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Full text of "Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoӧlogy, at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




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MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



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MEMOIRS 



OF THE 



MUSEUM OF COMPAEATIVE ZOOLOGY 



AT 



HARVARD COLLEGE 



VOL. LV 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 

IPvinteJ) tor tbe /IDuseum 

1938 



MEMOIRS 



OF THE 



MUSEUM OF COMPAKATIVE ZOOLOGY 



AT 



HARVARD COLLEGE 



VOL. LV 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 

printeC* for tbe /iDuseum 

1938 



c^ 



/IDemotrs of tbc /iDuseum ot domparative Zooloas 

AT HARVARD COLLEGE 
Vol. LV 



ECHINODERMS FROM AUSTRALIA 

AN ACCOUNT OF COLLECTIONS MADE 
IN 1929 AND 1932 



WITH 28 PLATES (16 COLORED) AND 
64 TEXT FIGURES 



BY 

Hubert Lyman Clark 



CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A. 

printeo for tbe /iDuseum 

1938 



FEB 9 1938 



CONTENTS 



Introduction 
Crinoidea . 

Coniasteridae 
Comatella . 
Capillaster 
Comatulella 
Valida 
Comatula 
Comanthina 
Comantheria 
Comanthus 

Zygometridae 
Zygometra . 

Himerometridae 
Heterometra 
Amphimetra 

Mariametridae 
Lamprometra 

Colobometridae 
Petasometra 
Austrometra 
Oligometrides 

Calometridae . 
Neometra 

Aporometridae 
Aporometra 

Antedonidae . 
Compsometra 
Dorometra 
Monilimetra 
Asteroidea 

Astropectinidae 
Astropecten 

Luidiidae 
Luidia 

Archasteridae 
Archaster 

Goniasteridae 
Nectria 
Tosia 

Pentagonaster 
Goniodiscaster 
Styphlaster 
Iconaster 
Anthenoides 



Page 
3 
12 
14 
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16 
18 
21 
23 
26 
29 
29 
33 
33 
35 
35 
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36 
36 
40 
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41 
41 
41 
45 
45 
46 
47 
57 
60 
60 
71 
71 
74 
74 
77 
77 
78 
79 
SO 
88 
91 
91 



IV 



CONTENTS 



Stellaster 
Asterodiscus 
Notes on the Subfamily Antheneinae 
Anthaster 
Pseudanthenea 
Pseudoreaster 
Gymnanthenea 
Anthenea 

Non-Australian Antheneas 
Australian Antheneas 
Oreasteridae . 
Protoreaster . 
Pentaceraster 
Culcita . 
Ophidiasteridae 
Austrofromia 
Nardoa 
Linckia . 
Bunaster 
Leiaster 
Ophidiaster 
Hacelia 
Tamaria 
Pseudophidiaster 
Asteropidae . 

Petricia 
Asterinidae 
Asterina 
Disasterina 
Manasterina 
Paranepanthia 
Patiriella 
Nepanthia . 
Parastcrina 
Anseropoda 
Echinasteridae 
Echinaster 
Plectaster . 
Metrodiridae 

Metrodira . 
Pterasteridae 

Retaster 
Asteriidae 
Coscinasterias 
Astrostole . 
Allostichaster 
Smilasterias 
Uniophora 



Paqe 
94 
101 
101 
102 
103 
103 
105 
110 
114 
116 
130 
130 
131 
132 
132 
132 
132 
133 
134 
136 
137 
139 
139 
142 
142 
142 
143 
143 
156 
157 
159 
163 
169 
179 
181 
183 
183 
186 
187 
187 
188 
188 
189 
189 
191 
193 
195 
196 



CONTENTS 



Ophiuroidea 

Ophiomyxidae 
Ophiomyxa 

Trichasteridae 
Astrobrachion 
Euryale 

Gorgonocephalidae 
Asteroporpa 
Astroconus 
Astrocladiis 
Astrochalcis 

Ophiacanthidae 
Ophiacantha 
Ophiothaiima 

Aniphiuridae 
Ampliiura 
Ophicentrus 
Ophionephthys 
Amphipholis 
Amphistigma 
Amphiodia 
Amphioplus 
Ophiactis 
Ophiodaphne 

Ophiotrichidae 
Ophiotlirix 
Lissophiothrix 
Macrophiothrix 
Ophiotrichoides 
Placophiothrix 
Ophiopteron 
Ophiomaza 
Ophiocnemis 
Ophiothela 
Ophiogyrana 

Ophiochitonidae 
Ophionereis 

Ophiocomidae 
Ophiocoma 
Ophiomastix 
Ophiarthrum 

Ophiodermatidae 
Ophiiirodon 
Opliiarachna 
Pectinura 
Ophiochasma 
Ophiaraclinella 
Cryptopelta 



Page 
196 
201 
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204 
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205 
206 
208 
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208 
211 
213 
213 
236 
240 
243 
244 
247 
249 
256 
270 
271 
271 
275 
278 
305 
309 
317 
317 
318 
319 
320 
321 
321 
328 
328 
337 
339 
339 
339 
341 
343 
345 
346 
354 



VI 



CONTENTS 



Ophiodyscrita 
Ophiolepididae 

Ophiomisidium 

Haplophiura 

Amphiophiura 

Ophiura 

Dictenophiura 

Ophioteichus 

Ophiolepis . 

Ophioplocus 
Echinoidea 
Cidaridae 

Goniocidaris 

Prionocidaris 

Phyllacanthus 
Centrechinidae 

Centrechinus 

Centrostephanus 
Echinothuriidae 

Asthenosonia 
Temnopleuridae 

Temnopleurus 

Salmacis 

Temnotrema 

Mespilia 

Microcyphus 

Amblypneustes 

Holopneustes 
Echinidae 

Pseudechinus 

Tripneustes 

Nudechinus 
Strongylocentrotidae 

Echinostrephus 

Pachycentrotu.s 

Heliocidaris 
Echinometridae 

Parasalenia 

Echinometra 
Clypeastridae 

Clypeaster 

Hesperaster 

Arachnoifles 
Laganidae 

Laganum 

Peronella 
Fibulariidae 

Fibularia 



Paqb 
355 
357 
357 
357 
358 
358 
359 
360 
364 
365 
366 
369 
369 
369 
372 
376 
376 
377 
378 
378 
380 
381 
383 
385 
388 
389 
389 
391 
395 
395 
397 
398 
402 
402 
403 
404 
407 
407 
408 
410 
410 
411 
414 
417 
417 
417 
421 
421 



CONTENTS 



Echinocyamus 
Scutellidae 

Echinodiscus 
Echinoneidae 

Echinoneus 
Nucleolitidae 

Apatopygus 
Cassidulidae 

Echinolampas 
Palaeopneustidae 

Archaeopneustes 
Hemiasteridae 

Protenaster 

Hypselaster 

Moira 
Spatangidae 

Brissopsis 

Rhynobrissus 

Brissus 

Eupatagus 

Gonimaretia 

Maretia 

Breynia 

Lovenia 

Echinocardium 
Holotliurioidea 
Cucumariidae 

Cucumaria 

Pentacta 

Leptopentacta 

Pseudocolochirus 

Pentathyone 

Thyone 

Orbithyone 

Staurothj'one 

Actinocucumis 

Pseudociicumis 

Phyllophorus 

Lipotrapeza 

Urodemas . 

Psolidium 

Psolus 
Holothuriidae 

Stichopus 

Labidodemas 

Holothuria 

Actinopyga 
Molpadiidae . 



Page 
422 
423 
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428 
428 
429 
429 
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429 
43) 
432 
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433 
433 
435 
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437 
438 
439 
440 
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444 
444 
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453 
456 
458 
461 
473 
474 
477 
481 
485 
494 
497 
503 
507 
511 
511 
516 
516 
538 
538 



vm 



CONTENTS 



Molpadia 

Paracaudina 

Aphelodactyla 
Synaptidae 

Chondrocloea 

Leptosynapta 

Protankyra 

Chiridota 

Taeniogyrus 

Trochodota 
Local Lists 

Lord Howe Island 
New South Wales 
Queensland 
Northern Territory 
Augustus and Champagay 
The Broome Region 
The Perth Region 
Albany, W. A. 
Coasts of South Australia 
Tasmania 
Bibliography 
Index 
Explanation of Plates 



Islands 



and Mctoria 



Page 
538 
540 
542 
545 
545 
548 
552 
555 
557 
557 
559 
559 
562 
563 
564 
566 
567 
569 
571 
571 
572 
574 
582 
593 



ECHINODERMS FROM AUSTRALIA 



ECHINODERMS FROM AUSTRALIA 



INTRODUCTION 

Unusual opportunities for studying and collecting echinoderms on the 
coasts of Australia in recent years warrant the publication of this account of 
the material accumulated. 

In 1929, a liberal grant from the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
supplemented by a generous gift from the Australian National Research Council 
and aid from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, enabled me to spend nearly 
six months in active collecting in AustraUan waters. Landing at Darwin, N. T., 
June 13, we carried on work in that vicinity until the end of July, both by shore 
collecting and by dredging in shallow water. Mrs. Clark accompanied me and 
Mr. Arthur A. Livingstone of the Australian Museum, Sydney, joined us at 
Darwin, remaining with us for some four months. Mrs. Clark made water color 
sketches from Ufe of many of the more interesting echinoderms and frequently 
aided in the shore collecting. Mr. Livingstone devoted himself to assisting me 
in every possible way and I cannot speak too highly of his invaluable coopera- 
tion. I do not know how to adequately express my appreciation of, and my 
gratitude for, the indefatigable assistance of these two fellow-workers. But work 
at Darwin would have been seriously handicapped without the cooperation of 
the hospitable residents of that community. The chairman of the Northern 
Territories Commission, Mr. James Horsburgh, most generously gave us the 
use of his residence, on the very shore of Port Darwin, for a laboratory, and a 
more attractive and satisfactory place for such work is not to be found on the 
northern coasts of Austraha. In every way possible, Mr. Horsburgh helped us, 
and showed his unfaihng interest in our work throughout our stay of more than 
six weeks. To Colonel Robert H. WeddeU, the Resident Commissioner at 
Darwin, our thanks are also due, for such aid as he could give. 

Shore collecting in the immediate vicinity of Darwin is very poor and it 
was necessary to make frequent visits to East Point, six miles out from town, 
in order to determine what the normal intertidal and low-tide fauna of the 
region really is. Mr. Jack Wetter was engaged to pro\dde transportation for 
these excursions and soon became a constant and invaluable helper in many 



4 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

ways. Through him we were enabled to get a motor boat and thus could carry on 
dredging in Port Darwin. Without this we should have left Darwin with a meagre 
and inaccurate idea of the echinoderms which occur there. My obhgations to 
Mr. Wetter are therefore very great and very real and I am glad to thus express 
my appreciation of his services. To Mr. and Mrs. F. A. K. Bleeser, our most 
sincere gratitude is due for much helpful advice and countless favors, evidence of 
a friendship which has enriched life ever since. Thanks are due, and here gladly 
extended to the numerous dwellers at Darwin who helped us with gifts and loans 
of specimens, and suggestions as to good collecting grounds. Especially we thank 
Mrs. Gordon, our kind hostess at the Victoria Hotel, Mr. P. W. Wilson, Mr. and 
Mrs. Joseph Hardy, Mrs. Jessie Littlefield, and Mr. E. J. Foster. 

From Darwin, we travelled westward to Broome, by the Western AustraUaa 
government's boat, the "Koolinda." During this journey, we had the opportunity 
of visiting two ports which appear on an ordinary map to give promise of being 
good collecting grounds. The first of these is Wyndham, at the head of Cam- 
bridge Gulf, where it is not even necessary to land to reaUze its utter unfitness 
as a home for echinoderms. The amount of mud in the water of Cambridge 
Gulf is simply amazing and the absence of suitable reefs and shores is perfectly 
obvious. The second port of call was Derby, at the head of King Sound. The 
entrance to the Sound is marked by attractive islands and gives promise of good 
collecting but the vicinity of Derby is as hopeless as Wyndham, barren mud 
flats and mangrove swamps stretching away east and west as far as eye can see. 
Coming out of King Sound and rounding Cape Leveque, one enters a very 
different area and the clear water and numerous shore reefs as Broome is ap- 
proached give promise of an abundant marine fauna. 

This promise is not behed ! Broome is bej^ond doubt a paradise for a marine 
zoologist. The clear water, the firm bottom of Roebuck Bay, the reefs and tide- 
pooLs at Entrance Point and Gantheaume Point, the very great rise and fall of 
the tide (exceeding tliirty feet in September), combine to provide conditions 
extraordinarily favorable to animal hfe. Sponges, worms, echinoderms (especial- 
ly holothurians), crustaceans (especially crabs), mollusks, and ascidians abound 
not only in number of individuals but in diversity of genera and species. Shore 
collecting anywhere, at almost any time except high water, is more or less re- 
warding, but at very low water surpasses description, while dredging constantly 
yields a wealth of forms of amazing variety. We had planned to stay a month 
at Broome — we stayed two — and left with the keenest regret, well conscious 
that we had not begun to exlaaust the possibihties of the region. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 5 

We met with the same kindness and cordial hospitality at Broome to which 
Darwin had introduced us. Everyone was willing or eager to help and it is 
impossible even to mention all those to whom our thanks are due. Captain A. 
C. Gregory, whose extensive pearl fisheries make him a well-known figure on the 
northwest coast, generously provided us, without cost, a building equipped with 
electricity and running water, located almost at liigh water mark and very 
convenient for the nearby collecting grounds. To express here, as I gladly do, 
sincere thanks for this indispensable help is but a meagre return. I wish to 
thank particularly also, Mr. Reginald A. Bourne, master of the pearling lugger 
"Bonza" who became greatly interested in our work and rendered invaluable 
assistance in the matter of dredging and visiting more distant places. Thanks 
to the "Bonza" we collected at several points on both sides of La Grange Bay 
and even as far west as Wallal. Mr. Bourne also made it possible for us to 
visit pearUng vessels at work and enUst the aid of their divers in bringing up 
specimens from the bottom where they were gathering shell. The Resident 
Commissioner, Colonel W. 0. Mansbridge, gave me some valuable sea stars 
from the Lacepede Islands which were secured by pearlers while working in that 
vicinity, an area we could not visit. Among the many to whom thanks ought to 
be expressed are Captain Beresford E. Bardwell, Mr. W. F. Clarke, Mrs. W. H. 
Milner, Mrs. S. V. Ogilvie, and Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Pigott. 

During the weeks we were at Broome, we were able to make a most inter- 
esting and profitable visit to the lighthouse at Cape Leveque where we were 
hospitably entertained for three days by the keepers, Mr. and Mrs. Newman 
and Mr. and Mrs. Robson, to whom our thanks are here cordially tendered. 
The success of this excursion was largely due to the hearty cooperation of Mr. 
Jack Tytherleigh, who took us in his car, and to Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Dewar, 
then Uving at Beagle Bay, at whose suggestion the visit to the Cape was made. 
Thanks are due Mrs. Dewar also for her help in the shore collecting. 

We left Broome, October 1, for Perth and en route stopped at Onslow, where 
a few hours hunting along the shore yielded no echinoderms; at Cossack, which 
looked much more promising and is reported to be an excellent collecting ground ; 
at Carnarvon, where conditions looked far from favorable; and at Geraldton, 
where a full day's work along the shore both north and south of the jetty yielded 
a number of interesting echinoderms. We reached Fremantle, October 8, and 
next day, at Perth, entered upon the contacts with Australian Museums and 
scientific men, which have proven so pleasant and so rewarding. The generosity 
and cheerful helpfulness of my colleagues in the Commonwealth have been so 



6 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

great and so delightful that any adequate expression of gratitude is out of the 
question, but I must bear testimony to them as enthusiastically as I can. 

At Perth, where I had planned to stay but two days, Mr. L. Glauert of the 
Museum and Dr. E. W. Bennett of the University of Western Australia made 
three weeks pass all too quickly. Shore collecting at Point Peron and Rottnest 
Island, dredging in the area between Fremantle and Garden and Rottnest 
Islands, and a two days excursion to Bunbury and Koombana Bay, yielded a 
surprising number of echinoderms, including several new to science. To add to 
these treasm'es, Mr. Glauert permitted me to search the Museum shelves and 
Dr. Bennett laid before me the accumulations in the Biological Laboratory and 
Museum at the University, and either as gifts or loans everything of interest 
was unreservedly added to my store. Besides these two bountiful friends. Dr. 
N. T. M. Wilsmore, Professor of Chemistry at the University, and Mr. Duncan 
Swan and Mr. D. L. Serventy, students in the Biological Department, made 
me their lasting debtor. It is a pleasure to offer my very sincere thanks to the 
Honorable P. Collier, Premier of Western Australia, for a pass on the railroads 
of that state for myself and an assistant, and to Mr. F. Aldrich, Chief Inspector 
of Fisheries, for the use of the Department's boat for my dredging excursions. 
Without this generous help, so cordially given, I could not have accomplished 
half as much during my delightful three weeks. 

Leaving Perth, by the famous transcontinental train, on October 21, we 
enjoyed the three days journey across Western Australia and the extraordinary 
Nullarbor Plain, into South Australia, to the pleasant city of Adelaide. A 
week's stay here was made profitable through the cordial assistance of Mr. 
Herbert M. Hale, who enabled me to enjoy the very unusual experience of col- 
lecting living echinoderms (at Port Willunga) in the morning and fossil echini 
(at Blanche Point, Maslin Bay) in the afternoon. Mr. Hale also loaned me 
many important specimens which were needed for further study, and enabled 
me to examine at the Museima much valuable material both recent and fossil. 

From Adelaide we went on to Melbourne, where Mr. J. A. Kershaw of the 
Victorian National Museum and Dr. Frederic Chapman, the Commonwealth 
Palaeontologist, were most cordially helpful in enabling me to see much im- 
portant material. Mr. Kershaw very kindly sent to Cambridge as a loan for 
critical study a number of interesting echinoderms. From ^lelbourne, I went to 
Hobart, where Mr. CUve Lord, Director of the Tasmanian Museum, whose 
recent death is such a loss to Australian scientific circles, did everytliing in his 
power to make my brief visit deUghtful and profitable. Thanks to the generous 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS / 

cooperation of the Chairman of the Sea Fisheries Board, Col. J. E. C. Lord, a day 
was spent dredging in the estuary of the Derwent and I was thus enabled to see 
a fauna as different as can be from that of the vicinity of Broome. Professor 
T. T. Flj'nn of the University, now at Queens University, Belfast, Ireland, was 
most generous in presenting me with much valuable material which he had 
himself collected at several points on the Tasmanian Coast. To all of these 
colleagues, I offer my best thanks. 

Our next stop was at Sydney, where ten very profitable and delightful days 
were spent in collecting in Port Jackson, at Long Reef and at Gunnamatta Bay, 
and in studying material at the Australian Museum. Dr. C. Anderson, Director 
of the Museum, did everything possible to aid me and to demonstrate the hos- 
pitality, wealth and efficiency of the great institution of which he is the honored 
and capable head. My debt to him and to the splendid and most friendly staff 
of the Museum can never be adequately set forth — had I the honor to be one 
of their own number, I could not have been given more or better aid. My par- 
ticular debt to Mr. Arthur A. Livingstone, the Curator of Echinoderms, has al- 
ready been mentioned. Mr. Melbourne Ward was most generous in placing at 
my disposal his motorcar and motorboat during my stay in Sydney. As he also 
took an active part in the collecting done, my obligation to him is very great. 
It is a pleasure to express here my heartiest thanks to all my colleagues at Sydney. 

As our return to the LTnited States was via China and Japan, it was possible 
to spend a day in Brisbane, and so visit the Queensland Museum and enjoy the 
hospitaUty of Mr. Heber A. Longman, the Director. ^Vhile the collection of 
echinoderms is not extensive, there is much noteworthy material on display, 
especially a series of Oreasters from the northern Queensland coast. Like his 
colleagues at the other Australian Museums, Mr. Longman was more than will- 
ing to loan material and assist my work in every possible way. I offer him my 
very sincere thanks. 

After my return to Cambridge in 19.30, an expedition to Australia was 
planned at the Museum, for the purpose of adding to our collections of the land 
fauna, particularly vertebrates and insects. It was not intended to include the 
marine fauna, but for various reasons, which need not be discussed here, it was 
decided that I should join the party in Sydney, in March 1932. Thanks to a 
generous grant made by the Milton Fund of Harvard University, it was possible 
for me to carry out three projects which were not possible in 1929, and which 
seemed quite essential to a proper rounding out of my studies on Australian 
echinoderms. These projects were, visits to Lord Howe Island, in the Tasman 



8 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Sea, where the southernmost coral reefs of the world occur, and to Port Essing- 
ton, on the Coburg Peninsula of the Northern Territory, where the first British 
settlement on the northern coast of the Continent itself was attempted; and a 
month of dredging at Broome, to exploit the very rich echinoderm fauna found 
there in 1929. 

At Lord Howe Island, thanks to the courtesy of the Trustees of the Austra- 
lian Museum, and the characteristic cooperation of Dr. Anderson, I had the as- 
sistance once more of Mr. Arthur A. Livingstone. During the three weeks, which 
we spent on the island, Mrs. Clark, Mr. Livingstone and I, often aided by vol- 
unteer assistants, collected all of the 18 species of echinoderms previously 
known from the Lord Howe reefs and beaches, and 36 others, including several 
new to science. A brief discussion of the echinoderm fauna of the island will be 
found on pp. 559 of this report. Particular thanks are due to Mr. Robert Bax- 
ter, Mr. and Mrs. Reginald Kirby and Miss Kama Birmingham for their very 
kind, and often indispensable help in our work at Lord Howe. 

The main purpose of the visit to Port Essington was to examine the littoral 
echinoderm fauna of the Coburg Peninsula and see whether it is similar to that 
of Darwin and equally poor, or whether the poverty of the fauna at Darwin is 
due to some local conditions. It was of course necessary to use Darwin as the 
base from which this excursion could be made, and we were extraordinarily 
fortunate in the combination of circumstances which gave us the required amount 
of time between our arrival on the monthly boat from Sydney and the departure 
of the bimonthly Western Australian steamer for Broome; which offered the best 
possible condition of the tide (for that time of year); and which enabled us to 
secure the services of Captain Jack Hayles of the motorship "Maroubra" 
whose hearty interest and cooperation in our work could be exceeded only by his 
knowledge of the coast and ability as a seaman. To him I am glad to offer my 
sincere thanks for making the excursion well worth the trouble and expense. 
My friend, Mr. F. A. K. Bleeser of Darwin went with me and proved an inval- 
uable assistant in the collecting as well as a most congenial companion. We made 
three landings on the peninsula during favorable conditions of the tide — one 
near the lighthouse at Cape Don, one at Smiths Point, at the entrance and on 
the eastern side of Port Essington, and one at Coral Bay on the western side. 
Best of all we had several hours at Allaru Island, a small islet lying well off shore 
to the west of Port Essington. At none of these points was the collecting notable 
in itself, but the similarity to that in the vicinity of Darwin was so obvious, 
there was no doubt left in my mind that the comparative poverty of the fauna 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 9 

at Darwin is not due to local conditions but is characteristic of the whole coast 
of the northern territory. 

The month of dredging at Broome was all that had been expected and more, 
the chief drawback being the weather which was very different from that we 
had so thoroughly enjoyed in August and September, 1929. The winter days of 
June were regrettably short, allowing only about eleven hours of daylight in 
which we could work. There was much overcast sky and some rain, and on 
many days there was too much wind to permit dredging very far off shore. This 
prevented a greatly desired visit to the Lacepede Islands, northeast of Broome, 
but Mr. Bourne and other local authorities do not think that conditions at those 
islands differ in any essential way from those along the coast, or that there is 
any reason to expect any differences in the fauna. The pleasure and success of 
the month's work were very largely due to the hearty cooperation of Mr. R. A. 
Bourne, master of the "Bonza," who had done so much to help me in 1929. 
In addition to fulfilhng his contract with me satisfactorily in everj^ detail so far 
as weather permitted, Mr. Bourne provided at his own expense, a diver and the 
necessary pump and accoutrements to assist us. While this was an advantage 
in some ways, and the diver brought up many desirable specimens including 
species we did not and probably could not hope to get with a dredge, it involved 
a very great waste of time, for a diver necessarily works very slowly, covers a 
small area and sees only relatively large and noticeable forms. Mr. Bourne and 
his admirable crew of three aboriginals ("abos," for short) Paddy, Ramy and 
McKinna, were so assiduous in dredging that we covered a great deal of ground 
when not delayed by the diver. We left Broome each Monday, as early as wind 
and weather permitted and returned with our sjjoil late Saturday evening. If 
there is a more fascinating sport than dredging under pleasant conditions on 
good bottom, I do not know what it is, and those weeks working up and down 
nearly three hundred miles of coast, east and west of Broome, will always be 
looked back upon as among the most thrilling of my life. My thanks to Mr. 
Bourne are most deep and sincere. The friends we had made in 1929 were most 
cordial in helping us in every way, and it is a pleasure to thank them again. 

It may appropriately be mentioned here that Captain Beresford E. Bard- 
well in 1933 made a trip to the northeast of Broome, going as far as Augustus 
Island and the Port George Mission. In return for a little financial help from the 
M.C.Z., Captain Bardwell sent us a notable collection of echinoderms, including 
a number of species which I did not secure, and throwing much light on the fauna 
east of King Sound. This collection is included in the present report and is 



10 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

particularly discussed on pp. 566. My heartiest thanks are here tendered Captain 
Bardwell for this timely and important assistance. 

After leaving Broome early in July, there was little opportunity for further 
collecting. Our first stop on the southward journey, that at Port Hedland, per- 
mitted several hours ashore and as the tide was favorable, it was possible to 
gather a few interesting echinoderms. But our other ports were made late in the 
day and no further chance for shore work occurred before reaching Perth. 
There I was again the recipient of courtesies, loans and gifts from Messrs. 
Glauert, Bennett and Wilsmore, and also from Professor G. E. Nichols of the 
Zoological Department of the University, who was indefatigable in his service 
and unceasing in his kindness. The winter weather was not propitious for 
collecting and our single dredging trip was badly handicapped by wind and rain. 

The hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Hardy, whose friendship we had 
made at Darwin in 1929, was so generous and delightful during our two weeks 
stay in Perth, it cannot be passed over in silence, but words of thanks are quite 
inadequate, especially since the memory of it is so unspeakably saddened by 
the lamentable death of our young hostess only a year later. 

From Perth, all the collections made at Darwin and on the Coburg Penin- 
sula, as well as the large amount of material gathered at Broome, were sent to 
Sydney, and there, by the courtesy of the Australian Museum, they were re- 
packed with the Lord Howe Island collections and with loans from the Museum, 
and all were sent in one shipment to Cambridge. For this great assistance, I 
take pleasure in thanking the Trustees of the AustraUan Museum, Dr. Anderson 
and the very efficient and kind packer, Mr. Henry S. Grant. 

The entire amount of material thus accumulated from my two visits to 
Australia consists of 11,484 specimens, representing 422 species of 184 genera. 
Of this, 9,647 specimens were collected by Mrs. Clark, Mr. Livingstone and 
myself, aided of course by many others, particularly by Mr. Bourne at Broome. 
The balance is made up of 955 gifts and 700 loans from our bountiful Australian 
colleagues and friends and the 182 sent by Captain Beresford E. Bardwell of 
Broome, as already mentioned. In the following pages this notable mass of 
material is treated first systematically by classes, and then geographically by 
areas visited. In genera containing representatives of more than one species, 
previously known forms are treated first, then the new species; in each group 
the species are arranged alphabetically. The source of the material is mentioned 
under each species. Wlien no other source or collector is mentioned, it is to be 
understood that we were the collectors. It is hoped that a subsequent report 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 11 

may give a full account of the echinoderm fauna of Australia as at present 
known, with a discussion of its apparent history and relationships. 

I wish to express here my deep sense of obUgation, and my sincerest thanks, 
to the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the National Research Council of 
Austraha, and the Committee in charge of the Milton Fund of Harvard Uni- 
versity for the financial help which made the collecting of the material and the 
preparation of colored plates possible; to Mr. George R. Agassiz for the finan- 
cial help, which made possible the colored plates and prompt pubUcation; to 
my wife, Frances L. S. Clark, and to Eugene N. Fischer, for their patience and 
skill in making the colored illustrations for this report so satisfactory; to Mrs. 
Clark further for much help in the preparation of the manuscript, particularly 
the index, bibliography and faunal lists; to Mr. F. P. Orchard for his admirable 
efficiency in making the necessary photographs; to Mrs. EUzabeth Grundy, Mrs. 
Carmen Witter and Mrs. Anna O'Connor for their skill and care in tjrping the 
manuscript; to Mrs. Marjorie H. Pattee for invaluable help in connection with 
checking references and catalog numbers, and tabulating statistics; and partic- 
ularly to Dr. Thomas Barbour, Director of the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy, whose generous interest and unfaihng sympathy have made it possible for 
me to enjoy the extraordinary opportunities I have been given, and to prepare 
unhindered by routine duties, this voluminous report. 



12 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



CRINOIDEA 

The collection of crinoids contains 910 specimens representing 20 genera and 
32 species. Of the genera, two are new so far as the name is concerned, but one 
is proposed for a species described many years ago whose generic position has 
hitherto been a puzzle. Of the 32 species only 7 are new and of these 4 make up 
the new genus of Antedonidae discovered at Broome. It is not strange that the 
number of new species is small, for much attention has been given to AustraUan 
and East Indian crinoids during the past thirty years. 

The new genera are: 
Aporometra, type Himerometra paedophora H. L. Clark. There are two other 

species in the genus, one of which is described beyond. 
Monilimetra, type M. nomima sp. nov. There are three other species in the 
genus, all found at Broome and hitherto undescribed. 

The 7 new species fall into three genera as follows: 

Petasometra brevicirra W. A., False Cape Bossut. 

variegata N. T., Darwin. 

Aporometra occidenialis W. A., Bunbury 

Monilimetra bicolor W. A., Broome. 

lepta W. A., Broome. 

nomima W. A., Broome. 

poecila W. A., Broome. 

Crinoids are common, even abundant, in many places on the tropical coasts 
of Australia but below latitude 27° few species occur on either the eastern or 
western sides of the continent, or on the southern coast. Nor are these few 
species of the temperate coasts notable for either size or color, for they are small 
and only one is at all showy. Hence thej^ make up an inconspicuous part of the 
marine fauna. On some parts of the northern coast, however, and on the north- 
ern part of the Great Barrier Reef, comatulids are abundant and conspicuous, 
even in shallow water and along shore near low water mark. But they are 
seldom found where the water contains any silt or there is any deficiency in either 
salinity or oxygen. Consequently they occur in abundance and in all their full 
beauty only where the water is kept in the best possible condition by strong tidal 
or other currents. They are therefore apt to be more or less local in their distri- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 13 

bution. Most comatulids live a sessile life, moving about little or not at all, but 
a few of the smaller species (especially in the Antedonidae) are good swimmers if 
sufficiently stimulated. While some species occur, often in abundance, on open, 
hard, sandy bottoms, where they attach themselves to any object, rock, shell 
or alga, fixed to the bottom, most of the larger forms occur in sheltered recesses 
under or among rocks near and below low water mark, or among sponges, gorgon- 
ians and stony corals. 

Of the 32 species in the present list, 21 occur in the Broome region, and 14 
were found only there. At Darwin, we found 8 species but 6 of these occur also 
at Broome and at least 5 occur on the Barrier Reef. Only 5 species are at hand 
from the western Australian coast. Obviously Broome is a particularly favored 
spot but this is quite to be expected in view of the purity of the sea-water and 
the great rise and fall of the tides. 

The literature dealing with Australian crinoids is almost wholly the work 
of Austin Hobart Clark, with minor contributions by Gislen (1919) and the 
present writer (1909, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1921, 1928, 1932). Mr. Clark's contri- 
butions to our knowledge of the East Indian fauna is equally valuable and his 
monograph on the "Siboga" comatulids is a "sine qua non" for any worker on the 
crinoids of the Indo-Pacific region. His recent magnificent monograph on the 
Comasteridae (1931) brings order out of chaos in a masterly way and lays a 
foundation for all future work with that perplexing family, which is not likely 
to be essentially altered in years to come. 

In the study of the present collection I have enjoyed the inestimable ad- 
vantage of frequent consultation with Mr. Clark either by personal conference 
in Cambridge and Washington or by correspondence. His open-minded readi- 
ness to see my side whenever we disagreed has made it possible for us to discuss 
debatable points in a very satisfactory manner, and his extraordinary knowledge 
not only of the animals themselves but of the Hterature dealing with them, has 
enabled him to save me from oversights and blunders. Of course, Mr. Clark 
cannot fairly be held responsible for any errors that may be found in the present 
report but for whatever merit it may possess much of the credit should be given 
to him. It is a pleasure to offer here my sincerest thanks to my friend of more 
than twenty-five years, for his ready and generous assistance. 

In collecting crinoids at the Murray Islands in 1913, I soon learned that 
their reactions to chemicals were very different from those of other echinoderms, 
and the experiences of 1929 and 1932 have confirmed the impressions formed at 
that time. No narcotic has been found which will cause them to relax, as Epsom 



14 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

salts do for other echinoderms, but no real ei'fort has been made to find such a 
substance as it is quite unnecessary. All of the comatulids which I have taken 
alive kill quickly and satisfactorily, without autotomy or distortion, in strong 
alcohol. If it is desired to have them die with the disk exposed, they should be 
lifted carefully from the sea water and plunged into alcohol deep enough to cover 
them, in a pan or flat dish large enough to permit the full expansion of the arms. 
It does not much matter whether they be plunged with oral side down or up, 
but it is more convenient to seize the centrodorsal with thumb and finger (or 
forceps) and put them in the dish of alcohol, mouth down. They should be held 
down for a few moments till all movement has ceased, after which the arms can 
be arranged as desired. If the specimens are to be dried, as is often desirable for 
convenience in packing and in subsequent storage and study, a httle corrosive 
sublimate should be put in the alcohol. After thorough saturation with such 
poisoned alcohol the specimen may be dried as convenient by placing, mouth 
down, on a sloping board. For the best results, the killing should be done very 
soon after capture. Comatulids are surprisingly sensitive to stale sea-water and 
specimens left in a bucket for even an hour or two may begin to go to pieces, 
shedding first the distal pinnules and then the tips of the arms; finally the middle 
and basal parts of the arms break up. Once this process begins it is difficult to 
stop it, and such individuals will often go to pieces when placed in alcohol. 



COMASTERIDAE 

COMATELLA MACULATA 

Adinometra maculata P. H. Carpenter, 1888. "Challenger" Comat., p. 307. 
Comatella maculata A. H. Clark, 1908a. Smithson. Misc. Coll., 52, p. 207. 

This widespread species occurs at Broome but is not very common. We also 
found it at Cape Leveque but only secured two small specimens. Some of the 
specimens taken at Broome are of very large size, the arms being 100 mm. or 
more in length; in the largest specimen, which has 20 arms and in the dry con- 
dition is nearly or quite black, the longest arms are 150 mm. long. The cirri are 
XXIII, 18-22. The smallest specimen has 17 arms, 50-60 mm. long, while 
one a trifle larger has only 13 arms; in this latter specimen the cirri are XX, 
16-17. Most of the specimens have more than 23 cirri, but the number of seg- 
ments is only 16-20. The smaller specimens give evidence of a dark green tint 



CLABK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 15 

which becomes yellowish distally on the arms. The cirri are, in all cases, more or 
less purple at least distally. 

The material at hand consists of the following 10 specimens. 
Western Australia : Broome, under rocks near low water mark, Entrance and 

Gantheaume Points, August and September, 1929. 
1 specimen. 
Broome, dredged, June, 1932. 2 small specimens. 
Cape Leveque, under rocks, August 1929. 2 specimens. 

Capillaster multiradiata 

Asterias multiradiata Linne, 1758. Sys. Nat., ed. X, p. 663. 
Capillaster multiradiata A. H. Clark, 1909. Vid. Med., p. 134. 

This crinoid is characteristic of the East Indian region, ranging only (so 
far as we yet know) to the Maldive Islands on the west and the Carolines on the 
east, to Formosa on the north and tropical Australia on the south. There are 
numerous Australian records but the immediate vicinity of Broome furnished all 
of the ten specimens at hand. There multiradiata occurs under or among rocks 
near low water mark and is also occasionally dredged on the shoals, but it is a 
relatively uncommon and inconspicuous form. The most noticeable of the 
present series is one with 16 arms, most of which are about 75 mm. long; there 
are four II Br series and two III Br. A smaller individual, with most of the 
arms broken, has only 13, and there are but two II Br and one III Br series. 
The largest specimen has 42 arms about 100 mm. long; the cirri are XXIV, 
24-26. In other specimens the cirri range from IX to XXIII and the number of 
segments from 15 to 26. Most of these specimens of multiradiata appear gray, 
fawn-color or hght brown dorsally, much darker orally; the pinnules are some- 
times finely spotted with silvery white. One specimen is a dull, dark purple, and 
the cirri in most specimens are more or less purplish near the tip; in other cases 
they are oUve-green. 

Comatulella brachiolata 

Comatvla brachiolata Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 535. 
Comatulella brachiolata A. H. Clark, 1911. Amer. Jour. Sci. (4) 32, p. 1,30. 

This little comatulid is one of the characteristic marine animals of south- 
western AustraUa. We met with it only at Bunbury but there is a specimen at 



16 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

hand from Cottesloe Beach. Dredging in Koombana Bay, one or two miles 
west of the breakwater in 5-8 fms., Oct. 26, 1929, yielded a number of specimens 
and my field notes say: This "Comatula was largely a rosy-red in hfe, dorsally 
more or less variegated — the cirri a very bright red, more scarlet, but there is 
not a sharp contrast between cirri and the calyx." "Rather a rigid thing, came 
up in dredge, opened out flat, attached by cirri and even pinnules also, to sea- 
weeds. Killed usually without a tremor!" (The killing was done by plunging 
at once into strong alcohol). 

The 1 1 specimens at hand were taken as follows : 
Western Australia: Cottesloe Beach. Property of Perth Museum. 1 fine speci- 
men. 
Bunbury. Collected and presented by Naturalists Club, 
Bunbury; drift on Back Beach, January, 1930, 1 badly 
damaged specimen. 
Bunbury, Koombana Bay, 5-8 fms., October 26, 1929, E. 
W. Bennett and H. L. Clark leg. 9 fine specimens. 

Validia rotalaria 

ComatuJa rotalaria Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 534. 

Comatula (Validia) rotalaria A. H. Clark, 1918. "Siboga" Uiist. Crin., p. 6. 

This strikingly handsome crinoid is one of the characteristic species of 
tropical Australia. We met with it while dredging near Broome in 1929 and 
again in the same region in 1932 but did not take it elsewhere. It has been 
reported from as far south as Port Molle, Queensland (20° 30' S.) and Baudin 
Island, Western Australia (14° 08' S.). The specimens taken at Broome there- 
fore extend the known distribution considerably to the southwest. They range 
from an immature individual with 22 arms, of which 13 are (or were) 30-50 mm. 
long and 9 are 5-16 mm., to a fine adult also with 22 arms, but having them 
75-125 mm. long, nearly all over 100. The smaller specimen has 2 cirri with 
about 15 segments, but the larger has no trace of cirri or of cirrus sockets. An- 
other small specimen has 20 arms, 40-70 mm. long (mostly about 60) but has 
the cirri VIII, 14-18, interradial in position as in Comatula pcctinata var. pur- 
purea. Both the small specimens of rotalaria show the fleshy knobs on the disk 
so often conspicuous in larger specimens, but curiously enough neither shows 
the least similarity in arm arrangement to Comatula etiwridgei A. H. Clark, 
wliich is now beUeved by Mr. Clark to be the young of rotalaria and the types 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 17 

of wliich had the longer arms about 70 mm. Apparently not all rotalarias pass 
through an eiheridgei stage or else they pass through it while still very small. 
Some of the specimens dredged at Lagrange Bay in 1932 are superb individuals 
with 30 or 31 arms, 140 mm. long. In specimens witli 29 arms or more, there are 
6 arms on each ray (or on all but one) with the III Br series always on the inner 
side of the II Br axillary. 

The color of the alcohohc specimens is a grayish brown lightest on the 
centrodorsal and on the backs of the arms, darkest orally. The dry specimens 
are very different : the calyx and basal part of arms is yellow-brown with a dis- 
tinctly greenish cast, passing more or less gradually into a dull rose red or deep 
pink; in one specimen only the distal part of the arms is distinctly pink but in 
all of the others, the general appearance of the whole specimen, excepting only 
the calyx and oral face of disk, is strikingly deep pink. In the young specimens, 
the cirri are a very light brown or fawn color. 

In hfe, the colors are very different and the following extracts from my field 
notes may be quoted as showing the impression made on the collector when he 
first meets with this splendid comatuHd. 

In 1929, I wrote: "No cirri. 20 arms; yellow or greenish on centrodorsal 
and out on base of arms dorsally, but pinnules silvery dorsally, more or less 
yellow-tipped; sutures dark, more or less purplish; oral surface very dark. 
Exquisite." On June 7, 1932, we were dredging in 4-5 fms. at the entrance to 
Lagrange Bay and took several specimens of rotalaria. My field notes say: "A 
superb creature marvellously variegated with black and white orally, greenish- 
yellow aborally. No cirri. 20 or more arms. . . . Dry specimens show complete 
change of color." 

It seems to me that the differences between rotalaria and the ten-armed 
species of Comatula are sufficiently important to warrant treating the sub- 
genus proposed by A. H. Clark as a genus. Nothing is gained by using a sub- 
generic group for this very distinct species, and I have therefore called it Validia 
rotalaria. The 14 specimens at hand were taken as follows : 
Western Australia : Broome, on Pearl Shoal, 5-7 fms., September 12, 1929. 

1 fine adult. 
Broome, east of Pearl Shoal, 7-8 fms., September 14, 1929. 

3 fine adults. 
Off entrance to Lagrange Bay, 4-5 fms., June 7, 1932. 

7 very fine adults. 
Broome, June, 1932. 1 adult and 2 small specimens. 



18 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



COMATULA PECTINATA 

Asterias pedinata Linne, 1758. Sys. Nat., ed. X, p. 663. 

Comatula pectinaia Dujardin and Hupe, 1862. Nat. Hist. Zooph., p. 203. 

This is undoubtedly the most abundant crinoid on the coasts of northern 
AustraUa. Under suitable conditions it swarins over large sponges and rock 
fragments; on one sponge brought up in our small dredge, we counted over two 
hundred individuals of all sizes and colors. The largest specimens have the arms 
opposite the mouth over 125 mm. long, with those adjoining the mouth about 
75-80 mm. In small individuals this inequality of the arms is not nearly so 
marked and is often hardly evident. The diversity of color is very great at 
Broome; the most common color is red or purplish of some shade. My field 
notes say: "Almost black to almost white; deep purplish common; also common 
is whitish or pinkish with red hues on calyx and arms, and cirri red, at least at 
tip. Dry specimens brick red or darker." On another occasion, I wrote: "One 
bright crimson; one deep purple with dorsal side of arms, bright yellow. A juve- 
nile specimen was bright scarlet, each pinnule just tipped with white; and it 
became bright yellow in alcohol. Several were hght grayish with two dark Unes 
on back of each arm; cirri yellowish; dried, hght red brown. Some specimens dull 
orange or orange-brown." 

The individuals of this species which have the cirri confined (usually in 
pairs but not rarely singly) to the interradial angles of the centrodorsal were 
called Alecto purpurea by J. Miiller nearly one hundred years ago (1843) and 
the name has persisted ever since. Even as late as 1931, the species Comatula 
purpurea (J. Miiller) is recognized by the very best authority on crinoids, Mr. 
A. H. Clark. In 1919, Gislen, studying material from northwestern Australia, 
decided that purpurea was no more than a variety of pectinaia and a few years 
later (1923) I expressed my sympathy with this view but considered more data 
necessary before we could be sure what the relation between the two forms 
really is. The abundance of these comatulids at Broome has enabled me to 
secure such data, and I am satisfied that purpurea is not properly even a variety. 
That is, I do not find any reason to beheve it breeds true or is confined to any 
locahty or habitat where pectinata does not occur. Where Uving conditions are 
"hard" (judged, of course, by human standards) all of the peclinatas may be 
small and have the cirri characteristic of purpurea but where conditions are 
favorable, as at Broome, the two forms occur together and in about equal num- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 19 

bers and connecting links are not rare; these usually take one of two forms — 
they may be typical purpurea except for having three cirri at one or more inter- 
radial angles of the centrodorsal or they may be peciinata with the cirri lacking 
from 3 or 4 of the radial sides of the centrodorsal. Of course, such specimens 
may be arbitrarily assigned to one form or the other, but it seems to me clear 
that the difference is not morphological. For convenience in referring to the 
form with only 10 (or fewer) interradially placed cirri, we may use the phrase 
"forma purpurea." It should be noted, however, that this is not a depauperate 
form or pecuhar in any other particular. It occurs commonly with typical 
pectinata and shows the same diversity in size, form, and color. 

The failure to find pectinata in any form at our collecting grounds on the 
Coburg Peninsula or at Darwin is puzzling though I have no doubt it is due to 
the large amount of silt in the water. It is not impossible that in September and 
October, before the rains begin, the water may be clearer and this common 
comatuUd might be found in certain favored localities. In support of this theory 
are three very small specimens with arms about 15 irun. long or less, which we 
dredged in 3-6 fms., on a bottom of sponges, gorgonians, etc., near the Shell 
Islands and near Channel Island, at Darwin. In hfe they were bright colored 
(variegated, red, yellow and white) but they are now pale brown or dingy white. 
One of these has been identified by Mr. A. H. Clark as a young pectinata and I 
see no reason to hesitate in calhng the others the same. The only possible reason 
for doubting the identification is that we failed to find any specimens large 
enough to make it certain, and we did secure the adults of three other comasterids 
near the Shell Islands, all of which undoubtedly pass through a 10-armed Coma- 
tula stage. For the present, therefore, I list pectinata from Darwin only with 
question. 

The material at hand consists of 78 specimens, of which 47 are referred to 
pectinata and 31 to "forma purpurea." The locaUties follow: 

C. pectinata forma typica. 
?Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell and Channel Islands, July, 1929. 3 

very young specimens, too immature to permit certain 
identification. 
Western AustraUa: Broome, various localities, low tide mark to 8 fms., June, 

1932. 36 specimens. 
Broome, Pearl Shoal, 5-8 fms., August, 1929. 5 speci- 
mens. 
Near False Cape Bossut, September, 1929. 2 specimens. 



20 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

"Northwestern Australia, April, 1915. Capt. Due leg." Gift 
of E. W. Bennett. 1 specimen. 
C. pectinata forma purpurea. 
Queensland: Great Barrier Reef, Eagle Island (north of Cooktown). T. T. 

Flynn leg. 2 young specimens. 
Western Austraha: Broome, various locaUties, August and September, 1929. 

17 specimens. 
Broome, Cable Beach, September, 1929. Frances L. S. 

Clark leg. 3 specimens. 
Broome, dredged at various locaUties, 4-8 fms. 8 specimens. 
Near False Cape Bossut, September, 1929. 1 specimen. 



COMATULA SOLARIS 
Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 533. 

This large ten-armed comatuhd is one of the most striking of the crinoids 
found on the coast of Northern Australia. Its great size, robust structure, and 
diversity of coloring combine to attract unusual attention. The first one seen 
by us was creeping along the hard, sandy bottom of Roebuck Bay in an effort 
to overtake the rapidly outgoing spring tide, September 21, 1929. The body, 
with oral side up, was raised some three inches above the sand, the weight being 
sustained on the tips of the ten arms. Progress was by no means slow but not 
rapid enough to keep up with the ebbing .sea. WTien picked up and placed in a 
bucket, taken to the laboratory and killed in alcohol, this individual showed no 
fragihty or tendency to break off its arms, which at that time were about 200 
mm. long; in its present diy condition the body is 25 mm. acro.ss and the arms 
only 175 mm. long; there are about 20 cirrus sockets with but 6 cirri, of some 
18 segments. The color of this specimen when living was as follows: centrodorsal 
and cirri, yellow; arms basally (on the dorsal side) of the same color but this 
becomes increasingly Ughter distally passing through cream-color to almost white 
at the arm-tips; pinnules yellowish or cream-color with few or many brown bands; 
oral surface of pinnules and arms, brown; disk and oral pinnules a bright brown 
in decided contrast. A smaller specimen taken a few days later was very different 
in color and in its present dry state is nearly uniform hght brown. A very hand- 
some specimen with arms about 130 mm. long was dredged in 4 fms. off Cape 
Villaret, southwest of Broome. There are 16 cirri and these, with the centre- 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 21 

dorsal and adjoining arm bases are dull purple; the rest of the dorsal surface is 
almost white while the pinnules and the oral surface are deep blackish brown in 
striking contrast. 

These three were the only examples of solans met with in 1929 but in June, 
1932, we found it not rarely in our dredging, and there are 10 of these specimens 
at hand. The largest are superb creatures with the arms 210-230 mm. long and 
6 mm. or more wide, without the pinnules. They reveal great diversity in color- 
ing, though now chiefly brown of some shade, or deep purple. My field notes say 
that one specimen was notable for having "the pinnules on basal part of arm 
orally Ught blue." In another the distal pinnules terminated in yellow. Such 
bright colors are not indicated in the preserved specimens. One individual is 
so much smaller than the others, it deserves a word of comment. The arms are 
only 50-70 mm. long and the cirri are XXII, 15-17; the color is light brown more 
or less variegated with a darker shade. 



COMANTHINA BELLI 

Adinomefra belli P. H. Carpenter, 1888. "Challenger" Comat., p. 334. 
Comanthina belli A. H. Clark, 1911. Amer. Jour. Sci. (4) 32, p. 130. 

This notable comatuhd is characteristic of the northern and northwestern 
coasts of Australia from the northern end of the Barrier Reef (the Murray 
Islands) to Shark Bay and the Abrolhos Islands in the west. It is beyond ques- 
tion the most beautiful marine animal found in those waters, its large size, 
great number of arms and extraordinary diversity of color making it very con- 
spicuous. We took but a single specimen at Darwin but it is very common at 
Broome, where it often occurs near low water mark or even in pools left by the 
ebbing spring tides. To give any adequate account of its beautiful appearance 
would involve a description of nearly every specimen, which is, of course, out 
of the question. Suffice it to say that large individuals have more than 100 arms 
and up to at least 150; one specimen has apparently more than this, possibly 
nearly 200 but anything like an accurate count is impossible without wrecking 
the specimen. In Ufe the big individuals are fully 300 mm. across, with the disk 
exceeding 40 (the calyx, of course, much less) and the arms 125-140 mm. long. 
In the largest specimen there is a VII Br 2 series on one ray; if every ray di- 
vided six times, there would, of course, be 320 arms, but it is a familiar fact that 
in all multibrachiate crinoids, after the first two or three forkings, the division 



22 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

series become very irregular. Several young individuals were taken with 30-55 
arms which are 50 to 100 mm. long; the most remarkable of these is a specimen 
with 33 arms, 60-75 mm. long (in life), which when living had the calyx, disk, 
and base of arms bright lemon yellow but distally the pinnules became, gradually 
not abruptly, a bright turquoise blue — a most exquisite and, so far as our col- 
lecting shows, a unique color form. 

The diversity of coloration shown by belli surpasses that of any other echino- 
derm with which I am acquainted. Shades of red are the least common and the 
most fugacious. One notable specimen is almost uniformly black, while in strik- 
ing contrast is an individual with the arm bases pale olive variegated with 
cream-white, the centrodorsal, the interradial areas of the calyx and the distal 
half of the arms cream-white ; many arms have broad but rather indefinite bands 
of dusky near the tips. Bright lemon yellow, orange-brown, deep brown, and 
green individuals are frequently seen and one beautiful specimen was (and to 
some extent still is) a fine light blue; a broad whitish band on the middle part 
of each arm fornis a wide white circle separating the markedly blue arm bases 
from the Ughter blue tips. Green indi\'iduals are seldom unicolor but show several 
shades variously intermingled. One feature of the coloration is remarkably con- 
stant — the cirri are pure white in life. Even the darkest colored specimens show 
this character, making it a convenient "recognition mark" — for the collector! 
Unfortunately in preserved specimens, the cirri generally get more or less stained 
and are likely to take on the color of the adjoining arm-bases. But in most of 
the dry specimens, they show a very considerable contrast to the rest of the 
animal. 

A very small dry crinoid from Cable Beach, Broome, with 15 arms, 7 of 
which are about 45 mm. long, is referred with some doubt to this species. The 
cirri are XIV, 10-12 and are pure white, in contrast to the very pale brown of the 
arms. There are three II Br 4 and one III Br 2 and the basal segments of the 
lower pinnules show indications of the projecting ridges which are such a striking 
feature of adult belli. But similar projections are to be found in young Coman- 
theria briaretis and it is by no means easy to see any marked or constant difference 
between young individuals of the two species. Besides this 15-armed specimen 
from Cable Beach, there are three young comatulids which have given me a 
great deal of trouble. Mr. A. H. Clark has been so good as to critically examine 
the largest of these (100-125 mm. across) and thinks it is undoubtedly a "young 
specimen of Comanthina belli undergoing adolescent autotomy." The other two 
are smaller and differ to some extent in general appearance, but after prolonged 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 



23 



comparison with young belli and young briareus, it seems best to consider the 
three identical and include them all under the present species. 

The 29 specimens at hand were taken as follows : 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 5-8 fms., July 25, 1929. One 

adult specimen. 
Western Austraha: Broome, August and September, 1929. 15 specimens; 1 

young one of doubtful identity. 
Broome, Cable Beach, September 2, 1929. Frances L. S. 

Clark leg. 2 specimens. 
Broome, Cable Beach, September 2, 1929. Frances L. S. 
Clark leg. 1 very young specimen ; identity not certain. 
Broome. From Perth Museum. 1 specimen. 
Broome, June, 1932. 7 specimens; 1 young one of doubtful 

identity. 
Broome, Entrance Point, July 4, 1932. 1 young specimen. 
False Cape Bossut, September, 1929. 1 young specimen; 
identity dubious. 



COMANTHERIA BRIAREUS 

Antedon briareus Bell, 1882. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 534. 

Comantheria briareus A. H. Clark, 1911. Fauna Slid west- Austral., 3, p. 437. 

This crinoid is very common in the Broome region; we found it at Cape 
Leveque, and along the coast from there to Cape Bossut at least, it occurs wher- 
ever conditions are suitable. How far west and south it ranges is still open to 
question. It is recorded from "?Vicimty of Perth (2 specimens)" (A. H. Clark, 
1911, p. 454) and a specimen in the Perth Museum (No. 9681) is said to be from 
"Bald Island, 28-32 fms." I am more than skeptical as to these labels. Bald 
Island is east of Albany on the southern coast of Austraha and I do not beheve 
that any Comantherias occur there. Moreover, the specimen is an old one, dry 
and in poor condition, and no number or label is attached to it. The two speci- 
mens Usted by Mr. Clark from the "vicinity of Perth" were in the Michaelsen and 
Hartmeyer collection and it is very probable that they too suffer from a misplaced 
label. If actually collected by the German zoologists, I think they were taken in 
Shark Bay, wliich would then be the southern hmit for this species on the West- 
ern AustraUan coast. That briareus occurs in Shark Bay is not wholly improbable 



24 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

but until there is further evidence than is as yet available, I think we may con- 
sider the vicinity of Cossack (Port Walcott) as about the southwestern Umit of 
its range. East of Cape Leveque there are records from the region of the Holo- 
thuria Banks, and there is one small specimen in the present collection from 
Darwin. 

As found at Broome, briareus is a very perplexing comatuhd. The diversity 
in size, number of arms and color is very great, and there is no apparent correla- 
tion with differences in habitat. Most of the specimens were dredged and not 
rarely a number of specimens of diverse size and appearance came up in a single 
haul. But both large and small specimens of dull and of brightly colored forms 
were found along shore just below low water mark. The smallest specimens at 
hand are 50-60 mm. across while the largest has an expanse of 225; in this big 
indixadual the anterior arms measure about 130 mm. but the posterior are scarcely 
80. The number of arms ranges from 21 to 65; there are a number of specimens 
with 40-57 arms but fully three-fourths have fewer than 40 (21-38). At first, it 
seemed to me probable that these indi\'iduals with fewer than forty arms repre- 
sented a second species, rotula A. H. Clark, but the more I have studied my ma- 
terial the more the conviction has grown that it is impossible to recognize a 
second species on that basis. The diversity in color suggested that there might be 
a useful distinction possible along that line but this proves out of the question. 
The largest and finest specimens from Broome are dry and are a more or less uni- 
form greenish-yellow dorsally; in life, these were yellow or green of some shade 
dorsally, with black and white pinnules in handsome contrast ; in some specimens 
(notably the largest), the yellow does not cover the whole dorsal surface but oc- 
cupies a very broad longitudinal band on the radials and all the brachials. 
Many of the small specimens are essentially like this and there is no question in 
my mind that these greenish and yellowish individuals must all be referred to a 
single species regardless of size and number of arms. On the other hand, many 
small specimens are now (and were in hfe) uniformly brown of some shade; the 
brown maj' be reddish, purplish, or grayish, and hght or very dark; one small 
specimen is very hght almost fawn-color but m life was "clear yellow brown" — 
not however with any trace of green. A few specimens are clearly intermediate 
between the brown and the greenish groups having the dorsal side brown, more 
or less spotted or marked with yellowish-green. I am, therefore, convinced that 
all my material must be referred to briareus with the comment that the tendency 
at Broome is toward the handsome yellow and green shades. If rotula is a valid 
species, it is not represented in my material. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 25 

Two specimens taken at Broome in 1929 are of a uniformly light gray color. 
One has 28 arms, 50-80 mm. long, with only 3 III Br 2 and 5 III Br 4 (no further 
divisions) ; the other has 33 arms, 60-90 mm. long, with only 5 III Br 2 and 8 III 
Br 4. These were at first referred to Comanthus timorensis, but the character of 
the arms and cirri has led me, after discussing them with Mr. A. H. Clark, to 
refer them to hriareus. They are, of course, young and the species characters (one 
might even say the generic characters) are not yet fixed. 

The 47 specimens which I am referring to hriareus were collected at the 
following points: 

Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, about 5 fms., July 24, 1929. 

1 young specimen with only 18 arms; having 4 II Br 4 
and 4 III Br 2. 
Western Australia: Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 1 small brown specimen 

with 43 arms. 
Broome, Cable Beach, September 2, 1929. Frances L. S. 

Clark leg. 3 small specimens. 
Broome, August and September, 1929. 10 adults and 

young. 
Broome, June, 1932. 31 adults and young. 
Loc. ? Labelled "Bald Island. 28-32 fms." 1 small adult 
with 35 arms. Loaned by the Perth Museum. 



COMANTHERIA PERPLEXUM 

Comanthiis perplexum H. L. Clark, 1916. "Endeavour" Ech., p. 14. 
Coinantheria perplexum A. H. Clark, 1931. Crinoid Monog., 1, pt. 3, p. 506. 

There is a very fine specimen, from the AustraUan Museum, of this species, 
hitherto known only from the holotype, taken in 15 fms. off Norwest Islet, Capri- 
corn group, Queensland, in December 1930, by Livingstone and Boardman. The 
holotype was from off Ballina, N. S. W., 49-51 fms. The present specimen is a 
very fine one with 38 arms, 100 nmi. long; there are only a few cirri, VI, IS. The 
disk was lacking in the holotype but is present in this individual. It is 17 mm. 
across, yellowish-gray in color, plump, with a large anal tube and covered irregu- 
larly and not closely with whitish papillae about .30 mm. in diameter. As in the 
holotype, the dorsal surface of this specimen is light fawn color, the oral surface 
somewhat darker. 



26 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



COMANTHUS PARVICIRRA 

Aledo parvicirra J. Muller, 1841. Monatsb. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., p. 185. 
Comanthis parvicirra A. H. Clark, 1908. Smithson. Misc. Coll., 52, p. 203. 

It is a puzzling fact that no comatulids which may be referred to this species 
were taken by us on the northern or western coasts of Australia. It is a wide- 
spread species in the Indo-Pacific region and has been recorded several times from 
Western Australia. There are several specimens in Mjoberg's collection from 
Broome and southwestward which Mr. A. H. Clark assigns to parvicirra (see 
Clark, 1931, pp. 636 and 664-666) although Gislen identified them as Comasters. 
But all the Comanthus which we found at Broome seem best referred to samoana 
and timorensis. 

The only comatuHds in the collection at hand which may well be assigned 
to parvicirra are 7 very small individuals from Port Curtis, Queensland, and 
these are much too young for certain identification. The largest is about 40 mm. 
across and has 17 arms; the cirri, X, 12-13, are as distinctive as any feature, and 
I have little doubt that this is a young parvicirra. The other 6 specimens are 
very small, 15-20 mm. across and have but 10 arms each. The only reason for 
calUng them parvicirra is their association with the larger individual. 



Comanthus samoana 
A. H. Clark, 1909. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, p. 30. 

This comatulid is now known from a considerable number of locahties on 
the tropical coast of Australia and among the western Pacific islands. Its occur- 
rence, therefore, at Broome is not surprising but is none the less interesting. It is 
not, however, common there for in 1929 we took it only at or near False Cape 
Bossut and in 1932 only one adult specimen was taken. The specimens at hand 
are typical and call for Uttle comment. The smallest is about 40 mm. across, has 
18 arms and the cirri are XVII, 11. There are 3 specimens with 20 arms each, 
the smallest about 50 mm. across. The larger specimens have 22, 23, 27, and 32 
arms respectively; the largest is about 150 mm. across. The cirri range from XIX, 
11-12 to XXVI, 15-16. The color is pale brown in the smallest specimen and 
purpUsh-brown or yellow brown in the other young ones. The larger specimens 
are more or less uniformly dull, dark brown, with a purphsh or grayish cast. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 27 

The 8 specimens at hand were taken as follows : 
Western AustraUa: False Cape Bossut, September 8, 1929. 3 adults and 2 

young. 
Broome, June, 1932. 1 adult and 2 young. 



COMANTHUS TIMORENSIS 

Aledo timorcnsis J. Muller, 1841. Monatsb. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., p. 186. 
Comanthus iimorensis A. H. Clark, 1931. Crinoid Monog., 1, pt. 3, pp. 159 and 603. 

Probably the commonest multibrachiate crinoid on the tropical coasts of 
Australia, this fine species shows almost as great diversity in color and appear- 
ance as does Comanthina belli. Adult specimens are not hard to recognize but 
young and half-grown specimens are easily confused with parvicirra. The very 
young specimens listed below are included under timorensis because they appear 
to be young Comanthus of some species and the present species is most likely to 
be the one to which they belong. No specimen of Comanthus under 80 mm. 
across can be identified specifically with certainty unless it is one of a series which 
connects up with unmistakable adults. The smallest specimen at hand is from 
Darwin and is only about 10 mm. across, probably 15 mm. in life; there are but 
10 arms and there are no division series. The cirri, IX, 9, are short and weak and 
quite hke those of young timorensis. Small specimens from Broome, 30-40 m m . 
across have 11-13 arms and a very good specimen from Darwin about 70 mm. 
across has 16 arms with 6 II Br 4 series; the cirri are typical, XI, 11. My field 
notes say of this indi\adual: "Very active, both creeping and swinmaing. A hand- 
some Ught brown and white." 

The large specimens offer no features of special interest, but it may be men- 
tioned that a particularly good one from Darwin with 32 arms has no fewer than 
9 III Br 2 series. From Cape Leveque are two large specimens with 48 and 52 
arms and no cirri; in the larger one every division series is 4 (3 +4). A very large 
specimen from Broome has only 43 arms but they are about 140 mm. long, and 
it has cirri XV, 10-13. One specimen from Broome, about 150 mm. across in 
life, has but four rays; there are 33 arms and every division .series is 4 (3 +4). 
As for color, little need be said; preserved material is all brown of some shade, 
ranging from very light in the little individuals to very dark, almost black in 
some of the larger specimens. But in hfe the colors were diversified and often 
very handsome. One taken at Darwin was "black with each pinnule tipped with 



28 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

yellow-green." At Broome my notes say "usually dark but range from green at 
one extreme to yellow-brown at the other." 

There are 28 specimens in hand from the following localities: 
Queensland : Capricorn group, Norwest Islet. 1 poor adult. Loaned by Australian 

Museum. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near jetty, 7 fms., mud, July 1, 1929. 1 very 

young specimen. Identification ? 
Darwin, near Shell Islands, 5 fms., July 25, 1929. 1 very 

fine adult. 
Darwin, near Leper Station, 3-5 fms., May 25, 1932. I 
young specimen. 
Western Australia: Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 3 adults. 

Broome, August and September, 1929. 9 adults and 4 very 

young. 
Broome, June, 1932. 7 adults and 1 very young. 

COMANTHUS TRICHOPTERA 

Comahila trichoptera J. Muller, 1846. Monatsb. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., p. 178. 
Comanthus trichoptera A. H. Clark, 1909. Zool. Anz., 34, p. 363. 

It was an interesting experience to find this little comatulid, typical of the 
temperate waters of southern Australia, living among the corals at Neds Beach, 
Lord Howe Island, with many echinoderms characteristic of the Great Barrier 
Reef. It seems to have become well established there but does not grow to a 
large size. The largest taken were about 125 mm. across but most were under 
100 mm. The arms are noticeably more slender than in large specimens from 
Port Jackson. In life the Lord Howe specimens are "variegated white and brown 
of various shades, mostly yellowish." They resemble very closely specimens 
taken in November, 1929, at Port Willunga, South Austraha. The cirri are small 
with usually 13 or 14 segments, seldom 15-17, but the specimens from Port 
Willunga are not essentially different in this particular, though the number of 
segments will probably average one or two more in the South AustraUan material. 
In his key to the species of Comanthus, subgenus CenoHa, (1931, p. 530) Mr. 
Clark says of trichoptera: "cirri with about 20 segments," in contrast with "cirri 
with 14-17 segments" in allied species. My material shows 13-17 segments as 
the rule, only in the largest individuals of trichoptera do I find 20 and occasionally 
21. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHIN0DERM9 29 

The number of arms in the Lord Howe specimens is usually under 30, the 
largest having 27 or 28, but there is one with 30 and one with 33. The largest 
specimen in the present series is from Port Jackson and has 31 rather stout arms, 
about 75-80 mm. long. A much smaller specimen from Port Willunga has 37 
arms. From Bunker's Bay, W. A., there is a specimen with rather stout arms 
nearly 90 mm. long but there are only 21, while another specimen from the same 
lot has 28 arms though they are Uttle over 50 mm. long. 

The occurrence of trichoptera at Lord Howe Island extends the range of the 
species several hundred miles to the east. It was, therefore, interesting to find a 
specimen among the echinoderms from Dongarra, W. A. given to me by Professor 
E. W. Bennett, extending the known range several hundred miles to the north- 
west. 

The 71 specimens at hand were collected at the following places: 
Lord Howe Island, Neds Beach, among corals, 18 specimens. 
New South Wales : Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

2 large adults. 
: No definite locality. 1 adult. Loaned by Australian Museum. 
South Australia: Port Willunga, November 2, 1929. 10 specimens. 
Western Australia: Albany, under stones below low tide mark, January 10, 1929. 

E. W. Bennett leg. 8 specimens young. 
Cape NaturaUste, east side. Bunker's Bay, under stones, 
January 15-17, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. 26 specimens, 
adult and j'oung. 
Bunbury, Koombana Bay, 5-8 fms., October 26, 1929. 2 

specimens, young. 
Cottesloe Beach. 3 specimens, adult and young. 
Dongarra. E. W. Bennett leg. One specimen, young. 



ZYGOMETRIDAE 

Zygometra comata 

A. H. Clark, 1911b. Mem. Austral. Mus., 4, p. 762, footnote. 

This is a common species at Broome and a considerable series was brought 
home. Mr. A. H. Clark gave me great assistance in determining them, certain 
individuals being very puzzUng. The number of arms ranges from 11 in a speci- 
men 70 mm . across, to 25 in a specimen 115 mm. from tip to tip; the largest 



30 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

specimens are 175-200 mm. across and have from 16 to 24 arms. The colors 
are yellow and purple but the relative amounts of the two, their distribution 
and the shades show infinite variety. The shades range for the yellow from almost 
white to deep buff and for the darker color from Ught grayish-purple to a very 
deep, rich, reddish purple. The color arrangements are too diversified to warrant 
description but it is common to have the arms banded either broadly or nar- 
rowly; often the pinnules only are banded and the dorsal side of the arms is 
prettily mottled or simply unicolor. 

It is hard to see how and where the line is to be drawn between this .species 
and punctata which was described the following year. So far as the number of 
segments in the cirri is concerned, the series of specimens from Broome shows 
that there is a considerable range but only a few large specimens show as many 
as 25-27, while Mr. Clark says (1918, p. 59) "more than 25 (usually about 30) 
cirrus segments" in comata. Most of the present specimens have 20-23 which 
accords with the "less than 25" given for punctata (1918, p. 60) but not with the 
"(18-21)" which is added. None of the Broome specimens have fewer than 20 
segments. 

Although not previously recorded from northern Australia, this comatulid 
is very common at Broome. Like all the Zygometras of that region, it delights 
in the clean shallow water and hard sandy bottom of Roebuck Bay. At extreme 
low water in the greatest spring tides (as in September, 1929) a large part of the 
water ebbs out of Roebuck Bay and vast areas of a clean, firm gray sand are ex- 
posed. On this bottom are countless patches or isolated plants of coralline and 
other algae, besides partly buried rock fragments or shells scattered abundantly 
about, well separated from each other, and each forming the nucleus of a little 
animal community seeking shelter from the pitiless exposure to which the unusual 
ebb of the tide subjects them. On almost every alga or other projection, a coma- 
tuUd will be found (usually but one) and the vast majority of these are Zygome- 
tras and chiefly comata. It is a hardy species, enduring this exposure to the sun, 
transferring to a bucket and transportation to the laboratory without damaging 
itself in any way. Left by the retreating tide, the coraatulids fall relaxed on their 
sides, the arms closed on the disk and pointing to the water that has abandoned 
them, but when the tide returns, enduring for a time the washing back and forth 
of the now coming, now going wavelets, they soon find the water deep enough to 
enable them to sit erect, expand their arms and renew their normal life. Seeing 
this flower-Uke expanding of the wilted comatulids is one of the most interesting 
pleasures of watching the incoming tide. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 31 

The 39 specimens of comata at hand were all taken in or near Roebuck Bay- 
in 1929 and 1932, excepting two which were secured in the vicinity of Lagrange 
Bay in 1929. 

Zygometra elegans 

Antedon elegant Bell, 1884. "Alert" Rep., p. 162. 

Zygometra elegans A. H. Clahk, 1907. Smithson. Misc. Coll., 50, p. 348. 

This is another very common comatuUd at Broome, occurring under the same 
circumstances as comata, with large specimens of which small specimens of elegans 
might be confused. It is, however, a larger but more delicate species, with more 
arms and many more cirrus segments. It is hard to see why Gislen (1919, p. 19) 
treated elegans as merely a variety of microdiscus but I suspect (from his descrip- 
tion) that the individual which he describes as microdiscus was really a large 
elegans with the maximum number of arms and of cirrus segments. The large 
series of specimens at hand from Broome show well the following differences 
between the two species : 
Division series: in elegans, III Br 2, with few series beyond, and those often 2. 

in microdiscus, III Br 4, and the many subsequent series almost 
always 4. 
Cirri: in elegans XX-XXX, 34-56, usually under 45. 

in microdiscus XXVII-XLIII, 35-70, usually over 45. 
Lowest pinnule in elegans not nearly so flagellate as in microdiscus and smaller in 

every way. 
Color in elegans is more varied on the whole, combinations of hght grays, buffs, 
fawn-color and purple of various shades being usual while unicolor 
specimens are rare; 
in microdiscus, deep purples are prevalent and unicolor specimens are 
common, but handsomely striped and variegated specimens are by 
no means rare, and are very striking. 
The largest specimen has 51 arnis about 130 mm. long and the XX cirri have 
45-56 segments. A very fine specimen from Darwin has only 36 arms but they 
are nearly 150 mm. long; the cirri have about 40 segments. In hfe, according to 
my field notes on this specimen, "the color was distinctly dull purple and wliite; 
disk whitish or pale cream color; pinnules tipped with white and also white on 
dorsal side." The smallest specimen at hand has 31 arms about 45 mm. long; all 
of the III Br series are 2. The cirri have 36 segments. 



32 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

While occurring with comata on open sandy bottom, this species also occurs 
among rocks, and is frequently dredged on bottoms covered with algae, sponges 
and other marine growths. The 48 specimens before me are from the following 
places : 
Queensland: Capricorn group, off Norwest Islet, 6 fms., December, 1930. 

Livingstone and Boardman leg. 3 specimens. Loaned 

by Australian Museum. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms. on sponge and alcyona- 

rian bottom, July 2, 1929. 1 very fine adult specimen. 
Western Australia: Broome, Cable Beach. September 2, 1929. Frances L. S. 

Clark leg. 2 fine adults. 
Broome, on hard sandy bottom, August and September, 

1929. 19 specimens. 
Broome, dredged at various points, 3-8 fms., June, 1932. 

23 specimens, adult and young. 



Zygometra microdiscus 

Antedon microdiscus Bell, 1884. "Alert" Rep., p. 16.3. 

Zygometra microdiscus A. H. Clark, 1907. Smithson. Misc. Coll., 60, p. 348. 

This truly magnificent comatulid is by no means rare in the Broome region 
but it is not so common as either of the preceding species and prefers deeper 
water. Most of the specimens taken were dredged in 5-8 fms. but a very few 
were found on the hard sandy bottom of Roebuck Bay during the extreme low 
tides of September, 1929. The color is primarily a reddish-purple or even deep 
claret with the dorsal surface of the arms more or less yellow, but the amount of 
yellow varies enormously; at one extreme are individuals which are practically 
all purple, really unicolor, (and they are not rare) while at the other are those in 
which the yellow predominates to such an extent that only the tips of the cirri 
and more or less of each pinnule distally are purple. The most beautiful speci- 
mens are yellow or nearly white, finely speckled more or less profusely with 
purple. In preserved material, even that which is very carefully prepared, the 
yellow shades become buff or light brown and the purple becomes dingy and often 
distinctly brown. Naturally such museum material fails to give any adequate 
idea of the beauty of the living animal. In Hfe, the finest specimens are over 300 
mm. across. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 33 

In the present series the most interesting are the largest and smallest. The 
latter taken in Lagrange Bay, has but 19 arms 20-25 mm. long; there are 12 
division series, all 4 (3 + 4) ; the cirri are XIII, 25-29 and relatively very long, 
more than half as long as the arms; the color is uniformly deep purple. In spite 
of its small size, this is quite a typical microdiscus. The largest specimen, which 
in its present dry condition is very nearly 300 mm. across was taken in Roebuck 
Bay. It has about 110 arms but it is impossible to count the exact number with- 
out serious damage to the specimen. My field notes say that in life it was "deep 
claret with dorsal side of arms yellow; some young arms are tipped with white;" 
at present it is a deep purple, and only distally do the arms show that they were 
yellow dorsally in life; they are now a light brown dorsally near the tips. The 
dark purple cirri are XLIII, 52-70, and are 50-55 mm. long; a few of them are 
cream-color near the base, and one of them is forked at the tip. 

The 25 specimens of microdiscus at hand were taken as follows: 
Western AustraHa : Broome, August and September, 1929. 6 specimens, 1 very 

large. 
Lagrange Bay, 5-8 fms., September, 1929. 5 specimens, 1 

very young. 
Broome, June, 1932. 14 specimens, showing great variety 

in size and color. 



HIMEROMETRIDAE 

Heterometra crenulata 

Antedon crenulata P. H. Carpenter, 1882. Jour. Linn. Soc. London, 16, p. 507. 
Heterometra crenulata A. H. Clark, 1918. "Siboga" L'nst. Crin., p. 77. 

Our first capture of this strikingly handsome comatulid came at the close of a 
long day's dredging outside Roebuck Bay. Our last haul was made in 5-8 fms. 
on Pearl Shoal and contained half a dozen of what seemed at the moment the 
most lovely comatulid I had ever seen. The arms were a pure milk white, the 
cirri bright rose color in sharp contrast. The somewhat rigid arms remained 
curved outward Uke the petals of a flower and the old book name "sea-lily" was 
most appropriate. We subsequently dredged other specimens, whose coloration 
was so different they were not even suspected of being the same species. In 1932, 
we met with Heterometra often and the diversity of color led to the supposition 



34 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

that we were collecting three different comatuUds. It was a great surprise to 
discover on critical study here in the Museum that they all represent a single 
and long known species. 

According to coloration, three forms may be recognized but with sufficient 
material, it is obvious that they intergrade completely. At one extreme are the 
milk white forms with rose colored cirri already mentioned. When preserved in 
alcohol or dried, these lose much of their beauty, the white becoming dingy or 
tinged with purple and oftentimes small spots or blotches of a purplish shade 
appear. At the other extreme are the individuals, usually large ones which are 
deep red purple or dark crimson with few or no lighter markings ; these commonly 
have a coarser and more rugged structure than the white ones. The third group 
comprises the more or less handsome individuals with banded arms ; these may be 
white, or at least very light, as to ground color with the arms banded with red 
or purple of some shade, or they may be red or purple with whitish bands and 
markings. The number, width and shade of armbands show endless diversity. 
The cirri are always red or purple of some shade, ranging from Hght rose to a deep 
red violet. 

One very small comatuhd, apparently a Heterometra, and hence almost 
surely this species, was taken in 1932. There are but 13 arms, about 15 mm. long; 
the division series are 4 (3 + 4) but the cirri are only X, 13; the color is very 
pale brown, the cirri with a very slight tinge of violet. The number of arms in 
the present series of crenulata ranges from 16 to 30 but the great majority of 
individuals with arms over 60 mm. long have 20-25. The cirri are XX-XXXII, 
34-46, but small individuals often have fewer segments. The largest specimens 
have the arms 75-90 mm. long. There is great diversity in the development of 
the projections on the segments of the basal pinnules; often they may best be 
designated as spines but in other cases they must be characterized as "wings;" 
light colored individuals seem on the whole to tend towards wings, while the 
dark colored ones are more spinous; the correlation is, however, very imperfect. 

The 50 specimens at hand were taken as follows : 
Queensland: Capricorn group, Norwest Islet, 6 fms., December, 1930. Boardman 
and Livingstone leg. 2 specimens. Loaned by Australian 
Museum. 
Western Australia: Broome, on or near Pearl Shoal, 5-8 fms., September, 1929. 

18 specimens, adult and young. 
Broome, dredged at various points in 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 
30 specimens, adult and young. 



clark : australian echinoderms 35 

Amphimetra jacquinoti 

Comatula jacquinoti J . Muller, 1846. Monatsb. Preuss. Akad. Wiss.. p. 178. 
Amphimetra jacquinofi A. H. Clark, 1918. "Siboga" Unst. Crin. p. 85. 

This stiff and rather ungainly comatuhd is by no means common at Broome 
but we met with it several times while dredging, and one specimen was found 
at extreme low water in September, 1929. These individuals are all adult with 
the ten arms 110-130 mm. long. The cirri are XV-XXX, 28-36. The color in hfe 
was deep reddish purple, becoming very dull on drying; the arms are more or less 
marked or banded with white or yellow, but the location and amount of the Ught 
color show great diversity; sometimes it is confined to the pinnules, or to the 
dorsal side of the tips of the arms, or to regenerating portions of injured arms. 

The 10 specimens in the present collection were taken as follows: 
Western AustraUa: Broome, about one inile off jetty, August 27 and September 5, 

1929. 2 specimens. 
Broome, off Gantheaume Point, 2-4 fms., August 30, 1929. 

3 specimens. 
Broome, 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 5 specimens. 



MARIAMETRIDAE 

Lamprometra gyges 

Antedon gyges Bell, 1884. "Alert" Rep., p. 160. 

Lamprometra gyges A. H. Clark, 1913. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 26, p. 144. 

This many-armed comatulid is conmion on the tropical coasts of Australia 
and its diversity of color and of arm length make it a very perplexing species, and 
I am not at all convinced that several different species are not included under 
Bell's specific name. On the other hand the supposed distinction between gyges 
and protectus (Lutken) is based on a very variable character and the Une is hard 
to draw. For the present, however, regardless of their differences, I am including 
all of my Mariametridae under the one name, hoping that at some future time 
critical study of more material may satisfy my present doubts. 

The material before me consists of 24 specimens ranging from a young one 
with only 19 arms, 20-25 mm. long and with cirri XV, 14-15, up to fine adults 



36 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

with 45-51 arms, 70-100 mm. long, and with the cirri XXXVIII-XLVIII, 26-30. 
Most of the specimens are gray or brown of some shade and apparently unicolor, 
but a few of the lighter colored ones seem to have had a broad whitish band on the 
arms in life. Unfortunately these Lamprometras did not attract my interest at 
the time of their capture sufficiently to receive the attention they deserved and 
my field notes are confused and inadequate. It is greatly to be regretted that the 
very rich collecting at Broome and the enthusiasm and industry of Mr. Bourne 
and his crew often swamped me with specimens to be cared for, and left time for 
only very meagre notes. 

The 24 Lamprometras at hand were taken as follows : 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., sponge and alcyonarian 

bottom, July, 1929. 5 specimens, young. 
Western Australia: Broome, August and September, 1929. 6 specimens, adult. 

False Cape Bossut, September, 1929. 1 specimen, adult. 

Broome, June, 1932. 12 specimens, adult, large and small. 



COLOBOMETRIDAE 

Petasometra brevicirrai sp. nov. 

Centrodorsal thin, discoidal with a broad flat dorsal pole, about 3 mm. 
across; cirrus sockets in a single closely crowded marginal row. Cirri XXI, 18-22, 
about 9 mm. long, somewhat recurved (fig. 1); cirrus segments sub-equal in 
length but, when seen from below, 4 and 5 are much the widest, 3 and 6 some- 
what narrower, 2 and 1 are about equal or 1 is narrower; beyond 6 the segments 
decrease slightly but steadily in width until the terminal segments are no wider 
than long; the dorsal transverse ridge, characteristic of the genus, is present near 
the middle of each segment but is not well marked until after the fifth and never 
becomes spiniform until the penultimate segment on which the opposing claw is 
fairly well developed. 

Radials concealed; I Br well developed, the width about two and a half times 
the length; axillaries large, broadly pentagonal, the width not twice the height; 
there are four II Br 4 (3 +4) series and one II Br 2; the division series are all well 
rounded and except for the proximal half of the first elements, distinctly separated 
from each other. There are 15 arms, 45-60 mm. long; the first brachials are 

' brevis = short + cirrus, in reference to the characteristic cirri. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 



37 



noticeably rounded, somewhat higher externally than internally where they are 
in contact for one-half their length or more ; second brachial very similar and the 
two together are somewhat higher than 3 and 4 which are united by syzygy; 
brachials 3-7 are as high on one side as the other but from the eighth on they are 
more wedge-shaped though they never become nearly triangular; the second 
syzygy occurs after an interval of about 13 brachials and the following after 
about 8. 




Figs. 1 and 2. Petasometra brevicirra: 1, a cirrus; 2, pinnules pi — ps. x 8. 



Pa absent ; Pd about 8 mm. long, rather stout, with about 20 segments, the 
distal portion is terete and slender but by no means flagellate or even delicate; 
the basal segments are about as wide as long and relatively large but diminish 
rapidly in size. Pi (fig. 2) is very similar, a trifle longer perhaps, with about 23 
segments. P2 is similar but a little smaller. P3 is distinctly smaller with about 15 
segments but the transition from P2 to P3 is not abrupt or striking; subsequent 
pinnules not essentially different but ultimately become longer and more slender; 
as they increase in length the number of segments rises again to exceed 20. The 
margins of the pinnule segments are uniformly smooth. 

Color (of dry specimen) Ught purpUsh-brown, the joints between the bra- 
chials conspicuously darker; distally the dorsal surface of some arms is evidently 
purple; centrodorsal dark purphsh brown; cirri at base dorsally, deep buff but 



38 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

passing into purplish-brown on ventral side and distally; a broad band of dull 
dark purple on each side of each cirrus, near the dorsal side, becomes narrow dis- 
tally and fades away at the penultimate segment; disk light colored, except the 
anal cone which is very dark. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 916, from False Cape Bossut, Western Australia, 
September 9, 1929. 

The peculiarities of this unique specimen were not noted at the time of cap- 
ture, and no special field notes are connected with it. It is apparently a Petaso- 
metra but the short cirri with few segments and the short, rather rugged pinnules 
set it apart from the previously known species, while its whole appearance is 
strikingly different from the following species. It seems strange that in all the 
collecting of June, 1932, no further examples of Petasometra were taken. 

Petasometra variegatai sp. nov. 

Centrodorsal thin, discoidal with a broad slightly concave dorsal pole, over 
3 mm. across; cirrus sockets in a single closely crowded marginal row. Cirri 
about XXIII, 22-25, 11 mm. long, markedly recurved (fig. 3); cirrus segments 
very short and wide proximally but becoming narrower and even compressed 
distally, with little change in length; the basal segments are twice as high as 
long but the distal ones are not much higher than long; the dorsal transverse 
ridge is present from the second segment on but it is never very conspicuous and 
even the opposing claw may be rather small, though it is usually well-marked. 

Radials concealed; I Br well developed but low, the width about four times 
the length; axillaries also low, the greatest height hardly one-third of width, the 
anterior angle rounded and the adjoining sides slightly concave; there are seven 
II Br 4 (3-1-4) series and three II Br 2; there are nine III Br 4 (3-1-4), one III Br 
2 and one III Br 5 (4-1-5) series. There are thus 31 arms, which are relatively 
short and stout ; all are more or less damaged but they were apparently not over 
80 mm. long (perhaps 100 mm. in life) ; the division series are all rather rugged 
and stout, more or less in contact and the II Br series is a Uttle inclined to be 
swollen; the brachials are wide and low about twice as wide as long; beyond the 
seventh or eighth they become wedge-shaped; the first syzygy is between 3 and 4, 
the second between 11 and 12, and subsequently at intervals of 6-8 brachials. 

Pa absent; Pj not more than 10 mm. long, rather stout with 20-23 segments; 
distal portion tapers rapidly to a terete but by no means slender tip; basal seg- 

' variegatus = variegated, in reference to the handsome black and white coloration. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 



39 



ment large, oblong, wider than high; second more nearly square and considerably 
smaller; third and following segments successively smaller and becoming cylin- 
drical; margins all smooth. Pj (fig. 4) is very similar and scarcely longer. P2 is 
similar but a trifle smaller and with fewer segments. P3 is distinctly smaller and 
P4 much smaller and with only about a dozen segments; succeeding pinnules small 




Figs. 3 and 4. Petasometra variegata: 3, a cirrus; 4, pinnules, pi — ps. x 8. 



but soon increasing in length and number of segments until distally there are 
again more than 20 in each pinnule but they are all small. 

Color (of alcohoUc specimens) very dark brown, almost black, variegated 
with cream-color; many arms are almost white dorsally, at least on distal half, 
but not the pinnules; many cirri are white dorsally and ventraUy but blackish 
on sides. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 917, from near Shell Islands, Darwin, N. T., 3-6 
fms., sponge and alcyonarian bottom, July 15, 1929. 

A second specimen was taken at the same time and place but is somewhat 
smaller, has only 19 arms, 70-80 mm. long, with eight II Br 4 series and one II 
Br 2. The first syzygy is between brachials 3 and 4, but the next is far out on the 
arm beyond the thirtieth brachial, and there are very few all together. The 



40 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

cirri are XX, 22-24, short, thick and strongly recurved. This paratype is dry and 
the color is dull gray brown, variegated and spotted with a light yellow-brown ; 
there is much less of the light color than in the holotype. 

My field notes say of these specimens that "they seemed almost black with 
dorsal side of arms cream-white. Very handsome. Died on way home and never 
relaxed, hence are poor specimens." 

In several points this handsome species suggests Antedon darae Hartlaub 
and I have tried to convince myself that it should be called by that name, but 
the type of that East Indian form was much larger than the Darwin specimens, 
yet had only 12 arms. It also had much longer cirri and the colors and color 
pattern were totally different. It seems best, therefore, to keep the Australian 
species separate. 

Austrometra thetidis 

Oligometra thetidis H. L. Clark, 1909. Mem. Austral. Mus., 4, p. 522. 
Austrometra thetidis A. H. Clark, 1918. "Siboga" Unst. Crin., p. 111. 

This little comatulid is represented in the present collection only by three 
dry specimens belonging to the Australian Museum which were taken in De- 
cember, 1929, west southwest of Gabo Island, N. S. W. ; they were trawled in 
70 fms. by Captain K. Moller, who presented them to the Museum. They are 
somewhat smaller than the types but are otherwise similar; one is cream color, 
one is suffused with a reddish-violet tint and the third is distinctly light red- 
dish-violet with indistinct small areas of cream color. 

Oligometrides adeonae 

Comatula adeonae Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 535. 

Oligometrides adeonae A. H. Clark, 191.3. Smithson. Misc. Coll., 61, no. 15, p. 37. 

This species has already been recorded from Broome and vicinity by Gislen 
(1919) who has discussed his specimens with great care, so it is not necessary for 
me to go into details. We did not find adeonae at Darwin or at Cape Leveque, 
perhaps because local conditions are not favorable. It is one of the commonest 
of the small comatulids in the Broome region and we met with it constantly. 
It was particularly common and easy to collect (along with Zygometra comata), 
at the extremely low September tides in 1929, on the hard-sand bottom of Roe- 
buck Bay. My field notes say: "Very lovely: deep red-purple, with or without 
white." "Deep red- violet and white." "Sometimes apparently deep yellow, 
with or without white on basal pinnules." Alcoholic specimens keep their colors 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 41 

very well. Dry specimens are duller and show no white but instead are various 
shades of yellow and pale brown. Practically all gradations may be found 
between the purple and the yellow individuals. 

The most interesting specimen at hand is one with 11 arms, a single II Br 
2 series being present; there are no other notable peculiarities, except perhaps 
that it is the most conspicuously yellow of all the specimens preserved. Another 
notable specimen, with arms 75-80 mm. long, has one arm which gives off a 
branch at almost right angles, in the vicinity of the 18th brachial; just one or 
two brachials further on the main arm forks and three brachials further the left 
hand arm forks again. This individual therefore has, distally, 13 arms. 

The largest specimens have arms about 90 mm. long and the cirri are XXX- 
XXXII, 28-30, while the smallest individuals have arms about 35 mm. long and 
the cirri XVI-XIX, 16-21. 

The 61 specimens before me were taken as follows: 
Western AustraUa: False Cape Bossut, September, 1929. 3 specimens. 

Broome, August and September, 1929. 40 specimens. 
Broome, Jime, 1932. 18 specimens. 

CALOMETRIDAE 

Neometra gorgonia 

A. H. Claek, 1914. Records W. A. Mus., 1, p. 125. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Glauert one of the paratypes of this striking 
species is before me, apparently either No. 5 or 6 of Mr. Clark's Hst. All the 
arms are broken but more than 36 and probably 40 were present; there are two 
IV Br series. There are 10 cirri (all broken) and 13 sockets on the margin of the 
large flat centrodorsal. The locality where this and all other known specimens 
of qorgonia were taken, is between Fremantle and Geraldton, 80-120 fms. 

APOROMETRIDAE, fam. nov. 
aporometra' gen. nov. 

Arms 10, relatively short, with comparatively few brachials and pinnules, 
but numerous syzygies. Centrodorsal low hemispherical completely covered with 
cirrus sockets and two or more marginal series of cirri. Cirri rather numerous, 
up to XXV, with very numerous short, wide segments, stout at base but tapering 

1 6.-Kopo% = wilh no way through, difficult to find the way, hence puzzling, + metra, the widely used termi- 
nation for comatulid genera. 



42 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

gradually to a slender, somewhat flattened, recurved or loosely coiled tip; there 
are no spines, ridges or tubercles, except a very insignificant "opposing tubercle" 
on the penultimate segment. Disk thinly but more or less completely plated. 
First pinnule large, conspicuous and rather stiff, but with only about 10 segments; 
second pinnule much smaller and flexible, sometimes the smallest pinnule on 
the arm. 

Genotype, Himerometra paedophora H. L. Clark. 

The discovery at Bunbury of a second species of this peculiar genus has led 
to critical study of its characters by both Mr. Austin H. Clark and myself. We 
had previously disagreed radically as to its status, but are now in complete agree- 
ment. I am very grateful to Mr. Clark for his careful attention to this matter 
and especially appreciate his frank acknowledgment of the validity of the 
genus and the necessity of making a new family for its reception. 

So peculiar are the characters of this family that Mr. Clark says (in litt.) 
"trying to figure out its proper systematic position has been one of the most 
perplexing puzzles I ever tried to solve." He has finally concluded that Aporo- 
metra is nearer to Notocrinus than to any other genus, that each is unique in 
its own family, and that the two families form a separate suborder, the Noto- 
crinida. "The most satisfactory disposition of the Notocrinida would seem to be 
to consider it as a suborder within the Oligophreata, equivalent to, and on the 
same basis as the Comasterida, Mariametrida and Tropiometrida." 

It needed but slight comparison of the specimens from Bunbury with those 
from the coast of New South Wales to show that they are not the same species, 
but the possibihty that one or the other was identical with the comatulid from 
Victoria described by Bell in 1888 as Antedon wilsoni required consideration. 
Thanks to the kindness of Mr. D. Dilwyn John, an exchange was effected with the 
British Museum by which two cotypes of wilsoni came to the M. C. Z. Com- 
parison of these with the other material at hand was made independently by 
Mr. A. H. Clark and myself and we quite agree that there are at least three 
species of Aporometra now known from the southern coasts of Australia. These 
may be distinguished from each other as follows: 

Key to the Species of Aporometra 

A. Longest cirrus segments half again as long as broad. (Port Philip, Victoria) wiboni 

A^. Longest cirrus segments not longer than broad. 

Cirri with 25-35 (usually 28-30) segments of which most are about as long as broad. 

(New South Wales) paedophora 

Cirri with 39-61 (usually 40-50) segments of which even the longest are distinctly broader 
than long. (Southern Western Australia) occidentalia 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 43 

Aporometra occidentalism sp. nov. 

Centrodorsal hemispherical or rounded conical, often more or less flattened, 
with cirrus sockets arranged in about 10 colimins of 2-4 each. Cirri about XX, 
39-61 but usually 40-50, 20 mm. or more in length when fully developed nearly 
or quite equalling the arms; basally the segments are about twice as wide as long 
but distally, tho they become somewhat flattened, the width is relatively less; 
there are no projecting spinelets, tubercles or ridges distinct enough to be 
mentioned, except a minute opposing tubercle on the penultimate segment; 
the cirri taper very noticeably on the distal half and are frequently recurved or 
even coiled at the tip. 

Radials barely visible, the distal border slightly concave; IBri about three 
times as broad as long; axillaries broadly rhombic about twice as wide as long 
Arms 10, some 25-28 mm. long. First brachials about twice as long exteriorly 
as interiorly, approximately twice as broad as the external length; second 
brachials similar but with distal borders more oblique; brachials 3 and 4 united 
by syzygy; next two brachials about twice as broad as long but with oblique 
ends; the following brachials similar, commonly alternating with syzygial pairs; 
distally the brachials are distinctly broader than long. 

Pi is 7.5 mm. long with about 14 segments, smooth, somewhat flexible, 
tapering evenly from a rather stout base to a slender but not delicate tip ; fourth 
and following segments about 3 times as long as thick. ?„ is similar but Uttle 
more than half as large and has only 10 segments. P- is only 3 imii. long, with 
11 segments, slightly longer than broad; the pinnule is rather stout basally, the 
third, fourth and fifth segments supporting a large ovoid gonad; the following 
pinnules to Ps are similar but sHghtly longer; after Fu there is no evident gonad; 
distal pinnules 3.5 mm. long with 12-14 segments, the terminal ones being 
minutely rough with recurved spinelets and tubercles. Color in life as described 
beyond. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 964, from Koombana Bay, Bunbury, W. A., 5-8 fms. 

Perhaps the most rewarding feature of the excursion made by Professor E. 
W. Bennett and myself to Bunbury in October, 1929, was the discovery that this 
little comatulid is abundant in that vicinity. It was, therefore, possible to secure 
enough material to completely vaUdate the genus and establish the species. 
(Michaelsen and Hartmeyer had secured three specimens in Koombana Bay in 

' occidentalis = western, in reference to its geographical occurrence on the Australian coast. 



44 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

1905 but when A. H. Clark reported on their collection of crinoids, he considered 
these little comatulids as "very young" Ptilornetra macronema, and listed them 
accordingly.) 

WThile dredging in 5-8 fms. in Koombana Bay, October 26, 1929, one or two 
miles west of the breakwater, Bennett and I found comatulids very common, 
and easily recognized three species; the largest proved to be Comatulella brach- 
iolata, a much smaller and more delicate species was Compsometra incommoda, 
and the third and most common, was the present form. We preserved a large 
number of specimens, of which 148 are at hand. In alcohol they have undergone 
practically no change of appearance but the dry ones are paler and more rigid, 
of course. The color of the oral surface is always brown, usually very dark, the 
disk being marked more or less with whitish; the dorsal side of arms and calyx 
is brown, ranging from a distinctly yellowish, to a deep, somewhat purplish shade ; 
the cirri are often purplish, brownish or even reddish but are generally very light 
and often almost white, in rather marked contrast to the arms, which they some- 
times nearly approximate in length or even exceed. These cirri are efficient 
"holdfasts," admirably adapted to the bottom on which the comatulids were 
living, for this was covered, more or less, with algae (chiefly Cystophora) and 
other vegetation (chiefly Cymodocea). The dredge came up full of these plants 
and the various comatulids (not to mention other echinoderms) were well tangled 
with them and with each other by means of the long, recurving cirri of this 
species. It is worthy of note that we did not find Ptilometra at Bunbury — 
nor at any other point on the Australian coast, which seems a bit odd. 

The smallest specimens of Aporometra which we took at Bunbury were 
hardly 20 mm. across; the longest of the dozen cirri are about as long as the 
arms (say 8-10 mm.) and have some 35 segments. The largest specimens have 
the arms 25-30 mm. long and the longest of the 20-25 cirri are but little shorter; 
they have more than 50 segments of which the terminal dozen are very small. 
There are only 20-25 pinnules on each side of the longest arms. 

The most interesting biological fact about this comatulid is that it is vivi- 
parous; that is to say, the eggs are not shed from the genital pinnules but undergo 
their development in and on them. The original specimens from which the species 
pacdopliora was described, carried pentacrinid larvae in various stages of growth 
borne on the pinnules. Those individuals were collected in late summer or early 
fall (February and March). The specimens taken in Koombana Bay in late spring 
have the genital pinnules with large eggs and young embryos, not yet penta- 
crinids. Each pinnule seems to have 4 or 5 eggs but usually if development is 



CLAEK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODEEMS 45 

well under way there are but 3 or 2 embryos. I suspect that only one penta- 
crinid develops on each pinnule, the other eggs and embryos serving as nourish- 
ment for its growth. The whole life history could be easily worked out at Bun- 
bury during a summer, I have little doubt, and would be a very interesting and 
valuable study. It is possible that the work could be done at Fremantle, for 
besides the Bunbury material, I have 3 small specimens of this comatulid labelled 
as taken near Garden Island in 1929, which were given to me by Professor 
Bennett. 



ANTEDONIDAE 

COMPSOMETRA INCOMMODA 

Antedon incommoda Bell, 1888a. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 2, p. 404. 
Compsometra incommoda A. H. Clark, 1911b. Mem. Austral. Mus., 4, p. 792. 

This Uttle comatulid is found all along the western coast of Australia as far 
north at least as Geraldton. The specimen taken there is a rather small but quite 
typical indi\ddual which we found in a little tide-pool on the rocky shore north 
of the town. It seemed a most unlikely place for a comatuHd for there was little 
animal life in those particular tide-pools. 

The 59 specimens at hand were taken at the following points : 
Western Australia: Geraldton, tide-pool north of jetty, October 7, 1929. 1 speci- 
men, young. 
Dongarra. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 9 specimens, young. 
Cottesloe, North Beach. L. Glauert leg. et don. 1 specimen, 

young. 
Fremantle, off Garden Island, 7 fms., October, 1929. 8 speci- 
mens. 
Bunbury, Koombana Bay, 5-8 fms., October 26, 1929. 6 

specimens. 
Bunbury, Basalt Reef, September 28, 1930. E. W. Bennett 

leg. et don. 1 specimen, young. 
East of Cape Naturaliste, Bunkers Bay, January 15-17, 1930. 
E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 17 specimens, mostly young. 
Albany, under stones below low water mark, January 10, 1929. 
E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 16 specimens, young. 



46 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

compsometra loveni 

Antedon loveni Bell, 1882. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 534. 
Compsometra loveni A. H. Clark, 1908. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 21, p. 131. 

There are 79 specimens of this well-known comatulid in the collection at 
hand, including both adult and young. They were all dredged in Port Jackson, 
near Middle Head, in 4-5 fms., on November 21, 1929. 



DOROMETRA PARVICIRRA 

Antedon panicirra P. H. Carpenter, 1888. "Challenger" Comat., p. 204. 
Dorometra panicirra A. H. Cl.\rk, 1917. .Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 7, p. 128. 

This dehcate little comatuUd is apparently not rare in Port Darwin, as we 
met with it in both 1929 and 1932. There is great diversity of color, ranging in 
life from "a handsome light brown and white" (in the dry specimen the brown 
has become a rather faint gray-brown) to "fine black, white and cream-color . . . 
the finely variegated arms defied description." Another is described as "dull 
blackish with not very evident yellowish markings on pinnules and arms;" this 
specimen is now dull purple with cirri and pinnules and irregular markings on 
arms, nearly white. Specimens preserved in alcohol are yellowish-brown or pale 
brown with cirri and pinnules whitish. In spite of this wide diversity in color, 
all of the Dorometras at hand seem to represent but a single form and the resem- 
blance to Carpenter's Antedon parvicirra from the Philippine Islands is so close, 
it seems best to refer them to that species. 

The largest specimen, the dry, light-colored one mentioned above, has the 
arms 50-60 mm. long and 10 mm. across the widespread pinnules; the cirri are 
about XXX, 12-14, and the pinnules are those characteristic of the species; the 
first small, slender with 10-12 segments, the second somewhat longer and the 
third much longer and larger; the tips are broken on the pinnules so that it is 
not possible to give the exact number of segments, but the second has at least 13 
and the third at least 18. 

A small Dorometra from an island north of Cooktown, Queensland, was 
given to me at Hobart, Tasmania, by Professor T. T. Flynn, and a critical exam- 
ination shows no good ground for not calling it parvicirra. The range of this 
comatulid is thus extended far to the south, adding one more species of echin- 
oderm to the rich Barrier Reef fauna. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 47 

The 6 specimens of parvicirra at hand are from the following localities : 
Queensland: Eagle Island, Great Barrier Reef, north of Cooktown. T. T. Flynn 

leg. et don. 1 specimen. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., July, 1929. 4 speci- 
mens. 
Darwin, near Leper Station, 3-5 fnxs., bottom covered with 
coralline algae, broken coral, sponges and alcyonarians. 
May 25, 1932. 1 specimen. 



MONILIMETRA ' gen. nov. 

Similar to Dorometra in most characters but distinguished by the more or 
less monihform first pinnules, which are shorter and much more slender than the 
second and third. 

Genotype, Monilimetra nomima sp. nov. 

This Uttle group of species, known as yet only from the vicinity of Broome 
presents a curious analogy to the West Indian genus Coccometra, as has been 
pointed out to me by A. H. Clark. For Coccometra contains three closely related 
species known as yet only from the northwestern part of the West Indian region 
and they are characterized by the moniliform first pinnule. But Coccometra and 
the related Thysanometra of the northeastern part of the East Indian region differ 
strikingly from Monilimetra in the much longer and more slender cirri and first 
pinnules. The new genus is, I beheve, much nearer to Dorometra than to the 
Thysanometrinae. 

There seem to be four quite different forms of Monilimetra m the Broome 
region, which may, for the present at least, be considered distinct species. It is 
not improbable that more abundant material will show a greater intergradation 
than the present available specimens indicate. The four species may be dis- 
tinguished as follows: 

Key to the Species of Monilimetra 

A. Cirrus segments 4-6, not conspicuously difFerent from the others, rather stout, slightly 
compressed, not twice as long as thick; color of arms dorsally, brown of some shade or 
yellowish or whitish, often more or less variegated with purple or dusky and light shades. 

' monile = a necklace + metra, the widely used termination for comatulid names, in reference to 
the moniliform first pinnule. 



48 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

B. Normal mature cirri short, with 13-15 segments, the basal ones not much compressed; 
pinnules unicolor or at any rate not handsomely banded. 

Fourth pinnule very large, nearly or cjuite equalling the third; first pinnule con- 
spicuously moniliform with more than 23 segments; color brown of some shade, 

sometimes variegated, sometimes very light nomima 

P^ourth pinnule obviously smaller than third; first pinnule moniliform only in basal 
half, with fewer than 23 segments; color light, faintly mottled with dusky, some- 
times with a broad longitudinal blackish stripe on dorsal side of arms lepta 

B^. Normal mature cirri with 16-18 segments, all rather short, compressed though not 
markedly so, proximally; pinnules handsomely banded purple and white poecila 

A^ Cirrus segments 4-6 elongated, more than twice as long as the diameter of the nearly 
cylindrical middle; color purple and white; cirri pure white (except sometimes basally); 
arms usually deep purple but may be white and only purple on basal pinnules .... bicolor 



MONILIMETRA NOMIMA ^ Sp. nOV. 

Centrodorsal low hemispherical, not quite 3 mm. in diameter, well covered 
with cirrus sockets except at the pole ; those nearest the pole are very small while 
those near the margin are largest. Only 3 cirri are present and all of these are 
broken, but one lacks only the terminal claw; this one (fig. 5) has 13 segments, 
short, wide and, except basally, distinctly compres.sed ; segments 4-6 are longest 
but are not much longer than distally wide; opposing claw small and incon- 
spicuous. (As shown in two paratypes, the terminal claw is not conspicuous or 
pecuhar, but normally curved.) 

Radials concealed; I Br low, its width about 4 times its length; axillaries 
more or less triangular, with slightly concave sides, their length not quite equal 
to their width; the synarthrial joints between them and the I Br, and also those 
of the first brachials with them are not at all close. There are 10 arms of equal 
size; all are broken but they would not exceed 35 mm. in length, and the number 
of brachials was probably not more than 70 (counting syzygial brachials as one) ; 
the first brachials are low and twice as high on the outer margin as on the inner 
where they are rather markedly in contact ; the width is about equal to twice the 
height of the outer margin; the second brachials are somewhat higher and the 
third and fourth (united by syzygy) together equal the second; the succeeding 
three or four brachials are about twice as wide as high and nearly quadrangular; 
after that they become more wedge-shaped but never become triangular; syzygies 
occur between 9 and 10 and then at irregular but usually rather short intervals. 

' f 6/ji/io$ = conventional, in reference to the fact that this species shows best the typical characters of 
he genus. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 



49 



Pi (fig. 6) is about 12 mm. long, very slender, with about 23 segments, of 
which the basal six to twelve are about as wide as long but beyond that the 
length increases and the moniUform character of the pinnule disappears near the 




Figs. 5 and 6. Monilimetra nomima: 5, a cirrus (lacking terminal claw); 6, pinnules pi — ps. x 8. 



tip. P2 is about 14 mm. long and has some 25 segments but only 2 or 3 at the base 
are as wide as long, and distally they are twice as long as wide. P3 is much 
longer and stouter, apparently about 25 mm. long (the terminal portion is too 
much curved and twisted for measurement) with more than 30 segments. P4 is 



50 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

about equally stout but is not so long, although it has about 30 segments. Pe 
is much smaller and shorter with about 20 segments. The following pinnules are 
somewhat smaller but soon increase in length though they remain very slender. 
Beginning with the third pinnule, the outer distal corner of each segment projects 
as a minute spine and the distal margin begins to be slightly serrate; this spininess 
of the distal margin of the pinnule segments becomes very marked near the middle 
of the arm but decreases again on the distal pinnules. 

Color (dry) : brown, lightest on centrodorsal and arm-bases and again dis- 
tally, darkest on dorsal side of brachials 8-20, where it is a deep purple-brown; 
the change of shade is very gradual, and nowhere abrupt. Beginning at the very 
base of each ray, a light yellowish-brown line, ill-defined and soon broken into 
irregular patches, runs out on the dorsal side of each arm; there are also minute 
specks of this light shade on each side of this Une. Pinnules and cirri, light brown 
or even pale brownish-white. Arms distally, somewhat banded as each segment 
is brown with a broad light margin. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 953, dredged at Broome, W. A., June, 1932. 

There are 4 paratypes and 2 other specimens which I am referring to this 
species. None of them is Uke the holotype in color. One is uniformly cream color 
dorsally and is probably bleached. Another appears to be uniformly yellow- 
brown, but under a lens, faint markings corresponding to those on the holotype 
are barely distinguishable. The other two paratypes are light reddish-brown 
or fawn-color, variegated with a darker purplish-brown; they are, however, in 
poor condition and were apparently stained, probably by contact with other 
echinoderms in the collecting or preparing of the specimens. A fifth specimen, 
somewhat similar to these but much hghter in color and a little smaller and more 
deUcate in structure, is referred to this species but is not considered a paratype. 
There are XXXIII cirri with 13-15 segments, but they seem more slender and 
much le.ss compressed than in the paratypes, none of which, however, have re- 
tained enough of their evidently very fugacious cirri for adequate comparison. 
As regards the pinnules, the proportions are just as in the types but the measure- 
ments and actual number of segments are considerably less than in the holotype. 
Thus Ps has fewer than 20 segments and is only 10-15 mm. long, and P4 is dis- 
tinctly smaller but is much more hke P3 than like P5. I take these pecuUarities of 
the pinnules to be youthful characters, which would have soon been outgrown. 
Another specimen referred to novmna is very young with arms only 10-12 mm. 
long. The pinnules are all very slender and with few segments and the cirri are 
about XXV, 11. The chief reason for referring this very juvenile specimen to 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 51 

nomima is its resemblance to the much larger atypical fifth specimen just dis- 
cussed, the peculiarities of which I beUeve are due to immaturity even though 
the arms are fully 30 mm. long. 

Compared with the Comasteridae and Zygometridae, the Antedonidae are 
rare in the Broome region and were met with only now and then, not more than 
half a dozen times during each visit. The present species is undoubtedly the com- 
monest and was taken at least four times. Two specimens were taken in Roebuck 
Bay in August, 1929, and early in September two more were dredged near False 
Cape Bossut. In 1932, three specimens were secured at different times in dredg- 
ing between Broome and Cape Villaret. 



MONILIMETRA LEPTAI Sp. nOV. 

Centrodorsal low hemispherical, about 2 mm. in diameter, the bare pole 
rough with minute cirrus sockets; cirri XXXV, 15-17, crowded and more or less 
strongly recurved (fig. 7). Segments 4-6 are longest and least compressed but the 
length is scarcely equal to twice the diameter at middle ; distally the segments 
become shorter and wider and moderately compressed; opposing claw low and 
inconspicuous; terminal claw small but sharp and curved. 

Radials concealed; I Br low, its width at least 4 times its length; axillaries 
more or less triangular or low pentagonal; the lateral margins may be considered 
as blunt points on a triangle, or as very short sides of a pentagon; the width of 
the axillary is considerably greater than its length. Synarthrial joints not very 
close and synarthrial tubercles iiLsignificant or wanting. There are 10 approxi- 
mately equal arms, about 35-40 mm. long; the number of brachials probably 
exceeds 80; the character of the brachials and position of the syzygies is essen- 
tially as in the preceding species. 

Pi (fig. 8) is about 6 mm. long, with some 20 segments, of which only the 
basal 6 or 7 are wider than long, so the moniliform character of the pinnule is not 
conspicuous. P2 is similar but is longer and stouter with about the same number 
of segments but only about three basal ones are wider than long. P3 is conspicu- 
ously longer, at least 15 mm., and stouter, with 23 or more segments, all but the 
two or three basal ones much longer than wide. P4 is distinctly smaller with 
about 15 segments and Ps is similar but smaller still. Subsequent pinnules not 

' XcTTTOS = delicate, in reference to the slender arms and generally fragile structure. 



52 



memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



peculiar. Spininess of distal margins of pinnule segments more or less evident 
under a lens but not at all conspicuous. 

Color (dry) : cirri, pinnules and sides of arms very pale brown, nearly white; 
dorsal surface of each arm with a broad dark brown or blackish stripe; in alcohol 
the color is not essentially different. Disk plump and relatively large, pale gray- 
ish, more brown on the anal papilla and dark along the margins of the food grooves. 




Figs. 7 and 8. Monilimetra lepta: 7, a cirrus; 8, pinnules, pi — ps. x 8. 



Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 950, from Broome, W. A., dredged in 5-8 fms. 
June, 1932. 

There are five paratypes, also dredged in the vicinity of Broome in June, 
1932. Apparently all of the specimens were taken at the same time and place. 
They agree well in structural details and are distinctly more slender than the 
preceding species, nomima. In color they show some diversity and not one has 
the dark stripe on the arms. Three are uniformly very light, a dull pale cream 
color on the dorsal side; one of these has the cirri white with no markings, while 
in the second a few distal .segments of the largest cirri have a dusky blotch; the 
third has the cirri dusky or purplish-gray. The two other specimens have more or 
less dusky or hght brownish-purple blotches on the brachials, on each side, but 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 53 

these are not conspicuous; in the larger, the cirri are nearly white, but in the 
smaller they are almost lead-color. 

A seventh specimen, which may properly be called a paratype, was taken on 
Pearl Shoal in 1929; the arms are all broken and the cirri are nearly all gone but I 
do not hesitate to refer it to the present species as the pinnules correspond com- 
pletely and such cirri as are present agree with those of lepia. The color, a uni- 
form light shade not quite white, is also appropriate. 

This species is the most Dorometra-hke of any of the four Monilimetras at 
Broome. The monihform character of the first pinnule is by no means striking 
and the resemblance of the comatuhd to Dorometra is obvious. 



MONILIMETRA POECILA' Sp. nOV. 

