sails were 
made. ' We observed dolphins or dorados near the ship, 
which are agreeable to look at, especially when they , are 
swimming. "We did our best to catch or strike some of 
them, but without success. The latitude at noon we found 
to he 85° 37', the distance sailed 121 to 128 miles, and the 
lonoitude 320° 48'. 

26th, Satwrlay. The wind still X. E., and we kept our 
course ~\Y., and W. by In., with a light breeze, fine weather 
and a smooth sea, making fair headway. Although wc had 
hitherto caught no fish, one caught itself during the night. 
The fish line had been left trailing out behind the ship, by 
which means it had been caught, and dragged along. It 
was not only dead, hut the belly was all burst open, by 
reason of the quantity of water which had been forced in 
it, for his mouth was wide open with the hook and line in 
it. It had strained the line so that the line itself was 
almost parted. It was almost like an eel, or rather a gecp. 1 
It was so hideous and looked so savage, that my companion 
inquired if it were not a sea-devil. As he had heard of 
sea-devils, he thought this certainly was one. I had never 
to my knowledge seen the like, except only the picture of 
one at Amsterdam,, caught under the equinoctial, and 



J A small fish of a sea-green color, with a long pointed nose like the beak 
of a snipe. It is caught by means of net.-', by thousands along the sea shore 
of Holland, at certain seasons of the year, and is used to bait hooks tocateh 
other fish. 



FIXE WEEKS FROM FALMOUTH. q\) 

minted on account of its rarity. I have sketched it here 
m well as I could. 








Its flesh, when it was cooked, was quite good, tasting 
almost like a mackerel's. 1 Our latitude at noon to-day was 
3G° 14 '; the course held W". by K; the distance sailed 112 
miles; and the longitude obtained 321° 40'; and so our 
progress continued this clay and the following night. 

27th, Bimday. Every thing went on sweetly during the 
night. The sky was beautiful and the sea still. Our course 
west with a light breeze. For two days, now, we had per- 
ceived a motion of the sea from the S. E., which sometimes 
forbodes such a wind. "We found the latitude 36° 6 ; , having 
been carried a little south, which sometimes happens from 
the swaying of the rudder, or it- indicates sometimes a 
current The distance we had run was seventy-five miles, 
the course more AY", than "W". by S. At noon the wind 
shifted round to the south. The longitude was 320°. The 
mate came at noon to-day, while I was putting my bcdcl' on 
the chart, and looked at it. lie was surprised that I was 
so far west. He said I differed 320 miles from him. which 
might well be, as I had never put my knowledge in 
practice, and could not now use any thing except compasses 
on the chart ; but the result will show how it was, though 
we reealled afterwards how doubtful he was in his language 
on the subjeet. 



M appears to have been the Spanish mackerel. 



70 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

28<'/<, Month;)/. The wind continued with a light breeze, 
and our cour.se was due west; as tlie wind was a little 
more on the side, we set more sail, which drove the ship 
more rapidly ahead. The sea rolled a little out of the 
S. S. E. and S. ; its color was changed, as if there were no 
bottom. The latitude was 85° 52', so that we had gained 
a little south. The distance we calculated at 80 miles. 
The course was S. and W. by S., and so continued during 
the day and night. 

29M, Tilesdm/. During the night we had some gusts of 
wind, accompanied with lightning and rain. For several 
days it had been very hot. The wind then changed from 
the S. E. to the ^. and S. S. TV\, with heavy swells of the 
sea from the S. AY. We had for several days past seen 
some arrowtails, a species of bird like sea gulls, and so 
named because their tails ran out sharp, like an arrow. 
They are entirely white, with the exception of a little black 
on the head and extreme tip of the wings. They are 
somewhat smaller. than those I have seen in the (West 
India) islands. They kept flying around the ship con- 
tinually, as if they wanted to alight, but when they saw 
the people they flew, away. We sailed close by the wind, 
W. by X. and W. X. W. The latitude at noon was 30° 
17', the course W. by X.,the distance sailed 64 to 68 miles, 
and the longitude 318° 20'. It was five weeks to-day since 
we left Falmouth, and we estimated we were still about 
950 miles from our place of destination. Before evening 
the wind was S. S. W7, so that we could not sail higher 
than X. X. W. and X. W. It shifted at length to W. and 
W. X. AY, so that we had to sail X. and X. by E. About 
midnight we had a severe gust of wind with much thunder 
and lightning and heavy rain. We wore ship half round 
to the south, and were able to sail S. AY. and AY. S. AY, 
although soon afterwards the wind subsided. 

oO/A, Wectaesdtiy. The wind was W. S. AY., and we there- 



BEGINNING OF A STORM. 



71 



fore steered X. X. W» and X. W., With a rolling sea, but 
not a hard blow, and thus could make Utile headway. The 
arrowtails still Hew about the vessel, and some of them 
came nearer. Our latitude was 36° 59', the course kept 
X. W.j the distance sailed 60 miles, and the longitude 
310°. The wind veered more and more to the west, and 
we could only sail S. S. W. and S. W. by W., with a light 
breeze, and making slow progress. This continued the 
whole afternoon, but in the night it became entirely calm. 
31.57, Tlocrsday. The wind was very still, and we steered 
the same as yesterday; but we did nothing except drift. 
We were in hopes, however, of a good wind, and it 
seemed with some probability, for the sea swells came 
strong out of the north, and there were also heavy swells 
out of the south and S. S. W., which struck very hard 
against each other, and caused the waves to roll h'vAi in 
the air, and retarded our progress. We observed a large 
sea pike near the ship, six feet long, but we could not catch 
it. "We could not obtain the latitude in consequence of the 
rain. We reckoned our course 8. S. W. and S. by W. ; 
the distance 32 to 36 miles, and the longitude 315° 20'. 
We had again a pleasant diversion in a large school of 
porpoises, which came springing out towards us as if each 
one wished to be the first near the ship or into it; but after 
tbey laid sported about half an hour they left us. In fuc, 
afternoon the wind blew from the south, but not steadily. 
Tin- billows strove against each other so that they stood 
like mountains. A little later the wind began to blow 
faintly from the north, and towards evening more and 
more from the east, when the swells in the south and the 
north begun to strike against each other, although the wind 
' ame between them from the east, as if to separate them. 
A In nit the third hour of the evening-wateh it thundered 
"»i i lightened so frightfully that we were all stupilied and 
• '.n.h-d. The sea ran so hiu;h that we worked lustily to 



70 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

take in all sail as soon as possible, in order to prevent our 
being upset. The mainsail was lowered and furled, but 
We kept up a little sail afore. We sailed then W. by X"., 
and sometimes W. by S., till in the day-watch, when the 

wind changing from the east to E. by S., with thunder and 
heavy rain, we made gradually a little more sail, but we 
were quickly compelled by the squalls to take it in again. 
This was in the night, when we saw several meteors which 
sat upon the mizzen-mast and yard arm, which is generally 
considered a si<ni that the storm is at its highest and will 
soon abate; hut how this rule may be, we had some 
experience, and will mention. We also heard a great 
screaming of sea gulls and other birds, which now in the 
dark flew around the ship and above the masts, the like of 
which the mate and others, who had long navigated the 
sea, said they had never heard before. 

September 1st, Priday. The wind still E. and E. S. E., 
with a stiff breeze ; but the great swells from the S. and. 
S. S. W., as well as from the north, continued, by which 
we were tossed about the same as we had been for several 
days. We were afraid the ship's boat might be thrown out 
of its place, as it was not too firmly fastened, and cause us 
great inconvenience, which we already began to experience 
from some full water casks which stood on deck, and were 
rolling about loose, and which we had great difficulty to 
bring right. We could, not obtain the latitude this noon, 
in consequence of the cloudy sky. We calculated it to be 
37° ; the distance sailed SO miles, the course W. by X.,and 
the longitude 314° 10'. The before mentioned birds re- 
mained with us still. We saw also two flocks of other 
birds, of lit teen or sixteen each; 'they were larger than 
starlings, and of a black color. They flew about the ship. 
We observed, besides, great numbers of fish continually 
springing out of the water. At first we supposed they 
were springers, a species of fish so culled because they are 



SPECTRES OFF THE BERMUDAS. 73 

continually jumping up out of the water; but these were 
larger and like haddock. "We also saw a turtle. All these 
signs denoted land, and the weather indicated the Ber- 
mudas, that is to say, the Bermuda storms, for T do not 
know that they eyer pass this island without encountering 
a storm. Long experience has established the fact; and 
the old mariners call it the sea of devils, not only because 
it is neyer passed without a terrific storm and heavy 
thunder and lightning, but also on account of the appari- 
tions of frightful forms and faces and other spookery, 
which appear, some really such, and some frivolous. 1 low- 
it was' in the firs! discovery of strange lands and wilder- 
nesses, we cannot now say, or determine from present 
experience, because such things have happened heretofore 
which no longer occur. As to the storms, they are 
established facts; as to the sights, they arc not without 
probability, and they were confirmed, to some extent, in 
my mind, by our mate, who had passed by this island 
several times, and had never failed of the storms; and.as 
for the sights, he told me that being once close to the island, 
beset by a severe storm and a dark night on a lee shore, it 
seemed as if the air was full of strange faces with wonderful 
eyes standing out of them, and it so continued until 
daylight. He told this without any leading to such tilings, 
or without having ever heard what I myself had read 
concerning them. It was in my youth that I had read of 
them, in a little book called Be $?i"dr : J^oort-Kloch (The 
Silver Gate-bell). This island lies in 80° 32' north latitude, 
and 31.8'* 40' of longitude; but nearly a degree further 
west than it is laid down on the charts, as the mate told me 
he had observed. It is a small, but very fertile and healthy 
island, about seven hundred and sixty miles from the main 
land of America, and of all its neighbors bears the best 
cedar now to be obtained. I have conversed with persons 
who said they had had, at the same time, the cedar of 
10 



74 



VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 



Lebanon and the cedar of the Bermudas, and they could 
not discover any difference between the two, and the 
Bermuda was as brown and strong as the Lebanon. This i.s 
rendered probable, to some extent, because the island, 
lying in the middle of the sea, has a cooler atmosphere. 
It produces plenty of oranges, apples and lemons, which 
the English who live there carry by ship loads to Virginia, 
Hew Xetherland and New England, where they do not 
grow, in order to sell them, as I have observed myself in 
New Xetherland ; and I think also tobacco, sugar, indigo, 
ginger, speckled wood, Campeachy wood, &e. It is some- 
what rocky around it, and has, on the north and west 
points, great reefs which extend far out into the sea. This 
island we were now passing, at a distance of about 260 to 
280 miles to the north by east. 

2d. Sccturctcoj. The wind had been increasing; through the 
whole night from the S. E. In the morning we saw some 
flocks of birds flying around us, a kind of small snipes like 
those of Xew Xetherland, as some passengers said, who 
recognized them. We could obtain no observation to-day 
in consequence of the cloudy sky. "While going ahead 
with a strong S. S. E. wind, sailing west, we had heavy 
rolling from the south. We reckoned the latitude 80° 30', 
the distance 100 miles, the course W. by S., and the 
longitude 314° 20'. In the afternoon the wind blew so by 
degrees from the S. S. W. and S. W., that we had before 
evening taken in all our sails, and ran along without any 
sails at all at the rate of 120 miles in twenty-four hours, 
but not lonff. It was such frightful weather that I am 
unable to describe it. 

The heavens were entirely shut off, and not the least 
opening was to be seen. * The wind blew so hard from the 
S. S, W. and S. W., that it was incredible; for when we 
stood close by each other and called out as loud as we were 
able, we could scarcely hear or understand each other. 



A TERRIFIC STORM. . 7- 

Tli-.' bil$ftrs ran as high nl mountains; yes, as mountains. 
They were extremely large and majestic, and exhibited the 
nrrcat power of their creator, as pleasing as they were 
fearful to us to behold. They rolled on with an inexpres- 
sible order and gravity, moving slowly and loftily. 
They were dark and grey in color, and bore upon their 
round backs other small waves, from which the wind drove 
off into the air so much water incessantly, that it flew like 
smoke or snow over the sea without the least diminution. 
This Hood of living sea water had such a direction over the 
ship, which was lying across the sea, that we could not 
see during the day from the stern to the bow; and at night 
we could not see the least thing before our eyes. Although 
these large billows did not pour, for if they had done so 
we could not have withstood them a quarter of the time, 
yet the water of the small waves had such a passage to the 
ship that it was as if it were constantly thrown from 
above; and it came witli such force and in such quantity 
that the ship could not discharge it through the scuppers, 
but was all the time under water. "We had taken down 
our topmast early, and struck the yards and secured them 
against dangling. The rudder, which was held by two or 
three persons, and which was sometimes turned to avoid 
the falling of the sea, was several times wrested out of their 
hands, and those who had hold of it thrown from one side 
to the other upon one another, in great danger ni" being 
injured by the tiller or otherwise. Several times they came 
running up because they supposed the tiller was broken, 
although it was made entirely of iron. The compasses, 
which were wet continually, could hold no point in conse- 
quence of the terrible rolling of the ship, which rolled so 
awfully that the yard arm seemed every time to touch the 
£reat billows on the windward side. Every thing bent and 
cracked so that you could hear nothing else. There wore 
no moans of going about, or standing, or sitting, or lying 



7G V0YAC4E TO NEW YORK. 

down, but you had to dp all these things together, as well 
as hanging mi, in order to keep yourself secure, whether 
you were in your berth or out of it. It was as if you were 
in the sea, except that the water came falling or the head, 
and so over the whole body. Mouth, nose and eyes were 
so full of water from the spray, that \ou could not draw a 
breath or see. ' All were constantly wiping their eyes and 
blowing their noses, like boys swimming. Our eyQ^ 
suffered the most, for they felt as if they were frosted with 
sand or water. They bound a flaff to the back stay or 
mizzenmast, before their eyes, iti order to see how the 
wind shot, but they had to go close to it before they could 
see it, and it was not there a long time before it was blown 
into a thousand tatters. Indeed, I cannot describe how 
wretched it was. I was on the first watch, although there 
was not much watch kept. In short, the sea air and water 
were so mingled together you could scarcely discern where 
they separated ; and so it was day and night. I stood 
much by the mate, in. order to help him watch the pouring 
of the sea. ~\Ve imagined several times we saw openings 
in the sky, which led us to believe there would be a 
change, but they were merely the falling of the sea, so high 
did it run and so much did it fill the air. It continued so 
all night, and even seemed to increase. ~My watch being out, 
I went below — not to sleep, for there was no probability 
of that, but to rest mjself somewhere on a chest, wet as I 
was. Even that was not to be clone, for the casks and 
chests were all loose and being thrown from one side to the 
other, so there was danger of being injured. As there was 
no one else there to assist in making them fast, Gerrit, the 
passenger, and myself, did our best endeavors to do so, and 
after much scrambling succeeded in putting them in place 
a little. It was not, however, much better below than 
above deck, for all the hatches being shut it was so close 
. and confined that one seemed to be stifled with a stinkintr, 



TIIE STORM INCREASES. 77 

burning air, whicli^ if it had continued long, Would have 

produced sickness. The pumps had to be kept going all 
the time, for, although the ship was tolerably tight below 
water, she was very leaky above; and so much water came 
down the hatchways, although they were covered with 
tarpaulin, that it was the same as if water were poured 
down on our heads. To put on dry clothes was not to he 
thought of, as it was equally wet below and above; and 
even if we did not put our heads out, the first wave which 
broke over the ship made us as wet as before. As day 
approached the storm rather increased than diminished. 
Hearing a clamor, I went on deck again, in order to see 
what the Lord might will concerning us, and arriving 
above I beheld a sad prospect indeed. The ship looked as 
desolate as if she had already suffered shipwreck ; the 
mainmast swinging to and fro, the shrouds and ropes 
attached to them flyine*. their chains and chain bolts loose, 
the pumps choked with sand, gravel and pebbles, and their 
spouts broken. The carpenter was called, in order to 
repair the pumps, which kept him constantly at work, lie- 
cursed and swore at Margaret, because there was no leather 
in the pump, which was true, for there had been only a 
little in it, or the leather was like duck, and also because 
there were no more spouts, of the necessity of which he 
bad warned her at Amsterdam, but which were not bought 
by her through parsimony, disregarding what the carpenter 
told her. I did my best to pacify him. , lie was a wicked 
wretch, and unwilling because lie could not have a 
moment's rest. He had afterwards to secure the mast, 
whereupon he raved and swore anew at the captain, and 
declared he would not do it unless they first threw over- 
board the jolly-boat, which was over his tool-chest, for the 
captain had set the chest in the boat, and had placed the 
jolly-boat upside down over the boat, so that the chest 
could not be got at as easily as he wished, and lie had. on 



78 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

that account, grumbled and scbkhM throughout the win 
voyage. Tlie captain attempted to strike Mm. Thesailor.s 

cursed and swore at each other. I had told the mate 
during the night that this drifting across seas could noi 
continue long' without sail, and that the course was to take 
below all that was on deck, or Ave would he turned upside 
down, or stove in, by a single wave. Xow I heard that 
the captain and mate wore disagreed on this point, the mate 
proposing and wishing to make some sail, the captain 
interposing objections, either because he did not under- 
stand it, or because he was afraid of the sails. Observing 
this, and knowing: our danger, my heart rose to God that 
he would look upon us in our condition, and be merciful 
to us in whatever manner he might be pleased to treat us, 
committing ourselves into his strong and gracious keeping. 
This was while the captain and mate were standing 
together, and having their conversation. I made bold and 
went up to them. I told the captain that sail should be 
made aft, if it were not more than a hand's breadth, or else, 
to all appearances, it would not continue long with us; that 
this would turn the ship against the sea. He made diffi- 
culty. I said they could try it with a bonnet, stretching it 
from the main shrouds to the mizzen shrouds, when they 
would see it would help them. Meanwhile, feeling my 
heart touched and tender, I went below to tell my comrade • 
our condition. I embraced him and committed him, and 
lie me, to our beloved Father, in case there might be no 
opportunity afterwards to do so, if he were pleased further 
to dispose of us. He dressed himself as well as he could, 
and we clambered on deck, one behind the other. lie was 
astonished at seeing us in such a state, and was able to tell 
how it was, although ignorant of many particulars. He 
posted himself aft, before the hut, on the larboard side, to 
the windward, under the tent ; but he had not stood there 
long- before a sea came over the snmwale, breaking 



THE STORM SUBSIDES. 79 

(•\ vrvwhere, and streaming over him. Tie turned his back 
to it, and said he never felt such a weight. In such eases 
one must hold himself fast where he is, or lie will be 
washed overboard. In the meanwhile they were busy in 
doing what I had proposed, and succeeded, with great 
difficulty and danger, in fastening the bonnet from one set 
of shrouds to the other. As soon as it was done they 
fou ml relief for the ship, and that she resisted the waves 
better; and it encouraged them immediately to see if they 
could not make more sail, and even set the mizzen-sail. 
The mizzen-yard was below and all hands were called to 
get it up. They fastened the sail upon the stoot garen, which 
was not very good; and therefore before it was hoisted 
hftff way up. the stoot get re n broke into pieces, and the sail 
was blown quickly to tatters, which was not to be wondered 
at, for the sail was very old. This was dangerous work 
for the poor sailors, who were dispersed here and there, 
and liable to be struck by the sail, and some of whom were 
hanging and dangling from the ropes over the sea; but 
none of them were injured. The yard arm was hauled 
down again, the old sail taken off, and a new mizzen-sail 
brought out set upon better stool garen, and hoisted as it 
hud to be. Thev immediately found it to be a orcat help. In 
the mean time, I went to my comrade, who observing me 
wasnmch affected, and said to me, le Seigneur s'devcra et nous 
*'wcera. Indeed, the weather was then at its worst, and 
continued so till noon. There were no means of eating 
or drinking any thing, except small pieces of dry bread, 
ivhen any could be found dry, for it was most all wet which 
* onld be got at ; and much of that in the bread room, was 
wet with salt water. The water, which was to be had was 
brackish. We had great alteration either from working 
*•!• from the living salt water which we had taken in through 
wir mouths and noses; and it was necessary for us to take 
'■ little strong drink. In the afternoon some said it began 



30 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

to moderate; but SO slowly they could hardly work. They 
therefore let every thing he as ii was. As the storm had 
arisen slowly, so it subsided even more slowly. "When the 
weather began to moderate my comrade inquired of several 
persons who had been much at sea, and of one who bad 
made three voyages to the East Indies, whether they had 
ever experienced such weather, and they said they had 
not ^Neither had I. There are, however, always some 
persons very haughty as to what happens to them, and so 
now, there were one or two who said they had seen worse 
storms. A\ nat they may Lave seen I do not know; but 
this I do know, that this one was something extraordinary, 
according to all that I had ever heard, or could conclude 
from other storms of which I had heard or read. It is not 
to be supposed that those are greater in which many ships 
are lost, for that happens frequently when the storms are 
not half so severe ; or that those are lighter where there 
are none lost, as in this case ; for that is according as it 
pleases the Lord, who makes it light or heavy for the 
accomplishment of his purposes. I remarked this storm, 
or the force of this storm, was very high up in the air, 
whereby the sea was driven up so high, and so slowly, 
and so easily, that is, rolled without breaking by reason, 
perhaps, of the great depth there. 

"When I reflect upon what the Lord thus exhibited to 
me, what power, what majesty, what gravity, order and 
regularity, what glory, what grandeur and extensiveness, 
how many of his attributes, did he display, such as when, 
by his infinite power, he created all things. So much 
does he manifest these perfections where he works, and 
after he works, which is only a continuation of his power 
and attributes in part, as he has shown them in the whole. 
But especially what a glorious picture did he vouchsafe to 
represent to us, over a small part of the earth, of what he 
did over the whole earth, at the time of the deluge, when 



CATCHING DOLPHINS AND SHARKS. 



81 



ho swept away all that was upon it. These sentiments I 
hare expressed in a measure before ; and perhaps the Lord 
will cause them to be still better expressed, for he permits 
such things to come before us in order that we may see as 
in a glass who he is, and that he always works according 
to what he is, that is, all his works are worthy of him, 
especially those which he does extraordinarily, and so that 
aw can apprehend them. It is certainly to his greater 
glory, and for the purpose of teaching us to know who he 
is, and who we are, so that we may learn to fear him, and 
srive him what belongs to him. Amen. This doleful 
Sunday passed, the wind gradually abated; and so we 
passed the night. 

4ttk, Monday. The wind having subsided, they were early 
on hand this morning to repair damages. It looked wretch- 
edly enough. The topmast was raised, the yards hoisted 
up and sail made. Every one looked as weather beaten as 
if he had been in the water, as indeed was the fact. The 
hatches were opened through which an air and dampness 
issued as from an oven; and clothes and bedding were 
brought on deck to be dried and aired. The ship was so 
full of them up to the round top that she looked strange 
from the outside. They lay all over the ship as thick as if 
it had been the ^sorth Market at Amsterdam. Ever? 
thing had become wet. There was not a berth which had 
been tight or free from water. We let those who were 
most in a hurry go ahead, and as there was no room for us 
we took the next day to ourselves. The ship was turned 
to the south, for the wind has shifted round a little more 
westerly. We obtained an observation at noon, and found 
the latitude was 37°. We reckoned the distance we had 
Bai led and drifted at sixty to sixty-four miles; the course 
west by north ; and the longitude 313° 8'. At noon we 
were drifting in a calm; the fish came shooting up IVdlii 
below, and many dolphins were near the ship. Although 
11 



82 



VOYAGE TO NEW YOKK. 



we did our 1 >c. t we could not catch any of them. VVe 
drifted thus the whole afternoon and night, which happened 
very well, as it afforded every one on board an opportunity 
to rest, for all were tired out, and we particularly so. My 
eyes were so sore that I could hardly open them. Whenever 
I looked at a candle, many rings, colored like the rainbow, 
appeared around the flame. All my limbs seemed as if 
they were broken, and I also suffered much internally. 

5//*, Tuesday. It still continued calm. We caught a 
dolphin early in the morning. It is a very pretty fish, a 
species of round fish, but flat on the sides. Its color is a 
sky-blue ground with a golden hue over it, and I observed 
the older it is .the more golden it is. On account of this 
golden appearance, I believe it is called dorado by the 
Portuguese, who doubtless were the first to eat it, when 
they began to make their lon£r voyages. On the blue skin 
there arc spots of a darker blue, which look pretty, and are 
set oh 1 ' by the gold color. It has no scales, or very small 
ones; its fins and tail are very bright, and exhibit great 
brilliancy when it is swimming*. Its flesh is good but 
rather dry, as is the case generally with all sea fish. The 
captain had this one prepared and dressed with sauce ; it 
was good and refreshed and strengthened us very much; 
but when we went to breakfast, w r e found there had 
happened a great misfortune to our mess. All our butter 
had been lost during the storm, through the negligence of 
the person having it in charge. The latitude at noon to-day 
was 86° 45', the distance sailed forty miles; the course W. 
by X, the longitude 312° 20'. Shortly after midday we 
canght a shark which had been swimming for an hour along- 
side of the ship. He was so heavy that it was as much as three 
of us could do, to haul him on deck. When we got him 
in the ship, every body had to keep out of his way. He 
tried hard to bite, for which purpose there were three rows 
of teeth in his mouth close to each other. They endeavored 









SCRAPING THE SHIP. 



83 



to thraSl n stick of wood down his throat, into his bellv, 
in order to prevent his biting; but he struck around lustily 
whenever they came near him for that purpose. Thej cut 
oft* his tail with an ax, thus depriving him of his greatest 
power, and he soon bled to death. They then opened his 
head and took the brains out, "which were as white as snow; 
these are esteemed a valuable medicine for women in 
childbirth; for which purpose the English use it a great 
deal. They also skinned him. The skin when dried is 
used to smooth and polish, woodwork. If the sailors wish 
t<> eat the flesh they cook it by the fire as ours did; but 
this desire generally passes off with their first voyage, ibr 
the iesh is not good for much. It is like that of the 
iiiorndike or seate, but hard, and of a strong flavor. There 

7 3 O 

is only one bone in the body, the back-bone, which the 
sailors cut out and preserve as a rarity, and make buttons 
out of it for their frocks and trowsers. We also caught several 
small fish of different kinds, like the carp, sole, scableak 
and others. The calm continued nearly till midnight, 
when a light breeze sprang up out of the south, and we 
continued sailing west. It was now six weeks since Ave 
left England. 

OV//, Wednesday. The wind, and our course remained as 
before. The sailors were still employed in repairing the 
*hip and ri^'iim-. We found the latitude to-day to be 36° 
■''■>': the computed distance sailed forty-eight miles; the 
course mostly west, and the obtained longitude 311° 20'. 
We caught another dolphin which happened well for us. 
We kept, our course as before; and at night the wind began 
to freshen up a little. 

7th, Thursday. The wind was S..S. W. ; the course W. 
N'. W., with a topsail breeze, fine weather and smooth 
water. The sailors commenced scraping the outside oi 
the ship, iu order to dress her up and make her look Well 
K v the time we arrived in port. They smeared her over with 



84 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK 

a mixture of grease and tar. so that ihe might not look 
brown : and this pride and man-pleasing did not aij 
the quaker spirit. Mr. Jan performed a Roman feat this 

morning, catching a dolphin with his hook, which he had 
been trying to do for three weeks. Another was 
stuck with a halberd. The latitude was 87° 47', the 
distance sailed we estimated at eighty miles, the course held 
was mostly X. W., the longitude 309 c 56'. In the afternoon 
the wind shifted to W. S. W. entirely, and we could only 
sail X. TV., and X. W. by X. It was quite calm during 
the night, but there came up a. frightful storm of thunder, 
lightning and rain ; we lay almost all night drifting with 
muzzled sails. 

Sik 7 Friday. It continued calm. We employed ourselves 
fishing, as there were daily many fish round the ship, and 
caught a few small ones. The sailors finished scraping 
the ship. We could get no observation of the sun to-day ; 
but we set down the latitude at 38° 8', the distance run 
thirty-six miles, the course X. W., and the longitude 309° 
lo". Shortly after midday the wind veered round during 
a thunder storm, to the X. E., and gradually increased to 
blow. We changed our course to W. by X., and by 
evening were compelled to take in sail. We saw several 
pieces of stakes drifting along, from which we supposed 
we. were appproaching the land. Towards evening we 
threw the deep lead, in order to see if we could find bottom, 
but we did not succeed^ although we east 120 fa thorns; the 
lead was too light and the ship drifted too much. We sailed 
during the night, W. by X. and west, and made fair 
progress. 

9$, Saturday. It did not blow so hard during the night, 
and by daylight the wind fell off still more. We obtained 
the latitude at noon, namely, 38° 16'; the course was a 
little more north than* west, the distance 100 miles, the 
longitude oL'7 c 3C. The color of the water was changed 



A SHIP FROM VIRGINIA SPOKEN. g5 

to a paler grceii. I sau a stick of dry wood drifting, like 
,i piece of a bough, which induced all of us to believe wo 
were near land. It was so calm in the night that our ship 
boxed the compass. We had not seen a finer sky during 
the whole voyage, so clear and so still. 

10th) Sundati. During the day-watch a breeze sprung out 
of the northeast. We kept our course W. and W. by X., 
hut the wind fell off before noon, and we drifted in a calm. 
The sea began to be a little covered with reeds and stubble, 
which we regarded as more signs of land. Numerous dol- 
phins and other fish, besides small sharks, came near the ship, 
hut we could catch none of them. "We cast the deep lead 
at noon, but found no bottom. We had 38° 39' of latitude, 
the progress we had made was over twenty miles, the 
longitude Avas 307° 25', and our course had been X. W. 
We all longed for a good wind, to take us speedily to the 
end of our voyage. The calm continued all night. 

11$, Monday. A breeze began to blow with the coming 
of the day. We caught several dolphins, one of them over 
live feet in length. About ten o'clock we saw a ship to 
the windward or larboard, when we luffed up, and she 
came towards us, and reached us about 12 o'clock. "We 
hauled in our sails to wait for her. She showed English 
colors, and we did the same. We launched the jolly-boat, 
and our male went on board of her, and after a little while 
returned, bringing her captain with him. She was an 
Knglish ship from Guinea, and last from "\ irginia, which 
she had left three weeks previously. She had encountered 
many storms and contrary winds. Many of her crew were 
^ick, arid Margaret sold the captain a hogshead of ship's 
beer, for which her little daughter 1 was honored with a 
good lump of gold. We had expected some refreshment, 



'This .daughter was Aimetje, or Amtcke Filipse, then aged nearly 
'.'* i \\ <• years ; she became the wife of Pliilip French. 






86 



VOYAGE TO NEW YOllK. 



but there was nothing to T>c bad for money, tliougl] some 
good apples were presented to Margaret, We asked him 
for Ids reckoning, which he told us was 270 leagues from 
Cape Itehiy, in the Virginias, differing considerably from 
ours, for that would make us 640 miles from Xew York, 
whereas my reckoning made it from 392 to 400 miles. 
However, all the other reckonings were different, one 
more and another less. The mate was nearest his, and 
the captain furthest off, as the mate said. This English- 
man had made a mistake, as we afterwards discovered. 
Each one, nevertheless, kept his own chart. Our captain 
went on hoard the other vessel to see whether we could not 
obtain some vinegar, of which we were in want, as we had 
none, owing to the terrible parsimony of Margaret, of 
which I will speak hereafter. I never saw so many dol- 
phins as there were around this English ship. They kept 
leaping up continually against her. The Englishman, in 
parting from us, about four o'clock, in order to show his 
civility, came up close along side of us, whereby many of 
the dolphins playing around his ship came to ours, and we 
caught some of them. In parting, he discharged several 
musket shots, but we did not return the salute. We had 
a small breeze, and with that we laid our course to the 
west. Every one had been so occupied with this English- 
man that no one had taken the altitude except myself. I 
found the latitude 39° 29', the distance could not be more 
than sixteen miles. As the weather was so calm, and we 
were under no headway, and had been carried almost a 
whole degree to the north, we concluded there must 
be a very strong current running in that direction. 
Towards evening the water changed. We sailed on 
several courses during the night, and afterwards drifted 
a little ahead. 

12ih, Tuesday. When we came on deck we observed the 
water had changed still more, and was very green, as it 



ANOTHER STORM. 37 



from the bottom. Tho fish hacl all disappeared, which 

caused us to think Ave were certainly on soundings. The 
deep load was thrown about noon, but they went at it in 
such a grumbling and growling maimer, and the ship 
going ahead, that nothing resulted from it. We had made 
only twelve or sixteen miles sailing, and yet Ave wore again 
an entire decree further north, for on taking an observation 
we found we were in latitude 40° 25', and, in point of fact, 
not far from land. The longitude obtained. Avas 30G° 40'. 
All this made us think of what the Englishman had said 
yesterday, but, under the circumstances, Ave thought we 
could not be where he said — the strong current, and the 
chopping of the sea, and its color — which made us con- 
sider whether Ave might not be about Cape Cod or Sandy 
Hook, as my begiek stood on the chart. I believed Ave were 
on the shoals of Cape Cod, fifty or sixty miles from land, as 
the result proved. The waves beat against each other Aery 
much from the northwest and south, and by evening the 
sky became overcast on all sides. AYe Avere apprehensive 
of a storm, and therefore took in all the sails ; but it 
turned into a very heavy rain, without much wind, Avhich, 
however, Avas northeast, and Ave had necessarily to keep oil* 
shore. We set our course S. AY., and S. AY. by S. The 
wind began to blow toAvards evening, and increased in the 
first part of the night. It rained nearly all night, which 
made us sail close and go ahead bravely* 

lo//t, Wednesday. The wind and our course remained the 
same, under a stiff topsail breeze and a rolling sea, the 
color of Avhich Avas changed to black. As soon as it was 
•lay Ave put on all sail until noon. We could obtain no 
latitude, but reckoned Ave were in 38° 4', the progress 
upwards of an hundred miles, the course S. AY. by S., and 
the longitude 305° 30'. AYe hoped this wind would cany 
us over. It was blowing E. by S-., and increased so that we 
"*vd to take in the topsails. It turned into a very severe 



88 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

storm in the night, and Hie wind gradually veered round 
to the west. 

Uth, Thursday. This hard storm came from the S. S. AY. 
We took in all sail, clewed up the foresail, lowered tin- 
yards with great difficulty, struck the mainsail and reefed 
it, so that we were prepared to lie by. We steered S. S.E., 
but the wind from the S. W, was exceedingly heavy, and 
although the sea did not run so high as in the last storm, 
it was more driving, and short, and gave very severe 
blows. The large bowline broke into pieces, and we had 
to strike the mainsail in order to repair it; but as for 
getting it up again there was little chance, for it struck" so 
frightfully in hoisting it we were afraid the topsail would 
fall, or the sail itself iiy into tatters. We had no oppor- 
tunity to observe the latitude, but reckoned it to be 38° 30'; 
our progress was nothing, or 12 or 16 miles further south, 
and consequently the longitude was the same as before. 
In the afternoon, about four o'clock, there rose a very heavy 
sea, which not only threw itself into the mainsail but over 
the whole deck, so that the ship could hardly rise again. 
We stretched a bonnet again from the main shrouds to the 
mizzen shrouds, in order to relieve the ship, and enable her 
the better to oppose the seas; but about seven o'clock in the 
evening there came a sea which not only covered the 
whole ship but it broke with such force it seemed as if the 
ship would go to the bottom. They did not know how or 
whence it came, nor how to get rid of the water. From 
this time the weather seemed to moderate gradually, the 
wind blowing from the west, and afterwards X. X. W., and 
thus the storm passed off. I have not described the par- 
ticulars of this storm, which, although it was not so severe 
as the other, nevertheless was neither better nor worse, 
because the other storm was high in the air and on deep 
water, for which reason the sea ran very regularly and 
slowly, but bore the sea ran short and confusedly, hard and 






DAMAGE BY TITE STORM. SO 

pushing. Ml the powe* of tills storm was below, upon 
the water, which was not so deep. The sky over he f ad was 

dear, and was never obscured, during this storm, except 
towards the horizon, where it was like flying mist. The 
ship suffered more than she did before, the mast became 
loose again, the rigging broken in pieces, the vanes flown 
away, and every thing stripped. 

15/A, Friday, The wind which was ]ST. W., and X. W. by 
X., having subsided, the hatches were opened, the sails 
spread, and every thing repaired and put in order. It was 
quite calm, and we sailed S. TT., and afterwards "W. S. YV\ 
The carpenter having to go behind the stern of the ship 
for the purpose of opening the window of the cabin, dis- 
covered that the sternpost was split from top to bottom, so 
that it hung and swung by the planks of the ship, and 
when she was moved by the waves, you could thrust your 
whole hand in, on either side, and that whether the rudder 
or the ship was moved by the sea. He then went into 
the hold, and found the deck was rent or burst its whole 
length and drawn off from the sides, although the ship had 
been repaired the last time she was in Holland. From 
this circumstance it can be judged whether the last storm 
was not as severe as the first. "When the carpenter 
communicated to the captain the condition of the stern- 
post, the latter gave a grim laugh and shook his head, as 
ii' it were of no importance; but afterwards, when lie went 
himself to see it, he quickly changed his opinion. It was 
found to be a matter of serious consideration. Those 
whose business it was, were called together to devise means 
how it might be repaired and made fast at once ; which it. 
was determined should be done. The day was occupied in 
restoring lesser articles, every one drying his little goods 
and drawing his breath. Dolphins came around the ship, 
some of which we hud hold of, but they escaped from us. 
^ e saw a vessel ahead of us on the larboard, but we did not 
12 



90 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

go towards her. Our latitude at noon was 37° 86'. Wc 
could pot calculate our progress. We had first drilled X. 
"\\ r ., and then as much X. E., and afterwards, by the 
stiffening of the wind, south, so that we remained in about 
the same longitude. In other particulars this storm did 
not differ from the other. At midnight we had a slight 
breeze and made sail again, with clear moonshine and fine 
weather. 

lb/A, Saturday. The wind gradually shifting to the south 
and increasing, we went finely ahead. As soon as it was 
day, all hands began to work in good earnest at the broken 
sternpost, which was found to be much worse than was 
supposed yesterday. They worked the more earnestly 
because it would not have stood long. They put a large 
iron ringbolt on one side of the stern and a broad iron hook 
on the other. A good thick rope was then made fast to the 
ring or the hook, and a small part of the sternpost cut 
away for the rope, and the rope was thus passed behind 
the sternpost and taken to the capstan. It was wound 
round as often as it would conveniently go through the two 
rings, and then each of the coils was spiked upon the 
sternpost, and thus the sternpost was brought close to the 
planking. Two pieces of timber were afterwards let into it 
and well spiked at each end, and this it was believed would 
bold. In the meanwhile the wind began to blow again 
from the southwest with a cloudy sky, and we could not 
obtain tin- altitude, but we reckoned it the same as before. 
The course was west, the distance sailed eighty-eight miles, 
and therefore the longitude had changed 1° 2S'. We 
hoped this wind would have brought us upon the coast, but 
in the afternoon it increased so much, that we had scarcely 
finished the sternpost and made fast the iron rudder pin, 
which had become loose from the beating of the sea, when 
we thought the storm was again upon us, from the indications 
of the skv and the wind. Every thing was accordingly 



SIGNS OF LAND. gjj 

;.;!}!! yn\i in order and made fast, the top gallant mast w,n 
la-ken down in order to prevent the swinging of the mast, 
.-.- ii was loose before; and the topsails were reefed, and 
afterwards taken in, for the reason that we observed in 
the X. W. a very black cloud rising against the wind, 
accompanied with thunder and lightning. The nearer this 
cloud came up the more it swelled. It struck us amid- 
ships, whereby the water chopped and rose very high. 
We took all sail in and struck the yards. A very heavy 
rain followed, some of which I caught, and for once refreshed 
myself by drinking my full; and others followed my 
example; for we had not much beer, and our water either 
stunk or was brackish, such of it as was on deck and the 
sea had beaten upon. It cleared up considerably, however, 
and the moon shone; but the weather nevertheless continued # 
uncertain, mingled with lightning. A breeze springing 
up from the the east about nine o'clock, all hands set to 
work to increase our sails and set them before the wind. 
At midnight they were all taken in again, as the sky 
became overcast, and there was much thunder and lightning 
with rain, which continued till day-light. 

17th, Simckiy. About three o'clock in the morning, the J *** 

wind having changed to the S. W". and "W"., we again made 
sail, and the wind then turning further to the north, we 
changed our course again. We came among many small 
fish called springers, because they spring out of the water. 
They were about the size of whiting, but we could not 
catch any of tliem. I saw a sea hedge-hog as large as the 
fist, with prickles on its body in proportion. It was 
speckled, and provided with four paws, by means of which 
it swam like a rat. Its head was small, and its body 
round, but flat underneath, like a St. James's shell. The 
latitude to-day was 30° 16', the westing about 24 miles and 
northing 20 to 24. About six o'clock in the evening the 
Yvind shifted more to the north, and we could only sail 



92 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

if. K. E.j so we lay over and sailed S. W. The wind 
veering f»ii\] more to the north, we steered gradually more 
to the west, under reefed topsails. We observed in the 
evening again that the water was green, a sign we were 
near the shore. 

18th, Monday,. The sea having became somewhat 
smoother, and the wind coming from the X. and X. 35f. E. 
over the land, we sailed due west. The sea was more blue, 
indicating it was deeper water, and that we had sailed 
during the night away from the land. At eleven o'cloek 
it became green again, which made us think we were 
approaching the other shore on the west, or that we were 
sailing over a shoal. We observed a blue dove flyim--, 
which was regarded by all as a sign of our approaching 
land, and reminded us of the dove coming back to the ark 
of Xoah, as a messenger of the drying up of the earth, and 
soon to go out of the ark in the liberty of God's favor and 
peace ; and thus we were coming near the land, and would 
soon go out of our prison, where we had by his will been 
so long shut up with so many unclean beasts, going out in 
his favor and peace, wherever he should carry us, and 
making an offering of ourselves to his service. The 
latitude ni noon was 39° 24', the distance made s:ood sixty 
miles, the course held W. by X., and the longitude was 
304° 4'. The weather was fine, and the sea rolled no 
more. The lead was thrown in the evening, but it did. 
not reach the bottom. The wind continued the same all 
night. We threw the line again at midnight, but without 
success. 

19th, Tuesday. The wind was still K E. and E. X. E., 
and we held on our west course with tolerable progress. 
The sea was now a paler green. The latitude was 39° G', 
and we laid advanced, according to our calculation, upwards 
of one hundred miles, on a course a little 'south of west. 
The longitude was 303° 30'. Some were several days out 






BOTTOM FOUND. Q;» 

of their reckonings and T would Lave been also if I Lad 
uot discovered the mistake and rectified it. The lead 
thrown towards evening did not yet show any bottom, as 
they said, though it was doubtful. We sailed all night 
with a light breeze and a clear moonshine, which, indeed, 
was another mark of God's favor and preserving care 
towards us, that we should fall upon the coast with a full 
moon, and not when there was no moon. Certainly he 
watches over us in our sleep, and nothing can happen 
otherwise than according to his providence. 

20th, Wednesday. The wind continued easterly, and our 
course westerly. "We saw again several signs of being- 
hear land, such as different kinds of snipe and other small 
birds; also stubble; sea weed ; little red strings, like coral, 
a sea plant which grows on the coast ; rock weed, and other 
weeds floating on the water. About ten o'clock a cloud of 
mist came in from the X. "Yv ., which demonstrated pretty 
well to my mind Long Island and the part of the mainland 
south of the bay towards the South river. I thought 
whether it might not be the dew drawn up by the sun 
from the land there, and driven over our heads by the 
wind. The wind changed to the north, but when these 
elands had passed by us, it shifted again to the east. "We 
had had for a day or two warmer weather. The air from 
the hind smelt entirely different, sweet and fresh, and not 
bo saltish as the sea air. We set our course W. by X. 
The water changed from a dark green to a lighter, which 
gave us all no bad spirits. Others with myself were con-' 
Btantly on the lookout for land, but we discovered none. 
The latitude we obtained to-day was 39°. We had gone 
a little south, to about the latitude of the South river, and 
should be opposite its north cape. AVe reckoned the dis- 
tance sailed to be from 02 to 9G miles. As our heaviest deep 
h*ad was too light, and we could not keep the vessel still, 

■• either sailing too rapidly or drifting too much, and ?w 



» 



94 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 



the weather was favorable, we resolvecl'to launch the jolly- 
boat in order to take soundings. The tub with tlic lead 
and line were put on board, and the mate and boatswain 
went off in her, although, in fact, the jolly-boat remained 
quiet on the Water, and did not drift oft' far. They rowed 
off a piece, and let the line run out, when they soon cried 
out " bottom, bottom." It must not be asked whether this 
did not send a thrill of joy through the ship, where every 
one jumped up and clapped his hands, which was answered 
from the jolly-boat like an echo. On being asked, how 
deep it was, they said about 34 fathoms, at which we were 
rejoiced, and, at the same time, surprised that w^e had not 
found bottom before, as we were certainly near enough. 
The jolly-boat was hoisted on board again, and the lead, 
which had been greased over so that it. might take an 
impression of the bottom, was examined by every one. 
We observed upon it a mixture of pebbles and shells, all 
grown over with green, of the same color as the sea. This 
occurred about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Our course 
was then directed as much as possible to the north. We 
sailed X. by E. and X. X. E. Two hours afterwards we 
threw the lead again, and had 25 fathoms. At sunset we ** 

thought Ave saw laud, and although others thought dif- 
ferently, 1 cannot rid myself of the idea that it was laud. 
I looked at it long enough, and perceived no motion, as 
would have taken place if it were clouds. From the 
soundings 1 supposed we were near the north cape of the 
South river, and I also thought I saw a clove or double hill, 
as laid down at that point on the chart, a little south of 
west of us. The chart indicates a row of hills there. It 
was nevertheless contradicted. In the mean time our hearts 
ascended with thankfulness to God, adoring and admiring 
his o-oodness and fatherly guidance. The weather was fine, 
and the moon dear. Xot the smallest cloud obscured the 
skv, and the sea was as smooth as if it were a river. God's 



HIGHLANDS OF NEVESIXK. 95 

u, --'iM-_r was so visibly over us. that tlic most brutal were 
u la il alter their ov.n way. Oil ! those wretch e d, wicked, 
vva, truly wicked people. 

21.?/, Thursday. The hatches of the hold were all opened 
yesterday evening, and Ave began to make the cables fast 
to the anchors, which we finished this morning. As 
soon as the sun rose, every one climbed aloft in order to 
look for land and some of them immediately cried out 
"land," but they soon discovered they were mistaken. 
Our course was north, with the wind E. X. E. I said the 
land we would see was in front of us, and we could not see 
if yet because it was in latitude 40° 20', and we had 39°, 
a difference of eighty miles, and as we had sailed only from 
twenty-four to twenty-eight miles at the most during the 
night, we were still fifty-two to fifty-six miles off, and if Ave 
continued to sail as Ave were doing, it would be noon or 
two o'clock before avc would see it. I must say a word 
here in relation to our cat; how she was always sick and 
lame for some days before a storm, and could not walk, 
and when the storm was over, was lively and nimble again. 
She had now been very playful for several days, running 
here and there over the ship, but this morning she Avas 
unusually gay. She came running with a spring, leaping 
into the rigging and going far aloft, turning her head about 
and snuffing the land, as much as to say, there is the land 
yon should look out for; and causing great laughter among 
the Folks, who said the cat was on the lookout for land. 
W hen she came down she mewed. But a thick fog 
coming from the land, cut off all view and hopes of going 
inside, as we turned at once from the shore. I obtained, 
however, the altitude, to wit: 40° 5'. The distance was 
reckoned to be sixty-four miles. In the mean time the deep 
tead w ; :s thrown many times, and 22, 21,10,17, 16,14 
fathoms of water found, at one time more and at another 
le*$, i'or the bottom is uneven. We did this in order not 



96 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

io run ashore during the fop;. It, however, cleared away, and 
we wore over again, and immediately saw the land distinctly, 
which caused new rejoicing. We perceived clearly that 
we had heen sailing, since yesterday, along the shore, 
although it was too far off to he seen. licnssdacr's Hook, 1 
which adjoins Sandy Hook, was in front or north of us ; 
and we had sailed U. N. E. and iST. by E. It was about 
one o'clock when we first saw the land. It is not very high, 
but like a dome, only it is a little higher. Long Island 
is not very high; Rensselaer's Hook, which is the most 
westerly point of the bay, is the highest of all. Sandy 
Hook is low, and stretches out about three miles eastwardly 
from Kensselaer's Hook, and makes the channel. You 
must be close on Sandy Hook before you can see Long 
Island. We intended to run in, but could not well do so 
this evening, in consequence of the mist continually 
intercepting the sight of the land. As the weather was 
calm, and the sea smooth, we came to anchor, in thirteen 
fathoms of water, and lay there quietly all night. 

22c/, Friday. When the day began to break, they were 
all in an uproar ; but the weather continued misty, with 
a northeast wind, for which reason we judged we could 
not make the channel. All those who were so joyful and 
merry yesterday, were now more sober, as we were 
compelled to keep off land, so as not to be caught on a 
lee shore, from which it is very difficult to got away. The 
fog cleared up a little about ten o'clock, and we sailed 
again towards the shore, when we perceived we were 
approaching the west side. It rained a part of the time, 
and was misty, so that sometimes we could only see the 
laud dimly, and for a moment, and Sandy Hook hardly at 
all. We durst not yet venture to run in, and Avore off 
again. About noon we saw a ketch to the sea-ward of 



Neresink. 



SANDY 1T00K. TIIE NARROWS. 97 

r ,, btti we did not speak to her. She was laying her 
course to the west. This eoast surely is not very easy to 
enter, especially in the autumn. Our captain had trouble 
enough, though our mate did not agree with him. Sailing 
onward, we had 13, 14, 15, 16 fathoms of water, but 
very uneven bottom as we approached the shore. We 
laid our course X. IS". E. and 1ST. E. by X. and from the 
shore, S. S. W. and S. At four o'clock in the afternoon 
we determined to run in, if it were possible. ~\Ye could 
see the land a little better, and also Rensselaer's Hook. 
Everybody, therefore, was very industrious, some in look- 
ing after. the sails, ropes and tackle, so as to be able to 
turn and tack ship quickly; others were constantly on the 
lookout for land and especially to discover Sandy Hook, 
in order to secure the best channel which is next to that 
point; for not far from it, on the other side, are the east 
banks, which are very dangerous. "Y\ r e did our best, first 
in a calm, then with a little breeze, to enter. We caught 
sight of Sandy Hook at last, but it was soon hid by the fog. 
We observed how the land lay by the compass, and so 
sailed accordingly, expecting a good flood tide which would 
begin to make at six o'clock. The deep lead was thrown 
constantly, and we found five and four fathoms in the 
shallowest places, near the channel. It was low water, and 
the wind was X. E. and E. X. E., which took us soon 
inside^ short around the point of Sandy Hook, into the 
b;iy towards the highlands of Rensselaer's Hook. Upon 
passing the Hook which was now west of us, Ave found 
deeper water 5, G, 7 and 8 fathoms, and ran, as I have said, 
immediately for the highlands, and came to anchor in 
ten fathoms of water, praising the Lord again, and 
thankful for the many instances of his goodness towards 
*i>. This is a very fine bay, where many ships can lie, 
protected from all winds, except the S. E., which, however, 
<aunot do much damage, because the east banks lie before 



98 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

it; and at the worst, the ship can only bo driven in the 
wind. They determined this evening, to go up early in the 
morning, in the folly-boat, to Staten Island or Lone; Island, 
for a pilot. 

2Sd, Saturday. It rained the whole night. Our ship lay 
as quiet as if she were made last to the piles at Amsterdam, 
which was verv unusual for us. The wind being west in 
the morning, they changed their resolution of going up 
for a pilot, and as the wind was so favorable determined to 
take her up themselves. The anchor was therefore raised, 
and we sailed on, for the purpose of passing between Staten 
Island and Long Island, where there are two high points 
of land, for that reason called the IloofJcn (headlands). 1 
"We turned gradually from Sandy Hook to the right, in 
order to avoid the shoals of the east bank, and so sailed to 
the Hoofden. We had a good ilood tide, and four to fixe 
fathoms of water at the shoalest part; but the wind shifted 
again to the north, and we were compelled to tack, which 
rendered our progress slow, for it was quite calm. Coming 
to the Hoofden, and between them, you have 10, 11, and 
12 fathoms of water. As soon as you begin to approach 
the land, you see not only woods, hills, dales, green fields 
and plantations, but also the houses and dwellings of the 
inhabitants, which afford a cheerful and sweet prospect 
after having been se long upon the sea. When we came 
between the Hoofden, we saw some Indians on the beach 
with a canoe, and others coming down the hill. As we 
tacked about we came close to this shore, and called out to 
them to come on board the ship, for some of the passen- 
gers intended to go ashore with them; but the captain 
would not permit it, as he wished, he said, to carry them, 



'The name of "De Hoofden" was derived as the journalist subsequently 
informs us from the resemblance of the shores to the Hoofden or head- 
lands of Dover and Calais. 



FIRST VIEW OF THE INDIANS. 99 

... cording 1 to his contract, to the Marmthans^ though we 
understood well why it was. The Indians came 022 hoard, 
utiil we looked npon them with wonder. They are dull of 
i-.nnpreheijsion, slow of speech;, bashful but otherwise hold 
of person, and red of skin. They wear something in front, 
over the thighs, and a piece' of duffels, like a blanket, 
around the body, and this is all the clothing they have. 
Their hair hangs down from their heads in strings, well 
smeared with fat, and sometimes with quantities of little 
beads twisted in it out of pride. They have thick lips and 
thick noses, but not fallen in like the negroes, heavy 
eyebrows or eyelids, brown or black eyes, thick tongues, 
and all of them black hair. But we will speak of these 
things more particularly hereafter. After they had obtained 
some biscuit, and had amused themselves a little, climbing 
and looking here and there, they also received some brandy 
to taste, of which they drank excessively, and threw it up 
again. They then went ashore in their canoe, and we 
having a better breeze, sailed ahead handsomely. As soon 
as you are through the Hoofden, you begin to see the city, 
which presents a pretty sight. The fort, which lies upon 
the point between two rivers, is somewhat higher; and as 
soon as they see a ship coming up, they raise a flag on a 
high flag-staff, according to the colors of the sovereign to 
whom they are subject, as accordingly they now iiew the flag 
of the king of England. 'We came up to the city about 
three o'clock, where our ship was quickly overrun with 
people who came from the shore in all sorts of craft, each 
one inquiring and searching after his own, and his own 
profit. Xo custom-house officers came on board, as in 
England, and the ship was all the time free of such persons. 
^\ e came to anchor, then, before the city at three o'clock. 
Every one wanted to go ashore immediately. "We let 
those most in a hurrv &o before us, when, leaving our 
properly in charge of Robyn, we also went in company 



I RR.Y i 

LIBH ■ RY ; 

CHlGAGO ; 



100 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

with a passenger, named Genii, who took us to (lie. house 
of his father-in-law, wtuere Ave lodged* 

It is not possible to describe Low this bay swarms with 
fish, both large and small, whales, tunnies and porpoises 
whole schools of innumerable other fish, and a sort like 
herring, called there rnarsbanckers, and other kinds, which 
the eagles and other birds of prey swiftly seize in their 
talons when the fish come up to the surface, and hauling 
them out of the water, fly with them to the nearest wood- 
or head), as we saw. 

We had finally arrived where we had so. long wished to 
be, but from whence we were soon to depart, because we 
had come only to do the will of him who watches over us, 
and who after our longest voyage, will cause us to arrive, 
by his favor, as it pleases him. Meanwhile unto him be 
given all honor, and praise and glory for what he does, to 
all eternity. Amen; yea, amen. 

Leaving the ship on our arrival, it would seem proper 
that this narrative concerning the voyage should here be 
brought to an end; but as the sea over which we passed is 
wide and broad, and various things are to be noted, which 
could only he found out in process of time, I will, here add 
them each by its kind. 



Observations upon the Sea and the Voyage. 

1. I have uniformly found it true, that the bottom 
causes the change in the color of the sea, and makes the 
color lighter or darker according as it may happen to he ; 
as we experienced from the' beginning to the end of our 
voyage. And this i- the reason; the water of itself has no 
color, but, as it is transparent, the bottom shows itself, such 
as it is, through the clearness of the water, according to 



SAILING OBSERVATIONS. 101 

its depth; but something must be allowed for the sky, 
clouds and other bodies in the atmosphere, which, although 
they do not change the water, nevertheless shine in it, and 
throw a shadow or reflection. 

2. The banks or shoals of Newfoundland extend further 
south than they are laid down on the charts, and as far as 
36° or less of latitude, as we observed from the color of 
the water, although it may be deeper there than about 
Newfoundland. 

3. There is a stream running from the river Amazon, 
along the coast of Guiana, through the Gulf of Mexico 
and the channel of the Bahamas, along the coast of Florida, 
Virginia and New Netherland, to the banks of Newfound- 
land, where, uniting with another stream, coming from the 
north out of Davis's strait and river St. Lawrence, goes 
again south, and afterwards S. "Vv ., to the Bermudas, but 
mostly to the east of them, the particular causes and 
reasons of which we will notice in its proper place. 

4. This stream has its course along the gulfs, capes and 
bays of the coast, the same as we experienced near or west 
of Cape Cod or Staten Hook, where for two days 
successively, without headway on the ship, and in a calm, 
we were carried by it a decree to the north. This should 
be kept in mind, and one should regulate himself 
accordingly. 

5. The storm of the Bermudas has been mentioned in 
its place. 

G. I have heretofore exposed mistakes on the large plane 
chart, and it is not material to enter further into that 
subject, 

7. After we approached and passed the Bermudas, the 
wind did not turn round the compass with the sun, which 
happened to us four or five times, and frequently does so, 
as is said by experienced persons. 

8. Therefore, in navigating this passage for this place, it 



102 VOYAGK TO NEW YORK. 

is best, when there are no reasons to tlie contrary arising 
from the Turks or otherwise, to run just above or 
below the Azores, to latitude 34 and 33, and even to 
32 and 31, in order to get into the stream, and yet J 
also consider, it well to sail to the.eastward of these -islands; 
or if you avoid the Azores, then to sail from Newfoundland 
or its latitude, due south, or S. S. K, to the before men- 
tioned latitude ; but, in returning, it is best to follow the 
coast to Newfoundland, in order to fall into the stream and 
wind. The home voyage is most always the shortest, 
inasmuch as the stream runs mostly along the coast. 

9. When a change occurs in the color of the water, and 
at other times, the deep lead should be much used. It should 
be of 25 or 30 pounds weight. The ship or vessel should 
lie as still as possible, or the jolly-boat should be used, 
whether the lead be thrown with a certainty as to where 
you may be, or for the discovery of other bottom. 

10. In storms or hurricanes never be without stern-sails, 
however small, unless you can sail before the wind, but no 
longer than that: for it is too dangerous, and too uncom- 
fortable, both for the ship and the persons in her. 

Some other observations in regard to the art of navigation 
and the management of ships, of minor importance we 
will reserve for another occasion. 



The Persons with whom we made our Voyage. 

Although this is such a miserable subject, that I 

deliberated long whether it were worth while to take any 

notice of it, yet since one does not know when a matter 

can be serviceable- I will nevertheless say something. 

The persons who belonged to the ship were : 

The captain, Thomas Singleton, an Englishman, and a 



THE SHIP'S OFFICERS AND PASSENGERS. 1Q3 

quakfcT, from London, I believe, lie had his wife 

wliii him, who was quite young, about '24 or 26 years 
old, and. he was a person of 40 or 45. lie w r as not 
the best or most experienced seaman by a long distance. 
lie was proud and very assiduous or officious to please 
men, especially Margaret and her man; yet he had some 
amiable qualities, he was affable. He was stingy; for 
when many mackerel were caught, he w r ould not give one 
to the poor sailors. He was even displeased if the sailors 
came with their fish lines to fish near the place, where he 
was, because the fish might come to their lines instead of 
his. His wife was a young, worldly creature, who had 
not the least appearance of quakerism, but entirely 
resembled an English lady fashioned somewdiat upon 
the Dutch model. She was proud, and wore much silver 
and gold ; and when Margaret once spoke to him about it, 
lie said, " I did not. give it to her." Whereupon Margaret 
asked, " \\ r hv did you cive her money to buy them ?" To 
which he replied, " She wanted it." 

The English mate, who afterwards became captain, was 
a passionate person, inwardly still more than he showed 
outwardly, a great man-pleaser where his interest was to 
he promoted. He was very close, hut was compelled to 
be much closer in order to please Margaret. 

The Dutch mate, Evert, was a wicked, impious fellow, 
who also drank freely. He was very proud of his know- 
ledge and experience, which were none of the greatest. 

The boatswain, Abram, of Plymouth, was rough and 
wicked in his orders, but he was a strong and able seaman. 
Uobyri was the best. 

I cannot permit myself to go farther; it is too unpleasant 
a sulfjeet. 

1 he passengers and crew were a wretched set. There 
was no rest, night or day, especially among the wives — a 
rabble 1 cannot describe. It was as if thev were in the 



104 VOYAGE TO NEW YOKE. 

Mh market or apple matfret, night and day, withoul 
cessation: where, indeed, some of tlieni Mel obtained their 
living, and even in worse places* There were nine or ten 
of them always together. Among the men there were 
some persons who drank like beasts, yes, drank themselves 
dead drunk, as you may judge from the fact that two or 
three of them drank thirty-five gallons of brandy, besides 
wine from the time we left England or Holland. It is not 
to be told what miserable people Margaret and Jan were, 
and especially their excessive covetousness. In fine, it was 
a Babel. I have never in my life heard of such a dis- 
orderly ship. It was confusion without end. I have never- 
been in a ship where there was so much vermin, which 
were communicated to us, and especially not a few to me, 
because being in the cordage at night 1 particularly 
received them. There were some bunks and clothes as full 
as if they had been sown. But I must forbear. 

"When we first came on board the ship we eat where we 
were, and with those we found there, but afterwards the 
messes were regulated, and we were placed on deck with 
five or six uncouth youngsters ; where, nevertheless, we 
continued. This so exercised the other passengers, seeing 
us submit so willingly, that they themselves could no longer 
endure it, and desired us to come with them, and make a 
mess of eight. We had been compelled to buy our stores 
in England, as what we had were spoiled, or not sufficient. 
There was not a bit of butter or vinegar on the food 
during the whole voyage, except what we had purchased 
at Falmouth. I do not know how Jong it was we had 
nothing to eat except heads of salt fish, and those spoiled 
for the most part. We had to eat them till they were 
thrown overboard. Most of the time we had white peas, 
which our cook was too lazy to clean, or were boiled in 
stinking water, and when they were brought on the table 
we had to throw them away. The meat was old and 



PARE AND TREATMENT. 105 

tainted; the pork passable, but enormously thick, as 
tuu«'-!j «*s MX inches ; and the l)read was mouldy or wormy. 
Wo had a ration of beer throe times a day to drink at table. 
The water smelt very bad, which was the fault of the cap- 
tain. "When we left England they called us to eat in the 
cabin, but it was only a change of place and nothing more. 
Kach meal was dished up three times in the cabin, first for 
the eight passengers, then, for the captain, mate and wife, 
who sometimes did not have as good as we had, and lastly 
for Margaret and Mr. Jan who had prepared for them 
hardly any thing else except poultry and the like. "But this 
is enough. 

After we left England, I took upon myself, out of love 

of the thing, and because there were so few persons to. 

work the ship, namely, ten in all, including the captain, to 

watch and attend the rudder, as well as to make 

observations in navigation: but when I perceived the 

sailors, on this account, became lazy and depended upon 

me, I left the rudder- e;ano;. Nevertheless, when an English 

ship came near running us down in the watch off Cape 

God, causing thereby much uproar and confusion in our 

f*hip, I did my best to unfasten a rope which they could not 

make loose, at which the mate raved and swore, and for 

which he would have almost struck or killed me. When 

my comrade heard of it he wished me not to do any thing 

more, and that was my opinion. I could not, however, 

refrain from helping to the last, but I abandoned the 

ttatcli, and so caused the mate to feel that we were not 

usfiisible, for there was nothing else to he done to him. 

Hv, nevertheless, invited us daily more than any one else. 

- v, when the vova^e was completed, there was no one, 

'•' r eaptain, or mate, or sailor, or Margaret, who said 

\* v thank you," except our poor llobyn. We had a 
* r '' >^h:!i;v put in the ship at Falmouth, about afoot 
uimJ a hall square, on which the captain charged us four 
14 



106 VOYAGE TO NEW YORK. 

guilders freight, in the money of Holland. We represented 
to Margaret how we had managed with only one chest 
between us, although each passenger was entitled to have 
one of his own, but it was all to no purpose. Four 
guilders it must he. It was not that we had any difficulty 
in frivimr it, hut it was" onlv to be convinced of her 
unblushing avarice. The mate's wife was the least evil- 
inclined, and listened most to what was said to her, which 
we hope will bear fruit. "We have truly conducted 
ourselves towards all in general and each one in particular, 
so that not only has every one reason to-be edified and 
convinced, but, by the grace of Go<l, every one renders us 
testimony that we have edified and convinced them as well 
by our lives as our conversation. Let •him alone who is 
the author of all grace, receive therefor all the glory, to 
all eternity. Amen. 






JOURNAL 



'I'D 



RAVELS THROUGH NEW NETHERLAND, 



THE TDLE OP OUR ARRIVAL UNTIL OUR DEPARTURE FOR 
THE FATHERLAND. 



NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY 



Having* then fortunately arrived, by the blessing- of 
the Lord, before the city of New York, on Saturday, 
the 23d day of September, we stepped ashore about four 
o'clock in the afternoon, in company with Gerrit, 1 our 
fellow passenger, who would conduct us in this strange place. 
He had lived here a long time and had married his wife 
here, although she and his children were living at present, 
at Zwolle. We went along with him, but as he met many 
of his old acquaintances on the way, we were constantly 
stopped. He first took us to the house of one of his friends, 
who welcomed him and us, and offered us some of the fruit 
of the country, very fine peaches and full grown apples, 
which filled our hearts with thankfulness to God. This 
fruit was exceedingly fair and good, and pleasant to the 
taste; much better than that, in Holland or elsewhere, 
though I believe our long fasting and craving of food 
made it so agreeable. After taking a glass of Madeira, we 
proceeded on to Gerrit's lafher-in-law's, a very old man, 
half lame, and unable either to walk or stand, who fell upon 
the neck of his son-in-law, welcoming him with tears of 
joy. The old woman was also very glad This good man 



'Gerrit Cornelius Van Duyne, the common ancestor of the Van Duyne 
family in this country. He died in 1700. For further particulars in 
relation to him the reader may consult the Genealogy of the Bergen Family, 
l»y Hon. Tennis G. Bergen : New York, I860, pp. 221. > 



110 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

was bona mVlissittgon, and was naimxl Jac6b Swart. l He 
liQil been formerlv a master carpenter at Amsterdam, but 
bad lived in this country upwards of forty-five years. 
After we Lad been here a little while, we left our traveling 
bag*, and went out to take a walk in the fields. It was 
strange to us to feel such stability under us, although it 
seemed as if the earth itself moved under our feet like the 
ship had done for three months past, and our body also 
still swayed after the manner of the rolling of the sea ; 
but this sensation gradually passed off in the course of a 
few days. As we walked along we saw in different gardens 
trees full of apples of various kinds, and so laden with 
peaches and other fruit that one might doubt whether there 
were more leaves or fruit on them. I have never seen in 
Europe, in the best seasons, such an overt] owing abundance. 
TVnen we had finished our tour and given our guide several 
letters to deliver, we returned to his father-in-law's, who 
regaled us in the evening with milk, which refreshed us 
much. "We had so many peaches set before us that we 
were timid about eating them, though we experienced no 
ill effects from them. "We remained there to sleep, which 
was the first time in nine or ten weeks that we had lain 
down upon a bed undressed, and able to yield ourselves to 
sleep without apprehension of danger. 

2i'7', 6V/"/'/v. "We rested well through the night. I was 
surprised on waking up to find my comrade had already 
dressed himself and breakfasted upon peaches. We walked 
out awhile in the hue, pure morning air, along the margin 
of the clear running water of the sea, which is driven up 
this river at everv tide. As it was Sunday, in order to 



1 Jacob Swart and Truytje Jacobs, his wife. Were still Jiving in K5SG, in 
the Smits valley (Pearl street, between Wall street and Franklin square), 
according to Domine Selyns 1 li^t of members of the Dutch church. — I 
A/c York Uistorkid Society Collections, new series, 398. 



DOMIXE SCIIAATS. FORT AMSTERDAM, m 

avoid scandal afrd for other reasons, we did not wish to 
siL cut ourselves from church. We therejbro went, and 

found there truly a wild worldly World. I say wild, not 
only because the people are wild, as they call it in Europe, 
but because most all the people who go there to live, or who 
are horn there, partake somewhat of the nature of the 
country, that' is, peculiar to the land where they live. We 
heard a minister preach, who had come from the up-river 
country, from fort Orange, where his residence is, an old 
man, named Domine Schaats, of Amsterdam. lie was, it 
appears, a Voctian, and had come down for the purpose of 
approving, examining, ordaining and collating a student; 
to perform which office the neighboring ministers come 
here, as to the capital, and, in order that the collation may 
he approved by the governor, who, at this time, was not at 
home, but was at Pcmequielc, in the northerly parts of Xew 
England. 1 This student, named Tessanaker, from Utrecht, 
I believe, was a Voetian, and had found some obstacles in 
his way, because the other ministers were all Coceeians, 
namely: Do. Nkwenhuisen, of (Xew) Amsterdam, (Do. Van 
Zuren), of Long Island, and Do. Gaesbeck, of Esopus, whose 
son is sheriff of this city. He was to minister at the South 
river, near the governor there, or in the principal place, as 
he himself told us. The governor was expected home every 
day, and then Tessemaker supposed he would be dispatched. 
The governor is the greatest man in Xew Netlicrland, 
and acknowledges no superior in all America, except the 
viceroy, who resides upon Jamaica. 



2 Thc governor here alluded to was Sir Edmund Andros, who was com- 
missioned as such by the Duke of York over all the territories granted and 
confirmed to the duke by Charles I, embracing not only flic conquered 
province of Xew Netherhmd, extending from the Connecticut river to the 
IMaware, but also a portion of the province of -Maine lying between the 
Kennebec and St. Croix, of which tract P< tnaquid was the principal point. 
Andros had built a fort there two vears before this time. 






112 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

This Schaats, then, preached. He had a defect in the 
left eve, and usee) >>ucii strange gestures and language that 
I think I never in all my lite have heard any thing more 
miserable; indeed, I can compare him with no one better 
than with one Do. Van Ecke, lately the minister at 
Armuyden, in Zeeland, more in life, conversation and 
gestures than in person. As it is not strange in these 
countries to have men as ministers who drink, we could 
imagine nothing else than that he had been drinking a little 
this morning. His text was, Come unto rue all ye, $c, but 
he was- so rough that even the roughest and most godless 
of our sailors were astonished. 

The church being in the fort, we had an opportunity to 
look through the latter, as we had come too early for 
preaching. It is not large ; it has four points or batteries :. 
it has no moat outside, but is enclosed with a double row 
of palisades. It is built from the foundation with quarry 
stone. The parapet is of earth. It is well provided with 
cannon, for the most part of iron, though there were some 
small brass pieces, all bearing the mark or arms of the 
Xethcrlanders. The garrison is small. There is a well of 
fine water dug in the fort by the English, contrary to the 
opinion of the Dutch., who supposed the fort was built upon 
rock, and laid therefore never attempted any such thing. 
There is, indeed, some indication of stone there, for along 
the edge of the water below the tort there is a very large 
rock extending apparently under the fort, which is built 
upon the point formed by the two rivers, namely, the East 
river, which is the water running between the Mtihatans 
and Long Island, and theXorth river, which runs straight up 
to fort Orange. In front of the fort, on the Long Island 
side, there is a small island called Noten island (Nut island), 
around the point of which vessels must go in sailing out or 
in, whereby they are compelled to pass close by the point 
of the fori, where they can be ilanked bv several of the 



DO. NIEUENHUISEN. JEAN VIGNE. Hg 

batteries. It has only one gate, and that is on the land 
aide, opening upon a broad plain or street* called the 
Broadway or Beaverway. Over this gate are the arms of 
the Duke of York. During the time of the Dutch there 
were two gates, namely, another on the water side; but the 
English have closed it, and made a battery there, with a false 
gate. In front of the church is inscribed the name of 
Governor I&jft, who caused the same to be built in the 
year 1642. It has a shingled roof, and upon the gable to- 
wards the water there is a small wooden tower, with a 
bell in it, but no clock. There is a sun-dial on three 
sides. The front of the fort stretches east and west, and 
consequently the sides run north and south. 

After we had returned to the house and dined, my com- 
rade not wishing to go to church, sat about writing letters, 
as there was a ship, of which Andre Bon was master, 
about to leave in a few days for London; but in order wo 
should not be both absent from church, and as the usual 
minister was to preach in the afternoon, I went alone to 
shear him. He was a thick, corpulent person with a red 
and bloated face, and of very slabbering speech. 1 His text 
was, the elders who serve well, $e., because the elders and 
deacons were that day renewed, and I saw them admitted. 
After preaching, the good old people with whom we 
lodged, who, indeed, if they were not the best on all the 
Mrmathans, were at least among the best, especially the 
wife, begged we would go with their son Gerrit, to one of 
their daughters, who lived in a delightful place, and kept a 
tavern, where we would be able to taste the beer of Xew 
Xetherland, inasmuch as it was also a brewery. Some of 
their friends passing by requested Gerrit and us to accom- 
pany them, and so we went for the purpose of seeing what 
was to be seen; but when we arrived there, we found our- 



1 The minister here referred to was the Rev. William Nieuenhuisen. 
15 



114 



NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 






selves much deceived. On account of its being, to some 
extent a pleasant spot, it was resorted to on Sundays by all 
sorts of revellers, and was a low pot-bouse. Our company 

immediately found acquaintances there and joined them, 
but it being repugnant to our feelings to be there, we 
walked into the orchard to seek pleasure in contemplating 
the innocent objects of nature. Among other trees we 
observed a mulberry tree, the leaves of which were as large 
as a plate. The wife showed us pears larger than the fist, 
picked from a three years graft which had borne forty of 
them. A great storm of rain coming up in the evening 
compelled us to go into the house, where we did not remain 
long with the others, hut took our leave of them, against 
their wishes. We retraced our steps in the dark, exploring 
a way over which we had gone only once in our life, 
through a mley (salt meadow) and over water, upon the 
trunk of a tree. \Ve nevertheless reached home, having 
left the others in their revels. "While in their company 
we conversed with the first male born of Europeans in Xew 
Xetherland, named Jean Yigne. His parents were from 
Valenciennes and he was now about sixty-five years of aire. 
lie was a brewer and a neighbor of our old people. 1 



1 This is an interesting statement, which may not only be compared with 
that hitherto received, attributing to Sarah de Rapalje, who was bora on 
the Oth of Juno, 1623, the honor of having been the first born Christian 
child in New Netherland, but is to be considered in other respects. 
According to the data given by our travelers, who, writing in 1679, make 
Jean Yigne sixty-live years old at that time, he must have been bom in 
the year 1014, eleven years before Sarah de Rapalje, and at the very 
earliest period compatible with the sojourn of any Hollanders upon our 
territory. Jean Yigne belonged to the class of great burghers in New 
Amsterdam, and was one of the schepens of the city in the years 1655, 56, 
01 and 0:].— (yOaUnj^ianh Register of Few jSTetherland, G1-:J, 174. lie was 
twice married. — zVJ k> York Manual, 1862. Valentine says {History of New 
York, 7:3), that lie died in 1091 without issue. In this statement in regard 
to his being the first person of European parentage born inXcw Xethcrland 
there are some notable points. The first trading vovages to Hudson's 



DUTIES ON GOODS. 115 

A ketch came in from sea this evening, of which David 

.)...•]). -in.- en was the master. She left England throe weeks 
before us, and was the same one we saw the day we came 
in. The captain, said he recollected to have seen us, but 
observing us tacking several times, he did not dare follow 
us, for fear of being misled. 

25^A, Monday. We went on board the ship this morning 
in order to obtain our traveling bag and clothes for the 
purpose of having them washed, but when we came on 
board we could not get ashore again, before the afternoon, 
when the passengers' goods were to be delivered. All our 
goods which were between decks, were taken ashore and 
carried to the public storehouse, where they had to be 
examined; but some time elapsed before it was done 
in consequence of the examiners being elsewhere. At 
length, however, one Abraham Lennoy, 1 a good fellow 



river were made by the Dutehin lGlo-14, and the first wintering or habita- 
tion there was in 1014-15. There must have been, therefore, one European 
woman at least in the country at that early period. Whether Jean Yigne's 
parents returned to Holland or remained here daring the obscure period 
between the time of his birth and the occupation of the country by the 
West India Company, it is impossible to determine. Either may have 
been the case. If the statement, however, be correct, and there is nothing 
inconsistent in it, with the history of the colony as far as known, Jean 
Yigne was not only the first horn of European parents in New Xetherland 
but as far as known in the whole United States north of Virginia. We 
deem il of sui'ticieni importance to give here the statement of our travel- 
ers in regard to him in the original language: WijhaMen ind iPgesett&chnp 
gesproJceh den eerst ' geborenmans-persom ticittEwopianen in Mteu JSederlant, 
fjawant Jmn Yigne. Sijne ouders irnren von Yo.lcncija, en liij /ra.s nil 
ontrerdQji jaer out, synde cx.ik ecu brpuwer en buarman van ome uude, luij. 

1 Peter La Xoy, or De la Nov, is here meant, as is evident from what is 
Baid subsequently in this journal under the date of the fifth of October. 
Peter was at this time book-keeper to the collector of the port. He was 
afterwards collector and was mayor of the city under Leisler, and a 
member of his council.— JScic York Colonial History, vol. 111,302,590,645. 
Abraham was his brother, and a schoolmaster. 



116 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

apparently, befriended us. Tie examined our chest only, 
without touening our beckliug or any thing else. I showed 

him a list of the tin whieh we had in the upper part of our 
chest, and he examined it and also the tin, and turned up 
a little more what was in the chest, and with that left off, 
without looking at it closely. He demanded four English 
shillings for the tin, remarking at the same time, that he had 
observed some other small articles, but would not examine 
them closely, though he had not seen either the box or the 
pieees of linen. This being finished we sent our goods in 
a cart to our lodgings, paying for the two heavy chests and 
straw beds, and other goods from the public storehouse, to 
the Smit's mley, sixteen stuivers of zeewan, equal to three 
stuivers and a half in the money of Holland. 1 This finished 
the day and we retired to rest. 

26/A, Tuesday. We remained at home for the purpose of 
writing, but in the afternoon finding that many goods had 
been discharged from the ship, we went to look after our 
little package, which also came. I declared it, and it was 
examined. I had to pay 24 guilders in zeewan or five 
guilders 2 in the coin of Holland. I brought it to the 
house and looked the things all over, rejoicing that we 
were filially rid of that miserable set and the ship, the 
freight only remaining to be paid which was fixed at four 
guilders in coin. We went first to Margaret in relation 
to the freight, who said she had nothing more to do with 
it, and that we must speak to her husband about it, which 
it was not convenient to do that evening, and we therefore 
let it go, waiting for an opportunity to speak to her and 
her husband with the captain and perhaps also Mr. Jan. 

27//i, Wednesday. Nothing occurred to-day except that I 
went to assist Gerrit in bringing his goods home, and 



1 Three cents and a half. 
'Two dollars. 



LONG ISLAND. 117 

deciftrlng them, which wo dkl. We heard that one of the 
wicked and godless sailors had broken his leg; and in this 
\ve saw and acknowledged the Lord and his righteousness. 
We visited Jean Vigue in order, as he was one of the 
oldest inhabitants, to obtain from him information on 
various matters relating to the country. 

'2Sfh, Thursday. We remained at home to-day. I per- 
formed some little errands. Monsieur La Grange 1 called 
upon us, dressed up like a great fop, as he was. My com- 
rade did not foil to speak to him seriously on the subject. 
He requested us to go with him immediately to his house, 
as I at length did. His house was not far from our 
lodgings on the front of the city. He had a small shop, as 
most all the people here have, who gain their living by 
trade, namely, in tobacco and liquors, thread and pins and 
other knick-knacks. His wife welcomed me, and instantly 
requested that we would come to their house and stay there 
as long as we were here, for which I thanked them. They 
had lost a child by the small pox, and they had been sick 
with the same disease. He said he intended to go to the 
South river within three weeks, and hearing we were 
inclined to travel, he desired our company, being willing 
to take us every where and to give us every information. 
I thanked him, but gave him no assurances, telling him we 
would see what the Lord would will of us. 

29/7/, Friday. We finished our letters, and intended 
to go to-day over to Long Island. At noon a person 
came to us in our chamber and requested that we would 
be pleased to go to their minister, who was in the next 
house, as he was desirous of seeing and conversing with 
us, having already heard much good of us. We excused 
ourselves on the ground that we were busy writing, 

'La Grange seems to Lave been one of the persons to whom the travel- 
ers brought letters. 



118 NEW YORK A:N T D ITS VICINITY. 

endeavoring to finish our letters, in order, if it were possi- 
ble, to go over to Long Island in the afternoon, with which 
he went away. 

As soon as we had dined we sent off our letters; and 
this being all accomplished, we started at two o'clock for 
Long Island. This island is called Long Island, not so 
much because it is longer than it is broad, but particularly 
because it is the longest island in this region, or even 
along the whole coast of Sew Xetherland, Virginia and 
Sew England. It is one hundred and forty-four miles in 
length, and from twenty-four to twenty-eight miles wide, 
though there are several bays and points along it, and, con- 
sequently, it is much broader in some places than others. 
On the west is Staten island, from which it is separated 
about a mile, and the great bay over which you see the 
Newsincke. With Staten island it makes the passage 
through which all vessels pass in sailing from or to the 
3Iahatans, although they can go through the Kil van Kol, 
which is on the other side of Staten island. The ends of 
these islands opposite each other are epiite high land, and 
they are, therefore, called the Jloofden (Headlands), from a 
comparison with the Hoofden of the channel between 
England and Prance, in Europe. On the north is the 
island of Mahaiam and a part of the mainland. On the 
east is the sea, which shoots up to Xew England, and in 
which there are various islands. On the south is the great 
ocean. The outer shore of this island has before, it several 
small islands and broken laud, such as Coney island, 1 alow 
sandy island of about three hours' circuit, its westerly point 
forming with Sandy Hook, on the other side, the entrance 
from the sea. It is oblong in shape, and is grown over 
with bushes. Xobody lives upon it, but it is used in 
winter for keeping cattle, horses, oxen, hogs and others, 



• 



ir t Conijnen Eylant, Rabbit's island. 



