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No. 1.— On a Carboniferous Fish Fauna from the Mansfield 

District, Victoria. 





iH c I b u r n e : 

Pbistku nv Foui) A .Son, Drummovd Strebt, Carltox. . ' 

Januaby, 19()6? . • 


In the year 1888 at tlie request of Sir F. ilcCoy, 
then Director of the National Museum, Mr. George 
Sweet, F.G.S., undertook a cai'eful investigation into the 
rocks of the Manstield district in Yictoria. The great 
majority of the specimens now described were secured Ijv 
Mr. Sweet, who generously placed his time and experience 
at tlie disposal of the Museum — in fact, except for a 
certain amount of assistance in actual manual labour, 
Avhich Mr. Sweet supervised, the collection was almost 
entirely made at the expense of this gentleman, to wliom 
the Museum is much indeljted. On the death of Sir F. 
McCoy it was found that, though the plates which illus- 
trate this memoir had been drawn and printed off under 
his supervision, there was no letterpress referring to them 
other than the very brief notice which was published in 
the Annual Report of the Secretary for Mines in Victoria 
for the year 1889. Under these circumstances they were 
placed in the hands of Dr. A. Smith Woodward, who 
cordially consented to make use of the plates already 
printed off, though it must be understood that Dr. Suiitli 
Woodward is not responsible for these, and that it would 
undoubtedly have been advantageous to him if they could 
have been executed under his own supervision. This, 
however, was not practicable, and the Trustees are in- 
debted to Dr. Smith Woodward for undertaking the 
work under circumstances which could not have been 
altogether satisfactorv to himself. 

Melbourne^ January^ 1906, 


By AiiTinu Smtih "NVoodw aiu), Tifi.l)., F.R.S. 


The fossil fish-vemaiiis collected by ^Er. George Sweet, F.G.S., 
from the rod rocks of the Mansfield IHstrict, are in a very 
imperfect state of preservation. They vary considerably in 
ap})earance according to the nature of the stratum whence they 
were obtained. The specimens in the harder calcareous layers 
retain their original bonv or calcified tissue, which adheres to tlie 
rock and cannot readily be exposed without fracture. The 
remains buried in tlu> more ferruginous and sandy layers have 
left only hollow moulds of their outward shape, or are much 
decayed and thus very difficult to recognise. Moreover, the 
larger fishes are represented only by scattered fragments, while 
the smaller fishes, cvim when a))proximately whole, are more or 
less distorted and disintegrated. 

Under these circumstances, with lew materials for com])arison, 
it is not surprising that the late Sir Frederick McCoy should 
have failed to ])ublish a satisfactory account of the Mansfield 
collection. "With great skill, h(^ selected nearly all the more 
important specimens to be drawn in the series of plates accom- 
panying the present memoir, lie also instructed and supervised 
the artist, so that most of the principal features of the fossils 
werii duly emi)liasiscd. TTis pn'liminary determinations, however, 
published in IS'JO,' are now shown to \ui\n been for the most 
part erroneous; while iiis main conclusions as to the affinities of 

I F. McCoy. "Report on Piilieontology for the Year lss9." Victoria. — Ann. Eep. Sec. 
Mines. 1889 (1S<K)). pp. a.l, 2-1. 



the fisli-faima are proved to l)e without real foundation. Far 
from displayini^ a " Mixture of Lower Devonian, Upper Devon- 
ian, and types related to some of the Calciferous Sandstone 
series," as McCoy supposed, the Mansfield fishes are typically 
and essentially Carhoniferous, as the following technical descrip- 
tions will demonstrate. Of the six genera represented in the 
collection, one {Enpleurogmus) is too imperfectly known for 
discussion; four of the others {Acanthodes, Ctenodus, Strepsodus, 
and Elonichthys) have hitherto been discovered only in tiie 
Permian and Carboniferous of Europe, and in the Carboniferous 
of North America; while the sixth {Gi/raca nth ides) is related to 
an essentially carboniferous fish in the northern hemisphere and 
bears every mark of belonging to the same late Palaeozoic period. 