Centrodorsal low hemispherical, more than 2 mm. in diameter, the small bare 
area at the pole without evident cirrus sockets; cirri XXXIII, 16-18, crowded 
and more or less recurved (fig. 9) ; segments short and wide, the first three are 
wider than long, the fourth is about as wide as long, the fifth and sixth are evi- 
dently longer than wide ; the following segments are about as long as the distal 
width; opposing claw low and insignificant; terminal claw small but sharp and 
curved ; while the cirri are flattened on the sides they are not markedly compressed. 

Radials concealed; I Br low, its width about 4 times its length; axillaries low 
pentagonal, lateral margins very short, width greater than length. Synarthrial 
joints not at all close, the lower brachials in particular being very noticeably 
separated, except at the very margin. Arms 10, rather unequal, longest exceeding 
50 mm.; several are regenerating distally; the number of brachials exceeds 140 
on the longest arm. The form of the brachials and the position of the syzj^gies is 
essentially as in nomima. 

Pi (fig. 10) is about 8 mm. long, with some 20 segments, of which the basal 
are as wide as long and even distally the length exceeds the width very little, yet 
owing to the lack of constrictions between the segments the monihform character 
of the pinnule is not so striking as might be. P2 is similar but is longer and stouter; 
the number and relative proportioas of segments is about the same. P3 is con- 
spicuously larger in every way, nearly 20 mm. long with about 24 segments. P4 
is very similar to P3 and Uttle if any smaller. P5 and subsequent pinnules decrease 
uniformly in size to about Pi 1 or P 12 after which the length increases a little but 

'ttoikiXos = variegated, in reference to the strikingly handsome coloration. 



54 



memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



the stoutness does not. Spininess of distal margins of pinnule segments more or 
less evident on P4-P10 but is not very conspicuous. 

Color (dry) : variegated, whitish, yellow and purple; ground color of centro- 
dorsal, cirri, base of arms and pinnules, whitish, of dorsal side of arms, yellow ; 




Figs. 9 and 10. Monilimetra poecila: 9, a cirrus; 10, pinnules pi — ps. x 8. 



on each cirrus segment (excepting the most proximal and the two terminal) is a 
conspicuous purple spot, and often these spots tend to run together dorsally, 
making an incomplete (sometimes complete) girdle around the segment; each 
pinnule has 8-10 purple bands of somewhat indefinite position and completeness; 
each basal brachial has a large purple spot on each side dorsally but beyond the 
eighth, the spots tend to coalesce more or less into an indefinite band of dull 
purple or dusky; the regenerating portions of the arms are a uniform hght yellow 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 55 

without markings but the pinnules borne thereon are banded; disk variegated 
whitish and purple. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 956, dredged in 5-8 fms. between Cape Vilaret and 
Broome, W. A. June, 1932. 

There are three paratypes but all are more badly broken than is the holotype. 
One of these, taken at the same time and place, is similar in size and structure so 
far as can be determined, but is much darker in color, the yellow on the arms is 
pale, the purple is much more abundant and the spots have coalesced into broad 
irregular bands. The other two paratypes show the same contrast in color but it 
is even more marked ; the hghter one is nearly white (possibly the yellow has been 
bleached in the alcohol in which it is preserved), variegated with a dull reddish- 
purple (the shade may have been altered in alcohol) and with the pinnules less 
frequently and conspicuously banded; the darker specimen is deep red-purple 
with a whitish mid-dorsal line on the I Br series and the pinnules purple and white 
banded as usual. 

This unusually lovely comatulid is very sensitive to handhng and only the 
holotype has any arms still attached to the calyx. Two of the paratypes were 
taken September 5, 1929, "at extreme low water, far south of the jetty" at 
Broome. My field notes go on to say, "ten long, slender, very graceful arms; 
finely variegated with purple and white ; very delicate and went all to pieces in 
pail, breaking the arms up into little bits." When the two specimens taken in 
1932 were dredged the present holotype was very little damaged, so it was possible 
by plunging it at once into strong alcohol to get a very good specimen, even the 
cirri remaining in place. Obviously this fine species cannot be considered at all 
common in the Broome region. 



MONILIMETRA BICOLOR^ Sp. nOV. 

Centrodorsal low, hemispherical, about 2 mm. in diameter, almost com- 
pletely covered with cirri, which are about XXXVIII, 15-17, crowded and more 
or less recurved (fig. 11) ; segments 4-6 elongated, more than twice as long as the 
diameter of the nearly cylindrical middle ; succeeding segments longer than wide 
and increasingly compressed; opposing claw sharp and rather prominent ; terminal 
claw sharp but not strongly curved. 

Radials concealed; I Br low, its width at least 4 times its length; axillaries 

' bicolor = of two colors, in reference to the characteristic coloration. 



56 



memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



low pentagonal with the lateral margins very short and the width much greater 
than the length. Synarthrial joints very open at least as far as the ninth or tenth 
brachial. Arms 10, approximately equal, about 35-40 mm. long; the number of 
brachials exceeds 80; the character of the brachials and position of the syzygies is 
essentially as in nomirna. 




Figs. U and 12. Monilimetra bicolor: 11, a cirrus; 12, pinnules pi — ps. x 8. 



Pi is 5 or G mm. long with some 20 segments, the basal ones short and wide, 
the distal somewhat longer than wide ; on the whole the pinnule is quite monili- 
form. Po is longer and less moniUform but has about the same number of seg- 
ments. P3 is much longer and stouter, 12-15 mm. long with about 25 segments, 
all but the basal 2 or 3 much longer than wide. P4 is almost as long and stout as 
P3, while Pe is markedly smaller and Pio is the smallest of the pinnules. Spininess 
of distal margins of pinnule segments, not very marked but with a lens it is evi- 
dent on the basal and middle joints of pinnules 3-10. 

Color (dry) : calyx and basal part of arms, deep-purple ; pinnules (except 
some of the larger basal ones) Ughter and distally quite Ught, so the arms appear 
distinctly Ughter near tips; cirri pure white in striking contrast, the very basal 
segments, however, are deep purple. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 57 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 946 from 5-8 fms., between Cape Villaret and 
Broome, W. A., June, 1932. 

There are three paratypes as follows : 
Near False Cape Bossut, September, 1929. 1 specimen like the holotype, but all 

cirri and most pinnules are wanting. 
Near entrance to Roebuck Bay, June, 1932. 1 specimen somewhat larger and 

darker than the type (pinnules are dark) ; all cirri 
wanting; arms about 50 mm. long. 
Pearl Shoal, 7 fms. September 26, 1929. 1 superb specimen. Arms about 60 mm. 

long, cream-white, but pinnules on basal 10-18 mm. of 
each arm, red-purple in sharp contrast ; cirri pure white. 
This species is very close to nomima and might perhaps be considered a color 
form of that species but the difference in the cirri seems to be constant and the 
coloration of the present form is so striking it seems better to regard it as a dis- 
tinct species. It is evident that it cannot be considered common in the Broome 
region. 

ASTEROIDEA 

The collection of sea-stars contains 4270 specimens, representing 46 genera 
and 104 species. Of the genera 3 are new, one being simply a subdivision of the 
old genus Anthenea, while each of the other two is based on a single specimen of a 
sea-star so very unusual as to necessitate a new generic group. Of the 104 species, 
no fewer than 29 represent hitherto undescribed species, of which a dozen belong 
to the family Asterinidse and half a dozen others represent the old genus 
Anthenea, in a broad sense. 

The new genera are : 
Styphlaster, type S. notabilis sp. nov. Monotypic. 
Gymnanthenea, type Anthenea globigera Dod. There is a second species at the 

Abrolhos Islands, W. A. 
Manasterina, type M. longispina sp. nov. Monotypic. 

The 29 new species are scattered through 16 genera, as follows: 

Astropecten pidcherrimus W. A., Broome. 

Luidia hexactis W. A., Montgomery Reef, Collier Bay. 

Archaster laevis W. A., Broome. 

Goniodiscaster acanthodes W. A., Broome. 

Goniodiscasier bicolor W. A., Broome. 



58 



memoie: museum of comparative zoology 



Styphlaster notabilis 
Anthenoides dubius 
Gymnanthenea laevis 
Anthenea acanthodes 
Anthenea crassa 
Anthenea elegans 
Anthenea obesa 
Anthenea polygnatha 
Bunaster variegatus 
Asterina alba 
Asterina heteractis 
Asterina lutea 
Asterina perplexa 
Disasterina spinulifera 
Manasterina longispina 
Paranepanthia rosea 
Patiriella brevispina 
Patiriella nigra 
Nepanthia magnispina 
Nepanthia tenuis 
Nepanthia variabilis 
Parasterina occidentalis 
Echinaster varicolor 
Astrostole insular is 



W. A., Broome. 

W. A., Broome. 

W. A., Abrolhos Islands. 

Q., Port Curtis. 

Q., Port Curtis. 

W. A., Broome. 

W. A., Geraldton. 

W. A., Broome. 

W. A., Bunkers Bay. 

Lord Howe Island. 

Lord Howe Island. 

W. A., Broome. 

Lord Howe Island. 

W. A., Broome. 

W. A., Rottnest Island. 

W. A., Rottnest Island. 

W. A., Bunbury. 

Lord Howe Island. 

W. A., Augustus Island. 

W. A., Broome. 

W. A., Broome. 

W. A., Point Peron. 

W. A., Broome. 



Lord Howe Island. 

As shown by the above list Lord Howe Island is the home of 5 of the new 
species, and Port Curtis, Queensland of 2; all the remaining 22 are Western 
Australian. Captain Bardwell secured 2 of these at or near Augustus Island, while 
the vicinity of Broome is the home of 13. The coast from Geraldton southward 
to Bunkers Bay, with its outlying islands (Abrolhos, Rottnest) provides the type 
localities for 7 species. 

Sea-stars are the most generally observed and collected of Australian echino- 
derms. The more or less striking form and the frequently briUiant colors make 
even a pearl-shell diver stop and look, while fishermen of all sorts are apt to bring 
them in, now and again, as a part of their spoil. The clear waters and firm sandy 
bottoms in the vicinity of Broome make that part of the Australian coast the 
richest collecting ground for a student of sea-stars, no less than one-third (35) of 
the present list having been taken in that region. The Barrier Reef area also has 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 59 

a notable sea-star fauna but is not so well represented in the present list since we 
did not do any collecting there. On the southern coast of the continent the aster- 
oid fauna is less abundant but is notable for many characteristic genera and 
species, of which only a few appear in the present work. Western Australia 
between Geraldton and Albany has a very coiLsiderable number of sea-stars, 
many of which are characteristic of that coast. In all regions, the smaller species 
live beneath rock fragments or in crannies and holes in the rocks while the larger 
ones commonly lie more or less exposed on the bottom. A few species frequent 
wharf piles or lie buried just below the surface on a sandy bottom, but none will 
be found where the water is brackish or befouled with mud. 

The literature dealing with Australian sea-stars is fairly extensive. Sladen's 
monumental work on the "Challenger" Asteroidea (1889) is of course invaluable. 
Bell's report on the "Alert" collection (1884) suffers from that writer's well- 
known idiosyncrasies. My reports on the "Thetis" Echinoderms (1909), the 
echinoderms of the Western Australian Museum (1914), the "Endeavour" 
echinoderms (1916), the Echinoderms of Torres Strait (1921), "Some Echino- 
derms from West Australia" (1923), and the echinoderms of the South Australian 
Museum (1928) all contain more or less material concerning sea-stars. Fisher's 
admirable and always trustworthy monographs (1906, 1911, 1919, 1928, 1930) 
and Doderlein's^ very helpful accounts of Semon's Torres Strait sea-stars (1896) 
and of the "Siboga" asteroids (1917, 1920, 1935) are indispensable. Doderlein's 
small monographs on Anthenea (1915) and Oreaster (1916) are also valuable. In 
very recent years, Livingstone has published a number of excellent papers (1930- 
1936) which warrant the belief that Australian sea-stars now have a master, 
whose work will be worthy of the rich and fascinating field into which he has 
entered. In the study of the present collection, I have had the very great advantage 
of constant correspondence with both Fisher and Livingstone. The latter has seen 
nearly all of the collections and the former has examined many of the more inter- 
esting or perplexing specimens. The unfailing interest and helpful suggestions of 
these colleagues have been of incalculable value and have no doubt saved me from 
errors. If any serious blunders are detected in the present account of Australian 
sea-stars, it will be the fault of the writer only and in spite of my colleagues' 
cheerful readiness to help. Through Mr. Livingstone, the AustraUan Museum, 
has generously loaned me material of the greatest importance for my attempts to 
elucidate the perplexing genera Anthenea and Nepanthia. 

' The recent death of Dr. Doderlein is a great blow to all students of echinoderms, for the care with 
which his work was done and his sound judgment made his work invaluable to his colleagues even when 
we could not accept his conclusions. 



60 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

In collecting sea-stars, little care need be used in the handling, save in the 
case of Luidia. In this genus, there is a tendency, when roughly or even carelessly 
handled, to constrict muscles at the base of each arm which autotomously sever 
the arm from the disk; once this process begins it is almost impossible to check it. 
But if the specimen can be placed in a basin of fresh sea-water before the impulse 
starts, narcotization with Epsom salts (MgS04) is usually easy, after which killing 
can be done without danger of injury. All sea-stars, so far as my experience goes, 
are very susceptible to Epsom salts, after the use of which, they may be placed in 
alcohol or formalin for kiUing. They may be left in alcohol indefinitely but never 
in formaUn more than a few hours, at the most. If they are to be dried, the for- 
mahn (about 4% of the commercial fluid) should contain some corrosive subli- 
mate (HgClo) — not too much or a whitish film may form on the specimen; 
something less than 1% HgCl.> is ample.' Better specimens of many sea-stars, 
particularly those with arms of considerable bulk, may be prepared if instead of 
being narcotized they are killed by being transferred directly from sea-water to 
fresh-water; they may later be placed in the corrosive-formahn until completely 
saturated therewith and then dried as rapidly as possible in the shade or in an 
oven, not too hot. The colors of sea-stars are lamentably evanescent and it is 
impossible to retain them in Museum material, except when they are dull and of 
little interest. AlcohoHc specimens always bleach more or less but specimens 
killed quickly in corrosive-formalin and then dried rapidly and thoroughly, may 
retain a considerable amount of pigment and will hold for years more or less 
resemblance to the living animal. 



ASTROPECTINIDAE 

ASTROPECTEN GRANULATUS 

Plate 1, fig. 1 

MiJLLER and Tkoschel, 1842. Syst. Ast., p. 75. 

This is the common sea-star at Broome, occurring in considerable numbers 
on the sandy-mud bottom of Roebuck Bay, near normal low water mark and 
further out. Most of the specimens seen were of moderate size, with R = 50-75 
mm. but many larger ones were taken with R = 100-118 mm.; the smallest at 

• Dr. R. T. Jackson has prepared beautiful dried specimens, using simply a very dilute solution of cor- 
rosive sublimate. His account of his method should be consulted (1930). 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 61 

hand, with 10 superomarginals in each series, has R = 7 mm., r = 3 mm., and br = 
3.5 mm. while in the largest with 45 superomarginals, R = 118 mm., r = 22 mm., 
and br = 25 mm. The change of form from youth to age is therefore very great, 
the ratio of R to r and br undergoing a marked alteration; in youth R = 2.3r and 
2 br while in the full grown adult R = 5.4r and 4.75br'-. But the adult ratios are 
approximately reached while granulatus is still less than half grown; specimens 
with R = 50 mm. have very nearly the proportions of adults. It is of interest to 
note that while the arm increases in length from 7 to 50 mm., i.e., 7x, the number 
of superomarginals has increased only from 10 to 30, i.e., 3x; when the arm reaches 
118 mm., i.e., 17x the youthful length, there are only 45 superomarginals; the 
arm-length has thus inci'eased about four times as fast as the number of supero- 
marginals. 

In life, the dorsal surface of this sea-star is a deep bluish-gray, very similar 
to the color of tlie sandy mud in which it lives; this color disappears completely 
in preserved specimens. The lower surface and marginal spines are pure white ; 
the pedicels are cream-colored. In young individuals when R = 12-15 mm., the 
tips of the arms are dusky; as the arms increase in length tliis dusky area forms 
a band across the tip; when R = 20 mm., a second dusky area may appear and 
form another band across the arm. These bands are brown in color when fully 
formed and brown areas now appear, in many individuals, on the disk in the inter- 
radii. As the specimens increase in size, these bands and areas break up into irreg- 
ular blotches and spots occupying the same general positions near the middle of 
the arm and in the interradii. They reach their maximum development when 
R = 50-60 mm. ; after that they begin to disappear and in specimens with R = 
100 mm., they are poorly defined or lacking. Specimens dredged on a bottom of 
ordinary sand in 5-7 fms. were more yellowisli-gray or brownish than those 
found at and near low watermark around the jetty at Broome. In the intertidal 
zone, this Astropecten was easily detected when the tide was out by the star- 
shaped figure in the sand, caused presumably by the water currents among the 
paxillse of the dorsal surface; hence the size as well as the form of the sea-star was 
indicated though the animal itself was wholly buried. 

Some years ago, I recorded Astropecten granulatus from South Africa (1923, 
Ann. So. Air. Mus., 13, p. 250), the identification being based on a dozen speci- 
mens with R = 7.5-38 mm., and I even affirmed that Sladen's species monacanthus 

' It must be constantly borne in mind that the form and proportions of sea-stars are often modified 
to a notable degree by the method of preservation; diy specimens are greatly affected by the rapidity or 
slowness of drying. This is particularly true in Astropecten. 



62 memoir: museum op comparative zoology 

was the same thing. Now that a large amount of material is available, it is per- 
fectly clear that monacanthus is a distinct species and the two can be easily dis- 
tinguished. Comparison of the South African specimens with the material from 
Broome indicates that it is quite different and further study suggests that it is 
nearer to A. notograptiis Sladen than to any species hitherto described. Hence 
granulahis should be deleted from the list of South African sea-stars. 

The 53 specimens of granulatus at hand were all taken in or near Roebuck 
Bay, mostly in the vicinity of the jetty at Broome. 



Astropecten hartmeyeri 
DoDERLEiN, 1917. "Siboga" Ast.: Astropecten, p. 156. 

The material upon which this species is based was collected at Shark Bay, 
Western Austraha. It is not surprising therefore that it proves to be a common 
sea-star in the vicinity of Broome, but it is interesting to note that the range 
extends .still further to the northeast as far as Augustus Island, where Captain 
Bardwell collected 3 fine specimens. 

The largest of those taken at Broome has R = 82 mm. and is therefore nearly 
twice as large as the type material, but a still larger specimen is at hand, in 
which R = 110 mm., r=18 mm. and br = 20 mm. The arms are thus relatively 
more slender than in Doderlein's material but this is what would be expected, as 
shown by the measurements given for A. granulatus (See p. 61). This very large, 
dried specimen belongs to the Western Australian Museum and is from the coast 
of that State but the exact locality if not known. The color is very dark, an 
apparently uniform brown without any markings, quite different from the hand- 
somely marked smaller specimens, but, except that the spinulation is much 
coarser than in the Broome material, the resemblance of this big individual to 
the smaller ones is surprisingly close. The largest Broome specimen is the darkest 
of that series but is as clearly marked as the smaller ones; the smallest (R = 10- 
14 mm.) are very hght, except for the darker markings. A single specimen, taken 
between Broome and Wallal, with R = 36 mm., is very dark and the markings are 
difficult to make out; such an individual might easily grow into a dark, unicolored 
adult. 

The specimens from Augustus Island arc noticeably different from those 
taken at Broome in the much wider rays; R = 60 mm., while r and br are each 
about 15 mm. A Broome specimen with R = 65 mm. has r and br only 12-13 mm. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 63 

and this is the usual ratio in the adult Broome material, but some of the smaller 
specimens have R only = 4 r. The color of the Augustus Islands specimens also 
sets them apart, for while the dark markings are evident, the ground color is 
dull and there is a dingy pink tinge evident, particularly on the lower surface. 
This may however be artificial due to some chance element in their preservation, 
for they are admirably dried. 

Whether hartmeyeri is really distinct from zebra Sladen seems to me rather 
doubtful but the only specimens of zebra available for comparison are too young 
to be of real service. Larger collections from Northeastern Austraha are necessary 
for a final decision. 

The 31 specimens of hartmeyeri at hand come from the following places, all 
on the coast of Western Austraha. 

Augustus and Champagay Islands, October, 1933. Capt. Beresford E. 
Bardwell leg. 3 specimens. 

Broome, 5-8 fms., September, 1929. 2 specimens, adult. 

Broome, Pearl Shoal, 5-8 fms., September, 1929. 4 specimens, young. 

Broome and vicinity, 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 20 specimens, adult and young. 

Between Broome and Wallal, 1930. R. A. Bourne leg. 1 small adult. Loaned 
by the Australian Museum. 

Locahty unknown. 1 very large adult. Loaned by the Western Austra- 
lian Museum. 

ASTROPECTEN MONACANTHUS 
Sladen, 1883. Jour. Linn. Soc. London: Zool., 17, p. 263. 

Sladen's types were only half-grown but Doderlein (1917, p. 150) has given 
a good account of this sea-star with excellent figures. It is a widespread species 
of the Indian Ocean, and has been taken previously on the northwestern coast of 
Austraha. It is not very common in the vicinity of Broome and was not taken 
above the lowest tide mark or near the jetty, but there are 13 specimens at hand, 
of which 4 young ones were dredged in September, 1929, near, if not in, Roebuck 
Bay, one half-grown individual (a loan from the AustraUan Museum) was taken 
by Mr. R. A. Bourne, in 1930 between Broome and Wallal, and 8 were dredged in 
June 1932 in 5-8 fms., southwest of Broome; the last lot range from very young 
ones with R = 7 mm. to an adult with R = 48 nma., the largest specimen yet re- 
corded. In this specimen r = 11 mm. and br= 12.5 mm., so that R is a httle more 
than 4r and a trifle less than 4br. A rather marked change in form occurs after 



64 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

R = 16-18 mm. Prior to that the arms are pointed, their width at base is more 
than one-third R and the sides are straight; thereafter the arms become blunt, 
the width at base is proportionately less but near tip is more, and the sides curve 
inward distally. 

The color in life (grayish, more or less evidently blotched with dusky or 
brown, particularly near the middle of the arms or distal thereto) is so much like 
that of granulatus that the two species were confused during collecting and only 
after they were dried and examined with a lens were the very obvious differences 
between the two species noticed. The opinion I expressed some years ago (1923, 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 13, p. 250) that the two species are identical is quite wrong. 
The difference in the spinulation of the inferomarginals is not emphasized by 
Sladen but Doderlein's figures (1917, pi. XVII) bring it out fairly well. The flat, 
rounded scale-like spines which cover the inferomarginals in monacanlhus are 
recognizable even in specimens in which R = only 7 mm. and are distinctive in 
specimens with R = 13 mm. The conspicuously flattened and widened outer 
adambulacral spines of monacanthus are also distinctive after R = 12 mm., and 
in large specimens (R = 40-50 mm.) the difference in the shape of the arms is ob- 
vious. 

ASTROPECTEN POLYACANTHUS 
MiiLLER and Troschel, 1842. Syst. A.st., p. 69. 

We met with this species only at Port Jackson, from which place it has long 
been known. There 2 specimens, with R = about 60 mm., were dredged near 
Middle Head, November 21, 1929. In Ufe the coloration was striking; the pax- 
illar area of the dorsal surface was deep purple, while the oral surface was more or 
less red-orange, with the margins pale yellow; the marginal plates were more or 
less purplish dorsally but faded out into yellow orally. These fine colors have 
entirely disappeared in the dry specimens. 

Mr. Melbourne Ward has generously sent me 2 unusually large and striking 
specimens labelled: "Beaches. Lindeman Island. Aug. 1934." This locahty is on 
the Barrier Reef not far from Port Mackay, Queensland. One of the specimens 
has R = 105 mm. (or more) and r only 21 ; it is thus a little larger than Miiller and 
Troschel's type-specimen (see Doderlein, 1917, p. 135) and the rays are a little 
narrower. The color is a rather bright brown with the unusually long marginal 
spines whitish; many of the inferomarginal spines are 10 to 1 1 mm. long and little 
more than a miUimeter wide, quite flat but sharply pointed. The other specimen 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 65 

is a little smaller and the color is a gray-brown with the spines white. The mar- 
ginal spines are as conspicuous as in the larger specimen and even more bristling; 
several are 12 mm. in length; they are as a rule somewhat less flattened than in 
the other indi\'idual. On the whole these specimens resemble more closely one 
in the M. C. Z. collection from Zanzibar, with R = 85 mm., than they do the Port 
Jackson specimens, with their shorter, wider rays. 

Astro PECTEN preissii 
MuLLER and Troschel, 1S43. Arch. f. Naturg. 9, 1, p. 119. 

Southwestern Australia is the type locality for this fine species but the range 
extends eastward along the southern coast at least as far as St. Vincent GuK. 
Michaelsen and Hartmeyer found it near Fremantle and also near Albany, W. A. 
Doderlein (1917, p. 162) suggests that the latter specimens represent a local form 
which he calls albanicus, but some of our specimens from Fremantle correspond 
very closely with the description given, though they are less like the figure. Only 
further collecting in southwestern Australia can determine whether the wide- 
armed form is a constant variety but I am inclined to doubt it. 

Between Fremantle and Garden Island this sea-star is quite common and 
we secured a good series ranging from R = 6 mm. to R = 155 mm. In the very 
small specimens the rays are of course notably short and R = only 2r; when R = 
32 mm., the proportion is R = 4r; at 70 mm. R = 5r; at 126 mm., r = 6r; and at 
155 mm., R = 7r. In the last mentioned specimen, there are 78 superomarginals, 
and a number of them scattered here and there bear small erect spines as in 
Doderlein's largest specimen. 

In life, there are two color forms but as the colors fade completely after 
drying and all assume the usual "museum-color," no other difference can be 
detected. The possibihty of this being a secondary sex character deserves investi- 
gation. Most commonly the color is yellowish-brown or brownish-orange, with 
the distal ends of the inferomarginal plates orange. In striking contrast, the other 
form is rich \aolet. Both are unicolor without markings. 

The material in hand consists of 40 specimen>s from the following localities: 
Western Australia: Shark Bay, 2 fms., December, 1923. 1 adult. Loaned by the 

Western Austrahan Museum. 
Between Fremantle and Garden Island, 2-3 fms., October, 

1929. 30 specimens, young and adult. 
Locality doubtful. 9 specimens, young. 



66 memoir: museum op comparative zoology 

astropecten schayeri 
DoDERLEiN, 1917. " Siboga" Ast. : Astropecten, p. 60. 

It is a matter of great interest to find in the Victoria National Museum at 
Melbourne, a specimen of this remarkable Astropecten. It is of almost exactly 
the same size and appearance as the type but is in somewhat better condition. 
The group of actinolateral plates in each interradial area is very striking as are 
the very numerous adambulacral and oral spines. Doderlein's opinion that this is 
the most primitive of known Astropectens seems to me quite justifiable. 

The unique holotype was taken in "Tasmania" and is now in the Berlin 
Museum. The Melbourne Museum specimen bears the label "Portland, Victoria. 
Presented by Goldstein, 19.4.79." The resemblance of this species to A. pedinatus 
Sladen from the southeastern coasts of Australia is striking, and one is at first 
inclined to think them identical, but in addition to the important diiTerence in 
the actinolateral plates, which Doderlein stresses, the difference in the large spines 
of the inferomarginal plates is very great, the adambulacral armature is different 
and the madreporite is more nearly marginal in schayeri. 

Astropecten triseriatus 
MiJLLER and Troschel, 1843. Arch. f. Naturg. 9, 1, p. 118. 

On October 14, 1929, while dredging between Fremantle and Garden Island, 
we took an arm fragment of an Astropecten which was conspicuously different 
from preissii, the common Astropecten of that area. The superomarginal plates 
bore many spines in striking contrast to the unarmed superomarginals of preissii. 
The dorsal surface of the fragment was grayish, the sides and lower surface 
cream-color or yellowish. The fragment is about 50 mm. long, 20 mm. wide at 
one end, 15 mm. at the other. Comparison with a specimen of triseriatus loaned 
by the Western Australian Museum, in which R = 80 mm., shows that the frag- 
ment is part of the middle of the arm of a triseriatus in which R = about 1 10 mm. 
The type locality for the species is Southwestern Australia but it seems to be rare 
and few specimens are known. Doderlein (1917, p. 126) records one, with R = 
97 mm., from Northwestern Australia which he compares with the type, a much 
smaller individual. The specimen loaned by the museum at Perth is in good condi- 
tion, though one ray is regenerating. R = 80 mm., r= 16, R = 5r. Nearly all the 
superomarginal plates have 3 erect spines and some have 4. This individual was 
found at South Beach, Fremantle, in November, 1932. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 67 

ASTROPECTEN VAPPA 
MiJLLER and Troschel, 1843. Arch. f. Naturg., 9, 1, p. 119. 

The type of this species is a very small specimen in the Berlin Museum with 
R = 23 mm. Of the 7 specimens at hand, 4 are of approximately the same size, 
but 3 are much larger. One has R = 40 mm. and is a fairly typical example of the 
species. Together with a smaller specimen it bears a label with a note on the 
color in life but there is no locality given. The note on color is written on the back 
of an AustraUan Museum label and reads : "Pale gray dorsally, more or less cream 
orally and marginally, with interradial superomarginal spines tipped with bright 
brown-orange." There is little doubt that these specimens were dredged near 
Middle Head, Port Jackson, November 21, 1929. The species has long been known 
from the New South Wales coast though unfortunately misidentified by both 
Whitelegge (who called it triseriatus) and myself (who called it pectinatus), as 
Doderlein long ago pointed out (1917, p. 125). My accounts of pectinatus in the 
"Thetis" Report (1909) and in the "Endeavour" Report (1916) undoubtedly 
refer to vappa; the only excuse that can be offered is that vappa was quite inade- 
quately known prior to 1917, when Doderlein's masterly revision of the genus 
Astropecten was published, bringing order out of chaos and making all students of 
sea-stars his lasting debtors. 

Besides the two specimens from Port Jackson there are three young individ- 
uals from the southwestern coast of Au.straUa, given to me by Professor E. W. 
Bennett. One is very well preserved but lacks a locality label. The others are 
obviously from beach wrack and are labelled: "Drift on Middleton Beach, Febru- 
ary, 1929. E. W. Bennett." Middleton Beach is near Albany, W. A. The type 
locality for vappa is Southwestern Australia and it has been recorded from Shark 
Bay, W. A. by Doderlein (1917). 

Mr. Melbourne Ward has kindly sent two specimens of vappa bearing the 
label: "Sand flats. Lindeman Island, Cumberland Group, Queensland. July- 
October, 1934." This is much the most northern point at which vappa has been 
taken. These indi\'iduaLs are about half grown, with R = 60-68 mm. The color 
seems to have undergone little change; the upper surface is variegated hght and 
dark gray; the lower is cream-white. The superomarginal spines are relatively 
few and very small, but the inferomarginals are very long (often 6-7 mm.) and 
conspicuous. 



68 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

astropecten velitaris 
Von Martens, 1865. Arch. f. Naturg., 31, 1, p. 360. 

This East Indian sea-star is not uncommon in water 5-8 fms. deep, near 
Roebuck Bay and southwestward along the coast. Nearly all of the 17 specimens 
dredged in September, 1929 and in June, 1932 are adults and several are larger 
than any specimens yet recorded. The series ranges in size from R=14 mm. 
(R = 4r) to R = 96 mm. (R = nearly 7r). The large specimens thus show a much 
greater length of ray proportionately than has previously been accredited to the 
species. Even the smallest individual with R only 14 mm. has the erect spines on 
the first superomarginal plates conspicuous while the occurrence of spines on the 
second superomarginal plate is common in specimens with R = 60 mm. or more. 
In no case however are more than 4 spines present in a single interbrachial arc. 
In the living animal the arms are relatively wide and flat, or about equal to one- 
fourth R, but the proportion alters when the specimens are killed (particularly if 
subsequently dried) and in some large specimens R = 6 br. 

This is a handsome species when living as the following notes on the color in 
hfe indicate. "Youngest specimens greenish-gray, irregularly blotched with a 
dusky shade; just a tinge of purple on the superomarginal plates and a few supero- 
marginal spines showing orange at base. Adults, oral surface and inferomarginal 
spines white, but there is more or less of an orange area on the basal half of each 
spine. Upper surface fawn-color with two (sometimes only one) irregular blotch- 
like cross-bands of a dark shade near middle of each arm or distal thereto. 
Superomarginal plates, terminal plate and an interradial line or blotch extending 
inward on disk from margin two-thirds of the way to center, purple or violet. 
Superomarginal spines, orange, tipped with purple. In the largest specimens, the 
colors are less bright." 

AsTROPECTEN PULCHERRIMUS' Sp. nOV. 

Plate 1, fig. 2 

R = 62 mm. (in hfe about G8) ; r=16 mm. (in hfe, about 20); br=17.5 mm. 
(in hfe, about 22). In life R is about 3.5r and rather more than 3br but in the dry 
holotype R nearly equals 4r and 3.5br. In a small paratype (also dry) with R = 
46 mm., the arms are a little narrower and R = 4br. Rays taper gradually to a 

' pulcherrirnijs = most beautiful, as this is certainly the lovehest member of the genus. But alas, the 
beauty is ephemeral! 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 69 

rather wide and rounded tip ending in a moderate ternunal plate having a dis- 
tinct median depression. Superomarginals 28, those in the interbrachial arc more 
than 4 mm. high, not 2 mm. long (i.e. parallel to the longitudinal axis of arm) and 
approximately 2 mm. wide, but width merges in height too gradually to make an 
accurate statement possible; distally the plates become lower and occupy more 
of the upper surface of arm, the eighteenth for example being only about 2 mm. 
high and 2 mm. long but nearly 3.5 mm. wide; superomarginals and terminal 
plate covered with granules, of which those at the upper end of the interbrachial 
plates are largest (about .30 mm. in diameter) while those on the distal and ter- 
minal plates are scarcely half so large; there is no indication of superomarginal 
spines. Paxillae numerous and densely crowded; the larger ones in the interradial 
areas have about 16 marginal papillae, short and thick, and about 8 granules on 
the top; at base of arm there are 14-16 longitudinal series of paxillae, and the 
number does not decrease greatly towards the arm tip but the indi\'idual paxillae 
become smaller and smaller. No madreporite is visible. 

Interradial areas below with only 2 plates on each side of the midline; each 
of these carries 8-10 spinelets most of which are flattened and widened at tip. 
Inferomarginal plates about 28 in number, their size and position corresponding 
well with the superomarginals; they are covered closely with short, flat, scale-hke 
spinelets, widened and truncate or rounded at tip; at the outer end of each plate 
is a single stout spine, which on the proximal plates is flat and truncate but be- 
comes less flat and more pointed distally; at the base of the arm, these spines 
exceed 3 mm. in length and are about .75 mm. wide at tip; below this terminal 
spine but along the aboral margin of the plate (except on the first plate where it is 
nearly central) is a widely spaced series of 3 or 4 (rarely 5) much smaller but some- 
what similar spines; beginning about the fifth or sixth plate one of the scalehke 
spinelets near the base of the uppermost of this series becomes enlarged and a 
little further out a second one also, so that there is a trio of flat spines at the outer 
aboral corner of the plate; distally the aboral spinelets disappear, the aboral 
margin near the middle of the arm having 2, then 1 and then none of them; at the 
tip of the arm there are simply 2 reduced but relatively large spines on the aboral 
outer corner of plate. 

Adambulacral armature consisting of about ten or a dozen spines, 2 mm. long 
(more or less), flattened and widened at the tip to a greater or less degree; one is 
somewhat curved and set edgewise on the furrow margin ; while a little back of it 
are 2 others, one on each side; back of them and more widely separated are 2 
others with conspicuously widened tips; then follow, on the surface of the plate 



70 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

2 or 3 more with very wide tips and behind them, several much smaller and less 
conspicuous spines. Oral plates covered with about 4 series of thick blunt spines, 
of which the innermost are longest and largest; the marginal spines are much 
more slender than those on the median crests. 

Color in life extraordinarily brilUant for an Astropecten; the lower surface, 
marginal spines and most of the superomarginal plates are pure white ; 6-9 supero- 
marginals, in each series, bright rose-red in sharp contrast; these red plates are 
arranged in three (or only two) well separated groups on each side of each arm, 
the distalmost consisting of a single plate or sometimes two. Paxillar surface of 
arms bright brownish-orange, with irregular groups of blackish spots in the inter- 
radii and 3 or 4 smaller ones scattered along the arms. The dried specimen is a 
uniform light brown with marginal spines and most superomarginal plates still 
lighter; in each interradius is a definite group of spots of a distinctly purple shade. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 3123, from Lagrange Bay, northwestern Australia, 
in about 5 fms. June 10, 1932. 

This extraordinary sea-star was brought up by our diver, Mr. Norman 
AMiitworth, who reported that he found it lying on the bottom beside a sponge. 
Later, between Lagrange Bay and Broome we dredged a smaller specimen, with 
R = 46 mm., showing essentially the same coloration. A few days later a third 
specimen was secured in an extraordinary manner. A Japanese diver whom we 
knew as "Wan" brought up a fine large specimen of Stellasler princeps, a sea-star 
of sufficient rarity to make additional specimens very welcome. Turning it over 
to look at the handsome purple and white oral surface, we were amazed to find 
an Astropecten of this species half-enclosed in the Stellaster's stomach! It was 
carefully rescued from its living death but the disk and basal part of the arms 
were already partially digested and only the distal portion of three rays were 
uninjured. This individual had R = 55 mm. more or less and the arms are narrow 
as in the small paratype, but this may be due to the unusual way in which it 
met its death'. No other specimens were found. 

Although there can be little doubt that this very unusual Astropecten be- 
longs to the Monacanthus-group of Doderlein, it is easily distinguished from both 
granulatus and rnonacanthus by the armature of the inferomarginal plates, par- 
ticularly the flat, truncate marginal spines, and the aboral series of spines which 
those plates carry. In life of course, this species can never be confused with any 
other. 

' That it was dead when found by the Stellaster is a possibihty not to be ignored but its appearance 
when secured makes this seem unlikely. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 71 



LUIDIIDAE 

LUIDIA AUSTRALLAE 
DoDERLEiN, 1920. "Siboga" Ast.: Luidia, p. 266. 

While the distinction between this species and the following seems rather 
trivial yet since it is recognizable, apparently constant and associated with 
different geographical areas, it may properly be recognized in the name. 

The material at hand consists of 7 typical specimens and an arm fragment, 
and 2 rather small specimens which seem to represent a color variety. Typical 
australiae is deep yellow or buff, more or less blotched and variegated with 
dull, dark green. Large specimens sometimes have the whole or nearly all of the 
dorsal surface dark. Mr. Livingstone has written me of a specimen he secured 
at Lord Howe Island during the Christmas hohdays, 1932, with R = 245 mm. 
"Abactinal surface wholly black, actinal surface and spines cream-coloured." 
It "has a trace of very dark green." "It is closer to a black than to a green to my 
mind but may be it could be called blackish green." This is of course a very large 
and doubtless old specimen. The one which we took at Lord Howe in April, 
1932, is not quite so large and the buff and dark shades are about equal in extent. 
The specimens from the \'icinity of Fremantle have the dark and hght shades 
very much mixed but the dark predominates and has a distinct greenish tinge. 
All of the specimens of australiae at hand have 7 arms but usually one (or more) 
of them is regenerating. There is considerable diversity in the relative size of 
disk and arms, the ratio ranging from R = 6r to R = 8r. 

While dredging near Garden Island, off Fremantle July 22, 1932, we took two 
small Luidias which were so different in color from any australiae I have seen that 
I suspected they might represent an undescribed species but comparison with 
other Luidias fails to show any character except color by which they can be dis- 
tinguished from small australiae. In life, the ground color was very hght, almost 
cream-color while the blotches and markings of the upper surface were chocolate- 
brown, with no hint of green. The dry specimens after three years are little 
changed save that the brown has faded to some extent. For convenience, they 
may be designated as "forma brunnea." Each has 7 arms; in one R = 82 mm., in 
the other R = 110 mm. 

A single arm of a small Luidia, showing the characteristic large paxillee near 
the tip which distinguish australiae is in the collection; it was taken at Hamehn 



72 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Bay, near Augusta, W. A., January 20, 1930 by Professor E. W. Bennett, and 
measures 80 mm. long by 12 mm. wide at base. 

Aside from this fragment and the 2 specimens of "brunnea" just described, 
the material of australiae at hand is as follows : 

Lord Howe Island. Southeast end of lagoon beach, buried in sand, its position in- 
dicated by the radiate depression, Aprils, 1932. 1 large adult. 
Western Australia : Between Fremantle and Garden Island, 2-3 fms., October 14, 

1929. 2 small adults. 
Rottnest Island, Thompsons Bay. 1 small adult. Loaned by 

the Western Australian Museum. 
Rottnest Island, 1934. Captain Beresford E. Bardwell leg. 
et don. 2 small adults. 



LUIDIA maculata 
MiJLLER and Troschel, 1842. Syst. Ast., p. 77. 

It was a great surprise to discover that the Luidias taken at Broome were 
obviously different from those taken on the eastern and western coasts of Aus- 
traUa. Of course, the most obvious difference is that they have S arms, whereas 
all the other Austrahan specimens available have but 7. It was then noted that 
they lack the large paxillae near the tips of the arms, so characteristic of aus- 
traliae, and it thus seemed probable that they should be referred to the Asiatic 
species and not to the Australian. Comparison with specimens from Hong Kong 
and Ceylon showed this to be the case. 

Of the 6 specimens at hand, 1 was taken Sept. 14, 1929 in 7-8 fms. of water, 
on the south side of Roebuck Bay. Although brought up by a diver and handled 
with great care it slowly but persistently broke off all Init one of its arms. In 
life R = 225 mm. and the following color notes were taken: "Cream color with 
most of disk light gray; arms marked with light bluish gray and dark greenish- 
gray ; more or less of a line of ochre-yellow paxilla; along middle of ray and also on 
disk. Each pedicel white with a longitudinal orange-stripe on outer side." After 
eight years the dry specimen shows but very little change, except of course that 
the pedicels are completely dried up. 

The other 5 specimens were taken in 1932, 2 near Broome, the other 3 on 
June 17, in Beagle Bay, by our Japanese diver, Wan. The largest specimen with 
R = 230 mm. was wrecked in the dredge but the second Broome specimen is in 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 73 

perfect condition, showing form and color as well as the day it was taken. Of the 
Beagle Bay specimens 2 were "light gray irregularly mottled with yellow-brown 
along midradial hne, and with blackish laterally and terminally; marginal spines 
and lower surface white. Feet pale yellow with an orange longitudinal stripe." 
The third specimen was "uniformly deep slate gray above." Six of the arnxs were 
regenerating and those youthful tips were dark brown. In the dry specimen the 
contrast between these regenerating portions and the rest of the animal is still 
very marked. Whether the orange stripe on the pedicels is always present in 
maculata my notes fail to make certain. Even more regrettable is my failure to 
note whether it is present or wanting in australiae. 



LUIDIA HEXACTIS' Sp. UOV. 

Plate 17, fig. 1 

Rays 6. R = at least 140 mm. ; r = 15 mm. ; br = 15 mm. R = rather more than 
9r or br. Disk relatively small and arms slender. Paxillse in 5 longitudinal series 
of close set squares with sides 1.5 mm. long, on each side of ray; between these 
lateral series are 5 somewhat irregular series of more polygonal and smaller pax- 
illae; near the tips of the arms, the paxillse are still smaller and less regularly ar- 
ranged ; the paxillfe are closely covered with very fine granules none of which are 
at all spine-like; the arms, which are fairly high at base (8 or 9 mm.) but flattened 
on the upper side, are thus quite smooth. Madreporite just distinguishable close 
to the interradial margin. 

Inferomarginal plates very short and wide; there are about 7 in 10 mm. of 
arm-length while their width is about 5 mm.; the surface is well covered by a 
longitudinal series of 2-6 spines and a large number of very much smaller spines 
or spinelets ; the largest spine is more than 2 mm. long, wide at base but rapidly 
attenuate to an acute tip; it is situated on the outer end of the plate and close to it 
but below is generally a second spine of almost equal size; the remaining spines, 
when present, are well spaced, and on the basal half of the arm, one, often the 
smallest is at the inner end of the plate; the spinelets are very slender and acute 
and most of them are less than a millimeter in length, often much less. 

Adambulacral armature simple, with 2 large furrow spines and 2 on surface 
of plate; outer furrow spine 2-3 mm. long, strongly compressed, straight, tapering 
to a blunt point; inner spine not so long, curved, markedly acute; the 2 spines on 

' ej =six + a.KTts =ray, in obvious reference to the number of rays. 



74 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

surface of plate are situated side by side, 2 mm. long (or less), tapering to a slender 
point ; back of them is a large pedicellaria, often accompanied by a much smaller 
one; occasionally there are 3 pedicellariae on a plate; pedicellariae made up of two 
long, slender jaws with 1 or 2 or several slender, sharp spinelets at their base. 
Actinolateral plates only 2 on each side, but each carries a very large pedicellaria. 
Oral plates with 7-9 long marginal spines, 5-7 long spines on the crest, and a few 
small spines or pedicellariae on the inner end; usually 2 pedicellariae composed 
of 4 or more short spinelets on the side of each oral plate, deep in the mouth. 

Color of oral surface very light, probably white or cream-colored in life; 
dorsal surface Ught buff blotched and marked with large irregular areas of dull, 
dark greenish-gray. Apparently the color in life was much the same as, and very 
similar to that of L. maculata. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3134, collected "on a sandbank near Montgomery 
Reef, more or less in Collier Bay, between Cockatoo and Augustus Islands," 
northwestern AustraUa, by Captain Beresford E. Bardwell, in October, 1933. 
There is with it a note by the collector "This was half dead and badly broken 
when discovered." 

This is a very well marked species for while it seems to belong to Doderlein's 
Quinaria-group, it is very unlike the only 6-armed species, penangensis, in its 
paxillse and dorsal surface, and is not near any of the 5-armed species. It seems 
to be nearest to forficif era but aside from the difference in the number of arms, the 
difference in the armature of inferomarginal and adambulacral plates is conclu- 
sive. The possibility that hexactis is simply a 6-rayed maculata is debarred by the 
differences in the pedicellariae and in the armature of the inferomarginal plates. 



ARCHASTERIDAE 

Archaster typicus 

MiJLLER and Troschel, 1840. Monatsb. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., p. 104. 

There are six good specimens at hand of this well-known East Indian sea- 
star. They were given me by Mr. Melbourne Ward who collected them at Linde- 
man Island, on the Barrier Reef, near Port Mackay, Queensland. This is by far 
the most southern station at which the species has been taken. The present speci- 
mens are of moderate size (R = 60 mm., more or less) and closely resemble indi- 
viduals of similar size from the Caroline Islands. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 75 

Archaster laevis^ sp. nov. 
Plate 17, fig. 2 

R = 105 mm. ; r = 13 mm. ; br = 14 mm. ; hence R = about 8r or br. In life and 
in the better-preserved specimens, the disk and arms are high (in the holotype, 
10 mm.) and the aboral surface is perfectly flat except beyond the middle of the 
arms where it gradually decUnes to the terminal plate. Paxillae very close set, 
the tops sharply hexagonal, excepting some large ones on disk, particularly near 
madreporite, and a series of small circular ones adjoining the superomarginal 
plates on each side of each arm; largest paxillae of disk each have 40 or more, 
angular, truncate, but often sUghtly convex, granules on the surface and about 
30 similar ones around the margin; there is no essential difference between the 
marginal and the surface granules; near the disk margin and on the arms, the 
paxillae are much smaller ; on each arm is a median series which is conspicuous the 
paxillae-tops are so short and wide, less than a milhmeter long and fully 2 mm. 
wide; there are about 25 granules on such a top; on each side of the median series 
are five longitudinal series of hexagonal paxillae and a sixth less regular series of 
smaller, nearly circular ones bearing only 6-10 granules; the hexagonal paxillae 
carry about 10-15 (or more) granules of which only 1-6 are central, the others 
marginal. No pedicellariae have been detected. 

Superomarginal plates about 53 in each series, placed vertically along the 
sides of the rays except near the tip where they encroach more and more on the 
upper surface, the distalmost pair sometimes coming in contact in the midline 
at the base of the moderately large terminal plate; at the base of the arms, the 
superomarginal plates are 6 mm. high and 2 mm. wide (i.e. long.) ; there are no 
spines on the superomarginal plates but they and the terminal plates are closely 
covered with coarse granules Uke those borne on the paxillae of the distal part of 
the arm. Madreporite large, 4 mm. in diameter, and 5 mm. from the disk margin. 

Inferomarginal plates of about the same number as the superomarginals, 
but their width (corresponding to height of superomarginals) is considerably less, 
those at base of arm being about 5 nmi. wide; plates completely covered with 
wide, flat spinelets, having rounded tips; on outer margin of plate are 2 short 
(less than 2 mm.), fiat, wide, round-tipped spines, which project very httle from 
the side of ray but are somewhat appressed to it (on some plates, particularly at 
tip of arm, only one spine is present) ; below these 2 inferomarginal spines are 

1 faem= smooth, in reference to the close-set and even paxillse, which give a notably smooth dorsal 
surface. 



76 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

several (1-4) somewhat similar but smaller spines which intergrade with the 
spinelets covering the plate. 

Adambulacral plates with an armature of 6-8 (usually 7) spines, a rather 
slender but blunt furrow spine, 2 similar but somewhat stouter marginal spines 
and 2 pairs of surface spines ; tlie inner pair is blunt but not much flattened, the 
outer is larger and quite flat and the adoral is distinctly the largest spine on the 
plate. Oral plates conspicuous with about 9 moderately stout blunt spines on the 
furrow margin, about 4 on the posterior margin and a double series on the 
crest with 8-10 similar but shorter spines. 

Color in hfe: "Oral surface, inferomarginal spines and madreporite cream 
white ; upper surface chiefly yellow-brown variegated with light fawn-gray which 
becomes almost cream- white near tips of rays; an indistinct dull blue-gray line 
1.5 mm. wide along the middle of each arm, extending onto disk but not clear to 
center." The dried specimeas have lost their distinctive and handsome colora- 
tion; and are now a dull hght yellow brown very indefinitely variegated with 
darker; in some cases the darker shade predominates; in a particularly well- 
preserved dry specimen the light yellowish brown shade includes most of the sea- 
star but the margins of the rays near the l)ase and scattered groups of supero- 
marginal plates are a dull reddish with a hint of purple; these reddish areas are 
ill-defined and merge into the yellow-brown ground color. Specimens dredged 
near Fremantle showed essentially the same coloration as those from Lagrange 
Bay but the tints were slightly different; the fawn-gray was almost a dull light 
purple. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3135, from the vicinity of Broome, W. A., 5-8 fms. 

That this handsome Archaster is nearly related to A . angulatus admits of no 
doubt, but the smooth tesselated aboral surface caused by the crowded, truncate 
prismatic granules of the paxilla^ gives it a very characteristic appearance quite 
unlike that of any specimens of angulatus available for comparison. It is possible 
however that carefully preserved specimens of angulatus would more nearly re- 
semble laevis and that the latter is only an extreme form of the older species. 
Whether there are color differences of importance remains to be determined as no 
information as to the color of angulatus is available. 

This fine sea-star is not uncommon in shallow water, on the sandy coast of 
northwestern Australia but we did not find it near low tide mark or in tide-pools. 
It was a surprise to meet with it again near Fremantle, while dredging between 
that port and Rottnest Island, but no differences worthy of note have been 
detected between the specimens taken in these widely separated areas. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 77 

The form of dry specimens, especially large ones, is apt to undergo con- 
siderable change in the process of preservation; the paxillar field of the rays be- 
comes much narrower and sinLs below the level of the superomarginals especially 
in the midline, and the upper ends of the superomarginals themselves are drawn 
inward by this shrinking so that those plates no longer form a vertical wall at 
sides of the rays but he rather considerably on their aboral surface. There is 
httle diversity of form among U^^ng specimens but young ones of course have the 
rays relatively shorter; thus the smallest specimen at hand, with R = 23 mm. has 
r and br about 5 mm. so that R is only equal to 4.5 r or br. In adults there is 
some difference in the slenderness of the arms; thus the largest indi\adual, with 
R= 122 mm. has br= 18-20 mm. so that R is little more than 6 br, but the great 
majority have R in excess of 7 br. 

The 26 specimens at hand are from the following places : 
Western AustraUa: Vicinity of Lagrange Bay, 5-7, fms., on bottom of sand and 

shells, September 11, 1929. 2 specimens. 
Vicinity of Roebuck Bay and southwestward 5-8 fms. 

June, 1932. 20 specimens, adult and young. 
Between Fremantle and Rottnest Island, 8-10 fms. October 
19, 1929. 4 specimens. 



GONIASTERIDAE 

Nectria multispina 
H. L. Clark, 1928. Rec. S. Austr. Mus., 3, p. 375. 

It was a real disappointment not to see Nectria alive or even freshly killed, 
but all of the sea-stars of that genus in the present collection were given to me by 
Professor E. W. Bennett. One of them is an indubitable specimen of this South 
Austrahan species, with R fully 75 mm. It is in fairly good condition but is some- 
what waterworn. It is "one of many" found in "drift on the sand beach at 
Middleton Beach," near Albany, W. A., "about Christmas, 1929." The color 
when collected was "(1) orange (2) red"; presumably this means that the lower 
surface was orange and the upper red; there is no trace of these colors now. It 
is interesting to learn that the range of this well-marked species extends so far 
west as Albany. 



78 memoik: museum of comparative zoology 

Nectria ocellata 
Perkier, 1876. Arch. Zool. Exp., 5, p. 4. 

Professor Bennett has also given me 2 specimens of this Nectria, which 
were taken by Mr. D. L. Serventy, "in a single haul of otter-trawl (trawler 
"Bonthorpe") in 90 fms., 33° 15' S x 126° 22' 15" E, on February 23, 1930." 
This locality is in the western end of the Great Bight and is the fui'thest west I 
beheve that this species has been taken. In life these two specimens are recorded 
by Mr. Serventy as "chestnut-orange" but they are now so completely bleached 
as to be a dirty white. One has R = 70 mm., r = 22 mm. and br = 24 mm., so R is 
about 3 r or br. In the smaller specimen, R = 54 mm., r = 20 and br= 17, so R = 
3br but not quite 3r. 

TOSIA AURATA 
Gray, 1847. Proc. Zool. Soc. London p. SO. 

The only s])ecimens of this characteristic AustraUan sea-star in the present 
collection are 2 dredged in Ralph Bay, Hobart Harbor, Tasmania, in 2-3 fms., 
November 15, 1929. In Ufe the coloration was much hke that of the more com- 
mon australis; variegated with fawn color and brown above, grayish fawn and 
brown below; they are now "museum color." The larger has R = 49 mm., the 
smaller, 43 mm.; R = 1.5r in both. 

ToSIA AUSTRALIS 
Gray, 1840. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1), 6, p. 281. 

The only specimen at hand of this conunon sea-star which is a typical aus- 
tralis was dredged on the west side of Hobart Harbor, Tasmania, in 2-3 fms., 
Nov. 15, 1929. It is small with R only 19 mm. and r about 13. In hfe the color 
was deep brown above, variegated with fawn color, and cream-color below vari- 
egated with brown; these shades are all quite lost now. 

All of the remaining Tosias are from Western Australia, 6 from the vicinity 
of Fremantle and 3 from Bunbury and all represent the form astrologorum; those 
from Bunbury are somewhat nearer typical australis. These were dredged in 5-8 
fms., in Koombana Bay, October 26, 1929; they were "variegated light and dark 
brown," and are all rather small. The largest individual secured anywhere was 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 79 

found under a stone at Point Peron and was quite different in color from the 
others ; it was variegated with dark and Ught graj^, the Ught shade with a bluish 
tint; it has R = 31 mm., r = 20 mm.; 9 of the distalmost superomarginals are very 
large but the tenth is replaced by 3 small plates. The 5 remaining specimens were 
found on the wharf-piles of an old jetty at Garden Island. It was a great surprise 
to me to find so rigid and inert a sea-star active enough to climb a wharf pile and 
able to chng closely to its surface. It was a severe blow to the idea conceived 
a priori that Tosias must Uve lying flat on the bottom! 

In the National Museum at Melbourne there is a remarkable Tosia australis 
of the typical sort which is perfectly tetramerous with only 24 superomarginal 
plates. 

Pentagonaster dxtbeni 
Gray, 1847. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 79. 

Among the rocks at Point Peron, W. A., in October, 1929, four specimens of a 
Pentagonaster were taken wliich may properly be referred to this species, since 
Gray gives Western Australia as the type locaUty for diibeni. It is interesting to 
note however that all of these specimens from Point Peron have the arm-tips 
wide and rounded and the terminal superomarginal on each side enlarged and 
swollen in varying degrees, whereas Gray's figure (1866, pi. 3, fig. 2) shows httle 
indication of these features. On the other hand a specimen from South AustraUa 
in the M. C. Z. is almost exactly Uke Gray's figure while specimens from Port 
Jackson are intermediate some approaching the Point Peron specimeas rather 
closely. It is evident that in this species as in the genotype, P. pulchellus from 
New Zealand, there is a tendency towards the development of two extremes — 
one having relatively unenlarged superomarginals distally, while in the other the 
distal superomarginals are greatly enlarged and swollen. As no correlation has 
yet been discovered between these extremes and their habitat or distribution 
varietal names are hardly worthwhile, although they would be as valid as the 
form "astrologoruni" of Tosia australis, which represents a similar tendency to 
enlargement, or at least swelHng, of superomarginal plates. 

The specimens of diibeni from Point Peron range in size from R = 26 mm. to 
R = 38 mm.; in all r is about equal to one half R. The largest has but 32 supero- 
marginals, as there are 4 superomarginals on only 2 rays and on those rays only 
on one side. In a second specimen there are 44 superomarginals; on only one side 
of one ray is the number as small as 3; on the other side of that ray are 6 supero- 



80 memoie: museum of comparative zoology 

marginals but three are abnormally small and 2 are irregularly placed; on 
another ray, a large superomarginal is crowded out of the left-hand series onto 
the upper surface of the arm and separates the terminal plate from the aboral 
plates of the ray ; this specimen shows less conspicuous abnormalities on the oral 
surface. The two remaining specimens are smaller and both have the normal 
number of 40 superomarginals. 

This is a very pretty sea-star in life as the upper surface is bright colored and 
the separate aboral plates are outlined in fawn-color, cream-color or white. Two 
of the Port Peron specimens were yellow-orange, one was bright vermilion red 
and one, the largest, was a deeper red. They were found under rocks, or in plain 
sight, on the sides of rocks. 



GONIODISCASTER AUSTRALIAE 

Plate 8, fig. 2 
ToRTONESE, 1935. Boll. Mus. Univ. Torino, 45, Series 3, no. GO, p. 3. 

This is one of the most beautiful of the many fine sea-stars of northwestern 
Australia and is not at all uncommon in the vicinity of Broome, but it was not 
found in less than 5 fms. of water. Owing to its striking coloration it is often 
brought up by the divers of the pearling fleet. Of the 16 at hand, the smallest has 
R = 33 mm., r = 10 and br=10, therefore R = 3.3r or br; the largest has R = 92 
mm., r = 35 and br = 34, so that R = 2.6r or br. But the rays are sometimes much 
more slender; in a specimen with R = 67 mm., R = 3.3r and 3.75br. Obviously, 
there is more or less diversity in form but this is not so striking as the difference 
in color shown by individuals quite similar in size and form. Most commonly, 
the characteristic color is a deep rose-pink, particularly on the marginal plates ; 
usually in adult specimens the abactinal surface develops more or less green pig- 
ment; in some individuals however this pigment is gray and not at all green and 
may completely mask the pink. A specimen taken June 14, 1932, north of Broome 
is described in my field notes thus: "a lovely gray with black tips to arms and an 
indefinite blackish area at center of disk ; hints of green in interradial areas. No 
pink. Lower surface hght cream. Dried pink!" The colors disappear rapidly 
after drying, the green and gray being particularly evanescent; the pink fingers 
moi'e or less for weeks and months; some specimens still show, after five years, dis- 
tinct indications of it on the marginal plates and especially at the arm tips. 

While this species is undoubtedly near to scaber (Mobius), I think Tortonese 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 81 

is correct in considering it distinct. Even those specimens with the shortest, 
widest arms have them longer and narrower than in scaber and the supero- 
marginals are definitelj- more numerous. There is considerable individual 
diversity in the numi^er of pedicellariae present. 

Curiously enough Tortonese makes no reference to the following species 
{coppingeri) which is undoubtedly the nearest relative of australiae. Probably he 
considered Bell's species identical with forficulatus Perrier, as does Doderlein 
(1935), an opinion with which I cannot agree, as shown below. 

It is unfortunate that Doderlein (1935) introduces a new name, australis, for 
a Goniodiscaster, allied to porosus Koehler, which he calls a "nov. forma" and 
diagnoses in 5 words! It is very different from australiae Tortonese. The latter 
name was pubhshed in July, Dciderlein's in October, but as they are differently 
spelled both can be used if it is necessary. 

Goniodiscaster coppingeri 

Pentagonasier coppingeri Bell, 1884. "Alert" Rep., p. 128. 
Goniodiscaster coppingeri H. L. Clark, 1909. Bull. M. C. Z., 52, p. 110. 

Mr. Melbourne Ward dredged near Lindeman Island, Great Barrier Reef, 
July-September, 1934, 2 large individuals of this apparently rare sea-star, which 
he has kindly sent to me. In them R = 80-85 imn., r = 26-27 mm.; hence R = 3r; 
br is not equal to r. These specimens resemble so closely Bell's description, save 
in one respect, that I have no doubt of their identity, especially since one of his 
specimens came from Port Curtis. They are exactly like the specimen from Mt. 
Adolphus Island, Torres Strait, figured in my Torres Strait Report (1921). The 
one particular in which these specimens differ from Bell's description is in the 
minor radius. Bell says that in his larger specimen r = 46 mm. and br = 24 mm. 
If that were correct, R = 2r, which would make the form of his specimens quite out 
of keeping with his description. Moreover he says that in the smaller specimen 
R = 82, r = 26 mm. Now one of the specimens at hand is exactly this size and br 
also is 26 mm. Thus r and br are equal which is approximately true in very many 
sea-stars. There seems no doubt that the figures 46 and 24 are both typographical 
errors or shps of the pen. Probably each should be somewhere between 28 and 32, 
for the long narrow arms, R 3-3. 5r, is a striking feature of the species.^ 

1 Since the above was written Mr. Dilwyn John of the British Museum has very kindly remeasured Bell's 
specimens. He confirms the measurements of the smaller but states that in the larger, r 33 mm. not 46. 
He also enclosed a sketch showing where on the arm "br = 24 mm.," which indicates that according to 
my way of measuring br = 30 mm. or more, as would be expected. 



82 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Doderlein (1935) inclines to believe that coppingeri is a synonym of for- 
ficulatus Perrier. To this I cannot agree. Koehler (1910) has given figures and a 
detailed description of Perrier's species and one of the largest of Koehler's 
specimens is at hand (M. C. Z., No. 2094). Fisher (1919, p. 325) has discussed 
some of the details of this specimen and doubts if it is a typical /or/lcM^a/ws, but 
this does not matter for the present discassion, since its pecuUarities have nothing 
to do with the main differences between Perrier's and Bell's species. These dif- 
ferences are in the shape of the rays and in the number of superomarginals. 
Bell's species is in these particulars very near the preceding (australiae) and I 
have compared specimens of that species, having R = 33 mm. and 48 mm. respec- 
tively, with the forficulatus mentioned above which has R = 40 mm. (No. 2094) . 
The differences are obvious. The AustraUan specimens have a much smaller disk 
and longer, narrower arms, with narrower, more numeroas superomarginals. 
Thus in the forficulatus with R = 40 mm., the breadth of the arm at base is 
15 mm. (R = 2.66br), and there are 12 superomarginals on each side of each ray 
with a thirteenth indicated. In the Australian specimens, R 3-3. 5br, and there 
are 15 or 16 superomarginals in the smaller specimen, 18 or 19 in the larger. 
The granulation of all the plates in the two Australian species, regardless of size, 
is distinctly less coarse than in forficulatus and the armature of the adambulacral 
plates is made up of shorter and less heavy spines, particularly in the surface 
series. 

There seems no doubt that forficulatus approaches the group of Gonio- 
discasters with, shorter wider arms, such as granuliferus (Gray) and porosus 
(Koehler), while the Australian species belong rather to a group with arms 
approaching in form to those of Paragonaster. The type of the genus, pleyadella 
(Lamarck), is intermediate between the two groups, each of which might be 
treated as a genus if the number of species involved were large enough to make 
such a division convenient. 

As for the differences between coppingeri and australiae, they are obvious 
enough when specimens are side by side. The west coast species has a much 
rougher dorsal surface with many coarse granules and small pointed tubercles 
on the aboral plates and even on the superomarginal plates. These are not very 
conspicuous in Tortonese's published figure but are well shown in liis original 
photograph, of which he sent a copy to Fisher who has kindly given it to me. 
In most well preserved specimens, the rough, almost "prickly" upper surface 
contrasts markedly with the almost smoothly granular surface of coppingeri; in 
one of the specimens of the latter from Lindeman Island, a few low tubercles 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 83 

are present on many superomarginals but they are not nearly so numerous or 
noticeable as in australiae. Orally the two species are so much alike it is doubtful 
if a coastant difference can be found. The specimens of coppingeri at hand 
indicate that the color in life was darker than that of australiae, an almost brick 
red. Information on this point is greatly to be desired. 



GONIODISCASTER FORAMINATUS 

Goniodiscus foraminatus Doderlein, 1916. Zool. Jahrb. : Syst., 40, p. 41.5. 
Goniodiscaster foraminatus Doderlein, 1935. "Siboga" Ast. : Oreasteridae, p. 79. 

An interesting young Goniodiscaster loaned by the museum at Perth (No. 
9018) may well be referred for the present to this species, the type-locality for 
which is Shark Bay. In this specimen R = 35 mm. while r and br are approxi- 
mately haK as much. The present "museum-color" is very Ught, cream-color 
orally and pale yellowish-brown above. The resemblance to Doderlein's figm'es 
is very close. In only one particular does this young individual fail to quaUfy for 
the Shark Bay species; the pedicellariae are not at all numerous or conspicuous. 
Since this may be either a youthful character or an individual pecuUarity, we are 
justified in considering tliis specimen a young foraminatus. It was collected by 
Mr. K. Barker at Garden Island, off Fremantle, in 1915. 

Miiller and Troschel's species G. seriatus, with which Doderlein considers 
Gray's Pentaceros granulosus synonymous, comes from southwestern AustraUa 
but the Garden Island specimen is quite certainly not a young example of that 
species. The form and proportions and the granulation of the aboral plates are 
very different from those characters in seriatus and these differences can hardly 
be associated with the youthfulness of the specimen. 



Goniodiscaster integer 
Livingstone, 1931. Rec. Austr. Mus., 18, p. 135. 

Five little sea-stars taken at Lindeman Island, Barrier Reef, in 1934 and 
sent to me by Mr. Melbourne Ward, apparently represent this species but I am 
not satisfied as to whether it is really distinct from pleyadella. However until the 
contrary is shown, the name integer may conveniently be used for the form occur- 
ring on the eastern coast of Queensland, since adults are easily distinguished. 
A typical adult is readily told from an adult pleyadella by the tapering rays, 



84 memoie: museum of comparative zoology 

smaller, less sunken papular areas, and more irregular, coarse granulation. But 
young individuals of pleyadella to a size of R = 32 mm. bear little resemblance to 
the adults, as Doderlein's (1896) figures show, and apparently the two species, if 
species they be, cannot be certainly distinguished from each other until R = 40-50 
mm. 

The present specimens have R = 6, 10, 15, 26 and 31 mm. respectively. The 

3 largest show the 5 primary radial tubercles plainly but they are most conspicu- 
ous in the individual with R = 26 mm. This specimen is also much the lightest 
colored, a brownish cream-color; the others are Ught brown. There is nothing of 
importance to add to Livingstone's careful description. 

GONIODISCASTER ACANTHODES' Sp. nOV. 

Plate 5, fig. 2 

Rays 5. R = 73 mm., r = 37 mm., br = 35 mm. ; R = 2r or 2br. Aboral surface 
sUghtly arched, covered with numerous plates of moderate or small size, hidden 
by a coat of granules and pedicellariae ; most of the plates also bear one or more 
rounded tubercles of diverse sizes, the largest more than a miUimeter in diameter 
and fully as high; on each ray there are 3 parallel series of these tuberculated 
plates, the median being shut off from the terminal plate by the meeting of supero- 
marginals, while the lateral series drop out somewhat sooner. Pedicellariae 
fairly numerous, square-jawed, longer than wide or high, very unevenly dis- 
tributed among the granules. Granules of very unequal size, more or less rounded. 
Papulae few and small on the disk becoming much more numerous and larger on 
the rays where, in groups of 4-7, they form 3 (or 5) (5 or 7 basally) ill-defined 
series, not sharply distinguished from each other. 

Superomarginal plates 11 (or 12) on each side of each ray; the interradial 
pair lie nearly flat on aboral surface of disk and measure about 10 mm. wide by 

4 mm. long but the inner end is clearly longer than the outer. Distally the plates 
are longer and not so wide, and he more on the side of the ray; the tenth is only 
7 mm. wide while its outer side is 5 mm. long and 3 mm. high. The plates are 
covered with a very close smooth coat of granules, smallest on the lateral margins 
and coarsest at the inner end; in addition, the plates carry 1-12 rounded tubercles 
of very diverse sizes, hke those on the aboral plates, irregularly distributed but 
chiefly near the inner end. Terminal plate relatively small, covered by granules 
like those of the superomarginals. 

' i.Kav6udris =Jull oj tliortts, in reference to the numerous tubercles on the aboral surface. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 85 

Oral surface flat, the actinal intermediate areas rather large, covered by a 
closely matched pavement of 50 or more polygonal plates, 2-5 mm. in diameter; 
the granules and pedicellariae covering these plates are much longer and less 
crowded than those of the upper surface ; the innermost series of actinal plates 
extends out to the seventh inferomarginal but the adjoining series only reaches 
the fifth. Inferomarginal plates correspond in number and position (not exactly) 
with the superomarginals, but there is an additional very small inferomarginal 
(or usually 2 of them) just below the terminal plate where the tip of the ray turns 
up; there is no superomarginal to correspond with these; granular coat of infero- 
marginals close and even but coarser than that of the upper series — not so 
coarse however as that of the actinal intermediate plates; a few small tubercles 
may be found on one or more of the distalmost inferomarginals. 

Adambulacral armature in three distinct series; innermost of 5 (4-6) 
strongly compressed spines (2 mm. long, more or less) with rounded tips, the 
middle ones longest, the outermost very small; the second series consists of 2 (or 
distally only 1) very broad, stout spines (.75-1.50 mm. wide) with truncate (or 
rounded) tips; the outermost series consists of 2 or 3 short, thick spinelets, not 
so high or so big as those of the second series; this outermost series tends to be 
irregular in its distribution and may be lacking on some plates. Pedicellariae, with 
jaws much longer than wide, occur on many adambulacral plates, often being 
placed on the adoral margin between the first and second series of spinelets. Oral 
plates with a heavy armature; about 10 very stout prismatic or squarish spines 
with rounded tips crowd each margin; back of them is a second series of 6, even 
stouter, but shorter and less prismatic spines; on the inner crest of each plate is a 
series of 4 or 5 much smaller, very short spines. 

Color in Ufe very striking; marginal plates, tubercles and coarsest granules 
bright brick-red, the rest of the aboral surface bluish-gray; lower surface yellow- 
ish. All the colors disappear rapidly in preserved material. The dry holotype 
is a dull reddish-brown above, a Hghter and less reddish color below; the rays are 
Ughter than the disk aborally. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3154, dredged southwest of Broome, in 7-8 fras., 
June, 1932. 

The selection of a holotype has been a difficult matter owing to the great 
diversity in the development of tubercles and spinelets on the aboral surface. 
Orally there is individual difference in details, particularly in the size, propor- 
tions and number of the spines in the outermost adambulacral series, but no 
essential modifications have been noted. The differences aborally may be 



86 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

grouped under four heads. 1. Tubercles on superomarginal plates: these, so evi- 
dent in the holotype, are lacking in most specimens, the superomarginals being as 
smoothly coated as can be; only 3 specimens altogether have these tubercles. 
2. Tubercles on aboral plates: the diversity in these is surprising and does not 
seem to be correlated in any way with size; they are largest and most spherical 
in the holotype ; in a somewhat smaller specimen they are nearlj^ as large but are 
conical and more numerous and stand out with great distinctness from the gran- 
ules which cover the plates; in a third specimen, they are somewhat conical but 
on most plates there is only one or one is conspicuously bigger than the others; 
in a fourth specimen, they are small but numerous, many plates having 10-15 
nearly spherical tubercles in a not very compact group; other specimens have 
very few tubercles and these confined to the plates of the disk and the carinal 
plates at the base of the rays; the smallest specimen (R = 37 mm.) has very few 
tubercles and a specimen with R = 42 mm. has none at all on either aboral plates 
or superomarginals. 3. In about half the specimens, a coaspicuous tubercle notice- 
ably larger than its fellows Ls found on the large carinal plate at the base of each 
ray; in no specimen are these symmetrically developed; usually they are evident 
only at the base of three or four rays; in one case, a specimen with R = 47 mm., 
all 5 are present but one is accompanied by a second tubercle nearly as large; 
when most conspicuous these tubercles may be 2 nun. high and more than 2 mm. 
in diameter at base ; ordinarily they are bluntly conical but they may be rounded, 
or terminate in 2 or 3 sUghtly indicated blunt points. 4. While the holotype and 
many other individuals have the rays wide and rounded at tip, in half a dozen 
individuals the rays are distinctly pointed, and other specimens intergrade be- 
tween the extremes. 

In spite of this interesting diversity, I have no doubt as to the specimens 
representing a single species. All were collected Isj' me and showed the striking 
and characteristic coloration in life which distinguishes this handsome sea-star. 
Owing to the difference in the matter of tubercles on the superomarginal plates, 
some specimens of acanihodes fall into one section of Doderlein's recently pub- 
lished (1935, p. 77) key to the species of Goniodiscaster while others fit into the 
alternative section. The holotype runs down at once to G. scaher Mobius but 
comparison with the figures given shows it is not that species, the number of 
superomarginals and their granular coating being obviously different. Individuals 
of the present species, lacking superomarginal tubercles run down to seriatus 
M. & T. or (jranuliferus Gray, but again comparison with the figures given by 
Doderlein shows that the Australian species is quite distinct. The remarkable 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 87 

constancy in number of superomarginals in acanthodes is worthy of special 
mention; the smallest specimens have 11 or 12, the largest has 11 normally de- 
veloped and a twelfth just forming next to the terminal plate, and other large 
specimens have 12, with exceptionally a thirteenth just forming. 

All of the 24 specimens at hand were dredged on a firm, sandy bottom in 
7-8 fms. of water in the vicinity of Broome, in June, 1932. Oddly enough we did 
not meet with the species in 1929. 



GONIODISCASTER BICOLOR' Sp. nOV. 

Plate 5, fig. 1 

Rays 5. R = 80 mm., r = 40 mm., br = 40 mm. R = 2rorbr. In all details of 
structure like those specimens of the preceding species (acanthodes) which lack 
tubercles on the superomarginal plates; no details of tuberculation, spinulation, 
granulation, form, size or proportion, have been discovered by which the two 
forms can be separated. The granulation in bicolor is a little finer, especially on 
the marginal plates, when specimens of like size are compared side by side, but 
the difference is so slight it cannot be expressed in words or figures so as to help 
m determining to which species an unidentified specimen belongs. No specimens 
of bicolor however have any conspicuous tubercles on the superomarginal plates. 

The coloration of the present form is so strikingly different, and in each 
species the coloration shows so little diversity, that it never even occurred to me 
when collecting them that the two were very closely alUed. Not until the dried 
material was unpacked in Cambridge did I realize how very much alike the two 
forms are. The present species (bicolor) has the disk and bases of the rays uni- 
formly gray with no hint of blue in it; the remainder of the ray is a very fine 
rose-red, quite different from the red of the marginal plates in acanthodes. Madre- 
porite pinkish and a few dots near center of disk deep rose-red. 

This lovely sea-star was much less common than acanthodes and only 7 
specimens were taken. The first were found in Lagrange Bay but others were 
taken nearer to Broome. Unfortunately my field notes do not make clear whether 
the two species were ever taken together. The smallest specimen of bicolor taken 
has R = 58 mm. The largest is the holotype (M. C. Z. No. 3156) whose measure- 
ments are given above. 



' bicolor = having two colors, in reference to the striking coloration. 



88 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

The objections to basing species of sea-star on color are so obvious as to re- 
quire no amplifying, but the present case is so extraordinary I have been at a loss 
as to what the best course might be. To designate one as a color phase of the 
other involves the difficulty of determining which is the original "species" and 
which is the "form"! That one is the male and the other the female of a single 
species is conceivable, and deserves investigation when fresh material is available, 
but no such remarkable case of sexual dimorphism in color is known at present 
among echinoderms, and seems highly improbable in this case. It seems best 
therefore to give each form a specific name, in spite of the difficulty of distinguish- 
ing museum material. As a matter of fact, the dry specimens of bicolor cannot all 
be distinguished beyond question from the corresponding material of acanthodes 
but as a rule the interradial superomarginals are slightly lighter colored than 
those on the arms while this is not the case in acanthodes. 



STYPHLASTER ' gen. nov. 

Allied to Goniodiscaster but readily distinguished by the coarse, polygonal, 
flat-topped granules of diverse sizes which cover the papular areas of the aboral 
surface, contrasting markedly with the large spherical granules which cover the 
convex skeletal plates. Marginal plates notably convex and covered with very 
coarse, spherical granules; the distal inferomarginals extend out laterally beyond 
the superomarginals so that they are conspicuously visible from above and form 
the margin of the distal half of each ray. Adambulacral armature in 4 crowded 
series of very heavy spines, the furrow series stout and similar to the others but 
not so large; outermost series, small, prismatic and truncate. Pedicellariae ap- 
parently wanting. 

Genotype, Styphlaster notabilis sp. nov. 

This is a well-marked genus, for while its relationship to Goniodiscaster is 
obvious enough, the general facies is quite unlike any member of that genus. 
The whole abactinal surface is well-arched, considerably above the marginal 
plates, but the basal part of each ray is conspicuously arched above the inter- 
radial areas as well as above the somewhat flattened central pentagon of the disk 
itself. 

' aTv4>\6s =rough, rugged + acrrrip =a star, in reference to the unusually rough and rugged appearance 
of the aboral surface. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 89 

Styphlaster notabilis' sp. nov. 
Plate 17, figs. 3-4 

Rays 5, short and stout, high at base. R =57 mm., r =28 mm., br = 26 mm. 
R is thus about twice r or br. At tip, each ray is wide and rounded; 10 mm. from 
tip, the width is 18 mm., the height, 8 mm. ; nearer tip the height is a full 9 mm., 
while at base, say 20 mm. from disk-center, it is 15 or 16 mm. At center, the 
disk is 13 or 14 mm. thick. Aboral plates rhombic, polygonal or rounded, rather 
sharply defined, and markedly convex; the center of each plate is occupied by a 
cluster of large spherical granules, the marginal ones smallest; one of the central 
ones is often conspicuously larger than the others and may become a considerable 
tubercle oftentimes higher than thick; on several of the carinal plates, in each 
series, these central tubercles become stout erect spines, but they are erratic in 
distribution and very unequal in size; the largest are about 2 mm. high, 1-1.5 mm. 
in diameter and very blunt. Margins of plates, and papular areas, covered with 
flat-topped polygonal granules of diverse size and form. Madreporite distinctly 
pentagonal, wider than high; width slightly more than 5 mm., lieight slightly 
less; distal angle 11 mm. from superomarginal plates. No pedicellariae have been 
detected. 

Superomarginals only 8 on each side of each ray, rather conspicuously con- 
vex and covered along the margins with flat-topped polygonal granules, and 
elsewhere with large spherical granules, particularly large on the upper end of 
the interradial plates, where they are a millimeter or more in diameter; at the 
tip of the ray the superomarginals he largely on the upper surface of the ray, the 
last pair, which are about as wide as long, being broadly in contact, and separat- 
ing the small terminal plate from the aboral surface of ray. 

Actinal intermediate plates about 42, in three quite distinct series; back of 
the oral plates is a single tetragonal or pentagonal plate and from this there 
extends, adjoining the adambulacrals, a series of 13 rounded pentagonal or 
roughly circular plates, progressively smaller distally, as far as the seventh 
inferomarginal; a second series of 5 or similar plates extends to the third in- 
feromarginal, and a third series of two or three plates (4 or 5 plates altogether) 
fill the remaining space; all of these actinal plates are somewhat convex and 
covered with granules similar to those on the inner end of the inferomarginals; no 
pedicellariae have been detected. 

' 7iota6!7i;s= notable, of obvious significance. 



90 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Inferomarginals 11 on each side of each ray; these plates are much more 
flattened than the superomarginals and nos. 4-7 exceed in size those of the upper 
series; all, except the two distalmost, which are very small, are wider than long; 
the first 5 correspond in position with the superomarginals ; the sixth is less distal, 
the seventh and eighth underlie the seventh of the upper series, while the ninth, 
tenth and eleventh, underlie the big eighth superomarginal; beginning with the 
fourth the inferomarginals are visible from above and the seventh and eighth are 
particularly conspicuous, extending out at least 2 mm. beyond the upper series. 
(This is not due to flattening in the drying of the specimen, which has undergone 
practically no change since it was collected except the slight fading and duUing 
in coloration.) 

Adambulacral armature very stout and crowded; each plate carries four 
series of spines; marginal (or furrow) series consists of 4 subequal spines, 2 mm. 
long, less than a millimeter thick, rounded at tip, the middle pair nearly cylin- 
drical, the others distinctly flattened; second series, 3 very stout, rounded, 
prismatic, spines with rounded tips, the middle spine slightly the largest; third 
series, 3 smaller, more prismatic and more truncate spines, the middle one much 
the largest; outermost series, 3 or 4 (rarely 5) small prismatic, truncate spinelets 
irregularly arranged to cover the rest of the plate. Armature of oral plates, a 
direct continuation of the adambulacral armature; hence each pair of plates is 
densely crowded with about 35 stout spines, corresponding perfectly in arrange- 
ment with those of the adambulacral plates. 

Color of dry specimen, a light reddish-brown with a lavender cast; areas 
between the marginal plates and between those of the aboral surface very light, 
almost cream-color, except on the swollen basal portion of each ray; madreporite 
brownish-yellow; orally the reddish-brown of the marginal plates is evident but 
the interradial areas and the oral and adambulacral armature is more yellowish- 
brown. Aly field notes describe the color in life as follows: "Coloration indis- 
tinctive. Lavender-brown; disk and inferomarginals, which show clearly on 
distal part of arm, are more brown; superomarginals more lavender. Madreporic 
plate, lavender-white. Sutures between all abactinal plates, whitish. Lower 
surface, flesh-color to reddish, the interradial inferomarginals being quite flesh- 
red, though dull. Adambulacral armature, creamy-white." 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3158, taken near entrance to Roebuck Bay in 5-7 
fms., June 27, 1932. This notable sea-star was obviously a novelty and we 
dredged repeatedly at and near the place where we found it in the hope of secur- 
ing more specimens, but in vain — the holotype is still unique. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 91 

ICONASTER LONGIMANUS 

Astrogonium longimanum MoBius, 1859. Neiie Seesterne, p. 7. 
Iconaster longimanvs Sladen, 1889. "Challenger" Ast.. p. 261. 

The occurrence of this remarkable sea-star on the northwestern coast of 
Australia is of great interest. We did not meet with it at any point but the West- 
ern Australian Museum has a fine specimen (No. 2982) taken at Broome. In it 
R = 61 mm. and r=18 mm. It agrees in all essentials with 2 larger specimens 
from "Adolphus Island near Cape York" received many years ago at the M. C. Z. 
from Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Rochester, N. Y. These were col- 
lected by Mr. Henry A. Ward during his visit to Torres Strait and the Great 
Barrier Reef in 1896. In the larger specimen, R= 110 mm., r =28 mm. 

A photograph of a living specimen, taken by Mr. Archie Embury at Nor- 
west Island, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Ues before me, accompanied by the 
followmg notes on the color in life, which deserve pubhcation: "Arms and 
marginal plates Ught orange-brown. Interradial areas reddish-brown. On each 
side of the median series of radial plates, a cream-white line, not reaching to 
center of disk. Lower surface, buffy-yellow." 

Mr. Melbourne Ward has kindly sent me 2 small specimens of Iconaster 
from Lindeman Island, Barrier Reef, which he collected in 1934. They are dry 
and Ught gray-brown in color. One is a symmetrical individual with the 5 rays, 
35 mm. long, while the other is a smaller but perfectly tetramerous specimen, not 
quite symmetrical howe^•er; one ray is only 25 mm. long and has 12 superomar- 
ginals on each side; opposite it, the ray is 27 mm. long and has 13 superomarginals 
on each side ; if the short ray is considered anterior, the ray at its right is also 
27 mm. long but has 12 superomarginals on its anterior side and 13 on the pos- 
terior; the fourth ray is 28 mm. long with 13 superomarginals on each side. 

Anthenoides dubius^ sp. nov. 

Plate 17, figs. 5-6 

Rays 5, slender and flat. R = 18 mm., r = 6 mm., br = 5 mm.; hence R = 3r 
and 3.6 br. Aboral surface covered by a thin, rather sparsely granulated skin; 
granules apparently beneath the skin as in Stellaster; aboral plates obscured 
except on rays where a single median series of squarish or oblong plates extends 

1 dubius = doubtful, in reference to the uncertainty as to whether this probably immature form belongs 
in this genus. 



92 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

nearly to tip; the last 3 superomarginals are in contact and separate these radials 
from the terminal plate; beyond the fifth superomarginals the radial plates are 
very minute. Single small papulae occur at each corner of the radial plates and 
of the first 3 superomarginals. A few low, oblong pedicellariae quite small but 
relatively of large size are scattered on the distal portions of the disk. On each 
basal radial (or the first carinal) plate is a relatively large bluntly rounded 
tubercle, higher than thick. Madreporite relatively large, circular, a little more 
than its own diameter from the interradial superomarginals, in line with, and 
between, two of the radial tubercles. 

Superomarginal plates, 12 on each side of each ray, the terminal 3 com- 
pletely in contact ; excepting the last 2, their length and breadth are nearly equal, 
the height rather less; the twelfth is much shorter than wide while the penulti- 
mate is intermediate between it and the tenth; the first is much wider on the 
inner margin than on the outer ; the skin which covers the aboral plates seems to 
extend over the superomarginals and a few scattered, very minute granules may 
be seen with a lens, but there are no spines or tubercles. Terminal plate relatively 
very large, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide at base, narrower at tip where it carries 4 
horizontally projecting short, thick spinelets, 2 from the upper margin and one 
from each lateral margin. 

Actinal interradial areas with 12-14 well defined plates, arranged thus: a 
very small unpaired triangular plate close to the oral plates; distal to this a pair 
of relatively large, irregularly hexagonal plates, wider than long; next a trans- 
verse series of 3 plates much wider than long, and then 2 plates much wider than 
long, adjoining each of the interradial pair of inferomarginals ; laterally distal 
to these on each side, in contact with either the first or .second inferomarginal or 
both, is a much smaller elongated plate, and beyond this there may be a still more 
minute plate; all of the.se actinal plates carry more or less scattered minute gran- 
ules, and the larger ones also bear an incipient pedicellaria or a conspicuously 
larger granule; the largest plates may carry both a pedicellaria and a granule. 

Inferomarginals correspond exactly in number, size and position with the 
superomarginals; they are quite smooth and carry no spines or spinelets; on the 
distal margin of some of the distal plates, one or two minute granules may be 
detected. Adambulacral plates more than 30 on each side; the proximal ones are 
large, about as long as wide, with a marginal series of 5 subequal, flattened, 
round-tipped spines; distally the plates become very small and the number of 
spines reduced to 2 or, at last, to 1 ; on the surface of the proximal adambulacrals 
there is a series of 3 or 4 minute granules forming a distinct line parallel to the 



CLAEK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 93 

margin, but distally this line is gradually reduced to 2 granules and ultimately to 
1 or none. Oral plates conspicuously swollen; each has a marginal series of 5 or 
6 relatively large spines, the innermost at tip of jaw much the largest, about 
.75 mm. long; there is a single large granule on the surface of each plate, near 
center, and there are much smaller granules present, particularly near the 
median crest of the jaw. 

Color of upper surface pale gray; lower surface lighter but not quite white, 
although under a lens it looks so. My field notes say of the color in hfe of other 
specimens: "light olive gray, variegated with darker, the terminal plate and a 
distinct band on distal half of arm, dark; lower surface pure white except terminal 
plates which are dark. On preservation grays become browns." The paratj^pes 
now range from nearly white to very pale yellowish-brown; there are no mark- 
ings whatever nor do the terminal plates stand out in any contrast. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3160 from Broome. Gift of Captain Beresford E. 
Bardwell, June 1932. 

There are 4 paratypes dredged in June, 1932 near Broome, considerably 
smaller than the holotype but agreeing with it in all essentials. The skin of the 
aboral surface is scarcely indicated so that the outhnes of the plates are easily 
seen, the papulae are more conspicuous, the granules very minute. There are no 
tubercles on the basal radials but in the 2 larger specimens, the coming develop- 
ment of such tubercles is plainly indicated. The terminal plate has only a single 
median spine projecting out from the distal end; probably the presence of 2 in 
the holotype is al)normal. The lower surface is quite free from granules and the 
number of plates is of course more or less considerably reduced. 

In 1929, a very small pentagonal sea-star was dredged in the vicinity of 
Lagrange Bay, in 5-7 fms., which at the time was quite unidentifiable but which 
seems to be almost surely a very young specimen of this new species. It is 6 mm. 
in diameter with R = 3.5, r = 2.5, more or less. There are about 70 aboral plates, 
symmetrically arranged, 15 at center, and 10 or more in each radius; 3 or 4 pairs 
of papulae are also evident in each radius ; there are 2 superomarginals present on 
each side of each ray, the first relatively very large, the second much smaller; a 
relatively huge terminal plate with 3 projecting spines at the tip, completes each 
ray. Orally, 30 inferomarginals, 40 adambulacrals, 5 pairs of orals and 10 
actinal intermediate plates cover the surface ; 2 spines at the tip of each oral plate 
are disproportionately big, and the same is true of the orals themselves, as well 
as the interradial inferomarginals. There are no granules on either surface. 

This is a very perplexing sea-star and as even the holotype is probably still 



94 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

quite young, its affinities are uncertain. It was at first beUeved to be simply the 
Juvenal form of Stellaster incei but in the large series of that species, taken at 
Broome and at Lindeman Island, there are a number of young individuals as 
small as the holotype of the present species and even smaller. Comparison shows 
at once that they are certainly not identical. The young Stellasters have wider 
arms, a more arched disk, more numerous and more granular aboral plates, fewer 
superomarginals, and the inferomarginal spines more or less well developed. 
Orally however the resemblance is extraordinary but Stellaster has many more 
granules and more numerous adambulacral and oral spines. The possibility that 
dubius is the young of Ogmaster or Iconaster is promptly negatived by compari- 
son with specimens of those genera. That it is really an Anthenoides seems im- 
probable owing to the long slender arms but the superficial resemblances between 
these specimens from Broome and young Anthenoides peircei Perrier from Bar- 
bados are so striking, it cannot be considered improper to let dubius remain in the 
same genus with the West Indian sea-star until more nearly adult material is 
available. 

Stellaster incei 
Plate 2, figs. 1-2 
Gray, 1847. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 76. 

This is one of the common sea-stars at Broome and 44 specimens lie before 
me, all but four from 5-8 fms. in the vicinity of Broome and southwestward to 
Lagrange Bay; the exceptions are 3 specimens from Lindeman Island, Queens- 
land, and a large adult from Augustus Island, sent on by Captain Bardwell. The 
specimens from Broome undoubtedly fall in the incei group, according to the 
latest revision of Stellaster, a careful study by Doderlein (1935, pp. 86-101). 
But they show great diversity among themselves in form and spinulation and 
lead one to doubt very seriously whether the forms to which names are given by 
the pre-eminent European authority on sea-stars, are really worthy of such 
recognition. This is not the place to take up the question in detail but some notes 
on the specimens at hand may be of value. 

In size the forty Broome specimens range in length of R from 14 to 72 mm. 
The form of these two extremes is the same, R = 2.3 r, and this may be considered 
characteristic of this group of specimens young and old; the extremes of form are 
R = 2r and R = 2.6r. The smallest specimen has an incipient tubercle on each of 
the five basal radial plates (i.e. the first plate of the carinal series), and these 5 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 95 

tubercles are commonly the first to appear and the largest of all, but it is not often 
that all 5 are present, symmetrically placed and uniformly developed. In some 
specimens they are wanting, notably in an individual with R = 35 mm., which 
has no tubercles at all; in this case, the plates which should bear these primary 
tubercles are easily distinguished and I am unable to satisfy myself that they 
never bore tubercles; it is not beyond question that these were accidentally 
knocked off in the dredge, when the specimen was taken, but careful examination 
of this and other specimens makes me feel this is very unUkely. After R = 40 mm. 
tubercles develop in more or less considerable numbers and quite irregularly; 
there is also great diversity in size and sharpness; they rarely exceed 2 mm. in 
height and may be that much in thickness at base; commonly they are more 
slender and they are very generally pointed but in some individuals they are 
quite blunt; the number ranges from a dozen or even fewer to more than 300; 
while the largest number naturally occurs on the largest specimen there is no 
close correlation between the number and size — a specimen with R = 55 mm. 
has only about 45 tubercles and most of these are very small. 

An important feature of these Broome Stellasters is the presence, in three of 
the largest specimens, of spines on the superomarginal plates; in all cases, they 
are low and pointed and irregularly distributed; in one case they are mostly on 
the distal plates while in the others they are chiefly in the interradii; in the largest 
specimen two often occur on a single plate, one near the upper, the other near the 
lower, margin. As Doderlein considers the absence of spines on the superomar- 
ginals one of the main features of the equestris group, in which he places incei, 
their occurrence in these Broome specimens is particularly interesting. It leads 
me to beheve that St. tuberculosus v. Martens, of which only a single specimen — 
from an imknown locality — is known (figured by Doderlein), is simply a speci- 
men of incei, hke these from Broome, with which it agrees in size and form. It is 
of further interest that the three specimens with superomarginal spines have 2 
spines on many of the inferomarginal plates, especially in the interradii, but some 
large specimens without superomarginal spines show this same pecuUarity. In 
the smallest incei from Broome, single inferomarginal spines are just beginning to 
show on the first pair (interradial) of plates, but are well-developed on the follow- 
ing seven; in all other specimens they are present on all the inferomarginaLs. 

In life Stellaster incei is a handsome sea-star but the colors fade rapidly and 
disappear more or less completely. At Broome the coloration is surprisingly con- 
stant in shades, but very diverse in details. Young individuals are light brown 
above and cream-white below; as they grow, some, and at last many, aboral plates 



96 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

become outlined with dark brown; in some specimens, there is more or less varie- 
gation of light and dark brown; as a rule, the larger the specimen, the more con- 
spicuous are the dark shades and markings; some individuals have an olive or 
gray cast but fundamentally the color is brown. While the specimen is still very 
small, R = 18 mm., the pair of actinal intermediate plates, right behind the oral 
plates become dusky purple and soon the color has become deep purple and the 
dark color has appeared in other plates, particularly in the series adjoining the 
adambulacral plates. In larger specimens, these colored plates are a deep purple- 
brown and even the median inferomarginal plates are dusky-purplish. The 
number of dark actinal intermediate plates in any specimen, and indeed in any 
area, is subject to great diversity, so that no two specimens in a small lot will be 
exactly alike; each plate is always either wholly white or wholly dark, but as 
many as 19 plates in one area may be dark. Very early, an orange spot appears 
at the base of each interradial, inferomarginal sjiine; soon the oral spines begin to 
show orange, and as the animal grows the extent and intensity of the orange 
increases greatly. The adult incei is thus brown above, more or less marked with 
darker, and white below, with few or many interradial plates dark purplish- 
brown, and much intense orange on oral, adambulacral and (basally) inferomar- 
ginal spines; pedicels, including suckers, white. After drying, specimens become 
"museum color" but in well preserved individuals, the dark plates of the actinal 
areas are detectable by their dull brown-orange color, and an orange tint may 
still be noted in the adambulacral armature. 

One of the specimens taken at Broome in 1932 is notable for being sym- 
metrically hexamerous. It is adult with R =60 mm. and r =30. On one ray, at 
the distal end of the ninth superomarginal on the left hand side (seen from above) , 
there is an incipient secondary arm, as though the ray would fork at that point; 
the new ray has 3 superomarginals on each side, but those of the inner side are 
very small as is the terminal plate; there are two inferomarginal plates, one on 
each side; the ambulacral furrow does not divide to enter the new arm. On two 
other rays, at the distal end of the eleventh superomarginal, there is a distinct 
indication of similar abnormal growth but actual development of additional 
superomarginals has not occurred. 

The specimen taken by Captain Bardwell at Augustus Island differs ob- 
viously from specimens of like size from Broome in the much longer arms, for R 
nearly equals 3r. It thus resembles very closely the form which Doderlein figures 
(1935, p. 99, pi. XXVI, figs. 2, 2a) as S. equestris forma gracilis, originally named 
by Mobius as St. gracilis and based on a specimen from China. But I fail to 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 97 

detect any other character, save arm-length, by which it can be distinguished from 
the Broome material, and as it seems to have had the same coloration judging 
from the present appearance, particularly of the actinal intermediate areas, it 
seems only reasonable to consider it a very long-armed incei. 

This decision is confirmed by one of the 3 specimens which Mr. Ward has 
sent from Lindeman Island. This individual has R=68 mm., r = 24 mm.; hence 
R =2.8r±. The actinal surface shows 36 of the orange-brown plates characteristic 
of incei. In practically every detail this specimen is identical with the one from 
Augustus Island. 

The other 3 specunens from Lindeman Island are very young, the smallest 
Stellasters I have ever seen. In the smaller R =9 and r =4 mm., hence R =2.25r. 
There are 6 superomarginal plates on each side of each ray and an incipient 
seventh adjoins the terminal plate in each series. The 5 primary radial tubercles 
are visible but very low. There are 7 inferomarginal plates in each series; most of 
them show no trace of an inferomarginal spine but on 1, 2 or 3 plates in each 
series a minute spine is present near the distal margin of the plate. The other 
specimen has R = 10.5 and r =4.5 mm., hence R = 2.33r. There are 7 superomar- 
ginal plates on each side but the seventh is distinctly smaller than any others. 
The 5 primary radial tubercles are barely evident. There are 7 inferomarginal 
plates in each series; the first are much the largest and have no marginal spines 
but most of the succeeding plates have the spine on the distal margin distinctly 
developed. 

Stellaster inspinosus 

Plate 3, figs. 1-2 

H. L. Clark, 1916. "Endeavour" Rep., p. 48. 

This is the characteristic Stellaster of the western coast of Australia and is 
common near Fremantle. We dredged many specimens between that port and 
Garden Island in 2-3 fms. Their striking and constant coloration, so different 
from that of incei, was obvious evidence that they were not that species but the 
presence of at least a few inferomarginal spines in most of the specimens led me to 
suppose they might not be inspinosus. E.xamination however of the 34 specimens 
at hand, all adult with R = 70-90 mm., and comparison with a cotype of inspino- 
sus, shows plainly that all are representatives of that species. It is a little strange 
that no young or half-grown specimens were secured, for scores of specimens were 
dredged. 



98 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Misled by my careless failure to refer to the convex disk plates, and by the 
presence of inferomarginal spines in his specimens, Doderlein (1935, p. 89) has 
described and figured this species under the name St. gibbosus. He published a 
very brief and hardly descriptive reference to gibbosus in October, 1916, but as 
my account with figures was published June 2, 1916, there seems to be no doubt 
that the less accurate name survives; the aboral plates are more or less gibbous 
but the inferomarginals are usually not entirely lacking in spines though these are 
commonly small, and poorly and irregularly developed. 

The coloration in life seems to be very constant but unfortunately disappears 
more rapidly and even more completely after preservation than does that of 
incei. The upper surface of the living sea-star is a dull brick red while the lower 
surface is a reddish white with a variable number of actinal intermediate plates 
deep red, nearly claret, and the inferomarginals, brown with a claret cast ; adam- 
bulacral and oral plates and spines, yellowish, sometimes almost orange, but 
pedicels pure white. The series of actinal plates adjoining the adambulacrals is 
quite uniformly red and in many cases, most, or possibly all, of the other actinal 
plates are also red ; this is particularly likely to be true of large individuals. 

The largest of the present series has R = 87-90 mm. and is completely hexam- 
erous; it is fau'ly but not entu'ely symmetrical, some of the rays being longer 
than the others; as three are broken at the tip, it is impossible to determine what 
their lengths in life may have been. 



Stellaster princeps 
Plate 4, figs. 1-2 
Sladen, 1889. "Challenger" Ast., p. 323. 

It was a great surprise and pleasure to find this magnificent sea-star present 
at Broome, where we secured a number in 1929, of which 6 are at hand, and 17 
in 1932. Several were brought up by pearl-shell divers, or by our own divers 
(in 1932), but most of the specimens were dredged in 5-11 fms. between Roebuck 
and Lagrange Bays. 

After its discovery by the "Challenger" near Booby Island in Torres Strait 
and Sladen's description in 1889, this Stellaster lay almost forgotten until Living- 
stone's discovery of a specimen from "Western Australia" in the Australian Mu- 
seum. His description and figures (1932) threw valuable additional light on its 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 99 

characteristic features, but he most magnanimously and unselfishly made no 
reference to the fact that he was present and enjoj'ed the experience of the redis- 
covery of the species at Broome m August, 1929. 

That I described (1914) a specimen from Port Hedland, W. A., belonging to 
the Western AustraUan Museum, as a new species under the name of Stellaster 
megaloprepes, reflects no credit on my perspicacity and I am quite unable to 
account for my making no reference to princeps at that time. It was not until I 
saw the type of megaloprepes again in 1929 at Perth, after having handled princeps 
at Broome, that I recognized the identity of the two. Curiously enough, in his 
recent admirable revision of Stellaster, Doderlein (1935) has completely ignored 
my species, which is just as well, as it has no validity whatever. 

Sladen, Livingstone and I (in the description of megaloprepes) have given so 
many details as to structural features and spinulation as to make any detailed 
discussion of them here quite unnecessary but it will be of interest to tell some- 
thing of the diversity shown by the fine series of 23 specimens at hand. They 
range in size from R = 63 to R = 150 mm., the last very much the largest Stellaster 
ever recorded; there are several others nearly as large. The form does not show 
great diversity but there is gome difference in the relative length of the rays; as a 
rule R = 3r and 3br, more or less, but in very large specimens it is nearer 2.6r. 
In Ufe the disk is high, the vertical diameter about one fourth R; in preserved 
specimens, the height depends very largely on the rapidity with wMch the 
specimens are killed and preserved; the longer the process, the flatter the speci- 
men, as a rule. 

There is great diversity in the spinulation. In the smallest specimen 
(R = 63 mm.), the 5 primary tubercles on the basal radial plates are very con- 
spicuous, 4 mm. high, 2 mm. thick at base but sharply pointed; on the disk there 
are about 30 very much smaller spines and on the basal part of each ray (less than 
the basal half) there are 3-5 carinal, conical tubercles, not quite 2 mm. high, and 
about 20 very much smaller tubercles irregularly placed but tending to form 2 
series on each side of the carinal row. There are no spines or tubercles on the 
superomarginals. The inferomarginal plates each bear 2 spines, the upper and 
inner, much the larger, about 4 mm. long; the distal half dozen plates bear only 
one spine each. Adambulacral plates (near mouth) have 6 rather slender furrow 
spines, and 2 large, flattened spines on the surface; of these the adoral is more 
than 2 mm. high and its breadth is fully half as much; the distal spine is much 
smaller. There are many relatively large pedicellariae on the actinal inter- 
mediate plates, especially on the series adjoining the adambulacrals. Oral plates, 



100 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

with 7 marginal spines, innermost largest, compressed, rounded at tip, outer- 
most small and pointed; on surface of each plate near the proximal end is a very 
large flat spine (somewhat larger than on the adambulacrals) set transversely 
across the plate. 

As growth proceeds the number of aboral tubercles increases both relatively 
and actually but there is considerable diversity in their size, form and distribu- 
tion; in some cases they are short and thick, with blunt tips, in others they are 
much more spiniform with very sharp tips; in some indi\dduals the carinal series 
does not extend outward beyond the base of the arm, and may be very incom- 
plete even there; usually it runs out about half the length and occasionally it 
extends clearly almost to the arm-tip. The 5 primary radial tubercles generally 
lose their preeminence as growth proceeds and in adult specimens can be made 
out only with careful examination; occasionally however they continue larger and 
more conspicuous than their fellows. In the largest specimen, there are more 
than 600 tubercles on the aboral plates and even on the interradial superomar- 
ginals small pointed tubercles occur; these are chiefly single at the upper end of a 
plate, but occasionally are near the lower end; now and then two occur on the 
same plate and on one first superomarginal there are 3 tubercles in a vertical 
series. Tubercles on the superomarginals are however quite unusual and occur 
only in the largest specimens. Livingstone (1932) has pointed out how numerous 
the inferomarginal spines become (5-7 on a plate) and how they are arranged, in 
the interradii, in two diagonal series, all of which is well exemplified in the big 
specimen in hand; the largest inferomarginal spines are 8 mm. long by 2.5 mm. 
wide. Sladen's (1889) description of the adambulacral and oral plates and the 
actinal intermediate areas fits the present specimens very well, but the big 
adambulacral spines are fully 6 mm. long. 

The coloration of princeps in life is one of its most characteristic features. 
The upper surface is olive-gray with dark gray or dark brown (almost black) 
markings; particularly conspicuous are a group of irregular spots distal to the 
middle of each arm, and scattered spots on the disk; the lightness or darkness of 
the ground color shows some individual diversity and the markings of course are 
not exactly ahke in any two specimens; as a rule, the larger specimens are darker 
and more spotted or marked. The oral surface is a clear ivory white, while a 
circular area, of which the mouth is the center, is a bright \'iolet or purple ; the 
pedicels are pure white in contrast to the ivory-white of the adambulacral arma- 
ture. The diameter of the purple area shows some diversity but its circular form 
is constant and there is no tendency for the interradial areas as a whole to be 



CLAEK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 101 

purple. Unfortunately the colors are very fugacious; soon after death olive-gray 
becomes brown and begins to fade, so that in a few hours the characteristic color 
is gone. In dry specimens the purple color persists for several weeks but it 
ultimately disappears completely. Dry specimens at the present time are more 
or less uniformly "museum-color." In most of the larger specimens the disk both 
above and below is discolored probably from the oily secretion of the hepatic 
organs. In some individuals, especially the younger ones, the dark markings on 
the rays persist in an orange-brown shade. 



ASTERODISCUS TRUNCATUS 

Coleman, 1911. Mem. Austral. Mus., 4, p. 699. 

A single small specimen (R = 70 mm.) of this interesting sea-star was taken 
by Mr. D. L. Serventy in a productive dredge-haul, Feb. 23, 1930, by the trawler 
"Bonthorpe," in 90 fms. at the western end of the Great Australian Bight, 
33° 15'S X 126°22'15"E. It was presented to me by Professor Bennett. Although 
the aboral surface is badly rubbed by the rough handUng in the dredge, the speci- 
men is particularly interesting as the smallest individual of the species yet taken. 
Unfortunately there are no data as to the color in life; the dry specimen is light 
gray, somewhat darker aborally. 



Notes on the Subfamily antheneinae 

Among the most conspicuous and generally common sea-stars of tropical 
AustraUa are the members of this subfamily, and the diversity of their color and 
size is so bewildering that the division into well-defined genera and species is a 
most perplexing task. The great German zoologist, Doderlein, brought order out 
of what was almost chaos when he published (1915) his revision of the genus 
Anthenea, but the large amount of material collected in 1929 and 1932 and the 
considerable series in the Australian Museum^ necessitate a new attack on the 
problem. The arrangement and keys here offered are of course based on Doder- 
lein's work and it is hoped may prove as useful, but there is no expectation that 
they are complete or in any way the "last word" on the subject. In the end, 

' The entire lot was most generously sent to me in Cambridge so that I could compare them with our 
collection. There have thus been available to me 249 specimens of Anthenea and its nearest allies. 



102 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

some Australian zoologist must be the authority, who, through the advantage of 
large numbers of living specimens from various points on the tropical and sub- 
tropical coasts of that continent, may find the key to the real inter-relationships 
of these fascinating sea-stars. Without any pretence of deUmiting the subfamily, 
the following 5 genera are here discussed. 

Key to the Genera of Antheneinae 

A. Dorsal surface and marginal plates covered with a closely crowded coat of flat-topped 
polygonal granules; some (often many) abactinal plates carry a large smooth tubercle, 
often with one or two smaller tubercles adjoining it closely or it may be replaced by 3-7 
similar but smaller and closely crowded tubercles Anthaster 

A'. Dorsal surface not as above. 

B. Superomarginal plates of interbrachial arcs with 1-3 (usually 3) spines on the outer 
margin; many actinal intermediate plates with a tuft of spines instead of the usual 
pedicellaria; only 3 adambulacral spines in the furrow series Pseudanfhenea 

B'. Superomarginal plates with granules or tubercles or both, but no spines; no spines 
on actinal intermediate plates; more than 3 adambulacral spines in furrow series. 

C. Only 2 series of adambulacral spines, outer end of adambulacral plates being 
bare and smooth (except on distal third of arm in some Pseudoreasters). 

Some aboral plates, often many, particularly in the carinal series with big 
hemispherical tubercles, 2-6 mm. in diameter; superomarginal plates more 
or less vertical, with numerous coarse granules, the upper end not forming 

a conspicuous part of the aboral surface of the sea-star Pseudoreaster 

Tubercles on aboral surface much less conspicuous, usually not 2 mm. in 
diameter; superomarginal plates with upper half bare and smooth, forming 
a marginal border for aboral surface, with a few (often only 2 or 3) small 
tubercles or coarse granules on the lower half Gymnanthenea 

CK Adambulacral spines in at least 3 series Anthenea 



ANTHASTER 

This well-marked genus was established by Doderlein for the following 
species and, as yet, no other is known. 

Anthaster valvulatus 

Oreaster valvulaius MiiLLER and Troschel, 1843. Arch. f. Naturg. 9 (1), p. 115. 

Anthaster valvulatus Doderlein, lOl."!. .Tahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 68, p. (27) .30. 

Wlien Doderlein established his new genus, only a single specimen of this 
interesting sea-star was known — the original type on which Miiller and Troschel 
based the species, but a few years ago (H. L. Clark, 1928) it was learned that on 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 103 

the coast of southern AustraUa, Anthaster is by no means rare. Now it appears 
that it ranges around the southwestern corner of the continent and as far north 
at least as Cottesloe, for there are 3 specimens at hand, loaned by the Perth 
Museum, 1 from Long Reach Bay, Rottnest Island, and 2 from North Beach, 
near Cottesloe. Apparently the species is not common and lives in moderately 
deep water. The specimens from North Beach are in poor condition and were 
apparently from beach "wrack," but the one from Rottnest is in excellent condi- 
tion and bears a label saying that the "colour" (presumably in life) was "brick- 
red." 

Pseud ANTHENEA 
This genus was also established by Doderlein for a single species: 



PSEUDANTHENEA GRAYI 

Anthenea grayi Perkier, 1876. Arch. Zool. Exp., 5, p. 94. 

Pseudanihenea grayi Doderlein, 1915. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 68, p. 26. 

Perrier based his species on a single specimen in the British Museum from 
an unknown locaUty. Apparently it has never been met with since. 



PSEUDORE ASTER 

This genus was proposed by Verrill for the following species but has re- 
ceived scant attention. Its validity having been called in question by Doderlein 
(1915, p. 49) even after some of its characters had been pointed out by Fisher 
(1911, p. 174), the availability of a large number of specimens, showing great 
diversity in size and tuberculation, has led to a careful reexamination of its status, 
which results in the belief that it is fairly entitled to recognition. No second species 
has as yet been found but it is not at all unlikely that it may be discovered in the 
marvellous marine Ufe of the northwestern coast of Australia. 

Attention should be called here to the curious slip of the pen by which Doder- 
lein (191.5, p. 49) gives "Protoreaster" as Verrill's name for this genus. As he had 
correctly quoted both Verrill and Fisher on the preceding page, and as he subse- 
quently (1916, p. 420) estabhshes a genus Protoreaster for Oreaster nodosus (L.) 
and two closely alUed species of that genus, without any reference to his use of the 



104 MEMom: museum of comparative zoology 

name the previous year, it is obvious that the latter is simply a lapsus calami to 
which his attention was never called. It cannot therefore invalidate in any way 
his later use of the name. 



PSEUDOREASTER OBTUSANGULUS 

Plate 6 

Asterias obtusangula Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 556. 
Pseudoreaster obtusangulus Verrill, 1899. Trans. Conn. Acad., 10, p. 148. 

This is one of the commonest and most characteristic sea-stars of the north- 
western coast of Australia from Port Hedland (where Michaelsen and Hartmeyer 
procured their only specimens; see Doderlein, 1915, p. 49) northeastward to 
Augustus Island, at least. There is only a single specimen in the Australian Mu- 
seum and that is from the "coast south of Broome." Apparently no specimens are 
in the Western Australian Museum. It is not unreasonable to suppose therefore 
that the genus is confined to the strictly northern coast of Western Australia. The 
present series consists of 26 specimens — 4 adults from Augustus Island (B. E. 
Bardwell leg., October, 1933), 8 adult and young from False Cape Bossut (Sep- 
tember, 1929), and 13 adult and young from the Broome region (September, 1929 
and June, 1932), plus the small adult belonging to the Australian Museum, al- 
ready mentioned. 