TIIE FERRY TO BROOKLYN. HQ 

which *ffc able to obtain there sufficient to cat the whole 

winter, and lo shelter themselves from the cold in the 
thickets. This island is not so cold as Long Island or the 
Makaicois, or others, like some other islands on the coast, 
in consequence of their having more sea breeze, and of the 
saltness of the sea breaking upon the shoals, rocks and 
reefs, with which the coast is beset. There is also the 
Bear's island 1 and others, separated from Long Island by 
creeks and marshes overflown at high water. There are 
also on this sea coast various miry places, like the Ylaeck, 2 
and others, as well as some sand bays and hard and rocky 
shores. Long Island stretches into the sea for the most 
port east by south and east southeast. Xone of its land is 
very high, for yon must be nearly opposite- Sanely Hook 
before vou can see it. There is a hill or ridsre running; 
lengthwise through the island, nearest the north side and 
west end of the island. The south side and east end are 
more Hat. The water by which it is separated from the 
31akatans, is improperly called the East river, for it is 
nothing else than an arm of the sea, beginning in the bay 
on the west and ending in the sea on the east. After 
forming in this passage several islands, this water is as 
broad before the city as the Y before Amsterdam, but the 
ebb and flood tides are stronger. There is a ferry for the 
purpose of crossing over it, winch is farmed out by the 
year, and yields a good income, as it is a eonsiderable 
thoroughfare, this island being one of the most populous 
places in this vicinity. A considerable number of Indians 
live upon it, who gain their subsistence by hunting and 
fishing, and they, as well as others, must carry their articles 
to market over this ferry, or boat them over, as it is free to 
every one to use his own boat, if he have one, or to borrow 



1 't Beeren Eylaut. Now called Barren island. 

J T)iu Wieringen shoals in the Zuytlcr Zee are probaMy meant. 



120 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 



1 Less than half a cent iu our money. 

2 Breukelen, now Brooklyn, was so called from the village of that name 
in the province of Utrecht. The church here referred to was built in 1GGG, 
and was the first one in Brooklyn. When it was taken down does not 
appear. " A second church" says Furman, in his Notes relating to Brook- 
lyn, 7G, H was erected on the site of that built in 1G0G, which second church 
continued standing until about 1810, when a new and substantial church 
was erected on Joralemon street, and the old one taken down. This 
old church was a very gloomy looking building, with small Avindows, 
and stood iu the middle of the highway, about a mile from Brooklyn 
ferry." Of this second church a view is given in the Brooklyn Manual, 
of 18133. 






or line one for the purpose. The fare over the ferry is 
three stuivcrs 1 in zeewan for each person. 

Here we three crossed over, my comrade, Gerrit, our 
guide, and myself, in a row-boat, as it happened, which, in 
good weather and tide, carries a sail. When we came 
over we found there Jan Teunissen, our fellow passenger, 
who had promised us so much good. He was going over 
to the city, to deliver his letters and transact other business. 
He told us he would return home in the evening, and we 
would find him there. We went on, up the hill, along 
open roads and a little woods, through the first village, 
called Breukelen, which has a small and u^lv little church 
standing in the middle of the road. 2 Having passed 
through here, we struck off to the right, in order to go to 
Gouanes. "We went upon several plantations where Gerrit 
was acquainted with most all of the people, who made us 
very welcome, sharing with us bountifully whatever they 
had, whether it was milk, cider, fruit or tobacco, and 
especially, and first and most of all, miserable rum or 
brandy which had been brought from Barbadoes and other 
islands, and which is called by the Dutch Mll-deviL All 
these people are very fond of it, and most of them extrava- 
gantly so, although it is very dear and has a bad taste. It 



GOWAXUS. SIMON DE HART. 121 

is impossible to tell Low many peach tree* we passed, all 

laden with fruit to breaking down, and many of them 
actually broken down. We came to a place surrounded 
with sucli trees from which so many had fallen off that the 
ground could not be discerned, and you could not put 
your foot down without trampling them; and, notwith- 
standing such large quantities had fallen off, the trees still 
were as full as they could bear. The hogs and other 
animals mostly feed on them. This place belongs to the 
oldest European woman in the country. We went imme- 
diately into her house, where she lived with her children. 
We found her sitting by the fire, smoking tobacco inces- 
santly, one pipe after another. We enquired after her age, 
which the children told us was an. hundred years. She was 
from Luyck (Liege), and still spoke good Waalsche (old 
French), with us. She could reason very well sometimes, 
and at other times she could not. She showed us several 
large apples, as good fruit of that country, and different 
from that of Europe. She had been about fifty years now 
in the country, and had above seventy children and grand- 
children. She saw the third generation after her. Her 
mother had attended women in child-bed in her one 
hundred and sixth year, and was one hundred and eleven 
or twelve years old when she died. We tasted here, for 
the first time, smoked Uro.c{ft l (twelfth), a fish so called 
because it is caught in season next after the Jj'i 1 (eleventh). 
It was salted a little and then smoked, and, although it was 
now a year old, it was still perfectly good, and in flavor 
not inferior to smoked salmon. We drank here, also, the 
first new cider, which was very fine. 

We proceeded on to Gouanes,& place so called, where we 
arrived in the evening at one of the best friends of Gerrit, 



*Tke striped bass. 
5 The shad. 

16 



122 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

named S virion. 1 He was very g'lad to see us, and so waa 

his wife. lie look us into the house, and entertained us 
exceedingly well. We found a good tire, half-way up the 



near 28th street as the one occupied by Simon Alison. The main building 
is of stone. The wing, which is built entirely of wood, has probably been 






1 Tills settler was Simon Aertsen Be Hart, who immigrated to this 
country in 10(54. His wife, at this time, was Geertie (Gertrude) Cornelissen. 
Upon her death he married the widow of William Huycken, of Gowanos, 
on June 19, 1891: The house in which lie entertained our travelers is still 
standing, in 1SGG. AVe are indebted to the Hon. Tennis G. Bergen, son of 
the late Garret Bergen, of Gowanos, for the following interesting particu- 
lars in relation to this ancient dwelling and its several proprietors, showing 
it to have been hi the same family ever since the visit of the travelers. 

" Simon Aertsen Be Hart settled in Brooklyn subsequently to his arrival in 
this country, in 1004, upon a portion of a tract of land of 930 acres, bought 
by William Arianse Ben net and Jaccmes Bentyn of the Indians in 1636, 
extending from the vicinity of 2?th street, in Brooklyn, to the Xew 
Utrecht line at Bay ridge. This entire tract was surveyed May '-31. 1666, 
by Augiibtus Graham, surveyor general of the colony, and the map of his 
survey is on file in the ofriee of the secretary of state at Albany. . Two 
dwelling houses are represented upon it. one where the present Sehermer- 
hom house is situated, and the other west of the first meadow, where the 
present house, partially of stone, stands, on Gowanos cove, near SStli 
street, and on the parcel designated on the map as land said to be sold to 
Simon Arisen. Governor Fletcher issued a confirmatory grant or patent, 
on 2d November, lG90,to Simon ArisOn, for 303 acres, embracing the two 
parcels designated on the map as " the land in difference between Simon 
Arison and Adriaen Bennet," and ''the kind said to be sold to Simon 
Alison." Tradition has handed down the house still standing on the cove 



< 



: 



added since the main house was erected, which has undoubtedly been 
several times altered and materially repaired. About fifty years ago 
Simon Bergen, Us owner at that time, proposed to take it down, on account 
of its general decay, but upon the persuasion of Garret Bergen, his 
adjoining neighbor, he was induced to put it in repair, and place a new 
roof upon it ; and. so it has remained to the present day. The children of 
Simon Aertsen De Hart were Simon (2), who inherited this plantation, 
Blias and Annctje. Simon c2) had only one son. Simon (3), who also in- 
herited the land, ami several daughters, one of which, Geertjc, married 
Simon Bergen. Simon (3) had no children, and by Mill devised the 
property to his sister Geertje, wife of Simon Bergen. Simon Bergen, Jun., 
son of Simon and Geertjc Bergen, took the portion of the land where the 
house stands ; and his daughter Leah, who married Jacob Morris, is now 
the owner for life, with remainder over to her issue, under the will of her 
father.'' A copy of the map made by Mr. Graham is preserved in the 
Brooklyn Manual for 1863, p. 360. 



THE NYACK INDIANS. 123 

chimney, of dear oak and hickory, of Avhicli they made 
not the least searupie of burning profusely. We let it pene- 
trate us thoroughly. There had been already thrown upon 
it, to be roasted, a pail-full of Goiidftes oysters, which are 
the best in the country. They are fully as good as those 
oi' England, and better than those we eat at Falmouth. I 
had to try some of them raw. They are large and full, 
some of them not less than a foot long, and they grow 
sometimes ten, twelve and sixteen together, and are then 
like a piece of rock. Others are young and small. In 
consequence of the great quantities of them, everybody 
keeps the shells for the purpose of burning them into lime. 
They pickle the oysters in small casks, and send them to 
]>arbodoes and the other islands. We had for supper a 
roasted haunch of venison, winch he had bought of the 
Indians for three guilders and a half of seewemt, that is, 
fifteen stuivers of Dutch money (fifteen cents), and which 
weighed thirty pounds. The meat was exceedingly 
tender and good, and also quite fat. It had a slight spicy 
flavor. We were also served with wild turkey, which 
was also fat and of a good flavor; and a wild goose, but 
that was rather dry. Every thing we had was the natural 
production of the country. We saw here, lying in a 
heap, a whole hill of watermelons, which were as 
large as pumpkins, and which Symon was going to take 
to the city to sell. They were very good, though there 
is a difference between them and those of the Caribly 
islands; but this may be owing to its being late in the 
season, and these were the last pulling. It was very 
late at ni^ht when we went to rest m a Kermis bed, as it 
i> called, in the corner of the hearth, along side of a 
good fire. 

oQVi, Saturday. Early this morning the husband and wife 
set off for the city with their marketing: and we, having 
explored the land in the vicinity, left after breakfast. We 



124 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

went a part of the way through a woods and fine, new- 
made land, and so along tlie shore to the west end of the 
island called Najntek} As we proceeded along the shore, 
we found, among other curiosities, a highly marbled 
stone, very hard, in which we saw Muscovy glass lying in 
layers between the clefts, and how it was struck or cut out. 
"We broke off a small piece with some difficulty, and picked 
out a little glass in the splits. Continuing onward from 
there, we came to the plantation of the Najack Indians, 
which was planted with maize, or Turkish wheat. AYe 
soon heard a noise of pounding, like thrashing, and went 
to the place whence it proceeded, and found there an old 
Indian woman busily employed beating Turkish beans out 
of the pods by means of a stick, which she did with 
astonishing force and dexterity. Gerrit inquired of her, 
in the Indian language, which he spoke perfectly well, 
how old she was, and she answered eighty years; at which 
we were still more astonished that so old a woman should 
still have so much strength and courage to work as she 
did. "We went from thence to her habitation, where we 
found the whole troop together, consisting of seven or 
eight families, and twenty or twenty-two persons, I should ' *** 

think. Their house Was low and long, about sixty feet 
long and fourteen or fifteen feet wide. The bottom was 
earth, the sides and roof were made of reed, and trie bark 
of chestnut trees; the posts, or columns, were limbs of 
trees stuck in the ground, and all fastened together. The 
top, or ridge of the roof was open about half a foot wide, 
from one end to the- other, in order to let the smoke escape, 
in place of a chimney. On the sides, or walls, of the house, 
the roof was so low that you could hardly stand under it, 
The entrances, or doors, which were at both ends, were so 



1 Fort Hamilton, which is surrounded, in a great measure, by a marsh 
and hence is here called an island. 



A WIGWAM AND ITS INTERIOR. 125 

email and low thai they bad to stoop down and squeeze 
themselves to get through them* The doors were made of 
reed or flat bark. In the whole building there was no 
lime, stone, iron or lead. They build their lire in the mid- 
dle of the floor, according to the number of families which 
live in it, so that from one end to the other each of them 
boils its own pot, and eats when it likes, not only the 
families by themselves, but each Indian alone, according as 
he is hungry, at all hours, morning, noon and night. By 
each fire are the cooking utensils, consisting of a pot, a 
bowl, or calabash, and a spoon also made of a calabash. 
These are all that relate to cooking. They lie upon mats 
with their feet towards the tire, on each side of it. They 
do not sit much upon any thing raised up, but, for the 
most part, sit on the ground or squat on their ankles. 
Their other household articles consists of a calabash of 
water, out of which they drink, a small basket in which to 
carry and keep their maize and small beans, and a knife. 
The. implements are, for tillage, a small, sharp stone, and 
nothing more ; for hunting, a gun and pouch for powder 
and lead ; for fishing, a canoe without mast or sail, and 
without a nail in any part of it, though it is sometimes 
full forty feet in length, fish hooks and lines, and scoops to 
paddle with in place of oars. I do not know whether there 
are not some others of a trifling nature. All who live in 
one house are generally of one stock or descent, as father 
and mother with their offspring. Their bread is maize, 
pounded in a block by a stone, but not fine. This is 
mixed with water, and made into a cake, which they bake 
under the hot ashes. They gave us a small piece when we 
entered, and although the grains were not ripe, and it was 
half baked and coarse grains,' we nevertheless had to eat 
it, or, at least, not throw it away before them, which they 
would have regarded as a great sin, or a great affront. 
AYe chewed a little of it icith long teeth, and managed to hide 



-. 

I 



126 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

it so 1hey did not sec it. "\Vc had also to drink out of 
their' calabashes the water which was their drink, and 
which was very good. "We saw here the Indians who 
came on hoard the ship when we arrived. They were all 
very joyful at the visit of our Gcrrit, who was an old 
acquaintance of theirs, and had heretofore lbiig resided 
about there. We presented them with two jewsharps, 
which much pleased them, and they immediately com- 
menced to play upon them, which they could do tolerably 
well. Some of their jmiroons (chiefs), some of whom spoke 
good Dutch, and are also their medicine-men and surgeons 
as well as their teachers, were busy making shoes of deer 
leather, which they understand how to make soft by con- 
tinually working it in their hands. They had dogs, fowls 
and hogs, which they learn by degrees from the Europeans 
how to manage better. They had, also, peach trees, which 
were well laden. Towards the last, we asked them for 
some peaches, and they answered : " Go and pick them," 
which showed their politeness. However, in order not to 
offend them, we went off and pulled some. Although 
they are such a poor, miserable people, they are, never- 
theless, licentious and proud, and given to knavery and 
scoflin<i. Seeing a vers' old woman anions; them, we 
inquired how old she was, when some young fellows, 
laughing and jeering, answered twenty years, while it 
was evident to us she was not less than an hundred. We 
observed here the manner in which, they travel with their 
children, a woman having one which she carried on her 
back. The little thing chins; tight around her neck like 
a cat, where it was kept secure by means of a piece of 
daffels, their usual garment. Its head, back and buttocks 
were entirely Hat. How that happened to he so we will 
relate hereafter, as we now only make mention of what 
we saw. 

These Indians live on the land of Jaques (Cortelyou), 






• 






JAQUES CORTELYOU. 127 

1.:m11k T-in-law of Genit. 1 ITo bought the land from tlicm 
1 1 j t]»c lir>t iiiManee, and tlioii let them have a smaj.3 corner, 
for which they pay liim twenty bushels of maize yearly, 
that is, ten hags. Jaques had first houglit the whole of 
X'ljavl; from these Indians, who were the lords thereof, and 
lived upon the land, which is a large place, and. afterwards 
1m )iight it (((/am, in parcels. He was unwilling to drive the 
Indians from the land, and lias therefore left them a corner 
of it, keeping the best of it himself. 2 We arrived then 
upon this land, which is all good, and yields large crops of 
wheat and other grain. It is of a blackish color, but not 
clayey, and almost like the garden mould I have seen in 
Holland. At length we readied the house, where we 
found Mans. Lc Grange, who had come there in search of 
us, to inform us farther concerning his departure for the 
South river, and to take us to his house. We spoke to him 
in regard to this and other matters, as was proper, and 
shortly afterwards he left. Jaques is a man advanced in 



'Jacques Cortelyou came from Utrecht to this country in 1502, in the 
quality of tutor to the children of Cornells van Werckhoven, of that city, 
first patentee direct from the West India company, of Nyack, or Fort 
Hamilton, lie married Neelfje Van Duyne, and died about 1003. The 
Indians received six coats, six kettles, six axes, six chisel.-, six small 
looking-glasses, twelve knives and twelve combs, from the Wot India 
company, in 164o, for all the land extending along the hay, from Gowanus 
to Coney island, embracing the present town of New Utrecht, Van 
Werckhoven went to Holland, after attempting a settlement at Nyack, hut 
with the intention of returning. He died there, however, in 1033; and 
Cortelyou, who remained in possession of Nyack as his agent, obtained 
permission, in 165T, from the director and council, to lay out on the tract, 
the town of New Utrecht, so named in compliment to the birth-place of 
Van Werckhoven — JS\ Y.Doc. Hist., 1,413; CrtiillagharC* Xac Netherlands 
1 1 . 1 So ; BrodheacTt Ft tr Tori; I, 410. Bergt n Gi nt nlqgy, 00. 

-The journalist, as we have seen; mistakes in supposing the first pur- 
chase of Nyack from the Indians to have been by Cortelyou: but is 
probably correct in stating a second purchase by him, which might have 
hi eii made for the purpose of aiding him with a title by possession against 
the heirs of Van Werckhoven, who actually did subsequently claim this 
inheritance. 



128 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

years. He was Lorn in Utrecht, but oFFretich parents, aa 
we could readily discover from all his actions, looks and 
language, lie had studied philosophy in his youth, and 
spoke Latin and good French. lie was a mathematician 
and sworn land-surveyor. lie had also formerly learned 
several sciences, and had some knowledge of medicine. 
The worst of it was, he was a good Cartesian and not a 
good Christian, regulating himself, and all externals, by 
reason and justice only ; nevertheless, he regulated all 
things better by these principles than most people in these 
parts do, who bear the name of Christians or pious per- 
sons. His brother-in-law and ourselves were welcomed by 
him and his wife. He treated us with every civility, 
although two of his sons being sick, and he very much 
confined in attending upon them, he was much interrupted 
in attending to us, since they more than we afflicted his 
head and that of his wife. We went looking around the 
country, and towards evening came to the village of Xew 
Utrecht, so named bv him. This village was burned down 
some time ago, with every thing about it, including the 
house of this man, which was almost an half an hour 
distant from it. Many persons were impoverished by the 
fire. It was now almost all rebuilt, and many good stone 
houses were erected, of which Jaques's was one, where we 
returned by another road to spend the night. After 
supper, we went to sleep in the barn, upon some straw 
spread with sheep-skins, in the midst of the continual 
grunting of hogs, squealing of piss, bleating and cough- 
ing of sheep; barking of dogs, crowing of cocks, 
cackling of hens, and, especially, a goodly quantity of 
fleas and vermin, of no small portion of which we were 
participants;; and all with an open barn door, through 
which a fresh northwest wind was blowing. Though we 
could not sleep, we could not complain, inasmuch as we 
had the same quarters and kind of bed that their own son 



WILD GRAPES. FLATLAXDS. 129 

usually had, who had now on our arrival crept in the straw 
behiatl us. 

October 1st, Sunday, We went, this morning, on a tour 
of observation of the country and of the neighbors, some of 
whom were better situated than others, but all of them had 
more or less children sick with the small pox, which, next 
to the fever and ague, is the most prevalent disease in these 
parts, and of which many have died. We went into one 
house where there were two children lying dead and 
unburied, and three others sick, and where one had died 
the week before. This disease was more fatal this year 
than usual. TTe spoke to these afflicted people what was 
suitable and they could bear. 

Finding myself afterwards alone upon a small eminence, 
I made a sketch, as well as I could, of the land surrounding 
the great bay, that is, Coney island, the entrance from the 
sea, llens'selacfs hook, and so further to the right, towards 
Jul van Kol. 

After dinner we intended to leave for a place called the 
bay, 1 where Jan Theunissen, our fellow passenger, lived, who 
had made us great promises of friendship ; besides, my 
companion was desirous, as they said there would be 
preaching, to hear the minister of the island, who was very 
zealous and a great Cocceian, and, perhaps, a Cartesian. 
But Jaques persuaded us from it, because the house where 
tlan Theunissen lived with his father was so full of people 
on Sundays, who came from all directions to attend 
preaching, that you could scarcely get in or out. As the 
minister was not in the village where he dwelt, he remained 
ever with many other persons: and he (Jaques) said he 
would accompany us there the next morning. So we let it 
pass, and took another walk to Xew Utrecht, where we 
drank some good beer a year old, and coming back again 

1 Flatlands, the residence of Elbert Elbertscn Stoothoff, the father-in-law 
of .Inn Theunissen. 

17 



130 NE^V YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

to the house, indulged in peaches on the road. T went 
along the shore to Coney Island, which is separated from 
Long Island only by a creek, and around the point, and came 
inside not far from a village called Gravcsant. and again 
home. "We discovered on the road several kinds of grapes 
still on the vines, called speck (pork) grapes, which are not 
always good, and these were not ; although they were 
sweet in the mouth at first, they made it disagreeable and 
stinking. The small blue grapes are better, and their 
vines grow in good form. Although they have several 
times attempted to plant vineyards, and have not imme- 
diately succeeded, they, nevertheless, have not abandoned 
the hope of doing so by and by, for there is always some 
encouragement, although they have not, as yet, discovered 
the cause of the failure. 

2d, Monday. Having slept the night again at Ncg'ack, we 
four went, after breakfast, to the bay, where we arrived 
about ten o'clock. AVe did not find Jan Theunissen at 
home, as he had driven to the city to bring his goods ; but 
the father and mother bade us welcome, and took us around 
into their orchards to look at them. My comrade spoke 
to him as opportunity ottered of godly things, but he 
seemed to be a little disposed to play the part of a religious 
and wise man, and be defended himself and the evil as 
mucb as he could, going to work somewhat coldly with 
us. We took the time, however, to go around and see 
every thing thoroughly, and found the land, in general, not 
so good as that at Najack, There is towards the sea, a 
large piece of low flat land which is overflown) at every 
tide, like the Schorr (marsh) with us, miry and muddy at 
the bottom, and which produces a species of hard salt grass 
or reed grass. Such a place they call valcy 1 and mow it 
for hay, which cattle would rather eat than fresh hay or 









1 Pronounced fly. 



SALT MEADOW. GRAVESEND. 131 

i^rass, It is so hard that they cannot mow it with a 

common scythe, like ours, but must have the English 
scythe for the purpose. Their adjoining corn lands are dry 
and barren for the most part. Some of them were now 
entirely covered with clover in blossom, which diffused a 
sweet odor in the air for a great distance, and which we 
discovered in the atmosphere, before we saw the fields. 
Behind the village, inland, are their meadows, but they 
also were now arid. All the land from the bay to 
7 Vlacke Bos l is low and level, without the least elevation. 
There is also a tract which is somewhat large, of a kind of 
heath, on which sheep could graze, though we saw none 
upon it. This meadow (schorr), like all the others, is well 
provided with good creeks which are navigable and very 
serviceable for fisheries. There is here a grist-mill driven 
by the water which they dam up in the creek ; and it is 
hereabouts they go mostly to shoot snipe and wild geese. 
In the middle of this meadow there is a grove into which 
we went, and within which there was a good vale cleared 
off and planted. On our return from this ramble we found 
Jan Theunissen had come back with his company. He 
welcomed us, but somewhat coldly, and so demeaned him- 
self all the time we were there, as to astonish my comrade 
at the change, but not me entirely, for I had observed this 
falling off' while we were yet at sea and were approaching 
the land and even before that, and had remarked it to my 
colleague, but he had more confidence in him. The day 
having been thus passed, we remained here for the night to 

OX o 

sleep. In the evening we made the acquaintance of one 
Jean Popjie, formerly a skipper in the West Indies, whom 
I had known when Hived there. He did not know me by 
name or by vocation, but only that I lived there, and had 
conversed with him there, but not much. He was tired of 



■Flatbush. 



132 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

the sea, ami not having accumiilated much, he had come 
to settle down here, making his living out of the business 

of a turner, by which he could live bountifully. 

3d, Tuesday. This whole day it did nothing except rain, 
with an E. and E. X. E. wind, so that we were compelled 
to sit in their house, as in a prison all the time; and it was 
so much the worse hecause the house was constantly filled 
with a multitude of godless people; for this father or Father- 
in-law of Jan Theunissen, being the principal person in 
the place, was their captain, and having many children of 
his own "besides, there was a continual concourse at his 
house. We had to remain, although it grieved us a great 
deal. But as we had heard that there was an Englishman 
residing at Gravesend, named Bowman, who went every 
year about this time with horses and sheep to the South 
river, and would probahly go there again in about three 
weeks time, we resolved, when the rain was partly over, to 
go and talk to him, which we did, arriving there towards 
evening. We found him at home, and inquired of him as 
to the situation. He said, he intended to leave in fourteen 
days or at the longest in three weeks, with horses, and 
would he happy to have our company on the road. He 
told us several things touching the situation of the South 
river, where he had a large tract of land which he intended 
soon to put under cultivation. It being evening, and 
nearer Jaques's house than the bay, we determined to go 
there as we had previously intended. Mr. Bowman had 
the kindness to conduct us a portion of the way so that Ave 
could not go astray. We arrived at Jacjues's house, where 
we were welcome. The land around Gravesend is also 
flat, but not so Hat or so barren as in the bay, and yields 
good crops. 

4ih, Wuli" ■-<!"■ >i. AY' e slept for the night in our old place. 
In the morning tin; horses were harnessed to the wagon for 
the purpose of carrying us to the city, and bringing back 



A MERCHANT. A SCHOOLMASTER. 133 

... rue mocpeiiies which had arrived for him (Jaquea) from 
lb-Hand in our ship. We breakfasted to our full, and rode 
first to the bay, where we had left our traveling bag. Seeing 
there was nothing to be accomplished with our Jan 
Theunissen, all his great promises having vanished without 
the least result, though they had eost us dearly enough, we 
let that rest quiet, and taking our leave, rode onto 7 Vlacke 
Bos, a village situated about an hour and a half's distance 
from there, upon the same plain, which is very large. This 
village seems to have better forms than the bay, and yields 
full as much revenue. Biding through it, we came to the 
woods and the hills, which are very stony and uncomfortable 
to ride over. "We rode over them, and passed through the 
village of Brcul:ckn to the ferry, and leaving the wagon 
there, we crossed over the river and arrived at home at 
noon, where we were able to rest a little, and where our 
old people were glad to see us. We sent hack to Jaques 
half of our tincture calimanaris, and half of our balsam 
sulphnreus and some other things. He had been of service 
to us in several respects, as he promised to he, and that 
with perfect willingness. 

oth, Thursday. We remained at home this morning, my 
comrade having been a little indisposed the preceding day 
and night, and betook ourselves to writing. At noon we 
visited Mens, dc La Grange, who was busily employed in 
his little shop, packing and marking a parcel of ribbons 
which lie was going to send to Barbadocs, because, as he 
said, he could not dispose of them here to advantage, 
that is, with sufficient profit. We let him first finish his 
work, and after that he took us to his counting room, where 
his wife was. We did not fail to converse kindly with him 
and his wife in relation to those matters in which we 
believed thev were summer, notwithstanding all the little 
reasons which pious people of that description arc accus- 
tomed to advance in extenuation of their sin and avarice. 



134 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

.As there were plenty of books around, my comrade 
inquired of him what book lie liked or esteemed the most. 
Upon this he brought forward two of the elder Brakel, one 
of which was, De Trapjpen des Geestetycken Leven (the gra- 
dations of spiritual life). 1 He also took down another 
written by a Scotchman, of whom my comrade had some 
knowledge, and translated by Pomine Koelman. On my 
return home, the son of our old people asked me if I would 
not go to their usual catechizing, which they held once a 
week at the house of A bftihain Ldnoy, schoolmaster, and 
brother of the commissary in the custom house. I 
accompanied him there, and found a company of about 
twenty-fiye persons, male and female, but mostly young 
people. It looked like a school, as indeed it was, more 
than an assembly of persons who were seeking after true 
godliness; where the schoolmaster, who instructed them, 
bandied the subject more like a schoolmaster in the midst 
of his scholars than a person who knew and loved God, 
and sought to make him known and loved. They sung 
some verses from the psalms, made a prayer, and questioned 
from the catechism, at the conclusion of which they prayed 
and sung some verses from the psalms again. It was all 
performed without respect or reverenee, very literally, and 
mixed up with much obscurity and error. ITe played, 
however, the part of a learned and pious man, enfin Ic 
suffixaid et lejKtit precjmir. After their departure, I had an 
opportunity of speaking to him and telling him what I 
thought was good for him. He acknowledged that I con- 



1 By Theodora* a-Brakel, lather of the more distinguished divine.. 
William a-Brakel. He Avas descended from Roman Catholic stock in the 
province of Brabant, hut was horn at Enkhuisen in Xorth Holland in 
1G0S. He WflS educated at Franekcr, and called to minister first at Beers 
in Fricsland, then at t lie Burgh on the island of Texcl, and finally at 
Makkum, where lie died in 1009. Like his son he was in strict orthodoxy 
with the Reformed church of Holland. — Kok. Yad. Hist. 



MANHATTAN ISLAND. I35 

rifieed him of several tilings; and ilius leaving him I 
returned home. 

' Gthj Friday. "We remained in the house during the fore- 
noon, but after having dined we went out about two o'clock 
to explore the island of JIanathans. This island runs east 
and west, or somewhat more northerly. On the north side 
of it is the Xorth river, by which it is separated from the 
main land on the north; on the east end it is separated 
from the main land by a creek, or rather a branch of the 
North river, emptying itself into the East river. They can 
go over this creek at dead low water, upon rocks and reefs, 
at the place called Spyt den duyvel. This creek coming into 
the East river forms with it the two Barents islands. 1 At 
the west end of these two running waters, that is, where 
they come together to the east of these islands, they 
make, with the rocks and reefs, such a frightful eddy and 
whirlpool that it is exceedingly dangerous to pass through 
them, especially with small boats, of which there are some 
lost every now and then, and the persons in tliem drowned; 
but experience has taught men the way of passing through 
them with less danger. Large vessels have always less 
danger because they are not capable of being carried along 
so quickly. There are two places where such whirling of 
the stream occurs, which are on account of the danger and 
frightl'ulness called the Great and Little Ilellgate. After 
these two streams are united, the island of 31anathans is 
separated on the south from Long Island by the East river, 
which, beginning at the bay before New York, rims east- 
wardly, after forming several islands, again into the sea. 
This island is about seven hours' distance in length, but it 
is not a full hour broad. The sides are indented with bays, 
coves and creeks. It is almost 'entirely taken up, that is, 
the land is held by private owners, but not half of it is 

1 Now called Great and Little sBarn islands. 



136 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

cultivated. Much of it is good wood land. The west end 
on which the city lies, is entirely cleared for more than an 
hour's distance, though that is the poorest ground ; the hest 
being on the east, and north side. There are many 
brooks of fresh water running through it, pleasant and 
proper for man and beast to drink, as well as agreeable to 
behold, affording cool and pleasant resting places, hut 
especially suitable places for the construction of mills, for 
although there is no overflow of water, yet it can be shut 
off and so used. A little eastward of Nieu llacrkm there 
are two ridges of very high rocks, with a considerable space 
between them, displaying themselves very majestically, 
and inviting all mm. to acknowledge in them the majesty, 
grandeur, power and glory of their creator, who has 
impressed such marks upon them. Between them rims 
the road to Spyt den duyvel. The one to the north is most 
apparent; the south ridge is covered with earth on its 
north side, but it can be seen from the water or from the 
main land beyond to the south. The soil between these 
ridges is very good, though a little hilly and stony, and 
would be very suitable in my opinion for planting vineyards, 
in consequence of its being- shut off on both sides from the 
winds which would most injure them, and is very warm. 
"We found blue grapes along the road which were very good 
and sweet, and as good as any I have tasted in the Father- 
land. 

We went from the city, following the Broadway, over 
the valcy, or the fresh water. Upon both sides of this way 
were many habitations of negroes, mulattoes and whites. 
These negroes were formerly the proper slaves of the 
(West India) company, but, in consequence of the frequent 
changes and conquests of the country, they have obtained 
their freedom and settled themselves down where they 
have thought proper, and thus on this road, where they 
have ground enough to live on with their families. We 



CAPT. JAMES CARTERET. 137 

left the village, called the JBoinverij, lying on (lie right hand, 
aiu! went: through the woods to Xew Uailoni, a tolerably 
large village situated on the south side of the island, directly 
opposite the place where the northeast creek and the East 
river come together, situated about three hours journey 
iVoni E*ew Amsterdam, like as old Harlem, in Europe, is 
situated about three hours distance from old Amsterdam. 
As our guide, Gerrit, had some business here, and found 
many acquaintances, we remained over night at the house 
of one Geresolveerty 1 scout (sheriff or constable), of the 
place, who had formerly lived in Brazil, and whose heart 
was still full of it. This house was constantly filled 
with people, all the time drinking, for the most part, that 
execrable rum. He had also the best cider we have 
tasted. Among the crowd we found a person of quality, 
an Englishman, named Captain Carteret, whose father is 
in great favor with the king, and he himself had assisted 
in several exploits in the king's service. He was adminis- 
trator, or captain general, of the English forces which 
went, in 1660, to retake St. Ivitts, which the French had 
entirely conquered, and were repulsed. He had also filled 
some high ofiice, during the war, in the ship of the Duke 
of York, with two hundred infantry under his command. 
The king has given to his father, Sir (George) Carteret, the 
entire government of the lands west of the North river, in 
Xew Xetherland, with power to appoint as governor whom 
ho pleases; and at this present time there is a governor 
over it, by his appointment, another Carteret, his nephew, 
1 helieve, who resides at Elizabethtown, in Xew Jersey. 2 

1 Resolted, a christian name. 

5 Philip Carteret, the brother, not the nephew, of Sir George, is the 
l>erson here meant, lie was appointed governor of Xew Jersey under the 
j'rinl proprietorship of Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, in 1004, 
anil of East .Jersey in 1(J74, under the sole grant to Sir George. lie 
J'-iirneu in 1G82, and died in December of that year, in this country, 

18 



leaving a widow, the daughter of Richard Smith, of Smithtown, on Long 
island. — Whitehead's East Jersey under tlw Propru -t-jrn, 36, 84. 

I Gaptain .lames Cartaret, here described, was an illegitimate son of Sir 
George. lie was chosen governor of East Jersey, in 1672, by the 
deputies of the flisaffected inhabitants of Middle-town and other towns, 
which resisted the payment of rent to the co-proprietors, lie enjoyed this 
barren honor only a short time, as the opposition was completely overcome 
in the following year. The mention of him in this journal seems to he the 
only account of him afterwards. — Whiteheads East Jersey, &c, 55, 58. 



138 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

From this; Carteret, in England, the qnakcrs have purchased 
the privilege of a government of their own. over a large 
tract of territory which they have bought and settled 
within his dominion; and it is but little different from 
their having bought the entire right of government of the 
whole of hi? land. This son is a very profligate person. 
He married a merchant's daughter here, and has so lived 
with his wife that her father has been compelled to take 
her home again. He runs about among the farmers, 
and stays where he can find most to drink, and sleeps in 
barns on the straw. If he conducted himself properly, he 
could be not only governor here, but hold higher positions, 
for he has studied the moralities, and seems to have been 
of a good understanding.: but that is all now drowned. 
His father, who will not acknowledge him as his son,- as 
before, allows him yearly as much only as is necessary for 
him to live. 1 

7//', Saturday. This morning, about half-past six, we set 
out from the village, in order to go to the end of the island ; 
but before we left we did not omit supplying ourselves 
with peaches which grew in an orchard along the road. 
The whole ground was covered with them and with 
apples, lying upon the new grain with which the orchard 
was planted. The peaches were the most delicious we 
had yet eaten. We proceeded on our way, and when we 
were not far from the point of Spyt den duyvel, we could see 
on our left hand the rocky cliffs of the main land on the 



6PUYT DEN DUYVEL. SAPOKANIKKE. 139 

ntlu'i r Ido of the Xorth river, these cli"ffs standing straight up 
mid dowa, with the grain, ju^i as if they were antimony. 
We crossed over the Sjpyi den. duyvel in a canoe, and paid 
1 iut* tituivers fare for ns three, which was very dear. "VVe 
followed the opposite side of the land, and came to the 
house of one Vaienh/n, a great acquaintance of our Gerrit. 
Iit> had gone to the city, but his wife, though she did not 
know Gerrit or us, was so much rejoiced to see Hollanders, 
that she hardly knew what to do for us. She set before 
us what she had. We left after breakfasting there. Her 
eon showed us the way, and we came to a road which was 
euti rely covered with peaches. We asked the boy why they 
left them lie there, and they did not let the hogs eat theui. 
lie answered, we do not know what to do with them, there 
are so many; the hogs are satiated with them and will not 
cat any more. From this we may judge of the quantity 
of them. We pursued our way now a small distance 
through the woods and over the hills, then back again 
along the shore to a point, where one Webblingh^ an 
Englishman, lived, who was standing ready to cross over. 
1 fc carried us over with him, and refused to take any pay 
tor our passage, offering us at the same time some of his 
rum, a liquor which is everywhere. We were now again at 
New Harlem, and dined with Geresolveert, at whose house 
we slept the night before, and who made us welcome, h was 
now two o'clock; and leaving there, we crossed over the 
bland, which takes about three quarters of an hour to do, 
and came to the Xorth river, which we followed a little 
within the woods, to Scqtpohmlkke 1 . Gerrit having a sister 
and friends there we rested ourselves, and drank some 
good beer, which refreshed us. We continued along the 
•^iiore to the city, where we arrived in an hour in the 

1 According to Judge Benson this was tin.- Indian name of the point, 
aftiTwards known as Greenwich, on the north side of the city. — Xtf York 
WtUtrical ChUcctiom, second series, 84. 



140 



NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 



evening, very much fatigued, Laving- walked this day 

about forty, miles. I must add, in passing through this 
island we sometimes encountered suc)l a sweet smell in the 
air that we stood still, because we did not know what it 
was we were meeting. 

Sfh, Sunday. "We staid home this morning for the purpose 
of writing and resting ourselves. Gerrit requested me to 
shave him, as did also an old countryman of Nevesinck who 
lodged at our house, which was the first time in my life 
that I had ever shaved any one. It afforded us an oppor- 
tunity of speaking to this countryman about various 
matters touching the country. We intended in the after- 
noon to attend the Eni>-lish service, but, on sroino; to the 
fort, the sentinel told as there was no English preaching in 
the afternoon, and we returned home. 

9th, Monday. "We remained at home to-day, except I 
went out to ascertain whether there was any way of going 
over to Staten island. Meanwhile we began to dispose of 
some of our large merchandise. Gerrit went out to 
Sapokan, to do some carpenter's work. We tasted to-day 
some very fine grapes. 

10//', Tuesday. Finding no opportunity of going to Staten 
island, we asked our old friend Symon, who had come over 
from GouaneB, what was the best way for us to get there, 
when lie offered us his services to take us over in his skiff, 
which WQ accepted; and at dusk accompanied him in his 
boat to Gmwie&i where we arrived about eight o'clock, and 
where he welcomed us and entertained us well. 

llth, Wednesday. We embarked early this morning in 
his boat and rowed over to Staten island, where we arrived 
about eight o'clock, lie left us there, and we went on our 
way. This island is about thirty-two miles long and four 
broad. Its sides are very irregular, with projecting points 
and indented bays, and creeks running deep into the 
country. It lies for the most part east and west, and is 



STATEN ISLAND. 141 

somewhat triangular. The most prominent point is to the 
west. Oil the east side is the narrow passage which they 

<• ill the channel, by which it is separated from the high 
point of Long Island. On the south is the great bay which 
is inclosed by fflaytoq, V Conijnen island, RcuUdacSs Hook? 
Xevesmck, kc. On the west is the Baritans. On the north 
or northwest is Xew Jersey, from which it is separated by 
a large creek or arm of the river, called Kil run kol. The 
eastern pail is high and steep, and has few inhabitants. It 
is the usual place where ships, ready for sea, stop to take 
in water, while the captain and passengers are engaged in 
making their own arrangements and writing letters previous 
to their departure. The whole south side is a large plain, 
with much salt meadow or marsh, and several creeks. The 
west point is fiat, and on or around it is a large creek with 
much marsh : but to the north of this creek it is high and 
hilly, and beyond that it begins to be more level, but not 
so low as on the other side, and is well populated. On the 
northwest it is well provided with creeks and marshes, and 
the land is generally better than on the south side, although 
there is a good parcel of land in the middle of the latter. 
As regards the middle or most hilly part of the island, it is 
uninhabited, although the soil is better than the land 
around it; but, in consequence of its being away from the 
water, and lying so high, no one will live there, the creeks 
and rivers beins; so serviceable to them in enabling them 
to go to the city, and for fishing and catching oysters, and 
for being near the salt meadows. The woods are used for 
pasturing horses and cattle, for being an island, none of 
them can get off. Each person has marks upon his own 
by which lie can find them when he wants them. When 
the population of the country shall increase, these places 
will be taken up. Game of all kind- is plenty, andtwenty- 
UVe and thirty deer are sometimes seen in a herd. A boy 
who came in a house where we were, told us he had shut 



142 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

ten the last winter himself* and more than forty in his life, 
and in the same manner oilier game. We tasted here the 
"best grapes. There are now ahout a hundred families on 
the island, of whieh the English constitute the least portion, 
and the Dutch and French divide "between them about 
equally the greater portion. They have neither church nor 
minister, and live rather far from each other, and incon- 
venient^ to meet together. The English are less disposed 
to religion, and inquire little after it, but in case there were 
a minister, would contribute to his support. The French 
and Dutch are very desirous and eager for one, for they 
spoke of it wherever we went, and said, in the event of 
not obtaining Domiue Tesscmaker, they woidd send, or 
had sent, to France for another. The French are good 
Reformed churchmen, and some of them are Walloons. 
The Dutch are also from different quarters. 

"We reached the island, as I have said, ahout nine o'clock, 
directly opposite Gouancs, not far from the watering place. 
We proceeded southwardly along the shore of the high 
land on the east, end, where it was sometimes stony and 
rocky, and sometimes sandy, supplied with fine constantly- 
flowing springs with which at times we quenched our 
thirst. We had now come nearly to the furthest point on 
the southeast, behind which 1 had observed several houses 
when we came in with the ship. We had also made inquiry 
as to the villages through which we would have to pass, 
and they had told us the Oadc Dorp would be the first one 
we would come to; hut my comrade finding the point very 
rocky and diilicult, and believing the village was inland, 
and as we discovered no path to follow, we determined to 
clamber to the top of this steep bluff, through the hushes 
and thickets, whieh we accomplished with great difficulty 
and in a perspiration. We found as little of a road above 
as below, and nothing but woods, through whieh one could 
not see. There appeared to be a little foot-path along the 



OLD DORP. NEW DOKR 143 

» d-v -which I followed a short distance to the side of the 
M ".nt. but my comrade eallmg me and saving that he cer- 
tainly thought we had passed by the road to the Oade Doiy, 
and observing myself that the little path led down to the 
point, I returned again, and we followed it the other way, 
which led ns back to the place from where we started. 
We supposed we ought to go from the shore in order to 
find the road to the Oade Dorp, and seeing here these slight 
tracks into the woods, we followed them as far as we could, 
till at last they ran to nothing else than dry leaves. Having 
wandered an hour or more in the woods, now in a hollow 
and then over a hill, at one time through a swamp, at 
another across a brook, without finding any road or path, 
we entirely lost the way. We could see nothing except a 
little of the sky through the thick branches of the trees 
above our heads, and we thought it best to break out of 
the woods entirely and regain the shore. I had taken an 
observation of the shore and point, having "been able to 
look at the sun, which shone extraordinarily hot in the 
thick woods, without the least breath of air stirring. We 
made our way at last as well as we could out of the woods, 
and struck the shore a quarter of an hour's distance from 
where we began to climb up. We were rejoiced, as there 
was a house not tar from the place where we came out. 
We went to it to see if we could iind any one who would 
show us the way a little. There was no master in it, but 
an Englishwoman with negroes and servants. We first 
asked her as to the road, and then for something to drink, 
and also for some one to show us the road; but she refused 
the hist, although we were willing to pay for it. She 
was a cross woman. She said she had never been in the 
village, and her folks must work, and we would certainly 
have to go away as wise as we came. She said, however, 
we must follow the shore, as we did. We went now over 
the rocky point, which we were no sooner over than we 



144 NfcW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

sow a pretty little sand bay, una a small creek, and not 
far from there, cattle and kouses. \Ve also saw the point to 
which the little path led from the hill above, where I was 
when my comrade called me. "We would not have had 
more than three hundred steps to go to have been where 
we now were. It was very hot, and we perspired a great 
deal. We went on to the little creek to sit down and rest 
ourselves there, and to cool our feet, and then proceeded 
to the houses which constituted the Oude Dorp. It was 
now about two o'clock. There were seven houses, but 
only three in which any body lived. The others were 
abandoned, and their owners had gone to live on better 
places on the island, because the ground around this village 
was worn out and barren, and also too limited for their use. 
"We went into the first house which was inhabited by 
English, and there rested ourselves and eat, and inquired 
further after the road. The woman was cross, and her 
husband not much better. We had to pay here for what 
we eat which we had not done before. We paid three 
guilders in zeewan, although we only drank water. We 
proceeded by a tolerably good road to the Niciiwe Dorp, but 
as the road ran Continually in the woods, we got astray 
again in them. It was dark, and we were compelled to 
break our way out through the woods and thickets, and 
we went a great distance before we succeeded, when it 
was almost entirely dark. We saw a house, at a distance 
to which we directed ourselves across the bushes. It was 
the first house of the Nitime Dorp. We found there an 
Englishman who could speak Dutch, and who received us 
very cordially into his house, where we had as good as he 
and his wife had. She was a Dutch woman from the 
Manhatamj who was glad to have us in her house. 

l'lf.h, Thursday. Although we had not slept well, we had 
to resume our journey with the day. The man where we 
.slept set us on the road. We had now no more villages to 



WESTFIELD. HUGUENOTS. 145 

t*o fo, but went from one plantation in another, for the most 
iiart belonging to French, who showed us erery kindness 
lu cause we conversed with them in French, and spoke of 
the ways of the Lord according to their condition. About 
one-third part of the distance from the south side to the 
west end is still all woods, and is very little visited. We 
had to go along the shore, finding sometimes fine creeks 
well provided with wild turkeys, geese, snipes and wood 
hens. Lying rotting upon the shore were thousands of fish 
railed marsbanckcn, which are about the size of a common 
carp. These fish swim close together in large schools, and 
are pursued so by other fish that they are forced upon the 
shore in order to avoid the mouths of their enemies, and 
when the water foils they are left there to die, food for the 
eagles and other birds of prey. Proceeding thus along wc 
came to the "West point where an Englishman lived alone 
some distance from the road. We eat something here, 
and he gave ns the consolation that we would have a very 
bad road for two or three hours ahead, which indeed we 
experienced, for there was neither path nor road. He 
showed us as well as he could. There was a large creek 
to cross which ran very far into the land, and when wc 
should get on the other side of it, we must, he said, go 
outward again along (the shore). After we had gone a 
piece of the way through the woods, we came to a valley 
with a brook running through it, which we took to be the 
ereek or the end of it. We turned round it as short as wc 
could, in order to go back again to the shore, which we 
reached after wandering a long time over hill and dale, 
when we saw the creek, which we supposed we had crossed, 
now just before us. We followed the side of it deep into 
the woods, and when we arrived at the end of it saw no 
path along the other side to get outwards again, but the 
toad ran into the woods in order to cut off a point of the 
hills and land. We pursued this road for some time, but 
19 



146 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

saw no mode of getting out, and that it led further and 

further from the creel:. We, therefore, left the road ami 
went across through the hushes, so as to reach the shore 
by the nearest route according to our calculation. After - 
continuing this course about an hour, we saw at a distance 
a miserably constructed tabernacle of pieces of wood 
covered with brush, all open in front, and where we thought 
there were Indians; but on coming up to it we found in it 
an Englishman sick, and his wife and child lying upon 
some bushes by a little fire. "We asked him if he were 
sick. " Do you ask me whether I am sick ? I have been 
sick here over two months, " he replied. It made my heart 
sore indeed, for I had never in all my life seen such poverty, 
and that, too, in the middle of a woods and a wilderness. 
After we obtained some information as to the way, we went 
on, and had not s;one f ar before we came to another house, 
and thus from one farm to another, French, Dutch and a 
few English, so that we had not wandered very far out of 
the way. A\ r e inquired at each house the way to the next 
one. Shortly before evening we arrived at the plantation 
of a Frenchman, whom they called Le Chaudroankr (the 
coppersmith), who was .formerly a soldier under the Prince 
of Orange, and had served in Brazil. He was so delighted, 
and held on to us so hard, that, we remained and spent the 
nischt with him. 

13//^, Fr>>J";i. "We pursued our journey this morning 
from plantation to plantation, the same as yesterday, until 
we came to that of Pierre le Gardmier, who had been a 
gardener of the Prince of Orange, and had known him well. 
He had a large family of children and grand-children. He 
was about seventy vears of ao;e, and was still as fresh and 
active as a young person. He was so glad to see strangers 
who conversed with him and his in the French lanicuage 
about the good, that he leaped for joy. After we had 



FRESHKILLS. ELIZABETKTOWN. MR. WOOLEY. 147 

breakfi&ted here they told us 11 1 at we had another large 
creek to pom called the Fresh kil, and there v.e could per- 
haps be set across the Kil van Kol to the ]>oint of Mill creek, 
where we might wait for a boat to convey as to the 31an- 
haiam. The road was long and difficult, and we asked for 
a guide, but he had no one, in consequence of several of 
his children being; sick. At last he determined to go him- 
self, and accordingly carried us in his canoe over to the 
point of Mill creek in Xew Jersey behind Kol (achter -Kol). 1 
We learned immediately that there was a boat up this creek 
loading with brick, and would leave that night for the city. 
After we had thanked and parted with Pierre le Gardinier, 
we determined to walk to Elizabethtown, a good half 
hour's distance inland, where the boat was. From the 
point to this village there is a fine wagon road, but nowhere 
in the country had we been so pestered w T ith mosquito3 
(miigyen) as w r e were on this road. The land about here is 
very poor, and is not well peopled. We found the boat, 
and spoke to the captain who left about two hours after- 
wards ; but as the wind was against going out of the creek, 
lie lay by and waited for the tide. We returned by 
evening to the point where Ave w r ere to stay until morning. 
There was a tavern on it, kept by French papists, who at 
once took us to he priests, and so conducted themselves 
towards us in every respect accordingly, although we told 
them and protested otherwise. As there was nothing to 
be said further we remained so in their imaginations to 
the last, as shown both in their words and actions, the more 



1 " En bracht ons met &yn canoo tot op do hoeck ran de molen Ml am Nieit, 
JarncMc adder kol" The term achter kol, literally behind kol, that is, back 
of the kol, a name given to the river or kil between Statcn island and the 
main land from its peculiar shape, was applied to all the territory west of 
Uiat river or kil and the llaekensaek. Kol is here used as an abbreviation 
«-'i kU mn kol. Mill creek seems to have been the stream now known as 
Klizabcthtown creek. 






148 



NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 



ccrtninly because we spoke "French, and they were French 
people. \\ r e slept there this niglit, and at three o'clock in 
the morning we set sail. 

14th, Satan!"'/. Being under sail, as I have said, it was 
so entirely calm that we could only float with the stream 
until we came to the SchMterS island, where we obtained 
the tide again. It was now about four o'clock. In order 
to protect ourselves from the air which was very cold and 
piercing, we crept under the sail which was very old and 
full of holes. The tide having run out by daylight, we 
came under sail a^ain, with a p;ood wind which bronffht us 
to the city at about eight o'clock, for which we were glad, 
and returning thanks to God, betook ourselves to rest. 

15//>, Sunday. We went at noon to-day to hear the English 
minister, whose services took place after the Dutch church 
was out. There were not above twenty-five or thirty 
people in the church. The first thing that occurred was 
the reading of all their prayers and ceremonies out of the 
prayer book, as is doue in all Episcopal churches. A young 
man then went into the pulpit and commenced preaching, 
who thought he was performing wonders; but he had a 
little book in his hand out of which he read his sermon 
which was about a quarter of an hour or half an hour long. 1 
With 'this the services were concluded, at which we could 
not be sufficiently astonished. This was all that happened 
with us to-day. 

lGth, Monday. I was occupied to-day in copying my 



1 The only English minister in the whole province at this time was 
attached to the garrison at the city of New York. This was the Rev. 
Charles 'Wooley, a graduate of Emanuel College, Cambridge, in 1077. lie 
came to New York in August, 1078, and left there for England in July, 
1080. He was the author of a small volume with tlietitleol A Tiro Years' 
Journal in A < ir York, &C, published in 1701, and recently republished, 
with notes by Dr. E. 15. ()'C;dlaghan, in Mr. Cowans' interesting series of 
early works on the colonies. 



I 






THE OLD INDIAN OF AQUAKEXONK. 149 

journal. In the morning there came an Indian io our 
house, & man about eighty years, of- age, whom our people 

called Jasper, who lived at Aliakinsack or at Alun.on. Con- 
cerning this Indian our old people related that when they 
lived on Long Island, it was once a very dear time ; no 
provisions could he obtained, and they suffered great want, 
so that they were reduced to the last extremity ; that God 
the Lord then raised up this Indian, who went out a fishing 
daily in order to bring fish to them every day when he 
caught a good mess, which he always did. If, when he 
came to the house, he found it alone, and they were out 
working in the fields, he did not fail, but opened the door, 
kid the. fish on the floor, and proceeded on his way. For 
this reason these people possess great affection for him and 
have given him the name of Jasper, and also my nitop, that 
is, my great friend. He never comes to the ManJiatans 
without visiting them and eating with them, as he now 
did, as among his old friends. "We asked him why he had 
done so much kindness to these people. " I have always 
been inclined," he answered, " from my youth up to do 
good, especially to good people, known to me. I took the 
fish to them because Mancto (the devil) said to me, you 
must take fish to these people, whispering ever in my ear 
'you must take fish to them.' I had to do it. or Mancto, 
would have killed me." Our old woman telling us lie some- 
times got drunk, we said to him he should not do so any 
more, that the great Sahzmacker (the Lord) who is above, 
was offended at such conduct and would kill him. "Xo," 
said he, laughing as if that were a mistake of ours, "it is 
Maneto who kill those who do evil, and leaves those who 
do good at peace." " That is only " we replied, " because 
Mcmeto is the slave and cxeeution'er of the great Sakemaeker 
i-.bove;" and we then asked him if he believed there was 
Buch a great and good Sakemaeker there ? " Undoubtedly," 
he said, " but he remains above, and does not trouble him- 



vv 



150 NEW YORK ANT) ITS VICINITY. 

Self with the earth or earthly things, because he does 
nothing except what is good; but 3Ianeto, who also is a 
Sakemacker, and is here below, and governs all, and 
punishes and torments those men who do evil and drink 
themselves drunk." Hereupon we inquired of him why 
he did so then. " Yes," he said, " I had rather not, but 
my heart is so inclined that it causes me to do it, although 
I know it is wrong. The Christians taught it to us, and 
give us or sell us the drink, and drink themselves drunk.' 1 
We said to him : " Listen ! if we came to live near you, you 
would never see us drunk, nor would we give or sell you 
or your people any rum." " That," he replied, "would he 
good." We told him he must not make such a cTifferencc 
between himself and a Christian, because one was white 
and the other red, and one wore clothes and the other went 
almost naked, or one was called a Christian and the other 
an Indian, that this great and good Sakemacker was the 
father of us all, and bad made us all, and that all who did 
not do good would be killed by Mancto whether they were 
called Christians or Indians ; but that all who should do 
good would go to this good Sakemacker above. " Yes," 
said he, " we do not know or speak to this Sakemacker, but 
Manelo we know and speak to, but you people, who can 
.read and write, know and converse with this Sah'macker" 
"We asked him, where he believed he came from ? He 
answered from his father. "And where did your father 
come from?" we said, "and your grand-father and great 
grand-father, and so on to the first of the race?" He was 
silent for a little while, either as if unable to climb up at 
once so high with his thoughts, or to express them without 
help, and then took a piece of coal out of the tire where 
he sat, and began to write upon the floor. He first drew a 
circle, a little oval, to which he made four paws or feet, a 
head and a tail. "This," said he, "is a tortoise, lying in 
the water around it," and he moved- his hand round the 



THE ORIGIN OF MAN. THE INDIAN DRUNK. ] 51 

fi«jfnrts, txxutiiiurag, "this was or is all water, and so at first 

v..;- the world or the earth, when the tortoise gradually 
raised its round back up high, and the water ran off of it, 
and thus the earth became dry." lie then took a little 
gtraw and placed it on end in the middle of the figure, and 
vrocecded, " the earth was now dry, and there grew a tree 
in the middle of the earth, and the root of this tree sent 
forth a sprout beside it and there grew upon it a man, who 
was the first male. This man was then alone, and would 
have remained alone; but the tree bent over until its top 
touched the earth, and there shot therein another root, from 
which came forth another sprout, and there grew upon it 
the woman, and from these two are all men produced." 
We gave him four fish-hooks with which he was much 
pleased, and immediately calculated how much in money 
he had obtained. " I have got twenty four stuivers worth," 
he said. He then inquired our names, which we gave 
him, and wished to know why he asked for them ? " Well," 
lie replied, " because you are good people and are true 
7'ifaps; and in case you should come into the woods and 
fall into the hands of the Indians, and they should wish 
to kill or harm you, if I know or hear of it I. might help 
you, for they will do you no injury when they know me." 
For he was the brother of a Sackemaker. We told him 
that we did not give them to him on that account, but only 
from regard because he was a good person, although the 
good will or thankfulness which he wished to show thereby 
was good. " Well," he said, " that is good, that is good," 
with which, after eating something, he departed. 

But at noon he returned with a young Indian, both of 
them so drunk they could not speak, and having a calabash 
of liquor with them. We chided him, but to no purpose, 
for he could neither use his reason nor speak so as to be 
understood. The young Indian with him was a Sackemaker's 



152 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

son, atld fSTts bold, lie wanted to have a piece of moat 
that was on the table, and on which we all had to make our 
dinner, when we told him it was not for him. "Yes," 
said he, " I see it is so;" nevertheless, and although we 
offered him something else to eat, he was evilly disposed 
and dissatisfied, and would take nothing except the piece 
of meat alone ; but that was not given to him. Whereupon 
Jasper told him he must be quiet, that the old people and 
we were all his n'dops, and by degrees quieted him, they 
sitting together by the fire and drinking their rum. They 
left afterwards for Long Island. 

17/A, Tuesday. Nothing transpired to-day. 

18//^, Wedntsdmj. In the afternoon Jasper, the Indian, 
came back again, and proceeded confidently to our room 
in the rear of the house, but sober and in his senses, lie 
told us how he had been with his nephew, the Sackemaker's 
son to Long Island, among the other Indians ; and that he 
had given away, not only his fish-hooks, but also his shoes 
and stockings. "\\ 7 e found fault with him at first for having 
become so drunk, contrary to his promise, and when he 
well knew it was wrong. To which he said he had to buy 
some nails for an Englishman who lived near him, from 
another Englishman here, who had sold and given him the 
rum. 

I must here remark, in passing, that the people in this 
city, who are most all traders in small articles, whenever 
they see an Indian. enter the house, who they know has any 
money, they immediately set about getting hold of him, 
giving him rum to drink, whereby lie is soon caught and 
becomes half a fool. If he should then buy any thing, he 
is doubly cheated, in the wares, and in the price. He is 
then urged to buy more drink, which they now make half 
water, and if he cannot drink it. they drink it themselves. 
They do not rest until they have cajoled him out of all his 
money, or most of it; and if that cannot be done in one 



EPHRAIM HEERMANS. 



153 



4siv, they keep him, and let him lodge and sleep there, but 
in s unc out. of the way place, down on the ground, guard- 
iuti their iaerehandi.se and other property in the meantime, 
nnc] always managing it so that the poor creature does not 
eo away before he has given them all they want. And 
titese miserable Christians are so much the more eager in 
this respect, because no money circulates among themselves, 
and they pay each other in wares, in which they are 
constantly cheating and defrauding each other. Although 
it is forbidden to sell the drink to the Indians, yet every 
one does it, and so much the more earnestly, and with so 
much greater and burning avarice, that it is done in secret. 
To this extent and further, reaches the damnable and insa- 
tiable covetousness of most of those who here call themselves 
Christians. Truly, our hearts grieved when we heard of 
these things, which, call so grievously upon the supreme, 
judge for vengeance. He will not always let his name be 
so profaned and exposed to reproach and execration. 

We asked Jasper, why he had given away his hooks and 
stockings. He said, it was a custom among them, for the 
lesser to give to the greater. We replied the Sackemaker 
was richer than he, and he should, therefore, have kept them. 
u Xo," he said, "I did it as a mark of respect and obedience." 
We gave him four more fish-hooks, and told him he must 
take care of them for himself. "I will bring you fish as 
soon as I catch any," he said as he went away, promising 
ulso that he would get drunk no more. 

From this time until the 22d of October, nothing special 
took place, except that we spoke to one Ephraim, a young 
trader, who was just married here, and who intended to go 
with his wife to the South river, where he usually dwelt, 
for which purpose he was only waiting for horses and men 
from there. 1 He tendered us his services and his horses, 



'Tins person was Ephraim lleennans, son of Augustine lleennans, of 
both of whom we will hear more in the sequel. 

20 



154 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

if we would, accompany him, and offered to carry us in hi 
own boat everywhere on that river, fwm the falls (of the 
Delaware), to whioh we would have to travel, by land, and 
where the boat would be waiting for him to take him down 
the river; since lie himself would have to touch at man) 
places on the river, in going- down. As Bowman, who 
was going there with horses, did not make his appearance, 
we accepted the oiler with thankfulness, waiting only for 
the time. 

24//', Tuesday. Margaret's ship in which we arrived here, 
being ready to leave, but she not going in it, as it was said, 
we set about writing letters, which we might give to our 
liobyn, and finished them to-day, and also the copying of 
my journal. 

25 th y Wc<lnwi>n/. Having closed up our letters, we had 
Eobyn at our house, and gave them to him in his own hands, 
as we had heard from the supercargo himself that he would 
run into Falmouth again for the purpose of paying the 
duties; we gave Iiobyn money to post our letters over Lon- 
don, together with something for his trouble, and with this, 
wishing him the blessing of the Lord, we took leave of 
him; but recollecting afterwards that we had forgotten to 
put a elate to the letters, which was very necessary, I had 
to go in search of I'obyu again, whom I found at last, and 
took back from him the letters. When we had resealed 
them, I went after him again, but he had gone on board 
the ship. I waited for an opportunity and went on board 
myself, and handed them to him again. He was glad to 
see me on board; and while there I went looking around 
to see how the ship was laden, and found her so full 
that the poor sailors had scarcely room to eat or sleep. 
The boatswain who had now become mate, because the 
Dutch mate, Evert, had become captain of a ketch, 
treated me With much kindness; but as the boat and 



COMMUXIPAW. BERGEN. 155 

. ,i:,,fs were continually ashore, it was dark before I could 
h the i.tu'l. 

'l\\ili, Tlai's'l'iy. We inquired whether our journey to the 

.nth would soon take place, and was informed it would 
not be tliis week. We resolved not to remain idle, and to 
i*mbrace the opportunity to cross to-morrow over the Xorth 
river opposite the fort to a place called Ghmaenepaen, as 
soon as we could find the means of passage. 

2.7th, Friday. We went after breakfast to see if we could 
he taken over the river. We found a boat going soon, 
but we must wait a little. In the meanwhile we made the 
acquaintance of a person from Zeeland, or who had lived 
there a long time, for he himself was a Hollander. He 
)>:;<! been an apprentice to Jaques Fiercns, printer, in the 
Globe in the Gi street, and, although I had been often 
enough in that house, and he knew my face, he did not 
know me particularly. He came to this country with Cor- 
nells Ercvis of Zeeland, and had assisted in taking it from 
the English in 16T4. He had remained here since and 
married. He sometimes bound old books, and was the 
only bookbinder in the country. 

It was about noon when we crossed over. Our old 
woman at the house had told us of another good woman 
who lived at this place, named Fitie, from Cologne, and 
leeommended us to visit her, which we did as soon as we 
landed. We found her a little pious after the manner of 
tiie country, and you could discover that there was some- 
thing of the Lord in her, but very much covered up and 
defiled. We dined there and spoke to her of what we 
deemed necessary for her condition. She lias many grand- 
children, all of whom are not unjust. We continued our 
journey along a fine broad wagon road to t\w other village, 
called Bergen, a good half hour or three-quarters, inland 
from there, where the villagers, who are most all Butch, 
received us well, and were rejoiced to see us. They 



156 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

inquired and spoke to us about various tilings. We also 
found there the cook v£ I he vessel in which we came over. 
lie was sick of the ship, and was stopping ashore with his 
relations here in order to recruit himself. He entertained 
us according- to his ability, and gave us some Hespaai 
(raccoon) to eat, a wild animal somewhat larger than a cat. 
It was very fat, and of a good flavor, almost like a pig. 
The skins of these animals arc good peltry, and are sent 
in great quantities to Europe. We had also some good 
cider. Our cook took a small walk with us over the 
country, and showed us the situation of the plantations 
around there, as he had lived there a long time, and con- 
sequently was acquainted with all these forms. The soil 
was very good, and indeed of the best that we had seen 
anywhere. This good ground was for the most part on the 
declivities of the hills, and so on below. The ' Slanyen 
Bergh (Snake's Hill) of which I had heard much, and 
which I had imagined to myself was a large projecting 
hill, lies close by and is only a small round hill ; and is so 
named on account of the numerous snakes which infest it. 
It stands quite alone, and is almost entirely encircled by 
the Xorth kil. 1 It is nothing but rocks and stones, with a 
little earth up above where a plantation could be formed. 
"We returned to the village by evening, and lodged with 
one Clacs JPrgnsen, who had brought us over the river. He 
had a good old mother, and also a brother living there. 
His other brothers were married, and lived in the same 
village. We conversed with these people about spiritual 
things, and had great enjoyment therein. We were entirely 
welcome. We slept upon some straw on the floor, and it 
was lucky for us that he sold blankets, some of which he 
used to cover us. We have nowhere, to my knowledge, 
seen or eaten finer apples. One kind was very large, fair, 



Hackingsack river. 



NO MINISTER AT BERGEN. 157 

;md of good taste, iifty-six of which only could be put in a 

!.>.;iped up bushel (schcj;<:l), that is, half a bag. Another 
variety, somewhat smaller, but not less fair in appearance, 
and of a better flavor, my comrade was acquainted with, 
and said they were called the Double Paradise. He acknow- 
ledged they were very delicate. 

28th, Saturday. Early this morning Claes prepared to 
cross over to the 31anJtatans, to carry to market some fine 
fat mutton from a sheep wdrich lie had killed the night 
before. He sold it for three cents (twee blanken) a pound, 
reckoned in Holland money and Amsterdam weight. It 
was rainy the whole morning, and it had stormed so hard 
in the night that we could not find a dry place in the house 
to lie in. We were apprehensive of hearing of some mis- 
fortune to the ships, especially two lying under JStaten 
island, one of which was Margaret's, and was bound for 
Holland. Claes was alarmed for his boat, in which we had 
to cross over; but going to the shore about eleven o'clock, 
he found it there, but half full of rain water. The mast 
which he had left standing was overboard, and to be looked 
for, but was afterwards found, and the mast bench and 
socket were out of their places, and in pieces. He had, 
therefore, some repairs to make. It cleared up gradually, 
and he resolved to cross over, which he was the more 
anxious to do, because he was going to bring back Domine 
Tessemaker, who had promised to come the next day and 
preach for them before his departure: for although there is 
a considerable congregation in this vicinity, and they are 
abundantly able to support a minister, they have none ; 
for it is not easy to obtain one, and there is no probability 
of their doing so as long as the country belongs to the 
English, though they intend to build a church next spring. 
For the present they have nobody except a uoorleser (clerk), 
who performs his service for them on Sundays, in the 
school house, where they assemble. They have, however, 



158 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

agreed With the minister of the city to administer there tin- 
Lord's Sapper three times a year, ibr which he receiiy* -. 
thirty bushels or fifteen bags of wheat. This service he 
performs on week-days, because lie cannot be absent from 
the city on Sundays, where he is the only minister. This 
Gmoenepaen is an arm of the main land on the west side 
of the Xorth river, beginning at Constable's Hook, directly 
opposite Staten island, from which it is separated by the 
Kil van Kol. On the east is the Xorth river; on the north 
the main land Tar on* or Haversttoo, or indeed Ilaelungsctck ; 
and on the west, the Xorth kil, which separates it from Xew 
Jersey and Elizabethtown. It is almost an hour broad, 
but has large salt meadows or marshes on the kil. It has 
many bays and inlets, and lies very commodiously for the 
inhabitants, because it is everywhere accessible by water 
from the city. The village of Bergen lies about in the 
middle of the tract, and has been reasonably strong in time of 
the war with the Indians} It has very fine farms which yield 
well. 

As we were about to cross, an Indian came up, who also 
desired to be carried over. He asked the skipper whether 
he might go over with him, who replied he had too much 
freight. " AYell/' said he, " I will pay you for that. How 



1 This passage is obscure. The origiual reads as follows : ITct dorp Ber- 
gen lefji omirenl op het midden van de streek, en <* redelijck vast geiceest in tyde 
xon oo <■■<>( ;h ,,,'tdt i.rilde. The Indian war here referred to was probably 
that of l<r>-">, when the Indians made a descent upon New Amsterdam, 
and after being driven from that city, crossed over to Pavonia, and 
destroyed the buildings, and killed or captured the inhabitants. &Calla- 
ghans J\~eio Xttherland, II, 290-1. When Bergen was first settled, is not 
positively known, but it was recognized as an existing vilhige by the 
director-general and council of New Xetherland in 1001. Taylor's Annals 
of tin Clash's of Bergen, 50-51. It would seem, therefore, to have been 
settled before the last mentioned year, and it may have been " reasonably 
strong ;'" that is, settled at the time Pavonia was burned. The word vast 
which we have rendered by strong, may, however, have another significa- 
tion. 






QUAKER FLEETING. I59 

inudh freight do the people give you ? " The skipper 

answered six cents in sccwan." c> Well then," said the 
Indian, " I will give you seven." This made us all laugh, 
because he valued himself less and bound himself to pay 
more than the others. We, therefore, took him with us. 
The river here is full four miles wide, and when it blows, 
especially from the north or northwest, there is some- 
times a rolling sea, making it dangerous to crossover, par- 
ticularly in small boats. While we were in the village of 
Bergen, a person came to us who was willing to take us up 
thrown the Nofihicest ML where we were inclined to eo, 
because Jaques of Long Island and his associates, had 
bought for a trifle, a piece of land there of twelve thousand 
woTfjcn 1 and he had related wonders to us about it; and that 
above his land, and above the falls which are more than an 
hour's distance from it, there was another tract still better, 
which was corroborated by almost every one, especially in 
Bergen, whose inhabitants were very well acquainted there, 
and some of whom had bought a large piece of land close 
by. The before mentioned tract was considered by them 
the best in all Xcw Netherlands We, therefore, did not 
reject the offer of this person, but only postponed it until 
a later opportunity, perhaps after our return from the South 
river. They said this piece of land was very large, and 
could be increased to twenty-five or thirty thousand Ytim-gm^ 
which the Indians were disposed to sell, and we could buy 
for a small price. When we reached home we showed our 
old people the apples which we had brought with us, and 



x Kmorgen is about two acres of laud. Smith, in his JUxtonj of Xao 
Jrney, 13®, alluding to the earliest settjeineuts on the Passaic river, says 
that above an island there belonging to Christopher Iloogland, of 
XewaBk, tvas " a large tract belonging to Jaques Cartelayne (Cortelyou) 
and partners, who now (1G82), made some settlement. These tracts 
Were within the jurisdiction of Newark." Cortelyou's purchase was at 
Ai|u;ickaiu»nk. 



160 



NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY 



thcv confessed that as long as they had lived hi the country, 
they had never scon any iiner or larger. 

29'/*, Swidwj. We had been last Sunday to hear the 
quakers, but the greater portion of them were on Long 
Island, so that nothing was done. My comrade had a 
mind to go again to-day, but I remained at home. After 
waiting two hours, he went to hear the episcopalians and 
then returned to the quakers, who had remained all this 
time sitting silent and gazhm He then took a walk 
out for a considerable time, and went back again and 
found them still in the same position. Being tired out, he 
would wait no longer, and came home. We went in 
the afternoon to sec Ephraim for the purpose of inquir- 
ing of him how soon our journey to the South river 
would commence, and whether we would have time first 
to take a trip to Aquakmon with the man from Bergen, 
of whom we have spoken above; but we did not find him 
at home. 

80//% Monday. "We went again this morning to speak to 
him. He said we would have time to go there, and allow- 
ing the utmost it might take us, he would still wait a 
day or two. We went immediately to Sajpokanikke, where 
(Gerrit) was engaged in building, whom we wished to ac- 
company us, because he knew several of those Indians and 
spoke their language, and because he had said all along 
that he wished to see the laud of his brother-in-law, since 
Jaques had promised him as much of it as he would culti- 
vate ; but we found him indisposed with a sore leg, and 
unable to go. Xeverthcless, we crossed over the river in 
the evening, at the same time the two ministers were 
returning, namely, Tesmnaker who preached there on 
Sunday as we have stated, and Niaoenhuise who had 
administered the Lord's Supper there to day. We went 
over with Clacs, and it was dark when Ave arrived at 
Qmoenepam. We followed Claes, who took us to his 



. 



A JOURNEY ABANDONED. 1(31 

[muse, where we were made Avelcome by his old. mother. 
\jv coi it rade went with Olaes, yet this evening, to see the 
mail who was to take us up the kil, so that in ease he 
hud any thing to make ready it might be done this even- 
ing. He said it would he noon before the tide would 
serve to-morrow and that lie had nothing else to do in the 
morning. We learned he was a most godless rogue, 
which caused us to be cautious in what we had to do with 
him. We conversed this evening with the old woman in 
whose house we slept, and this poor woman seemed to 
have great enjoyment and fruition, as did also her sons 
and others with. w T hom we occasionally conversed. It ap- 
peared, indeed, as if the Lord might have there the seed 
of the elect, which he will bring forth in his own time, if it 
] (lease him. Truly these are the best people whom we 
have found in these parts. 

31s/, Tuesday, We went this morning to look about the 
country a little, which pleased us very much, and thus 
occupied ourselves until noon, when we proceeded to look 
after our «;uide and arrange matters with him. As soon 
as he came in the house, We inquired of him what he 
wanted for his trouble for the journey. lie demanded a 
cloth innocent or coat, and that not of the poorest. If is wife, 
who was the worst woman, I think, I have ever beheld in 
my life, did the best also to cheat us. We asked him 
what he thought such a coat would cost. "Well,* 5 said 
he, " call it a hundred guilders.'* We told him we did 
not intend to give so much, lie replied, "I cannot take 
h'ss for so long a time.*' "And how long do you expect 
to be gone," we asked. "You must not, ''he said, "think 
of being back before "Monday.** We then asked him how 
much he demanded a day, and he said eight guilders. 
VVe made an agreement with him for seven guilders a 
day, that is, twenty-eight stuivcrs, Holland money. We 
then started to get some provisions, which the old woman, 
21 



102 NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY 



where we slept} bad efieerfully given us; but we tool 
nothing, except two half loaves of rye bread, and some 
apples in our traveling bag, but tins Dirck provided hini- 

self better for making the journey. "When we were ready, 
we went over the salt meadow or marsh to the kil, which 
was full an half an hour's distance; but when we came to 
the canoe, the ebb tide was still running strong;, and we 
required the flood. The canoe lay in a bend of a small 
creek, and it was impossible to get it out of this bight and 
over the mire, except at high water, which would not take 
place until evening. We were, therefore, brought to a 
stand, whether to proceed in the evening, to which we 
were not much inclined, or await until the next morning, 
which was too much of a tlelav in view of our iournev to 
the south. "We had, besides, felt some misgivin es in our 
hearts on account of the godlessncss of the person who 
was to conduct us. We saw that the Lord plainly shewed 
what we had to do, and we, therefore, abandoned the trip, 
and told him we had not so much time to lose, and should 
embrace another opportunity. He cursed and swore at 
those who laid told him the tide would serve at noon. In 
truth he laid not been careful and had nobody to blame 
but himself. We were glad we were rid of him. We 
gave our apples and bread back to the old woman, who, as 
well as all the \ 11 lagers, who heard we were not going up, 
were rejoiced, and declared we would not have been 
satisfied. Afterwards, several others offered their services 
to accompany us by land, either on foot or horseback, or 
otherwise, and go with us themselves, which we did not 
reject, but only postponed until we should see what the 
Lord would do in his time. # 

We went immediately to the strand to see whether we 
could still cross over to the other side; but Claes had left 
for the city, and du{ not return until evening, and there 
was no other boat. We were, therefore, compelled to 



DELAYS IN LEAVING FOR THE SOUTH. 163 

lYftMi-n; feftt, in the meantime, we visited the before 
mentioned Fytie, where we met several Indians, who liyec] 

up m and owned the very land we had intended to visit. 
Tiiey had heard we had gone up to look at their land, and 
wondered at seeing- us back there. They manifested 
pleasure at our wishing to visit them, and examine their 
land; shook hands with us, and said we were great 
and good riiiaps. They were in hopes we would come 
and live on their lands, where we would always he good 
vt'taps. Meanwhile Claes having arrived, we went hack 
with him to Bergen, and passed the night again at his 
house. 

November 1st, Wednesday. As soon as Claes had taken 
his freight on board, we crossed over with him to the city. 
Our old people where we lodged were glad we had not 
gone with that person, for they also knew him well. About 
noon Claes came to the house, wishing: to buy something; 
of us, which he did. We presented him and the good 
people of this place with The Ckristkm Pmicipk$ 9 l in Low 
Dutch, because we hoped, after what we had seen, it 
would serve for their instruction and edification, and the 
glory of God, who will bring forth the fruits thereof in 
his own time if it please him. 

2d, ThXrSday. This day, and for the rest of the week, 
nothing transpired worthy of note, except we informed 
Kphraim that our trip was not to take place, and therefore 
he need not wait on our account. I have wished several 
times that I could sketch in order to employ the art some- 
times when it might be serviceable, especially upon this 
voyage. I, therefore, have practised it some, because it was 
convenient, and I thought I succeeded in it reasonably 
well, but I have done it, without any regularity or assi- 
duity, and only to amuse myself occasionally. 



1 A publication of the Labadists. 



164 NTEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

Bth, Smdag. My comrade, who was exeYcismgTiimself in 
the English language, went again to hear the English 
minister preach. 

6th, Monday. "We went again to ascertain whether our 
journey to the South river would soon be undertaken ; for 
although this opportunity would suit us very well and we 
should not miss it, nevertheless the best time was passing ' 
by, and the winter was close at hand. There was a horse 
offered us elsewhere, which had to be taken to the South 
river; and a yacht also was ready to sail there. The time, 
therefore, was to be looked to ; and we went again to 
Ephraim, who assured us that he would not delay it longer 
than the ensuing Thursday. But we heard that Domino 
Tessemr/ker was going with him, by which we were entrap- 
ped, for it was one of the reasons why we did not leave 
with La Grange, who had now been gone fourteen days. 
that he always told us Domine Tessemaker and some 
other persons would accompany him. However, as the 
Lord had thus ordered it, we were glad to submit to his 
will, who always knows why he does thus and so. 

Nothing worth mention happened between this and 
Thursday. Meanwhile, however, Domine Tessemaker 
had abandoned the journey with Ephraim, and resolved 
to proceed by sea in the yacht or boat, in which he sailed 
the next day. Whether he had some special reasons for 
going by water we do not know, although we guessed so. 

o o *> "Co 

Ephraim had ordered a shallop or yacht, which was to 
land us at the Martians, and was to be ready, he said, 
Thursday evening or Friday morning without fail, but of 
that he would give us timely notice. VTe, therefore, re- 
mained at home until Friday morning, the 

10//*, when, as we did not see him, we went to ascertain 
the cause and why the journey was not begun. He said 
it was not his fault, but that his mother-in-law could not 
leave so soon, and he had given her time until uext Mon- 



LAWS OF THE PROVINCE IN DUTCH. 165 

ifciy, mid 1 ad, therefore, let the sloop make atrip. This 
t||<l |ioi please us very much, for our time was fast running 
jiw.iv, and we were able to aecomplish nothing. "We be- 
thought ourselves, therefore, whether we could not make 
ik»Hie progress, and as our Jaques (Cortejyou), had 
promised to show us the laws of the country, we deter- 
mined to go and see whether we could not abstract from 
them what we had to do therein before our departure. 
We both left about noon to go over to Long Island, and 
passed through Breakelen. and Vlacke Bos, over Nleu 
UytrecM on a large, fine wagon road to Najack, where we 
arrived about three o'clock. It had been very warm 
during the day, and we were all in a perspiration and 
fatigued. Jaques's wife bade us welcome, but he himself 
was in the fields. After we had rested ourselves and 
eaten something, we went outside upon the banks of this 
beautiful bay, to breathe a little air, and look at several 
vessels^ going and coming. In the meantime he came 
with his son to meet us. They had been to the fish fiiyck, 
which they had lying there upon the shore and out of 
which they had. taken at noon some fine fish, but at present 
the water was too high. Another of his sons had been 
out shooting, but had not shot anything : though the day 
before he had shot a woodcock and a partridge before the 
door of the house, which we must taste this evening with 
some other things. While we were standing there, the 
1'uyek was lifted again, from which they took out two fine 
bass, of a kind we had not yet seen. They are quite large, 
and of a good shape. They have seven black stripes on 
the body, extending from the head to the tail. "We eat of 
them also in the evening, and found them very fine, and 
had not yet tasted any better in the country. They were 
fat and hard, with a little of the flavor of the salmon. 
The game suited us very well. 

"We had much conversation together, and informed our- 
polves in relation to various matters. lie gave us some 



1GG NEW YORK AND ITS VICINITY. 

medicinal roots. lie also let u'a look at the laws, whi .-;, 
were written in a folio volume, but in very bad Dutch, lui 
they had been translated, from English into Dutch. As 
it was a large book, and we saw we could not copy it 
there, Ave requested him to let us take it home with us for 
that purpose, lie consented upon condition that if \vc 
left for the south, we would then deliver it to Lis brother- 
in-law, Gerrit, who intended to come over shortly, and 
would hand it to him. We lodged this night somewhat 
better than we had done before in the barn, for we slept 
in his dwelling, and could feel where we had slept. 

11//?, Saturday. As soon as we awoke we determined to 
return home and finish up some matters in the little time 
remaining. "We left, therefore, about eight o'clock, after 
taking some breakfast. He conducted us to Xew Utrecht. 
We lent him Led PenseeS de Pascal which we judged would 
be useful to him. We returned by the same roads as we 
came, and reached borne about eleven o'clock. We had 
observed that although the previous day Lad been pretty 
warm, the night had not only been frosty but ice Lad 
formed as thick as the back of a knife. We commenced 
at noon copying the most necessary laws, and afterwards 
the rest of them. 