The genus Gyracanthides is, indeed, a remarkable discovery. 
As correctly recognised by McCoy, it is closely allied to Gyracati- 
thus, which is widely distributed as a characteristic fossil in the 
Carboniferous of the northern hemisphere and seems to be also 
represented by a few small spines in the Lower Devonian. The 
new specimens pi'ove that Gyracanthides is a typical Acantho- 
dian, belonging either to the Dij^lacanthidfe or to a distinct 
family which marks the culmination of the Diplacanth series. 
The enlargement of the jiectoral fins, the reduction and forward 
displacement of the pelvic fins, and the absence or peculiar modi- 
fication of the intermediate spines, are features indicating its 
high degree of specialisation. It occupies the same position 
among Diplacanths as that occupied by the Permian species of 
Acanthodes among the Acanthodians with one dorsal fin.' It 
shows that the direction of specialisation was identical in the two 
great groups of Acanthodians, and was analogous to the speciali- 
sation observable in later geological periods among Selachians and 

The total assemblage of fishes in the red rocks of ^lansfield is 
such as occui's usually in estuarine or freshwater strata in the 
northern hemisphere ; but all the genera are likewise met with 

1. A. S. Woodward, " Catalogue of Fossil Fishes in the British Museum," pt. ii. (1891), 
p. 5. 



occasionally in marine sediments. Their association with numer- 
ous remains of land-plants at Manstield, howevei', is sugc^estive 
at least of estuarine conditi(jns. They do not appear to exhibit 
any essential change as they are traced throut;:h the successive 
beds in the section so carefully worked and described by Mr. 



Order Acanthodii. 

Family GYllACANTlIID^. 

An iini)erfectly definable family of round-bodied and depressed 
Acanthodians, with the pectoral fins very large and the pelvic 
fins advanced far forwards. Dorsal and anal fins much reduced 
and sometimes apparently without spines. 

This family has hitherto been known only by detached 2>aired 
fin-spines, other paired spines or plates, and small dermal 
tubercles, the majority belonging to one genus, (Ji/racdiilhits of 
Agassi/,. The s])ecimens of the new genus Gyrcicaiilliidcs now 
described, show for the first time the depressed, rounded form of 
tli(- trunk and the relative position of the fins. 

(jienus GvKACANTiiiDEs, ^IcCoy. 

[Ann. Kep. Sec. Mines, Victoria, 1889 (1890), p. 21.] 

Body short and broad. Teeth minute or absent ; no cireum- 
orbital plates. Both pectoral and pelvic fins with spines, the 
latter about half as large as the former. Pectoral fin-spines 
much compressed from above downwards, arched lioiu side to 
side; their base of insertion extensive, with tbe internal cavity 
open for a considerable length posteriorly ; the longitudinal mesial 
line of their narrow anterior face defined by the superficial 

1 Q. Sweet, " On the Discovery of FoDsil Fish in the Old Red Sandstone Kocks of the 
Mansfield District."— Proc. Roy. Soc.. Victoria, n.s., vol. ii., (189(1), pp. 1-1 1, pl«. l-:t. 



oi'namont, which consists of parallel, ohiiquc, transverse ridges, 
divcvgini^ in pairs from this line ovei- the flattened upper and 
lower faces and iiiclincHl townrds th(^ insci-tcd extnnnity ; tlieir 
narrow posterior face impressed l)y ;i median longitudinal groove 
l)ut without denticles. Pelvic fin-spines ornamented like the 
pectorals, hut i-cmnded in transverse section at the hase and 
nearly straight. Posterior dorsal and anal fins relatively .small, 
with a hroad, laterally-compressed anterior spine, which is 
ornamented with longitudinal tuherculated ridges ; caudal fin 
slightly forked. Two pairs of hollow, hroad, ti'iangular, free 
spines, of fibrous texture, fixed near the insertion of the pectoral 

This fish agrees with QyracanthuH in the oi-namentation of its 
pectoral fin-spines and the natvu-e of its free spines; hut there is 
as yet no evidence that the last-mentioned genus possessed pelvic 
fin-spines or any median fin-spiue. It may also he added that 
the pectoral fin-spines of Gyracanl hides hitherto discovered do 
not exhibit any worn surfaces, while the corresponding spines of 
Gyracanthns are often much al;)raded and destroyed at the tip. 