The smallest specimen has R =42 mm., r = 20, while the largest has R = 115 
mm., r=56; this ratio of R=2r seems to be remarkably constant regardless of 
size or locality. The aboral surface is elevated so that the form is more like 
Oreaster than in any species of Anthenea. The vertical diameter in life may be 
.40R and even in some dried specimens it is .33R; most individuals however 
become nearly flat when dried. The diversity in tuberculation of the aboral sur- 
face is very great. The young individuals have the big tubercles scarcely 2 mm. 
in diameter and they occur only on the carinal series of plates; occasionally this 
condition persists into adult life (thus a specimen with R=80 nam. has but 3 
tubercles, exceeding 3 mm. in diameter, one at the left hand side of the tip of one 
ray and 2 at the right hand side of the distal half of another ray) but usually the 
big tubercles are fairly numerous, though very irregular in distribution, in speci- 
mens with R = 50 mm. or more; an extreme case is an individual with R = 70 mm., 
which has 83 big tubercles distributed thus: 18 on one ray (3 on distal supero- 
marginal plates) , 14 on the next ray, 20 on the next (2 on distal superomarginals) , 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 105 

13 on the next (2 on distal superomarginals) and IS on the next (1 on a distal 
superomarginal). The occurrence of the big tubercles on the superomarginals is 
by no means uncommon but it is not characteristic. More common is the reverse 
condition where the coarse granulation of the superomarginal plates is repeated 
on some of the distal aboral plates, replacing the big tubercles. Indications of this 
occur in the great majority of adults but the extreme case is a specimen with R = 
76 mm. in which the big tubercles are confined to the carinal series and only those 
tubercles nearest the disk exceed 3 mm. in diameter; but there are 77 aboral 
plates on the distal portion of the rays which bear clusters of coarse tubercles 
similar to those on the superomarginals. The oral surface shows little change in 
growth from the smallest to the largest specimen and there is surprisingly little 
individual diversity. 

The color in life is often bright red, with the superomarginal granules distally, 
black, and the big tubercles brown or red. Some specimens are not so bright 
colored, and my field notes, from which the following items are quoted, show that 
there is a great deal of diversity: "As a rule the color was varied and variegated 
with dull grays, brown, reds and purples." "In color, no two are alike; all are 
variegated with browns, ranging from deep red-brown to brown-orange; often 
interbrachial areas have large blotches of a very dark color; orally cream-color 
with interradial areas, at least the inferomarginals, red, orange, brown or dull 
red violet, more or less." "The handsomest specimen is grayish with much red of 
several shades, especially large red blotches in interbrachial areas." Another was 
"mottled browns and greens, rather dark." The bright colors fade quickly after 
death particularly if the spechnen is dried. The reds become more and more 
orange and often disappear entirely but most dry specimens retain more or less 
of the orange tint and a few are distinctly light dull reddish. 



GYMNANTHENEA' gen. nov. 

Genotype, Anthenea globigera Doderlein, 1915. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. 
Naturk, Wiesbaden, 68, p. (29), 50. 

Although Doderlein seems to consider his globigera rather close to australiae, 
owing to the bare upper ends of the superomarginal plates, it is really quite well 
set apart from that species and other Antheneas by its adambulacral armature 
which, as Doderlein points out, is much like that of Pseudoreaster. Indeed the 

' yvjivos =nafcfd+ Anthenea, in reference to the bare aboral surface of the superomarginal plates. 



106 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

oral aspect of Gymnanthenea is rather markedly like that of this otherwise quite 
different genus. As a second species, closely allied to globigera, occurs at the 
Abrolhos Islands, it seems best to place them in a genus by themselves, hence the 
formation of Gymnanthenea. 

Key to the Species of Gymnanthenea 

Dorsal tubercles more or less numerous; ilorsal pedicellariae few, small, inconspicuous; dorsal 
surface covered witli a thin skin globigera 

Few or no dorsal tubercles; large pedicellariae conspicuous on aboral plates, especially on 
adradial series; 2-5 tubercles but no pedicellariae on superomarginal plates; dorsal 
surface covered with a thick, dark skin laevis 



Gymnanthenea globigera 

Plate 11, fig. 2 

Anthenca globigera Doderlein, 1915. .Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 68, p. (29), 50. 

This species was based on a single specimen from Turtle Island, Northwest- 
ern Australia, collected by Michaelsen and Hartmeyer. It proves to be one of the 
commonest sea-stars in the vicinity of Broome, especially in shallow water along 
shore. Young individuals occur frequently under rocks in tide pools while the 
larger specimens are common in water 1-5 fms. deep. It is a well-characterized 
form and shows comparatively little diversity. The series at hand ranges from 
R = 6.5 mm., r = 3.5 mm., to R = 85 mm., r=40 mm.; hence R=2r in all except 
the very youngest individuals. In the youngest, there are no tubercles at all and 
the superomarginal plates have only very fine granules, but in a specimen with 
R = 12 mm., the 5 basal radial tubercles are evident; when R = 20 a number of 
additional tubercles are present in the carinal series on each ray ; a small tubercle 
and coarse granules are present on each superomarginal, on the outer side; the 
upper surface, like that of most of the aboral plates, is relatively smooth and 
flat. With increased growth, the number of tubercles and granules increases, 
until the adult condition is reached when most of the dorsal surface, excepting 
on the distal part of the rays, is well covered with tubercles, granules and small 
pedicellariae; in typical specimens, the distalmost radial plates and the last 6-8 
adradial plates on each side are quite bare but have a fine shagreen-like surface; 
the upper side of the distalmost superomarginals may have a similar surface. 

In life, young specimens are cream-color or pinkish-white, with marginal 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 107 

plates distally pink; then dark mottlings appear on the rays and by the time 
R= 30-40 mm. great diversity of color is evident. Individuals are often bright 
orange-red, but owing to the fact that the lines between the different species of 
Anthenea were very vague in my mind during the field work and the number of 
specimens taken was too great to permit of each one being properly noted as to 
color and other characters, it is impossible now to say whether any particular 
colors or shades are associated in any characteristic way with this species. To the 
best of my recollection orange, pink and red shades were common and in adults 
merged with browns and grays, in bewildering dissimilarity. The dry specimens 
are for the most part more or less "museum color" but some individuals give 
distinct indications of having been variegated with orange or red; the disk is often 
darker than the distal part of the arms. 

The 55 available specimens of globigera are from the following localities: 
"North Australia": 1 specimen with R =59 mm., identified by me (1928, p. 384) 

as " Anthenea flavescens." This specimen has nothing to 
do with flavescens but is undoubtedly globigera and 
raises the question as to where on the coast of the 
Northern Territory this specimen was taken. Loaned 
by the South Australian Museum. 
"Northern Territory": 1 young specimen dry and broken, also loaned by the 

South Australian Museum. Here again it would be 
very interesting to know just where on the coast 
of the Northern Territory this specimen was taken. 
The identification admits of no question. 
Port Darwin. Messrs. Christy and Godfrey leg. et don. 
1 specimen, adult in excellent condition but bleached 
to a uniform brownish cream-color. Not typical, for 
the granules on the superomarginal plates are smaller 
and somewhat more numerous than they should be, 
and the outer series of the adambulacral armature 
usually contains 3 and sometimes 4 spines. It is not 
rare to find 3 spines in a series on Broome specimens 
but in no case is the number frequent, and 4 have 
not been found on a single plate. Loaned by the 
Australian Museum. (G 3813). 
Port Darwin, 1935. 1 specimen, young (R=48 mm.). 
Loaned by the Australian Museum. (J 5894). 



108 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Western Australia: Augustus Island, October 1933. Capt. Beresford E. Bard- 
well leg. 8 typical specimens, small adults, and young. 

Broome, August and September, 1929. 21 specimens, adult 
and young, but mostly young ones taken in tide pools or 
near jetty. 

Broome, June 1932. 20 specimens, adult and young, but 
mostly adults dredged in Roebuck Bay and south- 
westward. 

False Cape Bossut, September, 1929. 1 adult. 

"Estuary of Swan River, near Fremantle." 1 small adult, 
with exceptionally thick skin, loaned by the Australian 
Museum. The locality seems to me highly improbable. 



Gymnanthenea laevis' sp. nov. 
Plate 19, figs. 4, 5 

Rays 5. R = 70 mm., r =34 mm. R=2r. Upper surface elevated, particu- 
larly on the basal portion of each ray where the vertical diameter is fully 20 mm. 
whereas the distal part of the ray is flattened and only 9-10 mm. thick. Upper 
surface covered with a smooth, thick skin, in which the large groups of papulae 
are evident and the big pedicellariae are conspicuous. Tubercles wholly wanting, 
except near the base of each ray, where the first of the carinal plates carries an 
obvious tubercle about a millimeter in diameter but scarcely a millimeter high; 
proximal or distal to this there is usually a smaller tubercle and similar small 
tubercles may occur on one or both sides; althogether about 15 of these small 
tubercles can be made out with a lens. Pedicellariae, low, horizontal, with jaws 
1-3 mm. long; as they are nearly white in contrast to the skin, they are very 
conspicuous; there are 15-20 on the basal portion of each ray but confined to the 
disk; while often on the adradial series of plates, they are more usually on the 
adjoining series, and a few are even further from the carinal plates. 

Superomarginals form a conspicuous, smooth margin to disk and rays. 
The first ones are nearly 5 mm. wide by 4 mm. long but little more than 2 mm. 
high; on the vertical surface are 2 (or 3) tubercles, about a miUimeter in diameter, 
conspicuous because of their light color, and below them are a very few small 
granules. Distally the plates are somewhat smaller, but even the twelfth, at 

' teems = smooth, in reference to the thick smooth skin and absence of tubercles. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 109 

the tip of the ray, is fully 2 mm. square and the pair of marginal tubercles is 
evident; granules do not occur beyond the fourth plate. Madreporite 5 mm. 
long by 4 wide, only 7 mm. from center of disk. 

Oral surface with large, skin-covered actinal interradial areas, the outlines 
of the plates obscured by the skin but each plate conspicuously indicated by its 
large pedicellaria, or a group of granules or both. Inferomarginal plates large 
and conspicuous, the middle pair, 5 mm. wide and 3.5 mm. long; they correspond 
well in number and position with the superomarginals, but at the tip of the arm, 
adjoining the very small terminal plate, an extra inferomarginal is intercalated. 
First inferomarginals bear 15-20 (or more) tubercles and a big pedicellaria 
conspicuous because of their light color; the pedicellaria lies across the plate and 
the larger tubercles are between it and the superomarginal; at the extreme outer 
end of the plate are some small granules; the largest tubercles are smaller than 
those on the superomarginal; on succeeding inferomarginals the armature is 
similar, but there are often two pedicellariae ; distally the granules disappear, 
and the number of tubercles falls to 9, 4, 3, 2 and 1 on the distalmost plates. 

The series of actinal plates adjoining the adambulacrals extends out to the 
twelfth inferomarginal; the first two or three each carry a huge pedicellaria with 
or without one or two tubercles; distally the number of tubercles increases to 
3 or 4 and the pedicellaria decreases in size; rarelj^ a plate lacks a pedicellaria. 
The next series of actinal plates extends to the eighth inferomarginal and con- 
sists of about 15 plates; the first one is hke the first ones in the adjoining series 
wholly occupied by the huge pedicellaria but on subsequent plates the tubercles 
are more numerous and the pedicellaria is more often wanting; the remaining 
plates of the actinal intermediate areas, 35-40 in number, usually each carry a 
large pedicellaria and half a dozen small tubercles but not rarely the pedicellaria 
is wanting, especially on the smaller plates. 

Adambulacral armature very simple, in two series; a marginal or furrow 
series of half a dozen rather slender spines, the median ones longest, the outer- 
most on each side smallest ; on the surface of each plate close to the furrow series 
are two (sometimes 3 near base of arm) subequal, stout spines, side by side, 
expanded and rounded at tip; outer half of plate perfectly bare. Oral plates 
small, each armatured by marginal and surface spines like two adambulacral 
plates; marginal spinelets at apex of jaw relatively large and conspicuous, but 
the most proximal of the surface quartet is the smallest while the distalmost is 
the largest spine let on the whole oral surface. 

Color of dry specimen, aborally, purplish-brown with tubercles and pedi- 



110 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

cellariae whitish in more or less marked contrast; madreporite brown; orally, 
wood-brown with tubercles, spinelets and pedicellariae conspicuously hghter. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 2772, from Western Austraha, Abrolhos Islands, 
"Wallaby Group, shore collecting." Percy Sladen Expedition. W. J. Dakin 
leg. et don. 

This specimen was identified by me (1923, p. 239) as Anthenea globigera 
Doderlein, but now that a large series of that species is available for study, it 
seems best to give this very exceptional specimen specific rank. Only further 
collecting at the Abrolhos can demonstrate the propriety of such action. 



ANTHENEA 
Geay, 1840. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 279. 

Genotype, Anthenea chinensis Gray, 1840, I.e. = Asterias pentagonula 
Lamarck, 1816, Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 554. 

Since the majority of the species of this fine genus occur on the Australian 
coast it has seemed desirable to prepare a key to all the known species.' Doder- 
lein (1915) did this admirably but the large collections of Australian material 
available to me have led me to somewhat different conclusions in regard to the 
status and relationships of some of the species, and it seems best to state them 
here. The ehmination of Pseudoreaster and Gymnanthenea leaves Anthenea a 
more homogeneous group. The species are seldom sharply defined but it is hoped 
that the following key will prove as useful to future workers as Doderlein 's 
has been to me. I am recognizing as vahd, 19 species and 1 variety of which 14 
species occur on the coasts of Austraha, chiefly in the tropics. 

Key to the Species of Anthenea 

N.B. Owing to the great diversity in body form shown by the more common species of Anthenea due in 
part to differences in age, size and environmental conchtions, and in part to methods of preparation 
and the care used therein, it must not be expected that this key will prove a satisfactory guide in 
every instance. Similar diversity in number, size and form of spines, tubercles, granules and pedicel- 
lariae will also give much tiouble but it is hoped, nevertheless, that normal, adult specimens can 
be satisfactorily traced to the proper species. Senescent specimens of acuta are very perplexing, 
and of course, young individuals of any species with R = 35 mm. or less, will always give difficulty. 
It is doubtful whether such young individuals can be identified correctly without comparison with 
considerable series of specimens. 

' 1 have not included Anthenea mexicana A. H. Clark (1916), as the single specimen on which it is based 
is only a half grown individual without distinctive characters and said to be from Mexico, a locality 
which certainly requires confirmation. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 111 

.. Arms relatively long, R= 2r, more or less (1.90-2.45 r in most eases, but in some senes- 
cent specimens only 1.5 r), narrowed distally, and commonly more or less pointed (at 
one-tenth R from tip, width is about .15 R or even less but may be .18-20). 

B. Each of the 5 basal radial plates with a conspicuous pointed tubercle; many distal 
superomarginals and some inferomarginals bear a spine-like pointed tubercle . . . rudis 

B^ Not as above. 

C. Pedicellariae extraordinarily abundant on oral surface, many of small size; infero- 
marginals with G-15 or even more; actinal intermediate plates with the usual pedi- 
cellaria, often accompanied by 2 or 3 smaller ones poh/giiatha 

C . Pedicellariae not excessively abimdant, orally, rarely more than 3 or 4 on an infero- 
marginal plate. 

D. Disk elevated, covered with a smooth, thin skin, with few pedicellariae or small 
spinelets; big blmit spinelets on many aboral plates; superomarginals interradially 
low and wide with few (1-8) granules, but distally higher than wide, with more 
granules obesa 

D'. Not as above. 

E. Superomarginal plates in interbrachial arc more or less horizontal forming a 
conspicuous part of the aboral surface. 

F. Aboral plates and inner portion of superomarginals bare. 

All adradial plates with pedicellariae flavescens 

Only a few adradial plates with pedicellariae flavescens var. nitda 

F . Aboral plates more or less covered with spinelets, tubercles and pedicellariae; 
superomarginals (at least the lower half) well covered with granules. 

G. Aboral surface with numerous bluntly pointed tubercles, forming 5-9 
distinct longitudinal series on each ray; inferomarginal plates closely 
covered with small granules, and only a single small pedicellaria (2 mm. =>= ) 
or often none elegans 

G^. Aboral surface diverse; inferomarginals with coarse granules, at least at 
outer end and usually 2 or more large pedicellariae. 

Aboral tubercles numerous and coarse; upper half of superomarginals 
bare on each side with a few coarse granules, often in a narrow, or even 

a single, vertical series crassa 

Aboral tubercles few, scattered, relatively insignificant; superomarginals 
rather uniformly covered with granules though they may be fewer and 
coarser at upper end (See also pentagon ida) aspera 

E^. Superomarginal plates in interbrachial arc more or less vertical or so small 
they form an inconspicuous part of the aboral surface. (See also elegans). 

H. Pedicellariae very large both aborally (with jaws up to 1.7 mm. wide) 
and orally (with jaws up to 4 mm. wide), and correspondingly con- 
spicuous crudelis 

iV'. Pedicellariae numerous but not exceptionally large. 

J. Disk more or less conspicuously elevated, the reticulate nature of its 
skeleton often distinctly evident in big specimens; superomarginal 
plates well covered with granules to upper margin acuta 



112 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

J^. Disk usually not much elevated, or reticulated; upper end of supero- 
marginals more or less bare. 

Superomarginals low, wide, with tubercles only on lower lialf ; aboral 

tubercles low and more or less flattened australlae 

Superomarginals high, narrow, with a large granule near top; below 
it a swollen pair or trio and the rest of the plate (lower half) more 
or less covered with smaller, but often coarse, granules; aboral 
tubercles high, not flattened (See also sihogae) conjungens 

A^. Arms short and rounded at tip, form often quite pentagonal; R = l.G-1.8r; at one-tenth 
R from tip, width is .20 R or more. 

K. Aboral plates near arm-tips not much enlarged or conspicuous; aboral surface with few 
(or more numerous) tubercles or large spinelets, but commonly with very numerous 
pedicellariae and small spinelets, (specimens with R = C5 mm. or less may have quite 
smooth aboral plates and few pedicellariae). 

Aboral tubercles few, irregularly scattered, seldom capitate; superomarginal plates 
with coarse granules, often only a few on inner end, the coarsest at outer; coarsest 
granules of inferomarginal plates also at outer end; rays often somewhat pointed. 

peniagonula 
Aboral tubercles more or less numerous, especially on rays, somewhat capitate; 
marginal plates rather uniformly covered by a coat of small granules; rays wide 
and rounded regalis 

K^ Aboral plates near arm -tips enlarged and more or less conspicuous; aboral surface 
usually with more or less numerous tubercles. (See also regalis). 

L. Enlarged aboral plates near arm-tips, each with several (2-8) large granules or 
small tubercles. 

M. Whole aboral surface covered with big pointed tubercles, 9-13 series on each 
ray acanthodes 

M''. Aboral surface with relatively small, blunt or capitate tubercles. 

O. Aboral tubercles numerous, small, in about 9 parallel series on each ray. . . 

godeffroyi 

O^ Aboral tubercles fewer, larger, in not more than 5 series on each ray. 

Dorsal surface with few, small spinelets but many pedicellariae sibogae 

Dorsal surface with numerous more or less capitate spines and few pedi- 
cellariae merloni 

I}. Enlarged aboral plates near arm-tips, each with 1 large granule or tubercle (some- 
times 2). 

Tubercles of aboral surface and of superomarginals few and coarse. . . .tuberculosa 
Tubercles of aboral surface and of superomarginals, small, more like large gran- 
ules viguicri 

Although I have inckided in the above key, these 20 nominal forms, it is 
my candid opinion that several are not vahd. 1 have no confidence in either 
flavescens or its variety 7iuda and beheve they are based on young, probably 
unidentifiable, specimens of some of the other species', but as I cannot prove 



Pcssibly Gymnanthenea globifera (Dod.) 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 113 

this, it is necessary to leave them in the key. The species acanthodes, crudelis 
and godeffroyi are each based on a single specimen and are open to question on 
the grounds of hybridity or extreme individual diversity. They can only be 
accepted as valid when more specimens are found. The species crassa and aspera 
occur at Port Curtis together and it is possible they represent the two extremes 
of a very variable species. On the other hand, connecting links may be consid- 
ered as hybrids. Only further collecting at Port Curtis and observations on the 
living animals can clear up the possible doubt. The group of Antheneas with 
short, wide, rounded arms, having enlarged tuberculated aboral plates near the 
tip, is a puzzling one and only much more material can decide whether there is 
more than one species. As the oldest name, tuberculosa will stand, but I am very 
dubious whether mertotii and viguieri can be maintained. The probability of 
sibogae being valid is better, but as stated above godeffroyi rests on a single 
specimen and may prove to be only a variant, and acanthodes may be a hybrid! 
The two species pentagonula and regalis are not very clearly separable and may 
possibly be identical. 

Laj'ing aside these doubts for the present, except for flavescens and )iuda, 
the IS species of Anthenea show the following distribution. On the southeastern 
coast of Asia and perhaps in the northern East Indies is pentagonula, the geno- 
type. To the west are found rudis, from the Mergui Archipelago to the Persian 
Gulf, and regalis, coasts of India and Ceylon. In the southern East Indies and 
on the coast of northern Australia occur sibogae and its near relatives mertoni, 
tuberculosa and viguieri. (The related godeffroyi is also supposed to be Austra- 
lian). To the southeast are found aspera, a^assa and acanthodes on the coast of 
northern Queensland, while further south, even reaching Tasmania (apparently) 
is acuta. No Antheneas (s.s.) are known from the long coast between Darwin 
and Cape Leveque but southwestward from the latter point are found at least 
four species australiae, conjungens, elegans and polygnatha, while from still 
further south off Geraldton, W. A., comes obesa. The locaUty whence crudelis 
comes is unknown. Since the genera Anthaster, Gymnanthenea and Pseudor- 
easter are exclusively Australian, it is evident that the tropical and subtropical 
coasts of Australia have proved a very favorable area for the speciation of An- 
theneinae. 

\Miile it is hoped that the key given above will prove of practical value in 
enabling collectors and workers to distinguish the different species of Anthenea, 
it is obvious that the sequence of species therein is in no way natural. It is not 
possible in the light of our present knowledge to arrange a natural sequence; 



114 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

hence in the following pages, the 20 forms will be divided into 2 groups, the non- 
Australian and the Australian. In the first group the species will be discussed 
alphabetically and in the second, the known species will be discussed alphabetical- 
ly, before the new forms are described. 



non-australian antheneas 

Anthenea crudelis 

Anthenea australiae var. crudelis Doderlein, 1915. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wies- 
baden, 68, p. 53. 

Although Doderlein considers the unique specimen on which this form is 
based, a variant of australiae, it seems to me better to treat it as a distinct 
species, since it is from an unknown locality. The huge and relatively few oral 
pedicellariae, the markedly pointed rays, and the few tubercles and numerous 
big pedicellariae of the aboral surface, distinguish it readily from all Australian 
Antheneas. 

Anthenea flavescens 

Hosia flavescens Gray, 1840. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 6, p. 279. 
Anthenea flavescens Perrier, 1876. Arch. Zool. Exp., 5, p. 92. 

Anthenea flavescens var. nuda 
Doderlein, 1915. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 68, p. 42. 

All of the specimens hitherto referred to this species and variety are so 
small that I doubt whether their actual specific relationship will ever be satis- 
factorily established. The figures given by Doderlein represent two species not 
at all closely related (evidenced by the number and character of the supero- 
marginal plates but even more strikingly by the difference in the form and length 
of the rays and the number, arrangement and surface of the aboral plates). 
The smallest specimen of pentagonula at hand (in the AI. C. Z. series from 
Hong Kong) has R = 33-34 mm. and hence is considerably larger than the type 
of nuda (R = 27 mm.) but there is httle doubt in my mind that Doderlein's 
specimen (from "Hahnahera Strasse") is a young pentagonula. The individual 
which my German colleague refers to Gray's species flavescens is also very young 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 115 

(R=only 37 mm.) and its identity is quite uncertain. Future workers should 
refrain from referring Antheneas to flavescens unless they have adult material. 
And the distinctive characters of such adults are as yet unknown! 



Anthenea pentagonula 

Asterias pentagonula Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 5.54. 
Anthenea pentagonula Perkier, 1876. Arch. Zool. Exp., 5, p. 90. 

This seems to be a common sea-star at Hong Kong, or at least it was 75 
years ago, for the M. C. Z. has 24 specimens taken by Captain Putnam in 1861. 
There were originally many more but they have gone to museums in all parts of 
the world in exchange for more desired material. Young individuals have the 
arms relatively long and somewhat pointed and the short wide arms of the adult 
are not well-marked until R =75 mm. As the "Albatross" took no specimens in 
the Philippines and the "Siboga" secured no adults in the Dutch East Indies, 
-pentagonula does not appear to have ranged far from the mainland coast of Asia. 
The largest of the M. C. Z. specimens has R =90-95 mm. 



Anthenea regalis 
KoEHLER, 1910. Ech. Indian Mus. : Asteroidea, p. 82. 

Tliis species seems to be confined to the coasts of India and Ceylon. A speci- 
men in very poor condition with R = 100 mm., was secured by me on the beach at 
Madras, India, in August, 1932. It agrees well with Koehler's figure. A much 
smaller specimen from Ceylon, in excellent condition, with R=47 mm., is also 
in the M. C. Z. collection. It agrees well in body form with the adult specimens 
but has not yet developed nearly so many tubercles; this is true also of Doder- 
lein's Ceylon specimen with R =51 mm. 

It is unfortunate that Doderlein has referred very young Antheneas from the 
Phihppines and from Torres Strait to this Indian species. Fortunately however 
he gives excellent photographs of these young individuals from which one may 
feel quite sure that neither is regalis; nor can they both well be referred to the same 
species; note the striking difference in the size and number of the papulae. It 
seems to me possible that the smaller specimen may be a young sibogae but I have 
no suggestion as to the identity of the larger. 



116 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Anthenea rudis 

KoEHLER, 1910. Ech. Indian Mus. : Asteroidea, p. 86. 

This species is based on two Antheneas from the Mergui Archipelago, which 
are too young for any accurate determination. There are 3 specimens at hand, all 
obviously young, which seem to belong here. The smallest belongs to the Austral- 
ian Museum (J437) and has R = 14 mm. ; the big pedicellariae of the oral surface 
indicate an Anthenea and the probability that it is rudis rests on the conspicuous 
presence of 3 large radial tubercles; the locality whence it came is unknown but 
Mr. Livingstone thinks it is non-Australian. The other 2 specimens are in the 
M. C. Z. collection; one with R =31 mm. is from the Persian Gulf and the inter- 
brachial arc is almost exactly as Doderlein figures it in a Ceylon specimen; the 
other, with R =35 mm., is from Ceylon and differs from the smaller individual in 
having a conspicuous small tubercle (or very large isolated granule) on each 
superomarginal plate. Doderlein and Koehler refer to such tubercles in their 
descriptions but they do not appear in the figures given. Although all the known 
specimens of rudis are small (the largest is Doderlein's with R=40 mm.), the 
species seems to be very well marked and worthy of recognition. The known 
range is from the Mergui Archipelago to the Persian Gulf. 



australian antheneas 

Anthenea acuta 

Goniodiscus acuttis Perrier, 1869. Ann. Sci. Nat. (5), 12, p. 280. 
Anthenea acuta Perrier, 1876. .\rch. Zool. Exp., 6, p. 91. 

Although Doderlein (1915) was unwilling to use this name because Perrier's 
description was so short and indefinite, the universal use of it, during 60 years, for 
the common Anthenea of the New South Wales coast justifies the continued use 
unless there is some reason why such usage is really incorrect. In this case, as in 
scores of others, the original description is not distinctive when all of the now 
known Antheneas are considered, but I find nothing in it which is inappropriate 
to some specimens at least of the New South Wales species. Moreover the name 
is particularly appropriate to this species, since the rays are as a rule more acute 
than in most Antheneas; certainly for none of the now known species is the name 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 117 

as generally appropriate. Doderlein has renamed the species (1915, p. 53) as 
A. australiae var. sidneyensis, regarding it as only a variety of the west coast 
species which he describes from Fremantle. The two have certain points in 
common but are, 1 think, really quite distinct. 

Thanks to the AustraUan Museum, there are at hand from that institution, 
39 specimens of acuta, making with the 11 in the M. C. Z., 50 specimens available 
for study. I greatly regret not having seen Uving or fresh material, nor are there 
any notes at hand on the color in life. The present series of dried specimens shows 
great diversity in size, form and tuberculation. The smallest has R = 16 mm., 
r = 8, while the largest have R = 120-130 mm. and r = about 70 ; one specimen with 
R about 120 mm. has R= about 1.6r (the condition of the specimen precludes 
exact measurements), while a specimen with R =54 mm. has such long rays that 
R =2.45r. When well preserved, large individuals of this species have a notably 
high disk, with the vertical diameter as much as 40-50 mm. when R = 120-130 
mm. But many specimens when dried are very flat, and all young individuals 
with R less than 20 mm. have the disk but Uttle elevated. As growth proceeds 
however the tendency is for the lesser radius (r) and the vertical diameter to 
increase more rapidly than R, so that full grown specimens have a flat, high body 
and relatively short, more or less triangular rays. There is great diversity in the 
number and size of tubercles and spinelets; very young specimens have but few 
and they are small; as growth proceeds there are divergent tendencies; in one hne 
tubercles become more evident and greatly predominate, while on the other hand 
the spinelets increase more markedly and tubercles are relatively infrequent or 
even almost wanting. The reticulation of the aboral skeleton which is often 
marked in large specimens first begins to be evident when R = 75-80 mm. but 
there are many large adults which do not show it at all. Nothing has been re- 
corded, so far as I know, of the color in hfe. 

The 39 AustraUan Museum specimens at hand are from three points on (or 
off) the Queensland coast from Fraser Island southward; from five New South 
Wales locaUties (30 specimens from Port Jackson) ; and 1 large individual from 
Tasmania. One specimen is labelled "Port Chalmers, New Zealand" but as 
Anthenea is not included in Mortensen's recent careful revision of New Zealand 
sea-stars, verification of this label is necessary. The specimen is a small but typi- 
cal acuta, and of course, Anthenea might occur on the New Zealand coast but 
hardly, one would think, at Port Chalmers. 



118 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Anthenea aspera 
DoDERLEiN, 1915. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 68, p. 35. 

There are 5 adult specimens of this fine species in the Australian Museum all 
from Port Curtis, Queensland; the labels on two give the additional information, 
"12 fms." The smallest specimen has R = 85 mm., r = 47 mm., R = 1.8r; in the 
largest specimen, R = at least 125 mm. but the tips of the arms are so up-curved, 
it is impossible to give an accurate measurement, r = 70 mm., hence R = 1.8r as in 
the smallest. In other specimens R exceeds l.Sr sUghtly and in no case is it less. 
In the types R = 1.72 and 1.74 r but so much depends on the way that R is 
measured this difference is not important ; if careful allowance is not made for the 
bending up of the arms at the tips, the present specimens have R = 1.7 r rather 
than 1.8 r. Besides the relatively long and pointed arms, the large and conspicu- 
ous superomarginal plates, usually closely covered with granules, and the aboral 
surface more or less closely covered with numerous pedicellariae, spinelets and 
pointed tubercles, distinguish this species. In the largest specimen the disk is 
elevated and the aboral skeleton somewhat reticulated as in acuta. 

An Anthenea from Port Denison, Queensland, with R only 65 mm. and the 
color a dull brownish purple, is referred to aspera with some hesitation, as the 
upper ends of the superomarginals are not well covered with granules, and in this 
particular the resemblance to crassa is notable; on the other hand the rays are 
narrow and pointed and the covering of the disk is more like aspera. As the speci- 
men is still immature, its identity cannot be positively determined. 

The color of the dried specimens of aspera shows some diversity. The largest 
two are dark brown aborally with the superomarginals and the oral surface 
yellow-brown in marked contrast. Of the other specimens, the smallest is (as 
already stated) dull brownish-purple and the next larger is a dull light brown 
with a distinctly purpUsh or reddish cast. The remaining two are brown with 
little contrast between the upper and lower surfaces. According to a note on the 
label of one of these specimens the color in fife was "Irregular mottling of brown 
and sage green; actinal surface yellow." 

Anthenea australiae 
DoDERLEiN, 1915. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 68, p. 52. 

Among the Antheneas dredged at Broome in 1932 are 3 typical examples of 
this well-marked species. In the largest R = 85-93 mm., r = 40, R = 2.25 r± ; the 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 119 

second specimen has R = 60-70 mm., r = 30; in the smallest, R = 47 mm. and r is 
about one-half as much. They agree almost perfectly with Doderlein's descrip- 
tion and figures, and the color is now a typical "museum-color" or as Doderlein 
puts it "gelbUch braun." It is greatly to be regretted that there are no field notes 
with these specimens to show what their color in life was. They were not dis- 
tinguished when dredging from the numerous specimens of conjungens and other 
species which we were constantly taking. 

Doderlein refers to Fremantle as the type locaUty for this species, and says 
there were many specimens. He adds that there was one small specimen from 
Shark Bay. It seems strange that we failed to take a single Anthenea in the 
vicinity of Fremantle either in 1929 or 1932. Furthermore there were none at the 
Museum of the University, nor did I note any in the Western AustraUan Museum. 
None have been sent to me by Professor Bennett. There is however a specimen 
in the M. C. Z., presented by Professor W. J. Dakin, which was taken "off 
Fremantle," a smaller specimen was dredged by Professor Dakin off the Abrolhos 
Islands. E\'idently the species belongs to the west coast fauna and is not com- 
mon as far to the northeast as Broome. Its occurrence at Fremantle, which is 
probably near the southern limit of its range, is apparently either very local or 
perhaps seasonal. 

Anthenea conjungens 

Doderlein, 1935. "Siboga" Ast.: Oreasteridae, p. 107. 

Doderlein bases this species on a single specimen in the Hamburg Museum 
from "Australia" — no more definite locality is known. It proves to be one of 
the commonest sea-stars at Broome and a fine series of 24 specimens was taken 
during September, 1929 and June, 1932. There are also at hand, 2 adult speci- 
mens from the Australian Museum, which are labelled as from "Northwestern 
AustraUa." The smallest individuals have R =23-25 mm. and r = 12-14 mm.; 
these little ones are notably well characterized by the fact that each aboral plate, 
with few exceptions, carries at its center a single, relatively large, rounded 
tubercle; now and then, a pedicellaria replaces or accompanies the tubercle and 
occasionally, the tubercle is replaced by a pedicellaria with a large granule on 
each side. In the smallest specimen, many plates on the distal portion of the arms 
are quite bare. One of the larger specimens is exactly the size of Doderlein's 
unique holotype (R = 75, r = 36 mm.) but is less flattened, the arms at middle 
being 13 mm. high; the vertical diameter of the disk is 19 mm.; this individual 



120 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

corresponds very closely in all details with the description and figure of the holo- 
type. The largest specimen has become much flattened but even were that not 
so, the rays are notably short and wide; R = 125 mm., r = 65 and br = 65; R = 1.9 r 
or br; the rays are thus nearly triangular with the sides about 65 mm. long. At 
the other extreme is a half grown specimen with R = 65 mm., r = 27 and br = 27; 
R = 2.4 r or br; considering the rays as triangles, the sides are 40 mm., the base 
only 27. On the whole, conjungens is one of the least variable species of Anthenea, 
except perhaps in color. As already stated, the failure to recognize the number of 
species occurring at Broome and hence to distinguish between them has led to a 
regrettable untrustworthiness in my notes. As far as I can remember, there was 
great diversity of color among these common Antheneas, with shades of orange 
or red, purple and brown predominating. The dry specimens show much diversity 
as they are, ranging from pale brown to bright brown in the young, and from 
light brownish to orange or to purplish in the larger ones, usually with irregular 
dusky blotches. 



Anthenea godeffroyi 

DoDEELEiN, 1915. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 68, p. 45. 

This species rests on a single specimen with R = 79 mm., r = 44 mm. While 
closely allied to both merloni and sibogae, the parallel series of very small tuber- 
cles gives a very different aspect to the dorsal surface. When the original descrip- 
tion was pubhshed, the type of the species was supposed to be from Samoa, but 
in his latest publication Doderlein (1935) expresses the belief that it is from Aus- 
traUa, as it bears the same catalogue mmiber (in Museum Godeffroy) as the 
type of conjungens, which is undoubtedly from Australia. As Anthenea is not 
known from east of the Great Barrier Reef region^, it is quite unlikely that it 
occurs at Samoa. Moreover the obvious relationship of godeffroyi to the following 
species (mertoni, sibogae and tuberculosa) makes it highly probable that the 
unique holotype came from tropical Austraha. It will not be surprising if it 
turns out to be an extreme variant of merioni, a species of which we still know 
all too few specimens. 

' Records from New Zealand, Fiji and western coast of Mexico are highly improbable and require 
confirmation. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 121 

Anthenea MERTONI 
Plate 7, figs. 1-2 
KoEHLER, 1910a. Abh. Senckenb. Nat. Ges., 33, p. 268. 

This is a fine, well-marked species, originally described from a single adult 
specimen from the Aru Islands. Doderlein (1915) records a somewhat smaller 
specimen in the Berlin Museum from the "Gazelle" collection in INIermaid 
Strait on the northwestern coast of Australia. I cannot avoid the feeling that 
there is some mistake about this locality, for among all the scores of Antheneas 
collected in 1929 and 1932 along the northwestern coast, both east and west 
of Broome, no individual was taken which could possibly be referred to rncrtoni 
or one of its near allies, so I find it hard to believe that it occurs in Mermaid 
Strait or on any part of the Australian coast, west of Cape Leveque. 

There are at hand however half a dozen specimens of mertoni which demon- 
strate its occurrence in the Gulf of Carpentaria, and as far west as Darwin. In 
the Australian Museum collection are 4 specimens; 3 from Mapoon on the eastern 
side of the entrance to, and 1 from Pearce Island, Sir Edward Pellew Group, 
far down in, the Gulf of Carpentaria. The specimens from Mapoon have numer- 
ous more or less capitate aboral spines, and the distal aboral plates on the arms 
have few and large tubercles. In 2 of the Mapoon specimens R = 65-70 mm., r = 
37-40, so that R = 1.7 r±, but the third is much smaller with R = 50 mm. and 
r = 26, so that R is nearly equal to 2 r; moreover the rays are narrower and more 
pointed than in the larger specimens, as is to be expected in young individuals. 
The specimen from Pearce Island is in very poor condition, badly water worn, 
but it is a large individual with R = 83 mm. and r = 50. 

At Darwin, we were so fortimate as to dredge near Channel Island, in July, 
1929, a very fine specimen of this Anthenea. Mrs. Clark made a color sketch 
of it as soon as possible, which was fortunate, as the present "museum color" 
gives no idea of its handsome appearance in life. The upper surface was gray, 
with large, irregular blackish-brown blotches; the oral surface was Ught reddish- 
buff. In structural details and appearance, this specimen corresponds very closely 
to Koehler's tj^pe specimen, which was a little larger with arms a little longer. 
The Darwin specimen has R = 85, r = 50 mm. Among all the scores of Antheneas 
subsequently collected in the Broome region, we never saw one that resembled 
this specimen in either form, tuberculation or color. We dredged near Shell 
Island at Darwin however a very small Anthenea, with R = 10 mm., r = 5.5 mm., 



122 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

which I believe is a young mertoni, although of course, it does not yet show any 
distinctive features. In April, 1936, Mr. Livingstone sent me 2 young specimens 
from Darwin acquired by the Australian Museum in 1935. 

Anthenea sibogae 
DoDERLEiN, 1915. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 68, p. 47. 

Among the specimens in the Australian Museum collection is an Anthenea 
(with R = 65 mm.) from Albany Passage, northern Queensland, 9-12 fms., which 
I am referring to this species with some misgiving. Another specimen of the same 
size, but with wider more rounded rays, as in mertoni, is also in the collection and 
is labelled Thursday Island. The two specimens are so aUke in the form and 
covering of the superomarginal plates that I feel sure they are the same species, 
and in this character of the upper marginal series they resemble Doderlein's 
figure of sibogae so closely, and differ so evidently from the much coarser granu- 
lation of mertoni that it seems best to refer them to sibogae. But it must be re- 
membered that sibogae is as yet known from only a single, large specimen, in 
which R = 102 mm. ; the arms are strikingly slender, though short, and the inter- 
brachial arcs notably flattened. If these features are constant, the species is 
very well characterized but the specimens at hand make one dubious as to their 
constancy, and if they are not constant, it is doubtful whether sibogae and 
mertoni can be maintained as distinct species. 

In this connection, it is important to note that the Antheneas Usted in my 
Torres Strait Report (1921, p. 29) as tuberculosa Gray are not that species (unless 
mertoni and sibogae are both synonyms thereof, as I believed in 1921 and still 
think is by no means improbable) but are evidently identical with the Australian 
Museum specimens which I am here calling sibogae. One of these Torres Strait 
specimens is young and is figured by me in its natural colors, which are bright 
and varied — very different from the Darwin mertoni or indeed from any other 
Anthenea I have ever seen. On account of this striking color difference, and 
the differences in superomarginal plates and aboral tuberculation, it seems wisest 
to let the three species stand but much more material is needed before their 
validity can be considered demonstrated. 

Anthenea tuberculosa 
Gray, 1847. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 77. 

The diagnosis of this species was published in June and in September 
again in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History (1847, 20, p. 198). Only 



Clark: Australian echinoderms 123 

a single specimen was in Gray's hands at the time and that was from Port 
Essington, Northern Territory, whence naval officers sent many a notable 
sample of the Australian fauna home to the British Museum. Later on (1866) 
Gray published a good figure of this individual and he does not seem to have 
had any other available specimen. Yet Perrier (1876, p. 88) refers to "echan- 
tillons desechfe" as "les types" of Gray and describes under the name tuber- 
culosa a sea-star which is apparently not Gray's species, quite a different thing 
to which Doderlein has since (1915, p. 52) given the name australiae. 

Apparently the true tuberculosa is a rare species, for D5derlein has seen but 
a single specimen, which he (1935, p. 106) records as taken by the Siboga at 
Pulu-Jedan in the Aru Islands; excellent figures are given. There are no speci- 
mens in the museums at either Sydney or Perth. In the M. C. Z. collection 
there is an Anthenea from an unknown locality, which I am referring to this 
species because of its very marked resemblance to Doderlein's figures. It has 
R = 67, r = 38 mm. (R = 1.75 r), and is perfectly flat aborally with a vertical 
diameter of 16 mm. The granulation, or better, the tuberculation of the supero- 
marginals is even coarser and more sparse than in mertoni and the distal aboral 
plates of the arms seldom have more than one large tubercle. This specimen 
probably came into the M. C. Z. collection from Ward's Natural Science Estab- 
lishment, Rochester, N. Y.; Mr. Ward made a trip to Torres Strait in 1896 and 
collected much marine material, some of which subsequently came to the 
M. C. Z. and this Anthenea was probably acquired then. Although it is easily dis- 
tinguished from all the specimens of mertoni and sibogae that I have seen, it is 
not unlikely (as already stated) that the three nominal species are in reality 
identical, as I held in my Torres Strait Report (1921, p. 29). 

Anthenea viguieri 

DoDEELEiN, 1915. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 68, p. 34. 

This species was established to provide a name for a sea-star misidentified 
by Muller and Troschel, and later by Perrier, and by Viguier. The specimen is 
in the Berlin Museum and has been figured by Doderlein. A specimen, not quite 
so large, is in the M. C. Z. from Restoration Island, northern Queensland. It 
was secured from Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Rochester, N. Y., 
in 1896. There are no specimens in the AustraHan Museum. Whether the species 
is really valid or only an extremely non-tuberculated form of tuberculosa remains 
to be demonstrated. 



124 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Anthenea acanthodes' sp. nov. 
Plate 18, fig. 2 

R = 97 mm., r = 55 mm., R = 1.76 r. Disk high, 40 mm. in vertical diameter. 
Arms correspondingly arched at base but becoming flattened rather abruptly 
35-40 mm. from the tip. Aboral surface of disk and basal part of arms, covered 
with big bluntly pointed tubercles or low, stout spines; on the basal part of 
arms these form 9-13, more or less distinct, nearly parallel series. Distal part of 
arms covered with irregular tuberculated plates as in the mertoni group; the 
tubercles on these plates are coarse and rounded hke those on the .superomarginal 
plates. The latter are rather few (14 or 15 on each side of a ray), vertical in 
position, much higher than long, conspicuously covered, except at margins, with 
coarse tubercles, the uppermost largest. Inferomarginal plates correspond in 
size and position; the outer end and distally the whole plate carries coarse tuber- 
cles ; in the interbrachial arc the inner portion of the plate is closely covered with 
small tubercles like those of the actinal intermediate plates. Pedicellariae on 
marginal plates (in both series) few and small, often wanting altogether. Oral 
surface not peculiar in any way but typically Anthenea-hke. Adambulacral 
armature stout but not remarkably so. Color of dry specimen, brown, lightest 
orally, darkest on aboral surface of rays. 

Holotype, AustraHan Museum No. J5367, from Port Curtis, Queensland. 

This is the most sharply defined species of Anthenea, occurring in Australia. 
It looks as though it might conceivably be a hybrid between crassa and mertoni 
but I do not believe for a moment that this is the case. 



Anthenea crassa^ sp. nov. 
Plate 18, fig. 1 

R about 115 mm. (along the adambulacral furrow, the arms are 125 mm. 
long, on the aboral surface, about 105 mm.); r = about 55 mm., R = 2.1 r; at 
base of arm, br is rather more than r. Aboral surface low and somewhat flattened 
in holotype but in some specimens it is considerably arched; one with R = 90 

' o-KavdosSris = full of thorns, in reference to the remarkably spiny aboral surface. 
^ crassus = coarse, in reference to the large tubercles and granules of the aboral surface and supero- 
marginal plates. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 125 

mm. has v.d. about 30 mm. In this specimen a certain amount of reticulation of 
the aboral skeleton is evident but no other specimen shows it. Aboral surface 
of disk and rays covered with coarse tubercles or stout blunt spines, which, on 
the basal part of the rays form about 9 more or less definite series ; in the holo- 
type, which has the heaviest tubercles (often over 2 mm. high and more than 
2 mm. in diameter at base) the series are not very well defined but can be dis- 
tinguished along the median radial line. In all the paratypes, the tubercles are 
smaller though they may be 2 mm. high. Pedicellariae aborally are very few in 
the holotype and some other individuals, but in several specimens they are 
numerous. Superomarginal plates about 15 in number, lying more or less on the 
aboral surface in the interbrachial arcs but becoming more vertical distally; in 
the specimen with the high disk, they are nearly vertical even in the interbrachial 
arc. Distally they are pretty well covered with coarse granules but basally the 
margins are more bare and the uppermost granules are much the largest and form 
a single vertical series of 2-4. Inferomarginal plates more numerous (16 or 17) 
and not corresponding exactly in position with the upper series; they are closely 
covered with granules, coarsest at the outer end, and carry several (2-6) pedi- 
cellariae. Oral surface not peculiar but the adambulacral armature is exception- 
ally heavy, all the spines, especially the marginal series, being more than usually 
stout. Color of dry holotype, dark brown but some of the paratypes are more 
yellow-brown. 

Holotype, Australian Museum No. J5368, from Port Curtis, Queensland. 

There are 7 paratypes, all from Port Curtis, where this species evidently 
replaces acuta of the more southern coast. The smallest has R=70 and r=35 
mm.; the tubercles are of course much smaller than in the holotype but other- 
wise the resemblance is marked. One individual with R = 95-100 mm. is notable 
as having the longest arms relatively of any Anthenea examined; r is only a 
little more than 40 mm., hence R =2.4-2.5 r. The narrowness of the arms is 
indicated by the fact that 40 mm. from the mouth br is only 35 mm. 

An Anthenea from Port Curtis, with R = 105 mm. has given much difficulty 
in its identification but owing to the position, character, and armature of the 
superomarginal plates, it is here referred to crassa, with the suggestion that it is a 
hybrid between crassa and aspera, the two common Antheneas at Port Curtis. 
The color (brown aborally, with the marginal plates and oral surface, yellow- 
brown in rather sharp contrast) is like that of the large specimens of aspera, and 
the attenuate, somewhat pointed rays, are also Uke that species. Moreover 
there are numerous pedicellariae and few spinelets on the aboral surface as in 



126 memoir: museum of compaeative zoology 

aspera. But because of the superomarginal plates, it cannot be placed in that 
species without qualification. The possibility of its being a hybrid seems reason- 
able. 

Anthenea elegans' sp. nov. 
Plate 18, fig. 4 

R = 120 mm., r = 60, R = 2 r; br (at 60 mm. from mouth) 52 mm. Disk 
moderately elevated, v.d. =32 mm. Nearly all of the paratypes are flat or only a 
little convex. Disk covered with small pedicellariae, spinelets and tubercles, 
rounded or bluntly pointed ; if pedicellariae are very numerous, the spinelets are 
rather few but if pedicellariae are few the spinelets are very numerous. In the 
holotype, the tubercles are large, up to 2 mm. in height and in diameter; they are 
arranged in 9-1 1 well separated series on each arm and between them the pedicel- 
lariae are excessively numerous. Paratypes not essentially different but the tuber- 
cles are smaller and more crowded and there are not so many series on each arm. 
Superomarginal plates about 18, much wider (in the interbrachial arc) or higher 
(distally) than long, well covered with granules, largest on convexity of the plate, 
smallest close to the margins ; in young specimens the marginal portions of each 
plate are quite bare and the uppermost granules are enlarged; distally, in adults, 
some or many granules are enlarged; especially on upper half of each plate. In 
many cases, the superomarginals are nearly vertical even in the interbrachial arcs 
but they always form a conspicuous border to the disk and rays. Many aboral 
plates near arm tip are somewhat enlarged and carry several tubercles and gran- 
ules as in the mertoni group, but the character is well-marked only in big adults. 
Inferomarginal plates notably large, uniformly and closely granulated, with a 
single small pedicellaria or none (in the holotype, more commonly, none) ; on a 
few plates at the middle of the interbrachial arcs, the granules at the outer end are 
notably enlarged and in some j^oung indi\'iduals the same is true; in most adults 
however, this does not seem to be characteristic. Oral surface as usual in the 
genus, but the adambulacral armature is very well developed and the series of 
spines back of the marginal series contains 3, and often 4, more or less flattened 
spines. Color (dry) more or less dull purple-brown, but lightest on marginal 
plates and near arm-tips. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 3192, from Broome, Western Australia, 5-8 fms., 
June, 1932. 

' elegans = handsome, in contrast to crassa, in reference to its more beautiful form and finer appearance. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 127 

The holotype is much the largest specimen but there is a good series of 16 
paratypes with R ranging from 50 to 100 mm. On the whole there is relatively 
little diversity in the form, or in tuberculation of the aboral surface, but there is a 
good deal of diversity in the position of the superomarginal plates; the degree to 
which they form a conspicuous part of the dorsal surface depends in part on the 
care with which the specimens were prepared, including the rapidity or slowness 
of the drying. But it also depends in some degree on the size of the individual 
and the convexity of the disk. 

This species is nearly as common at Broome as conjungens but adult speci- 
mens of the two species are easily distinguished. Individuals with R less than 50 
mm. are more easily confused. My field notes however give no clue as to the 
colors in life of elegans; presumably they were as diversified as in other species. 

The smallest specimen at hand is a curious monstrosity, as one of the ambu- 
lacra forks 6 mm. from the mouth and gives rise to a sixth ray slightly smaller 
than the other five; it has 13 superomarginals on each side whereas the other rays 
have 15. 



Anthenea obesa' sp. nov. 
Plate 19, fig. 1 

R = 100 mm.; r = 48 mm.; R = more than 2 r; br at 48 mm. from mouth, 37 
mm.; vertical diameter of disk about 33 mm. Aboral surface covered with a 
smooth, thin skin, with very few pedicellariae or small spinelets but with about 
230-250 coarse, blunt or truncate tubercles sparsely and irregularly distributed 
over the disk and the proximal portion of the arms; these tubercles are 2-3 mm. 
high and up to 2.5 mm. in diameter; they tend to form 2 parallel series on each 
ray. Superomarginal plates about 16 on each side of an arm, very low, (longer 
than high) on basal half of arm but becoming higher than long distally; in the 
interbrachial arc the plates are scarcely visible from above and there is usually 
but a single small tubercle on each plate; sometimes however a second small 
tubercle, or several granules may be present ; distally 5 or 6 coarse granules occur 
on each plate and the plates themselves form a conspicuous margin to the ter- 
minal half of the arms. Inferomarginal plates moderately large, quite uniformly 
covered with coarse granules. Oral surface as usual in Anthenea but adambula- 
cral spines in all three series are unusually short and stumpy. Color in Ufe is 

' obesus = fat, in reference to the high disk and arms. 



128 memoik: museum of comparative zoology 

recorded as "scarlet or crimson-red;" the dry specimens are light reddish-brown 
above, very much lighter, almost a reddish-white, below. 

Holotype, Western Australian Museum, No. 4920, dredged bj' the "En- 
deavour" off Geraldton in 29 fms. 

There is a single paratype of this strongly marked species taken at the same 
time and place as the one described above. It is somewhat smaller (R = 83 mm.) 
and there are fewer aboral tubercles, but there are a good many more granules on 
the interbrachial superomarginal plates. 



Anthenea polygnatha' sp. nov. 
Plate 18, fig. 3. Plate 19, figs. 2-3 

R = 125 mm.; r = 60 mm. R = 2 r or more; br at 60 mm. from mouth, only 
40 mm. These are the measurements of the holotype but this Anthenea seems to 
be dimorphic and a specimen of the other form has R = 115 mm.; r = 60 mm.; 
hence R is a little less than 2 r; br at 60 nun. from the mouth is 50 mm. or more. 
In the long armed form, the interbrachial arc has a nearly straight margin 
40-50 mm. long while in the other, the straight portion of the interbrachial arc is 
only 20-25 mm. and even then it is not really straight but slightly concave. The 
3 smaller specimens at hand, with R = 78, 93 and 97 mm. all have wide rays and 
curved interbrachial arcs. Of 2 larger specimens, one with R = 130 mm. is dis- 
tinctly narrow-armed while the other with R = 127 mm. is more of the broad- 
armed form, though it has interbrachial arcs that are nearly straight for 40 mm. 
It is possible that this difference in form is associated with sex and the matter 
deserves investigation whenever fresh material is available. 

Aside from this difference in form, the 7 specimens at hand show little 
diversity. The aboral surface is covered with hundreds of low spine-like tubercles, 
smallest in the small specimens, largest in the holotype. There is more or less 
evident a tendency to have these tubercles form radiating parallel series running 
out from the center of the disk. On the arms these series are usually quite evident, 
more so in the smaller specimens than in tlie larger. In all the specimens, the 
tubercles along the sides of disk and arms (i.e. just above the superomarginal 

' TToXi/s = ma/ji/ + yi>ados = jaw, in reference to the very large number of pedicellariae on the oral 
surface. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 129 

plates) tend to be longer and more conspicuous than elsewhere, and this is a 
rather good distinguishing mark when specimens are mixed with conjungens, 
elegans and australiae. There is some individual diversity as to the degree to 
which the tubercles are pointed ; in some specimens they are quite sharp. 

Superomarginal plates small, in the interbrachial arc almost as long (or 
high) as wide, becoming larger distally but never forming a conspicuous part of 
the aboral surface. Their position ranges from nearly horizontal in one arc of 
the holotype which is a flat, slowly dried specimen, to perfectly vertical in most 
of the others. There is little doubt that in hfe, they are normally nearly or quite 
vertical in the interbrachial arcs, and are but little visible from above. They are 
more or less covered with granules ; on the lower half the granules are small and 
cover the plate well but on the upper portion the granules are larger and the 
uppermost is almost a tubercle, above and on each side of which the plate is 
quite bare; besides the granules each plate bears 1-5 pedicellariae of diverse 
sizes. Inferomarginal plates considerably larger than those of the upper series, 
completely covered with small granules and pedicellariae; the number of pedi- 
cellariae on each plate ranges from 4 up; in the holotype, many of the plates carry 
15-20 pedicellariae. Actinal intermediate plates with numerous pedicellariae, as 
many as 4 occurring on some plates and rarely does a plate carry only a single 
large pedicellaria. Adambulacral armature in three series as usual but the spines 
of the second series are unusually long and flattened; even in the smallest speci- 
men this feature is noticeable. Color in life purple or violet or orange; as in the 
other species of Anthenea at Broome, there seems to be no constancy or dis- 
tinctiveness in the color. The dried specimens still show some traces of purple or 
orange, but in general they are "museum color." 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 3196, from Broome, Western Australia, 5-8 fms., 
June, 1932. 

Of the 6 paratypes, the 2 largest were presented to me in 1929 by Colonel 
W. 0. Mansbridge,,who informed me that they came from the Lacepede Islands, 
north of Broome. We did not meet with the species that year but in June of 1932, 
we took the holotype and the other paratypes in our dredging south and south- 
west of Roebuck Bay. The excessive development of pedicellariae, the long 
adambulacral spines and the increased length of the aboral tubercles above the 
superomarginal plates combine to make this species easy to recognize in spite of 
its dimorphic tendency. 



130 memoik: museum of comparative zoology 

OREASTERIDAE 
Protoreaster nodulosus 

Pentaceros nodulostis Pehrier, 1876. Arch. Zool. Exp., 5, p. 53. 
Protoreaster nodulosus Doderlein, 1916. Zool. Jahrb.: Syst., 40, p. 420. 

Although hitherto considered a rare species, this is a common sea-star in the 
Broome region and specimens of very diverse size and almost equally diverse 
color were constantly taken during our dredging. It was also found at or above 
low water mark during the extreme tides of September, 1929. The smallest speci- 
men has R = 40 mm., r = 16, R = 2.5 r ; in the largest individual at hand R = 155- 
160 nun., and r = 63 mm., so the proportions are essentially the same. In a per- 
fectly tetramerous specimen from the Lacepede Islands, R = 90 mni. and r = 30, 
hence R = 3 r, and in a hexamerous specimen also from the Lacepedes, R = 85 mm. 
and r = 35, hence R is not quite equal to 2.5 r. On the whole, the form, propor- 
tions and tuberculation show rather notable constancy. The two largest speci- 
mens however show interesting details of tuberculation; in the larger the 5 big 
hemispherical radial tubercles which are so distinctive a feature of nearly all 
individuals are practically wanting in two radii and in the other three are in- 
conspicuous, not nearly so large as the adjoining tubercle which begins the 
characteristic carinal series; in the other specimen, the large tubercles of the 
carinal series are very irregular in form, number and arrangement, the big 
radial tubercles are wanting or displaced, and there are 5 large interradial 
tubercles; on one arm the proximal tubercles of the carinal series are about as 
usual, on two, they are wanting and on two, they are abnormally numerous, of 
diverse sizes and crowded out of position. In this latter specimen, there are 
notable irregularities in the distal inferomarginal series. 

My field notes describe the color of a number of specimens but the diversity 
is so striking it has no significance ; in general it may be said that the aboral sur- 
face is usually brown, gray or green of some shade, with the papular areas a 
different shade from the plates and the papulae dark; the large tubercles usually 
stand out in a distinctive shade or color; in one extreme specimen they were 
purphsh-black with the rest of the aboral surface cream-white. The oral surface 
is more constant ; it is fundamentally cream color but shades of the aboral side 
pass over onto it more or less by way of the interbrachial inferomarginals, and in 
highly colored specimens the central portion of each actinal intermediate plate 
may be quite evidently tinted with some shade of color. In all specimens, of all 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 131 

sizes, the adambulacral armature is white or at least cream-color, and the 
pedicels are white (more or less translucent, of course) with the terminal suckers 
bright hght violet. It is curious how constant this color of the pedicels is. 

There are 25 specimens of nodulosus at hand, of which the 2 non-pentamerous 
specimens from the Lacepede Islands, mentioned above were gifts from Colonel 
W. O. Mansbridge; 5 adults were taken at False Cape Bossut in September, 1929; 
2 large adults were collected at Augustus Island by Captain Bardwell in October, 
1933, and the remainder, including half a dozen very young specimens, were 
taken at or near Broome, in 1929 or in June, 1932. 

Pentaceraster australis 

Oreaster australis LttxKEN, 1871. Vid. Med., 23, p. 253. 

Pentaceraster australis Doderlein, 1916. Zool. Jahrb.: Syst., 40, p. 433. 

Mr. Melbourne Ward has kindly sent a small Oreasterid with R = 42 mm. 
which seems to be the young of this species, common at several points on the 
Queei^sland coast. Li\'ingstone's (1932) careful description of the growth stages 
and his admirable figures leave no doubt as to the identification, but I have not 
hitherto seen so small a specimen. 

Pentaceraster gracilis 

Oreaster gracilis Lutken, 1871. Vid. Med., 23, p. 260. 

Pentaceraster gracilis Doderlein, 1916. Zool. Jahrb. : Syst., 40, p. 437. 

In 1929, Colonel W. O. Mansbridge of Broome, presented me with an unmis- 
takable specimen of this fine species taken at the Lacepede Islands, north of 
Broome. One of the very few disappointments which we met with in our collect- 
ing that year was the failure to find even one specimen of this rare and much- 
desired form. The disappointment was deepened in 1932 when a month of very 
extended and intensive dredging failed to reveal a specimen. The few specimens 
hitherto known have come from the coast of Queensland. There are none in the 
AustraUan Museum and only 3 in the M. C. Z. ; one of the.se, a small one with 
R = 133 mm., is from an unknown locaUty but the 2 large ones, with R = 200-235 
mm., are from Warrior Reef, in Torres Strait, where they were secured in 1896 by 
Mr. Henry A. Ward. The specimen at hand from the Lacepede Islands has 
R = 220 mm., r = 100 mm. The color of the dry specimen is a dull purplish- 
brown, which suggests that the color in life was a brick-red. 



132 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

culcita novaeguineae 
MiJLLER and Troschel, 1842. Sys. Ast., p. 38. 

Among tlie valuable discoveries which Captain Bardwell made during his 
collecting at Augustus and Champagay Islands, none surprised nie more than 
that of Culcita of which he sent 5 specimens. They are so similar to those in the 
M. C. Z. from Torres Strait, that the identification seems beyond question but the 
extension of range is very remarkable, as I can find no records for Culcita nearer 
than Torres Strait, 1200 miles or more to the east. 

The specimens at hand, in their dry and flattened condition range from R = 
70 to R = 115 mm. All are markedly pentagonal and all but one have the sides 
nearly straight; in one, the concavity of two sides is as much as 15-20 mm. In 
the smallest specimen the marginal plates are very conspicuous, but in none of the 
others are they visible; there are 12 on each side of the pentagon in the upper 
series and 14 or possibly 16 in the lower; the inferomarginals near the tip of the 
arm are ill-defined. This smallest specimen is quite brown but the others are 
more definitely gray; all have more or less variegation or tinting with yellowish 
or brownish. 

OPHIDIASTERIDAE 

AUSTROFROMIA POLYPORA 

Fromia polypora H. L. Clark, 1916. "Endeavour" Ech., p. 51. 
Ausfrofromia polypora H. L. Clark, 1921. Torres Strait Ech., p. 48. 

Mr. Glauert has kindly loaned me a small specimen of this still little known 
species, taken at Rottnest Island, and belonging to the Western Australian Mu- 
seum. It is considerably distorted but R is about 65 mm. and r is almost one- 
fifth as much; at base, the arms are 12 mm. in diameter but they taper rather 
rapidly to a blunt tip about 5 mm. across. The specimen is now museum color 
with a faint reddish tinge but there is no indication of what the color was in life. 

Nardoa pauciforis 

Linckia pauciforis von Martens, 1866. Arch. f. Naturg. 32, pt. 1, p. 69. 
Nardoa pauciforis Sladen, 18S9. "Challenger" Ast., p. 412. 

The range of this species is extended far to the southward by its discovery 
near Mackay, Queensland. Mr. Ward has sent a very typical specimen with 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 133 

R = 110-115 mm., bearing the label "Coral reef, Seaforth Island near Lindeman 
Island, Cumberland Group, Queensland, July, 1935." 

LiNCKIA GUILDINGII 
Gray, 1S40. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 285. 

The discovery of this tropicopolitan sea-star at Lord Howe Island was not 
very surprising but to find it among the species occurring at Broome was most 
unexpected. Still more interesting is the color in life of the specimens taken at 
Broome. The first specimens taken were brought up by our diver, Norman 
Whitworth, from 4-5 fms. in Lagrange Bay; there were 3 lying exposed on the 
sandy bottom and Whitworth said he saw no others, yet oddly enough one has 4, 
one has 5 and one has 6 arms. The 4-armed one has R = 195 mm. on the longest 
ray but only 155 on two others and the fourth was bitten (or broken) off close to 
the disk but was healed and beginning to regenerate; the arms are 15-18 mm. in 
diameter near base and taper evenly to the tip; there are 3 madreporites, sub- 
equal and normal, 1 in an interradial area on the disk, the other 2 in the adjoining 
interradius, on the side of the base of a ray. The 5-armed individual is more un- 
symmetrical in arm-length yet it has only a single madreporite. Beginning to the 
right of the madreporite, the length of R is 175, 165, 178, 102 and 84 mm. and the 
diameter of the arms near base is 13-14 mm. The 6-armed specimen has 2 madre- 
porites; the ray between them has R = 100 mm.; the following rays (to the right) 
have R = 165, 185, 125, 155 and 180 mm. In color these 3 specimens were ahke; 
they were "very blue, with a greenish cast," but distally the arms had more of a 
violet tinge. The blue was not so deep a shade as in L. laevigata. On drying, the 
color became light blue but soon changed to gray with a violet tinge which 
becomes more or less red-violet distally and orally; there are also distinct red- 
violet patches, 1-5 mm. across, on the oral surface. There is no record of blue 
Linckias in the West Indies. 

Off Cape Vilaret, in about 5 fms., Whitworth brought up a young guildingii, 
which was violet, not at all blue; it dried reddish but soon became violet-buff, 
more nearly violet on disk. A small adult specimen (R = 100 mm.) in the M. C. Z. 
from Moraine Cay, Bahama Islands, is very distinctly violet, even in its present 
dry condition and must have been much the same color in life as this Cape 
Vilaret specimen. The latter has 2 small madreporites, one almost rudimentary, 
and the rays measure 87-112 mm. in length, 6.5-8 mm. in diameter. Mr. Bourne 
gave me another specimen of guildingii, which he collected near Broome and dried ; 



134 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

it is much distorted, but has a single small madreporite, and 5 arms, of unequal 
length, 2 bitten (or broken) off near the disk; the most perfect arm is about 170 
mm. long and 17 in diameter; the color of this specimen is a light brown, similar 
to that of the West Indian specimens at hand. Unfortunately Mr. Bourne did not 
recall the color in life. Another specimen from Broome has been loaned by the 
Perth Museum; it is now a rather bright yellow brown especially on the oral side; 
there are 2 madreporites with a ray between them, and 6 arms, 70-170 mm. long. 
The single specimen from Lord Howe Island is rather small but quite sym- 
metrical, with 5 arms, and 1 madreporite ; R = 90-95 mm. It was given me by Mr. 
Ivor Maidment who picked it up on Middle Beach; he reports the colors as 
"brown above, almost red below, along furrows." It is now however in poor con- 
dition and quite bleached, having been obviously exposed to rain and sun. In 
the Australian Museum tliere is a fine 6-rayed specimen from Lord Howe, having 
R = 100 mm., more or less. 



BUNASTER VARIEGATUS' Sp. UOV. 

Plate 22, fig. 1 

Rays 5. R = 23 mm., r = 6, br = 6, hence R nearly = 4 r or 4 br. Aboral surface 
well covered by the superomarginal plates of which there are about 16 or 17 in 
each series, and a single carinal row of 16 or 17 similar plates; the superomarginal 
plates increase in size distally, so that the most distal are considerable larger than 
the ones near disk; this increase in size distally is not so evident in the carinal 
plates; on the basal half of the arm, there is, on each side of the carinal plates, a 
series of 10-12 very small plates; all of the aboral plates lie close together and the 
narrow areas between are closely covered with minute granules like scales, set 
more or less on edge. No pedicellariae, or "ball and socket" plates, have been 
detected on the holotype or any other specimen either aborally or orally although 
prolonged search with magnifications up to 90 diameters has been made. Papulae 
are present singly on the arms in most of the angles between superomarginal and 
carinal plates. Terminal plate large, nearly circular, swollen. Inferomargmal 
plates 18 or 19 in number, largest near middle of arm, smallest basally, the distal 
ones more or less circular. Intermarginal plates 8 or 9 extending out to middle 
of arm. Intermarginal papulae relatively large and conspicuous, at least distal to 
intermarginal plates. 

' variegatus, in reference to the diversified coloration. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 135 

Actinal intermediate plates in two series but the outer only extends to about 
the tenth inferomarginal. There are 12-15 large single papulae, in a well spaced 
series, below the inferomarginals. Adambulacral armature as in other Bunasters, 
2 furrow spines, short, rounded, subequal, on each adambulacral plate and a large 
subambulacral spine, almost as wide as long, so the series is quite crowded. Oral 
plates with 3 marginal spines but none on surface. Color of disk and tips of arms 
rose-red (purplish-red or dull brown m para types), base of arms cream-white 
with more or less brown variegation; remainder of arm variegated with brown, 
reddish and white; oral surface whitish more or less variegated with brown. 
There are 5 specimens which show this rather pretty coloring. The other 8 are 
bleached, to a uniform pale yellow-brown in .3 cases but more nearly white in the 
others. Apparently the variegated specimens were dried either without being 
placed in alcohol or before it had affected the color perceptibly; the others were 
probably bleached in alcohol and later dried. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 3214, from Bunkers Bay, Western AustraUa, in a 
shallow intertidal pool. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

This Bunaster is almost exactly the same size as the type of B. lithodes 
Fisher, with which it has been critically compared. The differences are obvious: 
the wide (almost circular) subambulacral spines in a crowded series are very 
different from the narrow, well-spaced spines of lithodes; the outer actinolateral 
series of plates is much shorter and the individual plates smaller than in the 
Philippine species; the granulated areas between the skeletal plates are much 
narrower and less extensive in the Australian species, the papulae are single and 
there are no pedicellariae ; the color is notably different, more rose or purple in 
variegatus, but whether this difference is of any value, only large series of speci- 
mens can tell. 

In the Ught of the material now at hand, there is no doubt that the Bunasters 
taken by Professor W. J. Dakin at the Abrolhos Islands, which were recorded as 
lithodes (H. L. Clark, 1923, p. 241) are really immature variegatus. Comparison 
of one of them with a variegatus of similar size indicates this clearly. 

Besides the holotype there are 12 specimens of Bunaster in the present collec- 
tion, all of which, except the very young, with R less than 12 mm. may be con- 
sidered paratypes. They were taken as follows : 

Western AustraUa: Rottnest Island, near Bathurst Point, December, 1929 and 

January 1930. Miss Glauert and L. Glauert leg. 7 speci- 
mens, 1 adult and 6 young (2 in natural colors appar- 
ently). 



136 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Same locality but taken in 1931. 4 specimens, young, 1 in 
natural colors, apparently. 

Bunkers Bay, "shallow intertidal pools with loose rocks and a 
little muddy sand; small clusters of a short brown alga 
in pools." 1 adult specimen (holotype) and 1 very simi- 
lar but not so large. 



Leiaster leachii 

Plate 9 

Ophidiaster leachii Gray, 1840. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 284. 

Lciasfcr leachii de Loriol, 188.5. Mem. Soc. Phy.s. Hist. Nat. Geneve, 29, No. 4, p. 40. 

On April 21, 1932, one of our last days at Lord Howe Island, Mr. Robert 
Baxter, whose knowledge and ready assistance had been invaluable during our 
stay, brought in a superb sea-star, with R =275 mm. (diameter of arms less than 
20 mm.), which he had "after half an hour's work, dug out of the coral rock near 
shore on the South Reef." The color was striking, a brownish-buff, irregularly 
blotched and spotted with crimson; the big madreporite was red-violet. It was 
new to him as well as to us, though there was no doubt of its being a Leiaster. 
A few days later, in looking over sea-stars in the Australian Museum, a Leiaster 
from Lord Howe was seen which appeared to be L. speciosus v. Mart. Comparison 
of my Lord Howe specimen with the specimen of speciosus in the M. C. Z., 
secured at the Murray Islands in 1913 (See H. L. Clark, 1921, p. 74) raised the 
question as to the validity of von Marten's species. Specimens of Leiaster are 
unfortunately very rare (there are only 3 in the M. C. Z.) but after consideration 
of those I have seen in life and in museums, and of the published descriptions and 
figures, I must confess I can find no difference that is trustworthy between 
speciosus and leachii, and the latter name unfortunately has priority. 

Owing to the length and somewhat flaccid character of the arms, Leiaster 
leachii undergoes considerable change of form when preserved; the shrinkage 
of the Lord Howe specimen in drying is about 10% in length of arms with no 
corresponding decrease in diameter; tlie arms are thus shorter and stouter than 
in life. A few small pedicellariae are present on the distal part of the arms. The 
color is now a uniform dark and dingy Iirowu-red becoming a light red, reddish- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 137 

yellow and finally dull yellowish distally. But the specimen was dried hastily 
and under adverse conditions, as we were packing up to leave the island. 

Mr. Livingstone has written me that during the Christmas holidays of 1932 
he took "another beautiful Leiaster" at Lord Howe, with R = 226 mm. The color 
in life was "surface covered with blotches of orange, magenta and crimson, the 
last two colours predominating. The colouring is extremely vivid and most 
strikingly beautiful." It is interesting that this specimen has the same type of 
coloration as that of the specimen taken in April, whereas the Murray Islands 
specimen was uniform crimson. One can but wonder whether the unicolored and 
particolored forms are really one species! 



Ophidiaster armatus 
KoEHLER, 1910a. Al)h. Senckenb. Nat. Ges., 33, p. 277. 

Among the sea-stars sent me from Lindeman Island, near Mackay, Queens- 
land, by Mr. Melbourne Ward in 1934, are two specimens which after much 
hesitation, I refer, for the present, to this species. The large one has R = 66 mm. 
and hence is a little larger than the largest of Koehler's types. The breadth of 
the arm at base is nearly 9 mm., so the proportions are very similar to those of 
armatus. But the arms are more slender and tapering and the groups of papulae 
are much less noticeable than in Koehler's figures. However the specimen in 
hand is dry, while Koehler's photograph is obviously of a specimen not yet dried. 
No pedicellariae were found in the types of armatus; there are many in the Linde- 
man Island specimen. The color of armatus was deep yellowish-violet with 2 
or 3 faint, irregular yellowish bands on the distal part of the arms. The present 
dry specimen is an almost uniform deep brown-violet with the faintest possible 
indication of banding on the arms, visible only in particularly good light. 

The smaller specimen from Lindeman Island has R = 38 mm. It is a dull 
light brown, more or less evidently variegated with a darker more purple shade; 
on the arms these darker blotches might be considered as indefinite bands; 
oral surface somewhat lighter. The series of papular groups on the oral surface 
of base of arm, which are very evident in the larger specimen, can scarcely be 
detected in this small one, which is thus much like a Tamaria. The projecting 
pointed tubercles on the marginal, and some aboral plates at the tip of the arm 
are evident enough but are not at all conspicuous. It seems better to call these 



138 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

specimens armahis than to attempt to differentiate them as a distinct species. 
The specimen in the M. C. Z. from the CaroUne Islands which I (1921, p. 82) 
referred to armatus is certainly not this species. It is too young for satisfactory 
identification but is probably granifer Ltk. 



Ophidiaster confertus 
Plate 10, figs. 2, 3 
H. L. Clark, 1916. "Endeavour" Rep., p. 53. 

This is certainly one of the characteristic reef animals at Lord Howe, even 
though it occurs also (so Mr. Livingstone tells me) on the New South Wales 
coast. It was the first sea-star that collecting on the South Reef flat near Mt. 
Lidgbird yielded and subsequent collecting showed it was common all over that 
extended area. It also occurred at Neds Beach, indicating that it is distributed 
all around the island. It lives more or less exposed among coral heads and rock 
fragments so it is quite conspicuous. 

There are 25 specimens in the series at hand; they fall naturally into two 
groups of 6 young ones and 19 adults. The young ones have R = 10-23 mm. In 
the smallest, there is a single papula at each point where any four of the adam- 
bulacral, marginal and aboral plates meet each other; hence there are 8 longi- 
tudinal series of 9-11 very distinct single papulae along the arm. In the next 
larger specimen (R = 12 mm.) there are 2 papulae at each point, except basally 
distally and orally; in a specimen with R = 13 mm., there are 3 papulae at some 
points. A specimen with R = 17 mm. is at this stage but the one with R = 23 
mm. has 4-7 papulae in the aboral groups and 3 in those on the oral surface. In 
color, the young specimens under R = 20 mm. are very light, little pigment having 
developed but the one with R = 23 mm. is light orange brown. 

The adults range from R = 58 to R = 155-160 mm. There is some diversity 
in the stoutness of the arms : one specimen has R = 97 and br = 12, hence R = 8 br, 
and the largest specimen has br = 18, hence R is about 8.5 br, but another speci- 
men with R = 100 mm. or less has br 15 mm. or more, so that R is only about 
6 br. It might be mentioned here that in very young specimens R = 4 br. 

In coloration, confertus is never mottled or variegated, but unicolor, save 
for the tendency to a lighter tint on the oral side near the ambulacral furrow. 
Most individuals are a deep tawny yellow or orange brown, but some are lighter. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 139 

ranging to a dull yellow orange; or darker, almost a real brown. In the dried 
specimens the range is from a rather dingy wood-brown to a very distinct (almost 
chrome) yellow. Alcoholic specimens are a light wood-brown. 



Hacelia helicosticha 

Ophidiaster helicostichus Sladen, 1889. "Challenger" Ast., p. 405. 
Hacelia helicosticha H. L. Clark, 1909. Bull. M. C. Z., 52, p. 111. 

A very large example of this fine species, with R = 150-155 mm., is at hand, 
loaned by the Australian Museum. It is a perplexing specimen because the 
actinal papulae are poorly developed and only here and there at isolated spots 
can one count ten (or even nine!) longitudinal series of papulae. But the shape 
of the rays, associated with the additional actinolateral plates, leaves no doubt 
of the genus. The specimen bears only the label J69, but Mr. Livingstone tells 
me it is from northwestern Australia and was collected by Mr. F. J. CJibbons. 



Tamaria fusca 
Gray, 1840. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 28.3. 

A single very young ophidiasterid is at hand from the Great Barrier Reef 
Expedition St. XVI, ^ 2 niile west of North Direction Island, 20 fms., stony bot- 
tom. It has been identified by Livingstone as representing Gray's species and I 
see no reason for questioning the fact. It must be added however that ophi- 
diasterids as small as this (R = 10-11 mm.) cannot be identified with certainty 
unless associated with a series of larger specimens. 



Tamaria megaloplax 
Linckia megaloplax Bell, 1884. "Alert" Ech., p. 126. 

The untangUng of the snarl in which this species was enmeshed seems to 
have been accomplished satisfactorily by Livingstone, though I cannot accept 
all of his conclusions as to the synonymy. The growth changes in this species 
are more extraordinary than in any other sea-star, except perhaps Culcita or 
some of the multiradiate forms. Young individuals of megaloplax, having R 



140 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

less than 45 mm. are conspicuously prickly, most of the marginals and many 
aboral plates being capped with a pointed tubercle or spine. As growth proceeds, 
these tubercles are more and more resorbed. But the rate of resorption differs 
greatly in different individuals; in one specimen at hand from Broome, given 
me by Mr. R. A. Bourne, with R only G2 mm., the process is complete — not a 
tubercle is left; in another specimen, from the Lacepede Islands, given me by 
Colonel W. O. Mansbridge, with R =70 mm. many tubercles on the aboral plates, 
and most of those on the marginals are still evident though greatly reduced; 
in an adult specimen, with R rather more than 100 mm., which we took at Broome 
in June, 1932, the tubercles are mostly resorbed but there are some still present 
on the inferomarginals. 

Diversity in color is also rather considerable. Young specimens seem to be 
variegated light and dark browns, with the oral surface light. Adult specimens 
are very handsome — cream color orally and variegated aborally with pale 
gray and brown of at least two well-marked shades (See H. L. Clark, 1921, pi. 8, 
fig. 1, as T. tuberifera). 

Besides the three specimens mentioned above a very small Ophidiasterid, 
with R = 12 mm., from Lindeman Island, sent by Mr. Ward, may possibly repre- 
sent this species. It is obviously different from the young fusca listed above, as 
the skeletal plates each bear one or more large granules, which indicate that each 
plate will soon be provided with such a tubercle as characterizes megalo'plax. 

On one or two points, I have to differ from my friend and colleague, Living- 
stone, in regard to this species. He says (1932, June, p. 3G9) of the specimen 
with R=58 mm., from Holothuria Bank, which he figures: "It is obviously the 
only specimen of megaloplax from Holothuria Bank handled by Bell." A speci- 
men in the M. C. Z. received from the British Museum is one of Bell's original 
specimens and was labelled by Bell himself as "Linckia megaloplax." Livingstone 
has examined this specimen but says of it (1932, Feb., p. 260) that he thinks it 
should be referred to Koehler's species hirsuta and he figures it under that name. 
After long and careful examination of the available material and Livingstone's 
figures, I am convinced that hirsuta Koehler is based on a young specimen of 
megaloplax; or at least, specimens from northwestern Australia, which answer 
to Koehler's description and figures are undoubtedly to be referred to megaloplax 
and not to an Andaman Island species. The only known Andaman Island speci- 
men, Koehler's type of hirsuta, is of course immature; it is possible that when 
adults are taken they will prove to be different from megaloplax. Meantime I 
include hirsuta in the synonymy of Bell's species. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 141 



Tamaria TUMESCENS 

Ophidiaster tumescens Koehler, 1910a. Abh. Senckenb. Nat. Ges., 33, p. 277. 

Tamaria tumescens H. L. Clark, 1921. Torres Strait Ech., p. 94. 

Tamaria propetumescens Livingstone, 1932, .June, Rec. Austr. Mus., 18, p. 369. 

Among the dry sea-stars from the Lacepede Islands which Colonel Mans- 
bridge so generously gave me at Broome in 1929 was a Tamaria, unlike any 
species known to me, but we failed to take any living specimens in all our col- 
lecting. In 1932, Mr. Bourne gave me a small specimen of the same thing, with 
all the arms more or less missing. On June 16, 1932 in Pender Bay, Wan, our 
diver, brought up a living individual and afterwards in our dredging, north and 
south of Roebuck Bay, we secured a number of specimens. In the Perth Museum, 
is a fine specimen from Broome, kindly loaned me by Mr. Glauert; it has R =95 
mm. but has lost all trace of its natural color and is now a Hght brown. In life, 
tumescens is a very lovely sea-star, bright old-rose color with the papular areas 
Ught gray brown and the sides of the ambulacral furrows yellowish. 

This series of 15 specimens shows conclusively that Livingstone's prope- 
tumescens is but a form of Koehler's species; each was based on a single small 
specimen, half grown or less. The Broome Tamarias range from R= about 40 
(the arm tips are missing) to R = 98 mm. In this large adult, r and br each = 
about 15 mm.; hence R=6.5 r or br as in Livingstone's specimen; in the text 
Koehler gives R = 7.5-8 r but his figures indicate R about equals 6 r. The Broome 
specimens show little diversity R ranging from 6 to 7 r. There is more diversity 
in the presence or absence of spines on the inferomarginals and the extent of 
the adradial series of plates, while the arrangement of the aboral plates, especially 
on the disk, is very diversified. Usually inferomarginal spines are wanting and 
the adradial series are short, but the specimen from the Lacepede Islands has 
many spines and long adradial series, and a Broome specimen with R =87 mm. 
has numerous inferomarginal spines, very irregularly distributed, and the adra- 
dial plates extend to the middle of the arm. So far as the present series shows 
there is no correlation between the presence of spines and the size of the specimen. 

This is one of the most pleasing sea-stars in the Broome fauna, and dried 
specimens may retain more or less of their rose color for years provided they have 
never been in alcohol. It lives exposed on the sandy sea-bottom and like most 
ophidiasterids, it is very rigid and inert. 



142 memoir: musexjm of comparative zoology 

pseudophidiaster rhy8us 
H. L. Clark, 1916. "Endeavour" Rep., p. 55. 

Professor Bennett has sent a specimen of this sea-star taken Feb. 23, 1930, 
in the Great Austrahan Bight, by Mr. D. L. Serventy, on the trawler "Bou- 
thorpe," in 90 fms., lat. 33° 15' 0" S., long. 126° 22' 15" E. According to Mr. 
Serventy's notes it was "dark purple" in Ufe. It is now a dull gray, quite different 
from the fawn color of the types. It is a rather small specimen with R only about 
100-110 mm. 

ASTEROPIDAE 
Petricia obesa 
Plate 10, fig. 1 
H. L. Clark, 192.3. .Jour. Linn. Soe.: Zool., 35, p. 241. 

This remarkable sea-star is one of the most strikingly colored of echinoderms. 
When Uving it is brilliant scarlet with the small madreporite and the papulae 
almost black. The big interradial pedicellariae apparently close tightly when the 
animal is captured and being completely buried in the thick skin, do not show at 
all. On being dried, after killing in formalin and corrosive-subUmate, a large 
specimen (R = 70 mm.) kept its color very well and now, six years later, is a 
brilUant yellowish red. A smaller specimen (R = 54 mm.) is now a reddish yellow. 
The difference is apparently due to the much thinner skin in the smaller in- 
dividual. A third specimen (R = 75 mm.) is an orange-brown, but this one was 
not preserved until several days after collection and then was placed in methy- 
lated spirits and subsequently dried. The largest and smallest specimen each 
have the 10 conspicuous interradial pedicellariae on the dorsal side, but the third 
specimen has only 9; none of these specimens show any other pedicellariae any- 
where. 

The largest specimen was taken at Bunkers Bay, in January, 1930, and was 
generously sent me by Professor Bennett. The other two were taken by Professor 
Bennett and myself at Point Peron, October 23, 1929. The larger one, lying on 
the bottom in G-8 ft. of water, by its brilUant color attracted our attention from a 
low bluff overlooking some reefs and rocks a few yards from shore. Mr. Bennett 
kindly dove for it and presented it to me — permanent trophy of a never-to-be- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 143 

forgotten day! Never having seen a living specimen of the eastern species, 
vernicina, and having handled but very few museum specimens, I do not know 
how important the differences between the two species really are. So far as 
present material is concerned, they are quite distinct. 



ASTERINIDAE 

ASTERINA ANOMALA 
H. L. Clark, 1921. Torres Strait Ech., p. 95. 

It was a pleasant surprise to find this odd little sea-star, known hitherto only 
from a few specimens taken at Mer, at the northern end of the Barrier Reef, very 
common at Lord Howe Island. A series of 369 specimens is at hand, regarding 
which certain statistics may be of interest and possibly, value. As regards size, 
the species is always small, with R = 10-12.5 mm. at the most. As for form, it is 
rare indeed to find a symmetrical specimen, so persistently autotomous are 
these little sea-stars. One 4-rayed individual with R = 12.5 mm. seems to have 
attained stabihty as it is approximately symmetrical. Of individuals with more 
than 4 rays, not a perfectly symmetrical one has been noted though several ap- 
proach it having two groups of equal rays; but the difference between the two 
groups is not hard to see. Normal mature rays are narrower and higher in life 
than in preserved material which tends to become quite flat. The number of raj^s 
ranges from 2 to 8, but curiously enough, excepting only 2, which of course indi- 
cates a fragmentary specimen, 5 is the least common number and is really very 
infrequent, while 7 is the most common and is found in a few more than half the 
369. The average number of rays in the whole lot is almost exactly 7, if the 
4 2-rayed fragments are omitted. One-fourth have 8 rays, but 10% have 6, 8% 
only 4, and almost 5% have only 3. Only 5 specimens are pentamerous and one 
of these has a ray spht so that there are apparently 6 rays but only 5 jaws. As 
a rule a madreporite is wanting but one is not rarely found and two or three may 
be present. Truly the name anomala is appropriate for this Asterina. 

In color, anomala is rather constant (See H. L. Clark, 1921, pi. 7, fig. 8) but 
some individuals are darker than others and a few show small deep red blotches 
aborally. At Cape Leveque, northwestern Austraha, where two specimens were 
taken in August, 1929, the red was predominant, covering the disk and base of 
4 normal rays; the median part of these rays was deep green and the margins 



144 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

were rusty, as were the 2 or 3 young rays growing out from one side. Preserved 
material ranges from pure white to a rather deep brown. 

Like other Asterinas this species usually occurs on the under side of rock 
fragments and in hollows and crevices in dead coral or rock. But at Neds Beach, 
Lord Howe, on April 6, 1932, many were found in coralline algae on the upper 
surface of stones, cHnging awkwardly among the branches, a habitat so ill- 
adapted for a flat sea-star like Asterina one suspects that only abnormal condi- 
tions of some sort led to it. 

This little sea-star has a wide distribution on the coast of tropical Australia. 
It was originally taken at Mer at the northern end of the Barrier Reef; as it proves 
to be very common at Lord Howe, it is probable that it is to be found anywhere 
between those two points where local conditions permit, but of course its small 
size, protective coloring and secretive habits cause it to be easily overlooked. 
The 382 specimens in the present series are from the following points : 
Lord Howe Island: April, 1932. 369 specimens, adult and young. 

AustraUan Museum coll. 2 adults, 1 with 7, 1 with 8 rays. 
Northern Territory : Darwin, dredged near Shell Island, 4-5 f ms. 5 small adults, 

1 with 4 rays, 3 with 7, 1 with S. Color, variegated 
green and greenish- white, with no red or rust-color. 
Western AustraUa: Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 2 small adults, 1 with 6, 1 

with 7 rays. 
Broome, August, 1929. 2 small 7-rayed adults so recently 

divided that only 3 or 4 arms are at all evident. 
Broome, June 1932. 2 young specimens, 1 with 6, 1 with 
7 rays. 



Asterina burtonii 
Gray, 1840. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 289. 

It is rather remarkable that we met with this widespread East Indian 
and East African species but once and that was not until June, 1932, when 
a single small specimen (R = ll mm.), bright orange- vermilion above and below 
was dredged near the entrance to Roebuck Bay in 5-8 fms. Its rays are long and 
narrow, both r and br equalling but 5 mm. Another specimen is at hand, loaned 
by the Western Australian Museum. It has R = 17 mm. and was taken at Bernier 
Island, Shark Bay, W. A. \^^lile somewhat stouter than the Broome specimen, 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 145 

it is not essentially different. The species has furthermore been recorded from 
the Abrolhos Islands (H. L. Clark, 1923, p. 243), so that the occurrence in Shark 
Bay is quite to be expected. The only other record for the Australian Coast 
which seems vahd is that from the Murray Islands, at the northern end of the 
Great Barrier Reef (H. L. Clark, 1921, p. 96). 



ASTERINA CORONATA FASCICULARIS 

Plate 12, fig. 1 
Fisher, 1918. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9), 2, p. 110. 

The discovery that this is the common sea-star of Darwin and the neighbor- 
ing coast was one of the most interesting results of our collecting there in 1929. 
It was the first sea-star found and proved to be one of the very few echinoderms 
that occurred along the shore near town. Later collecting showed that it was 
of general occurrence along the coast but was most common at East Point. 
It seems to prefer very shallow water for all of the few specimens dredged were 
small. Tide pools left with little or no water at low tides were its favorite habitat. 
It lives, like other Asterinas, on the underside of rock fragments and hence 
wherever such fragments were exposed at low tide, coronata was a possible "find." 
While the number of rays is almost always 5, in the present series of 108 speci- 
mens, there are two with but 4 rays, two with 6 and one with 7. None of these 
specimens shows any trace of autotomy and it is evident that asexual reproduc- 
tion does not normally occur in this species. The 4-rayed specimens are symmet- 
rically tetramerous; in one R = ll mm., in the other 23. The smaller 6-rayed 
individual is perfectly symmetrical with R = 12 mm. and no madreporite present, 
but the larger specimen is not symmetrical for while five rays are about 20 mm. 
long, the sbcth is only 17, and there are 2 madreporites, each in an interradius, 
but not near the extra ray. The 7-rayed specimen is small and not noticeably 
unsymmetrical but R ranges from 8 to 9 mm. and when seen from the oral side, 
one ray is evidently shorter and narrower than the rest. Compared with a normal 
pentamerous specimen of similar size, the rays are rather wider and more rounded 
distally but the difference is not marked. There is only one madreporite and 
that is small and squarely in a radius. 

In size, the present series ranges from R =3.5 to R =33 mm. The ratio of 
R to r is commonly about 2 to 1. In the 7-rayed specimen the ratio is only about 
1.5 to 1 but in the larger 4-rayed individual it is 2.5 to 1. Of course the exact 



146 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

ratio is affected in the preparation of specimens; interradii shrink more in drying 
than do the radii; hence in most large pentamerous specimens R =2.25r or there- 
abouts. Very young specimens of course have rather shorter rays with R about 
equal to 1.6r. 

There is the gi-eatest diversity in the number of elevated spiniferous aboral 
plates. In one specimen with R=21 mm. there are no such plates conspicuous 
but on each ray several can be detected; they are however low and bear no large 
spinelets. A somewhat smaller specimen has 1-3 enlarged plates on each ray 
and on the disk, but they are small and low. At the other extreme is an individual 
with R =25 mm. having 30-45 conspicuous, elevated, spiniferous plates on each 
ray. Most of the full grown specimens with R exceeding 30 mm. have 20-35 
such plates on each ray but in one individual with R =30 there are only 10-15. 
I am convinced that no specific or varietal character, on which reliance can be 
placed, is to be found in this noticeable feature taken by itself. The same is true 
as regards the oral and adambulacral spines; the number of adambulacral spines 
is typically 6-8, very commonly 7, but often 8 in full grown individuals; the 
oral spines are usually 8 on each plate but there may be as few as 6 and in some 
big individuals there are 9. As for the actinal intermediate spinelets there are 
commonly 4 or more on each plate, but occasionally a plate is seen with only 2 
or 3 ; 2 is unusual, but 3 is not a rare number. 

This large series of specimens, with the diversity it shows in spinulation 
naturally throws some light on the varieties proposed by P'isher (1919, p. 413). 
As I have seen nothing I can call pedicellariae, the variety euerces is not affected 
by the Darwin material, which for the most part falls readily into variety 
fascicularis, as would be expected, since one of the types of that form is from Port 
Essington. But it seems clear that not much rehance can be placed on the number 
of adambulacral and oral spines, and certainly not on the number and con- 
spicuousness of the enlarged aboral plates. The questions therefore arise whether 
the variety cristata can be maintained and whether it and fascicularis are suf- 
ficiently constant to warrant separating them from typical coronata. The one 
feature which seems to warrant such a grouping is found in the armature of the 
actinal intermediate plates. In the groups of 3 or more, often 5 or 6, spinelets 
found in fascicularis, we have a very evident difference from the 2 or 3 spinelets 
of coronata and cristata. Between these two latter forms, the difference in the 
enlarged aboral plates is striking, in the few specimens at hand, but it may be 
that a large series of Japanese specimens will show as much diversity in this 
particular as do the specimens from Darwin. The two specimens at hand from 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 147 

the Caroline Islands are alike in this feature but are rather distinctly unlike in 
the actinal intermediate spinelets; the type of cristata has 2, or often 3, rather 
short, blunt, diverging spinelets on each plate, while a somewhat smaller speci- 
men has 3, rarely 2 or 4, longer, acute, clustered spinelets, much as in fascicular is. 
A specimen from Zanzibar is like the Japanese one on the aboral surface but orally 
is peculiar in that several actinal intermediate plates just back of the orals carry 
straight "combs" of 5 or 6 slender acute spines, which become groups of 4 or 3 
on the more distal plates. In a somewhat larger Japanese specimen such a comb, 
with 6 spinelets, is present on a single plate in one area. As a result of all these 
comparisons, I am led to conclude that the varieties named by Fisher may well 
be recognized until abundant material from Japan, the Carolines, and the East 
Indies shows that their distinguishing features are not reliable. Should such 
material show as great constancy in the actinal spinulation as is shown by the 
Darwin material, it will not be surprising li fascicularis proves to be a valid species, 
characteristic of tropical Australia, perhaps confined to the coast of the Northern 
Territory. The probability is rather great that the Zanzibar form will ultimately 
prove to be distinct — at least as a recognizable variety. 

It is curious that this sea-star should prove to be so common in the vicinity 
of Darwin and yet not be found at any great distance either east or west of that 
place. At Quail Island, about 35 miles to the west we found 7 specimens, agreeing 
in all details with those from East Point on the other side of Port Darwin. It was 
a great disappointment not to find even one specimen in Port Essington, a type 
locality, nor at any other point where we collected on the Coburg Peninsula. 
The species is not known from Torres Strait or on the Barrier Reef, nor has it yet 
been detected at any point on the coast of Western Australia. 

The colors in Hfe of this interesting little sea-star are attractive and somewhat 
varied, and the following extracts from my field notes are pubhshed, since pre- 
served material undergoes great change. AlcohoUc specimens become almost 
completely bleached to a dingy white, while dried material becomes either plain 
"museum color" or some shade quite foreign to the living tints. Several large 
specimens are now a dull blackish-brown aborally and one is very distinctly dull 
violet, a shade not noted in Uving specimens. 

"The normal coloration is mottled olive-greens, light and dark, with more 
or less dark dull red, usually in irregular blotches. One specimen was very largely 
bright rust-red, over most of the dorsal surface," and retained this color well, for a 
time, after drying. "Most specimens lose the green shades on preservation be- 
coming brown or gray." "Some specimens occur with no trace of green dorsally; 



148 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

these are more or less fawn-color mottled with brown and have a distinct red 
tinge." "Most specimens have red markings but the shade may be very deep; 
in a few cases it was replaced with black. A common feature is a blotch of car- 
mine at the base of each arm; in one specimen this was nearer vermihon." "Pig- 
ment is obviously very soluble in alcohol as the colors are dissolved out rapidly 
making the alcohol bright orange-red and leaving the specimens pale museum- 
color." 

The 108 specimens of fascicularis at hand were taken as follows: 
Northern Territory: Darwin, East Point, June and July, 1929. 87 specimens, 

adult and young. 
Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., July, 1929. 5 speci- 
mens, young, 1 hexamerous. 
Darwin, Talc Head, July, 1929. 2 specimens, adult and 

young. 
Darwin, West Point, June, 1929. 4 specimens, adult and 

young. 
Darwin, near laboratory, June 19, 1929. 2 specimens, young. 
Darwin, near Leper Station, 3-5 fms., May 25, 1932. 1 speci- 
men, young. 
Quail Island, tide pools, July 7-9, 1929. 7 specimens, adult 
and young. 



ASTERINA INOPINATA 

Livingstone, 193.3. Rec. Austral. Mus., 19, p. 3. 

This is a very well marked species, admirably described and figured by Liv- 
ingstone; no reference is however made to color. In a letter, Livingstone says 
that "the color varies shghtly. Sometimes the species is a uniform cream; some- 
times blotched here and there with unevenly placed patches of dark green." I 
think these notes must be based on specimens in alcohol for Professor W. J. 
Dakin said that the large specimen which he gave me was collected by himself at 
Long Reef and was "blue and white" in hfe. The specimens which I took at the 
same place a few days later showed the diversity of coloration to which Mr. 
Livingstone refers, but the ground color was a real white, not cream color, and 
when any pigment was present, as was usually the case, it was distinctly bluish 
and not green; in seme cases it was dusky but in others it was a definite, though 



CLAEK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 149 

rather dark, blue. Except for one individual from Tasmania, in the Australian 
Museum, all the known specimens of inopinata are from the coast of New South 
Wales, between the Tuggerah "Lakes" on the north and Shell Harbor on the 
south. On November 28, 1929, we had the good fortune to take 11 specimens, 
during low tide, from the under surface of rocks, on Long Reef. They ranged 
from 13 to 30 mm. in diameter, and the lesser radius was very nearly equal in life 
to the greater, but some individuals were very distinctly pentagonal, especially 
as soon as they had contracted. The blue and white coloration is so unusual that 
the species is unmistakable in life. The specimen given me by Dr. Dakin is the 
largest yet found as, even in its dried and somewhat contracted condition it is 
35 mm. across; as even now R = 20 mm., the diameter in Ufe was fully 40 mm. 
None of the specimens at hand are small enough to show the remarkable interra- 
dial sUts described by Livingstone in very young individuals but some of the 
smallest specimens show a distinct interradial notch. 

The 13 specimens of inopinata before me were taken at the following points: 
New South Wales: Colloroy, Long Reef. W. J. Dakin leg. et don. 1 large adult. 

Colloroy, Long Reef, November 29, 1929. 11 specimens, 
adult and young. 

Shell Harbor. May 4, 1932. 1 small specimen. 



ASTERINA SCOBINATA 

Livingstone, 1933. Rec. Austral. Mus., 19, p. 1. 

When in Hobart in November, 1929. I was the recipient of many interesting 
echinoderms from Professor T. T. Flynn of the University and among them are 
3 specimens of this interesting Asterina, so well described and figured by my 
AustraUan colleague. The smallest has R only about 7 mm. but it is not essen- 
tially different from the two larger specimens in which R = 14-15 mm. In one of 
these, the disk is notably high, the arms quite pointed and the color a gray-brown 
while in the other the whole aboral surface is somewhat flattened, the arms are 
much more rounded at the tips and the color is a very light yellow-brown. It is 
probable that these differences are wholly due to differences in preservation of the 
material. The small specimen was taken with the light-colored adult and is quite 
similar to it in form and tint. All 3 specimens show more or less clearly 5 pairs of 
remarkable, small, uncalcified spots on the actinal intermediate areas, which are 



150 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

apparently characteristic of the species, but their position and distinctness seem 
to admit of considerable diversity. 

Evidently this sea-star occurs widely distributed on the Tasmanian coast 
for the gray-brown specimen was taken by Professor Flynn at "low tide, Wyn- 
yard," northwestern Tasmania, while the others bear the label "Eagle Hawk- 
Neck, Tasmania" (which is on the southeastern coast), January 27, 1928, V 
Irwin Smith, collector. 

With some hesitation, 1 also refer to this species, 2 Asterinas which 1 col- 
lected in the Derwent estuary at Hobart, on that notable November 15, 1929. 
My field notes made at the time read: "Asterina sp.? — 2 specimens — Deep 
brown above, cream-color below in sharp contrast. Under rocks at tide line, 
with exigua but obviously much rarer." Unfortunately the exigencies of collect- 
ing on that trip prevented careful preservation of these specimens; they are ir- 
regularly contracted and flattened, and the spinelets of the oral surface are 
relaxed and prostrate quite unlike the condition of the other specimens. More- 
over the actinal non-calcified spots are very inconspicuous or wanting altogether 
in some areas and the aboral surface has the plates more numerous, more crescen- 
tic and more densely covered with minute spinelets. Hence these Hobart speci- 
mens have a different facies from the others and I have hesitated about their 
identification. But the more I have compared them with the other Tasmanian 
Asterinas in hand which seem to be scobinata without doubt, the more I am con- 
vinced they had best be called by the same name, as they fall within a moderate 
range of variation. In one specimen R = 13 mm. while the other is smaller; both 
have very broad rays (7-8 mm.) but this is in part, at least, due to their not very 
satisfactory preservation. Only further collecting can demonstrate whether their 
color in life as given above is characteristic of the species ; they are now ordinary 
"museum color." 

Asterina alba' sp. nov. 
Plate 22, fig. 7 

Rays 5. R = 9 mm., r = 4.5-5 mm. R not quite 2r. Form distinctly stellate 
with the interbrachial arcs rather acute. Aboral plates distinctly imbricated 
radially, much less so or not at all interradially ; each plate carries 2 or more very 
minute spinelets, scarcely visible to the unaided eye; these spinelets are very 

' albus = white, in reference to the color in Ufe. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 151 

short as well as slender and are usually in a single linear series of 2-7, but on a few 
of the larger plates, they may be in double series of about the same length ; supero- 
marginals squarish, with a central group of 3 or 4 of the very minute spinelets; 
inferomarginals, with projecting tufts of spinelets, form the ray margins as usual. 

Actinal intermediate plates relatively few; about 10 large ones, back of the 
oral plates, and 15 diagonal series (of 6 decreasing to 2) on each side of each ray; 
each large plate has 1 relatively stout spine (or sometimes 2) at its center while 
the remaining plates have usually 2 smaller spines. Adambulacral armature, a 
furrow series of 4 slender but blunt spines and a subambulacral series of 3 spines 
set obliquely on the plate; these may be subequal or the one nearest the furrow, or 
the middle one, distinctly largest, and bigger than any spine in the furrow series. 
Oral plates each with a marginal series of 7 or 8 close-set, slender spines, the 
innermost longest, and one large spine on the surface. 

Color in life, almost pure white, but the larger individuals show, under a 
lens, traces of orange-yellow and a few scattered patches of dusky or purple, on 
the aboral surface. Specimens in alcohol are whitish, but dried specimens range 
from pure white to yellow-brown. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 3239 from under surface of a rock fragment, Neds 
Beach, Lord Howe Island, April, 1932. 

There are 69 paratypes, chiefly from Neds Beach and the southern reef-flat 
near Mt. Lidgbird, but several were found on the reef north of Goat Island. 
They occurred with anomala but were always easily distinguished by the color and 
the pentamerous symmetry. They range in size from R = 2.5 mm. up to the holo- 
type, which is much the largest specimen taken. One specimen, 10 mm. across, 
is hexamerous but, although not perfectly symmetrical, shows no evidence of 
autotomy. All the larger specimens show, under the leas, one or more non- 
calcified spots in the actinal intermediate areas, similar to those of A. scobinata. 
But in the Lord Howe species, these spots show great diversity in number and 
position, and are always very minute; in the holotjqje there seem to be a pair well 
separated from each other in each area some distance back of the oral plates, but 
in other specimens, they are wanting in one or more of the areas, often in all but 
one, and their position differs in different areas; sometimes 3 occur in one area, 
one or two of which are near the adambulacral plates. In most of the small 
specimens, these curious areas seem to be lacking. It is unhkely that their 
presence has any definite significance. 

This species is easily distinguished by its regular pentamerous but markedly 
radiate form, the absence of spinelets of any considerable size on the aboral sur- 



152 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

face, the adambulacral armature, and particularly by the single large spinelet on 
the surface of each oral plate. 



Asterina heteractis^ sp. nov. 
Plate 22, fig. 5 

Rays 7, narrow, high, relatively long and well separated. R = 7 mm., r = 4 
mm., R = 1.75r. Disk flat. Aboral plates, of irregular shape and only imperfectly 
imbricated. Each plate carries a small tuft of 3 or 4 low blunt spines, not at all 
thorny. Papulae relatively large, in 4 series on the basal half of each arm. 
Inferomarginal plates fairly conspicuous, each with a horizontal comb of 4-7 
relatively long spinelets which may be a little thorny near tip. Madreporite 
exceedingly small with only 6-8 pores, at the base of a ray on one side of the 
median line. 

Actinal intermediate plates few in 3 series on each side of each ambulacral 
furrow ; only the innermost extends to the tip of the arm while the outermost is 
very short. Each plate carries 1-3 (usually 2) short, sharp spinelets; when 2 or 3 
are present one is often distinctly larger than its fellow (or fellows). Adambula- 
cral armature in 2 series as usual; on the furrow margin is a group of 3 (or 4) 
short, blunt, relatively large spinelets and on the surface of the plate is a similar 
but somewhat smaller trio set at an angle to the furrow series. Oral plates small, 
each with 4 relatively large opaque marginal spines, the innermost not very 
much larger than the outer ones ; on the surface of each plate is a similar spine 
(or sometimes 2). 

Color in life, uniform salmon pink above, whitish below, with no indication 
of green or red anywhere; the dry specimen is almost uniformly yellowish- white. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3258, from the under surface of a rock fragment on 
sand above low water mark at Neds Beach, Lord Howe Island, April, 1932. 
Collected and donated by Miss Kama Birmingham. 

Besides the holotype, there are 3 other Asterinas from Lord Howe which 
belong to this species. One is a small, nearly white, 6-rayed specimen found on 
the under side of a rock fragment; as 3 rays have R=4-5 mm. and the op- 
posite 3 have R about 2 mm., it is evident that autotomy has taken place. The 
other 2 specimens were dredged in the lagoon near Goat Island; they showed 
no trace of green or red but were uniformly light orange-colored in life; that 

' ertpos = other than usual + 6.ktls = a ray, in reference to the number of arms. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 153 

tint however was lost as soon as they were dried and they are now very pale 
brown or nearly white. Each has but 3 arms (R = 7 mm.) and is obviously the 
result of autotomy so recent that the growth of the new arms has not yet begun. 
That this little Asterina is closely related to anomala is evident, but it is 
apparently quite distinct. The most obvious difference is in the spinulation of 
the aboral plates; in anomala the spinelets are much more numerous, somewhat 
glassy and thorny at the tip; while in heteractis they are few, opaque and rather 
blunt without thorns. On the actinal plates of anomala are 3-5 thorny spinelets, 
while in heteractis, the spinelets are fewer and not thorny. Both on the adam- 
bulacral and oral plates there are more and larger spines in anomala than in 
heteractis, even in specimens of the same size. How much weight may be given 
to the marked difference in the form of the rays and in coloration, only much 
more material of heteractis can determine. 



Asterina lutea' sp. nov. 
Plate 12, fig. 2 

Rays 5, broad and rounded, the interbrachial areas only slightly concave 
with a distinct notch in the interradial line. R = 20 mm., r= 16 mm. R = 1.25r. 
Disk moderately elevated, the vertical diameter being about 6 mm. Aboral 
surface covered with numerous imbricated plates, largest in the proximal in- 
terradii and least imbricated distally in the same areas; there are about 15-17 
longitudinal series of plates covering each radius, with the papulae conspicuous 
between them; the large papular areas on each ray are rounded diamond-shape, 
15-16 mm. long and 11-12 mm. wide. Aboral plates with more or lesss evident 
series of minute spinelets which curve about the lower or distal side of each pap- 
ula; on the interradial and lateral plates where there are no pores, these curved 
series of spinelets are reduced to minute tufts which disappear entirely on the 
insignificant superomarginal plates. Margin of body formed as usual in Asterina 
by inferomarginals which carry tufts of numerous, relatively long but exceed- 
ingly slender spinelets. Madreporic plate small, triangular, only 3 mm. from 
anus. 

Actinal intermediate areas with numerous plates arranged in about 10 
series parallel to the ambulacral furrow; those adjoining the furrow are largest 
and 3 or 4 extend to the tip of the arm; the outer series become smaller and 

' luteus = orange-colored, in reference to the color in life. 



154 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

shorter until the outermost is made up of only 3 or 4 plates. Each plate carries 
a group of spinelets, slender and sharp; on the larger plates, they form a very 
definite line or comb of 5-7, the middle ones distinctly longest, the outermost 
shortest ; on the small plates near the inferomarginals the spinelets form a minute 
tuft of 3 or 4. Adambulacral armature in two fanhke series of relatively long 
and very slender spines; the furrow series is made up of 7 (rarely 8) spines, while 
the subambulacral series contains 6 sUghtly swollen ones; the two series are 
remarkably ahke save for the evident, though slight difference in size. Oral 
plates conspicuous, the inner margin of each being elevated to form an evident 
ridge; marginal spines 9, long and slender, the innermost large and relatively 
stout, about half as large again as the distal ones which are similar to those of 
the furrow series. A slightly curved transverse series of 4 or 5 small spines occurs 
near the middle of each oral plate and distal to this is an insignificant group of 
2 or 4 minute spinelets. 

Color in Ufe bright orange-vermilion, quite uniform over both upper and 
lower surfaces. Sometimes the color is not so bright and might be called dull 
yellow. In one case the orange was obscured by a grayish tint except around 
the margins, but when this specimen was dried it became as orange as the others. 
Individuals under 10 mm. in diameter have little or no pigment but are nearly 
or quite white; the color however develops rapidly after that. On preservation, 
either in alcohol or by drying, the orange color is retained for a longer or shorter 
time but ultimately it disappears and the specimens become nearly white in 
alcohol or, if dried without immersion in alcohol, "museum color" of a lighter 
or darker shade; often the radial areas, in dry material, are distinctly dusky, 
unUke the interradii and margins; in other cases, the margin is distinctly hghter 
than the disk and basal portion of the rays; in one specimen the latter area is 
still quite definitely orange. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3261, from under surface of a rock, near low water 
mark. Entrance Point, Broome, August, 1929. 

This was a relatively common sea-star near low water mark at Entrance and 
Gantheaume Points, Broome. We also took it at Barred Creek to the north of 
Roebuck Bay and Captain Bardwell found one specimen at the Champagay 
Islands or Augustus Island. It lives like other Asterinas on the under surface 
of rock fragments but its bright color makes it more conspicuous than most 
members of the genus. It belongs in the same section of Asterina with nuda 
H. L. C. from the Murray Islands and orthodon Fisher from Hong Kong. While 
obviously near these two species, it is recognizable by certain distinctive features. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 155 

Compared with the type of nuda, the present species differs markedly in color 
in life, has smaller and more numerous skeletal plates, most noticeable in the 
aboral interradii and the actinal interradial areas, and the aboral plates are far 
more spiniferous and not at all smooth and shining. Compared with orthodon, 
the Western AustraUan form may be distinguished by the adambulacral and oral 
armature; the form and proportions of the furrow series, and the marginal series 
on the oral plates is markedly different in the two species. Mortensen (1934, 
p. 9) says that the specimen of orthodon which he studied was of a "hght pink 
colour, when received" which indicates a marked difference in color in life from 
lulea. 

There are 55 specimens of lutea at hand ranging in size from young ones with 
R = 5-6 mm. up to a very large individual with R = 20 mm. and r = 20. The ratio 
of R to r shows considerable range in the preserved specimens, from R = 1.15r to 
R = 1.4r. In life however there is less diversity, as the form is quite pentagonal 
with the sides usually a trifle concave or distinctly convex. Autotomy apparently 
never occurs and non-pentamerous variants are rare. There isoneperfectlytetram- 
erous young individual, a square with 4 equal sides about 8 mm. long. Another 
young individual, about 15 mm. across is perfectly hexamerous with nearly 
straight sides, while an adult just twice as large (R = 15 mm.) is also perfectly 
hexamerous, but its sides are deeply concave (r = 10-11 mm.). 