12th, Sunday. We continued making extracts, and 
finished about the middle of the day all that we deemed it 
necessary to make, omitting minor matters pertaining to 
the duties of particular officers. What we copied were the 
laws and nothing else. 

13///, 3Ionday. We took care that Jacmes should receive 
the papers back again, and then went to see whether our 
journey with Ephraim would be made. We found the 
boat lying at the dock, laden with lire-wood, and that the 
day would necessarily be occupied in discharging, so that 
at the best, it could not be undertaken before the next 
day. The time was finally fixed for the journey for the 
next dav, and every thinsj was this da}* arranged. 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



14th, Tuesday. Haviug taken leave of all our acquaint- 
ances, we set off at ten o'clock, this morning, in company 
wish Ephraim, his wife, his wife's mother, two of her 
sisters*, and a young brother, who where to accompany her 
as far as PescoMeway* We stepped into the boat, where 
we found three horses, two quakers and another Englishman. 
We were not long in starting. The wind was from the 
west, which is a head wind for sailing to Adder Kol. 
The sky began to be heavily overcast, and the wind to 
freshen up more, so that we had to tack. Ephraim being 
afraid the wind might shift to the northwest, and blow 
hard, as it usually does when it is from that quarter, 
wished to return, and would have done so, if the skipper 
had not tried to go ahead more than he did. The tide 
nmning out, and the boat advancing but little, and being 
fearful of the flood tide, which would delay lis, if it did 
not drive us back, and as there was room to work with the 
rudder, I went and took hold of the tiller myself, and 
brought the boat, with the Hood tide, just within the point 
ot'Staten island, where we found a ketch bound for Adder 
Kol, and further up to the Slangcnbcrgh. Having now the 
tide with us, we tacked about, 'and quickly passed by the 
St-httUer's island, lying in the mouth of a kil, on the north 
side of the Kil adder Kd. This island is so called, because 
the butch, when they first settled on the North river, 



1 Kil achU r K<>1, States island sound. 
' Newark bay. 



M 






168 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

were in the practice of corning here to shoot wild geese 
and other wild fowl, which resorted there in great number*. 
This kil, 1 when the water is high, is like a large river, 
but at low water, it is dry in some places. Up above it - 
divides itself into two branches, one of which runs about 
north to the Slangmbcrgh and Ackingsak ; and the other 
called the Xorthwest kil, because it extends in that 
direction, runs to Aquaketwm, of which we will speak 
hereafter. "We sailed inside of Schutter's island, although 
the passage is very small, and thus obtained the in-running 
current; because, the flood tide which came from Aeht&r 
Ko!, 2 and that from the Xorth river, strike each other 
here, and thus shoot together in this kil. "With much effort 
we reached the point of Elizabeth's kil, where we were 
compelled to come to anchor, at four o'clock. We all 
went ashore, and lodged for the night in the house of the 
French people, of whom we have spoken before, and who 
were not yet rid of the suspicion they had conceived, not- 
withstanding the declarations we had made to the contrary. 
We all slept on the floor, and supped upon what we had 
brought with us. We were no sooner in the house, than it 
began to rain and blow hard from the northwest, and to 
be very cold. We saw herein the good providence of the 
Lord airain, whom we had so many times, during our 
journeying, so visibly perceived, watching and protecting 
so faithfully those who cared for nothing, except for him 
and to do his will. 

15//', Wednesday. It still blew stiff out of the northwest, so 
that our skipper had little disposition to weigh anchor and 
get under sail, especially with the horses on board, although 
we would have willingly proceeded. It was, therefore, 
determined that the horses should go by land with the 






WOODBRIDGE. PISCATAWAY. 109 

servant und brothel" of Ephraim, and the qraakers resolved 
to do the same. The rest of the company went on board 
(he boat, and after taking in a large reef, we got under 
nail, with a bead wind, but ebb tide. It blew bard and 
squally, and we bad to look out well, with sheets in band. 
We made good progress, and came to Smokers Ilocck, 
which is about half way of Kil adder Kol. We came to 
anchor here, because the next reaeb was directly against 
the wind, and it blew too hard to tack. We all stepped 
ashore here, and went on foot to an English village called 
Woodbridge, where Ave should find the horses. Smoker's 
Hook is the easterly point of the kil, which runs up to 
Woodbridge, and we would have sailed up this creek, but 
it was ebb tide. We passed over reasonably fair and good 
land, and observed particularly fine salt meadows on the 
creek, on which there was built a good grist mill, and over 
which we had to cross. We arrived about noon or one 
o'clock, at this English village. Ephraim, not wishing to 
go with his family to the ordinary tavern, went to another 
house or tavern, where he bad been many times before, 
and where the people were under some obligations to him. 
But he could not lodge there now ; and we were, therefore, 
compelled to go to the common tavern, which was full of 
persons, sitting drinking, and where nothing was to be 
obtained except that vile rum. Nevertheless, we had to 
pass the day there, waiting for the boat and the baggage; 
but these did not come up to-day, in consequence of the 
hard wind. We had, therefore, to lie down here upon the 
ground all together, on a little hay, as we had done last 
night. 

16$, Thursday. The weather moderated and it cleared 
up, but we had to wait till about noon, before the goods 
arrived from the boat, which the skipper had to bring up 
m a canoe, because the boat could not come. We obtained 
here another horse, making live horses we had, and 

99 



170 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



another Servant of Ephraim. "We then dined, and polite! v 
took our leave of Madam Van Burgh, the mother of 
Ephraim's wife, and of her two sisters, who had come to 
conduct her as far as here, and from here were to return 
home again in the same "boat, but the little brother went 
with us to the south, to live with Ephraim. It was then 
about three o'clock, when we mounted the horses, namely, 
Ephraim and his wife upon the best one, my comrade and 
myself each upon the one we had obtained at Woocl- 
bridge, his brother and servant on one, and the other 
servant upon another. Our horses, like the riders, were 
very poor. We proceeded on, however, and about four 
o'clock arrived at Bmeatkway, the last English village hi 
"New Jersey, for thus the government of my Lord Carteret 
is called : which begins on the west side of the Xorth 
river, and extends about half way to the South river, 
though this division did not seem to me to be well made. 
We rode about two English miles thrown Pescatteway, 
to the house of one Mr. Greenland, 1 who kept an ordinary 
(tavern) there. We had to pass the night here, because 
it was the place of crossing the Millstone river, which 
they called the falls. Close by there, also, was the dwel- 
ling of some Indians, who were of service to this Mr. 
Greenland, in many tilings. We were better lodged and 
entertained here, for we slept upon a good bed, and 
strengthened ourselves against the future. 

IT///, Friday* As the water was high in the kil or 
Millstone river, Ephraim would not ride over the tail, on 
account of the current of water, which made it dangerous. 
He, therefore, determined after breakfast we should be set 
across in a canoe, and the horses should swim across, as 
they did. "We reached the other side about nine o'clock, 
and proceeded on horseback. The road from here to the 



1 See Whitehead?* Early History of Perth Amhoy, dbc., 403. 






ROCKY ITILL. FALLS OF THE DELAWARE. 171 

ftlh of the South river. Kins for the most part "\v. S. W., 
■ .i ibeti W. it Is nothing but a foot-path for men and 
ln.i'rstfri-, between the trees and through the small shrubs, 
although we came to places where there were large plains, 
U».«et witn a few trees, and grown over with long grass, 
which was not the worst. When you have ridden a piece 
of the way, you can see over the lands of the Xevesink, 
far off on the left hand, into the ocean, affording a fine 
view. 1 The land we rode over was neither the host, nor 
the worst. The woods consist of reasonably straight oak 
and hickory, with some chestnut, but they are not very 
close. They would, therefore, afford tolerably good tillable 
!;>.nd; but we observed ihe best pieces lay here and there, 
along the creeks. We saw many deer running before us, 
out of the road, sometimes R\o or six together, starting 
off at the sound of the horses. When about halfway, you 
come to a high, but very rocbj Mil, which is very difficult 
for man or beast to walk upon. After crossing it, you 
come to a large valley, the descent to which, from this hill, 
is very steep, by a very shrubby road; and you must 
dismount, in order to lead your horses down carefully, as 
well as to descend carefully yourselves. We were in the 
middle of this valley, when a company met us on horse- 
hack, from the South river. They were acquaintances of 
Kphraim, and some of them were his relations. They 
wished each other welcome, and mutually inquired after 
various matters, after which we separated, exchanging one 
»f our horses, which Ephrainrs brother rode, and was to 
be sent back to the Manathcms, for one of theirs, which 
must return to the South river. We rode on a little 
further, and came to Millstone river again, which runs so 
crookedly, that vou cross it at three different places. After 



1 The hi-hlamL of Xevesink are 281 feet above the level of the sea, at 
Ibeii highest point. 



172 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



we crossed it now, we took the bridles from the horses, in 
order that they EtUght eat something, while we sat (low u ; , | 
dined together, upon what we had in our traveling bags. 
"We remounted in about an hour, and rode on, continuing 
our way and course as "before. About three o'clock \vc 
came again to Millstone river, which we again waded 
over, but it had gradually become smaller. Resuming 
our route, we arrived at the foils of the South river about 
sundown, passing a creek where a new grist-mill wa3 
erected by the quakers, who live hereabouts in great 
numbers, and daily increase. But it seemed to us as if 
this mill could not stand long, especially if the flow of 
water were heavy, because the work was not well arranged. 
"We rode over here, and went directly to the house of the 
person who had constructed it, who was a quaker, where 
we dismounted, and willingly dismissed our horses. The 
house was very small, and from the incivility of the 
immates and the unfitness of the place, we expected poor 
lodgings. As it was still daylight, and we had heard so 
much of the falls of the South river, or, at least, we 
ourselves had imagined it, that we went back to the river,- 
in order to look at them; but we discovered we had 
deceived ourselves in our ideas. We had supposed it was 
a place, where the water came tumbling clown in great 
quantity and Puree from a great height above, over a rock 
into an abyss, as the word falls would seem to imply, and 
as we had heard and read of the falls of the Xorth river, 
and other rivers. But these falls of the South river are 
nothing more than a place of about two English miles in 
length, or not so much, where the river is full of stones, 
almost across it, which are not very large, but in conse- 
quence of the shallowness, the water runs rapidly and 
breaks against them, causing some noise, but not very 
much, which place, if it were necessary, could be made 
navigable on ono side. As no Europeans live above the 



SHINGLED HOUSES. BURLINGTON. 173 

falK they may so remain. This miller's house is the. 
• t up the river, hitherto inhabited, 1 (ere we had to 
|» M j«*e; and although we were too tired to eat, we had to 
rvmairi sitting upright the whole night, not being able to 
find room enough to lie upon the ground. We had a fire, 
however, but the dwellings are so wretchedly constructed, 
that if you are not so close to the lire as almost to burn 
vourself, you cannot keep warm, for the wind blows 
through them everywhere. Most of the English, and 
many others, have their houses made of nothing but 
clapboards, as they call them there, in this manner: they 
first make a wooden frame, the same as they do in "West- 
phalia, and at Altona, but not so strong; they then split 
the boards of clapwood, so that they are like cooper's 
pipe staves, except they are not bent. These are made very 
thin, with a large knife, so that the thickest end is about 
a pinek (little finger) thick, and the other is made sharp, 
like the edge of a knife. They are about five or six feet 
long, and are nailed on the outside of the frame, with the 
ends hipped over each other. They are not usually laid so 
dose together, as to prevent you from sticking a finger 
between them, in consequence cither of their not being 
well joined, or the boards being crooked. When it is cold 
and windy the best people piaster them with clay. Such 
are most all the English houses in the country, except 
those they have which were built by people of other 
nations. Kow this house was new and airy; and as the 
night was very windy from the north, and extremely cold 
with clear moonshine, I will not readily forget it. Ephraim 
and his wife obtained a bed; but we passed through the 
night without sleeping much. 

18th) Sattfrday. About ten o'clock, after we had break- 
fasted, we stepped into a boat, in order to proceed on our 
journey down the river. The ebb tide was half run out. 
Although there is not much flood tide here, as it is stopped 



174 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

by the falls, yet, the water rises and falls with the ebb or 
flood, or, through the ebb or Hood, because, the water, 
although it runs down, increases through the flood, in 
consequence of its being forced up, and is diminished with the 
ebb, because the ebb gives it so much the more course to run 
down. We went along, then, moving with the tide ; but 
as Ephraim was suffering with the quartan ague, and it was 
now its time to come on, we had to go and lie by the banks 
of the river, in order to make a fire, as he could not 
endure the cold in the boat. This continued for about an 
hour and a half. The water was then rising, and we had to 
row against the current to Burlington^ leaving the island of 
Maiinakonky lying on the right hand. This island, formerly, 
belonged to the Dutch governor, who had made it a 
pleasure ground or garden, built good houses upon it, and 
sowed and planted it. He also dyked and cultivated a 
large piece of meadow or marsh, from which he gathered 
more grain than from any land which had been made from 
woodland into tillable land. The English governor at the 
Ilcmaihans, now held it for himself, and had hired it out to 
some Quakers, who were living upon it at present. It is 
the best and largest island in the South river; and is about 
four English miles in leim-th, and two in breadth. It lies 
nearest to the east side of the river. At the end of this 
island lies the quakers? village, Burlington, which east side 
of the river the qunkers have entirely in their possession, 
but how they came into its possession, we will show in 
another place. Before arriving at this village, we stopped 
at the house of one Jacob Hendricks , from Holstein, living 
on this side, lie was an acquaintance of Ephraim, who 
would have gone there to lodge, but he T was not at home. 
We, therefore, rowed on to the village, in search of 
lodgings, for it had been dark all of an hour or more; but 






1 Burlington island, formerly also called Cliygoe's island. It contains 
about 300 acres of laud. 



LOG HOUSES. QUAKER LEARNING. 175 

n'roeeed&ig a little further, we met this Jacob Hendricks, in 
., canoe with liny. As we were now at the village, we 
went up to the ordinarv tavern, but there were no lodgings 
to be obtained there, whereupon we reembarked in the 
boat, and rowed back to Jacob Hendricks', who received 
us very kindly, and entertained us according to his ability. 
The house, although not much larger than where we were 
the last night, was somewhat better and tighter, being 
made according to the Swedish mode, and as they usually 
build their houses here, which are block-houses, being 
nothing else than entire trees, split through the middle, or 
squared out of the ro'ugh, and placed in the form of a 
square, upon each other, as high as they wish to have the 
house; the ends of these timbers are let into each other, 
about a foot from the ends, half of one into half of the 
other. The whole structure is thus made, without a nail 
or a spike. The ceiling and roof do not exhibit much 
liner work, except among the most careful people, who 
have the ceiling planked and a glass window. The doors 
are wide enough, but very low, so that you have to stoop 
in entering. These houses are quite tight and warm ; 
but the chimney is placed in a corner. My comrade and 
myself had some deer skins, spread upon the floor to lie 
on, and we were, therefore, quite well off, and could get 
some rest. It rained hard during the night, and snowed 
and froze, and continued so until the 

10///, Sd/ulatj, and for a considerable part of the day, 
affording little prospect of our leaving. At noon the 
weather improved, and Ephraim having something to do 
at Burlington, we accompanied him there in the boat. 
We went into the meeting of the (makers, who went to 
work very unceremoniously and loosely. What they 
uttered was mostly in one tone, and the same thing, and 
>o it continued, until we were tired out, and went away. 
We tasted here, for the first time, peach brandy, or spirits, 



176 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

which was very good, hut would hnve been hotter if it h;u] 
been more carefully mitde, Ephraim remained there I! i 
the evening, and we returned hack to our former lodging, 
where we slept on a good hed, the same that Epraim ami 
Ids wife had the night before. This gave us great comfort, 
and recruited us greatly. 

20th, Monday. AY e went again to the village this morning, 
and entered the ordinary exhorters' house, where we 
breakfasted with quakers, but the most wordly of men in 
all their deportment and conversation. We found lying 
upon the window a volume of Virgil, as if it were a common 
band-book, and also Helmont's hook on Medicine 1 , whom, 
in an introduction, which they hnve made to it, they make 
pass for one of their sect, although in his life time he did 
not know any thing about quakers; and if they had been 
in tbe world, or should have come into it, while he lived, 
he would quickly have said, no, to them; but it seems 
these people will make all those who have had any genius, 
in any respect, more than common, pass for theirs; which 
is certainly great pride, wishing to place themselves far 
above all others ; whereas, the most of them, whom I have 
seen as yet, are miserably self-minded, in physical and 
religious knowledge. It was almost noon before we left. 
The boat in which we had come as for as there with its 
owner, who intended to return in it, was exchanged for 



■ 



1 Jean Baptiste van Hehnont, born in Brussels, in 1577; died in Holland 
in 1644. lie was a distinguished alchemist and physician, and after studying 
different systems of medicine, old and new, came to the conclusion that 
wisdom in that science and in others, was to be acquired by prayer. He 
was the lirst person to designate the elastic fluids, other than air. by the 
term gas. The result.- of Ins treatment of patients committed to his charge, 
may not be peculiarity his own ; but it is acknowledged by his biographer, 
that the sick never languished in his hands, being always killed or cured 
in three d;>ys. The work <>f bis, on medicine, referred to in our text, was 
probably his, Ortits Mediviiwe, id est, initio, phi/ska iiiaitdita, progressus 
mediciruh nor us in m&rbomm, ultionem ad vitam lorxjaia. Amsterdam, 1015. 



TACONY. TINICUM ISLAND. 177 

another, belonging to Upland, of winch a quaker was 
Blaster, who was going down with sevejja] others of the 
same class; but as it was half ebb tide, and the shallop 
was lying far up in the mud, no one of these zealous 
people was willing to bring her through it, into the 
water. Epbraim, in order to get started, and to shame 
them, did not hesitate long, and followed by his servant 
and both of us, very soon had the boat afloat in the water. 
Pursuing our journey, we arrived about two o'clock at the 
house of another quaker, on the west side of the river, 
where we stopped to eat our dinner and dry ourselves. We 
left there in an hour, rowing our best against the flood tide, 
until, at dark, we came to Takmiij, a village of Swedes and 
Fins, situated on the west side of the river. Ivphraim 
being acquainted, and having business here, we were all 
well received, and slept upon a parcel of deer skins. 
"We drank very good beer here, brewed by the Swedes, 
who, although they have come to America, have not 
left behind them their old customs. 

21st, Tuesday : The tide falling, we set out with the day, 
and rowed during the whole ebb and part of the flood, 
until two or three o'clock, when we arrived at the island 
of Tynakonk (Tinicum), the fifth we had passed. Mantinq- 
konll and this Tuiakonl;, are the principal islands, and the best 
and the largest. The others are of little importance, and 
some of them, whose names we do not know, are all 
meadow and marsh, others are only small bushes. The 
pleasantest thing about them is, they afford an agreeable 
view and a variety to the traveler, and a little diccrtisscment 
to those who go up and down the river: also some 
conveniences for fishing in the river, and other accommo- 
dations for the planters. 

This Tinoskonk, is the island of which M. Arnout de la 
Orange had said so much; but we were much disappointed 
in comparing it with what he had represented, and what 



178 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



M. In Motte has written about it. The first mistake is in 
the name, which is not Matinakouk - — the name probably o\ 
the inland of which we have spoken before, but Tinukonk. 
It lies on the west side of the river, and is separated from 
the west shore, not as lie said, by a wide running branch 
of the river, as wide as the Eemster, near Amsterdam, but 
by a small creek, as wide as a large ditch, running' through 
a meadow. It is long and covered with bushes, and inside 
somewhat marshy. It is about two miles long, or a little 
more, and a mile and a half wide. Although there are not 
less miles than he said, lie did not say they were English 
miles, which are only one-fourth the length of Dutch 
miles, of fifteen to a degree. The southwest point, which 
only has been and is still cultivated, is barren, scraggy and 
sandy, growing plenty of wild onions, a weed not easily 
eradicated. On this point three or four houses are standing, 
built by the Swedes, a little Lutheran church made of logs, 
and the remains of the large block-house, which served 
them in place of a fortress, with the ruins of some log 
huts. This is the whole of the manor. The best and 
pleasantest quality it has, is the prospect, which is very 
agreeable, and one of the principal things for which Mons. 
la Motte recommends it, namely, belle vklere. I have made 
a sketch of it, according to my ability. But as to there 
being a mine of iron ore upon it, I have not seen any upon 
that island, or elsewhere ; and if it were so, it is of no great 
importance, for such mines are so common in this country, 
that little account is made of them. Although Ephraim 
had told us every thing in regard to the condition of the 
land, as well as the claim which Mons. de la Grange makes 
to it, yet Ave ourselves have observed the former, and 
have ascertained the latter, from a person who now resides 
there, which is as follows: "WTien the Swedish colony was 
flourishing under its own government, this island belonged 
a lord Papcgay (Papegoia), the Swedish governor, who 















FORT NEW GUTTEX15URGII. A LAWSUIT. 179 

lived upon it, and cultivated it, the church and the fort, 
ctill existing there as monuments to prove the fact. 
Although the Swedes have had fortresses, from time to 
time, in several other places, at this time, this was called 
New Gotimburgli. This governor died, leaving a widow; 
and she, Madam Papegay^ sold the island, which was then 
wry Nourishing, to the father of de la Grange, for six 
thousand guilders, in the money of Holland, though the 
person who now lives upon it says it was seven thousand 
guilders, to be paid in several installments, here in Xew 
X.'therland. Some of the first payments were duly made 
by de la Grange, but the last two, I think, he was not so 
ready to make, as he had to procure the money from 
Holland, and that, I know not why, did not come. There- 
upon Mons. de la Grange, determined to go to Holland, 
himself, and bring the money with him; but he died on 
the voyage, and the payments were not made. It remained 
so for a long time, and, at length, the widow Papegay, 
cited the widow de la Grange, before the court, claiming 
as her right, payment in full, or restitution of the land, as 
do la Grange had been in possession of the land for some 
years, and had enjoyed the profits, and the time for the last 
payment had also expired some years before. In the mean 
time comes one Mons. la Motte, who it seems was to 
assist Madam de la Grange, either bv discharging the debt, 
or by defending the suit, and in order the better to do so, 
he buys the island from the widow de la Grange, seeking 
her also in marriage. But as Madam Papegay persevered, 
and the affair of Mons. la Motte, and the widow de la 
Grange, came to nothing, and on the other hand the 
widow de la Grange could not deliver the land to M. la 
Motte, and la Motte could not pay. The widow de la 
Orange was, therefore, condemned to restore the island to 
Madam Papegay, and pay her costs, and also to pay the 
income which she had received from the island, for the 



180 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



time, she Lad lived upon it, and for the buildings whir] i 
she had allowed to go to waste. Madam de la Grange, 

conceiving this decree to he unjust, appealed to the high 
court — the country having in the mean time "been taken 
by the English — and was again condemned, and therefore, 

had to deliver up the land. Xow, in this last war with 
Sweden, Madam Papegay, who has two brothers in Sweden, 
in the service of the crown, was sent for by them to conn* 
home, whereupon, she sold the island to Mr. Otto Kaif 1 a 
Ilolsteiner, who now lives upon it, for fifteen hundred guild- 
ers in zccicont, as it was very much decayed and worn out. 
This is three hundred guilders in the money of Holland. 
Hereupon, Madam Papegay delivered full possession 
thereof, to this Otto. ISTow, M. Arnout de la Grange, as 
heir of his father, when he was here last year, laid claim to 
the island from Mr. Otto, who told him he did not know 
him in the matter, and if M. de la Grange had any lawful 
claim, he must not apply to him, but to the court, as his 
possession was under its judgment; but if M. de la Grange 
wished to buy it from him, he would let him have it for 
three hundred pounds sterling, or as they might agree. 
"Whereupon, de la Grange flew into a passion, and threatened 
to appeal to London. " That you can do," said Otto, 
" if you have money enough. All this affects me not, 
since I have bought and paid for it, and have been put in 
possession of it by order of the court.'' De la Grange has 
not proposed to purchase the island again of Mr. Otto, 
although he could do it very favorably, notwithstanding 
Mr. Otto asked so much for it. Ephraim told me that Mr. 
Otto had said to him, confidentially, that in case he could 
obtain for it what it had cost him, he would let it go, as he 
had other land lying elsewhere, and that he had asked so 
much for it, merely to hear what he (de la Grange) would 









1 Otto Ernest Koch or Kock. ITc was one of the justices on the Delaware. 



A FAMOUS QUAKERESS. 13] 

hay, ntul in order to scare him. Should you lay out three 
hundred guilders in Holland lor merchandise, and sell it 
here, which usually yields an hundred per cent profit, or is 
so reckoned in barter, you could have this island almost 
for nothing, or at least for very little. But there is better 
land to be bought cheaper. Pe la Grange has let this slip 
by, and it seems as if he had not much inclination to stir 
the subject any more. He has given me to understand 
that he disregards it, or at least regards it as little now, as 
he formerly prized and valued it; as indeed he shows, for 
lie has now bought land on Christina creek, consisting of 
two or three old plantations, which, perhaps, are not much 
better than this island, and cost him enough. He has 
obtained another piece from the governor, lying between 
Burlington and the falls, on the west side, but will not 
accomplish much with it, I forgot to mention that de la 
Grange, four years ago when he was in Holland, gave one 
Mr. Peter jLldrjx, who now resides on the South river, 
and is one of the members of the court, authority to make 
this man, Otto, deliver the island to him, which Aldrix 
refused, and advised him that he was well assured he could 
not accomplish any thing with it. Yet to satisfy la Grange 
he laid the matter before Mr. Otto, who <rave him the same 
answer he had given la Grange. As I understand and 
have heard, la Grange bases his claim under the English 
Law, that the son is the heir of the father's possessions: but 
the possession of the father being disputed, and ho himself 
disinherited by two courts, the claim is null and of no value. 1 



1 The accuracy of this long statement in regard to Tinicum, its settlement 
and fortification by the Swedes, and the dispute as to the title, is not less 
remarkable than its minuteness. Much of the detail given here is new, 
but many of the leading points are corroborated by the records of the. 
country, and by judicious writers, early and late, and entire confidence is 
t'->tablished, therefore, in the whole account. The reader may consult 



182 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

When wo arrived at tin's island, tve were welcomed hv 
Mr. Otto, late meeHcu8,'Ka& entertained at his house accord- 
ing to his condition, although he lives poorly enough. Iti 
the evening there also arrived three qnakcrs, of whom one 
was their greatest prophetess, who travels through the 
whole country in order to quake. She live? in Maryland, 
and forsakes husband and children, plantation and all, ami 
goes off for this purpose. She had been to Boston, and 
was there arrested by the authorities on account of her 
quakery. This worthy personage came here in the house 
where we were, although Ephraim avoided her. They sat 


Campanius by Uu Pora-e>uj., 79; Aerelius, 35-6; Clay's Annals, 23-5; 
Ferris s Original Settlement on the Delaware^, 61; Record of Upland Court, 
152-3; Dr. Smith's JUst. of Delaware Co., Pec, 58, 97, 110,123, 145,519; 
and Hazard's AnuaU of Pa., 400-1. Two last named writers give us 
some minutes of the trial in the suit of Madam Papegay, against Madam 
de la Grange, then the wife of Andrew Carr, which took place in New 
York, in October, 1672, and lasted three days. We also learn from the 
same authorities that the controversy in relation to Tinicum, did not end 
there, as our journalist supposed it would. Three or four years after he 
wrote the above account, a suit was brought by M. Arnout or Arnoldus 
de la Grange, against Mr. Otto Ernest Cock, for the possession of the 
island, the plaintiff claiming as heir-at-law of his father, and setting forth 
that at the time of the former trial he was under age, and in Holland, and, 
therefore, could make no defense; and that he was not a party to the 
action which was commenced against Andrew Carr and Priscilla, his 
wife mistaken in the execution for the plaintiffs mother, who^e name was 
Margaretta. The parlies entered into an agreement, however, pending the 
trial, in accordance with which the jury rendered their verdict in favor of 
M. de la Grange, with costs and forty shillings damages, " the plaintiff 
paying to the defendant thirty-seven pounds and ten shillings, and also 
delivering the hlpck-house and timbers in the same agreement mentioned." 
The last trial took place before the court at Chester, under the jurisdiction 
of William Penn, who had in the meantime obtained the grant of 
Pennsylvania. Madam Papegay was the daughter of Governor Print/., 
the second governor of the Swedish settlements, on the Delaware, who 
returned to Sweden in 1003, leaving his son-in-law John Papegay or 
Papegoia in charge of the place, who was superseded on the arrival ^ 
Governor Rising, in May, 1054. 



CHESTER. A DISPUTE. I33 

| -., the lire, and drank a dram of rum -with each other,and 
• ;: short time afterwards beg^n to sLiiku and groan so, 
thai we did not know what had happened, and supposed 
they were going to preach, but nothing came out of it. I 
could not endure them, and went out of doors. They left 
for Upland, wMch is three or four miles from there on the 
same side of the river, in the same boat in which we came. 
2'2d, Wednesday. It was rainy all this day, which gave us 
sufficient time to explore the island. We had some good 
cider which he had made out of the fruit from the remains 
of an old orchard planted by the Swedish governor. The 
persons of whom we have before spoken, having left for 
Upland, Ephraim did not wish to go there because he 
thought they would preach ; and it being rainy, and no fit 
boat at hand, we remained here the whole day. "We saw 
an ox as laro'e as they have in Friesland or Denmark, and 
also quite fat — a species of which we have observed more 
among the Swedes, and which thrive well. It clearing up 
towards evening, we took a canoe and came after dark to 
Upland. This is a small village of Swedes, although it is 
now overrun by English. We went to the house of the 
(piaker who had brought us down, and carried the other 
persons from Tinakonk. His name w T as Robert "William- 
son or Wecrf. 1 We found here the prophetess or apostle-ess, 
with her company. Among others, there were two 
widows, who were at variance, and whom the prophetess 
with all her authority and spiritual power could not recon- 
cile, or had not endeavored to do so. Thev would have 



1 Robert Wade is the person meant. He came over to this country in 
167I5, in company, it would seem, with John Fenwick, the early proprietor 
Mid settler in West Jersey, but leaving' his company, settled at Upland (now 
Chester), in the same year, upon land of Madam Papcgay, called Printz- 
dorp. His house was the one used for the meetings of the quakers. 
Siuith's History of DtU'Ararc County, 103, 134, 540. Itec&rd of Upland 
Court 7«). 



184 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

"been compelled to have gone before the court, unl< •■-. 
Eploaim had striven his best to make them adjust tin 
matter, and brought them to a settlement. One of thes* 
widows, named Anna Sailers, lived at Takany, and was on<- 
of those who, when a certain person gave himself out as 
the Lord Jesus, and allowed himself to be carried around 
on an ass, shouted llosanna as he rode over their garments, 
for which conduct he was arrested, his tongue bored through 
with a red-hot iron, and his forehead branded with a I>, 
for blasphemer. She was not only one of those, but she 
annointed his head and feet, and wiped them with her hair. 
The other widow, named Elizabeth, was also one of the 
principal persons. She lived a little lower down than 
'Takoney , on the same side of the river. The state of the 
difference between them was this. They had agreed 
between themselves to exchange or barter their planta- 
tions, and each made a writing and each kept her own. 
Anna Salters afterwards repented her bargain, and went to 
Elizabeth, and desired that each should take back the 
writing subscribed by her; but it so happened that Anna 
Salters went away, having given up hers, and the other 
not being then to be found. She had given hers to Eliza- 
beth, supposing she would afterwards obtain the other; but 
when she went again to demand it, Elizabeth said the 
paper had become wet, and in her attempting to dry it, was 
burnt up. It was believed that Elizabeth had the two 
writings m her possession, and consequently both planta- 
tions, which, they said, she wanted to sell privately. 
Whereupon Anna called upon her to restore either the 
deed or the plantation. Elizabeth charged that Anna was 
indebted to her for a certain amount of tobacco, which she 
had taken to England for her, and of which she had never 
been able to obtain a correct account. It was really con- 
fusion and rascality. Elizabeth, who was a bad person, 
appealed always to some papers which she said she had not 



THE CASE SETTLED. PRJNTZDOItP. 185 

ivith hcti Ephrakn who was clerk of both the courts, 
namely, oi' I plaud and New Castle, 1 wrote down separately 
from the beginning the claims which they set up against 
* ach other, and decided that the plantations should be 
mutually restored, and the debts balanced, and he made 
them agree to it, although Elizabeth was very unwilling. 
fiobert Wade, who is the best quaker we have yet seen, 
and his wife, who is a good woman, were both troubled, as 
they said, as also was the prophetess, that, such things should 
take place among their people before strangers, and be 
settled through them, and when there were other strangers 
present. "Whereupon Ephraim said, " "Who do you sup- 
pose we are? Possibly we are as good Christians as you 
are.' ? And certainly he exhibited something more ehris- 
tianly in reconciling and pacifying them than they who 
brewed this work had done, or those who would be so very 
devout that they would neither speak to them authori- 
tatively nor admonish them with kindness to any effect. 
The Lord has caused us to see this example that we might 
know that these people are still covetous, and that almost 
all of them are attached to the world and to themselves — 
that is, they are worldly people, which shows the holiness 
of the spirit by which they are actuated! As regards 
Anna Saltcrs, it was said she was mundane, carnal, covetous, 
ami artful, although she appeared to be the most pious. 
Her saxings and discussions were continually mixed up 
with protestations of the presence and omniscience of 
God, and upon the salvation of her soul, so truly gross 
that if the ordinary boors had talked so, they would have 
been punished and expelled. l>ut what are not those people 
capable of, who present themselves to be carried away as 

1 Ephrarm Herman* av;is appointed " clerk of the court of Newcastle 
in Delaware, and of Upland in the river/V.hy Governor Amlros, on the 
ftW September, 1G7G. predate, Perm. vs. Calvert, 4.*i. 

24 



186 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

wo have mentioned above : as well as others in this country 
wbo ])ul»iis]i and declare one, that she is Alary the mother 
of the Lord; another, that she is Alary Magdalen, and 
others that they are Martha, -John, &e., seandalizers, as wu 

heard tliem in a tavern, who not only so called themselves, 
but claimed to he really such. For this reason, Mr. Wade 
would no longer have them in his house, making them 
leave, although it was well in the evening; for the Wades 
said they could not endure it. Indeed, God the Lord will 
not let that pass by, for it is not far from blasphemy, lie 
will bring them to justice, if they be of his elect. 

It was very late in the evening, in consequence of this 
dispute, before we supped and went to sleep. We were 
taken to a place to sleep directly before an open window, 
to which there was no shutter, so that it could not be 
closed, and as the night was very cold, and it froze hard, 
we could scarcely keep ourselves warm. 

2Sd, Tkarsd'uj. It was late before we left here, and we 
therefore had time to look around a little, and see the 
remains of the residence of Madame Papegay, who had 
had her dwelling here when she left Tinahonh. We had 
nowhere seen so many vines together as Ave saw here, which 
had been planted for the purpose of shading the walks on 
the river side, in between the trees. The dinner being 
ready, I was placed at the table next to the beforenamed 
prophetess, who while they all sat at the table, began to 
groan and quake gradually until at length the whole bench 
shook. Then rising up she began to pray, shrieking so 
that she could be heard as far as the river. This done, she 
was quickly in the dish, and her mouth began immediately 
to prate worldly and common talk in which .she was not the 
least ready. When the meal was finished, Ephraim 
obtained a horse for himself and his wife, and we followed 
him on foot, carrying our traveling bags. Our host took 
us to the path, and Lphrainrs servant was to act as our 






FORT CHRISTINA. NEWCASTLE. 187 

•vtiiclc. In traveling along we observe] the difference 
h tweeu i1l<j soil on the Kqrth river and this, and also that 
litis difterence was not so great as is usually asserted. 
A Jut we had proceeded about three hours, our guide 
missed the way, and we had gone a good distance before 
he became aware of it, and would have gone on still further 
if we had not told him that we thought the course we were 
/■>ing was wrong. We therefore left one road, and went 
straight back in search of the other which we at length 
found. A man overtook us who was going the same way. 
and we followed him. We crossed the Schiltpadts Ml 
(Tortoise or Turtle creek), where there was a fall of water 
av&f the rocks, affording a site for a grist-mill which was 
erected there. This ScMMpadis M is nothing but a branch 
or arm of Christina kit 1 into which it discharges itself, and 
is so named on account of the quantities of tortoises which 
are found there. Having crossed it we came to the house 
of the miller who- was a Swede or Holsteiner whom they 
usually call Tapoesie. lie was short in person, but a very 
friendly fellow. Ephraim had told us we would find him 
such as we did, for he had ridden there before us. He had, as 
it appeared, several well-behaved children, among whom 
was a little girl who resembled very much our little Judith 
in her whole countenance and figure, and was about the 
*ame age, and had she met us by our house, I should have 
considered her Judith. Her name was Anne Mary. We 
were welcome here, and were entertained according to the 
man's circumstances. 

:M/7>, Friday. Ephraim having some business here, we did 
u<>t leave very speedily. This miller had shot an animal they 
•-ill a ruuskrat, the skin of which we saw hanging up to dry. 
He told us thevwere numerous in the creeks. A\ r e asked 



■The Slielpot is evidently a corruption of this name, though probably the 
Nrnmlywiim is here meant. 



188 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

them why they gave them that name, and he said because 
they smelt so, especially their testicles, which he had pre- 
served of this one, and gave my comrade, remarking- thai 
they weje intended for some amateur or other, and he could 
do little with them. The muskrat is not larger than the 
common rat. It has gray hair, and the ileeee is sometimes 
sold with other peltries, hut it is not worth much, although 
it has some odor. It was about noon when we were scl 
across the creek in a canoe. We proceeded thence a small 
distance over land to a place where the fortress of Chris- 
tina had stood which had been constructed and possessed 
by the Swedes, but taken by the Dutch governor, Stay- 
vesant, and afterwards, I believe, demolished by the Eng- 
lish. We went into a house here belonging to some 
Swedes, with whom Ephraim had some business. "We 
were then taken over Christina creek in a canoe, and landed 
at the spot where Stuyvesant threw up his battery to attack 
the fort, and compelled them to surrender. At this spot 
there are manv medlar trees which bear o-ood fruit from 
which one Jaquet, who does not live far from there, makes 
good brandy or spirits, which we tasted and found even 
better than French brandy. Ephraim obtained a horse at 
this Jaqitefs, and rode on towards Safithoe k, now Xewcastlc, 
and we followed him on foot, his servant leading the way. 
We arrived about four o'clock at EphrainTs house, where 
we congratulated each other, and were glad, thanking the 
Lord in our hearts for his constantly accompanying grace. 
We found here the young brother of the wife with the ser- 
vant, who had come with the horses from the mils overland, 
and had been at the house several days. We also saw hen 1 
Ephraim's sister, Miss Margaret Hermans, who showed us 
Diu eh kindness She was a little volatile, but of a sweet 
and good disposition. She had been keeping house during 
the absence of Ephraim. Truly the Lord has in all these 
things been very good to us, for we knew not where to go. 



JOHN MOLL. PETER ALDUICIIS. 189 

nu<l he has directed iia among these people, who have done 
...,; of love what tlo-y have miowh us. \Ye knew not 
where to lodge, and he lias provided us lodgings where we 
wore so free and had, according to the eireumstanees of 
the time, what we desired. We hope and doubt not the 
Lord will visit that house in grace, and even gives us some 
assurances in what we have seen. 

25//*; Saturday. We rested a little to-day. Ephraim and 
Lis wife and we ourselves had several visits from different 
persons who came to welcome us, as lions. Jan 31oll? whom 
we had conversed within Xew York, and who now offered 
us his house and all things in it, even pressing them upon 
us. But we were not only contented with our pivsent eir- 
eumstanees, but we considered that we would not be doing; 
right to leave Ephraim's house without reason. We there- 
fore thanked him, but nevertheless in such a manner, that 
we took notice of his kindness, and answered accordingly. 



Olr. John Moll was a person of considerable distinction in the affairs 
of Newcastle and the Delaware, for many years. He was one of the jus- 
tices of the court at Newcastle during the whole period of the Duke of 
York's government, and was for some time its presiding justice. That 
court was an appellate tribunal from all the other courts on the river. He 
was named as commissioner in conjunction with Ephraim Hermans, in 
the deed of feoffment from the Duke of York to William Penn, to give 
possession and seisin of the town of Newcastle, and a circle uf land twelve 
miles around it, a duty whieh they performed. His account of the cere- 
mony is curious. He certifies that on the first arrival of Mr. Penn from 
England at Newcastle in October, 16621, and after considering for twenty- 
four hours the deeds whieh "Mr. Penn showed him from the Duke of York, 
we did ' ; by virtue of the powers given us by the said letter- of attorney, 
give and surrender in the Duke's name to Mr. Penn, actual and peaceable 
possession of the fort at Newcastle, by giving him the key thereof to lock 
upon himself alone the door; which, being opened by him again, we did 
deliver to him again also one turf, witlua twig np©n it, a porringer with 
river water and soil, in part of all that was specified in the said indenture 
and according to the true intent and meaning thereof." Brevmk, Penn vs. 
Calvert, 52-4-5. Hazard's Annals of Penn, 606-7. Our journalist subse- 
quently furnishes some particulars in relation to Mr. Moll and his family. 



190 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

Peter Aldrix 1 also showed us mueli attention, as did other* 

to all of whom we returned our thanks. We went out to 
view tliis little place, which is not of much moment, con- 
sisting of only forty or fifty houses. There is a fine pro. 
spect from it, as it lies upon a point of the river where I 
took a sketch. 

26th, Sunday. "We went to the church, but the minister, 
Tessemaker, who has to perform service in three places, 
over the river, Newcastle, and Apoquemene 2 was to-day 
over the river, and there was, therefore, nothing- done, 
except what was done by a poor limping clerk, as he was 
a cripple and poor in body. He read from a book a 
sermon, or short explanation, and sung and made a 
prayer, if it may be called such, and then the people went 
home. In the afternoon there was a prelection again 
about the catechism. 

. 2Tth, Monday. The weather was sharp and windy. "We 
had intended to proceed on our journey but we could not 
very well do so. My comrade had also been indisposed in 
the night. We therefore waited for the opportunity which 
the Lord would present. Meanwhile we had another visit. 
Ephraim advised us to wait a day or two until his brother, 
Casparns Hermans, whom he expected there, should arrive, 
and who would conduct us farther into Maryland. 

2$fh, TileMSJ. Little transpired while we were waiting 
to-day, except that we spoke to several persons of the way 
of the Lord, and particularly to the sister of Ephraim, 
Miss Margaret, who received with some favor what was 



1 Peter Aldricks or Alrichs was the nephew of Jacob Alrichs, first vice 
director of the colony established at New Amstel, afterwards Newcastle, 
by the city of Amsterdam, in lGoT, and probably came over with him. He 
was commissary at that colony at the time of the English conquest, and 
was subsequently appointed by Governor Colve, commander and sehout 
of the South river. His lands were confiscated by the English govern- 
ment. Ctfonud History, II, 111, 111 ; 111, llO. 

'Apoquinhnink. 



A PLANTATION ON TIIE DELAWARE. 191 

suitl to her, and also to Ephraim and Lis wife, who we 
hope will bring forth the seed the Lord has sown in them, 
in his own time. 

29th, Wednesday. "We were still waiting, although 
Ephvaim had sent for his brother; but we obtained tidings 
that he had gone to Maryland, and was coming hack home 
immediately, as he had gone to visit his father who lives 
at the entrance into Maryland and was sick. 

BOth, Thursday, The weather had been cold and windy, 
but had now cleared up; so that some of the servants of 
Casparus came, who confirmed the account that their 
master had gone to Maryland, but they were expecting 
him home. Whereupon Mons. Moll who had to go to one 
of his plantations lying on the road leading to Casparus's 
house, requested us to accompany him, so that the servants 
of Casparus on their return home would find us at his 
p.lace and take us on to the house of Casparus. We ac- 
cordingly started, Mr. Moll riding a -horseback and we 
following him on foot, carrying our traveling sacks, but 
sometimes exchanging with him, and thus also riding a 
part of the way. This plantation of his is situated about 
fifteen miles from Newcastle. It was about ten o'clock in 
the morning: when we took leave of our friends and left. 
We passed through a tolerably good country, but the soil 
was a little sandy, and it was three o'clock in the afternoon 
when we reached the plantation. There were no persons 
there except some servants and negroes, the commander 
being a Parisian. The dwellings were very badly ap- 
pointed, especially for such a man as Mons. Moll. There 
was no place to retire to, nor a chair to sit on, or a bed to 
sleep on. For their usual food the servants have nothing but 
maize bread to eat, and water to drink, which sometimes is 
not very o'ood and scarcely enough for life, yet they are 
compelled to work hard. They are brought from England 
in great numbers into Maryland, Virginia ami the Mcnades 



192 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

and sold each one according to hjs condition, For a certain 
term of years, four ; live, six, seven or more. And thus 
they are by hundreds of thousands compelled to spend 
their lives here and in Virginia, and elsewhere in planting 
that vile tobacco, which all vanishes into smoke, and is for 
the most part miserably abused. It is the chief article of 
trade in the country. If they only wished it they could 
have every thing for the support of life in abundance, for 
they have land and opportunity sufficient for that end ; but 
this insatiable avarice must be fed and sustained by the 
bloody sweat of these poor slaves. After we had supped, 
Mr, Moll, who would be civil, wished us to lie upon a bed 
that was there, and he would lie upon a bench, which we 
declined; and as this continued some length of time I lay 
down on a heap of maize, and he and my comrade after- 
wards did the same. This was very uncomfortable and 
chilly, but it had to go so. 

December 1st, Friday. Mr. Moll wishing to da us every 
kindness, as he indeed did do many, wrote addresses which 
might be serviceable to us in Maryland, for he was not 
only very well known there, but had influence among the 
•people by reason of the trade they had with each other, 
and of his being a member of the court, and having some 
authority. He also gave us some letters of recommenda- 
tion and credit in case Ave might have any necessity for 
the latter, in all which he indeed showed he had an affec- 
tion for us. After we had breakfasted, the servants of 
Casparus not having arrived, he himself conducted us to 
one of the nearest plantations where his cooper was, who 
had also something to do for Casparus, and would conduct 
us farther on, as took place ; and we arrived about three 
o'clock at the house of Casparus. But he had not yd 
come home nor had the servants arrived, for whom we had 
been waiting. 

2d, Saturday. AW' waited here all this day, and Lad time 



AUGUSTINE HEERMAK& BOHEMIA. 1Q3 

iimi oiTpoTttmity to cx])loro this place, wbiehtbey call Au- 
1 tina. We found it well .situated. and ICMtUl >' ,, >i baiUy 
v./// its. There are large and good meadows and marshes 
near it, and the soil is quite good. It has much good tim- 
ber and a very fine prospect, for looking from the strand 
you can see directly south into the mouth of the hay, as 
this place lies on the west side of the river in a bend. There 
U much land attached to it, which he purchased from the 
Indians for almost nothing, or nothing to signify. Towards 
evening two Englishmen, and a quakcr stopped here 
to pass the night who were also going to Maryland. 

Zd, Sunday. The Englishmen left this morning at day- 
light, and after "breakfast we determined also to leave, 
delivering a letter, which Ephraim had given us for his 
brother, to his wife. We started at nine o'clock, and fol- 
lowed a large broad wagon road, which Casparus had 
made through the woods, from his house to his father's 
who lived m the uppermost part of Maryland, that is, as 
hiffb up as it is vet inhabited by Christians. This road is 
about twenty-two miles long, and runs almost due west, 
but a little more northerly than southerly. When we 
were about half way we met Casparus on horseback with 
a cart, his wife having described him to us. We told him 
we had been to his house waiting; for him, and had left a 
letter there for him from his brother. lie regretted, he 
said, he had not known it and was not at home, but he 
hoped, and so did we, that we would be able to converse 
together on our return, and with this we pursued our re- 
spective roads. It was very warm to-day, and we were all 
in a perspiration. We reached Augustynus Hermans the 
father of these two brothers, about three o'clock. Augus- 
tine Hermans is a Bohemian, and formerly lived on the 
Manaiftap$, and had possessed farms or plantations there, 
but for some reason, I know not what, disagreeing with 
the Dutch governor, Stuyvesaut, he repaired to this place, 









194 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

which is laid down upon a complete map, which he ha* 
made of Maryland and Virginia, where lie is very well 
acquainted, which map he has dedicated to the king, h- 
consequence of his having- done the people of these two 
countries a great service, he has been presented with a 
tract of land of about a thousand or twelve hundred acres, 
which he, knowing where the best land was, has ehosen 
up here, and given it the name of Bohemia. It is a noble 
piece of land, indeed the best we have seen in all our 
journey south, having* large, thick, and high trees, much 
black walnut and chestnut, as tall and straight as a reed. 

It was, then, on this day and at this plantation, that we 
made our entry into Maryland, which was so named, 1 
believe, in the time of Queen Maria, 1 when it was discov- 
ered or began to be settled. It is a large territory, but has 
as yet no fixed boundaries, except only on the south where 
it is separated from Virginia by a straight line running west- 
erly from to the river. All north of this line is 

Maryland, and all south of it Virginia. On the east it is 
bounded by Xew Xetherlaud, but that line is undefined; 
and on the north and west indefinitely by the Indians. 
The principal rivers arc on the east side of the bay. 

Maryland is considered the most fertile portion of IsForth 
America, rind it were to be wished that it was also the 
most healthy, though it is more healthy than its neighbor, 
Virginia, which has to give passage by water through the 
great bay of (the Chesapeake), to Maryland. It is also 









* Henrietta Maria, consort of Charles I. 

2 This point could not well have been given at that time by the jour- 
nalist or any body else, and therefore is left blank by him. According to 
the description of this line in the charter of Maryland to Lord Baltimore 
by Charle.s T, it is, " a right line drawn from the promontory, or headland, 
called tVatkiiM Point, situated upon the hay aforesaid (Chesapeake) near 
the river Wighco, on the west unto the main ocean on the east." Ihz- 
'nut a, II, lo. 



SASSAFRAS RIVER THE CHESAPEAKE. 195 

\,-rvri<-h in fish as well as in all kinds of water fowl. 
There are few Indians in comparison with the extent of 

country, Yfhcn tlie English first discovered and settled 
Virginia and Maryland, they did great (wrong) to these 
poor people, and almost exterminated them. 

To return to Augustine Hermans, he was sick when we 
arrived at his house. We found there the three English- 
men before mentioned, who had left the house of Casparas 
in the morning. They were about proceeding further on 
their journey. TTe delivered to Augustine a letter from 
his sou Ephraim, and related to him how we had traveled 
with him from the Manathans, and how lie was, which 
rejoiced him. Becoming thus acquainted lie showed us 
every kindness he could in his condition, as he was very 
miserable, hofh in soul and body. His plantation was 
ffoin^ much into decay, as well as his body for want of 
attention. There was not a Christian man, as. they term 
it, to serve him; nobody but negroes. All this was in- 
creased by a miserable, doubly miserable wife; but so 
miserable that I will not relate it here. All his children 
have been compelled on her account to leave their father's 
house, lie spoke to us of his land, and said he would 
never sell or hire it to Englishmen, but would sell it to us 
cheap, if we were inclined to buy. But we satisfied our- 
selves and him by looking at it then, hoping that we might 
sec each other on our return. We were directed to a 
place to sleep, but the screeching of the wild izcQ+a and 
other wild fowl in the creek before the door, prevented us 
from having a good sleep, though it answered. 

4///, Monday. After breakfast we were set over this creek, 
or Bohemia river, in a canoe, after Augustine had, as the 
head man of the place, signed the passport which Mr. 
Moll, Ephraim and Aldrix had given us. Our first address 
was to one Mr. Van Wacrt, who had arrived from England 
the day before, and who gave us little news, except that a 



196 JOUKNKY TO THE DELAWARE. 

certain skipper Jacob, who lived at ilic Stcmaftans, had 
lei! England some days before him, bound there. We 

were glad of this, thinking we would receive some letters 
from Fatherland, as we had, when we were at STew Castle, 
written to our hostess at ISTew York, that in ease the 
skipper Jacob had letters for us, ^he should send them to 
the South river. Towards evening we came to a Swede's, 
named Mouns, where we had to be put across a creek, 
after we had mistaken the road. We spent the night with 
him, and were entirely welcome. He and his wife and 
some of his children spoke good Dutch, and conversed 
with us about various matters concerning the country. 

5(7?, Tuesday. We left after breakfast, and he took us 
upon the road to go to Captain Fiisby's. Leaving Mr. 
Blacks* tone's plantation on the right hand of Frisby's, we 
came to the court house standing on the Sassafras river, 
which is also an ordinary. We requested to be taken over 
the river, as there is a ferry here, which they did, and it 
cost us each an English shilling. We then traveled, along 
the river until Ave came to a small creek, which runs very 
shallow over the strand into the river. Here we had to 
take off our shoes and stockings in order to cross over, 
although it was piercing cold. We continued some 
distance further, along the river, to the Great bay, when 
we came to another creek and called out to be taken across, 
which was done. The road was shown us further on to 
Mr. HoiecF.s, where Ave had a letter of recommendation 
and credit to deliver Captain Seybry, who was not at home, 
but had gone to the ships which had arrived. So Ave gave 
the letter to Mr. Smcel, to hand to Mr. Seybry. We slept 
here this, night, and were welcome. 

Bih, Wethiesday. This morning Ave crossed a creek, and 
Avere shown the way to another plantation, where we 
would be set over still another. To this plantation we 
soon came, but the people excused themselves from taking 



KENT COUNTY, AND ITS FIRST PLANTERS. 107 

.. ,.«,-,•••, saving ihat their eanoe was not at home, and sent 
u* to another plantation on the right We crossed there 
ami <a\v on almost every tree one or two grape vines, and 
ih.it tor a long distance along the road until we reached 
I he plantation of one ILiulrick JFIendneksen, where no one 
\vaj» at home except a woman, who nevertheless lent us a 
canoe with which we might not only cross over, hut go a 
considerable distance down the creek, trusting her canoe 
to us. We arrived in this at the plantation of Mr. Hopkins, 
who was not at home. Being 1 fatigued, and not having vet 
breakfasted, we asked for something to drink that clear 
water from, and afterwards for something to eat , ; but we 
could obtain nothing except a piece of maize bread with 
which we satisfied ourselves. The worst was, she would 
not show us the way, which, however, we found ourselves. 
We arrived at noon at Scdsbemrs, who also was not at 
home. They had all sailed down below to the ships. Jb.it 
we found a good old woman who immediately put before 
u> something to eat, and gave us some exceedingly good 
cider to drink. We were, therefore, somewhat strengthened. 
This plantation is one of the most pleasantly situated I 
have seen, having upon the side of the great bay a line 
prospect, and a pretty view in the distance, as the sketch 
shows. We left here about three o'clock, and were taken 
across the creek and put upon the road, and at evening 
came to the house of one Richard Adam*, an Englishman, 
who had a Dutch wife born at Deventer. The husband 
was not at home, and she had almost forgotten her Dutch. 
However, we were welcome, and we remained there for 
the night, and rested reasonably well. 

7 th, Thursday. We left there after breakfast, and were 
put across a creek which runs by the door, and shown the 
road to go to. an English plantation. The owner was not 
at homo, but we first passed a small plantation where an 
Amsterdamer was engaged in carpenter work, who very wil- 



198 JOURNEY fO THE DELAWARE. 

lingiy pointed out the road. We found at the English- 
man's u young man iVum Middieburgh, who had been sold 
as a servant, hut had served out his time. He was in the 
last English war, had been taken by a privateer and carried 
to Virginia, and there sold for four years, win eh having 
expired, he thought of returning to Fatherland next year. 
We were mutually unacquainted with each other, hut he 
was glad to see one of bis countrymen. lie took us to the 
road, and we proceeded on to a plantation where the people 
were in the woods working, to whom we went to inquire 
the way. The master of the plantation came to meet us, 
accompanied by his wife and a person who spoke high 
Dutch. The owner's name was Miller. We told him we 
wished to learn the road to Mr. Hfmer's. He was about to 
show us the way, but as tins was far around, his wife said 
be bad better let us be taken over a creek which ran in 
front of his plantation, and we would have a less distance 
to go, whereupon he gave us directions that it should be so 
done. We thanked him, and went to his plantation for 
the purpose of going over, but we were not there soon 
enough, for there was a man gone over who was now almost 
on the other side, who called out to us that he was not 
coming back, because there was another canoe on this side 
where there was a woman. This I immediately launched 
in the water, as we had permission, and went over, and the 
woman took it baek. We had here as company the man 
who had crossed over before us, for a piece of the way, and 
he directed us to another plantation, also with a creek in 
front of it where we had to cross. There was no one here 
except some women attending upon another sick woman. 
The man who had traveled with us apart of the way, after- 
wards came up and again directed us, but we came to a 
different plantation from what we intended. If we had 
<rone to the right hand, we should have proceeded straight, 
for we would then have found Air. Commegys^n Dutchman, 



MR. GOMMEGYS. A CONSULTATION. 109 

KJiftni wo were in search of atKJording to the address Mr. 
Moll !::;<! given usf, and for wiiom we hud inquired. We 
hhoiild have found him with inany of his people bringing 
slaughtered meat over the creek. The owner of the plant- 
ation we had come to, had no canoe at home; but he 
u^isted us by going With us himself, where a son of Mr. 
( 'ommegys, as he said, worked a plantation, who, if he heard 
us call, would certainly come and take us over. But when 
we came to the creek we saw all those people who had 
carried the meat over in the boat, but this man did not 
know them, and doubted whether they were Commegys's 
men. We arri ved at last at Cornelis's, the son of Gommegys 
and called out to him, and he brought a canoe which 
relieved us, as it was close on to evening. We thanked 
the person who had brought us, and stepped into the canoe. 
Cornells, who was an active young man, was pleased to meet 
Hollanders, although he himself was born in this country. 
We found Mr. Gommegys on the next plantation, who 
hade us welcome, and after we had drank some cider, 
accompanied us with one of his company to Mr. Hosier's, 
who was a good generous-hearted man, better than any 
Englishman we had met with in this country, lie had 
formerly had much business with Mr. Moll, but their affairs 
in. England running behindhand a little, they both came 
and settled down here; and, therefore, Mr. Moll and he had 
n great regard for each other. He showed us very particu- 
lar attention, although we were strangers. Something was 
immediately set before Mr. Gommegys and ourselves to 
eat, in which the wife manifested as much kindness as the 
husband. This was not unacceptable, for we had eaten 
nothing all day. They requested Mr. Commegys and us 
very urgently to stay all night, but he desired to go home, 
although it was two or three hours distant from there, and 
it idreiwly began to grow dark. .However, we left with 
him on foot, but he obtained a horse on the road which 



200 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

enabled him to travel better than we could with ou\ 
wearied feet. AW' reached his house about eight o'clock, 
where lie and his wife bade us welcome. We were well 
entertained, and went easily to sleep, having traveled 
during the day a great distance. 

Sth, JPriday. We advised this morning with Mr. Com- 
megys as to proceeding further down to Virginia, and 
crossing the bay, in pursuance of the address which we 
had received from Mr. Moll, and our recollection, to wit, 
that arriving at Mr. Commcgys's we should then consul I 
him, and he would give us further information. In talking 
the matter over with him,- he said, he saw no probability of 
our being able to accomplish this, and advised us against 
it, for several reasons. First, the country below there was 
full of creeks and their branches, more so than that we had 
passed over, and it was ditlicr.lt to get across them, as boats 
w r ere not always to be obtained, and the people, were not 
very obliging. As to going by water, either down or across 
the bay, there was not much navigating at this time of 
year, the winter being so close at hand, and the worst of it 
would be to get back again. To go by sea to the South 
river, or Xew York, there was not much opportunity, and 
it was attended with great danger and inconvenience. As 
to exploring the land, he assured us we had seen the best; 
the rest of it was poor and covered with bushes, especially 
in Virginia. It would cost us much at this time, and we 
would have to do with a godless and very crafty people, 
who would be the more so towards us, because we were 
strangers who could not speak their language, and did not 
understand the customs of the country, and so forth, all 
which we took into consideration. After breakfast a man 
arrived with a letter from -Mr. Miller, requesting Commegys 
to go with him in his boat across the bay to the ship-. 
Commegys not wishing to go, answered the letter, and said 
to us in general terms something about a man who wished 



EFFORT TO CROSS THE CHESAPEAKE. 201 

to crofis the b*ty in a boot, but ho did not express himself 
lh and we also did not undersiaaxl him well. W^e sup- 
posed tlic nian was at his plantation with a boat, and after 
waiting awhile without perceiving any thing of him, we 
asked him where the man was with the boat. He said lie 
was not there, but that it was Captain Miller's boat which 
was going, and lie lived about ten or twelve miles off. "We 
immediately resolved to go there, which we did, about 
noon, after having breakfasted and dined together. Mr. 
Commegys was from Vienna, and had had a Dutch woman 
for a wife, who had taught her children to speak the Dutch 
language ; they therefore had a kind disposition towards Hol- 
landers. After her death he married an English woman, 
and lie had himself learned many of the English maxims, 
although it was against his feelings ; for we were sensible 
that he dared not work for us with an open heart. He told 
us he would rather live at the Cape of Good Hope than 
here. " How is that," said I, " when there is such good 
land here? 7 ' "True," he replied, "but if you knew the 
people here as well as I do, you would be able to under- 
stand why." 

We departed from his house over the same road by 
which we had come, thinking that if nothing more should 
result from this opportunity, we would at least have 
advanced so far on our way back. "We arrived at about 
three o'clock at Mr. Hosier's, who received us kindly, and 
would have cheerfully kept us all night, but understanding 
our intention, he not only let us go and showed us the road, 
but went with us himself in order to facilitate our getting 
over the creek; but on arriving at the next plantation on 
the creek, there was no canoe to put us over, and he there- 
fore took us to another, the same 'one where we had found 
the Commegys, and where we now found his son, of whom 
1 have before spoken, who soon had his boat ready, when 
thanking Mr, Hosier, and taking our leave of him, we 
20 



202 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

crossed aver. Young Commegys si towed us the road , which 
we ibllo\\«.-d to a eriiek, where we found a canoe, bin" no 
person with it. We took ourselves over in it, and came to 
the house where we left the sick woman before spoken of. 
There were now some men at home whom we requested 
to show us the road, and the same person who brought us 
here over the same road, accompanied us a part of the way, 
and gave us directions how to proceed. We struck the 
creek directly opposite Mr. Miller's plantation, as it began 
to eret dark, and on calling out were taken over. We 
inquired, of Mr. Miller whether lie intended to cross the 
bay in his boat and when, and whether he would take us 
with him. lie said yes, but he did not know whether he 
would leave, the next day or not. lie would start as soon 
as the weather would permit, as he had some casks of 
tobacco to carry over, with which we might help him; but 
he did not know how we would manage on the other side, 
as lie had to go further up the river from there, and. he saw 
no chance for us to go down the bay or to cross back again. 
We finally concluded we would go with him, and remain 
on board the 'ships until he came back to take us with him, 
he promising not to leave there without coming for us. We 
also found here the person who spoke high Dutch, and of 
whom we have before said a word. We were able to con- 
verse with him, but my companion could do so the best. 
lie resided on this plantation, and was a kind of proctor 
or advocate in the courts. We passed the evening with 
him. We were well entertained here, and had a' good bed 
to sleep on, which was very agreeable. 

0///, Saturday* We expected the trip would be made this 
morning, but no mention was made of it, and we asked 
him at last whether it would not be proceeded with. lie 
said the weather was not lit, and that as soon as it was 
suitable we would start* But about noon the wind blowing 
very fresh from the west, which was straight ahead, wo gave 



RETURNING NORTH. WILD DUCKS. 203 

tin all Iiopc- of going to-day. Seeing thai the same difficulty 
might exist on Monday and the fallowing daysj as he said he 
would not go over on Sunday, we determined to proceed, 
after we had dined, with our journey back to New Castle, 
which we did, excusing- ourselves on the ground that we 
could not wait so long, and that time pressed us. So we 
took our leave and went to Richard Adams's as we had 
promised his wife when we went on, to stop there on our 
return; but missing the wav, or not knowing it we came 
to a plantation and house about three o'clock, where there 
was neither man nor beast, and no one from whom we 
could inquire the road. We chose the one we thought 
best, and walked on till evening. We came to a plantation 
on the point of the creek where Richard Adams lived 
on the opposite side, being now 7 on the great bay about 
four miles below where we had to be. We were strangers 
here, and had no address to these people, who, nevertheless, 
showed us every kindness and treated us well. They told 
us we had lost the way at the empty house, by taking the 
road to the left instead of the right. 

10//i, Sunday. The son who went out to shoot at daylight, 
put us on the road which would lead us to the creek directly 
opposite Richard Adams's house, taking us back to the 
empty plantation which we now left on the right hand. 
We arrived at the place about eight o'clock, and were taken 
over the creek by Riehaxxl Adams himself. He and his 
wife were glad to see us, and bade us welcome. As it was 
Sunday, and we had promised to write a letter to Holland 
for his wife, we remained there this day, writing the letter 
after dinner, and having time also to look around a little. 
These people were so delighted at the service we were to 
do them in Holland, of posting a letter to Stcenwyk, and 
sending an answer back to them, that they did not know 
what to do for us. lie gave us some French brandy to 
drink, which lie had purchased of the captains of the ships 



204 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

who hadbrotiajhtit from England; but up it was an article 
prohibited on pain of forfeiture, it was not to be bought 
here, and scarcely any tiling else, for lie had made an use- 
less journey below, not being able to obtain shoes and 
stockings for his little children who were bare-les^ed. 

I have nowhere seen so many ducks together as were in 
the creek in front of this house. The water was so black 
with them that it seemed when you looked from the land 
below upon the water, as if it were a mass of filth or turf, 
and when they flew up there was a rushing and vibration 
of the air like a great storm coming through the trees, and 
even like the rumbling of distant thunder, while the sky 
over the whole creek wits tilled with them like a cloud, or 
like the starlings ij at harvest time in Fatherland. There 
was a boy about twelve years old who took aim at them 
from the shore, not being able to get within good shooting 
distance of them, but nevertheless shot loosely before they 
flew away, and bit only three or four, complained of his 
shot, as they are accustomed to shoot from six to twelve 
and even eighteen and more atone shot. After supper we 
eat some Maryland or Virginia oysters which he had 
brought up with him. We found them good, but the 
Gouancs oysters at New York are better. 

1.1 /A, Mmday. AVe left there after breakfast, the man 
conducting us to the path which led to the plantation of 
Mr. Stalky, whose address we had from Air. Moll, but he 
was sick. AVe were here a little while, but nothing was 
offered us to eat, and we only asked to drink. AVe wished 
to be put across the Sassafras river here, but could not 
accomplish it, although we were upon the bank of the river. 
AVe were directed to the ferry at the court house, which 
was about two miles west, but difficult to find through the 
woods. A person gave us a letter to take to the Mana- 
tlians, who pnt us in the path leading to the ferry, where we 
arrived about two o'clock, and called oat to them to come 



DIFFICULTIES AND DANGERS. 205 

•rml take us over. Although the weather was perfectly 
still and they could easily hear us, we w<e&e not taken over, 
though we continued calling out to them until sundown. 
As no one came for us, we intended to go back to the plant- 
ation of Mi*. Stanley, or one of those lying before us, and 
to proceed there along the strand, but a creek prevented 
us, and we had to search for the road by which we came. 
We missed this road, although we were upon it, and could 
not find that or any other plantation, and meanwhile it 
became dark. Although the moon shone we could not go 
straight, for it shone above, and did not give us light 
enough to see through the trees any houses or plantations 
at a distance, several of which w T e passed as the result 
proved. "We were utterly perplexed and astray. We fol- 
lowed the roads as we found them, now easterly and then 
westerly, now a little more on one side, and then a little 
more on the other, until we were' completely tired out, and 
wished ourselves back again upon the strand- A\ r e had to 
keep on, however, or remain in the woods, and as the latter 
did not suit us, we chose the former, fatigued as we were, 
and uncertain as was the issue. I plucked up courage and 
went singing along, which resounded through the woods, 
although I was short of breath through weariness. My 
comrade having taken his compass out of his sack in order 
to see how we were going, had put it back again, and we 
were walking on, when he discovered he had by that means 
lost his degen, 1 (sword); though we had gone some distance, 
we returned again to look for it, and I found it at last. AVe 
continued on westerly again, but as we came to no end, we 
determined to go across, through the thickets and bushes, 
due north, in order if we could not discover an}' plantation, 



'This word" i< possibly erroneously written. Its meaning here cannot 
even be conjecturrj. 






206 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

we might at least reach the strand. It was now about nine 
o'clock in t lie evening After having proceeded about an 
hour in that direction, we heard directly in front of us, a 
doe barking, which gladdened us. It was a remarkable 

circumstance, as dogs are used to keep men away from 
dwellings, but served to bring us to them, and was remark- 
able also for the providence of the Lord, who caused this 
dog to bark, who, the nearer we approached, heard more 
noise made by us among the leaves and bushes, and barked 
the more, calling to us as it were, to come straight up to 
him, which we endeavored to do. We soon came, how- 
ever, to a very deep hollow, where we could see over the 
tops of the trees m it, and on the other side what seemed to 
be a shed of a plantation in which the dog was barking. 
This encouraged us, but we had vet to c;o through the 
hollow, where we could see no bottom, and the sides were 
steep. We scrambled down I know not how, not seeing 
whether there was water or a morass there ; but on reach- 
ing the bottom, we found it was a morass grown up with 
bushes. My comrade who followed me, called out to know 
whether we could not pass round it, but we had to go 
through it. We came at length to a small brook, not 
broad, which we crossed and clambered up the side again, 
when we came to the shed where the dog continued 
barking, and thus led us to the house. His master was in 
bed, and did not know what noise it was he heard. On our 
knocking, he was surprised to hear such strange people at 
the door, not knowing whether we were few or many, or 
whether lie dared invite us in or not, but he did. We had 
then little trouble. When we entered the house he was 
astonished to see us, inquiring what people we were, where 
we came from, where we were going, but especially how we 
reached there. Xo one, he said, could get there easily in 
the day time, unless he were shown or knew the way well, 
because they were very much hidden, and he would conn- 



HARD QUARTERS. WILD GEESE. 207 

to all the other plantations sooner than this on?. We told 
our adventures, at which lip was us UiUtft astonished 
as vve were rejoiced. We had reasons to behold the Lord in 
al! this, and to glorify him as we did silently in our hearts. 
The wife arose and offered us a little to cat of what she had, 
and afterwards gave me some deer skins, but they were as 
dry and hard as a plank. I lay down upon them, and 
crept under them, hut was little covered and still less 
warmed hy them. My companion went to lie with a ser- 
vant in his hunk, hut he did not remain there long before 
a heavy rain came — before which the Lord had caused us 
to enter the house against all appearances — and compelled 
him to evacuate his quarters very quickly. The water 
entered in such great quantities that they would otherwise 
have been, wet through, though already it did not make 
much difference with my comrade. We passed the night, 
however, as well as we could, sitting, standing, or lying 
down, hut cold enough. 

12th. Tuesday. This plantation was about four miles be- 
low the court house or ferry, westerly towards the bay, and 
we did not know if we went to the ferry that we would not 
he compelled again to remain there calling out, uncertain 
when we would be carried over. "We therefore promised 
this servant if he would put us across we would give him 
the money, which we would otherwise have to pay at the 
ferry. The master made some objections on account of 
the servant's work and the distance from the river, and 
also because they had no canoe. The servant satisfied 
him on these points, and lie consented. We breakfasted 
on what we could get, not knowing how or where we 
would obtain any thing again. We three, accordingly, 
went about two miles to the strand, where we found a 
canoe, but it was almost entirely fall of water, and what 
was the worst of it, we had nothing with which to bale it 
out. However, bjr one means and another we emptied it 



208 JOUKXEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

and launched the canoe. We stepped in and paddled over 
the river to the plantation of a Mr. Frisby. I must no 

forget to mention the great number of wild geese we saw 
here on the river. They rose not in flocks of ten or 
twelve, or twenty or thirty, but continuously, wherever we 
pushed our way; and as they made room for us, there was 
such an incessant clattering made with their wings upon 
the water where they rose, and such a noise of those living 
higher up, that it was as if we were all the time surrounded 
by a whirlwind or a storm. This proceeded not only from 
gee^e, but from ducks and other water fowl ; and it is not 
peculiar to this place alone, hut it occurred on all the 
creeks and rivers we crossed, though they were most nume- 
rous in the morning and evening when they are most easily 
shot. 

Having crossed this river, which is of great width, we 
came to the plantation of Mr. Frisby, which stands upon 
an eminence and affords a very pleasant prospect, present- 
ing a view of the great bay as well as the Sassafras river. 
When we first came on, we stopped here, hut the master 
was not id home ; and as we had a letter of recommenda- 
tion and credit to him, he found it at his house when he re- 
turned. When we arrived there now, we intended merely 
to ask his negroes for a drink, hut he being apprised of 
our arrival, made us go into the house, and entertained 
us well. After we had partaken of a good meal, he had 
horses made ready for us immediately to ride to Bohemin 
river, which hardly deserves the name of a river in respect 
to other creeks. We mounted on horseback, then, about 
ten o'clock, lie and one of his friends leading a piece of the 
way. "Upon separating, he left us a boy to show us the 
path and bring back the horses. This boy undertaking 
more than he knew, assured us he was well acquainted 
with the road ; hut after a while, observing the course we 
rode, and the distance we had gone, and that we had 



DELAWARE AND CHESAPEAKE CANAL. 209 

ridden as long as we ought to "have done, if we had been 
i*oing right* we douhtecl no longer vvcluuj missed the way, 
us truly appeared in the end; for about three o'clock in 
the afternoon Ave came upon a broad cart road, when we 
discovered we had kept too far to the right and bad gone 
entirely around Bohemia river. We supposed we were 
now acquainted with the roa,d, and were upon the one 
which ran from Casparus Hermans's to his lather's, not 
knowing there were other cart roads. We rode along this 
tine road for about an hour or an hour and a half, in order 
to reach Augustine Hermans, when we heard some persons 
calling out to us from the woods, "Hold, where arc you 
riding to?'"' Certain, as we supposed we were, in our 
course, we answered, u to Augustine Hermans." " You 
should not go that road then," they rejoined, " for you are 
out of the way." \Ve therefore rode into the bushes in 
order to go to them, and learned that we were not upon 
the road we thought we were, but on the road from Ayo- 
quemme, that is, a cart road made from Ajioquemmc, a small 
village situated upon a creek, to Bohemia creek or river. 
Upon this road the goods which go from the South river 
to Maryland by land, are carried, and also those which 
pass inland from Maryland, to the South river, because 
these two creeks, namely, the Apoquemenc, and the Bohe- 
mia, one running up from Maryland, and the other from 
the Delaware river, as the English call the South river, 
come to an end close to each other, and perhaps shoot by 
each other, although they are not navigable so far ; but are 
navigable for eight miles, that is two Dutch miles of fifteen 
to a degree. When the Dutch governed the country the 
distance was less, namely, six miles. The digging a canal 
through was then talked of, the land being so low; which 
would have afforded great convenience for trade on the 
South river, seeing that they would has'e come from Mary- 
laud to buy all they had need of, and would have been able 
27 



210 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

to transport their tobacco more easily to tliat liver, than 
to the great bay of Virginia, as they now have to do, for a 
large pan of Maryland. Besides, the cheap market of the 
Hollanders in the South [river] would have drawn more 
trade; and if the people of Maryland had goods to ship on 
their own account, they could do it sooner and more 
readily, as well as more conveniently in the South [river] 
than in the great bay, and therefore, would have chosen 
this route, the more so because as many of their goods, 
perhaps, would for various reasons be shipped to Holland, 
as to England. But as this is a subject of greater import- 
ance than it seems upon the first view, it is well to con- 
sider whether it should not be brought to the attention of 
higher authorities than particular governors. "What is 
now done by land in carts, might then be done by water, 
for a distance of more than six hundred miles. 

"We had, then, come on this road with our horses to the 
carrying-place into Maryland and more than three miles 
from where we supposed we were. To go there we would 
have had to pass through woods and over small morassy 
creeks. The sun was nearly clown, and we therefore ad- 
vised with the persons before mentioned. One of them 
was a quaker who was building a small house for a tavern, 
or rather an ale house, for the purpose of entertaining 
travelers, and the other was the carpenter who was assist- 
ing him on the house, and could speak good Dutch, having 
resided a long time at the Mamihmis. We were most 
concerned for the young man and the horses. The quaker, 
who had put up a temporary shed, made of the bark of 
trees, after the manner of the Indians, with both ends 
open, and little larger than a dog's kennel, and where at 
the best, we three might possibly have been able to lie, es- 
pecially when a lire was made which would have to be 
done, offered us his lodgings if we wished, and as good 
accommodations as lie had, which were not much. He 



BLAZED TREES. APOQUINDIIXK. 211 

hail nothing' to eat but maize bread which was poor 
enough, and some small .wild beans boiled in vater; and 
liitK' to lie on, or to cover one, except the bare ground and 
loaves. We would not have rejected this fare if the Lord 
had made it necessary, and we were afterwards in circum- 
stances where we did not have as good as this; but now 
we could do better. The other person, an Irishman, who 
lived about three miles from there, did not urge us much, 
because, perhaps, he did not wish us to see how easily he 
would make two English shillings for which we had agreed 
with him to take the horses and boy to the creek, and put 
them on the path to reach home. We were to walk to his 
house, conducted by the quaker, while he rode round the 
creek with the horses. We had to cross it in a canoe, 
which, when we were in it, was not the breadth of two 
fingers above water, and threatened every moment to up- 
set. "We succeeded, however, in crossing over, and had 
then to make our way through bushes by an untrodden 
path, going from one newly marked tree to another. 
These marks are merely a piece cut out of the bark with 
an axe, about the height of a man's eyes from the ground ; 
and by means of them the commonest roads are designated 
through all Xew Xetherland and Maryland ; but in conse- 
quence of the great number of roads so marked, and their 
running into and across each other, they are of little 
assistance, and indeed often mislead. Pursuing our way 
we arrived at the house of Maurice, as the carpenter was 
called, where he had already arrived with the horses, and 
had earned two shillings sooner than we had walked three 
miles, and more than he had made by his whole day's 
work. We went into the house and found Ids Irish wife, 
engaged in cooking, whereby we made reprisals in another 
way. After we had thus taken a good supper, we were 
directed to a place to sleep which suited us entirely and 
where we rested well. 



212 JOUKNEY TO TEE DELAWARE. 






lBth, Wednesday. As soon as it was day wo cat ourbrcak- 
last and left, after giving this man his two shillings, wbo 
also immediately rode oil' with the young man and the 
horses, to put him on the path to Sassafras river, while the 
quaker who had remained there during the night, was to 
take us to the broad cart road where he had found us. 
But neither he nor we, eoidd follow the new marked trees 
so well in the morning light, and we soon missed the way, 
and no wonder, for we now had the marks behind the 
trees. We went again through the thickets and bushes of 
the woods, to and fro, for full three hours without any 
prospect of getting out, and that within a distance of not 
over three-quarters of an hour. We struck a foot-path at 
last which led us to Bohemia creek, directly opposite the 
house which was being built. We descended in order to 
wade over it, the bottom appearing to be hard on this side, 
and promising a good passage; but when Ave were in the 
middle of it, Ave sank up to our knees in the mud. When 
we were over we went into the quaker's hut, who warmed 
up some beans, and set them before us with maize bread. 
Xot to leave him like an empty calabash, we gave him an 
English shilling for leading us astray, and other things. 
We had now a line broad cart road to follow, eight miles 
long, which would load us to A^efitemene, as it did, and 
where we arrived about noon. They are most all Dutch 
who live here, and we were again among the right kind of 
people, with whom we could at least obtain what was right. 
We stepped into a house and were welcome. Some food 
was immediately set before us to eat, and among other 
things butter, cheese, and rye bread which was fresh and 
so delicious that my companion said it was to him like 
■ sweet cake. We left there alter we had taken dinner, a 
boy leading us upon the way as far as a long wooden 
bridge or dam over a meadow and creek, and proceeded on 
to Casparus jlermans's, the brother of Ephraim, about six 



RETURN TO NEWCASTLE. 213 

miles from there, where we arrived at three o'clock, but 
u&aiu found kim absent from borne. As the court was sit- 
ting at Newcastle he had to be there as one of its members. 
We were, however, welcomed by his wife. Her name was 
Susanna, and his, Casparus or Jasper; which led my 
thoughts further, communing with God in his love, who 
makes the past as well as the future to be present, and 
who consumes the present in him with the future and the 
past, as it proceeds from him with all our sensations. Y> r e 
passed the night there, and had to sleep with a quaker who 
was going next day to Maryland. 

14/A, Thursday. While we were waiting for Casparus, 
we embraced the opportunity to examine his place again, 
which pleased us in all respects, and was objectionable 
only because it lay on the road, and was therefore resorted 
to by every one, and especially by these miserable quakers. 
lie returned home in the afternoon, and was glad to find 
us. We spoke to him in relation to a certain tract of land 
which we wished to look at, and Ephraim and his father 
had told us of; and when we heard what it was, it was a 
part of .Bohemia, which we had already tolerably well 
looked at on our way to Maryland, being that which lies 
on the creeks and river, and which, on our return and 
twice losing the way, lay higher up in the woods; but we 
reserved the privilege in case we should winter on the 
South river, of riding over it thoroughly on horseback, 
with him and his brother Ephraim. 1 For the present, 
time compelled us to see if we could not yet reach the 
Manalhans for the winter;' and we wore the more induced 
to the attempt because a servant of Ephraim had arrived 
this evening by water in a boat, and would be ready to 
return with it to Newcastle early in the morning. We 
therefore excused ourselves and let the subjeet rest. We 



! It was upon the piece of land here alluded to that the colony of the 
Labadists was afterwards planted. 






f>14 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

heard here that his father Augustine Hermans was very 
sick and at tile paint of death, and that Miss Margaret had 

gone there to attend upon him in that condition. 

loth, Friday. It was flood tide early this morning, and 
our servant slept a little too long, for it was not far from high 
water when he appeared. We hurried, however, into the 
boat and pushed on as hard as we could, but the Hood stopped 
running, when we were about half way. We continued 
on rowing, and as the day advanced we caught a favorable 
wind from the west and spread the sail. The wind gradu- 
ally increasing brought us to Newcastle about eight o'clock 
anions; our kind friends again, where we were welcome 
anew. "We were hardly ashore before the wind, changing 
from the west to the northwest, brought with it such a 
storm aud rain that, if we had still been on the water, we 
would have been in great peril, and if we had been at 
Casparus's we would not have been able to proceed in 
such weather. We here again, so clearly perceived the 
providence of the Lord over us, that our hearts were con- 
strained to ascend to him, and praise him for what he is and 
does, especially towards his children. As we have con- 
fined ourselves quite strictly to the account of our journey, 
w r e deem it serviceable to make some observations upon 
some general matters concerning Maryland, in addition to 
what we have before remarked. 

As regards it< first discoverer and possessor, that was 
one Lord Baltimore, an English nobleman, in the time of 
Queen Maria* Having come from Newfoundland along 
the coast of North America, he arrived in the great bay of 
Virginia, up which he sailed to its uppermost parts, and 
found this fine country winch he named Maryland after 
his queen. Returning to England he obtained a charter 
of the northerly parts of America, inexclusively, although 
the Hollanders had discovered and began to settle New 
Netherland. With this he came back to America and 



MARYLAND. TOBACCO. SERVITUDE. 215 

took possession of his Maryland, where at present his son, 
n governor, resides.' 

^ince the time of Queen Elizabeth, settlers have pre- 
ferred the lowest parts of the great bay and the large rivers 
which empty into it, either on account of proximity to the 
sea, and the convenience of the streams, or because the 
uppermost country smacked somewhat of the one from 
whom it derived its name and of its government. They 
have named this lower country Virginia, out of regard to 
Queen Elizabeth. It is the most populous, but not the 
best land, and lias a government distinct from that of Mary- 
land, A governor arrived while we were there, to fill the 
place made vacant by the death of his predecessor. 2 

As to the present government of Maryland, it remains 
firm upon the old footing, and is confined within the limits 



1 Charles Calvert, was at this time both proprietor and governor of 
Maryland. He came out first in 10G2 as governor under his father Cecil- 
ius, the first proprietor, upon whose death in 1CT5 he succeeded to the 
title of Lord Baltimore, and the estates in this country. He went to Eng- 
land upon the happening of this event, and returned in February, 1G80, to 
Maryland, where he continued in the administration of the government 
personally until 1CS4, when he again visited England. By the revolution 
which soon after followed, the province was lost to the family, and was 
not fully restored until 1715, when its heir had changed his religious faith 
and adapted thai of the established church of England. Ceeilius and 
Charles Calvert, Lords Baltimore, were Catholics. McMahon's History 
of Maryland, 216," et seq. 

2 Lord Culpepper came over as governor of Virginia, in 1079 or 
1GS0, although he had been appointed some time previously. Sir William 
Berkeley, whom he succeeded, and whose administration of the unequaled 
duration of forty years, had terminated in a sea of blood, upon the sup- 
pression of Bacon's rebellion, having been recalled, returned to England 
in 1G77, where he died shortly after his arrival there. Colonel Jeffries 
discharged the duties of the place as lieutenant governor during a portion 
of the interval until the arrival of Lord Culpepper; but he also dying in 
1G78, the government devolved upon Sir 11. Chickerly for the rest of the 
period. ]>>irk's History of Virginia, II, 200, ?'2o. Chalmers says, Lord 
Culpepper arrived here in May, 1G80. Annals, I, 340. 






21G JOURNEY TO THP: DELAWARE. 

before mentioned. A.11 of Maryland that we have seen, }• 
highland, with few or no meadow*, but possessing sucli ;-. 
rich and fertile soil, as persons living there assured me, 
that they had raised tobacco off the same piece of land for 
thirty consecutive years. The inhabitants who are gene- 
rally English, are mostly engaged in this production. It 
is their chief staple, and the means with which they must 
purchase every thing they require, which is brought to 
them from other English possessions in Europe, Africa and 
America. There is, nevertheless, sometimes a great want 
of these necessaries, owing- to the tobacco, market being- 
low, or the shipments being prevented by some change of 
affairs in some quarter, particularly in Europe, or to both 
causes, as was the ense at this time, when a great scarcity 
of such articles existed there, as we saw. So large a 
quantity of tobacco is raised in Maryland and Virginia, 
that it is one of the greatest sources of revenue to the 
crown by reason of the taxes which it yields. Servants 
and negroes are employed in the culture of tobacco, who 
are brought from other places to be sold to the highest 
bidders, the servants for a term of years only, but the 
negroes forever, and may be sold by their masters to other 
planters as many times as their masters choose, that is, the 
servants until their term is fulfilled, and the negroes for 
life. These men, one with another, each make, when they 
are able to work, from 2,500 pounds to 3,000 pounds, and 
even 3,500 pounds of tobacco a year, and some of the mas- 
ters and their wives who pass their lives here in wretched- 
ness, do the same. The servants and negroes after they 
have worn themselves down the whole da}', and gone 
home to rest, have yet to grind and pound the grain, 
which is generally maize, for their masters and all their 
families as well as themselves, and all the negroes, to cat. 
Tobacco is the only production in which the planters employ 
themselves, as if there were nothing else in the world to 






CORN BREAD AND HOMINY. MINISTERS. 217 

I'Kiiii but that, and while the land is-capable of yielding- all 
the productions that can he raised anywhere, so far as the 
climate of the place allows. As to articles of food, the 
only bread they have is that made of Turkish wheat or 
maize, and that is miserable. They plant this grain for 
that purpose everywhere. It yields well, not a hundred, 
hut five or six hundred for one ; but it takes up much 
space, as it is planted far apart like vines in France. The 
corn, when it is to be used for men, has to be first soaked, 
before it is ground or pounded, because the grains being 
large and very hard, cannot be broken under the small 
stones of their light hand-mills; and then it is left so 
coarse it must be sifted. They take the finest for bread, 
and the other for different kinds of groats, which, when it 
is cooked, is called sopaen or hbmma. The meal intended 
for bread is kneaded moist without leaven or yeast, salt or 
grease, and generally comes out of the oven so that it will 
hardly hold together, and so blue and moist that it is as 
heavy as dough; yet the best of it when cut and roasted, 
tastes almost likevwarm white bread, at least it seemed to 
us so. This corn is also the only provender for their 
horses, oxen, cows, hogs and fowls, which generally run in 
the woods to get their food, but are fed a little of this morn- 
ing and evening during the winter when there is little to 
be had in the woods; though they are not fed too much, 
for the wretchedness, if not cruelty, of such living, affects 
both man and beast. This is said not without reason, for a 
master having a sick servant, and there are many so, and 
observing from his declining condition, he would finally 
die, and that there was no probability of his enjoying any 
more service from him. made him, sick and languishing as 
he was, dig his own grave, in which he was laid a few days 
afterwards, the others being too busy to digit, having their 
hands full in attending to the tobacco. 
A few Vegetables are planted, but they are of the coarsest 
28 



Ojg JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

irrrls and ore cultivated in the coarsest manner, without 
knowledge or '.'are, and fchey are, therefore, not properh 
raised, and do not amount to much as regards the pro- 
duction, and still less as to their use. Some have begun to 
plant orchards, which all bear very well, but are not 
properly cultivated. The fruit is for the greater pari 
pressed, and makes good cider, of which the largest portion 
becomes soured and spoiled through their ignorance or 
negligence, either from not putting it into good casks, or 
from not taking proper care of the liquor afterwards. 
Sheep they have none, although they have what is requisite 
for them if they chose. It is matter of conjecture whether 
you will find any milk or butter even in summer; we 
have not found any there at this season of the year. They 
bestow all their time and care in producing tobacco; 
each cask or hogshead, as they call it, of which pays two 
English shillings on exportation, and on its arrival in Eng- 
land, two pence a pound, besides the fees for weighing and 
other expenses here, and freight and other charges beyond 
sea. When, therefore, tobacco only brings four or five 
pence, there is little or nothing left for the owner. 

The lives of the planters in Maryland and Virginia are 
very godless and profane. They listen neither to God nor 
his commandments, and have neither church nor cloister. 
Sometimes there is some one who is called a minister, who 
docs not as elsewhere, serve in one place, for in all Virginia 
and Maryland there is not a city or a village — but travels 
for profit, and for that purpose visits the plantations through 
the country, and there addresses the people ; but I know of 
no public assemblages being held in these places; you 
hear often that these ministers are worse than anybody 
else, yea, are an abomination. 

When t\iQ ships arrive with goods, and especially with 
liquors, such as wine and brandy, they attract» everybody, 
that is, masters, to them, who then indulge so abominably 






AN EXECUTION. THE IIOEREKIL. 219 

j . ..; fher, that they keep nofcMng for the fesi of the 

•.,.:.", yon, do not go away as long as there is any left, or 
bring any thing home with them which might he useful to 
them in their subsequent necessities. It must, therefore, 
go hard with the household, and it is a wonder if there he a 
single drop left for the future. They squander so much in 
this way, that they keep no tobacco to huy a shoe or a 
stocking for their children which sometimes causes great 
misery. While they take so little care for provisions, and 
are otherwise so reckless, the Lord sometimes punishes 
them with insects, flies and worms, or with intemperate 
seasons, causing great famine, as happened a few years 
ago in the time of the last Dutch war with the English, 
when the Lord sent so man}' weevils (eenk&renijes) that all 
their grain was eaten up as well as most all the other pro- 
ductions of the field, by reason of which such a great famine 
was caused that many persons died of starvation, and a 
mother killed her own child and eat it, and then went to 
her neighbors, calling upon them to come and see what she 
had done, and showing them the remains of her child, 
whereupon she was arrested and condemned to be hung. 
"When she sat or stood on the scaffold, she cried out to the 
people, in the presence of the governor, that she was now 
ffoinsrto God, where she would render an account, and 
would declare before him that what she had done she did 
in the mere delirium of hunger, for which the governor 
alone should hear the guilt; inasmuch as this famine was 
caused by the ernkorens, a visitation from God, because he, 
the governor, undertook in the preceding summer, an expe- 
dition against the Dutch, residing on the South river, who 

O I CD 

maintained themselves in such a good posture of defense, 
that he could accomplish but little; when he went to the 
llocre-kil on the west side of that river, not far from the 
sea, where also he was not able to do much; hut as the 
people subsisted there only by cultivating wheat, and had 



J 
220 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

at this time a fine and ahundanf harvest id tlic fields — ant] 
from such harvests the people of Mainland genx;rallv and 
under such circumstances as these particularly, were 
fed — lie set fire to it, and all their other fruits, whether of 
the trees or the held; whereby he committed two great 
sins at the same time, namely, against God and his good- 
ness, and against his neighbors, the Dutch, who lost it, and 
the English who needed it; and had caused more misery 
to the English in his own country, than to the Dutch in the 
enemy's country. This wretched woman protesting these 
words substantially against the governor,, before heaven 
and in the hearing of every one, was then swung up. 1 

In addition to what the tobacco itself pays on exporta- 
tion, which produces a very large sum, every hundred 
acres of land, whether cultivated or not, has to pay one 
hundred pounds of tobacco a year, and every person 
between sixteen and sixty years of age must pay three 
shillings a year. All animals are free of taxation, and so 
are all productions except tobacco. 

It remains to be mentioned that those persons who pro- 



1 Th'e llocrdU, in English Whore creek, is on the west side of Delaware 
bav, about three mites inside of Cape Henlopen. This distinctive name 
first appears in the Vfftteogfi ran jS'au JS'tdcrla/it, written in 1040 (A. Y. 
IlixiortC'd Society CotltttiorCS, second series, 11, .081). It would seem to have 
been first applied in the preceding year from a circumstance which is 
related in X. Y. CoMftwl Ilistary, III, 343. This spot was first attempted 
to be settled by the Dutch in 1631, when a colony of thirty-four persons 
sent out by Godyn, Van Rensselaer, Illoemart, De Lact,and David Pieter- 
sen De Vries as patroons, was landed there, but was a few months after- 
wards in the same year destroyed, and the colonists all murdered by the 
Indians. It then, in common with the whole territory, on both sides of 
the mouth of Delaware bay, for thirty-two miles up from the sea, bore the 
name of Swatmndael. It remained unsettled until 1059, when it was pur- 
chased of the Indians a second time by the Dutch West India Company, and 
was by the company transferred immediately to the city of Amsterdam, 
although it had been purchased of the Indians by Godyn and others in 
1629, and by them assigned t<> the AVest India Company in 1535. Hazard's 
Annals of Pennayhania, 33, 30, 205-7. A colony of Mcnnonists, directed 



JESUITS. DOMINE TESSEMAKER. 221 

f > ! the Soman Catholic religion, have p-eat, indeed, all 
:' <<iom in Maryland, because the governor makes pro- 
fession of that faith, and consequently there are priests and 
other ecclesiastics who travel and disperse themselves 
everywhere, and neglect nothing which serves for their 
profit and purpose. The priests of Canada take care of 
this region, and hold correspondence with those here, as is 
supposed, as well as with those who reside among the 
Indians. It is said there is not an Indian fort between 
Canada and Maryland, where there is not a Jesuit who 
teaches and advises the Indians, who begin to listen to them 
too much; so much so, that some people in Virginia and 
Maryland as well as in Xew Xetherland, have been appre- 
hensive lest there might be an outbreak, hearing what has 
happened in Europe, as well as among their neighbors at 
Boston. ; but they hope the result of the troubles there will 
determine many things elsewhere. The Lord grant a happy 
issue there and here, as well as in other parts of the world, 
for the help of his own elect, and the glory of his name. 
We will now leave Maryland, and come back to Xew 



by Peter Cornelisen Plocklioy, left Holland, and established itself at the 
lloerekil in. 1002, under the authority of the city of Amsterdam. This 
new colony was plundered by the English on the conquest of Xew Neth- 
er! and in 1001. 

The transaction to which the journalist refers happened eight years 
afterwards. It was perpetrated by the proprietor of Maryland in vindica- 
tion of his title, though it seems to have been ruihlessl}' done, and 
without justification. It occurred in the summer of 1072, when Lord 
Baltimore sent an expedition to the Hoerekil, consisting of sixty men at 
first, but .afterwards reduced to thirty men and horse, under one Jones, 
who, " in derision and contempt of the Duke's authority, bound the magis- 
trates and inhabitants, despitefully treated them, sifted and plundered 
them of their goods, and when it was demanded by what authority he 
acted, answered in no other language but a cocked pi>tol to his breast, 
which if it had spoken, had forever silenced him." Hazard's Annals t ZQ%. 
JV". Y. Colon url Manuscripts, XX, 37. , 

The name of the town of lloerekil was changed to Deal in 1080, and 
subsequently to Lewes, and is now Lewis orLewiston. 



222 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

Oastle (Sandhack), on the South river, where, in the house of 
onrfVk'U'l Ephraim Hermans, the Lord had brought us, ami 
our friends received and lodged us with affectionate hearts, 

16th, Saturday. Mr. Mall, who is the president [of the 
court] and one of the principal men in the South [river,] 
having finished his business in the court which was now 
ended, had intended to ride this morning to a plantation 
which lie had recently purchased on Christina kil, and 
would have been pleased to have had us accompany him, 
and look at the lands about there, which he said were very 
good ; but as the hard and rainy weather of yesterday had 
not yet cleared up, he put oft" the journey until Monday, in 
hopes he would then have our company, when he would 
provide a horse for each of us, and Ephraim would also go 
with us. Meanwhile we went to see whether there would 
be any means of returning to the Manathans notwithstand- 
ing the ice, either by land or sea. If we should return by 
water, we would be able to see the lower parts of this river, 
the Hoere-kil and others; but no opportunity presented 
itself, because it was so late in the year, there being no navi- 
gating in consequence of every one being afraid of the ice. 

17th, Sunday. We had an opportunity to-day to hear 
Domine Tessemaker, which we did, but never heard worse 
preaching, and T, therefore, had little desire to go again in 
the afternoon, though I was misled by the ringing of the bell. 
He is a man who wishes to effect some etablissemerd or 
reform here, but he will not accomplish much In that 
respect, as he not only has no grace therefor, but there 
seems to be something in his life which will hereafter mani- 
fest itself more. For the present we can say with truth 
that he is a perfect worldling. 1 It seems that in these 



Nomine Peter Tessemaker remained in charge of the church at New 
Castle until 1G82, when he accepted a call to Schenectady, where he fell a 

victim to the massacre perpetrated by the French and Indian? in February, 
1690. His head was cloven open, and his body burnt to the shoulder blades. 



EXCURSION TO CHRISTINA CHEEK. 223 

! ■ : .j]t;i;-]Iy, as v.('11 as physically, waste places, there is never- 
.. gs, a craving of the people to accept any thing that 
bears oven the name of food, in order to content rather 
than satisfy themselves therewith. Nevertheless the Lord 
will take pity upon these his lands, as we hope, for it 
appenffe indeed that the seed of the elect is here, especially 
among those of European descent. 

IStft, Monday. "We four, namely, Mr. Moll, Ephraim, my 
comrade and myself, after we had breakfasted, started about 
nine o'clock, on horseback, from New Castle for Christina 
kil. We observed the land through which we rode was 
sometimes only common soil, until we reached a plantation 
which Mr. Moll and Ephraim owned together, lying on a 
branch of that creek, and which was a good piece of land. 
Ephraim having finished the business for which he had come 
here, of having planks sawed for boarding a new clap-board 
house he had built, left us and rode back to New Castle, 
and we continued on after we had looked at a grist-mill 
which the Swedes had constructed upon one of the branches 
of the creek, a considerable distance along another of them. 
"We discovered here and there pieces of good land, but 
they were not large, and were along the creek. The 
greater portion of the country was only common land. 
Evening coming on, w T e rode back to the plantation of a 
Mr. Man, lying upon a neck of land called Cheese~and-bread 
(Caes-en-broot) island, which is a good piece of ground, and 
up to which the creek is navigable for large boats or barks. 
This man is a great friend of Mr. Moll. "We were, there- 
fore, very welcome, and slept there this night. 

3 9/A, Tuesday. After breakfast we rode out in company 
with Mr. Man, to look at several pieces of land which they 
very highly recommended to us, but it was because, as they 
said, they wished to have good neighbors, though some- 
times neighbors did not amount to much. It was now in 
the afternoon, and we rode towards home, over a plain 



224 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

where the ritoer ran out of tlio road in herds. Coining to 
the large creek, which is properly called Chriatina kit, we 

found Mr. Moll had not correctly calculated the tide, forlie 
supposed it would be low water or thereabouts, whereas 
the water was so high that it was not advisable to ride 
through it with horses, and we would have to wait until 
the water had fallen sufficiently for that purpose. While 
we were waiting, and it began to get towards evening, an 
Indian came on the opposite side of the creek, who knew 
Mr. Moll, and lived near there at that time, and had per- 
haps heard us speak, lie said that we would have to wait 
there too long; but if we would ride a little lower down, 
he had a canoe in which he would carry us over, and we 
might swim the horses across. We rode there at once, and 
found him and his canoe. We unsaddled the horses, and 
he swain them over one by one, being in the canoe and 
holding them by the bridle. When we were over, we quickly 
saddled them and rode them as fast as they could run, so 
that they might not be cold and benumbed. It was entirely 
dark, and we remarked to each other the providence of the 
Lord in this Indian coming there; for otherwise we would 
not have known how to find the way through the woods in 
consequence of the great darkness. It was bad enough as 
it was, on a path that both the horses and Mr. Moll were 
acquainted with, for we could, scarcely see each other some- 
times. We readied Kew Castle ham lily about eight o'clock 
in the evening, much rejoiced, and thanking Mr. Moll. 

20th, Wednesday. While we were in Maryland, and were 
crossing over the Sassafras river, we saw a small English 
ship lying there, which they told us would leave about 
the English Christmas. We now learned from Mr. Moll, 
that he was going to write by her, and was willing if we 
wrote, to allow our letters go to London under cover of 
his; and also that he should soon go to Maryland to at- 
tend the court now about to be held there. We deter- 



AN ENTAILED ESTATE. 225 

, ;1: , : ,.. t i j-feevefbre, not to J^ermit tlic opportunity to pass by 
■ ;■■ writing home. 

21$/, Thursday. We finished our letters to-day. We 
perceived it would be in vain to wait for a chance to go to 
the Manathans by sea, and there would he no opportunity 
to go up the river. We, therefore, finally concluded to 
hire a canoe and a person to take us up the river; and ac- 
cordingly agreed with one Jan Boeyer, for fifty guilders in 
zeewan, and a dollar for the canoe a day, to leave the next 
day if it were pos>ibte. Whereupon, Ephraimand his wife, 
who had done their best herein, as well as other friends, 
sot about writing letters for ns to take to the Bfanaihans. 
Meantime, Ephraim received news that his father was near 
his end, and had to be handled by one or two men to turn 
him in bed, and that he desired once more to speak to 
him. 

22d> Friday. It had frozen some this morning, and Jan 
Bocyer manifested little disposition to go up the river, 
declaring that with such a frost as this, the river above 
was all frozen up; and though there was no probability 
of it, we had to wait. Ephraim and Mr. Moll, left together 
for Maryland to see Ephraim's father, who wanted to speak 
to him, as we heard, in relation to the land or manor 
which he possessed there ; for while he had given portions 
to all his other children, namely, one son and three daugh- 
ters, he had made Ephraim, his oldest son, heir of his rank 
and manor, according to the English law, asy//s dc commys, 
that is, Ephraim could enjoy the property during his life, 
and hire or sell it for that period, but upon his death, it 
must go to his oldest son, and so descend from heir to heir. 
Mr. Moll was the witness of this, and had the papers in his 
care. It seemed that the Father wished to make some 
change because we had been there, and he had offered us 
a part of the land. We, therefore, think we will hear what 
he shall have done in the matter. 



22G JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

Although it Lad frozen hard, yet when the ?tiu rose big] 
about nine o'clock, it was orUiuajnlj pleasant and buiuh 

weather, but there was no decision on the part uf <>';< 
skipper to leave. In the meantime we had the house with 
Ephrainrs wife alone, and, therefore, more freedom and 
opportunity to speak to . her of God, and godly thin--;. 
which she well received. We expect something govd 
from her as well as from Ephraim. 

23d, Saturday. The weather was milder, and there was 
some fo£>' which cleared away as die sun rose. "We went 
to see Jan Eoeyer again, hut he had no intention to make 
the journey. We heard it was not so much on account of 
the ice, as of the small-pox, which prevailed very much up 
the river, and which he had never had. There was no use 
of striving with him, and we determined, therefore, to hire 
somebody else, if we could find any person. Mr. Peter 
Aldrix made inquiry for us, hut to no purpose, and we 
had to wait and depend upon God's providence. We 
heard, however, of some people who had arrived in a 
canoe from Christina kil, and that even in that creek there 
was no ice yet, or up the river. 

24£/<, Sunday. Pomine Tessemaker being at Apoque- 
mene there was no preaching to-day at Xew Castle hut 
prelecting. We went, however, to the church, in order 
not to give offense. Much of the reading we could not 
bear, but we hope others were more edified than we ex- 
pected to he. 

It was very fine weather and it annoyed us that we had 
to wait so. This evening there arrived a canoe with 
Swedes, who had come from half way below the tails, and 
of whom we inquired whether there were any ice up the 
river. They said there was not, and they were going- 
back the next day. We endeavored to make an agree- 
ment with them to earry us, but they asked entirely too 
much, namely, an anker of rum, which would amount to 



DESCRIPTION OF NEW CASTLE. 227 

. h -;it 126 guilders in zeewnn . : whereupon we rebuked 
them for their exorbitancy. The Swedes and Fins, particu- 
larly, have this iVuilt, and generally towards strangers; but 
as it seemed to me they had drank a little too much, we 
let the matter rest in the hope they would talk more 
reasonably to-morrow. 

25//', Monday. The weather being good, we spoke again 
to oar Swedes, but they continued obstinate; and also to 
Jan Boeyer, but nothing could be done with him either. 
While we were standing on the shore talking with them 
about leaving, I saw coming down the river a boat which 
looked very much like that of the quaker of Upland, as 
indeed it was. Tie landed atXcw Castle and was going to 
Ephraim's house, where he had some business to transact, 
intending to leave the next day. Vo asked him if he 
was willing to take us with him, and he said, he would 
do so with pleasure. We were rejoiced, observing the 
providence of the Lord who took such fatherly care of 
ns. There stood. Jan Boeyer and the Swedes cheated by 
their own covetousness. Robert "Wade and his wife lodged 
at Ephraim's, which assured us our journey would be com- 
menced the next day. 

26/A, Tuesday. All the letters having been collected to- 
gether, which we were to take with us and deliver, and 
the quaker having finished his business, we breakfasted 
together, and courteously took leave of all our acquaint- 
ances-.; but especially with some love, of Madam Ephraim, 
named Elizabeth van JRodenbvrgh. She had shown us much 
kindness, and given us good hope that the Lord will not 
forget her therein. 

We will observe before leaving Sand^hoek, that it has 
always been the principal place on the South river, as well 
in the time of the English as of the Dutch. It is now 
called New Castle by the English. It is situated on the 
west side of the river upon a point which extends out with 



228 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

a sandy beach. affcrdi»g a good landing place, better than 
is to be found elsewhere on that account. It lies a little 
above the bay whore the river bends and runs south from 
there, so that you can see down the river southerly, the 
greater portion of it, which, presents a beautiful view in 
perspective, and enables you to see from a distance the 
ships which come out of the great bay and sail up the 
river. Formerly all ships were accustomed to anchor 
here, for the purpose of paying duties or obtaining per- 
mits, and to unload when the goods were carried away by 
water in boats or barks, or by land in carts. It was 
much larger and more populous at that time, and had a 
small tort called Yassau; but since the country has be- 
longed to the English, ships may no longer come here, or 
they must first declare, and unload their cargoes at New 
York, which has caused this little place to fall off very 
much, and even retarded the settlement of plantations. 
"What remains of it consists of about fifty houses, most all 
of wood. The fort is demolished, but there is a good 
block-house, having some small cannon, erected in the 
middle of the town, and sufficient to resist the Indians or 
an incursion of Christians ; but it could not hold out long. 
This town is the capital of justice, where the high court 
of the South river is held, having three other courts subor- 
dinate to it, from which appeals lie to it, as they do from 
it to Yew York, and from Yew York to England. These 
three minor courts are established, one at Salem, a small 
village of quakers newly commenced on the east side of 
the river not far from Yew Castle ; another is at Upland, 
on the west side above Yew Castle, a Swedish village, and 
the third is at Burlington, a new quaker village on the 
east side of the river above Yew Castle. Yew Castle is about 
eighty miles from the falls, and the same distance from 
the mouth of the river or the sea. The water in the river 
at Yew Castle, at ordinary flood tide is. fresh, but when 



THE PRINCIPAL INHABITANTS. 229 

it is high spriag tkle, or the wind Wcrws hard from the 
south or southeast, it isbrackis3i,aa*l if the wiud continues 

long, or it is hard weather it becomes a little saltish. 
With a new or full moon it makes high water at jNTew Castle 
at live o'clock. The principal persons whom we have 
seen are Mr. Moll and his wife, Ephraim Hermans and his 
wife, Peter Aldrix and his wife, and Domine Tessemaker. 

As regards Mr. Moll, he lived in his youth at Amster- 
dam, in order to learn business. He afterwards went to 
]>ri>tol, in England, where he carried on a reasonably large 
business which he had begun to do at Amsterdam. In the 
war between England and Holland, he lost so much that he 
failed, or made an agreement with his creditors. He, there- 
fore, immigrated to this country, and after trading in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland some time, came to New Castle to live, 
where he has two or three plantations, upon which he 
raises tobacco, more for the purpose of paying his creditors, 
as he himself informed me, than because he seeks this 
manner of gain and life, intending, as soon as he can 
release himself, to go and live upon the land, and support 
himself by what God may be pleased to give him. 1 Touch- 
ing the hope of grace discoverable in him it is very slight, 
although he has listened with attention to all we have said 
to him, requesting us to continue, and that he might be 
favored with a letter from us on the subject, or some books 
such as we might deem necessary, and willing, with a full 
heart, to do us every service in his power in these quarters 
or elsewhere, as he had done many, and endeavored to do 
still more. The Lord will do for him as it pleases him. 

The wife of Mr. Moll is an English woman, a pious 
independent. When he married her, she lived in a large 
house where many persons dwelt together, separate from 
all other assemblies and the attachments of the world, seek- 



1 Sec note on page ISO, ante 



230 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



imr nothing except to serve Clod in peace and Uprightness, 
and having ttacir own preaeto -and other ministers. Jin, 
with all this she remains a great mundane, as to which we 
have spoken to her. They have only one son. 

Ephraim Hermans is the oldest child of Augustine Her- 
mans, there "being two brothers and three sisters, one of 
whom lives now at Amsterdam. They are all of a Dutch 
mother, after whose death their father married an English 
woman, who is the most artful and despicable creature that 
can be found. lie is a very godless person, and his wife, 
by her wickedness, has compelled all these children to leave 
their father's house and live elsewhere. 1 Ephraim, the 
oldest, having gone into business, settled at Xcw Castle, 
his oldest sister keeping house for him. He had for along 
time sought in marriage at is ew York, a daughter of the 



1 Augustine Hermans, or Heermaus, called also Ilarman, was a Bohe- 
mian by birth., but came from Holland to New Amsterdam in or before 
16-17, in which year he was appointed by the director and council of New 
Netherland, one of the Nine Men, a body of citizens selected to assist the 
government by their counsel and advice. ITe came over to this country as 
a clerk to John and Charles Gabry, of Amsterdam. He was sent, in com- 
pany with Resolved Waldxon, by the Dutch governor, to the governor 
of Maryland, to confer in relation to the claim of title of the proprietor of 
Maryland to the South river. This no doubt led to his subsequent settle- 
ment on Bohemia river, so named by him, in that province. He seems to 
have been a surveyor and draughtsman. In addition to the map of Mary- 
land, stated by our journal to have been made by him, which seems to have 
been the consideration for the giant of Bohemia manor, lie made a sketch 
of the city of New Amsterdam, which was engraved on Nicolas Jan 
Yisseker's map Xovi Belgti Novazqw Anglia nee non parti* Virginia, pub- 
lished in 1650-6, and also on a reduced scale from Visscher's map on the 
map prefixed to the second edition of Vanderdorik's Description of New 
jSfethcrtamh His first wife was Janucken Verlett of Utrecht, whom he 
married at New Amsterdam, December 10, 1650, and by whom he had 
children: 1, Ephraim George, baptized September 1, 1652; 2. Casparus, 
baptized July 2, -1656; :J, Anna Margaretta, baptized March 10, 1658; Judith, 
baptized MayD, 1000, and Franeina, baptized March 12, 1662. New York 
Maimed 1863, 723, Bro<lhu<<l, 47."), 561, 621, GOO. Ashefs List ofMttps and 
Chart* of New Sutherland, 12, 31. 



EPHRAIM HKKMAXS AND HIS WIFE. 231 

• . ■ «=, vrnor of* the island of CmitQ&a, in the Caribbean 
... . , , bfrlouging to the Di^tab "West X&di# Company, svbose 
li.iiue was Juh.an van Jiodcnbun/h.. 1 She lived with her 
rnotheii on the M&nhatan, who, after the death of her hus- 
band, liodenburgh, married one Joannes ran jBurgh,\)y whom 
she had several children. 2 Her daughter, Elizabeth van 
Kodenburgh, being of a quiet turn of mind, and quite 
sickly, had great inclination to remain single. Ephraim, 
however, finally succeeded in his suit, and married her at 
Xew York. 3 He brought her with him to Xew Castle on 
the South river, and we accompanied them on the journey. 
Ephraim had been a bad, artful fellow in his youth, and 
lived in all godless ways, but the Lord seized his heart, 
whereby ho began to repent, and saw that he must live 
otherwise, the Lord compelling him. He found, however, 
no ground or strength, but having a good conception of 
spiritual matters or religion, as far as could be the ease in 
such a man, he saw nothing but untruth, falsehood and 
deception in all that was done in relation to God and godly 
things, and great hypocrisy in the best persons with whom 
he was acquainted. Convinced of this, and seeing no 
better result, he remained in suspense, although he pro- 
fessed the doctrines of the reformed, and was a member 
of their church. Seeing our life, and hearing lis speak, 
he has begun to see the difference, and discover the truth 
received in the heart. He has examined himself in several 
things, and corrected them, and was disposed to do more, 



1 According to the Caramon papers at Albany, Lucas Roderiburgli was 
appointed provisional director of Curagoa August 22, 1644. He was suc- 
eredtd, probacy on his death, by Mr. Bcek in December. 1655. (XCalla- 
ghant* Calendar of Dutch Manuscript, 320, &30. X. 1'. Colonial History ', II, 



1(3 

3 ' 



See CdthuUtr of Dutch Manuscripts, 331. 

The bans of this marriage were published 3d September, 16T7. New 
York Manutd, 1862,593. 



J Iu addition to the clerkship of the courts at New Castle and Upland, 
Ephraim Hermans rilled other places of trust and confidence on the Dela- 
ware. Like his father he was a surveyor. He was clerk of permits, 
entries, and clearings of customs on the Delaware, and receiver of quit- 
rents on that river within the jurisdiction of the courts above mentioned. 
In 1070, he was sent to New York in company with Sir. John Moll and 
Captain Cautwcll by the justices at New Castle to represent certain 
grievances to the governor. He had four children at least, as we find that 
number baptized in the church at New York, namely, Augustine, Augus- 
tina, Samuel and Ephraim. Brcciate, Penn vs. Calvert. Hazard's Annals. 
N. T. Manual im% 



232 JOURNF.Y TO THE DEE AWAKE. 

as wo had persuade:] him. May the Lord bestow upon 
liiiii liis true grace, who puts it in our hearts to beseech 
this for him with confidence. "We commit all to him.' 

His wife, Elizabeth van Lodenburgh, has the quietest 
disposition we have observed in America. She is politely 
educated. She has had through her entire youth a sleep- 
ing sickness of which she seems now to be free. She 
has withdrawn herself much from the idle company of 
youth, seeking God in quiet and solitude. She professes 
the reformed religion, is a member of that church, and 
searches for the truth which she has found nowhere except 
in the word and preaching, which she, therefore, much 
attended upon and loved, but which never satisfied her, as 
she felt a want and yearning after something more. She 
was so pleased at our being near her, and lodged at her 
house, she could not. abstain from frequently declaring so, 
receiving all that we said to her with gratitude, desiring 
abways to be near us; and following the example of her 
husband, he corrected many things, with the hope and 
promise of persevering if the Lord would be pleased so to 
give her grace. We were indeed comforted with these two 
persons, who have done much for us out of sincere love. 
The Lord pities them, and will keep his promise to this 
house. 

Margaret Hermans possesses a good disposition, although 
a little wild, according to the nature of the country. She 









RETURNING UP THE RIVER. 233 

.M-.Mijn.'iineu that she was like a wild and desolate vine, 
t rained up in a Wild and desolate country; that she bad 
always felt an inclination to know more of God quietly, 
and to serve him, hoping the Lord would be merciful to 
her. She treated us with great affection, and received 
thankfully and acceptably what we said to her. "We did 
not see her on our return, as she had gone to attend upon 
her father ; and we, therefore, have not conversed much 
with her. The Lord wall do with her as it pleases him. 

Peter Aldrix came from Groningcn to this country in 
the year '63 or 'G4, for the Lord Burgomasters of Am- 
sterdam, as chief of their cargoes and storehouse in respect 
of the trade with the Indians, and thus was at the head of 
their office on the South river. Whether he had been in 
this country before or not, I do not know. 1 He did not 
occupy his place long, for the English shortly afterwards 
took the country and deprived him of all he had ; x^i he 
has remained here, gaining his livelihood by various 
means as well as he can, and seems to have gradually suc- 
ceeded. He had a ketch made for the purpose of trad- 
ing to the [West India] Islands, and elsewhere. He has a 
large family of children, and others. He sought to render 
us as much service as he could, but for the things of grace 
lie is not inclined. He is a mundane, but is not vicious. 
The Lord can use him as it pleases him. 

These are the persons at Xew Castle with whom we have 
some acquaintance, and such the hope they have given us. 
W T e have promised them to continue it, and write to them, 
and send them such books as we might deem necessary 
for them. 

Returning now to our boat, it left about ten o'clock for 
a place a little higher up the river where they had to take 
in some wheat, and where we were to go on foot, with the 

1 See cole on page 100, ante, 
30 



234 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



quaker's wife. We reached it about noon, and found tin 
bom lftjieu, and lyiag high ap oh the land, so that we had 
to wait until the tide was half Hood. We saw there a 
piece of meadow or marsh, which a Dutch woman had 
dyked in, and which they assured us had yielded an hun- 
dred for one, of wheat, notwithstanding the hogs had done 
it great damage. The boat getting afloat, we left about 
three o'clock, and moved up with the tide. The weather 
was pleasant and still, with a slight breeze sometimes from 
the west, of which we availed ourselves; but it did not 
continue long, and we had to rely upon our oars. We 
arrived at Upland about seven o'clock in the evening, and 
it was there only half flood, so much later does the tide 
make there than at Xew Castle. The quaker received us 
kindly, gave us supper, and counseled with us as to how 
we should proceed further. We were shown a better 
place to sleep than we had when we were here before. 

27/A, Wednesday, It rained some during the night and it 
was very misty early in the morning. Before the tide 
served to leave, we agreed with this man who had brought 
us up, to send us in his boat to Burlington, with two boys 
to manage it, paying him twenty guilders for the boat, and 
three guilders a day to each of the boys for three days, 
amounting in the whole to thirty-eight guilders; but one 
of the boys willing too much, he determined to take us up 
himself. A good wind coming out of the south, we 
breakfasted and dined in one meal, and left about ten 
o'clock, with a favorable wind and tide, though at times 
the wind was quite sharp. We sailed by Tinakonk again, 
but did not land there. It began at noon to rain very hard, 
and continued so the whole day, and also blew quite hard. 
"We ran aground on the lee shore upon a very shallow and 
muddy place, from which we got off with difficulty. On 
account of this and other accidents, if we had had the boys 
it would have been bad for us. We arrived at Wykakoe, a 



PETER ALDWCH'S ISLAND. 235 

- ,. nli.-lj village on the West Side of the river, in the e veil - 
• nt clusfc, where we went, all wet, into the house of one 
( )Uo, who had three children lying sick with the small-pox. 
We dried ourselves here partly. He gave us supper and 
took us to sleep all together in a warm, stove room, which 
they use to dry their malt in and other articles. It was 
very warm there, and our clothes in the morning were 
entirely dry. 

28th, Thursday. It was flood at daylight when wo left, but 
had not gone for before I discovered I had left one of my 
gloves behind, whereupon we ran the boat ashore, and I 
went back and found it. My comrade was more unfortu- 
nate, for after we had proceeded fall two hours, and when 
we were going to breakfast on what our female friend had 
given us, he found he had left his knife and fork ; but we 
had gone too far to lose the time to go back for them. 
The weather was foggy, but when the sun had risen a little, 
it cleared away and became pleasant and calm. We there- 
fore advanced rapidly, rowing with the tide, and reached 
Tahany of which we have before spoken, about ten o'clock, 
and where we landed a person who had come up with us. 
We continued on, and as the tide just commenced rising 
there we had a constant flood tide with us to Burlington, 
where we arrived about two o'clock. We were put ashore 
on an island of Peter Aldrix who had given us a letter of 
recommendation to a person living there, and working for 
him. We paid Robert Wade who and his wife are the 
best quakers we have found. They have always treated 
us kindly. He went immediately over to Burlington 
where he did not stop long, and took the ebb tide and 
rowed with it down the river. . It was not high tide for 
an hour and a half after we arrived at the island, and there 
is, therefore, a difference of eleven hours or more in the 
same tide from Xew Castle. 

The man who lived on this island was named Barent, 






236 JOUKNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 






raid came from GroTrmgcn. He was at a loss to know 
how to get us on further, Horses, absolutely, lie eould not 

furnish us; and there was no Indian about to act as a 
guide, as they had all gone out hunting in the woods, and 
none of them had been at his house for three weeks. To 
accompany us himself to Adder kol or the Rariians, and re- 
turn, could not he accomplished, in less than four days, 
and he would have to leave his house meantime in charge 
of an Indian woman from Virginia, who had left her hus- 
band, an Englishman, and with two children, one of which 
had the small-pox, was living with him ; and she could 
he of no use to any one, whether Indians or other persons 
who might come there. We were compelled again to wait 
upon the providence of the Lord. 

About three o'clock in the afternoon a young Indian ♦ 
arrived with whom we agreed to act as our guide, for a 
dufncls coat which would cost twenty-four guilders in 
zcewanf, that is, about five guilders in the money of Hol- 
land ; but he had a fowling-piece with him which he de- 
sired first to take and have repaired at Burlington, and 
would then come back. He accordingly crossed over, but 
we waited for him in vain, as he did not return. The 
greatest difficulty with him was, that we could not speak 
the Indian language, and he could not speak a word of 
any thing else. He not coining, we asked Barent if he 
would not undertake the task, which, after some debate, he 
consented to do. He arranged his affairs accordingly, and 
prepared himself by making a pair of shoes or foot-soles of 
deer skin, which are very comfortable, and protect the 
feet. That was done in half an hour. We were to give 
him thirty guilders in zeewant, with which he was satisfied. 

2!>//>, Friday. We breakfasted, and left about ten o'clock 
in a canoe, which set us on the west side of the river, 
along which a foot path runs a part of the way, in an east 
northeast direction, and then through the woods north 



• 



COURSE OF THE RIVER 237 

iiorthettfst. We followed this path until we came to a 
plantation, newly begun by a qu&ker, where we rested and 

refreshed ourselves. We agreed with this man, who came 
in the house while we were there, that he should put us 
over the river for three guilders in zeewant. 1 We crossed 
over about one o'clock, and pursued a foot path along the 
river, which led us to a cart road, and following that we 
came to the new grist-mill at the falls, which, in conse- 
quence of the great now of water, stood in danger of being 
washed away. 2 Crossing here, we began our journey in 
the Lord's name, for there are no houses from this point 
to Peskcdteicay, an English village on the Karitans. We 
had now gone twelve or thirteen miles from Peter Aldrix's 
island, and it was about two o'clock in the afternoon. 

We must here make some general observations in rela- 
tion to the South river. The Dutch, who first discovered 
and took possession of it, so named it, undoubtedly because 
it empties into the sea in the most southerly part of K e\v 
JS'etherland, to wit, in latitude -39° north, being one de- 
gree and twenty minutes, or more, further south, than the 
mouth of the Xorth river. It runs up from the sea north- 
westerly, making a fine, large bay, much better than that 
of the jSTorth river, or Godyn's bay. It is not only of 
greater length, which is about forty miles, with a breadth 
of six or seven miles; but it has a fine bottom of sand, and 
gravel reefs all along the bonks. The water is purer up 
above. From the inside or middle of the bay, its course 
to the narrow part, or river is mostly south [north] or 
bent gradually from northwest to north, with here and there 
a small bay, and it continues running so, from twenty to 
twenty-four miles, or more, to aSTew Castle, where it bends 
to the east to northeast, with several bays on both sides, to 
Upland and Tiwahmk. a distance of twenty-four miles. Xt 



1 This Avas at or near Bordentown. 
'At or near Trcntou. 



238 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 









Titiakonk, it runs about cast or cart northeast, Luc having; 
passed that island it bears oil' again, noj$h to northeast ; 

also, with several Lays to Wykakog about twenty miles, and 
continuing so to Takany, sixteen miles. From Takanv 
to Burlington, it runs again more easterly and east north- 
east twenty miles, thence due east six miles, where there 
is a round bay turning north to north northwest to the falls 
four miles, so that from the falls to the sea coast it is 
about eighty English miles, or twenty Dutch miles, from 
New Castle each way. It has numerous fine navigable 
creeks on Loth sides of it, which are like small rivers run- 
ning far inland, but how far is not yet known ; nor is it 
known how far the south river extends above the tails, as 
they have not explored above them. This river is gene- 
rally very clear. I do not know that there is any thing 
aLove to Le avoided, except occasionally a muddy point on 
the margins. Heavy ships, drawing 10, 12 and 14 feet 
water, go up the river as far as Burlington, and higher ; 
but in the great bend where it runs to the falls, it can be 
navigated close to the hills by boats, drawing five and six 
feet and more. The land on the east side is generally 
lower than on the west, and is not so good. It continues 
very flat, deep into the country, as you go far down. On 
the west side the land is tolerably high, immediately off 
from the river, and is generally good all the way down. 
Both sides being low this river is better to navigate than 
the Xorth river, for that has very high banks, which being 
frightfully steep and rocky, it is subject to great whirl- 
winds and squalls, which, coming suddenly over the hills, 
fall upon the river, which is no small inconvenience. The , r 

water which comes over the falls is pure and clear, and is 
quite Line, but running lower down, it gradually becomes 
muddy, hut is entirely clear again at Takaxy, and reasona- 
bly so at Wikakoe ; further on it becomes thick, but it is 
always good. As to the salubrity of the climate of which 



CLIMATE. SWEDISH SETTLEMENTS. 



239 



v:; did not suy any tiling when we spoke of Maryland, it 
is certain that Virginia being the lowest on the sea, is 

the most unhealthy where they [die] by thousands some- 
times of the epidemical disease of the country. In Mary- 
land, which lies higher up from the sea than Virginia, it is 
more healthy, although it is subject to the epidemic. 
Therefore, all those who come into the country, must 
undergo this sickness without escape. Even the children, 
who are born there, are not excepted, as those who live 
there and have experienced it, told us when we were 
there. And although their manner of life is the cause of 
much irregularity in their health, there is, nevertheless, 
something in the atmosphere which produces disease : but 
this will become gradually better, as the country is mea- 
surably populated, and thereby becomes more cleared, as 
experience shows is true of all the lands in America, 
which have been unhealthy. The uppermost parts of 
Maryland are more healthy than those lowest down. The 
South river is more salubrious than Maryland, as it lies 
higher. It partakes, however, somewhat of the nature of 
Maryland, especially below, but with great difference^ 
which every year increases. The higher the more healthy; 
although at the Hocrekil which is near the sea, it is as healthy 
as anywhere, because it is well populated. In the upper 
part of the river, it is as healthy as it can be anywhere, 
and for myself, I believe that Xew Netherland has not a 
place in it which is not healthier than any part of old 
Netherlands in the United Provinces, and is becoming 
every day more salubrious, especially if they live here 
as they do in Holland. The North river is entirely 
healthy, for it lies much higher up than the South 
river, that is further to the north, and although it is 
nearer the sea than where they live in Maryland and on 
the South river, it is, nevertheless, more wholesome, which 
shows that it is not the air of the sea which causes the 



- 



940 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

insalubrity, but other reasons which I will not consider 
at present. 

As the Hollanders were the first discoverers of this river, 
they were also the first residents, settling themselves down 
in small numbers at the Jlocrekil, and thereabouts, and at 
Santhocck, though the most people and the capital of the coun- 
try were at the Manhatdns, under the rule and authority of 
the West In dia Company. The Indians killed many of them 
because they did not live well with them, especially with 
their women, from which circumstance this kil derives its 
name. Others fled to the Manhatans, but afterwards re- 
turned, and have since continued in possession of the river, 
although in small numbers and with little strength. Mean- 
while, some Swedish soldiers, who had been in the service 
of the West India Company, went to Sweden, and there 
made known the fact that the country was so large 
the Hollanders could not possess it all, especially the river 
called the South river, lying next to Virginia, their old 
friends, and that it was only necessary to go there with a 
small number of people to take possession of it, as no one 
in that country was powerful enough to prevent it. They 
accordingly ordered a levy to be made of men, half of 
them under the name of soldiers, and half of boors, and 
sent them under a certain commander, to settle on the west 
side of the river, well knowing where the best and 
healthiest climate was, namely, up the river, and being 
thus near their friends, the English, Whether these <rood 
friends here or in Europe, have not assisted them in this 
matter, is not known. They thus established themselves 
there, the Hollanders either being not strong enough or too 
negligent to prevent them, whilst the West India Company 
began gradually to fail, and did not hinder them. The 
Swedes, therefore, remained, having constructed small fort- 
resses here and there, where they had settled and had 
Swedish governors. 



WEST JEBSEY. RYLMNGE AND FENWICK. 241 

The Hollanders did no* aban-dbii th4s river, but they, as 
well as the Swedes, sought to advance their settlements ; 
hut although the whole country belonged to them, they 
were, nevertheless, unable to possess it, the company either 
having too much to do elsewhere, or not ability sirfiieient, or 
sending over too few people. They have, always, however, 
had their forts, without hindrance or molestation from the 
Swedes, or being brought under their dominion. This 
continued during the time the burgomasters of the city 
of Amsterdam had this territory under their protection, up 
to the year 1604, when Governor Stuyvesant went there 
with a large force, planted himself before the fortress of 
Christina on Christina kil, cannonaded it and compelled 
them to surrender it with all their government to him, in 
the name of the city of Amsterdam. 1 In that year the 
whole . country was reduced under the dominion of the 
crown of England, which put an end to the rule of the 
Hollanders, who had then recently conquered the Swedes. 

The east side of the river, which is now entirely in the 
possession of the qnakers, has never been claimed by any 
one, although here and there lived a Swede, as also among 
the Swedes, here and there dwelt a Hollander. But when 
the whole country, in the year 1664, came to the crown of 
England under the Duke of York, the duke or the king 
gave the land lying between the two rivers, namely, the 
Xorth river and the South river, the easterly part to my 
Lord Carteret, and the westerly part to my Lord Berkeley, 
but without a boundary line between them. This remained 
so a long time when Mr. P>yllinge, a brewer of London, 
failed there. Berkeley, who was a great friend of his, as 



1 It seems hardly necessary to mention that the. journalist has fallen into 
an error in regard to the time of the expedition of Stuyvesant against the 
Swedes on the Delaware, and thai it took place in 1053, and not in 1GC4. 
Otherwise his statement is quite accurate. 

Q1 



242 



JOURNEY TO TEE DELAWARE. 



well as many other courtiers, ami frequented bis brewer v 
daily, carne to his brewery and lulu him that as he, the 
brewer, was a broken man, he could advise him how to 
recover his fortune; that if he would furnish him a sum 
of money, he would, by authentic writings, make over l<> 
him a tract of land which the king had given him. This 
suited the brewer very well, who succeeded in obtaining 
the money from his friends, and this land w r as accordingly 
transferred to him. .But as the atfairs of the brewer would 
not permit him to act himself, he had a friend named Fen- 
wick, also a quaker, who was to transact the business in his 
own name, for him the brewer, in consideration of which 
Fenwick was to enjoy a tenth of the whole westerly part. 
Fenwick managed it in his name so well that he would soon 
have stripped the other of all, but means were afterwards 
employed to compel him to be satisfied with his tenth. 
Fenwick had letters printed and circulated everywhere, 
in which he described this portion of the country in glob- 
ing colors ; that it was the laij kkkerhml, 1 especially for 
those who were of the same religious sentiments as him- 
self. Many persons of this belief thereupon bought 
pieces of land, parceled out only on the map, according to 
the imperfect knowledge which they then possessed, first 
into tenths, of which Fenwick had 0m 4 , and then each tenth 
into hundredths, embracing water, morasses, swamps and 
marshes, so that these poor people bought they knew not 
what. Fenwick hereupon came over to this country, with 
a portion of these people, in order to take possession of 
what they had bought; but he, being in debt in England, 
was arrested on the eve of departure, and compelled to 
leave the original letters of authorization in the hands of 
h*i3 creditors, and could obtain himself nothing but copies 



1 A kind of paradise,— literally a land where there is nothing to do, and 
every delicacy to be enjoyed. 



SALEM. QUAKER WISDOM. 243 

;?eroof. With these ho arrived in the South river, and 
.irmamhu the country from the chief rulers there, who 
required the production of Ills authority, which he refused 
a long time, hut not being able to obtain justice, he brought 
forward his copies to show them, whereupon these princi- 
pal men referred him to their sovereign governor at ]N r ew 
York,' who has not yet been able either to reject or admit 
the claim. They landed, however, after some tumult, but 
without bloodshed, and have remained there, constantly 
bringing more people, and the governor tolerating them. 1 
Every one of the purchasers who arrives here is at a 
loss to know where he lias bought, and so settles down 
where he thinks best, leaving it to be determined hereafter: 
and finding more land has been sold than can be delivered, 
looks out for himself. Inasmuch as they are thrown 
under the government of In ew York, they have two small 
courts to decide trifling cases, in order thereby to save 
travel. Meanwhile the country was recovered by the 
Hollanders in 1G73, and then again, by treaty of peace, 
surrendered to the crown of England, whereby the Dutch 
lost all their right to the westerly part a second time, unless 
the provision in the treaty that all things should remain as 
before the war, should restore them their pretended right. 
But if this clause only relates to the two peacemaking 
parties, it remains justly with the crown of England. 
Finally, there is the utmost confusion without any good 
foundation for it. 



1 Fenwiek, feoMng West Jersey in trust for Edward Byllinge by deed 
from Lord Berkeley, as stated by our journalist, arrived in the Delaware in 
June, 1675, and landed, says Smith, the early historian of New Jersey, "at 
a pleasant, rich spot, situated near Delaware, by him called Salem, from 
the peaceable aspect it then bore." Fcnwick was a soldier, and not to be 
deterred by flight opposition. He commanded the squadron of cavalry 
which attended at the execution of Charles 1. The difficulties as to his 
title in We<r Jersey are set forth in Smith's lEstory vf New Jcrtnj, and/o/m- 
tmCs Ulitorital Acronnt of Sah ,,,. 



244 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



There are quakers who cither are more wise, or tlirou^li 
poverty, act so, who do not buy any land on the ea*t 
side of the river, but buy on the west side, where it i- 
cheaper in consequence of the Indians being there. The 
quakers have endeavored to break up the Dutch and others 
not of their religion, who have lived of old on the east side 
of the rive]-, but resist them, and are sustained by tin- 
authorities. How far this may be carried, and what may 
be the result, time will -show. The Indians hate the 
quakers very much on account of their deceit and eovetous- 
ness, and say they arc not Englishmen, always distinguish- 
ins: them from all other Englishmen, as is also donc'bv 
almost all other persons. The Indians say " they are not 
Christians, they are like ourselves.'"'* The deeds of all lands 
bought on the South river from the government of Xew 
York, contain a provision that they must be settled upon 
within three years, or they will revert to the king. Even 
acre of land, whether cultivated or not, pays a bushel, that 
is, one schepel and a tilth of wheat. The meadows (valei/cn), 
pay nothing. The swamps (creupcl bos), cattle and men, 
are free. 

"We will now resume our journey. When we passed by 
the mill, a quaker was there. who gave us a letter, and told 
us it was di Hi. /nit trawling, on account of the height of 
the water in the creeks; that about eight miles further on, 
some Indians had come to live, a little off the path on the 
left hand. We thought we would reach there by evening. 
We left the falls about two o'clock, following the ordinary 
path, which is the same for men and horses, and is grown 
up on both sides with bushes, which wore our breeches, 
stockings and shoes, as much as all the woods in Maryland 
together. The road runs from here cast northeast. When 
we came upon the land above, we found an extraordinary 
quantity of water, not only upon the flats and in the val- 
leys, brooks, and morasses, but also upon the high, solid 



WET QUARTERS. WADING THE RIVER. 045 

iiul. Vfe supposed this was caused by slmttingBp the 
rrvrk h$ the mill dam, whereby tlie water did not have 

r-liHot suilieient to run down, but it was not that alone. 
We pursued our way, however, courageously, but disco- 
vered no Indians up to evening. We called aloud to ascer- 
tain whether they were about there, as they would answer 
if they were; and as our guide could speak the Indian lan- 
guage well, we thought it would all come right But it 
was 'to no purpose ; we perceived no Indians. We had 
gone about twelve miles from the fails, and it began to 
grow dark, when we came to a hill descending to a creek or 
small river called Milstone river, whence we saw fire at a dis- 
tance, and supposed that Indians or other people might be 
about there. "We, therefore, called out again several times, 
but received no answer. On arriving at the creek we found 
it so full of water, and running so swiftly, there was.no 
prospect of crossing it that evening, the more so, as it was 
almost entirely dark. We looked about for some wood, 
though there was not much at this place, and collected as 
much as we thought we would want to burn for the whole 
night. We made a good fire, and after warming and 
drying ourselves, eat our supper from what we had brought 
in our traveling bag. At last we lay down around the lire 
and fell asleep, having traveled twenty-five miles during 
the day; but our rest did not continue long, as it began to 
rain hard before midnight, and we soon awoke and arose 
to attend to our lire, in order that it misht not be e.uin- 
guished. The rain continued so long and increasedso that 
we could not sit down, because the place was so full of 
water. We had to take care and protect the fire from going 
out, which gave us enough to^do. It was quite calm, or 
blew very little, the wind coming from all quarters ; never-, 
theless, we could not dvy ourselves, although we kept turn- 
ing continually round towards the fire. We were wet 
through, ami could do nothing better than to stand straight 



246 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



up, whereby from the Loogfch of time and the Weight < I 
our clothes we became very weary instead of having the 
repose we so mueh needed. Walk or sit, we could not, 
because it was too dark, and the land too full of water for 
the former, and for the other it was too wet. We were 
compelled to wait with patience in this position until day- 
light, which, seemed to tarry, because we longed for it so 
much. It was one of the shortest days in the year, with 
dark and rainy weather. Each one looked out for the day 
as if we could thereby cause it to appear sooner. Finally, 
as our wood was consumed, the day begun. 

BQth, Saturday. As soon as we could see, we went to the 
creek, to ascertain whether we could cross over, but it was 
as full and the water ran as swiftly as the evening before, 
because it had ruined continually, and was still raining; 
although we had hoped if the weather had remained dry, 
the water would have subsided. As it was, there was 
no other course than to wade over, and although we were 
stiff and cold, we had to take off our stockings, and put 
our bare feet in the shoes to protect them from treading 
on any thing sharp, and our stockings were the dryest 
articles we had. We bound up our breeches as high 
as we could. " Xow," said I, " let each one of us take a 
good stick in his hand in order to prop himself up against 
the current, and prevent his being washed away/' Our 
guide went ahead even before I had found a stick ; but 
when he reached the middle of the creek, he cried out, 
" Help, help, if you do not help me, I will be carried 
away." I ran, took off my breeches, placed them on top 
of my head, and, struggling, stick in hand, with the stones 
washing from under my feet and stick, went to him and 
took from him my traveling sack with which he was bent 
down. I kept on and was nearly across when my foot 
slipped on a smooth stone, and I fell forward into the wa- 
ter. However, by the aid of the stick, and the short distance 



INDIAN MANNERS AND HOSPITALITY. 247 

to *©, I succeeded in crossing, the Back being thoroughly 
\ et < Nir £uide who had on Leather breeches, which became 

lull of the running water, whereby he could not get along, 
now rolled them up, and by that means the water ran out 
below and lightened him, and thus he got over. My com- 
panion was yet on the other side, with his traveling bag 
and two dec/ens (swords?). He did the same as I had done, 
and placed his breeches on top of his head, tied the rest on 
well, and followed us ; but he was scarcely in the middle 
of the creek when he cried out to us to come and meet 
him, and relieve him of the sack if we wished him to come 
over, for he could not go any further. Whereupon, I 
wont in the creek again to him, and took from him the 
sack. Thus we all three waded over. We dressed our- 
selves quickly, for it was very cold, putting on our stiff 
legs, the wet stockings, which chafed them, and over them 
the water soaked shoes and the breeches which were wet 
through with the rain and very heavy: and. then taking a 
mouth full of rum, we set out again on the way, stiff as we 
were. We were now anxious in relation to crossing this 
Milstone athalfwa}', where it would be much broader and 
fuller of water. We proceeded then badly conditioned, 
wet, cold and weary enough. We had thirty-six miles to 
travel to-day and more if we missed the road. We kept 
up our spirits, however. We found the land above so full 
of water, that we were most of the time over shoes in it, 
and sometimes half leg deep. After we had gone four or 
five miles, we saw the houses of the Indians on the right, 
and went to them partly for the purpose of drying our- 
selves, for though the rain seemed at times io abate it still 
continued, and partly to inquire the best way to go, in 
order to cross the large creek. We entered their dwelling 
where we dried ourselves and breakfasted a mouthful out 
of our traveling saeks. We presented the Indians some 
tish-hooks which pleased them. .As to crossing the large 



248 JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 

creek, they said it was not advisable to wale over, as :]..- 
water was as high as our shoulders or higher, as one < i 
them showed us, and the current was so swift as to render 
it impassible. He said that not far from their house lived 
a sackciiiakcr who had in the creek a canoe with which 
he had set a man across the day before, who had a horse 
which he swam over; but the saekemaker was not pleased 
at his doing so without his permission. We promised him 
a guilder to take us to the saekemaker. While we were 
in this house a little naked child fell from its mother's lap, 
and received a cut in its head, whereupon all who sat 
around that fire, and belonged to that household, began to 
cry, husband and wife, young and old, and scream more 
than the child, and as if they themselves had broken their 
arms or legs. In another corner of this house, there sat 
around a fire, forming another household, a party whose 
faces were entirely blackened, who observed a gloomy 
silence and looked very singular. They were in mourn- 
ing for a deceased friend. The Indian having made him- 
self ready, took both our sacks together and tied them on 
his back for the purpose of carrying them, which did not 
suit us badly, as we were very tired. He did that without 
our asking him, and conducted us in a direction more 
southeasterly to their king or saekemaker, who lived two 
or three miles from there. On arriving there, they imme- 
diately offered us some boiled beans in a calabash, cooked 
without salt or crease, though they brought us our own kind 
of spoons to take them out with. It was the queen who did 
this, who was dressed more than the others. She gave us 
also a piece of their bread, that is, pounded maize kneaded 
into a cake and baked under the ashes. We eat some of 
it, more for the purpose of satisfying her people, than our 
appetite. Meanwhile we agreed with the saekemaker to 
set us across the river for three guilders in zeewan. We 
presented fish-hooks to several of them, but especially to 



THE VILLAGE OF NASSAU. 249 

the (jiiccn who had entertained its. The sackemaker being 
ready, took one of our sacks to carry, and went on ahead 
t.r'us; and there wen-t this king, carrying our pack, almost 
without any clothing on his body. He conducted us to the 
creek which was two or three miles distant to the north 
and northeast over a very difficult and rocky hill. On ar- 
riving at the creek we saw there certainly would have 
been no way of going over, for the water was very high, 
and ran like a sluice. We were then put across, I myself 
helping the sackemaker and our mcl^earrier in doing it, as 
it was difficult to °'o over even in a canoe. lie took us a 
piece of the way, until we came to the right path, and gave 
us proper directions how to proceed further, lie was to 
come for our guide the next day and carry him hack. 

We went on through water for the most part east north- 
east, until about three o'clock in the afternoon, when the 
rain began to hold up, and we turned into a road on the 
right, which runs easterly to the Itariians kil. We did 
this because it was nearer, as they said, and also in order 
to i?o to a youmx Dutchman's and secure ^ood lodaimxs, 
of which we were truly in want. The other road led to 
Piskaitewag to Mr. Greenland's, where we stopped a night 
in going on ; jq{ this road was so long, and it was so diffi- 
cult to travel continually through the water, that we could 
hardly proceed any further, as my comrade was entirely 
exhausted. We were, therefore, half afraid we would be 
compelled to pass the night in the woods. "We picked up 
courage, however, as well as we could, and arrived at dusk 
at the house of Cornells van Langevelt (Longfield), 1 step- 
son of Thomas, the baker in Xew York, lie lived in 
that house alone with an Indian, who assisted him in 



1 Cornelius Longlield was one of the deputies to the general assembly of 
East Jersey, from Piseatavray, in 1096-7. Whitehead^ Cvnlrihuiions to the 
Bn-hj Ilistwy of l\rth zlmlhy, 403. 



250 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



trading with {be Indians, but be bad some neighbors wbo 
wore beginning a new village on ihe land of this Thomas, 
the baker, directly opposite P)escattema$, upon the point 
where the Milstone river unites itself with tlie Haritam L>' ! , 
and flows downs to Aehtei* k$L The began village had in. 
name yet, but they intended to call it Nassau. 1 This 
Dutchman was a good acquaintance of Barent, our guide, 
and we were, therefore, welcome. He had heard of our 
being at the South river, and expected we would come 
over here, perhaps, he said, to he neighbors. He recom- 
mended to us a piece of land here, but we had neither 
time nor inclination to go and look at it. 

"We had special reasons to thank the Lord, and let our 
hearts ascend to him on account of several things which 
we here take notice of to his glory, and in which bis provi- 
dence and goodness have assisted us. First, if we had 
taken the before described Indian with us, there is no pro- 
bability we would have come right, he being a mere boy, 
without experience, and not well acquainted with the road, 
especially under such difficult circumstances: and, worst 
of all, we were not able to speak a word with him. Our 
guide said several times, and we thought so, too, that when 
be bad seen these difficulties, he would have deserted us in 
the woods, and run away, as he could easily have done, 
and we would have keen left alone. In the next place, 
we did not tiud the Indian dwelling on the other side of 
the first crossing, as we had wished, and supposed we 
would do. And if we had, what advice would there have 
been for our crossing the second place? We would then 
have been between the two crossings without any help. 
And thirdly, notwithstanding all our hardships, our 



■\' 



! This would seem to have been not far from New Brunswick, if not at 
that identical -pot. The name of Milstone is evidently applied here to a 
portion of the present Rarhan river. 



NEW YEAR'S DAY 1G80. AMBOY. 251 

i; t <arta possessed such strength' unci courage until we hap- 
pih arrived. To him be glory tberelbr ibrever. 

Milstone river is not, as is usually supposed, the Martians 
kil, for that runs near this house on the right hand, due west, 
and a little more southerly beyond, and this one before the 
house, runs on the left hand, west-northwest, and a little 
more northerly beyond. It has its source above the falls 
of the South -river, not far from that river, and runs for 
the most part north, and coming from thence, makes several 
great bends, and, therefore, in going from Piseatteway to 
the South river, you must cross it three times. As far as 
known, it is about twelve or fourteen Dutch miles to this 
place on the R'tritans. The Milstone is not very wide, 
which causes the current, to run so much swifter when 
there is much upper water. It has several falls, and is 
shallow in dry weather. It is, therefore, not navigable, 
though the Indians sometimes come down in their little 
canoes, made of the bark of trees. 

31st, Sunday. As we proposed to rest ourselves, we kept 
ourselves quiet to-day. We paid our guide, giving him 
two ducatoons, 1 that is, thirty-two guilders in zecwant, 
because he had a little more trouble than either he or we 
had expected, and presented him with one hundred fish- 
hooks in addition. He was well satisfied and thanked us. 
lie left after breakfast to return home. Meanwhile, we 
expected a boat which they said was coming to load with 
wood, but it did not come. 

1GS0, January 1st, Monday. The boat not arriving, and 
Christmas, according to the old style, being near, at which 
time there is not much boating, every one endeavoring to 
be at home, we were apprehensive it would not come. 
"We, therefore, made an agreement with one of the neigh- 
bors, that be should take us in a canoe to the French 



1 Equal to two dollars and fifty cents in our monvy. 



9* 9 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



tavern, which wo have mentioned before*, at Elizaboi 
town point, Jul aahkr Iwi, for twelve guilders in zeewaut. 
We accordingly Left about ton o'clock in the morning, 
through a beautiful creek, which is more like a river, with 
fine large meadows or marshes on both sides of it. AW 
came to a bank, from the broken point of which a beautiful 
white clay is taken, as fine as I have ever seen anywhere, 
or as Cologne earth can be. At the same place there arc 
also red earth, and earth entirely black, which would be 
suitable for various purposes. At the point of the Baritans 
kil, we arrived at a place called Amboy, a very proper site 
for a city or place of business. From there you can look 
over the great bay between the Nevemitk and the west point 
of Staten island into the sea. As regard view, therefore, 
it lies as well as Xew York, and is quite safe to be reached 
by ships. The land around it is tolerably good, and there- 
fore, the place is reserved from sale. There is an abun- 
dance of oysters on the shore, considered to be of the best. 
The ebb tide being spent, we entered kit achter hot with a 
good wind and rowing ahead, arrived at about three o'clock 
at the point of Woodbridge creek. We landed here on 
Staten island to drink at the house of the Frenchman, Le 
Ghaudronnicr, where we formerly passed a night in making 
our tour of Staten island, lie set before us something to 
eat, and related to us what strange opinions, every one, as 
well as he himself, entertained of us, which were certainly 
false enough, and whereof we disabused him. From there 
we made good speed past Smoker's hook, and by evening 
arrived at the point of Flizabethtown creek, in the tavern 
before mentioned, where we lodged for the night: but 
there was nothing lobe had there except to warm us. We 
were no sooner in the house than it began to rain and blow 
hard. We were, therefore, lucky in being housed, for to bo 
in such weather and darkness upon the water in a canoe. 
is not without danger. We again perceived the Lord's 



--. 



SAFE RETURN TO THE CITY. 253 

... m^Iho.-s and care, for which we rendered Mm thanks. 
We discovered no chance of going to- the city immediately) 

but hoard that two boats had gone down this afternoon, 
and were expeeted back the next day, which made us glad. 
We had something left in our traveling sack, upon which 
we made oar sapper, and then laid ourselves down to 
sleep in oar old fashion upon a little hay, before the fire. 

2d, Tuesday. On looking oat at daybreak, we found quite 
calm, good weather, but no boats ; but when it grew lighter, 
we saw a boat lying at anchor below the point. She 
appeared to be laden, and we therefore could not be cer- 
tain that she would come up farther. It was in consequence 
of her being laden that she had waited there for daylight, 
although she had a good tide to sail up to the city. We 
ascertained she was one of those which had gone down the 
evening before ; and thereupon looked about to see how to 
get on board of her, as it would not be long before she 
would leave. The landlord took us and another person in 
a canoe to pat on board, but before we had paddled half 
way, wc saw them weigh anchor, and get under sail. "We 
called oat, and palled with all our might, and, as it was 
calm, overtook her in time, and went on board. They 
were Dutchmen from the city, and were even our neighbors. 
They cheerfully received us; we paid oar landlord, who 
immediately rowed back. 

The wind began to blow gradually more and more from 
the west-northwest, so that when we arrived in the North 
river, we had as much as we could carry. It brought us 
up to the city about nine o'clock, where we had not yet 
set a foot on shore, before such a storm burst out of the 
northwest, of rain, hail and snow together, that every 
thing seemed to bend and crack. It was at the same time, 
so cold, it appeared as if this weather, whereby the winter 
was begun, had held back until we had arrived in the city 
to spend the winter. AYe cannot pass this circumstance by 



* 



254 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



without some reflections upon the special goodness and pr« .-, ' . 
deuce of the Lord, which we experience so constantly ; <:, ii 

he caused us to reach the land and house on the point ,,] 
Elizahethtown creek before the storm came up there; thai 
the boat came to anchor there and took us on hoard, whvii 
she had a good tide and wind, hut the darkness prevented 
her from keeping on, and we believe no more boats went 
. there afterwards, not only during Christmas, but during the 
whole winter; and thirdly, that as soon as we had landed 
in the city, such a great storm and the winter began 
at the same time ; to which may be added a fourth, thai 
we hired the canoe on the Harita?is, for being in the city. I 
spoke to the skipper of the boat, and he said he did no: 
expect to go there again during the winter. Certainly it 
we did not regard all this with an humble and thankful 
heart, we should he guilty indeed. 

But before we depart from Xew Jersey, we must remark 
that mv Lord Carteret, having obtained this government, 
sent here his nephew [brother] Carteret, to manage 
the same in his own way. This Carteret arriving here 
from England, accordingly, for the purpose of governing it, 
went first to Xew England, where he so recommended his 
plan of government, and promised the people so much if 
they would go with him, that he caused a large number of 
persons to follow him here from Piscataway and Wood- 
bridge, two places so called in Xew England, and settle 
down in Xew Jersey, where they have built two villages, 
called Piscataway and AVoodbridge, after the names of the 
places where they had lived in Xew England. 1 And 



"'Governor Carteret did not arrive to his government of Xew Jersey till 
the latter end of the summer, 1G65. With him came about thirty people, 
some of them servants. They brought goods proper for the planting a 
new country; and the governor soon afterwards sent pcrson> into New 
England and other places to publish the proprietor's conees>iuns. and to 
invite people to settle there; upon which many -soon came from thence. 






A DISAPPOINTMENT. 055 

indirect they did not do badly in view of (\iq soil, becatiac 
[< is juikIi richer here than n\ here thc\ were, although 
they did not choose the host land here by far. Besides 
these people, he found here already a large number of 
other persons at Gfmoenepa, Bergen, &c. 

We were welcomed on our arrival by our old people, 
and we rejoiced and praised God, for we had seen the 
storm coming while we were on the water. ~\\ r e rested 
and warmed ourselves, then refreshed ourselves a little, 
and in the afternoon, delivered a portion of the letters 
which had been entrusted to us from the South river, and 
Maryland. Those which we had from Ephraim and his 
wife, we gave to her mother and father (in-law) who wel- 
comed us. "We told them of the good health of their child- 
ren, and the comfort and hope which they gave us, which 
pleased them. 

M, Wednesday. We put our chamber in order this morn- 
ing, and in the afternoon delivered the rest of the letters. 
We went also to M. de la Grange's, where we saw a newly 
drawn map of the South river, from the tails to Burlington, 
made by the land surveyor there. He told us the governor 
had given him a grant of a piece of land on the South 
river between those places. 

But what grieved us was, on arriving here to find no 
letters by Captain Jacob, when we had so much expected 
them, and did not know the cause of there being none. 
But we consoled ourselves iu him who is the consolation 
of all those who know him and trust in him ; as we praised 
and thanked him for his fatherly protection, his constant 
care and guidance, through his providence, which has been 



Some settled at Elizabethtowri, and others at Woodbridge, Piscataway and 
Newark." Smith's History of Keic Jersey, 67. Piscataway -vv as so named 
from Piscataqua in New England, and Woodbridge, from the Rev. John 
Woodbridge, of Newbury, Massachusetts, from which two places the first 
settlers came. Whitehead's Contributions. d>:., :jo'J, 401. 



256 



JOURNEY TO THE DELAWARE. 



so continual and So manifest in our whole journey. |[ 
causes us to put our trust in liiuAj to lose ourselves in hi 
and worthily to walk in such grace that lie may be glorith <1 
in us and through us here, during our lives, in grace, and 
hereafter in glory. Amen. So may it be. 

It would serve very well to add now a general descrip- 
tion of the country through which we have traveled, and 
of each part in particular; but as we intend to give our- 
selves expressly to this work, we will omit it here, and 
proceed, meanwhile, with our journal. 



THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 



4:tk, Thursday. It was now Christmas, according to the old 
stylo. It had frozen very hard during the night. We 
went to church, in order to hear Do. Niewenhuise preach, 
but more to give no offense to the people, than either on his 
or our own account. 

5ih, Friday. "We began writing. 

6tli, Saturday. It continued to freeze hard, though during 
the day the weather was more moderate. The ice was 
strong and mixed with snow. 

l&th, Saturday. It felt like a change of weather. In all 
this time nothing occurred worthy of note except the ships 
left the harbor in front of the city, on Thursday, for Dattd 
bay, a cove on the East river, about three miles east of the 
city, opposite Rellgate, where they lie during the winter, 
to be out of the way of the floating ice, which is some- 
times very great. 1 On Friday, the governor's yacht arrived 



1 DeuteI bay was a small bight of the East river, nearly opposite the 
southerly point of Blaekwell's island, at the foot of 46th and 47th streets, 
on the islaud of Mew York. Compare Rat/.er's map of New York, 1TG0-7, 
with Bridge's map of the Commissioners, 1811. Judge Benson, in his 
memoi r, _Y. }'. Historical Stociety Colh ctions, second series, 11,00, says, " Deutel 
bay, corrupted to Turtle bay. When the head of the cask was further 
secured with peg*, they would say the cask was gedeutelt ; the pegs were 
short, but at the bast; broad; the bay narrow at its entrance, broad at the 
bottom ; the supposed resemblance between the bay and the peg, the nup- 

33 



258 



THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 



from "Virginia, having boon twenty-two clays on ti.. 
way. They hud taken a sacjfcmiaker th$re with whom the 

governor had made a treaty of peace between the Indians 
and English in that quarter. In all this frost and cold we 
have discovered little difference from the cold in Holland, 
except that when the sun is high, that is, about nine o'clock 
in the morning, it is a little milder here. It thawed every 
day until the 

10//', Tuesday, when all the ice and snow disappeared. De 
la Grange having a new small map of a portion of the 
South river, I copied it. 

24//?, Wednesday. Fred. FUpscn met me, and told rne the 
governor had been at bis house, and spoken to him about 
us, and that be desired to see us and talk with us. "We, 
therefore, determined to call upon him, and at the expira- 
tion of three days of rain and stormy weather, on the 

267//, Friday, we went to Fredryck Flipse?i, that he might 
take us to the governor, as he had promised, and as he did 
do. The governor received us kindly, and told us he had 
wondered at our being so long in the country without 
coming to see him. AVe replied, that we would not have 
failed in doing so, if he had been in the city, for when we 
arrived here be was at Pcncquik, and afterwards when he 
had been only a few days at home, with much business to 
occupy Mm, he left for Fort Albany just as we were going 
to the South river. Ave separated politely from each other. 

30//<, Monday, A person who, they said, was the thief- 



posed origin of the name. " Tills derivation of the name is merely hypo- 
thetical, as the distinguished writer himself declares. If we may judge 
from the topographical authorities which we have cited above, of the very 
highest diameter, the " supposed resemblance" between the bay and the 
peg never did exist, and consequently this " supposed origin " of the name 
has not even this foundation. The name occurs early in our records; a 
patent was issued for land at Deutal buy to George Horns and Thomas 
Hall, on loth November, 16*38. CVdllaghatis Calendar of Butch Manu- 
scripts, 305. 



EXAMINED BY MAYOR ROMBOUTS. 259 

catcher (<lteflet/cr), came to our honse in the evening, and, 
},v order of the governor, summoned us to appear at eigjil 
o'clock the next morning at the house of Rombouts, 1 the 
mayor of the city, and give our names and further informa- 
tion as to our doings and condition, as all strangers now 
and henceforth, whether men or women, must do. We 
were somewhat astonished, since they had told us, as was 
certainly true, that such had never been the custom. What 
induced them to adopt this course, we do not know. 

31st, Tuesday. We went in company with the old woman 
where we lodged, to Mayor Rombouts, at the appointed 
time. When we arrived, there was a magistrate's officer 
or two in attendance, and some came in while we were 
there. Addressing us, lie said: " Friends, we have sum- 
moned you here, not because we have any thing to say to 
you, or have any debt to claim, or because any one ha3 
sought of us to demand of you anv such thing*, or to sum- 
mon you." The reason, he said, was because we had been 
so long in the country without having reported our names, 
who we were, our profession, trade or business, condition 
and purpose. We answered, we would by no means have 
been in default, if there were any law or order which 
required us to do so, or if we had been informed that it 
was customary, or had ever been done ; and it, therefore^ 
surprised us that they complained and charged us with 
neglect of duty, or found fault with us, or wished to con- 
vict us of a matter where there was no law, obligation, 
custom, or even precedent; that this treatment struck us 
as very strange, since there were several foreigners who 
had come over in the ship with us, from whom they had 
not required what they recpiired of us. " You know well," 
he said, " it is the custom in Europe." We replied, " it was 



1 Fraud- Rombouts was mayor of New York in 1 679-80. A brief sl.etcli 
of Ids life i< contained in the New York Manual for 18C4, page GOO. 



2G0 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

not so in any of the United Provinces or any oilier pke 
except upon the frontiers." " 'Well," he continued, " we 
are no frontier, but a capital, and it must and shall be so 
in the future." He then inquired after our names, trade or 
profession, and place of residence in Fatherland, all of 
which we told him, namely, that my comrade was a theo- 
logian, and had studied at Leyden ; that I was a wine- 
racker, 1 and that we both lived near Leeuwarden, in Fries- 
land, lie asked further what we came there to do, or what 
was our purpose or intention. We told him it was to 
look at the country. " How, look at the country ? " he 
asked : " some come here to look at the cities, others at the 
fortifications ; some to learn the mode of government and 
policy, others the manner of regulating the militia; others 
again to learn the climate, and times, and seasons, and you 
run and travel through the country without giving us any 
notice why." We replied, we had come here and traveled 
through the country in order to make ourselves acquainted 
generally with the nature and fertility of the soil, as was 
convenient, or we might perhaps go around mornings and 
evenings. lie inquired further of us how we wished to he 
regarded in the future, whether as citizens or foreigners. 
We answered, as foreigners. "Well then," he proceeded. 
"You are forbidden to carry on to4% particularly with 
the inhabitants, that is, to sell any thing to private persons, 
but you may dispose of it to merchants who sell to private 
individuals." He said the privilege, or burgher right 

cost beavers, each beaver reckoned at five guilders 

in Holland money, or twenty-five guilders in zeewan, and 
was prohibited to all persons who reside out of the city ; and 
as we resided out of the city, we must be treated like 
others. We replied to this,'we would cheerfully obey the 
law. We were also told to travel nowhere, particularly 



1 One who put up -wine in casks.. 



VISIT TO NYACK REMI3IBRANCES. 261 

t.> A II 'any, without special permission from the governor, 
'.•.hich Ave said we would ask frorn las Excellency, and 
! hereupon we left. 

On arriving at our house, we found there Simon of 
Gouawes, who had "brought a boat load of wood, and with 
whom my companion went to Long Island, but I remained 
at home; the Lord exercising me somewhat, I was rather 
quiet. AVe had been to the strand several days, watching 
for Claes, the ferryman, or some other opportunity to cross 
over to Gremomepaen, but we found none ; and as there was 
some difficulty between this governor, and the governor of 
Xew Jersey, we were contented to wait and follow the 
providence of the Lord therein, although our purpose in 
going over was not on that account. 

Feuiiuary 1st, ~Wedncsday. Gerrit, the son-in-law of our 
host, having been a long time upon Long Island, came 
over with a cask of tobacco, which he intended to ship in 
the ship Beaver; he repacked it, and I helped him cooper 
it. He said he had another one to bring over from the island, 
and then he would take Simon's boat and go with us to 
Ackquaktiion. After he had finished packing this one, the 
boat going to Gouanes after wood, I left along with him 
on the 

3d, Friday, at nine o'clock in the morning. I heard 
that my companion had gone from the Bay to Najack, 
where I proposed to follow him, because we might not 
be able to obtain these people who, in order to go to Ack- 
queqenov. resolve upon it half a year beforehand, for when 
one can go, the other cannot, and we were not able to 
wait. Simon told us now he could not accompany us. 
The other person was uncertain, and Gerrit was not any 
more sure. I arrived at Xajaek in the evening, and my 
comrade also arrived there from the bay, in company with 
Jaques. He concluded to return to the city with me in 
the morning. 



202 



THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 



47//, Saturday. Our resolution was defeated. "We start* ! 
on the road, but were compelled to return, as it had raim t] 
hard the wlioie night, and continued to do so all day. 

5th y Sunday. It snowed all night and until about nine 
o'clock in the morning, when it cleared up, and we set out 
on our journey. We reoched the ferry at one o'clock, 
where we waited three hours to he taken over by the lame 
brother-in-law of Jan, the baker, or Jan Theunissen. 