AsTERiNA perplexa' sp. nov. 
Plate 22, fig. 4 

Rays 5, with form distinctly stellate. R = 14 mm., r=10 mm., R = 1.4r. 
Disk about 5 mm. in vertical diameter. Aboral plating as usual but coarse ; there 
are only 16-18 plates in the carinal series from center of disk to terminal plate; 
each plate carries a short comb or small tuft of minute sharp spinelets but many 
of these have been knocked off in handUng the dry specimen. Papulae numerous 
and very large, the perforations in the aboral skeleton being .30-.40 mm. in 
diameter. Margin of inferomarginal plates very conspicuous with long tufts of 
very slender spinelets. Madreporite very small, not much more than 2 mm. from 
anus. 

Actinal intermediate areas with relatively few and rather large plates, each 
of which bears a pair of long and very slender, acute spines, longer as a rule than 

• perplexus = puzzling, in reference to the resemblance to two or more quite diverse species. 



156 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

the diameter of the plate. Adambulacral armature in the usual two series; the 
furrow series with 4 (or sometimes 5) long very slender spines, the subambulacral 
series with 4 (or 3) equally long spines. Oral plates with rather conspicuous me- 
dian ridge on each side of which are 4 long and slender spines; the marginal spines 
7-9, slender and delicate, the innermost not specially enlarged. 

Color in life, "distinctly white but with indefinite orange-yellow areas abor- 
ally; orally pure white." The dry specimen is very pale brown, lightest on distal 
part of rays and along margin, decidedly darker and more dusky on disk and basal 
part of rays. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3266, found clinging closely to under side of a rock 
fragment at Neds Beach, Lord Howe Island, April 6, 1932. 

When taken this individual was supposed to be the adult oi A. alba and even 
now the aboral surface is strongly suggestive of the same thing. But orally the 
differences are so great a single glance is sufficient to prove they are not closely 
related. On the other hand, the resemblance to inopinata is great, particularly 
on the oral surface, but the more stellate form, the huge papulae, the long, slender 
actinal spinelets, and the color in life offer great obstacles to a close relationship. 
Again comparison with lutca suggest an alliance but after all this is probably 
superficial and not real. It is unfortunate that no other specimens were found; 
probably the normal habitat of the species is in somewhat deeper water than is 
accessible for collecting without a dredge, and where the nature of the bottom 
precludes the use of that invaluable aid. 



DiSASTERINA SPINULIFERA^ Sp. nOV. 

Plate 22, fig. 6 

Rays 5, relatively narrow and high, but the strong contraction of dorsal 
muscles is evident and has led to the distal part of the arms being recurved; it is 
hard to say how much this contraction has altered the normal form. R = 7-8 mm. , 
r = about 4 ; hence R is nearly or quite 2r ; arms taper but Httle, br at base is 4 mm. 
and near tip it is fully 3 ; height of arm at base, fully 3 mm. Aboral plates numer- 
ous, very crowded, bare; on basal portion of arms, they are strongly imbricated 
but this is certainly due in part to the contraction already mentioned; distally 
and along the sides of the arms, the imbrication is much less marked and probably 
wanting in a normally contracted specimen. If there is any skin or membrane 

• spinuliferus = bearing little spines, in reference to the very slender spinelets on some aboral plates. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 157 

over the aboral plates in life, it has disappeared in drying; nearly all the plates are 
perfectly bare, but low down in each interradial area, above the marginal series, 
there are half a dozen or more which carry one or more long exceedingly slender 
spinelets, easily overlooked without a lens; near the madreporite are 2 or 3 plates 
which bear similar but much shorter spinelets. Papulae apparentlj' few and irreg- 
ularly scattered, not conspicuous. Superomarginal plates rather large in a fairly 
distinct series, but the inferomarginals form the actual margin of the body; they 
are small, project but little, and carry a linear series of numerous, minute spine- 
lets which are long and slender on the proximal plates but become very short near 
the tip of the arms. IMadreporite small but easily seen. 

Actinal intermediate plates as usual in the genus, small, each with a single 
large sacculate spinelet, and forming 5 or 6 parallel series along each side of the 
ambulacral furrow; several of the series extend to the tip of the ray. Just back 
of the oral plates, the non-calcified area characteristic of the genus is e\ddent, its 
distal boundary being sharply defined by a single large plate. 

Adambulacral armature made up of a furrow series of 3 or 4 slender spinelets 
and a large subambulacral spine. Oral plates each with a large spine on the sur- 
face and a marginal series of 4 slender acute spinelets not much larger than those 
of the furrow series on the adambulacrals. Color in life not noted; dried, it is a 
dingy white. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3267, from Broome, northwestern Australia, June, 
1932. 

This little sea-star was probably dredged in 5-8 fms. of water. Unfortu- 
nately its characteristics were not conspicuous enough to attract attention when 
collected, and it was only when the Asterinas from Broome were being critically 
studied several years later that its unique character was detected. The genus 
Disasterina has been carefully reviewed by Livingstone (1933, pp. 5-11) who 
recognizes 3 species, all occurring on the Barrier Reef or the neighboring Queens- 
land coast. The present species is readily distinguished by the character of the 
aboral surface, especially the spiniferous plates in the interradii. 



MANASTERINAi gen. nov. 

Similar to Disasterina, but with the aboral skeleton less rigid, the plates on 
the basal part of the rays lightly or not at all in contact ; many plates carry a single 

' fiavds = loose, flaccid, + Asterina, in reference to the lack of rigidity in the aboral skeleton. 



158 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

minute spinelet ; near the tips of the arms, the plates form 7-9 longitudinal series 
and many of them carry long slender spines ; actinal intermediate areas without a 
non-calcified spot back of the oral plates, though the actinal plates themselves in 
that region are not very closely in contact (in the dry specimen) . 

Genotype, manasterina longispina sp. nov. 

As at present understood, Disasterina is a homogeneous group of four small 
species, so it seems better to make the present larger aberrant form the type of a 
new genus rather than to stretch the boundaries of the older one to include it. 



Manasterina longispina' sp. nov. 
Plate 21, figs. 1-2 

Rays 5, form markedly stellate, with moderately deep but rounded inter- 
brachial arcs. R = 24 mm., r = 12 mm., hence R = 2r. Arms 12 mm. wide at base 
and 5 mm. close to the bluntly pointed tip. Aboral plates very numerous, ir- 
regularly rounded, hghtly convex, of very diverse form and size; except for 2 or 
3 near the madreporite, none are as much as a millimeter in diameter; on the 
distal half of the arms, the plates are closely in contact in 7-9 distinct longitudinal 
series but proximally (except near the margin and in the interradii) these become 
confused and the plates themselves are not completely in contact so that naked 
skin shows between them often; many plates overlap others at one point or 
another but there is scarcely any real imbrication. Many plates are perfectly 
bare but a considerable number have near the center a single minute spinelet and 
near the madreporite, which is distinct though not large, are several plates with 
2-5 spinelets each. Near the tips of the arms, the spinelets become conspicuously 
elongated and may exceed a millimeter in length. Superomarginal plates small, 
forming an inconspicuous series but inferoinarginals very conspicuous, each 
bearing a tuft of 2-4 very slender spinelets, 1.5-2 mm. long; this marginal fringe 
is very noticeable particularly on the distal half of the arms. Papulae appar- 
ently few and irregularly scattered; they are not easily detected in the dry 
specimen. 

Actinal intermediate areas relatively small, with 8 or 9 series of plates back 
of the orals but only 4 (or 3) extend to the arm-tips; each plate carries one long, 

' longispina = having long spines, in reference to the notably long spines of the marginal and actinal 
plates. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 159 

slender, acute, sacculate spine, which hes pointing outward to the margin; back 
of the oral plates there are indications that the plates are not in close contact 
but there is no non-calcified area such as is found in Disasterina. Adambulacral 
plates with a furrow series of 4 (distally, 3) slender spines, the median pair com- 
monly much longer than the other two; a single large subambulacral spine is 
present on each plate, resembUng closely the actinal spines but somewhat larger; 
the subambulacral spines of the most proximal adambulacral plates are the 
largest spines on the sea-star and measure as much as 2 mm. in length. Oral 
plates with a single big spine on the surface, just Uke the subambulacrals, and a 
marginal fringe of 5 spines, of which the innermost is longest, the next is a Uttle 
smaller and the 3 outer ones are much smaller. 

Color in Ufe, aborally "reddish-pink" and orally "pale lemon yellow." The 
dry specimen is nearly white below, light yellowish-brown (museum color) above 
on disk and bases of arms; dull pinkish on distal part of arms and marginal 
fringe ; where skin shows between plates it is nearly black. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3268, from Rottnest Island, Western AustraUa, 
1934, Captain Beresford E. Bardwell leg. et don. 

Captain Bardwell wrote me in regard to this remarkable sea-star that "it 
was very soft and fleshy when found" and "about 33^ inches" across. As it is 
now less than 2 inches across, the shrinkage in drying has been extraordinary, 
quite in keeping with the statement that it was very soft and fleshy. It was living 
"attached to a flat sandstone rock" "on pure sand bottom." No other specimen 
was seen. 

This is one of Captain Bardwell's most interesting discoveries among 
echinoderms, and were I not so strongly averse to mingling emotion with science, 
it would surely bear his name. As it is I can only express here again my very great 
appreciation of his work as a collector and my sincere gratitude for his generous 
help. There is no danger of confusing this sea-star with any previously known. 



Paranepanthia grandis 

Nepanthia grandis H. L. Clark, 1928. Rec. S. Austr. Mus., 3, p. 393. 
Asterinopsis grandis Livingstone, 1933. Rec. Austr. Mus., 19, p. 15. 

The discovery that this species ranges to the coast of Western AustraUa was 
one of the surprises of collecting at Point Peron in October, 1929. A very large 
individual was found there on the under side of a rock fragment near low-water 



160 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

mark. It was closely appressed to the rock and owing to its dull fawn-color might 
have been easily overlooked. It underwent little change of color in drying, or 
subsequently, but it shrank fully 10% in size; even so it is the largest specimen 
yet recorded as R = 60-65 mm. and r = 28. We met with no other specimens but 
in January, 1930, Professor E. W. Bennett found 2 individuals at Bunkers Bay, 
immediately east of Cape Naturaliste, which he has generously sent to me. 
One of these, found in "drift on sand beach," is the smallest specimen yet 
recorded as R = onIy 7 mm. The other is a small and typical adult with R = 
about 35 mm. Both of these Bunkers Bay specimens are a light grayish-brown, 
quite different in appearance from the brighter yellow brown of the large in- 
dividual from Point P^ron. 

Livingstone's (1933, p. 15) transfer of my Nepanthia grandis to Asterinopsis 
Verrill (1913, p. 480) was quite justified, but unfortunately Verrill's genus is a 
heterogeneous group, for which he selected as type one of Lamarck's species, 
'penicillaris. Mortensen (1933, p. 258) has recently pointed out that this name 
probably lacks vaHdity in which case Asterinopsis must also be invalid. How- 
ever this may be, Verrill included in his genus both West Indian and Australian 
forms which are certainly not congeneric. As a beginning therefore in clearing 
up the confusion, I suggest that the Australian and certain East Indian species 
be segregated under the name Paranepanthia Fisher. 

The large individual of grandis taken at Point Peron seemed so similar to 
the figure of Fisher's type of platydisca, that it was only by careful comparison 
of the specimens themselves, the essential differences could be determined. The 
most important of these are obviously the very much shorter paxillar spinelets 
and the smaller and far more numerous aboral plates of platydisca. The spinelets 
in grandis are nearly 3 times as long as in platydisca and make a correspondingly 
more conspicuous tuft. Moreover in the Philippine species in a series of aboral 
plates reaching the margin at middle of interbrachium, aljout 26 or 27 plates are 
present, while at the middle of ray about 17 or 18 can be counted; in the speci- 
men of grandis however which is considerably larger than Fisher's unique type, 
only 22 or 23 plates are present in the interradial series and only 12-14 at middle 
of arm. There are similar differences in the adambulacral and oral armature in 
the two species for grandis is a coarser, higher and heavier sea-star than the 
Philippine form. The madreporite in platydisca is nearly triangular, sharply 
defined, with well marked furrows on its surface, whereas in grandis the madre- 
porite is ill-defined and not easy to detect. There can be no doubt that the two 
species are quite distinct. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 161 

Livingstone (1933, p. 16) has already expressed his opinion that grandis is 
a Paranepanthia but could not see any satisfactory distinction between that 
genus and Asterinopsis — a name which must, as already pointed out, be aban- 
doned. Besides plolijdisca and gj-andis, I should include in Paranepanthia, brach- 
iata (Koehler) as Fisher suggests, pediccllaris Fisher and the two following 
species. 

Paranepanthia praetermissa 

Asterinopsis praefcnuissa Livingstone, 1933. Rec. Austr. Mus., 19, p. 14. 

While collecting at Bottle and Glass Rocks, in Port Jackson, in November, 
1929, with Mr. Melbourne Ward, two specimens of this interesting sea-star, so 
recent 1}^ described by Livingstone, were found. While the relationship with 
grandis is obvious, the flatter disk, wider and more rounded rays and very much 
smaller and more numerous aboral plates distinguish praetermissa easily. The 
larger of the 2 specimens at hand has R = 32 mm. while the smaller one is about 
one-third as large (R = ll mm.). 

Paranepanthia rosea' sp. nov. 
Plate 22, fig. 8 

Rays 5, form markedly stellate, rather fiat. R = 7 mm., r = 5 mm., hence 
R = 1.4r; br = 4-4.5 mm. Aboral plates of rather uniform size, in regular longi- 
tudinal series on the arms, the 3 median series rather distinctly set out from the 
rest ; imbrication of plates not very conspicuous but evident along the middle and 
upper series of plates on the rays. Each plate bears a group of numerous, minute, 
diverging, glassy spinelets which cover its surface completely. Papulae rather 
numerous and more or less conspicuous (according to size and condition of speci- 
men) ; usually 6 rows are evident on the basal part of each ray but the distance 
to which they extend distally shows considerable diversity. Superomarginals, 
2 or 3 times as large, forming the margin of the animal; each one is well covered 
by the large number of minute spinelets which it bears. Madreporite small (.60- 
.70 mm. across) but distinct, only about 1.5 mm. from center of disk. 

Actinal intermediate plates in longitudinal series parallel to adambulacral 
furrow; only the one adjoining the furrow extends to the arm-tip; the others fall 
short by increasing distances until the sixth or seventh consists of only 2 or 3 

' rosea, in reference to the pretty pink color, often retained in dry specimens. 



162 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

minute plates near the interradial line; each plate is fully covered by a rather 
dense cluster of minute spinelets like those on the aboral plates but obviously 
longer. Adambulacral armature made up of a furrow series of 6 (rarely 7) 
slender spines of which the median are longest, the outermost on each side, small- 
est ; on the surface of the plate is a cluster of 8 or more very slender spines inter- 
mediate in size between those of the furrow series and the spinelets of the actinal 
plates. Oral plates rather small but with a conspicuous marginal series of 7 
spines (the innermost largest) on each plate; on its surface is a cluster of 6-8 
much smaller spines similar in size and appearance to the subambulacrals. 

Color in life rose-red, more or less variegated with cream-color; often the 
rose-red is little interrupted but in some cases, the cream-color predominates 
quite markedly; oral surface is always cream color. Dry specimens range (ac- 
cording to methods of preservation) from the natural rose-red to ordinary 
"museum color" or to nearly white. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3272, from the cove on the northeast corner of Rott- 
nest Island, Western Austraha, October 19, 1929. 

This pretty little sea-star, so different from any of the other Asterinidae 
of the west coast, is common at Rottnest Island and it was also found at Point 
Peron. It lives closely attached to the underside of rock fragments in shallow 
water. Of the 13 specimens which we collected at Rottnest, the smallest is 
hardly 9 mm. across while the largest have R nearly 8 mm.; of these one has 
6 rays but there is no indication of autotomy; a smaller specimen (R = 5.5 mm.) 
apparently has only 4 rays but on the oral surface a minute fifth ray is evident. 
Besides the material which we collected, there are at hand 9 specimens which were 
taken at Rottnest by Captain B. E. Bardwell in 1934, 2 collected by Mr. G. 
Bourne at the same island in 1931 and 7 also from Rottnest, loaned by the 
Western Austrahan Museum. The pair collected by Mr. Bourne are hexamerous 
— probably they are selected specimens, preserved because they are 6-armed; 
one is full grown (R = 8 mm.), the other is much smaller (R = 5.5 mm.). Adult 
pentamerous specimens show considerable diversity in form due to differences 
in length of the minor radius and the breadth of arm; thus a specimen in the 
Western Austrahan Museum with R = 8 mm. has r and br 5.5-6 mm. while one 
of those taken by Captain Bardwell having R = 8 mm. has r and br 4.5-5 mm. 
and hence appears much more stellate. There is no Asterinid, of which I know, 
with which this species can be confused. Although much smaller than the 
other species of Paranepanthia, the resemblance to young specimens of grandis 
is so obvious, there seems no doubt that rosea is congeneric with that species. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 163 



Patiriella calcar 



Asterias calcar Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 557. 
Patiriella calcar Verrill, 1913. Amer. Jour. Sci., 35, p. 484. 

This fine and very distinctive sea-star was met with several times on the 
coast of New South Wales, but the finest specimen secured was taken at Hobart, 
Tasmania, November 15, 1929, where it was found above low tide mark but under 
water, exposed on the surface of a rock in a sheltered nook. It was nearly four 
inches across (R = 45 mm. in the dry specimen) and the color was "bright orange, 
with disk and interradial areas variegated with greenish and brown ; central part 
of disk cream white with a brown spot at very center; lower surface cream-color." 

Of 3 specimens which we took at Long Reef, CoUoroy, November 28, 1929, 
the smallest (R = 20 nmi.) has 9 equal rays, and of 3 small individuals found at 
Gunnamatta Bay on November 26, one, with R = 15 mm., has but 7 rays. We 
found a small specimen on November 27, at Bottle and Glass Rocks, Port Jack- 
son, which has 8 rays but one is distinctly shorter than the other 7. 

Mr. W. Heron of Coffs Harbor, N. S. W., kindly gave us in May, 1932, 34 
small specimens of calcar from that vicinity, 2 of which have 9 rays and 1 has 7. 
These Coffs Harbor specimens have the rays more slender and attenuate than any 
of those from further south, but this might be associated with the method of 
kiUing and drying. 

Patiriella exigua 

Asterias exigua Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 554. 
Patiriella e.vigiia Verrill, 1913. Amer. Jour. Sci., 35, p. 484. 

This httle sea-star is very abundant on the main coral reef on the western 
side of Lord Howe Island, particularly at the northern end and even more so at 
the southern end where it adjoins Mt. Lidgbird. We also found it common at 
Gunnamatta Bay, N. S. W. and at Hobart, Tasmania. A single specimen was 
secured at Long Reef, Colloroy, N. S. W. but probably it is also abundant there at 
suitable times. Altogether there are 2022 specimens at hand, of which 1959 are 
from Lord Howe. 

The 32 specimens from Gunnamatta Bay are all peutamerous and small, the 
largest less than 20 mm. across. The 30 specimens from Hobart are a little larger, 
several being 21-23 mm. across, and one is perfectly tetramerous, with sides 16 



164 MEMom: museum of comparative zoology 

mm. long; this last was a gift from Professor T. T. Flynn. The Hobart specimens 
were found on the under side of rocks above low water mark, as is usually the 
case. The color was "varied green or brown above with more or less red, never 
much; greenish or greenish-blue below." The notable harmony with the back- 
ground has been well emphasized by Mortensen (1933, p. 253) as seen by him in 
South Africa. 

At Lord Howe Island, this sea-star is so abundant, large collections were 
made at the two extremes of the reef to see if any local differences existed in the 
proportion of specimens having more or fewer than 5 rays. The distribution of 
exigua at Lord Howe is peculiar; not a single specimen was found on the eastern 
side of the island, not even at Neds Beach, where conditions for collecting echino- 
derms are the best of any one area on the island shore; on the western coast, 
exigua proved to be abundant on that coral reef area, abutting on Phillip Point, 
which shuts in North Bay, and also at the extreme southern end of the main reef 
where it abuts on Mt. Lidgbird. In the latter area, it was most abundant near 
high water mark on the rocks along shore. This peculiar distribution leads me to 
believe that exigua is a recent arrival at Lord Howe having been brought over 
from Port Jackson on foul ship bottoms. The exiguas living at North Bay were 
prevailingly light buff and greenish but often were variegated with shades of 
green and lacked the buff. Those on the south reef were distinctly darker, varie- 
gated light and dark green often with some orange; one specimen was predomi- 
nantly orange. In both regions, the sea-stars were found on the under surface 
of rocks between tide-marks, but along the shore near Mt. Lidgbird they were 
almost equally common on the exposed surfaces of the rocks. 

In 1913, I found exigua very common at Erub, an island in Torres Strait 
(see H. L. Clark, 1921, p. 97) and examined nearly 600 specimens to learn the 
percentage of non-pentamerous variants; the result showed that 92% were pen- 
tamerous, 6% were hexamerous, 1.5% were tetramerous and 3 specimens had 7 
rays. Conditions at Erub were very favorable apparently and the sea-stars grew 
to a large size, the largest 35 mm. across, as compared with a maximum of 25 mm. 
at Lord Howe. (A specimen loaned by the Australian Museum is 28 mm. across). 
It occurred to me at Lord Howe, that comparison with the data from Erub would 
be interesting, so 800 specimens of exigua were collected at North Bay and 1100 
along the shore near Mt. Lidgbird. The result is interesting but not extraordi- 
nary. At North Bay, 2.5 % of the specimens were non-pentamerous, 2 % ( 17 speci- 
mens) being hexamerous and .5% (4 specimens), tetramerous. At the southern 
end of the reef, a trifle more than 2% are non-pentamerous, exactly one in a 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 165 

hundred being hexamerous; 1 specimen has 7 rays, 5 have 5.5 (i.e. one ambulacral 
furrow is forked at a greater or lesser distance from the mouth) and 6 have but 
4 rays. It is odd that there are twice as many hexamerous individuals at North 
Bay as at the southern reef flat but the numbers involved are too small to make 
the apparent fact significant. The difference between the Lord Howe population 
as a whole however, and that at Erub is perhaps striking enough to be important. 
Evidently variation is much more general at Erub than at Lord Howe, both 6 and 
7 rayed specimens being much more common at the northern island. This might 
perhaps be reasonably construed as evidence that the Lord Howe population is 
younger and living under less favorable conditions and therefore variants are 
promptly ehminated; thus supporting the view that it has been introduced from 
Port Jackson in the past century. 



PaTIRIELLA GUNNIl 

Asterina gunnii Gray, 1840. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 2S9. 
Patiriella gunii Verrill, 1913. Anier. Jour. Sci., 35, p. 484. 

A large series of this characteristic Australian sea-star is at hand consisting 
of 375 specimens, ranging in diameter from 3 mm. to 75. Of the 375, 90% (342) 
have 6 rays, 5% (19) have 7 rays, while 8 specimens have 8 rays and 6 specimens 
have but 5. The color in hfe shows extraordinary diversity. The 385 specimens 
come from the following places : 

Western AustraUa: Dongarra, E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 4 very young speci- 
mens. 
Garden Island, near Fremantle, October 14, 1929. 1 small 

adult. 
Rottnest Island, Point Vlaming, February, 1930, Swan and 
Drummond leg. E. W. Bennett don. 1 very small 7 
rayed specimen, 3 mm. across. Found on seaweed. 
Rottnest Island, October, 1929. 1 very small specimen. 
Rottnest Island, 1934. Captain B. E. Bardwell leg. et don. 

10 specimens. 
Point Peron, October, 1929. 108 specimens. 
Bunbury, October 26, 1929. 6 specimens. 
Bunkers Bay, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 
174 specimens of all sizes. 



166 MEMom: museum of comparative zoology 

Ellenbrook Beach, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

5 specimens. 
Hamelin Bay, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

4 specimens. 
Exact locality, date and collector uncertain but undoubtedly 

collected between Point P^ron and Hamelin Bay. 51 

specimens, adult and young. 
South Australia: Port Willunga, November 2, 1929. 1 small adult. 
New South Wales: Locality ? Mr. S. Larnach leg. et don. 2 young specimens. 
Colloroy, Long Reef, November 28, 1929. 7 adults. 

Patiriella brevispina' sp. nov. 
Plate 22, figs. 2-3 

Similar to gunnii aborally, though the granules on the plates seem a trifle 
lower and more angular when dry specimens are compared side by side. On the 
oral surface all spines shorter and stouter than in typical gunnii and there are 
generally fewer to a plate. Actinal intermediate plates with very short spines, 
shorter than the plate that carries them and often not twice as long as wide ; on 
most of the plates there are two such stumpy spines but near the oral plates, there 
is only a single spine to a plate and the large plates immediately distal to the 
orals may have none. Adambulacral plates with a furrow series of 2 short, flat- 
tened, truncate spines, much stouter basally than at tip; on the first 2 or more 
plates there are 3 such spines and in large specimens (R = 40 mm. or more) as 
many as 6 or 8 proximal adambulacrals have 3 spines; on the surface of each 
plate is a single stout subambulacral spine, often wider at tip than at base and 
only 2-4 times as long as wide. Oral plates with a similar spine on the surface, 
at their distal end and a marginal series of 4 (in large specimens, 5) stout blunt 
spines, the innermost largest. Color in life "deep purple, or brownish-crimson oi- 
more nearly brown (but with surprisingly little difference) with deep orange tube- 
feet." Dry specimens unicolor, faded but with a distinctly purplish tint especially 
on the distal part of the rays. The largest specimen, which was uniform deep 
purple in life, now has the disk and basal part of rays dull orange and the distal 
margins and the distal part of the rays light violet. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3305, dredged in 5 8 fms. in Koombana Bay, Bun- 
bury, W. A., October 26, 1929. 

1 brevis = short, in reference to the remarkably short actinal spines. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 167 

Our attention was first attracted to this sea-star by its handsome purple 
color quite different from anything we had noted in the hundreds of gunnii which 
we had seen at Point Peron and along shore at Bunbury. When we found that all 
of the Patiriellas dredged in Koombana Bay agreed in this striking coloration, 
our interest was quickened. Subsequently, Professor Bennett found the same form 
at Bunkers Bay and Ellen Brook Beach, which he kindly sent me with some addi- 
tional specimens of large size from Bunbury. On November 2, 1929, while collect- 
ing along shore during low tide, at Port Willunga, South Australia, I found a very 
fine specimen of this sea-star about 80 mm. across. No specimens from further 
east have come under my notice. 

The material in hand consists of 20 specimens ranging from 17 to nearly 90 
mm. in diameter. There are 2 specimens with 7 rays among those dredged in 
Koombana Bay. There is room for considerable doubt whether this form is really 
a vaUd species or merely a variety of gunnii, a species which shows very great 
diversity in color and considerable in spinulation. But the more I have studied 
the material at hand, the more I feel convinced that brevispina is consistently and 
constantly distinct. Of course direct study of the question at Bunbury or some 
equally good locality may demonstrate that my conviction is ill-founded. 

The 20 specimens of brevispina at hand are from the following places: 
Western Austr aha: Bunbury, Koombana Bay, 5-8 fms., October 26, 1929. 14 

specimens, small adults and young. 
Bunbury; gift of Bunbury Naturalists Club through Pro- 
fessor E. W. Bennett, 3 large adults, in very poor condi- 
tion. 
Bunker's Bay, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett, leg. et don. 

1 large adult ; very poor. 
Ellen Brook Beach, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett. 1 small 
adult. 
South AustraUa: Port Willunga, November 2, 1929. 1 large adult; very fine. 



Patiriella nigra' sp. nov. 
Plate 21, figs. 3-4 

Very similar to P. regularis of New Zealand, so that structural differences on 
which any weight can be put are diflScult to find. Only two or three are worth 

' niger = black, in reference to the extraordinary color of the living animal. 



168 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

mentioning and it is quite possible that these are inconstant and worthless. 
There is little well-preserved material of rcgularis available (although a cotype of 
^'errill's and 6G other specimens are in the M. C. Z. collection); the best is an 
adult in alcohol and some small, dry adults collected in "New Zealand" and given 
to the Museum by Mr. Stanley L. Larnach in 1931. These specimens permit a 
careful comparison with the type of nigra which is in perfect condition, and the 
following differences are tangible; in the interradial areas the aboral plates in 
regularis carry relatively few spinelets (3-12) and this group rapidly becomes 
crescentic as one passes inward from the margin, and subtends a large papula; 
in nigra, these plates carry large dense groups of spinelets (12-15 or more) which 
cover the area closely and do not become crescentic until well up on the disk; 
again, the large inner marginal spines on the oral plates are distinctly flatter and 
more abruptly truncate in nigra than in any specimen of regularis I ha\'e seen; 
finally the 2 furrow spines in nigra are more nearly equal, more enlarged at base 
and more acute at tip then in regularis. 

These differences taken by themselves alone would not warrant the estab- 
lishment of even a named variety but in connection with the locality where taken 
and the extraordinary color in life, it is justifiable to use a distinctive name. 
Color in hfe, black, "coal black" according to my field notes; it was certainly not 
a dark green or greenish-black nor a deep purplish-black, but simply a dead 
black; the lower surface was dusky. After killing in corrosive-formalin and dry- 
ing, the lower surface became museum color around the margins but suffused 
with green inwardly from a definite boundary about 5 mm. from the margin; 
the aboral surface is dark green for 10-1.5 mm. inward from margin and then 
becomes rather abruptly brown-orange. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3311, from under surface of a rock fragment near 
western margin of reef-flat at Neds Beach, Lord Howe Island, April 22, 1932. 

On the evening of April 21, 1932, at a social gathering, a resident of Lord 
Howe, herself an enthusiastic collector of marine animals (particularly shells), 
asked me if we had found "the black starfish." Incredulously I replied that I had 
never seen or heard of such an animal l)ut she assured me that she had found 
them at very low tides, although they seemed to be quite rare; they were to be 
found clinging to the underside of rock fragments and were "quite black all 
over." Mr. Livingstone and I discussed the matter later and agreed that she must 
have something else in mind than a sea-star. But the very next day, while mak- 
ing what was expected to be my last visit to Neds Beach, I turned over a rock 
fragment near the western edge of the reef-flat and there was a beautiful specimen 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 169 

of a perfectly black sea-star! The next day three of us worked for three hours on 
the same and adjoining parts of the reef-flat but in vain, no second specimen was 
secured. And the following day we bade adieu to Lord Howe. 

At the AustraUan Museum, the following week, Livingstone showed me 
three specimens of Patiriella from Lord Howe Island, but they had all been pre- 
served in alcohol and hence are simply museum color; there is no means of know- 
ing what the color in life may have been. According to Farquhar (1895, p. 197), 
the New Zealand species regnlaTis shows great diversity in color, "greenish-gray," 
"yellow, orange, purple, dull green variegated with yellow," "dark purple and 
many shades of blue." Of course if further collecting at Lord Howe reveals speci- 
mens of Patiriella which are not black, the status of nigra will be very dubious, 
yet the crowded spinulation of the interradial areas may warrant its retention as 
a variety. The holotype is an almost perfect pentagon with R = 27-28 mm. and 
r = 21; the vertical diameter is 10 mm. Thanks to Mr. Livingstone, one of the 
specimens from Lord Howe in the AustraHan Museum is at hand. It has R = 35 
mm.; the spinulation of the interradii is dense and it may properly be considered 
an example of nigra. 

Nepanthia belcheri 

Asterina {Nepanthia) belcheri Perkier, 1876. Arch. Zool. Exp., 5, p. 240 (.320 of reprint). 

Henricia heteradis H. L. Clark, 1909. Mem. Austral. Mus., 4, p. .530. 

Nepanihia polypla.r Doderlein, 1926. K. SAenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. (3) 2, no. 6, p. 20. 

The determination of the systematic position of the Nepanthias which were 
taken at Lord Howe Island, and of specimens in the Austrahan Museum, loaned 
for identification, has caused me a great deal of perplexity. The best solution — 
the only one really satisfying — is to call them all a single species and apply to 
them the name belcheri Perrier, vahdated in 1884 by Bell. Having presumably 
examined the types in the British Museum, Bell assigned to belcheri a specimen 
from Port Jackson, thus fixing a definite locality for the species. As he does not 
suggest, in his exasperatingly brief reference, that his specimen had other than 
7 arms (the number given by Perrier as characteristic of the species) but does 
state that it had 4 madreporites, Bell has added but very little to our knowledge 
of the species. Doderlein based his species polyplax on a single specimen of Nepan- 
thia from "Rockhampton" (presumably Queensland) which had 6 rays and 6 
madreporites. This striking symmetry seemed to him sufficient ground for the 
estabhshment of a new species. But material from Lord Howe Island shows that 
no reliance can be placed on the number of either arms or madreporites. Doder- 



170 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

lein's admirable figures lead me to identify his species with the one occurring at 
Port Jackson and Lord Howe Island. 

Placing this typical Nepanthia in the genus Henricia is the most absurd 
mistake of which I have been guilty in all my work on Echinoderms and is of 
course inexcusable. It can be accounted for only by my unfamiliarity with 
Nepanthia and overfamiliarity with Henricia in 1909. 

This sea-star is one of the characteristic echinoderms of Lord Howe where it 
occurs on both sides of the island under rock fragments. Symmetrical specimens 
are rare; nearly all show evidence of autotomy to a greater or less degree. The 
color in life is an inconspicuous dark dull green indistinctly speckled orally with 
reddish. The color is fugacious and dry specimens are usually museum-color; 
occasionally however a specimen shows a marked purplish rose-color which per- 
sists for years. 

It is a literal truth that no two of the 56 specimens at hand, nearly all from 
Lord Howe Island (4 being on loan from the Australian Museum), are exactly 
alike in number, size and form of arms, and in number of madreporites. Appar- 
ently 6 is the normal number of arms as 27 specimens show that number, while 
only 8 individuals have 7, 7 have 5, 3 have but 4, 1 has 8, 1 has but 3, and 1 is a 
single arm isolated but obviously in process of growth to become a "comet" such 
as are common in the autotomous reproduction of Linckia guildingii. Perfect 
"comets" in belcheri are by no means rare; one of the most typical consists of an 
arm 12 mm. long and 5.5 mm. wide, with 5 little arms about 4 mm. long radiating 
symmetrically from the oral end. Another very symmetrical specimen consists of 
an arm 18 mm. long, from the oral end of which radiate 4 arms 10 mm. in length. 
The 3-rayed specimen is obviously a hexamerous specimen so recently di\'ided by 
autotomy that new rays have not yet become distinctly differentiated though 
growing tissue is evident. The 8-armed specimen has 2 arms 16-18 mm. long and 
5, 11-12 mm., while the eighth arm, projecting only 4 mm. from the disk margin 
is obviously a supernumerary bud crowding in between two normal arms. As 
already stated symmetrical specimens are rare ; there are 2 perfectly symmetrical 
pentamerous specimens, with R = 10 and 17 mm. respectively; the smaller has 2, 
the larger, 4 madreporites. A symmetrical hexamerous specimen with R = 30-32 
mm. is the largest specimen of belcheri that we found at Lord Howe. It is not 
perfectly symmetrical however for, though there are 6 properly placed madre- 
porites, one is twice as large as the others and is divided into two nearly distinct 
plates. A 7-armed specimen with R = 22-25 nmi. is almost perfectly symmetrical 
as there are 7 madreporites of equal size located one in each interradius. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 171 

Aside from the number of rays and madreporites this species is easily dis- 
tinguished from brevis by the fewer and coarser spines making up the oral and 
adambulacral armature; in belcheri, the larger ones are thickened at tip and blunt 
— which is not the case in brevis. 

Specimens of bcJchcri from the mainland coast of Australia do not seem to be 
common. One was secured by the Great Barrier Reef Expedition and was as- 
signed by Livingstone (1933, p. 262) with frank skepticism to "{?brcvis)." He 
makes no reference to poJyplax Doderlein and probably had not at the time of 
writing seen that author's figures. There are at hand 2 specimens loaned by the 
Australian Museum which were taken at the mouth of Lane Cove River, Port 
Jackson, many years ago and are listed by Whitelegge (1889, p. 201) as "Patiria 
crassa Gray." Years later, I (1925, p. 2) recorded a specimen in the Stockhohn 
Museum from Lane Cove River and corrected Whitelegge's identification of the 
species, pointing out that the Lane Cove River specimens were identical with 
those from Lord Howe Island, which I carelessly persisted in calling "Henricia." 
The Stockholm specimen has 7 nearly equal arms, about 35 mm. long; it is prob- 
ably one of Dr. Ramsay's original series. 

Excepting the recently secured material from Lord Plowe Island, all of the 
specimens at hand are old ones and the spinelets are more or less rubbed off, 
especially on the disk and basal part of rays, but aside from this artificial loss of 
spinelets the appearance of the two largest individuals indicates that after R = 30 
mm. (or thereabouts) the spinelets are gradually replaced aborally by fewer, 
shorter and coarser, pointed outgrowths of the plates giving them a rougher coat 
and leaving the aboral surface of the animal relatively bare and not at all "vel- 
vety." Even on the oral surface a change to fewer and shorter spinelets is evi- 
dent, but in the interradii and on the sides of the rays it is not very noticeable. 

In order to summarize our present knowledge of Nepantliia, and set out the 
characters which apparently distinguish the various species, including the new 
ones described beyond, the foUowmg key is offered as a beginning towards a 
satisfactory understanding of the genus. 



Key to the Species of Nepanthia 

A. Arms long; R = 5-6r =^. 

A small supplemental plate proximal to each papula; furrow spines, S-10; R a little 

more than 6r maculaia 

No conspicuous supplemental plates proximal to papulae; fiurow spines, 5 or 6; R 
rather less than 6r tenuis 



172 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

A^. Arms short ; R = 3^r ± . 

B. Rays 5, swollen at base, then rather abruptly smaller; madreporite single 

suffarcinata 

B". Not as above. 

C. Rays 6 or 7 (rarely 5 or 8), short and thick in adults; madreporites 2-8; aiitot- 
omy occurs very generally; adambulacral armature with about 5 furrow 
spines belcheri^ 

C Rays typically 5 (occasionally 6, very rarely 7); madreporite usually single, 
2 or 3 in multiradiate individuals; autotomous only when young; furrow- 
spines more than 5. 

D. Aboral plates densely clothed with minute spinelets, almost like velvet; 
innermost oral spine not notable. 

Aboral skeleton with numerous, short, wide crescentic plates, not ar- 
ranged in very regular longitudinal series except near tip of arms. 
Adambulacral and oral armature of numerous very slender, acute 

spines brevis 

Aboral skeleton with fewer, longer, narrower, more crescentic plates in 
very regular series; adambulacral antl oral armature of fewer, coarse, 
blunt spines variabilis 

D'. Aboral plates with fewer, coarser spinelets, not at all velvety; innermost 
spine conspicuously large, flattened and acute magnispina 

Of the above 7 supposedly valid and properly defined species, 5 are in the 
present collection — 2 previously known species from northeastern and eastern 
Australia and 3 hitherto undescribed species from the northwestern coast. On 
the western coast Nepanthia seems to be replaced by Parasterina. Sladen's 
species suffarcinata like joubini is non- Australian. No specimens of either species 
have come under my eyes. 

Nepanthia brevis 

Asterina (Nepanthia) brevis Perkier, 1876. Arch. Zool. Exp., 5, p. 241 (321 of reprint). 
Nepanthia brevis Sladen, 1889. "Challenger" Ast., p. 387. 

This is the best known of the species of Nepanthia as it has been taken re- 
peatedly in Torres Strait and on the coast of northern Queensland. As it has been 
figured by Bell (1884) and by myself (1921), there is little occasion for discussion 
of it here. Specimens in the Australian Museum, kindly sent to me for study, 
show considerable diversity in form and in spinulation but in view of the fact that 
these characters are profoundly affected by the condition of the specimen when 
killed (whether contracted or relaxed and to how great a degree) and by the 

' Koehler's species joubini from Cochin China is so near to belcheri, no way of distinguishing them is 
available. Koehler himself makes no reference whatever to belcheri. 



CLAKK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 173 

method of killing and preservation, it would be absurd to try and distinguish 
species on such trivial details. It may be well however to record certain devia- 
tions from typical for the use of future students. A normal adult specimen of 
brei'is has 5 arms and 1 madreporite; R =40 mm. * withrabout one-third as much; 
the arms are blunt with the width near middle about one-fifth R and near tip, 
practically the same ; at base the width is about equal to r. Some variations from 
this normal form are as follows: a specimen from Port Curtis, Queensland, has 
R =30 mm. ± and r and br, at all points (except the very tip of arm) nearly or 
quite 9 mm. On the other hand a specimen in the Australian Museum (J 5151) 
has arms 45-50 mm. long with r = 15, and br = 14, 10 and 7 mm. at base, middle 
and near tip. Most specimens have 5 arms and a single madreporite, but two of 
the series at hand have 6 arms and a very small and irregular specimen has 7; of 
the two with 6 arms, one has 4 madreporites and the other 3, while the little 
7-armed individual has 3 very small ones. One of the 6-armed specimens has 
tapering and somewhat pointed arms, but it is hard to tell how much this is due 
to the method of drying. The most constant character of brevis seems to be the 
long and very numerous slender spines making up the adambulacral and oral 
armatures. 

The discovery of breids at Darwin was one of the interesting results of our 
collecting there as the range is tlius extended far to the west. The 4 specimens 
dredged at the Shell Islands are very typical but the little 7-armed Nepanthia 
picked up on the beach at East Point is certainly an extreme variant, though there 
is no good reason, save the number of arms, for declining to call it brevis. 

The 20 specimens of this species at hand range from R =12 to R =55 mm. 
They come from the following stations: 

Queensland: Port Curtis, Rat Island. Ward and Boardman leg. 4 specimens, 
loaned by the Australian Museum. 
Port Denison. 4 specimens, loaned by the Australian Museum. 
At, and in vicinity of Thursday Island, 1928. Melbourne Ward 
leg. 5 specimens. Loaned by Australian Museum (nos. 5147- 
5151). 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 2-3 fms., July, 1929. 4 speci- 
mens, 1 adult. 
Darwin, near East Point, washed up on beach. 1 very 
young specimen with 7 rays. 
Locality unknown. 2 specimens without labels or numbers. Loaned by Aus- 
tralian Museum. 



174 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Nepanthia magnispina' sp. nov. 
Plate 20, figs. 1-2 

Rays 5, but only 3 are normal, 2 at one side being very small, growth having 
only just begun; whether this is the result of autotomy or of an accident is not 
clear. R = 18, 28 and 32 imn.; r = 9; br = 9-ll mm.; arms high at base, about 7.5 
mm. Aboral skeleton made up of more or less crescentic plates, about as wide 
as long, arranged in fairly definite longitudinal series; they are relatively narrower 
and longer than in brevis; the spiniferous ridge is narrow, more or less curved, and 
carries a dozen or more short, sharp, glassy spinelets; the surface is thus only 
sparsely covered and is not in the least "velvety." Inferomarginal plates rela- 
tively large and conspicuous forming a very definite margin to the rays. No 
madreporite is present but its absence is probably accidental. 

Actinal intermediate plates in 5 or 6 series at base of ray but the two outer- 
most series contain only 1 or 2 plates each ; the next series contains 7 or 8 plates, 
the next has 35 plates and reaches nearly to the arm-tip; the innermost has as 
many plates as there are adambulacrals and accompanies that series to the tip 
of the arm. All actinal plates carry a tuft of short, sharp, divergent, glassy 
spinelets. Adambulacral plates with a furrow series of 4 or 5 divergent spines, 
which are neither slender nor stout, but the middle 3 are about as long as the 
plate margin and have opaque blunt tips; back of the furrow series is a second 
similar series of shghtly smaller spines and on the surface of the plate are a few 
(1-6) much smaller spinelets. Oral plates each with 5 or G marginal spines 
similar to the largest furrow spines but the innermost is abruptly largest, 1.5-2 
mm. in length, flattened but quite acute. Color, the usual yellowish-brown of 
museum material; color in Ufe was not recorded. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3320, from Augustus (or Champagay) Island, 
northern Western Austraha, October, 1933. Captain Beresford E. Bardwell leg. 

This was the only Nepanthia secured by Captain Bardwell and was sup- 
posed to be the species common at Broome but even a hasty examination showed 
it could not be placed there. It was then thought to be bi-evis but it is even more 
different from that species, particularly in the adambulacral and oral armature. 
It is therefore necessary to give it a distinctive name and await further material. 

' magnus = big -f spinus = a spine, in reference to the innermost oral spine, which is unusually con- 
spicuous. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 175 

Nepanthia tenuis^ sp. nov. 
Plate 20, fig. 3 

Rays 5, slender, terete and blunt, flattened orally. R = 64 mm., r and br = 11 
mm.; hence R is a little less than 6 r or br. Aboral surface covered with very 
numerous small plates ; on the disk and along the median area of each ray most 
of these plates are crescentic and subtend a papula but elsewhere they are 
rounded quadrangular; there is no small plate proximal to each papula; along the 
sides of the arms the plates form more or less regular longitudinal series. All 
plates are densely covered with minute, short, glassy spinelets, easily rubbed 
off in handhng the dry specimen. Papulae large and numerous extending in 
several series to the tip of the arm. Madreporite single, large, about as far as 
its own diameter from the center of the disk. 

Both supero- and inferomarginal plates are small and form no very well- 
defined boundary to the aboral surface. Actinal intermediate plates in about 7 
series of which the 3 innermost extend nearly or quite to the tip of the arm; 
the series adjoining the ambulacral furrow is made up of much the largest 
plates; all actinal plates are densely covered with spinelets. Adambulacral arm- 
ature of a furrow series of 5 or 6 relatively thick, blunt spines, a Uttle longer per- 
haps than the adambulacral plate itself; back of that is a second and usually 
a third series of similar but slightly smaller spines, while on the outer end of 
the plate are some spinelets hke those on the actinal plates. Each oral plate 
with a marginal series of 10-12 long spines, similar to the furrow spines but 
longer; on the surface of the plate is a large compact group of a dozen spines or 
more. 

Color in hfe: "hght gray with an indefinite whitish area on distal half of 
arm, with irregularly scattered small flecks of deep green; there is a reddish 
tinge to the gray and there are scattered white plates on basal half of arm. 
Lower surface white with a few scattered flecks of dull green along ambulacra." 
The dried specimen is uniformly museum-color. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3321, from Roe Bank, 4 fms., outside Roebuck Bay, 
Broome, W. A., sand, shells and nulUpore, June 20, 1932. 

This fine Nepanthia, more hke maculala, the genotype, than any of the other 
species is readily distinguished by the character of the dorsal skeleton and the 

' ieraujs = slender, in reference to the .arms which are so much more slender than in the common Nepan- 
thia of the same region. 



176 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

adambulacral armature. Fortunately Sladen (1889) was wise enough to give 
figures of these features as they are in maculala, so that in spite of the rarity 
of that species it is possible to understand easily how different from it the West- 
ern Australian species is. That ie7iuis is not common at Broome is evident from 
the facts that we did not meet with it at all in 1929, there are no specimens in 
the Museums at either Perth or Sydney and in 1932 we only secured 2 specimens 
besides the holotype. These are both much smaller; one has R = 4.5 mm. while 
in the other it is about 38. 



Nepanthia variabilis^ sp. nov. 
Plate 10, figs. 4-5. Plate 20, figs. 4-5 

Rays 5, rarely 6 in adults, rather stout, more or less tapering. R = 60 mm., 
r and br = 13; hence R = about 4.5r or br. \^^lile these measurements of the 
holotype are typical there is considerable diversity on both sides of this normal 
form. Aboral skeleton as in brevis, and other typical members of the genus — 
crescentic plates on median area of arms, with rounded quadrilateral plates in 
longitudinal series on the sides. Spiniferous ridges on the plates well developed 
and well covered with little spinelets but owing to the breadth and depth of 
the areas between the ridges the aboral surface is not smooth or velvety. 
Papulae large and numerous, all over sides and top of arms. Madreporic plate 
single, rather large, nearer to center of disk than to margin; when there are 
6 arms, there are 2 or 3 madreporites, but in small individuals (R less than 15 
mm.) it is usually hard to find any madreporite at all. 

Marginal plates small but inferomarginals are easily distinguishable and 
form a definite boundary to the oral surface. Actinal intermediate plates in 
about 7 series at very base of ray but only 4 series extend to middle of ray and 
of these only the innermost goes clear to the tip of the arm. Each actinal plate 
is closelj' covered with a dense coat of small spinelets. Adambulacral armature, 
much as in tenuis — a furrow series of 5 or 6 relatively stout, blunt spines, a 
similar slightly smaller series back of it, in which the individual spines are com- 
monly stouter (at least near base of arm) than those of the furrow series; the 
remainder of the plate is covered by a third series of spines, or by little spinelets 
or by both. Each oral plate has about 8 marginal spines, much like those in the 

' variabilis = marked by diversity, in reference to the remarkable diversity in form and color which 
this sea-star exhibits. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 177 

furrow series of the proximal adambulacrals but longer; on the surface of the 
plate is an elongated cluster of more or less similar spines. 

Color in life, verj' diversified and often brilliant; the dry specimens are 
usually museum-color but many show blotches of dusky and these are quite 
conspicuous in some of the smaller specimens. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3323, from Broome, W. A., August, 1929. 

The diversity of this sea-star is really extraordinary. As regards form, 
differences in the slenderness of the rays, in the degree to which they taper, in 
the bluntness or acuteness of the tip, in their relative height at base and even in 
their number lead to remarkably unlike-looking specimens. In color, the diver- 
sity is even more notable, so great as to be almost unbelievable. A few extracts 
from my field notes will make this evident: "Variegated, white, Ught orange- 
brown and liver-brown;" "variegated greens and whitish, rather like brevis;'' 
"bright red, adambulacral spines black, just the very tips almost white, tube- 
feet white with tips almost black;" "light fawn color with a very few (about 5) 
irregular small blotches of bright dark brown, oral and adambulacral spines deep 
green;" "disk and base of raj^s aborally bright light violet, madreporite pale 
green, remainder of rays variegated whitish and light brown with a few widely 
scattered ii-regular small blotches of crimson; oral surface near margin pale 
fawn color but near mouth and grooves the tufts of spinelets are rusty ; oral and 
adambulacral spines deep green;" "variegated whitish and light brown (some 
blotches are black brown) with irregular blotches of bright rose-color, lower sur- 
face fawn and rust-color, oral and adambulacral spines green;" "variegated 
white and red-violet, oral surface pale pink-brown (almost salmon) with oral 
and adambulacral spines and adjoining spinelets deep blue-green in sharp 
contrast;" "white mottled with black especially on disk and base of arms with 
a very few inconspicuous blotches of purple-brown, madreporite cream-color;" 
"bright orange-red with center of disk vermilion, distal portion of arms varie- 
gated with cream-color and vermilion, oral surface, orange, oral and adambulacral 
spines more or less brown distally;" "almost rose-red." 

Most of the above specimens were collected along shore in Roebuck Bay, 
August 26, 1929, but a few were dredged. In their present dry condition there 
is still considerable diversity but the majority are museum color of a darker or 
lighter shade; some show distinct blotches of dusky or dull reddish, some have 
a reddish or purplish tinge and one small speciiiien is a rather bright rose-red 
aborally. 

Growth changes are interesting. All specimens with R = 13 mm. or less are 



178 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

either symmetrically hexamerous (3 specimens) or liave obviously undergone 
autotomous division (4 specimens); of the latter, 3 have 2 large and 4 small 
arms and one has 2 large and 3 smaller arms. Another specimen is almost a 
"comet" having one arm with R = 16 mm. and .5 additional arms with R =7-12 
mm. All other specimens with R = 15 mm. or more are symmetrical pen- 
tamerous specimens except a few that are obviously regenerating one or more rays 
lost by accident of some kind, and three individuals which each deserve a word 
of comment; one is a perfectly tetramerous individual (with R=30mm.); one 
is a hexamerous adult with R = 42-52 mm. ; and one is a hexamerous specimen 
in which R =30 mm. in two adjoining arms and 23-25 mm. in the other 4, un- 
doubtedly a case in which a hexamerous adult is developing after autotomy 
and interesting as showing that hexamerous specimens do not necessarily arise, as 
might be supposed, from the 3-armed half (after autotomy of a 5-armed specimen) 
giving rise to 3 additional arms instead of 2. Mortensen (1933, p. 276) has 
given it as his opinion that "the idea that species normally 6-armed and self- 
dividing as young transform into 5-armed, non-dividing adult, is a mistake — 
for Asteroids as well as Ophiuroids." In my opinion, my good friend is mistaken 
— the present species of Nepanthia seems to me to be unquestionably one in 
which young hexamerous individuals give rise through autotomy to symmetrical, 
non-dividing pentamerous adults. Occasionally hexamerous adults arise but 
they are the rare exception. 

Another growth change that deserves some comment is in the abundance 
and distribution of the spinelets on the aboral plates. Orally the changes are 
less noticeable. In all young specimens, until the arms are 20-25 mm. long the 
larger aboral plates are well-covered, though not densely so, with the usual 
minute spinelets and the smaller plates have a more or less evident tuft of the 
same. As growth proceeds however and size increases, we find two divergent 
tendencies. In some individuals, usually (but not always) those with wide, 
blunt arms, the spinelets seem to increase but little in number and hence occupy 
only the raised portion of the expanding plates, and at the same time, they in- 
crease in size particularly in thickness at base; the surface of the adult thus 
becomes rougher, with the individual plates increasingly conspicuous. On the 
other hand in some individuals, usually with slender tapering arms, the spinelets 
increase greatly in number and cover the plates large and small so completely 
that the surface assumes a "velvety" appearance and feeling. The difference 
between the two extremes is striking but as it is not associated with other dis- 
tinguishing characters and as there are many intermediate specimens, it can be 



CLAHK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 179 

regarded only as "individual diversity." It suggests however that two allied 
but quite distinct species might arise very easily and naturally by some change 
in environment that led to a keener struggle for survival. 

This is one of the common and characteristic sea-stars of the Broome area. 
We did not find it at Cape Leveque but it occurs at False Cape Bossut and in 
Lagrange Bay. There are 51 specimens at hand, the largest having R =64-67 mm. 



Parasterina crassa 

Pafiria ? crassa Gray, 1S47. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. S3. 
Parasterina crassa Fisher, 1908. Smitlison. Misc. Coll., 52, p. 90. 

On October 7, 1929, we spent a most interesting day at Geraldton, W. A., 
and among the echinoderms collected along shore were two small Nepanthia-like 
sea-stars, which prove to be young examples of Gray's species. They show a dis- 
tinct difference in form, for one has R = 28 mm., br = 7, R = 4br, while the other 
has R = 25 mm., br = 8, R = 3br. Otherwise they agree well, particularly in the 
considerable number of enlarged swollen, aboral plates characteristic of the 
species. 

We did not meet with another specimen of crassa during our further col- 
lecting on the Western Australian coast but Mr. Glauert kindly loaned me 6 
specimens from the Perth Museum and Professor Bennett has sent 6 specimens. 
Of the Perth Museum specimens, a 6-armed one from Garden Island is most 
notable; it is a large individual (R = 50 mm. ±) in poor condition; one ray is dis- 
tinctly smaller than the others. Of the other specimens 4 were found at Cottesloe 
Beach and the fifth was found on the piles of an old jetty at Fremantle. 

Of the specimens sent by Professor Bennett, 3 are from Dongarra and 2 
deserve special comment; one is perfectly tetramerous and has R about 23 mm.; 
the other has the five arms, 33-35 mm. long and 11 mm. thick, very blunt, the 
aboral surface almost completely covered by the enlarged swollen plates ; no other 
specimen is comparable in this particular. Of the other 3 specimens, 1 is from 
jetty piles at Rockingham, the other 2 have no locality label. One of these 
however is notable for its unusually heavy, stout structure and large size; 
R = 64 mm., r and br, 17 or 18 mm., R = 3.7r or br. The vertical diameter of the 
disk and base of rays is 14 mm. The enlarged, swollen aboral plates are numerous 
but not excessively so. Unfortunately none of the specimens at hand have any 



180 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

notes as to the color in life. The smaller specimen of the two from an unknown 
locality sent by Professor Bennett has a very definite dull brownish-red color and 
my recollection of the specimens found at Geraldton is that they were red-brown. 



Parasterina troughtoni 
Livingstone, 1934. Rec. Austral. Miis., 19, p. 179. 

Among the sea-stars loaned me by the Perth Museum are two specimens of 
this recently described species. One is a trifle larger than Livingstone's unique 
holotype (R = 16-18 mm.) but the other is twice as big (R = 32-34 mm.). The 
species characters are well marked, particularly in the larger specimen. The 
holotype was taken at Albany, W. A., but there is no locahty known for the 
two specimens in hand, though they are supposed to be from Western AustraHa. 
Both specimens are typical museum color. 



Parasterina occidentalism sp. nov. 
Plate 21, fig. 5 

Rays 5, long and slender. R = 29 mm., r and br = 7.5 mm. R = almost 4r 
or br. Rays wide, with oral surface flat, sides nearly or quite parallel and tips very 
bluntty rounded. Aboral surface closely covered with thick plates, each plate 
densely covered with a coat of minute, short, truncate spinelets; papulae rather 
large so placed that there is one at each corner of every plate, but sunken almost 
out of sight so closely placed are the plates; aboral surface looks and feels very 
smooth, so crowded are both plates and spinelets; plates are of two sorts, rhombic 
more or less equilateral, or longer than wide (in the interradial areas and along 
sides of ray nearly to tip) and irregularly diamond-shape wider than long (distal 
portion of arm and thence forming a median band narrowest at disk) . Disk itself 
covered by irregularly polygonal plates not noticeably different from those at 
base of arms. Terminal plate rather large and projecting but covered by short, 
minute spinelets. Madreporite small, triangular, sunken, half-way between disk 
center and margin. 

Marginal plates noticeable, if not conspicuous, in a uniform double series at 
the margin of the disk and arms. Superomarginal plates unusually large and 

' occidenlalis = of the west, in reference to its being characteristic of the western coast of Austrah'a. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 181 

noticeable, corresponding in size, form and position with the inferomarginals. 
Only one series of actinal intermediate plates extends to the tip of the ray, the 
plates corresponding in number and position with the adambulacrals and also 
with the inferomarginals; on basal third of ray, a second series of much smaller 
plates, 16 or 17 in number, extends as far as the twelfth inferomarginal ; a third 
series of 7 or 8 similar plates extends to the fifth inferomarginal, and half a dozen 
moi'e fill up the rest of the intermediate area. Adambulacral armature made up 
of a furrow series of 4 or 5 subequal, rather stout spines with bluntly rounded 
tips, and a subambulacral group of 10-12 similarly thick and blunt but much 
shorter spines on the surface of the plate; the inner 4 or 5 of this group are some- 
times arranged so that they seem to form a second series back of the furrow 
series but this is rarely e\-ident. Each oral plate with a marginal series of half a 
dozen spines subequal or the innermost longest, similar to but larger than the 
adambulacral furrow-series; in large specimens the inner spines become almost 
prismatic at tip; on the surface of each plate is a longitudinal double series of 
smaller spines, about 5 in the outer row and 2 in the inner. Taken altogether 
both adambulacral and oral plates are pretty well covered with spines. Color in 
life, dull rose-red (in other specimens, a more crimson-red is marked), completely 
lost after drying. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 3332, from a small cavern under a big rock at 
Point Peron, W. A., October, 1929. 

Although we did not meet with this species again, Mr. Glauert has loaned 
me 5 specimens and Professor Bennett has given me two, which however have no 
data with them and are in rather poor condition. Of the Perth Museum speci- 
mens, 2 in very poor condition are from Shag Rocks, Penguin Island, while the 
others are from near Fremantle. From Cottesloe Beach is a good graj^-brown 
specimen, with R nearly 40 mm., the arms tapering to a blunt point. A fine 
specimen from Garden Island, with R = 55-56 nun. and br = 1 1 (hence R = 5br) 
is painted brick-red, presumably as in Ufe. The largest specimen of all is from 
North Beach, Fremantle, and has R = 65 mm., and br = 14; the color is yellowish- 
brown. This species is very well defined and cannot be confused with any other 
now known. 

Anseropoda rosacea 

Asfcricw rosaceiis Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 558. 
Anseropoda rosacea Fisher, 1906. Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., p. 1089. 



182 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

^\^lile at Broome in 1929, a local shell collector showed me a fragment of a 
specimen of this sea-star and said it came from Eighty Mile Beach. Although we 
sought eagerly to find a specimen, we were not so fortunate. In 1932 however, 
on the afternoon of June 20th, while dredging in 4 fms. on Roe Bank just outside 
Roebuck Bay, we took 25 specimens. Oddly enough we did not again meet with 
the species. My field notes say: "All of the specimens are more or less damaged 
though some of the largest are nearly perfect. The color underwent no change 
in preservation; the upper side is variegated gray like the coarse sand on which 
the animal Uves; the lower side is creamy white with more or less rust color along 
the ambulacral grooves." On drying, the gray tints tend to become brown but 
otherwise there is very little change. Obviously the specific name selected by 
Lamarck has no reference whatever to color but only to a fancied resemblance in 
form, to a rose. 

Of the 25 specunens, one is too badly damaged to permit counting the rays 
but of the other 24 plus a small specimen loaned by the Australian Museum 

1 has 11 rays 

1 has 13 

1 (the smallest) has 14 

1 has 14} 2i as one furrow forks! 

7 have 15 
10 have 16 

4 have 17 
Evidently less than 16 is the typical number of rays (at Broome) but with 
nearly three times as many having fewer than having more. The average for the 
25 specimens is only 15.4 rays. The smallest specimen has R =30-35 mm. while 
the largest has R = 115-120 mm. As a rule, R = 1.12-1. 16r. The chief diversity 
shown is in the form of the tips of the rays, wUch range from rather acutely 
pointed to broadly rounded. The terminal plate is usually quite conspicuous 
and often the tip of the ray is tipped up in such a way as to make the plate more 
than normally noticeable. 

The specimen loaned by the Australian Museum is the most perfect one I 
have seen. It is only 75-80 mm. in diameter and the margin curves downward, 
so that the form is surprisingly like a certain type of Japanese umbrella. There 
are 15 rays and the terminal plate is a conspicuous tip to each one. Mr. R. A. 
Bourne, master of the "Bonza," took this specimen in 1930, between Broome 
and Wallal. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 183 

ECHINASTERIDAE 

ECHINASTER ARCYSTATUS 
H. L. Clark, 1914. Rec. W. Austral. Mus., 1, p. 148. 

We did not meet with this species but Professor Bennett has kindly given 
me a fine specimen from "a weedy reef" at Bunkers Bay, southwestern Western 
Australia taken by him in January, 1930. The arms are more than usually short 
and stout; R=87 nmti. but br = 19, so that R is only about 4.5br. The color is 
brown, the lower surfaces and the coarse aboral network Ughter than the ground 
color of the upper surface. 

ECHINASTER SUPERBUS 
H. L. Clark, 1916. "Endeavour" Rep, p. 64. 

While working in Pender Bay, June 16, 1932, our diver, Wan, brought up 
what still seems to me one of the most remarkable sea-stars I have ever seen as 
it was certainly one of the handsomest. More careful examination showed it to be 
a very large specimen of this species, of which the colors in life had not previously 
been known. The description in my field note-book is as follows: "The upper sur- 
face is a fairly light yellowish-gieen, with center of disk and five large blotches, 
arranged longitudinally on each ray and diminishing m size distally, a distinctly 
darker shade; on these darker areas the extraordinary spines are rose-color, 
elsewhere they are cream- white; lower surface, cream-white; feet white; oral 
armature lavender, this color extending distally a little way on the adambulacral 
spines; papulae pale brown; more or less greenish dorsally." Wan reported that 
he found this beautiful sea-star "on top of a rock." We did not meet with another 
specimen but two from the Perth Museum, kindly loaned by Mr. Glauert, are at 
hand. One of these (2985) from an unknown locality with R = 143 mm. is only a 
trifle smaller than the Pender Bay specimen in which R = 145 mm., r=24 and 
br =27.5. The color is a fairly uniform Ught reddish-brown with a lavender cast. 
In the Pender Bay specimen the spines are shorter, stouter, more numerous and 
more extraordinarily clavate than in no. 2985; in the latter, a rather conspicuous 
bare area runs longitudinally along each side of the series of big actinal spines 
which parallels the adambulacral furrow. These bare strips were rather evident 
in the unique holotype (see H. L. Clark, 1916, pi. XXV) but are not evident in 
the Pender Bay specimen nor in the second specimen from the Perth Museum. 



184 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

The latter, though much smaller (R = 110 mm., as in the holotype), resembles the 
big Pender Bay specimen in its spines, more nearly than it does no. 2985. It was 
taken at Broome in 1914 and has been varnished, probably in a futile effort to 
preserve the remarkable coloration; the present color is a dark reddish-brown, the 
tips of the spines brownish-yellow. The Pender Bay specimen has lost all traces 
of green or white but many aboral spines still retain an evident rose-red color. 

ECHINASTER VARICOLOR' Sp. UOV. 

Plate 11, fig. 1 

Rays 5, stout, terete, bluntly pointed. R = 160 mm., more or less; r = 16, 
br= 22-24; R=l()r, but only about 7br. Aboral skeleton irregularly reticulate 
but even in dried specimens not conspicuous, bearing many low spines, 1-1.5 mm. 
high, .5-1 mm. thick at base; there are 10-15 of these spines to each square centi- 
meter, but they are least numerous proximally and most numerous near the arm 
tips; they are bluntly rounded or truncate and often concave or pitted at tip. No 
marginal plates are distinguishable. Madreporite very small, only 2 mm. across, 
about 8 mm. from center of disk. 

Oral surface similar to aboral but the spines are somewhat longer. Papulae 
are numerous to within 5 mm. of the ambulacral furrow. Adambulacral armature 
at middle of arm consists of a single large marginal spine about 3 mm. long, 
sometimes tapering to a blunt point but more often strongly flattened into a 
chisel-like tip more than a millimeter wide, usually at right angles to the furrow; 
within the furrow attached to the base of the big spine is a rather short and blunt 
spine even its tip lower than the surface of the actinal plates; on many plates a 
small subambulacral spine, similar to those on the actinal plates, is present back 
of the big spine ; at t he base of the arm this spine is present on every adambula- 
cral plate but at the middle and distally its occurrence is irregular. The lowest 
row of actinal plates (nearest the furrow) carries spines rather evidently larger 
than the others and at some places on some of the arms this series of actinal 
spines is noticeable, but it is irregular in its development and is never con- 
spicuous. Oral plates with 3 or 4 big, clavate spines on the free margin, below 
which deep in the mouth are two small spines ; on the surface of each plate there 
may be a small spine but this is frequently lacking. Color in life deep buff, 
spotted with red-purple; dried specimen uniform bright red-brown becoming 
yellow-brown along the ambulacral furrows. 

' varicolor = of diverse colore, in reference to the different color forms noted in living specimens. 



CLAKK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 185 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3339 from sandy bottom, southwest of Broome, 
5-8 fms., June, 1932. 

The diversity of color shown in life by this fine Echinaster is so remarkable 
that I supposed I had 3 species until careful study showed that aside from color 
there are no characters whatever by which specimens can be distinguished. 
The first specimens taken were from far south of Broome and were buff, spotted 
with red-purple; while there was individual difference in the number and size of 
the spots, there was no question as to the identity of the specimens. The following 
week, while working to the north of Broome, Wan, the diver, brought up a fine, 
large Echinaster, uniformly violet in color, though somewhat yellowish along the 
ambulacral grooves. Subsequently specimens intermediate between the spotted 
and unicolor forms were taken and it became probable that only one species was 
involved. Finally, in Roebuck Bay, we took an Echinaster of rather smaller 
size, uniformly bright red in color without trace of buff or violet; several speci- 
mens were ultimately secured. On being dried, the three color forms became uni- 
color, the shade ranging from yellow-brown, through brown, to deep red-brown; 
some specimens are a very bright red brown, but there is no correlation between 
the color in fife and the present shades. In all specimens the adambulacral 
armature and more or less of the adjoining actinal surface is yellowish or brown- 
ish-yellow. 

All of tlie specimens have 5 arms but several have met with mishaps and are 
regenerating lost rays; the worst case has one arm normal, about 115 mm. long, 
a second arm about 100 mm. long gives some indication of having regenerated 
from close to the disk, a third arm has 30 mm. of the old arm base and 35 mm. 
regenerated distally, a fourth has 20 mm. of the old arm and 30 of the new, 
while the fifth arm lost close to the disk has just begun its regeneration. Whether 
marauding fishes are the cause of such mishaps one can only guess. 

No very small Echinasters were taken — the smallest has R = 86 mm. while 
in the largest R = 190 mm. The proportion of major and minor radius ranges 
from R = 8 to lOr, and the slenderness of the arms ranges from R = 6 to 8.5 br. 
It is worth noting that br seems to always exceed r, often very considerably. 

This sea-star is fairly common in the Broome region but we did not meet 
with it in 1929, probably because it does not occur along shore and we did com- 
paratively Uttle dredging. In our extensive dredging and use of a diver in 1932, 
we secured 26 specimens. For the convenience of future field workers the 3 color 
forms may be designated as forma maculata, forma violacea and forma rubra. 

The relationship of varicolor to luzonicus is perfectly obvious but the dif- 



186 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

ferences in life are even more so. Aside from size and color however, it is difficult 
to specify any point in which there is a clear cut distinction. When dry specimens 
of the same size are compared, it is evident that the spinelets are larger and less 
numerous, the skeletal network more open, in varicolor. Near the tip of the ray in 
luzonicus, the subambulacral spinelets form a very definite series close to, and 
parallel with, the adambulacrals, and often a series of actinal spinelets runs along 
just outside the subambulacrals. In varicolor there are no continuous series of 
spinelets outside the adambulacrals, the subambulacrals and actinal spinelets 
being scattered and irregular in their linear arrangement. The adambulacral 
spines in varicolor are more flattened and much wider at the tip than in luzonicus 
but this is a difference of degree only. To sum up, it may be said that luzonicus is 
a small species with R = 75-100 mm., usually with 5, but often with 6 or even 7 
arms, reproducing autotomously; the rays are relatively slender, covered with 
numerous small spinelets; distally the subambulacral and adjoining actinal 
spines tend to form longitudinal series parallel to the adambulacrals ; adambula- 
cral spines often somewhat flattened at tip; color rusty-red speckled with black- 
ish, or often the blackish color spreads over the whole dorsal surface; there is no 
violet or purple in the coloration. On the other hand varicolor is a very large, 
strictly 5-rayed species, not autotomous, with R = 150-190 mm.; the rays are 
stout but terete, covered with coarse spinelets, relatively less numerous than in 
luzonicus; on the distal portion of the arms, the spinelets do not form definite 
longitudinal series parallel to the adambulacral spines; the latter are markedly 
compressed and widened at tip particularly on the basal part of the arm; color 
deep buff spotted with purple, or uniformly violet or bright red, with no black or 
dusky spots or shade. The uniformly violet specimens suggest the possibihty of 
identity with Echinasier purpureus of East Africa and Mauritius but the shape of 
the arms and the absence of a wide bare strip parallel to the ambulacral furrow 
are adequate differences. 

Plectaster decanus 

Echincwter decanus MitLLER and Troschel, 1843. Arch. f. Naturg., 9 (1), p. 114. 
Plectaster decanus Sladen, 1889. "( 'hallenger" Ast., p. 535. 

Of course I regretted not having the opportunity to see this odd sea-star 
alive but fortune did not favor me. Professor Bennett has however sent me a 
good specimen with R=90 mm. =*= taken by Mr. D. L. Serventy, February 23, 
1930, while on the trawler "Bonthorpe" in the western end of the Great Austra- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 



187 



lian Bight, 33° 15' S x 126° 22' 15" E, 90 fms. Mr. Serventy has attached a color 
note to the specmien reading ''Red and purple patches," wliich I construe as 
meaning that in life the skeletal parts are red and the large papular areas purple. 



METRODIRIDAE 

Metrodira sxjbulata 
Plate 11, fig. 3 
Gray, 1840. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 282. 

Near the entrance to Roebuck Bay, in 4-7 fms., this pecuHar sea-star was 
not rare and we secured 16 specimens, ranging from R = 16 to R =72 mm. As 
the largest previously known specimen seems to be the one described and figured 
by Koehler (1910, p. 284) which had R= 60-65 mm., these larger specimens are 
of particular interest. The 16 specimens show no Uttle diversity in the slenderness 
of the arms, in the degree to which their aboral surface is flattened and in the 
size and number of the aboral spinelets. At one extreme is a specimen with 
slender, terete arms, in which R =55 mm., r =8 mm., and br =7 mm., and at the 
other is an individual with broad, flattened arms, in which R=60 mm., r = 10 
mm. and br = 10 mm. Hence the relative proportions range from R=6-7r and 
6-8 br. In the slender-armed specimens, the aboral spinelets are small, usually 
single, about 10-12 in a space 3 mm. square while in the broad-armed specimens 
the spinelets are larger, often in transverse series of 3 or 4, and 15-20 in a 3 mm. 
square. The two forms intergrade completely. A specimen with R = 68 mm. is 
pei'fectly tetramerous. 

The most interesting thing about the finding of Metrodira was the discovery 
of its unexpectedly handsome colors in life. Museum specimens are so universally 
yellow-brown, pale-brown, dirty yellowish or nearly white that it has never been 
suspected that the colors are very unUke any known Echinasters. My field notes 
describe the hving animal thus: "A most attractive sea-star ; pure white beneath; 
light gray with dull blue-gray blotches; each papula surrounded by a rust- 
colored ring." The gray has a distinctly bluish tint so that the effect is of a blue 
and white sea-star with small orange-brown circles on the upper side. 

Besides the 16 specimens taken at Broome, there are 3 other specimens at 
hand. One is a loan from the Perth Museum and was taken at Canarvon in 1927 
by Dr. Ehrenreich. Aside from the remarkable extension of the species range to 



188 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

the southwest, this specimen is of more than usual interest because of its short 
wide arms: R= 54-56 mm. while r and br = 10; hence R=5.5 r or br. However 
the specimen was evidently dried slowly and the width of the arms is thus un- 
naturally increased a little. 

The other 2 specimens show an equally notable extension of the range of 
Metrodira to the southeast, for Mr. Ward took them at Lindeman Island in 
"July-Sept., 1934." They are further notable for large size and very slender 
arms ; R = 82 mm. in the larger specimen and br is only about 9 mm. ; hence 
R = 9br. These specimens, now dry, are a dingy, but rather dark brown, very 
different from the other specimens, but no morphological differences have been 
found. 



PTERASTERID.4E 

Retaster insignis 

Sladen, 1882. .Jour. Linn. Soc. London, 16, p. 200. 

The appearance of this sea-star in life is so unusual, so different from 
museum specimens, that the taking of several just outside Roebuck Bay on June 
13, 1932, in 5-8 fms. was a most interesting surprise. The brilhant color and the 
extraordinarily slimy surface were quite unexpected, aside from the fact that 
the species was previously known only from the East Indian region, Torres 
Strait and eastern coast of Austraha. Additional specimens subsequently taken 
in the same vicinity showed the same remarkable characters. Altogether 13 
specimens were secured ranging from R =42 to R =80 mm. The ratio of R to r 
shows little diversity; it is least in the smallest specimen where R=2.2r or 2br 
while in a specimen with R =68 mm. the other extreme is reached, as R =2.7r or 
2.4br. One specimen with R=80 mm. and one with R=60 mm. have 6 rays 
each but are not perfectly symmetrical, one arm (or two) being somewhat smaller 
than the others. The color in life is given as follows in my field notes: "One was 
bright vermilion red, one deep vermiUon while others had net work red but areas 
greenish yellow." Most of the specimens were more or less completely bright red. 
In addition to this very striking color, the appearance was made even more 
remarkable by the fact that every specimen was covered with a layer of per- 
fectly transparent colorless jelly making the specimens slimy and unpleasant to 
handle. On one specimen this layer was 6 mm. or more in thickness, so that 
none of the spines which cover the animal projected beyond it. The jelly had 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 189 

little consistency however and disappeared quickly as the specimens were handled 
and being preserved. It left no trace behind in the dry specimens. But it may 
have a protective function in life. • 

The Perth Museum has loaned me a specimen of this species from Shark 
Bay, notable not only for the locality so far to the southwest of Broome but also 
for its large size; with R =83 and br =41.5 mm., it is distinctly the largest speci- 
men yet recorded. Mr. Ward has sent from Lindeman Island, Queensland, the 
smallest specimen which has yet been taken. It is a perfectly symmetrical 
pentamerous individual with R = 14 mm. and r and br scarcely 6; it is interesting 
to find the ratio identical with that of adults. The species characters are well 
shown even in so young a specimen. 



ASTERIIDAE 

COSCINASTERIAS CALAMARIA 

Asterias calamaria Gray, 1840. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 179. 

Coscinasterias calamaria Perkier, 1894. "Travailleur et Talisman" Stell., p. 106. 

This sea-star is widespread in the non-tropical waters of Australia, as it is 
common at Lord Howe Island on the east and at Rottnest on the west, and 
apparently at all suitable places between along the southern coasts of the con- 
tinent. The number of rays ranges from 7 to 11, but large symmetrical speci- 
mens, with R exceeding 100 mm., commonly have 11. However autotomy and 
regeneration are so continually taking place that even very large specimens often 
have one or more small rays. The specimens at hand from Hobart, Tasmania, 
are particularly large and fine. They are like the one called gemmifera (Perrier) 
in the "Endeavour" Report (H. L. Clark, 1916, p. 74) but after careful com- 
parison of many specimens of all sizes from various places, 1 am convinced that 
the Tasmanian specimens are not essentially different from other Australian 
material and all should be called calamaria. Incidentally I may add that I ha^•e 
compared specimens of similar size from Mauritius, Western Australia, South 
Austraha, New South Wales, Lord Howe Island and New Zealand, and find no 
characters by which to satisfactorily distinguish them. The number of pedi- 
cellariae and the distribution of the large ones is very diverse and this gives a 
different facies in extreme cases. Thus a Mauritius specimen has few pedicel- 
lariae, no large ones, while a New Zealand specimen has a great many large ones 
and few small ones so that at first sight they seem quite unlike. New Zealand 



190 memoir: musexim of comparative zoology 

specimens show much diversity among themselves in spinulation as well as in 
pedicellariae. 

The color in life of calnmaria shows some diversity. Quoting my field notes 
we find that at Hobart: "Largest was brownish-yellow, the huge circles of pedi- 
cellariae on the dorsal spines (which swell up around and even above the spine 
tip, so that it looks like a small zoanthus) dull bluish. Other specimens were 
olive-greenish with spines blue and lower surface cream-color." At Lord Howe: 
"Color very varied usually blue or bluish variegated with brown of several shades 
(rarely reddish) and olive-greenish. Some specimens show almost no blue. 
Colors fugitive and blue especially fugacious." At Port Willunga, S. A.: "Brown 
and dull bluish with many large spines bright, deep blue." At Rottnest and Point 
Peron: "Colors very variable and fugacious; a common color is dull blue with 
disk and more or less of the ray-bases, bright brown, but greenish shades instead 
of blue, are frequent; variegation with bluish, brown and grayish shades is the 
rule." 

The 63 specimens at hand are from the following widely separated localities : 
Lord Howe Island: April, 1932. 5 specimens, 4 very small. 
New South Wales: Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

G specimens, young and unsymmetrical. 
Gunnamatta Bay, November 26, 1929. 4 specimens, 1 large 

adult and 3 half grown. 
Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 6 specimens, young and un- 
symmetrical. 
Tasmania: Hobart, estuary of the Derwent, November 15, 1929. 3 specimens, 2 

very large and symmetrical. 
South Australia: Port Willunga, November 2, 1929. 1 specimen, small but 

symmetrically 10-armed. 
Western Australia: Bunkers Bay, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

4 specimens, adult and young. 

Point Peron, October, 1929. 5 specimens, young. 

Rottnest Island, October, 1929. 19 specimens, young and 

very young; one only 8 mm. across, with 7 arms. 
Rottnest Island, 1934. Captain B. E. Bardwell leg. et don. 

7 specimens, small adults and young. 
Garden Island, July, 1932. 2 specimens, very young. 
Cottesloe Beach, July, 1932. 1 specimen, young; 4 rays, and 

5 buds of rays just starting on opposite side of disk. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 191 

ASTROSTOLE INSULARIS^ Sp. IIOV. 

Plate 8, fig. 1 

Rays 7, moderately wide, bluntly pointed and flattened in dry specimen, 
more nearly cylindrical in life. R =77 mm. ; r = 10; br =8 at base but 10-12 mm. 
near middle of arm. R = nearly Sr and 9.5 br. Disk of moderate size with a firm 
skeleton and small interspaces. Aboral skeleton of arm consists of 5 series of 
stout plates, a carinal and a dorsolateral on each side, below which are the stout 
superomarginals, the largest of the skeletal plates. Carinal plates roughly 
pentagonal or diamond-shape with rounded or truncate angles, closely united 
with each other in the midUne; every other one (distally every third or fourth) 
carries a stout bluntly pointed spine, 2-3 mm. long, with a heavy wreath of 
pedicellariae about its base; dorsolateral series of small irregular plates, a very 
variable number of which carry a single small wreathed spine. Superomarginal 
plates irregularly rounded triangular, wider than long, broadly in contact with 
each other at the uppei- end, in contact with the inferomarginals by a narrow 
outer end and still more narrowly in contact at the upper, distal corner with the 
small dorsolaterals; every second or third plate carries a large wreathed spine 
like that on the carinals; a considerable area of each plate has a distinct shagreen 
surface. Madreporite single, 3 mm. across, 5 mm. from center of disk. 

Inferomarginals large, longer than wide, forming (with the spines they bear) 
a conspicuous margin to the arm; each plate has an oblique ridge, the lower end 
of which is more distal than the upper; on this ridge is a pair of somewhat 
flattened spines, the upper one 4-5 mm. long, a millimeter or more in width, with 
a bluntly pointed or rounded tip; the lower spine is about 3.5 mm. long, less than 
a millimeter wide and has a square cut tip. Actinal plates small but distinct on 
basal two-thirds of arm, widely spaced so that each plate is in close contact with 
lower end of ridge on inferomarginal plate; it carries a flattened square-cut spine 
somewhat smaller than the lower inferomarginal as though it were a third mem- 
ber of that series; the uppermost of the 3 spines (i.e. the upper inferomarginal) 
carries a cluster of forcipiform pedicellariae, on its upper sm-face near the middle 
or at its base. 

Adambulacral plates short and crowded ; each carries a pair of narrow chisel- 
shaped spines, about 2.5 mm. long, the inner a trifle shorter and distinctly nar- 
rower than the outer; the tips of the latter are a trifle widened. Oral plates small, 

' insularis = pertaining to an island, in reference to the type locality at Lord Howe. 



192 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

each with 2 spines, a large one at the inner end and a smaller more pointed one on 
the outer corner. There are 4 contiguous pairs of post-oral adambulacral plates, 
each carrying one large spine on its margin. 

Pedicellariae relatively few; the forcipiform are confined to the clusters on 
the aboral and marginal spines; few if any are scattered on the surface; forfici- 
form pedicellariae of diverse sizes are scattered about on the aboral surface 
especially near the base of the rays; none are very large or conspicuous. On the 
oral surface, a very few large forficiform pedicellariae with jaws over a milhmeter 
long occur in, or close to the ambulacral furrows, near the mouth, and a number 
of small ones are present on the restricted actinal intermediate areas; distally 
there are virtually no pedicellariae. 

Color in life variegated brown and blue; the brown has a gray tinge and the 
blue has a slight tendency towards green, but the large marginal spines are a very 
bright blue ; madreporite pale brown or yellowish. The colors are very fugacious 
and dry specimens have lost all their beauty. In a specimen larger than the 
holotype, the large aboral and marginal spines are quite red in contrast to the 
general museum color. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 3362, from Lord Howe Island, April, 1932. 

This handsome sea-star is one of our most interesting discoveries at Lord 
Howe. It lives with and like Coscinasierias calamaria on the reef flat near low 
tide level, under and among fragments of coral rock. It passes easily for a 
7-armed form of that species, with unusually blue coloration. It is closely related 
to A. rodoJphi of the Kermadecs with which it agrees in the scarcity of pedicella- 
riae but it is readily distinguished from that species by its more open skeleton and 
fewer spines; thus in rodolphi, 20 mm. of the carinal ridge or of the inferomar- 
ginal plates includes about a dozen plates while in insidaris only about 8 will be 
included; again in rodolphi the adambulacral and inferomarginal spines have 
much wider and more expanded tips than in insularis; most important of all, is 
that the dorsolaterals in rodolphi are far better developed than in insularis of 
the same size, being more numerous, larger and stouter and more generally spine- 
bearing. From scabra of New Zealand, insularis is much more obviously different; 
the fewer pedicellariae, of all sorts, the much larger spines, the much better de- 
veloped spiniferous actinal plates (almost or quite wanting in scabra with R = 75 
mm. or less), combine to give the Lord Howe species a very different facies. From 
the Astrostoles of the eastern Pacific, platei and paschae, insularis is easily dis- 
tinguished by the number and form of the rays and accompanying details of 
spinulation and pedicellariae. Perhaps I may well add here that in my descrip- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 193 

tion of paschae (1920, p. 105) I have made the mistake of interpreting the actinal 
spiniferous plates as being actinal lobes of the inferomarginals, and have stated 
that there are 3 inferomarginal spines in each series; actually the arrangement is 
as described above for insularis. 

Besides the holotype which is a small adult, there are at hand 3 paratypes. 
One of these is an apparently mature but somewhat asymmetrical adult, with R 
ranging from 70 to 110 mm. The dorsolateral series are much better developed on 
the basal part of the arm and the inferomarginal spines are much wider at tip, 
where they are also more or less channeled; the superomarginal spines have also 
taken on the same character. The madreporite is big and divided into a larger 
and a smaller part but they are in close contact. The outer series of adambulacral 
spines has the tips noticeably widened, though not quite so much so as in rodolphi. 
Pedicellariae, as in the holotype, conspicuous by their absence! A second speci- 
men is a young individual with R = 35 mm. The dorsolaterals are small and very 
rarely spiniferous. The other aboral spines are relatively very large. There is no 
trace of an actinal series of plates and hence only 2 spines occur in connection 
with each inferomarginal plate. Pedicellariae are even more infrequent than in 
the adults. The third specimen is a freak; it consists of a disk about 13 mm. in 
diameter and one arm about 50 mm. long. Growing out from the disk are G very 
young arms, with their lengths ranging from 8 to 16 nmi. Apparently an Astro- 
stole with 7 normal arms 50 mm. long lost 6 of them (whether autotomously or 
not, who can say?) and was replacing them by typical regeneration when the 
specunen was taken. 

Allostichaster polyplax 

Astcracantliiou polyplax Miller and Troschel, 1844. .\rch. f. Naturg., 10 (1), p. 17S. 
Allostichaster polyplax Verrill, 1914. Harrinian Alaska E.xp. Starfishes, p. 363. 

Tliis is one of the few sea-stars conmion to New Zealand and Austraha. 
Its range, hke that of Coscinasterias calamaria, extends from New Zealand, New 
South Wales and Tasmania westward to Rottnest Island. Unlike calamaria 
however, polyplax does not occur at Lord Howe, at least it has not yet been 
found there. Comparison of individuals of the same size from New South Wales, 
South Austraha and Western Austraha show no character or trend to indicate 
more than a single form. Judging from the small series of specimens at hand, in 
South Austraha 95% of the specimens which are not the result of recent autotomy 
have 8 arms; in Western Austraha, 90 7o; in New South Wales, 81%; and in 



194 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Tasmania, only 77%. But I do not see any taxonomic significance in these figures 
even supposing large series of specimens showed them to be reliable. 

My field notes on this secretive httle sea-star may be of some interest. 
While at Perth, I wrote: "Not common, but found at Rottnest and at Point 
Peron — color in life brown with a markedly greenish cast, cream-color under- 
neath. Colors very fugacious and specimens become yellowish with more or less 
orange mottUng on death, and even these shades change or disappear." At 
Bunbury, I noted that the color was "hght greenish-brown becoming more orange- 
brown along ray-margins." At Port Willunga, S. A., my notes say it is "quite 
common. All (?) have 8 arms; browner than those on west coast, not so evidently 
green. One large specimen quite different as it was an orange-brown, not at all 
bright however, but with no hint of oUve or green." At Hobart, I found that 
polyplax was common; "color usually brownish and red but some are greenish as 
at Perth and Port Willunga. The small specimens have red more evident than in 
adults. Common in dredge hauls, on or in shells, crannies of any sort." 

The present series of 106 specimens contains many part-specimens for 
autotomy is repeated constantly, and perfectly symmetrical specimens are rarely 
seen; these commonly have R =20 nun. or more. The smallest specimen at hand 
has 3 arms, each about 8 mm. long; the broken surface has healed but no new 
arms have begun to bud. In the same lot is a little sea-star with 2 arms, side by 
side, 10 mm. long and 6 arms opposite to them each about 5 mm. long. Speci- 
mens with 7 arms are rare, but one from Hobart has 5, 18 mm. long and 2, 
15 mm., while another from the same place has 4 large (12-13 mm.) and 3 small 
(8 mm.) arms. The largest specimens are from Bottle and Glass Rocks, Port 
Jackson ; the largest of these has, on one side, 4 arms with R = 36 mm. and op- 
posite to them are 4 with R = 12-15 mm. Of these Port Jackson specimens, 4 of 
maximum size, have 4 (or 3) large and 4 (or 5) small arms, indicating that asexual 
reproduction by autotomy continues long after maturity is reached. 

The 106 specimens of polyplax at hand come from the following places: 
New South Wales: Colloroy, Long Reef, November 28, 1929. 3 specimens. 

Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

5 specimens, including several large adults. 
Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 8 specimens. 
Tasmania: Hobart, estuary of Derwent, November 15, 1929. 27 specimens; 

adult and young. 
South Australia: Port Willunga, November 2, 1929. 28 specimens, mostly small 
adults. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 195 

Western Australia: Middleton Beach, Albany, January, 1929. E. W. Bennett 

leg. et don. 5 specimens. 
Bunkers Bay, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

23 specimens. 
Bunbury, October 25, 1929. 1 specimen. 
Point Peron, October, 1929. 1 specimen. 
Rockingham, Cymodocea beds, 4-5 feet of water, February 

7, 1932. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 1 small specimen. 
Rottnest Island, October 19, 1929. 2 specimens. 
Cottesloe Beach, E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 2 small 

7-rayed specimens. 

Smilasterl\s irregularis 
H. L. Clark, 192S. Rec. S. Austral. Mus., 3, p. 402. 

Among the interesting echinoderms which were loaned by the National 
Museum at ]Melbourne is a symmetrical pentamerous sea-star of small size which 
may be considered the second known specimen of this species. The identification 
is by no means assured but as the holotype was nearly twice as large as the 
present specimen (in wliich R=25 mm., and br 5 mm.), too exact a correspon- 
dence should not be expected. Certainly in the characters of the oral surface,the 
identity is very close. The chief unhkeness is in the character of the aboral 
skeleton, which is delicate, with regularly arranged longitudinal series of papular 
areas, wider than long. Until more and better material is available, it seems 
better to call this Victorian specimen irregularis than attempt to differentiate it 
as a new species. If the type of irregularis were at hand for comparison, the 
question might be settled satisfactorily but as it is in Adelaide, my Australian 
colleagues must do the comparing. The present specimen was taken at San 
Remo, Westernport, Victoria by ]\Ir. G. Coghill, January 28, 1909. 

I may be permitted to add that there are in the M. C. Z. collection a number 
of small asteroids, in poor condition, which were dredged at Westernport and in 
Port PhiUp by Mr. J. Gabriel, who presented them to us, with other imidentified 
material, in 1915. Some of these are large enough and in good enough condition 
to assure their identity with the specimen from San Remo but they make me 
even more doubtful whether that specimen is really irregularis and not rather 
a distinct species. For the present, the matter must be left in tliis unsatisfactory 
condition. 



196 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Uniophora granifera 

Aster/as granifera Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 560. 
Uniophora granifera Bell, 1881. Proc. Zool. Soc. I^ondon, p. 497. 

It was disappointing not to find Uniophora at either Port Willunga or Ho- 
bart, but that failure gave an added thrill to finding a specimen at Bottle and 
Glass Rocks, Port Jackson, November 27, 1929, when Mr. Melbourne Ward took 
me there for a morning's collecting. This individual was a bright, deep carmine in 
life, shaded on depressed areas with dusky. It is now light brown with the 
spherical tubercles of all sizes very light, almost a brownish-white. It has R =55 
mm. and r = 14; hence R=4r. As a typical example of the species, it is very 
satisfactory but as the species was already well known from Port Jackson, it 
naturally throws no light on the distribution or taxonomy of this still imper- 
fectly known genus. 

OPHIUROIDEA 

The collection of ophiurans contains 3482 specimens representing 45 genera 
and 132 species. Of the genera 7 are new but nearly half of them are the result of 
segregation from the big unwieldy genus Ophiothrix, 3 fairly well-defined groups. 
The remaining species listed under Ophiothrix are a heterogeneous group which 
needs further study and subdivision. Of the 4 genera, actually new morpholog- 
ically, it is interesting to note that 2 are from Lord Howe Island (though one 
occurs also on the Queensland coast) one is from the historic Port Essington and 
one is from Broome. 

Of the 132 species no fewer than 54 are undescribed. This seems like an un- 
reasonably high percentage of novelties but when one considers the richness and 
diversity of the Australian fauna and how little attention the ophiurans have 
received, it is not so surprising. That there are 14 species to be added to the 
already unwieldy genus Amphiura is to be regretted and emphasizes not only 
the ubiquity of the group but the sore necessity for its prompt and careful revi- 
sion. It is remarkable that so many Amphiuras occur while only one Amphipholis 
and one Amphiodia were taken, and each is a wide-ranging species. 

The new genera are : 

Ophiothauma, type heptactis sp. nov. Monotypic. 
Amphistigma, type minuta sp. nov. Monotypic. 
LissoPHiOTHRix, type delicata .sp. nov. Monotypic. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 



197 



Macrophiothrix, type Ophiura longipeda Lamarck. 21 species. 
Placophiothrix, type Ophiothrix melanostida Grube. 8 species. 
Ophiodyscrita, type acosmeta sp. nov. Monotypic. 
Ophioteichus, type parvispinum sp. nov. 2 species. 
The 54 new species, belong to only 25 genera. They are as follows, the type 
locality being also shown. 



Euryale euopla 
Astroco7ius occidentalis 
Astrodadus granulatus 
Ophiacantha ameleta 

tenuispina 
Ophiothauma heptactis 
Amphiura acrisia 
bidentaia 
bradiyadis 
cataphes 
diacritica 
dolia 
leucaspis 
magnisquama 
micra 

multiremula 
nannodes 
phrixa 
plena 

stidacantha 
Ophiocentrus fragilis 
Ophionephthys decacantha 

tenuis 
Aviphistigma minuta 
Amphioplus didymus 
sienaspis 
Ophiadis acosmeta 
brevis 

fuscolineata 
laevis 
Lissophiothrix delicata 



W. A.: "Bald Island, east of Albany." 

W. A.: "North Beach near Perth." 

Q. : Lindeman Island near Mackay. 

Celebes; Siboga Sta. no. 117. 

Q. : Port Curtis 

N. T. : Coburg Peninsula, Port Essington. 

W. A. : Broome 

W. A.: Broome 

W. A. : Broome 

N. S. W. : Port Jackson 

Q. : Whitsunday Passage 

N. S. W. : Port Jackson 

W. A.: Lagrange Bay 

N. S. W.: off Botany, 33-56 fms. 

W. A. : Broome 

N. S. W.: CoUoroy, Long Reef 

W. A. : Rottnest Island 

W. A. : Broome 

W. A. : Bunkers Bay 

W. A. : Broome 

N. S. W. : off Port Jackson, 120 fms. 

W. A. : Broome 

W. A. : Broome 

Lord Howe Island 

W. A.: Broome 

N. T.: Darwin 

W. A.: Dongarra 

N. T. : Darwin 

W. A. : Broome 

W. A. : Bunbury 

W. A. : Broome 



198 



memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



Macrophiothrix callizona 

cahjptaspis 
lampra 
scotia 
spinifera 

Ophiotrichoides irregularis 
pulchra 

Placophiothrix albolineata 

Ophiogymna lineata 

Ophionereis hexadis 
stigma 
tigris 

Ophiocoma occidentalis 

Ophiomastix notabilis 

Ophiarachna megacantha 

Pcctinura nigra 

Ophiarachnella paudgramda 
rugosa 

Cryptopelta callista 

Ophiodyscrita acosmeta 

OphioteicJms multispinum 
parvispinum 

Ophiolepis unicolor 



W. A. : Broome 

W. A. : Broome 

N. S. W.: Port Jackson 

W. A. : Broome 

W. A.: Broome 

Q. : Port Curtis 

W. A. : Broome 

Lord Howe Island 

Q. : west of Low Islands, 6-8 fms. 

N. T. : Darwin 

W. A. : Cape Leveque 

Q. : Northwest Islet 

W. A. : Point Peron 

W. A.: Cape Leveque 

Q. : off Double Island Point, 33 fms. 

W. A. : Bunbury 

Q. : off North Direction Island, 19 fms. 

W. A. : Broome 

W. A. : Broome 

W. A. : Broome 

Q. : Lindeman Island 

Lord Howe Island 



W. A. : Broome 

In several cases, varieties have required recognition; of these the following 
5 are here named for the first time. 



Ophiactis savignyi var. lutea 
Ophionereis semoni var. nigra 
var. badia 
Ophiurodon cinctum var. pulchelhwi 
Ophiarachnella ramsayi var. pulchra 



N. T. : Quail Island 
W. A. : Point Peron 
W. A. : Dongarra 
W. A. : Cape Leveque 
W. A. : Rottnest Island 



As shown by the above list Lord Howe Island is the home of only 3 of the 
new species but 2 of those represent new genera. The coast of Queensland fur- 
nishes type localities for 9 species and that of New South Wales for 6. From the 
Northern Territory, there are 4 species and a variety, while the coasts of Western 
Australia are the home of 31 new species and 4 new varieties of which no fewer 
than 20 claim Broome for their type locality. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 199 

Brittle-stars are obviously the most abundant echinoderms of the Australian 
coast. Owing to the small size and secretive nature of many species they are easily 
overlooked and the average collector who is not interested in the group never 
realizes how many are passed over. The larger forms such as the more common 
species of the Ophiocomidae, Ophiodermatidae and Ophiotrichidae living as they 
do under rock fragments or among corals, and being more or less active in their 
movements, attract the attention of most "along-shore" collectors, but they 
make up only about one-fourth of Australia's ophiuran fauna. Naturally condi- 
tions at Broome, so favorable for sea-stars are equally suitable for brittle-stars, 
and about one-half of the 132 species in the following account were taken in the 
Broome region. Of course the Barrier Reef area is abundantly populated with 
ophiuroids but as we did no collecting there the following list gives a very inade- 
quate idea of that fauna. On the southern coast of the continent brittle-stars are 
much less abundant than in the tropics but some very interesting forms occur 
there; that fauna is of course quite inadequately represented in the present collec- 
tion. Western Australia between Geraldton and Albany has a large and varied 
ophiuran population well represented in our collection by some 30 species, of 
which about one-fourth are here described for the first time. 

Brittle-stars occur under the most diverse environmental conditions. 
Many are to be found only among corals, particularly the gorgonians, and large 
sponges, especially those with a branching habit, often carry great numbers of 
ophiurans especially of the genera Ophiactis and OphiothrLx (and its allies). 
Curiously enough certain sponges are completely free from ophiurans, presumably 
because of some secretion obnoxious to the echinoderms. Very few ophiurans, 
except the multibrachiate forms like Euryale, live exposed freely on the sea- 
bottom. Some Uve buried just below the surface on sandy bottoms, while others 
have become adapted to a subterranean Ufe and are found only deeply buried in 
sand or even in mud. Such forms have in many cases become strikingly adapted 
to such a life, an increase in the length of arms and a decrease in the calcareous 
matter covering the body being frequent. But the best hunting ground for brittle- 
stars is among corals and coralline algae, particularly in the dead basal portions, 
and under rock and coral fragments in such areas. Many small forms can be se- 
cured only by placing quantities of such material in pails or basins with just 
enough sea-water to cover it. With the passage of a few hours, the oxygen in the 
water apparently becomes deficient and all the small animals come out of their 
hiding places and are easily secured by the collector. 



200 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

The literature dealing with Australian ophiurans is not extensive. Lyman's 
(1882) great work on the "Challenger" Ophiuroidea is of course absolutely essen- 
tial. Koehler's various reports are invaluable particularly those on the "8iboga" 
littoral ophiurans (1905), on the Ophiuroidea taken by Michaelsen and Hart- 
meyer in Western Australia (1907), the "Albatross" Phihppine material (1922) 
and on Mortensen's great collections (1930). Doderlein's works on the Euryalids 
(1911, 1927) are essential for that group. Bell's report on the "Alert" echino- 
derms (1884) cannot be ignored and my various reports on Australian collections 
(1909, 1914, 191G, 1921, 1923 and 1928) contain considerable additional material. 
The death of Koehler in 1931 was a great blow to all students of Echinoderms and 
it is to be regretted that at the present moment there is no outstanding student 
of the Ophiuroidea. 

In collecting brittle-stars, little care need be used except in the case of the 
long-armed Amphiuridae. These have a deplorable habit, especially if they are 
fully mature sexually, of shedding the disk, and of course if this happens in the 
dredge, the chances of its recovery are small. If it is psssible to handle the ani- 
mals carefully from the time they are first discovered, shedding of the disk is very 
rare. The breaking of the arms is of course the most frequent mishap ; with dredged 
material it is very general except in the forms with short stout arms and even here 
it is frequent. The only remedy is great care in handling. Some species resent any 
handling and break off the arms on the sliglitest provocation, but this is rare. 
Brittle-stars are very easily affected by Epsom salts (MgSOi) and once they are 
completely narcotized can be handled with impunity; if they are to be dried after 
kilhng the arms should be arranged while still flexible in whatever position they 
are desired. With specimens of considerable size, it is a convenience to have the 
arms arranged, as far as possible, parallel to each other all pointing in one direc- 
tion. In methods of killing and preservation, brittle-stars may be treated like small 
sea-stars (see p. 60) but it is an interesting fact that their colors (excepting bright 
reds) are much less fugacious than in the Asteroidea. Many brittle-stars keep 
their colors very well in alcohol, and color patterns are very generally retained. 
In formahn the colors usually are altered but little but the specimens themselves 
are quickly damaged and often ruined by the action of the fluid on the tissues. 
Consequently it is better not to leave brittle-stars in formalin more than a few 
hours at the most. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 201 

OPHIOMYXIDAE 
Ophiomyxa australis 
Plate 13, figs. 1-2 
LuTKEN, 1869. Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 3, p. 45. 

This active brittle-star was met with at Lord Howe Island but was not com- 
mon, only 2 specimens being seen. They were found hidden in crannies in the 
coral at Ned's Beach, and are about half grown; disk, 1.5 mm. in diameter, arms, 
some 80 mm. long. In life one was "red brown with a purplish cast above, dark- 
est on disk, rather light on distal part of arms; scattered gray flecks on disk; o or 6 
narrow, gray bands on arms, faint and widely spaced, most evident distally; 
lower surface of arms flesh-red." The other specimen was "oHve, yellow-brown 
and yellow; lower surface of arms, yellow-brown; gray flecks on disk and variega- 
tion on arms; no definite bands; no red." In their present dry condition, the first 
specimen is deep brown above, with gray flecks and markings evident; a red tint 
is still visible on lower surface of arms; arm-spines tend to be very light, almost 
white on distal half of arms. The second specimen is a lighter, more oUve, brown 
and of course shows no trace of red. 

A small brittle-star with disk 6 mm. across and arms all broken, found in "a 
conglomerate boulder, taken by trawler "Goonamba," about lat. 33° 44' S., long. 
151° 88' E. (about 16-18 miles northeast of South Head, Port Jackson, about 15 
miles from land), 75-80 fms.. May, 1924" and presented to the Australian Mu- 
seum by C. W. Mulvey, is apparently a young Ophiomyxa, but it is in too poor 
condition to permit positive identification. 

The National Museum at Melbourne has kindly loaned an Ophiomyxa 
"dredged in Port Phillip by J. A. Kershaw," which is a young example of australis 
with disk about 12 mm. across. 

At Port Willunga, South Australia, I secured a very large adult of this spe- 
cies, the largest I have ever seen. The disk was about 35 mm. across and the arms 
140 mm. long or more; in its present dried condition the disk exceeds 30 mm. In 
life it was "deep oUve green above, dull flesh-red and orange (rather brightly 
colored) beneath, especially around mouth; arms indefinitely banded hght and 
dark distally." We did not meet with Ophiomyxa at any point on the Western 
Australian coast nor has it been included in any of Professor Bennett's collections. 



202 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

TRICHASTERIDAE 

ASTROBRACHION ADHAERENS 

Ophiocreas adhaerens Studer, 1884. Abh. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 54. 

Mr. Melbourne Ward has kindly sent me a very fine specimen of a young 
simple-armed trichasterid which he dredged in 9 fms. in Whitsunday Passage, 
off Lindeman Island, Queensland. It measures 6 mm. across the disk and the 
much coiled and twisted arms are well over 100 mm. long. The color is a rather 
bright yellowish-brown. Comparison with a cotype of Studer's species (which 
specimen, by the way, has 6 arms, but only 5 jaws) of about the same size fails to 
reveal any point of difference to which weight can be given. Comparison with a 
cotype of Ophiocreas phanerum H. L. C. is of no value, the specimen of phanermn 
being so large no real comparison is possible. I am inclined to agree with Morten- 
sen (1924, p. 99-101) that phanerum and consiridum Farquhar are identical and 
both probably synonyms of Studer's adhaerens. But a good series of specimens 
from 6-18 mm. in disk diameter will be needed before we can feel sure of the 
matter. Doderlein's estabhshment of the genus Astrobrachion for these forms 
seems justifiable. 

A very small Astrobrachion with disk only 2 mm. in diameter and arms 20-30 
mm. long, belonging to the Australian Museum, may properly be assigned to this 
species for the present. It was taken in 15 fms. at Port Molle, Queensland. 

Euryale' aspera 
Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 538. 

The tropical coasts of Australia seem to be a congenial home for this remark- 
able "basket-fish" which ranges as far south as Double-Island Point on the Queens- 
land Coast and at least as far as Cape Villaret in Western Australia. It is appar- 
ently not common at Darwin as a single small individual dredged there near the 
Leper Station, May 25, 1932, was the only one we secured; it is now (dry) 3 mm. 
across the disk and has arms 15-20 mm. long, which branch 5-7 times. It is 
somewhat more pigmented than similar small specimens from Broome, but it was 

'I cannot agree with Doderlein's (1911, p. 9, 10) line of reasoning which necessitates calling thLs 
genus Euryala. The names Euryale, Gorgonocephalus and Astrophyton were never truly synonymous. 
None was a monotypic group or had a type designated. Lyman as first reviser in 1880 was quite within 
his rights in delimiting the groups as he did and it is unnecessary to alter the names. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 203 

taken on a bottom more or less covered with coralline algae, sponges, etc., very 
different from the habitat at Broome, where all of the very young individuals 
taken were living on gorgonians while the adults live free and unprotected on the 
hard sand bottom. The young are pure white at first; then the disk and basal 
part of arms show a reddish tinge and the tips of the big spines on the distal ends 
of the radial shields are quite pink. Later, when disk is 6-10 mm. across, red- 
purple pigment becomes conspicuous around the margins of the disk and in 
irregular patches on the arms. Many adults still retain a more or less purple 
color but there is great diversity. My field notes at Broome say: "dark wine-red 
or brownish-red, disk more purple than arms;" "dull yellowish disk, rose-color on 
basal part of some arms; "fawn-brown, variegated;" "usually considerable red- 
dish orally;" "dark grayish with no trace of red or purple." The adults are 25-40 
mm. across the disk while the arms range up to at least 250 mm. In well prepared 
specimens, the length of the arms is 6-8 times the disk diameter. It is not un- 
likely therefore that living adults have a feeding area 500-600 mm. across. One 
specimen from Broome is perfectly tetramerous the disk being a square with 
sides, 12-13 nrmi. long. 

The 40 specimens at hand are from the following localities : 
Queensland: Port Curtis. 1 specimen, very young but well pigmented. Loaned 
by AustraUan Museum. 
Lindeman Island, July-September, 1934. 10 specimens, very 
young. Melbourne Ward leg. et don. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, dredged near Leper Station, May 25, 1932. 1 very 

young specimen. 
Western Australia: Broome, August and September, 1929. 13 specimens, 

adults. 
Broome, June, 1932. 15 specimens, very young and adult. 



EURYALE EUOPLA' Sp. nov. 

Plate 23, fig. 1 

Similar to aspera in its general structure and characters, but with much heav- 
ier and coarser spines on the disk and proximal arm divisions. The first fork of 
the arms is distinctly further from the margin of the disk than in adult aspera and 
apparently there are fewer subsequent divisions; owing to the condition of the 

' euoTrXos = well-armed, in reference to the very heavy spinulation of disk and basal part of arms. 



204 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

specimens, which are dry, it is impossible to reach a positive conclusion on this 
point. In large specimens of aspera, the first fork is about 8-15 mm. from the ends 
of the radial shields; in the specimens of euopla, it is 15-30 mm. In aspera, when 
the disk and arm spiniform tubercles are unusually large, they may measure as 
much as 4 mm. high and 1.5 mm. in diameter at the base, the tip being smaller 
and often sharp-pointed. In euopla, these spiniform tubercles are often 5-7 mm. 
long, 2 mm. or more in thickness and blunt or markedly clavate at tip. The num- 
ber of these clumsy-looking spines is undoubtedly fewer than in aspera but it is 
difficult to put the difference into figures; it is probably safe to say that in speci- 
mens of the same size there are not more than two-thirds as many in euopla as in 
aspera. 

Holotype, Western Australian Mus. no. 9683, from Bald Island, east of 
Albany, W. A. 

There are two specimens of this striking Euryalid, which agree in all essen- 
tials. Both are yellow-brown in color with the center and interradial areas of the 
disk considerably darker than the radial shields and the sides of the arms. They 
were taken, apparently at the same time and place. The holotype is 30 mm. 
across the disk and 10-12 mm. across the base of each arm which fork at least 6 
or 7 times, and probably 8 or 9. The paratype is 25 mm. across the disk and the 
base of each arm is 8-10 mm. wide. 

The occurrence of Euryale on the southern coast of Western Australia is 
most surprising, as no specimen of the genus has hitherto been reported from 
south of lat. 20° on the west coast and 26° on the east. It is hard to believe that 
there is not some mistake about the locality label, but in any case there is little 
question that these two specimens should not be referred to the widespread 
species aspera. It is not incredible that they are extreme representatives of that 
form but until connecting links are found the name euopla may well be used for 
them. 



GORGONOCEPHALID.AE 

ASTEROPORPA AUSTRALIENSIS 
H. L. Clark, 1909. Mem. Austral. Mus., 4, p. 547. 

There are 10 nice examples of this species at hand, presented by the Austra- 
lian Museum, ranging in disk diameter from 5 to 17 mm. They were trawled in 
70-75 fms. of water, off Cape Everard, Victoria, March 6, 1929. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 205 

ASTROCONUS AUSTRALIS 

Astrophyton australe Verrill, 1876. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 3, p. 74. 

Astroconus amtraUs Doderlein, 1911. Abh. IVIath.-phys. Klasse K. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., 
II Suppl. Abh. 5, p. 37. 

There is at hand an interesting young but quite typical example of this 
characteristic AustraUan species loaned by the Australian Museum. It is the 
smallest specimen on record, only 6 mm. across the disk, with arms 20-25 mm. 
long. The general tint is cream-color but there are light brown marks on the disk 
and rings on the arms of the same shade. The label reads: "On brown sea-weed 
(on hook and line), Banks Strait, off FUnders Island, N. E. Tasmania, 7 fms." 

Astroconus occidentalism sp. nov. 
Plate 23, fig. 2 

Disk 32 mm. in diameter, with 5 arms exceeding 100 mm. in length, forking 
at least half a dozen times and probably more; width of arm at base about 
10 mm., its height about one-half as much. Disk mostly covered by 5 radiating 
wedges, between which in the interradii are narrow sunken areas; each wedge 
consists of two indefinitely outUned radial shields only slightly separated from 
each other by a shallow depression, broadest distally. Wedges covered by a 
pavement of circular or elliptical flat plates, half a miUimeter in diameter or less, 
surrounded by and mixed with, granules or small plates of diverse size — many 
extremely small; distal portion of wedges and interradial areas between covered 
by small plates and granules, the difference being that the plates are flat, the 
granules more or less hemispherical; the plates are not numerous enough any- 
where to form a smooth pavement. Scattered all over the disk, quite irregularly 
in the interradial "valleys" as well as on the radiating wedges are scores of more 
or less bluntly conical tubercles, the largest of which are 1.5 mm. in diameter and 
almost as high, but there is great diversity in size; they are not smooth but finely 
ridged and wrinkled in an irregular way. On the distal end of each wedge the 
tubercles become more uniform in size and arrangement ; they are a millimeter in 
diameter or less and arranged in 3 or 4 transverse series forming ridges separated 
from each other by rather deep valleys. These tubercled ridges continue out on 
the arm; there are only 2 or 3 before the arm forks about 5 mm. from the disk. 

' occidentalis = western, in reference to its being the representative of the genus on the western coast 
of AustraHa. 



206 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

On the amis from the first fork to the second or third or a Uttle further on some 
branches, the tubercled ridges continue as incomplete rings on the top and sides 
of the arm; at first there are 10-15 tubercles on each ring but the number de- 
creases distally and they disappear near the middle of the arm, though the rings 
themselves continue far out and can be distinguished almost to the very tip of 
the arm. Between the ridges is a fine but not smooth coating of minute plates 
and granules. 