6th, Monday evening. M. de la Grange came to call upon 
us, being* somewhat under concern of mind, and giving us 
some hope. His wife, being touched also, has been to 
see us several times; and certainly the Lord will comfort 
us about his people. I will take some other occasion to 
speak more particularly in relation to this matter, if 
the Lord continue it. Meanwhile, I had translated the 
Verh.cffinge des Gestcs tot God, (Lifting up the Soul to God) 
into Dutch, for Elizabeth Eodenburgh, wife of Ephraim 
Hermans, in order to send her a token of gratitude for the 
acts of kindness enjoyed at her house, as she had evinced 
a great inclination for it, and relished it much, when some- 
times we read portions of it to her while we were there. 
I also began a translation of the last exercise of the Holy 
Decades. Xothino* further occurred worthv of mention, 
except that the snow, frost, rain and inclement weather 
prevented us from going to Acbprequenon. 

11th, Sunday. 1 We received letters from the South river, 
from Mr. Ephraim Hermans, and ITecr Johan Moll, which 
consoled us as to their state, and gave us some hope at least 
of great progress, as appears by the same. 'We answered 
them, and dispatched our letters by the same person who 
brought theirs, and who was to return on the 



l *Fhc dates of the journal after Friday the 26 of January, appear to have 
fallen into a little confusion, a day or two having been dropped, probably, 
in consequence of daily notes being sometimes omitted for lack of incident. 
The same difficulty occurs the last of March. 



DEPARTURE FOR AQUAKENONK. 263 

M 7>, Wednesday, and with whom we sent the translation of 
the Verhejinycdes Gcsie&with ;< MuaU package ofkmtted bajry r 
clothes. The ship Beaver came out of Deutcl bay, and was 
up for Europe and Holland immediately. Therefore, on the 

15$, Thursday, we began writing to our friends in the 
Fatherland. The winter gradually passing away, the 
weather was during the last of February, and first of 
March, as pleasant as if it were the month of May. I 
finished the translation of the Decades. 

March 2d, Saturday. M. de la Grange has chartered a 
yacht to go to the South river, with a lot of merchandise, 
and to take to his land there the boor, whom he had 
brought for that purpose from the Fatherland. This person 
came from Sluis, 1 and had done nothing here as yet, be- 
cause de la Grange had not gone to Tmacoixeq, as he had 
first intended. He designed to take him now to the land 
he had bought on Christina kil, and have it put in order. 
lie had obtained exemption from tax on his merchandise, 
and was the first one who had enjoyed this advantage, that 
is, from the second tax, he having paid the first tax when 
the goods were unladen here. All merchandise pays a 
second tax when it is sent to the South river, or Albany. 
I gave him Les Paroles dc &d.ut for Ilccr JoL.an Moll, who 
had urgently requested us to send him some religious book 
or other, writing to him what was necessary on the subject. 

Ay e had waited till tins time to go to Ackquelcqnon, either 
on account of the weather, or because it was not convenient 
for the persons on Long Island. We finally determined 
to go with Gerrit who could speak very good Indian, and 
who had sent word to us from Long Island, that we must 
be at Simon's house in Gouanes, for that purpose on Sun- 
day morning in order to go in his boat. We accordingly 
prepared ourselves. 



1 Iii Zeelarid. 



2G4 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

t 

3'7j Sunday. "We both went over to Long Island, a1 el 

o'clock ; arid as wo weo# entering the; lurry bout, Madame 
de la Grange came aboard with her nephew, KasparttA 
Reiriderrruzn, who, when they had landed, took a wagon, and 
rode on to the hay. We went through Breukekn to Gou- 
ancs, where we arrived about ten o'clock, and found Gerril 
was not yet there. Several families of Indians had erected 
their huts upon the beach, whereby Simon's house was 
very accessible. This was done with the consent of his 
wife, with whom he had left the profit from the Indians. 
While we were engaged in obtaining some oysters, Gerrit 
with Jaques and his son and daughter rode up in a wagon. 
Jaques had come for the purpose of attending to a sick 
horse of Simon, which had a certain disease, they call 
here the staggers, to which their horses are subject, and 
with which the creatures whether going or standing; con- 
stantly stagger, and often fall ; this increasing they fall 
down at last, and so continue till they die. It is cured 
sometimes by cutting the tip end of the tail, and letting 
the blood drip out; then opening a vein, giving the animal 
a warm drink and making a puncture in the forehead, 
from which a large quantity of matter runs out. The 
boat being leaky, and a right calculation not having been 
made as to the tide, we remained here to-day, intending to 
leave early in the morning, and, therefore, made every 
preparation. We had expected another person to go with 
us, but there were only us three. 

4fh, Monday. We left Gouanes bay at high water, about 
eight o'clock, with a southerly wind, but calm, and rowed 
with the current to Gheele hoeck (Yellow hook), where we 
made sail, and crossed the bay to Adder hot, where we 
knew there were some Indians lying: behind Constable's 
hook. We sailed there in order to request one of them, 
named Hans, to go with us as a guide. Hans had long 
frequented among the "Dutch, and spoke the Dutch Ian- 



• 



THE PASSAIC. NEWARK. 265 

•••nage tolerable well. He was a great nkiap, that is, friend 
of Gerrit. lie refused at first to accompany us, saying he 
had just come from there ; and when we urged it upon 
him, he said, "would you Christians do as much for us 
Indians? If you had just been there and had come 
back tired and weary, and some Indians should come 
and ask you in the midst of your children, in your 
own houses, while busied with your occupation, would you 
be ready immediately to go back with them?" We an- 
swered yes, upon proper terms. He said, " I do not 
think so, I know well what you would do." We told 
him, we would fully satisfy him. lie wished to make a 
bargain beforehand, which we did not, as we wanted to 
see whether lie would earn any thing. He allowed him- 
self to be persuaded; "but," he said, "I will lose so much 
time in making zeewant," which is their money and con- 
sists only of little beads. 1 " I am very cold ; you are all 
well clothed and do not feel the cold ; I am an old man 
(as he was), and have nothing but a little worn out blanket 
for my naked body." We must give him a blanket and 
then he would be willing to go with us. We said we had 
none with us. u Well," he replied, " I do not ask you to 
give it to me now, but when I come to the city." We 
told him he should be satisfied, and have no cause of com- 
plaint. After he had fitted himself out a little he went 
with us. We had some of the flood tide left; but before 
we reached Schutiers island the wind changed, and it was 
quite calm. We, therefore, struck our sails and went to 
rowing in order to strike the current. By scraping along 
Ave reached the Slangenberffh, on the west point of the Noord 



1 It is hardly necessary to mention that these beads were made out of clam 
shells, those made from the purple part of the shell being more valuable 
than those made from the white. At the time of the journal three purple, 
or six white pair- of wampum or zeewan, passed lor a stuiver or penny, 
by express regulation of the governor. 
34 



266 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

West MP where there is a very large piece oi' salt mendo 
and where the tide ran so strong against us we could not 
proceed any further. "We, therefore, lay to and went 
ashore, in order to walk about a little. This was the 
largest, cleanest and most level piece of salt meadow that we 
had observed anywhere. After having been, an hour or a 
little more on shore, a light breeze sprung up out of the 
east, when we took the boat again and putting off, came to 
Mil fort, an English village, lying upon highland on the 
south side of the creek, having left Santfori on the right, 
hand, which is an English village also, lying on the west 
side of Hacking sackse kit We then came to high land ; 
and the wind falling, we rowed up against the ebb tide to 
a house on the northeast side belon^ino- to one Captain 

O ~ J. 

Berry, where it being evening and commencing to rain, 
we stopped, made the boat fast, and took every thing out 
of her. 2 We entered the house which was large enough, 



1 The Passaic. 

2 The following description of this part of New Jersey, appeared in 1G85, 
in a work published under the sanction of the proprietors of Fast Jersey, 
with the title of The mode! of the government of the province of East New 
Jersey, in America. 

" Newark alias Milforct, is a town distant to the northward, overland 
from Klizabethtown, about G or 7 miles. It lies on a river called Newark 
river, which emptieth itself into the bay about 4 or 5 miles down. Oppo- 
site to the town, on the north side of the river lycth a great tract of land 
belonging to Mr. Kingslanel and Captain Sandford, the quit rents whereof 
are purchased. There is another tract of land taken up higher on the 
river by Captain Berry, who hath disposed of a part of it. There 
are several plantations settled there. Its said he hath about 10,000, 
acres there ; further up the water is an island of about 1,000 acres 
belonging to Mr. Christopher lloogland, of Newark ; if it be not an island 
it is tyed by a very narrow slip of land to the continent. Above that is a 
greater tract of land, above 8 or 9,000 acres purchased by lease of tie' 
governor according to the concessions by Captain Jacques Castelayne, 
and partners who have begun some settlement." — Whitehead's East Jttrsty 
under the Proprietors, 274. 

The first settlements at Newark were made in 1G06, by immigrants from 



THE INDIANS' FIRST CAUSE. 2G7 

but poorly furnished. We found ndho% there except a 
u<.'gro who could speak nothing but a liuio hreken French. 
A\ r e warmed ourselves, and eat from what we had brought 
with us, Hans, the Indian, sharing with us. In the mean- 
while, we engaged in conversation with him, and he told 
us certain things which we had never heard any Indian 
or European mention, the opinion of the Indians in re- 
lation to the Godhead, the creation, and the preservation 
and government of all things. 

We acknowledge, he said, a supreme first power, some 
cause of all things, which is known by all the Indians of 
Hforth America, hereabouts, whether Mahafans, Sinnekes, 
JIaquaas, Minqtmas, southern or northern Indians, not only 
by the name of Sackamachcr or Sachomor (which the Dutch 
for the sake of convenience will pervert into Sackcmachcr), 
that is to say, lord, captain or chief, which all persons bear 
who have any power or authority among them, especially 
any government or rule over other persons and affairs, 
and that name, it appeared to him, was used by others 
to express God, more than by themselves; but the true 
name by which they call this Supreme Being, the first 



Milford, Guilford, and Branford in Connecticut, whence ils name of Mil- 
ford, which seems to have been applied to it for several years. a&hQtagh it 
bore the name of Newark, in the town records, quite from the lirst. — 7i<j- 
cords of the Town of Newark, 4, 10. 

Captain William Sandford, received his grant July 4, 1G*»S, of all the 
lands between the Hackingsaek and Passaic rivers lying south of a line 
drawn from one river to the other, seven miles north of their intersection. 
This gentleman distinguished himself by declining any public oilice. His 
tract of land was afterwards called New B&rixuXoca.—JZast Jersey under 
the Proprietors, 4~-$, 187-8. 

Captain John Berry acquired his lands in June, 16(39. They adjoined 
Sandford's, and extended north six miles into the country. — Ibid, 48. 

Jacques Castelayne, as the reader has learned, was the Long Island 
settler, Jaques Cortelyou. The error in his name was continued by Smith 
in his History of JSeui Jtr,^y, as before noted, and no doubt from the au- 
thority above cited. 



268 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

and great beginning of «rH things, was 'Kiekercn ®t Kickerom , 
wl&> is the origin of all., who has not only once produced 
or made all things, but produces every day. All that we 
see daily that is good, is from him; and everything he 
makes and does is good. He governs all things, and no- 
thing is done without his aid and direction. " And," he 
continued, " I, who am a captain and Sakcmaker among the 
Indians, and also a medicine-man (as was all true), and 
have performed many good cures among them, experience 
every day that all medicines do not cure, if it do not please 
him to cause them to work ; that he will cure one and not 
another thereby; that sickness is had, hut he sends it upon 
whom he pleases, because those upon whom he visits it 
are bad; but we did not have so much sickness and death 
before the Christians came into the country, who have 
taught the people debauchery and excess; they are, there- 
fore, much more miserable than they were before. The 
devil who is wicked, instigates and urges them on, to all 
kinds of evil, drunkenness and excess, to fighting and war, 
and to strife and violence amongst themselves, by which 
many men are wounded and killed. He thus does all 
kind of evil to them." I told him I had conversed with 
Jasper or Tardaqiie, another old Indian, on the subject, from 
whence all things had come, and he had told me they came 
from a tortoise ; that this tortoise had brought forth the 
world, or that all things had come from it; that from the 
middle of the tortoise there had sprung up a tree, upon 
whose branches men had grown. That was true, he 
replied, but Kularon made the tortoise, and the tortoise had 
a power and a nature to produce all things, such as earth, 
trees, and the like, which God wished through it to pro- 
duce, or have produced. 

It was now time to see if we could not take some rest in 
a place not very well protected against the cold, and where 
there was nothing to lie upon except the naked iioor; but 






AQUAKEXONK. PASSAIC FALLS. 2C9 

the negro wishing to favor my comrade and myself, showed 
aa a b'nik (k*y) 9 in which these was nothing save a few 
leaves of maize, and those thin enough. We lay down 
there, hut suffered greatly from the cold. We slept very 
little, and lay shivering all night, and the slave sometimes 
shaking us and waking us up. We were so stiff we could 
not move; but the night passed on as well as it could, and 
we rose early. It had rained, and we started at daylight to 
the boat, and rowed into the stream. Gerrit grumbled 
very much. He was a coarse, ignorant man, and had not 
well calculated the tide. We went ashore about eight or half- 
past eight to breakfast, and had great difficulty in making 
a fire, for all the brush was wet through with the rain. 
We were fortunate enough, however, at last, to succeed. 
We took a walk for a short distance into the woods, which 
were not the poorest, In the meanwhile, the ebb had run 
out; the water was calm, and taking a little of the flood, 
we rowed on until we arrived at Ackquekenon, about one 
o'clock in the afternoon. Ackquekenon is a tract of land 
of about twelve thousand morgen, which Jacpies of Najack, 
with seven or eight associates, had purchased from the 
Indians, the deed of which we have seen, and the entire price 
of which amounted to one hundred or one hundred and fifty 
guilders in Holland money, at the most. It is a line piece 
of land, the best tract of woodland that we have seen except 
one at the south. It is not very abundant in wood, but it has 
enough for building purposes and fuel. On one side of it 
is the Xorthwest kil, which is navigable by large boats and 
yachts thus far, but not beyond. On the other side, there 
is a small creek by which it is almost entirely surrounded, 
affording water sufficient, both summer and winter, to drive 
several mills. 

When we reached here, we took our provisions and 
whatever was loose out of the boat into a hut of the 
Indians, of whom there is only one family on this whole 



270 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 






tract. ~\Vc eat our dinner by their fire, and deterinim r] to 
go in the afternoon to the falls, although it had already 
began to rain. We started off accordingly under the 
guidance of Hans, the Indian. The rain gradually 
increased, with sno"vy, and did not hold up the whole day. 
After we had traveled good three hours over high hills, we 
came to a high rocky one, where we could hear the noise 
of the water, and clambering up to the top, saw the falls 
below us, a sight to be seen in order to observe the power 
and wonder of God. Behind this hill the land is much 
higher than on the other side, and continues so as far as is 
known. A kil or river runs through this high land 
between the hills, formed by several branches comma: down 
from still higher land. This river, running along; the valley 
to seek the sea, comes to this hill where it runs over a large 
blue rock, which is broken in two, obliquely with the river. 
One part is dry, which is the hill before mentioned; the 
other is, where the river, running over a crevice or fissure 
between both, appears to be eight or ten feet wide, having 
on either side smooth precipices like walls, but some parts 
broken between them. The river finding this chasm pours 
all its water into it headlong from a height, according to 
guess, of about eighty feet; and all this pouring water 
must break upon the undermost piece of stone lying in the 
crevice, which causes a great roaring and foaming, so that 
persons standing there side by side, have to call out loud 
before they can understand each other. By reason of the 
breaking of the water, and the wind which the falling 
water carries with it, there is constantly spray ascending 
like smoke, which scatters itself like rain. In this spray, 
when the sun shines, the figure of a rainbow is constantly 
to be seen 'trembling and shaking, and even appearing to 
move the rock. The water in this fissure runs out on the 
south; and there at the end of the rock or point, it finds 
a basin, which is the beginning of the lower kil. This 



LODGING IN A WIGWAM. 271 

pdintj is, I jtitlge, about one htmdred-ieet above the water, 
and is ste.^P ''- c an upright wall. Whey the fish cento up 
tlio river, this basin is so full of all kinds of them, that 
you can catcli them with your hands, because they are 
stopped there, and collect together, refreshing themselves, 
and sporting in and under the falling fresh water, which 
brings with it from above, bushes, green leaves, earth and 
mire, in which they find food. The water runs hence east 
and northeast to Ackqackcnon. The Indians come up this 
river in canoes to fish, because it is one of the richest fish- 
eries they have; but the river is not navigable by larger 
boats, though in ease the country were settled, the naviga- 
tion could be improved. The falls lie among high hills, 
especially on the south, so that the sun does not. penetrate 
there well except in summer. "We found heavy ice there 
at this time, although it had all thawed away below. 
When I saw this ice at a distance, I supposed it was the 
foam. I took a sketch as well as I could, very hastily, 
for we had no time, and it rained and snowed very 
much. "What I did, is not very happily done. I regret I 
could not crayon it, for it is worth being portrayed. Xight 
coming on, we had to leave. We were very wet and cold, 
especially in the feet. It was dark, and slippery walking 
on such precipices, and crossing little streams. Tired 
and- weary, wet and dirty, we reached the place where we 
had started from, about eight o'clock in \\\q evening, and 
went into the hut of the Indians, having to-day rowed con- 
stantly from early dawn until one or two o'clock, and then 
walked, through heavy weather, twenty-four to twenty- 
eight miles. 

We endeavored to warm and dry ourselves in this cabin 
as best we could. We could not stand up on- account of 
the smoke, and there were no means of sitting down unless 
flat on the ground, which was very bad for us, on account 
of our being so wet, but we did the best we could. We 



272 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 



took our supper, and distributed sonic of our bread anion • 

tho Indians, with wbidj they were as much pleased it- 
children with sweet cake. "We gave each man four fish- 
hooks, and the women and children each two. We also 
gave tliem two small trumpets, and then they were great 
nitaps or friends. We had to lie down there, and at first, 
as long as it was warm, it went very well; but the tire 
being almost burned out, and the hut rather airy, and the 
wind being no longer kept out by the beat in the opening, 
through which the smoke escaped, we became stiff in the 
knees, so that I could not, through weariness and cold, 
move mine without great pain and difficulty. The longed- 
for day came, and we went out in the snow to look through 
the woods, and along the little stream, to see whether it 
would be worth the trouble to erect a saw-mill there for 
the purpose of sawing timber for sale, as Jaques had sup- 
posed. But although we found the stream suitable for 
mills, we did not discover proper wood sufficient for 
the purpose. The soil seemed to promise good, and the 
place is as well situated as it can be, to make a village or 
city. The land on both sides of the Xorthwest kil is all . 
taken up, and the prospect is that the whole region will 
soon be inhabited. It is already taken up on the south 
side as high up as the falls. Eating our breakfast about 
eight o'clock, we went on board of the boat, it being now 
the 

6th, Wednesday. We set off with a westerly wind, though 
light and gusty. If the wind in this river do not come 
straight from behind, you cannot derive much benefit from 
it, in consequence of the land on both sides of it being so 
high, and the bay so winding. The river is the pleasantest 
we have yet seen. It is gratifying to look upon the con- 
tinually changing views which present themselves in going 
either up or down, with its evergreens of pine and cedar, 
and other species, the names of which I do not know, and 



INDIAN DEBAUCH AT GOUANES. 973 

if* clean frattoBi and clear Presh tffite.fr. We rowed and 
sailed as well as we couM, until the flood tide stopped us, 
when we went ashore to eat our dinner, and make a good 
fire to warm ourselves. "When tlie ebb began to make, we 
proceeded on our way. Our poor Indian who did nothing 
in the boat, sat all the time benumbed with cold in his 
poor little blanket. But as the day advanced, it was better. 
The tide serving us, and the wind being stronger as we 
came below the high land, we reached Adder kol before 
evening, and set the Indian ashore at his hut, who told us 
he would come and see us on Monday. It was calm, with 
the wind more and more favorable, and we crossed over 
the bay, and arrived at G&mmms bay about eight o'clock. 

I had asked Hans, our Indian, what Christians they, 
the Indians, had first seen in these parts. He answered 
the first, were Spaniards or Portuguese, from whom the}' 
obtained the maize or Spanish or Turkish wheat, but they 
did not remain here long. Afterwards the Hutch came 
into the South river and here, on jSToten island, 1 a small 
island lying directly opposite the fort at Xew York, and to 
Fort Orange or Albany, and after them the English came 
for the first, who, nevertheless, always disputed the first 
possession. But since the country has been taken several 
times by the one and the other, the dispute is ended in 
regard to the right of ownership, as it is now a matter of 
concprest. 

When we arrived at Gouanes, we heard a great noise, 
shouting and singing in the huts of the Indians, who as 
we mentioned before, were living there. They were all 
lustily drunk, raving, striking, shouting, jumping, lighting 
each other, and foaming at the mouth like raging wild 
beasts. Some who did not participate with them, had fled 
with their wives and children to Simon's house, where the 
drunken brutes followed, bawling in the house and before 

Governor's island. 



274 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

the door, -which we finally closed. And this was can 
Christiana* It Hiajtea aae blush to call by that holy u; 

those who live ten times worse than these most barbarous 
Indians and heathen, not only in the eyes of those who 
can discriminate, hut according to the testimony of these 
poor Indians themselves. What do I say, the testimony of 
the Indians ! Yes, I have not conversed with an European 
or a native horn, the most godless and the best, who has 
not fully and roundly acknowledged it, but they have not 
acknowledged it salutarily, and much less desisted, disre- 
garding all convictions external and internal, notwithstand- 
ing all the injury' which springs therefrom, not only among 
the Indians, but others, as we will show in its proper place. 
How will they escape the terrible judgment of God ; how 
evade the wrath and anger of the Lord and Kim?;, Jesus, 

O O 7 

w r horn they have so dishonored and defamed, and caused 
to be defamed among the heathen ? Just judgment is their 
damnation. But I must restrain myself, giving God all 
judgment and wrath, and keeping only what he causes us 
to feel therefor. Such are the fruits of the cursed cupidity 
of those who call themselves Christians for the very little 
that these poor naked people have. Simon and his wife 
also do their best in the same way, although we spoke to 
them severely on the subject. They brought forward this 
excuse, that if they did not do it, others would, and then 
they would have the trouble and others the profit; but if 
they must have the trouble, they ought to have the profit, 
and so they all said, and for the most part falsely, for they 
all solieit the Indians as much as they can, and after begging 
their money from them, compel them to leave their blankets, 
leggings, and coverings of their bodies in pawn, yes, their 
guns and hatchets, the very instruments by which they 
obtain their subsistence. This subject is so painful and 
so abominable, that I will forbear saying any thing more 
for the present. 



OPTICS. THE KIVER OPEN. 275 

These Indians had canticoycd (gthmtekayt) there to-day, that 
K conjured the devil, and Liberated a woman among them, 
who was possessed by him, as they said; and indeed, as 
they told us, it had that appearance, but 1 have never seen 
it. 1 

We fared better this night than the last, and whether 
from fatigue or other reasons, slept soundly. 

7//i, Thursday. "We had intended to go to Najacq, to 
Jaques's, and afterwards to Elbert's in the bay, in order to 
report to them how Ave had found their land, hut Gerrit 
having promised his father-in-law some firewood, he had to 
take Simon's boat for the purpose, and Simon's wife also 
had some errands in the city. We, therefore, determined 
to go with them as we did, leaving Gouanes at ten o'clock, 
and seeing the Indians putting up their huts which they had 
entirely thrown down during their intoxication, although 
it was not much trouble, as it was not much to make 
them. With a tolerably fair wind we reached the city at 
noon, where we gave ourselves up to rest. 

W r e washed now to make a voyage to the Nexesinkx, 
Bcntselacfs Iloeck, and Sant Hoek, but we could find no 
opportunity, for the reason that this route is very little 
navigated in the winter and spring, because it is somewhat 
dangerous. Meanwhile, the weather continued very vari- 
able ; sometimes we had frost and severe cold, then rain 
aud snow, wind and squalls, until the time of the sun's 



1 The Canticoy appears to have been a dance which the Indians practiced 
on various occasions. Denton culls it, " a dancing match, where all per- 
sons that came were freely entertained, it being a festival time." Brief 
lJetcrlptioii of JS'ew York, 11. Jacobus Koelman, a Dutch writer, who 
seems to have seen it, alludes to it in speaking of the dances of the 
Labadists, as a religious exercise. " I am well aware," he says, " his- 
torically of the religious dances of the devotees among the Turks, called 
demises, and that in the Wist Indies in New Netherlaml, a religious dance 
is performed by the heathen, when they go after the dead., which in their 
language they call lintekan t fi9 I well remember." — Ilistoruch Verhadl. 100. 



276 



THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 



crossing the line, when it began to become warm, but < ui 
tinned still variable, though it improved daily. 

20lh, Wednesday. "Wbile my comrade sat writing, he 
observed a change in his vision, being able to see better 
than before, when lie had to look extremely close in writing. 
It happened thus : writing as he was accustomed to do, In- 
sight in an instant became entirely obscured, so that he had 
to stop, not being able to write any more, ifot knowing 
what it was, he shut his eyes and rubbed them, as they 
usually do when any thing obstructs the sight, and then 
undertook to write as he had done before, but yet he could 
not see well ; when raising his head higher from the paper, 
he saw much clearer than when he had to look close to it. 
Had he kept his eyes up so high before, he would scarcely 
have been able to see at all. You could also perceive that 
his writing was different afterwards. 

A yacht arrived down the river from the Hysopus, from 
which they learned the navigation was open, though boats 
going up would have to tug through the ice. It brought 
news of the death of the minister, Pontine Gaesbeck, a 
Cocceian, which had caused great sorrow. They had deter- 
mined to call another minister from Holland, or Tessemaker 
from the south. They had built a new church in the JByso- 
pus, of which the glass had been made and painted in the 
city, by the father of our mate, Evert Duikm, whose other 
son, Gerrit, did most of the work. 1 This Gerrit Duiken had 
to take the glass to the Ih/sopus, and having heard we Lad 
a mind to go there, he requested our company, which we 



1 Evert Duykinck, wbo came early to New Xethcrland, aud was in the 
employment of the West India Company, at the fort Good Hope, on the 
Connecticut, at the time of the tro'ubles with the English there in 1040, 
was a glazier by trade. By the phrase, making the glass, we apprehend 
glazing is all that is meant by our journalist. His son, Gerrit, was an 
adherent of Lcisler, and a member of his council. 0' 'Culhtylutiis Cal- 
endar of Dutch Manuscript*, 44, :J20. 



A START FOTl NEVESINK. 277 

woti'ld not refuse him when ilic time came. Me promised 
to teach me how to draw. 

tliyl, Saturday. The first boat arrived from Fort Orange 
to-day s bringing scarcely any news except that a great num- 
ber of Indians had died in the early part of the winter of 
small pox, and a large party of them had gone south to make 
war against the Indians of Carolina, beyond Virginia, for 
which reason the hunting of beaver had not been irood, 
and there would be a great scarcity of peltries this year, 
which was the chief trade of ISTew Xetherland, especially 
in this quarter. 

There was something published and posted by this 
government to-day against that of Xew Jersey or Adder 
kol 9 but I do not know precisely what it was. 1 We found 
to-day an opportunity to go to Mevesinek. An Englishman 
who had a little boat, and small enough, was going on Mon- 
day without fail, and lie had, he said, about sixteen pas- 
sengers. 

24th, Svj<d<:nj : and 25//', Monday. It stormed hard from the 
northwest, and he could not go, but he came to tell us he 
would give us notice when he would sail. 

26th, Tuesday. He came and told us he would leave next 
day at sunrise, and in passing by the house, he would come 
in and call us. 

27//', Wednesday. We waited for him from an early hour, 
but it was nearly ten o'clock before we saw him. We 
went to his boat which was poor enough, very small, light, 
and lank, though it had been repaired some; it had an old 
sail and piece of a foresail, and yet this captain was as 



1 This was the proclamation of Governor Andrus against Governor 
Carteret's assuming to exercise the powers of governor of East Jersey, to be 
found in Leaning and Spieefs Grants and Concessions of Xar Jersey, G73. 
We are enabled to identity it from the date, Which is the 13th of March 
old style, corresponding with that of our journalist, who adopts the new 
style, which had already been introduced at that time into Holland. 



278 THE HUDSON AXD ITS AFFLUENTS. 

stern and arrogant with his boat, as if it wore a ship-of- 
war. We waited there for the passengers, but they had 

melted away to three, my comrade, myself and one other 
person. We started about eleven o'clock with a good 
wind and tide, though it was almost low water. When 
we reached the Narrows (de Soqfden), the wind veered 
round to the southeast, which was against us. We dis- 
covered the boat to be so leaky that she had a foot or two of 
water in her, which he sought to excuse, but every word 
he said on the subject was untrue. The pump was stopped 
up, and we had to help him clear it out, which was accom- 
plished after much trouble and bungling. We cleared it 
out, but we had that to do three times, because in repair- 
ing the boat they had left all the chips and pieces of wood 
lying in the hold between the planks, and when we 
jjumped, this stuff would continually obstruct the pump, 
though we succeeded in getting out most of the water. 
Meanwhile the wind changed to the south and southwest, 
with which there was every prospect of getting outside. 
We tucked about and reached Coney ( Conijnen) island, a 
low, sandy island, lying on the east side of the entrance 
from the sea. AVe came to anchor under its outermost 
point, when we should have gone inside of Sandy Hook 
(Sard Hoeck), in a creek, as we were able yet to do ; but he 
said, we must go outside of Sandy Hook, round by sea, and 
then make for a creek there. I began now to have other 
thoughts. To put to sea in such a light, low, decayed and 
small boat, with rotten sails, and an inexperienced skipper, 
and that at night, did not suit me very well. The sea began 
already to roll round the point of Coney island, and I appre- 
hended bad weather from pain in my breast and other indi- 
cations, lie said the place where we were lying was 
entirely shoal, and he, therefore, dared not go near the 
shore, as there wits only eight or ten feet water. But he 
was much mistaken, for when he let the anchor fall, it ran 



CONEY ISLAND. THE LOWER BAY. 279 

out Bix fathoms? of rope before it struck the bottom. I had 
seated myself all the time at the helm, and observed tic was 
,a miserable person. It was then about half flood, and 
having put things somewhat in order, he asked us if we 
would go ashore with him. I said yes, and I did so for the 
purpose of ascertaining how the westerly point of this 
island was situated on the sea entrance. My comrade and 
the other passenger having no wish to go, remained on 
board. Upon reaching the shore, we saw immediately a 
large ship coming up the bay from Sandy Hook, which we 
supposed to be Margaret's ship, which she had left to be 
repaired at Falmouth, as we have before mentioned. I 
wondered why our skipper did not return on hoard, hut he 
not only remained ashore, and left his boat with two 
inexperienced persons, but he had not hauled up on the 
beach his small canoe in. which we came ashore, or made it 
fast. I went with him along the strand, on the sea side, 
and saw that, close by Conev island, a strong flood tide was 
running, which was pressed between the east hank and the 
island, and that led us to think there was an opening there 
through which you could sail out and in, which is the fact, 
as I was afterwards informed by one who was \cry well 
acquainted with the place; but it is only deep enough for 
boats, yachts, and other small craft. This island, on the 
sea side, is a meadow or marsh intersected by several kils 
or creeks. It is not large, being about half an hour or 
three quarters long, and stretching nearly east and west. 
It is sandy and uninhabited. They generally let their 
horses run upon it to feed, as they cannot get off of it, We 
found good oysters in the creek, inside, and eat some of 
them, hut seeing his carelessness, 1 could not remain longer 
from the boat, as the canoe might he carried off, on the 
rise of the water, by the tide or the wind, and my comrade 
and the other passenger who was sea-sick, not know what 
to do, the more so, looking at the inexperience and care- 



280 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

lessness of the captain. I, therefore, hurried to the boat, 
punning across the island. On the inside of the island, I 
found a sandy elevation like a dune or high dyke which 
became gradually lower towards Long Island, and that i> 
all which shows itself here. This elevation is on the land 
side, and is mostly covered with hollies, which, according 
to my recollection, I have never seen growing in this region 
except on dry and very fine sand. When we reached the 
canoe, it was not only afloat, but it had been thrown across 
the beach by the sea, and was full of water. If it had 
moved oil', we certainly would have been at a loss. The 
water being high, the sea came rolling in heavily around 
the point into the bay, and caused the boat lying in the 
current, which ran strong here, to pitch greatly. "We were 
even fearful about srettins: on board asrain, for the canoe 
could scarcely hold us both. I told him to 2:0 on board 
first, and bring the boat nearer the shore, and then he 
could take me aboard, but he would not do so, we must go 
on board together. "We, therefore, both went into it, and 
reached the boat, though it was very dangerous. As soon 
as we came aboard, our skipper spoke about leaving there, 
as we could not lie there well. I asked him where he would 
go to. He said to the city, which I did not much oppose, 
and was secretly glad of, seeing it was from the Lord. We, 
therefore, had to abandon our design of going to the Neve- 
sinckx at this time. The large ship which we had seen, 
sailed before us ; and we found that we had not been mis- 
taken in our supposition, as it was the same vessel we had 
left in Falmouth. It commenced blowing hard in the 
evening, and we had as much as we could stand, but we 
reached the eity while it was yet in the evening, very much 
rejoiced. 

28/A, Thursday, and '20th, Friday. There was a severe 
storm, accompanied with mtich rain, from the south-east. 
it being about new moon. Certainly, if we did not see in 



GOVERNOR AXDIiOS. 281 

this, the continual care of the Lord, in his providence, we 
wen.- worse than beasts, for it was too manifest not to be 
touched by it. He gives us grace only to lose ourselves 
more and more in him, and to offer ourselves up to his 
service. 

SOthy Sand<(>). The storm continued the whole day. 

olst, Monday. We determined to make a journey to 
Albany the first opportunity, but this could not be done 
without the special permission of the governor. Although 
a regulation exists that no one shall go up there unless 
he has been three years in the country, that means for the 
purpose of carrying on trade; for a young man who came 
over with us from Holland, proceeded at once to Albany, 
and continues to reside there. We went accordingly to 
request permission of the governor. After we had waited 
two or three hours, his excellency came in and received 
us kindly. We made our request, which he neither refused 
nor granted, but said he would take it into consideration. 
Meanwhile, we inquired after vessels of which there were 
plenty going up this time of year. 

April 2d, Wednesday. We went again to the lord go- 
vernor for permission, who received us after lie had dined, 
lie inquired for what purpose we wished to go above; to 
which we answered, we had come here to see the country, 
its nature and fertility; and that we had heard there were 
fine lands above, such as Sehooncckten, Rcntselaersivyek, and 
the Jlysop/.'.s. " Those are all small places,'' he said, " and 
are all taken possession of; but I am ashamed I did not 
think of this."' He then requested us to come some morn- 
ing and dine with him, when he would talk with us. We 
thanked him, and took our leave, reflecting whether it 
would be advisable to trouble his excellency any more about 
tbe matter, as it was not of such great importance to us, 
and he, perhaps, considered it of more moment than we 
did. We then felt inclined to leave the country the very 
36 



282 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

first opportunity, as we had nothing more io do here, and 
it was the very besl time of year to make a voyage. As 
we had some of our goods left after we were forbidden to 

sell any more, we went to see if we could get rid of what 
we had kept for Ephraim. As there was no prospect of 
seeing him, we proposed to do the Lest we could with one 
of our neighbors, named Cornells van Kletf, to whom inv 
comrade had spoken, and who was inclined to trade. He 
entered into negotiations, hut was a little timorous. AW' 
offered to let him examine the hills of the persons from 
whom we had bought the goods, and also of the freight 
and custom-house duties, and he should give us an advance 
of thirty per cent on their amount ; or, he might see what 
they were worth, and could be sold for, and we would 
divide the profits equally with him. After he had looked 
at them, he did not dare to take them himself alone, but 
said he would bring another person, in order that with the 
two of them, they could make it safe. He did not say he 
had no means of payment, though he did remark he had 
no peltries, which we would willingly have taken in pay- 
ment. The other person had the means to pay. "We told 
him we would wait until de la Grange returned from the 
South river; that I had spoken to his wife on the subject, 
and that he was expected back every day ; at all events, that 
we would wait until we had spoken to some other person. 
Van Kleif's wife, however, took some fine thread, ribbons, 
pins, and what she wanted for herself. 

7th, Sunday. M. de la, Grange arrived home from the 
South river, and came with his wife in the afternoon to visit 
us, both being under concern of mind. We addressed to 
them what we thought necessary. He stated he had agreed 
with his nephew to go in partnership with him, and could 
not withdraw therefrom, unless God did something special. 
They both hoped that God would have pity upon them. 

We spoke of the remnant of our little stock, and of the 



GOVERNOR OF CONNECTICUT. 283 

time advancing when we mtiSt be rid of it, so as to be 
prepared to leave the eountry. lie said as soon as the boat, 
which he had chartered, returned from the South river, in 
which he had some peltries, we would see what we could 
do with each other. 

S(h, Monday. Van Ivleif came to examine the goods 
again. He had the disposition, but not the means to buy, 
and wished to bring still another person to make the pur- 
chase, whom he named, and who was one of the most 
miserly persons in the city, which was not agreeable to us. 
We, therefore, told him we had already spoken to M. dc la 
Grange. 

10/A, Wednesday. The boat of de la Grange arrived from 
the South river, bringing a letter for us from Ephraim, in 
which he informed us of his intention to come and visit us 
the last of April or the first of May, which we much desired. 

The governor of Hartford, a place situated to the north, 
arrived in the city from the West Indies. Our governor 
entertained him nobly, and parted with him with great 
civility. 

Two vessels sailed for Boston, where we much desired to 
go, but we were not prepared. The governor investigated 
whether either of them had taken any tiling on board 
below the city. 

We left a small piece of brown serge, which stood us in 
rather dear, but was very hue and stromr, and which on 
account of its high price, we had not been able to dispose 
of, to be cut up for a coat, waistcoat and breeches for both 
of us, with fur in front, so that almost the whole piece was 
used, de la Grange taking the remnant, with which he was 
much pleased, for a coat, because he did not know where 
to obtain such goods in this country. Meanwhile, the 
barter of our few goods was going on with him at the rate 
of fifty per rent profit on the invoices, upon which con- 
dition he took almost all of them. 



284 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

ISth, Saturday. We called upon the governor, and re- 
quested permission to leave, lie spoke to us kindly, and 
asked us to come the next day after preaching, thus pre- 
venting our request. 

14//>, Sunday. About five o'clock in the afternoon, we 
went to the lord governor, who was still engaged, at our 
arrival, in the Common Prayer; hut as soon as it was finished, 
he came and spoke to us, even before we had spoken to 
him, and said of a person who was with him, " This is 
Captain Deyer, 1 to whom I have given directions to write 
a permit or passport for you to go to Albany." He again 
asked us where we came from, and where we lived, which 
we told him. He also inquired something about the prince 
of Friesland, and the princess, and also about the differ- 
ences of the people of Friesland and his Eoyal Highness and 
their High Mightinesses, which we told him. "We then 
thanked him for his favor, and said the object of our visit 
was not only to ask permission to go up the river, but also 
to leave the country. He thereupon stated that there 
would be no boat going to Boston for two or three weeks, 
but he intended to send one himself soon to Pennequicq, 
which was at our service, and we could easily get to 
Boston from there by a fishing boat or some other vessel. 
"We thanked him for the honor and kindness he had shown 
us, and further inquired of him whether it would be ne- 
cessary to have a passport at our departure. He replied 
no. We inquired, also, whether it would be necessary 
to post up our names, as there is an established regulation 
that it should be done six weeks before leaving. To this 
he replied, if we were merchants, and owed any body, it 



1 William Dyer, gent., was commissioned by the Duke of York in 107-, 
collector of the customs at New York, in which capacity he acted during 
Andres's first term us governor of the province. He was mayor of New 
York in 10S0-1.— Few York Colonial History, III, 221, 304. 



A BARTER. JACOB SWARTS FAMILY. 285 

would be proper to do BO; and then asked if such was the 
case with either of us. We answered no ; then, he con- 
tinued, it is not necessary. For all which we thanked his 
excellency, and took our leave. 

.Reflecting upon this matter, we thought whether it would 
not be more respectful to make the voyage to Albany, than 
to leave, since we had several times requested permission 
to do so, and he had now granted it. Should we not go, 
it would, perhaps, not he well received by him, the more 
so as there would not be any vessel going to Boston for 
some w r eeks. Xeverthcless, it was not had that we had 
shown his excellency it was not so important to us that we 
could not let it pass. 

15///, Monday. "We went in search of a boat to go to 
Albany, and found one ready to leave immediately. The 
name of the skipper was Ileus 1 Jloogboom, to whom we 
agreed to pay, for the passage up and down, one beaver, 
that is, twenty-five guilders in zeewant, for each of us, and 
find ourselves. We gave him our names, to have them 
inserted in the passport. 

Meanwhile we disposed of all our goods to M. dc la 
Grange, upon the terms before mentioned, and received in 
pay peltries of every description. But, as we Avere not 
experienced in merchandise, and much less in peltries, we 
deemed it proper to have what we received, examined and 
valued against the goods sold, by Van Klcif, before 
named. He valued some of the peltries much less than 
they had been charged to us. But ae there arc few 
merchants who do not hatchel each other a little, so stand- 
in cr near this merchant vou could see he was not free from 
this feeling, and you would believe, if he had. owned our 
goods and been free to receive payment for them, in such 
kind of pay, he would have valued them much higher. 



JIcus is a contraction of Bartholomew. 



286 TnE ITimSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

However, there were three Leavers among fhein wliii ! 
were not current; these Mr. do la Grange cheerfully took 
back, as they were not his, but had been borrowed by him 
of his nephew, in consequence of his not having enough of 
his own. 

He was about to return to the South river, in order to 
bring on more goods, which he had there. His wife was 
going with him, to see if she would live there; for she 
seemed to take the subject to heart of separating herself 
from the sinful attachments of the world, giving up trade, 
and going to live upon the land and out of the land. His 
nephew was also going with them, for a pleasure trip, and 
to see the country, and especially to learn the way of 
trading. They were to leave tins evening, having already 
dispatched the boat on Monday last. 

16th, Tuesday. Before we proceed any further, I must 
here insert a very remarkable circumstance, for the comfort. 
and joy of God's children, who rejoice with the holy and 
blessed angels over the repentance of one poor great 
sinner, more than over ninety and nine just men, who 
need no repentance. The old man and his wife with whom 
we lodged had several children, the husband and wife each 
three by former marriages, and one between themselves. 
The husband- s children by his former wife were two 
daughters and one son. One of the daughters was married 
to Gerrit, the wheelwright, who had married her in Xew 
Xethcrland, bui upon the first change in the government 
[1GG4], she left for Holland, and he followed her there after 
a little time, and kept house at Zwolle; but not being able, 
after several years, to succeed very well in the Xetherlands, 
he came back in the same ship with us, leaving his wife 
and children behind at Zwolle. Finding matters go on 
here to his wishes, he sent for his family by Captain Jacob, 
of the ship "Beaver. This is Gerrit the wheelwright, or 
carpenter, whom we have mentioned several times in our 



A REMARKABLE CONVERSION. 0,^7 

journal. Another daughter lived still at Anisterdajn, for 

wham lie has given us several messages and a letter to take 
when we leave. His son is a carpenter in the East Indies. 
The children of the old woman were a daughter named 
Gce&kj married here, in New York, to one Peter Denis} 
weighmaster; another daughter, named -Rebecca, was also 
married here with one Arie* who gained his livelihood by 
cultivating land and raising cattle, but kept a tavern, or 
drinking house, having a situation therefor, and living upon 
a delightful spot at the Vers Water (Fresh Water), a little out 
of town; and a son, named Theunis* who was married 
and had six children, and who supported himself by farm- 
ing at SapQlmnike. The old couple had one child between 
them, named WlUem, now about twenty-three years old, a 
carpenter by trade, a little rough and coarse, but otherwise 
not an unjust kind of a person, according to the world. 
He lived at home with his parents, where we lodged. He 
was somewhat wronged in his inheritance, as the old 
people acknowledged, and we reproved them for it. 
They promised amendment. 

Now the before named Thcunis had led a very godless 
life, and had been wild and reckless, extraordinarily 
covetous, addicted to cursing and swearing, and despising 
all religious things; but he was not a drunkard, nor was 

1 Peter Benyse ; who was farmer, of the weigh house. He died soon 
after this time. — (TVallagTidn-s Calendar of English Manuscripts, <><i. 96. 

2 Arie, or Adrian Cornelisen, who, with Jtebccca Idensen, his a\ ite, was, 
according to Pomine Selyn's list of church members, still residing in 
1GSG, over the Fresh Water, afterwards called the Kolh, and now Centre 
street. He was living there as early as 1(504. — Calendar of Dutch Manu- 
scripU, 2G5. For his children, see New York Man iiid, of 1863, p. 753. It was 
to his house the travelers went on the first Sunday afternoon after their 
arrival in New York. 

'Theunis Idensen. The names and times of baptism of his six children 
are ffivea in yi<r York MxiWHeS, Of 1868 1 , p. 779. 



288 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

he unchaste, though lie previously had taken something thn\ 
did not belong to him. in a word, lie was ignorant of tlie 
truth and a godless man, yet his evil and wickedness were 
more in the spirit than in the flesh. Nevertheless, it appear 
that God 'had purposes of grace in regard to him, and tlio 
time was approaching when God would touch him and 
draw him to him. He had long since felt his conscience 
gnawing him for his godless life, and that with a strength 
whieh veiy much increased his chagrin. lie became 
meagre in body, his eyes were sunken in his head, he was 
sombre of speech, he sought solitude in order to fly from 
the evil, but found it was augmented manifold; and 
gradually began to long for deliverance and a better life. 
The devil had been assailing him for six years past, and he 
was, therefore, in a miserable state, of both soul and body. 
Thus he was, when, by God's providence, Ave arrived in the 
country, and went to lodge at his mother's house, as we have 
related. We had been at the house only two or three 
days, when lie also came there. I- was writing in the front 
room, and mv comrade was with me. He heard us talking 
together about God, and the Christian life in general, 
which, so affected him, that he said to himself, " 0, God ! 
what men are these ? Where did they come from ? Are 
there such people still in the world? 7 ' This he told us 
afterwards. However, it took such hold of his heart, that 
he more earnestly resolved to reform his life, while the 
devil, being more displeased, assailed him the more 
violently. His wife was a very ill-natured women, scolding, 
growling, cursing and swearing at him, as well as' at their 
children, and constantly finding fault with him, through 
her avarice, because he did not do more work, although 
he wrought continually, and as much as three other men. 
Their children, collectively, were very bad and saucy, and 
cursed and swore at each other, except the oldest, a 
daughter, who appeared to be the best of them. This 



A SERIES OF MISFORTUNES. 



2SD 



: .1 h'ing in such a state was preyed on all sides. EIc 
sometimes, but not often, came to our house, and as we 
know nothing of his condition, we only addressed to him, 
occasionally, a general remark. However, his time and 
that of the Lord were approaching. He heard a sermon 
upon the requisites of communicants of the Lord's supper, 
which lie had never, as yet, enjoyed; and was thrown 
very much aback; abhorring himself and many others, 
who went to it, yet pursued as wicked lives as he did. For 
himself, he saw no probability of his ever being able to 
partake of it, conscious as he was of his being wicked 
and unworthy, lie saw no means of release, and found 
no help or consolation wherever he went or came. To 
go to his minister, would, he thought, render him little 
good, as he knew by several examples. He kept his 
condition concealed from us, and did not dare speak to us, 
so that he was in distress for himself, his family, and his 
entire state, and often wishing to die. This caused him to 
live in continual variance and quarrelling with his 
neighbors. He lost several cows and other cattle, by 
which he suffered erce'at damage. A little daughter, about 
fourteen years old, who lived with her grandmother, was 
so badly ruptured, that there was no probability of her 
being cured, or ever being fit to be married. He had 
bought a piece of land, in common with Arie, his brother- 
in-law, to make tillable land out of the rough woods. It 
was to him like dead fruit. He worked on it three times 
as much as the other did, in felling and chopping trees, 
and making the best of it into timber, which was carried 
to the city with little or no profit to him, but to the people 
to whom Arie was indebted. Differences arose between 
them as to the -land and labor,' and it was, therefore, 
proposed to divide it, and separate; but, as has been 
before mentioned, they had begun to clear -off a part of it, 
and they could not agr'ee which should have the cleared 
3 7 



290 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

land, where he had bestowed so much labor. Gr< 
bitterness sprung out of it, when the mother and frioi 

interposed, and settled the difficulty as well as they could, 
■rheums obtained the cleared land on condition he should 
make some indemnity to the other; and a part of the land. 
where he had worked like a mole, and bought and paid 
for, should be given up by him. lie had a very large and 
beautiful canoe, which, was worth much to him, and had 
been very serviceable to him ; this was entirely dashed to 
pieces by a northwest storm, as Sapocanikke, where In- 
resided and the canoe lay, makes with this wind a flat lee 
shore. Although his neighbors could have prevented the 
breaking of the canoe, if they had. done as they ought to 
have done, they had not at least attempted to prevent it. J le 
had a fine large negro, a slave, whom he had long possessed, 
and taught to work and speak good Dutch ; who had done him 
great service, and he had much love for him. The negro 
was riding on horse-back, when the horse ran away with 
him, and he fell and was injured internally in the breast. 
lie became sick, supposing it was a cold, and died in a 
few days. This event caused great sorrow to him, his 
wife, and his whole family, as also to all his friends; for it 
was a severe blow and damage to him. He was once 

CD 

working in the field, and his wife was called to help one 
of the cows which was sick and in a bad condition. This 
happened eight or ten times at night as well as in the day, 
whereby he and his wife had no rest night or day. lie 
was on one occasion attending her, when word came to 
them that one of their little daughters had fallen dead in 
the barn, and indeed they knew no better, for she lay in a 
swoon as if dead ; at which they were all much frightened 
and out of their senses. Thus he had one blow after 
another. The child, who was about nine or ten years old, 
came to, when they thought her arm was broken, or a1 
least her shoulder out of joint, for she had fallen from a 



POSSESSED BY THE EVIL ONE. 9Q1 

(*p at height. She was brought in that condition to her 
jrraiM.hnbther's, at our lodgings, to be cured, which was 
effected after some time. He lias also had several mishaps 
in the woods in chopping and felling trees; and had about 
this time an accident which broke him down. Having 
felled a tree, it remained hanging with its branches in the 
limbs of another one, and in endeavoring to pull it out his 
whole hand was' crushed so that all his lingers festered. 
This happened shortly after the others. All these mis- 
fortunes depressed this poor man. very much, and daily 
increased his anguish. He could not sleep, and found rest 
nowhere. lie did nothing but sigh and complain of 
inward trouble. When we heard all these things, we said 
several times to each other, the Lord has certainly some 
intention in regard to this man and this household : the 
Lord visits this man; although we did not doubt there 
was something: of the evil one. 

About this time he came to our house, and we embraced 
the opportunity to speak to him, which we did with great 
earnestness and affection, by which he was strengthened, 
and went home contented. But it did not continue long, 
lie became very much disturbed and troubled. He went 
in the fields to plough, and the horses began to neigh and 
bellow, and would not stand still an instant, springing and 
jumping, entangling themselves together, foaming and 
fuming so that he did not know what course to pursue. 
xVs to himself, he became so frightened and perplexed, so 
confused that he did not know what he did or where lie 
was; he was bewildered, and his whole understanding lost ; 
he was like one blind; he wanted to go to the house, and 
ran hither and thither, through water and everywhere, 
his hat off his head, and across the fields, and thus reached 
home. His wife and children were frightened because he 
looked so horrible and disfigured. He demanded a rope 
and wanted to harm himself, for he said he could live no 



202 



THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 



longer. The wife and children cried; neighbors wen sent 
forj one of the children brought the grandmother and 

Rebecca, his sister, from the city. This was on Tuesday, 
the lGth of April, in the afternoon. My comrade was in 
the front room when the news came, though there were 
no particulars. lie came to me in the hack room sorrow- 
ful, and said to me, rous m savez que le malm a eupossession xur 
nostre pautre komme. What man ? I asked. " Our Theu- 
nis," he replied, i; word came that he had hanged himself, 
and afterwards that they did not know whether he was 
alive.*'" We were alarmed; the old woman, his mother, 
had gone to him; and after waiting a little time, we also 
determined to go, and as we were a little quicker on foot 
we reached Sapocanike almost as soon as she did. As we 
approached the house we heard the lamentations of the 
women and children, and on entering we found there no 
one, except the mother, the sister Rebecca, and a female 
neighbor who was a fans pieuse. As soon as we came in, 
he stood up and came to meet us, holding out his hand, 
and calling out: "Friends, is there still grace with God, 
is there still grace for me with God?''' We grasped his 
hand and said: "Yes, there is grace for you with God, 
and for all repentant sinners.'" He exclaimed, " What 
wickedness have L committed ! how have I sinned ! how 
have I stolen God"s honor, his name profaned with vile 
oath-, his sabbaths violated, his word despised ! how godless 
have I lived, ami run from him ! But he has overtaken 
me. How has the devil troubled and tempted me, how 
has he for six years assailed me. seeing that I no longer 
wished to serve him ! And now when God comes to 
touch me and draw me, he. seeks to devour me; hut he 
shall not have me. God who protects me is stronger than 
he," and much more of similar import. We then spoke 
to him according to his state and condition, which did him 
much good. This pieuse prated also after her manner, bui 






WORDS OF ADVICE. 293 

tempered Lor down a little. She had urged him very 



strongly to go and sit down and read I know not what 
kind of a book; for, she said, she had also been in such a 
state, and that reading- had done her much good. She 
was much astonished at our saying he should not read, 
which could be done afterwards, and would benefit him 
when he should be well and quiet, and felt a desire and 
longing for it; that he should now, if he could, go to work 
at what had to be done or he had an inclination to do, 
whether in the barn among the grain or in the stalls 
among the cattle, or any other necessary work. We 
exhorted him to put his trust in God, to pray to him and 
cleave to him; the devil would then have no more power 
over him, as this perhaps was his last attack. He said, u I 
fear him no more, God will protect me ; I feel more tran- 
quil, I will not yield." We told him what he must do in 
future. He answered, "I hope and trust it will go well," 
He thanked us very much and added, " Friends you are 
the cause that I still live and of my preservation. 7 ' We 
told him it was God to whom he must give the honor and 
thank for his grace and mercy; and that we would perhaps 
call the next day, if we did not leave, at which he was 
glad. "We wanted to give a strong admonition to his wife 
and children, for they had great need of it, and in order 
that a greater impression might be made upon them by 
this circumstance. Returning home we were a fleeted 1 >y the 
grace of God towards a poor sinner, who truly told us things 
from the bottom of his heart which were from God and 
his Spirit, according to his word and our experience. In 
leaving we told his wife how she must keep her eye on 
him, and conduct herself towards him. 

17th, Wednesday. We went to inquire whether the boat 
was going up the river to-day, but it could not be got ready. 
In the afternoon we went to visit Theunis airain, whom we 
found at home quiet and calm. He received us kindly, and 



I 



294 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

We asked him how ho was. Very well, lie said, " I am n 
much relieved as iflhadagreat burden taken from nvy shoul- 
ders." He had rested well during the night. We praised 
God, and exhorted him to perseverance, and to trusl in 
him. "Trust in him," he said. " I know as well thai 
I am a child of God as that I stand here, and I have 
no fear of the devil any more. I know, he can trouble 
me, but he shall no longer have power over me." We 
told him he must take care of his affairs, and work 
when he felt inclined. " Work," he said, " I have no more 
work." It is as if it were Sunday. I know that the cattle 
must be taken care of and other things must be done, but 
that concerns me not. I have no work, and will not work- 
again as I have done before. God will take care of me. 
We admonished him that he himself and his whole family 
ought to go learn and be reformed. " That I will do," he 
replied, " if it please God, and if she only will listen and 
learn ; but if she will not I cannot help it." We read to 
him some portions of scripture, as Matt* v, G. John, xvi, 
17. Matt, vii, 8, of the carefulness of the world, by which 
he found himself comforted, and promised he would avoid 
the world as much as he could, and wished he could fulfill 
his inclination and go and live alone in the woods, away 
from wicked men, for it was impossible to live near them 
and not sin as they do. " Could I only go up the river," 
said lie, ; - with you and everywhere you go ! Oh, that 1 
were a young man I would not leave you." You could 
see that he spoke with earnestness and from the uprightness 
of his soul. 

19th, Friday. We had been several times for our passport, 
which we supposed would be a special one granted by his 
excellency to us, but in that we were mistaken. Our names 
were merely added to the common passport to go up and 
down the river, as the names of all the passengers were 
written on it. AW- left Xow York about three o'clock in 



SAILING UP THE RIYEH. 295 

the afternoon with a southerly wind, in company with about 
twenty passengers of all kinds, young and o34 ? whp made 
great noise and bustle in a boat not so large as a common 
ferry-boat in Holland; and as these people live in the inte- 
rior of the country somewhat nearer the Indians, they are 
more wild and untamed, reckless, unrestrained, haughty 
and more addicted to misusing the blessed name of God 
and to cursing and swearing. However there was no help 
for it ; you have to go with those with whom you are 
shipped. We were scarcely in the North river when we 
saw a ship coming through the Narrows, but as it was so 
far off we could not discern what vessel it was. Each pas- 
senger had his own opinion on the subject. After we had 
sailed along an half an hour we heard five or six guns fired 
from the fort and otherwise, which was a proof that she 
was from sea. As we were sailing along a boat came 
up to us but lost her mast in boarding us. She was to the 
leeward and we were sailing before the wind with a p-ood 
headway. She came too near our yard-arm which carried 
away her mast, and it was lucky she was not upset. They 
put on board some tons of oysters, which are not to be 
found at Fort Albany or away from salt water. In passing 
Sapocanike we saw Theunis standing upon an eminence 
where he was busy ploughing, and observing us as long as 
he could. We made rapid progress, but with the night 
the wind slackened, and we were compelled to come to 
anchor in order to stem tlio tide. 

20th, Saturday. When the day broke we saw how far we 
had advanced. We were at the entrance of the Highlands 
which are high and rocky, and lie on both sides of the river. 
While waiting there for the tide and wind another boat 
came alongside of us. They had a very fine fish, a striped 
bass, as large as a codiish. The skipper was a son-in-law 
of Dr. Schaats, the minister at Albany, a drunken, worthless 
person who could not keep house with his wife, who was 



1 Domine Schaats bad one daughter, Anneke or Annatje, wbo married 
Thomas Davidsc Kikebell, the skipper above referred to. Some account 
of her may be found in (S 'CalUtgJtun'a History of Neie Netherlands II, 568. 
It appears she was ordered away from Albany by the magistrates, andher 
husband was now On bis way to take her to New York. 

'-Not to be confounded with Norman's kil, adjoining Albany. This 
was a stream below Kinderhook, the Cats kil. 



296 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

not much Letter tLan lie, nor was his father-in-law. !l, 
had boeD away from his wife five or six years, and vvas n iv 

going after her. 1 The wind coming out of the south 
about nine o'clock we weighed anchor, and got under sail. 
It gradually increased until we had drifted through the 
Highlands, which is regarded no small advantage when- 
ever they wish to sail up or down the river; because, if 
they do not have a fresh breeze aft, they cannot have much 
favorable wind, as in blowing crosswise over the High- 
lands, it blows above the vessel, and sometimes comes 
down in whirlwinds which are dangerous. In the evening 
we sailed before the Hysopus, where some of the pas- 
sengers desired to be put ashore, but it blew too hard and 
we had too much headway. It did not seem to be very 
important. In consequence of the river above the Hysopus 
being difficult to navigate, and beset with shoals and pas- 
sages, and of the weather being rainy with no moon, we 
could not proceed without continual danger of running 
aground, and so came to anchor. 

21st; Easier Sunday. The wind was against us and calm, 
hut we advanced as far as the Nobnmtfs kil* where we 
were compelled to come to anchor, on account of the strong 
current running down the river. We went ashore here to 
walk about a little. There are two high falls on this kil, 
where the beautiful green water comes falling over inces- 
gantry, in a manner wonderful to behold, when you con- 
sider the power, wisdom and directions of God. The 
water was the greenest I had observed, not only on the 



ARRIVAL AT ALBANY. 297 

Seutli river, but in all Xcw ]S otliej-lnnd. Leaving the 
cause of it for further inquiry, I mention it merely in pass- 
ing. At the falls on this river stands a fine saw-mill 
which has wood enough to saw. The man who lives 
there, although not the mildest, treated us, nevertheless,, 
reasonably well. He set bpfore us shad which had been 
caught the day before, and was very good, better, we 
thought, than the same fish in Fatherland. 1 I observed 
along the shore, trees which they call in Holland, the 
tree of life, 2 such as we have in our garden, but they grow 
here beautiful and large, like firs. I picked up a small 
stone in which there was some crystal, and you could see 
how the crystal was formed in the stone. 

A breeze springing up from the south caused us to hurry 
on board the yacht, which we saw was making sail. We 
reached her after a good time of hard rowing, and were 
quite tired before we did so. The breeze did not con- 
tinue a long time, and we came to anchor again. After 
several stoppages we proceeded to-day as far as Kinder- 
hook. 

22d, Monday. AVe had again this morning a southerly 
breeze, which carried us slowly along until noon, when we 
came to anchor before the Fuyck, and Fort Albany or 
Orange. Every one stepped ashore at once, but we did 
not know where to go. ~\\ r e first thought of taking lodg- 
ings with our skipper, but we had been warned that his 
house was unregulated and poorly kept. Mons. van Cleif, 
wishing to do us a kindness, had given us a letter of recom- 
mendation to Mr. Robert Sanders, and M. de la Grange 
had also presented us to the same friend. We went ashore 



1 The shad in Holland have larger bones, and a coarser flesh than ours, 
although they are the same species. The feeding grounds are said to 
cause the ditierence. 

2 Arbor vitse. 

38 



298 



THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 



just as preaching vras over, to deliver our letter. Tl i 

person a3 soon aa lie saw us at Ins house, was please | 
and received us with every attention, and so did all Ii'h 
family, giving us a chamber for our accommodation. \V« 
did not remain his debtors in heartily serving him in what 
was necessary, whether by instruction, admonition or re- 
proof, which he always received kindly, as it seemed, 
promising himself as well as all his family to reform, which 
was quite necessary. 1 

23'i, Tuesday. Mr. Sanders having provided us with 
horses, we rode out about nine o'clock, to visit the Cahoos 
which is the falls of the great Maquas Ml (Mohawk river), 
which are the irreate>t falls, not onlv in New Xetherlaud, 
but in North America, and perhaps, as far as is known, in 
the whole Xew "World. 2 We rode for two hours over 



! 



1 Robert Sander?, of Albany, was a distinguished and intelligent Indian 
trader. He became well versed in the languages, both of the Mohawks 
and the River Indians, two languages radically different,- and acted as 
interpreter between them and the English authorities, on several occasions. 
He was particularly designated by Mr. Miller, as a proper person to 
furnish the government information in relation to the condition of Canada. 
He rendered himself so obnoxious to the French governor there, in conse- 
quence of his opposition to the Jesuit missionaries among the Five Nations, 
that he was the subject of special complaint in the letter of that func- 
tionary, M. Denonville, to Governor Dongan, in 10ST. — Colonial History, 
III, 40i>, 483, 485; VI, 40, 63.— Miller's Description. ofJS T ew York (Gowans's 
Edition), 81. 

2 The Cohocs falls certainly affords a sublime sight when the flow of 
water is at its height, as it generally is at the time of year when they were 
visited by our travelers. It is not surprising that they should have con- 
sidered them the largest in America. As far as the topography of this 
continent was then generally known, they were undoubtedly cornet. 
The falls of Xiagara.it is true, were then known to Europeans, but they 
had not been particularly described, and had been only obscurely men- 
tioned by C'liamplain. Sagard and Father Ragueneati in the Huron Z?< '"■- 
Hon of 1647-8. Father Hennepin visited them in 1G78-9, a year or two 
before our travelers were at the Cohoes, but his account did not appear 
in print until 1683. 



COIIOES FALLS. 099 

beautiful; level, tillage land along the river, when we 
obtained a guide who was better acquainted witb the road 

through the woods. He rode before us on horseback. In 
approaching the Cahoos from tins direction, the roads are 
hilly, and in the course of half an hour you have steep 
hills, deep valleys and narrow, paths, which run round the 
precipices, where you must ride with care, in order to avoid 
the danger of falling over them, as sometimes happens. As 
you come near the foils, you can hear the roaring which makes 
every thing tremble, but on reaching them, and looking at 
them you see something wonderful, a great manifestation 
of God's power and soverei^ntv, of his wisdom and glory. 
"We arrived there about noon. They are on one of the two 
brandies into which the Xorth river is divided up above, 
of almost equal size. This one turns to the west out of the 
highland, and coming here finds a blue rock which has a 
steep side, as long as the river is broad, which, according 
to my calculation is two hundred paces or more, and rather 
more than less, and about one hundred feet high. 1 The 
river has more water at one time than another; and was 
now about six or eight feet deep. All this volume of 
water coming on this side, fell headlong upon a stony 
bottom, this distance of an hundred feet. Anyone may 
judge whether that was not a spectacle, and whether it 
would not make a noise. There is a continual spray 
thrown up by the dashing of the water, and when the sun 
shines the figure of a rainbow may be seen through it. 
Sometimes there are two or three of them to be seen, one 
above the other, according to the brightness of the sun 
and its parallax. There was now more water than usual 
in consequence of its having rained hard for several days, 
and the snow water having beirun to run down from the 
high land. 

o 



1 Actual measurement mates the width of the Cohoes, nine hundred feet, 

the total descent 78 feet and the perpendicular fall 40. 



300 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

On our return we stopped at the house of our guide, 
v.'hom we had taken on the way up, where there were some 
families of Indians living. Seeing us, they said to each 
other, " Look, these ore certainly real Dutchmen, actual 
Hollanders." Robert Sanders asked them, how they knew 
it. We see it, they said, in their faces and in their dress. 
" Yes," said one, " they have the clothes of real Hol- 
landers ; they look like brothers." They brought us some 
ground nuts, but although the Dutch call them so, they 
were in fact potatoes, for of ground nuts, or mice with tails 1 
there are also plenty. They cooked them, and gave us 
some to eat, which we did. There was a canoe made of 
the bark of trees, and the Indians have many of them for 
the purpose of making their journeys. It was fifteen or 
sixteen feet or more in length. It was so light that two 
men could easily carry it, as the Indians do in going from 
one stream or lake to another. They come in such canoes 
from Canada, and from places so distant we know not 
where. Four or five of them stepped into this one and 
rowed lustily through the water with great speed, and 
when they came back with the current they seemed to fly. 
They did this to amuse us at the request of Mr. Sanders. 
Leaving there for home, we came again to the house of one 
Fredrick Fitters, where we had stopped in riding out. He 
is one of the principal men of Albany, and this was his 
farm; he possesses good in formation and judgment. My 
comrade had some conversation with him. He expected 
us, and now entertained us well. My comrade was in pain 
from eating the ground nuts. On arriving home in the 
evening, the house was full of people, attracted there out 
of curiosity, as is usually the case in small towns, where 
every one in particular knows what happens in the whole 
place. 



1 Pea-nuts. 



SCIIENECTADY. A HALF-BREED. gQ| 

24//', Wedncsdtiy. My comrade's pain continued through 
the night, although he bad taken his usual medicine, 
and he thought he Mould become better by riding on 
horseback. The horses were got ready, and we left about 
eight o'clock for. Schoonechiendeel, 1 a place lying about 
twenty-four miles west or north-west of Albany towards 
the country of the Mohawks (Maquaas). We rode over a 
fine, sandy cart road through a woods of nothing but beau- 
tiful evergreens or fir trees, but a light and barren soil. 
My companion grew worse instead of better. It was noon 
when we reached there, and arrived at the house of a good 
friend of Robert Sanders. As soon as we entered my com- 
rade had to go and lie down. He had a high fever, and 
was covered up warm. I went with Sanders to one Adam, 2 
and to examine the flats which are exceedingly rich land. 
I spoke to several persons of the Christian life, each one 
according to his state and as it was fit. 

2oth, Thursday. We had thought of riding a little further 
on, and so back to Albany; but my comrade was too sick, 
and had the chills and fever again. The weather, too, was 
windy and rainy. We concluded, therefore, to postpone 
it till the following day ; and in the meantime I accompanied 
Sanders to the before mentioned Adam's. While we were 
there, a certain Indian woman, or half-breed, that is, from 
an European and an Indian woman, came with a little boy, 
her child, who was dumb, or whose tongue had grown 
fast. It was about four years old; she had heard we were 
there, and came to ask whether we knew of any advice for 
her child, or whether we could not do a little something 
to cure it. We informed her we were not doctors or 
surgeons, but we gave her our opinion, just as we thought. 



1 This seems to be an effort to transmute the Indian name of Schenectady 
into a Dutch word, meaning the beautiful portion. 

2 See the note on a subsequent page in relation to the burning of Schenec- 
tady aud the massacre of the inhabitants by the French and Indians. 



302 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

SanderS told me Siside that she was a Christian, that i 
had left the Indians, and had been taught by tin: Christians 
and baptized; that she had made profession of the reformed 
religion, and was not of the unjust. Not contenting 
myself with this account, and observing something in her 
that pleased me, I asked her to relate to me herself how it 
had ffone with her from the first of her coming to Christ- 
endom, both outwardly and inwardly. Looking at me she 
said, " How glad am I that I am so fortunate; that God 
should permit me to behold such Christians, whom I have 
so long desired to see, and to whom I may speak from the 
bottom of my heart without fear; and that there are such 
Christians in the world. How often have I asked myself, 
arc there no other Christians than those amongst whom 
we live, who are so godless and lead worse lives than the 
Indians, and yet have such a pure and holy religion ? Now 
I see God thinks of us, and has sent you from the other 
end of the world to speak to us." She had heard me give 
reasons to the others, and address them generally, before I 
made this request of her. I answered, that all who pro- 
fessed the Christian religion did not live as that religion 
required, that such were false professors, and not Christians, 
bearing the name onlv, but den vino- the truth. She had 
said all this with a tender and affectionate heart, and with 
many tears, but tears which you felt proceeded from the 
heart, and from love towards God. I was surprised to find 
so far in the woods, and among Indians; but why say 
among Indians? among Christians ten times worse than 
Indians, a person who should address me with such affection 
and love of God ; but I answered and comforted her. She 
then related to me, from the beginning, her case, that 
is, how she had embraced Christianity. She was born oi 
a Christian father and an Indian mother, of the Mohawk 
tribes. Her mother remained in the country, and lived 
among the Mohawks, and she lived' with her, the same as 



A DESIRE TO BE A CHRISTIAN. oao 

'J V (J 

Indians live tbgefher. Her mother would never listen to 
any thing about the Christians, or it was against her heart, 
from an inward, unfounded hate. She lived then with 
her mother and brothers and sisters; but sometimes she 
went with her mother among the Christians to trade and 
make purchases, or the Christians came among them, and 
thus it was that some Christians took a fancy to the girl, 
discovering in her more resemblance to the Christians 
than the Indians, but understand, more like the Dutch, 
and that she was not so wild as the other children. They, 
therefore, wished to take the girl and bring her up, which 
the mother would not hear to, and as this request was 
made repeatedly, she said she would rather kill her. The 
little daughter herself had no disposition at first to go; 
and the mother did nothing more with the daughter, than 
express continually her detestation and abhorrence of the 
Christians. This happened several times, when the 
daughter bes;an to mistrust the Christians were not such 
as the mother told her ; the more so, because she never went 
anions them without beino- well treated, and obtaining 
something or other. She, therefore, began to hearken to 
them; but particularly she felt a great inclination and 
love in her heart towards those Christians who spoke to her 
about God, and of Christ Jesus and the Christian religion. 
Her mother observed it, and began to hate her and nut 
treat her as well as she had done before. Her brothers 
and sisters despised and cursed her, threw stones at her, 
and did her all the wrong they could; but the more they 
abused and maltreated her, the more she felt something 
growing in her that attracted and impelled her towards the 
Christians and their doctrine, until her mother and the 
others could endure her no longer: while she, feeling her 
love of the Christians, and especially of their religion, 
which she called their doctrine, to increase more and more, 
she could no longer live with the Indians. They ceased 



304 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

not seeMng to wrong her, and compelled hor to leavo 
them, as she did, and went to those who had so Ion- 
solicited her. They gave her the name of JEltie or 111 /,',• 
(Alice). She lived a long time with a woman, with 
whom we conversed afterwards, who taught her to read 
and write, and do various handiwork, in which she advanced 
so greatly that everybody was astonished. She had espe- 
cially a great desire to learn to read, and applied herself to 
that end day and night, and asked others, who were near 
her, to the vexation and annoyance of the other maids, who 
lived with her, who could sometimes with difficulty keep 
her back. But that did not restrain her; she felt such au 
eagerness and desire to learn that she could not he with- 
held, particularly when she began to understand the Dutch 
language, and what was expressed in the Xew Testament, 
where her whole heart was. In a short time, therefore, 
she understood more about it than the other girls with 
whom she conversed, and who had first instructed her, 
and, particularly, was sensible in her heart of its truth. 
She had lived with different people, and had very much 
improved; she spoke of it with heart-felt delight. Finally, 
she made her profession, and was baptized. Since that 
time, she said, the love she felt in her heart had not di- 
minished, but had increased, and she sighed to live near 
Christians, who were good and faithful, and lived up to 
their religion. Therefore it was, that she was so glad to 
see us, and that God, who had so loved her before, still so 
loved her as to permit her to see and speak to us, " me" she 
said, " who have been such a heathen." I told her that 
God had showed her still more love, as she well knew. 
She believed it, she said, melting into tears, but she could 
not express her heart " Might I only live with such 
people, how would my heart do good.' 7 "Blessed are 
they who hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they 
shall be satisfied,''' I repeated to her, and further expressed 



WOUTER, A 310IIAWK CONVERT. 3^5 

v. L:it was roocssary. "How many times," said she, " have 
I grieved over these Christians, not daring to speak out 
my heart to any one, for when I would sometimes rebuke 
them a little for their evil lives, drunkenness, and foul and 
godless language, they would immediately say : '"Well, 
how is this, there is a sow converted. Run, hoys, to the 
brewer's, and bring some swill for a converted sow,' words 
which went through my heart, made me sorrowful and 
closed my mouth. 13ut I see that God still thinks of me 
and loves me, now that he causes me to see and converse 
with such people as you." We told her she must so much, 
the more receive with love and affection what we said to 
her, out of regard to God and her soul. " Oh ! " said she, 
" what you have told me is as dear to me as my heart," 
and she spoke with such feeling and tenderness, such 
depth of love, that I cannot describe it, and it affected me. 
Yes, she expressed to me more reality of the truth of 
Christianity, through the emotions of her heart, although in 
language according to the genius of the person, which, 
nevertheless, was nothing but loving — more, I said, than any 
one, whether minister or other person, in all Xew Xether- 
land. She had a brother who was also a half-breed, who 
had made profession of Christianity, and had been bap- 
tized, and who was not by far as good as she, but, on the 
contrary, very wieked ; though, I believe, he has been 
better, and has been corrupted by the conversation of 
impious Hollanders; for this place is a godless one, being 
without a minister, and having only a homily (jpostyl) read 
on Sundays. He was married, and so was she. She has 
some children; ' her husband is not as good as she is, 
though he is not one of the worst; she sets a good example 
before him, and knows how to direct him. 

She has a nephew, a full blooded Mohawk, named 
Waiter (Walter). The Lord has also touched him, through 
her instrumentality. "Wouter speaks no Dutch, or very 
39 






306 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

little, lie has abandoned nil the Indians, and bis Jiidi i 

friends and relations, and lives with Lis uncle, the brotln 
* of llletie. lie has betaken himself entirely to the Christ- 
ians and dresses like them. He has suffered much from 
the other Indians and his friends. lie has such a love and 
comprehension of God, such reverence and humility towards 
him and what is godly, that it is a joy to hear him speak. 
His thoughts are occupied, night and clay with God and 
Jesus Christ, wondering about God and his mercy, that he 
should cause him to know him, to comprehend him and to 
serve him. He is endeavoring to learn the Dutch language, 
so as to be instructed in Christianity, and to be among 
good Christian? who live like Christians. That was all 
his desire, thinking all the time about it, speaking always 
with llletie about it, who assisted and instructed him a.-: 
much as she could, and always with love, with which God 
much blessed her. His uncle, with whom he lived, was 
covetous, and kept him only because he was profitable 
to him in hunting beaver. He, therefore, would hardly 
speak a word of Dutch to him, in order that he might 
not be able to leave him too soon, and go among the 
Christians and under Christianity. He sent him to the 
woods and among the Indians, for the sake of the devilish 
profit of the world — these are the words of Robert 
Sanders, and llletie said not much less; yet this poor 
creature has, iievertheless, such a great inclination and 
lomrini>; after Christianity. 

CD O «/ 

Besides this inward desire, propensity and feeling, God, 
the Lord, has given him outward proofs of his love and 
protection, and among other instances I will relate these 
two which I well remember. It happened once that his 
uncle went out a shooting with him in the woods, when 
the nncle began to sneer at him, saying, that he, a mere 
stupid Indian, could not shoot, but a Christian was adilfeivnt 
character and was expert and handy : that he, "Woutcr, 



THE INDIAN HUNTER'S PRAYER. oq- 

would not shoot any thing that day, hut he himself would 
h.tvo a good hunt. To which Wbuter replied; "it is well, 

T cannot help it: I will have whatever God sends me." 
Upon this they separated from each other in the woods, 
and each went where lie thought best. " Now when I was 
tired out," said Woater, for we heard it from him himself, 
as well as from his aunt, " and had traveled and hunted 
the whole day without finding any game, with the evening 
approaching, grieved that I had shot nothing and troubled 
at the reproach of my uncle, my heart looked up to God ; 
I fell upon my knees and prayed to him, that although I 
was no Christian (he meant baptized), I loved God, and 
onlv longed to learn the lanoiia^e in order to he instructed 
in Christianity, and would receive it with my whole heart; 
that God would be pleased to send to me a wild animal to 
shoot, so that the slur, which my uncle had thrown upon 
me, might be wiped off." While thus down on his knees, 
with his hat hanging upon a bough which was bent down, 1 
his prayer not finished, there comes and stands before him 
a very young deer, not twenty paces off: it comes softly 
up to him ; his gun rests along side of him loaded ; he 
takes aim, shoots, and hits the deer in the breast, and the 
creature drops before him on its two fore feet and there 
remains. TVithout going to the deer, he thanks God upon 
his knees that he had heard his prayer and had turned 
back the reproach. ' ; Oh," said he, " now do I know 
there is a God, who is in the woods also, and hears, loves 
and thinks of me there." He comes to the deer, which 
is a young buck two or three years old, as fat and beau- 
tiful as he had ever seen in his life, and takes it upon his 
shoulders and goes with joy to his uncle, whom he found, 



'Methinks he was moved by seeing this bended branch, to bend himself 
before God, and, therefore, hung his hat upon it; though I dare not so 
affirm certainly. — Note of the journalist. 



30S THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

and asked whore was his good hunt and the game he had 
shot. His ancle was angry and spoke angrily, saying he hail 
been going the whole day, tired and weary, without seeiii« 
or shooting any thing, and had come there to look after 
chestnuts. " That is well, that is good,"' said Wouter, 
" reproach the Indians no more for not being good shooters. 
Look at what God lias given me upon my prayer:" for 
he was very glad at what had occurred. The uncle stood 
and looked, and knew not what to say, being ashamed at 
what he heard and saw, and of himself. Wouter said 
further; "I know there has been no wild animal round 
about here, for I have explored the whole place, far and 
near, without being able to discover any ; and now in so 
short a time this one presented itself before me. and it is, 
therefore, certain that God placed it there or caused it to 
come there. I have no doubt of it." Although the uncle 
was ashamed, he was not much affected by the circum- 
stance, and still less humiliated or improved. But Elletie 
had taken it strongly to heart, and when they both told it to 
us, we were affected by it ourselves, and saw God in it more 
than he had done. 

Another occasion was during the last harvest, in the 
year 1679, while lie was out in the woods hunting beavers. 
He had then had a successful time and had killed some 
beavers, the flesh of which he used for food, and had 
nothing else to eat. The flesh of the beaver, although we 
never relished it, is esteemed by others a great delicacy. 
Nevertheless, as we have been told by those who are well 
acquainted with it, it is a kind of food with which they 
soon become satiated. He also became tired of it ; and 
not having any thing else became sad. lie felt his heart 
boil — this is his own expression, and fell down upon his 
knees and prayed that God who had heard him before, 
might be pleased now again to hear him and give him 
other food, not so mueh to satisfy him, as to show that he 






A FIGURATIVE BUSH. 300 

was Cod and loved him — a God whom the -Indians did 
not know, but for whom he felt he hud a greater hunger 
than- his hunger for outward food, or for what the Indiana 
usually were satisfied with, which is beaver and beaver 
meat, that is, to hunt successfully and trade the skins, 
which is all they go out hunting for; but that he felt some- 
thing else, a hunger which could not be satisfied with this 
food and such like ; that he felt more hunger after other 
food than what the Indians satisfied themselves with; and 
sought to be a Christian, and no longer to be an Indian. 

"While in the midst of his prayer, there stood a fine 
deer before him, which he aimed at and felled at one 
shot. He quickly loaded his gun again, and had scarcely 
done so, when he saw close to him a young buffalo. 1 He 
levelled his gun and brought it down ; but on running up 
to it, he came to himself his heart was disturbed, and he 
became anxious and ashamed in considering his eovetous- 
ness; that he had not thanked God for the first small 
animal, so that he could go no further from joy and fear. 
He fell upon his knees before God, in great humility, 
shame, and reverence, confessing his fault and his want of 
gratitude, praying God to forgive him, and thanking him 
now for both : saving that through his unthankfulness for the 
first one, he was not worthy to have the second and larger one. 

This may be believed as the true meaning and almost 
the very words of the Indian, for they were repeated to us 
from him in his presence, Illetie, who first told us, inter- 
preting after him in the presence of five or six persons who 
were well versed in the Mohawk language, and bore 
testimony that he said what she interpreted, and that it 
was not enlarged. 



1 There is nothing in this statement inconsistent with the fact that the 
buffalo is not now to be found in this state. Vanderdonk says, buffaloes 
■were plenty when he wrote, twenty-five years before the date in the text, 
and it is not probable they had all disappeared in that brief interval. 