Entire lower surface covered by a fine, granular coat, coarsest in the inter- 
radial areas. Tentacle pores small; first pair well within disk, with no tentacle- 
scales. Each succeeding pore is more or less concealed by a slight ridge on its 
adoral side, which carries 5 or 4, short peg-Uke, flattened spines, terminating in 
3 long, glassy teeth or thorns; the ridges themselves merge into the tubercled 
ridges of the upper surface and sides of the arm. Each mouth angle carries a 
large number of teeth and oral papillae of diverse sizes, carried irregularly on the 
sides as well as at the tip of the jaw. Genital slits about 4 mm. long, near the 
upper margin of the interbrachial area, on each side, close to the arm. Madre- 
poric plate single, well defined, close to the mouth frame in one interradial area. 

Color purphsh-brown lightest on tubercles and ridges, the valleys and de- 
pressions contrastingly darker; there are also irregular dark markings on the 
disk. Orally the contrast between light and dark is conspicuous; the inter- 
brachial areas, mouth frame and arm bases are brownish yellow with dull purple 
markings; on the arms these purple markings are short transverse bars, arranged 
regularly along each side but the regularity of arrangement disappears after the 
first fork. 

Holotype, Western Australian Museum no. 116-37, from North Beach, near 
Fremantle, W. A. 

This is a very notable gorgonocephalid obviously related to Astroconus 
auslralis but easily distinguished by the regular tuberculated ridges on the arms, 
which give it a very distinctive facies. Presumably it replaces australis on the 
western coast of the continent. 

ASTROCLADUS GRANULATUS^ Sp. nOV. 

Plate 23, fig. 3 

Disk 11 mm. in diameter; arms 35 mm. or more in length, branching 8-10 
times; first fork about 4 mm. from disk margin at distal ends of radial shields; 

' granulatus = TOUgheued by granular elevations, in reference to the granular surface of the disk. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 207 

arm 3 mm. wide before forking. Disk decagonal, with 5 concave interradial sides, 
and 5 nearly straight sides where arm bases are in contact with radial shields; 
latter about 5 mm. long by 1.5-1.75 imn. wide, nearly parallel in pairs, strongly 
convex but not at all sharply defined; interradial areas shghtly, center of disk 
markedly, depressed in tlie dry specimen. Whole surface of disk covered with a 
nearly uniform, but not at all crowded, coat of rounded granules, coarsest on 
radial shields, finest at center of disk. 

Arms evenly covered on dorsal surface and sides with a nearly uniform 
granulation hke that of the disk, coarsest near base of arm and becoming more 
and more fine distally; on the distalmost branches, alternating rings of coarser 
and finer granulation can be distinguished but they are ill-defined and can 
scarcely be made out until after the fifth or sixth fork of the arm. 

Whole lower surface covered with a fine, low granulation. Tentacle pores 
very small, with 6 pairs before the first fork of the arm. Tentacle scales are found 
between the first and second forkings of the arm; at first there are 2 or sometimes 
3, but distally there are more commonly 3; they are very small and their bases 
scarcely form a distinguishable ridge, while the glassy thorns at the tip are very 
minute. On the distalmost branches, the tentacle scales are relatively much 
larger making the tips of the arms very rough in the dry specimen — no doubt 
very "sticky" and chnging in life. Madreporite single, small, wider than long, on 
the soft interbrachial area just outside the mouth frame. Each mouth angle 
occupied by a group of teeth, dental papillae and oral papillae, not sharply dis- 
tinguishable but much smaller distally than at the center of mouth. 

Color uniformly rich red-brown; there is no clue to the color in hfe. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4899, from Lindeman Island, Great Barrier Reef, 
Queensland. July-September, 1934. Melbourne Ward leg. et don. 

This seems to be a very well marked species characterized by the granular 
covering without tubercles or spines and the very smooth oral surface without any 
tentacle scales until after the first arm fork. Besides the holotype, there is at 
hand a very small gorgonocephaUd, with disk only 5-6 mm. across, which Mr. 
Ward dredged in 9 fms. off Lindeman Island in 1929, and gave to the AustraUan 
Museum. This specimen is very pale cream-color, the radial shields are con- 
spicuous in parallel pairs and the granulation is very fine, but I think there is no 
doubt it is a young individual of granulatus. 



208 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

astrochalcis tuberculosus 
KoEHLER, 1905. "Sil)oga" Oph. Litt., p. 1.30. 

A huge gorgonocephalid in the Australian Museum (J 5294) is certainly an 
Astrochalcis and probably represents this species; but it is strongly contracted, 
the arms being rolled inward so as to completely conceal the oral surface, and is 
now very dry, so that any real study of the specimen is impossible without 
wrecking it. It is fully 75 mm. across the disk and the arms are 30 mm. wide at 
base. The ground color is a Ught purplish-brown but it is irregularly spotted 
and marked with a dirty cream-color and the arms distally become the same tint. 
The plating of disk and arms is quite smooth but there are rather numerous 
tubercles, which are so low as to be mere convexities, 1.5-3 mm. across. 

This specimen was taken in September, 1928, in Albany Passage, northern 
Queensland, on a gravelly bank, in 9-12 fms. 

OPHIACANTHIDAE 
Ophiacantha clavigera 
KoEHLER, 1907. Fauna Siidwest- Australians : Oph., p. 247. 

In Koombana Bay, Bunbury, W. A., one of the original localities for this 
species, we took 11 specimens, October 26, 1929. The largest is 3.5 mm. across 
the disk and hence is much larger than any of Koehler's 7 specimens; the arms 
are about 14 mm. long. The smallest specimen is only 1 mm. across the disk. 
Growth changes in this species are remarkable, for the disk spinelets tipped with 
2 or 3 glassy teeth gradually lose those tips and become changed into little 
sugar-loaf shaped tubercles. In the largest specimen the uppermost arm-spine at 
base of arm is not merely clavate but is actually forked at tip. The color of 
clavigera ranges from indistinctive light brownish to white, but the distal ends of 
the radial shields are rather conspicuously white. 

At Broome in June 1932, a small ophiacanthid was dredged which it seems 
best to refer to this species. As the disk is only 2 mm. across and the arms 
12-14 mm. long, it is obviously too young for certain identification, but the gen- 
eral appearance, the disk covering, the white-tipped radial shields, and the 
arm-spines are much Uke those of clavigera. As this species has been taken in 
Cockburn Sound near Fremantle, the occurrence in the vicinity of Broome 
would indicate a distribution coinciding with that of some other Western Aus- 
traUan echinoderms. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 209 

Ophiacantha DISCOIDEA 
Ltoan, 1879. Bull. M. C. Z., 6, p. 57. 

The Australian Museum loaned 2 unidentified Ophiacanthas which prove to 
represent this species. One was collected at the Murray Islands in 1907 by Hed- 
ley and McCulloch while the other has no data but was probably taken at the 
same place. The Murray Island specimen has the disk 2.5 mm. across and is in 
excellent condition. The other is a trifle larger but all the arms are more or less 
broken. Both are dry, and bleached to a very pale brownish white. 

Ophiacantha heterotyla 
H. L. Clark, 1909. "Thetis" Ech., p. 542. 

There are a number of unidentified Ophiacanthas from the Australian Mu- 
seum to be referred to this species. Only one calls for any comment. It was taken 
by Mr. Melbourne Ward in 1929, off Gordon, D'Entrecasteaux Channel, 
Tasmania, in 5 fms. It is unusually large (4 mm. across the disk) and dark 
colored, the upper surface of disk a distinct brown, the lower surface and arms 
more of a gray brown ; at the center of each mouth shield and of each of the first 
two lower arm plates is a nearly circular blackish spot with ill-defined boundaries. 
Some specimens from off Port Jackson show the same feature but less con- 
spicuously; they are themselves lighter colored. 

Besides the specimen from Tasmania, the material at hand consists of 17 
specimens taken as follows : 

New South Wales: 15 miles northeast of South Head, Port Jackson, 75-80 fms. 

May, 1924. C. W. Mulvey leg. et don. 4 specimens, 2 
adult. 
2.5-4 miles off Botany Bay, 33-56 fms. Trawler, "Goonam- 
bie." McNeil and Livingstone leg. 13 specimens, adult 
. and young. 

Ophiacantha ameleta^ sp. nov.^ 

Ophiacantha da.llasii Doderlein, 1896. Denkschr. Med. -Nat. Ges. .Jena, 8, p. 291, non 
Ophiacantha dallasii Duncan, 1879. Jour. Linn. Soc. : Zool., 14, p. 471. 

A specimen of Ophiacantha from the Murray Islands at the northern end of 
the Great Barrier Reef, loaned by the AustraUan Museum, agrees exactly with 

' d/u«Xr;ros = neglected, in reference to previous confusion with 0. dallasii Duncan. 
^Holotype, M. C. Z. No. 3508, from 46 fms.., Kwangdang Bay, Celebes; "Siboga" St. 117. 



210 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

one of the "Siboga" specimens now in the M. C. Z. Both correspond admirably 
with Doderlein's figures and description. But one cannot understand how the 
distinguished German scholar could have considered his material identical with 
Duncan's species from Korea. His passing over the striking difference in the 
arm-spines as accidental is quite unacceptable. The present species has very long 
slender spines, as against relatively short, thick spines in dallasii but more im- 
portant is the presence in Doderlein's species of relatively huge spines on the 
second arm-segment as the uppermost of the series. Neither Doderlein nor 
Koehler refer to these as being limited to the second segment but in the two 
specimens at hand this is the most noticeable feature. 

Ophiacantha tenuispina' sp. nov. 

Disk 4.5 mm. in diameter; arms all broken but at least 15 mm. long and prob- 
ably more. Disk covered with the usual coat of thin overlapping scales, normally 
completely liidden by the dense coat of spinules which they bear; these spinules 
are relativelj' very long and slender and, when fully developed and uninjured, 
bear three long divergent teeth, as long as the stem of the spinule and even more 
slender; these teeth are naturally verj^ easily broken and hence many spinules 
seem to terminate in very short blunt teeth. Radial shields hidden but apparently 
long, narrow, and parallel; in one radius, there is a very narrow, apparently bare 
area as though the radial shield itself bore no spinules, but this was not confirmed 
by the other radii. 

Arms not particularly slender and not really moniliform (except perhaps on 
the distal portions which are missing) but markedly constricted at every joint. 
Upper arm-plates small, triangular, wider than long, widely separated. Side 
arm-plates large, meeting broadly above, more narrowly below; each plate carries 
a series of 9 or 10 very slender and finely thorny arm-spines the upper ones long- 
est, 3 mm. or more in length; the uppermost 4 or 5 are very similar but the lower 
ones decrease rapidly in length and the lowest is not very much larger than the 
single, flat, thorny-tipped tentacle-scale. Lower arm-plates at base of arm bell- 
shaped, much broader distally that at the somewhat bluntly pointed proximal 
end; lateral margins, concave; further out the plates become more and more tri- 
angular with a convex distal margin, and are more and more widely separated. 

Oral shields triangular, wider than long, the lateral margins rounded; adoral 
plates longer than wide about as wide proximally, where they meet, as distally. 

' <««uispiraus= having slender spines, in reference to the delicacy of both disk and arm spines. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 211 

Each jaw carries a vertical series of narrow rather blunt teeth and 3 very con- 
spicuous, long, narrow pointed oral papillae on each side. 

Color of disk, in dry specimen, light yellowish-brown, grayer on the margins 
so there is no sharp contrast with the dark gray arms, which are hghter orally; 
an ill-defined whitish spot on the disk near the base of each arm. Arm-spines 
glassy but with a bluish tint and faintly banded or marked with fine transverse 
darker lines; this pretty coloring of the arm-spines is only visible in a good Ught, 
under more or less magnification. 

Holotype, Australian Museum, no. J6049, from 9-12 fms., off Gatecomb 
Head, Port Curtis, Queensland, July, 1929. Ward and Boardman leg. 

This is a very well marked species which cannot be confused with any other 
of the Australian forms. Among all the Ophiacanthas described from the East 
Indian region there is nothing Uke it. The disk-covering and numerous arm- 
spines set it apart, but the long sharp oral papillae remind one of Lyman's 0. 
longidens from the Phihppines. 



OPHIOTHAUMAi gen. nov. 

Arms more than 5, capable of being pulled back together over the disk as in 
Ophiomyces and OphiothoUa. Disk without visible radial shields, covered with 
scales bearing low, bluntly pointed spinelets or high conical granules. Teeth 
several, wide and truncate with somewhat hyaline-margin; tooth-papillae several, 
narrow, thick and bluntly pointed; oral papillae along the entire side of the jaws. 
Oral shields, adoral plates, tentacle-scales, arm-plates and spines not peculiar, 
much as in Ophiacantha. 

Genotype, OpJiiothauma heptactis sp. nov. 

This odd little brittle-star reminds one of Ophiomyces and Ophiotholia but 
there is nothing pecuhar about the tentacle-scales or mouth parts. It is obviously 
a connecting hnk between those deep-water genera and the more typical ophia- 
canthids, and as such is of more than usual interest. 

Ophiothauma heptactls^ sp. nov. 

Arms 7, of very unequal length, 10-18 mm. long; there is some indication 
that the shortest arms have been broken off and are regenerating. Disk 3 mm. 

' Ophio — , the common prefix of ophiuran genera +9avijia = a marvel, a wonder, of obvious significance. 
2 ivTa =seven-\-a.KTls =ray, in reference to the number of arms. 



212 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

in diameter and over 2 mm. high in its present contracted condition; owing to the 
folding back of the arms over it, the details of its structure are obscured, but it is 
obviously covered with thin, rather large scales, among which no radial shields 
can be detected; the scales bear high conical granules (perhaps better called low, 
blunt spinelets) which are rather numerous but do not form a uniform coat; 
apparently there may be more than one granule to a disk-scale but this is not 
certainly determinable. Upper arm-plates rather large, rounded pentagonal; on 
basal part of arm, the proximal angle is truncated and the plates are in contact 
for nearly half their width but near tip of arm the proximal angle is sharp and the 
plates are well separated. 

Interbrachial areas below are naturally very narrow, covered with thin 
plates, but with only a few of the conical granules. Under arm-plates moderately 
large, longer than wide, rounded octagonal, only in contact by the proximal, 
shortest side; at the very tip of the arm they are not in contact, h^ide arm-plates 
of moderate size, only meeting above and below near tip of arm; each carries a 
series of 4 rather stout, smooth, slightly flattened, blunt spines; the two lowest 
are about equal and shorter than the third which is in turn shorter than the rather 
long uppermost ; the last greatly exceeds the arm-segment. Tentacle-scale single, 
large, flat and somewhat pointed. 

Oral shields of moderate size, oval with the narrower end inward, somewhat 
longer than wide; madreporite the largest with a single rather conspicuous pore. 
Adoral plates much longer than wide and much wider distally than proximally; 
they do not quite meet within and radially are separated by the small first under 
arm-plate. Teeth 2 or 3, far up on angle of jaw, rather wide, truncate, with a 
slightly hyaline margin. Dental papillae several, irregularly arranged, short, 
thick, narrow and blunt. Oral papillae 5 on each side of jaw, rather flat and 
truncate, the outermost widest. Color of dry specimen very pale brown, almost 
white, the disk-spinelets distinctly tawny yellow. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4917, from Port Essington, Coburg Peninsula, 
Northern Territory. 

The origin of this remarkable specimen is unfortunately obscure. It was 
found with specimens of Macrophiothrix belli in a jar in which there were no other 
echinoderms. It was not noted when the specimens were collected. A plausible 
hypothesis is that it was living symbiotically (or parasitically) on one of the big 
ophiurans and was placed in alcohol with them. In dying, the arms were con- 
tracted to their present unusual position and the animal fell off of its host. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 213 

AMPHIURID.\E 

Amphiura ambigua 
KoEHLER, 1905. "Siboga" Oph. Litt., p. 39. 

At East Point, Darwin, at different times, 4 long-armed brittle-stars were 
taken from the sand under rock fragments. The hght gray disks and pale yellow- 
ish, but conspicuously banded arms, gave them a more than ordinarily attractive 
appearance. They have retained as dried specimens much of their natural colora- 
tion. They now measure 4-6 mm. across the disks while the arms are about 10 
times as much. The coloration now may be described thus : Disk pale gray, the 
narrow radial shields often with a dark blotch at middle; arms light yellowish 
with enough purple-gray upper arm-plates at intervals of 2-6 segments to give 
them a regularly banded appearance; arm spines whitish, more or less speckled 
and streaked with brown of some shade, often quite dark. 

There seems no good reason to doubt that these Amphiuras are adults of 
Koehler's East Indian species which was based on 2 young individuals. There are 
only two or three particulars in which the Australian specimens differ from Koeh- 
ler's description. The arms are much longer, relatively, the oral shields are blunter 
and wider at the inner end, and the conspicuous hooks on the arm-spines occur 
only on 2 spines (or often only on one) in a series, while the uppermost and lower- 
most spines are not so stout as represented by Koehler. These differences may 
properly be attributed to the difference in size, and probably in age, of the speci- 
mens concerned. Certainly they do not seem to be adequate for establishing a 
new species. Since 1905, Koehler has found additional specimens of ambigua in 
the "Albatross" Philippine collection (1922) and in Dr. Mortensen's East Indian 
collection (1930), but all were of small size. It is interesting to note that in the 
figure given of the Philippine specimen (1922, pi. 69, fig. 6), the brown markings 
on the arm-spines, sojevident in the specimens from Darwin, are easily seen. 

Amphiura constricta 
Lyman, 1879. Bull. Mus. ( omp. Zool., 6, p. 22. 

It is an interesting illustration of the curious inconsistencies of marine col- 
lecting that no specimens of this apparently conxmon and widely distributed 
brittle-star were in the extensive collections of echinoderms in the South Austral- 
ian Museum in 1928, in spite of the assiduous collecting by Dr. Verco, yet the 



214 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

present collection contains many specimens from the coast of Western Australia 
as well as from the Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales, Tasmania 
and Victoria, and it can hardly be doubted that the species occurs in South 
Australian waters. This circumcontinental distribution is notable as it is rare 
among echinoderms. The species is easily recognized from Lyman's description 
and figures but shows some diversity in the scaUng of the disk (perhaps asso- 
ciated with regeneration), in the character of the arm-spines (perhaps associated 
with age), and in the relative length and stoutness of the arms. 

The material from Port Curtis, Darwin and Broome was at first supposed 
(largely for geographical reasons) to represent a separate species but prolonged 
and repeated study has failed to justify such an idea. Adult specimens from 
Broome are so very similar to those from Port Jackson, that they cannot be 
separated even as a variety. Some of the younger specimens from the northern 
coast however show pecuUarities in the arm-spines which are perplexing. The 
spines are less opaque and more glassy, with a sharp hook or lateral tooth at the 
tip; in one specimen from Broome this is very marked but otherwise the charac- 
ters are those of constrida. In other specimens, one or more of the lower spines 
are truncate (not merely blunt) and have a minute, sharp tooth on each side. 
No separation of such specimens from the more typical constrida has proved at 
all satisfactory, and hence all the AustraUan material at hand is referred to 
constrida. Unfortunately very few of the specimens are adults; with more ma- 
terial it may be demonstrated that two closely allied species occur on the northern 
coast. 

Of the present series of 114 specimens, nearly all are young, and few call for 
any comment. The 4 largest are 6 mm. across the disk (Lyman's type was 5 mm.) 
but no others exceed 5 mm. and nearly all are 2-4 mm. across. Apparently 
adults are more difficult to find. The specimen from Shell Harbor is interesting 
because although small it is the only one which gives any idea of the color in life. 
All the others have grayish disks and yellowish or whitish arms often banded 
with dusky; or they are plain "museum color," a dingy light brown. The Shell 
Harbor specimen has retained the general color pattern of life but it is of course 
somewhat faded. The disk is gray, lightly mottled with darker; dorsal side of 
arms similar but with a pinkish tinge; lower surface much lighter, white at mouth, 
pinkish on arms, with several dusky cross bands on distal part of arm; arm 
spines pink. In a young individual taken at Lord Howe Island, the slender whit- 
ish arms were crossed by narrow, irregularly scattered bands of bright red; in all 
other cases the arm bands were grayish. 



CLAEK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 215 

The 114 specimens are from the following places: 
Queensland: Port Curtis. M. Ward leg. 5 specimens, adult and young. Loaned 

by the Australian Museum. 
New South Wales: Port Stephen. 1 young specimen. Loaned by Australian 

Museum. 
Long Reef, November 28, 1929. 1 large adult. 
Port Jackson, November 21, 1929. 2 specimens. 
Botany Bay, off Towra Point, 20 ft., April, 1924. "From root 
of kelp." J. H. Wright don. 2 specimens, small adults. 
Loaned by AustraUan Museum. 
Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 1 specimen. 
Lord Howe Island: April, 1932. 19 specimens, all young. 

Tasmania: Eagle Hawk Neck, Jan. 27, 1928. T. T. Flynn leg. et don. 5 speci- 
mens, young. 
Hobart, November 15, 1929. 1 specimen, very young. 
Victoria: Port Philip, dredged by J. A. Kershaw. 2 specimens, young. Loaned by 
Melbourne Museum. 
Port Melbourne, under piles of pier. W. Kershaw leg. 11 specimens, 
adult and young. Loaned by Melbourne Museum. 
Western Austraha : Bunkers Bay, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

2 specimens, young. 
Bunbury, Koombana Bay, 5-8 fms., October 26, 1929. 7 

specimens, very young. 
Rottnest Island, 1931. G. Bourne leg. 1 specimen, small 

adult. 
Dongarra. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 5 specimens, young. 
Broome, August and September, 1929. 9 specimens, young 

and small adults. 
Broome, dredged in 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 36 specimens, only 
2 adult. 
Northern Territory: Darwin: near Shell Islands, 2-3 fms., July, 1929. 4 speci- 
mens, young. 

Amphiura microsoma 
H. L. Clark, 1915a. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. 228. 

Four specimens, from widely separated locahties, young and in poor con- 
dition, are best treated as representatives of this Uttle known species. 



216 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

One is scarcely 3 mm. across the disk, with which are associated 2 arms, 
18-20 mm. long. The disk is covered by a dark skin, in which many small scales 
are imbedded. Comparison with the original specimens of microsovia leaves no 
doubt that it is a young individual of that species, in spite of the fact that it was 
taken at Bathurst Point, Rottnest Island, W. A. It was loaned by the Perth 
Museum. 

The other 3 specimens are of about the same size, and the arms, though 
broken off, are still with the bodies. There are no data with 2 of these specimens, 
which belong to the Australian Museum, but it is quite possible that they are 
from the type locality, the Murray Islands. The third one is from Broome and 
has much broader radial .shields than the other two. All three differ markedly 
from the Rottnest specimen and from the types of microsoma in having the disk 
covered with very fine scales. It seems to me quite possible however that this is 
merely a youthful character retained longer than in the Rottnest Island speci- 
men. At any rate, it seems better to treat them as young microsoma than to 
endeavor to distinguish them as a separate species on the basis of such material. 



Amphiura velox 
KoEHLEE, 1910. Abh. Senckenb. Natiirf. Gesell., 33, p. 292. 

It is interesting to record this fine species from the northwestern coast of 
Australia. In June, 1932, 2 specimens were dredged in Lagrange Bay in 5-7 fms. 
One is badly damaged but the other is a perfect specimen. Both are somewhat 
larger than the type. In Ufe the interbrachial areas are somewhat swollen and 
pushed out between the arm-bases, the whole disk being covered above and 
below with a soft skin bearing a coat of very small scales; on drying, the skin 
wrinkles as it shrinks but the five pairs of long radial shields tend to prevent 
wrinkles forming on the disk and hold the radial areas out as lobes over the arm 
bases; there are interradial notches between these lobes as well as in the mid- 
radial line between the radial shields. In the dry specimens the disk is thus flat 
and .5-lobed, ((uite different at first sight from Koehler's figure which was no 
doubt made from an alcoholic specimen. In all other respects, particularly the 
arm-spines, the oral shields and the tentacle-scales, the Australian material is 
just like the Aru Island specimen. 

Koehler makes no reference to color so it may be well to record the color of 
the perfect specimen at hand. Disk, pale gray, arms pale cream-color or almost 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 217 

white; many upper arm-plates pale olive-gray or marked therewith; distally 
these plates are in groups so that the arm appears distinctly but indefinitely 
banded. 

Aside from the six arms, this Amphiura may be recognized by the very fine 
scaling of the disk on both sides, the long narrow radial shields, the single large 
tentacle-scale and particularly by the 4 or 5 arm-spines, of which the middle pair 
are very characteristic. 

The number of arms is evidently not a constant species character for there is 
at hand an individual with 5 equal arms and pentamerous in every normal way. 
That it is identical with the hexamerous specimens admits of no doubt. It has the 
disk 5 mm. across and the arms about 40 mm. long. Placed side by side with the 
2 hexamerous specimens from Lagrange Bay, it shows surprising agreement in 
every detail of structure and color. There are however some indications that it 
was marked in life on both disk and arms with rusty-red, which has now almost 
wholly disappeared. This unique specimen was found among rocks and sponges 
brought up by our diver. Wan, from off North Head, near Beagle Bay. 



Amphiura acrisia' sp. nov. 

Disk 5 mm. across; arms 5, about 30 mm. long, tapering to very slender tips. 
Disk with slight radial notches, the interradial lobes not very conspicuous but 
extending out to the sixth arm segment, their distal margins straight or only a 
little concave. Disk covered with a coat of thin but not very small scales (about 
10 columns between the inner ends of the pairs of radial shields), among which 
the 11 primary plates, well separated from each other, are rather conspicuous and 
there are other larger plates around the radial shields. The latter are short and 
rather wide (width about half length), separated for their whole length by rather 
coarse scales, or just in contact at their distal tips. Upper arm-plates quad- 
rilateral with distal margin longer than proximal and all angles rounded; at base 
of arm the proximal margin is notably short but rapidly increases in relative 
length and at middle of arm is nearly equal to distal but it then decreases in 
length and near tip of arm tends to disappear, the plates becoming rounded tri- 
angular with the distal margin very convex; near middle of arm the plates are 
considerably wider than long and the distal margin is Ughtly convex. 

Interbrachial areas below covered with a coat of small scales, not markedly 

' aKpiaia=ivant of disiinctness, in reference to the lack of any outstanding character. 



218 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

difl'erent from those on upper surface of disk. Under arm-plates, squarish with 
rounded angles, about as wide as long, in broad contact. Arm-spines 6 or 5, 
about as long as an arm-segment, flattened and blunt; lowest more pointed and 
less flattened than the uppermost. Tentacle-scales 2, small, flat, and of little 
significance. 

Oral shields rounded diamond-shape, the 2 outer sides much shorter than 
the inner; length equals or exceeds width, except the madreporite which is larger 
and wider than the others. Adoral plates, irregularly quadrangular; radial end 
rounded and separated by the first under arm-plate from its fellow of the adjoin- 
ing jaw; interradial end wider, concave, nearly or quite meeting that of its 
fellow along the inner margin of the oral shield. Oral papillae not peculiar, the 
inner one block-like of course, the outer, erect, flattened, rounded at tip, twice 
as long as wide or longer. 

Color of dried specimens; disk pale gray; arms pale fawn color; distally here 
and there an upper arm-plate may be noticed of a darker shade but such plates 
are not conspicuous. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4941, from Broome, W. A., 5-7 fms. June, 1932. 

There is a single paratype, also from Broome, which differs in no important 
detail from the more perfectly preserved holotype. There is so little that is dis- 
tinctive about the species that it has been hard to consider it an undescribed 
form. It has points of resemblance with incana Lyman from Cape Colony, perita 
Koehler from Solor Strait, southern East Indies, and amokurae Mortensen from 
New Zealand but the outer oral papilla, the arm-spines and the disk covering 
combine to separate it distinctly from any one of these species. 

Amphiura bidentata^ sp. nov. 

Disk 3.5 mm. in diameter; arms 5, about 10 mm. long. Disk covered with a 
close coat of rather coarse but small scales, among which the primary plates are 
not distinguishable. Radial shields relatively large, narrow, about three times as 
long as wide, well separated by several coarse scales, except at the slightly in- 
curved distal tips. Upper arm-plates broadly pentagonal or triangular; width, 
2-3 times length; distal margin slightly convex; lateral margins very short or 
wanting; proximal margins oblique forming an angle usually in contact with, and 
sometimes (near base of arm) truncated by the convex margin of the preceding 
plate. 

' bidentata = having two teeth, in reference to the pair of oral papillae on each side of the distal end 
of each mouth-slit. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 219 

Interbrachial areas below covered with minute scales, more delicate than 
those of disk. Under arm-phites wider than long, rounded pentagonal, hardly in 
contact, except on basal part of arm; in holotype, the first one is relatively large, 
pentagonal, with an inner angle; the second is largest of the under arm-plates and 
in contact with both preceding and following; distal margin of most of the plates 
concave or sUghtly notched. In a specimen from Port Curtis, the first plate is 
smaller and triangular with a distal angle, while in a small specimen from La- 
grange Bay, the first plate is almost concealed by the adoral plates which meet 
broadly radiallj'. Side arm-plates large, meeting above and below, more or less 
evidently, except at base of arm. Arm-spines 3, subequal, pointed, about as long 
as an arm-segment; upper one more slender than the lower 2. Tentacles scales 2, 
relatively large and conspicuous. 




Fig. 13. Amphiur.a bidentata. A mouth angle, x 20. 

Oral shields of moderate size, triangular with distal side convex about as wide 
as long; in other specimens, the shape is more rhomboidal with rounded angles, 
wider than long, and in one specimen, the angles are so rounded the plates are 
nearly ellipitical, much wider than long. Adoral plates relatively very large, meet- 
ing broadly within, but usually separated in the radial line by the large first 
under arm-plate; as already stated, in the specimen from Lagrange Bay they are 
broadly in contact radially. Oral papillae in the usual block-hke form at tip of 
jaw, but distally there are two of nearly equal size on each side of the mouth slit. 
The gap between the proximal papilla and this distal pair is large and con- 
spicuous as in typical Amphiura. The distal pair are situated on the oral plate 
which is relatively large, though they appear in some cases to be attached to the 
adoral plate and the inner one sometimes seems attached to the first under arm- 
plate; the two pairs make a more or less continuous semicircle around the distal 
end of the oral shts. Papilla protecting first oral pore rather conspicuous as a 
small rough knob, less noticeable in the holotype than in some other specimens. 



220 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Color of disk pale gray or nearly white with radial shields gray, their distal 
tips white; arms yellowish white. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 4947, dredged at Broome, 5-7 fms., June, 1932. 

Besides the holotype, which is the largest individual seen, there are 3 para- 
types taken at Broome in 1929, 5 taken in 1932, 1 at Lagrange Bay in 1929, and 
2 from Port Curtis, Queensland, collected by Mr. jNIelbourne Ward and loaned by 
the Australian Museum. These Queensland specimens are undoubtedly identical 
with those from Broome, for while one has the oral shields less angular and more 
broadly elliptical than in the Western Australian material, in the other the shields 
are rounded triangular as in the type. 

This little amphiuran will not be confused with any other Austrahan species 
as the characteristic mouth parts will distinguish it at once. There are several 
Amphiuras however, from other regions, with similar mouth parts, 3 arm-spines 
and 2 tentacle-scales, which might be separated with it as a genus distinct from 
Amphiura. Such species however, as diomedeae Liitken and Mortensen [ = koreae 
Duncan, according to Matsumoto (1917, p. 198)] in which the oral papillae 
undergo great changes during growth and senescence, besides havnng a wide 
range of individual diversity, make one hesitate to set them apart. 



Amphiura brachyactis' sp. nov. 

Disk 5 mm. across; arms 5, scarcely 20 mm. long, narrow, tapering rapidly 
on distal half, to a slender tip. Disk covered with a thin coat of very small and 
dehcate scales. Radial shields long, narrow and slightly curved, nearly or quite 
in contact at distal ends, well separated inwardly by numerous small scales; the 
length of each shield is 3-4 times its width. Upper arm-plates nearly circular or 
somewhat elliptical, the width greater than the length but not conspicuously so. 
Arm-spines 5 (6 on most proximal joints, 4 distally) short, scarcely exceeding 
an arm-segment, flat and bluntly pointed. Lower surface of both disk and arms 
so much as in microsoma that it would be superfluous to repeat the details here. 

Color of dry adults: disk grayish, with margin more or less, yellow-brown; 
arms lighter colored, whitish or pale yellowish-brown. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4933, from Broome, W. A., June, 1932; dredged in^ 
shallow water. 

There is a paratype of about the same size and similar in all details, from the 

'Ppaxvs =short + a.KTLS = ray, in reference to the short arms. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 221 

same locality. A young Amphiura which was at first thought to be microsoma 
is more probably this species, as indicated by disk-covering, radial shields and 
upper arm-plates. 

The close relationship of brachyadis to microsoma is so evident one hesitates 
to separate them, and yet the differences in length of arms, in shape of upper arm- 
plates and in character of the radial shields are so great and apparently constant 
they cannot be ignored. It is interesting to note that apparently both species 
occur on the northwestern coast. 



Amphiura catephes^ sp. nov. 

Disk 8-9 mm. in diameter, not perfectly circular, depressed and notched in 
the radii, somewhat swollen and expanded in the interradii, but the interradial 
margin is straight or a little concave or notched. Arms all broken but, judging 
from the fragments at hand, not more than 35-40 mm. long. Covering of disk 
made up of coarse fiat scales, with the six primary plates distinguishable but 
not conspicuous; the radial plates circular, largest, a full half milhmeter in diam- 
eter, but many other plates, particularly in the interradii between the proximal 
ends of the radial shields are nearly as large though rarely circular; near the disk 
margin the scales are smaller ; there are 7-9 series in the interradii between proxi- 
mal halves of the pairs of radial shields. The latter are rather more than twice 
as long as broad but less than 2 mm. long; the inner side is straight, the outer 
markedly convex; they are nearly or quite in contact distally but diverge sHghtly 
and are separated by a hnear series of 2-4 scales, the most proximal the largest. 
Upper arm-plates, quadrilateral but the distinctly convex distal margin is longer 
than the straight proximal side, by which the plates are fully in contact. 

Interbrachial areas below completely covered by a well developed coat of 
very small scales; the contrast between this covering and that of the upper side 
of the disk is very marked. Under arm-plates wider than long; all are more or less 
quadrilateral but the first one is much wider distally than proximally and is 
nearly as long as wide; the next 2 or 3 plates are much wider than long and the 
distal margin is distinctly notched; on subsequent plates the margin is shghtly 
concave or straight; all four corners tend to be rounded. Side arm plates not con- 
spicuously projecting, with 6, rarely 7, or further out 5, rather slender, pointed, 
subequal opaque arm-spines, about as long as an arm-segment. Tentacle-pores 

' KaTri4>ris = dejected, in reference to the close relationship to A. dejecta Koehler. 



222 memoir: museum of compaeative zoology 

rather large but the single tentacle scale is small, scarcely one-fourth as long as 
the under arm-plate. 

Oral shields notably longer than wide, except the madreporite which in the 
holotype is wider than long and relatively very large; in the paratype it is not so 
big and the width does not equal the length. The typical shield is elliptical or 
elongated octagonal with all the angles rounded; in some, the distal end is almost 
pointed and the adjoining sides are concave, but the degree of concavity and the 
breadth of the distal end show much diversity. Adoral plates completely sepa- 
rated within by the proximal end of the oral shield, but in the radial line they are 
very nearly in contact; in the paratype they do not approach each other so 
closely; they are more or less quadrilateral with the inner end (adjoining the oral 
shield) wider than the outer, and all angles verj^ fully rounded. Oral papillae not 
notably peculiar the inner ones block-Uke as always in Amphiura, the outer 
rather small, flat, erect and pointed. Color of disk gray, of arms brownish-white, 
not in any marked contrast ; the color in hfe was not noted and hence was prob- 
ably inconspicuous as in the dry specimens. 

Holotype, IVI. C. Z. no. 4921, from off Middle Head, Port Jackson, in several 
fms., November 21, 1929. 

A paratype, somewhat smaller and with the arms even more deficient was 
dredged at the same time and place. The only differences between it and the 
holotype are in the adoral plates and oral shields, as already mentioned. The 
relationship of this Amphiura to constricta is obvious but these specimens cannot 
be considered fully grown adults of that species; the differences in the radial 
shields, oral papillae, arm-spines, under arm-plates and tentacle-scales cannot be 
reconciled with any such ^•iew. The relationship to Koehler's species dejecta 
from Sibuko Bay, Borneo, in 305 fms. is equally notable but there are too great 
differences in disk-scaUng, in under arm-plates, in arm-spines and in tentacle- 
scales to permit referring the Port Jackson specimens to that species. 



Amphiura diacritica' sp. nov. 

Disk G-7 mm. across; arms 5, all broken, but from the pieces present it is 
evident they were long, probably at least 60 mm. Disk covered for the most part 
with a thin, naked skin, but around the radial shields are numerous well-de- 
veloped, but minute, scales; these scaled areas are sharply defined and measure 

' 5i.aKpiTLK6s = distinguishable, in reference to the well-marked specific characters. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 223 

about 2.5 mm. long by nearly 2 mm. wide; radial shields themselves are only 
about 1.5 mm. long and scarcely half that in width; they are truncate distally 
where they are in contact, but the inner end, where they are rather widely 
separated is pointed. Upper arm-plates at first oval about as long as broad and 
not broadly in contact but rapidly becoming wider than long and fully in contact; 
the corners are so broadty rounded that many of the plates are almost elliptical. 

Interbrachial areas below covered with a thin coat of minute, delicate scales, 
except to some extent along the outer margin where the naked skin of the upper 
surface of disk passes over onto the oral side. Under arm-plates quadrilateral, 
longer than wide or nearly so, with slightly rounded angles. Arm-spines nu- 
merous and crowded, usually 8 in each series; lowest longest, exceeding a segment; 
uppermost 2 or .3 wider, flatter, with blunt tips, about equal to segment; third 
and fourth, or fourth and fifth, with a sharp, minute bent tip, or posteriorly 
directed tooth. Tentacle-scales 2, small but well developed. 

Oral shields, of moderate size, longer than wide, with a blunt inner end and 
a truncate, but short and rounded distal margin; madreporite very large, nearly 
circular. Adoral plates small, rounded triangular, not meeting either within 
or radially. Oral papillae conspicuous and remarkably alike in form; the distal 
ones are so thick and wide (though width is less than length) they resemble to an 
unusual degree the inner ones, which are widely separated from each other on the 
truncate end of the jaw and are less square and block-Uke than is usually the case. 

Color of naked skin very dark brown; of radial shields and adjoining scales, 
arms and arm-spines, nearly white or very light cream-color. 

Holotype, Australian Museum no. J 5077, from Queensland, ^\^litsunday 
Passage, Black Island. 

This Amphiura is quite unUke any species as yet known from Australia. It 
belongs in the same group as arcystata H.L.C. of Japan but is easily distinguished 
from that species by the outer oral papillae, the form of the arm-spines, and the 
much smaller radial shields. The Japanese species shows such diversity in the 
amount of calcareous material in the disk covering, one cannot feel sure that the 
unique holotype of diacritica is typical of the Australian species, when fully 
adult. There is a remarkable resemblance between the present species and 
Koehler's figm-es (1926, PI. II, figs. 3-7) of Ljungman's species verticillata from the 
Galapagos Islands, also described from a single specimen. But neither Ljungman 
nor Koehler describe the disk as naked though Koehler's figures suggest the pos- 
sibility that it might have been. 



224 



memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



Amphiura dolia' sp. nov. 

Disk 11-12 mm. in diameter; arms 5, 65-70 mm. long, tapering rather 
abruptly distally to a long slender tip. Disk somewhat swollen, strongly notched 
radially, the interradial lobes extending out to the tenth arm-segment; the margin 
of the lobes is either straight, or slightly concave ; disk covered with a dense coat 
of small but rather thick scales, among which a few near center of disk are some- 
what larger but no definite primary plates can be distinguishd. (In one of the 
paratypes, the primary plates are quite evident). Interradial areas have about 
10 series of plates, between the adjoining pairs of radial shields, while along the 
margin of each lobe there are at least 30 series. Radial shields small, strongly 







Fig. 14. Amphiura dolia. A mouth angle and basal portion of one arm. x 20. 



divergent but nearly or quite in contact distally; each is 2 mm. long and 1 mm. 
wide (at middle) ; inner margin straight, outer strongly convex. Upper arm-plates 
quadrilateral with all angles somewhat rounded; distal side longest (at middle of 
arm, more than twice as long as lateral margins) and very shghtly convex; proxi- 
mal side distinctly shorter and lightly concave; near the base of the arm (and in 
the young paratype), the distal margin is shorter and much more convex. 

Interbrachial areas below densely covered with small, thickish scales, like 
those near the margin of the interradial lobes when seen from above. Arm- 
spines 7, rarely 8 basally, becoming 6, at the tenth to twelfth segment; excepting 
only the uppermost 2 or 3, they are subequal (or the next to the lowest may be 
longest) and scarcely exceed an arm-segment; they are terete, little or not at all 

' 8o\i6s = deceptive, in reference to resemblance of the outer oral papillae to these of some Amphiodias. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 225 

flattened, pointed but not acute. Under arm-plates quadrilateral, broadly in 
contact, wider than long and for the most part wider proximally than distally; 
distal angles rounded and distal margin very sUghtly concave; proximal margin 
tends to be convex or even bluntly pointed, but in the normal position of the 
straight arm, it is overlapped by the distal margin of the preceding plate suf- 
ficiently to conceal this insignificant feature. Tentacle scales 2, large, flat, roughly 
semicircular; outer one, situated on side arm-plate, a trifle smaller than the one 
attached to the under arm-plate ; together they fill snugly the space from base of 
lowest arm-spine to distal corner of under arm-plate. 

Oral shields spear-head shape, distinctly contracted distally, longer than 
wide; madreporite larger, more broadly oval, swollen. Adoral plates somewhat 
triangular, with angles rounded and side adjoining oral shield distinctly concave; 
the plates meet within but radially are separated by a small but very evident 
first under arm-plate. Oral papillae very striking; inner pair block-hke as usual 
but outer pair low, very broad with rounded free margin; at first sight the mouth 
parts look Uke those of some Amphiodias but a closer examination shows that 
there are only 2 papillae on each half of the jaw; the small intermediate papilla 
of Amphiodia being entirely wanting but of course, the pointed scale of the 
first (oral) tentacle is present and is conspicuous enough to be misleading. 

Color of dry specimen nearly uniform hght gray, though the arms are some- 
what Hghter than the disk. The young paratype, which was never in alcohol, has 
the disk pale gray, the arms more nearly white, very much the coloration shown 
in life. 

HolotjTje, Australian Museum no. J 6037, from Port Jackson, with no fur- 
ther data. 

There are two paratypes in the same lot with the specimen described above, 
not quite so large, and one badly damaged. They agree in all essentials with the 
type but in one the maximum number of arm-spines is 7 and in the other only 6. 

A young individual of dolia was dredged off Middle Head, Port Jackson, in 
4-6 fms., November 21, 1929. It is only 3 mm. across the disk and the arms are 
little more than 15 mm. long. The characteristic mouth parts and tentacle scales 
are exactly as in the adults but the radial shields are relatively larger and nar- 
rower, and the maximum number of arm-spines is 4, or perhaps 5 on some basal 
arm-segments. 

This species is so well marked by its conspicuous and unusual oral papillae 
that it will not easily be confused with any other member of the genus. 



226 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Amphiura leucaspis^ sp. nov. 

Disk scarcely 3 mm. across, arms all broken but judging from a paratype, 
they were hardly 10 mm. long. Disk covered with coarse scales among which the 
11 primary plates are obvious, though the interradial plates are smaller than the 
radial. Radial shields relatively large but not so long as one-half the radius of 
disk; width more than one-half length; inner end pointed, outer end blunt; inner 
margin straight, outer strongly convex; inner ends well separated by 2 or 3 scales, 
outer ends broadly in contact. Upper arm-plates four-sided, broadly in contact, 
but inner margin, which is straight, is much shorter than the distal, which is 
strongly convex; corners not rounded. 

Interbrachial areas below fully covered with rather coarse scales, smaller 
than most of those on disk. Under arm-plates squarish or a trifle longer than broad, 
with rounded corners, broadly in contact. Arm-spines 6 (soon 5, then 4) erect, 
bristling, more or less cyhndrical but thicker at base than at the bluntly pointed 
tip; upper ones shortest, lowest two longest and subequal, rather longer than a 
segment. Tentacle-scale single, huge; width more than half length, which nearly 
equals under arm-plate; tip rounded; distally the scales are smaller both actually 
and relatively than at base of arm. Oral shields triangular, with distal margin 
strongly convex, or spear-head shaped with distal squarish projection very short; 
all angles rounded; length about equal to width; madreporite not conspicuously 
bigger. Adoral plates triangular, rather large, but scarcely meeting either without 
(radially) or within; proximal side lightly concave. Oral papillae notable; inner 
ones flatter, not quite so blockhke as usual; distal ones very large, semicircular or 
more nearly circular, the width and height nearly equal. 

Color very characteristic; disk pale gray, many scales darker at margin than 
at center ; radial shields dark gray at inner end and along outer margin but else- 
where pure white in strong contrast. Upper arm-plates mostly light gray but 
frequently white in striking contrast; distally white plates are more frequent; 
sometimes 2 consecutive plates are white ; in life the arms seem to be white banded 
with gray ; arm-spines very pale gray. Lower surface of both disk and arms, white. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4929, from Lagrange Bay, Western Australia, 5-7 
fms., September, 1929. 

No other specimen of this well-marked little amphiurid was taken in 1929 
but in 1932, 2 specimens were dredged in different places in the Broome region. 
They are hke the holotype in all essentials. The coloration, the huge tentacle- 

^ \(i'KaaTn.s = ivith white shield, in reference to the conspicuous white area on each radial shield. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 227 

scale and the big outer mouth papilla distinguish this Amphiura from any with 
which it might be confused. Its small size naturally leads to its being readily 
overlooked and the specimens secured were found only by painstaking examina- 
tion of sand and mud brought up in the dredge. Whether these little individuals 
are adult is of course uncertain. 

Amphiura magnisquama' sp. nov. 

Disk 3.5 mm. across; arms 5, about 14 mm. long. Disk covered by unusually 
large scales among which the rosette formed of 6 primary plates is conspicuous, 
nearly 1.5 mm. across; central plate itself is about half a miUimeter in diameter; 
in each interradius between the pairs of radial shields are 6 or 7 series of over- 
lapping scales. Radial shields short and moderately wide, well separated proxi- 
mally but nearly in contact distally. Upper arm-plates broadly in contact, 4- 
sided, with inner side straight, and narrower than outer which is a little convex. 

Under arm-plates rather large, as long as wide or longer, with lateral margins 
concave and distal margin convex, the distal corners rounded. Arm-spines 5 (or 6 
on basal joints), sub-equal or lowest longest; opaque, flattened, bluntly pointed, 
about equal to segment. Tentacle-scale single, rather small, situated on the side 
arm-plate close to the middle of the concave lateral margin of the under-arm- 
plate; it seems to be easily detachable as it is missing in these dry specimens, from 
many pores. 

Oral shield triangular about as wide as long, all angles rounded but inner- 
most least so. Adoral plates relatively very large, triangular, hardly meeting 
within and separated in the radial line by a very small first under arm-plate. 
Oral papillae, 2 on each side of jaw; terminal one block-hke as usual, distal one 
3 times as big, flat, thick, rounded. Color pale gray, more or less white orally. 

Holotype, AustraUan Museum no. J 3504, from 2.5 to 4 miles off Botany, 
New South Wales, 33-56 fms. McNeill and Livingstone, on trawler "Goonam- 
bie," leg. 

There are 3 paratypes from the same station and 3 from off Botany Bay, 
50-52 fms., "Thetis" collection. All the specimens are more or less broken, but 
all show the distinctive species characters well. These are, the coarse disk- 
scaling with conspicuous rosette of primary plates (irregular in one small speci- 
men), the huge, flat, distal oral papillae, the single small tentacle scale and the 5 
subequal, opaque arm-spines. 

' magnus =hig+squamu$ = sc&\e, in reference to the unusually large disk scales. 



228 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Amphiura micra^ sp. nov. 

Disk 1.8 mm. across; arms 5, 6 mm. long. Disk flat, rounded pentagonal, 
covered by rather more than 100 smooth, thickish scales, of which 6 primary 
plates are much the largest while 75 small irregular ones cover tlie interradial 
areas and separate the inner ends of the radial shields; 25-30 considerably larger 
plates form 2 ill-defined circles around the primaries. 'Radial shields short and 
wide; length not quite half disk-radius; width about one-half length; in contact 
at distal tip but separated at inner ends. Upper arm-plates, rounded triangular 
or the proximal angle may be truncated to form a short margin; the plates are 
sHghtty swollen and more or less in contact. 

Interbrachial areas below well plated with rather coarse scales. Genital 
slits short but evident. Under arm-plates longer than broad, fully in contact. 
Arm-spines 4 on proximal part of arm, 3 distally where they are more slender 
and acute, subequal or uppermost a trifle the longest; the proximal ones mod- 
erately thick at base, terete and pointed, about as long as an arm segment. 
Tentacle-scale single, small, not peculiar. Oral shields relatively large, triangular 
with all angles rounded, about as wide as long. Adoral plates small lying wholly 
at the sides of the oral shields. Oral papillae not peculiar, the inner block-like 
and relatively large, the outer peg-like, but flattened, its width about one-half 
the length. 

Color of dry specimen, disk pale gray, arms dirty white; lower surface more 
or less white. 

Holotype, j\I. C. Z. no. 4935, from Broome, September, 1929. 

This little brittle-star was found with other small specimens, after the return 
to Cambridge, and there are no data with it. Owing to its small size its pecuhari- 
ties were not noted until the collection was being critically studied. While it is 
probably immature it is not the young of any of the other Amphiuras now known 
from Broome. The character of the disk, the arm-plates and spines, and the 
form of the oral shields make a combination of recognition marks that serve to 
distinguish it. 

Amphiura multiremula^ sp. nov. 

Disk 7 mm. across; arms 5, 40 mm. or more in length. Covering of disk 
consists of a coat of very minute and very numerous scales, while here and there, 

' fjiiKpos =s7nall, in obvious reference to the minute size. 

^ multiremula=ha.-ving many little oars, in reference to the regular vertical series of numerous arm- 
spines, the upper ones flattened like paddles. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 229 

near center of disk, a larger one is distinguishable; in the paratypes, these larger 
plates seem to be the primary plates but they are well separated from each other. 
Disk somewhat notched radially so that 5 interradial lobes, with slightly concave 
margins are evident but not swollen. Radial shields small about 1 mm. long or 
possibly a little more, .30-.40 mm. wide, pointed and well-separated proximally 
but blunt and more or less in contact distally. Upper arm-plates at first, rounded 
pentagonal or hexagonal, approaching circular, about as long as wide, but rapidly 
increasing in width until they are tetragonal, much wider than long, with rounded 
outer corners, a lightly concave distal margin, a straight or somewhat convex 
proximal edge and lateral sides distinctly convex. 

Interbrachial spaces below completely covered with a coat of extremely 
minute scales. Under arm-plates squarish, with rounded corners and fairly 
straight margins, broadly in contact, usually longer than wide but near middle 
of arm some plates are a bit wider than long. Arm-spines at base of arm in 
vertical series of 8 (rarely 9); further out, the number decreases, as usual, and 
there are 7, 6 and distally 5; the 2 lowest spines are longest, exceeding an arm- 
segment, flattened, with moderately wide truncate tips; the three uppermost are 
similar but shorter with tips rounded rather than truncate, while the three inter- 
mediate spines are shortest and least flattened and most pointed; the difference 
between these groups is not sharpij^ defined, but it is evident enough when the 
entire series is viewed as a unit from either end of the arm; the resemblance of the 
upper spines to short paddles is rather striking in the holotype but in the some- 
what smaller paratypes only the uppermost spine or two has that appearance. 
Tentacle-scales 2, rather large, flat; the one on side arm plate, longer than wide, 
rounded at tip; the one adjoining under arm-plate hardly as long as wide, with a 
broadly curved margin. 

Oral shields, broadly oval or rounded pentagonal, with a blunt point proxi- 
mally and a short side distally; width usually equals or exceeds length; in the 
holotype, the oral plates close to the tip of the shield are notably depressed and 
there is a dark brown spot, the combination giving the impression that the 
proximal point of the oral shield is suddenly bent downwards; this is not notice- 
able in the paratypes though the depression of the oral plates is evident and 
in one specimen there is a trace of pigment ; it may be that the odd appearance in 
the holotype will be found in all fully mature, or perhaps only in senescent, speci- 
mens. Adoral plates more or less triangular with concave sides and broadly 
rounded angles; they are separated radially by the first under arm-plate; in the 
holotype they are widely separated within by the oral shield but in the paratypes 



230 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

they more nearly meet and in the younger specimen, they meet fully in at least 
one interradius. Oral papillae, block like as usual at tip of jaw but erect and spine- 
like at distal angle; this distal papilla is flattened, and rounded or roundly pointed 
at tip, the length ranging from 2 to 4 times the width. Tentacle scale of first oral 
tentacle exceptionally conspicuous, elongated, blunt and thick. 

Color of dried holotype light brownish-gray, with little difference between 
disk and arms; on middle third of each arm a plate here and there or sometimes 
2 together are more or less dull purple ; in life the contrast was probably rather 
marked; on the lower surface, the brown spot.s on the oral plates have already 
been mentioned; in addition there are faint brownish markings on the oral shields 
and adoral plates, the lateral markings of the under arm-plates are faintly dusky 
and the flattened lower arm-spines show a longitudinal brownish stripe. The 
paratypes are much lighter colored; the disk is pale gray (in one, with a yellowish 
margin) and the arms nearly white ; here and there an upper arm-plate is darker 
than its fellows; on the oral surface, in one specimen, the brownish markings are 
very faint indeed, except for the evident stripe on the lower arm-spines, while in 
the youngest individual, there is no indication of pigment at all. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4938, from Long Reef, Colloroy, New South Wales, 
November 28, 1929. 

There are two paratypes with disks nearly or quite 6 mm. in diameter and 
arms all broken. One was taken on Long Reef, the same morning that the holo- 
type was found. The other was dredged off Middle Head, Port Jackson, in 4-6 
fms., November 21, 1929. It seems strange that so remarkable a brittle-star 
should have lived so long undiscovered near Sydney but it does not seem to have 
been described hitherto. It will be easily recognized by the noticeable series of 
arm-spines, in combination with 2 tentacle scales and the very fine disk scaling. 



Amphiura nannodes' sp. nov. 

Disk about 2.5 mm. across; arms 5, about 10 mm. long. Disk covered with a 
coat of very thin but not particularly small scales with no primary plates dis- 
tinguishable; in the smallest paratype with disk less than 2 mm. across, 6 primary 
plates can be distinguished. Radial shields long, straight and narrow, separated 
or barely in contact distally and diverging .slightly within; length 3 times width 
or even more (less in the young paratype) . LTpper arm-plates at base of arm oval 

' vavvwdris =dimrfish, in reference to the small size. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 231 

about as long as wide but width increases rapidly and soon exceeds length very 
evidently; the plates are then oblong with rounded corners and distal margin 
longer than proximal. 

Interbrachial spaces below covered uniformly with a coat of small scales. 
Under arm-plates longer than wide with slightly rounded corners, broadly in 
contact. Arm-spines 6 on basal arm-segments, then 5, subequal or lowest the 
longest, about as long as an arm-segment, bluntly pointed. Tentacle-scales 2, 
small and delicate ; the one on under arm-plate is often narrow and difficult to see ; 
apparently one or both are easily lost in dried specimens. Oral shields very 
broad, usually wider than long, oval or elhptical, with little or no proximal angle. 
Adoral plates large, triangular with all angles rounded and sides concave, not 
meeting either without or within. Oral papillae as usual in Amphiura, block-like 
at tip of jaw and erect, flattened spine-like at distal angle; sometimes this distal 
papilla is bluntly pointed and little flattened but usually it is rounded at tip and 
half as wide as long. 

Color of dried specimens, disk pale gray, arms more or less nearly white. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4944, from under stone in cove at Bathurst Point, 
Rottnest Island, W. A., October 19, 1929. 

Besides the holotype, half a dozen paratypes are at hand also from Rottnest 
Island, 3 of which were taken by Mr. G. Bourne in 1931. 

This httle amphiurid is nearly related to the species from Mozambique, 
called Candida by Ljungman, of which the type was 5 mm. across the disk. 
Koehler (1904) considers Ljungman's type worthless and redescribes the species 
from a specimen in the Vienna Museum, identified by Marktanner-Turneretscher, 
which was 8 mm. in diameter and came from Japan. This identification of the 
Japanese specimen with Ljungman's Mozambique species seems to me question- 
able but until more material from East Africa is available, the matter must stand 
as it is. 

The present small Amphiurid is distinguishable from Candida by the coarser 
disk-scaling and absence of primary plates in adults ; by the diff'erences in the oral 
shields and outer mouth papillae ; and insignificant differences in arm-plates and 
spines. It will not be surprising when small specimens of Candida are taken at 
Mozambique to find that the Rottnest Island amphiurids are indistinguishable, 
but until such material is available it is better to keep the Australian species 
separate. 



232 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Amphiura phrixa' sp. nov. 

Disk up to 7.5 mm. in diameter, the 5 arms 5-7 times as much. Disk flat, 
covered with coarse scales and broad radial shields; the primary plates may he 
evident but often are not. Upper arm-plates in contact, broader than long at 
base of arm, further out about twice as wide as long; distal margin strongly 
convex. Interbrachial areas below covered with a very fine scaling. Under arm- 
plates wider than long, the distal margin straight or slightly concave, the corners 
rounded. Arm spines in bristling vertical series; at base of arm, there are 8-10 
spines in a series, the uppermost smallest, the lowest longest ; upper ones shorter 
than an arm-segment, lower ones longer; all the spines are of moderate thickness 
at base more or less tapering and pointed, more or less flattened, and opaque. 
After ten or a dozen joints (in adults) the number of spines in a series decreases 
to 7, 6, 5 and distally to 4. In young specimens (with disk 2-3 mm. across), the 
number of spines is of course less, 6 or 7 on the basal joints and 3 distally, but the 
bristling character of the spines is noticeable in all specimens, young or old. 
Tentacle-scale single, oval, moderately large on basal pores but becoming very 
small distally. Oral shields spear-head shaped; in young and half-grown speci- 
mens longer than wide, the inner end sharp-pointed, the constriction of the distal 
end rather marked and the lateral angles rounded ; in adults, the width equals or 
exceeds the length (particularly in the more or less enlarged madreporite) and the 
inner end is blunter, the distal constriction less conspicuous. Adoral plates small, 
not meeting within, but meeting more or less nearly in radial Une. Oral papillae 
as usual, ablock-Uke pair at the inner end of the jaw, and erect, flattened ones at 
the distal angle on each side ; these distal papillae show no little diversity in size 
and in width but are not notable in any way. Color of dried material, disk more 
or less gray, arms more or less white or pale yellow; in the best specimens, the 
disk is variegated with light and dark gray and many upper arm plates are gray; 
these gray plates often occur in irregular groups so that the arms appear faintly, 
or sometimes rather evidently, banded. In my field notes, the color in life is given 
simply as "gray and white." 

Holotype, Al. C. Z. no. 4923, from mud south of jetty, Broome, W. A. 
August, 1929. 

This is one of the common brittle-stars of Broome, (56 specimens are at 
hand) living in the sandy mud of Roebuck Bay, in shallow water. It was fre- 
quently taken when dredging in June, 1932, in 5-8 fms. but the finest specimens 

' (j>pi^6s =Klawling on eml, brislling, in reference to the characteristic arm-spines. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 233 

were secured when digging in the vicinity of the jetty during low water, sifting 
the mud in a sieve. It was not met with anywhere except in or near Roebuck 
Bay. 

No detailed description is needed, for phrixa is so obviously closely allied to 
conslrida, dejecta and catephes, that such a description would be a waste of words. 
It is only necessary to emphasize the distinctive characters, a flat rather pentag- 
onal disk with broad radial shields, spear-head shaped oral shields, which in 
adults tend to be as broad as long, and the very numerous bristling arm-spines. 
Apparently phrixa is one of the amphiurids which sheds its disk to release the 
eggs and sperm when breeding, for all of the adult specimens indicate more or less 
clearly that the present disk has been regenerated and is not yet quite full- 
grown. 

Amphiura ptena' sp. nov. 

Disk 5.5 mm. in diameter; arms 5, length indeterminable since all are broken 
near the disk and no fragments are with the specimens. Disk covered with a coat 
of very small but rather thick scales; those near the radial shields are somewhat 
larger than elsewhere while those at center of disk are the smallest. Radial shields 
notably small, about twice as long as wide, separated except at distal ends by one 




Fig. 15. Amphiura plena. Three under arm-plates with their accompanying tentacle-scales; the 
lowest plate is nearest the mouth, x 20. 

or more large scales. Upper arm-plates on first 2 or 3 segments nearly circular, 
but rapidly becoming elliptical and nearly twice as wide as long, broadly in con- 
tact. 

Interbrachial areas below well covered with a coat of minute but not deli- 
cate scales. Under arm-plates quadrilateral, slightly longer than wide. Arm- 
spines 6-8 in bristling vertical series, the upper ones more or less flattened the 
lower more cylindrical; all are blunt, subequal and rather longer than an arm- 
segment. Tentacle scales single (fig. 15), extraordinary in form and size; it is as 

1 Trrjjyos = winged, in reference to the remarkable tentacle scales. 



234 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

long as the under arm-plate and attached to it along the entire lateral margin 
like a wing; near base of arm it is nearly half as wide as its length but it narrows 
more and more until it disappears distally. Oral shields oval, longer than wide, 
the madreporite largest; in the smaller paratypes the shields are rounded tri- 
angular, about as wide as long, and the madreporite is not conspicuously largest. 
Adoral plates somewhat elongated triangular, scarcely or not, meeting within, 
well separated radially by the first under arm-plate. Oral papillae notably small; 
inner pair unusually small and inconspicuous; outer ones, low, wide and rounded 
at tip. Color of dried specimens, disk light grayish, arms light yellowish-brown; 
nothing whatever distinctive. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4931, from the beach at Bunkers Bay, Western 
Australia. January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

Besides the holotype, there are 2 smaller specimens, in very poor condition, 
taken with the larger specimen. The remarkable tentacle-scale is a very striking 
recognition mark for this hitherto undescribed amphiurid. Apparently it is a 
mud-loving form as there are traces of dried mud on the largest individual. 
Professor Bennett's notes speak of "intertidal pools" with "a little muddy sand." 



Amphiura stictacantha* sp. nov. 

Disk 5 mm. in diameter or a little more, bulging pentagonal, flat or concave 
in dry specimens, with a deep notch in each radius and each interradial margin 
concave or notched. Arms 5, about 35 mm. long. Disk densely covered with a 
coat of very small scales, largest around the inner ends of the radial shields, 
smallest at center of disk where there is no indication of primary plates. Radial 
shields long and very narrow, very near together and almost parallel, but more or 
less in contact distally and clearly separated within ; length is 4 or 5 times width. 
Upper arm plates oval at base of arm and about as long as wide, the distal end 
wider than proximal; width increases steadily until at middle of arm it is much 
more than length and the proximal margin is more nearly the same as the distal ; 
except at very base of arm, the plates are broadly in contact with each other. 

Interbrachial areas below closely covered with fine scales. Arm-spines numer- 
ous and crowded; at very base of arm there may be 9 or 10 but 8 is the regular 
number until towards the middle of the arm it drops to 7; lowest spine longest 

^ CTiKTOS =spotted+aKav6a= spine, in reference to the streaks and spots of brown on the arm- 
spines. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 235 

and most slender, equal to about 1.5 segments; the next one is shorter blunter and 
more flattened; the next 2 or 3 are noticeably smaller and the upper 3 or more are 
flat, wide, with rounded tips, subequal and about as long as a segment; on the 
basal part of the arm, the 2 series on opposite sides of the same segment approach 
each other quite closely on the dorsal surface. Under-arm plates quadrilateral, 
broadly in contact, with slightly rounded corners rather longer than broad. 
Tentacle-scales 2, an oval one on side arm-plate and a more elongated one on 
under arm-plate. 

Oral shields oval, as wide as long, the distal side somewhat projecting but 
not markedly so; madreporite much the largest. Adoral plates short triangular 
with broad rounded corners and slightly concave sides; they do not meet either 
within or radially, but they are near enough together to suggest that the separa- 
tion may be due largely to the drying of the specimen. Oral papillae as usual, 
block-like at point of jaw, and erect, flat, with rounded tip, at distal angle. 

Color of dried specimen, disk very pale gray becoming nearly white on inter- 
radial margins; on some radial sliields a pale brown area distal to middle is visible. 
Arms whitish with here and there, especially on distal half, an upper arm-plate or 
two, yellowish or pale brown; arm-spines streaked and speckled with brown, irreg- 
ularly but very e\'idently. In young individuals, the arm-spines are less opaque 
and the brown markings are much less evident. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4951, dredged at Broome, W. A., 5-7 fms. June, 
1932. 

Besides the holotype, there are 5 paratypes also from Broome, taken in 1932. 
They agree well in all essentials with the specimen described but have more brown 
markings on both disk and arms; in one specimen the marks, particularly on the 
radial shields are blackish. Two of the specimens are obviously young, the smaller 
having the disk less than 3 mm. across but the arms are nearly as long, relatively 
as in the adults. The arm-spines are more glassy, less flattened and much more 
acute than in the adults, but in the latter those near the tip of the arm are much 
more slender and pointed than they are basally. In the smallest specimen the 
upper arm-plates are all longer than wide, quite oval and not so broadly in con- 
tact; on many, a pair of longitudinal brown stripes is evident. Besides the 
specimens from Broome, a small individual from Rottnest Island with disk about 
3 nmi. across and arms nearly 18 mm. long, seems to be the young of this species. 
It is somewhat darker colored but shows the dark spots on the radial shields, and 
the upper arm-plates are oval and double striped as in the youngest specimen from 
Broome. From Bunkers Bay, Professor Bennett has sent two Amphiuras, in 



236 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

rather poor condition, which are apparently identical with the specimens from 
Broome. The disks are 3.5-5 mm. in diameter, but the arms are all broken only a 
few basal joints remaining. The disk scaUng is a little coarser and the radial 
shields a little shorter and wider than in typical stictacantha . These specimens 
are more bleached than those from Broome and the spots on the radial shields 
are not evident, but enough of the brown markings on the arm-spines remain to 
indicate the probable identity of the specimens. 

There is no doubt that this species is closely related to Candida but the 
absence of primary plates on the disk, the shape of the oral shields, and particu- 
larly the number and appearance of the arm-spines indicate that these Western 
AustraUan Amphiuras cannot be referred to Ljungman's species (See above, p. 
231, under nannodes for further reference to Candida). That nannodes is not the 
young of stictacantha is proven by the smallest paratype of the Broome species 
which while no larger than the type of nannodes has much longer arms and very 
different arm-spines, and is clearly not identical therewith. 



Ophiocentrus dilatatus 

Ophiocnida dilatata Koehler, 1905. Siboga Oph. Litt., p. 30. 

Ophiocentrus dilatatus Koehler, 1922. Bull. 100 U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 199. 

This well marked species has been found at several East Indian stations, in- 
cluding the Aru and Kei Islands, and also in the Torres Strait region, but its secre- 
tive habits have prevented any considerable number of specimens being taken. 
It is interesting to record it now from Darwin, thus considerably extending its 
known Australian range. 

On July 1, 1929, while dredging near the jetty at Darwin, in 5-7 fms. on a 
muddy bottom, we took a small amphiuran, while is clearly an Ophiocentrus. 
The disk is less than 2 mm. across while the dehcate arras are fully 10 mm. long. 
The specimen is of course too youthful for certain identification but in view of 
taking an adult of dilatatus only a few days later near the Shell Islands, I have no 
doubt this is a young individual of that species. 

On July 5, dredging in 3-6 fms. near the Shell Islands, yielded many frag- 
ments of coral rock overgrown with sponges, alcyonarians, etc. Crowded into a 
small cavity of one of these rocks was an ophiuran of considerable size which 
proved to be an adult dilatatus. The disk was 9 mm. across (8 in the dry speci- 
men) and the arms were fully 50 mm. long; unfortunately, the animal broke off 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 237 

all of its arms before we reached the laboratory and the longest stump now at- 
tached to the disk is less than 30 mm. The dilatation of the arms beyond the 
disk margin is very marked as is the stoutness of the upper arm-spine. The color 
in life is recorded in my field notes as "buff with upper arm-plates dusky." The 
dry specimen is nearly white, but the disk is a little darker than the arms. 



Ophiocentrus pilgsus 

Ophiocnida pilosa Lyman, 1879. Bull. M. C. Z., 6, p. 32. 

Ophiocentrus pHosus Koehler, 1922. Bull. 100 U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 199. 

A small brittle-star, loaned by the Austrahan Museum, but unfortunately 
without data of any kind, proves to be a young individual of this species for which 
Bass Strait was one of the original localities. It was taken by the "Thetis" at 
several stations off the coast of New South Wales, and this specimen may well be 
from that material. It measures 4 mm. across the disk and the badly twisted 
arms are probably over 30 mm. long. The disk is pale gray, the arms nearly 
white. 

Ophiocentrus verticillatus 

Ophiocnida verticillata Doderlein, 1896. Denk. Ges. Jena, 8, p. 287. 
Ophiocentrus verticillatus Matsumoto, 1917. Mon. Jap. Oph., p. 21.3. 

A species of Opliiocentrus ( = Amphiocnida Verrill, as Matsumoto and Koeh- 
ler have agreed) is common in the sandy mud of Roebuck Bay, particularly about 
the jetty at Broome. There are at hand 25 specimens from the "jetty flat" taken 
in 1929, and 3 small specimens which were dredged in June, 1932, in 5-8 fms. 
further away from Broome. The smallest individual is only 1.8 nun. across the 
disk and has arms about 9 mm. long; the disk is pale gray, the arms white. It 
would be quite unidentifiable were it not for the series available for comparison. 
The adults measure 6-14 mm. across the disk with arms 50-100 mm. long; the 
arms range from 5 to 9 times the disk. 

As the adults correspond almost perfectly with Doderlein's description and 
photographs (PI. 15, figs. 7, 7a) the identity seems fairly certain, but the figures 
given by Doderlein, as drawn by an artist (PI. 14, figs. 2a, 2b) do not correspond 
with the photographs and cannot be trusted. This is particularly true of the series 
of arm-spines (fig. 2b) which is quite unlike the series as it actually occurs. The 
spines are not wide, flat and rounded at tip, with the middle ones longest ; exami- 



238 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

nation of the photograph shows they are more or less acute, of diverse lengths, the 
lowest longest; in the specimens at hand from Broome those just below the 
middle of the series are smallest. Koehler's (1922, p. 201) view that his species 
vexator "is very close to verticillatus" is quite correct. In fact were it not for 
Doderlein's unfortunate figure of the arm-spines he would probably have identi- 
fied his specimens as verticillalus. That I think is probably the case. Whether 
Matsmnoto's Japanese specimens which he (1917, p. 213) refers to verticillatus 
are really Doderlein's species seems to me more dubious. There are only 7 or 8 
arm-spines even in large specimens, at base of arms, and the under arm-plates 
are of quite a difi'erent shape. But until Japanese specimens can be compared 
directljf with material from Amboina or Australia, the question cannot be 
settled. 

My field notes made at Broome in 1929 read: "Reminds one of Ophiothrix 
longipeda especially in color, but arms are stiff, brittle and not so long as in 
longipeda. Rather inert, does not break up much. Common on flat, about half- 
tide, deeply buried in mud. Tends to violet or yellow coloration, as in longipeda; 
young ones are light violet." One had "longer arms, conspicuously banded 
purple and yellow." Preserved material both dry and alcoholic has lost all trace 
of bright colors; the specimens are for the most part light yellow-brown (museum 
color), lightest, almost white, near the arm tips. Some specimens are nearly 
white. Two are light purplish-gray, very different from the rest; one is a dry 
small individual, the other a large adult in alcohol. It is hard to find any reason 
for this rather striking difference. 



Ophiocentrus fragilis' sp. nov. 

Disk about 5 mm. across, pentagonal with concave interradii, very flat. 
Arms 5, long and slender, not tapering very much till near the tip, about 60 mm. 
in length. Disk covered with a coat of rather large but very thin, overlapping 
scales, which are more or less concealed by the numerous, slender, pointed, 
fragile spines, about .20-.30 mm. long, which they bear. Radial shields long 
(1.5 mm.), narrow (.25 mm.), straight and nearly parallel, the proximal half 
separated from its fellow by 1-3 very narrow, elongated scales. Upper arm- 
plates thin and transparent, so that the dorsal furrow in the vertebrae shows 
through as a dusky line; the plates are much wider than long with a highly convex 

^ fragilis =Sr!\gile, in reference to the delicate structure. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 239 

distal margin, a short straight proximal side and oblique, markedly concave lateral 
margins; on basal part of arm, in rather broad contact but distally separated 
from each other by the meeting of the side arm plates; under a magnification of 
90x, the surface of the plates is seen to be closely covered with minute pits. 

Interbrachial areas below covered like the disk, with large thin scales bearing 
many small, slender spines. Under arm-plates elongated hexagonal, much longer 
than wide, with long, concave, lateral margins, convex distal margin with 
rounded corners, a short straight proximal side, and oblique margins connecting 
this with the lateral; they are in contact more or less considerably, sometimes so 
much so that they are simply oblong with rounded corners. Side arm-plates 
large, meeting above on distal part of arm, but not below. Arm-spines, flat, 
pointed (but not sharply), delicate, except the next to the lowest which is stouter, 
especially near base and is bidentate at tip; typically there are 6 spines, the upper- 
most and lowest longest, much longer than an arm-segment, the middle ones 
about equal to segment; on basal part of arm some segments have a seventh spine 
present above the long sixth but it is distinctly shorter; all the spines lie flat 
against the arm but this may be artificial and not characteristic of the species. 
There is no tentacle-scale on the big arm-pores. 

Oral shields oval, markedly wider than long; madreporite considerably the 
largest. Adoral plates small, somewhat triangular with rounded angles and 
concave sides, not meeting within and widely separated radially by the first 
under arm-plate which is unusually large. Oral papillae 2 on each side of jaw; 
the proximal block-hke as usual but unusually thick and heavy, the distal a thick, 
pointed scale about half as wide at base at it is high. Tentacle-scale of first oral 
tentacle unusually large and conspicuous; it might easily be mistaken for an 
oral papilla. 

Color of dry specimen, disk pale gray but its spinelets, as well as the whole 
lower surface, arms and arm-spines, white. 

Holotype, AustraHan Museum no. J 6040, from 22 miles east of Port Jackson 
Heads, 120 fms. Trawled by Capt. K. Moller. Loaned by Australian Museum. 

This very delicate and well characterized amphiurid was found among a con- 
siderable number of brittle-stars brought in by Captain Moller. The dehcacy of 
its structure and its very light color give it an appearance very different from any 
of the other known species of Ophiocentrus. The narrow straight radial shields 
are noticeable, while the abundance of deUcate spines and slender spinelets on 
arms and disk is striking. 



240 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Ophionephthys octacantha 

H. L. Clark, 1915a. Mem. M. C. Z.. 25, p. 239. 

A very large Ophionephthys was found in the sandy mud of the "jetty fiat" 
at Broome witli Ophiocenlrus verlicillatus, but only a single specimen was secured. 
It measures 9 mm. across the greatly shrunken dry disk and the arms are 175 mm. 
long, more or less (all are somewhat broken). The bare skin of the disk is dull 
greenish-brown, the radial shields and adjacent plates white, the arms yellow- 
brown, lighter distally and faintly banded near the extreme tip. In all essentials 
this specimen agrees well with the unique holotype of 0. octacantlia from Torres 
Strait. It is very much larger and there are 9 arm-spines on some basal segments, 
but the oral shields and papillae, the upper and under arm-plates, and the form, 
size and arrangement of arm-spines, agree very well witli octacantha, so it would 
be foolish to attempt to describe it as a different species. The outer mouth papilla, 
the form of the oral shields, and the series of arm-spines with tlie long lower ones 
flattened and truncate at tip are very characteristic. 

Ophionephthys decacantha' sp. nov. 

Disk 5 mm. in diameter; arms 5, obviously very long but all are broken; the 
longest stump is 20 mm. Disk as usual in the genus, perfectly bare above and 
below, save for a narrow band of scales around, and between the distal ends of, 
the radial shields, which are pointed at the inner end and about 1.5 mm. long; 
the width of each is only about one-sixth of its length. Upper arm-plates oval or 
elliptical, longer than broad, relatively very small, in contact at base of arms but 
distally very nearly or quite separated by the series of arm-spines. 

Under arm-plates longer than broad, fully in contact; basally, the distal end 
is narrower and more rounded than the straight or slightly concave proximal 
margin but this difference soon disappears and the two ends are nearly of the 
same width and form. Side arm-plates prominent nearly or quite meeting dor- 
sally; each carries a series of 10 long, deUcate, flattened and blunt spines, of which 
the uppermost four are nearly equal and slightly exceed the arm segment; tlie 
lower ones are longer, fully half again as long as a segment; their tips are blunt 
and spinulose; the two series of each segment are so closely approximated in the 
mid-dorsal hne that they form a continuous series encircling the arm, which 
nearly or quite separates the upper arm-plates; the four uppermost spines tend 

^ btKCLKavd a. = having ten spines, in reference to the large number of arm-spines. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 241 

to lie flat along the arm (in this specimen) concealing the arm-plates, but the 
others stand out at a right angle (more or less) with the long axis of the arm. 
Tentacle-pores large but tentacle-scale, none. 

Oral shields wider proximally than distally; the inner convex margin is 
longer than the concave lateral margins and three times as long as the distal 
blunt end; madreporic plate much larger than the other shields, its lateral mar- 
gins scarcely concave. Adoral plates relatively large but they do not meet either 
within or radially; they are scapula-shaped with the narrow end inward and the 
strongly concave side against the oral shield. Inner oral papillae block-like 
as usual; outer ones scale-like but thick, truncate and wider at tip than base, 
but a little longer than wide. Papilla protecting first oral tentacle, large and 
conspicuous. 

Color of dry disk yellow-brown; radial shields pale gray with surrounding 
scales white; arms pale cream-color; under arm-plates white; no bands, spots or 
markings on arms or spines. 

Holotype, AI. C. Z. no. 4961, dredged at Broome, W. A., 5-8 fms., June, 
1932. 

Besides the holotype, wliich is so unfortunately imperfect, a single paratype 
of this remarkable species has been found among the specimens of Ophionephthys 
tenuis, sifted out of the sandy mud near the jetty at Broome, in 1929. This indi- 
vidual is in even worse condition than the holotype; every arm is broken off very 
near the disk and the longest fragment with the specimen is little more than 10 
mm. long. The disk measures only 3 mm. across. The identification is beyond 
question because of the remarkable arm-spines, but the characters of the oral 
frame are also notable. The disk skin is brown but all other parts of the specimen 
are white. 

While the arm-spines of this well-marked species resemble those of the 
Japanese ecnomiotata more than they do those of odacantha, the oral shields and 
papillae are very different from those of the northern species. The present speci- 
mens are probably young for the arm-spines have a more delicate structure than 
would be expected in a fully adult Ophionephthys. 

Ophionephthys tenuis^ sp. nov. 

Disk 5 mm. across; arms 5, exceedingly slender, the length in Ufe probably 
more than 25 times the disk diameter; in all the preserved specimens more or less 
broken; in the holotype, one is nearly 100 mm. long with a maximum width of 

' tenuis = slender, in reference to the very slender arms. 



242 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

.75 mm. without the sphies and rather less than 1.5 man. including the spines. 
Disk naked above and below except around radial shields where there are a num- 
ber of scales along the outer margins and around the inner ends, but there are 
none along the inner side. Upper arm-plates very wide, much wider than long, 
rounded pentagonal; proximal margin nearly straight, full width of arm; lateral 
margins short; distal margins each nearlj^ equal to two of the lateral; distal angle 
very wide, blunt. At base of arm, the plates are in contact but further out they 
are narrowly separated by the meeting of the side arm-plates. 

Under arm-plates squarish or wider than long, with shghtly rounded corners; 
at base of arm, they are fully in contact but further out are separated slightly by 
the meeting of the side arm-plates. Arm-spines 5 or 6 at very base of arm, the 
lowest much the largest and exceeding the arm-segment, the other 4 or 5 very 
delicate and subequal; soon the number drops to 4 and then to 3; the middle spine 
of the 3 then becomes thicker and stouter than the others and develops at the tip 
a minute but distinct, distally directed sharp tooth. 

Oral shields, except madreporite, low and very wide; width about 3x the 
height; proximal margin concave; distal convex. Madreporite very large and 
nearly circular. In other specimens, the shields are rounded triangular, twice as 
wide as long, with a romided distal angle; madreporite diamond-shaped, with 
rounded angles, distinctly wider than long. Adoral plates of a pecuUar shape, 
difficult to describe; inner (radial) side deeply concave with proximal end more 
or less prolonged towards the jaw-tip and bearing the outer oral papilla; outer 
(interradial) side runs straight back to oral shield and then curves in towards the 
arm, the oral shield resting against the wide rounded angle; a third angle narrow 
and rounded, brings the inner (radial) corner of the plate against the relatively 
large first under arm-plate. Inner oral papillae, large and block-like as usual; 
outer, minute and spiniform, situated, as stated above, on proximal corner of 
adoral plate. Papilla protecting first oral tentacle, long, blunt and conspicuous. 
Color of dry disk very fight brown, the radial shields and accompanying plates 
nearly white; arms dingy white or very pale brown, lightest distally; a very nar- 
row incomplete line of a purplish tint can be made out along the middle of many 
upper arm-plates indicating a median fine of color on the upper side of the arm in 
life, but it is now very faint. In some of the paratypes this line is more evident 
and in one it is noticeably wider, but it is never conspicuous. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4963, from the jetty flat at Broome, W. A., Septem- 
ber, 1929. 

There are 47 paratypes, including one very small one with disk only 1.6 mm. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 243 

across and arms less than 20 mm. long. These were all sifted from the muddysand 
near the jetty at Broome, where they were found in company with Ophiocentrus 
veriicillatus. The alcoholic specimens have the disk more or less pufTed out in the 
interradii, or else are flat and wrinkled; in the largest specimens the disks are 
6-7 mm. across. The color shows some diversity for while many are nearly white, 
some are a Ught gray while others show a distinct reddish-brown tinge on the 
arms. My field notes say: "In mud, jetty flat, everywhere. Extraordinarily long 
arms. Disk hght yellow-brown; arms white or occasionally brownish, especially 
at base." 

This remarkable species is obviously related to plialerata of the PhiUppines 
and vadicola of Japan. In the extraordinary length and slenderness of the arms, 
it resembles vadicola but the difference in the oral shields is striking and the 
arm-spines seem to be much smaller and less numerous. Compared with the 
holotype of phalerata, the specimens of tenuis seem much more deUcate, the arm 
spines much smaller and the oral shields wider and lower. Unfortunately there 
are no specimens of the Japanese species available for comparison. 



Amphipholis squamata 

Asterias squamata Delle CmAjE, 1828. Mem. Anim. s. Vert. Napoli, 3, p. 74. 
Amphipholis squamata Verkill, 1899. Trans. Conn. Acad., 10, p. 312. 

This cosmopoUtan brittle-star was found wherever we collected in Aus- 
tralian waters. My attempt (1909, p. 540) to distinguish the AustraUan form as a 
species distinct from squamata must, I now believe in the light of more abundant 
material, be abandoned. A careful comparison of unusually good specimens 
from Hobart, Tasmania, and Shell Harbor, N.S.W., with similar material from 
Naples and from the coast of Maine does not reveal any character or group of 
characters by which they can be distinguished. Further study of paratypes of 
australiana in comparison with specimens of the same size from other places 
shows that the supposed characters of the southern species are not reUable but 
are due to immaturity. ^Vhether the South American form described as laevidisca, 
at the same time and place as australiana, has any greater validity than that 
form, is open to serious question but without more material from the western 
coast of South America, no final decision can be reached. 

The Australian material of squamata in the present collections consists of 
150 specimens from the following localities : 



244 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Lord Howe Island: April, 1932. 17 specimens. 

New South Wales: Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 4 specimens. 

Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

5 specimens. 
Colloroy, Long Reef, November 28, 1929. 59 specimens. 
Northern Territory: Coburg Peninsula, Port Essington, Coral Bay, May 21, 

1932. 3 specimens. 
Darwin, East Point, July, 1929. 6 specimens. 
Western Australia: Broome, August and September, 1929. 4 specimens. 
Broome, June, 1932. 8 specimens. 
Geraldton, October 7, 1929. 2 specimens. 
Dongarra, E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 1929. 12 specimens. 
Rottnest Island, October 19, 1929. 11 specimens. 
Rottnest Island, Bathurst Point, 5 specimens, loaned by 

Perth Museum. 
Bunbury, October 25, 1929. 1 specimen. 
South Australia: Port Willunga, November 2, 1929. 1 specimen. 
Tasmania: Hobart, estuary of Derwent, November 15, 1929. 11 specimens. 
Eagle Hawk Neck. T. T. Flynn leg. et don. 1929. 1 specimen. 



AMPHISTIGMA' gen. nov. 

A genus of Amphiuridae closely related to Amphipholis but readily dis- 
tinguished by the relatively large spines on the disk. The group may be diagnosed 
as follows: Amphiuridae with disk covered by very distinct, relatively large scales 
and radial shields, the latter in a closely joined pair; certain plates, particularly 
3 near the disk margin in each interradius, bear relatively large, erect spines. 
Mouth parts as in Amphipholis, with large adoral plates and 3 oral papillae on 
each side of each jaw, the outermost wide and opercular. Tentacle scale single 
on the first few pores, often on only one, wanting thereafter. 

Genotype, Amphistigma viinuta sp. nov. 

Were it not for the big spines on the disk these tiny brittle stars could be 
placed in Amphipholis but the spines are suggestive of Ophiostigma. Comparison 
with small specimens of that genus however show two obstacles to using the 

' Combination of Ampld — (iiom Amphiura) and —stigma (from Ophiostigma) because of the obvious 
relationships. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 245 

name for the present species. Ophiostigma has 2 tentacle-scales and the disk 
scaling is obscured by a skin on which small scattered spinelets are borne. So far 
as mouth parts are concerned Amphipholis, Ophiostigma and Amphistigma are 
all alike, but in disk covering three quite distinct types occur and Amphistigma 
is further set apart by the lack of tentacle scales. 



Amphistigma minuta' sp. nov. 

Disk 1.5 mm. in diameter, flattened, but set up well above arm bases; arms 5 
(one very small specimen has 6), about 6 mm. long. Disk covered by about 75 
well-defined plates, among which the primary plates are conspicuous; the central 
plate is much the largest but does not have quite so great an area as one of the 
radial shields; the 5 radial plates are large, hexagonal, the distal half with rounded 
margins; between the two of each pair and adjoining the central plate is a small 
interradial scale longer than wide, conspicuous because the distal end is swollen 
into a rounded knob; primary interradial plates just distal to these knobs about 
as large as radial plates and with thicker margins; distal to the interradial plate, 
the area is filled by about a dozen rather thick plates, the outer ones in two ill- 
defined transverse series of 3 plates each; each plate of the upper of these two 
series carries an erect tapering blunt spine of relatively large size; the middle 
spine of the 3 is the largest and its length is nearly or quite equal to the diameter 
of the central plate; the number, size and position of these interradial spines 
(fig. 15) shows some diversity; there may be only 2 present or there may be 4, 
and several may be much smaller than normal, but the group is almost always a 
conspicuous feature of the interradial areas when seen from above or from the 
side. Radial shields rather large, rounded triangular, closely appressed on the 
radial fine; length about one-half disk radius, width about half length; outer end 
swollen and projecting as a small but conspicuous knob. Upper arm plates oval, 
somewhat swollen, with a proximal angle and a strongly convex distal margin; 
the first two are in contact and the second and third may be but subsequent plates 
are separated by the side arm-plates. 

Interbrachial areas below covered by a coat of a dozen or more closely 
appressed scales. Genital slits present but short. Under arm-plates pentagonal ; 
first one very small; second and sometimes the third as wide as long; succeeding 
plates longer than wide with distal margin a little concave or notched; all of the 

' In obvious reference to the very small size of .all the specimens as yet seen. 



246 



memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



plates are separated from each other by the side arm-plates, which are relatively 
very large and meet both above and below. Arm-spines 3, short, stout and usually 
pointed, hardly as long as an arm-segment even at base of arm. Here and there 
one of the spines, and it may be any one of the three in a series, is enormously 
swollen, the diameter becoming equal to haK the length or more, and the tip may 
be truncate or rounded ; the appearance is pathological but as such spines occur 
irregularly on most of the specimens, it is probably a normal feature. Tentacle 
scale single, oval, relatively large ; usually evident on the first pair of pores, often 
on two or even three, but lacking thereafter. 








w 



Fig. 16. Amphistigma minuta. Upper surface of disk and arm bases, x 35. 



Oral shields rather small, triangular, wider than long; inner angle sharp, 
outer margin sUghtly curved; madreporite very large, rounded pentagonal, 
swollen, as long as wide. Adoral plates large, quadrilateral with rounded angles; 
inner end narrower than outer; they meet within fully but are separated radially 
by first under arm-plate. Oral papillae 3 on each side of each jaw; innermost thick 
and heavy but hardly block-Uke, second much smaller, thick and knob-like, third 
and outermost equal to the other two in area covered, tliick but opercular, its 
length equal to about twice its width. 

Color of disk and side arm-plates variegated Ught and dark gray, with a 
yellowish-green tint on radial shields; all knobs, tubercles, spines and thickened 
edges of plates, white, often in marked contrast; lower surface pale yellowdsh 
fading to white on basal under arm-plates; interradial portions indistinctly 
speckled or marked with gray, but no sharp markings or contrasts. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 247 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4983, found in "weeds" and stones, dredged in 3-4 
fms. in the lagoon. Lord Howe Island. April 13, 1932. 

This is a very odd Uttle brittle-star which would be completely overlooked 
in ordinary collecting. But the vegetable and animal material we dredged from 
the lagoon bottom near Goat Island was put in large basins, covered with sea- 
water and left standing undisturbed over night. The next morning many small 
animals were found on the sides or bottom of the basins, and among them were 
13 of these very small but unusually interesting amphiurans which were supposed 
at the time to be young Ophiostigmas. The colors in Ufe were variegated, with 
browns and whites predominating and some red on arms; sometimes there was a 
spot of deep red on the disk. These brighter tints have all disappeared in the pre- 
served material. No specimens were taken along shore but owing to their minute 
size and secretive habits, it would be almost impossible to discover them, except 
by letting material stand in water until decreasing oxygen forced the animals out. 
Although this was tried, no further specimens of Amphistigma were secured. 

Amphiodia ochroleuca 

Amphiura ochroleuca Brock, 1888. Zeit. f.w. Zool., 47, p. 484. 
Amphiura brocki Doderlein, 1896. Denk. Ges. Jena, 8, p. 286. 
Amphiodia mcsopoma H. L. Clark, 1915a. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. 247. 
Amphiodia ochroleuca H. L. Clark, 1915a. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. 250. 

WTien the description of A. mesopoma was published, the possible identity 
with ochroleuca and brocki was suggested. Some years later (H. L. Clark, 1928, 
p. 426) specimens of mesopoma were reported from Spencer and St. Vincent Gulfs, 
South Australia, as well as from Westernport, Victoria. Koehler, who has exam- 
ined and figured (1904, p. 63) Brock's type of ochroleuca, has recently (1930, p. 
105) reported a specimen of that species from "Port Western, AustraUa." Pre- 
sumably this is Westernport, Victoria, whence came some of the specimens of 
mesopoma in the M. C. Z. Under the circumstances, there can no longer be any 
doubt of the identity of the species described by Brock, Doderlein and myself. 
That so widespread a species should show some diversity in color and in length of 
arms is not surprising; the close resemblance of all the known specimens in struc- 
tural details, especially mouth parts, is more remarkable. 

It is interesting to report that ochroleuca ranges westward from Torres 
Strait, as well as to the southern coasts of AustraUa. At Darwin, 2 specimens were 
dredged near the Shell Islands, in July, 1929, and another specimen was taken 



248 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

near the Leper Station, in May, 1932. At Broome 2 specimens were collected in 
1929 and 2 in 1932. All of these 7 specimens agree well in structural details but 
show striking diversity in color. Young individuals with disks only 4 mm. 
across or less, have the radial shields more or less in contact; the shields are rela- 
tively larger, the disk flatter and more pentagonal, the disk scaling somewhat 
coarser than in larger specimens. But on the whole, the growth changes are insig- 
nificant. None of the specimens seen by me are as large as Brock's type which was 
9 mm. across the disk, nor are the arms nearly as long — Brock says 10 times the 
disk-diameter. As a rule, Australian specimens have the arms 5-6 times the disk 
diameter, but in some specimens they are longer; in one from Darwin with a disk 
about 4 mm. across, the arms exceed 30 mm. 

In the matter of color there is puzzling diversity. In a dry specimen from 
Darwin and in the smallest one from Broome, the disks are light gray, while the 
arms are nearly white, with many irregularly scattered upper arm-plates, green- 
ish-, or brownish-yello\\'. For these and similar but larger specimens, in the 
M. C. Z., from Westernport, also dry, the name ochroleuca is very appropriate. 
The southern specimens have the arms very definitely yellow and white. Speci- 
mens in the M. C. Z. from South Australia are now very dingy but evidently had 
a similar color in life. The remaining specimens, 2 from Darwin and 3 from 
Broome although also dry, are very different at first sight, because the arms are 
conspicuously banded. The disks are more or less tinged with yellow, in one 
large specimen very considerably. The arms are whitish but some upper arm- 
plates are dusky in sharp contrast to their neighbors, giving the banded appear- 
ance to the arms, which is of course entirely lacking on the uniformly white oral 
surface. The number and position of the dusky plates shows great diversity; near 
the base of the arm they may be near together, every second or third plate being 
dark, but further out there are often 4 or 5 white plates between the dark mark- 
ings. Usually the dusky mark consists of a single plate, but frequently there are 
2 together and rarely 3. In addition to the banding, all of these conspicuously 
marked specimens have a more or less faint longitudinal line on the upper side of 
the arm, most evident distally; in some specimens this line is reddish, in others a 
light brown. The arm-spines are white, sometimes unmarked but usually with a 
touch of dusky. 

Brock (1888, p. 485) says: "Farbe hell braungelb mit besonders auf dem 
Scheibenrucken stark ausgepragtem Stick ins olivengrune. Die groseren Schilder 
des Scheibenruckens sind etwas dunkler gefarbt als ihre Umgebung, die Rucken- 
schilder der Arme unregelmassig dunkler marmorirt. Die ganze Bauchseite hell, 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 249 

ockergelb, die Stacheln fast weiss, niit gelbem Ring um die Basis." Unfortunately 
tliere is no hint as to whether this is a description of the color in hfe or after 
preservation; if after preservation, was the specimen dry or in alcohol? Koehler 
(1904) throws no light on the matter, though he studied and figured Brock's 
type. In any case, no Australian specimen of ochroleuca has any such coloration 
either in hfe or after preservation, and it is for this reason, I have hesitated to call 
them by Brock's name. Doderlein's description of the color of brocki is more 
satisfactory for he says (1896, p. 287) : "Farbe der Ruckenseite blassgleb, Bauch- 
seite weisshch, Arme gebiindert, indem mit je 2-4 weissen Ruckenplatten, 1-2 
gelb gefarbte abwechseln." Of the Darwin specimens, my 1929 field notes say: 
"Disk buff gray, arms banded, the light bands with a pink tinge." The speci- 
mens were "found in rock crannies, among sponges, etc." At Broome the species 
was found under a rock at Gantheaume Point and my notes say, "Color well 
kept but was a bit more pink in life." 

Both Brock and Koehler emphasize the fact that the second oral papilla on 
each side of the jaw is the largest, and Brock says it is twice as wide as high. 
Koehler does not show it so although using Brock's own specimen for his figure 
and my specimens agree very well indeed with Koehler's illustrations. 

Amphioplus depressus 

Amphipholis depressus Ljungman, 1867. Ofv. Kong. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 23, p. 312. 
Amphioplus depressus H. L. Clark, 1915a. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. 254. 

A very fine specimen of this well-marked species was dredged at Darwin, 
near Channel Island, July 18, 1929, but we did not meet with it in the Broome 
region. Mortensen took a specimen at Amboina of which Koehler (1930, pi. 
XVII, figs. 13 and 14) has given two excellent figures. My field notes say: 
"Creamy white below; disk gray; upper surface of arms gray with a greenish 
tinge; each plate however is hghter on margins and also more or less light at 
center. Arms wide at base but narrowing rapidly and becoming extremely at- 
tentuate." The dry specimen is 6 mm. across the disk, which is gray; the arms 
still show clear indications of the variegated shades present in life. 

.\mphioplus lucidus 
Koehler, 1922. Bull. 100 U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 176. 

While digging brittle-stars, spatangoids and holothurians out of the teeming 
mud of the flat south of the jetty at Broome, during the low tide of September 17, 



250 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

1929, a long-armed amphiuran was secured which was at once seen to be dif- 
ferent from anything that had previously been taken. Unfortunately it very 
promptly broke its arms into pieces and shed its disk but the latter was preserved 
with the arms and oral framework and proves to be of great importance as the 
first disk of lucidus which has been preserved. In June of 1932, we dredged a 
second specimen but like all of the previously dredged specimens, reported on by 
Koehler (1922, p. 176, 3 specimens and 1930, p. 106, 4 specimens), the disk was 
shed in the dredge and lost. 

A careful comparison of the Broome specimens with Koehler's original 
description and figures leave no doubt of their identity. They are not exactly hke 
each other, for the 1929 specimen is apparently younger, (it was about 7-8 mm. 
across the disk in life) and has oral sliields much like those of Koehler's figure 6, 
while the 1932 specimen is hke figure 7. In both individuals the tentacle-scales 
are minute but they are more conspicuous in the younger specimen ; in the older 
one they tend to disappear distally. The disk of the 1929 specimen was covered 
with a thin skin (now brown in color), the only scales present being close around 
the radial shields as in Ophionephthys. The shields are well developed, almost 
2 mm. long but not quite half a milhmeter wide. Koehler makes no reference to 
color but the Broome specimens show some features which seem to me important 
especially as there are hints of the same in Koehler's photographs. In the smaller 
specimen, the arms were about 60 mm. long in Ufe; the best fragment is about a 
millimeter wide; the arms are yellowish-white at base becoming white distally; 
along the dorsal side is a narrow median line of dusky brown, repeatedly broken 
and hence incomplete; every 3 or 4 plates, there are dusky markings on one or 
two of the upper arm-plates ; distally these are evident enough to suggest that the 
distal half of the arms is banded. The lower surface of the oral frame and arms 
shows no dusky markings but each under arm-plate on the proximal portion of 
the arms is tinged with light reddish. In the larger specimen of 1932, in which 
the arms probably exceeded 100 mm., these color characters are accentuated. 
The proximal portion of the arms is brownish-white, there is much more dusky 
on the arm-plates and some spots of brown on the arm-spines; the arms appear 
more or less definitely, if not sharply, banded ; the red tint on the proximal under 
arm-plates is very marked and extends onto the side arm-plates and the oral 
frame. On many of the lowest arm-spines there is a conspicuous brown spot on 
the oral side of the basal part and similar spots occur on many spines of the series 
above the lowest. 

There is no doubt that species of Amphioplus of this type, such as cyrtacan- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 251 

thus H. L. C. and of Ophionephthys such as slewartensis Mrtsn. are congeneric as 
Mortensen (1924) suggests but the question involves so many non- Australian 
species, it cannot be entered into here. 



Amphioplus relictus 

Amphiura relicfa Koehler, 1898. Bull. Sci., 31, p. 68. 
Amphioplus relictm H. L. Clark, 1915. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. 256. 

We first met with this apparently common and widespread East Indian 
species at Darwin where a single small specimen was "sifted out of sand at East 
Point," June 27, 1929. My field notes say: "disk quite green, arms greenish and 
dusky." Later it proved to be not uncominon at Broome and finally we dis- 
covered it at Point Peron, below Perth. As it was taken at Goode Island in Torres 
Strait in 1913 (H. L. Clark, 1921), it evidently occurs along the entire northern 
and western coasts of Australia but it is not yet known from the eastern or south- 
ern coasts. 

The present series ranges from young specimens 2.5-3 mm. across up to an 
adult specimen 6 mm. in disk diameter. The arms are apparently much longer 
relatively in young individuals than in the adults, for specimens 3 mm. or less 
across have the arms about 8 times the disk diameter while in specimens 4.5-6 
mm. across, the arms are only 4-5 times the disk diameter. Another pecuUarity 
of small specimens is the delicate character of the disk scales, which seem smaller 
and more numerous in very young individuals. .After the disk is 4 mm. across the 
scales thicken up and the covering is more compact. At all ages however there is 
an evident sharp horizontal margin to the disk where the scales of the oral inter- 
brachial areas come against the marginal scales of the disk. There is some diver- 
sity in the relative width of the radial shields but it is not very notable. All the 
specimens have the disk more or less gray, the arms more or less white. 

The 17 specimens at hand were taken as follows: 
Northern Territory: Darwin, East Point, June 27, 1929. 1 specimen. 
Western Australia: Broome, August-September, 1929. 3 specimens, young. 

Broome, 5-7 fms., June, 1932. 12 specimens, adult and 

yoimg. 
Point Peron, October, 1929. 1 specimen. 



252 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Amphioplus didymus^ sp. nov. 
Plate 14, fig. 3 

Disk 5 mm. across, flat, deeply notched in interradii, much less so over the 
arms, which are 5 in number and 50-55 mm. long. Disk covered with a coat of 
small but rather thick scales among which the primary plates are not distinguish- 
able; around entire margin of disk but most conspicuously in the interradii, the 
scales are very much smaller and overlap towards the disk center. Radial shields 
very small (1.25-1.5 mm. long), narrow (width scarcely one-third length), 
separated a little from each other except at distal tips. Upper arm-plates short 
and wide, the width about 3 times the length, with distal corners very lightly 
rounded. Arms narrow at base (less than a millimeter, not including spines) but 
becoming rapidly wider (over a millimeter) and then tapering gradually to an 
attenuate tip; in accordance with this, the basal arm-plates are scarcely twice as 
wide as long and distally also the plates are not only actually but relatively much 
narrower and longer. 

Interbrachial areas below closely covered with a dense coat of very fine 
scales. First under arm-plate rather small, triangular with an inner point, or four- 
sided, the inner angle being truncated; the next two or three plates squarish but 
longer than wide; subsequent plates square or wider than long until distally as 
they decrease in size they again become longer than wide. Side arm-plates small, 
bearing three short (one-half a milUmeter or less) divergent spines, of which the 
upper and lower are rather thick basally but bluntly pointed, while the middle 
one, although longest, is relatively very stout, abruptly truncate, with an evident 
hyaline tooth at each corner, one pointing towards mouth, the other towards arm- 
tip; at base of arm, a small fourth spine occurs above the normally uppermost. 
Tentacle-scales 2, very large; the one attached to under arm-plate occupies nearty 
the whole lateral margin; the one on side arm-plate is somewhat smaller. 

Oral shields elongated pentagonal with all angles rounded; length much 
greater than width; inner angle blunt, outer side short; madreporic plate larger 
and relatively wider than the others. Adoral plates of moderate size, with 
rounded angles, meeting within but separated distally by first under arm-plate. 
Oral papillae 4 on each side, the innermost block-hke one much the largest; of the 
3 following scale-like papillae the middle one is largest and is more or less markedly 
truncate on its free margin. 

' diSvfxoi = double, in reference to the conspicuous double point on the middle arm-spine. 



Clark: Australian echinoderms 



253 



Color of di-}' specimen; disk gray, the marginal portions with a yellowish 
tinge; arms very pale yellowish, the tips and spines nearly white; many upper 
arm-plates on distal half of arm have faint blotches of pale reddish-brown, but 
these would be easily overlooked without careful examination. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4993, found by A. A. Livingstone, under a rock five 
or six himdred yards south of jetty, Broome, W. A., August 29, 1929. 




Fig. 17. Amphioplus didymus. A mouth angle and bases of adjoining arms, x 20. 



Besides the holotype, a somewhat smaller paratype was dredged July 5, 
1929, near the Shell Islands, Darwin. It resembles the specimen from Broome in 
all particulars but the disk is detached and hence contracted to a different form. 
Of this specimen my field notes say: "with a sponge on a bit of rock; disk gray 
with a little red in spots; arms bright yellow with numerous irregular vermilion 
red markings; arm-spines gray at base, nearly white distally. Disk was shed soon 
after capture. The most strikingly colored brittle star yet seen." The holotype 
was similar in color, my notes saying: "Arms yellow and bright red; disk covered 
with silt but when brushed off with a camel's hair brush, it was found to be hght 
greenish-yellow, gray on and around radial shields." The arm-spines and tentacle- 
scales are unmistakable recognition marks for this beautiful brittle-star. 



254 



memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



Amphioplus stenaspis' sp. nov. 

Disk 6 nim. in diameter, pentagonal, with distinct radial notches and less 
evident ones in the interradii. Arms 5, about 50 mm. long, narrow at base, widest 
at 10-15 mm. from disk and then tapering to an attenuate tip. Disk covered with 
a coat of small but rather thick overlapping scales among which the primary 








Fig. 18. Amphioplus stenaspis. x 20. Base of an arm and adjoining portion of liisk to show 
radial shields. 



plates are not to be distinguished; in smaller specimens the central and 5 radial 
plates are sometimes quite distinct. Radial shields (fig. 18) exceptionally long 
and narrow; the inner end tapers to a very fine point; the outer end is truncate; 
the 2 shields are about 1.5 mm. long and Ue nearly parallel but are rather more 
widely separated within than distally where they are almost in contact. Upper 

anvo^ = narrow + a<7Tri$=shiehl, in reference to the very narrow radial shields. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 



255 



arm-plates about 3x as wide as long, with a rather straight margin and rounded 
corners distally, in contact for their full width. 

Interbrachial areas below (fig. 19) covered with a coat of scales similar to 
those on the dorsal side but considerably smaller. Under arm-plates squarish or 
wider than long, broadly in contact ; some plates approach a broadly pentagonal 
form, the proximal margin being a wide angle instead of a straight Une; in such 
cases only the angle is in contact with the distal margin of the preceding plate. 
Side arm-plates small and low, carrying 3-5 short, blunt arm-spines ; beyond the 




Fig. 19. Amphioplus stenaspis. x 20. Bases of 2 arms with adjoining mouth parts and portion of disk. 



basal 15-20 arm-segments there are only 3 spines, which are subequal and scarcely 
exceed the short segments ; basally there are 4 spines and close to the disk there 
are 5, the lowest and uppermost longest, the intermediate ones being appreciably 
smaller. Tentacle-scales 2, one on the side arm-plate and one on the under arm- 
plate, at right angles to each other. 

Oral shields distinctly longer than wide, the distal end pointed or somewhat 
truncate, the other 3 angles more or less rounded; madreporic plate largest and 
most rounded. Adoral plates not very large, triangular, just meeting within but 
well separated radially by the first under arm-plate. Oral papillae 4 on each side 



256 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

of each jaw; the usual block-Uke one at tip of jaw is followed closely by 3 small 
scale-like papillae of which the middle one is a little the largest but is someM'hat 
pointed while the otlicr two are more truncate. 

Color of dry specimen; disk gray; arms pale brownish; lower surface and 
arm-spines more nearly white. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4990, from the sand under a rock-fragment at Night 
Cliff, Darwin, N. T. June 28, 1929. 

This is a very distinct and notable amphiuran, for while it belongs in the 
same group with laevis, lobatus and lobatodes, it is easil}^ distinguished from all by 
the exceedingly narrow radial shields, the very short arm-segments and the corre- 
spondingly short and blunt arm-spines. Besides the holotype, there are 8 para- 
types, smaller than it but not notably different save that the species characters 
are not so sharply evident ; the radial shields, for example, are not quite so narrow. 
All were found in a rock-fragment secured on Three-and-a-half mile Reef in Port 
Darwin, June 24, 1929. This rock-fragment was picked up from a little below low 
water mark and left in a pail of water over night. In the morning, the 8 specimens 
of Amphioplus w^ere found dead in the bottom of the pail, G having shed their 
disks. Decreasing oxygen led to their coming out from the crannies of the rock 
where their presence had not even been suspected. The colors in life were not 
any more conspicuous than are the grays and browns of the dry specimens. 



Ophiactis luteomaculata 
H. L. Clark, 1915a. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. 263. 

It was interesting and not a little surprising to find this species common in 
the Broome region, as we did not find it at Darwin. In 1929, 11 specimens were 
secured, 2 being dredged in Lagrange Bay, the others on Pearl Shoal and in 
Roebuck Bay. In 1932, 80 specimens were taken at numerous stations along the 
coast between Beagle Bay and Lagrange Bay. The largest specimen (taken in 
1929) has the disk 4 mm. across and the arms 10 mm. long, but in the great 
majority the disk is only 2-3 mm. in diameter and the arms are relatively longer. 
In the lot secured in August and September 1929 (early Spring), there are 3 
(more than one-fourth) six-armed specimens, the smallest specimens secured; in 
none does the disk measure 2 mm. across. In each case, this very young specimen 
has recently undergone autotomous division and 3 of the arms form a group on 
one side of the body noticeably smaller than the other trio. These three specimens 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 257 

agree in practically all particulars with a similar young one taken from the spines 
of Prionocidaris on the coast of New South Wales and mentioned in the "En- 
deavour" Report (H. L. Clark, 191G, p. 87). Among the 80 specimens taken in 
June, 1932 (winter), not a single 6-rayed specimen is to be found and few are 
less than 2 mm. in disk-diameter. Whether these facts have any significance with 
reference to the breeding season of this brittle-star remains to be demonstrated, 
but it seems to be quite possible. 

The diversity in color shown by these Broome specimens of luteomaculata is 
very great. Small specimens are dusky-greenish and whitish but many lack any 
green tinge and are brownish or yellowish in general tone. Large specimens fre- 
quently have the disk bright yellow, but in one specimen it is rather bright rose- 
purple, and in another the disk and basal upper arm-plates are purplish-dusky 
with a wliite star at center of disk. The dusky spot on the arm-spines is not 
always present, though conunonly evident. The oral shields usually have a faint 
dusky blotch at the distal margin. 



Ophiactis modesta 
Brock, 1888. Zeit. f.Wiss. Zool., 47, p. 482. 

Previously known from Amboina and Thursday Island, it is interesting to 
find that this handsome Ophiactis ranges along the northern coast of AustraUa 
from Darwin to Lagrange Bay. Most of the specimens at hand are from Broome 
however, where we dredged them at various points in 1932. We took but 1 
specimen in 1929, when we did much less dredging. The best specimens at hand 
were found in corals at Cape Leveque ; one of these is 7 mm. across the disk and 
the arms are nearly 60 mm. long. Several adult specimens from Broome have very 
short arms; one with a disk exceeding 5 mm. has arms less than 20 mm. long. 
Critical examination, however shows that all the arms have been broken off at 
some time and the terminal portions are regenerated. The handsome coloration 
of this species (variegated green and yellowish white) tends, in these dry speci- 
mens, to one of two forms; in one, the disk is dark bluish-green, with cream-white 
chieflj^ on or near the distal part of the radial shields and the arms with much 
bluish-green or dusky green; in the other, the disk and arms are a dull cream- 
white, tinged and marked more or less evidently, with a dull green. In the Ught 
form, the banding of the arms becomes very marked, but except distally is con- 
fined to the upper surface. In one young individual, the disk is speckled with a 



258 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

deep blue and the banding of the arms is deep blue alternating with dull green, 
and white segments between the colored ones; this is the most brightly colored 
specimen seen, but several small ones approach it. The large specimens from 
Cape Leveque are the dark form with blue-green only on the distal part of arms. 

Several specimens show autotomous division. The most interesting case is a 
very small individual less than 2 mm. across the disk, with 2 arms about 14 mm. 
long and 3 less than 3 mm. There are 2 other young specimens, each with 3 
normal arms on one side of the disk and 3 much smaller ones opposite. There is a 
small adult individual, 4.5 mm. across the disk, which seems to be symmetrically 
hexamerous, while another specimen of about the same size has 6 arms but only 
5 pairs of radial shields; the arm not supported by radial shields is smaller than 
the others; there are 6 jaws but they are not of equal size. All of the remaining 
specimens are symmetrically pentamerous. There can be no doubt I think that 
modesta is one of the species of Ophiactis in which the normal number of arms is 
5 but in which the very young individuals, very often if not always, have 6 arms. 

The 24 specimens of modesta at hand are from the following places: 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, July, 1929. 1 small specimen. 
Darwin, at Quail Island, July, 1929. 1 specimen, small and 
very light colored. 
Western Australia: Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 4 specimens. 

Broome, June, 1932. 17 specimens, adult and young. 
Lagrange Bay, September, 1929. 1 specimen, hexamerous. 

Ophiactis profundi var. novae-zelandiae 
MoRTENSEN, 1924. Vid. Med., 77, p. 128. 

A small 6-rayed Ophiactis, belonging to the Australian Museum, is ap- 
parently this form. Comparison with cotypes, sent to the M. C. Z. by Dr. 
Mortensen, shows no differences of any significance, \\1iether profundi should be 
maintained as distinct from plana and other alhed forms is still debatable but 
need not be discussed here. The specimen at hand was taken by Livingstone and 
Fletcher, in 1922, 3-4 miles off Eden, N. S. W., in 25-30 fms. It is about 2.5 mm. 
across the disk. 

Ophiactis resiliens 
Lyman, 1879. Bull. M. C. Z., 6, p. 36. 

This characteristic Australian species has a much wider range than has 
hitherto been supposed. Mortensen (1924, p. 124) has decided that 0. novientis 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 259 

Farquhar, the New Zealand form, is not valid but is really identical with that of 
Australia. The present collection shows that the range of resiliens westward is 
around the southwestern corner of AustraHa and north to Rottnest Island. 

The color in life is a more or less deep greenish-gray or graj'ish-green varie- 
gated with white or yellowish. This is well kept in many dry specimens but the 
dark shades often disappear or change to brown in alcohol. The distal tips of the 
radial shields are white or whitish in sharp contrast to adjoining dark color and 
this "recognition mark" is frequently conspicuous in good material. Some speci- 
mens are brown (especially on the arms) rather than gray or green. The banding 
of the arms is very irregular but often distinct, particularly distally and in young 
individuals. 