310 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

Thus confirming to long after something wliich lie did 
not hay©, and being yet in the woods returning home, 
he came to a bush which was growing in the shape 
of a man's hand, and which he stopped to look at and 
speculate upon. lie wondered at it, and his heart was 
disturbed and began to boil. He fell down upon his knees 
by the bush striking his hands into it, and prayed : Oh 
God ! you cause to come before me a sign or image of 
what I want and for which I hunger and Ion 2;. It is true 
I have two hands with which I hunt and shoot and do 
other things, but I feel I still require a hand to help me, 
more serviceable than those I have and use, and stronger 
and wiser than mine. I am in want of a third hand. It 
is true I have forsaken the Indians and have come among 
Christians, but this cannot help me unless a third power 
make me a true Christian, and enable me to learn the , 
language, that I may inquire, read and enter into the 
grounds of Christianity." This he did with great tender- 
ness and love; and being so much affected, he cut off 
the bush and took it with him in remembrance of his feel- 
ings and the outpouring of his heart to God, more than for 
the rarity of the figure in which it had grown. This stick 
or bush we have seen ourselves and had in our hands. He 
presented it to Kobert Sanders, who carried it to Albany. 

His aunt, Illetie, had taught him as well as she could, 
how he must pray, which she recommended to him to do 
everv time he returned home, morning or evening, or on 
any other occasion which might happen to him, which he 
always did with concern and anxiety of heart. He always 
rejoiced at the proofs of God's [care] over him, and was 
sorry that he could not improve them, hoping and believ- 
ing that God would vet <nve him what he still wanted 
and hungered after. I asked Illetie, who first told me all 
this, why they did not take him to some place, where he 
could learn the Language, and some handiwork, with read- 






WOUTER TO GO TO WIEWERD. 311 

i»u: and writing and the like, and especially where he might 
be brought to the knowledge and practice of Christianity. 
She said there were two impediments, first his uncle, whom 
we have mentioned, who 011I3* kept him as a kind of 
servant, such as the English have, for the sake of vile gain ; 
and, although he was free, and hound to nobody, would 
never speak a word of Dutch to him, so that he might not 
lose him. The other difficulty was, that as he was of age, 
24 or 26 years old, or thereabouts, no one would receive 
him for his board and clothing, fearful he would not learn 
the one or other handiwork, and would, therefore, be a loss 
to them. Whereupon I said if he would go with us we 
would give him board, and clothing for all his life, and he 
should never be our servant or slave, and would be free. 
and clear of all obligation; and if God should give him 
further the grace he would be our brother and as free as 
we were. " Oh," said she, " how happy he would be if he 
should be so fortunate, and God so honored him, as I must 
shame myself for the honor and happiness he causes me in 
enabling me to speak with vou about these things." I 
spoke to her further what I thought would serve for her 
edification and consolation; and told her as my comrade 
was sick and not able to go out, and weather was too rainy, 
she must come to us in the evening, and bring AVoutcr 
with her, that we might sec him, and converse with him. 

I thereupon went home and told my comrade my adven- 
ture, who was rejoiced at it, and would expect her in the 
evening. Meanwhile he had become stronger. The parish 
reader [vbm'leser van dc plaets), who is the son of minister 
Schaets, came to visit my comrade, and said he had heard 
of us, and had been desirous to converse with us. lie was 
a little conceited, but my comrade having heard that he 
was the voortescr, gave him a good lesson, at which he was 
not badly content, and with which lie went away. 

"When evening came, so came Illetie with her husband, 



312 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

mid Wcmter, and Ad?£Qimtl kis wife, with two or three 
others besides. Wo conversed together through Illetie, 
who interpreted to him from us, and to us from him, and 
he himself repeated all that Illetie had told me, as before 
related. We spoke to him from the bottom of our hearts, 
and he to us from the bottom of his heart and out of love 
to us. We exhorted, encouraged and comforted him as 
much as he required, and his conditiou would permit, lie 
thanked us with tenderness, that God had vouchsafed to 
cause him to see and speak with true Christians, with 
people whom he had so longed for, and with whom he 
wished to spend his life. " What would you be willing to 
give to do so," my comrade asked. Oh, said he, all that I 
have in the world, and more if I had it, or it were in my 
power. We told him he must leave it to God's liberty, 
who would do what he pleased, would hear him, and re- 
lease him when his time should come. After several 
episodes, Ave inquired of him what was his greatest wish 
and desire, his greatest hunger and strongest longhm " 1 
know not justly what it is," he replied, " but I am like a 
person who has three knives or some other articles which 
are valuable, useful and necessary, but has lost the one he 
has most need of, or is the most serviceable and necessary, 
and without which the others are of little service. Thus I 
have forsaken my relatives, and all my friends, my nation 
and country, which is good, and that is one of the articles. 
Moreover, I have come among Christians, and "Dutch, and 
begun to know something of God, and that also is good, 
and is the second one. But I am wanting something 
more than these, and without which they are of no service 
to me, namely, a knowledge of the Dutch language, ability 
to enter into the grounds of Christianity, and become a 
good Christian. " We encouraged him, and assured him of 
the way of the Lord, that God would hear his prayer, and 
fulfill his desire, according to the words of the Lord Jesus: 



DEPARTURE FROM SCIIENECTADY. t 313 

4 - Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteous- 
ness, L'or they snaM be satisfied/' " Oh," said he to Illetie, 

" how 1 love people who speak so kindly and mildly, and 
know how to utter such sweet and beautiful comparisons. 
Oh, what love I have for them ! " 

After we had addressed him and her, earnestly and in 
love ; and also the bystanders, to their shame and convic- 
tion, for their godless lives, whereby they repelled the 
heathen and wronged such as begun to be drawn [to God] 
like these, and as having a terrible judgment to expect which 
they could not escape, Illetie, said, yes, there were many Mo- 
hawk Indians, who, if they were taught, as they seek to 
be, and had good examples set before them by the Chris- 
tians, by their lives, and were not so deceived and cheated 
by the Christians who ought to assist them, would listen ; 
but now they were repulsed, and the Jesuits who were 
among them, and whom Wouter had heard preach several 
times in his own language, corrupted them all. Having 
said all that was proper to them at this time, we invoked 
upon them the blessing of God. 

26th, Friday. "Wouter was early at our house, in order to 
assist in getting the horses ready. My comrade finding 
himself better, but still weak, we determined to leave, two 
of us on horseback and he in a wagon belonging at 
Albany, which we had the good fortune of meeting at 
Sehooneckten, and in which he could ride over a very com- 
fortable road. It had frozen quite hard during the night, 
but when the sun rose a little, it became warm enough, 
especially in the woods, where the wind, which was north- 
west, could not blow through. I went to take my leave of 
several persons with whom I had conversed, and also of 
Illetie, consoling and strengthening her once more and 
committing her to God and his grace, and she leaving us 
with tenderness and many tears. At a place where we 
were taking our leave, the uncle of Wouter had come, who 
40 



314 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

commenced saying in very good Dtrtch : " Well, gentle- 
men, I understand Wouter is going to Holland with you. 
We answered, we did not know it, nor had we thought of 
it, but nevertheless, our hearts were good and tender 

enough to help him, both body and soul, in whatever tb 
Lord had wrought in him, or should work in him, as far 

as we could, which we considered to be our duty, and uol 
only our duty, but the duty of all Christians. If he 
wished to go to Holland, we would not prevent him, 
because any person who is free, mav go there if he 
chooses; and if he wished to go with us in the same ship 
in which we should <±o> over, he was free and mmht act his 
mind; yes, if he wished to be in our company we would 
not be able to hinder him, and while he was free no one 
could prevent him, or ought to, but on the other hand 
should aid him ; especially as all who bore the. name of 
Christians ought to assist in bringing to Christ any one 
who hungered and thirsted after him as Wouter did. 
Well, he asked, without any feeling, what trade would you 
teach him. Whatever God wished, we answered. And it 
he should be taken by the Turks, he continued, who 
would be his security, and who would redeem him. Well, 
we asked, if we were taken by the Turks who would be 
our security and redeem us ? God gives no security and 
makes no agreement. "Whoever wishes to be a Christian 
must believe and trust in him, and follow him in faith, 
and so must you, and I, and every one, who wishes to be 
a Christian. Some hard words passed also between 
Robert Sanders and him, about something relating to him- 
self, namely, that Sanders had said the uncle only sought to 
keep Wouter, on account of the profit to him. As the 
time called us to depart, we took our leave and left him 
standing there abashed. Having mounted our horses and 
entered the wagon, we rode from there about ten o'clock, 
over a smooth sandy road, and arrived at half-past three at 



1 Charlevoi.v, corroborating Hie above description, dcscribesSchcncctudy 
as being in the form of a long square add entered by two gates. This was 
at the time of rhesorprfse and massacre of its 'inhabitants by- a party «>f 
French and lndiaiis in February, 1GU0. — KothztUe France, II, 45. Sixty- 



- 



SCHENECTADY. 3 j 5 

Albany, or Fort Orange, where Sanders's wife wag glad to - 
us, and where we were well received by his whole family, 

Tliis Scljio iic ch tended, is situated, as we have said, twenty- 
four miles west of Fort Albany, toward the country of the 
Mohawks, upon a good flat, high enough to be free from 
the overflowing of the water of the river, which sometimes 
overflows their cultivated lands which lie much lower. 
Their cultivated lands arc not what they call in that coun- 
try valleyeft, hut large flats, between the hills, on the mar- 
gin, or along the side-of the rivers, brooks or creeks, very 
flat and level, without a single tree or bush upon them, of 
a black sandy soil which is four and sometimes five or six 
feet deep, but sometimes less, which can hardly bo ex- 
hausted. They cultivate it year after year, without 
manure, for many years. It yields large crops of wheat, 
but not so good as that raised in the wood land around the 
city of iSew York and elsewhere, nor so productively, but 
it makes white flour. ' The wheat which comes from this 
place, the Ilysopus and some other places is a little blue. 
Much of the plant called dragon's blood, grows about here, 
and also yearly a kind of small lemon or citron, of which 
a single one grows upon a hush. This bush grows about 
five feet high, and the fruit cannot be distinguished from 
any other citron in form, color, taste or quality. It grows 
wild about the city of Xew York, but not well. 1 have 
not heard of its growing in any other places. 

The village proper of Schenectady, is a square, set oll'by 
palisades. There may be about thirty houses which are 
situated on the side of the Moiiawk river (JIaquas kit), a stream 
they cannot use for carrying goods up or down in yachts 
or boats. 1 There are no fish in it except trout, suntish 



310 



TITE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 



and other kinds peculiar to rivers, because the Cahoos 
stops the ascent of others, which is a gieat inconvenience 
for the menage and for bringing down the produce. 

As soon as we arrived in Albany we went to our skipper 
Mens HooghboQm, to inquire when he was going to the city. 
He said to-morrow, but lie said he would come and notify 
us of the time. We saw it would run on a much longer 
time, as it usually does in these parts. 

27th, Saturday. "We went to call upon a certain Madam 
Rentselaer, widow of thelleer Bentseiaer, son of the founder 



three of the inhabitant?, including Domino Tessemaker, were murdered on 
that occasion, in cold blood, while they were sleeping in their beds, and 
twenty-seven were carried into captivity. — CohlenJs Fire Nations, 110. 
Schenectady is said to be an Indian name, signifying in the Mohawk dia- 
lect, beyond the pine plains; it was also called Corlaer after one of the 
early settlers. From the circumstance that our journalists were in com- 
pany with Mr. Eobert Sanders, who took them to the most considerable 
persons of the place, we are inclined to believe that the resident named 
Adam, at whose house they metllletie and W outer, was Adam Vrooman, 
of whom we have the following account on the occasion of the massacre: 
" To some of the inhabitants this assault was not altogether unexpected, 
and they had for some time previously taken the necessary precautions to 
prevent surprise. Among those who made a successful defense, and kept 
the foe at bay was Adam Vrooman. Being w r ell supplied with ammuni- 
tion and trusting to the strength of his building, which was a sort of fort, 
he formed the desperate resolution to defend himself to the last extremity; 
and if it should prove to be his fate to perish in the flames of his own 
domicil, to sell his own life and that of his children as dearly as possible. 
His house was soon tilled with smoke; his wife, nearly suffocated with it, 
cautiously yet imprudently placed the door ajar. This, an alert Indian 
perceived, and firing throughUhe aperture killed her. In the meantime, 
one of his daughters escaped through the back hall door with his infant in 
her arms. They snatched the little innocent from her arms, and dashed 
out its brains ; and, in the confusion of the scene, the girl escaped. Their 
triumph here, was, however, of short duration. Mr. Vrooman succeeded 
in securely bolting the door, and preventing the intrusion of the enemy. 
On witnessing .Mr. Vrooman's courage, the enemy promised, if he would 
desist, to save his life, and not set lire to his building. This promise they 
fulfilled, but carried otf two of his sons in captivity." — Yates, in Dunlap** 
New York, I, 1TG-T. See ante, p. 301. 



MADAME VAX RENSSELAER. 317 

of the colfcfcy of Refrtscflaerswyck, comprising twelve miles 
square from Fort Orange, that is, twenty-four miles square 

in all. She is in possession of the place, and administers 
it as pair on esse, until one Richard Van Rentselaer, residing 

at Amsterdam, shall arrive in the country, whom she 
expected in the summer, when lie would assume the 
management of it himself. This lady was polite, quite well 
informed, and of good life and disposition. She had ex- 
perienced several proofs of the Lord. The breaking up of 
the ice had once carried away her mansion, and every 
thing connected with it, of which place she had made too 
much account. Also, in some visitations of her husband, 
death, and others before. In her last child-bed, she became 
lame or weak in both of her sides, so that she had to walk 
with two canes or crutches. In all these trials, she had 
borne herself well, and God u left not himself without 
witness" in her. She treated us kindly, and we eat here 
exceedingly good pike, perch and other fish, which now 
began to come and be caught in great numbers. We had 
several conversations with her about the truth, and prac- 
tical religion, mutually satisfactory. We went to look at 
several of her mills at work, which she had there on an 
ever-running stream, grist-mills, saw-mills and others. 
One of the grist-mills can grind 120 schepels 1 of meal in 
twentv-four hours, that is five an hour. Returning to the 
house, we politely took our leave. Her residence is about 
a quarter of an hour from Albany up the river. 

23th, Sunday. We went to church in the morning, and 
heard Domine Schaats preach, who, although lie is a poor, 
old, ignorant person, and, besides is not of good life, yet 
had to give utterance to his passion, having for his text, 
"whatever is taken upon us," &c., at which many of his 
auditors, who knew us better, were not well pleased, and 



1 One hundred and forty-four bushels. 



318 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

in order to shove their condemnation of it, laughed and 
derided him, which we corrected. 

In the afternoon, we took a walk to an island upon the 
end of which there is a fort built, they say, by the Spa- 
niards. That a fort has been there is evident enough from 
the earth thrown up, but it is not to be supposed that the 
Spaniards came so far inland to build forts, when there arc- 
no monuments of them to be seen down on the sea coasts, 
where, however, they have been according to the traditions 
of the Indians. This spot is a short hour's. distance below 
Albany, on the west side of the river. 

29th, Monday. AVe should have ]eft to-day, but our skip- 
per said he could not obtain his passport. We called upon 
several persons, and among others, upon the woman who 
had brought up Illetie, the Indian woman, and had first 
taken her from the Indians, and to whom we have alluded 
before. This woman, although not of openly godless life, 
is more wise than devout, although her knowledge is not 
very extensive, and does not surpass that of the women of 
iSTew Xetherland. She is a truly worldly woman, proud 
and conceited, and sharp in trading with wild 1 people, as 
well as tame ones, or what shall I call them, not to give 
them the name of Christians, or if I do, it is only to dis- 
tinguish them from the others. This trading is not carried 
on without fraud, and she is not free from it, as 1 after- 
wards observed. She has a husband, which is her second 
one, who is a papist, I believe. He remains at home 
quietly, while she travels over the country to carry on the 
trading. In fine she is one of the Dutch female traders, 
who understand the business so well. If these be the 
persons who are to make Christians of the heathen, what 



i Wild is the term ttsetl in the Dutch language to denote an Indian, in 
the sunn' sense as we use the word savage. So understood, the play upon 
the words jfiMand taitie in the place in the text, is the same both in Eng- 
lish and Duteh. 



ALBANY OR THE FUYCK. 



319 



will the latter be 'r But Clod employs such means as 
pleases him to aceoraplisb his purposes, lie had given 
Illetie more grace than to her, we are very certain. 

"We were invited to the fort by the lleer commandant, 
who wished to see us, but left it to our convenience. We 
went there with Robert Sanders, who interpreted for us. 
This gentleman received us politely. He said he was 
pleased to receive us, and to learn how we liked the lands 
up above, and made a few such common observations. 
He seemed to be not unreasonable, and a reliable person. 
If he was not a Scotchman, he seemed, nevertheless, to be 
a good Englishman, and, as we thought, a presbytcrian. 
"We soon took a friendly leave, and returned home. 

We spoke seriously to Robert Sanders about his pride, 
arrogance, temper and passion, although according to the 
world's reputation he w T as not a bad man. His wife is 
more simple and a better person ; we spoke to her also, as 
well as to their children, especially to the oldest, named 
Elizabeth, who was tender-hearted and affectionate. He 
and all of them promised to reform, and we saw T with con- 
solation that they in some things commenced to do so. 

oOth., Tuesday. "We were ready to leave early, but it ran 
well on towards noon, when with a head wind, but a 
strong current down, we tacked over to Kinderhoec/c, lying 
on the east shore sixteen miles below Albany. 

Before we quit Albany, we must say a word about the 
place. It was formerly named the Fiiyck, by the Holland- 
ers, who first settled there on account of two rows of 
houses standing there, opposite 'to each, other, which being 
wide enough apart in the beginning, finally ran quite 
together like a fwjck* and, therefore, they gave it this name, 



1 The f'ltjrk is a hoop-net used for the purpose of catching fish, which 
gradually diminishes in circumference from the opening until it terminates 

in a small aperture through which the fish passes into a close net. The 
body of it is in shape somewhat like a truncated cone. 



320 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

which, although tlie place is built up, it still bears with 
many, especially the Dutch and Indians living about there. 

It is nearly square, and lies against a hill, with so vera! 
good streets, on which there may be about eighty or ninety 
houses. 1 Fort Orange, constructed by the Dutch, lies 
below on the bank of the river, and is set off with pali- 
sades, filled in with earth on the inside. It is now aban- 
doned by the English, who have built a similar one back 
of the town, high up on the declivity of the hill, from 
whence it can command the place. From the other side 
of this fort the inhabitants have brought a spring of water, 
under the fort, and under ground into the town, where 
they have in several places always fountains of clear, fresh, 
cool water. The town is surrounded by palisades, and 
has several gates corresponding with the streets. It has a 
Dutch reformed, and a Lutheran church. The Lutheran 
minister lives up here in the winter, and down in Few 
York in the summer. There is no English church, or 
place of meeting, to my knowledge. As this is the princi- 
pal trading post with the Indians, and as the privilege of 
trading is granted to certain merchants there, only as a 
special benefit, who know what every one must bring 
there, there are houses or lodges erected on both sides oi' 
the town, where the Indians, who come from the far interior 
to trade, live during the time they are there. This time of 
trading with the Indians is at its height in the months of 
June and July, and also in August, when it falls off; be- 



1 A ground plan of Albany as it was in 1G95, when the number of the 
houses had doubled, but when the arrangement of the streets, gates, 
churehes and fortifications were not apparently altered from what they 
were at this time, is preserved in Miller's Description of Xeic York, London, 
1843, Fig. 3. The new fort was built at the head of State street, which 
then extended to Lodge street. The name of State street at that time is 
not given, but Broadway is laid down and called ITandelaer's street, that 
is, Tratkr* >treet, and would seem from its shape then, and as it remains 
at the present day, to have been the original fuyck. 



; 

KINDERIIOOK. CLAVERACK. ooj 



cause it is ilion the Lost time for them to make their 
journeys there and back, as well as lor the Hollanders., on 
account of their harvests. 

AVe came to anchor at Kinclerhook, in order to take in 
some grain, which the female trader before mentioned 
[Illetie's mistress], had there to be carried down the river. 

May 1.57, Wednesday. We began early to load, but as it 
had to come from some distance in the country, and we 
had to wait, we stepped ashore to amuse ourselves. AVe 
came to a creek where near the river, lives the man whom 
they usually call Tl\e Child of Luxury \, (7 Kind van Weelde), 
because he formerly had been such an one, but who now 
was not far from being the Child of Poverty (7 Kind van 
Armoedc), for he was situated poorly enough . He had a saw- 
mill on the creek, on a water fall, which is a singular one, 
for it is true that all tails have something special, and so 
had this one, which was not less rare and pleasant than 
others. The water fell quite steep, in one body, but it 
came down in steps, with a broad rest sometimes between 
them. These steps were sixty feet or more high, and were 
formed out of a single rock, which is unusual. I reached 
this spot alone through the woods, and while I was sitting 
on the mill, my comrade came up with the Child of Luxury, 
who, after heyhacl shown us the mill and falls, took us 
down a little to the right of the mill, under a rock, on the 
margin of the creek, where we could behold how wonder- 
ful God is even in the most hidden parts of the earth; for 
we saw crystal lying in layers between the rocks, and when 
we rolled away a piece of the rock, there was, at least, on 
two sides of it, a crust or bark, about as thick as the breadth 
of a straw, of a sparkling or glassy substance, which looked 
like alabaster, and this crust was full of points or gems, 
which were truly gems of crystal, or like substance. They 
sparkled brightly, and were as clear as water, and so close 
together that vou could obtain hundreds of them from one 
41 



■ 



saw 

<re as 



322 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

piece of the crust. We broke some pieces oil', and brought 
tliem away with us as curiosities. It is justly to be sup. 
posed that other precious stones rest in the crevices of* tin 
rocks and mines as these do. I have seen this sort of crys- 
tal as large and pointed as the joint of a finger. I s: 
one, indeed, at the house of Robert Sanders as larg 
your list, though it was not clear, but white, like glassy 
alabaster. It had what they call a table point. Robert 
Sanders has much of this mountain crystal at his farm, 
about four miles from Albany, towards the Caboos, on the 
east side of the river, but we have not been there. 

On returning to the boat, we saw that the woman-trader 
had sent a quantity of bluish wheat on board, which the 
skipper would not receive, or rather mix with the other 
wheat; but when she came she had it done, in which her 
dishonesty appeared, for when the skipper arrived at New 
York, he could not deliver the wheat which was under hers. 
We set sail in the evening, and came to Claver rack 
(Clover-reach), sixteen miles further down where we also 
took in some Grain in the evening. 

2'./, Thursday. We were here laden full of grain, which 
had to be brought in four miles from the country. The boors 
who brought it in wagons, asked us to ride out with them 
to their places, which we did. We rode along a high ridge 
of blue rock on the right hand, the top of which was grown 
over. This stone is suitable for burning lime, as the people 
of the Ilysopus, from the same kind, burn the best. Large, 
clear fountains flow out of these cliffs or hills, the first real 
fountains, and only ones which we have met with in this 
country. We arrived at the places which consist of tine 
farms; the tillable land is like that of Schoon echten dcel, low, 
flat, and on the side of a creek, very delightful and pleasant 
to look upon, especially at the present time, when they 
were all green with the wheat coming up. The woodland 
also, is very good for [making] tillable land, and it was one 



GOING ASHORE. 303 

o'f the locations winch pleased me most, with its agreeable 
fountains. Gaming back to the shore, I made a sketch, as 
well as I could, of the Catskil mountains, which now 
showed themselves nakedly, which they did not do to us 
when we went up the river. They lie on the west side of 
the river, deep in the country, and I stood on the east side 
of it. In the evening, we obtained a still more distinct 
view of them. 

3d, Friday. "We took on board early the rest of our 
lading. Our tradress left us here in order to 2:0 back to 
Albany, and we received two other passengers in her stead, 
a young man of this place, named Dlrck (Diederic), to 
whom we made mention of our crystal, lie said they had 
at his place, a rock, in which there was a yellow, glittering 
substance like gold, as they firmly believed it was ; he did 
not know we were there, otherwise he would have pre- 
sented us with a specimen. We spoke to him, as he was a 
good hearted youth, several times of God and Christ, and 
of the Christian life, and each time he was much concerned. 
Truly we discover gradually more and more there is here 
a hunger and thirst after God, and no one to help them. 
They go everywhere wandering without a shepherd, ami 
know not where they shall turn. We also spoke to the 
skipper's daughter, a worldly child, who was not afiected 
by what we said. The Lord will, in his own time, gather 
together those who are of his elect. 

We sailed from there about nine o'clock, but after going 
eight or twelve miles, got aground in consequence of our 
heavy lading, where we were compelled to remain until 
four o'clock in the afternoon, waiting for high water. But 
what was unfortunate, we missed a fine, fair wind, which 
sprung up about, eleven o'clock. Meanwhile, the passen- 
gers went ashore- I walked a small distance into the 
country, and came to a fall of water, the basin of which was 
full of fish, two of which 1 caught with my hand-. They 



324 TIIE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

were young shad. I went immediately after'fhe otherpassc u- 
gers for assistance to cateh more, but when they came, thov 
made such an agitation of the water, that the fish all shot 
to the bottom, and remained there under the rocks. We 
therefore, could obtain no more; but if we had had a small 
schep-net (casting net), we could Lave caught them in great 
numbers, or if I had remained there quiet alone. But as 
it was, we had to abandon it. These fish come at high 
water from the jSTortli river into these little streams, where 
they find clear, fresh water, and weeds and herbs. They 
remain there eating aud sporting, and, in the meantime, at 
low water they are left in these holes or basins, and they 
are thus caught in great numbers in many of the streams by 
the Indians. 

The water having risen, and the wind- being favorable, 
we went on board, and as soon as we were afloat, got under 
sail. We proceeded rapidly ahead, and at sundown came 
to anchor before the Ilysojms, where we landed some pas- 
sengers who lived there. 

4th, Saturday* We went ashore early, and further inland 
to the village. We found Gerrit, the glass-maker there, 
with his sister. lie it was who desired to come up here in 
company with us, and he was now happy to see us. lie 
was en-gaged putting the glass in their new church, but lei t 
his work to go with us through the country, where he was 
better acquainted than we were. We found here exceed- 
ingly large flats, which are more than three hours ride in 
length, very level, with a black soil which yields grain 
abundantly. They lie like those at Schoon ecie and Claver 
rack, between the hills and along the creek, which some- 
times overflows all the land, and drowns and washes out 
much of the wheat. The place is square, 1 set off with 

1 A ground plan of Esopus or Kingston, showing the stockade with its 
gates, and the houses and fortifications as they are here described, may be 
found in Miller's Description of Xew York. 



ESOrUS OR KINGSTON. 305 

palisades, through which there are several gates; it consists 
of about fifty houses within the stockade. They were 
engaged in a severe war with the Indians daring the admin- 
istration of the Ileer Stuyvesant, which is, therefore, still 
(.•ailed the Hysopus war, partly because it was occasioned 
on account of the people of Hysopus, and because they 
have had to bear there the largest burden of it. In return- 
ing to the village, we observed a very large, clear fountain 
babbling up from under a rock. When we arrived there, 
we went to the house of the person who was the head of 
the village where some people had assembled, who, having 
no minister, and hearing my comrade was a theologian, 
requested him to preach for them the next day. But our 
skipper having finished what he had to do, we left there. 
Here and in Albany, they brew the heaviest beer we have 
tasted in all Hew Xctherland, and from wheat alone, 
because it is so abundant. The £rl ass-maker informed us 
til at Willem, the son of our old people, was going to fol- 
low the sea, and had left for Barbadoes: that Evert Day ch- 
ert, our late mate on our voyage out, who had gone as 
captain of a ketch to Barbadoes and Jamaica, had arrived ; 
that it was his ship we had seen coming in, when we were 
leaving the city, and that, perhaps, he would go with her 
to Holland. This place is about three-quarters of an hour 
inland. At the mouth of the creek on the shore of the 
river, there are some houses and a redoubt, together with 
a general storehouse, where the farmers brinix in their 
grain, in order that it may be conveniently shipped when 
the boats come up here, and wherein their goods are dis- 
charged from the boats, as otherwise there wOuld be too 
much delay in going back and forth. The woodland 
around the Hysopiis is not of much value, and is nothing 
but sand and rock. We had hardly reached the river, 
when a man came running up to us as hard as ho could, 
requesting to speak to us. We inquired of him what 



326 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

he desired, when ho complained of being sorely afflicted 
with an internal disease, and said he had heard we w.< I] 
understood medicine, and knew what to prescribe for him. 
We told him we were no doctors, and had only brought a 
few medicines with us for our own use, and most of thera 
we had given away. My comrade told him what he 
thought of his disease, and that we could not help him : 
whereupon, this poor wretched man went sorrowfully hack 
again, for he had spent much to he cured. We told him, 
however, we would send him a brackish powder which had 
done good in several cases, and which, if it pleased God to 
bless it, would perhaps help him. We went on hoard the 
boat, and. immediately got under sail, with a favorable but 
light wind, and by evening arrived at the entrance of the 
Highlands. 

&th, Sunday. The wind was ahead, but it was calm. 
When the tide began to fall, we tacked, or rather drifted 
along, but with little progress. We passed through the 
Highlands, however, and came to anchor by the time the 
ebb was spent. The weather was very rainy. 

6th, Monday. The wind was still contrary, and blew hard, 
therefore, we tacked, but in consequence of our being very 
heavily laden, we advanced but little. We anchored again 
when we went ashore at a place on the east side of the 
river, where there was a meadow on tire. We saw there a 
beautiful hard stone, as white and as clean as I have ever 
seen either here or in Europe, very fine for building ; and 
also many cedar trees of beautiful color and strong per- 
fume. Some Indians came alongside of us in their canoes, 
whom we called on board, and bought from them a very 
large striped bass, as large as a codfish in the Fatherland, 
for a loaf of stale bread worth about three stuivers, Holland 
money, and some other fish, for a little old salt meat. 

7 th, Tuesday* At daylight the tide served, but the wind 
was still ahead, though steady. We continued tacking 



RETURN AGAIN TO THE CITY. 327 

with considerable progress, and at ten o'clock, arrived 
before the city oi'Xew York, where we struck upon a rock. 
The water was falling, and we, therefore, immediately 
carried out an anchor, and wore the yacht off. A slight 
breeze soon afterward sprung up, and took us to the city. 
The Lord be praised and glorified for his grace. "We 
delivered our letters, and executed the orders which were 
committed to us. We inquired for Ephraim and de la 
Grange, hut they had not yet arrived. 



8//1, Wednesday. We had now nothing more to do, except 
to get ready with all speed to leave for Boston. As we 
had ordered some clothes, as we have said, to be made, we 
urged the tailor to finish them. We inquired for a boat 
going to Boston, and found there were two, but the time was 
up the next day for leaving, and we could not be ready so 
soon. We went first to visit Theunis, concerning whom 
there had been great talk during our absence. Even the 
minister ffiewenhuys&i dared to say that we had misled him; 
and he intended to visit Theunis, for he had been to our 
house. But Theunis anticipated him, and said he need not 
give himself so much trouble, as he could go to him, 
which he did. When the domine asked him about these 
things, he told the domine he must not have anv such 
opinion; that we had not misled him, but had led him 
straight ; that he was not able to compensate us for the good 
we had done him, since he was more edified, instructed, 
strengthened, and comforted by us, than he had been by 
any one in his whole life. The domine, therefore, had to 
be satisfied, and said, " 'tis well then, 'tis well then, I did 
not know that.'' Our old woman told us Theunis had been 
so sad and oppressed again, they did not know what to 
advise him. We, therefore, went* to see him, and found, 
him home, in as good a frame of mind as could be wished 
for one in such a condition. We asked him how he v'^t 
along, lie said very well ; that God was good to him, and 



328 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

thou related to us about his going to the minister, ami i : 
standing upon the eminence when we were sailing by, look- 
ing after us. We spoke to him affectionately, exhorting 

him to faithfulness ; that he must instruct his wife and 
children, and set them a good example. He informed us 
that his wife was as changed as day from night in many 
respects, and he hoped she would improve still more ; that 
he would instruct his children as well as he could, if it 
pleased the Lord they should he instructed, which com- 
forted us, and we returned home. 

The !N"orth river is the most navigated, and frequented 
river in these parts, because the country about it, is the 
most inhabited. Its larger population as compared with 
other places is owing for the most part, first to the fact 
that the capital was originally established here, and has 
ever since remained here, under whatever government has 
prevailed, although the South river was first discovered; 
secondly, because it is the most convenient place for the 
purposes of navigation, I mean the capital, and is the 
middle and centre of the whole of Xew Xetherland; and 
thirdly, because this place, and indeed the river, possess 
the most healthy and temperate climate. We will here- 
after speak of Xew York, and confine ourselves now to 
the Xorth river ; which was so called for two reasons, and 
justly so: the first of which is because, as regards the 
South river, it lies in a more northerly latitude, the South 
river lying in 39°, and the Xorth river in 40° 25', and 
being also thus distinguishable from the East river, which 
although, it is more easterly, as its name denotes, never- 
theless, lies in the same parallel. The other reason is 
because it runs up generally in a northerly direction, or 
between north by east and north northeast. It begins at 
the sea in a bay; for the sea coast, between the Xorth and 
South rivers, stretches northeast by north and northeast, 
and southwest and southwest by south; and from the 



THE RIVER PROPER. LOCAL NAMES. 



329 



Xortb river, along Long Island for the most part east and 
,. t. Lesides tl|ie same which is the most common and 

tiie best, it bears several others; such as Ilaurits river, 
because it was discovered, and taken possession of in the 
tiine of Prince Maurice; Montague, river because one de la 

Montague was one of the first and principal settlers, 1 and 
lastly, Manhattan* river, from the Manhattans island, or the 
Manhattan Indians, who lived hereabouts and on the 
island of Manhattans, now the city of Xew York. To be 
more exact, its beginning it seems to us, ought to be re- 
garded as at the city of Xew York, where the East river, 
as well as Kil adder kol separate from the Xorth 
river. The waters below the city are not commonly called 
the river, but the bay ; for although the river discharges 
itself into the sea at Sandy hook, or Rentselaer's hook, 
this discharge is not peculiarly its own, but also that of 
the East river, Achter kol, Slangenbergh bay, Ilacking- 
sack creek, Xorthwest creek, Elizabeth creek, "Woodbridge 
creek, Milstone river, Earitan river and Xevesinck creek, 
all of which deserve the name of rivers, and have nothing 
in common with the Xorth river, but with Long Island on 
one side and Staten Island on the other. The water below 
the Xarrows to Sandy hook, are usually called the Great 
bay; and those of the Xarrows and above them as far as 
the city, and up to, and beyond Sapocanlltkc, the Little bay. 



1 This origin, of the name of Montagne, as applied to the North river, is 
perhaps apocryphal; yet it is a singular fact, that it is the only derivation 
of the word given by any of the early Dutch writers, by whom alone it seems 
to have been used ; probably because it is obvious enough that it is in- 
tended to be Mountain river. De Lact, who first mentions it in his 
Kieuw Werldt, 1625, says the Xorth river is called by some Bio de Mon- 
taigne, which is partly Spanish and partly French, but he attempts no 
explanation of its meaning in any of the editions, Dutch, Latin or French, 
of his work : though in a subsequent page he calls the river the great rierure 
dc Montaines. On many of the earlier maps preceding the work of De 
Laet the region of this river is designated as Montana, a ridge of mountains, 
evidently on Spanish authority. Hence probably De Laet derived the 
name of Rio de Montaigne, 



. 



■ 



330 THE HUDSON xVND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

Although the Great bay is so tolled, it is not by any m< ai - 
as large as that of the {South river. Above Sapoeanikk< 
the river is about two miles wide, and is very uniformlj 
of the same width as far up as the Hysopus and higher, 
except in the Highlands, where there are here and there a 
narrow strait and greater depth. Above the Hysopus, 
which is 90 to 9G miles from the city, it still maintains a 
fair width, but with numerous islands, shoals and shal- 
lows, up to Fort Albany, where it is narrower. It is easily 
navigable to the Hysopus with large vessels, and thence to 
Fort Albany with smaller ones, although ketches and such 
craft can go up there and load. It carries the ordinary 
flood tide into the Highlands, but with much of a down 
flow of water, only up to them ; though with an extraordi- 
nary flow down and a dead neap-tide, the water becomes 
brackish near the city. With a slight flow of water down, 
and a spring tide, accompanied by a southeast storm, 
the flood tide is carried quite through the Highlands, and 
they said they had had a change in the water even as far 
up as the Hysopus. The land on both sides of the river is 
high and rocky, but higher in some places than others, as 
at the Highlands, eminently so called because they are 
higher than the others. In passing by the Hysopus you 
sec the Kaislril mountains, a little inland, which are the 
highest in this region, and extend from there, in the form 
of a crescent, into the country of the Maquaas. Although 
these mountains arc from 112 to 120 miles distant from 
the sea, there are skippers, who in clear weather have seen 
them while sailing along the coast, 1 All the reaches 
(racken), creeks (IdUcn), headlands (hoeken), and islands, 
hear the names which were accidentally o-iven them in the 
first instance : as Axtoxis neus (Anthony's nose) a headland 
and high hill in the Highlands, because it has a sharp 



x Tbe highest mountains in the CaNkill range is that called Round Top 
which is 3,804 feet abo\ e tide ^\ ater. Mbulton's Bid. o/3\ w York, 243, w '• 



BRANCHES OF THE RIVER. FISH. 331 

edge running up and down in the form of a mail's nose; 
Doxdekbhrcih (Thunder hill), because it thundered there 
frightfully at the time the first explorers of the river 
passed it ; Swadel rack (Swath reach), a short strait be- 
tween high hills, where in sailing through they encounter 
whirlwinds and squalls, and meet sometimes with accidents, 
which they usually call swadelen (swaths or mowing 
sweeps) ; Daxskamer (Dancing chamber), a spot where a 
party of men and women arrived in a yacht in early times, 
and being stopped by the tide w T ent ashore. Gay, and 
perhaps intoxicated, they began to jump and dance wdicu 
the Indians who had observed them, fell upon them in 
the height of their merriment, and drove them away. In 
remembrance of this circumstance the place has since been 
called the Dancing chamber. It is on the west side of the 
river, just through the Highlands. Boterberg (Butter 
hill), and IIoyberg (Hay hill), the one, because it is like 
the rolls of butter which the formers in Holland take to 
market, and the other, because it is like a haystack in Hol- 
land; 'tClaver rack (Clover reach), from three bare 
places which appear on the land; 1 and Kinder hoeck 
(Children's point), Xotex hoeck (Xut point), Potlepels 
Eylaxt (Potladle island), Ivock aciiie, &c. 2 

Above Fort Albany there are occasionally good flats on 
both sides of the river, at the foot of the hills, and also 
some line islands up to the Caltoos ; which is where the 
colony of Eentselaerwyck is planted. The river begin3 
above Fort Albany to divide itself, first by islands, and 
then by the main land, into two arms or branches, one of 
which turns somewhat towards the west and afterwards 



3 A fancied resemblance to trefoil or three leaved clover (daver). 

2 Coxsackie; the true orthography of tliis name is probably Koeksrackie 
(the Cork's little reach) to distinguish it from the Kocks rack (the Cook's 
reach) below the Highlands, near New Amsterdam. See Nic. J. Vissclicr'a 
map of ISew Netlierland (JVbw Belgii Tabula). 



332 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. . 

entirely west through Schooncchfa*, towards the eounti \ ■ . >i 
the M&quaas, and this branch, on which the Cahoos lies, i- 
called the Maqitoas kil. The other preserves the course oi 
the main river for the most part, or a little more easterly, 
and retains also the name of the Xorth river. It runs far 
up into the country, and has its source in a lake 120 to 
1G0 miles in length, out of which a stream probably 
empties into the St. Lawrence, a river of Canada ; for not 
only do the Indians, but the French also, pass over here in 
canoes from Canada. We, ourselves, have conversed with 
persons who have thus come over, some by water, and 
others by land and on foot. Of the Cahoos Ave have 
already spoken, in relating our journey there. Those falls 
are a great and wonderful work of God ; but, although 
they have so much water that the wind causes the spray 
and moisture to rise continually in the air, so that specta- 
tors, who stand two hundred feet or so, higher, are made- 
wet, especially when there are any gusts of wind driving 
from one side, as happened to us, yet we regard the hills 
on the Xorthwest kil [the Passaic], as more curious, though 
smaller, and having less water. Even on the North river, 
there are several small creeks and falls more rare to sec 
than the Calms. Beyond the Cahoos, the land is not so 
high above the water; and no fish pass from below, into 
the river above, in consequence of the interruption caused 
by the falls, nor can any boats be carried over the falls, up or 
down, which is a great inconvenience for those who live 
above the OUhoos, at Schenectady and other places, al- 
though when the country shall become more inhabited, 
and they shall have more occasion, they will take means 
to remedy this difficulty. Through the whole of that ex- 
tensive country they have no fish, except some small 
kinds peculiar to the streams, such as trout, sunfish, roach, 
pike, &e. ; and this is the case in all the creeks where there 
are foils. 



DOMINE VAX ZUREN. . 333 

The North river abounds with fish of all kinds, through- 
out from the sea to the falls, and in the branch which 
runs up to the lake. To. relate a single instance; some 
persons near Albany, caught in a single haul of a common 
seine, between five and six hundred fine shad, bass, perch 
and other fish, and there were, I believe, overlive hundred 
of one kind. It is not necessary for those who live in the 
city [of New York], and other places near the sea, to go to 
the sea to fish, but they can fish in the river and waters 
inside; or even to the Great bay, except such as live 
upon it, and they can by means of fuycks or seines not 
only obtain fish enough for their daily consumption, but 
also to salt, dry and smoke, for commerce, and to export 
by shiploads if they wish, all kinds of them, as the people 
of Boston do; but the people here have better land than 
they have there, where they, therefore, resort more for a 
living to the water. 

There is much beautiful quarry stone of all kinds on 
this river, well adapted for building purposes and for burn- 
ing lime ; and as fine cedar wood as we have seen any- 
where. Nevertheless, for suitableness of navigation, and 
for rich land on both sides, all the way up, the South 
river excels the North ; but what gives the North river 
the preference, and crowns it over the South river is, its 
salubrious climate; though above Christina creek, the 
South river is healthy, and it is every day becoming more 
so, alons; the whole of that river. On the North river, 
however, one has not to wait and die before this improve- 
ment may take place. 

As soon as we arrived in the city, we resolved upon 
going to Long Island, for the purpose of taking leave ac- 
cording to promise of the kind acquaintances we had 
living there ; and, therefore, on the 

9th, Thursday, we started about ten o'clock. In cross- 
ing the ferry we met Elbert [Elbcrtsen Stoothoff], the 



334 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

father-in-law of Jan Tbeunisscn, who came over with m 
and professed so much friendship towards us. t Elbert was 
going to the city and intended to return again soon; but 
we thought it would not be before evening, which would 
be too long to wait for him. We, therefore, proceeded ou 
to his house at the bay, where we arrived at noon. We 
found there Gerrit, the wheelwright; and Jan Theunissen 
soon came in from the fields ; but, as the father [in-law], 
was not home we had to tarry, although we had ^intended 
to go to Kojack. While we were sitting there, Domino Van 
Sucrcn 1 came up, to whom the boors called out as uncivilly 
and rudely as if he had been a boy. lie had a chatting 
time with all of them. As Jan Theunissen had said to us 
in the house, that if the domine only had a chance once 
to speak to us, Oh, how he would talk to us ! that we 
avoided him, and, therefore, could not be very good 
people ; now, as we were there, we sat near him, and the 
boors, and those with whom he was conversing. He spoke 
to us, hut not a word of that fell from him. Indeed, he 
sat prating and gossiping with the boors, who talked 
foully and otherwise, not only without giving them a 
single word of reproof, but even without speaking a word 
about God, or spiritual matters. It was all about houses, 
and cattle, and swine, and grain; and then he went away. 
Wth, Friday. The morning was rainy, and we could not 
go out early ; but the weather became better after break- 
fast, about nine o'clock, when we took our leave and left 
for Najaek, where we arrived at eleven o'clock at Jaques's. 
He had been sick with a laro;e ulcer on his neck, but that 
was now better. We were welcome. Among other mat- 



1 This was the Rev. Casparus Van Zurcn who succeeded "Rev. Theodorvts 
Polhemns in the charge of. the Dutch churches on Long Island in 1677. 
lie continued in this pastoral service until 1GS-5, when he received a call 
from his former church at Coutferak in Holland and returned to Father- 
land. Strong'* History of FlatbusJt, 79-80. 



A CONFESSION. SETTLING UP. 335 

ters, he told us that lie had heard the report about our 
Theunis, hut he did not know what to believe or think of 
it. We told him the whole truth about it, as he was 
capable of believing it, for be was, at the best, a Socmian. 
Theunis had formerly lived in that neighborhood and 
Jaques at that time missed a cow which was pasturing in the 
woods with the other cattle, as they always do. They 
made a thorough search after her, but could not find her. 
Although Jaques bad some suspicion of Theunis, he did 
not manifest it even to those who spoke to him about 
Theunis in connection with the subject. It happened that 
Theunis came to Jaques's house, when Jaques embraced 
the opportunity, and took him on the shore near his house. 
After talking of various matters, Jaques spoke to him 
about his cow, how she was carried off, and they never 
could hear any thing about her. He then began to push 
Theunis a little closer, who laughed at it heartily at first ; 
but by hard pressing and proofs which Jaques gradually 
brought forward, and especially by appeals to his con- 
science, whether he had not the fear of God before his 
eyes, Theunis acknowledged lie had done it, and, falling 
on his knees, prayed for forgiveness. He had stolen the 
cow, and killed her. Jaques, who is one of the justices, 
said, I forgive you from the bottom of my heart, but I do 
this, only to cause you to reflect and desist from your 
wickedness, and to show you that you do not know or 
fear God, and that you may fear him more. Tv hereupon 
Theunis was much affected, and went away entirely sub- 
dued, while Jaques was rejoiced that he had had the op- 
portunity of relieving his mind about Theunis. Jaques, 
who had known him from his youth up, said he had been 
a very godless person, cursing and swearing, and, in a 
word, living in direct hostility to God. We told Jaques 
that better things were now to be expected from him, at 
which Jaques was pleased. 



336 TIIE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

We dined with Jaquefc; and his little son came and pre- 
sented us a humming bird lie had shot. Jaques impressed 
us very much with his sincerity and cordiality in everything 

we Lad to do with him, or wherein he could be of any 
service to us. "We left with him the little hook which we 
had lent to him, and which he said he had found much 
pleasure in reading, Les Pensees de 31. Pascal. We took 
our leave of him, and went directly through the fields to 
Gonancs, where we arrived at two o'clock. Simon and 
his wife were out upon some newly cleared land planting 
watermelons; for water melons must always have new 
ground, or the worms will destroy them. They went into 
the house with us. They also spoke about Theunis, and 
we disabused them of several things. They showed us 
some pieces of ambergris, which their brother had brought 
from the Caribbean islands, and which we thought was 
good. We said to them what Ave deemed proper for them, 
and took our leave, reaching the city in good time. 

De la Grange and his wife, arrived this evening from 
the South river by land, leaving their nephew behind, who 
had made arrangements to come over with Ephraim in 
eight days. Meanwhile, we made inquiries about going to 
Boston, and they informed us that a vessel had sailed during 
our absence, but we were not ready, and there would be 
another one going in eight or ten days. 

11///, Saturday. We finished with our tailor, and paid 
him 77 guilders in zeewan, that is 25 guilders and 8 
stuivers in Holland money [ten dollars and sixteen cents]. 

13//'., Monday. We settled with our old hosts and paid 
them. We continued our inquiries for an opportunity to 
leave, but without success. 

15'/', Wednesday. As we were crossing the street, the 
lord governor passing bv. saw us and called to us. We 
went to him, and he asked us what we thought of the 
lands around Albany. We answered, they- were very 



RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES. 337 

good, but limited, being ftats here and there, and that 
the woodland, in particular, wa& not worth much. But, 
lie said, you have not been to Wappings kiL We replied, 
that we had not. That is, he rejoined, a beautiful. place, 
about three-quarters of an hour inland, on a fine creek 
which you can navigate with yachts, and it lies just through 
the Highlands, directly opposite the Dans kamer. And with 
that he left us. 

16th, TJmrsday. As there was still a portion of our small 
stock of goods remaining we traded it with de la Grange, 
who expected his boat from the South river with, peltries 
and other articles, with which lie would pay us. 

17th, Aridity. The boat which they had said would sail 
to-morrow, ivas posted to sail next Wednesday ; but we 
think it will be postponed still longer. 

18//?, Saturday. We prepared our letters for patria. 

19$, Sunday. A ship arrived from the Barbadoes. One 
had also arrived last week from London, which had been 
six weeks and three days on the voyage; but we did not 
receive any letters, nor did de la Grange, and we could 
learn nothing certain. 

Meanwhile we conversed with several persons who 
came to visit us, among others with a woman who had 
undergone several years ago, some remarkable experiences ; 
of a light shining upon her while she was reading in the 
ZSew Testament about the sufferings of the Lord Jesus, 
which frightened her very much. It did not continue 
long but soon passed oil'; yet it left, nevertheless, such a 
joy and testimony in her heart as she could not describe. 
She kept it to herself, without making it known to anyone 
except only one woman. Some } r ears afterwards, while 
lying abed in the morning;, she heard a voice which said 
to her, she must make this glory known, which she did do 
to Domino Xieuwenhoise, who told her he did not know 
what to say. She had also mentioned it to others, and to 
43 



338 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

one man who played the part of a wise man, but who was 
not a gQOcl man. lie said to her, "you must nol go any 
more to church, for you are wise enough, and will become 
still wiser. You must not go to the Lord's Supper, for 
the Lord has said, c do that until I come,' " and many 
other such things, in order to frighten the poor woman. 
lie once came to her house and asked her very harshly 
and. roughly, why she continued to do so, and. in whose 
hands she would rather fall, into the hands of God, or the 
hands of men ? She said, poor woman, in the words of 
David, " Bather in God's hands." " And I not," said he ; 
" I would rather fall in the hands of men," and then wont 
away. This has so sorely disturbed this poor woman, 
that for a long time, she has not known what to do ; for 
not to go to church, and to leave the Lord's Supper, she 
could not in her heart consent. "We told her that as re- 
gards what had happened to her, many things had occurred 
to us, and further, what was serviceable therein, without, 
however, condemning them in her; hut, that the person 
who had so spoken to her was a false teacher, and she 
must he cautious of him; that for herself in all these and 
the like matters, she must seek for true grace, for a new 
heart and power unto true repentance of life, and for true 
humility of soul and renunciation of herself and the world. 
And, thereupon, she left. Her name was Mark. She was 
a Frenchwoman; and her husband, a Frenchman, who had 
also been to us twice. He was the son of Pierre Jardinicr 
of whom we have before spoken. He had a book with the 
title of Le Grand Heraut, &c., which he highly esteemed; 
but he was a real reformed, of France, as they said. The 
other person, who played the wise man, was also a French- 
man. His name was Nicolas <Je hi Pleyne, a relation of hers 
and professed to be of the reformed. He had not, for a 
long time, been to the Lord's Supper, but had now gone to 
it airain. He was a tobacco twister bv trade. 



AN IMPORTANT PROMISE. 309 

We wrote tip the river to Robert Sanders, of Albany, 
arid to the poor sick man at the Hysopus i sending him a 

romdorlum by Meus Iloogboom. We also went to see the 
Boston skipper, but he had not obtained any freight. 

22th, Wednesday. Mr. Beindernian arrived over land 
from the South river, leaving Ephraim still there. He 
started the same day that de la Grange left there, but was 
not able to overtake him. He had been all this time on 
the road, and had had a difficult journey, in consequence 
of there being so much water upon the land. 

23c/, Thursday. We went again to inquire after our boat, 
and found that the time was changed for the voyage, which 
made it a great inconvenience to us to be here so Ions:, 
without being able to accomplish any thing. But some 
other Boston vessels had arrived, which, they said, would 
return the first opportunity. 

24^/?, Friday. Ephraim arrived from the South river at 
noon to-day, with his wife, and her sister's mother, and 



other company, over land. 



25M, Saturday. We went this forenoon to welcome him. 
He was still very much attached to us, and so was his wife, 
and both were persuaded' aud touched with the love which 
we had shown them, and the wife particularly, for the 
favor I had granted her, in sending her the translation of 
the Verhetfinye des Gesks, in reading which, she had ex- 
perienced great enjoyment, and had been sometimes 
tenderly affected. She thanked us for the little parcel of 
braided goods, we had sent her, which had been very 
agreeable to her. He promised, moreover, if it should please 
God to call us again into this country to live and to esta- 
blish his beloved church, we need not be at a loss to find a 
place ; that the land which belonged to him, namely, Bohe- 
mia in Maryland, where his father lived, and of which we 
have before spoken, should with his consent, be applied to 
no other purpose: that it should never go into English 



340 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

hands, hoping that God would give him this grace. He 
had brought with him a piece of speruaacoti, a portion of 
which he presented to us. Tie told us of the disposition of 
the heart of the TIeer Jan Moll, towards us, who showed 
us so much friendship, as we have before related, and will 
show us all possible kindness in the future ; that he had 
taken well to heart what we had commended to him, and 
had even reformed several matters in his household, and 
otherwise; and how it grieved him that Domine Tesse- 
makcr had not grace or ability enough to accomplish any 
thing? serious in the congregation there, of which he was 
the elder, as well as president of the king's court. His 
wife was so far gone in consumption, that they saw no 
hope of her recovery. 

26th, Sunday. Domine Xieweuhuyse being sick, there 
was no preaching yet to-day. 

27 thy Monday. We went to call upon Ephraim again, in 
order to speak to him particularly, but did not succeed in 
consequence of his being visited so much, the more so 
because his wife's sister was soon to be married. 

28th, Tuesday. The supercargo of the last arrived Boston 
vessel, named Padcchal, was at M. van Cliefs, who spoke to 
him about our wishes, and he promised to give us every at- 
tention and accommodation, and that lie would leave in 
the coming week. This inspired us with new hope of 
getting away filially after so much delay. 

29//i, Wednesday. The before mentioned Boston trader 
came to speak with us himself, at the house of M. van 
Cleif. We talked with him, and he promised us every 
thing fair. The fare from ISTew York to Boston is twenty 
shillings, in English money for each person, which with 
the loss of exchange, is a pound sterling in the money of 
Old England, which certainly is dear enough. 

30///, Thursday. It was now Ascension day, according to 
the old style, a day greatly observed by the English. It 



THE BURNT MILL. THE WALEBOCHT. ^Al 

r< minded us of the clay we left home on our travel?, which 
was .Ascension day, old style. We wrote to-day to Robert 
Zanders at Albany, in order, as we were so long in New 

York contrary to our intentions, lie might regulate him- 
self in the matter of our poor "Wouter, the Indian, who, 
according to our "mutual understanding, was to go to 
Boston by land, with an address from Mr. Robert Sanders, 
to one John JPisgeon, merchant, of that city, so that we 
might find him, or he us, in order to go to Europe with 
us, which he so earnestly desired, and we endeavored with 
our whole heart to effect; and as this could not well be 
done by the way of York, on account of the governor and 
other hindrances, we had chosen that way, as it seemed to 
us the best. 

M. dc la Grange came with his wife to invite me to 
accompany them in their boat to the Wale bocht, a place' 
situated on Long Island, almost an hour's distance below 
the city, directly opposite Correlaers hoeck, from whence I 
had several times observed the place, which appeared to 
me very pleasant, although I had never been there. He 
had an old aunt and other friends living there. We set 
off accordingly in the boat, but the strong flood tide 
carried us beyond the bocht (bay), ,to a place called the 
Burnt Mill ( Verbrande Meulen), where we could let the 
tide run out. Meanwhile, we fished a little, but we camrlit 
nothing 1 except a small codfish. From there we landed on 
the Mahatans, a little north of the Burnt mill, on a beauti- 
ful farm, having two fine ponds of water before the door, 
where a mill was standing. These ponds were full of sun- 
fish, and other fish, some of which we caught. The ilood 
having run out at noon, we left there and arrived about 
two o'clock at the Wale bocht .This is a bay tolerably 
wide where the water rises and falls much, and at low 
water, is very shallow and much of it dry. Inside of the 
easterly point there was a ship aground, which had struck 



342 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

on the reef of rocks which put out from Corlaer's hook 
towards this bay, and had floated over here and sunk. >!.. 
was a French privateer, which had taken some rich Duteli 
prizes in the hay of Campcachy and was going through 
here to Xew England, in order to dispose of the goods 
which would not bring money enough in New York. 
There were many goods still in the sunken ship, and they 
have tried several times to raise her, but to no purpose. 
We went ashore here, and observed several kinds of 
fish, which I had not seen before in this country, such as 
flounders, plaice, sole, &c. The aunt of de la Grange, is 
ail old "Walloon from Valenciennes, seventy-four years old. 
She is worldly-minded, living with her whole heart, as 
well as body, among her progeny, which now number 145, 
and will soon reach 150. Nevertheless, she lived alone by 
herself, a little apart from the others, having her little 
garden, and other conveniences, with which she helped 
herself. 1 The ebb tide left our boat aground, and we were 
compelled to wait for the flood to set her afloat. Dc la 
Grange having to train next week with all the rest of 
the people, at Xew York, bespoke here a man to go as his 
substitute. The flood tide having made, we arrived home 
by evening. 

3l$t, Friday. We sold to the wife of Evert, the late male 
of our ship, a small looking-glass, a steel thimble, a pound 



1 This woman, in some respects an historical personage, was Catalina 
Trico, one of five of her sex, who came over in 1023, in the first ship sent 
out to "STew Nctherland by the West India Company. She married Joris 
Jansen de Rapalje, by "whom she had ten children. She went first to live 
at Fort Orange, where she resided three years, and where her first child, 
Sarah, u the first horn Christian daughter in New Netherland/ 1 was born, 
on thelkh of .June. 1G25. She afterwards settled at the Waleboght, where 
she died September 11^ 1G89, aged 84 years. Her depositions made the 
year before her death, to he found in the Documentary History ofJSt > r York, 
III, 31-2 (4to, edition) 49-51, (Svo, edition), establish the time of ber 
arrival in this country, and her first residence. 



PETEH BAYARD. 343 

and a half of white darning yarn, and a half a pound of 

brown thread, for which she gave us a piece of eight. 

June 1st, Saturday. Nothing transpired to-day, except 
several persons came to converse with us, to each of whom 
we spoke according to his state. 

2d y Sunday. There was no preaching in consequence of 
Domine Xiewenhuise's continued sickness. Ephraim and 
his wife, among others, called upon us, and we had several 
conversations with them, and satisfied them in regard to 
our departure. 

3d, Monday. We went to enquire whether our voyage 
would take place, as they said, on Wednesday. They 
now fixed the last of the week, which did not please us 
a great deal, because there was so much fine weather pass- 
ing away without our being able to do any thing ; and 
also because we discovered we could depend as little upon 
the word of the people of 2$ew England, as of others, 
although they wished to pass for more upright persons, 
which we have not been able to perceive. 

4th, Tuesday. We were again visited by several persons, 
and also by Ephraim, and one Plctcr Bcyacrt, a deacon of 
the Dutch Church, a very good sort of person whom God, 
the Lord, began to touch and enlighten, both in regard to 
the destruction of the world in general and of himself in 
particular, lie had a good intention to perform, through 



It will be observed, that the record, which styles her daughter, Sarah, 
"the first-born Christian daughter in New Netherlands (Benson's Memoir 
in New Toil- Historical Collection, II, 94, second series), does not conflict 
with the statement of Jean Yigin (ante, p. 114), that he was the first male 
bom here of European parents; although, Judge Benson, and others, 
from this record only, call her the first born child. 

Some further particulars in regard to Catalina Trico, and her daughter 
Sarah, who married Hans Hansen Bergen, the ancestor of the Bergen 
family, in this country, may be found in the genealogy of The Berg< n 
Family, 12, it seq. 



344 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 



i 



the grace of God, whatever God convicted him the truth 
of; Tor, he said, he had "for some time past felt that Gotl 
had some purpose concerning him, and to incite him n, 
serve God with more earnestness; but it was impossible to 
do so in the city, and in this city of traders, where lie 
lived; and as lie observed the hand and providence of God 
in this matter because there had fallen to him a good piece 
of laud and farm, without any effort of his; and. as he fell 
that a private life was better for him, and brought him 
nearer to God, he intended to abandon the city and com- 
merce and go and live upon his farm, which is on the 
South river, a small distance below where Caspar Hen nans 
lives. We said to him on this subject what we believed 
he was in need of, which, lie received kindly. 

The large ship of Frederick Flipsen, of which Singleton 
was ca*ptain, besides being lank of herself, was also very 
badly stowed and laden. In attempting to run out to sea, 
she was compelled to put back to Staten Island, hi order to 
be restowed, which delays his voyage for several weeks. 

5th, Wednesday. We now learned that our voyage was 
postponed until Monday, and perhaps longer, so little 
calculation can be made upon voyages in these parts. 

67//, Thursday. "We visited Theunis, whom we found 
well, the Lord confirming and strengthening him in the 
grace he had manifested towards him, which comforted us, 
and we wished him the blessing of the Lord. 

7//', Friday. We went to take our leave of the lord go- 
vernor, who was very much engaged with the officers oi 
the burghers, who were to train the next day, and also 
with the affair of the Lord Carteret, governor of Kew 
Jersey. After we had been waiting a long time, he i>i>- 
serwd us and called us. He asked us what we came to 
say, not with his accustomed kindness, but a little 
peevishly, as if lie were tired of us and we annoyed him. 
We answered, we came to take our leave of him, as we 



MILITIA TRAINING. 345 

intended to leave for Boston, and to thank him for the 
favor and kindness he had shown us. Ho enquired with 
whom we were going; and we named the person. lie then 
asked, when; and we said on Monday. Well, said lie, 
you will undoubtedly find there in the east a better oppor- 
tunity than -you have found here. We felt that he said 
this in irony; and replied, we did not think so, as we had 
seen several good situations within his government, and 
had been informed they were not so good at the east, lie 
cut off the conversation by wishing us a happy voyage, for 
which we thanked him and left. We also went to take 
leave of Frederick Flipsen, whom we requested, in case any 
letters addressed tons came into his hands, lie would be so 
kind as to direct them to us in the Fatherland, which order 
we afterwards changed, and gave to M. de la Grange, 
because we were apprehensive, as he and the governor were 
one, it might be that our letters, coming from the Father- 
land, had been withheld from us by them, as some persons 
had absolutely declared, and others had half insinuated.- 1 

8th; Saturday. There was a training and muster to-day, 
which had not taken place before in two years, because the 
small-pox had prevailed so much the last year. Some 
were on horseback, and six small companies were on foot. 
They were exercised in military tactics, but I have never 
seen anything worse of the kind. They comprised all the 
force of Xew York and the adjacent places. De la Grange, 
who supposed he could put in a substitute, had to appear 
on horseback himself, although some who were to come 
so, did substitute others in their places. 

This day was the anniversary of our departure from home, 
and we would have now taken our departure from here, if 
it had not been postponed. 



1 See note at the end of this chapter in regard to Frederick Phillips and 
his wife Margaret. 

4-1 



346 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

Wi y Sunday. Pinxter (Whitsunday). Domine Niewen- 
huysej having recovered from his sickness, we went to 
hear him preach, in order not to give any cause of offense 
at the last. His text was the usual one. 

107/', Monday. The second day of Pinxtcr. We had 
several visitors whom we received with love and affection, 
each one according to his circumstances. 

IUAj Tuesday, We called upon Ephraim, from whom we 
received in charge some spermaceti, with orders to send 
him from Amsterdam a good new Bible. He presented us 
on behalf of his wife, who was not at home, two beautiful 
otter skins, which we dared not refuse, and accepted with 
th aides. 

The governor, attended by his whole retinue of ladies 
and gentlemen, escorted Carteret, the governor of Xew 
Jersey, in great pomp, home to Achter kol. As we arc 
now about to leave New York, and the affair of the Ilecr 
Carteret appears to be finished, which happening during 
our stay here, we would have noticed from time to time, 
•only we thought, it was not well to write then what we 
saw, for various reasons, we do not regard it improper 
now to state what we heard of it. 

These two governors lived at first in friendship and con- 
cord. Carteret came often to Xew York, and generally to 
church, when he usually went to the governor's, in the 
fort. A difference afterwards arose between them, but 
the cause of it I have not heard, or whether it was per- 
sonal or public. It is eertain, however, that the governor 
of Xew York wished to bring Carteret and his government, 
to some extent, in subordination to him. Carteret claimed 
to be as perfectly governor of his province, as the other was 
of his, and to possess the same prerogatives as the governor 
of Xew York, and even more than he, in respect to trade and 
other privileges. The governor of Xew York disputed with 
him all riirht of navigation, declaring the Xorth river was 



ABDUCTION OF GOVERNOR CARTERET. o.jy 

under his own jurisdiction, and, therefore^ all persons who 
passed in or out of it,must acknowledge him, pay him duties, 
and even unlade there, and actually commenced seizing 
some vessels. Carteret thereupon complained to England, 
and the governor of Xe?w York sent Captain Dyer over 
there as a commissioner, which he disavowed with an oath, 
as it is said. This Dyer returned with skipper Jacob, or 
about that time, but with what instructions I do not know. 
There also arrived with him a collector for Boston, on 
behalf of the king, as they said, which was contrary to 
their privileges of liberties, and he was, therefore, never 
acknowledged as such by the merchants there. 1 From this 
time forth the governor of Mew York began to act more 
stringently towards Carteret, and also toward^ his own sub- 
jects. Carteret obtaining information of what had been 
done in England by Captain Dyer, called together all the 
principal men among his people, who represented under 
their signatures the circumstances of the case, and sent the 
paper to England. The governor of Xew York went to 
Staten Island, as to the jurisdiction over which they disa- 
greed, and sent for Carteret to come there in order, as he 
said, to negotiate With him in peace and friendship. Car- 
teret probably perceiving his purpose, refused to go, and 
requested of him if he had any thing necessary to com- 
municate to come to him, as he was now not far from his 
residence, and as lie, Carteret, had been so frequently at 
the fort in Xew York, he should come once to his house, 
where he miirht be assured he would be welcome. Here- 
upon the governor returned again to Xew York with his 
object unaccomplished, and shortly afterwards, by procla- 
mation, declared the nullity of the government of Carteret; 
that at the most he was only the head of a colony, namely, 
Xew jersey: and that he was guilty of misusing; the king's 



This has reference undoubtedly to Edward Randolph. 



348 T1IE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

mime, power and authority, lie son! boats several tinu ■> 
to Achter ko] to demand the submission of the place t<> hi* 
authority, which the people of Achter kol jeered at and dis- 
regarded, being ready to uphold the king and their own 
governor, whom they bound themselves by an oath to 
maintain. This occurred repeatedly, and Carteret said that 
so far from wishing himself to oppose it, lie would, on the 
contrary, immediately submit, if the governor of Xew York 
would produce the least authority from the king for what 
he claimed or did. He, however, never brought forward 
any thing of the kind, but continued his proceedings; and, 
at night, and unseasonable hours, and by surprise, took 
from Xew Jersey all the staves of the constables out 
of their houses, which was as much as to deprive them of 
the power to act. Seeing he could accomplish nothing by 
force, he declared the inhabitants released from their oaths 
to the Heer Carteret; they answered they could not 
acknowledge any release from their oaths, unless by the 
same authority which had required it of them or the 
exhibition of a higher one, that of the king. At length he 
corrupted one of Carteret's domestics, for Carteret had no 
soldiers or fortifications, but resided in a country house 
only. He then equipped some yachts and a ketch with 
soldiers, arms, and ammunition, and despatched them t<> 
Achter kol in order to abduct Carteret, in any manner it 
could be done. They entered his house, I know not how, 
at midnight, seized him naked, dragged him through the 
window, struck and kicked him terribly, and even injured 
him internally. They threw him, all naked as he was, 
into a canoe, without any cap or hat on his head, and 
carried him in that condition to xTew York where they 
furnished him clothes and shoes and stockings, and then 
conducted him to the fori and put him immediately in 
prison. When they seized him at Achter kol the armed 
boats had gone home, and the seizure was accomplished 



TRIAL OF CARTERET. 349 

through treachery. Two of the head men of Carteret 
immediately took possession of his papers, such as were of 
importance to him and traveled, one to Maryland, and the 
otherj crossing the upper part of the Horth river, to 
Boston over land, and both to England, in order to re- 
monstrate. The governor sent immediately to Aehterkol, 
took possession of the place, posted up orders, and caused 
inquiries to be made for the man who had set Carteret 
over the river, but without success. 

Wllile Carteret was in prison he was sick, very sick, 
they said, in regard to which there were various surmises. 
Meanwhile a court of assizes was convened, to which on 
every occasion the governor was conducted by three 
trumpeters in advance of him. Carteret was brought be- 
fore the same court, after him. The governor had caused 
a seat to be erected in the court room high up above all 
the others, and higher than usual ; on which he sat. Go- 
vernor Carteret, as a criminal, was in the middle. The 
court being seated, the governor presented Carteret as 
guilty of misusing the king's name, power, and authority, 
and usurping the government of Xew Jersey; that he was 
only the head of a colony, &c. Whereupon, Carteret hav- 
ing the right to speak, said, it was far from his intention 
to seek to defend his case before that court; he did not 
acknowledge it as a court having power to decide his case, 
because, in the first place the question could not be de- 
termined in a court of assizes, as it did not concern a 
private right, but the right of the king: in the next place, 
if such a question could' be disposed of in such a court, 
this, nevertheless, could not act, because he was not subject 
to its jurisdiction; and thirdly, because it was a court oi' 
one party, and he said this without wishing to ofiend any 
of the individual members of the court: yet, notwith- 
standing all this he was content that he and his case should 
be brought before them in order that they might be wit- 



350 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

nesscs of what was done and to be done. As to what the 
governor of New ITork alleged, lie said it was wonderful. 

to him that he should be thus treated, and that they should 
dispute a matter which neither the governor of Xew York, 

nor liis court, nor any one in the world had ever disputed, 
or with reason could dispute. The governor said lie had 
never acknowledged him as governor of Xew Jersey. 
It is surprising, said Carteret, that at one time there can 
he disavowed before all the world, what has been assented 
to before all the world at another; and thereupon he took 
out of his pocket, several letters of the governor of Xew 
York all addressed to the governor of Xew Jersey. The 
governor did not know what to say to this except that he 
had so directed them, because Carteret was generally 
styled governor, and not because he was so in fact; " for," 
said he, "although I have done that, can I, therefore, make 
you governor? " "Xo," replied Carteret, " but the king 
has made me governor, and you as well as all the world 
have acknowledged me as such." The acts of the kins: 
in relation to the governorship were then produced, and 
it was found that the one to Carteret was some time 
older than that to the governor of Xew York, and, there- 
fore, said Carteret, it is to be preferred. The governor 
of Xew York replied, " mine is younger, and yours is 
therefore annulled bvit." 1 "That is to be shown," re- 



*-Sir George Carteret, as already observed, derived his title to East 
Jersey from the Duke of York, first by deed to him and Lord Berkeley, 
jointly on 24th June, 16C4, of the whole of Xew Jersey, and afterwards by 
eon firmatory deed to himself alone on 29th July, 1074, of East Jersey, ac- 
cording- to the partition between him and Lord Berkeley. On the day last 
mentioned the. king had confirmed the grant to the Duke of York, 
of the whole territory between Connecticut river and Delaware bay. 
These confirmatory patents were deemed necessary in consequence of the 
intermediate reconquest of the country by the Dutch. But before they 
were made, king Charles issued Ills proclamation dated the 13th of June, 
1674, acknowledging the title of Sir George Carteret to East Jersey, and 



his right to govern the same. Andres was commissioned governor by the 
Duke of York, of his territories, on l<t July, 1074. Learning and $j far, 
49, et ante. It is this state of the ease undoubtedly that was exhibited in 
Governor Carteret's trial. 



AN INDEPENDENT JURY. 35} 

joined Garteret. Although the governor of New York 

had employed a lawyer* lie eould not succeed. When :it 
last the jurv retired, in order to consult anions themselves, 
Carteret exhibited letters from the king himself, in which 
he called him governor of New Jersey. The jury re- 
turned and declared Carteret not guilty of what was 
charged against him. The governor made them retire a 
second time, saying to them it would be well for them to 
consider what they did, as more depended upon the matter 
than they imagined. They came back a second time with 
the same verdict. "Wltereupon the governor became very 
angry, and caused them to go out again with threats that 
they should look to what they did as there was too much 
depended upon it, for themselves, their entire condition 
and welfare. Whereupon Carteret, told them they had 
nothing to fear in committing; themselves into the king's 
own hands who had given him authority. Again the jury 
returned and gave in the same verdict : that as Carteret 
was not under them and did not acknowledge them as his 
judges, they could not do otherwise in the case ; but they 
advised Carteret to return to his house and business at 
Achtcr kol as a private individual until the case be de- 
cided by higher authority, which Carteret was willing to 
do, not because it was a sentence of theirs against him, or 
even their advice, but because he was compelled to do so 
and could not at that time do otherwise. And thus the 
affair stood at our departure, the governor taking him 
back to Achtcr kol with all the magnificence he could. 
Some think this was all a made up piece of work, and 
that the governor of Xew York only sought to possess the 
government and had no design against the person of 



352 THE HUDSON ANT) ITS AFFLUENTS. 

Carteret; and hating obtained what he wanted, had n . 

other or better means than to release him with some 

The principal persons who have assisted the governor 

herein, are Captain Dyer before mentioned, Captain 
Nieols, and some others. This matter transpired before 
all the world. The principal speeches which were made 
in court were related to us and as regards the other 
transactions we saw them. It is fortunate we were there 
when the affair terminated, as we were thus enabled to 
understand the nature of this government as well as of the 
governor. 1 



1 A brief account of his trial written by Carteret himself, though not 
quite so circumstantial in all respects as that here given, is to be found in 
Learning and Sfticer, OSo-4. ''My imprisonment," he says, "was five 
-weeks before they brought me to trial. When I came to my trial my in- 
tention at first was not to have entered a plea, and to have protested 
against the jurisdiction of the court ; but finding the court over-ruled by 
him, I was forced to enter a plea and pleaded not guilty of what he al- 
leged against me in my presentment, and was also ready to make out and 
justify my actings as governor of New Jersey to be legal and by virtue of 
power derived from the king, to which purpose recommended to the view 
of the court my commission with other instructions to manifest the sane- 
which was delivered with a charge to the jury, who after a perusal of the 
same were to make a return of their verdict concerning it, with their ver- 
dict in matter of fact, which was thus brought in by the jury: Theprisow 
at the bar not guilty. Upon which he asked them questions and de- 
manded their reasons, which 1 pleaded was contrary to law for a jury to 
give reasons after their verdict given in. Nevertheless he sent them t\\ ice 
or thrice out, giving them new charge-, which 1 pleaded as at first to ' - 
contrary to law, notwithstanding the last verdict of the jury. being ac- 
cording to the rirst brought hi by them, Tin prisoner at the bar not in " .. 
upon which I was acquitted accordingly." There seems to be no reasona- 
ble doubt that these proceedings of governor Andros were carried o i 
Under' the sanction of the duke, that the visit of Captain Dyer, to Engl 
as explained by our journalist, was made for the purpose of obtaining in- 
structions on this point, that he brought them verbally or in writing : • 
they were kept secret. The right seems clearly to have been with Car- 
tent. Upon the arrival of the report of the proceedings of Andros in 
England, the opinion of Sir William Jones was asked and obtained U 
the effect, that in the grant to Sir George Carteret, there was no res< rv ; »- 



TRADE WITH BARBADOS. 0.-3 

As to what the governor lias done in regard to his own 
subjects: wherever they lived, they hud the right to do 

whatever they considered best for a livelihood ; hut as this 
country yields in abundance every thing most essential for 
life, if the inhabitants so apply it, its shipping does not 
amount to much, for the reason that they have every tiling 
at home, and have little occasion to borrow or buy from 
their neighbors; and as the exports or imports were not 
much, and produced few customs or duties in which his 
profit consists, there was little bought from' the merchants 
of articles obtained from abroad. There was, therefore, no 
profit from that source to them or him — for he also is a 
merchant, and keeps a store publicly like the others, where 
you can buy half a penny's worth of pins. r J ney usually 
make at least, an hundred per cent profit. And here it is to 
be remarked, that as Fredrick Flipsen has the most shipping 
and does the largest trade, it is said he is in partnership 
with the governor, which is credible and inferable from 
the privileges which Frederick enjoys above the other 
merchants in regard to Ins uoods and ships. Now one 
of the principal navigations of this place, is that with the 
Barbados, which formerly did not amount to much, for 
the people could obtain the productions of Barbados cheap 
enough from Boston, which had a great trade with that 
island, and where its productions are cheap in consequence 
of their exemptions from duties, for they paid scarcely any 
duty, customs, or other charges. As no French brandies 
can come into the English dominions, they can not be 



tion of jurisdiction. — Colonial History nf New York, III, 284. And a release 
was executed by the Duke to Sir George Carteret, heir of Sir George, the 
original grantee, who bud died the preceding year. Andros was ordered 
home, apparently to answer for his conduct in thi.-» and other matters in 
whieh he evidently had acted under the duke's orders. He remained in 
favor and was appointed in l€86by the Duke of York, then King James 
II, governor of IS ew England, New York and New Jersey. 
45 






354 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

imported Into New York, though they arc free ai Boston ; 
and as Xew NethcrlauJ is a country overflowing with grain 
much liquor was distilled there from grain, and, therefore 
they had no necessity of going elsewhere to buy strong 
liquors. This brought no profit to the merchants, hut en 
the contrary a loss, for in the first place, a large quantity of 
grain was consumed in distillation, by which means the 
grain continued too dear, according to the views of tin- 
merchants, who received it from the poor boors in payment 
of their debts, there being no money in circulation ; in the 
second place, it prevented the importation of rum, a 
spirituous liquor made from sugar in Barbados, and 
consequently any duties; and thirdly, the merchants did 
not realize the double per centage of profit, namely, upon 
the meal they might send to Barbados, and upon the rum 
which they would sell here. The governor, therefore, pro- 
hibited the distilling of spirituous liquors, whereby not 
only were many persons ruined who supported themselves 
by that business, but the rum which had to be procured 
from the merchants, rose in price, and they sold it as high 
as they pleased; on the other hand the price of grain fell 
very much, because it could not be consumed, and the mer- 
chants gave no more for it than they chose. And thus the 
poor farmers soon had to work for nothing, all their sweat 
and labor going with usury into the pockets of the trades- 
men. The trade to the Barbados now began to increase, 
and the merchants ami the o-overnor to make more grains. 
The common people, who could not trade to the Barbados, 
but could buy what they wanted at Boston as cheaply a3 
they could order it from the Barbados, sent their flour to 
Boston, and obtained their goods much cheaper than their 
own merchants sold them. But as this was contributing 
too much to Boston, although the trade had always been 
free there, and was injuring the profits of the merchants 01 
New York, the governor forbid any further trading to Bos- 



THE FARMERS OPPRESSED. 355 

ton; though the people of Boston should have the privilege 

to come and buy at Xew York op their own account. This 
took away almost all the trade with Boston, which had "been 
very large, and straightened the fanners and common people 
still more, while the merchants became, if not worse, at 
least great usurers and cheats. The grain, by this means, 
fell still lower in price, and while we were there, the people 
could not obtain more than four or five guilders in zeewan 
for a schepel of fine wheat, that is, sixteen stuivers or one 
guilder of Holland money. 1 On the other hand, the mer- 
chants charged so dreadfully dear what the common man 
had to buy of them, that he could hardly ever pay them off, 
and remained like a child in their debt, and. eonsccpicntly 
their slave. It is considered at New York a great treasure 
and liberty, not to be indebted to the merchants, for any one 
who is, will never be able to pay them. The richest 
of the farmers and common people, however, in company, 
or singly, sent their goods to Barbados, on their own 
account, and ordered from there what they thought proper ; 
and although they had to pay duties and freight to the mer- 
chants for the goods which were carried in their ships, they 
nevertheless, saved to themselves the profits on the goods. 
The governor at last has forbidden any flour to be bolted 
except in the city, or to be exported, unless [the exporters] 
come and reside in the city, and buy their burger or trader- 
right, which is five beaver skins, and has forbidden all 
persons whomsoever from carrying on trade, except those 
whom he licenses, and who know what they must pay him 
yearly, accordius; to the amount of their sales. All goods 
sold outside of the city, in the country, must be bought in 
New York, and not imported on private account from 
abroad. Madame Eentselaer had even erected a new bolt- 
ing mill before the last harvest by his advice, which was not 



Forty cents for one bushel anil a fifth of a bushel. 



356 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

jot in operation, when be prohibited bolting. Such was 
the situation of aiiuirs when we left ihere. It ia true that 
all goods imported into the South river from abroad, had 
to pay not only import, but also export duties, but those 
bought in Xew York, or from the merchants there on 
their own account, pay little or no export duty. And it 
would appear as if the whole of* the proceedings with Car- 
teret and him were founded in this, if they have no 
higher cause. 

They say now, as he has accomplished these objects 
in regard to his own people and Carteret, he will turn his 
attention to the quakers on the South river, who claim they 
are not subject to his government, and also to the people on 
the Connecticut (Versche riuier), who claim to be members 
of the republic of Boston, and even to those of Boston; but 
whether all this is designed by him is doubtful. 
. The shoemakers, in consequence of the abundance of 
hides and bark in the country, have prepared their own 
leather ; but as it was not necessary that every shoemaker 
should have his own tannery, some of them have put up 
several tanneries jointly, and others who were not so rich 
or had not so much to do, had their leather tanned by them, 
or tanned it themselves in those tanneries, satisfying the 
owners for the privilege. The proprietors of the tanneries 
began to exact too much from those who had their leather 
tanned, whereupon the poorer ones complained to the 
governor about it. He seized the opportunity to forbid all 
tanning whatsoever, and to order that the hides should be 
sent to Europe, and the leather ordered from there for the 
purpose of making shoes, or else ready made shoes 
imported. By this means the farmers and others would be 
compelled to come and sell their hides to the merchants, 
who would give for them what they chose, he would derive 
taxes and duties from them and the merchants, their freight 
and percentage of profit ; leather which is dear in Europe 



ARBITRARY ACTS OF TIIE GOVERNOR. 357 

would pay perhaps taxes once or twice there, and freighl 
ami taxes or duties again here; the merchants would have 
their profit, and then the shoemaker would get the leather 
for the purpose of making shoes. A pair of shoes now 
costs 16 or 20 guilders, that is, four guilders in Holland 
money [one dollar and sixty cents], what would they cost 
then? And as labor in Europe is cheaper than here, it is 
certain that shoes made there would be cheaper than the 
leather would cost here, and thus all the shoemakers here 
would be ruined, and all their means go to the governor 
and the merchants. This subject was under discussion, and 
had not yet gone into effect when we left. As they dis- 
covered that leather is contraband, I think the order is 
stopped for that reason. The intention, however, is evident. 

He has taken away land from several country people, and 
given it to others who applied to him for it, because it was 
not inclosed, and he wishes, as he says, the land to be cul- 
tivated, and not remain waste. But it is impossible that 
all the land bought in the first instance for the purpose of 
being cultivated by the purchasers or their heirs, as they 
generally buy a large tract with that object, can be put in 
fence immediately and kept so, much less be cultivated. 
lie has also curtailed all the farms in the free colony of 
Rentselae rs wyck, as well as their privileges. Some persons 
being discouraged, and wishing to leave for the purpose of 
going to live under Carteret, he threatened to confiscate all 
their goods and effects. lie said to others who came to him 
and complained they could not live under these prohibitions : 
" if they do not suit you, leave the country, and the sooner 
you do it the better.*' 

A certain poor carman had the misfortune to run over 
a child which died. JIc fled, although the world pitied 
him, and excused him because he could not have avoided 
it. The court, according to some law of England, on 
account of his having seven sons, acquitted him, provided 



358 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

his wife with her seven sons would go and prostrate them- 
selves before the governor , and ask pardon for their husband 
and father. The carman was restored by the court to hig 
business, which he began again to exercise, when the 
governor meeting him on his cart in the street, asked him 
who had given him permission to ride again. The carman 
replied: "My Lord, it is by permission and order of the 
court." "Come down at once," the governor said, "and 
remember you do not attempt it again during your life." 
Thus he violated the order of the court, and the poor man 
had to seek some other employment to earn his bread. 

A citizen of Sfew York had a dog which was very useful 
to him. This dog, by accident, went into the fort, where 
madam, the governor's wife was standing, and looked 
eteadily at her, in expectation, perhaps, of obtaining some- 
thing from her, like a beggar. The lady was much dis- 
composed and disturbed, and related the circumstance to 
her husband. The governor immediately caused inquiries 
to be made as to the ownership of the dog, summoned his 
master before him, spoke to him severely, and ordered him 
to kill the dog forthwith. The man was very sorry for the 
dog, and endeavored to save him till the anger of the 
governor was over. He placed him on hoard of a vessel 
sailing from and to the city, so as to prevent his coming 
on land. The governor being informed of this by some 
spy or informer, I know not whom, but of such there is no 
lack, summoned the man again before him, and asked him 
if he had killed his dog. The man answered he had not, 
but had done thus and so, whereupon the governor repri- 
manded him severely, imposed a heavy fine upon him, and 
required, I believe, two of his sons to he security until he 
had killed the dog in the presence of witnesses whom he 
would send for that purpose. 

This will be enough, I think, to enable such as have 
understanding, to comprehend him. As for us, we did not 



THE TRAVELERS SUSPECTED. 359 

have much difficulty in interpreting* him from the first. 
Grace and power Lave been given us to act, so that neither 
lienor anyone else should have any hold upon us. For, as 
we were openly before the world, he had not much to do 
with us, the more so, as you could trust no one, because 
he has people everywhere to spy and listen to every thing, 
and carry what they hear to him ; so every one endeavors 
to stand well with him. In a word he is very politic; 
being governor and, changeably, a trader, he appears 
friendly because he is both ; severe because he is avari- 
cious; and well in neither capacity because they are 
commingled. The Lord be praised who has delivered us 
safely, and the more, because we were in every one's eye 
and yet nobody knew what to make of us; we were an 
enigma to all. Some declared we were French emissaries 
going through the land to spy it out; others, that we were 
Jesuits traveling over the country for the same purpose; 
some that we were Jvecollets, designating the places 
where w r e had held mass and confession ; others that we 
were sent out by the Prince of Orange or the states of 
Holland, and as the country was so easily conquered, to 
see what kind of a place it was, and whether it was worth 
the trouble to endeavor to recover it, and how many sol- 
diers it would require to hold it; others again that we had 
been sent oat as the principals to establish a new colony, 
and were, therefore, desirous of seeing and examining 
everything. And thus each one drifted along according 
to his Vishes. The papists believed we were priests and 
we could not get rid of them; they would have us confess 
them, baptize their children, and perforin mass ; and they 
continued in this opinion. The quakers said we were 
quakers, because we were not expensively dressed, and did 
not curse and swear, that we were not willing to avow our- 
selves as such; but they were jealous because we had not 
associated with them. Some said we were Mennonists; 



360 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

others thai Ave wore Brownfets, and others again thai we 
were David Jorists. 1 Every une had his own opinion, and 
no one the truth. Some accused us of holding conventi- 
cles or meetings, and even at the magistrate's or burgo- 
master's, and named the place where and the persons who 
attended them, some of whom were required to purge 
themselves of the charge, and others were spoken to in a 
different way. It was all finally found to he false, and 
that they were mistaken, though few of them were cured 
of their opinion. The ministers caused us to he suspected ; 
the world and the godless hated and shunned us; the 
hypocrites envied and slandered us; hut the simple and 
upright listened to us and loved us ; and God counseled 
and directed us. May he he praised and glorified by all 
his children to all eternity, for all that he is, and all that 
he does, for all that he is doing for them, and all that he 
may do for them, to all eternity. 

12th, Wednesday. Theuuis came to our house and took 
leave of us with great tenderness and with many tears, he 
committing us, and we him, to God and his grace, recom- 
mending himself to our prayers and the prayers of God's 
children, — his beloved brothers and sisters, he said, to 
whom, although he had never seen them, he requested us 
to make his salutations. 2 In the evening Ephraim also 
came to take leave, intending to go south in order to leave 
his wife there dtiririsr her confinement. We said to each 
of them what we deemed necessary. 

13th, Thursday. It was first announced we were to leave 



1 David Joris, or George, the founder of the seet called David Jorists or 
David Georgians, was a native of. Delft in South Holland. He proclaimed 
himself the son of God ; and denied the existence of good and evil, of heaven 
and hell, and future punishment. " He reduced religion to contemplation, 
silence and a certain frame or habit of soul, which it is equally difficult to 
define and to understand." — JfonJuim, XVI, 3, 24. 

2 The community of Wicrwerd. 



A DOUBTFUL ARTICLE. ^\ 

on Wednesday, then the following Saturday, afterwards 

on Tuesday, and again on Thursday without fail. Finally 
we spoke to the skipper or supercargo, Partdcclial, who 
told us he could not leave before the governor returned, 
who had some letters of importance to send by him. This 
evening Annetje Sluys, of whom we have spoken, came to 
see us. She had some ambergris which she wanted us to 
take, but we did not know what to do in regard to the 
terms. Among others, we made three different proposi- 
tions ; namely, we would iix the price at eight pieces of 
eight the ounce here, and would endeavor to sell it in Hol- 
land a3 high as we could, and would take one-half of what 
it brought over that valuation for our trouble, provided we 
could take our portion of the profit out in ambergris at 
the current price; or, we would take it all ourselves at 
eight pieces of eight the ounce to be paid for in Holland ; 
or, she should give us one ounce for our trouble and we 
would sell the rest of it for her and send back the proceeds 
to her in goods. The second proposition seemed to be 
the most profitable, if we had a correct knowledge of the 
ambergris, but we had none at all ; and if it were not good it 
would be a great loss. The first proposition might, or 
might not, yield us a profit, but it seemed to us too trades- 
manlike. It therefore remained with the last one. There 
were twelve ounces of it good, or what we considered good, 
and four ounces bad. One ounce was weighed off fur us, 
and the rest was taken upon that condition. My com- 
rade gave her a receipt, acknowledging it was received 
from her on such conditions, and she gave a memo- 
randum of the goods which she wanted for the pro- 
ceeds. 

[Here occurs a break in the journal, embracing a period 

of five days, that is, from June 13th, to June 19th, and 

filling twenty-four pages of the manuscript, equal to thirty 

printed pages. The missing part probably contained a 

46 



3G2 TIIE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

general description of the city of New York, accordii 
the practice of the journalist on taking final departure 

from a place, and as promised in regard to that city, under 
date of 8th of May.] 



NOTE TO PAGE 345. 

Frederick Philippe, and Margaret, his wife, who was the acknowledged 
owner and supercargo of the Charles, and was, with her daughter, Anneljc, 
a fellow passenger of our travelers in that ship on their voyage to New 
York, have figured largely in these pages, and seem, therefore, before \vc 
part from them, to require some particular notice; especially a? he and some 
other members of the family were conspicuous in the early history of 
the colony of New York ; and more particularly because the public records, 
colonial and ecclesiastical, prove that the statements hitherto published in 
regard to them are exceedingly erroneous. 

Frederick Philipse, whose name is thus anglicised from the Dutch, 
namely, Fiipsen, or as he himself spelt it, Flypsen, that is, the son of Flip or 
Philip, was born in the year 1C2G, at Bolsward, in Friesland, the little town 
near vYiewerd, where our travelers, it will be recollected, entered the canal 
boat on the morning they set out for Amsterdam, to take ship for New- 
York. In what year he left Friesland, does net appear; but it was not in 
1658, as the accounts referred to state, for he was in New Amsterdam in 
loo3, when we find him named asan appraiser of a house and lot of Augus- 
tine Heermans in that city. If he came over with Governor Stuyvesant, 
as it is asserted and as is not impossible, then he arrived herein May, 10-17. 
But he came in no lordly capacity, nor for the purpose of taking possession 
of landed estates, which it is pretended, he had acquired here. lie was a 
carpenter by trade, and worked as such at first for Governor Stuyvesant. 

Margaret, his first wife, was the daughter of Adolph llardcnbrook, who 
came from Ervervelt, in Holland, and settled at Bergen, opposite New Am- 
sterdam. She married Peter Rudolphus De Tries, a merchant trader of 
New Amsterdam, in 1U3J), and had by him one child, a daughter, baptized 
October 3, 1GC0. Rudolphus died in 1G81, leaving a considerable estate, 
which, by law, devolved upon his widow and child with a eorrmiunitj 
of interest. 

In October, 1C62, bans of marriage between Frederick Philipse and 
Margaret llardenbrook were published, when the Court of Orphan Mastc rs 
©f New Amsterdam summoned her before them, to render an inventory 
of her child's paternal inheritance. This she declared she was uu: 
do, probably in consequence of the commercial character of the assets ; 






FREDERICK PHILIPSE. 333 

wli ■i-'.'V.pon the court received the ant< nuptial contract between her and 
Frederick Philipse in lieu of the inventory, in consequence of its embody- 
ing an agreement on his part to adopt the child of Rudolphus as his own, 

and to bequeath her one-half of his estate, unless he had children born to 
himself, and in thai case to give her a share equally with them. Adoption 
was permitted by the laws, and also the limitation of suceessory estates by 
marriage contracts, and the child thus in legal intendment, became the 
child of Frederick iPhilipse upon the consummation of the marriage in 
December following. In the baptismal record, the name of this child is 
written Maria. This may have been, and probably was, an error of the 
registrar; certain it is, that Frederick Philipse, by his will, made pro- 
vision for a child, which he calls his oldest daughter, named Eva, who was 
not his child by marriage, as it seems; and he makes no provision for 
Maria, a? he was bound to do by his marriage contract, unless it be that 
for Eva. The conclusion, therefore, seems irresistible, that Eva and Maria 
were one and the same person. 

I3v his marriage with Margaret Iiardenbrook, Frederick Philipse became 
entitled to a community of property with her. She did not. however, relin- 
quish to hira the sole management of the estate which she possessed, but 
on the contrary, continued the business of her former husband, a practice 
not uncommon in the colony, and became a woman-trader, a character 
which does not appear to have always been a very amiable one, judging 
from our journalist's description of her, and of the mistress of Eletie the 
Indian at Albany. Sue went repeatedly to Holland in her own ships, as 
supercargo, and bought and traded in her own name. By her fortune, 
thrift, and enterprise, however, as well as by his own exertions, Philipse 
soon came to be the richest man in the colony. His property was valued 
in 1G74 by commissioners appointed by Governor Coive, at 80,000 guilders; 
an amount large in those days, and yet small compared with his subse- 
quent wealth. On her death, his commercial operations became more 
extensive. It is not certain when Margaret died, though it was not in 1GU2, 
as strangely stated by some, for that was the year of her marriage with 
Frederick Philipse. She was alive, and a passenger in the ship with our 
travelers in 1G79, but she must have died before 1G92, when Frederick 
Philipse espoused Catharine van Cortlandt, widow of John Derval and 
daughter of Olotf Stevens/, van Cortlandt , for his second wife. 1 le became 
the largest trader with the Five Indian Nations at Albany, sent ships to both 
the Eas-t and West Indies, imported slaves from Africa, and engaged, as 
it was with good reason alleged, in trade with the pirates at Madagascar. 
His gains and profits were much enhanced, it was believed, by his con- 
nection with the government, and hisiatimacy with the governors, by 
which he obtained immunities not granted to others. He was a member of 
the council under all the governors, from Anurosto Bellomont, embracing 
an uninterrupted period of twenty years, with the exception of the brief 
usurpation of Eeisler. When the latter event occurred, he was in conjunc- 
tion with Stephen van Cortlandt, left in charge of the government by 



364 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

.Lieutenant Governor Nicholson. After resisting for a few days the pro 

ceedings oi' Leisler, as became his |>osition, he wisely, when the publii 
sentiment pronounced itself in favor of them, submitted to them as the .. ;- 

of the government defaeto, much to the chagrin of Bayard and his assoeiati a 
He was subsequently clothed by Governor Sloughter with similar pow< i>. 

in conjunction with Nicholas Bayard, during the absence of that governor 
at Albany. He had the ear of Fletcher, who bestowed upon him and 
his son Adolphus, extravagant grants of land. When the Leisler party 
came into power under Bellomont, in 1698, he resigned his seat in council, 
in consequence, as he alleged, of his advanced age, which was then 
seventy-two, though in reality, it would seem, to avoid, if possible, the blow 
which was already given in an order for his removal by the home govern- 
ment, on account of his practices with the pirates, an order which arrived 
a few weeks after his resignation. 

In 1GS0, he acquired a piece of land from the Indians, the title to which 
was confirmed by patent in the same year from Governor Andros, situated 
on the Pqcanteco or Mill river, in the county of Westchester, running along 
Sleepy Hollow, the region since made famous in our legendary lore. r l his 
acquisition was the nucleus of the large tract in that county extending 
from Yonkers to the Croton river, which, with a small piece on the oppo- 
site side of the Hudson, near Tappaan, and the bridge across the Spytcnduy- 
vel, called Kingsbridge, were purchased or patented by him, and erected by 
Governor Fletcher in 31693, into a manor, with the customary privileges of 
a lordship, of holding court leet and court baron, and exercising advow- 
son and right of patronage of all churches to be erected within its limits, 
to be held by him, his heirs and assigns, by the name of the manor of 
Philipsborough. This property remained in the family until the American 
revolution, when, by reason of the adherence to the British crown of the 
proprietor, Colonel Frederick Philipsc, great grandson of the founder of 
the estate, it was confiscated by the state of New York. 

Frederick Philipsc was, as we have seen, twice married. He had no 
children by Catharine van Cortlandt, his second wife. By Margaret Har- 
denbrcok, he had four : I. Philip, baptized March IS, 1GG4. II. Adolphus. 
baptized November 15,1665. III. Annetje, baptized November 27, 16G7, 
and IV. Bombout, baptized January 9, 1670. The genealogy in -Buffo'* 
Dictionary of tJtt Landed Gentry of Greai Britain and Ireland, says he had 
two children, Frederick, born in 1636, and Eva, and makes Philip and 
Adolphus to be sons of this Frederick by Margaret Hardenbrook ; while 
that in Bolton's History of Westchester County, gives him one child, Frede- 
rick, born in 1656, at Bolsicard^ and makes Margaret Hardenbrook to be 
the wife of this Frederick, and Philip, Adolphus, Eva and Annetje to be 
his children. The errors of these statements are so palpable on the face ol 
them, as hardly to require being pointed out. Margaret Hardenbrook 
married Frederick Philipsc, as the record shows, in December, 1662 ; surely 
then, her husband could not have been born in ltS~><J, only six years before. 
Frederick Philipse was in this country as early as 1653, remained 



36-1 THE HUDSON AND ITS AFFLUENTS. 

.Lieutenant Governor Nicholson. After resisting for a few days the pro- 
ceedings of Lcisler, as became his position, he wisely, when the publ 
sentiment pronounced itself in favor of them, submitted to them as tin- acts 
of the government de facto, much to the chagrin of Bayard and his associates 
He was subsequently clothed by Governor Sloughter with similar power.**, 
in conjunction with Nicholas Bayard, during the absence of that governor 
at Albany. He had the ear of Fletcher, who bestowed upon him and 
his son Adolphus, extravagant grants of land. When the Leisler party 
came into power under Bellomont, in 1698, he resigned his scat in council, 
in consequence, as he alleged, of his advanced age, which was then 
seventy-two, though in reality, it would seem, to avoid, if possible, the blow 
which was already given in an order for his removal by the home govern- 
ment, on account of his practices with the pirates, an order which arrived 
a few weeks after his resignation. 

In 1GS0, he acquired a piece of land from the Indians, the title to which 
was confirmed by patent in the same year from Governor Andros, situated 
on the Pocanteco or Mill river, in the county of Westchester, running along 
Sleepy Hollow, the region since made famous in our legendary lore. 1 his 
acquisition was the nucleus of the large tract in that county extending 
from Yonkers to the Croton river, which, with a small piece on the oppo- 
site side of the Hudson, near Tappaan, and the bridge across the Spytenduy- 
vel, called Kingsbridge, were purchased or patented by him, and erected by 
Governor Fletcher in 1693; into a manor, with the customary privileges of 
a lordship, of holding court leet and court baron, and exercising advow- 
son and right of patronage of all churches to be erected within its limits, 
to be held by him, his heirs and assigns, by the name of the manor of 
Philipsborough. This property remained in the family until the American 
revolution, when, by reason of the adherence to the British crown of tie- 
proprietor, Colonel Frederick Philipse, great grandson of the founder of 
the estate, it was confiscated by the state of New York. 

Frederick Philipse was, as we have seen, twice married. He had no 
children by Catharine van Cortlandt, his second wife. By Margaret liar- 
denbrcok, he had four : I. Philip, baptized March 18, 1664. II. Adolphus, 
baptized November 15, 16G5, III. Annetje, baptized November 27, WO'i , 
and IV. Bombout, baptized January 9, 1G70. The genealogy in Burke's 
Dictionary of tin. Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland, says he had 
two children, Frederick, born in 1656, and Eva, and makes Philip and 
Adolphus to be sons of this Frederick by Margaret Hardenbrook; while 
that mlJ"ltoh$ History of Westchester County, gives him one child, Frede- 
rick, born in 1656, at Bolsicard, and makes Margaret Hardenbrook to be 
the wife of this Frederick, and Philip, Adolphus, Eva and Annetje to be 
his children. The errors of these statements are so palpable on the face of 
them, as hardly to require being pointed out. Margaret Hardenbrook 
married Frederick Philipse, as the record shows, in December, 1662 ; surely 
then, her husband could not have been born in 1656, only six years before. 
Frederick Philipse was in this country as early as 1653, remained 



FREDERICK PITTLIPSE. o^ 

here and married his first wife in 1863. Hecotild not have had a son born 
to him 5" Fiicsland in 1050 All this confusion arises from the mistake of 

these writers in supposing that there was a son Frederick horn to the first 
Frederick, and attributing to two Fredericks what pertains to one. 

Frederick Philipse, the first of the name in this country, arid the subject 
of this sketch, died in 1702, in the seventy-seventh year of his age. He left a 
will, by which he devised to Frederick Philipse, his grandson, the sou of 
Philip, his oldest son, the Yonker's plantation and other lands ; to Eva, his 
oldest daughter, who married Jacobus van Cortlandt, May 7, 1091, a house 
and ground in New York, and a mortgage of Domine Selyns ; to his son 
Adolphus, the land at the upper mills in Westchester county ; and to his 
daughter Annetje, wife of Philip French, a house and ground in New 
York, and an estate in Bergen. Rombout is not mentioned in the will, 
having probably died in infancy ; nor is there any mention of any son 
Frederick, or of the children of such a son. Eva, his oldest daughter, was, 
as we have concluded, such by adoption, and not by birth. Tliis is to be 
inferred from the absence of her name in the baptismal record, and by 
the times of the birth of his other children as given by the same record. 

Adolphus Philipse was, for several years, speaker of the colonial assem- 
bly. Mary, daughter of Frederick Philipse, named in the will of the lirst 
Frederick, and sister of Colonel Frederick Philipse, in whose hands the 
manorial estate was confiscated, won, it is said, the affections of Wash- 
ington, but the demands of his country called him away, and she became 
the wife of Colonel Morris, who embraced the cause of the king. 

As this sketch of Frederick Philipse differs materially from the accounts 
heretofore published, we adduce here the authorities for all the essential 
facts presented. 0' Gallagharts Calendar of Dutch Manuscripts, 56, 210, 218. 
Valentine's History of New York, 144. New York Colonial Manuscripts, 
X, 281. Calendar of English Man uscripts, 20, 118, 158, 200, 270. New Neth- 
erland Register, 100. Valentine's New York Manual for 1802, 017, 023 ; for 
1803, 801-807. Record of Court of Orphan Masters, city clerk's office, Xew 
York, sub dato December 18, 1002, New York Colonial History, II, 699 ; III, 
IV, passim. Records of Wills, in surrogate's office, New York, Book VII, 
101. Barkis Dictionary of the Landed. Gentry of Gnat Britain and Ireland 
for 1851, 1,890; II, 1361. Bolton's JTistoiy of Westchester Count//,}, 320, 
323, and pedigree ; 11,418, 400, 407. Blake's History of Putnam County, 80-3. 



JOURNAL 



VOYAGE FROM NEW NETHERLAM) 



OUR ARRIVAL AT W1EWERD, Ks FRIESLAND. 



BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 



1680, June 19$, Wednesday. ~YTe embarked at noon in 
the yacht of Mr. Padecfial, supercargo and captain, resid- 
ing in Boston. The anchor was weighed at last ; but as 
we had to wait a ionir time for the o;overnors yacht, the 
tide was nearly all spent. The wind was from the 
northwest. The crew consisted of three men and a hoy, 
besides the captain ; but there was another sailor on board 
who was a passenger. Many persons came to escort the 
captain, and also a woman, who was going with us ; and 
as soon as they had gone we hastened to leave. The wind 
being ahead, we tacked and towed, until we anchored at 
Hellgate, almost at flood tide, at four o'clock in the 
afternoon. The woman who was going over with us, was 
born at Rhode Island, in Xew England, and was the wife of 
the captain of the Margaret, one of Frederick Flipsen's ships. 
I have never in my whole life, witnessed a worse, more 
foul, profane or abandoned creature. She is the third 
individual we have met with from Xew England, and we 
remarked to each other, if the rest of the people there, are 
to be judged by them, we might, perhaps, do them great 
injustice ; for the first one from Eoston whom we saw was 
a sailor, or he passed for one, on board the ship in which 
we sailed from the Fatherland. They called him the 
doctor, and if he were not, or had not been a charlatan, he 
resembled one; the second, was our skipper, Fadeehal, 
who had told us so many lies ; and now,, this infamous 
4T 



370 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

woman. They all belong to this people who, it is said, pn - 
tend to special devoutness; bat we found them, the sailor 
and the rest, like all other Englishmen, who, if they are not 
more detestable than the 'Hollanders, are at least no better. 

20M, Thursday. It was about ten o'clock in the forenoon 
before the flood began to make. The wind was south- 
west, bat light. "We weighed anchor and towed through 
Hellgate, when the wind and tide served us until we passed 
Whitestone (de witte klip), as far as which the tide, from the 
direction of JSTew York, usually reaches. AVe sailed 
bravely by and obtained the ebb tide in. our favor which 
carried us this evening beyond Milford. 

21st, Friday. "We had shot ahead very well during the 
night, with the wind west and south southwest, on a course 
due east, so that by morning we reached the end of Long 
Island. The governor's yacht which had to stop at Fisher's 
island, a little to the leeward of us, which is subject to Xew 
England, but which the governor is now endeavoring to 
bring under his authority, and for that purpose had sent 
his yacht there with letters, left us this morning with a 
salute. AVe observed a vessel ahead of us under sail, 
running before the wind, and we came up to her about 
nine o'clock. She was a small flute from Milford, laden 
with horses and bound for Barbadoes. TVe hailed her, and 
as her captain was an acquaintance of our captain and an 
independent, our captain went on board of her where he 
staid two hours. "When he returned we kept our course, 
and she sailed to the south in order to get to sea. As soon 
as we reached the end of Long Island, they began to throw 
their fish lines, and continued to catch mackerel all day 
long. I think the European mackerel are better and 
fatter. "We came to an island called Macrtcns Wingacrt 
(Martha's Vineyard), about four o'clock in the afternoon, 
having the Elizabeth islands on the larboard and sailing 
between the two, with our course easterly and a lighter 



DOUBLING CAPE COD. 37 j 

wind. Our captain had prayers every evening, performed 
in tnis way. The people were called together, and 

then, without anything being spoken previously, lie read a 
chapter, then a psalm or part of one was sung, after that 
the} T all turned their hacks to each other, half kneeling, 
when a common formulary of prayer was said which 
was long enough, hut irreverently enough delivered. It 
was not done mornings. From what I have experienced 
the Hollanders perform it better, are more strict mornings 
and evenings, and more devout. 

There was no moon, and the weather was cloudy. AVe 
continued sailing onward until two o'clock alter midnight, 
when the captain going aloft, cried out, " Strike the sails ! 
strike the sails ! let them run ! let them run ! we are on 
the rocks, let the anchor fall ! " This startled me so that 
I cannot tell how I reached the deck, and ran forward. I 
saw we were indeed close upon a reef of rocks directly 
before us, and that we were under considerable headway. 
"We did our best to lower the sails, and throw the anchor 
over. The headway was checked some, but the anchor 
would not hold. We found that the spritsail had caught 
in the anchor stock in consecpience of the hurry in lower- 
ing the sail and throwing anchor, but it was some time 
before we could discover what was the matter and get 
the anchor loose; it then field fast in three fathoms of 
water at a musket shot's distance from the reef and about 
as far from the shore. We lay there until daylight on a 
lee shore, but fortunately it did not blow hard. 

22'/, Saturday* As soon as the day broke, and we saw 
where we were, we got under sail again with the wind, 
the same as before. In sailing between the land, namely 
Maertens Wyngaert and the reef, the course is to the point 
of the island, running east southeast in three and two and 
a half fathoms till you have this point on the side, and 
then you have pas-cd the reef. We continued on until we 



372 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

readied the westerly point of the island 6t Nantoclcel, alon<* 
which we sailed to the easterly point, and thence <lu<> 
north until noon; but the flood tide running in strong, 
and the vessel not being well steered, we were carried to 
the west among the shoals. The weather was rather 
rough and the atmosphere hazy, so that we could not see 
far. The shoals were ahead of us, and we had only two 
fathoms, and even less, of water. The captain and helms- 
man, were confused, and hardly knew where they were. 
This happened two or three times. In order to avoid the 
shoals, we had to keep to the east. We were fearful we 
would strike upon them, and it was, therefore, best to look 
out and keep free of them. About three o'clock we 
caught sight of the main land of Cape Cod, to which we 
sailed northerly. We arrived inside the cape about six 
o'clock, with a tolerable breeze from the west, and at the 
same time saw vessels to the leeward of us which had an 
east wind, from which circumstance we supposed we were 
in a whirlwind. These two contrary winds striking 
against each other, the sky became dark, and they whirled 
by each other, sometimes the one, and sometimes the 
other being strongest, compelling us to lower the sails 
several times. I have never seen such a twisting and 
turning round in the air, as at this time, the clouds being 
driven against each other, and close to the earth. At last 
it became calm and began to rain very hard, and to thun- 
der and lighten heavily. We drifted along the whole 
night in a calm, advancing only twelve or sixteen miles. 

23^/, Sunday. A breeze blew up from the northeast. It 
was fortunate for us, that we arrived inside of Cape Cod 
yesterday evening, before this unfavorable weather, as we 
would otherwise have been compelled to put back to 
Rhode Island. We could now still proceed ; and we 
laid our course northwest to Boston. We arrived at the 
entrance of the harbor at noon, where we found a con- 



ARRIVAL AT BOSTON. 373 

siderable rolling sea causal by 11 10 ebb tide and wind 
being against each oilier. There are about thirty islands 
here, not large ones, through which we sailed, and reached 
Boston at four o'clock in the afternoon, our captain run- 
ning with his yacht quite up to his house in the Milk- 
ditch (Melk-sloof). 

The Lord be praised who has continued in such a 
fatherly manner to conduct us, and given us so many 
proofs of his care over us ; words are wanting to express 
ourselves properly, more than occasions for them, which 
we have had abundantly. 

We permitted those most in haste to go ashore before 
us, and then went ourselves. The skipper received us 
politely at his house, and so did his wife ; but as it was 
Sunday, which it seems is somewhat strictly observed by 
these people, there was not much for us to do to-day. Our 
captain, however, took us to his sister's where we were 
welcome, and from there to his father's, an old corpulent 
man, where there was a repetition of the worship, which 
took place in the kitchen while they were turning the spit, 
and busy preparing a good supper. We arrived while they 
were engaged in the service, but he did not once look up. 
"W men he had finished, they turned round their backs, 
and kneeled on chairs or benches. The prayer was said 
loud enough to be heard three houses off, and also long 
enough, if that made it good. This done, he washed us 
and his son welcome, and insisted on our supping with 
him, which we did. There were nine or ten persons at 
the table. It being in the evening, and we strangers, Mr. 
Padechal requested us to lodge with him this night, as we 
did, intending in the morning to look out for accommoda- 
tions. We were taken to a line large chamber, but we 
were hardly in bed before we were shockingly bitten. I 
did not know the cause, but not being able to sleep, I 
became aware it was bed bturs, in such great numbers as 



374 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

was inconceivable. My comrade who was very sleepv, 
fell asleep at i\r>t. Pie tumbled about very much ; but 1 
did not sleep any the whole night. In the morning we 

saw how it was, and were astonished we should find such 
a room with such a lady. 

But before we part from the East river, we must briefly 
describe it. We have already remarked that it is incor- 
rect to call this stream a river, as both ends of it run into 
the sea. It is nothing but salt water, an arm of the sea, 
embracing Long Island. It begins at the Little bay of 
the Xorth river, before the city of Xew York, pouring its 
waters with those of the Xorth river, into the sea, between 
Sandy hook and Coney island. In its mouth before the 
city, and between the city and Red hook, on Long Island, 
lies Xoten island opposite the fort, the first place the Hol- 
landers ever occupied in this bay. It is now only a farm with 
a house and a place upon it where the governor keeps a 
parcel of sheep. From the city, or from this island, the 
river runs easterly to Corrclaers hocck, and the Wale bochJ, 
where it is so narrow they can readily hear one another 
calling across it. A little west of Correlaers hoeclc, a reef 
of rocks stretches out towards the Wale boeht, half way 
over, on which, at low tide, there is only three or four feet 
of water, more or less. The river then runs up northerly 
to lichgate, where there is an island, in front of which on 
the south side are two rocks, covered at high water, and 
close to the island, besides others which can be easily seen. 
Ilellgate is nothing more than a bend of the river, which 
coming up north, turns thence straight to the east. It is 
narrow here, and in the middle of the bend or elbow, lie 
several large rocks. On either side it. is wider, conse- 
quently the current is much stronger in the narrow part: 
and as it is a bend the water is checked, and made to eddy, 
and then, striking these rocks, it must make its way to 
one side or the other, or to both; but it cannot make its 



MARTHA'S VIXEYAKD. 375 

way to Loth, because it is a crooked hay, and therefore, it 
pursues Its course until it is stopped on the opposite aide 
of the bay, to which it is driven, so much the more be- 
cause it encounters these rocks on the way. ^ T ow, between 
the rocks, there is no current, and behind them it is still ; 
and as the current for the most part is forced from one 
side, it finds liberty behind these rocks, where it makes a 
whirlpool. You must, therefore, be careful not to ap- 
proach this whirlpool, especially w r ith small vessels, as 
you will be in danger of being drawn under. It makes 
such a whirlpit and whistling that you can hear it for a 
quarter of an hours distance, but this is when the tide is t 
ebbing, and only, and mostly, when it is running the 
strongest. The river continues from thence easterly, 
forming several islands, generally on the left hand side, 
although there are some in a large bay on the right. 
When you have passed the large bay of Flushing, which 
is about eight miles from Hellgate, or rather, as soon as 
you get round the point, and begin to see an opening, you 
must keep well to the northeast, in order to sail clear of a 
long ledge of rocks, some of which stick out of the water 
like the lizard in the channel near Falmouth. After you 
have passed this you sail easterly along the shore without 
any thing in the way. There are islands here and there, 
near the land, but they are not large. The end of Long 
Island, which is one hundred and forty-four miles long, 
runs off low and sandy. Continuing east you pass Plum 
island, which is about four miles in length. Behind the 
bay of Long Island called the Croimne Gomce (Crooked 
bay) 1 there are several small islands, Gardiner's island, 
and others. At the east point of Plum island, there is a 
reef, or some small rocks, but keeping on to the eastward, 
you sail far enough from them. From Plum island to 



Pcconic bay is meant. 



376 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

Adriaen Blocx island, the course is cast a distance of twentv 
or twenty-two miles. This island is eight miles Ion**. 
Thence to Maertens Wmgaert the distance is fifty-two to 
fifty-six miles further east, and Blocks, island is hardly out 
of sight when you see Maertens Wingaert Between Plum 
island and Blockx island, you leave Fisher's island to the 
north, nearest Plum island; and between Blockx island 
and Maertms Wmgaert j(mlexve on the coast Rhode Island, 
which does not lie within the coast, as the chart indicates, 
but outside, and lies nearest Maertens Wmgaert. Witb 
Maertens Wmgaert begins the Elizabeth islands, which 
consist of six or seven islands lying in a row, close to each, 
other, towards the coast. The width between 'Maertens 
Wmgaert and the Elizabeth islands is eight miles. There- 
is a fine sound or strait for sailing between them, although 
Maertens Wingaert is somewhat longer. This island is 
about twenty-eight miles in length towards the east. A 
little within the east point of it a reef of rocks stretches 
out three miles from the shore, so that it is best to keep 
nearest the Elizabeth islands, although there is room 
enough between Maertens Wmgaert and the reef to sail 
through with large ships, as there is three and two and a 
half fathoms of water at low tide. At the westerly point 
of the Elizabeth islands there are several rocks, one large 
and several small ones, called after their fashion, the Sow 
and Pigs. There is a beautiful bay, and anchorage ground 
[Holmes's hole] on the cast end of Maertens Wingaert 
Erom this point of Maertens Wingaert the course is east 
southeast about twenty miles, to Nantoeket upon the west 
point of which there is a good bay with anchorage ground. 
The land is low and sandy ; it is fourteen or sixteen miles 
Ion"-. There are several shoals outside in the sea, and also 
inside between the island and the main land, but they do 
not run out beyond the east point. When you hare the 
east point to the west southwest of you, steer straight uorth 






GOVERNOR BRADSTREET. 077 

to Cape Cod, about twenty-eight miles; but you must 
here time the tide.-, which run strong east and west ; the 
flood to the west, and the ebb to the east. The flood tide 
pulls to the shoals, and the ebb tide on the contrary sets 
eastwardly to the sea. Cape Cod is a clean coast, where 
there are no islands, rocks or banks, and, therefore, all 
such laid down on the charts of the great reef of Malebarre 
and otherwise is fake. Indeed, within four, eight and 
twelve miles, there is sixty to sixty-five fathoms of water. 
This cape or coast is about twenty-eight miles long due 
north; and from thence to Cape Ann it is also due north, 
but to Boston it is northwest. There are many small 
islands before Boston well on to fifty, I believe, between 
which you sail on to the city. A high one, or the highest, 
is the first that you meet. It is twelve miles from the city, 
and has a light-house upon it which you can see from a 
great distance, for it is in other respects naked and bare. 
In sailing by this island, you keep it on the west side ; on 
the other side there is an island with many rocks upon and 
around it, and when you pass by it you must be careful, 
as a shoal pushes out from it, which you must sail round. 
You have then an island in front, in the shape of a battery 
which also you leave on the larboard, and then you come 
in sight of the island upon which the fort stands, and 
where the flag is flown when ships are entering. That, 
too, lies to the larboard, and you pass close enough to it 
for them to hail the ship, what you are, from whence you 
came, and where you are bound, &c. When you are there 
you see the city lying directly before you ; and so you sail 
into the bay before the town, and cast anchor. There is a 
high hill in the city, also with a light-house upon it, by 
which you can hold your course in 'entering. 

24M, Monday* We walked with our captain into the 
town, for his house stood a little one side of it, and the 
first house lie took us to was a tavern. From there, he 
48 



378 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE ITOME. 

conducted us to the governor, who dwelt in only a common 
house, and that not the most costly. 1 He is an old man, 
quiet and grave. He was dressed in black silk, but not 
sumptuously. Paddechal explained the reasons of our 
visit. The governor inquired who we were, and where 
from, and where Ave going. Paddechal told him we were 
Hollanders, and had come on with him from Xcw York, 
in order to depart from here, for England. He asked 
further our names, which we wrote, down for him. He 
then presented us a small cup of wine, and with that we 
finished. ~Wt went then to the house of one John Taylor, 
to whom "William Van Cleif had recommended us; hut 
we did not find him. We wanted to obtain a place where 
we could be at home, and especially to ascertain if there 
were no Dutchmen. They told us of a silversmith, who 
was a Dutchman, and at whose house the Dutch usually 
went to lodge. We went in search of him, but he was 
not at homec At noon we found Mr. Taylor, who ap- 
peared to be a good sort of a person. He spoke tolerably 
good French, and informed us there was a ship up for 
England immediately, and another in about three weeks. 
The first was too soon for us, and we therefore, thought it 
best to wait for the other. We also found the silversmith, 
who hade us welcome. His name was "William Ross, 
from Wesel. He had married an Englishwoman, and 
carried on his business here. He told us we might come 
and lodsce with him, if we wished, which we determined 
to do; for to lie again in our last night's nest was riot 
agreeable to us. We exchanged some of our money. 
and obtained six shillings and six-pence each for our 
ducatoons, and ten shillings each for the ducats. W »• 



1 Simon Bradstrect was then the governor of the colony of M:i— ■'>- 
causettSj having at the age of seventy-seven been elected the pre 
year to succeed governor Leverett. lie died in 169-7, at the age ol '•'« 
He was the husband of Anne Bradstrcet, the poetess. 



FASTING AND PRAYER. 



37!) 



went accordingly to lodge at the goldsmith's, whom 

my comrade knew well, though he did not recollect my 
comrade. Tfe were better oil" at his house, for although 
his wife was an Englishwoman, she was quite a good 
housekeeper. 

2oth, Tuesday. AYe went in search of Mr. Paddeehal 
this morning and paid him for our passage here, twenty 
shillings Xew England currency, for each of us. We 
wanted to obtain our goods, but they were all too busy 
then, and promised they would send them to us in the city 
the next day. We inquired after Mr. John Pigeon, to 
whom Mr. Eobcrt Sanders, of Albany, promised to send 
"Wouter, the Indian, with a letter, but he had received 
neither the letter nor the Indian ; so that we must offer up 
our poor Indian to the pleasure of the Lord. We also 
went to look after the ship, in which we were going to 
leave for London. We understood the name of the captain 
was John Foy. The ship was called the Dolphin, and 
mounted sixteen guns. Several passengers were engaged. 
There w T as a surgeon in the service of the ship from Rotter- 
dam, named Johan Ovins, who had been to Surinam and 
afterwards to the island of Fayal, from whence he had 
come here, and now wished to go home. There was also 
a sailor on board the ship who spoke Dutch, or was a 
Dutchman. The carpenter was a Xorman who lived at 
Flushing. 

2Gih, Wedmsday, We strove hard to get our goods home, 
for we were fearful, inasmuch as our trunk was on deck, 
audit had rained, and. a sea now and then had washed 
over it, that it might be wet and ruined; but we did not 
succeed, and Paddeehal in this, exhibited again his ineon- 
siderateness and little regard for his promise. We re- 
solved to take it out the next day, go as it would. 

Titli/HidrdJ<i : i. We went to the Exchange in order to 
find Mr. Taylor, and also the skipper, which we did. W e 



380 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

agreed for our passage at Hie usual price of six pound* 
sterling for each person, with the choice of paying here or 
in England; but as we would have less loss on our money 
here, we determined to pay here. After 'change was 
over there was preaching, to which we had intended to go; 
hut as we had got our goods home, after much trouble, and 
found several articles wet and liable to be spoiled, we had 
to stay and dry them. 

28//?, Fnd'Kj. One of the best ministers in the place being- 
very sick, a day of fasting and prayer was observed in a 
church near by our house. We went into the church 
where, in the first place, a minister made a prayer in the 
pulpit, of full two hours in length ; after which an old 
minister delivered a sermon an hour long, and after that a 
prayer wa.s made, and some verses sung out of the psalms. 
In the afternoon, three or four hours were consumed with 
nothing except prayers, three ministers relieving each 
other alternately ; when one was tired, another went up 
into the pulpit. There was no more devotion than in 
other churches, and even less than at Xew York; no re- 
spect, no reverence ; in a word, nothing but the name of 
independents; and that was all. 

20///, Saturday. To-day a captain arrived from Xew York, 
named Lucas, who had sailed from there last Friday. He said 
no ships had arrived there from Europe, and that matters 
remained as we left them. There was a report that 
another governor was coming to New York, and it was 
said he was a man, who was much liked in Boston ; 
that many complaints had been made against the other 
one, such as oppressing the people, imposing high duties 
when his instructions provided they should not be more 
than two per cent, I believe; rendering a false account, 
in which he had charged a dock as having been made 
at a cost of twenty-eight pounds sterling which had not 
cost a cent, as the citizens had constructed it themselves, 



KEY. JOHN ELIOT. THE INDIAN BIBLE. ? >s \ 

&C. 1 This will, perhaps, cause some change in these parts 
and relieve the people. Lucas brought with him the 
sister and brother-in-law of Ephraim's wife, recently mar- 
ried, hut we had never spoken to them. 

30M, Sunday. We went to church, but there was only 
one minister in the pulpit, who made a prayer an hour 
long, and preached the same length of time, when some 
verses were sung. We expected something particular in 
the afternoon, but there was nothing more than usual. 

July 1st, Monday. AVe wrote to de la Grange, at Xcw 
York, concerning our letters from Europe, and also to 
Eobert Sanders, at Albany, in relation to AYouter. 

2d, Taesdjvj. We had a conversation with the captain at 
the Exchange. He intended to sail round Ireland, which 
suited us very well, for although it was said the Hollanders 
were at peace with the Turks, there were many English 
vessels taken by them daily, and under such circumstances 
we ran some danger of beinc; plundered, fighting with 
them, and perhaps being carried into Barbary. It was, 
therefore, better to go around, although it would be late. 
AVe went on board the ship, with the captain, in order to 
look through her. She pleased us very much, as she was 
larger than the Charles, in which we came over. AVe 
bespoke a berth in the gunner's room, on the starboard 
side. The ship was said to be a good sailer, and the 
captain to be one of the most discreet navigators of this 
countrv. All that was agreeable to us. In the even- 
ing Ephraim's wife's sister and her husband called upon 
us, but they were not much in a state to be spoken to, in 
regard to what was most necessary for them, nor was 
there much, opportunity. 



1 These ^barges against Artdros were subsequently to this time officially 
inquired into. See Lewin'S report and Andres's answer in X. } . (M. IIM. t 
III, 302, JJOS. 



382 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

Zd, Wednesday. Our eap(ain said he would leave a \v< i k 
from to-day. Nothing further occurred. 

4th, Thursday, Xo thing transpired. 

5lA» Friday. In the afternoon Thomas De Key and his 
wife, half sister of Elizabeth Roodenberg, came to visit us, 
hut we conversed little about religious matters, following 
the providence of the Lord. 

6th, Saturday. Xofhing occurred. 

1th, Sunday. We heard preaching in three churches, by 
persons who seemed to possess zeal, but no just knowledge 
of Christianity. The auditors were. very worldly and inat- 
tentive. The best of the ministers whom we have yet 
heard, is a very old man, named John Eliot, who has 
charge of the instruction of the Indians in the Christian 
religion. He has translated the Bible into their lanffiiaffe. 

O DO 

We had already made inquiries of the booksellers for a 
copy of it, but it was not to be obtained in Boston. They 
told us if one was to be had, it would be from Mr. Eliot. 
We determined to go on Monday to the village where he 
resided, and was the minister, called Eoxbury. Our land- 
lord had promised to take us, but was not able to do so, in 
consequence of his having too much business. We, there- 
fore, thought we would go alone and do what we wanted. 
8///, Moftdai/. We went accordingly, about eiffht o'clock 
in the morning, to Boxbury, which is three-quarters of an 
hour from the city, in order that we might get home early, 
inasmuch as our captain had informed us, he would come 
in the afternoon for our money, and in order that Mr. 
Eliot might not be gone from home. On arriving at his 
house, he was not there, and Ave, therefore, went to look 
around the village, and the vicinity. We found it justly 
called Rocksbury, for it was very rocky, and had hills en- 
tirely of rocks. Returning to his house we spoke to him, 
and he received us politely. Although he could speak 
neither Dutch nor French, and we spoke but little English, 



STATE OF RELIGION. CAMBRIDGE. 050 

and were unable to express ourselves in it always, wo 
managed, by moans of Latin and English, to understand 

each other. He was seventy-seven years old, and had 
been forty-eight years in these parts. He bad learned 
very well the language of the Indians, who lived about 
there. We asked him for an Indian Bible, lie said in 
the late Indian war, all the Bibles and Testaments were 
carried away, and burnt or destroyed, so that he bad not 
been able to save any for himself; but a new edition was 
in press, which he hoped would be much better than the 
first one, though that was not to be despised. We inquired 
whether any part of the old or new edition could be ob- 
tained by purchase, and wb ether there was any grammar 
of that language in English. Thereupon he went and 
brought us the Old Testament, and also the Xew Testament, 
made up with some sheets of the new edition, so that we 
had the Old and Xew Testaments complete. He also 
brought us two or three small specimens of the grammar. 
We asked him what we should pay him for them; but he 
desired nothing. "We presented him our Declaration in 
Latin, 1 and informed him about the persons and condi- 
tions of the church, whose declaration it was, and about 
Madam Sehurman and others, with which he was de- 
lighted, and could not restrain himself from praising God, 
the Lord, that had raised up men, and reformers, and be- 
gun the reformation in Holland. He deplored the decline 
of the church in Xew England, and especially in Boston, 
■SO that he did not know what would be. the final result. 
We inquired how it stood with the Indians, and whether 
any good fruit had followed his work. Yes, much, he 



1 The justification of his separation ftora the Walloon church by de 
Labadic, was published in French, in a small tract which was subsequently 
enlarged and printed in Dutch, German and Latin, and in the latter lan- 
guage, Tinder the title of, Veritas suivindex, sett solenni s jidei declaratio. 
Job., de Labtidie, Petri Tcon et Petri 8u Lignon, pasiorum, <!•<:., Ucrvor, 
KJ72 ; and afterwards, further enlarged, at Altoua. 



384 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

said, if we meant true conversion of the heart; for thi i 
Lad in various countries, instances of conversion, as the\ 

called it, and had seen it amounted lo nothing at all ; that 
the}' must not endeavor, like scribes and pharisees, to 
make Jewish proselytes, hut true Christians. Ik- could 
thank God, he continued, and God be praised for it, there 
were Indians, whom he knew, who were truly converted 
of heart to God, and whose profession was sincere. It 
seemed as if he were disposed to know us further, and we, 
therefore, said to him, if he had any desire to write to our 
people, he could use the names which stood on the title page 
of the Declaration, and that we hoped to come and converse 
with him again. He accompanied us as far as the juris- 
diction of Itoxbury extended, where we parted from him. 
9/A, Tuesday. We started out to go to Cambridge, lying 
to the northeast of Boston, in order to see their college, 
and printing office. We left about six o'clock in the 
morning, and were set across the river at Charlestown. 
We followed a road which we supposed was the right one, 
hut went full half an hour out of the way, and would have 
scone still further, had not a negro who met us, and of 
whom we inquired, disabused us of our mistake. We 
Went back to the right road, which is a very pleasant one. 
We reached Cambridge, about eight o'clock. It is not a 
large village, and the houses stand very much apart. 'The 
college building is the most conspicuous among them. 
We went to it, expecting to see something curious, as it is 
the only college, or would-be academy of the Protestants 
in all America, but we found ourselves mistaken. In ap- 
proaching the house, we neither heard nor saw any thing 
mentionable; but, going to the other side of the building, 
Ave heard noise enough in an upper room, to lead my 
comrade to suppose they were engaged in disputation. 
We entered, and went up stairs, when a person met as, 
and requested us to walk in, which we did. We found 



HARVARD COLLEGE. PRINTING OFFICE. 385 

tbcre, eight or ten young fellows, sitting around, smoking 
tobacco, with the smoke of which the room was so full, 
that, yon eoukl hardly sec: and the whole house smelt so 
strong of it, that when I was going up stairs, I said, this is 
certainly a tavern. AVc excused ourselves, that we could 
speak English only a little, but understood Dutch or 
French, which they did riot. However, Ave spoke as 
well as we could. We inquired how many professors 
there were, and they replied not one, that there was no 
money to support one. We asked how many students 
there were. They said at first, thirty, and then came down 
to twenty: 1 afterwards understood there are probably 
not ten. They could hardly speak a word of Latin, so 
that my comrade could not converse with them. They 
took us to the library where there was nothing particular. 
We looked over it a little. They presented us with a 
glass of wine. This is all we ascertained there. The 
minister of the place goes there morning- and evening to 
make prayer, and has charge over them. The students 
have tutors or masters. 1 Our visit was soon over, and we 
left them to go and look at the land about there. We 
found the place beautifully situated on a large plain, more 
than eight miles square, with a fine stream in the middle 
of it, capable of bearing henvdy kden vessels. .As regards 
the fertility of the soil, we consider the poorest in New 
York, superior to the best here. As we were tired, we 
took a mouthful to eat, and left. We passed by the 



1 This was the true condition of Harvard college at that time. There 
was no president, The Rev. Urian Oakes was elected in lu*7o, but <!<•- 
elinedlken to accept the position. lie was reelected iu February, in;!), 
but was not installed until August, 1<;S0. He was the minister of Cam- 
bridge, and acted a- superintendent of the college before he became presi- 
dent The dumber of graduates in USSO was live, and did not average 
that muuUT for the ton preceding years.-^ Quinces Ilhlory of Un 
University, I, 470. 



49 






386 



BOSTON, AXD THE VOYAGE HOME. 



printing office, but there was nobody in It; the papei 
however being broken, we looked in ; and saw two press* 
with six or eight eases of type. There is not mucb work 
done there. Our printing office is well worth two of it, 
and even more. We went back to Charlestown, where, 
after waiting a little, we crossed over about three o'clock. 
We found our skipper, John Foy, at the house, and gave 
him our names, and the money for our passage, six pounds 
each. lie wished to give us a bill of it, but we told him it 
was unnecessary, as we were people of good confidence. I 
spoke to my comrade, and we y>ent out with him, and 
presented him with a glass of wine. His mate came to 
him there, who looked more like a merchant than a sea- 
man, a young man and no sailor. We inquired how long 
our departure would be delayed, and, as we understood 
him, it would be the last of the coming week. That was 
annoying to us. Indeed, we have found the English the 
same everywhere, doing nothing but lying and cheating^ 
when it serves their interest. Going in the house again, 
Ephraim's brother-in-law, Mr. l)e Key, and his wife made 
us a visit 

lQih, Wednesday. We heard that our captain expected to 
be ready the first of the week. 

11th, Thursday. Nothing occurred. 

12/A. Friday. We went in the afternoon to Mr. John 
Taylor's, to ascertain whether he had any good wine, and 
to purchase some for our voyage, and also some brandy. 
On arriving at his house, we found him a little cool; in- 
deed, not as he was formerly. We inquired for what we 
wanted, and he said he had good Madeira wine, but he 
believed he had no brandy, though he thought he could 
assist us in procuring it. We also inquired how we could 
obtain the history and laws of this place. At last it came 
out. lie said we must be pleased to excuse him if he did 
not give us admission to his house : he durst not do it, in 



THE TRAVELERS SUSPECTED. 337 

consequence of there being a certain evil report in the city 
concerning us ; they had been to warn liim not to have 
too much communication with us, if he wished to avoid 
censure; they said we certainly were Jesuits, who had 
come here for no good, for we were quiet and modest, and 
an entirely different sort of people from themselves ; that 
we could speak several languages, were cunning- and 
subtle of mind and judgment, had come there without 
carrying on any traffic or any other business, except only 
to see the place and country ; that this seemed fabulous as 
it was unusual in these parts; certainly it could be for 
no good purpose. As regards the voyage to Europe, we 
could have made it as well from Xew York as from 
[Boston, as opportunities were offered there. This suspi- 
cion seemed to have gained more strength because the fire 
at Boston over a year ago was caused by a Frenchman. 
Although he had been arrested, they could not prove it 
against him; but in the course of the investigation, they 
discovered he had been counterfeiting coin and had 
profited thereby, which was a crime as infamous as the 
other. He had no trade or profession ; he was condemned ; 
both of his ears were cut off; and he was ordered to leave 
the country. 1 Mr. Taylor feared the more for himself, 
particularly because most all strangers were addressed to 
him, as we were, in consequence of his speaking several 
languages, French, some Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, 



1 On the Sth of August, 1070, a great fire occurred in Boston, in which, 
says Hutchinson, " eighty odd dwelling houses, and seventy odd ware- 
houses with several vessels, and their lading were consumed to ashes. 
The whole loss was computed to be two hundred thousand pounds." — 
History of 3lii)McItitscm, I. 349. Mr. Drake adds, that by a manuscript 
record, it appear- that at the court of assistant-, held on the 2d September 
following, one Peter Lorphelin, a Frenchman, accused of uttering 
rash and insulting speeches in the time of the late conflagration, thereby 
rendering himself justly titxpiriotix of having a hand therein, was seized 
and committed to the jails in Boston. His chest and writings were ex- 



388 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

Italian, &c, and could aid them. There had also, some 
tli i to ago, a Jesuit arrived here from Canada, who came l • 
him disguised, in relation to which there was much mur- 
muring, and they wished to punish this Jesuit, not because 
lie was a Jesuit, but because he came in disguise, which i- 
generally had and especially for such as are the pests of the 
world, and are justly feared, which just hate we very un- 
justly, but as the ordinary lot of God's children, had to 
share. \\ r e were compelled to speak French, because we 
could not speak English, and these people did not under- 
stand Dutch. There were some persons in New York, 
who could speak nothing but French, and very little 
English. The French was common enough in these parts, 
but it seemed that we were different from them. 01' all 
this, we disabused Mr. Taylor, assuring him we were as 
great enemies of that brood, as any persons could be, and 
were, on the contrary, good protectants or reformed, born 
and educated in that faith; that we spoke only Dutch and 
French, except my companion, who could also speak 
Latin, and had not come here to trade, but to examine 
the country, and perhaps some morning or evening the 
opportunity might arrive for us to come over with our 
families, when affairs in Europe, and especially in Holland, 
might be settled, as the times there had been bad enough ; 
thiit if they would be pleased to listen to Mr. Eliot, the 
minister at Roxbury, he could gnve them other testimony 



amined. In his cliest were found two or three crucibles, a melting pan, a 
strong pair of shears to clip money, and several clippings of the Massa- 
chusetts currency, and some other instruments, lie denied ever having 
made any use of these things, but said they were given him by a privateer. 
But on being remanded to jail, he made up another story by which lie 
hooped to elear himself. All, however, to no purpose. He was sen- 
tenced to stand two hours in the pillory, have both ears eut off, give 
bonds of £500 with two sureties, pay charges of, prosecution, fees of court, 
and stand committed till the sentence be performed. — HMoryofJl 
437, note. 



ELIOT AND HIS SON. SHAM BATTLE. 339 

.•oncoming us, as we had particularly conversed with him. 

This seemed in some measure to satisfy him. I think this 
bad report was caused by some persons who came from 
Xew York, truly worldly men, whom we had not sought 
when we were there, nor they us, and who, although they 
knew better, or at least ought to have known better, yet 
out of hatred to the truth, and love of sin, said of us what 
they conceived, and their corruption inclined them to say. 
But the Lord who alone knows us rightly will forgive 
them, and make himself known to them if it pleases him, 
and then they will know us. 

18th, Saturday. As we had proinised Mr. Eliot, to call 
upon him again, we went to Eoxbury this morning. We 
found him at home, but he excused himself that he had 
not much time, and had a great deal to do. He called his 
son, who was there, and who also appeared to be a minis- 
ter, to speak with us ; but we excused ourselyes, and said 
we would not hinder him and would rather leaye. How- 
ever, several questions and reasons passed between us in 
relation to the Confession which we had given him, and 
which he praised highly, and in relation to the professors 
of it, both pastors and people, in regard to which we satis- 
fied him ; but the son who was neither as good nor as 
learned as his father, had more disposition or inclination 
to ridicule and dispute, than to edify and be edified. We 
told him what was good for him, and we regretted we 
could not talk more particularly to him. But the father 
remarked that if the professors were truly what they de- 
clared in the Confession, he could not sufficiently thank 
God for what he had done. "We assured him it was so, 
and took our leave. He requested us to stop and dine 
with him, but we excused ourselves. 

14$, Sunday. We went to church, but heard a most 
miserable sermon by a young person, a candidate. 

15tfi, 31onda>/. The burgesses drilled and exercised in 



300 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

the presence of the governor. There were eight compa- 
nies on foot, and one on horseback, all which divided them- 
selves into two troops or squadrons, and operated against 
each other in a sham battle, which was well performed. 

It took place on a large plain on the side of the city. It 
did not, however, terminate so well, but that a commander 
on horseback was wounded on the side of his face near the 
eye, by the shot of a fusil, as it is usually the case that some 
accident happens on such occasions. It was so h) New 
York at the last parade, when two young men on horse- 
back coming towards each other as hard as they could, to 
discharge their pistols, dashed against each other, and fell 
instantly with their horses. It was supposed they were 
both killed, and also their horses, for there were no signs 
of life in them; but they were bled immediately, and 
after two or three hours they began to recover, and in 
two days were able to go out again. One of the horses 
died. TTc went to see John Taylor, and paid him for the 
wine and brandy. He seemed to have more confidence in 
us. We gave him to read as further proofs, the letters 
which Mr. Ephraim Hermans and Mr. John Moll had 
written to us from the South river, both of whom he 
knew. He told us the reformed of Rochelle had sent 
some deputies to the colony of Boston and the inde- 
pendent church there to request the liberty to come over 
and live in a place near them, or among them, and in 
their country, which was granted them; and that they 
returned home three months ago. 1 

16'//, Tuesday. We packed our goods in readiness to 
leave. 

1 Wc find no allusion to this deputation of the Huguenots of Rochelle, 
in any of the writers or annalists of New England. In regard to the 
settlement by the French protectants five or six years later at Oxford, in 
Massachusetts, see Dr. Holmes's Memoir in Collections of the Massachusetts 
Historical ^>r> t ty, 3d Series, II, 1-83. 



A THUNDER STORM. PUT TO SEA. 39J 

IT/A, Wednesday. "We placed our gnoocls on board ship. 

18/A, Thursday. We took leave of Mr. Taylor, thanking 
him for his attention and kindness, and presented him 
with a copy of our Cantiques Saereis, for which he was 

thankful. "We would cheerfully have given him the 
Max'uiws 1 also, but our goods were packed on board the 
ship, and we could not get at them. He was now of a 
better mind and well satisfied, returning us our letters 
with thanks. While we were sitting at table this noon, it 
thundered very hard, whereupon one of the daughters of 
the woman of the house where we were staying, com- 
menced to scream and cry. We asked her if she were 
afraid of the thunder, upon which her mother inquired of 
us, if we were not. We said no, but the word had scarcely 
escaped our lips before there came a frightful clap, which 
seemed, to cleave the heart from the body, and entirely 
changed our ideas. My comrade, Mr. Vorsman, fumed 
as pale as a white sheet, and could hardly speak. I was 
fearful he had met with some mishap, but he recovered 
himself. It was said there had scarcely ever been heard 
there such thunder. One man was killed, and two others 
not far from being so. These three persons were running 
in a field, and two of them seeing and hearing the weather 
lay down flat on the ground under a tree; the third man 
played stout and brave, jeering at the others who called to 
him to come with them. Soon the lightning struck him 
dead to the earth, and separated the other two from each 
other. There was also a hard rock, not far from our lodg- 
ings, split through. 

19th, Friday and 20th, Saturday. Nothing occurred. 

21st, Sunday. Coming out of the church, Mr. Taylor 



1 This work was, an " Abregi d>< veritable Christianume on recattil&t 
Mitximes Cfirttt'emm. Par Jean de Labailk." A second edition in French 
was published} at Amsterdam, in 16S5. 



392 



BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 



?}><>ke to us, and invited us to dine with him, but \\v 
thanked him. 

$2d, Monday. We took our leave, and wont on board 
the ship, which was all ready to sail, except they were 
waiting for the captain. 

23'i, Thursday. After some delay the captain came on 
board with the rest of the passengers, accompanied In- 
many of their friends. Weighed anchor at three o'clock 
in the afternoon it being most low water, and set sail with 
a southwest and south southwest wind. In passing the 
fort we fired the salv®, which it answered; the pilot and 
the company then left us and we put to sea. But before 
going further to sea we must give a brief description of 
Xew England, and the city of Boston in particular. 

When Xew Sutherland was first discovered by the 
Hollanders, the evidence is that Xew England was not 
known; because the Dutch East India Company then 
sought a passage by the west, through which to sail to 
Japan and China: and if Xew England had been then 
discovered, they would not have sought a passage there. 
knowing; it to be the main land; just as when Xew 
Ketherland and Xew England did become known, such a 
passage was sought no longer through them, but further 
to the north through Davis and Hudson straits. The 
Hollanders when they discovered Xew Xetherland, em- 
braced under that name and title, all the coast from 
Virginia or Cape flhiloopmi^ eastwardly to Cape Cod, as 
it was then and there discovered by them and designated 
by Dutch names, as sufficiently appears by the char;.-. 
The English afterwards discovered Xew England anil 
settled there. They increased so in consequence of the 
great liberties ami favorable privileges which the king 
granted to the Independents, that they went to live noi 
only west of Cape Cod and Rhode Island, but also on 
Loim- Island and other places, and even took possession ^- 



TIIE INDEPENDENTS OF NEW ENGLAND. 393 

the whole of tie Fresh river [the Connecticut], which the 
Hollanders there were not able to prevent, in cpnscQuence 

of their small force in Xew iNetherland, and the scanty 
population. The English went more readily to the west, 
because the land was much better there, and more accessi- 
ble to vessels, and the climate was milder; and also 
because they could trade more conveniently with the 
Hollanders, and be supplied by them with provisions. 
Xew England is now described as extending from the 
Fresh river to Cape Cod and thence to Kennebec, com- 
prising three provinces or colonies, Fresh river or Con- 
necticut; Rhode Island and the other islands to Cape Cod; 
and Boston, which stretches from thence north. They 
are subject to no one, but acknowledge the king of 
England for their honor (ccr 1 ), and therefore no ships enter 
unless they have English passports or commissions. They 
have free trade with all countries; but the return cargoes 
from there to Europe, go to England, except those which 
go under the thumb [secretly] to Holland; There is no toll 
or duty paid upon merchandise exported or imported, nor 
is there any import or excise paid upon land. Each 
province chooses its own governor from the magistracy, 
and the magistrates are chosen from the principal inhabit- 
ants, merchants or planters. They are all Independents in 
matters of religion, if it can be called religion ; many of 
them perhaps more tor the purposes of enjoying the benefit 
of its privileges than lor any regard to truth and godliness. 
I observed that Willie the English flag or color has a red 
ground with a small white field in the uppermost corner 
where there is a red cross, they have here dispensed with 
this cross in their colors, and preserved the rest. They 
baptize no children except those of the members of the 
congregation. All their religion consists in observing 



1 So in the original. Probanly heer is intended, that is, lord. 
50 



394 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

Sunday, by not WdrMug or going into the taverns on thai 
day; but the houses are worse than the taverns. X<, 
stranger or traveler can therefore be entertained on a 
Sunday, which begins at sunset on Saturday, and continues 
until the same time on Sunday. At these two hours you 
see all their countenances change. Saturday evening the 
constable goes round into all the taverns of the city for 
the purpose of stopping all noise and debauchery, which 
frequently causes him to stop his search, before bis search 
causes the debauchery to stop. There is a penalty for 
cursing and swearing, such as they please to impose, the 
witnesses thereof being at liberty to insist upon it. Never- 
theless, you discover little difference between this and 
other places. Drinking and lighting occur there not less 
than elsewhere; and as to truth and true godliness, you 
must not expect more of them than of others. When we 
were there, four ministers' sons were learning the silver- 
smith's trade. 

The soil is not as fertile as in the west. Many persons 
leave there to go to the Delaware and Xew Jersey. They 
manure their lands with heads of fish. They gain their 
living mostly, or very much by fish, which they salt and 
dry for selling; and by raising horses, oxen and cows, as 
well as hogs and sheep, which they sell alive, or slaugh- 
tered and salted, in the Caribbean islands and other places. 
They arc not as good farmers as the Hollanders about 
New York. 

As to Boston particularly, it lies in latitude 42° 20' on 
a very fine bay. The city is quite large, constituting about 
twelve companies. It has three churches, or meeting 
houses, as they call them. .All the houses are made of 
thin, small cedar shingles, nailed against frames, and then 
filled in with brick and other stuff; and so are their churches. 
For this reason these towns are so liable to fires, as have 
already happened several times; and the wonder to me is. 



BOSTON HARBOR. THE PASSENGERS. 395 

that the whole city has not been burnt down, so light and 
dry are the material*. There is a large dock in front of 
it constructed of wooden piers, where the large ships go to 
be careened and rigged; the smaller vessels all come up 
to the city. On the left hand side across the river, lies 
Charlestown, a considerable place, where there is some 
shipping. Upon the point of the bay, ou the left hand, 
there is a block-house, along which a piece of water runs, 
called the Milk ditch. The whole place has been an island, 
but it is now joined to the main land by a low road to 
Eoxbury. In front of the town there are many small 
islands, between which you pass in sailing in and out. On 
one of the middlemost stands the fort where the ships 
show their passports. At low tide the water in the 
channel between the islands is three and a half and four 
fathoms deep, in its shallowest part. You sail from the 
city southeasterly to the fort, bypassing Governor's island 
on the larboard, and having passed the fort, you keep close 
to the south, then southeast, and gradually more to the^east 
to the sea. On reaching the sea we set our course due 
east, with the wind south southeast, and made good pro- 
gress. 

24//?, Wednesday. The wind and our course continued 
the same; but it is to be observed, the compass here is a 
point and a half northwesting. We spoke an English ship 
bound to Virginia. We found our latitude 10' north, and 
the distance we had sailed 9C miles. 

25/A, Thursday. The wind became more southerly, but 
we held our course the same as before, or east by south. 
Latitude 42° 68*. Distance reckoned to be 18(3 miles. 
The English ship which had remained in company until 
now, left us. It began to blow T so hard in the evening, 
that we had to reef the topsails and take in the mainsail, 
and proceed with the mizzensail and foresail. 

26th, Friday, The wind was due south, although it had 



396 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

been a little more westerly during the niglit. We obi 
the latitude -12° 51'; reckoned the distance run 9C mil. *. 

We had stipulated when we engaged our passage, to i 
in the ea1>in, but when we got to sea, we did not do so. 
There were ten passengers besides us two, and amoi ; 
them two feniales. These ten had jointly bough! a lar- • 
quantity of provisions and groceries, and placed them hi 
the cabin, they having such power over the captain. We 
were therefore compelled to remain outside, although we 
remonstrated. We saw afterwards that it was the Lord's 
doings, who woilld not that we should be in nearer com- 
munion with such wicked persons. We then arranged to 
eat with the mate and another passenger above on the half 
deck. We four brought together what provisions we had, 
and were well satisfied with each other. We had to-day 
a good topsail breeze and Hue weather. - 

21ik, Saturday. It was rainy during the night; and 
although our hunk was in the gunner's room, it leaked in 
there very much. At sunrise it cleared up a little. Wo 
could not obtain any observation, but supposed the latitude 
was 43°. The course was east southeast, the distance 
run 100 miles. As it was Saturday evening a hog was 
killed, there being seven or eight on board the ship. 

28//', Smvltvj. The weather was toe, with a wersterfy 
wind, but not an entirely clear atmosphere. 

Among the passengers in ilio cabin was a minister, an 
Independent, who had formerly been in the East Indies, at 
Bantam on the island of Java. He had been visiting be- 
friends in Xew England, but undoubtedly could not obtain 
any situation among them, and was returning to England 
in order to sail if lie could in the first .-hips back to the 
Indies. This poor minister, every morning and evening. 
made a prayer, read some chapters out of the Old and Zsew 
Testaments, and sang a psalm, all after the manner of I 
Independents. On Sundays he preached both in the i 






FINE FISHING ON THE BANKS. 397 

ingand afternoon, and we attended in order to avoid scandal 
and dissipate as much as possible the breath of calumny. 

We could not obtain any altitude to-day, in consequence 
of the haze. Our course had been almost the whole night 
southeast by east and the course was therefore east by south ; 
the distance was upwards of eighty miles. At noon it he- 
came calm, afterwards rainy, and in the evening the wind 
changed to the northwest, but continued still. 

29th, Monday. We found the height of the pole at noon 
to-day 43° 29', as to which another person and myself, who 
took the height, differed twenty minutes, and others ten. 
The distance run was forty miles ; the course was about 
east. At noon a strong breeze sprung out of the northwest 
and we therefore went ahead again on a course east north- 
east. Gave a ham from our stores to he cooked. 

BOlIt, Tuesday. The wind northwest and our course east 
southeast. We had run onlj- about eighty miles. Lati- 
tude 43° 43'. How unskillfully the steering was managed 
I cannot say. We supposed we had now passed the island 
of Sable, and held our course for the banks of Newfound- 
land. It was quite calm in the evening. We were daily 
amused at the swimming and tumbling of potshead whales, 
and the swiftness of the tunnies which are much more 
numerous here than about Europe ; but we observed no 
other fish. 

Slst) Wednesday. The wind east and east by south, but 
light. Could not sail south southeast as we had done 
during the night, and at eight o'clock in the morning, we 
wore ship and were thus enabled to sail about northeast. 
We took the altitude of the pole above the horizon, 
and found it 43° 52'. Our whole progress was 32 miles to 
the northeast. We could afterwards sail east northeast, 
but made little progress. Towards evening it began to 
blow a little from the southeast, which caused us to go 
ahead more. 



398 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 



; 



August 1st, Thtirtifitty. The beginning of tins month 

brought to mind that we were in this region a year a<*o. 
We made good progress last night, east northeast. It wan 
misty aud rainy for which reason we could not take an. 
observation. AVe reckoned we were in 45° 20' and had 
sailed 96 miles, being about 100 miles northeast by north 
from Cape Race. The water was very clear which in- 
duced us to believe we were on a bank, not the great bank 
of Xewfoundland, but the bank they call Banc au vert. 
After dinner the deep lead was thrown, as we had done for 
two or three days previously without sounding bottom. 
We now found thirty-eight fathoms of water and a bottom 
of white sand and small pebbles. Every thing was pro- 
pared in order to fish, most of the sails taken in, and the rest 
muzzled. We had at first three hooks and towards the 
last another, and in about three hours caught one hundred 
and fifty large codfish, which the captain salted down for 
the ship's provision. We had fresh fisli for a day or two, 
but the English do not understand how to cook or dress 
fish. Catching such a large quantity of fish in such a short 
time, was very exciting; it seemed as if the entire bottom 
of the sea were covered with them, but you did not see 
them. Two hooks were constantly being pulled up while 
the others were bcins; let down. Our hearts could not other- 
wise than ascend to God, admiring him as the source of 
such abundance, in the bosom of the wide ocean as well as 
upon the land, of creatures which he subjects as it were by 
force, to unworthy and sinful men, who instead of being 
drawn thereby to him to glorify him and sanctify them- 
selves and these creatures, by their use, to God, are not 
only not affected at his plenitude and goodness, but mis- 
use such good creatures to the scorn and dishonor of their 
Creator. I let my thoughts run as they come. I have 
found this reason for there being so many more fish :'* 
these places than at others. Although these banks arc 



WHAT THE FISH FEED ON THERE. 399 

from 200 to 250 miles, distant from Capo Race, the nearest 
land, there La, nevertheless, a great stream which can be 
easily discerned by the eye and is also found by obser na- 
tions in sailing. This current, or stream, coming across 
the entire sea, as we have shown, by the Caribbean islands, 
stopping and turning in the Gulf of Mexico, running 
thence through the channel of the Bahamas, along the 
coast of Florida, Virginia, Xew Xetherland, Xew England, 
and Acadia to this latitude — this £reat stream, scouring 
all along the coast, carries with it whatever is found there, 
of food for fish, and also whatever is discharged into the sea, 
out of the numerous rivers it passes by, and brings the 
loose soil, pebbles, rubbish and food to these banks. 

The reason why these are stopped here, and washed no 
further is, because a counter current comes behind Iceland, 
from Davis and Hudson straits, and from the great river 
St. Lawrence or Canada, and meet upon the point of Cape 
Race, and there make whirlpools with each other. In 
consequence of these whirlpools and choppings, all the stuff 
for the food of fish is collected together; and as this is 
constantly brought there by. the stream so also are the fish. 
The codfish feed upon a species of crab or sea spider, and 
a small fish which lives in the sand, that we call smelt, in 
Zeeland, where many are taken from the sand on the 
shores. The bank upon which we caught them is desig- 
nated on the sea chart by the name of Banc an vert. 

The wind changed in the evening and blew harder. 
We therefore left off fishing, and set the sails again. 
The wind was easterly and we laid our course south, sail- 
ing southeasterly, but with short, sails. The wind in- 
creased so that we had to take in the foresail, and lie by. 
It seemed as if we were compelled to pay for the pleasure 
of fishing and fish. 

2^/, Friday. It blew hard all night with a heavy beating 
of the sea in front. At the head of our bunk in the gun- 



400 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

nor's room, \tras a bunk crosswise, before tlie stem of the 
ship; and up almost against the deck. In this bunk there 
was a small window, which the passenger who slept there 
had forgotten to shut, and through which the water came 
occasionally upon him in consequence of the rolling of the 
sea. It came so strong at last that he became frightened, 
gasping for breath and screaming as if lie had fallen into 
the sea. Indeed he not only thought lie Was in the sea, 
but that he alone was sinking. He awakened us all up, 
but we had to laugh at him. 

We had drifted about eight miles north while we were 
fishing, as the wind was easterly. When the day broke, 
and after prayer, the mainsail was reefed so that it ex- 
tended a little over the stem of the ship. Steering south- 
east with a course south by east or south southeast we 
reckoned our progress in all twenty-eight miles. At 
evening it was calmer. 

3d, Saturday. Although it was more calm, we remained 
under short sails, with a frightful jolting and pitching of 
the ship, in consequence of the sea rolling in front of us, 
loosening and making every thing crack. In the forenoon 
the reefs were let out and topsail set, but we did not make 
much headway. We calculated we had made thirty-two 
miles, and the latitude was 44° 35'. At three o'clock in 
the afternoon we wore ship to the north, and laid our 
course northeast, that is, with the variation, northeast by 
north. The wind gradually veered to the south and in- 
creased some, but the sea was not entirely quiet. 

4//<, Sunday. Wind southwest, and course same as be- 
fore. We could not obtain an observation, but reckoned 
the latitude 44° 0' and the distance sixty miles. It was 
very foggy; nevertheless, saw six or eight vessels fishing, 
which we supposed were French, but we spoke none oi 
them. I had several times suspeeted that our small 
stock of wine, which was lying behind our berth, had suf- 



STILL OX THE BANKS. 401 

fered an attack, for I thought I eouhl perceive if. had, as 
well as oar bottle case of brandy; but to-day, after we 
came, from prayer, wishing to tap a little of it, we found it 
had been touched, and a fourth part of it gone. We were, 
therefore, compelled to remove both wine and brandy from 
there and place them in the hut. It seems, while we sat at 
prayer, they went out in order to play this trick, and had 
performed it several times. And, therefore, although it 
was Sunday, we removed them in order that they might 
be protected from such birds of prey. 

5th, Monday. The course at one time was east by south, 
and afterwards east. The distance was east sixty-six 
miles. The wind west northwest and northwest. "We 
could take no observation, and we reckoned the latitude 
45° 15'. We had thrown the lead early, and found thirty- 
eight fathoms of water. The sails were taken in, and we 
began to fish, but caught nothing. We drifted without 
any wind, and made little or no progress. In the afternoon 
we caught a fine eodiish, whereupon the sails which had 
been set, were taken in, in order to fish again, but it was in 
vain. Several whales came to-day to amuse us by their 
swimming and tumbling, as a recompense for our catching 
no fish. 

6ih, Tuesday. Fourteen days at sea. W r e had made little 
progress during the night, but with the day came a fresh 
breeze from the south and southwest. We set all our sails 
and made good headway. It being misty at noon, we 
were prevented from taking an observation, but calcu- 
lated the latitude 45°, 50', and the distance upwards of 
forty miles. The course was east northeast, that is, north- 
east by east. The captain supposed we were still on the 
Banc an vert, and had not. yet reached the great bank. 
W r e threw the lead at evening, although the water was black, 
but we run out more than 140 fathoms without finding 
bottom. The reason that our captain was fearful, was be- 
51 



402 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

cause on the land side of the great bank of Newfoundland 
there are twenty large rocks about sixty miles from Cape 
Race, lying southeast and northwest, which he last year 
came very near to, and was in great danger. We were 
compelled this evening to eat in the cabin, where those 
wretches laughed at our going upon deck, which we were 
obliged to do in order not to give them any umbrage, and on 
the other hand to take care lest we might be Jikc them in 
any thing. 

7th, Wednesday. The wind and course as before ; atmo- 
sphere misty, and we therefore could not obtain the altitude. 
"We calculated we were in 47° 10 ; , and that the distance 
sailed was 128 miles. In the afternoon, the wind was more 
westerly, and even northwesterly. We went along tolera- 
bly well the whole night. 

6th, Thursday. The ship ran 160 to 168 miles in the 
twenty-four hours. It blew a storm in the first part of the 
night from the northwest; but after midnight it subsided, 
though the sea hove so, that not only was the progress 
stopped, but the ship tossed and pitched exceedingly. 

9th, Friday. The wind was less at daylight, and the 
pitching of the ship gradually lessened. Reckoned the 
latitude 49° 30', and the distance 140 miles. About mid- 
night the wind shifted to the southwest, and afterwards 
south southwest, with heavy rain. The course was a little 
northeast by east, and afterwards in order to keep the ship 
straight before the wind, northeast bv north. 

10th, Saturday. The wind began with the day to subside 
gradually. The course was laid northeast. We reckoned 
the distance 120 miles. 

\lth, Sunday. It was quite, good weather, but cloudy. 
The captain took an observation as well as he could, which 
gave 52° 23'. The distance was reckoned 100 miles. The 
captain and mate took an observation of the north star. 

Ylth, Monday. The wind west northwest, a light topsail 



CARDS. SPOILED FISH. 403 

breeze. Obtained a gopd observation ; and found the lati- 
tude 53° 40', the distau.ee sailed 186 miles, the course held 

northeast. We were now about 040 miles from Ireland. 

lBtk, 'Tuesday. The wind northwest, and north northwest, 
with a cloudy sky. Course northeast by east. The dis- 
tance sailed 118 miles. 

14$, Wednesday. Last evening the wind was northeast 
and north northeast, and we had, therefore, to sail on seve- 
ral courses, but the course held was east by south, and the 
distance made GO miles. Although it began to be cold we 
could endure it the more cheerfully because we were 
approaching home. 

15$, Thursday. It beeame quite calm. We obtained an 
observation at noon, and found the latitude 54° 49'. The 
distance was 56 miles, and the course held east by south, 
a little more easterly, but by noon it began to blow so that 
the topsails had to be reefed. Our passengers, who sat 
every night, almost the whole night, playing cards, minister 
and all, had played and drank so this night, that they were 
at daylight assaulting each other pell mell. They fre- 
quently deprived us of sleep. We had to thank God, 
which we did in our hearts, that he had kept us from being 
in their company. 

16//;, Friday . The wind as before, and the progress good. 
The course northeast. We obtained a good observation of 
56° 20'. The distance sailed was 132 miles. In the after- 
noon the wind was west and west southwest. 

At the time the sea burst into the gunner's room, it ran 
into the powder room where there was a large quantity 
of dry fish. This began to rot, and for a long time 
caused a stench in the gunner's room, the cause of which we 
could not imagine. We could hardly stay there day or 
night. There was also lying in the crib a wounded IIol- 
steiner, who had lain sick three years with his wound at 
Boston, and was now going to Europe. We gave this 



404 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

poor follow all the blame of the stench, and not altogether 
unjustly, for he could not help himself much; hut, never- 
theless, we had done him wrong, for the powder room being 
opened, all the fish had to he brought up in order to be 
dried, and those which were spoiled thrown overboard. 
There was also a large chest of cloaks, all new, which had 
been taken to the Barbados for sale, and thence to Boston ; 
but were now being carried from Boston to England, 
because they could not be sold. They were now wet with 
foul, salt and stinking water, and half spoiled. There was 
also a case of white braided gloves for women and children, 
which had to be washed in fresh water and dried, and a 
large parcel of beaver skins. 

Vtth, Saturday. 1 slept very little last night in conse- 
quence of the noise. We had sailed during the night a 
little to the east, because our captain was afraid of falling 
on the island of Bus, as he was not much west of it, though 
according to our reckoning he was to the east of it. We 
found our latitude was 57° 80', and therefore hoped to pass 
Bus and the rock Bockol. We sailed on several courses, 
but the one maintained was northeast by north. The dis- 
tance sailed was 100 miles. I remained on deck myself, 
in order to keep a lookout for the great rock Bockol. 

ISth, Sunday. We took an observation. Latitude 58° 30'. 
It was very cold here and the days long. The wind con- 
tinued northeast and north northeast, with hard weather, 
which caused us to take in our sails, and about ten o'clock 
in the evening to tack about. 

19^, Monday. We obtained an observation at 57° 51', 
and we still more believed we were before the rock Bockol, 
which lies in 57° 40' : but we put our hope and trust in 
God, committing ourselves into his hands. 

20th, Tuesday. It became gradually more still, and at last 
we could sail east northeast, and northeast. We had sailed 
72 miles. We could not take an observation. 



THE NORTH ATLANTIC. 405 

21$i, Wednesday* The wind was northwest, and our 
course east and east by north, with little headway. We 
found the latitude 58° 10'; the course held was east by 
north ; the distance 40 miles. "We, therefore, supposed we 
wore between llockol and St. Kilda. Towards evening the 
wind shot from the north northwest, so that we could sail 
east northeast, and afterwards northeast by cast ; but there 
was a rolling sea, and, therefore, we could not go ahead 
much because it came from the front. The wind, how- 
ever, improved. 