All of the specimens at hand have 5 arms and the smallest specimens with 
disks 2 mm. or so in diameter, show no indication of autotomy. Apparently 
resiliens does not have a 6-armed stage. 

The 40 specimens at hand are from the following places; 
Lord Howe Island: Neds Beach, in coral and under rocks, April, 1932. 9 speci- 
mens, none large. 
New South Wales: 15 miles northeast of South Head, Port Jackson, 75-80 fms., 

May, 1924. C. W. Mulvey leg. 1 specimen, loaned by 
Australian Museum. 
About east of UUadulla, 35°20'S x 150°47'E, 74 fms. 
May, 1924. C. W. Mulvey leg. 1 small specimen, loaned 
by Australian ]\Iuseum. 
Colloroy, Long Reef, November, 1929. 1 specimen. 
Port Jackson, off Middle Head, 4-6 fms., November 21, 1929. 

14 specimens, adult and young. 
Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

2 specimens. 
Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 5 specimens. 
Victoria: Port Philip. J. A. Kershaw leg. 2 specimens, large. Loaned by Mel- 
bourne Museum. 
Western Australia: Great Australian Bight western end, 33° 15'S x 126° 22' 15" 

E, 90 fms., Feb. 23, 1930. D. L. Serventy leg. E. W. 
Bennett don. 4 specimens. 
Rottnest Island, Cape Vlaming, in seaweeds, February, 
1930. Swan and Drummond leg. E. W. Bennett don. 
1 large specimen. 



260 memoir: museum op comparative zoology 



Ophiactis savignyi 

Ophiolepis savignyi Muller and Troschel, 1842. Syst. Ast., p. 95. 

Ophiactis savignyi Ljungman, 1867. Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 23, p. 323. 

The tropicopolitan distribution of this little ophiuran is well emphasized by 
its Australian range. From Lord Howe Island and Port Jackson, northward to 
Torres Strait, westward to Darwin and thence southwestward and south to Cape 
Leveque, Broome, Dongarra and Rottnest Island — everywhere that collections 
were made, savignyi could be counted on to be in the spoil. But from Perth 
southward around Cape Leeuwin and eastward to Tasmania and southern New 
South Wales, not a single individual has yet been reported. 

The 301 specimens at hand were taken at the following places, reference 
being made to any notable facts in connection with each lot. 
Lord Howe Island: in and under patches of sponge and in similar hiding places, 

April, 1932. 90 specimens. The largest has the disk 
5 mm. across. Many of those about 2 mm. across show 
evidence of recent autotomy. Only 1 individual has 
5 rays, a small specimen a little more than 2 mm. across 
disk. Many of these specimens are distinctly brown and 
whitish rather than green and white. My field notes say : 
"Usually very brown with no green; all 6-armed; none 
big; 1 adult had many young hanging about it." 
New South Wales: Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

1 small but typical hexamerous specimen; very dark 
green coloration. 
Queensland: Port Curtis. Melbourne Ward leg. 35 specimens. Loaned by 
Australian Museum. This series ranges from young ones a 
millimeter across the disk to large adults 8 mm. in diameter. 
AU the adults are 5-armed but nearly all those with disks less 
than 3 mm. across are 6-armed and many show obvious indica- 
tion of autotomy. 
Northern Territory: Coburg Peninsula, May 20-22, 1932. 13 specimens. At 

Smith's Point, Coral Bay and Allaru Island, collecting 
was done and savignyi was found at all 3 places. My 
field notes say: "they had the disk distinctly brown but 



CLAKK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 261 

the arms green and white." No really adult specimens 
were collected; the largest is a symmetrical^ 7-rayed 
individual, a little more than 4 mm. across the disk. 
All of the other specimens have 6 arms, not a single 
5-rayed individual being taken. 
Darwin, East Point, June, 1929. 50 specimens, mostly 
small, nearly all, including the largest (5 mm. across 
disk), with 6 arms. 
Darwin, West Point, June, 1929. 3 hexamerous small 

adults. 
Darwin, dredged in 3-6 fms. near Shell Islands, July, 1929, 
sponge and alcyonarian bottom, 12 specimens, adult 
and young; of 6 adults, 4-6 mm. across disk, 1 has 6 
arms, the others 5; of 6 young, 2-3 mm. across disk, 
4 have 6 arms, 2 have 5. 
Darwin, near Leper Station, May, 1932. 4 specimens, 2 

pentamerous adults, 2 hexamerous young. 
Quail Island, west of Darwin, July 7-9, 1929. 7 specimens, 
2 large 5-armed adults, 6-7 mm. across disk, 4 smaller 
6-armed adults and 1 small individual with 6-arms but 
only 5 pairs of radial shields. 
Western Australia : Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 6 hexamerous young speci- 
mens. 
Broome, August and September, 1929. 10 specimens, 1 pen- 
tamerous adult and 9 hexamerous young. 
Broome, June, 1932. 49 specimens; 8 large pentamerous 
adults and 3 pentamerous young; 38 hexamerous speci- 
mens, mostly young but a few small adults. 
Lagrange Bay, September, 1929. 3 small specimens, the 

largest pentamerous and quite brown. 
Dongarra. E. W. Bennett, leg. et don. 8 specimens, hexam- 
erous young. 
Rottnest Island, Cape Vlaming, "in sea-weed," February, 
1930. Swan and Drummond leg. E. W. Bennett don. 
10 very small hexamerous specimens. 



262 memoir: museum of comparative zo5logt 

Ophiactis savignyi var. lutea var. nov. 

Similar to ordinary suingnyl but strikingly different in color. My field notes 
say: "Found in tide-pool at Quail Island (west of Darwin, N. T., July 9, 1929) 
in a pure white sponge. Amis bright yellow, disk bright brown. Otherwise like 
savignyi of which it may be only a color form. About a dozen specimens found. 
Habits, etc. like savignyi." 

There are 10 specimens at hand, ranging from very small ones with disk 
about a milhmeter across to the holotype (M. C. Z. no. 5038) a very perfect 
adult, 4.5 mm. across disk, with arms 22 mm. long. The 2 smallest have only 5 
arms, the others all have 6. In their present drj' condition they look like very 
pallid, one might say bleached, savignyi. 



Ophiactis tricolor 
H. L. Clark, 1928. Rec. S. Austral. Miis., 3, p. 427. 

A small brittle-star loaned me by the Melbourne Museum proves to be an 
example of this species. It is only 3 mm. across the disk and the coloration is 
rather faded but the red, white and blue of the arms is still evident. It was taken 
in 40 fms. north of Cape Borda, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. 

Ophiactis acosmeta' sp. nov. 

Disk 3 mm., across. Arms 5, about 12-14 mm. long. Disk covered with 
rather coarse scales and 6 pairs of moderately large, well-separated radial shields; 
the shields in each pair are in contact, if at all, only at the extreme distal tips. 
Upper arm-plates broadly fan-shaped much wider than long, the proximal angle 
more or less truncate, according to the degree in which the plates are in contact 
with each other which is usually considerable; distal margin a little convex and 
lateral angles slightly rounded. 

Interbrachial areas below well covered with a few large scales. First under 
arm-plate small, longer than wide, diamond-shaped or pentagonal by the trunca- 
tion of the inner angle; second plate wider than long with lateral margins straight 
and nearly parallel, proximal margin with a very slight median angle and distal 

' aKoirprjTOj = unadorned, in reference to its dull color and lack of distinctive marks. 



CLAEK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 263 

margin barely convex; third plate about as long as wide, with shghtly divergent 
lateral margins, the distal margin longer than the proximal and more nearly 
straight, the outer corners rounded; subsequent plates wider than long for 7 or 8 
plates then becoming longer than wide, more or less squarish or pentagonal with 
a proximal angle, with rounded corners, sUghtly or not at all in contact. Side 
arm-plates large, often meeting each other on oral side, and on distal half of arm, 
dorsally also. Arm-spines 3 in a series, 4 on a few basal segments, the middle one 
largest and bluntest, the lowest one smallest but stout at base and sharp at tip, 
the uppermost (when 4 are present, next to uppermost) longest and least stout, 
about equal to an arm-segment. Tentacle-scale single, of moderate size. 

Oral shields rounded triangular about as wide as long or wider ; madreporite 
not conspicuously larger than the others. Adoral plates rather large, the inner 
end narrow and not quite meeting its fellow within, the outer end wide and meet- 
ing its fellow radially on 3 arms but not quite doing so on the other 2. Oral 
papillae single, small, oval, flat but thick, attached by the narrower end to the 
oral plate just at the inner end of the adoral plate. 

Color of dry specimen, brownish-gray, Hghter on oral surface; disk faintly 
variegated, the distal ends of the radial shields and many disk scales being lighter 
than the rest of the surface. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 5045, from Dongarra, Western Austraha, E. W. 
Bennett leg. et don. 

There are 23 paratypes but none are larger than the holotype and nearly all 
are much smaller. Those from Dongarra resemble the holotype in color as well 
as structurally but those from Broome are much lighter colored and have a ten- 
dency to show longitudinal markings or cross-bands of dusky, or brown of some 
shade on the arms. They show little diversity in structure but one of the largest 
and lightest colored has the arm-spines a little longer and more slender and a very 
few spinelets are present in the interradial portions of the disk nearly all below 
the margin. The specimens from Port Curtis are all small but almost exactly like 
those from Dongarra in color as well as in structure. That autotomy occurs 
frequently if not regularly is shown by a number of specimens, 3 arms on one side 
being much smaller than the other 3. A rather remarkable peculiarity is that in 
several specimens, including one or two of the largest, there are only 5 pairs of 
radial shields, although sLx arms are present in every specimen. 

This little Ophiactis is very perplexing, it is so similar in a general waj' to 
plana, profundi and that group of species. But when compared with them, it is 
evident that there are obvious, if intangible, diiferences. The most noticeable 



264 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

and constant is in the adoral plates which in the plana group are long and narrow 
and meet fully within, as is well shown by Mortensen (1924, p. 129). There is no 
danger of confusing acosmeta with any other Australian species of Ophiactis. 
Apparently it may be found anywhere on the tropical coast of the continent for 
the 27 specimens at hand are from the following widely separated localities. 
Lord Howe Island: April, 1932. 1 specimen, young and hence somewhat dubious. 
Queensland: Port Curtis. 5 specimens, all young. Loaned by Australian Mu- 
seum. 
Western Australia: Broome, 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 14 specimens, adult and 

young. 
Lagrange Bay, September, 1929. 1 young specimen. 
Dongarra. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 5 specimens, 2 adult. 
Rockingham, Cymodocea beds, 4-5 feet, February 9, 1932. 
E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 1 specimen, young. 



Ophiactis brevis^ sp. nov. 

Disk, 3 mm. in diameter; arms 5, 10-15 mm. long, rather stout at middle, 
narrower at base, and slender distally; careful examination shows tliat all the 
arms are regenerating distally. Moreover it is evident that the disk is also in 
process of regeneration; the one which had been shed was about 5 mm. across. 
It is probable that the arms are, in a normal individual about 3 or 4 times the disk 
diameter. Disk covered chiefly by the very large smooth, radial shields, which 
are 1.25 mm. long and .75 mm. wide near middle or distal thereto; remainder of 
disk covered by very small scales, forming a slender column 1-3 scales wide in 
the interradii, and with 2 scales separating the inner ends of the radial shields 
from each other; most of the larger scales carry erect relatively large but actually 
very small spinelets, most numerous on the interradial portions of the margin. 
L'pper arm-plates on middle of arm elliptical wider than long, notably thick, with 
a finely pebbled or shagreen-like surface, broadly in contact; basally they are 
more nearly circular or irregular in shape and it is evident that some, perhaps 
many, are being regenerated; distally they also become more nearly circular or 
the length may exceed the width; a peculiar triangular white mark leads to the 
impression that many distal plates are themselves triangular, which is not the 
case. 

' brew's = short, in reference to the short arms and short arm-spines. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 265 

Interbrachial areas below well covered with rather large scales. First under 
arm-plate small, more or less hidden by the adoral plates; second plate largest of 
series, quadrilateral, but distal margin much wider than proximal, somewhat 
convex, lateral margins a Uttle concave; succeeding plates somewhat octagonal 
with rounded angles, wider than long, or width and length equal at first, but soon 
becoming longer than wide; at middle of arm, the proximal margin is very short; 
the lateral margins are of two parts, straight divergent proximal halves, less 
straight but parallel distal portions; distal margin of plate strongly convex or 
more commonly of three parts with rounded angles; near tips of arms, under 
arm-plates, much longer than wide with rounded angles; individual diversity 
among the under arm-plates is disconcertingly great. Side arm-plates relatively 
large but not meeting either above or below. Arm spines 5 or 6 in a series; upper- 
most longest, somewhat flattened, wide basally but pointed at tip, about as long 
as an arm-segment; lower spines successively shorter, stouter and blunter, the 
lowest very blunt about twice as long as thick. When 6 spines are present, near 
base of arm, the series approximate quite closely on the dorsal side. 

Oral shields diamond-shaped with rounded angles, longer than wide; 
madreporite largest and widest, its width little less than its length; the shields on 
either side of the madreporite are markedly longer than wide, while the remaining 
two are less conspicuously so. Adoral plates very large, meeting more or less 
evidently both radially and interradially. Oral papillae 2 on each side, flat and 
wing like, the outer distinctly larger than the inner. 

Color of dry specimen; Inner portion of radial shields and many upper arm- 
plates, usually every second or third, deep gray or dusky, distal part of radial 
shields wliite, disk scales and many upper arm-plates whitish, often with 
minute dusky dots or markings. Arm-spines pale gray. Arms apparently banded 
with dusky especially distally where the contrast between white and dusky arm- 
plates is most marked. Orally white with distal portion of arms indistinctly 
banded with dusky. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 5009, from near Shell Islands, Darwin, N. T., 3-6 
fms. July, 1929. 

This very interesting little Ophiactis was taken with a number of savignyi 
and was not recognized at the time as being different. But when the specimens of 
savignyi from Darwin were being critically examined in Cambridge, it was at 
once evident that this specimen was not even nearly related to that species. The 
relatively huge radial shields are probably due to the disk being regenerated but 
the arm-plates and spines, the oral papillae and particularly the long oral shields 



266 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

and big adoral plates, combine to set this species quite apart from the species of 
Ophiactis hitherto known. It is of course unfortunate that the unique holotype 
is so extensively regenerating. 



Ophiactis fuscolineata' sp. nov. 

Disk 5 mm. in diameter. Arms 5, nearly or quite 40 mm. long. Disk covered 
by a coat of numerous scales, smallest near center and largest in the mid-inter- 
radii and around the rather large radial shields. The latter are each 1.25 mm. 
long and .50-.60 mm. wide; the 2 members of a pair are in contact distally but 
diverge considerably and are separated by several elongated disk scales. Most of 
the marginal scales bear slender spinules and a few disk scales do also. Upper 
arm-plates wider than long, quadrilateral, with distal margin slightly convex and 
much longer than the straight proximal side; lateral margins very oblique and 
outer corners much rounded; except at tip of arm, the upper arm-plates are 
broadly in contact. 

Interbrachial areas below well covered with scales, many of which bear 
slender spinelets. Under arm-plates, broadly pentagonal, or if they are in contact, 
the proximal angle is more or less truncated, making them squarish; outer cor- 
ners rounded and distal margin lightly concave. Side arm-plates not conspicuous. 
Arm-spines 5 in each series; at base of arm a sixth spine, smallest of all, may be 
present at the top of the series ; ordinarily the 3 uppermost spines are longest and 
most slender, considerably exceeding a segment; the 2 lower spines are wider, 
slightly flattened and blunt, the lowest not much more than half as long as the 
one above it. Tentacle-scale single and large as usual in Ophiactis. 

Oral shields rounded triangular, wider than long, the distal side more or less 
convex, inner sides lightly concave; m.adreporite much the largest, nearly ellipti- 
cal. Adoral plates rather small, widely separated within but outer ends fully in 
contact radially. Oral papillae, single, rather scale-like but thick, truncate or 
rounded at tip, situated at junction of adoral and oral plates. 

Color of dry specimen : disk pale gray, variegated with darker and spotted, 
notably on radial shields, with a still darker shade; spinules pale cream-color; 
upper arm-plates whitish variegated with dusky; some plates are entirely deep 
purphsh-dusky ; an ill-defined, broad, median line of purplish-gray runs the 
length of the arm, broadening out to occupy the whole width where the plates 

' fuscolincala = with a dusky line, in reference to the characteristic marking on the arms. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 267 

are wholly dark, restricted definitely to middle where plates are otherwise light; 
the dark upper arm-plates give the arms the appearance, to the unaided 
eye, of being regularly banded with a dark shade; arm-spines yellowish-white 
marked with duskj^ near base. Oral surface yellowish-white, with distal part of 
arms more nearly white but banded regularly with dusky; the bands are due of 
course to dark colored under arm-plates. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 5047, from Broome, 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 
This seems to be a common brittle-star on the northern coast of Australia as 
there are 35 paratypes from Broome, 28 from Darwin and Quail Island and 1 
from AUaru Island, off Port Essington. Although superficially hke savignyi and 
easily mistaken for it in the field, it is distinguished at once by the upper arm- 
plates and other structural details. To modesta also it bears some resemblance but 
on careful examination is found to differ in almost every feature. Apparently 
fuscolineata, unhke savignyi and modesta, has no 6-armed form and does not 
reproduce by autotomy. All of the present series, of all sizes, including very small 
ones, have 5 arms. 

There is considerable diversity of color in this large series, depending chiefly 
on the amount of yellowish-white and the degree to which the yellow tint is 
present. The banding of the arms and the mid-dorsal line are naturally more 
striking in the case of light-colored specimens. Occasionally there is an individual 
with very little Ught color and then the dusky line and bands on the arm do not 
show up well. 

The 65 specimens at hand are from the following places : 
Northern Territory: Coburg Peninsula, Allaru Island, May 22, 1932. 1 speci- 
men, young. 
Darwin, June 13, 1929. 1 specimen, young. The first 

echinoderm we collected in Australia in 1929! 
Darwin, East Point, June-July, 1929. 13 specimens, small 

adults and young. 
Darwin, West Point, June, 1929. 7 specimens, small 

adults and young. 
Quail Island, July, 1929. 7 specimens, young. 
Western Australia: Broome, August-September, 1929. 7 specimens, small 

adults and young. 
Broome, June, 1932. 29 specimens, adult and young. 



268 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



Ophiactis laevis^ sp. nov. 

Disk 5 mm. in diameter, bulging ylightly in the interradii. Arms 5, mod- 
erately stout at base, attenuate distally, 15-20 mm. long. Disk covering a notably 
smooth coat of small irregular plates, rounded or with rounded angles, not over- 
lapping but laid together like a pavement; there are apparently about 500 of 
these plates on the upper surface of disk; they are mostly about .20 mm. in dia- 
meter but a few are twice that size and many are much smaller. Radial shields 
very small, about half a milUmeter long and a trifle more than half that in width; 
the two of a pair distinctly separated from each other except at the distal end. 
Upper arm-plates distally, fan-shaped with proximal angle more or less truncate 
and lateral angles rounded; proximally they are more and more in contact so that 
at base of arm they are nearly elliptical, about twice as wide as long, the proxi- 
mal margin straight and shorter than the convex distal side. 

Interbrachial areas below, closely covered with small scales, more inclined 
to overlap than on disk. Under arm-plates squarish with rounded corners, lateral 
margins a little concave, proximal and distal margins straight or convex. On 
many plates the proximal margin shows an angle pointing towards base of arm, 
so the plate is distinctly pentagonal; there is much individual diversity among 
the plates, some are wider than long, others are longer than wide; for the most 
part they are little or not at all in contact with each other. Side arm-plates rather 
small. Arm-spines usually 3 in a series, the middle one distinctly longest and ex- 
ceeding the segments, the upper one more slender, the lowest, shortest and 
relatively stoutest ; on basal segments of arm a fourth spine is present at the upper 
end of the series, but it is smaller than the one below it. Tentacle-scale single, 
relatively very large. 

Oral shields diamond-shaped, a little wider than long; inner angle rather 
acute, lateral more rounded, distal more or less truncate; madreporite larger than 
the others, with length and breadth nearly equal. Adoral plates moderately 
large, nearly twice as long as wide, almost meeting both within the oral shield and 
radially but not actually in contact. Oral papilla single, very large and wing- 
shaped, occupying nearly the whole inner edge of the adoral plate to which it is 
attached; if closed down flat, the two in each mouth angle would overlap and 
close the whole angle, except close to the teeth. 

Color of dry specimen, essentially the same as in Ufe : disk purpUsh-rose color 

' laevis = Bvnooth, in reference to the very smooth disk covering. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 269 

with half a dozen small and irregular patches of white; arms purpHsh-dusky, 
variegated with hghter shades; some isolated upper arm plates on basal half of 
arm nearly white and a very few reddish-brown ; arm-spines on basal part of arm 
white, distally more or less dusky. Interbrachial areas below, rose-color becoming 
whiter proximally and quite white where they adjoin the mouth frame and basal 
part of the arms which are white. Under arm-plates beyond the first 2 or 3, 
become variegated with dusky (at first very faintly) and on distal part of arm, 
here and there, with reddish-brown. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 5055, from Koombana Bay, Bunbury, W. A., 5-S 
fms. October 26, 1929. 

This handsome and unusual Ophiactis seems to be common in Koombana 
Bay, as we took 18 specimens during our morning's dredging. Professor Bennett 
has sent another which he took at Bunbury in January, 1930. That the species 
occurs along the Western Australian coast for a long distance is attested by 2 half 
grown specimens which Professor Bennett took at Dongarra. Unfortunately the 
striking rose color of the disk is not always present ; one of the Dongarra speci- 
mens shows no trace of it but has the disk gray and white; one of the largest 
Bunbury specimens has the disk almost white in sharp contrast to the variegated 
arms, which show many traces of brownish-red; another large specimen has the 
disk gray and white ; in many specimens the variegation of the disk with whitish 
is more marked than in the holotype; in one specimen the disk is prettily varie- 
gated with red, white and dusky. Aside from color, these specimens show Uttle 
diversity though the radial shields ai-e often larger and more conspicuous than in 
the holotype. 

This is a very distinct species of Ophiactis, easily recognized, even when the 
rose color is wanting, by the disk covering and the remarkably large oral papillae. 
It is strange that Michaelsen and Hartmeyer seem to have taken no specimens in 
Koombana Bay, where they did some dredging, but they found one small speci- 
men at Fremantle and a second still further north at Geraldton. Koehler (1907) 
found these two young individuals perplexing but finally identified them with 
Ophiactis liltkeni Marktanner-Turneretscher. He even borrowed the types of 
that species, 4 small specimens from Fernando-Po, and compared the Australian 
specimens with them. Unfortunately these types are all very small, and probably 
immature and Koehler's specimens of laevis were also only half -grown; the latter 
however showed the distinctive coloration, which permits of no doubt as to the 
species Koehler had in hand. He himself mentions the color as one of the three 
differences which he noted between his specimens and liltkeni, the others being in 



270 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

the scaling of the disk and in the surface of the upper arm-plates. He makes 
the curious suggestion that the finer disk-scaling in the African specimens might 
be because they were smaller than those from Australia, overlooking the fact that 
in ophiurans the disk scales increase in number and decrease (relatively) in size 
with growth. Comparison of young laevis from Bunbury with Marktanner- 
Turneretscher's photographs of lutkeni shows that the difference in tlie oral 
papillae is so great, it is hard to understand how Koehler could have made the 
identification he did. 



Ophiodaphxe materna 

Koehler, 1930. Vid. Med., 89, p. 129. 

A perfect specimen of Ophiodaphne was dredged in 5-8 fms. of water near 
Broome, in June, 1932. As Mortensen's specimens from the Kei Island were taken 
at a depth of 245 meters, it seemed possible that the Broome specimen might 
represent a second species of this extraordinary genus. It is only 3 mm. across the 
disk and the arms are but 12 mm. long; the color is very light, an almost uniform 
brownish-white. Careful comparison with Koehler's figures and description shows 
so close an agreement that it hardly seems justifiable to base a second species on 
this single specimen. The only noteworthy difference is in the arm-spines, of 
which Koehler says there are four. The present specimen has 5 and sometimes 6 
spines not only on some basal arm-joints but out beyond the middle of the arm. 
Koehler's photographs do not permit any accurate count of arm-spines, but they 
give the impression of more than 4 on many segments. Dr. Mortensen kindly 
reexamined the specimens in Copenhagen and found 5 arm-spines near base of 
arms. He then generously sent a paratype to the M. C. Z. It is 5 mm. across the 
disk and has a young one clinging closely to the oral side. No young individual 
was associated with the Broome specimen, as they generally were with Morten- 
sen's, but of course a single instance proves nothing as to the habits of the West- 
ern Austrahan Ophiodaphne. The only notable difference between the two 
specimens before me is in the disk covering, which is perfectly smooth and flat, 
and composed of very small scales, in the one from Broome while the Kei Island 
specimen has the disk scales coarser and the disk surface rather rough. But this 
may well be only an age difference, for the Keian specimen is nearly twice as 
large as the Australian. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 271 

OPHIOTRICHIDAE 
Ophiothrlx acestra 
H. L. Clark, 1909. Mem. Austr. Mus. 4, p. 544. 

A few typical specimens of this species are at hand. One was dredged in Port 
Jackson, off Middle Head, 4-6 fms., November 21, 1929 and is notable only for 
its fine color. The spinulation of disk (6 mm. across) , the form of the upper arm- 
plates, the character of the arm-spines are all typical. The color is a deep dusky 
green, slightly variegated on the upper arm-plates and near the disk margin with 
whitish; the long disk spines are white or pale green; the arm-spines are glassy, 
tinged or margined with greenish or dusk3^ 

A specimen collected among coral rock fragments at Shell Harbor, N. S. W., 
May 4, 1932, is a Uttle larger (7 mm. across) than the Port Jackson specimen and 
darker colored; the disk dark brownish-dusky and all the spinelets and spines 
are tinted with purplish-brown rather than green; but on the upper arm-plates, 
which are longer and more rounded distally than is typical there is a distinct 
green tinge. Another large specimen from "between tides" at Shell Harbor, 
loaned by the AustraUan Museum, is notable for a distinct black line along the 
upper side of the arm, such as occurs in 0. stelligera forma atrolineata (see p. 274). 
But in acestra the line does not become white near the tip of the arm. 

The remaining specimens (7 young individuals) were collected by Mr. Mel- 
bourne Ward at Port Curtis, Queensland, and loaned by the AustraUan Museum. 
They have the disks 2.5 to 5.5 mm. across with the characteristic long, slender 
spines scattered thereon and the overlapping diamond-shaped or pentagonal 
upper arm-plates. They agree very well with each other in color but are very dif- 
ferent from the New South Wales specimens as they have the disk gray or pale 
lavender-blue with the distal edges of the radial sliields white and the long spines 
colorless or whitish. The upper arm-plates are variegated with purpUsh-red, gray 
of various tints and whitish; the arm-spines are glassy often tinged with pur- 
plish-red. 

Ophiothrix caespitosa 

Lyman, 1879. Bull. M. C. Z., 6, p. 53. 

This is a common Opliiothrix on the southern coasts of Australia and it is 
interesting to find that the range extends up the coast of Western Australia at 



272 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

least as far as Dongarra. Some years ago (1928, p. 430) I was in doubt whether 
caespitosa and acestra were really different forms, but the material in the present 
collection gives no difficulty. All of the acestra have slender disk spinelets and 
spines and the upper arm-plates, if not actually longer than broad have the 
distal margin conspicuously produced. In caespitosa on the other hand, the disk 
spinelets are thick and stumpy, often conspicuously so, the disk spines wanting 
or if present rather stout and thorny, and the upper arm-plates much wider 
than long, with the distal margin little or not at all produced. 

There are 42 specimens of caespitosa at hand from tlie following localities 
cliiefly in southwestern Australia: 
New South Wales : Port Jackson, off Middle Head, 4-G fms., November 21, 

1929. 2 specimens, large adults. 
Western Australia: Bunkers Bay, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

8 specimens, young. One is notable for a broad, blackish 
stripe running along the upper side of each arm, in sharp 
contrast to the general very light, nearlj' white, color. 
None of the other specimens show even a trace of a longi- 
tudinal stripe. 
Bunbury, Koombana Bay, 5-8 fnxs., October 26, 1929. 13 

specimens, small adults and young. 
Rockingham, jetty piles, Feb. 9, 1932. E. W. Bennett leg. 

et don. 4 specimens, adult. 
Fremantle, near (larden Island, 2-3 fms., October 14, 1929. 
6 specimens, adults, very diverse in color and spinula- 
tion. 
Rottnest Island, cove at northeastern end, October 19, 1929. 

2 specimens, very young. 
Dongarra. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 7 specimens, adult 
and young. The adults are small and very light colored, 
almost white; they may have been bleached in preserv- 
ing; in one the disk covering is typical, but in the other 
the thorny stumps are so low as to be almost little 
granules; under considerable magnification, it can be 
seen that they are short cylinders crowned with 4 or 5 
perfectly erect delicate points around the margin. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 273 



Ophiothrix EXIGUA 
L-i-AiAN, 1874. Bull. M. C. Z., 3, p. 236. 

This little Ophiothrix seems to range over the whole coast line of tropical 
Austraha. It is obviously a near relative of caespitosa, acestra and stelligera but 
the characteristic under arm-plates will always serve as a recognition mark. The 
radial shields are more completely covered, as a rule, than in its near relatives, 
and the absence of spines on the disk, the usual lack of a continuous stripe on the 
arm, the shape of the upper arm-plates, and the close approximation of the arm- 
spines dorsally at the base of the arm, are additional features which help to 
distinguish exigua. Nevertheless perplexing specimens occur and the possibiUty 
of hybridization — the last resort of the puzzled taxonomist — cannot be denied. 

At Darwin, where we first met with exigua, its difference from stelligera 
was observed when the specimens were taken. My field notes say: "From sponges, 
near the Shell Islands, July 15. Disk closely covered (including radial shields) 
with low thorny stumps; pale violet blue. Upper arm-plates transversely dia- 
mond-shaped, the boundary of each more or less clearly outUned in white — at 
least the distal boundary, finely speckled with bluish. No longitudinal Unes 
whatever." The violet coloration is often replaced by shades of pink or brown 
or even by cream-color; there is very great diversity. And there may be a 
longitudinal hne on upper side of arm! 

There are 101 specimens of exigua at hand taken at three widely separated 
points. 

Queensland: Port Curtis, off Gatecomb Head, 9-12 fms. Ward and Boardman 
leg. 4 specimens. 
Port Curtis. Melbourne Ward leg. 75 specimens. These two lots 
were loaned by the AustraUan Museum. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., July, 1929. 14 speci- 
mens, adult and young. 
Western Austraha: Broome, June, 1932. 8 specimens, adult and young. 

Ophiothrix stelligera 
Lyman, 1874. Bull. M. C. Z., 3, p. 2.37. 

This Ls the common Ophiothrix of the tropical coasts of Austraha ranging as 



274 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

far south as Bunbury' on the western side. It occurs in large numbers on suitable 
bottom in shallow water. It prefers a bottom covered with sponges, alcyonarians, 
ascidians, etc. and is particularly apt to be associated with sponges, the colors of 
which seem to have a notable effect on those of the ophiurans. It is the most 
diversified in color of any Austrahan brittle star and rarely are two specimens 
exactly alike. \'ermiUon red specimens are common and very noticeable — 
generally in association with red sponges. But under all conditions and regardless 
of other color features, steUigera always has a longitudinal hne on the upper side 
of the arm. Typically this line is white, bounded on each side by a very narrow 
colored line. Often these colored Unes become wider, coalesce and blot out the 
white, and thus the white hne is replaced by a colored hne, often bright yellow or 
vermilion red but not infrequently black. No matter however what the color of 
the hne may be, if the arm is uninjured it will be discovered that at the growing 
tip of the arm the typical white hne is present and the transition from white to 
color may be easily traced. This stripe on the upper side of the arm is the best 
specific character which steUigera possesses. 

There is no doubt that acestra, caespitosa and sielligera are very much ahke; 
the upper arm-plates of caespitosa are distinctive and the under arm-plates of 
acestra are different from those of steUigera. Nevertheless, these two last species 
would often be hard to distinguish were it not for steUigera's arm-stripe. There 
are two forms of steUigera that may for convenience be given names. Both occur 
at Broome and are by no means rare. They look so unhke that only careful 
examination, particularly of the growing tips of the arms, convinces one they are 
identical. In one, the ground color of the disk is a dull dusky purple ; the arms are 
a similar shade but the upper arm-plates are somewhat variegated and the arms 
usually appear more or less distinctly banded; the stripe on the arm is white 
bounded by dark hnes. This form may appropriately be called atra (Holotype 
M. C. Z. no. 5081) ; it occurs usually in very dark colored or purple-sponges. In 
the other form the disk and arms are usually very light, nearly white, but rarely 
gray, reddish or purphsh; the stripe on the arm, except far out distally, is very 
dark, deep brown, dark purple, dark green, or black. This form may appro- 
priately be called atrolineata (Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5085). 

The large series of steUigera at hand consists of 291 specimens from the fol- 
lowing places. 

More or less typical steUigera, 257 specimens. 

'Koehler (1907, p. 253) records it from Koombana Bay, at this point, but I cannot avoid the feel- 
ing that his material was really caespitosn. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 275 

Northern Territory: Darwin, dredged near jetty, 6-8 fms., July 4, 1929. 2 

specimens, j'oung. 
Darwin, dredged near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., July, 1929. 

50 specimens, adult and young. 
Darwin, dredged near Leper Station, May 25, 1932. 24 
specimens, adult and young. 
Western Australia : Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 15 specimens, adult and 

young. 
Broome, August-September, 1929. 32 specimens, adult and 

young. 
Broome, June, 1932. 125 specimens, adult and young. 
Fremantle, City Beach, September, 1930. 1 specimen, 

adult. Loaned by Perth Museum. 
Exact locaUty unknown. 7 specimens, young. 
Forma alra, 20 specimens. 
Western Austraha: Broome, August-September, 1929. 5 specimens, adult. 
Lagrange Baj^, September, 1929. 7 specimens, adult. 
Broome, June, 1932. 9 specimens, adult and young. 
Forma atrolineata, 14 specimens. 
Western Austraha: Broome, Aug-ust, 1929. 1 specimen, adult. 

Broome, June, 1932. 12 specimens, adult and young. 
Fremantle, Cottlesloe Beach, in a sponge. 1 specimen, adult. 
Loaned by Perth Museum. 



LISSOPHIOTHRIX' gen. nov. 

Disk covered with small well separated radial shields and numerous thin, 
rounded plates or scales among which the centrodorsal is easily seen; there are no 
granules, stumps or spinelets borne by these plates or on the radial shields. In 
the interradial areas at the margin of the disk and below are a few plates bearing 
relatively high slender bifid or trifid stumps. Under arm-plates, kidney-shaped. 
Upper arm-plates nearly as long as wide with a marked distal angle. Arm-spines 
very slender, blunt, sparsely but markedly thorny. Otherwise as in Ophiothri.\. 

Genotype, Lissophiothrix delicata sp. nov. 

This is a monotypic genus of doubtful validity, but the contained species 

' Xicffos =swoo(/i+Ophiothrix, in reference to the smooth disk. 



276 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

cannot properly be associated with the forms grouped in Ophiotrichoides, its 
entire facies and relationships are so wholly different. It is clearly most nearly 
related to Ophiothrix exigua with which it is found, and its status, in the light of 
its association with that species, will be discussed beyond after the description of 
the type species. It may be mentioned here that even the youngest specimens of 
Lissophiothrix show no hint of an Ophiopteron-stage. In this they are very 
different from Ophiotrichoides but resemble Ophiothrix exigua. 



Lissophiothrix delicata' sp. nov. 

Disk 5 mm. in diameter, arms rather more than 25 mm. long. Disk very flat 
and smooth, covered with rather numerous, thin, rounded scales among which a 
circular centrodorsal plate is evident; there are no spinelets or other outgrowths 
on the scales. Radial shields relatively small, much longer than wide, thin and 
smooth, the two well separated by several series of scales. In each interradial 
area, outside the disk scales are a number of scales, each of which carries a 
relatively long trifid stump or spinelet. Upper arm-plates pentagonal or rhom- 
boidal with the proximal angle truncated, about as wide as long or a little wider; 
on the distal part of the arm they become longer than wide but they seem to 
remain in contact with each other to the very tip. 

Interbrachial areas below covered with a thin naked skin but near the 
distal margin there are 15-20 minute scales, each carrying a relatively long 
slender trifid stump or spinelet. Under arm-plates kidney-shaped, much wider 
than long, the distal margin deeply concave, the proximal almost as markedly 
convex ; near tip of arm, the plates become longer than wide but they are fully in 
contact throughout. 

Arm-spines 6, very slender, very sUghtly curved, blunt, sparsely but con- 
spicuously thorny, the third from top longest, more than twice the arm-width; 
they are longest on segments 8-20, quite short on segment 4 and earlier ones, 
gradually decreasing in length from segment 20 to tip of arm. The series on first 
two segments distal to radial shields approximate rather closely on dorsal side of 
arm. Tentacle-scale wanting on first arm-pore, small and scale-hke on second, 
spiniform and rather conspicuous thereafter. Lowest arm-spine modified to form 
a relatively large comb with 4 long slender teeth, much like Koehler's figure 
(1922, pi. 98, fig. 4b) of the same spine in Ophiothrix exigua. 

' delicatus = deliesiie, in reference to the fragile character of this little species. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 277 

Oral shields somewhat pentagonal with corners rounded, very much wider 
than long; distal side short; proximal angle well-marked though blunt, proximal 
sides concave; madreporite, much the largest, with proximal angle wide and 
rounded. Adoral plates large, lying against the concave inner sides of the oral 
shield and nearly (or quite) meeting within; at the other end thej^ are separated 
by the first under arm-plate but send a projecting angle down between the oral 
shield and the arm. Color of dry holotype, almost white; to the unaided eye it 
has a gray tinge ; under the lens, there is a distinctly yellowish tinge on the central 
area of the disk. Other specimens from Broome are similar but in 2 there is a 
large dark bluish area at the center of the disk and several individuals are dis- 
tinctly gray and white. Material from Darwin is, excepting one Ught colored 
specimen, definitely gray or green variegated or marked with white; in 2 or 3 
cases a pair of longitudinal green lines run along the upper surface of the arm 
with a white stripe between; in other specimens indications of such line, more or 
less broken up at each joint, can be distinguished. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 5088, dredged at Broome, June, 1932. 

This Mttle Ophiothrix occurring both at Darwin and Broome is most per- 
plexing. In everything except the disk covering, it is so similar to Ophiothrix 
exigua Lyman that were the disk covered with thorny stumps, the specimens 
would be referred to that species without a moment's hesitation. But the 34 
specimens at hand have no thorny stumps and the scaHng of the disk is so deUcate 
and smooth it is beyond question that their absence is not artificial or accidental. 
Moreover the radial shields are narrower and more widely separated than in 
exigua and the arm-spines are slightly longer and more slender than in that 
brittle-star. Comparison with the large series of exigua at hand from tropical 
Australia, shows that these more or less obvious differences are not associated 
with age for young individuals of exigua with disks only 2 mm. across have the 
thorny stumps covering the whole dorsal side. Nor is there any notable in- 
dividual diversity in the exiguas at hand in the density of the covering of stumps. 
On the other hand the specimens of delicala have the disk surface so perfectly 
smooth, it is hard to beheve that such a feature has no significance. The possi- 
bility that the differences between the two forms may be due to sex deserves some 
consideration but there is no evidence at hand to justify the suspicion. 

Like exigua and stelligera, delicala lives in and among sponges, or among 
rock fragments, bryozoa and corals, in shallow water (3-8 fms.). Unfortunately 
the exigencies of our crowded field work did not permit a critical study of the re- 
lation of delicata to the other two species in life but my field notes at Darwin say 



278 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

of this perplexing form: "Like Ophiothela, 5 rays, smooth disk. Green. An odd 
and very interesting species, many specimens but mostly very small — largest 
only 4 mm. across." Wliether exigua was taken at the same time and place is not 
clear. It may be worthj' of note however that among the 79 exiguas at hand 
from Port Curtis, Queensland, no delicaia were found. At Broome, delicata was 
not taken in 1929, but in 1932 a number were dredged. None however were green 
as at Darwin. It is probable that this is due to the difference in the character of 
the bottom. The light color and considerably larger size of the Broome speci- 
mens makes an evident but unimportant difference in the appearance of the two 
lots. A single one of the specimens from Broome, slightly smaller than the 
holotype, has the thorny stumps of the interradial areas extending inward on to 
the disk but greatly reduced in size and sparsely distributed. This perplexing 
individual may easily be disposed of as either a hybrid or an extreme variant, but 
it throws no Hght on the status of the species. 

The 34 specimens of delicata at hand are contained in the following lots : 
Northern Territory : Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., July 24, 1929. 18 

specimens, small and mostly young. 
Western Australia: Broome, 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 16 specimens, chief!}- adults. 



MACROPHIOTHRIX' geu. nov. 

Disk large, more or less soft and puffed in living specimens, flat in dry ones, 
with large, triangular radial shields arranged in conspicuous pairs; a more or less 
dense coat of low thorny stumps or granules covers the disk and part or all of the 
radial shields as well. Arms usually very long, at least 9-10 x disk diameter or 
more, even up to 20 x, (rarely in adults only 6-7 x), flattened, with upper arm- 
plates short and wide, broadly in contact. Arm-spines 6-9 in a series (at least on 
basal segments), flat, blunt or at least not acute, more or less finely thorny but 
not conspicuously so, the second or third from the top usually longest, about equal 
to width of arm or somewhat longer; as a rule the long arm-spines stand out hori- 
zontally, more or less at right angles to arm. Arm-spines of the first 4-6 arm- 
segments usually more or less reduced in size. 

Genotype, Ophiura longipeda Lamarck. 

For years the genus Ophiothrix has demanded subdivision but the difficulty 
of doing it properly is so obvious, the attempt has been steadfastly avoided 

' /la/cpos =io«3+Ophiothrix, in reference to the very long arms. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 279 

hitherto. Now, however, faced with the task of identifying more than 25 Austra- 
han species, of which nearly half seemed to represent undescribed forms, I have 
been obliged to make a beginning. The long-armed species of the Indo-Pacific 
region are so obviously different from the European and American forms, it is 
easy to begin with them, and here is presented the result of that start based upon 
the Australian material at hand and the M. C. Z. collection. Lamarck's Ophiura 
longipeda is typical of the group and it is fortunate that Lyman (1865, p. 176) 
examined the type specimen and specifically mentions the angular form of the 
upper arm-plates, for this is one of its most important specific characters so that 
it is possible to distinguish longipeda with Uttle difficulty today. 

The described species which seem to belong to this proposed genus are as 
follows : 

aspidota M. & T. 

bedoti de Loriol 

bellax Koeh. 

belli Doderlein 

expedita Koeh. 

galaieae Ltk. 

hirsuta M. & T. 

longipeda Lamarck 

michaelseni Koeh. 

obtusa Koeh. 

punctolimbata von Mart. 

rhabdoia H. L. C. 
I have never seen a specimen referred to bedoti and am unable to determine 
the distinctive characters of that species. Concerning the validity of some of the 
other species in this list particularly punctolimbata there is considerable question. 
Doderlein and Koehler have expressed doubts about von Marten's species but 
Matsumoto (1917, pp^ 219, 226) has pointed out at least one distinctive feature 
so, until further study can be given to the group, 11 species may be accepted. 
Probably there are other species of Ophiothrix, in its present broad sense, which 
are congeneric with those listed above but I have made no effort to search them 
out. My only purpose is to set apart a group which is quite distinct from typical 
Ophiothrix and entitled to its own name. In addition to the 11 previously known 
species here included in the new genus, there are among the Australian brittle- 
stars at hand and in the M. C. Z. collection of Ophiothrix no fewer than 10 addi- 
tional forms, which require names. 



280 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Macrophiothrix occurs everywhere along the tropical coasts of Australia 
and shows a most perplexing diversity. If the relationship of the various forms is 
to be made clear at all they must be designated and compared. The following 
artificial key to the 21 species here recognized, will serve to indicate their out- 
standing peculiarities and distinctive characters, but it must be borne in mind 
that longipeda is one of the largest of simple-armed ophiurans and its near rela- 
tives are also large. The growth changes therefore are very considerable. For 
example, the arms of longipeda grow to almost incredible length (over 600 mm.) 
under favorable conditions, yet of course in early youth are not notably long; 
specimens 5 mm. across the disk have arms only 30-40 mm. long and even when 
15 mm. across, the arms are only about 10 x the disk diameter. The other char- 
acters such as disk-covering, shape of arm-plates and oral shields, number and 
appearance of arm-spines, are all subject to growth changes as well as to the usual 
individual diversity. It must be recognized therefore that the following key is 
planned to enable one to distinguish adult specimens, and individuals with the 
disk less than 10 mm. across cannot be certainly identified except by comparison 
with good series of specimens. Color pattern is more or less useful for "recogni- 
tion-marks" but in some cases adults become dark colored and their markings 
obscure as they attain their full growth. 

Key to Species of Macrophiothrix 

A. Color red or reddish of some sh.ade, sometimes very tlark but never purple or bluish, with 
longitudinal white lines on both upper and lower side of arms. 

Upper siu'face of arms with two dark lines between which is a white line and on 
either side a white line which is often broken up into irregular fragments .... expedita 
Upper surface of arm with a single median white line bellax 

A'. Color gray, blue, lavender or purple, with or without more or less yellowish or white, the 
upper arm plates often spotted or marked with dark shades; occasionally some upper 
arm-plates are reddish in contrast to the usual purple or bluish. 

B. Upper arm-plates smooth; occasionally in old individuals some may be roughly 
granular or prickly at the sides. 

C. Oral shields large, nearly as long as wide, with spinelets of the interbrachial areas 
extending on to the distal portion. 

D. Upper arm-plates perfectly flat, 3.\ as wide as long, with the sides almost com- 
pletely rounded; proximal and distal margins straight and nearly equal; each 
plate has several (1-12) large, more or less circular very dark spots on the light 
blue-gray background stida 

D'. Not as above. 

E. Under arm-plates wider than long, with convex lateral margins, a straight 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 281 

or slightly concave distal margin and all corners rounded; tentacle-scale 
exceptionally large, rounded antl scale-like megapoma 

E'. Not as above. 

Arms and arm-spines very flat, the uppermost spine very small, flat 
and blunt, the following longer, then 2 or 3 long and horizontal, 
lowest 2 very small, more or less smooth and acicular; color light 

bluish-gray or lavender, with or without yellowish spinifcra 

Arms and arm-spines less flat, the uppermost and lowest less 
differentiated from the others; color of full grown adults very 
dark scotia 

O. Oral shields with no spinelets on distal portion. 

F. Under arm-plates with a broad more or less well defined longitudinal 
white stripe; in large specimens, this may be indistinct or wanting 
proximally but is evident distally, though it may be narrow. 

G. Arms very short, 6-7 times disk diameter; disk covered with very 
low stumps and granules which also cover the radial shields 
sparsely but rather uniformly; color light gray (in a young 
specimen with a pinkish tinge), with a broad, not sharply defined 
white stripe on lower surface of arms and a narrow, more or less 
interrupted and incomplete line above brevipeda 

G'. Arms very long, 10.x disk-diameter or more; disk covering and 
coloration not as above. 

H. Mouth frames covered by a thick skin, so that the outlines of 
oral shields and adoral plates are more or less completely con- 
cealed ; basal upper arm-plates hexagonal, not twice as wide 
as long, but in adults rapidly becoming much wider, with all 
angles somewhat rounded; a longitudinal white stripe 
bounded on each side l\v a dark purple line on upper side 
of arm elongafa 

H'. Not as above. 

Colors dark and light purple and brownish-yellow, a 
single distinct longitudinal light stripe on upper side of 
arm ; large arm-spines rather long, tapering but blunt, 

not truncate and widened at tip lampra 

Colors light purple or lavender and pale yellow or 
whitish; 3 more or less interrupted light stripes on arm, 
or none, except one distally; arm-spines rather short, 
truncate and widened at tip but not clavate . . rhabdofa 

F'. No white stripe on lower surface of arras. 

J. Upper arm-plates with distal lateral angles very sharp; 
proximal margin much shorter than distal, which is 
typically straight or concave, but often bending back- 
ward a little at each end ; if distal margin is convex, the 
lateral angles of plate are nevertheless far distal to the 
middle of the plate; width of plate twice its length or 



282 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



Disk covered with thorny stumps, and radial shields 
with coarse granules; arm-spines not clavate. . . . 

longipeda 
Disk covcrcil with rough spinelets and radial 
shields with a few scattered pointed granules or 
nearly hare; most of the large arm-spines strongly 
clavate belli 

J'. Upper arm-plates not as above. 

K. Upper arm-plates not very wide, width not twice the 
length, lateral angles rounded. Disk and radial 
shields rather uniformly covered with low thorny 
stumps; colors dull ohlnsa 

K^ Not as above. 

L. Upper arm-plates more or less elliptical or 
tetragonal or hexagonal with strongly rounded 
corners. 

Disk covered with low thorny stumps be- 
coming granules on radial shields; arms 
often banded but not conspicuously so, 
frequently with a narrow longitudinal white 
stripe on upper siu-face of arms ... hirsuta 
Disk covered with minute trifid thorns 
which extend over the radial shields as well, 
though less densely; arms very conspic- 
uously banded with deep purple, but the 
bands may be incomplete (lacking on one 
side) and irregular caUizona 

L'. Upper arm-plates with distinct lateral angles. 

M. Each upper arm-plate with 3 white-spots 
along distal border punctolimbata 

M'. Upper arm-plates not so markeil. 

N. Arms short, only 7x diameter; radial 
shields rather uniformly covered (ex- 
cept at distal tip) by minute thorny 
stumps like those on disk. . .calyptaspis 

N'. Arms lOx disk diameter or more; radial 
shields more or less bare. 

O. Under arm-plates with conspic- 
uously thickened convex distal 
margins; tentacle-scales noticeably 
large; arm-spines not at all cla- 
vate michaelseni 

O'. Not as above. 

Under arm-plates wide with 

distal margins concave 

aspidota 



CLAHK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 283 

Under arm -plates with dista' 
margin straight galatrae 

B'. Upper arm-plates with the entire surface rough with minute prickly granules, .riigosa 



It must of course be understood that the above key is merely a beginning. 
Repeated use will bring out its defects quickly. Several of the species are very 
unsatisfactorily known and at least 7 are based on only one or two specimens 
and hence nothing is known as to their diversity. No material whatever of 
hellax or punctolimbata is available to me and the specimens at hand of aspidota 
and galateae are not authenticated by any satisfactory authority. Nevertheless 
it has seemed best to include these species as well as may be in the key and let 
others with more abundant material correct my errors. 

It will be noted that I have made no use of the minute characters of the disk 
spinelets or of the lowest arm-spine, to which Koehler gives no little weight. 
Frankly, I have not been able to see these microscopic details as Koehler did and 
so have been unable to make any use of them in my work. The thorny stumps 
may be roughly distinguished from thorny spinelets, the former being truncate 
with a crown of teeth or spinules, while the spinelets are more elongated, taper to 
a blunt, or less commonly an acute, tip and have teeth or spinules along their 
sides. Beyond this classification, it does not seem to me to be practicable to go. 
The thorny stumps intergrade on the one side with perfectly typical granules and 
on the other with the spinelets ; apparently these changes are associated with an 
individual diversity due to unusually favorable, or unusually hard, environ- 
mental conditions. As regards the characters of the lowest arm-spine, I beUeve 
they are undergoing continual changes due to growth and resorption and the 
mechanical wear caused by the activity of the animal. Hence it is improbable 
that they furnish reliable specific characters. At any rate I have not yet found 
any that seemed to me trustworthy. 

The best marked of the 21 species of Macrophiothrix included in the key, 
are undoubtedly brevipeda, callizona, elongata, expedita, longipeda, megapoma, 
rugosa and sticta. There is also little difficulty about bellax, though it is known 
from only a single specimen and that from an unknown locality; or about hirsuta, 
which has been reported again and again but constantly confused with longipeda; 
it is apparently a good species, though still with regrettably indefinite limits. 
The status of belli is debatable but it can be easily recognized as a rule. The 4 
Western Australian species calyplaspis, michaelseni, scoiia and spinifera are, 
with the exception of the first, known from an abundance of material and are 



284 memoir: museum op comparative zoology 

probably quite distinct forms, but the 2 specimens upon which cahjptaspis is 
based may be "freaks" and that species must be more extensively collected before 
its validity can be established. The new species, lampra, from Port Jackson and 
Long Reef also needs validation by more specimens. The remaining forms, 
aspidota, galateae, obtusa, punctolvmbata and rhabdota are thoroughly unsatis- 
factory. It seems probable that obtusa is valid but the other 4 will very possibly 
prove to be synonyms of better known species. 

The 21 forms will now be considered under 4 headings: (1) previously known 
species not in the AustraUan collections at hand; (2) previously known species in 
these Australian collections; (3) new forms not from Australia, here described 
for the first time; and (4) new Australian species. In each group the species are 
arranged alphabetically. 



i. known species, not in present collection 

Macrophiothrix aspidota 

Ophiothrix aspidota Muller and Tkoschel, 1842. Sys. Ast., p. 115. 

This is to me the least satisfactory of all the forms included in the genus. 
The 4 specimens bearing the name aspidota in the M. C. Z. collection are all 
young and of doubtful identity. They show well the peculiar separation of the 
adoral plates which Koehler (1904, p. 88, 1922, p. 210) has emphasized, but un- 
fortunately very similar adoral plates occur in various individuals of other 
species, and probably the character is not a reliable one. It is hoped that the 
publication of the above key will make it possible for some of my colleagues to 
define aspidota satisfactorily. 

Macrophiothrix bellax 
Ophiothrix bellax Koehler, 1922. Bull. 100 U. S. Nat. Miis., 5, p. 211. 

The unique holotype of this species is from an unknown locality. Its desig- 
nation as a new species seems warranted. 

Macrophiothrix expedita 
Ophiothrix expedita Koehler, 1905. "Siboga." Oph. Litt., p. 96. 

There are 2 specimens of this well-marked species in the M. C. Z. collection; 
1 is a cotype from Sapeh Strait, D.E.I. , 38 fms. and the other was taken by 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 285 

Semper in the Pelew Islands and has been in the M. C. Z. for many years under 
the name longipeda; but a Uibel in jNIr. Lyman's handwriting bears a question 
mark, showing his doubt as to its being that species. It was long in alcohol and 
has lost nearly all the red out of its coloration but there is no doubt of its identity. 



Macrophiothrix galateae 

Ophiothrix galateae LiiTKEN, 1872. Ov. Kongl. Danske Vid. Selsk. Forh. pp. 90 and 108. 

The only specimen referred to this species wliich I have seen is one in the 
M. C. Z. collection taken by Semper in the Phihppine Islands and labelled by 
Mr. Lyman "Ophiothrix galateae? Ltk." It looks to me very much Uke hirsuta 
but the upper arm-plates are as a rule more sharply angular. The disk with almost 
bare radial sliields looks remarkably like Koehler's (1922, pi. 32, fig. 1) photo- 
graph of what he calls aspidota and the upper arm-plates are "very finely granu- 
lose" as Koehler describes them in aspidota. It seems probable that galateae is a 
synonym of aspidota although Koehler (1922 and 1930) treated them as quite 
distinct species and did not even compare them with each other. 



Macrophiothrix hirsuta 

Ophiothrix hirsuta MCller and Troschel, 1842. Sys. Ast. p. 111. 

The identification of this species is not difficult in typical cases but there 
seem to be many individuals which approach longipeda on the one hand and 
aspidota on the other. None of the specimens of Macrophiothrix taken in 
Australia in 1929 or 1932 are to be referred to hirsuta and the specimen taken at 
the Murray Islands in 1913 and referred by me (1915, p. 272) to this species is 
not it. This individual is described beyond (p. 299) as a new species, rugosa. 
Koehler (1907, p. 252) refers to hirsuta 7 specimens taken by Michaelsen and 
Hartmeyer in 1905 in Shark Bay, W. A., and northeastward therefrom. One of 
these specimens is now in the M. C. Z. collection and I am describing it (p. 304) 
as a new species. It is utterly different from hirsuta from Zanzibar, which appear 
to be typical. ^Miether all of the Michaelsen and Hartmej^er specimens are like 
the one before me, it is impossible to say but it seems probable that hirsuta does 
not occur on the Australian coast. 



286 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Macrophiothrix obtusa 

Ophiothri.v obtusa Koehler, 1905. Siboga Oph. Litt., p. 9S. 

One of Koehler's cotypes from Madura Bay, Flores, D. E. I., 38-50 fms. is 
in the IVI. C. Z. collection. The relatively long upper arm-plates and the long, 
clavate second (or third) spine on each side arm-plate are quite distinctive. The 
dull unspotted and unstriped coloration may also be helpful in distinguishing the 
species. 

Macrophiothrix punctolimbata 

Ophiothrix pundolimhata von Martens, 1870. Arcli. f. Naturg. 36, p. 257. 

Were it not for Matsumoto's (1917, pp. 219 and 226) account and figure of a 
distinctive coloration, it would be almost impossible to include this species in the 
present key, as I have never seen a specimen called punctolimbata. It should be 
noted that von Martens stresses the granular covering of the disk in contrast to 
the covering in longipeda and says nothing about white spots on the upper arm- 
plates. Moreover Matsumoto had but a single specimen upon which to base his 
figure and account. Obviouslj' the species is most inadequately known. 

Macrophiothrix rhabdota 

Ophiothrix rhabdota H. L. Clark, 1915. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. 278. 

No specimens of Macrophiothrix which can be referred to this unsatisfactory 
species were taken either in 1929 or 1932. Besides the 7 specimens in the M. C. Z. 
from the Murray Islands, there is a long-armed Ophiothrix from Port Galera, 
Mindoro, Philippine Islands, collected by Professor L. E. Griffin, which I refer 
with much hesitation to this species. It is more uniformly violet than in the 
typical specimeas, there are no stripes or other marks on the basal part of the 
arms but distally a narrow median line appears and far out near the very tips of 
the arnxs, a light line is more or less evident on each side of each upper arm-plate. 
On the oral surface the median white line is less well-defined and shows more 
tendency to be interrupted on the proximal part of the arm, than is typical; 
distally it is fairly well-defined but narrow. The disk-covering, the form of upper 
and under arm-plates, the arm-spines and the oral shields are all just as in typical 
rhabdota. It seems better therefore to call this specimen by that name than to 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 287 

attempt to distinguish it as a new species. It may well be regarded as an un- 
usually violet rhabdota. 

Koehler (1922, p. 230) has treated rhabdota as a variety of expedita, and there 
is some reason for so doing, but after comparing one of Koehler's types of expedita 
with the types of rhabdota, it does not seem to me they are so nearly related. I 
think the difference in color is a very important one and in addition to that, the 
upper arm-plates of rhabdota are shorter and wider than in Koehler's species and 
the arm-spines are also shorter and wider. Probably rhabdota is nearer to longipeda 
than to any other species. 



11. known species in the present collections 
Macrophiothrix belli 
Ophioihrix belli Doderlein, 1896. Denk. Ges. .Jena, 8, p. 292. 

This species, pre\'iously known only from the unique holotype taken at 
Thursday Island pro^'es to be a common form at both Darwin and Broome. 
Moreover Captain Bardwell found it at Augustus Island, so it is probably dis- 
tributed along the whole northern coast of Australia, wherever conditions are 
suitable. It is easily distinguished from longipeda, its nearest relative, b}^ its 
conspicuously clavate arm-spines (one or more in each series), its disk-covering 
and its tendency towards bare radial shields. The clavate spines appear in quite 
young specimens but of course are not very marked until the disk is 8-10 mm. 
across. The radial shields tend to be bare, but are seldom free from all spinelets 
and usually have a good many; they are often spotted with dark purple. The disk 
covering consists of high thorny stumps more or less like spinelets, somewhat 
different from the low stumps of longipeda. The difference is not important but 
it is usually obvious. Since typical longipeda occurs at Darwin and Broome and 
even at Augustus Island, the question naturally arises "Are the two species 
really valid?" The only reply at present is "Adults can be easily distinguished." 
It will require further study on the northern coast to find whether the two forms 
actually occur together in the same habitat and to answer similar questions about 
them as living organisms. 

In general belli is lighter colored and the arm-segments appear to be a httle 
longer than in longipeda, the arm-spines seeming to be less crowded. This gives a 
somewhat different facies to belli and makes the species easy to distinguish from 



288 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

longipeda when specimens are placed together. But the specimens from Augustus 
Island, which are here referred to belli are notably darker than any others seen and 
the banding of the arms is very faint. The disks are dark brown, the arms 
violet or purple; in most specimens the arm-spines are more or less dull yellow; 
many are markedly clavate. 

The 43 specimens of Macrophiothrix here referred to belli are from the 
following places : 

Northern Territory: Coburg Peninsula; Port Essington and AUaru Island 

along shore. May 20-22, 1932, 4 specimens, adult and 
young. 
Darwin, Casuarina Beach and Night Cliff, July, 1929. 7 

specimens, adult and young. 
Darwin, East Point, June and July, 1929. 5 specimens, 

adult and young. 
Darwin, western side of harbor, July, 1929. 1 specimen, 

adult. 
Quail Island, west of Darwin, July 7-9, 1929. 2 specimens, 
small adult and young. 
Western Australia : Augustus Island, October, 1933. Captain B. E. Bardwell 

leg. 7 specimens, adult and young, unusually dark 
colored. 
Broome, August and September, 1929. 9 specimens, adult 
and young; the largest have the disks 22-25 mm. across 
the arms 300-340 mm. long. 
Broome, June, 1932. 7 specimens, small adults and young. 
Port Hedland, July 6, 1932. 1 very young specimen. 



Macrophiothrix longipeda 

Ophiura longipeda Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 544. 
Ophiothrix longipeda Muller and Troschel, 1842. Syst. Ast., p. 113. 

This species is not so common as belli apparently, on the northern and north- 
western coasts of AustraUa, but it ranges far more widely in the tropics as a whole 
than does its near relative. Perfectly typical specimens of longipeda (as now under- 
stood) are in the M. C. Z. collection from Tahiti on the east to Mauritius and Zan- 



CLABK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 289 

zibar on the west; to the northward its range extends to Kominato, Japan, and 
to the southward to Port Curtis, Queensland. Koehler (1907) reports longipeda 
from Turtle Island, Port Hedland and the Abrolhos, in Western Australia, but 
as his knowledge of the species and its allies was greatly extended in later years, 
it is possible his identification of these specimens might have been changed. I have 
seen no specimens of longipeda from west of Broome, and south of North West 
Cape, I believe it is replaced by michaelseni. My own record of longipeda from 
South Africa (1923, p. 340) is probably erroneous for the small specimens are 
certainly not that species but seem to represent a hitherto undescribed form 
(See below, under M. brevipeda). There are 3 specimens labelled longipeda in 
the M. C. Z. said to be from the "east coast of South Africa, probably Delagoa 
Bay," and apparently the same form ranges to the coast of northern Natal 
(See H. L. Clark, 1923, p. 340). It must be emphasized however that these south- 
ern specimens are by no means typical as the arms are shorter than usual, the 
radial shields are small and perfectly bare and the upper arm-plates do not have 
as acute lateral angles as they should have. But unfortunately the material at 
hand is not adequate for describing a new species. Nevertheless it is very doubtful 
if longipeda occurs any further south on the African coast than it does on the 
Austrahan. 

The 23 specimens of longipeda at hand from tropical Australia are not a 
typical series as the largest is only 18 mm. across the disk, scarcely half the size 
of full grown adults. It is notable that they come from the same places as belli, 
save for one specimen from Queensland, increasing the suspicion that belli and 
longipeda are not really distinct species — possibly the differences are associated 
with sex. 
Queensland: Great Barrier Reef (near Mackay), Lindeman Island. Melbourne 

Ward leg. et don. 1 specimen, adult. 
Northern Territory: Coburg Peninsula; Port Essington and Allaru Island, May 

20-22, 1932. 2 specimens, small adult and young. 
Darwin, Casuarina Beach, July, 1929. 2 specimens, small 

adults. 
Darwin, East Point, June and July, 1929. 3 specimens, 

adult and young. 
Darwin, dredged near Shell Islands and Leper Station. 6 

specimens, young and very young. 
Darwin, western side of harbor, June, 1929. 2 specimens, 

adult. 



290 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Western Australia: Augustus Island. October, 1933, Captain Beresford E. Bard- 
well leg. 1 specimen, young. 
Broome, August and September, 1929. 3 specimens, small 

adults. 
Broome, June, 1932. 3 specimens, young. 



Macrophiothrix michaelseni 

Ophiothrix michaelseni Koehler, 1907a. Fauna Sudwest-Australiens, 1, p. 250. 

This species was not met with in our collecting but Professor Bennett has 
sent a Macrophiothrix taken by him at Bunkers Bay, W. A., in January, 1930, 
which seems to represent it. It lacks spines among the thorny stumps on the disk 
and there is no light Une on the upper side of the arm but when compared with a 
specimen of michaelseni in the M. C. Z., from near Fremantle, the resemblances 
outweigh the differences. Obviously much more material of michaelseni must be 
collected and studied before the specific characters can be fully understood. The 
specimen at hand is about 15 mm. across the disk; the arms are all broken off, 
45-85 mm. from the disk but they are flat and rather wide, with short wide upper 
arm-plates and flat, thorny, blunt but not clavate arm-spines; the arms are 
rather bright violet, very faintly and indefinitely banded; the arm-spines however 
are pale brown. 



III. NEW SPECIES OF MACROPHIOTHRIX, NOT FROM AUSTRALIA 

Macrophiothrix brevipedai sp. nov. 

Disk rounded pentagonal, 12 mm. across, closely covered with granules or 
very low thorny stumps, which are obviously longer at the margin of the inter- 
brachial areas; radial shields sparsely covered with granules, smallest and most 
sparse at the inner distal corner. Arms notably short, not more than 90 mm.; all 
are broken except one that is obviously regenerating. Upper arm-plates (fig. 20), 
2.5-3x as wide as long, the lateral margins short and rounded, the proximal and 
distal margins more or less straight (often slightly convex or irregular) and broadly 
in contact. 

' brevis= short +pe(la, contrasting with longipeda, the type species, in reference to the unusually 
short arms for this genus. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 291 

Interbrachial areas below well covered with thorn j^ stumps or granules. 
Under arm-plates (excepting the first 3 or 4) scarcely or not in contact, wider 
than long, oblong or somewhat pentagonal with an ill-defined proximal angle; 
all corners rounded; distal margin nearly or quite straight. Arm-spines 7, those 
on the first 5 segments, conspicuously reduced; on the following segments, the 
third or fourth spine from the top is longest, its length about equal to width of 
arm; it is flat, distinctly serrate along each margin, truncately blunt; the spines 
above and below are similar but shorter, the uppermost is often very short ; lowest 
spine very small, smooth, sharp; the next similar but larger; the next much larger 
and blunter. Tentacle-scale small, thick and rounded. 




Fig. 20. Maerophiothrix brevipeda. Upper arm-plates, x 6. 

Oral shields large, rounded pentagonal, with a fairly evident inner angle; 
about 1.5 mm. wide by 1.25 mm. long; madreporite largest, almost as long as 
wide. Adoral plates short and wide, lying on the proximal sides of the oral 
shield and meeting more or less evidently within; at the outer ends where they 
are widest, they are separated by the first under arm-plate. There are no spinelets 
on the oral shields. Color of dry holotype dull light gray; arm-spines nearly 
white ; on the upper side of the arm distally is a median white line but proximally 
this becomes broken and appears only in fragments. Under side of arm brown- 
ish-gray with a broad, median white stripe, which is not sharply defined basally 
but becomes very distinct distally. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 4345, from Natal, off Umhlangakulu River, the 
mouth of wliich was N. W. by N., 7 miles, 50 fms. There is a much smaller 
paratype with disk about 7 mm. across from off the Itongagi River, Natal, in 
25 fms. It is like the larger individual in most particulars but has a very slight 
pinkish tinge and the white line on the upper side of the arm is less distinct. The 
upper arm-plates are longer and not so wide and the proximal margin is much 
shorter than the distal one but the absence of lateral angles is just as evident. 



292 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

These 2 specimens were collected by the "Pieter Faure" and were con- 
sidered by me (1923, p. 340) "with Uttle doubt" to be young longipeda. Wider 
acquaintance with the latter species convinces me that this is quite impossible, 
and there is no species with which it is Hkely they can be confused. 



Macrophiothrix elongata' sp. nov. 
Plate 24, fig. 4 

Disk 17 mm. in diameter nearly circular, somewhat puffed up and highest 
at center, covered as in longipeda with low thorny stumps which become mere 
granules on the radial shields. Arras 360 mm. long or more, thus nearly 21 times 
the disk diameter. Upper arm-plates more or less transverse-elliptical about 
twice as wide as long or a little wider, the lateral margins fully curved, the 
proximal and distal margins more or less nearly straight or the distal one some- 
what concave; the proximal margin is the shorter; near the tip of the arms, the 
plates are longer and narrower; near the middle of the arms, the lateral margins 
are less perfectly rounded and the plates might be called rounded hexagonal 
rather than elliptical. 

Interbrachial areas below well-covered with thorny stumps. Under arm- 
plates squarish with rounded angles, fully in contact ; their outlines are obscured 
by the skin over them and made more difficult to determine by the variegated 
coloration; far out on the arm, the skin is thinner and the plates are then evi- 
dently longer than wide. Arm-spines on the first 7 or 8 arm-segments greatly 
reduced as in longipeda; beyond the disk, there are 7 or 6 (not often 8) on each 
side arm-plate ; they resemble those of longipeda in being Uttle thorny, somewhat 
flattened, blunt but not clavate; the uppermost is often very small and the lowest 
is always minute and sharp. Tentacle-scale small and inconspicuous, near base 
of arm it is pointed, distally it is rounded. 

Oral shields large, imbedded in a thick skin which conceals their outhnes, 
even in the dry specimen; this skin also completely conceals the adoral and first 
under arm-plates. There are no spinelets on or near the oral shields. Color of 
radial shields and disk plates deep bluish purple; the thorny stumps and granules 
and the margins of the radial shields all around, brownish-white; upper arm- 
plates light gray-violet; running the whole length of the arm is a narrow, median 
white stripe bounded on each side by a dark purple Une; a few scattered dark 

' eZon5aius= stretched out, in reference to the unusually long arms. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 293 

purple spots- may be found near the lateral margins of the plates; the margins 
themselves and the upper ends of the side arm-plates may be quite distinctly 
brownish-white. Arm-spines tinted with violet. Under arm-plates profusely 
variegated with purple and brownish-white; near the disk, the plates are light 
along the middle line, dark at margins, indicating the beginning of a median 
hght stripe, but it is only on the distal half of the arm that this stripe is well 
marked; near the tip of the arm the stripe occupies the middle of the plates and 
their margins are also brownish-white, giving an appearance of 3 narrow, parallel 
stripes. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 2361, from the Persian Gulf. F. W. Townsend leg. 1895. 

There is an accompanying paratype from the same place and collector. It 
is much smaller, with the disk 10 mm. across, the arms 200 mm. long. The upper 
arm-plates are rounded hexagonal like those near the middle of the arm in the 
holotype. The under arm-plates can be distinguished; they are hexagonal with 
more or less rounded angles; near base of arms they are about as broad as long 
but distally they are distinctly longer than broad. The color is as in the holotype 
but the longitudinal Unes both above and below are very distinct throughout the 
whole length of the arm. The oral shields and adoral plates are as completely 
concealed in this individual as in the larger one. This feature combined with the 
characters of the arm-plates and the striking coloration makes the recognition of 
elongata easy. \Vhether it is confined to the Persian Gulf or extends into the 
Arabian Sea remains to be discovered. 



IV. NEW SPECIES OF MACROPHIOTHRIX FROM AUSTRALIA 

Macrophiothrix callizona^ sp. nov. 
Plate 24, fig. 1 

Disk 10 mm. in diameter nearly circular, flat, covered with minute trifid 
stumps, which extend over the radial shields quite uniformly but not as densely 
as elsewhere; while the stumps generally have but three sharp points, there are 
occasionally 4 or 5, and sometimes there are but 2 or only 1. Upper arm-plates 
transverse elUpses, with rounded ends and nearly straight, parallel, proximal and 
distal margins; the proximal margin is commonly somewhat shorter than the 
distal which is not rarely sUghtly concave ; the plates are broadly in contact with 
each other. 

' KaXKi^uvos = u-ilh beautiful girdles, in reference to the handsome bands on the arms. 



294 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Interbrachial areas below with trifid stumps but chiefly near the distal 
margin. Under arm-plates (excepting the basal 3 or 4) squarish with rounded 
corners, commonly wider than long ; distal border concave and plates evidently 
not in contact but separated by a transverse furrow. Arm-spines slender but 
blunt, very thorny, the third usually longest; uppermost often very small; 3 
lowest very small, smooth. On the first 4 or 5 arm-segments, the spines are much 
reduced. Tentacle-scale very small, rounded. 

Oral shields pentagonal, without spinelets, wider than long, all angles 
rounded, the innermost low and wide; madreporite conspicuously largest with a 
more evident proximal angle. Adoral plates small, about as wide as long, lying 
wholly on the proximal sides of the oral shields, separated radially by the first 
under arm-plate, barely meeting within. 

Color of dry specimen, disk pale gray, conspicuously spotted with deep 
purple; radial shields variegated with gray and purple; trifid stumps brownish- 
white. Arms lavender-gray conspicuously banded with deep purple; arm-spines 
pale brown. The bands occur about every 3 segments; under a lens their bound- 
aries are very indefinite; sometimes only half a band is formed, its fellow being 
not quite so far, or a little further, out on the arm ; there are about 45 bands on 
the longest (the only entire) arm. Under arm-plates cream-color, speckled and 
occasionally blotched with deep purple. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5112, from Broome, W. A. August, 1929. 

Again at Broome in June, 1932, a somewhat smaller specimen of this lovely 
brittle-star was secured. It does not differ essentially from the holotype. The 
oral shields are lower and wider, more rounded diamond-shape than pentagonal. 
The coloration is a little more vivid as the light color on the arms is very pale and 
the arm-spines are nearly colorless. Apparently callizona is a very secretive 
species and is seldom dredged. Unfortunately its peculiarities were not noted in 
the field and the specimens were not distinguished from young belli until studied 
in Cambridge. 

Macrophiothrix calyptaspis' sp. nov. 
Plate 25, fig. 3 

Disk 10-11 mm. across, densely covered with low, thorny stumps which 
extend over the radial sliields but not very considerably near their distal 

^ Ka\mT6i= covered + acwLs = shield,, in reference to the f.act that the radial shields are well covered 
with thorny stumps. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 295 

ends. Arms only 65-75 mm. long, fairly stout at base, with a moderately 
attenuate tip. Upper arm-plates 2-2.5 x as wide as long, broadly in contact; 
distal and proximal margins nearly straight, the former considerably longer; 
lateral margins with a distinct but rounded angle near the distal side. 

Interbrachial areas below more or less naked except near the distal margin. 
Under arm-plates (excepting the first 3 or 4) wider than long, oblong with nearly 
straight margins and rounded corners, not in contact, but separated by distinct 
transverse furrows. Arm-spines 7 (6-8) not peculiar; uppermost often and lowest 
2 or 3 always very small; frequently the uppermost spine is moderately long, the 
little spine which should lie above it being absent; some of the longer spines 
are thickened at the end and a few could be called capitate; all are blunt and 
more or less thorny. Tentacle-scale small, rounded or bluntly pointed. 

Oral shields without spinelets, wider than long with all four angles rounded ; 
madreporite largest, its length and breadth about equal. Adoral plates unusually 
irregular in size and form, just meeting mthin, as a rule, but widely separated 
radially; they are squarish or oblong, with all corners much rounded, the outer 
end normally wider than inner. Color of disk in dry specimens, gray with areas 
aromid radial shields somewhat yellowish; upper arm-plates gray-lilac and arm- 
spines brownish; an indistinct light line is visible along the upper side of the arm 
distally and there is a faint hint of "banding" on the arms, especially on the 
distal half. Mouth frame and basal under arm-plates cream-color but the arm- 
plates soon show a dusky tint especially near distal margin and distally whole 
plates, sometimes 2 or 3 together, are nearly black so that the outer half of the 
arm is distinctly banded. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5114, from Broome, W. A. August, 1929. 

There is a single paratype, also taken at Broome in August or September, 
1929, which is of about the same size and proportions as the one described above. 
It is however much lighter colored but this is in part at least abnormal. The disk 
is quite yellowish as are 3 of the arms; the other two arms are gray lilac as in 
the holotype, but on only one are the blackish under arm-plates present; one of 
the yellowish arms becomes gray lilac at tip. The light colored median line on 
the upper side of the arms is more or less distinguishable but is very faint. The 
upper arm-plates have the distal margins slight Ij- concave and the lateral margins 
are more rounded than in the holotype. My 1929 field notes throw no hght on 
the habitat of these 2 specimens, but from the fact that we did not meet with the 
species in 1932 when nearly all collecting was done by dredging it seems probable 
that they were found under rocks on the rich collecting grounds at Entrance Point. 



296 MEMom: museum of comparative zoology 

Macrophiothrix lampra^ sp. nov. 

Disk 20 mm. across, pentagonal and flattened, 4 mm. thick. Radial shields 
large and conspicuous as they are noticeably bare, though each one carries a 
number of well spaced stump-like granules. Remainder of disk closely covered 
by low, thorny stumps. Arms 5, about 2G0 mm. long, stout at base, tapering 
gradually to a not very attenuate tip. Upper arm-plates (fig. 21) low, wide, with 
very sharp lateral angles as in longipeda; width of plate 2.5-3 x length; proximal 
margin straight, distal more or less convex. 





.-^^K?. 




^-<, - 




>-< 


Fig. 21. 


Macrophiothrix lampra. Upper arm-plates, x fi. 



Interbrachial areas below well covered with thorny stumps but they do not 
encroach on the oral shields. Under arm-plates (excepting first few) wider than 
long, oblong or somewhat hexagonal with all corners fully rounded; distal and 
proximal margins nearly straight, about equal, more or less completely in con- 
tact. Arm-spines 8 or 9, long, slender and bluntly pointed; the third from the 
top usually longest (4-5 mm.) much longer than width of arm itself. Uppermost 
spine may be very small; lowermost 2, small and smooth. The spines of the basal 
arm-joints are reduced as usual but the transition to the normal series is so 
gradual as to hide the contrast. Tentacle-scale large and scale-like, fiUing con- 
spicuously the angle between the under arm-plate and the spine-bearing ridge 
on each side. 

Oral shields very large, the madreporite largest; length and breadth about 
equal, triangular with angles rounded and often the distal side slightly projecting 
to connect with interbrachial area, but there are no spines or granules on the 
shield. Adoral plates rather large, rounded triangular or quadrangular with inner 
end much wider than outer, which lies between the oral shield and the arm-plates. 

' Xafivpo! = handsome, of obvious significance. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 297 

Color of disk and upper arm-plates, in the dry specimen, deep purple with spots 
and markings which are nearl}' black; disk-stumps and arm-spines dusky, but 
basal part of arm-spines is violet ; a light median line runs along the upper surface 
of arm becoming more and more white and sharply defined distally; many upper 
arm-plates (usually two together) are lighter than the others so that the arms are 
definitely, but not very conspicuously, banded with alternating areas of light and 
dark. On the lower surface, the mouth frame and oral shields are brownish-white 
and the distal portion of the arm-spines appears yellowish-brown in the mass. 
Under arm-plates dusky with a violet tinge, nearly black distally; a median 
whitish line runs the whole length of the arm; beginning at the fourth plate, the 
line is broad and distinct for half a dozen plates and then becomes broken into a 
more or less separate fragment on each plate, but distally becomes continuous 
again and runs to the arm-tip where it is very narrow. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5116, from Bottle and Glass Rocks, Port Jackson, 
N. S. W. November 27, 1929. 

On the day after the holotype was taken, 2 very fine paratypes of about the 
same size were collected at Long Reef, CoUoroy, just north of Port Jackson. At 
the time they were supposed to be very large specimens of Placophiothrix spongi- 
cola (Stimpson) but in spite of a certain superficial resemblance, the differences 
are obvious when the two are side by side. It is not improbable that this super- 
ficial similarity has led to the confusion hitherto of these two quite unlike brittle- 
stars. 

Macrophiothrix megapoma^ sp. nov. 

Disk 18 mm. in diameter. Arms 5, verj^ long but as all are broken at 100 mm. 
or less from the disk margin, one can only guess as to their relative length; it is 
very unlikely that they were less than 200 mm. long. Disk covered with thorny 
stumps of moderate height, longest near the interradial margins; these stumps 
more or less reduced to high granules cover the radial shields sparsely but rather 
uniformly. Upper arm-plates (fig. 22) low and wide, with a sharp lateral angle at 
the distal corners; the width is 2.5-3 x the length; the short proximal margin is 
straight while the longer distal margin is slightly convex. 

Interbrachial areas below, rather densely covered with thorny stumps which 
pass into minute sharp spinelets on the posterior margin of the oral shields. 
Under arm-plates beyond the first half-dozen, wider than long, broadly in con- 
tact; lateral margins markedly convex, and distal and proximal margins nearly 

' /xiyas -big+Trwfia =lid, in reference to the unusually large tentacle-scales. 



298 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

straight. Tentacle-scale wanting on first pore or two, small on the third and 
thereafter very large, scale hke, rounded or truncate, rarely notched at tip. 
Arm-spines 7 (6-8) as usual, second or third from top longest, slender, tapering, 
not very thorny, bluntly pointed; uppermost often very small or wholly wanting; 
lowest minute and smooth. 

Oral shields large, diamond-shaped, wider than long, with lateral angles 
rounded, distal angle even more rounded and proximal angle rather sharp, except 
on the very large madreporite. On all, the outer margin carries a number of 
minute spinelets, a few of which also occur on the face of the plate. Adoral plates 
rounded triangular, lying on the inner sides of the oral shield, just touching in- 
wardly but widely separated radially; the pair adjoining the madreporite are 




Fig. 22. Macrophiothrix megapoma. Upper arm-plates, x 6. 

greatly reduced. Color an almost uniform lavender-gray, the arm-spines some- 
what transparent and hence lighter; upper arm-plates very faintly variegated 
with darker and on some plates especially at base of arm there are indications of a 
median white spot. Under arm-plates gray but white in the middle so there is a 
rather broad median white stripe along the lower side of the arm. Mouth frame 
and oral shields nearly white. 

Holotype, British Museum no. 1936.6.2.1, from Penguin Channel, northern 
Queensland, 12-14 fms. Great Barrier Reef Expedition, "Magneta" St. IX. 
February 22, 1929. 

This specimen was recorded by me (1932, p. 204) as longipeda but in the light 
of present knowledge, it is unquestionably a distinct species. There is in the 
M. C. Z. a paratype, taken by the "Challenger" near Cape York, St. 186, which 
was called longipeda by Mr. Lyman. This specimen was 23 mm. across the disk 
but the upper surface of the disk has been carefully removed and Ues apart from 
the lower half; also the arms are all broken off close to the disk and only one 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 299 

fragment, less than 20 mm. long is present. Nevertheless the spiny oral shields 
and the very characteristic under arm-plates and tentacle-scales show beyond 
question its identity. Apparently megapoma occurs only on the northern Queens- 
land coast. 

Macrophiothrix rugosa' sp. nov. 

Disk 16 mm. across, pentagonal, with concave radial sides, so that the inter- 
brachial areas project. Arms 5, somewhat more than 165 mm. long, tapering 
rather uniformly from the base. Disk covered with thorny stumps, of which 
there are very few on the nearly naked radial shields and surprisingly few on the 
interbrachial lobes. Upper arm-plates (fig. 23), transverse-elUptical with rounded 



Fig. 23. Macrophiothrix rugosa. Upper arm-plates, x 6. 

lateral margins; usually however the distal side is a little longer than the proxi- 
mal and the plate is widest distal to the middle, so the ellipse is not symmetrical; 
the plates are 2-3 x as wide as long and broadly in contact ; the entire surface is 
uniformly covered with minute prickly granules, making it noticeably rough to 
both sight and touch. 

Interbrachial areas below nearly naked with only a few spinelets at the distal 
margin. Under arm-plates (excepting the first 3 or 4) oblong, wider than long, all 
four corners rounded, more or less fully in contact; the center is a little depressed 
and all the margins a little swollen; the whole surface is very minutely pebbled, 
like shagreen. Tentacle-scales small, somewhat larger distally; they are nearly 
triangular and fit rather snugly into the angle between the under arm-plates and 
the spine-bearing ridges. Arm-spines 6 or 7, rather slender, bluntly pointed, 
somewhat thorny; second or third longest but not much longer than width of 
arm; uppermost spines often verj' small, as the lowest always are. 

' rugosus = Tough, in reference to the character of the upper arm-plates. 



300 memoik: museum of comparative zoology 

Oral shields without spinelets, rounded triangular about as long as wide, 
the distal side projecting but Uttle; madreporite not very much bigger; all 
angles very much rounded, and proximal sides a little concave. Adoral plates 
more or less reduced and correspondingly irregular; they are rounded but not of 
uniform size or shape, and lie on the proximal sides of the oral shields, but are 
scarcely in actual contact with each other or with any other plates. 

Color of dry specimen, nearly uniform purple on disk and arms, but the arms 
are rather conspicuously banded with alternating narrow areas of lighter and 
darker purple. Mouth frames and oral shields brownish-white tinged with or 
obscured by dusky. Lower surface of arms distinctly banded with alternating 
narrow areas, 1 or 2 plates wide, of light and dark dusky violet. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 3799, from Mer, Murray Islands, Torres Strait. 
October, 1913. 

This unique brittle-star was recorded by me (1921, p. 110) as hirsuta but 
with openly expressed doubt as to the validity of the species. Now I believe the 
species is valid but this Murray Island specimen does not correspond \\'ith the 
present conception of hirsuta, and for the time being must be given a name for 
itself. Although references to forms of long-armed Ophiothrbc with rough upper 
arm-plates may be found several times in the literature, they are indefinite and 
confusing. This is the only specimen I have ever seen wliich showed the char- 
acter, although there is a specimen from Zanzibar in the M. C. Z., one of the 
types of Lyman's cheneyi, later considered hirsuta by Lyman (1882, p. 226) which 
has the lateral portions of several upper arm-plates distinctly rough in the same 
way. Possibly rugosa will prove to be only a variety of hirsuta but at present it 
seems to be quite a distinct form. 



Macrophiothrix scotia' sp. nov. 
Plate 24, fig. 2 

Disk 23 mm. in diameter, arms 375-400 mm. long; although all the arms are 
broken, one is whole for enough of its length to make the calculation of approxi- 
mate length, trustworthy. Disk covered with thorny stumps, somewhat longer 
and more slender than in longipeda but not essentially different. Radial shields 
more or less covered, though much less thickly than the disk itself, with smaller 
somewhat graniform stumps. Upper arm-plates low and wide, 2.5-3 x as wide as 

' CKOTLOS =dark, in reference to the color of adults. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 301 

long, not flat but slightly arched, the distal margin longer and more convex than 
the proximal which is quite straight; lateral angles evident but somewhat 
rounded, more or less distal to middle of lateral margin. 

Interbrachial areas below rather densely covered with thorny stumps dis- 
tally, but near oral shields there are only a few well-spaced spinelets. Under 
arm-plates (except the basal ones) oblong, broadly in contact, wider than long 
with rounded angles, distal angles usually more considerably rounded than 
proximal. Arm-spines 8, the second or third from the top longest, slender, finely 
thorny, bluntly pointed, much longer than width of arm; uppermost spine often 
very small but distinctly spiniform, not at all flattened; lowest spine also spini- 
form and very small, the two above it distinctly longer and more thorny. The 
spines of the basal joints are reduced as usual but there is no very abrupt change 
beyond disk margin. Tentacle-scale low and inconspicuous until far out on arm 
it gradually becomes much larger and very conspicuous. 

Oral shields large, rounded triangular about as wide as long or a little wider, 
the madreporite not strikingly different; distal margins with a considerable num- 
ber of acute spinelets. Adoral plates ill-defined, rather large, but their outlines 
are concealed to some extent by thick skin; they are wholly proximal to the oral 
shields and seem to be in contact in the interradial midline. Color almost uni- 
formly dark purple ; upper surface darker and brighter than lower ; indications of 
banding on the arms very faint; far out on the arm an indistinct light median line 
can be detected on the upper arm-plates. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5118, from Entrance Point, Broome, W. A. August, 
1929. 

The very dark color of these large ophiurans was so different from the 
Ughter shades of belli and longipeda that it seemed obvious that they were a 
different species but it was soon learned that the very dark shades are only 
assumed with full maturity. My field notes dated August 5, 1929, say: "Variable 
as usual but most specimens very dark; unfortunately some specimens were 
stained by antedonin in preparation. There is no red or reddish in life." August 
15. "Huge one, blackest seen, brought up by diver. Some very dark at En- 
trance Point." The large specimens were of course easily distinguished from 
heM and longipeda but the smaller the specimens are the more difficult it is to dis- 
tinguish the species. After careful comparison of all the young Macrophiothrix 
from northern Australia in the present collection, the following distinguishing 
features stand out. 

In belli, the club-shaped arm-spines and the wider spacmg of the series of 



302 memoir: museum op comparative zoology 

arm-spines, combines witli the light coloration to distinguish even quite young 
specimens. Young longipeda show quite early the characteristic angular upper 
arm-plates and this with the absence of club-shaped arm-spines makes their 
recognition fairly possible. Young scotia are much like belli but the spinelets on 
the oral shields are perfectly distinctive when tliey are present as they may be 
even in individuals only 5-6 mm. across the disk. When these spinelets have not 
yet appeared, the brightly colored, blue and white lower surface, and particularly 
a blue patch on each oral shield are helpful distinguishing features, but both 
belli and longipeda when very young may be exasperatingly similar. One feature 
of young scotia which has not been noted in either of the other species is the 
presence of spinelets among the thorny stumps of the disk. These are by no 
means always present but are sometimes numerous and conspicuous, and remind 
one of michaelseni of the west coast; they are not to be found after the disk is 
10 mm. across. 

The 47 specimens of scotia at hand are from the following localities. No adult 
specimens have been taken east of Cape Leveque yet the specimens here listed 
from the vicinity of Darwin have spinelets on the oral shields and are typical 
young individuals of scotia. 
Northern Territory: Darwm, July, 1929, dredged. 1 specimen, young. 

Darwin, QuaU Island, Jul}', 1929. 2 specimens, young. 
Western Australia: Broome, Gantheaume and Entrance Points, under rocks, 

August and September, 1929. 14 adults. 

Broome, September, 1929. 7 specimens, young. 

Broome, dredged, June, 1932. 20 specimens, small adults 
and young. 

Lagrange Bay, off False Cape Bossut, September, 1929. 
3 specimens, young. 



Macrophiothrix spinifera^ sp. nov. 
Plate 24, fig. 3 

Disk 20 mm. across, arms 275-300 mm. long; all the arms are broken, but 
one admits of giving an approximate measurement. Disk flat, rather thick, cov- 
ered with a dense coat of very low, thorny stumps; radial shields almost as closely 
covered with thorny granules. Arms notably flat, the arm spines lying out hori- 

' spinifera = bearing spines, in reference to the spinelets on the oral shields. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 303 

zontally on each side. Upper arm-plates, short, wide and nearly flat; width fully 
3 X length; lateral margins with a rounded angle just anterior to the middle; both 
proximal and distal margins are straight and broadly in contact. 

Interbrachial areas below densely covered with thorny stumps distally; 
proximally the stumps give way to spinelets wliich extend up onto the distal por- 
tion of the oral shields, where they are quite conspicuous. Under arm-plates 
(excepting the basal ones) as wide as long, or distinctly wider; they are not merely 
in contact but have the appearance of a slight overlapping; all angles are well 
rounded and the lateral margins are somewhat convex. Arm-spines G-8, flat and 
blunt, very finely thorny, lying crowded together, quite horizontal; the upper- 
most spine in each series is very short, flat and blunt; the next is longer but 
much shorter than the 2 or 3 following which are notably long and flat; the lowest 
2 are again very small. Tentacle-scales, large and scale-like becoming quite con- 
spicuous on distal part of arm. 

Oral shields very large somewhat wider than long, rather more pentagonal 
than rhomboidal, but with all angles even the innermost much rounded; madre- 
porite not conspicuously largest; distal margins with many spinelets like those on 
the interbrachial areas. Adoral plates large, somewhat tetragonal with outer end 
wider than inner; they he wholly proximal to the oral shield and meet quite fully 
in the interradial Une. Color of dry specimen, Ught grayish lavender, the granules 
on the radial shields, the tips of the arm-spines, and particularly the distal ends 
of the radial shields more or less yellowish; mouth frame, oral shields and under 
arm-plates yellowish, cream-color or white; only on the distal portion of the arm, 
the under arm-plates gradually become violet and as the tip is approached are 
spotted with dark violet. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5125, from Entrance Point, Broome, W. A., August, 
1929. 

In its fully adult condition this is a handsome and easily recognized Alacro- 
phiothrix but young individuals, with disks only 6-8 mm. across or less cannot be 
separated from young scotia with any certainty. As a rule the disk covering in 
young spinifera is made up of more minute and more widely spaced "thorny 
granules" than in belli, longipeda or scotia but some specimens whose disk- 
covering places them in spinifera have the blue blotches on the oral shields so 
characteristic of scotia. The adults of scotia and spinifera are so unhke it is cer- 
tainly confusing to have the young ones so indistinguishable. 

At Broome, spinifera is apparently fairly common but it was not distin- 
guished from longipeda and belli until the dried specimens were studied. Appar- 



304 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

ently it does not occur either east or west of tlie Broome region for the 53 speci- 
mens at hand are all from that area. 

Western Australia: Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 4 specimens a large adult and 

3 young. 
Broome, Entrance and Gantheaume Points, August and 
September, 1929. 11 specimens, large and small adults. 
Broome, June, 1932. 37 specimens, adults and young, many 

of the latter of doubtful authenticity. 
Lagrange Bay, September, 1929. 1 specimen, young. 



Macrophiothrix stictai sp. nov. 

Disk 15 mm. in diameter, rounded pentagonal not flat but rather convex, 
densely covered with very low thorny stumjis, which become rough granules on 
the radial shields where they are numerous but by no means crowded. Arms all 
broken but the basal 90-100 mm. is present for two; tliey were probabl.y at least 




Fig. 24. Macrophiothrix sticta. Upper arm-plates, x 6. 

200 mm. long in life. Upper arm-plates (fig. 24), short and very wide (width 
about 3 X length), almost flat, elliptical but with the long distal and proximal 
margins very straight and broadly in contact; lateral margins more or less per- 
fectly rounded, rarely with a hint of an angle just distal to middle. 

Interbrachial areas below densely covered with thorny stumps which become 
acute spmelets near oral shields. Under arm-plates with outlines somewhat ob- 
scured by a thin skin; excepting the first 4 or 5 they are wider than long, oblong 
or somewhat hexagonal with all angles rounded; proximal and distal margins 
more or less nearly straight and in contact. Arm-spines 7 or 8, long, slender, 
delicate, very finely thorny, flattened particularly at the truncate or somewhat 

' (jTiKTOS = spotted, in reference to the unusually spotted condition of the upper arm-plates. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 305 

widened tip; uppermost acute, much shorter than the third and fourth, but not 
greatly reduced; longest spines greatly exceed the width of arm; lowest spine 
minute and very sharp. Tentacle-scale small, notably spiniform, but low and 
stout. 

Oral shields large with madreporite little larger than the others, which are 
wider than long, rounded pentagonal, or triangular with distal margin very con- 
vex; on that margin are a number of acute spinelets similar to those in the 
adjoining interbrachial areas. Adoral plates, rather large, oblong, but with 
outlines obscured by a thin skin; they lie wholly on the proximal side of the oral 
shields and are nearly in contact at their inner ends. Color of dry specimen, light 
lavender-gray, the arm-spines translucent near their tips ; upper arm-plates with 
deep dusky almost blackish circular spots, ranging in number from 2 or 3 near 
distal margin, to 10-12, fairly well distributed over the whole surface of plate, 
excepting the lateral margins; around each of these spots the lavender-gray be- 
comes pale, often nearly white and when there are many spots almost the whole 
of the surface of the plate approaches grayish-white. Under arm-plates grayish- 
white, prettily spotted and marked with deep blue-purple. Oral shields, light dull 
bluish. 

Holotype, M. ('. Z., no. 2.345, from 6-8 fms., northwest of Middle Bluff, 
Shark Bay, Western Australia. Michaelsen and Hartmeyer leg., 1905. 

This fine brittle-star was identified by Koehler as Ophiothrix hirsuta M. & T. 
and is so recorded by him (1907, p. 252), but the spiny oral shields, the unusually 
wide and flat upper arm-plates and the striking coloration show it is quite a dif- 
ferent species probalsly most nearly related to spinifera. It was received by the 
M. C". Z. in an exchange with the Berlin Museum many years ago. 

OpHIOTRICHOIDES MARTENS! AUSTRALIS 

Ophiothrix maiieiisi Lyman, 1874. Bull. M. C. Z., 3, p. 234. 

Ophiothrix martnisi ait.'ilralis H. L. Clark, 1921. Ech. Torres Str., p. 111. 

This is one of the commonest brittle-stars of tropical Australia, ranging from 
Port Curtis on the Queensland coast to Cossacks on the northwestern. It is very 
conmion at both Darwin and Broome and we also met with it at Cape Leveque. 
There seems no reason why it should not be placed in the genus Ophiotrichoides 
for the upper surface of the disk is perfectly smooth and free from spines and it is 
on that character that Ludwig (1882, p. 21) established the genus. The species 
selected for the genotype, lymani, has the interbrachial areas below completely 



306 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

naked but Ludwig does not refer to that fact in his generic diagnosis. In martensi 
and the following 3 species which are here placed in Ophiotrichoides, the inter- 
brachial areas are more or less well covered with spinelets, but they are sometimes 
few and scattered and it seems best for the present not to separate the Australian 
forms from the tropical Atlantic species on that one character alone. 

The series of martensi at hand is a very fine one and ranges from young ones 
less than 2 nun. across the disk to large adults 15 nmi. in disk diameter. The 
smaller specimens are often light colored and the large ones may be very dark, 
but the pattern of coloration and the fundamental colors are remarkably constant. 
As Mortensen has pointed out (1932, p. 18), martensi is one of the species which 
passes through an Ophiopteron stage, and all our very young specimens show the 
"wings" admirably. 

The 124 specimens at hand come from the following localities: 
Queensland: Port Curtis. Melbourne Ward leg. 8 specimens, young. Loaned by 
the AustraUan Museum. 
Great Barrier Reef, Lindeman Island. Melbourne Ward leg. 1934. 
1 specimen, adult. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, dredged near the Shell Islands, 3-6 fms. July, 

1929. 71 specimens, mostly j^oung and very young. 
Darwin, May, 1932, near Leper Station. 18 specimens, 
young. 
Western Australia: Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 1 specimen, large adult. 

Broome, chiefly at Entrance and Gantheaume Points, August 

and September, 1929. 9 specimens, adult. 
Broome, dredged at various points in or near Lagrange Bay, 
June, 1932. 16 specimens, adult and young. 



Ophiotrichoides nereidina 

Opkiura nereidina Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 544. 
Ophiothrix nereidina Mi'LLER and Troschel, 1842. Sys. Ast., p. 115. 

This is another well known species which belongs unquestionably in Ophio- 
trichoides, but the pattern of coloration and the shape of the arm-plates set it 
apart from the other members of the genus. INIortensen (1932, p. 17) has shown 
that it passes through an "Ophiopteron-stage" as do martensi and smaragdina. 
Perhaps the presence of this stage may be characteristic of Opliiotrichoides. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 307 

Apparently nereidina does not occur on the Australian coast west of Torres 
Strait. At any rate we did not meet with it. The only specimen at hand is a small 
adult from Lindeman Island, near Mackay, Queensland, sent in 1934 by Mr. 
Melbourne Ward. 

Ophiotrichoides smaragdina 
Ophiofhrix smaragdina Studer, 1882. Abh. K.-Preus. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 26. 

This is perhaps the most beautiful, as it is one of the most distinctive, 
brittle-stars of the coast of northwestern Australia. Even in dry condition after 
many years, the beautiful green lines on the disk and upper and lower surfaces of 
the arms are very striking. In life the vividness of these lines, ranging in shade 
from "robin's-egg blue" to "emerald green," is even more pleasing, contrasting 
with the more or less neai'ly white background. At Darwin, smaragdina is quite 
conmion but at Broome it seems to be rare, for we did not meet with it in 1929 
and in 1932 only secured one small specimen in Lagrange Bay. Yet the type 
locahty is "off northwestern Australia." Moreover this Lagrange Bay specimen 
is very different from typical specimens in its remarkable coloration, which if it 
proves to be characteristic of Broome material would certainly warrant a varietal 
name. The upper side of the arm is green with a rather broad median line of 
yellow. In some Darwhi specimens, the green tends to cover the upper arm- 
plates more or less and the median white line is cream-color and in one case quite 
yellow on the proximal part of the arm. Probably therefore the Lagrange Bay 
specimen represents an extreme instance of this increased pigmentation. The 
largest specimen of the Darwin series in only 9.5 mm. across the disk while the 
arms exceed 100 mm. All of the young individuals are in the "Ophioteron- 
stage," the web on the basal arm-spines being conspicuous. In very young 
specimens, the arms are only about 5 x the disk diameter but when the body is 
4-5 mm. across the arms may be 15x that measurement! 

The material at hand consists of the following 27 specimens: 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., on sponge and 

alcyonarian bottom, July, 1929. 25 specimens, mostly 

young; 1 is hexamerous. 
Darwin, near jetty, 6-8 fms., mud and shell bottom, July 

4, 1929. One small adult, very fine. 
Western AustraUa : Lagrange Bay, 5-6 fms., June 24, 1932. One specimen, 

young and with unusual coloration. 



308 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Ophiotrichoides irregularis^ sp. nov. 

Disk 10 mm. across, arms 50-60 mm. long. Similar to martensi in all par- 
ticulars except upper arm-plates and coloration. Upper arm-plates (fig. 25), 
irregularly tetragonal, pentagonal or hexagonal with all angles rounded, notably 
unequal in size and form, more or less in contact; distal margin longest, usually 
concave often markedly so, but may be straight or slightly convex ; some plates 
are broken into 2 or 3 pieces, but others are marked with dark lines which give 
the appearance of a fracture, though it is doubtful whether a fracture really 
exists. Color of disk (dry) purplish-gray without markings; arms light gray, 
the arm-spines translucent; many upper arm-plates with no markings but many 




Fig. 25. Ophiotrichoides irregularis. Upper arm-plates, x 6. 

have a longitudinal whitish streak on one side or the other of the median line; 
rarely this light area occupies the whole median portion of the plate; proximally a 
very narrow black line runs longitudinally across various plates, generally not 
in the exact center, often looking like a fracture; distally this narrow black line 
becomes continuous and runs to the tip of the arm. Lower surface of arms dusky- 
gray with a broad ill-defined, median, whitish stripe running the whole length 
of the arm; often the lateral margins of the under arm-plates also tend to be 
whitish. 

Holotype, Australian Museum no. J 6042, from Port Curtis, Queensland. 
Melbourne Ward leg. Loaned by Australian Museum. 

This is a perplexing specimen, obviously related to martensi but so different 
from any of the hundreds of specimens of that species which I have seen, it seems 
unwise to call it even a variety of that handsome species. It is conceivable 
that it is a "freak," with unusually irregular upper arm-plates, which has become 

• irregularis = not according to established standards, in reference to the character of the upper arm- 
plates. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 309 

bleached since it was collected, but it doesn't look that way and I am inclined 
to the belief that it will prove to represent a valid coastal species of Queensland. 
At any rate, it is desirable to call attention to it by giving it a name. 

Ophiotrichoides pulchra^ sp. nov. 

Disk S mm. across, arms 55-60 mm. long. So similar to martensi that were 
the coloration the same, there is no doubt it would be referred to that species. 
The scaling of the disk is however finer and noticeably smoother than in the 
related species. The oral shields are also different as the length nearly equals 
the width, the outline being rounded rhomboidal; the madreporite is oval. 

Color in Hfe uniform, bright yellowish-orange, above and below, without 
markings of any kind. The preserved specimen is yellowish with a hint of orange 
around the disk margin but fading out to white at the arm tip; on one arm very 
near the tip a very narrow dusky median line is visible. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5142, from Entrance Point, Broome, W. A. June, 
4, 1932. Frances L. S. Clark leg. 

This brilliantly handsome brittle-star was found by Mrs. Clark on the 
under side of a rock fragment near low water mark, but nothing like it was seen 
before or afterwards. The entire absence of any markings distinguish it at once 
from the other members of the genus. 



PLACOPHiOTHRix " gen. nov. 

Similar to Ophiotrichoides but some at least of the relatively few and coarse 
disk scales bear spines, spinelets or thorny stumps or high granules. Radial 
shields large and perfectly bare. Arms short or of moderate length, 5-9 times 
disk diameter. 

Genotype, Ophiothrix melanostida Grube. 

This is an easily recognized group standing between Macrophiothrix and 
Ophiotrichoides. It can be distinguished from the former by its very smooth, 
sharply defined radial shields and the fact that the spines or spinelets on the 
disk are ordinarily well-spaced and sometimes few and low. From Ophiotri- 
choides it differs in the presence of spines or spinelets on some of the disk scales 

' pulcher = heautiiu\, in reference to the striking coloration. 

- TrXa^ =0 pZa(e+ Ophiothrix, in reference to the big bare radial shields. 



310 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

and even when these are low and scattered the general facies is distinctive. No at- 
tempt has been made to determine how many species of Ophiothrix now known 
belong in the group, but there are in the present collection 6 previously known 
forms and 2 which seem to be undescribed that are included here in Plac- 
ophiothrix. 

Placophiothrix aristulata 
Ophiothrix aristulata Lyman, 1879. Bull. M. C. Z., 6, p. 50. 

There is a single badly damaged but typical specimen at hand loaned by the 
Australian Museum. It consists of the body with one arm attached and 2 de- 
tached arms. The disk is 10 mm. across. It was taken in a trawl in 120 fms., 22 
miles east of the Port Jackson heads, by Captain K. MoUer. The "Endeavour" 
met with aristulata repeatedly in water over 65 fms. deep around Tasmania and 
southeastern Australia. The specimens recorded by me (1928, p. 430) from 
"Palmerston, N. T.," probably were not taken there, for the species is known 
only from water exceeding 50 fms. in depth and there is no water anywhere nearly 
so deep near Port Darwin (Palmerston). It is doubtful whetlier aristulata is 
really a Placophiothrix but until the genus is more sharply defined the species 
may rest here. 

Placophiothrix lineocaerulea 
Ophiothrix lineocaerulea H. L. Clark, 1928. Rec. S. Austr. Mus., 3, p. 432. 

This species was described from a single specimen in the South Australian 
Museum, from an unknown locality. It was therefore a very pleasant surprise 
to discover it at Broome in 1929 and soon to learn that it is one of the hand- 
somest and most characteristic brittle-stars of that region. We dredged it re- 
peatedly in both 1929 and 1932 as far to the southwest as Lagrange Bay, but 
we did not find it at Cape Leveque nor east thereof. It was not met with on 
the western or southern coasts of AustraUa, so it is almost certain that the type 
in the South Australian Museum must have come from the northwestern coast. 

The series at hand is made up of 100 specimens ranging in size from 2.5 to 
20 mm. across the disk. The arms are usually 7-8 times the disk diameter but 
in a few individuals are shorter. The color is remarkably constant, particularly 
as concerns the blue Unes on disk and arms, but there is great diversity in the 
amount of blue on the lower side. In many individuals, the oral shields, adoral 
plates and under arm-plates are white or cream-color with a tinge of blue in some 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 311 

cases, and blue spots or blotches of very irregular size and distribution. In 
young individuals the ground color of the whole animal is white and the blue is 
a very bright blue, but with growth the white may become cream-color, yellowish 
or brown and the blue, bluish-dusky. The arm-spines are often brown of some 
shade, ranging from light wood-brown to a real rusty brown. 

A most interesting point is that the very young specimens, with disks less 
than 5 mm. across, and some a little larger, are in a marked "Ophiopteron- 
stage," the webbing on the spines often conspicuous and quite stout. The rela- 
tionship to striolata is thus emphasized but the differences between the 2 species 
are conspicuous. 

Except for one small specimen taken in Lagrange Bay in 1929, all of our 
Uneocaerulea were taken under rocks along shore at Entrance and Gantheaume 
Points or near the jetty at Broome, or were dredged between Broome and False 
Cape Bossut. 

Placophiothrix melanosticta 
Plate 12, figs. 3-5 
Ophiothrix melanosticta Grube, 1868. Jahrb. Schles. ges. Vaterl. Cult., 45, p. 4.5. 

This beautiful brittle-star is certainly one of the features of the marine 
life in shallow water in Roebuck Bay. Its abundance and diversity of color 
combine with its interesting habits to make it a source of continual surprise 
and pleasure. At Darwin on the other hand, we met with but a single specimen 
and that one, very young, only 3.75 mm. across the disk. It was dredged in 
3-5 fms. on the west side of Port Darwin near Three-and-a-half mile Reef, on 
"dead" bottom. The beautiful red and green colors, with the sharply defined dark 
spots, were very striking. My field notes say: "Red and green shades delicate 
and evanescent. In preservation and drying the green color is nearly lost and 
becomes olivaceous while the delicate rose-red becomes distinctly orange." 
Finally the red shades disappeared altogether. 

The first specimens taken at Broome were dredged in 4-8 fms. in Roebuck 
Bay, a mile or two southwest of the jetty. They were associated with comatulids, 
particularly Zygometra, and in some cases were apparently commensal, being as 
closely attached to the crinoid as is Ophiomaza. The extreme tides of early 
September made it possible to walk about on this bottom where a few weeks 
before we were dredging in 5 fms. and it was then possible to study more satis- 
factorily the relations of its inhabitants to each other. The bottom was a firm 



312 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

muddy sand and sparsely scattered over it were individual plants of a calcareous 
alga. These plants were frequented by both comatulids and brittle-stars, par- 
ticularly bj' Zygotnclra cotnata and Placophiothrix melanostida. It soon became 
evident that the brittle-stars ordinarily merely sought shelter beneath tlie cri- 
noids but often, especially with individuals of the larger species of Zygometra, 
they attached themselves very closely and firmly to the crinoid. In a few cases, 
the attachment was so intimate and the mouth of the ophiuran was so related 
to the oral disk of the comatulid, it was natural to assume that the relationship 
was a continuous one and caused by the quest for food and not merely for 
shelter. 

Aside from its interesting habits, melanosticta is notable for its surprising 
diversity of color. When very young (disk diameter less than .5 mm.) the ground 
color is ivory white with the interradial portions of the disk and 8-10 narrow- 
bands on the arm light green; on each radial shield and every third or fourth 
upper arm-plate is a small sharply defined dark spot. With growth these spots 
become more numerous, larger, darker and more sharply defined, until they are 
quite the distinguishing color character of the species ; but in full grown specimens 
(15-20 mm. across the disk) the general pigmentation may have become so heavy 
that these spots are obscured or even wholly indistinguishable. After the brittle- 
star is 4-0 mm. across the disk, the inner ends of the radial shields and the 
hitherto white portions of the arms take on a rosy red tinge (PI. 12, fig. 5). 
With growth the red and green shades become more and more pronounced and 
the white disappears. Dusky shades appear and the animal becomes darker as 
well as more and more variegated with red and green and the black spots. Many 
large adults show and apparently retain throughout life this handsome colora- 
tion (PI. 12, fig. 3), but others follow one of two quite different lines of develop- 
ment, resulting in adult individuals so unlike the typical form and so unlike 
each other that were it not for plentiful connecting links three "species" might 
be recognized. 

Along one line development is associated with increased pigmentation and 
the extreme is reached in uniformly black individuals; as dried specimens, these 
are a very deep red-purple; before the extreme is reached the distal portion of 
the arm is more or less irregularly marked or even banded with white. The other 
line of development seems to be caused by deficient pigmentation; the red and 
green shades disappear; except for black spots and lines, the animal becomes 
milk white; the black is never wholly lost and usually persists in broad longi- 
tudinal lines on the disk and on the upper or under side of the arms; in extreme 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 313 

cases these lines are broken up into irregular fragments of greater or less prom- 
inence (PI. 12, fig. 4). In preserved specimens, tlie white becomes yellow or 
even buff, very different from the appearance in life. Aside from the 3'oung 
individual taken at Darwin, the 65 specimens of mclanostida at hand were all 
taken in Roebuck Bay or in that vicinity. Koehler (1907, p. 253) reports a 
specimen from Port Hedland and that is apparently the western limit of the 
species, so far as now known. The largest specimens have the disk 15-18 mm. 
across (in their present condition) and the arms 125-150 mm. long. Some in- 
dividuals have the arms more attenuate than others. In very young individuals, 
less than 4 mm. across the disk, the basal arm-spines are incompletely webbed, 
indicating that an Ophiopteron stage is passed through when the young ophiuran 
is only 2-3 mm. across the disk. 



Placophiothrix plana 
Ophiothrix plana Lyman, 1874. Bull. M. C". Z., 3, p. 238. 

This little brittle-star occurs in large numbers on the northern coast of 
Australia. It was particularly common near the Shell Islands at Darwin and 
at Entrance and Gantheaume Points, Broome. But the largest and finest 
specimens were collected at Cape Leveque where several individuals 6-7 mm. 
across the disk, with arms about 40 mm. long, were taken. The diversity of 
color is very great but light gray, gray-brown or gray-purple is the usual ground 
color; this is more or less variegated with whitish and finely speckled with black. 
Some individuals appear yellowish or light brown and one adult specimen is red- 
purple. Whether plana is really congeneric with melanosticta is open to question, 
and the doubt is strengthened by the fact that there is no trace of an Ophiop- 
teron-stage, even in the smallest specimens. 

The 111 specimens at hand are from the following places : 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., July, 1929. 27 

specunens. 
Quail Island, July, 1929. 1 specimen. 
Western Austraha: Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 7 specimens. 

Broome, Entrance and Gantheaume Points, August and 

September, 1929. 45 specimens, adult and young. 
Broome, 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 31 specimens, adult and 
young. 



314 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Placophiothrix spongicola 

OpMothrix spongicola Stimpson, 1855. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 7, p. 385. 

This is one of the characteristic echinoderms of the southern coast of 
AustraUa; on the east it ranges as far north as Broken Bay, N. S. W. and on the 
west to Dongarra, W. A. and the Abrolhos Islands. It is a handsome species 
with its red and blue coloration and grows to a fairly large size, up to about 20 
mm. across the disk. Although the spinelets on the disk are never long and 
conspicuous and in old individuals are reduced to mere knobs, the species is best 
treated as a Placophiothrix. Very small individuals with disk less than 5 mm. 
across usually have no disk spines, except minute ones at the interradial margins 
and they might be assigned to Lissophiothrix or even to Ophiotrichoides. Such 
young specimens usually show little or no red in their coloration (at least in pre- 
served material) but are white prettily marked with blue and look very unlike 
the heavily pigmented adults. 

The 27 specimens of spongicola at hand are from the following places: 
New South Wales: Colloroy, Long Reef, November 28, 1929. 2 specimens. 

Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

1 specimen. 
Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 5 specimens, adult and young. 
Western Australia: Bunkers Bay, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

12 specimens, adult and young. 
Bunbury, October 25, 1929. 1 specimen. 
Point Peron, October 11, 1929. 1 specimen, large adult. 
Freemantle, near Garden Island, October 14, 1929. 1 speci- 
men, small adult. 
Rottnest Island, western end. Drummond and Swan leg., 

1930. 1 specimen, small adult. 
Dongarra, February 4, 1931. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 
3 specimens, young. 

Placophiothrix striolata 

OpMothrix striolata Grube, 1868. Jahrsb. Schles. ges. Vaterl. Cultur, 45, p. 45. 

Mr. Ward has sent a single small specimen of this handsome East Indian 
species from Lindeman Island, near Mackay, Queensland, which is the furthest 
south, that striolata has been recorded on the eastern coast. Koehler (1907, 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 315 

p. 253) has reported 2 small specimens from near Fremantle on the western coast, 
but it is more than probable that these were young spongicola. The two species 
when not more than 7 mm. across the disk are surprisingly alike. Aside from this 
record of Koehler's, sfriolata has not been met with west of Torres Strait. 

Placophiothrix trilineata 
Opkiofhrix trilineata Lutken, 1869. Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 3, p. 58. 

It was most surprising to find at Lord Howe Island this very handsome 
brittle-star, which I first met with in 1913 at Mer, in the Torres Strait region. 
It has not been taken hitherto on the eastern side of Australia south of lat. 11°. 
It does not seem to be very common at Lord Howe as we only secured 4 speci- 
mens. These were found among the corals at Neds Beach and are typical adults. 

Among the brittle-stars loaned by the AustraUan Museum is a small Placo- 
phiothrix, scarcely 5 mm. across the disk, from Batt Reef, Queensland, taken by 
A. R. McCulloch in 1918. The specimen is in poor condition and the coloration 
is deep blue and white, without a hint of the green usually seen in trilineata, 
but there is little doubt that it is a representative of that species. It is naturally 
of special interest as the first record of trilineata from the mainland coast of 
Australia. 

Placophiothrix albolineata^ sp. nov. 

Disk 11 mm. in diameter, with rather conspicuous lobes in the interradii. 
Arms about 85 mm. long, with rather attenuate distal half. Disk covered with 
the large, smooth triangular radial shields and rather numerous small, thick, 
rounded scales; those near the center of the disk are more or less circular, those 
between and beside the radial shields are usually longer than wide, often con- 
spicuously so ; on each of the scales on the central area is a short, slender, some- 
what rough spinelet but its length hardly exceeds the diameter of the scale which 
bears it; a few of the scales between the radial shields and some on the interradial 
areas (many, close to the disk margin) carry similar spinelets. Upper arm-plates 
(fig. 26) much wider than long, with sharp lateral angles; some are quadrilateral 
with a convex distal margin, a much shorter, straight, proximal margin and 
straight, oblique sides, the lateral angle markedly distal to horizontal middle of 
plate ; others are more hexagonal, the lateral angles near the middle of the plates 

^ albus=vfhite+linea = a. line, in reference to the conspicuous longitudinal white line on the upper 
side of the arras. 



316 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

and the distal margin made up of a short straight distal side and two oblique 
sides connecting it with the lateral angles; most of the plates are intermediate 
between these two extremes. 

Interbrachial areas below covered by very thin plates, appearing almost 
naked; only a few bear spinelets and these are near the distal margin. Under arm- 
plates more or less elliptical or even circular, with a straight proximal margin, 
where they are broadly in contact; the width and length are nearly equal but 
at the very base of the arm and far out distally the length is distinctly greater. 
Arm-spines 7 (or 6) the third (or second) from the top, longest, the 2 lowest mi- 
nute and spiniform; the longer ones are slender, a little flattened slightly curved, 
blunt or truncate, and more or less thorny. Tentacle-scales spiniform but small 
and stout; distally they become larger an^ more scale-like. 




Fig. 26. Placophiothrix albolineata. Upper arm-plates, x 6. 

Oral shields moderately large, the madreporite largest ; excepting the madre- 
porite the shields are rhomboidal, distinctly wider than long, the lateral angles 
rounded, the proximal wide but not rounded, the distal rather sharply acute- 
Adoral plates moderately large, narrower within where they nearly or quite 
meet, than without where they are widely separated by the first under arm-plate. 

Color of dry specimen, gray- violet, the disk scales, more brownish; there are 
touches of dark violet or blackish on the margins of the radial shields; the arm- 
spines are translucent violet, the upper ones more or less dusky near tip. On the 
upper side of each arm, running the entire length from base to tip is a conspicuous 
white line, rather sharply deUmited by a narrow dark line on each side; on the 
basal plates the white line is about one-third the width of each plate but it be- 
comes narrower steadily and is very narrow at tip of arm. Oral frame, oral 
shields and basal under arm-plates yellowish-white; sides of under arm-plates 
beyond disk, dusky gray, but central portion occupied by a white area which 
forms part of a very broad and conspicuous white stripe running the length of 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 317 

the arm ; on some plates on the basal part of the arm the white expands to occupy 
nearly or all of the sm-face of the plate; elsewhere, especially near middle of arm 
and distally, the gray of the lateral parts of each plate is noticeably darker and 
tends to form a narrow dark line delimiting the white stripe. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 5174, from a head of living coral at Neds Beach, 
Lord Howe Island. April 22, 1932. 

This unique specimen was collected in the same habitat with P. trilineata 
but was not actuallj' in the same coral colony, in which specimens of that species 
were found. It is apparently more nearly related to spongicola than to trilineata 
but is markedly different from the Port Jackson brittle-star in many features. 
It is very unlike any OphiothrLx I have ever seen except 0. hybrida H. L. Clark 
(1915, p. 272) to which the upper arm-plates and color of arms show a notable 
resemblance. But the disk covering in the two species is so different they can 
hardly be conspecific. There is none of the many species of OphiothrLx named by 
Koehler that corresponds at all closely with it. Its apparent rarity at Lord Howe 
is probably due to the fact that its normal habitat is considerably below low water 
mark and few individuals wander into that zone near the tide line which is acces- 
sible to the collector. We cannot even guess how many such species there may be! 

Ophiopteron elegans 
LuDwiG, 1888a. Zeit. f.w. Zool., 47, p. 459. 

A typical, though small, example of this species has been loaned by the 
AustraUan Museum. It was taken 20 miles north-northeast of Double Island 
Point, Queensland, in 30 fms. It measures a little more than 4 mm. across the 
disk, and the dingy, dirty whitish color indicates that it has been dried after being 
bleached by a long stay in alcohol. But it is of great interest as the first record of 
a true Ophiopteron from Australia. 

Ophiomaza cacaotica 
Lym.\x, 1871. Illus. Cat. M. C. Z., no. G, p. 9. 

This curious commensal, and possibly parasitic, ophiuran is common at 
Broome but we did not take it at Darwin. The reason of course is obvious ^ 
very few large comatulids were found at Darwin — they are abundant at 
Broome. Ophiomaza prefers comatuUds of dark color and many arms; while oc- 
casionally found on Zygometra, it is most frequent on Comanthina belli. In life 



318 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

the color ranges from deep purplish-red or dark brown to nearly black; many 
specunens especially young ones are more or less marked with white, cream-color 
or j-ellow; these markings commonly consist of a broad stripe on upper side of 
arm, continued more or less onto disk along inner margins of radial shields, and 
arm-spines, more or less (usually the distal half) white; the interradial lobes of 
the disk, the oral shields and mouth frame, and occasionally some of the under 
arm-plates are other parts which may be white. A very striking example has a 
conspicuous white star on disk, with a small dark spot at center, and the points 
of the star extending out onto the basal half of the arms; the interradial lobes and 
arm-spines are also white. No constant correlation was detected between the 
color of the comatulid and that of the brittle-star. Of the 44 specimens at hand 
the smallest is 3 mm. across the disk, with arms 10 mm. long, and the largest has 
the disk 22 mm. in diameter and the arms 75 mm. long, a notable constancy in 
proportions. It is also notable that the number of plates covering the disk does 
not increase with increased size as much as might be expected, though there is 
great diversity among adults in the number and size of the plates on the central 
area of the disk. 

Ophiocnemis marmorata 

Ophiura marmorata Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 2, p. 543. 
Ophiocnemis marmorata Muller and Troschel, 1S42. Syst. Ast., p. 87. 

This handsome brittle-star is very abundant in areas of fine sand in Roebuck 
Bay and southwestward along the coast. At extreme low tides it was interesting 
to walk about in their habitat and see how completely buried in the sand they 
were. Not even an arm tip was visible but the position occupied by the animal 
was evident, owing to the shght depression in the sand roughly similar to the 
form of disk and arms, probably the result of the settling of the sand as the 
animal ceases movement with the outgoing tide. The color of Ophiocnemis cor- 
responds so closely in its tints and variegation with the sand in which it lives, 
that the resemblance may well be protective. When the tide was out large 
numbers of gulls were continually hovering over the areas where Ophiocnemis 
swarmed and it seemed as though the brittle-stars were the objects of interest. 
But I did not see an indubitable case of a gull picking up an ophiuran. The latter 
are so uniformly buried and move so little (with the tide out), it is probable that 
only those which become accidentally exposed are seized by the gulls. The 
61 specimens at hand range from 3 to 21 mm. across the disk. The small ones are 
quite Ophiothrix-like. 



clark: australian echinoderms 319 

Ophiothela HADRA 
H. L. Clark, 1915a. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. 284. 

We found Ophiothela fairly common on a sponge dredged near the Shell 
Islands at Darwin in July, 1929, but did not meet with it at Broome that year. 
In June, 1932, however, we took it repeatedly on gorgonians while dredging. 
These specunens show great diversity in size and some in color. My field notes 
say of the specimens taken at Darwin: "Extraordinarily bizarre coloration: black, 
white, j'ellow, red and dull green, quite irregularly massed but general impression 
of a group of specimens together was red and green — not bright however." In 
the larger dry specimens from Broome the disk is a deep purplish-red but the 
arms are decidedly variegated. 

Whether hadra is really a vahd species is still open to question but there is 
little doubt that all these Australian specimens represent a single form and are 
identical with the type of hadra and the specimens taken by the "Endeavour" 
referred to that species (H. L. Clark, 1916, p. 92). The cotypes of danae Verrill 
in the M. C. Z. have much longer arms than hadra and I am in doubt whether the 
two species are identical, but so far as I know all Australian material can be 
referred to hadra. Koehler (1907) referred specimens from Shark Bay and Albany 
to danae but hadra had not at that time been distinguished. In any case the oc- 
currence of an Ophiothela at Albany needs verification. 

In examining alcoholic specimens of the holothurian Pentacta caerulea taken 
at Broome in 1929, 5 small specimens of Ophiothela were found clinging tightly 
to them. As this Pentacta occurs frequently on alcyonarians it is not inexplicable 
how the Uttle ophiurans came to be associated with the holothurians but it is I 
think the first case of the kind reported. 

There are 109 specimens of Opliiothela in the present collection but nearly 
ail are very young. 
Queensland: Port Curtis. 27 specunens, adult and young. Loaned by the 

Australian Museum. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms. on a sponge, July 24, 

1929. 22 specimens, young. 
Western Australia: Broome: 5-8 fms., on alcyonarians, June, 1932. 55 speci- 
mens, adult and young. 
Broome, on Pentacta caerulea, September, 1929. 5 speci- 
mens, very young. 



320 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Ophiogymna elegans 
Ljungman, 1866. Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 23, p. 163. 

A single specimen of this brittle-star, 4.5 mm. across the disk, has been 
loaned by the Australian Museum. It was dredged off Norwest Island, Great 
Barrier Reef, Queensland, by Livingstone and Boardman, and is of great interest 
as the first Ophiogymna reported from Australia. 

Ophiogymna lineata^ sp. nov. 

Disk rather more than 4 mm. across but of irregular shape, covered with a 
loose, thin skin which is full of delicate scales. Radial shields relatively large, 
much longer than wide, somewhat triangulai', but distal angle is wide and truncate 
and outer side is concave; the two shields of a pair have the inner sides in contact 
distally but a little separated within. Arms 5, very long and slender but so con- 
voluted they cannot be measured, apparently 40-50 mm. in life and probably 
more. Upper arm-plates indistinguishable even under a magnification of 90 
diameters; apparently there are many, irregular small, and even minute, plates 
imbedded in a thin skin covering the upper side of the arm; near the tip of the 
arm, the ends of the arm segments are thicker than the middle and there are indi- 
cations that a very delicate ill-defined upper arm-plate, much longer than wide is 
present. 

Interbrachial areas below covered with the delicate scale-bearing skin of the 
disk. Under arm-plates pro.ximalty small, wider than long not in contact with 
each other; each has a convex proximal border and a straight or slightly concave 
one distally; on the outer part of the arm, the plates are longer than wide and 
quite fully in contact. Arm-spines 5 or 6, the next to the uppermost (or second 
below) longest, translucent and finely thorny; the uppermost is acicular and more 
nearly smooth; the following 2 or 3 are rather blunt and a trifle curved near tip; 
the two lowest are very small. Tentacle-scale wanting, unless the lowest arm- 
spine is regarded as such. 

Oral shields small, rhombic, wider than long, with rounded angles, the inner 
angle sharpest; madreporite largest, of irregular shape. Adoral plates relatively 
very large, not quite meeting at their somewhat pointed inner ends; at the outer 
end a large squarish lobe separates the oral shield from the arm-plates. Color of 
dry specimens, pale gray, the arm-spines and oral surface nearly white; the radial 

' tinea = a. line, in reference to the white lines on the arms. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODEHMS 321 

shields darker with a violet tinge. Along the upper side of the arm is a narrow but 
conspicuous median white line. Under high magnification the upper side of the 
arm shows a very evident light violet tinge. 

Holotype, Australian Museum no. J 6045, from west of Low Islands, Great 
Barrier Reef, Queensland, 6-8 fms. on a mud and alcyonarian bottom. Novem- 
ber 15, 1928. 

There are 3 paratypes of this very distinct species, taken with the holotype. 
All were loaned by the Australian Museiun. At first sight, the specimens look as 
though they had been somewhat decalcified by acid alcohol before being dried, 
but as examination under 90 diameters shows the teeth on the arm-spines abso- 
lutely untouched by any acid, it is unlikely any decalcification has taken place. 
Aside from the distinctive coloration which is identical in all four specimens, the 
characters of the disk, arm-covering and arm-spines combine to set this species 
apart from the other members of the genus. In the thin disk-skin with numerous 
obvious scales, lineata is less distant from OphiothrLx than is elegans. 



OPHIOCHITONIDAE 

Ophionereis schayeri 

Ophiolepis schayeri Muller and Troschel, 1844. Arch. f. Natiirg., 10, p. 182. 
Ophionereis schayeri Littken, 1859a. .\d(l. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 2, p. 110. 

This common and well known brittle-star characteristic of the southern 
coastal fauna of Australia is represented in the present collection by 77 specimens 
from the following places. Since it occurs in New Zealand as well as Australia, 
its apparent absence from Lord Howe Island is of more than passing interest. 
New South Wales: Colloroy, Long Reef, November 28, 1929. 1 specimen, very 

young. 
Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

4 specimens, adult and young. 
Port .Jackson, near Middle Head, 6-8 fms., November 21, 
1929. 22 specimens, adult and young. .\ field note says: 
"0. schayeri at Port Jackson has a decidedly red cast and 
looks very different from those found near Perth. ' ' Now 
in their dry condition, the red cast is quite gone but the 
coloration is noticeably darker than the Western .Aus- 
tralian material. 



322 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 7 specimens, adult and young; 
adults, 23-24 mm. across disk. 
Western Australia : Bunkers Bay, January 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

5 specimens, adult and young. 

Bunbury, October, 1929. 1 specimen, adult. 

Point Peron, October, 1929. 23 specimens, adult and young; 
largest 24 mm. across disk. 

Rottnest Island, October, 1929. 9 specimens, adult and 
young, one only 2 mm. across disk. 

Rottnest Island, January, 1934. Captain Beresford E. Bard- 
well leg. et don. 3 specimens. 

Dongarra, April 10, 1928. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 2 speci- 
mens, young. 



Ophionereis semoni 

Ophiotriton semoni Doderlein, 1896. Denk. Ges. Jena, 8, p. 288. 
Ophionereis semoni Koehler, 1905. "Siboga" Oph. Litt., p. 54. 

This species proves to be very common at Broome and we also took it at 
Darwin. It has not yet been reported from the coast west of Broome in the north^ 
or west of Spencer Gulf in the south. Its occurrence in South Australia is puzzling 
since it is not known from either New South Wales or Victoria. The furthest 
south on the Queensland coast would seem to be at Lindeman Island, as reported 
below. 

The specimens from Darwin are all rather small but are typical. At Broome, 
specimens 7 mm. across the disk were not rare and one 9 mm. in diameter was 
secured, the largest so far recorded. There is no Uttle diversity in the arm bands 
and disk markings but a remarkably constant recognition mark is found on the 
lower surface: the oral shields are white, usually a very pure white, with the mar- 
gins, or at any rate the adjoining tissues abruptly dark (dusky, brown or olive). 
The upper side of the disk commonly has a dark blotch at center, which may cover 
a large part of its surface but is irregular in form as well as size; usually it is finely 
speckled or reticulated with whitish. Very small specimens are not notably 
different from adults. 

' Unless Koehler's record (1907, p. 246) of O. dubia from Shark Bay really refers to this species, 
which seems probable. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 323 

The 40 specimens of semoni at hand are from the following places: 
Queensland: Lindeman Island, Great Barrier Reef, near ]\Iackay, 1934. M. 

Ward leg. et don. 1 specimen, adult. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., July, 1929. 5 speci- 
mens, adult and young. 
Darwin, near Leper Station, May, 1932. 3 specimens, small 
adults and young. 
Western Australia : Broome, along shore, particularly at Entrance Point, August 

and September, 1929. 16 specimens, chieflj^ adult. 
Broome, dredging in 5-8 fms., chiefly southwest from Roe- 
buck Bay, June, 1932. 15 specimens. 

Besides these typical examples of semoni, there are 2 small Ophionereis from 
the western coast of the continent whose status is very puzzling. Until more 
material is available they may be regarded as varieties of semoni but it will not 
be surprising if each proves to be a valid species. Both agree with semoni in hav- 
ing white oral shields, as well as in their structural characters. The individual 
which is the more like semoni comes from furthest south! It was taken at Point 
Peron by Professor Bennett who kindly sent it to me. It has the disk only 4 mm. 
across, so it is about half grown. The arms are nearly white, not at all grayish or 
dusky as in semoni, and every third or fourth segment is very dark, almost black, 
in marked contrast, but the dark area is not sharply delimited. The arm-spines 
are spotted or ringed with brownish as in semoni. The upper sm'face of the disk is 
nearly black with many small roundish spots of dirty white or yellowish and 3 
large irregular blotches of the same hght color on each interradial margin. The 
interradial areas below may be described as black with 10-12 large irregular 
whitish blotches, or as white handsomely reticulated with black. Oral shields and 
jaws white, the adoral plates brown in rather marked contrast, making a brown 
pentagon around the mouth. In view of this unusual and striking coloration, this 
specmien may be called Ophionereis semoni var. nigra but its near relationship to 
the related species stigma must not be ignored. The holotj^pe is M. C. Z. no. 
5203. 

The other specimen is similar to the above in its banded white arms but the 
bands are not nearly so dark; they are dusky with a greenish tinge. The arm- 
spines are white not spotted or banded at all. The disk is a uniform chocolate 
brown with a few small spots of whitish and 3 or 4 elongated wWtish spots or 
blotches along the interradial margins. The interradial areas below are dusky 
brown, each with 8-10 rounded whitish spots. The whole oral region is dusky 



324 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

brown except the teeth and a large rounded white spot on each oral shield. This 
variety is so markedly different from any other Ophionereis I have seen, it seems 
best to give it a name, so for the present it may be called 0. semoni var. hadia 
(= brown). The unique holotj'pe (AI. C. Z. no. 5204) was taken by Professor 
Bennett at Dongarra. It is not quite 5 mm. across the disk, and the arms, only 
about 25 mm. long, are obviously shorter than in typical semoni. 



Ophionereis hexactis^ sp. nov. 

Disk very flat, smooth and thin, hexagonal, 4 mm. in diameter. Arms 6, 
about 30 mm. long, very slender and attenuate. Disk covered by a soft skin, 
crowded with very delicate more or less circular, minute scales only visible in dry 
specimens and under considerable magnification; no external evidence of radial 
shields. Upper arm-plates near base of arm rounded triangular, with a proximal 
base and a narrow distal tip ; length equals or exceeds width ; further out the plates 
become longer and narrower and are elongated pentagons, with rounded angles; 
supplementary plates very thin and hard to make out, but there is at least one on 
each side; additional supplementary scales of small size appear to be present but 
it is very difficult to distinguish them. 

Interbrachial areas below covered like the disk with a delicate skin crowded 
with minute scales. Under arm-plates much longer than wide, especially distallj^ ; 
at middle of arm they are elongated pentagons with a more or less pointed proxi- 
mal angle and a rounded distal end; the length is twice the width or more. Arm- 
spines 3, very slender but blunt and scarcely tapering; the middle one is longest 
and exceeds an arm-segment considerably. Tentacle-scale very large but thin 
somewhat longer than wide. Oral shields more or less nearly circular, the mad- 
reporite largest; the length may exceed the width and the inner end may be a 
trifle pointed, .\doral plates narrow at the inner end where they may meet 
but often do not; wide at the outer end where a distally projecting lobe separates 
the oral shield from the side arm-plate. Oral papillae 4 on each side, the outer 
one largest; all are narrow and bluntly pointed. Color of dry specimen: disk 
yellowish-gray; arms nearly white, with 9 or 10 very narrow dark bands; these 
bands are dusky with a purplish tint, but not black; upper arm-plates distally are 
sometimes quite gray; lower surface white, save for the yellowish-gray (almost 
greenish) interbrachial areas. 

' «$ =six-\-a.KTls=Tay, in reference to the number of arms. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 325 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 5205, from under a rock, East Point, Darwin, N. T., 
June, 1929. 

This delicate little species is so much more fragile than young semoni of the 
same disk-diameter that it was recognized as different from the very first. There 
are 11 paratypes from East Point, of which 2 are pentamerous but not otherwise 
pecuUar. The thread-like arms are very characteristic especially in Ufe. My 
field notes at Darwin say of one of the paratypes: "Disk dull red, about 1.5-2 mm. 
in diameter; arms very slender, long (30 mm. ±) almost white with widely 
spaced black spots or cross bars. A very deUcate creature on under side of a 
rock in tide pool. Disk seems very dark in contrast to white sparsely banded 
arms. Apparently lives on the sand under rocks; when they are turned over 
suddenly the brittle-star is drawn up with back to rock and Ues (against its up- 
turned lower surface) mouth up, and is then rather hard to see." 

During one of our last days at Lord Howe Island, 2 small examples of this 
curious Uttle Ophionereis were taken, my field notes saying: "Ophionereis sp.? 
2 specimens, verj^ small, on under side of rocks, far out on Neds Beach flat. 
Disk bright brown; 6 arms, white with widely separated narrow bands of red 
brown. Disk rather soft and dries to a much smaller size than in life." The oc- 
currence of hexactis at Lord Howe is certainly surprising but probably it occurs 
all along the Barrier Reef. 



Ophionereis stigma^ sp. nov. 

Disk 7 mm. across. Arms 5, probably about 60 mm. long, but the tips are all 
missing. So similar to semoni in structural features that a detailed description is 
quite superfluous. Upper arm-plates wide and short with very acute lateral angles; 
in semoni the plates are relatively longer and narrower with less marked lateral 
angles; typical examples are obviously different but in small specimens this char- 
acter is not easily recognized and even in some adults the difference isn't very 
satisfactory. In the under arm-plates however there is a noticeable difference 
which seems to be very constant. In semoni the under arm-plates expand distally 
so that they are somewhat bell-shaped, the distal end considerably wider than the 
proximal with angular corners, but in stigma the lateral margins of the plate are 
parallel and the distal margin is the same length as the proximal, while the 
corners are more rounded; moreover the distal margin is often concave or even 

' awiyiJia =a mark, in reference to the conspicuous brown mark at the base of each arm. 



326 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

notched, while in semoni it is usually somewhat convex. This difference in the 
under arm-plates can be detected even in very young specimens. 

Another character that is evident enough in adults but rather indefinite in 
young specimens is associated with the mouth parts; in semoni the mouth-frame 
and oral shields are more or less covered by a skin which obscures the adoral 
plates and even the boundaries of the oral shields and in adult specimens no plate 
boundaries can be made out. In stigma, there is no such skin but even the adoral 
plates can be easily seen. 

In coloration, the differences are so evident in life that the species are in- 
stantly recognizable, only very small specimens requiring much care. In mature 
stigma, the disk is pale gray (or whitish or yellowish) with a coarse network of 
dark brown lines; at the base of each arm is a peculiar mark of dark brown or 
black, which appears first in very young specimens as an elongate spot between 
the proximal ends of the radial shields ; the distal end of this dark area forks and 
one-half extends across each radial shield and then bends outward to the disk 
margin beside the arm-base, where it may run inward almost to the middle of the 
interradial area; usually this mark is not as complete as described above; it may 
remain as a single longitudinal mark between the radial shields or more commonly 
it becomes a horizontal, irregular, narrow blotch across the shields or along the 
margin of the disk interradially; sometimes the dark brown color forms a spot at 
the inner end of the radial shields whence it spreads inward onto the disk and 
not distally at all. One might almost say that in no two specimens are the details 
of the "stigma" exactly alike, but in very few specimens indeed is it inconspicuous. 
As a rule the arms of stigma are lighter colored than those of semoni and the dark 
cross bands are more frequent and wider. On the oral surface, the differences are 
evident; in stigma the light colored distal portion of each interbrachial area shows 
a coarse network of dark lines but these merge together proximally so that just 
outside the oral shield each area is dark brown, and a dusky area extends inward 
onto the hght colored shield, or there may be one or two distinct spots on the 
shield — very different from the dusky bordered white oral shields of semoni. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5209, from under a rock, at Cape Leveque, W. A., 
August, 1929. 

The superficial resemblance of this species to semoni is obvious but they are 
really quite distinct and adult specimens are easily distinguished. At Broome, 
both species were common at Entrance Point and at Gantheaume Point. At 
False Cape Bossut, stigma was abundant but we did not note semoni. Oddly 
enough at Cape Leveque also we found only stigma. At Darwin only semoni was 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 327 

collected. Neither species grows to a large size and most of the specimens found 
are young. Owing to their secretive habits and the similarity between their 
coloration and that of their habitat, either species might be easily overlooked. 

The 67 specimens of stigma at hand are grouped as follows: 
Western Australia: Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 7 specimens, adult and young. 
Broome, chiefly at Entrance and Gantheaume Points, 
August and September, 1929. 32 specimens, adult and 
young. 
False Cape Bossut, September 8, 1929. 15 specimens. 
Broome, cluefly by dredging in 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 13 
specimens, adult and young. 



Ophionereis TIGRIS^ sp. nov. 
Plate 25, fig. 6 

Disk 4.5 mm. across. Arms 5, about 35 mm. long. Similar to 0. semoni in 
its structural features but the skin of the oral surface is so thick that not even the 
oral shields are distinguishable. Coloration most striking. Disk, above and below 
pale yellow, with bold irregular lines of purplish-brown ; in the interbrachial areas 
orally there are 3 lines running inward from margin, the middle one longest and 
extending onto the jaw but not to the teeth, the ones on either side extend only 
to the third or second arm-segment ; on the aboral surface of disk the lines, though 
few, are too irregular, to permit detailed description. Arms banded whitish and 
purplish-brown with surprising uniformity, to the very tip; with extremely few 
exceptions, dark and light segments alternate regularly. Arm-spines distally white 
but on proximal portion of arms they have a dusky spot or band on basal half. 

Holotype, Australian Museum, no J6050, from Norwest Islet, Queensland. 
May, 1930. ^Melbourne Ward leg. 

This beautiful, and unfortunately unique, specimen was loaned by the Aus- 
traUan Museum. It is so very different from any other Ophionereis I have seen, 
I cannot doubt it represents a hitherto unknown species. 

' tigris =a tiger, in reference to the color and markings of the disk. 



328 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

OPHIOCOMIDAE 

Ophiocoma brevipes 

Petehs, 1851. Monatsb. K.-Preus. .\kacl. Wiss. Berlin, p. 46.5. 

This handsome species was met with only at Lord Howe Island where it is 
not very common under stones among the coralline algae at Neds Beach. It is 
even less common on the reef-flat near Mt. Lidgbird. Young specimens less than 
8 mm. across the disk are very Ught colored, almost white, with no green, the 
bands on the arms and the few lines on the disk being dusky. As they become 
larger, they become darker and the green color appears. There is little change in 
relati^•e length of arms however, for the smallest of the 8 specimens at hand, an 
individual 4 mm. across disk, has arms 16 mm. long while the largest with disk 
16 mm. across has arms little less than 4 times as much. The larger specimens 
have the disk handsomely variegated with light and dark green. The habits of 
brempes at Lord Howe were surprisingly sluggish. They crowded into holes and 
crannies and remained perfectly quiet when exposed, the arms drawn up as snugly 
about the body as possible. 

Ophiocoma canaliculata 
LiJTKEN, 1869. Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 3, p. 46. 

There is a fine series of 93 specimens of this Opliiocoma at hand, ranging in 
disk diameter from 2 to 21 mm. It has heretofore been considered a rare ophiuran 
but the collecting in 1929 showed it to be common at Port Willunga, S. A. and 
at Point Peron and Rottnest Island, W. A. Professor Bennett also found it 
common at Bunkers Bay, but there are no specimens available from Albany or 
Bunbury, which seems a little odd. It has not been taken at Dongarra or the 
Abrolhos and Michaelsen and Hartmeyer did not meet with it during their exten- 
sive collecting in Western Australia in 1905. That its range extends eastward to 
the New South Wales coast was revealed by our taking a typical specimen at 
Shell Harbor. 

On the whole this large series of specimens shows no notable diversity in 
structural features but a good deal in coloration. The smallest specimen (2 mm. 
across disk) is variegated with pale red and white, and shows no definite white 
line on lower side of arm; it was taken at Bunkers Bay and is dry and possibly 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 329 

somewhat bleached. Some small specimens from Rottnest Island, 3-4 mm. 
across, have the disks dark grayish-brown, the arms somewhat lighter; in 2 cases, 
the arms are distinctly banded with white and in a third many under arm-plates 
are white; only 1 shows the beginnings of the characteristic white stripe on the 
lower surface of the arms. Most individuals above 5 mm. across the disk show 
this white stripe plainly but sometimes only on the basal part of the arms; in 
very large specimens it often becomes quite indistinct, though traces of it can 
usually be made out. The ground color of preserved material ranges from light 
brown or grayish to nearly black; in many specimens there is a very evident red- 
dish or claret tinge; one very small specimen from Port Willunga, is uniformly 
rusty red but this may be an accident of preservation. 

As for the color in life, my field notes at Port Willunga, S. A., say "all uni- 
formly black in life with a reddish cast on sides and orally." The reddish tint is 
quite lacking in the dry specimens. My notes at Point Peron say: "color in life 
pale olive, Ught brown or dark brown." It is very noticeable that specimens from 
the west coast are very much lighter than those from Port Willunga. The speci- 
men from Shell Harbor is dark with a definite reddish-purple tint. Many of the 
dry specimens from Bunkers Bay are very light brown but it is impossible to say 
how much of this may be artificial. 

The specimens at hand are from the following places: 
New South Wales: Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 1 specimen. 
South Australia : Port Willunga, November 2, 1929. 14 specimens, adult and 

young. 
Western Australia: Bimkers Bay, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

19 specimens, adult and young. 

Point Peron, October, 1929. 33 specimens, adult and young. 

Point Peron. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 22 specimens, adult 
and young. 

Rottnest Island, October, 1929. 3 specimens, very 3'oung. 

Rottnest Island, 1931. G. Bourne leg. 1 very young speci- 
men. 

Ophiocoma erinaceus 

MiJLLER and Troschel, 1842. Sys. Ast., p. 98. 

This species was fairly common at Lord Howe Island but we did not meet 
with it elsewhere. It occui-red under rocks on the reef-flat near Mt. Lidgbird and 



330 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

was abundant at Neds Beach, among the corals. No specimens of the closely 
related species scolopendrina or schoenleinii were found. Very small specimens of 
erinaceus have the arms more or less evidently banded and often show white on 
disk margins and lower surface of arms but the short arms will help to distinguish 
them from young scolopendrina. Large specimens often have the uppermost arm- 
spines more or less enlarged and such specimens are sometimes mistaken for 
OphiomastLx, from which genus the disk covering always distinguishes them. 
The 22 specimens of erinaceus at hand range in disk diameter from 3 to 26 mm. 
The absence of Ophiocomas from the coasts of northern and northwestern Aus- 
tralia is a very unexpected feature of the ophiuran fauna there. 



Ophiocoma insularia var. variegata 

Ophiocoma insularia Lyman, 1S61. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 8, p. 80. 
Ophiocoma variegata E. A. Smith, 1876. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 18, p. 39. 

The opportunity to renew my acquaintance with Ophiocoma brevipes at 
Lord Howe Island made it easy to take the first step in untangling the forms hav- 
ing a finely granulated disk-covering extending clear to the oral shields. In my 
revision of the genus (1921, pp. 120-132) they were all grouped under the specific 
name brevipes Peters but I expressed my dissatisfaction with this arrangement 
and stated (p. 130) my belief in the possibility that at least one of the varieties 
proposed "is really a distinct species." At Lord Howe, the habits and habitat 
of brevipes were as distinctive as its greenish and white coloration and its short 
arms. Hence there was no possibility of confusion with the present form. There 
were no connecting links seen and no doubt remains that brevipes is a well- 
marked species quite distinct from the present stouter, dark-colored form which 
has been called variegata. Lyman's name insularia was however the earliest name 
given to the dark-colored Ophiocomas with fine disk granulation and must be 
used for the uniformly dark ones occurring at the Hawaiian Islands. The similar 
Ophiocoma with a variegated coloration to which Smith subsequently gave the 
name variegata may possibly be entitled to specific rank but the matter is still 
open to question and further field work is needed. At Lord Howe typical insularia 
was not found but variegata is very common and 24 specimens are at hand. They 
range from 4 to 34 mm. in disk diameter and the arms are about 4 times as much. 
Obviously the difference in arm length between typical brevipes and variegata is 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 331 

insignificant, though in the former it may be as httle as 3 times the disk diameter. 
But brevipes is a much smaller species and conspicuously different in coloration. 
At Lord Howe, fully grown variegata fall into one of the two color forms to 
which names were long since given. The more common of these of which 12 speci- 
mens large and small are before me, is dentata Ltk. in which the disk is handsomely 
reticulated with dark brown lines on a Ughter background; the groimd color 
may be gray or brown; one specimen was taken in which it was fawn-color; in 
preserved specimens it sometimes shows a yellowish tint; the size of the meshes 
in the network shows some di\'ersity but as a rule the larger the disk, the smaller 
the meshes. The other form, named doederleini by de Loriol, has the disk spotted 
with black; it is less common and only 4 specimens are at hand. In one young 
specimen, the disk is dark gray and buff so the black spots are conspicuous but in 
large individuals the ground color is so dark the spots do not stand out well in 
dried specimens; they are more evident in life. In both dentata and doederleini 
the arms are more or less conspicuously banded with shades both lighter and 
darker than the ground color. In young specimens in which the disk is neither 
reticulate nor spotted, the banding of the arms or their variegation with Ught 
and dark shades, is very conspicuous; there are 8 such specimens at hand with 
disk-diameter ranging from 4 to 8 mm. 



Ophiocoma parva 

H. L. Clark, 1915a. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. 292. 

It is e\ddent from the present series of specimens, that this odd little Ophio- 
coma may be expected on the Australian coast wherever there is sufficient coral. 
Its apparent absence from Darwin and Broome may be due to the absence of 
such coral areas as it likes, but it will probably be found at Darwin when satis- 
factory tides enable the collector to get further out at East Point than we were 
able to do. It is very common at Lord Howe particularly in the coral at Neds 
Beach where it reaches the largest size yet recorded ; a very symmetrical specimen 
is 7 mm. across the disk, with arms 28 mm. long. Most of the specimens are 
brown or dusky and pale gray or whitish. Few show anj^ greenish tint but several 
are more or less yellow-brown; one large specimen has the disk and arm bases 
yellow-brown but the arms quickly become dusky and whitish; very small speci- 
mens have the arms variegated with white and dusky; the banding of the arms 
is a conspicuous featm^e of most specimens. .Alcoholic specimens are the same 



332 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

color as the types from Mer. The Rottnest Island specimens are j^ellow-brown 
with only faint banding on the arms; they appear to have been in alcohol for some 
time before being dried. 

Autotomy is very evident in most of the specimens at hand; conditions range 
all the way from individuals with 3 arms and half a disk to the symmetrically 
hexamerous adults; many specimens have 3 large and 3 small arms. There are 2 
7-armed specimens but neither is symmetrical — one from Lord Howe has 3 
large and 4 somewhat smaller arms but the 4 are not all the same size; the other, 
from Rottnest, is similar but the disk is not normal and seems to have been 
regenerating poorly. From Lord Howe there is one pentamerous specimen, with 
3 large, normal arms and 2 very small ones, while from Rottnest there is a sym- 
metrical pentamerous specimen 4. .5 mm. across the disk and another somewhat 
smaller individual with 4 large and one small arm. 

The occurrence of parva at Cape Leveque was unexpected but not surprising 
as there is much suitable coral there. It was however most unexpected to have it 
appear at Rottnest, but Mr. Duncan C. Swan wrote me of the conditions at the 
west end of the island as being very different from the area that I saw at the 
northeastern corner. He writes of "a raised, level, rocky platform onto which 
spent waves occasionally broke. The temperature of the water was much higher 
than the normal sea-water and close by were isolated colonies (a few feet across) 
of the true coral-reef coral Pocillopor a." Professor Bennett writes that specimens 
of "a coral-crab. Trapezia, like those of Queensland" were found here "so that the 
echinoderms from here may considerably extend the range of some of the north- 
ern species." This proved an excellent prophecy but of no species was it more 
surprising than of Ophiocorna parva! The color of the Rottnest parva is a light 
yellow brown but it is probable they were in alcohol for some time. 

The 45 specimens of parva at hand are from the following widely separated 
stations : 
Lord Howe Island: Reef-flat near Mt. Lidgbird, but chiefly from corals at Neds 

Beach, April, 1932. 36 specimens, adult and young. 
Northern Territory : Coburg Peninsula, Port Essington, Coral Bay, May 21, 

1932. 1 specimen, young. 
Western Australia : Cape Leveque, reef-flat, August, 1929. 2 specimens, adult 

and young. 
Rottnest Island, western end near Cape Maming, February, 
1930. Swan and Drummond leg. E. W. Bennett don. 
6 specimens, small adults. 



clark: australian echinoderms 333 

Ophiocoma pica 

MiJLLER and Tkoschel, 1842. Syst. Ast., p. 101. 

It was a pleasant surprise to find this very handsome brittle-star at Lord 
Howe for it has not previously been recorded from south of Mer, at the northern 
end of the Barrier Reef. It is not abundant at Lord Howe but we secured 7 speci- 
mens, ranging from 10 to 26 mm. across the disk; the last is the largest specimen 
as yet recorded ; its arms are very short, scarcely 70 mm. The species has a wide 
range, from Zanzibar and the Red Sea to Hawaii and the Paumotus, but we did 
not find it anywhere on the mainland coast of Australia. 



Ophiocoma pulchra 

Ophiocoma canaliculata var. pulchra H. L. Clark, 1928. Rec. S. Austral. Mus., 3, p. 439. 
Ophiocoma puncfala Koehler, 1930. Vid. Med., 89, p. 205. 

^^^len Koehler prepared his excellent description and photographs of the 
Ophiocoma taken by Dr. Mortensen in Port Jackson, my account of the same 
species was still unpublished. As his bibliography ends with 1927, my paper 
published in May, 1928, was very naturally not included. It is unlikely that Dr. 
Koehler ever thought of finding in it any account of one of his forms then await- 
ing publication. Fortunately the name I proposed is equally appropriate with 
Koehler's and its necessary use therefore need not be regretted. Whether pulchra 
is really a species distinct from canaliculata as Koehler believed seems to me still 
open to question. The range of the two coincides and the structural features are 
remarkably similar, but as no intermediate specimens have been seen, it is 
probably best to call them by different names. Nevertheless it should be noted 
that the two forms occur together at Shell Harbor and at Bunkers Bay.  

The specimens at hand show that pulchra has a very wide range, nearly equal 
to that of canaliculata, extending from Long Reef, above Port Jackson to Bunkers 
Bay on the southwestern corner of the continent. The small individual from 
Bunkers Bay (10 mm. in disk-diameter) is unusual in being quite gray with only a 
tinge of claret-red on the upper side of the arms; the red is more in e\'idence 
around the mouth and on the under arm-plates. The specimen most like it in 
this duller coloration is one of those from Long Reef. The Shell Harbor specimens 
are markedly reddish but of a dark shade. The most strikingly colored specimens 



334 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

apparently are those taken in St. Vincent and Spencer Gulfs on the South 
Australian coast on which pulchra was based in 1928. 

The 5 specimens of pulchra at hand are from the widely separated localities 
already mentioned. 

New South Wales: Colloroy, Long Reef, Professor W. J. Dakin leg. et don. 2 

specimens. 
Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 2 specimens. 
Western Australia: Bunkers Bay, January, 1930. Professor E. W. Bennett leg. 

et don. 1 specimen, small adult. 



Ophiocoma occidentalism sp. nov. 
Plate 25, fig. 1 

Disk 26 mm. in diameter. Arms 5, relatively short and rather stout, about 
90 mm. long. Disk closely covered with a rather coarse granulation (30-50 to the 
square millimeter) ; the granules are perhaps a little larger near the interradial 
margins but are not at all elongated there. Upper arm-plates much wider than 
long, unequal in size, irregular in shape, often asyimnetrical ; a typical plate is 
about twice as wide as long, triangular, with the proximal angle truncate, the 
distal margin convex, the lateral angles sharp and the lateral margins a trifle 
concave. But two successive plates are seldom just alike; a typical plate will be 
followed by one 3 x as wide as long or by one almost as long as wide and there is 
no regularity in sequence; apparently more plates are atypical and asymmetrical 
than are perfectly typical. Distally the plates decrease much in size, become more 
regular, more equilaterally triangular, and ultimately are quite separated by the 
large side arm-plates. 

Interbrachial areas below large, closely covered with thin overlapping scales; 
the granules from the disk pass over the margin onto these areas but become more 
and more sparsely scattered both at the sides and near the oral shield, so that 
proximally the areas are quite naked. First under arm-plate small and nearly 
square, the following are much larger, at first hexagonal, then octagonal with dis- 
tal corners rounded and width greater than length; near middle of arm length and 
breadth become equal and all angles are rounded so that some plates are nearly 
cii'cular; at the tip of the arm the plates are longer than wide and finally are sepa- 
rated by the meeting of the side arm-plates. Arm-spines relatively short and 

' oc«dereta/is = western, in reference, of course, to its Australian habitat. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 335 

stout, often a trifle curved, and slightly flattened, very blunt; there are 3 or 4 on 
each side arm-plate; when 3, the uppermost is the largest, its length about equal 
to width of arm; when 4 are present, the uppermost is very much the largest, 
about equal to 4 arm-segments in length and a millimeter or more in thickness; 
the tip is often flattened and sometimes widened, but is never clavate in the 
proper sense of that word; all the spines are smooth; there is neither regularity 
nor symmetry in the distribution of the large spines but they occur every 1-4 seg- 
ments nearly to the tip of the arm. Tentacle-scale single, very large, more or less 
circular, though the width is greatest at base; on 6-8 of the basal pores, 2 scales 
of more or less nearly equal size are present. 

Oral shields almost circular, except that the madreporite which is much the 
largest, is considerably wider than long; the others are perhaps a trifle longer than 
wide; this shape however, while fairly typical of adults, is a little extreme, for 
many specimens especially smaller ones have the shields much longer than wide 
and narrower at the inner end; in some cases the inner and outer ends are both 
square cut so the shields are oblong with corners very Uttle rounded. Adoral plates 
are narrow and crescentic, the outer end wider than inner; they lie close to the 
sides of the oral shields and do not come anywhere near meeting within. 

Color of dry specimen, deep chocolate brown, the arms irregularly but defin- 
itely banded with a lighter shade; nearly all the smaller arm-spines, but not the 
very large ones, have a definite longitudinal light stripe, more evident when seen 
from below; oral shields, under arm-plates and tentacle-scales have more or less 
evident light edges; oral papillae yellowish. In most specimens there is more or 
less of a claret-red tint especially on the upper arm-spines and plates and this 
may be quite evident. At the other extreme are spechnens which are quite graj^ 
and one young specimen has the disk quite black. In all cases, the lighter colored 
areas on the arms show under a lens, a more or less definite motthng with the 
darker shade of the upper arm-plates; this is most conspicuous in gray specimens. 
In the youngest specimens, the variegation with light (whitish or nearly white) 
and dark (dusky) on the oral shields and basal under arm-plates is very noticeable 
and often quite pretty. In regard to the color in life, my field notes say concern- 
ing the specimens taken at Point Peron: "Deep red, more or less variegated with 
whitish on arms and arm-spines. A lovely thing and colors not so fugacious as 
reds usually are but comes out readily in Mg SOj and colors other things." 
Some alcohoUc specimens retain a reddish tint but many have lost it completely. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5239, from under a rock at Point Peron, Western 
Australia. October, 1929. 



336 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Koehler has recorded (1907, p. 246) Ophiocoma wendtii from Shark Bay, 
and it seemed probable that these Ophiocomas from near Perth would prove to 
be the same species. But the more one examines Koehler's accounts and figures of 
wendtii the more dubious one becomes as to the validity and status of the species. 
There seems to be no doubt that two quite different species are at present con- 
fused under the name; certainly Koehler's 1907 figure (PI. XIII, fig. 38) and his 
1922 figure (PI. 75, figs. 7 and S) cannot represent the same species. As I have 
used the name wendtii for the former, a species with handsomely ringed arm- 
spines, the second form needs a name. But the distinguishing characters of this 
second form are so vague, I cannot formulate them. The present species however 
is a very distinct one, the red coloration being notably different from that of any 
other member of the genus. It is, of course closely related to both aethiops and 
schoenleinii but may be distinguished from the former regardless of color, by the 
short arms, the shape of the under arm-plates, the longer arm-spines of very differ- 
ent shape and the larger more generally single tentacle-scale; from schoenleinii, 
it differs in color, in length of arms and arm-spines and in shape of under arm- 
plates, but particularly by a curious difference in the surface of the side arm- 
plates — in both aethiops and occidentalis the side arm-plates have a smooth sur- 
face like that of the under arm-plates so that there is no contrast between the two 
but in schoenleinii the surface of the side arm-plates is like shagreen in marked 
contrast to the smooth under arm-plates. The differences between occidentalis 
and the other species of southwestern Australia are great and obvious but the 
character of the arm-spines, the shape of the under arm-plates and the presence 
of a single large tentacle-scale are the most striking. 

This notable Opliiocoma is very common at Point Peron, where 42 of the 
present series were taken by Professor Bennett and myself. There are 6 specimens 
from Rottnest Island, the gift of either Captain Bardwell or Professor Bennett, 
but I did not find it there in October, 1929. Finally there are 2 specimens of 
moderate size and very gray coloration which were sent by Professor Bennett but 
for some reason they now lack a locality label and I do not know where they were 
taken. It may have been Bunkers Bay but it is quite as likely that they are from 
Point Peron. 

A very remarkable specimen was found at Point Peron in October, 1929. 
It is an albino of such striking character as to warrant description. It is an adult 
20 mm. across the disk with arms a bit more than 60 mm. long. In hfe it was an 
almost uniform cream-color with dusky or reddish spots and markings on the 
upper arm-plates and on the arm-spines. The dry specimen is pale brown. The 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 337 

upper arm-plates and the large upper arm-spines still have considerable pigment 
especially in the distal half of the big spines. The lower surface is entirely lacking 
in pigment. In all structural characters the specimen is a normal occidentalis. 



Ophiomastix notabilis' sp. nov. 

Disk 13 mm. in diameter. Arms 5, rather slender and distinctly flattened, 
about 65 mm. long. Disk covered with a smooth skin scattered over which are 
minute, relatively thick, blunt spinelets (fig. 27) ; these spinelets are about .20 
mm. long and occur irregularly about 1 to 6 on every square millimeter. Upper 
arm-plates much wider than long, scarcely at all angular but somewhat elliptical, 
with the proximal side flattened, where they are broadly in contact; the lateral 
margins are not evenly rounded but there are no evident angles. 

Interbrachial areas below covered like the disk above with a skin bearing 
scattered minute spinelets. First under arm-plate very small, longer than wide; 
second much bigger but small and square; succeeding plates oblong, wider than 
long with nearly straight margins, and corners, more evidently the distal ones, 
rounded; the plates are not in contact with each other but are separated by shal- 
low transverse grooves. Arm-spines 3 or 4, the uppermost longest; when only 
3 are present the uppermost is not conspicuously different from the others and its 
length scarcely equals the width of the arm; when 4 are present, which occurs 
every 3 or 4 joints, the uppermost is conspicuouslj^ thickened, so that it is rela- 
tively very stout; its length about equals the arm-width and its tip is not at all 
clavate or even truncate, as a rule, but tends to be rounded. Tentacle-scale single, 
relatively large, much longer than wide, flat and rounded at tip. 

Oral shields nearly circular or elliptical and longer than wide ; madreporite a 
little the largest. Adoral plates small, their outlines obscured even in the dry 
specimen, by skin but apparently not nearly meeting within. 

Color of dry holotype, disk above and below uniform shining jet black, with 
no markings of any sort. Upper side of arms black but at intervals of 5 or (3 
joints (or only 4 distally), a white or cream-colored band crosses including the 
proximal half of an upper arm-plate; near the tip of the arm the whole plate is 
involved. Mouth frames and under arm-plates dark brown; oral and dental 
papillae, yellow; oral shields whitish with dusky or brownish margins; groups of 
under arm-plates, ranging in number from 2 to 9 are cream-color ; the groups are 

' notabilis = notable, of obvious application. 



338 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

separated from each other bj^ from 1 to 5 brown plates. The arm-spines tend to be 
white where the cross bands on the arm are white but are not consistently so; 
often the uppermost spine is white only at base. The uppermost spines are 
usually blackish but distally, like most of the smaller (lower) spines they show 
more or less of a tendency to have light rings; on the small spines, there are 
generally 3-5 such rings; seen from above this banding of the spines is not con- 
spicuous. Tentacle-scales the color of the adjoining under arm-plate. 













Fig. 27. Ophiomastix notabilis. Bases of 2 arms and portion of disk, to show disk covering and thick 
upper arm-spines, x 8. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5247, from a coral colony at Cape Leveque, Western 
Australia, August 22, 1929. 

The discovery of this specimen was the most notable of those made at Cape 
Leveque for it is the only specimen of the Ophiocomidae which we took on the 
whole northern coast of AustraUa. It was crowded into a cranny in a colony of 
some stony coral, in a tide pool, accessible only at very low water, and was dis- 
covered only in the course of breaking up the colony with a hammer for the pur- 
pose of uncovering brittle-stars and small holothurians. The color in Hfe was 
definitely black and white but on preservation the white became yellowish. The 
species is very distinct from all the known members of the genus but the colora- 
tion alone will make its recognition easy. 



clark : australian echinoderms 339 

Ophiarthrxtm elegans 

Peters, 1851. Monatsb. K.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, p. 464. 

Although this handsome brittle-star ranges from Zanzibar to Tahiti, we did 
not find it anyw^here on the Australian Coast or at Lord Howe Island. Yet it is 
common at Thursday Island and on the Barrier Reef at least as far south as 
Cau'ns. It was therefore a pleasant surprise to find 12 typical specimens in the 
material collected by Captain Bardwell at Augustus and Champagay Islands in 
October, 1933. They range from 12 to 18 mm. in disk diameter, and show a 
curious dichromatic condition which is worthy of mention. Of the 12 specimens, 
5 are distinctly yellowish and 7 are definitely gray; both have the usual dark disk 
and the customary speckling of arm-plates and arm-spines but the ground color 
is notably different in the two forms. It would be interesting to know if this dif- 
ference is associated in any way with habitat. Since Ophiarthrum proves to be 
common at Augustus Island, it seems strange that we did not find it at Cape 
Leveque where conditions would seem to favor its occurrence. 

Ophiarthrum pictum 

Ophiocoma picta Muller and Troschel, 1842. Syst. Ast., p. 102. 
Ophiarthrum piclum Lyman, 1874. Bull. M. C. Z., 3, p. 225. 

Mr. Ward has sent a very fine specimen of this splendid ophiuran which he 
took at Lindeman Island in 1934. It is of maximum size, nearly 30 mm. across the 
disk, which, even though dry, still shows well the remarkable yellow markings 
characteristic of the species. As pictum has not previously been I'eported from 
south of the Low Islands, its occurrence at Lindeman Island is notable. 



OPHIODERMATIDAE 

Ophiurodon cinctum 

Ophioconis cinda Brock, 1888. Zeit. f.w. Zool., 47, p. 480. 
Ophiurodon cincfa Matsumoto, 1917. Mon. Jap. Oph., p. 315. 

We met with an Ophiurodon at both Darwin and Broome which is ap- 
parently cinchmi but the specimens were usually small and often in poor condi- 
tion. The material at hand is not sufficient therefore for a critical study of this 



340 MEMom: museum of comparative zoology 

East Indian species, of which our knowledge is based on very few specimens. No 
examples of Ophiurodon from north of Torres Strait are available to me except a 
single small individual from the Philippine Islands, which seems to belong to 
Koehler's species cupidum. 

The specimens found at Darwin were taken either from a coral rock frag- 
ment on Three-and-a-half Mile Reef (1 specimen) or while dredging in 3-G fms. 
near the Shell Islands (2 specimens). The largest of these is scarcely 5 mm. 
across the disk. They agree in coloration, having the disk uniformly hght dull 
yellowish and the arms banded with white and dusky; the bands are distinct but 
ill-defined; usually there are 2 or 3 white segments followed by one or two dusky 
ones; the dusky bands are often much darker distally than proximally. These 
specimens agree in all essentials with Brock's (1888) and Koehler's (1905, 1922) 
accounts except that there are 2 tentacle-scales on all pores beyond the first 2 
or 3, which have 3-5 scales. Brock says there is but one scale and Koehler said 
"unique" m 1805, but in 1922 (p. 352) he says that there are "sometimes" two. 
The second scale lies at the outer side of the pore and is, I believe always present, 
but it is only about half as large as its fellow, is nearly circular, very thin and 
transparent, and overlies the base of the lowest arm-spine; it is accordingly very 
easily overlooked even with high magnification. The marginal disk spinelets are 
present in the Darwin material and fairly conspicuous; in one specimen similar 
spinelets are present on the disk itself, scattered irregularly among the granules, 
as in Koehler's species permixtum (1905, p. 14). 

The material from the Broome region consists of a large and perfect specimen 
from Cape Leveque, which is 6 mm. across the disk and has arms 20 mm. long; 2 
much smaller specimens taken at Gantheaume and Entrance Points, Broome, in 
September, 1929; and 5 specimens, of which only one is adult, dredged in Roebuck 
Bay and southwestward in June, 1932. Only 2 have the marginal spinelets as well 
developed as in the Darwin specimens and in several no such spinelets are 
visible. It is evident that not much reliance can be placed on the presence, dis- 
tribution or absence of these spinelets as a species character. But in one par- 
ticular these 8 specimens from the Broome region agree in differing from Brock's 
specimen and those from Darwin, and that is the coloration, more particularly 
that of the disk. The arms are banded as in the Darwin specimens but the bands 
are more conspicuous, better defined and possibly more numerous. The disk is 
always prettily variegated with a light (white, cream-color or pale yellow) 
ground color, and dark (brown, red-brown or dark red) markings; in 4 of the 
smaller specimens the dark color makes an irregular star-like figure, with a light 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 341 

central area, each ray of the star extending to the base of an arm; in the other 2 
small individuals the star is present but the light central area is broadly con- 
nected in one interradius with the outside light-colored portion of the disk; in the 
2 large individuals, the dark color has extended to cover most of the disk, which is 
best described as dai-k with light interradial and central markings. Since this 
striking coloration is characteristic of all the Broome material and is lacking in 
those from Darwin, it is advisable to indicate it nomenclaturally. The variety 
may then be called pulchellum and the specimen from Cape Leveque (M. C. Z. 
no. 5252) be considered the holotype. 



Ophiarachxa megacantha' sp. nov. 

Disk 15 mm. in diameter, rather definitely pentagonal. Arms 5, about 70 
mm. long, not verj^ wide, tapering steadily to the slender tip. Disk (fig. 28) 
covered with a uniform coat of fine granules about 100 to the square millimeter; 
radial shields naked but very small, 1.5 mm. long by 1 mm. wide; the two of a 
pair are nearly 3 mm. apart. Upper arm-plates on basal half of arm oblong, about 
twice as wide as long, in contact the full width of arm; lateral margins a Uttle 
convex and distal corners somewhat rounded; distally they become squarish and 
finally triangular, and quite separated from each other by the side arm-plates. 

Interbrachial areas below (fig. 29) closely covered by granules like the disk. 
First under arm-plate rather small, much wider than long, with a strongly convex 
distal margin; second plate larger and longer but still wider than long; succeed- 
ing plates becoming distinctly longer than wide only at and beyond the middle of 
arm; distal corners of plates rounded so that distal margin seems quite convex. 
The pores which occur in pairs between the basal under arm-plates of many 
Ophiodermatidae are plainly evident, but as the plates are broadly in contact it 
is hard to say how far, out on the arm they extend. Arm-spines either 5 or 4; 
when 5 are present, the uppermost is shorter than the one below it; and that spine 
is longer than the 2 below it; the lowest is much the longest of the series; when 
4 are present, the uppermost is longer than the two below it but does not equal 
the lowest; the lowest is wide, somewhat flattened, very blunt and equals or ex- 
ceeds two arm-segments; between the 9th and 30th segments, these spines are 
conspicuously enlarged at frequent but irregular intervals; the largest are 4 mm. 
long and .75 mm. wide. The normal spines, above the lowest, are somewhat 

' ju€7ds =hig-\-a.KavOa =n spine, in reference to the unusually large lower arm-spines. 



342 



memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



flattened, wide at base and bluntly pointed; frequently they are a trifle curved; 
they all exceed an arm-segment in length and sometimes are nearly equal to 2. 
Tentacle-scales 2, large; inner about half as wide as outer which is nearly circular 
and overlies the base of the lowest arm-spine; in length the scales hardly equal 
one-half of the under arm-plate. 

Oral shields large, pentagonal with rounded corners as wide as long or wider ; 
madreporic plate not larger than the others. Supplementary plates distal to the 




>~iJS%s.. 



30 








29 





Figs. 28-30. Ophiarachna megacantha. x 4. 

28. Dorsal surface of 2 arm-bases and part of disk. 

29. Ventral view of same. 

.30. Side view of 3 arm-segments. 



oral shield small but distinct in all five areas. Adoral plates small, lying wholly 
at the sides of the oral shields and separating them from the first side arm-plates. 
Oral papillae 7 on each side of each jaw, the penultimate much the largest, twice 
as wide as the more proximal ones which are more or less pointed. 

Color of dry holotype, disk uniformly light gray above, the disk granules a 
trifle more brown than the radial shields. Upper arm-plates at base of arm gray, 
hke radial shields, but after the first half dozen plates or so, 2 or .3 plates are lighter 
and for the entire length of the arm there is a somewhat irregular alternation of 
the lighter and darker tints so that the arms appear faintly banded; the lateral 
margins of all upper arm-plates are narrowly white but this is not conspicuous. 
Arm-spines nearly white, especially the lowest ones; none are marked or banded 
in any way. Under arm-plates pale gray with white lateral margins. Tentacle- 
scales nearly white. Interbrachial areas below verj' hght almost cream-color. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 343 

Oral shields very pale brown with lateral margins becoming almost white. Oral 
papillae white or nearly so. 

Holotype, Australian Museum no. J 6043, from 25 miles southeast of Double 
Island Point, Queensland, 23 fms. Loaned by the Australian Museum. 

A paratype from the same station is a trifle larger but not essentially dif- 
ferent in any particular of either structure or color; for some reason, most of the 
large lowest arm-spines have been broken off near the base or distal to it. Another 
paratype dredged near Lindeman Island, Mackay, Queensland, in 1934 by Mr. 
Melbourne Ward, is a trifle smaller and is brighter colored, the banding of the 
arms being very conspicuous; the white margins of the upper arm-plates also 
show up well, while those of the under arm-plates are very conspicuous. The 
median part of each radial sliield is cream-color and a line of this color connects it 
with the light margins of the basal upper arra-plates. In each interradial area at 
the margin of the disk and below, a Light gray groimd color is oddly variegated 
with cream-color and even the oral shields are variegated cream-color and gray. 
None of the lower arm-spines of this specimen are notably enlarged although they 
are the longest spines on the arm (fig. 30). 

This is a very well-marked species differing from most of the other species of 
Ophiarachna in having naked radial sliields. In this particular it resembles 
0. robillardi de Loriol of Mauritius and 0. quinquespina Koehler. It differs from 
the former however in arm-spines and oral shields, and from the latter in the 
presence of supplementary oral shields and numerous pairs of arm-pores, not to 
mention the marked differences in coloration. It will not be easily confused with 
any other Australian brittle-star but it is remarkably similar to Ophiarachnella 
macracantha from the Caroline Islands. 



Pectinura assimilis 

Ophiopeza assimilis Bell, 1888. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 282. 
Pectinura assimilis H. L. Clark, 1909. Bull. M C. Z., 52, p. 118. 

This species is still unsatisfactorily known although it is apparently not rare 
in St. Vincent and Spencer Gulfs, South Australia. The 3 specimens at hand will 
not help any in adding to our knowledge. They range from 12 to 15 mm. in 
disk diameter but are in very poor condition and were probably picked up on 
some beach. Professor Bennett gave them to me at Perth and they are supposed 
to be from Western Austraha, but confirmation of this supposed occurrence of 
assimilis on the western coast is greatly to be desired. 



344 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Pectinura yoldii 

Ophiopeza yoldii Lutken, 1856. Vid. Med., p. 9. 

Prctimmi yoldii H. L. Clark, 1909. Bull. M. C. Z., 52, p. 119. 

We did not meet with this well-marked species but Mr. Ward has sent two 
specimens from Lindeman Island, Queensland. The smaller is 12 mm. across the 
disk and has but 7 arm-spines on the largest arm-segments. The other is 15 mm. 
aci'oss the disk and has 9 arm-spines, which seems to be the maximum for the 
species, as specimens in the M. C. Z., 25-27 mm. in disk diameter have but 9 as 
a rule, 10 only here and there. The Lindeman Island specimens are light colored, 
the disks variegated with cream-color, light greenish brown and dusky; the arms 
are banded light gray brown and grayish-white, somewhat variegated with white, 
particularly on the darker bands; the whole lower surface is cream-color or dingy 
white. 

Pectinura nigra' sp. nov. 

Disk relatively stout, more or less pentagonal, not notched for insertion of 
arms, 6.5 mm. in diameter; covered with a coat of fine granules, more than 100 to 
the square millimeter. Arms 25-30 mm. long, stout at base and slightly flattened 
there, tapering rapidly to a slender tip. Radial shields completely concealed, 
l^pper arm-plates at base of arm, more than twice as wide as long, with smooth 
surface, straight proximal and distal margins, which are fully in contact, rounded 
distal angles and convex lateral margins; distally the plates become narrower, the 
proximal margin becomes rapidly shorter and shorter and so at the tip of the 
arms the plates are nearly, and at last completely, triangular and the last few 
are separated by the side arm-plates. 

Interbrachial areas below small, granulated hke disk. First under arm-plate 
much wider than long, elliptical with narrow ends; the next 2 or .3 plates are 
about as long as wide, somewhat hexagonal or octagonal, with distal angles wholly 
obliterated, the proximal less completely so; lateral margins slightly concave, 
proximal straight, distal flattened convex; succeeding plates increasingly longer 
than wide, more eUiptical in shape, though the ends and sides are always a little 
flattened ; near tip of arm where they are very sraa 11 they are separated from each 
other by the side arm-plates. At base of arm, side arm-plates are about twice as 
high as their rather considerable width (length) but are confined to the sides of 

' niger = bla.ck, in reference to the unusual color. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 345 

the arm; distally they encroach more and more on the upper and under surfaces 
of the arm, and finally at tip of arm they meet broadly both above and below. 
Arm-spines 6; 5, 4 and 3 on the segments within the disk, and distally of course 
becoming similarly reduced; the spines are short, flat but thick, rather wide at 
base but bluntly pointed at tip; they are subequal or the uppermost is smallest, 
and are about half as long as the side arm-plate against which they lie. Tentacle- 
scales, 2, the inner longer than wide and somewhat longer than the outer more or 
less circular plate that overlies the base of the lowest arm-spine. 

Oral shields relatively large, smooth, rounded triangular, with a wide inner 
angle and a convex distal side; length and breadth about equal, or the length 
possibly a trifle greater; madreporite scarcely larger than the others. Adoral 
plates very small, somewhat triangular closely appressed to the sides of the oral 
shields, proximal to distal angle. Surface of jaw closely covered with granules. 
Oral papillae 7 on each side, the next to the outermost, much the largest; it is 
wide and flat and bigger than the adoral plate; the others are narrow and more or 
less pointed. 

Color in life, "nearly black;"' the dried specimen is very dark dorsally but has 
a purphsh cast; orally the color is Hghter, particularly on the under arm-plates 
and arm-spines which are purplish-gray. The teeth are white and under the lens, 
the arms can be seen to become lighter distally and the very tip is white. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5257, dredged in Koombana Bay, 5-8 fms., Bun- 
bury, W. A. October 26, 1929. 

This is a very well marked species in spite of its small size and aside from its 
unusual color — unusual that is for an Ophiodermatid. In my key to the species 
of Pectinura (1909, p. 116), it runs down at once to the New Zealand species 
cylindrica but the general facies is quite unlike that species and the arm-plates 
and arm-spines are as different as can be. 

Ophiochasma stellatum 

Opkiarachna sfellafa Ljungman, 1867. Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 23, p. .305. 
Ophiochasma sieUafum H. L. Clark, 1909. Bull. M. C. Z., 52, p. 121. 

This handsome brittle-star is cominon around Broome but we did not find it 
at Cape Leveque, nor in the region of Darwin. Aside from a single large adult 
sent from Lindeman Island, Queensland (which by the way is a "farthest south" 
record for the species) all of the 53 specimens at hand were taken at Broome or 
between there and Wallal. They are a beautiful series ranging from 5 to 29 mm. 



346 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

in disk-diameter and showing well the interesting growth changes through 
which the species passes. The 3 smallest have the disk pure white and the arms 
white with a half-a-dozen sharply defined cross-bands of gray-blue finely speckled 
with black. The oral shields are very long and narrow and lack supplementary 
shields. In fact these young Ophiochasmas are typical Ophiarachnellas! Adult 
specimens are pure white underneath and beautifully variegated with white, 
gray and light brown over the whole upper surface. This coloration matches 
remarkably the sandy bottom of Roebuck Bay. 

 . Ophiarachnella gorgonia 

Plate 15, fig. 1 

Ophiarachna gorgonia Muller and Troschel, 1842. Syst. Ast., p. 105. 
Ophiarachnella gorgonia H. L. Clark, 1909. Bull. M. C. Z., 52, p. 12.3. 

This widespread Indo-Pacific species is very common at Broome, and was 
also found at Cape Leveque, but at Darwin only a few young individuals were 
secured. The series at hand ranges from 6 to 22 mm. in disk diameter but shows 
little diversity in coloration. The rather light colored disk usually has an irregular 
dark spot or blotch near center and this sometimes occupies a large part of the 
disk. The arms are always conspicuously banded with light and dark on the back 
and sides but the oral surface of the entire animal is unicolor, more or less nearly 
white. In young specimens at Darwin, there was in Life a very evident pink shade 
on the disk and the arms were banded with pink and brown, but the colors faded 
i-apidly after death and in the dry specimens only dusky and whitish or shades of 
brown and whitish remain. 

The 38 specimens at hand are from the following places: 
Northern Territory: Darwin, Three-and-a-half-Mile Reef, in a rock fragment, 

June, 1929. 1 specimen, very young. 
Darwin, East Point, July 13, 1929. 1 specimen, young. 
Darwin, near Leper Station, May, 1932. 1 specimen, small 
adult. 
Western Australia : .Augustus Island, October, 1933. Captain Beresford E. Bard- 
well leg. 1 specimen, small adult. 
Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 2 specimens. 
Broome, August and September, 1929. 19 specimens, adult and 

young. 
Broome, June, 1932. 13 specimens, adult and young. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 347 

Ophiarachnella INFERNALIS 

Ophiarachna infcnialis Mf'LLER and Troschel, 1842. Syst. Ast., p. 10.5. 
Ophiarachnella inferiialis H. L. Clark, 1909. Bull. M. C. Z., 52, p. 124. 

This common East Indian species occurs along the entire northern coast of 
Australia from the Coburg Peninsula to Broome. How far west of the Broome 
region the range extends is still to be determined. The present series ranges from 
5 to 16 mm. in disk diameter, the largest specimens being from Cape Leveque. 

The 64 specimens at hand are from the following stations : 
Northern Territory: Coburg Peninsula, Port Essington, Coral Bay, May 21, 

1932. 1 specimen. 
Darwin, East Point, under rocks, .June, 1929. 3 specimens. 
Darwin, near Shell Islands, 3-6 fms., July, 1929. 3 speci- 
mens, young. 
Darwin, near Leper Station, 3-5 fms., May 25, 1932. 3 
specimens, adult and young. 
Western Australia : Augustus Island, October, 1933. Captain Beresford E. Bard- 
well leg. 2 specimens, adult and young. 
Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 11 specimens, adult and 

young. 
Broome, chiefly under rocks, August and September, 1929. 

19 specimens. Adult and young. 
Broome, chiefly dredged in 5-7 fms., June, 1932. 22 speci- 
mens, adult and young. 

Ophiarachnella ramsayi 

Pectinura ramsayi Bell, 1888. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 281. 
Ophiarachnella ramsayi H. L. Clark, 1915a. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. .30.5. 

This species, closely allied to gorgonia, replaces it on the southern coast of 
Australia from New South Wales to North Beach, Fremantle, W. A. It grows to 
a much larger size than gorgonia and tends to distinctly brighter colors. The 
specimens at hand from New South Wales range from 5 to 31 mm. in diameter, 
while the 2 specimens from Western Australia are 31 and 35 mm. across; the 
latter has arms 190 mm. long. In color the New South Wales specimens show 
some diversity. The specimens from Bottle and Glass Rocks are very dark, 
those from Long Reef are lighter and more variegated and 2 of those from Shell 



348 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Harbor are verj- handsome with much rose-red in the coloration. When rose-red 
is present it tints the lower surface of the basal part of the arms, enters into the 
variegation of the disk and is indicated (and may be conspicuous) in the banding 
of the arms. The specimens from Port Jackson agree in the complete absence of 
bright tints; gray and dark gray form the color bands on the arms, while the disk 
and arm bases are dark, usually with an evident green tinge; the disk and upper 
arm-plates are usually faintly speckled or spotted with a darker shade; often 
there is a small irregular buff or yellowish spot on the disk and there may be 
several, but they are not conspicuous. There is one "recognition mark" shown by 
all specimens of ramsayi which I have examined (excepting only the two from 
Western Australia mentioned below) and that is the uniformly light colored 
(white, whitish or yellowish) lower surface of disk (mouth frames and basal por- 
tion of each interbrachial area) which is sharply marked off from the distal part 
of the same. Sometimes the boundary line runs across the interbrachial area mid- 
way between the oral shield and the margin, often it is more distal, and not 
rarel}^ it is just below the actual margin of the disk. But it is always clear cut and 
in nearly all cases the contrast shown between the dark and light areas is striking. 
The large specimens referred to above from Western Australia are notable 
for their color as well as their size. Were only the smaller one at hand, I should 
consider it an undescribed species but the larger one is so perfectly intermediate 
between it and the specimens from New South Wales, it will be enough to call it 
variety pulchra and thus attract attention to its striking coloration (Plate 14, 
fig. 1). The specimen is dry and hence the colors are probably less brilliant than 
in life ; it is of course impossible to say whether they are essentially different. The 
disk is variegated with gray, yellow and rust color which are not sharply set off 
from each other but blend to a certain extent, with yellow as the predominant 
tint. The interbrachial areas below are distinctly yellowish and the oral shields 
and oral papillae are nearly orange. (All the plates about the mouth were stained 
with fluid from the stomach when the specimen was being dried.) The lower surface 
of the arms is uniformly light buff gradually becoming graj^ distally where the 
under arm-plates are finely speckled with dusky. The upper surface and sides of 
the arms are beautifully banded with orange yellow, bright brown and gray; the 
gray upper arm-plates show under the lens a fine speckling with blackish; the 
first 5 or 6 upper arm-plates on each arm are yellow, followed by one brown plate 
in marked contrast; then follow 6 or 7 gray plates, the most distal of which is 
brown at the outer corners, or the next succeeding plate may be brown proxi- 
mally and become yellow distally. There are 3 or 4 more bands of yellow alter- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 349 

nating with graj' but beyond the middle of the arm the yellow is more and more 
marked with graj^ finely speckled with dusky, and distally there is no yellow the 
banding of the arm being very faint and caused by alternation of groups of 
speckled grayish plates with similar plates more definitely brown. The color of 
the arm-spines coincides to some extent with that of the plates which they 
adjoin. This beautiful specimen is no. 15058 in the Western Australian Museum 
and is of course the holotype of the variety. 

The larger specimen is also in the Perth Museum and differs from typical 
)-amsayi chiefly in the light colored disk, which is pale gray irregularly but defi- 
nitely tinged with yellow, most marked near the disk margin. Orally the inter- 
brachial areas are pale graj^ becoming nearly white near the oral shields, which 
with all the mouth frame and adjoining papillae are dingy white, as are the 
under arm-plates and the basal arm-spines. The first 3 or 4 upper arm-plates on 
each arm are distinctly yellow-brown showing a definite trend toward the yellow 
of the smaller specimen. The remainder of the arm however is banded light and 
dark gray like the Port Jackson specimens only the light gray is lighter and the 
banding is thus more noticeable. 

The 18 specimens of ramsayi at hand are as follows: 
New South Wales: Colloroy, Long Reef, November 28, 1929. 6 specimens; 

adult and young. 
Port Jackson, near Middle Head, November 21, 1929. 1 

specimen. 
Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

5 specimens. 
Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 4 specimens, adult and young. 
Western Australia : about 10 miles north of Fremantle, North Beach, Triggs 

Island, 1 specimen, huge adult. Loaned by Western 

Australian Museum. 
Rottnest Island, January, 1929. Mr. Horbury leg. et don. 

1 specimen, adult. Holotype of variety pulchra. Loaned 

by Western Australian Museum. 

Ophiarachnella septemspinosa 

Ophiarachna septemspinosa Muller and Troschel, 1842. Sys. Ast., p. 105. 
Ophiarachnella scplemspinosa H. L. Clark, 1909. Bull. M. C. Z., 52, p. 126. 

We did not meet with this big ophiuran at any point where we collected, but 
Captain Bardwell found it at Augustus Island, W. A., in October, 1933 and sent 4 



350 MEMom: museum of comparative zoology 

specimens, which are notable for their very dark color and large size. In the small- 
est specimen, 24 mm. across the disk, the bands on the arms are evident, though 
narrow and dim. In the largest individual, 36 mm. across, the color is very dark 
especially on the arms, and no bands are visible. In the other 2 specimens bands 
can be seen at the very tips of the arms. In all the specimens the arm-spines are 
unusually pointed and in no case is there any evidence of the supposedly "char- 
acteristic white tips." 



Ophiarachnella similis 

Pectinura similis Koehler, 1905. "Siboga" Oph. Litt., p. 6. 
Ophiarachnella similis H. L. Clark, 191.5a. Mem. M. (". Z., 25, p. 306. 

Among all the specimens of 0. infernalis which I have collected, I have never 
seen one which answered in every particular to Koehler's description of his 
similis. In 1909, I asserted that the two were identical but in the face of my 
eminent French colleague's strong protest, I accepted similis as vahd in 1915. 
In 1922 and again in 1930, Koehler insisted on the constant differences between 
the 2 forms but my scepticism has persisted. At last however, an Ophiarachnella 
is at hand, which is apparently an example of similis and I have examined it 
with keen interest. It was sent to me by Mr. Melbourne Ward who took it at 
Lindeman Island, on the Barrier Reef near Mackay, Queensland. It is 10 ram. 
across the disk and the arms are about 40 mm. long. The coloration is variegated 
gray and brown like infernalis but the arms are not so sharply banded, in this 
particular specimen. The disk granulation is a trifle coarser, the arms are more 
slender and the upper arm-plates are narrower. There are no naked plates in the 
interradial areas but the radial shields are not essentially different in size or form 
from those of infernalis; they seem somewhat thinner and flatter. On the lower 
sm'face the only noteworthy difference is that the oral shields are much smaller 
and the adoral plates are much bigger than in infernalis. In this comparison, 
specimens of infernalis from Darwin and Broome were used and the various 
differences were not hard to see, but when material from New Guinea or the 
Queensland coast was examined one or more of the differences failed to hold. I 
am therefore still in doubt as to the status of similis but hope that material from 
Lindeman Island or elsewhere on the Barrier Reef may finally settle the matter. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 351 

Ophiarachnella paucigranula^ sp. nov. 

Disk somewhat pentagonal, 7 mm. in diameter, very flat, covered with a 
coat of thin overlapping scales which, as always in the Ophiodermatidae, carry 
granules; these granules however are very minute and sparsely distributed; they 
are smallest and most numerous near the center of the disk, largest and most 
widely separated in the interradial areas at the disk margin; there may be more 
than 25 to the square millimeter where thickest, about 10 where most scattered. 
Radial shields relatively large, widely separated, a little longer than wide, quite 
bare. Arms 5, about 27 mm. long, distinctly flattened. Upper arm-plates with a 
finely shagreen-like surface; first one much wider than long, subsequent plates 





Fig. 31. Ophiarachnella paucigranula. x 6. a. Bases of 2 arms and adjoining portion of disk. b. 
Side view of 3 arm segments showing the arm-spines. 

about as wide as long, the relative length increasing but little distally; near 
base of arm the plates are large, quadrilateral and broadly in contact, but the 
straight proximal margin is so much shorter than the strongly convex distal side, 
that the straight lateral margins are markedly divergent. Distally the plates 
decrease in size and in contact with each other so that near the arm-tip they are 
small and separated and perfectly triangular though the distal margin is still con- 
vex. 

Interbrachial areas below covered with distinct thin scales bearing scattered 
minute granules. First under arm-plate twice as wide as long, rounded triangular; 
second and third plates somewhat wider than long, fourth and fifth about as wide 
as long, subsequent plates longer than wide; at first the plates are somewhat 

' paucis= few + granular little grains, in reference to the remarkably sparse distribution of the gran- 
ules on the disk. 



352 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

hexagonal, with all distal angles rounded, and more or less in contact, but further 
out they become top-shaped and ultimately quite separated. Their surface is 
somewhat less shagreen-like than the upper plates. Arm-pores conspicuous, 
present far out on the arm. Arm-spines only 4, well spaced, the lowest much the 
longest and equalhng the arm-segment, rather blunt; the other 3 are subequal and 
pointed. Tentacle-scales, as usual in the family, 2, the inner narrow, the outer 
broader, rounded or truncate at the tip which overlies the base of the lowest arm- 
spine. 

Oral shields large, the madreporite not noticeably larger than the others, but 
its distal margin projects much more; each shield is a rounded triangle about as 
long as wide, the madreporite somewhat longer; distal margin slightly concave or 
straight; lateral margins convex and inner angle broadly rounded. A distinct 
supplementary plate adjoins each shield. Adoral plates very narrow, lying wholly 
along side of each shield, closely appressed; in some cases they extend down 
between the oral shield and arm-plates but quite as often they do not. 

Color of dry holotype, interradial areas of disk both above and below, 
whitish or very pale brown; center of disk and a broad area in each radius, brown; 
radial shields somewhat hghter. Arms light gray with 4 broad, dark, almost 
blackish, bands, of which the first is at the very base of each arm; the bands com- 
pletely encircle the arms. 

Holotype, Australian Museum, no. J 6044, from "Alagneta" Station XVII, 
Great Barrier Reef Expedition, off North Direction Island, Queensland, 19 fms. 
March 9, 1929. 

This is an unusually well-marked species owing to the combination of a 
peculiar disk-coveruig with few well-spaced arm-spines. It is clearly an Ophi- 
arachnella but quite unlike any previously known member of the genus. 



Ophiarachnella rugosa' sp. nov. 

Disk nearly circular, 15 mm. across, considerably elevated, covered with 
numerous bare, swollen plates, separated from each other by lines and narrow 
areas of very fine granules (fig. 32); the largest of these plates are in a group 
of 3 lying between the distal ends of the large, naked, flat radial shields, which 
are at the very margin of the disk, at the base of the arm on each side. Other 
large swollen plates occur along the interradial margins and often near the inner 

' rugosus = Tough, rugged, in reference to the character of the disk. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 



353 



ends of the radial shields; the smallest plates are near the center of the disk. 
Upper arm-plates a little swollen ; the first 2 are low, twice as wide as long ; suc- 
ceeding plates are somewhat wider than long but distally the length and breadth 
are about equal; basally the plates have straight divergent sides; they are in 
contact the full length of the proximal side; distally they become more and more 
perfectly triangular and less and less in contact so that at the tip of the arm they 
are very small and well separated. 




Figs. 32-34. Ophiaraclinella rugosa. x 4. 

32. Bases of 2 arms and adjoining portion of disk. 

33. Intenadial area and bases of 2 adjoining arms. 

34. Sideview of 3 arm-segments. 



Interbrachial areas below (fig. 33) like disk, covered with bare, swollen 
plates surrounded by fine granules. First under arm-plates nearly twice as wide 
as long with strongly convex distal margin and rounded lateral angles. Second 
plate wider than long, with convex distal margin, the other three sides more or 
less concave; gradually the succeeding plates become longer than wide, more or 
less hexagonal, with a straight, short proximal margin and a convex distal edge, 
three times as long, with rounded lateral angles; distally the plates become small 
and widely separated. Arm-pores probably present but difficult to make out. 
Side arm-plates large, thick and projecting; distally they become fully in contact 
both above and below. Arm-spines 10 or 11 in a full series, short and peg-like, 
much less than i o the length of the side arm-plate (fig. 34), the 2 lowest longest 
and bluntest, the uppermost shortest and sharpest. Tentacle-scales as usual in 
the family, 2, the inner one narrow, the outer wider and more rounded, overlying 
the base of the lowest arm-spine. 



354 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Oral shields rounded triangular, about as long as wide, the distal margin 
concave, the lateral margins convex, and all angles broadly rounded. The 
madreporite is easily the largest. A large supplementary plate adjoins the distal 
side of each. Adoral plates rather large, more or less triangular, lying wholly at 
the sides of the oral shields, separating them from the first imder arm-plate. 

Color of dry holotype, disk light gray, speckled with a dark brown, or 
dusky; half a dozen of the spots are large enough to stand out somewhat, the 
largest more than a millimeter in diameter; on the smallest paratype there is one 
large ciixular dark spot at center of disk; in the next larger there are two, small 
but distinct spots and in the third there are 3 rather large and 2 small spots. 
Arms gray with 4-7 distinct bands of brown ; the most nearly basal band is dark 
brown but the others are a yellow-brown often with dark brown at the proximal 
margins. Lower surface nearly white; distally on the arms are 2-4 shaded areas 
where brownish under arm-plates give a faint suggestion of arm-bands. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5287, from Broome, W. A., 5-8 fms. June, 1932. 

There are 3 paratypes, the smallest 6.5 mm. across the disk. They are sur- 
prisingly like the holotype save for their smaller size. This is a very distinct 
species, resembling gorgonia in some ways and infernalis in others. It is not very 
common at Broome for we did not find it in 1929 at all, and during all our collect- 
ing of June, 1932, we only secured 4 specimens. 



Cryptopelta callista' sp. nov. 

Plate 14, fig. 2 

Disk circular, 10 mm. in diameter, flat, covered with a rather loose thin skin 
which becomes more or less wrinkled in dry specimens; this skin carries a dense 
coat of very fine granules, completely conceahng the radial shields but not ex- 
tending out onto the arms at all. Arms 5, hardly 40 mm. long, rather wide basally, 
much flattened, especially at tip. First upper arm-plate very low, nearly 3 times 
as wide as long; second plate nearly elliptical twice as wide as long; third plate 
wider than long, the straight proximal margin a little shorter than the convex 
distal side, so the straight lateral margins are somewhat divergent; succeeding 
plates similar but the distal margin increases in length and the lateral margins 
curve outward making conspicuous distal angles. Well out on the arm the plates 
become longer than wide, decrease much in size, are more and more triangular in 

' KoXKiUTOi = »iost beautiful, in reference to its being the loveliest member of the genus. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 355 

form and separated by the side arm-plates; they finally become minute triangles 
and then wholly disappear. 

Interbrachial areas below covered by the fine granulation of the disk, which 
also extends over the entire mouth frame, completely conceahng the oral shields 
and adoral plates; a small circular spot on what is doubtless the madreporite, 
remains bare. First under arm-plates small but well defined, longer than wide, 
narrowest at the inner end; second plate larger and succeeding plates becoming 
hexagonal, as wide as long or wider, with definite proximal angles but distal angles 
a little rounded; in contact until very near tip of arm. Side arm-plates not con- 
spicuous basally but at tip making up most of the arm. Arm-spines 7 or S in a 
series, peg-like, about half as long as the segment, sharp-pointed, lowest longest 
and uppermost smallest. Tentacle-scale single, moderately large, longer than 
wide, with rounded tip. Color of dry holotype, disk dull light yellow; arms white 
or pale gray with half a dozen broad bands of dark greenish gray; these bands 
completely encircle the arms. Lower surface of disk and mouth frame, light 
yellow. In life, the disk is bright orange, in sharp contrast to the conspicuously 
banded arms. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5289, from Broome, W. A., 5-8 fms. June, 1932. 

There are 8 paratypes of this notable and strikingly colored ophiuran at 
hand, of wliich our first specimens were taken at Cape Leveque in August, 1929, 
where we secured 2 individuals, one of which is more than 11 mm. across the 
disk and has arms more than 45 mm. long. A large and very brightly colored 
specimen was taken in Lagrange Bay in September, 1929, and a small individual, 
only 7 mm. across the disk, was found under a rock at Entrance Point the same 
month. The remaining 4 specimens were dredged in the Broome region in June, 
1932. Aside from the striking coloration this species may be distinguished from 
its nearest ally, C. gramilifera by the much stouter arms and thicker more peg- 
like arm-spines. 

OPHIODYSCRITA ^ gen. nov. 

Ophiodermatids with the granular covering of the disk extending out over 
the arms both above and below, as well as over the entire oral surface of disk 
and mouth frame. Tentacle-scales 2 or proximally, 3. Genital slits 2 in each 
interbrachial area. 

Genotype, Ophiodyscrita acosmetn sp. nov. 

^ Ophio, the common prefix for genera of opliiurans, 4-5i'(TKptros =/tar(i to delermine, in reference to 
the uncertainty as to status of the specimen upon which the genus rests. 



356 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

The single specimen upon which this proposed new genus and species is 
based, is probably immature and the possibility that it is the young of some 
previously known species must not be overlooked. But its characteristics are so 
well-marked and so different from any other known Australian brittle-star that 
they should not be ignored. The genus is obviously related to Ophioncus Ives 
and Ophiocryptus H. L. Clark but the presence of only 2 genital slits in each 
interbrachial area, the relatively long arms and delicate arm-spines on side arm- 
plates which project but little, and the complete granulation of all oral plates, 
even the madreporite, make a new genus necessary. It apparently bears the 
same relation to Ophiarachnella that Ophioncus and Ophiocryptus do to Ophio- 
derma. 

Ophiodyscrita acosmeta^ sp. nov. 

Disk pentagonal, 5 mm. in diameter, densely covered with a coat of very 
minute thorny granules; these cover not only the disk scales but the radial shields 
and extend out onto the arms. Arms 5, about 20 mm. long, flattened, wider than 
high. Upper arm-plates more or less completely hidden to the very tip of the arm 
by minute thorny granules like those which cover the disk but are possibly a 
little smaller; on the sixth and some subsequent arm-segments, a small elliptical 
bare area, usually distinctly wider than long, reveals a part of an upper arm- 
plate; these occur but rarely beyond the twelfth segment. 

Interbrachial areas below and all of the surface of mouth frame and jaws 
closely covered with the fine granulation, save for a small circular spot on what is 
presumably the madreporite. (On one side of the mouth frame the granular coat 
has been accidentally rubbed off to some extent.) Under arm-plates on basal 
two-thirds of arm squarish with rounded corners, or more or less circular, well 
separated from each other by areas of minute granules which extend up on the 
basal, proxmial side of each side arm-plate to unite with the granular covering of 
the upper surface of the arm. Under arm-plates become smaller and smaller 
distally and on the distal third of the arm are either wanting or concealed by the 
granular coat. Side arm-plates moderately projecting, each bearing 7 subequal, 
sharp, moderately slender arm-spines scarcely half as long as an arm-segment; 
here and there these Uttle spines lie appressed to the arm but most of them pro- 
ject outward more or less markedly. Tentacle-scales 3 on the first few pores, the 
inner largest, the outer smallest; beyond the base of the arm there are but 2 

' aKofffiijTOS =out of order, in reference to the extension of granulation out to the arm-tips instead 
of its being confined to the disk as in nearly all other members of the family. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 357 

scales and distally these disappear, the outer one first; the scales are much longer 
than wide, somewhat pointed and hyahne in texture; on some arm-segments on 
the basal half of the arm, the outer scale tends to overlie the base of the lowest 
arm-spine but the arrangement is never so obvious as in Ophiarachnella. 

Color of dry holotype, disk a very light fawn color which passes into white 
on the basal segments of each arm; remainder of arm occupied by alternating 
bands of dark purplish gray, occupying about 2 segments, and pale gray or 
whitish, occupying 3 segments; the arm-spines are the same color as the seg- 
ments on which they are borne; lower surface more or less nearly white, except for 
the dark bands on the arms, which are encircling; the granules on the surface of 
the jaws are distinctly greenish-yellow, but very light. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5294, dredged at Broome, W. A., June, 1932. 

This remarkable little brittle-star was supposed to be a young Ophiarach- 
nella when taken and no attention was paid to it, so there is no available infor- 
mation about its habitat or even the exact place where it was collected. Obviously 
it cannot be at all common. 

OPHIOLEPIDIDAE 

Ophiomisidium flabellum 

Ophiorausium flahellum Lyman, 1878. Bull. M. C. Z., 5, p. 120. 
Ophiomisidium fiabellum Koehler, 1914. Bull. 84 U. S. N. M., p. 32. 

There are at hand half a dozen specimens of this odd little brittle-star from 
the following stations. All were loaned by the Australian Museum: 
New South Wales: Off Botany, 2.5-4 miles, 37-56 fms. Trawler "Goonambie." 

McNeil and Livingstone leg. 2 specimens. 
Off Botany Bay, 50-52 fms. "Thetis" Expedition. 2 speci- 
mens, adult and young. 
15 niiles northeast of South Head, Port Jackson, 75-80 fms. 
May, 1924. C. W. Mulvey don. 2 specimens, young and 
small adult. 

Haplophiura gymnopora 

Ophiozona gymnopora H. L. Clark, 1909a. Mem. Austr. Mus., 4, p. 535. 
Haplophiura gymnopora Matsumoto, 1915. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 67, p. 76. 

This little brittle-star appears to be common off Botany Bay for there is a 
large series at hand from that region. The largest is only 4.5 mm. across the disk 



358 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

but this is much larger than any other specimen; 2-3 mm. in disk diameter is the 
usual size; the arms rarely exceed 5 mm. Only two stations are represented in the 
present material, all of which was loaned by the Australian Museum. 
Off Botany Bay, N. S. W.; 50-52 fms. "Thetis" collection but not hitherto 

identified. 52 specimens. 
Off Botany, N. S. W.; 2.5-4 miles, 33-56 fms. Trawler "Goonambie." McNeil 

and Livingstone leg. 3 specimens. 

Amphiophiura ctenophora 

Ophiura ctenophora H. L. Clark, 1909a. Mem. Austr. Mus., 4, p. .537. 
Amphiophiura ctenophora H. L. Clark, lOl.'ia. Mem. M. C. Z., 25, p. .310. 

Along with the specimens of Ophiura ooplax taken in 120 fms., some 22 miles 
off the Port Jackson Heads, Captain Moller took a small ophiuran, about 5 mm. 
across the disk, which has been kindly loaned by the Australian Museum. 
Apparently this is a young individual of A. ctenophora. There are some noticeable 
differences in the under arm-plates and tentacle-pores and scales, on the basal 
arm-segments, but they are probably to be accounted for by the youthfulness of 
the present specimen. 

Ophiura kinbergi 
Ljungman, 1866. Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 23, p. 166. 

A single specimen of this coimnon East Indian brittle-star, which ranges 
from Japan to South AustraUa, was taken by us when dredging off Middle Head, 
Port Jackson, in 4-6 fms., November 21, 1929. It is a full 10 mm. across the disk, 
a little larger than any in the M. C. Z. collection; I find no published record of 
a bigger individual. But Koehler gives no data as to the size of the scores of 
specimens he has examined. Besides its large size the present specimen is notable 
for its short arms; all are broken at the extreme tip but if complete they could 
scarcely have exceeded 20 mm. 

\ATiile dredging in Lagrange Bay, W. A., in September, 1929, we took 4 
small ophiurans (3-4 mm. across disk) which seemed to be the young of kinbergi. 
In June, 1932, we met with the same thing at various points in Roebuck Bay and 
southwestward, and 33 specimens are at hand, the largest scarcely 5 mm. across 
the disk. Compared with adult kinbergi (8-9 mm. in disk diameter), these small 
individuals from the northwestern coast show notable differences particularly in 
the upper arm-plates, but after comparison with material from Japan and the 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 359 

Philippines which includes specimens little more than 5 mm. across the disk, no 
constant distinctions are found. In general it may be said that the arms are more 
conspicuously constricted at the joints, the upper arm-plates are smaller, more 
triangular and more swollen, and the coloration brighter in the Broome material. 
Many specimens have the arms conspicuously banded and notable dark spots on 
the disk at the inner end of the radial shields. It is odd that no adult kinbergi 
were taken on the northwestern coast. 

OPHItJRA OOPLAX 

Ophioden ooplax H. L. Clark, 1911. Bull. 75 U. S. N. M., p. 99. 
Ophiura ooplax Matsumoto, 1915. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 67, p. 81. 

Although origmally described from material taken in Japanese waters, in 
1928 I reported specimens from South Australia and two years later Koehler 
(1930, p. 223) recorded others from New South Wales. It is not surprising 
therefore that Captain K. MoUer took half a dozen specimens 22 miles east of 
Port Jackson Heads in 120 fms. These have been loaned by the Australian 
Museum and I have compared them with Japanese material. The only note- 
worthy difference is that the Australian specimens have the disk flat and pentag- 
onal while those from Japan have it more or less circular and distinctly less 
flattened. 

DiCTENOPHIURA STELLATA 

Opkioglypha stellata Studer, 1882. Gazelle Oph., p. 11. 

Didenophiura stellata H. L. Clark, 1923a. Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 13, p. 361. 

This is one of the conmion sea-stars of the Broome region. The type locality 
is Mermaid Strait, west of Cossacks, W. A. Studer's statement that it was taken 
at "Ausgang der Naturaliste Channal (West-Australien) " is evidently a slip. 
The 103 specimens range from 2 to 11 mm. across the disk and show an ex- 
cellent series of growth stages. One specimen 6 mm. across disk is perfectly 
tetramerous. In life the upper surface, prettily variegated with shades of gray 
and sometimes brown, harmonizes perfectly with the sand in which the ophiuran 
lives, just below the surface. The under side of stellata is pure white. All the 
material was dredged in shallow water (5-8 fms.) ; 58 specimens were secured at 
Broome in 1929 and 36 in 1932. The remaining 9 specimens were taken by 
Captain Bardwell in October, 1933, in the vicinity of Augustus and Champagay 
Islands, W. A. 



360 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

OPHIOTEICHUS ' gen. nov. 

Ophiolepidids having the disk scales more or less swollen and surrounded by 
belts of very small flat plates, with the marginal plates of the interradii greatly 
swollen and forming a low rampart around the disk. No supplementary upper 
arm-plates, but a series of small pores occurs between the lateral margins of 
mature upper arm-plates and the adjoining side arm-plates. Tentacle scales 2, 
as in Ophiolepis, and lower surface of arms much as in that genus but arm-bases 
not conspicuously widened. 

Genotype, Ophtoteichus parvispinutu sp. nov.^ 

This extraordinary new genus is another example of the surprising diversity 
and fascinating uniquity of the Australian fauna. Seen from the oral side these 
brittle-stars would pass for Ophiolepis but the aboral surface is so dominated by 
the swollen marginal plates that a new genus is obviously needed for their recep- 
tion. That two quite distinct species should occur on the eastern coast of Aus- 
tralia and neither have been seen before 1932 is remarkable enough but that each 
is as yet known from but a single specimen adds to the interest of the discovery. 

Ophioteichus multispinum^ sp. nov. 
Plate 25, fig. 5 

Disk more or less circular, about 15 mm. in diameter, covered with a coat 
of numerous small, swollen, smooth plates, among which the 6 primary plates 
form a compact but not conspicuous group at the center ; many of the plates are 
more than merely swollen, they culminate in low blunt or truncate tubercles; 
each plate is surrounded by a belt of very small flat plates. Radial shields small 
but larger than the primary plates, smooth, flat, widely separated by 2 or more 
disk plates. At the margin of the disk, radially, just distal to the radial shields 
are a few small plates, of which 2 carry each, a conspicuous blunt tubercle a half 
a millimeter or more in diameter and about the same in height; the 2 tubercles 
stand closely side by side at the margin of the disk more or less obscuring the very 
low and wide first 2 upper arm-plates. In each interradius the disk margin is 
formed by 3 huge swollen plates, 1 .5-2 mm. in diameter and nearly as high ; the 3 

' Ophio, the common prefix for opliiuran genera + rrixos (neuter) =a wall around a city,, in reference 
to the ramparts raised around the disk by the huge marginal plates. 

- This species is selected as the type, because it was collected 2 years before the larger species. 
" miiltus = m'Any -\-spiniis =spme, in reference to the large number of arm-spines. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 361 

lie closely side by side, the lateral ones crowded against the radial shields. Arms 5, 
notably flattened, about 25 mm. long and nearly 3 mm. wide at base, tapering 
gradually to a blunt tip. First clearly formed upper arm-plate is quadrilateral, 
much wider than long, with the proximal margin straight and considerably 
shorter than the con\'ex distal edge ; lience the short straight sides of the plate are 
divergent; distal corners rounded. Succeeding plates similar but increasingly 
longer and more triangular, in contact by the width of the proximal margin; the 
distal margin becomes straighter and noticeably swollen and the distal corners 
more acute. Along each lateral margin a series of half a dozen minute pores 
becomes rather noticeable between the upper arm-plate and the side arm-plate; 
under sufficient magnification it can be seen that these pores occur on all (?) the 
segments of the arm back to the disk but apparently they disappear with in- 
creasing age and they are difficult to make out on the basal quarter of the arm; it 
is difficult to guess what the function of such pores may be. At the very tip of 
the arm, the minute triangular upper arm-plates are widely separated by the 
contact of the side arm-plates. 

Interbrachial areas below covered with plates like those of the disk but less 
swollen, becoming smaller and flatter as the oral shield is approached, but 
the surrounding belts of minute flat plates are present very nearly to the shield. 
Genital slits one on each side, very long, extending from oral shield nearly to disk 
margin. First imder arm-plate low and wide, rounded laterally; succeedhig plates 
quadrilateral becoming bell-shaped ; at first wider than long but soon the length 
exceeds the width; lateral margins more or less deeply concave because of the 
large tentacle-pores at each side; broadly in contact at first, the plates become 
separated by the side arm-plates near the tip of the arm where they have become 
very small and triangular. Side arm-plates large and projecting; each plate 
carries a crowded vertical series of arm-spines; these spines are so delicate and so 
crowded, they are very difficult to count accurately; on the basal part of the arm, 
there are a dozen or more in each series, the upper ones longest, equalUng the 
arm-segment, the lowest shortest, only half as long as the upper ones; all are very 
flat and fragile looking, pointed, wide and overlapping laterally; they thus con- 
ceal most of the side arm-plate, as seen from above. Tentacle-scales 2, flat and 
sub-equal closing the large pore as in Ophiolepis. 

Oral shields longer than wide, excepting the madreporite in which length 
and breadth are nearly equal; each shield is distally rounded and proximally has 
a long acuminate point with slightly concave sides. Adoral plates relatively very 
large, about 4x as long as wide, meeting at the bluntly pointed inner ends, 



362 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

widened distally and broadly separating the oral shield from the side arm-plates. 
Oral plates large and somewhat swollen. Oral papillae 6 on each side, the penulti- 
mate much the largest, as wide as the third and fourth together ; distalmost plate 
narrow, long triangular extending forward beneath (as seen with the animal 
upside down, of course) the big fifth plate. The mouth slits are tightly closed in 
this specimen. 

Color of dry holotype, pale purplish-brown, the big marginal plates lighter; 
the arms have 4-6 narrow light bands but they are rather inconspicuous and ill- 
defined. Lower surface nearly white but many under arm-plates have a dull 
reddish tinge. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5306, from "under dead coral," Lindeman Island, 
Great Barrier Reef, near Mackay, Queensland. July, 1934. Melbourne Ward 
leg. et don. 

This remarkable ophiuran ranks as one of Mr. Ward's most notable dis- 
coveries at Lindeman Island. When first seen, it was supposed to be a large 
specimen of the following species from Lord Howe Island but one glance with the 
lens revealed the extraordinary arm-spines and settled its status as an im- 
portant novelty. 

Ophioteichus parvispinum' sp. nov. 
Plates 15, fig. 2; 25, fig. 4 

Disk more or less circular, 6 mm. across. Arms 5, short, flattened, Uttle 
widened at base, 11 mm. long. Disk covered with a coat of relatively coarse 
somewhat swollen smooth plates among which the 6 (as it happens there are 7 
in this specimen) primary plates are largest; each plate is surrounded as in 
Ophiolepis by a belt of small, thin, flat plates. Radial shields small, flat, not as 
large as one of the central group of primarj' plates; the two shields of each pair 
are separated from each other by one or more small plates in a radial series; at the 
distal end this series expands to a group of 2 or 3 plates abutting on the first 
upper arm-plate, and one of these either bears a tubercle or is itself conspic- 
uously swollen. In each of the interradii the disk margin is completely occupied 
by 3 (in one case 4) very conspicuous swollen plates; in the interradius with 4 
such plates, and in one of the others, the outer plate on one side crowds over onto 
a radial shield; these swollen plates are .50-.75 mm. in diameter. First 2 or 3 
upper arm-plates very low and wide, closely crowded together, followed by a wide 

' parvus =sm!dl +spinus = spine, in reference to the minute arm-spines. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 363 

plate half as long as wide; succeeding plates much narrower becoming more and 
more triangular, much smaller and less in contact; on the distal half of the arm 
they are small, about as long as wide, perfectly triangular and widely separated. 
There are no supplementary upper arm-plates of any sort, but there are minute 
pores (usually 4 or 3) along the lateral margins of each upper arm-plate, between 
it and the adjoining side arm-plates; these pores are wanting on the first segment 
or two and on the distal third of the arm. 

Interbracliial areas below covered by plates like those of the disk but smaller, 
flatter and less regularly surrounded by belts of minute plates; the latter are quite 
wanting near the oral shields. Genital slits single on each side of the area, rather 
long, extending from oral shield nearly to disk margin. Under arm-plates, well 
developed, bell-shaped with deeply concave lateral margins, a very sUghtly con- 
vex distal edge and a narrow proximal end in contact with the preceding plate; 
on the distal half of the arm, the plates become small, somewhat triangular and 
widely separated. The arms are widest at about the eighth segment, but they 
are not conspicuously widened even there. Side arm-plates relatively very large 
and moderately projectmg; beyond the middle of the arm they meet broadly 
both above and below. Arm-spines 4 (very rarely 5) very short, thick at base but 
pointed at tip ; they are crowded close together near the middle of the edge of the 
side arm-plate, the lowest longest and biggest, the uppermost smallest; even the 
lowest is little more than a third of the length of the arm-segment. Tentacle 
pores large and closed by 2 flat, nearly equal, well matched plates as in Ophio- 
lepis. 

Oral shields small, the madreporite not noticeably bigger than the other, 
distal and lateral margins rounded; they look wider than long but as the proxi- 
mal angle projects inward markedly it is probable that length and width are 
about equal. Adoral plates long and narrow, lying wholly proximal to the oral 
shield and meeting fully within; distally there is a thin projection which separates 
the oral shield and the first under arm-plate. Oral plates well developed but not 
so large as the adorals. Oral papillae 6 on each side, the penultimate much the 
largest, wider than the third and fourth together; the outermost is narrow, a 
little swoUen basally and projects forward under (or over, really, of course) the 
broad penultimate. 

Color in life, disk pearl gray with the big marginal plates white; arms white 
with 2, 3 or 4 narrow bands of bright yellow brown. The dry specimen is nearly 
all white but the disk has a faint gray tint and the bands on the arms are pale 
reddish brown and ill-defined. 



364 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 5307, from Neds Beach, Lord Howe Island. April 
16, 1932. 

My field notes tell the story of finding this extraordinary brittle-star, as 
follows : 

"Under a stone on Neds Beach reef-flat, Livingstone found (just as we were 
leaving) a superb ophiuran quite unknown to us; apparently a new genus. The 
circular pale gray disk was noticeably elevated or puffed and 3 white swollen 
plates limit each interradius." Repeated and prolonged searching failed to un- 
cover another specimen. Livingstone said he turned over the rock fragment 
which was lying on clear sand well above low water mark and not seeing any 
animal life he began sifting the underlying sand through his fingers. To his sur- 
prise this little brittle-star remained in his hand ! 

The differences between this species and the preceding are not numerous 
but are very striking, the most important being in the arm-spines; it is rare that 
such totally different arm-spines occur within the limits of a single genus. The 
presence of a tubercle or swollen plate between the distal ends of the radial 
shields instead of the conspicuous pair of knobs seen in multispinum is a second 
noteworthy character. Other differences may be due in large part to the con- 
siderably greater size of the Queensland specimen. 



Ophiolepis unicolor' sp. nov. 
Plate 25, fig. 2 

Disk 26 mm. in diameter. Arms 5, 75-80 mm. long. In form and all struc- 
tural features like the well known 0. superba H. L. C. but of a uniform red-brown, 
orange-brown or dark olive brown color without spots or markings of any kind. 
The color is little altered by preservation and dry specimens look much the same 
as they did in life eight years ago. 

Holotype, M. C Z., no. 5308, from under a rock at Entrance Point, Broome, 
W. A. August, 1929. 

This interesting but inert brittle-star is not rare at Broome, but it is by no 
means common. In 1929, 5 specimens were secured but in 1932, when very little 
shore collecting was done, only 2 were found. It was never dredged. Michael- 
sen and Hartmeyer took a specimen at Turtle Island, northwestern Australia, 
in 1905, which Koehler (1907, p. 243) records as "Ophiolepis annulosa Miiller 

' II nicolor = of one color, in oljvious reference to the specific character. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 365 

and Troschel" {=svperba H. L. C). But he says that the color is "un brun 
chocolat elair uniforme sans trace d'annulations sur les bras." Whether the par- 
ticular shade of brown in this specimen is natural or caused by the means of 
preservation, there is no means of telling now, but it is interesting to note that a 
specimen at hand, taken by Captain Bardwell at Augustus Island, in October, 
1933, is of a deep olive-brown with the dry tentacles perfectly black. It seems to 
me probable that this very dark color is at least to some extent artificial. But it 
is interesting that the darkest colored individuals (assuming that the shades are 
not artificial) were secured at the western and eastern extremes of the present 
known range. There are specimens of superba in the M. C. Z. with the dark spots 
on the disk very small and rings on the arms few and narrow, but the markings 
are always more or less conspicuous, and the ground color is a yellow brown or 
buff. It is interesting to note that typical superba is known from Darwin and the 
coast of the northern Territory. 

Ophioplocus imbricatus 

Ophiolepis imbricata Muller and Troschel, 1S42. Sys. Ast., p. 9.3. 
Ophioploms imbricatus Lyman, 1861. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 8, p. 76. 

This common Indo-Pacific ophiuran may be expected anywhere on the 
tropical coasts of Australia. We found it at Lord Howe and from there it ranges 
via Torres Strait and Darwin to the Broome region and even to Shark Bay and 
the Abrolhos. The specimens from Lord Howe have the light sandy coloration 
shown by many individuals at the northern end of the Barrier Reef (See H. L. 
Clark, 1921, p. 143; pi. 12, fig. 8) and I have been inchned to give them a varietal 
name. But all efforts to find constant tangible characters have proved fruitless. 

In the lot of specimens sent by Captain Bardwell from Augustus Island are 
3 distinct color varieties and one is curious to know whether they were actually 
taken together or came from three different areas. Besides the ordinary gray 
form, there are 2 specimens with the disk tinted with orange above and strongly 
orange or red-orange on the lower surface, particularly near the oral shields; 3 
other specimens have light brown disks with an orange-red tint on the lower 
surface. This form is not matched by anything in the M. C. Z. collection. 
Then there are 2 specimens, both young (7-1 1 mm. across the disk) which are dis- 
tinctly violet, unlike any Ophioplocus at hand. There is however good ground for 
suspicion that tliis tint is artificial for an OphiarachneUa infernaUs from Augustus 
Island shows the same tint. Probably these specimens were accidentally stained 



366 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

either by the preserving fluid or the container, but it is desirable to mention the 
specimens in case violet colored individuals should be taken elsewhere. 

Specimens from Darwin, Quail Island, Cape Leveque and Broome, all have 
the general coloration light; the arms are light gray conspicuously banded with 
darker. The specimens from Augustus Island are notably darker, the arms being 
a dusky oUve or olive gray, with darker bands. 

The 39 specimens of Ophioplocus at hand are from the following places: 
Lord Howe Island: April, 1932. 6 specimens. 

Northern Territory: Darwin, beaches at East Point and eastward, June and 

July, 1929. 5 specimens. 
Quail Island, west of Darwin, July, 1929. 2 specimens. 
Western Australia: Augustus, and Champagay Islands, October, 1933. Captain 

B. E. Bardwell leg. 15 specimens, adult and young. 
Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 2 specimens. 
Broome, Entrance Point, August, 1929. 4 specimens, adult 

and young. 
Broome, Gantheaume Point, June, 1932. 5 specimens, adult 
and young. 



ECHINOIDEA 

The collection of Echini contains 1,284 specunens, representing 45 genera, 
71 species and 5 varieties. Of the genera, one, Hesperaster, is new, a most 
unportant link between Clypeaster and Arachnoides. Of the species 11 are new, 
as are three of the 5 varieties. The new species are as follows:— 

Asthenosoma intermedium Q., Lindeman I. 

Temnotrema notium W. A., Albany. 

Pseudechinus hesperus W.A., Rottnest Island. 

Hesperaster arachnoides W.A., off Fremantle. 

Hesperaster crassus W.A., Rottnest Island. 

Arachnoides tenuis W.A., Broome. 

Echinocyamus pla7iissimus W.A., Broome. 

Apatopygus occidentalis W.A., off Fremantle. 

Hypselaster dolosus W.A., Broome. 

Rhynobi'issus macropetalus W.A., Broome. 

Eupatagus dyscritus Victoria? 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 367 

The new varieties are: 

Prionocidaris bispinosa var. laeiris W.A., near Fremantle. 

Temnopleurus michaelseni var. viridis W.A., exact locality? 

Heliocidaris erythrogramma var. parvispina W.A., Point Peron. 