22</, Thursday. The wind was west northwest, and the 
course northeast by east, with the sea continuing to roll 
against us in front. We found ourselves at noon in 59° 5' 
at which we rejoiced, because we had to enter the jSTorth 
sea between the 59th and GOth degree. The distance 
sailed was 88 miles upon several courses. At noon the 
course was set northeast by east in order to sail above the 
island of little Barro. There was a small purse made up 
by the passengers, each one contributing what he pleased, for 
the person who should first discover land. We gave two 
shillings each. The minister would not give any thing. 
It seems that meanness is a peculiarity of this class of 
people. This was done, in order that the sailors might 
look out more zealously for land, and so we might not 
fall upon land unexpectedly. The purse was nailed to the 
mast, so that being always in sight, it might be a constant 
incentive, and whoever might first see land might take 
it off. W r e were becalmed the whole night. 

23</, Friday. It was calm, beautiful weather. They 
thought they saw land ; so the sailors said ; and that it 
was Barro ; but I could observe nothing. W r e also had 
greener water, and, therefore, supposed we were on sound- 
ings. The deep lead was thrown, but at 200 fathoms it 
came short. The latitude was 79° 31'. The wind north- 
east, and we sailed east, for we were almost in the latitude 



406 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

of the south point of Shetland. We saw several times, 
quantities of spermaceti drifting, a yellowish fat, which 
lies in the water, all together, but solid like the green 
scum, which floats in ditches. We also saw rockweed 
floating; and a small land bird came on board the ship, from 
which we concluded we were approaching land. The 
wind was more free, and after ruuning out and in, it re- 
mained north northeast. It blew so hard that the topsails 
had to be reefed at first, and then taken in. We sailed 
sometimes east, then east by north and east by south, and 
again east. 

24/A, Saturday. It blew very hard from the north north- 
east accompanied by rain, and we, therefore, could not 
ascertain the latitude but reckoned we were in 59° 20'. The 
course was held half way between east and south, which 
brought us near the before mentioned rocks. It became 
calm at night. 

25//i, Sunday. It continued calm until noon. We ob- 
tained the altitude, 59° 30'. Our progress was 40 miles, 
and the course a little more north than east. At noon the 
wind was south and south southeast, with, a fresh breeze. 
We saw this morning a flock of land birds, like finches; 
also pigeons and small gulls, which keep themselves on 
the shore. Towards evening it was very foggy. We 
sailed during the night east southeast. 

26th, Monday. It was tolerably good weather, but it 
soon came up thick and rainy with a strong wind. We 
continued sailing east by south. Calculated the distance 
5G miles. We kept a good look out, for my reckoning 
upon the one chart was out and differed from the other 
only 32 miles. The Lord protects us from disaster, and 
will guide us further, as we fully trust in him. 

27//*, Tuesday. We had not had during the whole voyage 
such hard weather as during this night. The wind was 
southeast and south southeast, with a thick mist and ram. 



THE ORKNEYS. RIDICULOUS FRIGHT. 407 

which at last made us lie by, with only the mizzen sail, in 
a bar J short sea which tossed and pitched us. "We saw all 
day many land and sea birds which caused us to look out 
carefully for land. The distance made was 84 miles. At 
evening the wind was south southwest, whereby we sailed 
or drifted east by south and south southeast until day. 

2Sik, Wednesday. It was better weather, and we again 
began to sail. The wind was southwest. The lower sails 
were well reefed, but we shipped several heavy seas. The 
sea rolled the whole da}-. It was lucky for a sailor that 
the Lord preserved him from being washed overboard by 
an over-breaking sea ; it was a narrow escape, but in 
floating off he caught a rope or something, to which he 
clung and was saved. We saw much seaweed, and whole 
flocks of rock and land birds, and also a species of clucks 
and geese, besides another kind of bird. Fish lines were 
made ready, but we could catch nothing. The latitude 
was 59° 51'| which was a good height and encouraged us. 
We sailed still east southeast on a maintained east course. 

29th, Thursday. While we were at prayer this morning, 
"Land! Land! 5 ' was called out; and although these 
prayers were so drowsy and miserable, especially for us, 
who were opposed to their doctrines, I had to restrain and 
mortify myself by not going up on deck, as several did, and 
almost all wished to do. It was the gunner who first dis- 
covered land, and took from the mast the little purse in 
which he found 28 shillings and pence sterling, that is, 
fifteen guilders and fourteen stuivcis, a good day's wages. 
The land we saw was the Orkney islands, 2S to 32 miles 
south southeast of us which we sketched as well as we 
could. About two hours afterwards we saw very high 
land in front of us to the leeward, which we supposed at 
first was Fairhill, but we soon saw other land in front on 
the starboard, and we now discovered that the land to the 
larboard was the rock Falo, and that on the starboard was 



408 BOSTON, AND TITE VOYAGE HOME. 

Fairhill. 1 T sat. on the main yard to observe how the land 
rose up, and while there, saw a vessel or a sail, which soon 
caused great consternation on board of our. ship, and still 
more when I said there were two of them. They were 
afraid they were Turks; and so much did this idea blind 
them, that eyes, understanding and reason had no oflicc to 
perform. These small vessels were certainly large ships 
and Turks. Every thing was put out of the way ; many 
did not know what they were doing from fear, which in- 
creased greatly, when they saw one of the vessels coming 
towards us before the wind. It was all hurly-burly and 
every one was ordered immediately to quarters. I was 
very busy, our place being on the quarter-deck where 
there were four guns, which I pushed into the port holes. 
These were loaded and we were soon ready for fight. In 
the meanwhile, the vessel coming nearer, the minister, 
who should have encouraged the others, ran below into 
the powder room, all trembling and shaking. He inquired 
if that was far enough below water, and if he could be 
shot there. Another person from the East Indies was 
with him. The surgeon had all things ready for the battle, 
but unfortunately I looked out and saw it was a Dutch 
smack with a small topsail, flying the Prince's flag. But 
they silenced me ; Turk it was, and Turk it should re- 
main, and I must go back to my quarters. At last she 
came alongside, and they hailed her, but could not under- 
stand what was replied. I was then called upon to speak 
to them, and I went on the stern and saw it was as 1 had 
said. I inquired where they were from, and what they 
were doing there. They answered, they were from 
Amsterdam; were cruising in search of two East Indian 1 en 
which the chamber of Amsterdam had missed, and they 



1 A small island between the Orkneys and the Shetland islands. Several 
shore line views of it accompany the journal. 



ENTERING THE NORTH SEA. 



401* 



wanted to know whether we had soon anything of them. 
We informed them we had soon no ships since we were 
on the banks of Newfoundland, and we were from New 
England, bound to London. "We asked if there were any 
danger from the Turks. None at all, they said, which 
gave courage to our captain and others, as well as the 
minister, who had emerged from the powder room, where 
he bad hidden himself. We also inquired how affairs 
stood with England, Holland and France. They answered 
well, as far as they knew. Having obtained this informa- 
tion, I told our captain such good news was worth a salute, 
and he fired a six-pounder shotted. The Dutch captain 
asked for a little tobacco in exchange for pickled herrings : 
but many excuses were offered, and he got none. He said 
the other vessel was a Hollander from Iceland, and we 
had nothing to fear: that almost all the ships which we 
might see in the North sea were ships from Holland ; a 
remark which annoyed our captain and the others very 
much ; and not being able to stand it, they tacked about 
ship and wore off, leaving the cruiser and passing outside, 
or between Eairhill and the Orkneys. 

BOth, Friday. We had lain over again at midnight, 
with a south southwest wind. At daybreak it was entirely 
calm. I was called out of my berth to go to the captain, in 
order to discriminate the land, distinguishing Eairhill and 
the Orkneys. He exhibited great ignorance and fear, for 
we had seen the land well the day before, and the cruiser 
had fully informed us: he knew well enough, how we had 
sailed during the night, and with what progress, and that 
we all agreed with the foregoing height of the polo. A\ e 
took several crayon sketches of Fairhill and the other 
lands, the more because they arc not shown from th:it 
side in the Zcespkgel of Lichtende Cdom} We found the 



1 The Sea Mirror or Lightning Column, a book of sea charts published 1 y 



62 



410 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

latitude to-day to "be 59° 40'. Many birds came round the 
ship, and some sparrow hawks and small blue hawks 
which we caught with our hands. AYe stretched over 
again to the Orkneys, in order to he clear of Fairhill ; the 
wind being southeast and southeast by east, we had foe 
and misty weather. 

31st, Saturday. We saw the Orkneys this morn- 
ing, although we had shifted eight miles during the 
night. We stretched away from them again and dis- 
covered a strong current, which the nearer Scotland and 
the Orkneys it was the stronger it was. It runs mostly 
east and east southeast, and west and west northwest. 
The latitude obtained was 59° 26'. At evening we 
found ourselves about 28 or 32 miles from Fairhill 
north northeast. This is a beautiful round hill, as its 
name in English denotes. We held our course with 
several tacks, over and back, to reach the Xorth sea. We 
saw several ships but could not get near enough to 
speak to them. 

September 1st, Sunday. The weather was misty; the 
wind as before, calm. Could not obtain the latitude, hut 
we reckoned we had sailed about forty miles, east by 
south. We saw some hcrrin o-.busses. 

2rf, Monday. The wind continued southeast and south 
southeast. The weather was good but calm and misty. 
We calculated the latitude 58° 40'. We kept beating 
from and to the shore. 

36?, Tuesday. It was still drizzling and calm. We saw 
several vessels in which we would gladly have been, in 
order to see if there were no opportunity of going in them 
to Holland, whither they seemed to be sailing, or at least to 
obtain some refreshment of fish or something else; but 

Peter Gogs, of Amsterdam, hot bin Dutch and English. The edition to I ' 
ns is the English one, with the. date of 1G0S. 



JUTLAND REEF. THE DOGGERBAXK. 41 j 

the captain would not consent. At noon we turned 
towards the shore and sailed mostly south. 

4th, Wednesday. The wind southeast and south southeast, 
with dead water as if we were sailing in a river. We had 
"been near the shore all night, on various courses, of one, two 
and three points difference. We took a good ohservation, 
namely, 58° 8'; the distance sailed was sixty miles, the 
course held south southwest. At noon the water was 
greener, and we, therefore, supposed we were in deeper 
water. We saw this morning the four ockers [Dutch fishing 
boats], "before mentioned hehind us, hut we were soon after- 
wards out of sight of them. 

5th, Thursday. Our course was east hy north and east 
northeast, now a little in, and then again out. The wind 
was mostly south southwest. We found the latitude o8° 
34', so much were we set north. We had not gone ahead far, 
as there was not much wind, and the sea rolled directly 
against us. We reckoned the distance to be at night 
forty miles. But it was entirely calm, and the wind 
subsided with mist and rain. We drifted thus all ni<jht. 

o 

The deep lead was thrown at midnight, and eighty fathoms 
of water were found. We endeavored to catch some fish, 
but did not succeed. We caught several sparrow hawks 
and small blue hawks. 

Gth, Friday. We had made little progress. The wind 
was northwest. There was a thick mist with drizzling 
rain. Our course until noon was east southeast; the 
latitude was 79°; the distance 104 miles. We spoke an 
ocker, and inquired where we were. He said he was lying 
on the reef to fish, about 136 miles, he supposed, from Xew 
Castle, in Scotland, southwest of him, which agreed well 
with our calculation. Had 50 fathoms of water. This 
reef shoots out from the coast of Jutland and runs into the 
middle of the Korth sea, northwardly around the Shetland 
islands, and from thence almost to Eockol, but it lies nearer 



412 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

the Scottish coast than the coast of Norway, and a little more 
so than is represented on the chart. We caught many birds 
and also swallows. 

1tk 9 Saturday. It had been very calm through the night ; 
but the wind shifted to the south, and we, therefore, had 
to change our course continually; at last it was south 
southeast, and we could not sail higher than west by north. 
We found the latitude 50° 24', but could not judge well 
because the sun was obscured. The reckoning was 55° 
55' ; the course was south by west; the distance 56 miles. 
We here came into a whole school of tunnies which 
afforded us great amusement. We also saw several ships 
ahead of us, and heard much firing of guns. 

8//<, Sunday. Calm and rainy weather. We had made 
thi3 whole night and from noon yesterday, not more than 
28 or 82 miles progress. The course was south southeast 
sailing over against the wind, in order to come upon the 
Doggerbank. Saw several vessels, one of which ran before 
us, over to jSew Castle. Reckoned at noon to-day we 
were 40 miles from the Do£2;erbank. 

$th, Monday. In the morning watch, threw the deep lead 
in 25 fathoms, sandy bottom, green, white and red. About 
ten o'clock we had 20 fathoms with the same ground. The 
atmosphere was thick and hazy. The latitude we supposed 
was 55° 19'. We were now certainly on the Doggerbank. 
We caught many young spier liaytics. which the English 
call dogs, and because large numbers of these fish always 
keep there, the bank, which is very large and almost makes 
the figure of a fishing boat, is called the Doggerbank. At 
four o'clock we had 18 fathoms, and in the evening 17. 
The course still south southeast, and the wind northeast, 
breezy and calm, intermingled. In the night the deep 
lead was thrown several times, and we found 19, 18, 15 
and 14 fathoms of water. 

10th, Tuesday. The wind blew from most all points ; at 



EASTERN COAST OF ENGLAND. 4^3 

ten o'clock it was northeast and east northeast, with 12, 11, 
10, 9| fathoms of water. The latitude was 54° 44'. Wd 
saw several large ships and heard heavy firing of guns 
which made our captain and others, very serious, for we 
heard 40 or 50 shots. Seeing a ship behind us, we let the 
sails run and waited for her. On her approaching us, we 
found she was a Dutch flute ; and when we spoke her, 
they said they were from Muscovy, bound for Amster- 
dam. We wished with our whole hearts we were on hoard 
of her with our goods, for we would then sooner have been 
home. There was a rolling sea, so that there was no 
prospect of being put aboard of her; "besides, the captain 
would not have been willing. Thev could not tell us 
much news. We asked where they reckoned they were, 
and they said not far from where we knew, that they were 
on the Doggerbank. In the evening we found the water 
deeper than 20 fathoms, and afterwards 25, at midnight 
80, and in the day watch 45, with a bottom of fine sand. 

11th, Wednesday. In the forenoon, found the water more 
shallow, 25, 23 and 20 fathoms, and we, therefore, believed 
we had passed from the Doggerbank to the Welle, another 
bank so called. We obtained a good observation, and the 
latitude was 54° net, the ship's altitude 5' being deducted, 
left 43° 55', which agreed very well with our chart, with 
the depth, and our reckoning. The distance was put at 
40 miles. We saw many ships around us, but could speak 
none. It continued calm until evening, when we found 
20 and afterwards 17 fathom water, over a coarse red and 
white sandy bottom, mixed with small stones. The course 
was south southeast. 

12th, Thursday. The latitude 53° 45', that is the height 
of our eyes above the water being deducted; the distance 
24 miles; the course south southeast, a little southerly. 
We reckoned we were at the middle of the Welle bank. 
We longed for a good wind, and we were only sixty miles 



414 BOSTON, AXD THE VOYAGE HOME. 

from Yarmouth and 100 or 104 from Harwich. We fished 

a little, but only caught two or three small codfish, and 
hauled up with the hook a great quantity of stone and sea 
weed. In the first watch the wiud w T as north and north- 
east, with slack water in 15, 14, 17, 19 and 20 fathoms. 
The captain, therefore, sailed southeast and southeast by 
south, through fear of the Lemcnoirs and other Yarmouth 
shoals. 

13$, Friday. It blew a stiff topsail breeze. "We had 17 
and 18 fathoms of water, which looked quite white, and 
made me think we were near the White water, another 
bank so named, on which there is 17 and 16 fathoms. 
We sailed south southwest. We waited for a herring-bus 
coming towards us, and spoke to her. She was from 
Rotterdam, had been to sea a long time, and had seen no 
land. They told us they were between Wells and the 
White water, nearer the latter, and that South Foreland 
was south southwest of us. They could tell us nothing 
more. We wished we were in the bus, for then we 
might have been in the Maes that evening as she had a 
good wind. The latitude was 52° 50'. We sailed south- 
west in 23 fathoms of water, with a bottom of fine sand a 
little reddish and mixed with black. In sailing towards 
the shore we had 18 hi thorn s ; when about three, or half 
past three o'clock in the afternoon they cried out, land ! 
and proceeding further on, we saw the grove near Yar- 
mouth, and shortly afterwards Yarmouth steeple, south- 
west by west and west southwest from us. We sailed 
more southerly and discovered the whole coast. We came 
to anchor about seven o'clock in 16 fathoms. 

14//<, Saturday. It had been good weather through the 
night, and we had rested well. We saw when the sun 
rose, which shone against the coast and was entirely clear, 
how the coast ran. The land is not so high as it is west 
of the Thames to Land's End. There are many villages. 



ARRIVAL IN THE THAMES. LONDON. 415 

Yarmouth looked like a pleasant little place, an it lay 
north northwest of us. We saw many ships sailing one 
way and the other. Having waited for the ehh to run out 
we got under sail about eight o'clock. "We sailed by 
Sowls, 1 and came to anchor again about three o'clock in 
the afternoon. The passengers had every thing ready to 
go ashore, and so over land to London. There was a sig- 
nal made with the flag from our ship, and a shot fired for 
a pilot or some one else to come on hoard. Towards 
evening a small boat came with five men, but no pilot. 
The flood making about nine or ten o'clock in the even- 
ing, and running along the whole Scottish and English 
coast, from the Orkneys to the Thames, we sailed on 
again until we came to another village where our passen- 
gers went ashore. It was about midnight. The weather 
was fine and the moon shone bright ; we fired five or six 
guns. The minister was sad and complained that it was 
Sunday, or Saturday evening, and he dared not go ashore, 
lest he should break the Sabbath; but finally he let his 
wishes override his scruples, and went off with the passen- 
gers. We obtained a pilot and some refreshments, and 
then sailed on till, we came before Dunwich, 2 the oldest 
place in England, and once the mightiest in commerce. 
"We came ao-ain to anchor in order to wait for the tide. 
The wind continued west southwest. 

15th, Sunday. The wind mostly as before. We were 
under sail about ten o'clock, with the flood tide, and 



1 Southwold, a small seaport town on the east coast of England, ( J4 miles 
northwest of London. Southwold or Sole bay was the scene of the great 
naval battle between the Dutch, under De Ruyter, and the English and 
French, under the Duke of York and Marshal (J'Estrees, in May, 1672. 

2 This town appears in old times to have been a great place of commerce 
in herring. In the year 1105, it was obliged to deliver 24,000 herrings to 
the king. Its importance has been entirely destroyed by incroaehinents 
of the sea upon its harbor.— McCulloch. 






416 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

tacked along the land in seven fathoms of water to the 
point of Aldborough, to reach which we made five or 
six short tacks. Running close to the shore, we came 
among a fleet of, I think, full 200 coal ships, all beating 
up the river, which made it difficult to avoid each other. 
We passed through the King's channel. I have never 
seen so many sunken ships as there were in the mouth of 
the Thames, full eight or ten in different places, from 
various causes. The tide being spent we came to anchor 
before a village called St. Peter. 

16th, Monday. The wind being mostly north, the 
weather was cold and piercing. The whole fleet was 
under sail,' with the flood tide, and we along with them. 
They had talked loudly in Boston of the sailing qualities 
of our ship, but almost the whole coal fleet sailed ahead of 
us. 

18th, Wednesday. The wind remained still, with mist. 
"We saw it would be some days yet before the ship would 
reach the city, and, therefore, determined to go up in a 
wherry, that is, a row-boat, from Gravesend. As soon as 
one came alongside we went aboard, and passed by Graves- 
end, and other villages. It was nine o'clock in the even- 
ing when we landed at St. Catharines, and went to a 
tavern called the Dutch Smack, but they would not re- 
ceive us. We then went to the Inlander, the landlord of 
which was a Fleming, and a papist, but not the worst one. 
We paid for the boat three English shillings in all. We 
three, namely, Vorsman, Jan Ovins, the surgeon of our 
ship, a Rotterdammer, and myself, supped together ; this 
was the first time we had slept in a bed in a long time. 

Vdth, Thursday. We went through the city, the newly 
built portion, as well as the other, but we found it very 
different from what we had imagined. We went to the 
Exchange and conversed with our captain and the 
other passengers. We endeavored to find the first vessel 



ST. JAMES'S PARK. KING CIIARLES II. 41 7 

going to Holjand. They told us there were two smacks 
or galiota lying ready, and would leave on Monday, for 
which we prepared ourselves. 

20/A, Friday. We went to "Whitehall, where the king 
resides, and where we supposed we would see something 
special in the buildings, but in this we were mistaken. 
There are better places in London ; the best house there 
was the banqueting house, which does not surpass some 
merchants' houses in Amsterdam. We strolled into St. 
James's Park, which is nothing but a large inclosed 
meadow, with some canals and ditches dug through it, in 
one portion of which are -ducks swimming, and willow 
trees planted. The- guard on horseback coming ahead, we 
heard the king was in the park. We went in, but did not 
see him; but walking through we saw his curiosities of 
birds which he kept there in cages slightly enough closed, 
such as eagles, cranes, a very large owl, a toucan, birds 
which we call hoontjen, in Friesland, virviteaUs, doves, 
starlings, and others of little importance. He had received 
from the Indies, by the last ships, two ostriches or casso- 
waries which were shut up and much prized, though they 
are very common in Holland. We came to his horse 
stable ; there was only one horse in it, that was so lean it 
shamed every one, as also did the small size of the stable, 
which stood near that of the Duke of Monmouth, where 
there were six tolerable good Frisic horses, with a saddle 
horse or two. Our stables look more kingly than these. 
We were about leaving the place when we heard them cry 
out, " to arms! to arms!" to a troop of soldiers standing 
there, and looking around, we saw at a distance the king 
coming, accompanied by six or eight noblemen, from 
whom you could distinguish him only from his having his 
hat on his head, while they had theirs off. He saluted all 
who saluted him, as he passed along, which he also did us. 
I will not speak of his person as he has been sufficiently 
53 



418 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

described by pen and burin. 1 Nor will I speak of the con- 
dition of London. The long and short of it is, that city is 
larger than Amsterdam, but does approach it, or any other 
city in Holland, either in neatness or in the regularity of the 
buildings, even those erected since the great lire. What 
are worthy of mention is a certain column, very high and 
well constructed, erected on the spot where the great tire 
broke out in 16G6, and the tower, not prettily built, but 
very old, constructed by the Romans in the time of Julius 
Cresar. Whitehall and Westminster, and all within them, 
are not worth going to see. 

81<>/, Saturday. Our ship having arrived before the city 
yesterday, we went on board to bring away our goods, as 
also did the surgeon. We took leave of the captain, mate 
and carpenter, who was a young man and a Norman, 
stupid, but not the most evilly disposed. He had our love, 
and I had occasionally conversed with him when we were 
on the watch together at night, and sometimes made an 
impression upon him. He lived at Flushing, and wished, 
he said, he could go and live with me even for nothing. 
He desired me not to forget him. I must also say this of 
the captain, that he was well known in London, and in all 
Boston, as a pious, good and discreet man; but I was as- 
tonished when I saw and heard the following circumstance. 
A poor servant, who had served his time out in Ncav Eng- 
land, came to him in Boston and asked if he could go over 
with him; he would do his best in working like any 
other sailor for his passage, as he well understood ship- 
work. The captain told him he might go with him. 
When we were at sea, this person was sick several days, 
and when he recovered did as well as he could, but, it is 
true, he did not do all that an experienced sailor could have 
done. "When we arrived in the North sea the captain made 



1 Charles II. 



1 On the 20th May, 1680, Elizabeth Morse, the wife of William Morse, of 
Newbury, was indicted and tried in Boston, for practicing with craft upon 
her own husband. She was convicted and sentenced to be hung; and 
was in prison at Boston, at the time our journalist was there, awaiting 
her execution. It is, undoubtedly, her case to which he refers. She was, 
however, reprieved from time to time, and finally released altogether.— 
Coffin's Xticbury, 122, 126, 134. 



BOSTON WITCHCRAFT. DUKE OF YORK 4lf) 

a memorandum by which this poor fellow promised to pay 
half the passage money, that is, thirty guilders, when he 
arrived in London. lie called him, and read it to him, 
and told him, because he could not work like a good 
sailor, he must sign that writing, and if he did not do so, 
he would sell him again when he reached London, which 
he assured him would be done. The man began to com- 
plain and cry, saying he had not so promised, but he 
would work like any other, and do as well as he could. 
But, notwithstanding his crying and objecting, he had to 
sign the paper, or be sold. In this, appeared the piety and 
sense of justice of our captain, though perhaps the other 
was not entirely without blame, though he had had blows 
enough. It seems he had some friends in London who 
paid the amount. 

I must here mention another word about Boston, which 
is, that I have never been in a place where more was said 
about witchcraft and witches. From time to time persons 
had been put in prison, and executed ; and a woman was 
in prison and condemned to die, when we left there. 1 
Very strange things were told of her, but I will not repeat 
them here. 

22<i, Sunday. I went into the Dutch church where a 
young man, who was a Cocceian, preached. In the after- 
noon we went to the French church, and in going there, 
passed by a large gate, through which many people were 
entering into a great hall. "We looked in, and when we 
saw they were qunkers, walked quickly away, and went 



420 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

into the French church, whoso congregation is much 
larger, and its church much smaller than the Dutch 
church — so small indeed, they could not all get in. 
"When, therefore, the Lord's Supper was administered, 
they used the Dutch church, and the Dutch preached then 
in the French church, as they are not far apart. But as 
the French church was especially for the French, we went 
out, my comrade for the purpose of inquiring after Mr. 
Ovins, and I, to go to the Dutch church again, where 
another Cocceian preached well enough. I saw there the 
envoy from Holland, a Zeelander, whom I knew with his 
family ; hut he did not know me. 

23cZ, Monday. It was said we were to leave to-day, hut 
we saw it would not he the case. The captain, with whom 
we were to go, was one Douwe Hohbes of Makkum, who 
brings birds over from Friesland, every year for the king. 
There was a boat lying there ready to leave for Rotterdam, 
but it seems they intended to go in company. 

24//(, Tuesday. jSTo departure to-day either. "While we 
were at the Exchange, there was a great crowd of people 
in the street. We saw and heard two trumpeters, followed 
by a company of cavalry, dressed in red, then a chariot 
drawn by six horses, in which was the Duke of York. 
Then came some chariots of the nobility, and the Trince 
Palatine, with several chariots, and two trumpeters in the 
rear. 

25M, Wednesday. Could not sail yet, but the Rottcr- 
dammer sailed with thirty passengers, with little or no 
freight. In going down she broke the bowsprit of our 
ship. Mr. Ovins left us in her, after we had taken leave 
of him. 

20th, Thursday. Heard early this morning our ship was 
going down the river, for she lay opposite our room ; we 
immediately hurried ourselves. It was very uncivil in the 
mate, for the captain was still in the city, and would go to 



GKAVESEND. HARWICH. 421 

Gravesend. We took a wherry and went after her, as she 
had not gone far in consequence of the mist and lightness 
of the wind. We drifted to-day scarcely outside of the 
ships. 

21 th 9 Friday. It was misty and calm. We, therefore, did 
not go as far as the current would have carried us. We 
had to come to anchor, in consequence of the mist, in 
order not to drift against the ships, or upon the shoal. 

28th, Saturday. We drifted and clawed along until we 
came to anchor, before Gravesend, as the Eotterdammer 
did an hour or two afterwards. Ovins, who was not very 
well accommodated, called out to us as we passed, and 
asked if we would not go ashore with him. We declined, 
for we could not have wished to have been better accom- 
modated, as we two had a large, fine cabin to ourselves. 

29th, Sunday. When we took our goods out of the ship 
at London, we let our trunks be examined, but there was 
nothing inspected. We gave the inspectors a penny and 
they were satisfied. Our skipper arrived now at Graves- 
end in the night, and had every thing made ready for the 
inspectors. We had ourselves ready for their arrival. 
They came on board about eight o'clock, but they looked 
once only in the hatches without asking any thing, and 
went away again. We went ashore in the forenoon and 
dined there. We had been to London, and the captain 
said we should eat the ship's ordinary fare, which seemed 
now to us, princely fare. However, as he was most of the 
time drunk when on shore, he had given it no considera- 
tion. We went through Gravesend to look at it, but it 
does not signify much — it is more foul and dirty, in name, 
than in fact. We also went out into the country a little, 
which pleased us best. I have never seen anywhere, so 
many blackberries, which were now ripe. The ebb tide 
having come, we got under sail yet before evening, the 
wind being good, but it did not continue so long. Qppo- 



422 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

site Gravesend, there is a strong castle well fortified, and 
another one of less importance, on the lower side. When- 
ever ships pass up or down ; they must strike here in going 
between the two fortifications. "We arrived at evening 
before the river of Chatham, where we anchored. 

30//*, Monday. The wind was easterly and light. We 
scratched along as far as to get in the King's channel, as 
also did the Rotterdammer, which sailed down with us. 

October 1st, Tuesday. The wind as before: we, there- 
fore, tacked with the tide, before the Xaze, intending to 
run into Harwich, both for the purpose of waiting for a 
good wind, and to buy a store of provision which the skip- . 
per, through his drunkenness had forgotten. The Rotter- 
dammer, which had not kept along the shore with us, 
but had continued through the King's channel, finding no 
good harbor there, returned again to Chatham, in order, 
as the wind continued south southeast, to go out along 
the south shore, and thus we separated. 

2d^ Wednesday. The wind still easterly, we, therefore, 
made several tacks, and ran into Harwich; a miserably 
poor little fort stands on the east point of the bay, yet 
you must strike your flag as you sail by it. The bay is 
large and suitable to harbor a great number of ships. 
The town is on the west side, passing which, a small river 
runs up into the land. We anchored about ten o'clock in 
the morning. We went ashore and dined, and I then, in 
company with some others, walked out of town; but my 
comrade returned, having concluded to cross over in the 
packet boat, and went to inquire about it. When I re- 
turned he told me it would leave that evening, and would 
save much time. He spoke to our skipper, who was not 
willing to release us, without paying him the whole pas- 
sage money, namely, two ducatoons a piece. Many words 
passed and hard enough they were on both sides, in which 
the skipper was very impertinent, yet not altogether in 



CROSSING TEE CHANNEL. 423 

the wrong. We went aboard, and Ins passion having 
subsided, we satisfied him with two ducats, and took our 
goods to the packet boat. We went ashore to enter our 
names, according to the custom ; my comrade giving his 
acknowledged name, I teas compelled to do the same. "We paid 
twelve shillings and six-pence each. We went into 
another room to take fresh leave of our captain and mate, 
when there came a scoundrel to take down our names, 
and examine our goods as he said, and we were compelled 
to give the same names again, in order they might agree 
w T ith those given before ; but he was a swindler and ob- 
tained from each of us another shilling, for he did not go 
on board to examine, although he could perhaps do so; 
we went quickly on board to look after our property. It 
was about nine o'clock at night when we started ; but as 
it was so calm we came outside without casting anchor, 
having a full moon and delightful weather. A sand reef 
stretches out into the sea from the before mentioned little 
fort, inside of which the water is the deepest, being three 
and four fathoms at low water. It is shallowest in the 
middle, and level towards the west shore, having two 
fathoms of water or less. There are two lights in the 
town, which you bring in range, in order to sail in or out. 
The highest light stands most inside, and when that comes 
west of the lowest you are west of the gate or channel; 
and when it is east, you are east of the chanuel, and are 
on, or east of the reef. 

3c/, Thursday. The wind east southeast, and we, there- 
fore, sailed along the shore past Orfordness into the sea. 
The course thence to the Maes, is east by south, but we 
sailed for the most part east, and sometimes east by north. 
I thought our Friesland smack was at sea before evening, 
for the wind was better for her than for us, as the course 
from Orfordness to the Texel, is east northeast, which was 
a due side wind. It was also better for the Rotterdammer. 



424 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

\th, Friday. The wind east southeast and east "by south, 
but still. We continued our course easterly, and sonic- 
times a little more northerly. We threw the deep lead 
and had 18 fathoms of water. The latitude at noon was 
52° 25'. I warned them that we were too low, and would 
come before Schevelingh. This packet was so full of fleas 
that it was impossible for me to sleep. Every passenger 
who desired a berth, had to pay five shillings for it, but 
we did not. There was such a hard rain in the night, 
accompanied by thunder and lightning, that we could not 
keep dry in the vessel below, for it leaked there as if it 
were open, or not much better. We had an English 
minister on board, who had been called to the English 
church at Rotterdam. He lay and prayed, and groaned, 
as hard and loud as if he would die of fear. 1 The wind 
shifting to the southwest we held it close. 

5th, Saturday. When day came, and it had cleared up 
some, we saw at nine o'clock the tower of Schevelingh, 
directly east, or in front of us, and half an hour after- 
wards that of Gravesend to the leeward, whereupon, we 
were compelled to beat, in order to bring into the Maes, 
which we continued to do the whole day till midnight, 
before we reached Briel. Coming to the pier there, most 
of the passengers left for Maassluis, so as not to wait, but 
we could not do so on account of our goods. 

6th, Sunday. As soon as it was day we put our goods on 
board the Rotterdam ferry-boat, which was to leave about 
nine o'clock. In the meanwhile, we went to look about 
the place, and in the church, where a Cocceian preaches. 
After breakfast we went on board, but it was ten o'clock 
before we got off. We had to beat as far as Schiedam, 



'The Rev. John Spademan, of Swayton, in Lincolnshire, was called to 
the English Presbyterian church at ^Rotterdam, as successor to Mr. Maden, 
who died in June, 1G30. 



ROTTERDAM. TITE HAGUE. AMSTERDAM. 405 

* where some royal yachts were lying, which had sailed with 
us from Gravesend, and had brought over the Prince 
Palatine, who had gone on to the Hague. We were de- 
layed somewhat here, in consequence of transferring some 
persons into another boat. We reached Rotterdam about 
two o'clock, and were informed that no boat carrying goods 
left for Amsterdam on Sundays ; but that one left Delft 
at six o'clock, and we had time enough to go there. We 
left our goods on board the trecJc-sckuit, for Delft, and 
started at three o'clock for that city, where we arrived at 
five, and learned we had been misinformed, and the boat 
from Delft to Amsterdam, left daily at four o'clock. We 
had to go and lodge in a tavern for twenty-four hours. 
We went to church. 

1th, Monday. In order not to be all day at Delft, we 
walked on to the Hague, and passed by the house of my 
sister d'OwerL I asked my comrade whether I should, 
not inquire after our friends, and if perchance any of them 
were at the Hague; but he would not consent. We re- 
turned to Delft at two o'clock, and after dinner left at four 
for Amsterdam. 

8th, Tuesday. Having passed through the night as best 
we could, we arrived at five o'clock in the morning before 
the gate of Amsterdam, which was opened at six, and we 
were admitted. We went close by the house of M. Bar- 
dewits, 1 where I was again inclined to go in, but my com- 
rade not approving of it at the Hague, I abandoned the 



! Of this person, wo find the following mention by Jacobus Koelman. 
Before do Labadieleft Amsterdam for Herford, " ho persuaded a merchant at 
Amsterdam, who had hoard him much, .and had been his interpreter, to 
preach or lecture to throe hundred, lie said, in his own house, after the 
manner of the Christians in the church at Corinth', 1 Cor., xiv. This man 
having no mission or calling to the ministry, was nevertheless to proclaim 
the word in his house lo those who might withdraw from the church but 
did not go away with Labadie. And so to this day, such meetings of the 

54 



426 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HOME. 

idea. We put up at the inn where we lodged before our 
departure, and had our goods brought there, pacing five shil- 
lings freight for our goods alone. We separated in order to 
do our business as speedily as possible. I went to deliver 
all the letters, and my comrade to sell the amber. We 
met on the Exchange at noon. When I had delivered mv 
letters, I went to the boat for Sneek, 1 to inquire how it 
was at the house, 2 and when she would sail. They would 
leave on Thursday evening ; and all went well at the house 
as far as they knew. My comrade who had also made in- 
quiries, brought the same word, lie told me also how he- 
had succeeded with the amber; that it was all spurious, 
and was. worth nothing. He, therefore, had determined 
to send it back again just as we had received it. We went 
in the afternoon to perform some errands for the woman 
with whom Ave had lodged at JSTew York, delivering two 
beaver skins to her husband's daughter. And with this 
we consumed the day. 

9th, Wednesday. This was a day of public prayer. We 
had nothing more to do except to buy a large Bible for 
Mr. Ephraim Hermans, according to our promise, with his 
spermaceti, which we did. It cost us twenty-eight guild- 
ers, because it was the last one of Ravesteyn's edition. 
There was a new edition in press at the Fish Market, at 
the place where we bought this one, upon the point of the 
gate as you go to the Post office. We put it on board of 
the ship of which Jan Gorier was captain and which would 



separatists are held in the house of this merchant, named Bardeicits, who 
not pretending to be a minister, nor daring to administer the sacraments 
of baptism and the Lord's supper, every Sunday morning and afternoon 
preaches after the manner of the public ministers, to a number of person9 
"who seldom, or ever go to the public assemblies, as if lie only had gifts 
and grace." — Uistorhcli Verfiaal, 96-7. 

*In Friesland near Wiewerd. 

'Thetiuga-State, or Walta House, the residence of the community. 



ARRIVAL HOME AT WIEWEKD. 407 

leave in a month's time, and addressed it to Mr. Arnout 
de la Grange, to whom we also sent the amber with 
directions what to do with them. My comrade wrote to 
Ephraim, and also to Annetie Versluis. 

10th, Thursday. "We had our goods in good time in the 
boat. My comrade had also a basket with distilling 
glasses (retorts) in it, which he had bought. I went to 
Joannis Van Ceulen, mathematician, who had made a new 
sea-atlas, a copy of which lie had sent to the king of Eng- 
land, and also to the king of France. It is a beautiful 
work; but he was surprised, after having corrected it so 
much as he had, that I" should point out to him several 
errors. I endeavored to obtain a chart of Maryland, from 
Augustine Herman's draught, but could not find it here ; 
nor could I in England. At four o'clock we went on board 
of the boat. The wind was light and contrary, so we only 
driftecl alon^. It was 2,'ood weather. Our hearts s;ave 
thanks to C4od when we reflected through what ways he 
had conducted us, and how fatherly he had preserved us, 
and brought us here. There sprung up a breeze in the 
night, so that, 

11th, Friday, in the morning, we passed by Urk, 1 and 
arrived at the Lemmer, where our goods were examined; 
but we had nothing to pay, and went on. It was so calm, 
with the wind contrary, that it was midnight before we 
arrived at Sneek. It was very dark and rainy, and we 
were fearful we could not find the way, else we would 
have gone to The House in the night. 

12th, Saturday. Having given directions to our skipper, 
how he should send our goods after us, and having paid 
him, we went to speak to the boatman, who was to take 
the goods. It was about seven or'half-past seven o'clock 
when we left Sneek on foot. After going some distance 



1 A small island in the Zuider zee, near the shore of Friesland. 



428 BOSTON, AND THE VOYAGE HO^rE. 

on our way, we passed through Bosum; and about ten 
o'clock reached our house, where all arms and hearts were 
open to receive us, which they did with affection and tender- 
ness, in the love of the Lord, who had been with those who 
had remained at home, and us who had traveled, all now 
brought together, and united by his mercy. To him be 
the power, and wisdom, and honor, and glory to all 
eternity. Amen. 



FINIS. 



INDEX. 



AARSSENS, Cornelius van, of ! 
Sommelsdyk, governor of Suri- J 
nam, xxvii, xxix. 

Aarssens, van, of Sommelsdyk, three 
sisters join the Labadists, xxvii, ' 
xlv. 

Aarssens, van, of Sommelsdyk, Lu- 
cia, xxix. 

Aehter kol, East Jersey, origin of 
the name, 14? ; visit to, 2G4 ; pro- j 
clamation against its government, j 
277 ; Governor Carteret abducted 
from, 348. 

Adams, Richard, planter in Mary- | 
land, 197, 203. 

Aertscn, or Arison de Hart, Simon, 
farmer at Gouanes, visits to, 122, 
140, 2G4, 278, 33(5. 

Albany, tax on goods going to, 203 ; 
fare from New York, 285; called 
the Fuyck, 297, 319 ; description of, j 
320. 

Aldriehs, Peter, of New Castle, on ; 
the Delaware, 181, 188, 233, 233. 

Altona in Holstein, residence of the : 
Labadists, xxvi. 

Ambergris, spurious. 33G, 301, 42G. 

Ambov, on the Raritan, description i 
of, 2*52. 

Amsterdam, in Holland, de Labadie 
in, xvii, xxiii; the journalist in, 4, 
425. | 

Andros, Sir Edmund, Governor of; 
New York, a papist, xxxi; visits 
Pemequkl.lll : conversations with, ; 
258,281.384, 33G, 344; entertains' 
the governor of Hartford, 283 ; j 
proceedings against Governor Car- 
teret, 201,^277," 346; arbitrary acts 
of, 3.13-8: a retail trader in New ! 
Y'ork, 353 ; his character, 359 ; j 
charges against, 880. 

Ann, cape, Massachusetts, 377. 

Anthony's Nose, in the Highlands of 
the North river, 330. 

Apoquinimink, on the Delaware, 
190, 22G, 212. 



Aqnakenonk, New Jersev, 159, 264 

2G9. 
Apples, 121, 15G; called the double 

paradise, 157. 
Armenians, doctrines of the, ix. 
Augustine, residence of Casparus 

Heermans, on the Delaware, 192, 

213. 

BANC an vert, shoals of, 398. 
Barclay, Robert, the famous quaker, 

visits de Labadie, xxv. 
Bardewitz, a preacher of Labadism 

in Amsterdam, 0, 425. 
Barents, or Barn islands, in the East 

river, 135. 
Barent, a guide, 235. 
Beeren, or Barren island, adjacent to 

Long Island, Hi). 
Barkeio, Herman van, Labadist of 

the colony in ■Maryland, xiv. 
Barro. the "little, in the North At- 
lantic, 405. 
Bayard, Peter, of New York, xxxiii ; 

joins the Labadists, xxxix ; a 

deacon in the Dutch church, 343. 
Bayard, Samuel, of Bohemia Manor, 

xiv. 
Bay, the, now Fhtlands, 129. 
Beaver skins, value of, 285. 
Beaver flesli, tiresome, 308. 
Bergen, village of, 155; church at, 

157 ; its farms, 158. 
Berkeley, Lord, his grant of West 

Jersey, to .Mr. Billinge, 241-2. 
Bermuda, island of, its storms and 

spectres, 73; description of, 74; 

hurricane near, 74. 
Berry. Capt., Ids house on the Pas- 
saic river. 2(56. 
Bestek, a table in navigation, G2. 
Bevesier, or Beachy Head, on the 

southern coast of England, 21. 
Bible, the Indian, by Rev. John 

Eliot, 382-3. 
Blind staggers, cure for, 2G4. 
Block island, 37G. 



430 



INDEX. 



Boehme, Jacob, the German theoso- 
phist, 12. 

Boeyer, Jan, of Newcastle on the 
Delaware, '2'25. 

Bohemia Manor, in Maryland, ex- 
tent of, xxxi; visit to, 194; en- 
tailed, 22."), 339. 

Bolsward, in Friesland, 3. 

lion, Capt. Andre, of New York, 113. 

Boston, erubarcation for, 369 ; harbor 
of, 377: fast day in, 380; lire in, 
387; sham battle in. 389; French 
protestants in, 390; free trade in, 
393; description of, 394; witch- 
craft in, 419. 

Bosum, in Friesland, 428. 

Boterberg, on the North river, 331. 

Boachell, Peter, son-in-law of Feter 
Sluyter, xlvi. 

Bouwery, village of the, 137. 

Bowman, 31 r., of Gravesend, Long; 
Island, 183. - 

Bownas, Samuel, his account of the 
Labadists in Maryland, xli, xlv. 

Bradstreet, Simon, governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, visit to, 378. 

Brakel, Theodoras, a-, a learned 
Dutch divine, 134. 

Brakel, Willem a-, a distinguished 
Dutch divine. 134. 

Brandy, importation of, prohibited, 
204/253. 

Breukelen, village of, 120, 133. 

Briel, 424. 

Broadway, in New York, 113. 

Bus, island of, in the North Atlantic, 
404. 

Byilinge, Edward, account of his 
purchase of West Jersey, 241-2. 



Chaudronnicr lc, a settler on Staten 

island, 1-10, 152. 
Charles, the ship, 1, 4. 
Charles II, king of England, riding 

in St. James's park, 417- lis. 
Chesapeake bay, 190, 200; Cheese 

and Bread island, 223. 
Child of Luxury, 321. 
Chilling, a mode ofdisciplinc among 

the Labadists, xxxvii. 
{ Christina creek, 188 ; ride to, 223. 
! Christina, fort, taken by Stuyvesant, 
i 188. 
! Claverack, on the North river, 323, 

330. 
Cocceians, origin of the, x. 
Cod, cape, 372, 377. 
I Colony of Labadists in Maryland, 

xxxi; in Surinam. 
Comme»;vs, a planter in Maryland, 

198, 201. 
Communipaw, or Ghmoenepaen, 

155; described, 157,258. 
Coney island, description of, 118, 

279. 
Constable's hook, 2G4. 
Corlaer's hook, 341, 374. 
Cortelyou, Jacques, settler at Nyack, 

126-7; owns land at Aquakcnonk, 

159; visits to, 1G5, 207, 269,334. 
Court of Friesland, tavern on Texel, 



Coxsackie, on the North river, 801. 
Cromme dm we, Pecouic bay 
Lons Island, 375. 



C 



ARTERET, Capt. James, ac- 
count of, 137. 

Carteret, Philip, crovernor of East 
Jersey, 137-8, 254 ; his abduction 
and trial, 346-352. 

Catechising in New York, 134. 

Cahoos falls, description of the, 209, 
332 

Calvin, views of, in regard to church 
and state, ix. 

Cambridge, N. E., visit to, 384; 
the college at, 3^4-5. 

Canal between the Delaware and 
Chesapeake, 209. 

Cantieoy, an Indian dance, 275. 

Card playing on board ship, 403. 

Carrying place between the Dela- 
ware and Chesapeake, 210. 

Catskil creek, 296. 

Catskil mountains, 323, 330. 



DANCING among the Labadists, 

xxvi; 275. 
Dankers, alias Schilders, Jasper, 

writer of the journal, xxx ; makes 

a second voyage to New York, 

xxxii ; a wine racker by trade, 

260. 
Danskamer in the Highlands of the 

North river, 331, 337. 
David-Jorists, or David-Georgians, 

a religious sect in Holland, 360. 
Deadman's head, rock on the 

southern coast of England, 24. 
De Hart, Simon Arison, ofGowaucs, 

122, 140, 204, 27:5, 336. 
i Dekey, Thomas, 382, 380. 
! Delapleyne, Nicholas, of New York, 

j POO. 

Delaware, journey to the, 163 ; falls 
of, 172; houses at, how built, 174; 
description of the river, 237 : its 
discovery, 210; Stuyvesant's ex- 
pedition to, 2-41 ; tax on merchan- 
dise going to the, 263. 



INDEX. 



431 



Delft, in Holland, 455. 

Des Cartes, philosophy of, xi, xvi. 

Denyse, Peter, weighniaster at New 

* York, 287. 
Dectel bay, Manhattan island, 257, 

2G3. 
Deventer, Henry van, xliv. 
Dirck of Claverack, 3*23. 
Dittelbaeh, Rev. Peter, becomes a 

Labadist, xxviii: his account of, 

the colony in Maryland, xxxv. 
Doggerbank, the, 412. 
Dofphin, one caught and described, 

82. 
Dolphin, ship, Capt. John Foy, 370. 
Donderbergh in the Highlands of 

the North river, S31. 
Dort, decrees of the Synod of, x. 
Dover, in England. 20. 
Drunkenness amontrst the Indians, 

151, 274. 
Ducat, a gold coin of Holland, 33. 
Ducatoon, a silver coin of Holland, 

33. 
Ducks, wild, abundance of, in the 

Chesapeake, 204, 208. 
Dunwich on the eastern coast of 

England, 415. 
Duvckmck, Evert, mate of the 

Charles,. 10, 30, 103. 154, 125. 
Duvkcinck. Gerrit, glazier in Xew 

York, 276, 324. 
Duvne. Gerrit Comelis van, 100, 1G0, 

261, 209, 2n0, 334. 
Dyer, Capt. William, collector of the ! 

customs at New York, 2s4, 347, j 



Fanners oppressed by Governor 
Andros, 354. 

Fasting and prayer, da}' of, in Bos- 
ton, 380. 

Fare and treatment on board ship, 
104. 

Fenwick, John, his proceedings in 
West Jersey. 242-3. 

Ferry between New York and Long 
Island, 110, 133 ; over the Sassafras 
river, Maryland, 196, 204. 

First child born inNew 2\etherlaiid, 
114, IV,. 

Fisher's island, 370, 370. 

Fitie, of Communipaw, 155. 

Flatbush, 131, 133. 

Flatlands. 129. 

Flipse, see Pliilipse. 

Flying fish, description of, G5-G. 

Fore-ordination, a doctrine of the 

Dutch reformed church, ix. 
' Fort Amsterdam at New York, 112. 

Fov. Capt. John, of the Dolphin, 
370, 410, 420. 

Fransen Clacs, the ferryman of Com- 
i munipaw, 150, 100-2. 

French ships on the banks, 4C0. 

Fresh-kils on Staten island, 147. 
, Fresh-water, the New York, 136. 

Frisby, Capt., a planter in Mary- 
land, 100, 208. 
! Fuyck, catching fish with a, 1G5 ; 
Albany so called, 207. 



EdDYSTOXE, the, reef on the 
southern coast of England, 23. 

Eliot, Rev. John, Apostle of the In- 
dians, visits to, 382, 389. 

Elizabeth, the prince-s, xxv. 

Elizabeth islands. 370. 376. 

Elizabethiown. Xew Jersey, 147. 

Episcopal church-worship in Xew 
York, 140. 14S. 

Esopus, or Hysopus, now Kingston j 
276,281,324; description of, 325. \ xvi. 

Essenius, professor at Utrecht, xix. , Goinarists, 

Execution, public, in Maryland, 220. 



GaESBECK, Domine, of Esopus, 

a Cocceian, 111 ; his death, 270. 
Galls, or Portuguese men of war, a 
fishy substance, so called, GO. 

' Gal per, the. a shoal in the English 
channel, 20. 

i Gardiniere. Pierre le, a settler on 
Staten island, 146; a son in New- 
York, 338. 

i Geese, wild, on the Chesapeake, 203. 

. Gcresolveert, of NeAV Harlem, 137, 
130. 

| Godschalk, John, Van Schurman, 



Dutch 



Jb A I PIT ILL, near the Orkney is- 
lands, 407. 

Falmouth, in England. 24; it< har- 
bor, 26; cargo unladen there, 27; 
Presbyterian church in, 32; de- 
parture from, 40; description of, 
44. 



party in the 
church, ix. 

Gorter, Capt. Jan, 420. 

Gouanes, a settlement on Long 
Island, 120. 121, 201. 204. 

Governor's island, in Boston har- 
bor, 395. 

Governor's (Noten) island, in New 
York harbor, 112; first residences 
of Europeans in Xew Xetherland, 
374. 



432 



INDEX. 



Grange, Aruouf de la, merchant in 
New YoTk, 117, 133; his father 
buys Tinicum island. 1?!). 

Grapes, wild, 130, 180, 397. 

Gravesend, on Long Island. 130. 

Gravesend, in England, 410. 

Gravesend, in Holland. 424. 

Greenland, Mr., of Pescatteway, 
170. 



Hoybergh, on the North river. : :;i 
Hurricane encountered, Dear lii r 
inuda, 74 ; damages from, B9. 

IDENSEN, Theunis, of Bapoka- 
nikke, 287,204,327, 335. 

Illetie, a Mohawk half bree 1, con- 
verted to Christianity. 301. ' 



Guttenburgh, fort New, remains of, !,£%&& in ZZ l.^ncl, :::,:: 
' " Indians, at Nyack, on Long Island 



H. 



ACKINGSACK river, 150, 2GG. 
Hague, the, 425. 
Hans, an Indian guide, of Achter 

kol, 204; his notions of the deity, 

207. 
Harleiii,New, Manhattan island, 136. 
Hartford, governor of, in New York, I 

283. , 
Harwich, England, 422. 
Heermans, Augustine, his land in 

Maryland, called Bohemia, xxxi, j 

xxxii, 194 ; makes a map of Mary- ! 

land and Virginia, 104 ; sick, 195 ; 

his will 225 ; notice of him, 230, 

note. 
Heermans, Casparus, son of Au% , 

gustine, settled near New Castle vTnn ' a baker > m New ^ ' 



98, 124; notions among, in rela- 
tion to God, the origin of man, 
&c, 149, 2G7; simplicity of one, 
158-9; their opinion of the qua- 
kers, 244; customs of some on 
Millstone river, 247; their can- 
ticoy atGouancs,273-5 ; at Aquak- 
enonk, 209, 272; account of who 
discovered the country, by Hans, 
one of the, 273; drunkenness 
amongst, 152, 274; small pox 
amongst, 27? ; converts, 301-5. 

Indian corn its production and use, 
217. 

Infanticide, an, in Maryland, 219. 



J 



ACOB, Skipper. 190,255. 



190, 212. 
Heermans, Ephraim, joins the Laba- 

dists, xxxiii, son of Augustine, 

153; clerk of the courts on the 

Delaware, 185; residence at New 

Castle, 188; heir of Bohemia 

Manor, 225, 230 ; promises to the ; 

Labauists, 339. 
Heermans, Miss Margaret, daughter j 

of Augustine, 188, 190, 232. 
Helder, the, 12. 
Hellgate, 135, 374. 
Hendrick, Jacob, a settler near Bur- | 

lingtou, 174. 
Hendrickson, Hendrick, a planter 

in Maryland, 197. 
Her ford, in Westphalia, xxvi. 
iloerkil, the, on the Delaware, 219, i 

220. ; 

HooMen, the, or narrows, 98; why j 

so called, IIS. I 

Hoogboom, Mcus, skipper on the. 

North, river, 285, 207. 
Hoorn, a village on Texel, 9. 
Hopkins, Mr., a planter in Mary- i 

land, 197. 
Hosier, Mr., a planter in Maryland, 

198,201. 
Howell, Mr., a planter in Maryland, ; 

190. ! 



| Jan, 



a passenger on 



aid 



the 



Charles, 11, 12,24, 63. 
Jaquet, M., of Christina creek, l sV . 
Jasper, an old Indian, a remarkable 

character, 1-18. 
Jesuits, in Maryland, 221; in B -- 

ton, 388. 
Jochemsen, Capt. David. 115. 

KeITH, George, visits the Laba- 
dists, XXV. 

Kicheron, the Indian's deity, 268. 

Kieit, Governor, 113. 

Kikebdl, Thomas Davidsen, skip- 
per, 295. 



Kil 


von 


kol, 


we 


st s 


de 


of 


Staten 


isl 


llld, 


118 


; or 


gin 


of 


tin 


mime, 


14 
















Kint 


erhook, 


on 


the 


N 


orth 


river, 



297,319,321. 

Koch, Otto Ernest, proprietor of 
Tinicum island, ISO; visil to,_lS2. 

Koelman, Do. Jacobus, 134,275. 

Ivok, or Cocceius, Joliaunes, his n - 
liaious views, x. 

Kolchman, Derick, of Boh< 
Maryland, xlv. 

Koning, Peter de, of Bohemia, Ma- 
ryland, xlv. 



INDEX. 



433 



I iT> Aivn7 t i r i -I Millstone river, New Jersey, 170, 

^ ABA DIE, Jean de, founder of op, 04- 951 Ji ' 

Labadism, account of, -Mi ; Ms Ministers in Maryland and Vi rginia, 

death xlvn. o ls . ;U1 Ilukl ,endent on board 

Labadists, origin and history ot the, ^j' •_>.,- 

xii : colony of, in Surinam, xxix ; j Mohawk river, the, 29s 332 
■ 111 Maryland, xxxi Mol , Joh of Xeu - C ' astle (m th( . 

LaGrange Arnont de, merchant in Delaware, a Labadist , xxxiv, xlv ; 

Ale* lorfc, 11/, 166. _ visit to his plantation, 180, 191: 

Land, policy m regard to, m New, . presiding judge of the courts, 223! 

xork, 001. 223-4- account of 00 '' 340 

La Nov, Abraham de, schoolmaster Monmouth, Duke of, his stables in 

in New York, 134. London, 417. 

La Nov, Peter de, ens om house Montaigne, Nicholas de la, at Bohe- 

ofhcerinNew iork, llo. mia v . mor xlv 

La Motte Mons v buys Tinicum ,179. ; Mosquitos, 147. 
Laws of New lorkm Dutch, 166. M ouns, Mr., planter in Maryland, 
Lawyer, a, in Maryland, 202. -^j l J 

Lightning, effects on three men j Mutton, price of, in New York, 157. 

mowing, 391. _ , Muskrat described, 18S. 

London, arrival 111, 410. 
Log houses of Swedish origin, 175. ; 
Long-field, or Langevelt, Cornelius ■ ]\ A JACK, or Nyack, Long Island, 

VanofPescatteway, 249. I 124. 

Long Island, description of, 118, | Nassau, a village began on the Rari- 

3' J - . , ■•' . _ tan, 250. 

Lorphelm, Peter, punished m Eos- Xassau, fort, on the Delaware, 228. 

ton, 377-8. ; ]ST aze , on the coast of England, 422. 

Lucas, a Boston skipper, 380. Negroes in New York, 136 ; in Ma- 

ryland, 216. 
! Ncvesink, 118, 17*1,278. 
^. |- Newcastle, on the Delaware, called 

±\lAN,Mr., a planter on the Dela- I Sant hoek, 188 : delivered to Wm. 

ware. ! Penn, 189 ; description of, 227. 

Manhatan island, description of, 135. New Dorp, village 011 Staten island, 
Maryland, colony of Labadists in, 144. 

description of, 194, 214, 221. j New Guttenburgh, fort, remains of, 

Matinekonk island, in the Delaware, 179. 

174. ; New Harlem, village on Manhattan 

Martha's Vineyard, 370, 370. island, 136. 

Marsbankers, 100, 145. j New Utrecht, village of, 128, 

Marriage, the doctrines of the Laba- ' Nev> York, city of, Labadist- in, 

dfsts concerning, xxvi, xxxvii, xl. I xxxii; tirst view of. 99; descrip- 
Maurice, an Irishman, in Maryland, i tion of, 135; the fresh water. 136 ; 

211. j negroes, 136; Bouwcry village, 

Menades,191. 137; New Harlem, 137'-, Sapoka- 

Mennonists, their origin and doc- ! nikke, 139: Episcopal service in, 

trines, xlvii, note. 48, 284; Quaker meeting, 100; 

Menuret, a disciple of De Labadie, 1 Lutheran minister, 320; Dutch 

xxiii. reformed minister, 113; mer- 

Middelburgh, in Zeeland, de Laba- chants, 152; burgher right, 200 ; 

die at, xvi. commerce, 353. 

Milford. or Newark, New Jersey, Niewenhuisen. Key. William, minis- 

266 ; in Connecticut, 370, ter of Dutch reformed church, 

Militia training in New Vork, 344- j New York, 111, 113, 160,258,327, 

5; in Boston, 389. i 337, 343. 

Milk-ditch, Boston, 373, 395. , Noormans kii, Catskil creek. 296, 

Mill creek, or Elizabeth creek, New 297. 

Jersey, 147. 168, 252. ' North river, description of the, 328. 

Miller, Mr., a planter in Maryland, Northwest kil, or Passaic river, 

198, 202. 200. 

55 



434 



INDEX. 



Noten, or Nut island, Governor's 
island, in Now York harbor, tin- 
first residence of the Dutch, 874. 



O 



iTES, Titus, 20. 



Observations on the voyage to New 
York. 100. 

Old Dorp, village on Staten island, 
142-1. 

Oostereind on Texel, 0. 

Oosterend in Friesland, 3. 

Orange, Fort, Albany, abandoned, 
320. 

Origin of the world and man accord- 
ing to some Indians, 150-1, 200. 

Orkney islands, 407. 

Otto, a resident at Wieaco, 235. 

Oude Schild, village on Texel, 7. 

Ovins, John, surgeon on board 
homeward ship, 870, 410,420. 

Ovsters, 128, 204, 295. 



1 ADECKAL, capt. of the Boston 

packet, 340, 301, 309, 373. 378, 370. 
Palisades, on the North river, 138-9. 
Papetrav, or Papesroia, Madam, 

178^9. 
Passage, price of, from Amsterdam 

to New York, 1 ; trom Boston to 

London, 380. ' 
Passaic, river, 200; falls of 270-1, 

832. 
Passengers on the Charles, 103-4; 

on the boat to Albany, 295 ; to 

Boston, 309 ; on the voyage home, 

390. 
Pavonia, or Haverstraw, 158. 
Peaches, abundance of, 110, 120-1, 

139. 
Pemequid, 111, 258, 324. 
Pendennis castle, Falmouth, 26; 

visit to, 31. 
Penn, William, visits the Labadists, 

xxv, xxvii ; New Castle delivered 

to, 189. 
Penrvn, near Falmouth, England, 

28, 45. 
Pensees les, de Pascal, 100. 
PescaUewav, village of, 170, 249, 

250, 254. 
Peters, Frederick, a settler near A1-. 

bany, 800. 
Philipse, Annetje, daughter of Fre- 
derick Philipse, 12, 85. 
Philipse, Frederick, merchant of 

New York, 258,845. 353, 3C2. 
Philipse, Margaret, wile of Frede- 
rick. 1, 5, 12, 22, 87, 58, 02,80, 100, 

802. 



Pidgeon, Mr. John, of Boston, 811, 

Pilots and pilotage in Holland. 17. 
Pirates, fears of. 80, 41, 381, 408 
Pollepel island, 331. 
Poppe, Jean, of Flatlands, a retired 

sea captain, 181. 
Postage, in England, 20, 30. 
Prayers of New Englanders, 871 

373, 8S0, 381, -I'll. 
Prayer of an Indian. 807, 308. 
Printzdorp.the residence of Madam 

Papegay at Upland, 188, ISO. 
Plum island, 375. 



! o- 



QUAKERS, visit de Labadie, xxv ; 
similarity to the Labadists, xxv, 
note-, character of, 17'*> ; a pro- 
phetess from Maryland, ls2-8 ; 
dispute between two females, 184; 
settle in West Jersey. 211: opi- 
nion concerning them by the In- 
dians. 244 ; Robert Wade, of Up- 
land, 183. 227, 285. 
l Quaker meeting in New York, 1G0; 
at Burlington, 175; in London, 
419. 



JAACOON, or hespaen meat, 156. 

Raritan, the. 104, 250*1. 

Reformed Dutch Church, conten- 
tions in, xii. 

Reinderman, Mr., ^'){\ 

Religion, decline of in Boston, 383. 

Remarkable experiences. 337. 

Rentselaer, Madam, van. of Rentse- 
laerswyck, visit to. 310. 

Rentselaers Hook. 90. 

Rentselaerswyck, 281. 

Rich, Captain, of the ship New 
York, xx xii. 

Rochefort, Rev. Charles de, convert 
to Labadism, and afterwards ab- 
jures it, xxiv. 

Rochelle, deputation to Boston of 
the protestants of, 390. 

Rockol. a rock in the North Atlan- 
tic. 401. 

Rocky Hill, New Jersey, 171. 

Rodehbcrgh, Elizabethan, wit'- of 
Ephraim Heermans, 227, 2:10, 232, 
202. 

Rombouts, Francis. Mayor ot^ New 
York, interrogates the travelers, 
250. 

Ross, William, of Boston. 378. 

Rotterdam, in Holland, 425. 

Roxbury, visit to, 0^2 



INDEX. 



435 



S._,_ ._„ . , | Snakes' bill, or the Slangenbergh. 

AJBBA.TR, controversy in the 156,265. 



{ Sow and Pigs, rocks, 270. 
SommelsdyK, the sisters, \xvii. 
Southwold, Engl ind, 413. 
Spanish discoverers in New Nethcr- 

land, 27:), 318. 
Spytendevil creek, 135, 138-9. 
Stanley, -Mr., planter in -Maryland, 



Dutch church concerning, xl. 
Salsberry, Mr., a planter in Mary- 
land, 197. 
Salem, village of, in New Jersey, 
- 2-28. 

Salt meadow, or valey, 100. 
Salters, Anna, a quakeress, 184. 
Sandford, Capt.,of New Jersey, 266. I ■ -204. 

Sandy Hook, 90. Staten island, visit to and descrip- 

Sanders; Robert, of Albany, 297-8. tion 140-148. 

319, 379. i st. Catharine's,London, 410. 

Sapokanikke, on Manhattan island, \ St. James's Park, London, 417. 

139, 1G0, 329. | St. Kilda, 405. 

Sapaan, or hominy, 217. | St. Mawes' castle, Falmouth, 20. 

Sassafras river, Maryland, 196, 224. I St. Peters, at the mouth of the 
Schenectady, 281,301,311,315. Thames, 410. 

Schaats, Do., of Albany, 111, 112, Stoothoff, Elbert Elbersen, of Flat- 

317. , lands, 03, note, 119, 333. 

Schildcrs, Jaspar, pseudonym of Surinam, colony of Labadists in, 

Dankers, the journalist, 1, 423. | X xix. 

See Dankers. - j Suspicions concerning the travelers, 

Scilly islands, 47. | 1 7 i 359^ 337. 

Sea Mirror, a book of sea charts, 409. | Swaddrack, on the North river, 331. 
Selyns, Rev. Henricus, minister at j Swart, Jacob, of New York, 110, 

New York, xxxii, 305. 280. 

Seven sons, curious law about, 358. j Swedes and Fins, character of, 227. 
Servants sold, 191-2, 210. 
Servaasz, Thomas, last Father of inn 

the Labadists at Wiewerd, xliv ; j - 1 AGONY , Swedish village on the 
Seybry, Mr., planter in Maryland, ! Delaware, 177, 235. 

190 # j Tapoesie, Mr., miller near Christina 

Shelpot.or Sehiltpadtskil, 187. creek, 187. 

Shoemakers in New York oppress- Taylor. John, merchant of Boston, 

ed, 350-7. 378,379,386,391. 

Silver Poort-Klock. or Silver Gate- j Tessemaker, Rev. Peter, proponent, 

bell, a book so called. 73. HI, 1*2 ; at Bergen, 100 ; at. New 

Singleton, Thomas, captain of the ! Castle, 190 ; his preaching, 222. 

Charles, 1 ; his wife. 102-3. j Texel, island or, 8, 12; description, 

Sketch of the Great Bay -- Raritan j 15, ir> - 

bav 129. ■ Thetiuga-State, house ot the Laba- 

Slangenbergh, or Snakes' hill, 120, l dists at Wiewerd, xxvii, 420. 

2(j5 1 Theuhissen van Dykhuis, Jan, of 

Slaves prohibited to Labadists in ; Flatlands, a passenger in the 

Maryland, xliii. 210. ! Charles. 33, 120, V2{), 131, 334. 

Sluis Annetje, 301. Thomas, baker m New York, 219, 

Sluvter, Iiendriek, brother ot Peter, j 250. 

xxxi. Tinieum island, 1*7, 182. 

Sluvter, or Schluter, alias Vorsman, i Tobacco, culture of, prohibited to 

Peter, one of the travelers, xxx ; I the Labadists, xxxi; staple of 

self-styled bishop of the coionv of t[ ' ;ul( ' m ^ cw » ork > xxxi . 201; 

Labadists in Maryland, xxxv; extent of, in Maryland, 210 ; tax 

death and will, xxxv; a theolo- on, 218. 

o-ian 200. i Trico, Cat-alma, of the vv alehocht, 

Sluvter, Johannes, xivi. 342. 

Sluvter, Elizabeth, sister of Peter, TT 

xxxi. : U PL AND, now Chester, Swedish 

Smoker's hook, on Kil achtcr kol, village on the Delaware, 183, 228, 

109,252. , 234/ 

Sneek city, in Friesland, 42 7. I Urk, island in the Zuyder zee, 427. 



436 



INDEX. 



V. 



AXENTYNE, Mr., a settlor at I 
Spytendevil, 139. 

Valey, or v'ly, description of, 130. 

Van Aarssens, van Sommelsdyk, j 
see Aacesens. 

Van Burgh, Madam, of Pescatteway, 
170. 

Van Ceulen, Joannis, of Amster- 
dam, 4*27. 

Van Duyne, Gerrit Cornelis, of 
Long Island, a passenger on the 
Charles, 109, 100, 261, 209, 280, 
334. 

Van Hclmont, Jean Baptiste, his 
book on medicine, 170. 

Van Kleif, Cornells, of New York, 
282. 

Van Rentselaer, Madam, visit to at 
Rentselaerswyek, 316, 355. 

Van Schurman, Anna Maria, fol- 
lower of de Labadie, xvi, xxviii ; 
death of, xlv. 

Van Schurman, John Godschalk, 
xvi. 

Van Waert, Mr., planter in Mary- 
land, 195. 

Van Zuren, Eev. Casparns, of Long- 
Island, 111, 129, 3:34. 

Veere, in Zeeland, temporary resi- 
dence of de Labadie, xxl. 

Yigne, Jean, first born child of 
European parents in Ne w Nether- 
land, 114, 117. 

Vlieter, shoals in the Zuyder zee, 7. I 

Voet, or Yoetius, Gysbert, his reli- : 
gioiis views, xl. 

Yor^tman, or Vorsman, Peter, pseu- j 
donvm of Sluvter, one of the tra- 
velers, xlvi ; 1, 423. See Sluyter. 

Vrooman, Adam, of Schenectady, 
312, 310. 

YYADE, Robert, quaker of Up- 

land, 183, 227, 235. 
Walebocht, Long Island, 341, 374. 



the 



Walloons, on Long Island, 121. 

Walta-House, xxviii, 426. 

Wapping's kil, 337. 

War, Indian, at Esopus, 325. 

Watermelons, new ground for, 330. 

Webblingh, Mr., settler at Spyten- 
devil, 139. 

Weevil, ravages of the, 219. 

West minster, London, 41S. 

West hook, Stater] island, 145. 

"Wheat on the North river, 315. 

Whitehall, in London, 417. 

Wicaco, Swedish village on 
Delaware, 234. 

Wiewerd, in Friesland, xii, xxvii, 
xiv. 

Wight, arrival at the isle of, 22. 

Wild, the people of the country are, 
111. 

Witchcraft in Boston, 419. 

Witsius, professor at Franeker, 
xxviii. 

Woodbrid^e, village of, New Jersey, 
109, 254. 

Wooley, Rev. Charles, episcopal 
minister at New York, 148 

Wouler, a Mohawk Indian, his con- 
version to Christianity, 305, 3U7, 
310, 341, 379. 



Y 



APvMOUTH, on the eastern coast 
of England, 414. 

Y T ork, Duke of, arms of, over Fort 
Amsterdam, 113; his enfeoffment 
to William IYn.n of New Castle, 
189, note; his grants of New 
Jersey, to Lords Carteret and 
Berkeley, 241, 350, note; escorts 
the Prince Palatine in the streets 
of London, 420. 

Y'von, Pierre, a disciple of de Laba- 
die, xvi, xxiii, and his successor, 
xxvii; death, xlv. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I.— FISHES, INDIAN WOMAN. 

Translation of the memorandum at the top of this plate. " Although the 
Banks of Newfoundland are represented on the increasing degree chart, 
where the shoals are, yet it is probable they are larger, at least towards the 
south, as the water indicates even as far as 38° or 37 3 ; and also that there are 
several smaller shoals which lie deeper and which are not represented on 
the chart." 

The uppermost fish (mentioned p. G9, of the journal) is most probably 
the Gempylus serpens, first figured in Shanes' s Jamaica, plate 1, fig. 2, and. 
to which the name of Scomber serpens, was given by Dr. Solander, who 
captured one three feet long in Sept., 1768, near the Canary islands. His 
description, still in manuscript, in the Banks Library, is quoted by Cuvicr, 
Eistoire des Pomons, vol. viii, p. 211, where another species is also 
described, from the Pacific. It is a rare fish, and it seems that no specimen 
of it is preserved in museums. 

Another rare fish somewhat resembles this one, the Alepidosaurus fcrox, 
first described and figured by the Rev. R. T. Lowe in the Proceedings and 
Transactions of tlie Zoological Society of London, in 1833, as from the 
Atlantic near Madeira. The first mentioned species has the unlets in 
advance of the tail, as represented in the figure, which this last has not. 
The faint indication of ventral tins in the figure would however make it 
an Alepidosaurus, but the long anal and the Unlets are more like Gempylus. 

The middle figure of this plate, marked Dolphyn, is the common 
dolphin of the Atlantic, the Coryphaena hippurus, of Linmeus. In the 
text, mention is made of these fish on pages 81, 82, 83, 83 and 80. 

The lowest figure marked Pici pore};, is the Pig fish or Trigger fish, the 
Balistes vetula, or perhaps the Grpriseus, of Linmeus; a well known fish, 
about a foot long, found in the banks of floating sea weed, with a hard 
scaly skin, and with two spines on the back, a peculiarity in the articula- 
tion of which, gives the fish its name of Balistes. The lemger forward 
spine, namely, A, cannot be depressed until the small hinder one B has 
been pushed down. This rigid defensive weapon, no doubt, prevents 

56 



438 LIST OF PLATES. 

larger fish from swallowing it. This curious property of these spines is 
described on the plate as follows: "Caught in latitude 37°, 210 miles 
east of Maryland. The horns A and B can be laid flat on the back to C, 
where there is a hollow in the back in which the horns are placed ; but 
they cannot be raised up more than is denoted in the figure. Whenever 
they stand up in that manner they cannot be pressed down at A, mile S3 B 
be pushed down to C, when A falls as far as B is pressed down ; like the 
lock of a gun or a fire -lock when it is shot off." 

Several other fish are mentioned in the narrative. The one described as 
a Sea cat, page G3, was probably a small Blennius ; the large Sea pike, page 
71, was perhaps a Sword fish, the Xiphias gladius of Linnaeus, and the 
one described as a Sea hedge hog, page 91, was either an Antennarius, or a 
MaWiea, both of which have something like the limbs or paws of a quad- 
ruped. The other fish mentioned are too common to require further notice. 

II.— VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE AT SANDY HOOK FROM 
FORT HAMILTON. 

Mentioned on page 129 of the journal. The following is a translation 
of the note : 

"Views of the laud on the southerly and southwesterly sides of the 
great bay between the Neversincks and Long Island, 2-1 miles from New 
York. 

"A. Coney island. B. The gate [or opening] to enter. C. Sandy hook. 
D. Rensselaer's hook, [now the Neyersink highlands.] E. Some trees 
serving as a land mark, [probably on a line with Pigeon hill.] 

" In order to sail in between the shoals, keep S. S. W. from them, [that is, 
close to the Hook.] I). E. F. The land called the Neversinckx. F. Kil 
van kol. 

"Alias it appears from Jacques [Cortelyou's] house at Najak [Fort 
Hamilton] on Long Island." 

The bank drawn on the right is the West bank. Porpoises are still com- 
mon in the bay, but whales, at that time frequently captured along our 
coast, are now rarely seen. 

III.— VIEW OF NEW YORK FROM THE SOUTH-EAST. 

This view, taken from Brooklyn heights, will prove exceedingly interest- 
ing to the local antiquarians of New York, from the number of details 
which are given of the city as it was in 1GT9. The draughtsman has tried 
to copy what he saw, with minute accuracy and without the least attempt 
to produce any effect. The city was at this time just beginning to creep 
beyond the palisades on Wall street, which for fifty years had bounded it on 
the north. It is unnecessary hereto describe the different details repre- 



LIST OF PLATES. 409 '"' 

senled, which, no uoubt, -will be studied and compared with other views 
and with plans and documents of the period. We merely draw attention 
to the accuracy of the view as proved by the fact that one block, the left 
hand one in the view, with thirteen houses, corresponds precisely with the 
plan given in Vateniinds Manual of the Corporation of JS r ew York, which 
shows fourteen lots on the same block, fronting on Pearl street or the 
Heere graft. The middle house in the view occupies two of these lots, 
testing therefore the precision of the drawing. The fort with its church, 
the dock, the Stadthuys, the hallmoon forts, the guard house at the water 
gate, foot of Wall street, the ship yards, and the windmills on the hill near 
the corner of the present Fulton street and Broadway, are all to be seen in 
this curious sketch. From it an enlarged view of the Stadthuys, once the 
city tavern, has been made, and is given on plate VIII. 

IV.— VIEW OF NEW YORK FROM THE EAST. 

This, view looking along the shore of the East river, appears to have been 
taken from a point near the corner of the present Fulton and Water 
streets. It shows the north side of the dock, the water gate from the 
north, and the shipping. The church and Stadthuys are not distinctly 
seen, as the sketch was probably taken from near the water level. A por- 
tion of this sketch has been used in compiling the view on plate IX. 

V.— VIEW OF NEW YORK FROM THE NORTH. 

This was probably taken from two points, in order to show as much as 
possible of the south end of the island and of the North river. This has 
caused some confusion in the perspective and in the line of horizon, which 
is sought to be rectified in the compiled sketch on plate VII. 

It appears to have been taken in part from near the head of the present 
John or perhaps Fulton street. The buildings near the Bowling green 
north of the fort, arc hidden by the fall of the land there towards the Bat- 
tery, and but little is seen of the main portion of the city along the East 
river from a similar reason, the slope towards the river. Broadway is a 
mere country road with fields open to the North river on the right, and 
but few houses on its east side. 

One of the windmills was put up before 1664, and the other (the upper 
one), shortly after the transfer of the colony to the English. 

The wagon appears to be turning down theMagdje Pad or Maiden Lane. 

This is the only view of New York on the North river side at this early 
period, known to us, except that in Hartger and Vanderdonk. 

VI.— MAP OF THE SOUTH OR DELAWARE RIVER FROM 

THE FALLS TO BURLINGTON. 
From a plan accompanying the manuscript. It is mentioned at page 
255 of the journal. 



440 LIST OF PLATES. Q 

The preceding plates are in fac simile of the original drawings accom- 
panying the manuscript. The following are new drawings, rectifying some 
portions of them ; except the last, which is a view of the present appear- 
ance of the De Hart house at Gouanes, where the travelers were enter- 
tained and the Indians held their cantecoy. See pages 12'-?, 264, 273 of the 
journal. 

VII— VIEW OF NEW YORK PROM THE NORTH. 

Restored from the original sketch on plate V. 

YIIL— THE STADTHUYS OF NEW YORK IX 1GT9. 

Comer of Ftarl St. and C'oentys Slq>. 

This has been taken from the original sketch on plate III. It corrects 
in some points the appearance of this building, as given in Valentines 
Manual of tlie Corporation and presents a life-like picture of the north- 
west portion of the city dock and its surroundings, all the material for 
which is to be found in the above mentioned sketch. 

Erected as a city tavern in 1G42, it w as converted to the purposes of a City 
Hall in 1655, and was finally torn down in 1700. The small half moon 
fort in front of it once projected out into the river. 

IX.— NORTH VIEW OF THE DOCK, NEW YORK, 1070. 
Being a part of the original sketch No. IV. 

X.— THE WATER GATE, FOOT OF WALL ST., NEW YORK, 1079. 
Also from the original sketch, No. IV. 

XL— THE EAST RIVER SHORE NORTH OF THE WATER GATE, 

NEW YORK, 1679. 

Taken from sketches Nos. Ill and IV. 

XIL— THE DE HART HOUSE, ON GOUANES BAY. 

As it appears in 18G7. 

VIEWS MENTIONED IN THE TEXT BUT NOT FOUND ACCOM- 
PANYING THE MANUSCRIPT. 

Page 178 — View at Tinicum island. 

" 193 — View near New Castle, Delaware. 

" 193 — View at the head of (navigation ot) the Delaware. 

" 197 — View of Passaic Falls. 

VIEWS OMITTED. 

Page 299— Cohocs falls. 
" 333 — Catskill mountains. 



rSx^ri^ ~~* *~ ~~ 









Z7 



^•^ *- 






'!">' 



■■"r~'^^^;-;:T::;i;l 

















a 



4: 






>i» 









•^ i 






••'•• /■ 



..'U ••-■/ 5 













'tfarlmwt, 






i 









0&p^ 






: -^"i*^w" ^--i 



sss^g%*; 



:&>£?£*£-. 






!?> 



--=4: 



JFcucctrr. . h) G.2io-v"'0. r <t * A 



&JAK 



P1JX 






,'37-v-,,^^-^,^^ 



•V- .' „J-A:_ ,A-„ 



V 






.;_;-..- 



- - - —-.■•'"-■ ." :" "'".-. ■■, ; ■ --■" • - - : :-.-,,-o, 1,, 




of NF.wroKp; :-iA:ri - ';-". vr'm namf: 

dF .- H —'Aon) 









teECE 






/■.•••— .■- -'■" A -' 






. 






Jl 



1 ■ - ■■ 






1.1 nspnarn 



•■" : 



- :; -a';:., ; 









**•& 



: 






'-V7;t 



JEW-lfoRR FKOM aaOOKL.ViV HJ3IC 



VI. IV. 




■ ,. 






'4 .. 






VM'JW OK NKW-YOUK KI'.OM TIIK N0KT1I. 1G7<\. 






s -K 



V, ■'* 






ffo 



< 



\ 



A 



c 



ry 



^J-^«,^ ro^Z-c^s 



~t J&& 










'■^>y 






.ii.\< 



- >, 
f 



VIEW OF HEVYDRK PROM Tin' JKi[, 



ii 







-. JVM I 



THE DELAWARE RIVER FROM THE FALLS AT BURLINGTON 1^79. 



% 









.„'.«--*«- - ■- bSft 



iM& 



& i 

« 
*■■■ i 



■ . 






VIEW OF -NEWTOBK FROM THE NORTH- 1679. 



n.viit. 






■ GB V m:t7 •- 



J 



T ,V IfiTOl Mi 



1% ft- 

i/l'.'S' 1 ; - *« 1 : -' refill I 
\ . . 

v ' v \ - --.. •. .; ■ v ' -' " ■ 

:. r :^ ; ; 






- '-— - . "-' 



L£4 <* ■ 







(?■ riuvvwd.- ft 



7." Fearl St N.Y. 



rtrir 



. 



. 



^»///I 



/■■■ • 



.■•■ 
.1 
















i 1 



-V- : ^. : 



rs MBBS 









' 



.-"■ 



$ 



,. ■ 



\ 



I 



\} 









M 









• 



to 
hi' 



S!«L 



-+*@m 



H 

o 
o 
to 

H 

w 

h 

<! 






., „ r .,. 

: : : / • : 

; g i ■ . . ; , : 

if* r%\ 




F-l 



<ci 



\— 



o 



o 







1i 



O 

> 

5 






I 



c. 



- , 



. . .. 



* 






i :- :■ i ;;se or S:v_: -a Aertshm Dt Hart 

su\; sundint on Qn-A-a ,<js B ,y n 1667 



5614