Echini are common on all parts of the Australian coast where conditions are 
satisfactory, — clean, well-aerated salt water being an essential factor. The num- 
ber of species, however, is small at any one locality, though the number of 
individuals may be surprisingly large. From Broome 24 species are listed, but 
of these there are three which we did not take in our collecting in either 1929 or 
1932; and of two others, one specimen of each was taken in 1929 but not in 1932. 
An echinoid fauna of 20 species may therefore be considered a rich one, even for 
tropical AustraUa. On the other hand, many species, if they occur at all, are found 
in great abimdance. In some cases, such as the clypeastroids and spatangoids 
which Uve more or less buried in the sand or mud, this abundance is revealed 
only by the dead tests washed up by scores, hundreds or even thousands along 
the beaches. In other cases, such as the rock-loving urchins, Heliocidaris and 
Echinometra, thousands of individuals will be found on suitable reef-flats or 
scattered among the corals and rock fragments upon or near the reefs. 

Of the 71 species in the present collection, some 27 have been recorded at 
some time from the Queensland coast and make up the Barrier Reef echinoid 
faima, while an equal number characterize the northwest coast, a dozen species 
being common to both coasts. Western AustraUa, south of Northwest Cape, has 
an echinoid fauna of at least 20 species, of which three-fourths do not occur on 
the northwest coast, and only four or five are found on the Queensland coast. 
On the coasts of southern Austraha and Tasmania, about 25 species of echini 
occur and only some half dozen of these occur also on the Western Australian 
coast. The shores of New South Wales harbor but few echini, for although 
WTiitelegge (1889) lists 29 species for Port Jackson and neighborhood, many of 
the names cannot be trusted; for example, there are not more than two species 
of Salmacis (or at most, three) to be found on the coasts of southeastern Australia, 
whereas Wliitelegge lists six. Apparently not more than 20 echini are actually 
known from along shore in New South Wales. At Lord Howe Island, we found 
but 11 species and of these 5 do not occur in Whitelegge's Port Jackson list and 
two others are tropical species, of doubtful occurrence on the New South Wales 
coast. 

The literature dealing with Australian echini is rather extensive, beginning 
with the "Revision of the Echini" (1872-74) in wliich fundamental work Alexan- 



368 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

der Agassiz listed from the Australian district 44 species. Of these, 7 are no 
longer regarded as valid and three occur only in New Zealand. In 1872 then, 
there were 34 species of echini known from Australia. From 1878 to 1889, there 
was considerable activity in this field of research and Bell, Ramsay, Tenison- 
Woods and Wliitelegge each published one or more papers dealing with Australian 
echini. Reports on the echinoderms collected by the "Thetis" and later by the 
"Endeavour" were pubhshed by me in 1909 and 1916 and other papers in which 
AustraUan echini are discussed by me appeared in 1914, 1921, 192.3 and 1928. 
Dciderlein's report (1914) on the echini brought from Western Australia by 
Michaelsen and Hartmeyer, and Mortensen's paper (1918) dealing with those 
collected by Mjoberg on the northwestern coast, are important papers, which 
have been of great value in preparing the present report. The number of Recent 
echini now known from Australia apparently approaches 100. 

My good friend. Dr. Th. Mortensen of Copenhagen, has kindly given me 
much assistance in my study of the material in hand. He generously permitted 
me to send hmi puzzling specimens and has freely discussed the questions that 
I have put to him. Since, in his knowledge of Recent echini, he is facile princeps, 
the help he has been able to give me is very great. It is therefore a pleasure to 
express here my debt to him and to thank him heartily for his invaluable as- 
sistance. 

In collecting echini, the handling of the specimens gives no trouble. If 
they are placed at once in alcohol, satisfactory specimens are almost sure to 
result. Formalin, by itself, is undesirable and gives mediocre or poor specimens. 
My best specimens have resulted from killing the animal in fresh water and then 
transferring to a week formalin solution, containing corrosive sublimate (HgCL). 
After a thorough soaking in this, they were dried as rapidly as possible in the 
shade. Too much corrosive sublimate must be avoided as it tends to leave a coat- 
ing on the dry specimen. Direct sunhght, of course, tends to fade the colors. Dr. 
Robert T. Jackson, the eminent student of echini, has prepared the finest speci- 
mens I have ever seen, by saturating in a very weak solution of corrosive sub- 
limate (1 part to a thousand) and then drying rapidly. He has pubUshed a 
detailed account of his method (1930, Museums Journal, 29, pp. 385, 38G) which 
should be consulted. Experience has led me to beUeve that in wet weather or 
whenever the specimens cannot be dried rapidly, the solution should be stronger 
than reconunended by Jackson, and my results have been better when I have used 
a little formalin therein. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 369 

CIDARIDAE 

GONIOCIDARIS TUBARIA 

Cidarites tuharia Laxl\rck, 1816. Aiiiin. s. Vert., 3, p. 57. 
Goniocidaris tuharia Lutken, 1864. Bidr. Kundsk. Ech., p. 137. 

This very common sea-urchin is represented in the present collection by only 
a few young specimens. Mortensen (1928, p. 161) has pointed out that the name 
tuharia should be used for this species and not geranioides as I proposed in the 
British Museum Catalogue (1925, p. 31). Lamarck's geranioides is not merely 
unidentifiable, as Mortensen says, but it is certainly not one of the Cidaridae at 
all, as the figures to which reference is given show very conspicuously the gills 
which members of this family lack. Consequently, if the name geranioides is to 
be used, it cannot be for a cidarid. 

The half dozen specimens of tuharia at hand come from the following places. 
It is worthy of note that the species has not yet been found at Lord Howe Island. 
South Australia: Port Willunga. W. J. Kimber leg. et don. 3 small specimens^ 

1 very young and bare. 
Western Australia : Bunbury, in Koombana Bay, 5-8 fms., October 26, 1929. 

1 half grown specimen. 
Bunbury, in beach drift, September 28, 1930. E. W. Bennett 

leg. et don. 2 young specimens. 

Prionocidaris australis 

Phyllacaiifluis ausiralis Ramsay, 1885. Cat. Ech. Austral. Mus., p. 44. 
Prionocidaris australis H. L. Clark, 1916. "Endeavour" Ech., p. 97. 

Although this fine cidarid has already been reported from Lord Howe Island 
by Mortensen (1928, p: 459), the specimen which we took there on the reef near 
Mt. Lidgbird, April 19, 1932, is of more than usual interest, for it is the smallest 
australis that has as yet been recorded, and seems to prove conclusively that the 
East Indian Prionocidaris glandulosa (de Meijere) is, as Mortensen (1928, p. 460) 
claims, a perfectly distinct species, of which the adults are apparently not yet 
known. 

The specimen of australis which we took at Lord Howe was the only cidarid 
we found in three weeks of collecting. It is 26 mm. in diameter and about 16 imn. 
in height; the diameter of the abactinal system is 11-12 mm. and that of the oral 



370 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

system is less, but exact measurements cannot be given without damaging the 
specimen, which hardly seems worth while in this case. The primary spines are 
conspicuously large, wide and flattened and blunt or even truncate at tip; the 
largest are 35-37 mm. long and 4-5 mm. wide. They are relatively stouter than 
in adult specimens ; hence they are as different as can be from the spines of glandu- 
losa. My field notes on this specimen are as follows: "Noticeably handsome with 
secondaries and abactinal spines very bright garnet red, brilliant in sunshine. 
Larger primaries very thorny, light brown where clean but appearing deep gray 
with a reddish cast from dirt or some sort of fine growth on the spine; collar a 
darker red-brown with white spots." The dried specimen has lost its brilliance 
but the color is not essentially changed. It is evident now, of course, that the 
"some sort of fine growth" on the primaries is the coat of anastomosing cortical 
hairs normal to the mature spines of Prionocidaris. 

The first record of a cidarid from Lord Howe is that of Etheridge (1889, p. 37) 
who says that while his partj' did not take a specimen, a broken one was presented 
by Mr. Campbell Stevens, and he says it is "a Phyllacanthus, perhaps P. baculosa 
Lam'k." This specimen is in the Australian Museum now and is a badly damaged 
Prionocidaris australis. 

Prionocidaris bispinosa 

Cidarites bispinosa Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 3, p. 57. 

Prionocidaris bispinosa Doderlein, 1911. Abh. Senck. Nat. Ges., 34, p. 240. 

This is a very common sea-urchin at Broome but we did not meet with it at 
Darwin. While it is probably correct to say that no two of the Broome specimens 
are exactly alike and there is a considerable range in the length, diameter and 
thorniness of the spines, as well as in the color of the secondaries, on the whole the 
diversity is not extreme and no one would hesitate to call them all a single species. 
Young and half-grown specimens are as a rule light colored, often very light cream- 
color with or without a tinge of red, and large ones are. dark, often dark reddish- 
brown but quite as often a greenish or grayish brown. Oddly enough, not one 
specimen seems near to Mortensen's variety "elegans" which was taken in the 
southwestern part of the Broome region. On the other hand no specimen ap- 
proaches at all closely the variety nigro-brunnea Mortensen from Shark Bay. In 
size, the specimens from Broome range from young ones scarcely 4 mm. in diam- 
eter, with primary spines 5 mm. long, to obviously old specimens 50 mm. in diam- 
eter; the primary spines of these old specimens show great diversity but are 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 371 

generally considerably less than 50 mm. long and sometimes are scarcely 30 mm. 
HaK-grown specimens often have the jjrimaries 30-80% longer than the test 
diameter. 

The specimens which Captain Bardwell met with near Augustus Island are 
very different from anything seen at Broome and prove to be extreme examples 
of the variety aruana Doderlein. They range from 17 to 23 mm. in diameter, and 
the slender, terete primaries are 58-68 mm. long and 2.5-4 mm. in diameter; of at 
least one spine on each specimen (and often more), the tip is expanded but not 
greatly so. The upper primaries are whitish or yellowish more or less banded as 
usual with purplish-red: the old ones in the midzone are gray; the collar on the 
younger primaries is a pinkish-lavender but becomes paler and duller on the older 
ones; the test is yellow; the secondary spines are whitish, each with a longitudinal 
pale brown stripe. On the whole, in this extreme form, the variety aruana seems 
to be one of the most easily recognized of the numerous varieties of this protean 
species. 

Among the echinoderms gi\-en me by Professor Bennett in 1929, is a very 
handsome Prionocidaris which I beUeve to be an extreme variety of bispinosa. 
As it is labelled "Garden Island, April 25, 1914," it comes from far south of the 
known range of the species and if its characters prove constant, it may well be 
given specific rank. Until more material is available I propose to call it Prionoci- 
daris bispinosa var. laevis. The unique holotype (AI.C.Z. no. 7075) is 56 x 31 
mm. in diameter and height (PI. 26, fig. 1). The largest primaries are 65-70 mm. 
long, more or less fusiform, 5-6 mm. in diameter 8-10 mm. from the base; they 
are usually encrusted with a whitish bryozoan for much of their length ; the collar 
is about 5 mm. high, of a greenish-yellow color, more or less brownish distally; 
young spmes and many large ones are banded with purplish-red, as usual. The 
fourth and fifth spines in each series, counting up from the mouth, are attached 
below the ambitus and are notable for their widely expanded tips, as much as 5 
mm. in diameter. All of the spines, young and old, are free from thorns and ap- 
pear smooth to the unaided eye ; there are really, however, some 25 or more longi- 
tudinal, parallel, rather crowded series of granules of nearly uniform size, which 
make the surface of the spme rough to the touch. Most of the primaries are rela- 
tively clean and free from foreign organisms but the oldest are more or less cov- 
ered by bryozoa and occasionally a low barnacle or worm-tube is present. The 
interambulacral secondaries are dirty whitish with a longitudinal stripe of light 
brown not very sharply defined; the ambulacral secondaries, the miliaries and the 
test are more or less dark red-brown. On some primaries the collar, as well as the 



372 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

neck, has one or more crimson spots; these are never numerous and on most of 
the spines are quite lacking but their occasional presence is contrary to the ac- 
cepted distinctive character of the species — "collar not spotted or striped." 

It is hard to understand why so conspicuous a sea-urchin has not been re- 
ported before from the vicinity of Fremantle. No little dredging and much 
shore collecting have been done in that vicinity in recent years, but this is the 
only specimen of Prionocidaris that has been reported as yet from south of Long 
Island in the Abrolhos, where a single example was found by Professor W. 
J. Dakin in 1913. 

The 64 specimens of bispinosa in the present collection are from the follow- 
ing places: 
Prionocidaris bispinosa, typical form: — 

Western AustraUa: Broome, Pearl Shoal, 5-7 fms., August, 1929. 2 very 

small specimens. 
Broome, dredged in 5-8 fms., September, 1929. 3 

specimens. 
Broome, dredged in 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 54 specimens. 
Prionocidaris bispinosa var. aruana: — 

Western Austraha: Augustus Island, October, 1933. Captain Beresford E. 

Bardwell leg. 4 specimens. 
Prionocidaris bispinosa var. laevis:- — 

Western Australia: Off Fremantle, Garden Island, April 25, 1914. Profes- 
sor E. W. Bennett don. 1 specimen. 

Phyllacanthus irregularis 
MoRTENSEN, 1928. Vid. Med., 85, p. 74. 

There are four specimens at hand of this fine species and each deserves a 
word of notice. One is a very young individual, the smallest yet recorded; it 
measures only 15 mm. in horizontal diameter and 9 mm. in height; there are 6 
coronal plates in each column and the primary spines are 10-15 mm. long by 
1.5-2 mm. in diameter; they are nearly cylindrical, truncate at the fluted tip, 
with 8-10 longitudial series of pointed tubercles which pass into smooth ridges 
distally ; miUary spines relatively few, small, narrow and pointed. Color yellowish 
brown orally but becoming dull purple aborally; oral prunaries whitish but 
aboral ones dull purple with narrow encircling band near middle and the neck, 
lighter; collar dull-brown, like the secondaries of the midzone. Compared with a 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 373 

similar small specimen of parvispinus (19 mm. in diameter) the difference in the 
miliary spines is very striking and the relative slenderness of the primaries is also 
conspicuous. This important young specimen of irregularis, belonging to the 
Perth Museum, was kindly loaned to me by Mr. Glauert; it was found "under a 
stone on reef" at Bathurst Point, Rottnest Island. 

A second specimen is a large adult taken at Point Peron, south of Fremantle, 
in July, 1930. It is 105 mm. in diameter and the primary spines are 60-65 mm. 
long; the color is a dark purplish brown but the primaries, beyond the collar, are 
light brown or almost white, in rather marked contrast. 

The third specimen, generously given to the M. C. Z. by Professor G. E. 
Nichols of the University of Western Australia, is a magnificent individual 
about 110 mm. in diameter and 70 mm. high; there are 10 coronal plates in a 
column and some of the primary spines exceed 70 mm. The color is the usual 
dark purplish-brown but the primary spines are more or less dull purple, con- 
siderably darker than in the preceding specimen. The interporiferous area of the 
ambulacra has 3 or 4 series of miliary tubercles and the interambulacral areas are 
notably broad with the miliary spines verj^ wide and flat, though acuminately 
pointed. This specimen was taken at North Beach, near Fremantle. 

The fourth specimen is very different from the preceding two and looks like a 
different species. It was taken near Port WiUunga, South Australia, by Mr. 
W. J. Kimber, some years ago, and is in rather poor condition, as many of the 
spines are missing, especially the smaller secondaries and miliaries. The test 
measures 82 x 50 mm. and the primary spines are 35-40 mm. long and 5-6 mm. 
in diameter. Most of the secondary spines are broken near the tips and many are 
missing altogether. Most of the miliary spines are also gone but those that are 
present are narrow and acuminate, not at all scale-Uke. The test where bare is 
light-brown with the secondaries, miliaries and collar of primaries a deeper brown 
with a purple tinge but not dark. Beyond the collar, most of the primaries are 
more or less encrusted with worm-tubes, bryozoa, etc., but where not so covered 
are dull purple or brown, generally rather light. Being puzzled by the appearance 
of this specimen I sent it over to Copenhagen for Dr. ]\Iortensen to examine but 
did not give him any clue to the locality whence it came. He returned it to me 
with the suggestion that it was perhaps a variety of parvispinus. The miliary 
spines are, however, like those of irregularis and entirely unlike those of par- 
vispinus, and the presence of 9 coronal plates in a specimen of this size is indica- 
tion of irregularis. The very short primary spines of^'er, however, a striking 
difference between this specimen and the two large specimens of irregularis from 



374 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

the west coast which are at hand. I had, therefore, about decided to call this 
South AustraUan specimen a short-spined variety of irregularis when I noted that 
the type of irregularis in the Hamburg Museum also has very short spines, as do 
several others of those Usted by Mortensen (1928, p. 520). Moreover, a specimen 
in the M. C. Z., received from the South Australian Museum, with no locality 
label, identified by Dr. Mortensen himself as irregularis, is verj' similar in color 
and spine length to the specimen under discussion; it is darker and the primary 
spines are not so stout but the two individuals are undoubtedly the same species. 
It is highly probable then that this specimen from an unknown locality was also 
taken in St. Vmcent Gulf. A much larger series of specimens from both South 
and Western Australia must be available before it can be decided whether 
varietal forms in irregularis can and should be recognized. 

Phyllacanthus longispinus 
Mortensen, 1918. K. Sven. Vet. Akad. Handl., 58, no. 9, p. 4. 

The occurrence of this species at Darwin and Port Essington as well as in 
the Broome region is worthy of special note, for it is the only regular echinoid at 
present known from both of those two areas, although there is little doubt that 
all of the echini common to Broome and to the Barrier Reef region are also to be 
found near Darwin. 

The specimen from Port Essington is a bare test, 86 x 57 mm. with 7 coronal 
plates in each column (a youthful plate at the top of one column, with a rudimen- 
tary primary tubercle, might be counted as an eighth plate in one area). The 
largest specimen is from Cape Leveque and measures 90 mm. in diameter, 59 mm. 
high and the largest primary spine is 90 mm. long by 7 mm. thick. Another speci- 
men from the same place is 73 mm. in diameter but has the primary spines 80-90 
mm. long. In his original description. Dr. Mortensen says: "It would be interest- 
ing to know whether this species with its immense radioles is able to conceal 
itself under rocks and in crevices in the same way as Ph. parvispinus." The 
discovery of longispinus at Cape Leveque enables me to supply the desired in- 
formation. The two specimens taken were found so tightly wedged in crevices 
in the coral rock, at extreme low water, that I almost despaired of getting them 
out in an undamaged condition before the incoming tide should drive me out of 
the tide pool where they were li\'ing. One was secured on August 21 and one on 
August 22. It was necessary to break away the surrounding corals and rocks 
with a hammer in order to get the animal free. The large spines were held per- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 375 

fectly rigid by the animal and it would be simply impossible to dislodge the 
creature without breaking the test, if the rocky surroundings were not broken 
up. It seems incredible that so clumsy looking an animal could get itself into 
such a restricted space. No doubt the spines are the locomotive organs by which 
the sea-urchin makes its way into such crevices and they then become organs of 
"attachment" and support which defy any ordinary enemies. 

The smallest specimen at hand is from Augustus Island, about 150 miles 
northeast of Cape Leveque. It is only 52 mm. in diameter but the longer primary 
spines are 70 mm. or more in length. 

Broken primary spines of a large Phyllacanthus, presumably this species, 
were occasionally dredged at Broome but we failed to secure a single specimen, 
although the types are from "Cape Jaubert" and "northwestern Australia." 
Considering the manner of life, it would be only under very unusual circumstances 
that a specimen would be taken in a dredge. 

The 9 specimens before me are from the following localities: 
Northern Territory: Coburg Peninsula, Port Essington, Smith Point, May 20, 

1932. 1 bare test, washed up near high water mark. 
F. A. K. Bleeser leg. et don. 
Darwin, November, 1931. 1 bare and broken test with 

spines. F. A. K. Bleeser don. 
Darwin. Len Wilson leg. 2 fine specimens belonging to 
the AustraUan Museum. 
Western Australia : Augustus Island, October, 1933. Captain Beresford E. 

Bardwell leg. 3 specimens. 
Cape Leveque, August, 1929. 2 large specimens. 



Phyllacanthus parvispinusi 
Tenison-Woods, 1879. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 4, p. 286. 

A specimen from Shell Harbor, N. S. W., is the smallest individual of this 
species I have seen; it is 19 mm. in diameter, with 5 or 6 coronal plates in each 
column; the primaries are relatively large, 15-18 mm. long and 3 mm. or more in 
diameter. A young individual, 32 mm. in diameter, found under a rock between 
tide marks at Long Reef, N. S. W., is pecuhar in having only one normal spine 
(or possibly two) above the ambitus; this one is 26 x 4.5 mm; adjoining it, in the 

'The specific name was originally printed in the feminine, parvispina. 



376 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

same interambulacrum, is one 22 x 4; on all the other coronal plates, above the 
ambitus, the original spines have been either lost and are regenerating, or are 
broken at the tip. Apparently this individual had been much beaten about by the 
surf, for even below the ambitus some of the primaries are being renewed or are 
broken. 

Mortensen (1928, p. 516) quotes Benham (1911, p. 159) as authority for the 
occurrence of this species under the name P. dubia, at Lord Howe Island. I can 
find no tangible evidence to warrant the assertion that any Phyllacanthus occurs 
at that place but it is, of course, quite possible that this species might occur 
there. The record, however, probably rests on the occurrence of Prionociduris 
ausiralis which was originallj' regarded and long known as a Phyllacanthus. 

The 5 specimens at hand are as follows: 
New South Wales: Shell Harbor, under a rock above low water mark. May 4, 

1932. 1 young specimen. 
Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

3 specimens. 
Colloroy, Long Reef, between tide marks, November 28, 
1929. 1 young specimen. 

CENTRECHINIDAE 

Centrechinus setosus 

Echinometra setosa Leske, 1778. Add. ad Klein, p. 36. 
Centrechinus setosus Jackson, 1912. Phyl. Ech., p. 28. 

It is interesting to note that not a single specimen of this abundant and 
widespread Indo-Pacific sea-urchin, or of any other species of the genus, was 
found by us in tropical Australia in 1929. We heard reports of large black sea- 
urchins, with long slender spines as occurring west of Cape Charles, near Port 
Darwin, but no specimens were ever seen. At Quail Island, somewhat further 
west, there is abundant coral growth and conditions seemed to us very suitable 
for Centrechinus but all search for them was vain. At Broome and especially at 
Cape Leveque, there are areas that seem admirably suited to these reef-loving 
urchins, but none were ever found. 

In 1932, however, Lord Howe Island proved a home for this species, but it 
was not abundant. Young ones were taken on the reefs on the western side of 
the island but large adults were found only at Neds Beach where the living coral 
masses provide very satisfactory hiding places for them. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 377 

In 1933, Captain Bardwell found setostis at Augustus Island, northeast of 
Cape Leveque. He writes that they "were found on the outer side of Augustus 
and Champagay Islands. They were very plentiful in pure coral pools, in some 
cases so dense that the bottom of the pool and interstices in coral could not be 
seen. This group of islands is the only place I have seen them." The specimens 
sent to the M. C. Z. are small but typical. One would naturally conclude that 
the Champagay Islands are the western limit on the Australian coast for this 
genus, so characteristic of tropical reefs and shores in all parts of the world, but 
unfortunately for such a view, setosus and its closely related fellow-species, 
savignyi, have both been found on Houtman's Abrolhos. 

The 5 specimens of setosus at hand come from the following points: 
Lord Howe Island: April, 1932. 3 specimens, 1 adult and 2 young. 
Western Austraha: Augustus and Champagay Islands, October, 1933. Captain 

Beresford E. Bardwell. 2 small adults. 

Centrostephajstus rodgersii 

Thrichodiadema rodgersii A. Agassiz, 1863a. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 354. 
Centroslephamts rodgersii A. Agassiz, 1872. Rev. Ech., pt. 1, p. 98. 

This sea-urchin has long been known from Lord Howe Island but we did not 
find it abundant there. The most interesting individual taken is only 13 mm. in 
diameter with the long, slender primary spines nearly 20 mm. in length — much 
like tenuispinus of Western Australia. 

The spines are unicolor and not banded as they are in young Centrechinus. 
A specimen from Shell Harbor, N. B. W., is very similar to the little one from 
Lord Howe but is 20 mm. in diameter and some of the primaries are more than 
25 mm. long. The largest specimen at hand is somewhat over 100 mm. in diam- 
eter but its longest primaries are less than 60 mm. 

The 5 specimens at hand were taken as follows : 
Lord Howe Island : April, 1932. 1 large adult and 1 very small individual. 
New South Wales: Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 

1 specimen. 
Shell Harbor, May 4, 1932. 2 young specimens. 

Centrostephanus tenuispinus 
H. L. Clark, 1914. Records W. A. Mus., 1, p. 162. 

This species seems to have a very restricted range on the western coast of 



378 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Australia. The types were taken between Fremantle and Geraldton; presum- 
ably they were dredged in moderately deep water, (19-120 fms.) as were most of 
the echinoderms taken by the "Endeavour" during her fisheries investigations 
on the western coast. Subsequently, Professor W. .1. Dakin took specimens at 
Pelsart and Long Islands in the Abrolhos. 

The four specimens now at hand were taken in February, 1930, by Messrs. 
Swan and Drummond near Green Island, at the extreme western end of Rottnest 
Island. They are small individuals, 38-57 mm. in diameter, with the slender 
primary spines 40-60 mm. long; the color shows some diversity; the smallest is 
quite brown with the spines fading to a very light brown at the tips, while the 
others are more nearly dull purple, with one quite definitely deep reddish- 
purple. The area where these urchins were found is described by Mr. Swan as 
"a raised level rocky platform, onto which spent waves occasionally broke. The 
temperature of the water was much higher than normal sea-water and close by 
were isolated colonies (a few feet across) of the true reef coral, Pocillopora." 
The specimens of Centrostephanus were found here in company with Echino- 
metra which occurred in thousands in their customary cup-shaped depressions. 
Unhke Echinometra, however, Centrostephanus was "quite hidden under deep 
ledges and had to be felt for. They were, in life, colored a rich royal purple with 
the membranous parts a brilliant crimson." This account of the color in Ufe is 
important as showing that no valid specific character is to be found therein to 
distmguish the western Centrostephanus from that of the east coast. The 
slenderness of the primary spines seems, however, to be a striking and constant 
difference. In view of the wide geographical separation of the two forms and the 
lack of intermediate specimens, either geographically or morphologically, they 
are best regarded as distinct species. 



ECHINOTHURIIDAE 

Asthenosoma intermedium^ sp. nov. 

Plate 26, figs. 2-3 

Test low and flat (very flat in the preserved specimens) with a nearly circular 
ambitus, about 120 mm. in diameter. Ambulacra with about 100 plates in each 
column of which rather more than 40 are on the oral surface; at ambitus, each 
ambulacrum is about 35 mm. wide; on the oral side, most of the ambulacral 

Hntermedius = in the middle, in reference to its position between A. variuin and A. ijimai. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 379 

plates carry a primary tubercle near the inner end and, since the plates are very 
low, these tubercles are crowded into an irregular but fairly definite double 
series; primary tubercles in the poriferous areas are very rare indeed; on the 
aboral side, there are no large primary tubercles in the ambulacra, but as a rule 
each plate carries 3 or 4 secondaries; the poriferous areas are each about four- 
fifths as wide as the adjoining half of the interporiferous field, and carry scattered 
secondary tubercles in irregular and indefinite double columns. 

Interambulacra with about 60 plates in each column, of which 27 or 28 are 
on the oral surface; at ambitus, each area is about 40 mm. wide; orally each plate 
carries 2-4 primary tubercles, distributed in irregular columns on each side of the 
area; the inner column is for the most part single while the adradial one is double 
but now and then the inner column is double and the adradial single; there are 
also scattered tubercles between these columns but they are usually somewhat 
smaller than the others and show no regular arrangement; dorsally, there are no 
primary tubercles but the more distal plates carry about 10 secondary tubercles 
in an irregular horizontal series; adapically the number of tubercles on a plate 
decreases to 3,2,1 or 0, so that a bare median area is indicated there, but it is 
very narrow and ill-defined, and is probably quite unnoticeable in the living 
animal; except for the uppermost 6-8, the plates are nearly straight, horizontally, 
only the innermost portion being bent downward; the membranous spaces 
between the plates are inconspicuous, except here and there in the adapical 
portion of the interambulacra. 

Apical system about 25 mm. across, measured from the distal margin of an 
ocular to the tip of the opposite projecting genital; all the genitals appear to be 
divided into a number of irregular plates, of which an inner one is much the 
largest; madreporic pores not confined to genital 2, but occupying large portions 
of oculars II and III, and also occurring in one periproctal plate; ocular II 
divided into two parts, the outer one the larger, both being well-filled with madre- 
poric pores; ocular III has the madreporic pores confined to the half adjoining 
genital 2. Peristome about 30 mm. across with 11 or 12 plates in each column; 
each plate carries a number of tubercles so the entire peristome is thickly covered 
with spines. 

Oral primary spines commonly with conspicuous white hoofs, which are 
about 2 mm. long; they are not flaring but on the contrary are widest at the base 
and often taper slightly to the tip. The condition of the dried specimen makes it 
uncertain how well developed the poison glands on the secondary spines are, but 
there seems to be no doubt of their presence. Pedicellariae numerous but ap- 



380 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

parently all of one kind, tridentate with rather elongate heads, the valves (up to 
2 mm. or more in length) in contact .throughout, coarsely dentate near tips and 
more or less carinate on the back ; they thus resemble the smaller tridentate form 
of A . ijimai. 

Color of dry specimen : deep brown with a purplish tint ; where the epidermis 
is rubbed off, the color is a lighter brown. Primary tubercles and surrounding 
scrobicular area, whitish. Spines light greenish, at least near tip, more or less 
banded with dull purplish-brown; often the bands are very faint or wanting, and 
usually they are noticeable only near the tips; the green tint and the bands are 
more evident on the large oral spines than on the ver}^ slender spines of the upper 
surface, but even orally the colors are dull. Probably they are much brighter in 
the living animal. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 7094 from the reef at Seaforth Island, near Linde- 
man Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, July, 1934. Melbourne 
Ward leg. et don. 

A smaller specimen of this interesting sea-urchin about 90 mm. in diameter, 
from the same locality, was also sent by Mr. Ward. Thinking the specimens were 
not identical with either vm-ium or ijimai, I sent the smaller one to Dr. Morten- 
sen for his opinion. He replied at once: "The Asthenosoma from the Barrier Reef 
I must regard as a new species. It is rather intermediate between vurium and 
ijiviai — in its pedicellariae nearer the latter." In only one particular does the 
smaller paratype differ markedly from the larger specimen — the madreporic 
pores are very clearly confined to genital 2. Evidently not much reliance can be 
placed on this character as a distinguishing mark between species, unless it has 
been attested by large series of specimens. The more numerous and very low 
plates, the tuberculation and the coloration distinguish the Australian species 
from ijimai, while the same features and the pedicellariae also, prevent confusion 
with varium. It is of no little interest that Mr. Ward has added this notable 
genus to the fauna of Australia. 

TEMNOPLEURIDAE 

Temnopleurus michaelseni 

Sahnacis michaelseni Doderlein, 1914. Fauna Sudwest-Austral., 4, p. 454. 
Temnopleurus ausiraUs H. L. Clark, 1928. Rec. S. Austral. Mus., 3, p. 458. 

The large series of specimens secured on the coast of Western AustraUa in 
1929 leaves no room for doubt that this is one of the commonest sea-urchins of 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 381 

that region. It seems strange that it was not named until 1914, but there is noth- 
ing to indicate that specimens had reached the hands of zoologists before that 
year. In 1914, however, Doderlein studied a considerable series of specimens (he 
does not mention the number) and was so struck by their diversity that he at 
first thought he must distinguish "mehrere Arten" (1914, p. 457). With his usual 
good judgment, however, he finally concluded that they all belonged to a single 
species, which, in spite of the small size of the individuals, he placed in Salmacis 
because of the "wohlausgepragten C'renulierung" of the larger tubercles. This, 
however, is a character of Temnopleurus as well as of Salmacis, and Doderlein 
himself says, "Gerade dievorhiegende Art macht es auch schwer, Temnopleurus 
and Salmacis scharf zu trennen" (p. 458). The same year in an accoimt of the 
echinoids in the Western AustraUan Musemn (1914, p. 164) I discussed two bare 
tests of this species under the heading "Temnopleurus sp.," the condition of the 
specimens not justifying the giving of a specific name. In 1928, however, a de- 
tailed description of this Temnopleurus, based on a large series of specimens in 
the South Australian ^Museum, was published by me (1928, p. 458) under the 
name australis. Doderlein's Salmacis michaelseni was completely ignored, due to 
the careless assumption that so small a sea-urchin as this could not be a Salmacis; 
the failure to note that the figure given by Doderlein is enlarged three times 
misled me, but was wholly inexcusable. While I think that Temnopleurus is the 
proper genus for this urchm, the specific name proposed by Doderlein must 
replace australis. 

This Uttle echinoid is very abundant oS Fremantle, especially near Gar- 
den Island. It is also occasionally washed up on the beach at Cottesloe in some 
numbers, ^^^lile it may be found near low water mark, it is most abundant in 
depths of 3-8 fms. It rarely reaches 25 mm. in diameter but there is great diver- 
sity in the height of the test; a specimen 22 mm. in diameter from the vicinity of 
Garden Island is only 11 mm. high while one from Cottesloe Beach, of the same 
diameter, is 16 mm. high. The two forms completely intergrade. Specimens 
washed up on the beach look very different from those which are dredged, as the 
spines are so badly broken; few, if any, retain their tips and many of the small 
ones are lost altogether. 

In color, considerable interesting diversity is shown but it is due to dif- 
ferences in intensity of shade rather than to any real difference in pigmentation 
or pattern. The test is primarily dull gray with a purphsh tint, typically rather 
dark but sometimes quite light; the tubercles are cream-color and sometimes 
patches of that shade are present in the midzone in both ambulacra and mter- 



382 memoir: museum op comparative zoology 

ambulacra or in the latter alone; rarely the white area extends well up adapically 
or extends orally so the whole lower surface is light; the periproctal plates are 
often quite green and this color maj' extend to the tubercles and even to the 
poriferous zones on the upper half of the test, or sometimes clear to the peristome ; 
in extreme cases the test as a whole is greenish. The miliary and secondary spines 
are pure white while the primaries are typically colored, but often some or many 
of the primaries, even orally, are white wholly or in large part; the colored 
primaries are commonly dark red or even red-brown at the base, passing into dull 
light red at middle, becoming green distally and often tipped with white; but the 
dark base may be nearly or quite wanting and in light-colored specimens the 
basal part of the spine may be as white as the tip; in some individuals the red 
shades are dull reddish-purple quite different from the deep brown-red which 
large specimens often show. Bare tests are dull purple or dull greenish or both, 
with or without cream-colored patches. 

There are 3 specimens from an unknown locality on the coast of Western 
Australia, sent by Professor E. W. Bennett in 1930, which are so conspicuously 
different from all the other specimens that it seems best to distinguish them as a 
variety to which the name viridis may appropriately be given. Holotype, AI. C. 
Z., no. 7103. They were evidently collected on some beach, possibly Cottesloe, 
for the spines are broken and mingled with fine sand as in other beach-drift 
specimens. There are practically no white spines except near the mouth where 
many primaries as well as secondaries have white tips. The test, including the 
tubercles, is dull gray with a greenish cast; only in the smallest specimen do 
the tubercles and poriferous areas appear lighter. The spines large and small are 
green with the tips usually Ughter, often whitish, and the base of the larger ones 
brown or brownish, passing into green; there is httle or no trace of red save on 
a few primary spines. The contrast between these specimens and the normal 
form is quite striking. 

The 62 specimens of michaelseni at hand are from the following places: 
Western AustraUa: Cottesloe Beach, 1929. 16 specimens, adult and young. 

Fremantle, off Garden Island, 7 fms., October, 1929. 38 
specimens, adult and young. 

Fremantle, off Garden Island, 3-1 fms., July, 1932. 2 
specimens. 

Rottnest Island, Bathurst Point. 1 small adult. 

Point Peron, October, 1929. 1 adult. 

Bunbury, October 26, 1929. 1 young specimen. 

Exact locality unknown. 3 specimens of variety viridis. 



clark: australian echinoderms 383 

Temnopleurus toreumaticus 

Cidaris toreumatica Leske, 1778. Add. ad Klein, p. 155. 

Temnopleurus toreumaticus L. Agassiz, 1841. Mon. Ech.: Obs. Hist. Nat. Echinus, p. 7. 

A very small sea-urchin in the Australian Museum material, from 9-12 fms., 
off Gatecomb Head, Port Curtis, Queensland, taken by Messrs. Ward and 
Boardman in July, 1929, is apparently a young individual of this species, for 
which Port Curtis seems to be the southern limit. It is 6 mm. in diameter and 
nearly 3 mm. high. The primary spines are white with the bases, and one or two 
rather faint, narrow bands, olive-greenish or greenish-brown. 

From Townsville, Queensland, bearing the date May 17, 1929, there is an 
adult specimen, also belonging to the Australian Museum, 55 mm. in diameter 
and about 30 mm. high; above the ambitus, the spines are wanting. Those of 
the lower surface are 10 mm. or less in length but of the usual color, whitish more 
or less brownish ohve at base, with faint bands of the same (or a Ughter) shade. 

Salmacis belli 

Salmacis sphacroidcs var. belli Doderlein, 1903. Denkschr. Ges. Jena, 8, p. 718. 
Salmacis belli Mobtensen, 1904. Dan. E.xp. Siam: Ech., p. 68. 

Mr. Melbourne Ward has sent me three beautiful young individuals of this 
notably handsome sea-urchin which he took in shallow water near Lindeman 
Island, Great Barrier Reef in September, 1934. The smallest is 8 mm. in diam- 
eter, the largest, 24 mm. The primary spines are notable for their length as well 
as for their rose-red and green colors. In the smallest specimen they are nearly 
equal to the test diameter; in the largest they are 12-14 mm. long. 

Salmacis sphaeroides 

Echinus sphaeroides Linn^, 1758. Syst. Nat. ed. X, p. 664. 

Salmacis sphaeroides Loven, 1887. Bih. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Hand!., 13 (4), p. 69. 

In the vicinity of Broome, this well-known sea-urchin is occasionally met 
with but is not very common. All the specimens seen were brought up by a diver 
or were dredged in 7-8 fms. The coloration is a combination of white, green and 
red-purple but there is a great deal of diversity in the shades and relative amounts 
of these colors. In young specimens the test is greenish-white or pale apple- 
green but in larger specimens the shade may be lighter or considerably darker. 



384 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

The spines are green at base but white distally with 3-8 narrow and distinct, but 
not sharply defined bands of red-purple. Many very small spines and the stalks 
of the pedicellariae are pure white. In large specimens the colors may be very 
light, greenish-white and brownish-red, but often they are darker and duller 
than in youth, dull brownish-olive and purple-brown being the component shades. 
Specimens from Queensland have retained the green color in their present dry 
condition much better than those from Broome. 

The material at hand shows a range in size of from 8.5 x 5 and 13 x 7.5 to 
80 X 51 and 82 x 46 mm. One old dead test, however, now badly broken, had a 
diameter of at least 90 mm. 

The 18 specimens before me are from the following places. 
Queensland: Great Barrier Reef, Lindeman Island, "dredged in shallow water 
on Caulerpa ground, September, 1934." M. Ward leg. 3 very 
fine adults. 
Western Australia: Between Broome and Wallal, 8 fms., September, 1929. 2 

very young specimens. 
Between Broome and Wallal, 1930. R. A. Bourne leg. 1 

small specimen. Loaned by Australian Museum. 
Broome, 7-8 fms., June, 1932. 11 fine adults. 
Southwest of Broome, 7-8 fms., June, 1932. 1 large dead 
test, badly broken. 

Salmacis virgulata var. alexandri 

Salmacis alexandri Bell, 1S84. "Alert" Rep., p. 118. 

Salmacis virgulata alexandri Doderlein, 1914. Fauna Sudwest-Austral., 4, p. 454. 

Salmacis virgvlafa \-ar. alexandri H. L. Clark, 1925. Cat. Recent Sea-Urchins, p. 88. 

This is a common sea-urchin at Broome, occurring under rocks near low 
water mark as well as in deeper water. It was often dredged at depths of 3-8 
fms. No specimens of typical virgulata were taken. Young individuals scarcely 
5 mm. in diameter, or somewhat larger, were not rare, while the largest specimen 
taken is hardly G5 mm., not nearly so large as some from New South Wales. 
The diversity of color is striking and extraordinary; typical specimens have the 
larger spines dull reddish at base, passing into purple distally and tipped with 
white, but many individuals have a lesser amount of red or none at all; in some 
of these the red is replaced by a greenish-brown which becomes green distally, 
and in extreme cases (which might be called "forma" viridis) the test is greenish 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 385 

and the spines quite green with or without white tips; there is not a trace of 
either red or purple. In other individuals the red is crowded out by the purple 
and in extreme cases the test is purple and white, while the larger spines are en- 
tirely purple with white tips; there is not a trace of red or green. These extreme 
forms (to the purple one of which Mortensen (1918, p. 9) gave the name Tem- 
nopleunis scalaris) are so unlike it is hard to consider them identical but the 
connecting links are too numerous to leave any room for doubt. IMortensen has 
kindly examined a typical purple specimen and assures me it is his scaJaris. 

All of the 55 specimens of virgulaia at hand were taken at or near Broome 
in August and September, 1929, and in June, 1932, excepting 4 sent to the Aus- 
tralian Aluseum by Mr. R. A. Bourne who took them between Broome and 
Wallal in 1930; they are half-grown or small adult individuals, 2 of the normal 
coloration and a typical example of each of the extreme color forms, viridis and 
scalaris. 

Temnotrema decorum 

DoDERLEix, 1914. Fauna Sudwest-.Vustral., 4, p. 4.59 {= PIcurcchinus bothryoides Agassiz 
and Desor, 1846 et auct. post., non PIcurechinus bothryoides Agassiz, 1841). 

A very fine specimen of this beautiful little sea-urchin, 23 mm. in diameter 
and 18 mm. high, is at hand, loaned by the Australian Museum. It was taken 
in 1928, off Peak Point, northern Queensland, in 3-6 fms. of water, on rocky 
bottom. 

A small bare test, 11 x 6 mm. was dredged at Darwin near South Shell 
Island, Juty 25, 1929. Tlie bright green color was very noticeable at the time 
and is well retained by the dry specimen. In spite of the absence of the spines, 
so characteristic of decorum, the uniformly green color and the big, oval pits 
leave no doubt of the specific identity. 

There are specimens of decorum from Holothuria Bank in the M. C. Z., 
received from the British Museum, but west of that region it is apparently re- 
placed b}' the following species. 

Temnotrema elegans 
Mortensen, 1918. K. Sven. Vet.-Akad. Hantll., 58, no. 9, p. 12. 

This handsome httle sea-urchin is not rare in the vicinity of Broome and 
ranges southwestward as far as Rottnest Island. Doderlein (1914, p. 459) has 
recorded T. decorum from Shark Bay but he gives no information whatever as 



386 memoir: museltm of comparative zoology 

to the number, size or appearance of the specimens. It seems almost beyond 
question that they are really elegans. If there were but a single specimen and 
that a small one, it would be very natural to call it decorum. Mortensen is, how- 
ever, fully justified in the establishment of a new species and in his choice of a 
name. 

Several of the specimens at hand are larger than those available to Mor- 
tensen. The largest is 2G mm. in diameter and 19 mm. high, the height being 
thus more than 70% of the diameter. None of the other specimens is nearly so 
high relatively but they agree with Mortensen's in having the height about 60% 
of the diameter. The smallest specimen is 12 x 7 mm. The uniformity in colora- 
tion is notable, the least like the typical being shown bj' a small dry specimen 
from Rottnest Island, in which the ordinarily whitish spines are so suffused with 
reddish that the general cast of color is pinkish. In all the other dry specimens, 
the general cast is light brown, until examined carefully, when the violet-red 
color of the bands on the spines becomes evident. In one individual, 23 mm. in 
diameter, the larger bands on most of the primary spines are bright red, much 
as in decorum, but as the specimen is in all other respects exactly hke the normal 
form, I think we may consider this aberration a bit of "reversion." 

There are 8 specimens of elegans at hand, taken at the following places: 
Western Australia : Broome, Pearl Shoal, 5-7 fms., September, 1929. 3 speci- 
mens, 2 adult and 1 young. 
Broome, 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 4 specimens, 3 adult and 1 

young (bare). 
Rottnest Island, Bathurst Point. 1 half-grown specimen. 
Loaned by Western Australian Museum. 



Temnotrema siamense 

Pleurechinus siamensis Mortensen, 1904. Dan. Exp. Siam: Ech., p. 79. 
Temnotrema siammsis H. L. Clark, 1912. Mem. M. C. Z., 34, p. 318. 

A Temnotrema with the test 11 x6 mm., light greenish gray and whitish, 
and the larger spines, terete, white with the basal part, and usually a narrow 
band near tip, hght brownish-red (or pinkish brown), has puzzled me. In spite 
of the terete spines, I thought it must be siamense, but I sent it to Dr. Mortensen 
for his judgment, and he endorsed the identification. It is a curious fact that this 
specimen, which belongs to the Austrahan Museum, was taken at the same time 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 387 

and place (in 1928, off Peak Point, northern Queensland, 3-6 fms., rocky bottom) 
as the fine specimen of Temnolrema decorum mentioned above. 

Comparison of this specimen with the Temnotrema which I reported j'ears 
ago from Mer (1921, Ech. Torres Strait, p. 150, pi. 17, fig. 5) has convinced me that 
that individual is a young siamcnse and not the Japanese species, sculptum, as I 
called it. The two species are very much alike but the pits in siamense are con- 
spicuously larger than in sculptum. This distinction was stressed by Mortensen 
(1912, pp. 77-91) in his discussion of Pleurechinus ( =Temnotrema) and in his 
key to the species (in which sculpt utn is included under the name variegatus). 
Correction of my error in identifying the Temnotrema from Mer as sculptum 
eliminates that Japanese species from the Austrahan fauna and suggests that it 
does not occur south of Formosa. On the other hand, siamense may be regarded 
as of normal and regular occurrence on the coast of northeastern Australia. 



Temnotrema notiumi sp. nov. 
Plate 26, fig. 5. 

Test 9 nmi. in diameter and 5 nmi. high with small but very distmct deep 
pits in both ambulacra and interambulacra. Coronal plates 12 in each column; 
only 13 plates in each half-ambulacrmn. Abactinal system about 3 mm. across, 
of. which the periproct is one-half ; genital plates pentagonal, as usual, with very 
large genital pores, and 2 or 3 relatively large tubercles on the inner margin; 
ocular plates smaU, markedly exsert, with a single secondary tubercle on the 
inner margin, proximal to which is a triangular pit, not very well defined; peri- 
proct with a large suranal plate at center and with no spines. Peristome 3 mm. 
across with 5 pairs of very small buccal plates, each with a pedicel; pairs well 
separated from each other but the two plates of a pair, closely side by side. 
Primary spines in midzone not quite 2 mm. long, terete or cyhndrical, truncate 
but not at all capitate; the larger secondary spines are slightly swollen at tip. 
In the midzone, each coronal plate is noticeably wider than high and nearly 
rectangular; the pits though deep are so small they affect the form of the plates 
but little; each plate bears one large primary tubercle, above which is an irregu- 
lar semicircle of verj^ small tubercles, beginning at a small secondary tubercle 
on each side of the primary. Each ambulacral plate also carries one large tuber- 
cle, in addition to which there is a secondary and several miliarj^ tubercles. 

' v6tio% = southern, in reference to the type locality. 



388 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Pedicellariae rather numerous, but only ophicephalous were detected, and these 
are not distinctive. 

Color of test gray-green, the poriferous areas distinctly lighter; larger tuber- 
cles white or light gray; in the midzone and on the basicoronal plates are a few 
irregular patches of white. Larger primary spines, flesh color at base, greenish 
near middle, white at tip; these areas are not sharply defined but seem to merge 
into each other; on the smaller spines, the greenish tint predominates, so that 
except for the basal part of the primaries, the general coloration is greenish and 
white. 

Holotype, Australian Museum, No. J 3977, from King George's Pound, near 
Albany, Western AustraUa. E. le G. Troughton leg. 

A second specimen, 7 mm. in diameter, may be regarded as a paratype, since 
it is essentially identical with the holotype and was taken at the same time and 
place. Both were originally identified as very young individuals of Temnopleurus 
michaelseni, and it was only after careful examination of considerable series of 
specimens that it became clear these specimens from Albany are really Temnotre- 
mas. Young michaelseni of this size have no real pits in the test, but small, shallow 
grooves, quite different in form and depth from those of Temnotrema. Moreover, 
the genital pores if present are small, the ambulacra are noticeably wider, and 
the color of the test is purplish, not green. 

Satisfied that these little sea-urchins are Temnotremas, I have tried in vain 
to identify them with some previously known species of the genus. There is, 
however, no outstanding specific character and I can only say that notium is 
very close to sculptum and can be distinguished from that Japanese species only 
with difficulty. The one tangible and evident difference is that the suranal plate 
in sculptum (Plate 26, fig. 4) is of moderate size, in contact broadly with a genital 
plate and has a large plate adjoining it on each side, while in notium the suranal 
plate is relatively very large, near the center of the periproct and not in contact 
with a genital plate. I have no doubt that good series of adult specimens will 
demonstrate that notium and sculptum are quite distinct. 

Mespilia globulus var. pellocrica 
H. L. Clark, 1912. Mem. M. C. Z., 34, p. 322. 

One of the most surprising of Captain Bardwell's discoveries, during his 
trip to Augustus and the Champagny Islands in October, 1933, was this interest- 
ing sea-urchin, not hitherto known from Australia, although the typical form has 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 389 

been reported from New Guinea. The specimens taken were found "under rocks" 
along shore and the color in life was "yellow-green." The nearest area where this 
variety is known to occur is in the Philippine Islands, some fifteen hundred miles 
to the north. Captain Bardwell sent five specimens, 21-37 mm. in diameter, 
exactly alike in coloration and, except that the green in the dried specimens is 
deeper and duller, they agree completely with the types of pellocrica. Thus 
another genus is added to the echinoid fauna of Australia. 

MiCROCYPHUS ANNULATUS 

MoRTENSEN, 1904. Dan. Exp. Siam: Ech., p. 101. 

A single small specimen of this pretty species was given to me by Professor 
T. T. Flynn at Hobart. It is only a little over 6 mm. in diameter but the species is 
unmistakable. It was dredged by Professor Flynn, 6-9 miles off Schouten Island, 
Tasmania, in 40-50 fms. 

Amblypneustes leucoglobus 
DoDERLEiN, 1914. Fauna Sudw. Austral., 4, p. 46.3. 

This sea-urchin seems to be rather common at Bunbury, W. A., where we 
dredged 8 specunens from 25 to 39 mm. in diameter. The height ranges from 
.80-.92 of the horizontal axis, but is generally much nearer .90 than .80. These 
specimens agree so well with Doderlein's description there is no doubt as to 
theii' identity. In normal condition, with the spines on, the form is readily identi- 
fied but I do not think the bare tests can be distinguished from those of ovum 
with any certainty. Indeed, I am strongly inclined to question whether leuco- 
globus is really a valid species ; it seems to me only a variety of oim77i characteristic 
of the western coast of Australia. I am referring all my Amblypneustes from that 
area to leucoglobus, since they all have short, strongly capitate secondary spines, 
with the heads generally, or at least often, white. But those from Rottnest 
Island, if mingled with specimens of ovum from southeastern Australia, would 
hardly be picked out as distinct from the ordinary form. 

Although I have examined hundreds of specimens of Amblypneustes, the 
species lines are still extemely hazy to me, owing to the lack of good series of all 
sizes, with the spines still on. A very large percentage of the specimens available 
in Museums are from "beach-wrack" and have the spines either broken and 
more or less crowded with grains of sand or wanting altogether. Until large series 



390 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

of specimens in normal condition can be examined, I do not think I can improve 
on the key to the species published in my British Museum Catalogue (1925). 

The 16 specimens here referred to Icucoglobus are as follows: 
Western Australia: Dongarra. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 1 bare test and 2 very 

young specimens, 4 and 9 mm. in diameter. In the 
smaller specimen the spines are distinctly banded; in 
the larger specimen this is scarcely evident, the prima- 
ries being dark green at base, lighter distally. The second- 
ary spines show the markedly capitate and often white 
tips. 
Rottnest Island, October, 1929. 2 adults with primary 
spines dark green basally, light distally as is so common 
in typical ovum. 
Rottnest Island, 1933. B. E. Bardwell leg. et don. 1 adult 
and 2 half-grown specimens with primary spines dark 
green tipped with lighter. 
Bunbury, Koombana Bay, 5-10 fms., October 26, 1929. 
8 fine specimens; primary spines light green. 

Amblypneustes ovum 

Echinus ovum Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 3, p. 48. 

Amblypneustes orum Agassiz, lS41b. Mon. Ech.: Pref. Anat. Echinus, p. IX. 

Only four specimens of this species are at hand and three of these are very 
young, 5.5-14 mm. in diameter, the two smallest being simply bare tests. Not one 
is typical and I am referring all to the variety pachistus (H. L. Clark, 1912, Mem. 
M. C. Z., 34, p. 327). The only one worth mentioning was dredged at Hobart, 
Tasmania; it is 44 mm. in diameter and 36 mm. high. The height is thus a trifle 
more than 80% of the diameter. The test is very pale olive gray, the small spines 
range from nearly' white to pale olive; the larger ones tipped with pale brown or 
dull reddish, and the primaries are dull reddish-purple, becoming brownish 
around the peristome. This individual looks very unlike a typical ovum and sug- 
gests again that ovum, as at present recognized, is really a composite of several 
species. 

The 4 specimens at hand were taken as follows : 
South Austraha: St. Vincent Gulf, Port Willunga. W. .1. Kimber leg. et don. 2 
bare tests, very young. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 391 

St. Vincent Gulf, Port Willunga, November 2, 1929. 1 young 
individual. 

Tasmania, Hobart, west side of the Derwent, 2-3 fms., Novem- 
ber 15, 1929. 1 adult. 

Amblypneustes pallidus 

Echinus paUidus Lamarck, 1816. Aiiim. s. Vert., 3, p. 48. 

Amblypnenstes paUidus Valenciennes, 1846. Voy. Venus: Zooph., pi. 11, fig. 1. 

This lovely little sea-urchin is abundant in Koombana Bay at Bunbury, 
W. A., where we took many specimens while dredging on a "weedy" bottom in 
5-8 fms. The test seems to be always some shade of lavender or purple but the 
spines show great diversity; the primaries range from light green, usually more or 
less reddish at tip, to bright orange-red, greenish only at base; the secondary 
spines are conmionly bright lavender but may be very pale, almost white, or at 
the other extreme may be quite brown with little indication of lavender. Some 
specimens are thus predominantly green and some orange-red, some quite light, 
others rather dark. In size these individuals range from a diameter of 10 to 
36 mm. and in height from 8 to 30 mm. ; the height ranges from 80 to 90% of the 
diameter. 

Specimens similar to these from Bunbury were found on Cottesloe Beach 
and at North Beach above Fremantle, and a single bare test indicates that the 
species ranges as far north as Dongarra. 

The 57 specimens, referred to pallidus, were taken at the following places : 
Western Australia: Dongarra, 1 bare test, damaged. 
North Beach, 1 specimen. 
Cottesloe Beach, 2 specimens. 
Bunbury, Koombana Bay, 5-8 fms. on "grassy" or "weedy" 

bottom, 46 specimens. 
Albany, Middleton Beach. 1 bare test, young. 
South Australia : Port Willunga. W. J. Kimber leg. et don. 6 bare tests, very 
young. 

HOLOPNEUSTES INFLATUS 

A. Agassiz, 1872. Bull. M. C. Z., 3, p. 56. 

All of the considerable series of specimens of this species show a notable 



392 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

uniformity in shape and color. They range in diameter from 13 to G3 mm. while 
the height ranges from 70^/o of the diameter to 100' o; the smaller the specimen the 
less the height. This gradual change in proportions is surprisingly uniform for 
while there are now and then exceptions, it is generally true that small specimens 
are low and large specimens high; the full grown individuals have the height 
nearly or quite equal to the diameter. It is a curious optical delusion that such 
specimens appear to be distinctly higher than wide. The color of these specimens 
is a definite red-purple, varying in brightness but usually rather dull. In some 
small specimens the red-purple is not markedly conspicuous and the upper half 
of the test and many of the spines are grayish or even pale brown. 

A very surprising thing about these sea-urchins is their habitat. It has long 
been known that most museum specimens are bare tests, picked up on beaches, 
and good specimens with a complete coat of spines are rare indeed. Moreover, 
living Holopneustes are seldom dredged and rarely found near low water mark 
along shore. At Point Peron, south of Fremantle, and at Bunbury, still further 
south on the coast of Western Australia, we discovered that the normal habitat 
of the living sea-urchin is in the distal portions of tlie fronds of large kelps 
{Ecklonia radiata). With its very numerous tube-feet, the urchin holds tightly 
around itself the smaller subdivisions of the frond and there it lives as in a cradle, 
raised far above the sea-bottom and continually provided with fresh supplies of 
food and oxygen, by the constant movement of the sea-weed in the ceaseless tidal 
and other currents. If, for any reason, the urchin releases the enclosing frond 
divisions, it, of course, falls to the bottom and sooner or later may be washed up 
on the shore, more or less bereft of its spines and often otherwise damaged. 
Heavy storms may uproot the Ecklonias in shallow or even moderately deep 
water and these, with the Holopneustes they carry, sooner or later become beach 
drift (or "wrack") and the sea-urchins quickly die there and rapidly lose their 
spines and their color. It would not be safe to assert that kelp-fronds are the only 
habitat of Holopneustes but we found living specimens nowhere else. At Bunbury 
small individuals, 13-18 mm. in diameter were common in small laminarias in 
shallow water near low water mark, but we found full-grown individuals only in 
uprooted and floating large kelp, evidently from deeper water. Apparently 
Amblypneustes does not occupy such a habitat, for we found no individuals of 
that genus in the laminaria fronds, but both species of Holopneustes, inflatus and 
porosissimus, were to be found there and nowhere else, except, of course, when 
washed up on the beach. 

As a result of further observations made after my visit to Perth in 1929, 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 393 

Professor E. W. Bennett of the University of Western Australia, kindly wrote 
to me as follows, regarding the habits of Holopneustes: 

"Evidence that alga-frequenting habit is normal in Holopneustes — 

1. At Point Peron I found about 30 specimens in half an hour on 
Ecklonia, but have never found it in any other situation, apart of 
course from drift. 

2. It is common at times as drift on sand beaches. 

3. Specimens on algae are of all sizes. 

4. Both at Bunbury and at Point Peron I found three specimens, and 
in one case four, on a single plant. 

The urchin does not cling to the sides of the frond but by means of the tube-feet 
completely enswathes itself, whether living on the broad-leaved Ecklonia or on 
the finely pinnulate C'ystophora ; it is quite out of view and the way to collect it is 
to draw the weed through ones hands and investigate any lumps. The habit is 
perhaps the nearest marine equivalent to that of certain leaf rolling insects. The 
shortness of the spines and the spherical shape suggest themselves as adaptations 
or at least as advantages." 

The 36 specimens of inflalus at hand were taken at the following places: 
Western Australia: Fremantle, North Beach, August, 1920. E. W. Bennett don. 

1 small adult. 
Fremantle, C'ottesloe Beach, beach drift, May 14, 1920. 

E. W. Bennett don. 4 specimens, small and poor. 
Point Peron, October 11, 1929. 10 fine specimens, adult and 

young. 
Rottnest Island, November, 1933. Beresford E. Bardwell 

leg. et don. 1 small specimen. 
Rottnest Island, southwest coast, February, 1930. F. H. 
Drummond and D. C. Swan leg. et don. 1 adult speci- 
men. 
Bunbury, October 25, 1929. 15 specimens, young but fine. 
Ellenbrook Beach, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et 
don. 1 small bare test. 
South AustraUa : Port WiUunga, November 2, 1929. 1 large adult, washed up 
on beach. 
Port Willunga. W. J. Kimber leg. et don. 2 small adults, 1 
bare. 



394 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

holopneustes porosissimus 

Agassiz and Desor, 1846. Ann. Sci. Nat. (3) 6, p. 364. 

When typical specimens of this handsome species are compared with equally 
typical specimens of inflatus, the differences are so conspicuous, it seems impos- 
sible there could ever be any confusion between the two forms. But in the con- 
siderable series at hand, there are several individuals which are, to say the least, 
puzzling. The largest of these is 36 mm. in diameter, with the height about the 
same, as in inflatus. The color of the test is also the reddish-purple of that species, 
but the spines are dull light greenish and bright red, much as in porosissimus. A 
second specimen is similar in size and color but has the test much lower, only 31 
mm. high, and the colors are brighter. A somewhat smaller specimen is similar 
but the colors are much duller. Finally, a specimen 26.5 mm. by 25, blends the 
colors of the two species to such an extent that one hesitates to call it by the name 
of either one. These specimens are all from the vicinity of Cape Leeuwin, a 
region where both inflatus and porosissimus occur plentifully, and it is easy to 
say that they are simply hybrids between the two. But, in the absence of any 
actual evidence that such hybridization occurs, it may be cjuite as correct to 
say they are simply "intermediates" which indicate that the specific differentia- 
tion between the two nommal species is not yet complete. 

The specimens of porosissimus at hand range from 17 x 12 mm. to 54 x 45. 
One individual is 52 x 35 but very few specimens have the height less than 75% 
of the diameter and veiy few have it much in excess of 80%. The typical color- 
ation of a gray-green test, with the small spines green and the primaries bright, 
almost vermilion red, greenish only at base, is very striking. In habitat and 
habits, porosissimus resembles inflatus. 

The 42 specimens at hand are from the following locaUties: 
Western Australia: Dongarra. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 1 fine adult. 

Freraantle, North Beach. 1 specimen. 

Point Peron, October, 1929. 8 fine specimens, 7 adult and 
1 young. 

Ellen Brook Beach. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 1 young 
specimen. 

Cape Leeuwin, beach drift. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 29 
specimens. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 395 

HOLOPNEUSTES PYCXOTYLUS 

H. L. Clark, 1912. Mem. M. C. Z., 34, p. 334. 

A very fine Holopneustes taken at Shell Harbor, N. S. W., May 4, 1932, 
represents this species, though it is much the largest spechnen I have seen. It 
is 58 mm. in diameter and 56 mm. high. The form of the test is thus much Uke 
that of inflatus but the tuberculation is conspicuously coarser and the color is 
very different. The test is hght brown, and the spines, particularly the primaries, 
are a dull pale pink. Compared with specimens of inflatus of the same size, the 
differences are striking. 



ECHINIDAE 

PSEUDECHINTJS HESPERUS^ Sp. noV. 

Plate 27, fig. 1. 

Test 7.5 mm. in horizontal diameter and 5 mm. in height, vertical diameter 
thus 66% of the horizontal. Coronal plates relatively stout, 10 in a column, each 
with a conspicuous primary tubercle and several secondaries and miliaries; 
interambulacra more than 2 mm. wide. Ambulacral plates 11 in a column, almost 
the same height as the coronal plates; a primary tubercle, almost as large as 
those of the interambulacra, is present on each plate, with one or more second- 
aries and miliaries; ambulacra about 2 mm. wide, somewhat narrower than 
interambulacra; poriferous zones very narrow, the pores small and the arcs 
vertical. Secondary and miliary tubercles relatively few but so distributed over 
the test as to leave no noticeable bare areas. 

Abactinal system moderate about 2.5 mm. across, compact; genital plates 
relatively large with very large pores near the distal angle; madreporite swollen, 
with about 40 pores, and 3 small tubercles on inner margin; ocular plates small, 
all exsert but I is most nearly insert; periproct rather more than a millimeter in 
diameter, the conspicuous suranal plate covering fully half the area; tuberculation 
of the oculogenital rmg sparse, each genital having 1 or 2 secondaries and 1 or 
more miUaries, while each ocular has 1 large, and 1 or more small miliaries. 

Peristome 3.5 mm. across, without gill-sHts, the membrane thin and naked 

 f (TTrepos = western, in reference to its occurrence in Western .\ustralia. 



396 



memoir: museum of comparative zoology 



save for the 5 pairs of rather large buccal plates, each of which carries a pedicel 
and several ophicephalous pedicellariae. 

Primary spines even at and below ambitus only about 2 mm. long, smooth, 
tapering to a blunt, somewhat truncated point. Secondary spines rather con- 
spicuous from their noticeably expanded (but not capitate) tips. Globiferous 
pedicellariae not very numerous but quite distinctive; valves (fig. 35) about 
165 M long, the base 100 n wide; blade quite short and rather wide, with a long 




Fig. 35. Pseudechinus hesperus. Valve of globiferous pedicellaria. x 425. a. Inner view. 
Side view of tip. 



b. 



and conspicuous end tooth and a somewhat smaller lateral tooth on the left side 
well below tip. Tridentate pedicellariae were not found. Ophicephalous pedi- 
cellariae numerous but not peculiar. Sphaeridia numerous and relatively con- 
spicuous, ovoid and distinctly stalked; there is a vertical series of 4-6 in each 
ambulacrum orally. 

Color of test very light lavender-brown, the abactinal system and poriferous 
areas light yellow-green in rather evident contrast; around peristome the test is 
nearly white. Spines very pale greenish or white, lightest distally; close to the 
peristome a few primaries are distinctly reddish at base. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 7151, from the cove, at the northeast end of Rott- 
nest Island, off Fremantle, Western Austraha, October 19, 1929. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 397 

The unique holotype of this interesting species was supposed, when taken, 
to be a young Heliocidaris erythrogramma and no particular attention was given 
to it until 1934, when it was sorted out from among a number of very small 
specimens of that species collected at Rottnest Island by me in 1929. It was 
at first considered an undescribed Nudechinus and I showed it to Dr. Mortensen 
while under that impression. He called my attention to the pedicellariae and 
suggested that it might be a new genus, but after critical study I see no reason 
why it is not a Pseudechinus. The globiferous pedicellariae are essentially like 
those of Pseudechinus huttoni, though the very short blade gives them a markedly 
different appearance. The noticeable sphaeridia of this individual may not be a 
constant feature of the species, and the failure of ocular I to reach the periproct 
is probably due to immaturity. The big genital pores, however, suggest that the 
species never reaches a very large size. The occurrence of Pseudechinus in West- 
ern Australia is particularly noteworthy, since the genus, common in New Zea- 
land, was known hitherto in Australian waters only from the unique holotype of 
Parechinus notius H. L. C, taken in 70-80 fms. southeast of Cape Everard, 
Victoria. Dr. Mortensen considers this species very nearly related to Pseudechinus 
huttoni and "representing an Australian form of the genus Pseudechinus." The 
differences between notius and hesperus in test and pedicellariae are too obvious 
to permit any confusion between the two Australian species. 

Tripneustes gratilla 

Echinus gratilla Linne, 1758. Sys. Nat. ed. X, p. 664. 

Tripneustes gratilla Loven, 1887. Bih. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., 13 (4), No. 5, p. 77. 

In view of the wide distribution of this sea-urchin on the coasts and among 
the islands of the Indian Ocean, its complete absence from northern Australia is 
very striking. It is common on the Barrier Reef and along the Queensland coast, 
and has been reported from as far south as Port Jackson. On the coast of Western 
Australia, it has been taken once at Surf Point, near the southern end of Shark 
Bay, once at Pelsart Island in Houtman's Abrolhos and twice at Rottnest Island; 
the two specimens from Rottnest are in the University Museum at Perth; they 
are about 70 mm. in diameter and white in color; the smaller has the interambu- 
lacra dull purple. This occurrence, yet apparent rarity, on the northwestern and 
western coasts of the continent is, to say the least, puzzling. One may only specu- 
late as to the possibility of accidental introduction by means of foul ship-bottoms. 
But from where? 



398 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

All of the 14 specimens of Tripneustes at hand were taken at Lord Howe 
Island, where it is a rather common sea-urchin, but most of the individuals seen 
were young, ranging from 20 to 45 mm. in diameter. These occur under rock frag- 
ments on the reef flats and are commonly more or less concealed by the debris 
which they hold about them with their tube feet. As a rule, in these small speci- 
mens, the test is dark purplish or brown, the spines white, sometimes with a 
greenish tinge but without orange. Some specimens are quite reddish and in very 
small individuals the tube-feet may be a bright pale red. The largest specimen 
taken is 91 mm. in diameter. The handsomest was a large individual found by 
Miss Kama Birmingham on the eastern coast between Neds Beach and Middle 
Beach ; the test was rich purple, the spines cream-white more or less tipped with 
bright orange and the tube-feet were banded brownish-red and wliite. 

NUDECHINUS DARNLEYENSIS 

Echinus darnlcyensis Tenison-Woods, 1878. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 165. 
Nvdcchinus darnlnjeiisis H. L. Clark, 1912. Mem. M. C. Z., 34, p. 277. 

There are three lots of small echini at hand which represent this species, 
described so long ago, but only understood since Mortensen's discussion (1904, 
p. 117) of its distinctive characteristics. There is a typical group of five speci- 
mens, 1 1-26 mm. in diameter, from northern Queensland. The smallest one has 
all the spines and tubercles white with no trace of violet but the upper portion 
of the test is largely dull gray in rather conspicuous contrast to the white peri- 
proct and adjoining parts of the ocular-genital ring. The next largest specimen 
has these grayish areas reduced in extent and depth of tint and most of the pri- 
mary spines are bright violet with white tips. The third specimen has the test 
similar to that of the second but there is no violet; instead, the basal half of the 
primaries is pale brown, those of the peristomal region, showing an evident laven- 
der tinge close to the milled ring. The fourth specimen has the supra-ambital 
primaries white but at the ambitus the very base of these spines becomes pinkish 
and this tint promptly passes, on the oral surface, into bright violet, only the very 
tips of the spines remaining whitish. The largest specimen is orally like the pre- 
ceding but adapically only the smaller primaries near the periproct are wholly 
white, the remainder having the basal half violet of a lighter or darker shade. 
These five specimens are a very representative set in showing the development 
and diversity of coloration in the species. 

A second group of four specimens are much alike in size and color and are 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 399 

obviously very young. They come from Moreton Bay (very far south for darn- 
leyensis) and measure only 6-7 mm. in diameter. The irregular gray areas of 
the adapical region are fairly distinctive, though they are conspicuously violet 
to some extent in two of the specimens. In three individuals the primaries in 
the midzone are more or less violet, some conspicuously so, but in the fourth 
specimen, the violet is replaced by pale reddish brown. There is little doubt that 
these four specimens are very young examples of darnleyensis, thus extending the 
range of the species along the southern coast of Queensland well to the south of 
the end of the Barrier Reef. 

A more surprising extension of the range of this distinctively Austrahan 
species is brought out by the third group, seven specimens dredged in 5-8 fms. 
of water in the vicinity of Broome, W. A. One of these specimens is a dead, 
bare test, but the others are unquestionable examples of darnleyensis and reveal 
the usual diversity of color. The smallest, only 9 mm. in diameter, has the test 
and spines adapically white but all of the primaries near the peristome are bright 
violet, a few even lack wliite tips. The next larger specimen is practically all 
white, only the primaries near the peristome showing a faint tinge of violet. 
In the next specimen the oral primaries are violet basally but above the ambitus, 
the primaries which are not white throughout are pale brown basally. A speci- 
men 14 mm. in diameter is almost uniformly white with a yellowish tinge here 
and there, and a very few small primaries are faintly violet near base. The two 
remaining specimens are about of a size, slightly exceeding 20 mm. diameter, 
but one has most of the primaries, except near the apical system, bright violet, 
while the other has the violet primaries confined to the oral surface. 

In the entire series of 16 specimens there are not more than four which can 
be considered adult, two from Queensland and two from Broome. Of the Queens- 
land pair, the larger has ocular I only, insert and the other has all oculars exsert. 
In the pair from Broome, oculars I and V are both broadly insert; it may be added 
that in the smallest specimen (9 mm.), ocular I is fully insert, but in the 14 mm. 
specimen, all oculars are very completely exsert! 

The three groups of specimens were taken as follows: 
Queensland: northern coast, Peak Point, .3-6 fms., rocky bottom, 1928. 5 fine 
specimens, loaned by Australian Museum, 
southern coast, Moreton Bay. 4 very young specimens, loaned by 
Victoria National Museum, Melbourne. 
Western Australia: Broome, 5-8 fms., June, 1932. 7 specimens, adult and young, 

1 a dead, bare test in poor condition. 



400 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

nudechinus gravieri 

Gymnechinus grameri Koehler, 1905a. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., no. 3, p. 185. 
Nudechinus gravieri H. L. Clakk, 1912. Mem. M. C. Z., 34, p. 277. 

It is only after long consideration that I have decided to refer to this Red 
Pea species, four small sea-urchins from Western Australia. Two of them are 
of the same size as the types of gravieri (12-13 mm. in diameter) and the form 
and coloration are apparently like Koehler's specimens. The abactinal system is 
surprisingly like Koehler's figure and description except that the ocular and 
genital plates have a few more tubercles. The test is greenish-white with con- 
spicuous blotches of a rather deep green. The primary spines are nearly white 
with one, two or sometimes three rings of a dull pink or light brownish-rose. 
The larger secondary spines are white, many of them with the base conspicuously 
dark green, as in N. scotiopremnus. I have tried to convince myself that these 
specimens are young individuals of that species, but in addition to the dissimilar- 
ity in color, there are trivial differences in the abactinal system, in the tubercula- 
tion of the test and in the pedicellariae which are disconcerting, and I believe 
it is best to consider them identical with gravieri until more material of that 
species is available to make clear the relationship. 

I sent the largest of my specimens to Dr. Mortensen for his opinion, suggest- 
ing that I thought it gravieri. His views deserve quotation : 

"I do not feel sure that this identification is correct. Unfortunately, I have 
no specimen of gravieri but the description does not seem to me to fit very well 
with your specimen. The tubercles of the abactinal system are more numerous 
in your specimen. Koehler found no tridentate pedicellariae — -in your specimen 
they are numerous, even round the mouth where Koehler found only ophice- 
phalous pedicellariae, and Koehler does not mention the conspicuous dark bases 
of the spines. I think it about impossible to reach a final conclusion here without 
material from the type locality of gravieri." 

The tridentate pedicellariae to which Mortensen refers have the blades 
much wider and more rounded at the tip and less compressed at the base than 
do those of scotiopremnus. This is one of the reasons for not calling these little 
urchins the young of that species. 

The four specimens at hand were taken as follows: 
Western Australia: Broome, 5-7 fms., June, 1932. 3 specimens. 

Bunbury, Koombana Bay, 5-8 fms., October 26, 1929. 1 
very young specimen, less than 5 mm. in diameter, but 
apparently identical with the specimens from Broome. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 401 

NUDECHINUS SCOTIOPREMNUS 
H. L. Clark, 1912. Mem. M. C. Z., 34, p. 277. 

The discovery of this sea-urchin on the northwestern coast of AustraUa is 
very interesting, as it was previously known with certainty only from the Suez 
Canal, the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea. A specimen in the M. C. Z. is labelled 
as from New Zealand but no confidence can be placed in this label. In the British 
IVIuseum are three typical examples labelled "Swan River, J. B. Jukes," and I 
was rash enough to say (1925, p. 128) "it is unlikely that they came from West 
Australia!" Now I have to retract and say there is no good reason to doubt that 
they came from Western Australia. 

At Broome, this sea-urchin was found on only one occasion; it was never 
dredged. Probably it occurs only under or among rocks where a dredge would 
rarely reach it. Early on September 24, 1929, a visit was made to a somewhat 
unpromising area near Broome, on the eastern side of Roebuck Bay, just south 
of the creek. In a rather large tide pool, under rock fragments, a number of 
white short-spined sea-urchins were found, together with a few bare tests. They 
were recognized as different from anything found previously, but our stay at 
Broome was nearing its end and as we were crowded for time, no careful exam- 
ination of the specimens was made nor was a second visit to that particular 
collecting ground feasible. Great was my surprise, when the specimens were 
examined in Cambridge, to find that they were this Red Sea species. 

At Perth, Mr. L. Glauert of the Museum called to my attention a number of 
fossil, or at least semi-fossil, echini and fragments of echini, which he had found 
at an island near the east end of Lake Herschel, on Rottnest Island. Professor 
E. W. Bennett also gave me specimens from the same locality. Some of Mr. 
Glauert's specimens are labelled "Quaternary deposits near Salt Lake, Rottnest 
Island, W. A." All of the Regular Echini found in these lots (except one fragment 
of Amblypneustes, probably pallidus) are Nudechinus scotiopremnus and critical 
comparison with Recent material fails to show any real differences. Diligent 
shore collecting has not yet revealed this species as living on the shores of Rott- 
nest, but the Perth Museum has loaned me two specimens collected at the 
"Naval Base, Cockburn Sound, about half-way between Fremantle and Rock- 
ingham." Comparison of these specimens with those taken at the tide-pool in 
Broome shows that the primary spines are shorter, stouter and much more green 
but there is no doubt of their identity. The Recent specimens at hand range 
from 13 to 30 mm. in diameter; all are rather low, the vertical diameter seldom 



402 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

exceeding one-half the horizontal and one specimen 26 nun. in diameter is not 
12 mm. high. Among the Quaternarj^ specimens, however, two are notably high, 
the apical portion of the test being subcorneal; these specimens measure 26 by 
16 and 27 by 17 mm. 

In color, the specimens from Broome have the test ranging from greenish- 
white, lightest orally to rather dark green, light on the poriferous areas, and al- 
most white at the peristome. The primary spines are white with the bases slightly 
or not at all green but the secondary spines, though white distally are otherwise 
more or less green, as a rule, and often a very dark green. In the two specimens 
from the Naval Base, Cockburn Sound, nearly all the primary spines are deep 
green basally, Uke the secondaries, and the specimens are thus much darker than 
any of those from Broome. 

Aside from a dozen fossil examples, already mentioned, the 19 specimens at 
hand come from the following places: 

Western AustraUa : Broome, east side of Roebuck Bay, tide pool, September 24, 

1929. 14 specimens, adult and young, including 3 bare 
tests. 
Shark Bay. 2 bare tests. 
Dongarra, reef, 1928. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 1 small 

bare test. 
Cockburn Sound, Naval Base. 2 fine dark-colored speci- 
mens. Loan from Western Australian Museum, 



STRONGYLOCENTROTIDAE 

Echinostrephus aciculatum 
Echinostrephua aciculatus A. Agassiz, 1863. Bull. M. C. Z., 1, p. 20. 

The only specimen of Echinostrephus that we took during my two visits to 
Australia was found deep in a rock fragment at Neds Beach, Lord Howe Island, 
April 16, 1932. This specimen proved to be a short-spined example of the 
Hawaiian species, aciculatum, which was, of course, unexpected, the specimens 
of Echinostrephus thus far taken in Australian waters being molare. On return- 
ing to Sydney, I found an excellent series of this sea-urchin from Lord Howe 
Island in the Australian Museum and a dozen assorted specimens were gener- 
ously loaned me for critical study. The 13 specimens at hand range from 16 to 
29 mm. in diameter and show great diversity in color, in relative height and in 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 403 

the length of the abactinal spines; in other respects they are typical aciculatum. 
The color of the test is light brownish or more or less purple, becoming nearly 
white orally; the primary spines are commonly purple of some shade, sometimes 
brownish and dull, often deep and dark basally, becoming more red violet dis- 
tally; in other specimens, however, the large spines are brown, greenish-brown 
or even yellowish-green; naturally the secondary and miliary spines are more or 
less in accord with the primaries; where the latter are purple or red- violet those 
shades are dominant in the smaller spines; where brown or green primaries are 
found, those shades characterize the small spines; in all cases, however, the spines 
adjoining the peristome are very light, either white or colorless, or faintly tinted 
with violet. 

The relative height of these specimens ranges from about one-half the di- 
ameter to nearly or quite two-thirds; as a rule the smaller specimens are flatter 
than large ones but this is not invariably so; there is little doubt however, that 
after the specimen is 18-20 mm. in diameter, the vertical axis increases more 
rapidly than the horizontal. The diversity in the length of the abactinal spines 
is remarkable; a specimen 16 nam. in diameter has the abactinal primaries 16-17 
mm. long, while a specimen 29 mm. in diameter has them only 12 mm. The 
longest primaries seen are nearly 28 mm. long on a specimen 28 mm. in diameter. 

The occurrence of aciculatum at Lord Howe Island is very difficult to ex- 
plain satisfactorily. On the Barrier Reef, molare has been taken at the Murray 
Islands and Low Isles. It is also known from the Solomon Islands and from 
Fiji, not to mention Mauritius and Zanzibar to the west and the Philippines 
and Japan to the north. On the other hand, aciculatum is known only from the 
Hawaiian, Gilbert and Society Islands. How and why this latter species should 
be the one to have reached Lord Howe Island is an interesting problem. Judging 
from the large number of specimens in the Australian Museum, it is common 
there, but our difficulty in finding specimens in April indicates that the season 
of the year or the state of the tides affects its accessibility. 

Pachycentrotus australiae 

Sphaerechinus australiae A. Agas.siz, 1872. Bull. M. C. Z., 3, p. 55. 
Pachycentrotus australiae H. L. (^lark, 1912. Mem. M. C. Z., 34, p. 349. 

A fine large specimen, lacking most of its spines, taken evidently in beach 
wrack, at Port Willunga, S. A., by Mr. W. J. Kimber, has been very generously 
sent to me by the collector. In this specimen, the test is whitish or faintly gray- 



404 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

lavender, becoming distinctly greenish on the abactinal system. Oculars I and V 
are broadly insert. The spines are light violet but the bases of the abactinal pri- 
maries are dull greenish gray. 

There are 3 very young individuals at hand, belonging to the Australian 
Museum, collected by W. Irwin Smith, January 27, 1928, at Eagle Hawk Neck, 
Tasmania. These range from 10 x 5 to 16 x 9 mm. and are distinctly green in 
color without a trace of violet, apparently an indication of immaturity, but not 
impossibly a local color form. The tests are white orally but become more or 
less green adapically and even dusky on the abactinal system. The small spines 
are white. The primaries are green, dark at base, nearly or quite white at tip; 
just below the white tip is often a dusky band. Oculars I and V are insert in 
all three specimens. In the smallest specimen, the buccal membrane is rather 
sparsely plated, more so in the largest and most completely in the third. 



Heliocidaris erythrogramma 

Echinus erythrogrammus Valenciennes, 1846. Voy. Venus: Zoophytes, pi. VII, fig. 1. 
Heliocidaris erythrogramma Agassiz and Desor, 1846. Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), 6, p. 371. 

This appears to be the commonest sea-urchin along the coast of southwestern 
Australia from Fremantle to Albany; the entire range is from Shark Bay to Port 
Jackson. The large series of specimens at hand suggests, what shore-collecting 
demonstrated completely, that the supposed species armigera A. Ag. and hart- 
meyeri Dod. and the variety meridionalis Dod. have no vahdity, though the 
name armigera may be retained for convenience in designating a variety or form 
with very short, stout primary spines which occurs under certain conditions of 
sea and shore. Just what the conditions are which favor its appearance is yet 
to be determined. At the opposite extreme is a much rarer form which we may 
call variety parvispina, in which the primary spines are nearly or quite want- 
ing; if any are present they are very small. The secondary spines on the other 
hand are extremely numerous. The specimen which is selected as holotype of 
this variety (M. C. Z., No. 7185) is 80 mm. in diameter and 40 mm. high. Such 
primary spines as are present are 8-1 1 mm. long and more than 1 mm. in diameter, 
but one broken primary on the dorsal side is 2 mm. in diameter and was prob- 
ably 15 mm. or more in length. The color of this individual is a uniform red- 
purple. A second specimen is about 52 mm. in diameter, has 4 rather stout 
primaries on the dorsal side, and is brownish-green in color. 



CLARK : AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 405 

Professor E. W. Bennett has kindly sent me the following notes regarding 
the occurrence of the form armigera and the typical form with longer, more 
slender spines. As a rule armigera tends to be purple or brownish-red in color, 
while typical enjthrogramma is light green but there is no constant difference 
whatever in this particular. Professor Bennett writes: 

"The precise habits of H. erythrogramma s. str. and of the armigera form 
require investigation. 

"This urchin is most abundant at Point Peron, where the limestone in which 
it burrows is very soft. At Middleton Beach, where the rocks are granite, I 
found it only under stones below lowest water mark, and among the hard basalts 
at Bunbury it is equally rare. 

"At Point Peron the outer reef, which I investigated on that second morn- 
ing, is largely built up by calcareous algae, especially round the edges, where 
there is a rim several inches above the level of the rest. The rock is rotten for a 
depth of about a foot, and an incoming wave gushes up through the holes, 
after travelling through the sub-surface caverns; the crest of the wave, breaking 
over the surface, arrives distinctly later. This is the most prolific locality of all 
for Heliocidaris. 

"Hehocidaris is not common at Bunker's Bay, occurring only under large 
rocks on seaward side of reef. Similarly at Albany; found only under large rocks 
at or below extreme low water mark, and not common. None found alive at 
Ellen Brook Beach. I think we found none at Bunbury, in the basalt reef. The 
rocks in all of the above localities are hard. The urchins are very common, how- 
ever, in soft limestone, where they shelter in holes, e.g., at higher level, right in 
the swirl of the waves. Those from Ellen Brook Beach were all of the armigera 
type, only one with green color, and this had short stout spines. I have seen a 
fair number of Heliocidaris from Bunbury, collected by the Naturalists Club 
and by Mr. Whitlock. They are all 'drift,' perhaps from below tide-marks and 
are invariably H. armigera. Mr. Whitlock was quite unfamiliar with green or 
slender-spined specimens." 

The 75 specimens of erythrogramma at hand range in size from 5 mm. to 
86 mm. in diameter. Their diversity in color and in spinulation need not be dis- 
cussed further here. They were taken at the following places and may be grouped 
as follows: 

Variety armigera: 11 specimens. 
Western Australia: Rottnest Island, 1933. Beresford E. Bardwell leg. et don. 

1 specimen. 



406 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Point Peron, October, 1929. 7 specimens. 
Bunbury, October, 1929. 2 small specimens. 
South Australia: Port Willunga. W. J. Kimber leg. et don. 1 small specimen. 

H. erythrogramma: 62 specimens. 
Western Australia: Fremantle, October, 1929. 1 young specimen. 

Rottnest Island, Bathurst Point, December, 1929. Perth 

Museum coll. 6 specimens, young and very young. 
Rottnest Island, October, 1929. 3 young specimens. 
Rottnest Island, southwest end, February, 1930. Drum- 

mond and Swan leg. et don. 4 small specimens. 
Rottnest Island, 1931. G. Bourne leg. I very young spec- 
imen. 
Rottnest Island, 1933. Beresford E. Bardwell leg. et don. 

16 specimens, adult and young. 
Point Peron, October, 1929. 13 specimens, adult and young. 
Bunbmy, October, 1929. 9 specimens, young and very 

young. 
Ellen Brook Beach, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et 

don. 1 deformed adult and 1 young specimen. 
Cape Leeuwin, January, 1930. E. W. Bennett leg. et don. 

1 small specimen. 
Albany, King Georges Sound. E. le G. Troughton leg. 
AustraUan Mus. coll. 1 young specimen. 
South AustraUa: Port Willunga, October, 1929. 2 specimens, 1 adult, 1 very 
young. 
Port Willunga. W. J. Kimber leg. et don. 1 specimen. 
Tasmania: eastern coast, off Schouten Island, 40-50 fms. T. T. Flynn leg. et 

don. 1 very young specimen. 
New South Wales: Port Jackson, Bottle and Glass Rocks, November 27, 1929. 
1 young specimen. 
Variety parvispina: 2 specimens. 
Western AustraUa: Point Peron, October, 1929. 2 specimens, adult. 



Heliocidaris tuberculata 

Echinus tuberculatus Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., 3, p. 50. 
HeHocidaris fuherculaia H. L. Cl.\rk, 1912. Mem. M. C. Z., 34, p. 282. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 407 

We did not meet with this species anywhere on the coast of continental 
Austraha but it is very common at Lord Howe Island where it is a conspicuous 
feature of the reefs and especially of the reef flat near Alt. Lidgbird. The color 
is a bright brown, with a red tinge to test and pedicels, and greenish tips to the 
spines, very marked. The 20 specimens at hand range from 10 to 106 mm. in 
diameter. There is considerable diversity in the length of the primaries for while 
typical adults have these spines 50-60 mm. long, several specimens, including 
the largest, have them onlj' 30-35 mm. The form and stoutness of the spines 
also show great diversity ; the typical form is relatively slender and terete, taper- 
ing to a blimt point (for example, 55 mm. long, 3 mm. in diameter at base, 1 
mm. in diameter 5 mm. from tip) ; often, however, the form is stouter and more 
cylindrical, tapering only near or at the tip (for example, 25 mm. long, 2 mm. 
in diameter at base and almost 2 rmn. in diameter 5 mm. from tip) ; on the oral 
surface and not rarely at or even above the ambitus the primaries are distinctly 
flattened at the tip and not pointed. Probably all of these peculiarities in the 
spines are correlated with the degree of exposure to the surf, under which the 
animals live. 

ECHINOMETRIDAE 
Parasalenia gratiosa 
A. Agassiz, 1863. Bull. M. C. Z., 1, p. 22. 

The discovery of this interesting genus on the mainland coast of Australia, 
west of Torres Strait, is most interesting. The first and only specimen secured by 
us is a bare test, 35 mm. long, 29 mm. wide and 16 mm. high; the abactinal system 
is missing and the test is bleached white, only the large tubercles and the extreme 
adapical portion of the interambulacra showing a distinctly grayish tinge. My 
friend, Mr. F. A. K. Bleeser, found this test, washed up above high water mark 
on the sandy beach of AUaru Island, Coburg Peninsula, May 22, 1932. It is the 
second largest individual recorded; one, in the British Museum, from an unknown 
locaUty, is a milUmeter longer and 3 mm. wider. 

In the fine material received from Captain Beresford E. Bardwell, taken by 
him at Augustus and the Champagay Islands, in October, 1933, are ten speci- 
mens of Parasalenia, which he says "were found under rocks; body was a deep 
purple and spines which are blunt were deep purpUsh-gray (more gray). Fairly 
plentiful." These seem to be undoubtedly gratiosa but the habitat is very differ- 



408 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

ent from that occupied by this species at the Murray Islands, where all of the 
few specimens taken by me in 1913 were found among corals. Captain Bard- 
well's specimens range in size from 20 x 18 x 9 mm. to 32 x 28 x 15.5. There is 
notable diversity in the form of the test as the ambitus ranges from nearly circu- 
lar (26 X 25 mm.) to long elliptical (31 x 23) and the height of the test from .40 
to .48 of the long axis. The longest primary spines nearly equal the short diameter 
of the test in most of the specimens. There is little diversity on the whole in the 
abactinal system. In no case is a genital plate shut out from the periproct but in 
two specimens split genitals occur. The genital plates nearly always bear at least 
one and often two (or even more) secondary tubercles and spines. In eight speci- 
mens there are the usual 4 anal plates but in one case, one of the plates is divided 
into two unequal parts. In one specimen there are 6 distinct but somewhat un- 
equal anal plates and in one, there are 5 rather large and 9 granule-like plates, 
the latter forming a group at the center of the periproct. 

The specimens are now dry and show some diversity of color; in all, the 
test is very dark, blackish or deep purple; in eight the primary spines are grayish- 
brown but in two the brown is so nearly wanting that the spines are quite gray, 
dark in one case, light in the other. In these two cases, the white milled ring at 
the base of the spines is conspicuous but it is less so in the other specimens and in 
some cases is not at all noticeable. In life it is a rather striking feature of the 
species. In none of the specimens is there the least hint of the red or of the banded 
primaries characteristic of P. poehlii. All seem to be typical gratiosa. 



ECHINOMETRA MATHAEI 

Echinus mathaei de Blainville, 1825. Diet. Sci. Nat., 37, p. 94. 
Echinomefra mathaei de Blainville, 1830. Diet. Sei. Nat., 60, p. 206. 

The distribution of this common Indo-Pacific sea-urchin on the Australian 
coast is peculiar and hard to understand. Except for a single specimen from the 
Gulf of Carpentaria (McNeill and Livingstone, 1926), there is no record of an 
Echinometra from the northern coast of AustraUa between the Barrier Reef 
and Shark Bay! The specimens from the latter locality are recorded by Doder- 
lein (1914, p. 487) under the name "Mortensenia oblonga." This is not the place 
to discuss the validity of the genus Mortensenia or the species oblonga, but 
Doderlein's account justifies the opinion that the specimens he had in hand would 
be called by me Echinometra mathaei. This \aew is confirmed by the very interest- 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 409 

ing discovery made by Messrs. Swan and Drummond in February 1930 that 
mathaei is a common sea-urchin at the southwest corner of Rottnest Island, off 
Fremantle. Mr. Swan writes of this discovery: "We finally camped at Nancy 
Cove on the south coast separated by some four miles of rough track from the 
Hostel and by a similar distance of very much rougher traveUing from the ex- 
treme west end (Cape Vlaming)." "Echinometra was present in thousands, al- 
most touching and quite exposed, being covered by only a few inches of water, on 
a raised level rocky platform onto which spent waves occasionally broke. The 
temperature of the water was much higher than normal sea-water and close by 
were isolated colonies (a few feet across) of the true reef coral (Pocillopora). The 
upper surface of the rock was pock-marked with cup-shaped depressions a few 
inches across and the urchins were like eggs in a nest in each depression." 
"Heliocidaris was not seen on the western end of the island." In speaking further 
of Echinometra, Mr. Swan adds: "It was interesting to note the wide range of 
color exhibited by different specimens. Some were distinctly greenish and ranged 
through reddish forms to a distinct, though dull, purple. Also a great variation 
in the regularity of the tests was seen, permitting them to fit firmly into small de- 
pressions in the rock from which they were with great difficulty removed owing 
to their attachment by the short flattened spines of the oral surface." 

The absence of Echinometra from the rocky shores of Cape Leveque was a 
surprise to me, and Captain Bardwell's failure to find it further east at Augustus, 
and the Champagay Islands, is even more inexplicable. Whence came the 
Echinometras of Shark Bay and Rottnest Island? The latter locality by the way 
is the most southern at which these echini have been taken, so far as the pub- 
Ushed records show. 

On the eastern coast of Australia, Echinometra maihaei has long been known 
from Lord Howe Island, which is almost as far south as Rottnest. Attention 
should be called to the notable photograph taken by Mr. A. Musgrave of Echino- 
metras at Lord Howe, published by McNeill and Livingstone (1926, pi. XVII). 
We found it very abundant there in all suitable locahties but it is particularly 
noticeable on the reef-flat near Mt. Lidgbird. My field notes say: "4 color forms 
noted; test always blackish; spines green (more or less olive) ; or dull pinkish; or 
gray; or gray abruptly tipped with white, very handsome." In size the specimens 
ranged from very small (8 mm. long) up to adults 65 mm. long by 56 mm. wide 
and 34 mm. high. Comparison of these specimens with those from Rottnest 
Island shows the most surprising similarity in form and tuberculation and in the 
spines. Even in color the difference is not remarkable, the only point worth noting 



410 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

being the absence from the Rottnest series of individuals with white-tipped 
primaries. Of course, this does not necessarily indicate that such individuals are 
not to be found at Rottnest. 

The 20 Echinometras at hand were taken as follows : 
Lord Howe Island: April, 1932. 12 specimens, adult and young. 
Western Australia : Rottnest Island, near Cape Vlaming, February, 1930. 

Swan and Drummond leg. 8 specimens, adult and young. 



CLYPEASTRIDAE 
Clypeaster australasiae 

Echinanthus australasiae Gray, 1851. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 34. 
Clypeaster australasiae H. L. Clark, 1914. Mem. M. C. Z., 46, p. 32. 

A single specimen of this well-known clypeastroid was picked up on the 
beach of the lagoon at Lord Howe Island near the Lidgbird reef-flat. It measures 
125 X 100 X 34 mm. It had evidently been dead for some time but many nearly 
white or almost colorless spines are still attached to the upper surface of the gray 
test, particularly near the posterior end. The peculiar coloration is undoubtedly 
due to bleaching in the sun. 

Clypeaster telurus 
H. L. Cl-^rk, 1914. Rec. West. Austr. Mus., 1, p. 166. 

This fine species appears to be fairly common at Broome, as we took several 
specimens while dredging in and near Lagrange Bay in 1929 and more were 
secured in the same vicinity and near Roebuck Bay in 1932. Of these eight 
specimens, the smallest is 77 x 71 x 9 mm. and the largest is twice as large, 
157 X 145 X 18 mm. The similarity in proportions is striking but none of the 
other specimens is essentially different. The smallest specimen is a purplish 
brown, noticeably different from the yellowish brown of the other specimens; its 
youthful character is also emphasized by the rather definite outlining of the 
coronal plates, due to the absence of spines on and close to the sutures. In life, 
the adult specimens are a bright dark brown. One specimen is deformed by 
the lack of a considerable part of the posterior end of the test on the left side; 
ambulacrum I from peristome to margin is 64 mm. long while V is only 53 mm. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 411 

The injury evidently occurred long ago for the margin is completely healed and 
normal in appearance. 

The type locality for this species is between Fremantle and Geraldton so it 
was not a surprise to dredge a very fine specimen, 122 x 110 mm. in size, in 10-12 
fms. between Rottnest Island and Fremantle. 

hesperaster' gen. nov. 

Test distinctly longer than wide, moderately arched, much as in Clypeaster; 
petals large, with diverging, or distaUy parallel, poriferous areas; oculogenital 
madreporic body very small; genital pore in interambulacrum 5 wanting; peri- 
proct rather large, on the flat oral surface, one-third of the way between margin 
and peristome; peristome larger than periproct, its membrane covered with 
numerous small plates; lantern very large and very flat as in Arachnoides; 
auricles large and well separated ; interior of test very largely filled with countless 
calcareous pillars of varied size as in Clypeaster; trident ate pedicellariae Uke 
those of Clypeaster. 

Genotype, Hesperaster arachnoides sp. uov. 

This remarkably interesting genus is so completely intermediate between 
Clypeaster and Arachnoides that it prevents the segregation of the latter genus 
in a family or even a subfamily of its own, and thus necessitates including it in 
the family Clypeastridae. Hesperaster has the form and general appearance of 
Clypeaster; the position and character of the periproct, the internal structure of 
the test, and the pedicellariae are also as in that genus. On the other hand, the 
small oculogenital madreporic mass with only 4 genital pores, the very widelj^ 
open petals, the plated peristome and the excessively flattened lantern are 
characteristic of Arachnoides. The genus appears to contain two species both 
from the coast of Western AustraUa, but the exact status and relationship of the 
two forms cannot be satisfactorily determined until more and better material is 
available. 

Hesperaster arachnoides- sp. nov. 
Plate 27, fig. 2 

Test a somewhat elongated pentagon with each of the five parts including 
an interambulacrum and half an ambulacrum on each side thereof, more or less 

' tawtpos = western + aarrip = a star; in reference to Western Australia and in conformity with 
Clypeaster. 
^arachnoides, in recognition of its resemblance to the genus with that name. 



412 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

convex marginally and sharply defined on each side by a conspicuous though 
shallow niid-ambulacral groove : where this groove reaches the margin there is a 
more or less evident shallow notch. Test 130 mm. long, 121 mm. wide just back 
of apical system, and 17.5 mm. high a little in front of that system. Upper sur- 
face rather uniformly arched from the thin, almost flattened margin; oral surface 
almost perfectly flat the peristome being but little depressed. Apical system 
65 mm. from anterior margin; center of peristome 60 mm. from the same point. 

Petaloid area about 75 mm. long and equally wide, for the five petals are 
surprisingly similar to each other in size and form, though the posterior pair are a 
trifle curved distally; each petal is 35 mm. long and 23 mm. wide at tip, the inter- 
poriferous area occupying 15 mm.; poriferous areas become very narrow and 
indistinct proximally; ridges between pore-pairs crowded with a series of 15-20 
minute tubercles; oculogenital madreporic mass scarcely 3 mm. across; genital 
pores 4, none being present in the posterior interambulacrum. 

Periproct pyriform, 8 mm. long by 5.5 wide at the rounded distal end, 
covered by minute spine-bearing plates; posterior margin of periproct, 18 mm. 
from test margin. Ambulacral grooves of oral surface deep, straight and con- 
spicuous. Peristome circular, 9 mm. in diameter; peristomal membrane covered 
with numerous crowded small plates which bear no tubercles of any sort. Lantern 
very large (58 mm. across) and very flat (9 mm. high) ; three of the jaws have 
irregular osseous concretions, apparently pathological; in form and appearance 
the lantern is very much like that of Arachnoides; auricles 2.5 mm. high, ex- 
panded to nearly 2.5 mm. across at tip, the two of a pair are 6 mm. apart but 
only 3 mm. separates them from the adjoining pairs. Interior of test outside 
lantern, practically filled with calcareous pillars of diverse sizes, as in Clypeaster. 

Test densely covered with spines; dorsally these are minute miharies, less 
than a millimeter long, thickened at tip; orally there are numerous slender, more 
or less pointed spines, 1.5-3 mm. long, as well as many miliaries; the longest 
spines are around the peristome and reach a length of 4 mm. Pedicellariae very 
few; only two were found; these were tridentates with jaws about half a milli- 
meter long, in form closely resembling those of Clypeaster mrescens Dod. (See 
H. L. Clark, 1914, pi. 123, fig. 29.) 

Color in life "grayish fight brown — quite evidently grayish;" the dry 
specimen has the test distinctly gray but the spines, especially the larger ones, 
tend to be yellow-brown. 

Holotype, M. C. Z. no. 7196, dredged in 10-12 fms. between Rottnest Island 
and Fremantle, W. A., October 19, 1929. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 413 

Besides the superb holotype, we took in another haul of the dredge at prac- 
tically the same place a young individual, measuring 31 mm. long, 30 mm. wide 
and 3.5 mm. high. There are no genital pores and the poriferous zones tend to 
converge distally; otherwise the specimen is surprisingly hke the adult, save in 
color; the upper surface has a distinctly purple tinge, while the oral surface is 
light yellow blotched with a darker shade. The periproct is as far from the 
margin, relatively, as in the adult. 

Fragments of a bleached test of what is e\'idently this same clypeastroid 
were given to me by Professor E. W. Bennett. They were found at Cape Leeuwin, 
W. A., in January, 1930, by Mr. D. L. Serventy. The test must have been some 
100 mm. in length when the animal was living, as the fragments have a radial 
measurement of about 50 mm. 



Hesperaster crassus^ sp. nov. 

Test elMptical in outline but with shght notches at the margin in each am- 
bulacrum, at the tips of the ambulacral grooves, which are faint or wanting 
within the petals but are distally evident, especially in the posterior ambulacra. 
Test notably stout, the coronal plates being .75-1.00 mm. thick and the test 
margin nearly or quite 3 imn. Length about 35 mm. (posterior margin defective), 
width rather more than 30, height 8. Upper surface uniformly arched, highest at 
the apical system, which is 17 mm. from the anterior margin, and thus central in 
position. Oral surface seriously defective but it was nearly fiat or a trifle concave 
and the peristome was at its center and scarcely depressed. Periproct missing. 

Petaloid area about 18 mm. long by 17 mm. wide; petals not quite ahke; 
petals I and V are 8 mm. long by 5 mm. wide, with the interporiferous area at tip, 
3 mm. across; petals II and IV are a trifle longer and shghtly wider; petal III is 
9 mm. long but only 4.5 wide with the interporiferous area scarcely 3 mm. even 
at tip ; ridges between pore-pairs with only 4 or 5 tubercles ; oculogenital madre- 
poric mass, 2 mm. in diameter with 4 large genital pores. 

Lower surface so defective nothing can be said of the periproct but half the 
peristome is present, showing that it was circular, 3 mm. in diameter and central 
in position. As the specimen is subfossil, nothing can be said as to spines, pedicel- 
lariae or color. Enough can be made out of the interior to indicate separate 
auricles and numerous vertical pillars. 

'crassus = heavy, solid, in reference to the relatively thick margin and the stout appearance. 



414 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

Holotype, Western Australian Museum, no. 115-37, taken from a "quarter- 
nary deposit near salt lake on Rottnest Island, W. A." Loaned by Mr. L. Glauert 
of the Western Australian Museum. 





Fig. 35A. Hesperaster crassus sp. nov. x 2. 

Comparison of this specimen with the young individual of the preceding 
species shows at once that they are very distinct and yet are congeneric. The 
differences in form and stoutness of the test, in genital pores, and in the shape of 
the petals are conclusive. The fact that the holotype of crassus is subfossil does 
not indicate that the species is extinct. All of the other echinoids found in this 
deposit are recent species now living on the Western Australian coast and it is 
quite possible that further dredging will bring to light living specimens of Hes- 
peraster crassus. 

Arachnoides placenta 

Echinus placenta LiNNi, 1758. Sys. Nat. ed. X, p. 666. 
Arachnoides placenta Agassiz, 1841. Mon. Ech., Mon. Scut., p. 94. 

This species is very common at Darwin, occurring at all suitable beaches, 
but no specimens of large size were seen. The largest one taken was found at 
Quail Island, and is 63 mm. long by 66 mm. wide. In a series from Lindeman 
Island on the Barrier Reef there is a nearly circular specimen, 96 mm. in diameter, 
much the largest example of placenta, that I have seen or found recorded though 
Mortensen has reported a much larger specimen of the New Zealand species, 
zelandiae (Mortensen, 1921, p. 183). 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 415 

At West Point, Port Darwin, some time was spent watching the movements 
of Ai'achnoides while the tide was out. They were abundant in the \'ery fine 
somewhat muddy sand there, well above low water mark but only where the 
sand was wet. They wander aimlessly just below the surface, leaving quite a 
noticeable trail, approximately the width of the animal. They do not travel with 
any relation to the tide line but twist and turn in their course, even crossing and 
recrossing their own trail. The most active move 2-3 feet during the tide in- 
terval but most individuals do not travel that far. The color of these specimens 
was uniformly gray-purple, most of the purple disappearing in dried specimens. 

Captain Bardwell found this species at Augustus and Champagay Islands 
and sent a dozen fine specimens, 60-75 mm. in diameter. They are relatively 
heavy individuals and their color, as dried, is more or less yellow-brown with a dis- 
tinctly greenish cast. They thus look rather different from the gray Quail Island 
specimens but many individuals from West Point approach them in color. 

Altogether there are 128 specimens at hand from the following places: 
Queensland: Great Barrier Reef, Lindeman Island, sand beach, north side. 

M. Ward leg. et don. 8 specimens. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, West Point, June 25, 1929. 27 specimens, small. 
Darwin, Casuarina Beach, June, 1929. 76 specimens, 

young, many bare. 
Darwin, Quail Island, July 7-9, 1929. 5 specimens. 
Western Australia: Augustus and Champagay Islands, October, 1933. Beresford 

E. Bardwell leg. 12 specimens. 



Arachnoides tenuis' sp. nov. 

Plate 27, figs 3-4 

Test 48 mm. long, 49 mm. wide and only 5 mm. high, rather dehcate;with 
very thin flat margins; test highest just in front of apical system; oral surface 
flat or barely concave. Petals concealed by the dense coat of spines but in a bare 
test of the same size, the petaloid area is 25 mm. in diameter and the approxi- 
mately equal petals are about 10 mm. long, 7.5 mm. wide at tip, with interpori- 
ferous area there 5 mm. across; petal III is distinctly narrower than the others. 
Ambulacral furrows are conspicuous from margin, well into petals. Periproct on 

'(enOTs = slender, delicate, in reference to the character of the test as compared to A. placenta. 



416 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

the dorsal surface, rounded triangular, about 1 mm. in diameter, its distal margin 
a full 3 mm. from test margin. 

Peristome central in position, about 1.5 mm. in diameter; circle of surround- 
ing oral plates very small only G nmi. in diameter. Ambulacral furrows con- 
spicuous but no furrow in the posterior interambulacrum. Only 1 pair of in- 
terambulacral plates on oral surface of test at margin in each interradius, as a 
rule, but in some interambulacra of some specimens, a second plate occurs on one 
side of the area. Spines very numerous and small; tuberculation of test cor- 
respondingly fine. No pedicellariae detected. Color dark-brown with a purpUsh 
cast, the ambulacra darker than the interambulacra both above and below. 

Holotype, M. C. Z., no. 7204, from sand of "creek" bed near mouth of 
Barred Creek, north of Broome, W. A., September, 1929. 

The dark color of this specimen is not typical but all of the few hving adults 
taken, show a similar contrast in color between ambulacra and interambulacra; 
none are as dark as the holotype. The difference between the Arachnoides of 
Broome and those we had collected at Darwin was noted with the first bare tests 
picked up. The conspicuously supramarginal periproct and the much more 
deUcate test made us feel sure it was a different species. But li\ang adult speci- 
mens were very hard to find and specimens of Arachnoides were almost never 
dredged. At some places the dead tests are very abundant and there, hving young 
indi\'iduaLs (30 mm. or less in diameter) were sometimes fairly common, but being 
buried in mud were hard to detect. At Cowan Creek, southwest from Broome, the 
dead tests occur in enormous numbers; for a long distance eastward from the 
mouth of the creek, a bank extends near tide-mark which is a sohd mass of these 
tests, nearly all of moderate or small size ; I calculated there were more than fifty 
milUon tests in that one area! 

It is interesting to note that this western Arachnoides approaches the New 
Zealand species (zeJandiae) in several particulars but differs in the arrangement 
of the oral interambulacral plates; the very small oral ring is also a notable dif- 
ference. From placenta, temiis differs markedly in the position of the periproct, in 
the absence of an oral groove in interambulacrum 5, in the very small oral ring 
and in the much more delicate test. 

The 27 specimens of temds at hand were taken at the following points: 
Western Austraha: Broome, Barred Creek, September, 1929. 1 fine adult. 

Broome, Entrance Point, August, 1929. 3 specimens ; good, 

bare tests. 
Broome, June, 1932, 3 specimens, 1 good adult, 1 small 
bare test, 1 very young. 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 417 

Between Broome and Wallal, dredged in 8 fms., 1930. R. A. 
Bourne leg. 3 bare tests. Loan from Australian Museum. 
Cowan Creek, September, 1929. 7 specimens, yoimg. 
Cowan Creek, September, 1929. 10 specimens, bare tests. 



LAGANIDAE 

Laganum depressum 
Agassiz, 1841. Mon. Ech., Mon. Scut., p. 110. 

We did not meet with this species, but Mr. Melbourne Ward has sent three 
superb specimens from Lindeman Island, on the Barrier Reef. One, 63 mm. long 
but only 52 mm. wide, was taken "on a reef, north side of island." The others, 
56 X 51 and 68 x 62 mm. were found "on the beach, on the south side of the 
island, at low water." All are of the heavy, thick-margined type. In color, they 
are essentially alike, the test being distinctly gray, the poriferous areas of the 
petals very dark, almost black and the dense coat of spines whitish or pale 
yellowish. 

Laganum laganum 

Echinodiscus laganum Leske, 1778. Add. ad Klein., p. 140. 
Lagana laganum DE Blainville, 1830. Diet. Sei. Nat., 60, p. 196. 

This species was not met with in our collecting but Mr. Longman loaned me 
two notable specimens belonging to the Queensland Museum. Unfortunately, 
they have no locahty label and there is no clue as to where they were taken, but 
they are by far the largest specimens as yet known for the species, and hence 
should be put on record. They are bare tests but are not bleached and show more 
or less clearly the dark spots so often seen in this laganid. They measure 63 mm. 
long by 63 wide, 8.5 mm. high, margin 7.5 mm. thick; and 65 x 62 mm. with 
height and margin as in its fellow. 

Peronella lesueuri 

Plate 15, fig. 3 

Laganum lesueuri Agassiz, 1841. Mon. Ech., Mon. Scut., p. 116. 
Peronella lesueuri A. Agassiz, 1872. Rev. Ech., pt. 1, p. 148. 

This is a very common laganid on the Austrahan coast ranging from south- 
ern Queensland, northward and westward to Darwin and Broome, and thence 



418 memoir: museum of comparative zoology 

southward to Fremantle and even to Albany (see Doderlein, 1914, p. 490). Only 
fragments were found in the region of Darwin, but at Broome, lesueuri is very 
frequently taken when dredging. We did not find it along shore. The specimens 
at hand range in size from 11 x 10 mm. to 157 x 136. In life the color is quite 
distinctive ranging from old rose to Indian red; unfortunately the color is fuga- 
cious and is seldom retained in any considerable amount even by carefully 
dried material; such specimens are commonlj^ brown or yellowish of some shade. 
Genital pores are late in appearing and may still be wanting even in specimens 
exceeding 60 mm. in length. There is so much diversity in the form of the test 
that I quite agree with Mortensen (1918, p. 14) regarding the worthlessness of my 
supposed species, Peronella aphnostina (1914, p. 167); it is merely an extreme 
variant. 

Among the subfossil echinoid fragments collected by Mr. Glauert at the 
salt lake on Rottnest Island are a number which undoubtedly represent this 
species. As it lives in considerable numbers in the channel between Rottnest and 
Fremantle, this occurrence as a subfossil in the vicinity is quite natural. 
Aside from fragments, there are 41 specimens of lesueuri at hand: 
Queensland: Great Barrier Reef, Lindemau Island, 1934. M. Ward leg. et don. 

4 specimens, young. 
Northern Territory: Darwin, Quail Island, July 7-9, 1929. Fragments picked up 

on beach. 
Western Austraha : Augustus and Champagay Islands, October, 1933. Beres- 

ford E. BardweU leg. 4 specimens. 
Broome, Pearl Shoal, September 12-14, 1929. 3 specimens, 

half -grown. 
Broome, various places in Roebuck Bay or vicinity, June, 

1932. 15 specimens, adult, young and very young. 
Fremantle, near Garden Island, 3-5 fms., October, 1929. 

10 specimens, adult and young, 4 bare. 
Rottnest Island, salt lake. Quaternary deposits. L. Glauert 
leg. Fragments. 

Peronella orbicularis 

Echinodiscits orbicularis Leske, 1778. Add. ad Klein, p. 144. 
Peronella orbicularis A. Agassiz, 1872. Rev. Ech. pt. 1, p. 149. 

This species is also common on the tropical coasts of Australia and its bare 



CLARK: AUSTRALIAN ECHINODERMS 419 

tests are continually washed up on the beaches. Living specimens are seen less 
frequently but we dredged many at Broome. The nearly circular ambitus, 
presence of genital pores even in specimens 10 mm. long, and the short, wide, 
pointed petals distinguish orbicul