Gyracanthides mtjrrati, sp. nov. Plates I, II, III, lA"; 
Plate V, figs. 1, 2 ; Text-figures 1, 2. 

1890. Bhytidaspis murroyi, F. McCoy. Loc. cit. p. 23 
(name only). 

1890. Chimropalus langtrel, E. McCoy. Loc. cit. p. 2i 
(name only) . 

Type. — Head and abdominal region of fish showing pectoral 
spines (partly shoAvn in PL I, fig. 1). 

Siiecific Characlers. — The type species, usually attaining a 
length of about 0.5 m., sometimes perhaj)s much larger, with the 
pectoral fin-spines extending nearly half of this length. AVidth 
between the insertion of the pectoral fin-spines probably exceed- 
ing the length of the head and In-anchial region in front of them ; 
the same measurement slightly more than twice as great as the 
width between the insertion of the pelvic fin-spines, of which the 

Mem. Nat. Mus. 
Melbourne. 1. 

Fif;. 1. -Gyriuaiilhides murrayi, A. S. Wooilw.; restored druwiiif; nf 
fossil, iniK-li reduced, head and alHlmiiinal rei;i(iii seen tVoin 1)el(i\v, tail 
twisted Id e.xliiliit side-view. 


distal ends do nut appear to have extended I'mtlier haeU than the 
tips of the pectoral spines. nidi;ed ornament of both paired 
spines tiiherculated ; the nmnl)er of riducs cut I)y a eross-section 
of a fuil-i^rown pectoral liii-spiiic jiisl helijiul its i)ase of insertion 
ahoiit 13 to 15 on eacli face. 

General Form. — The specimens of the head and al)doniiiial 
region of this species are always exposed either from above or 
below, and ])rove that the i^reater part of the body was originally 
rounded or depressed in transverse section. The only known 
example of the hinder part of the eaudal region (PI. V, fig. 1) is 
displayed in side-view, and indicates that this part was more 
laterally compressed. I'hr type-specimen seems to show the 
complete extent and shape of the head and branchial region, 
while this and another imperfect fossil (PI. I, iig. 7), with the 
caudal region just nuMitioiied, appear to justify the sp(!eitic 
diagnosis, whicli is illiislrated liy the accompanying restored 
sketch (text-tig. 1). 

JIfml. — So far as ])reserved in the typ<'-specimen, the head 
exhibits nothing but the usual close aianour of dermal tubercles, 
without any traces of teeth or circumorbital plates. It also lacks 
indications of branchial arches. The cartilage of the endoskeleton 
cannot have been sufficiently w^ell calcified for preservation. 

Pectoral Fin-spine. — The pain'd fins an; n^presented in the 
fossils solely by their anterior spines, which are always imperfect 
and often preserved only in the form of natural moulds or 
impressions. Owing to its vertieally-eompressed shape the 
pectoral tin-spine is invariably exposed either from above or 
below, and it is shown on both sides of the type-s))eeimen, of 
whicii the left portion is seen in PI. I, fig. 1 (c). Parts of this 
spine are also seen on both sides of the fo.ssil in PI. T, fig. 7 (b), 
I'l. IK Iig. 2 (//), and I'l. IJ f, Iig. 1. More satisfactory ex- 
amples for description are drawn in PI. 11, tig. 1 (c) and PI. IV. 
As indicated by the two specimens last mentioned, the base of 
insertion is much exte'nded, its extent being probably greater 
than one-third of the totjil hmgth of the spine; but this base is 
not very deep, and it a|)pears to have been only (|uite slightly 
produced forwards in front of the ex.sertcd and ornamented 


portion. The width of the exserted portion gradually increases 
to its luMxiiuuiii opjxisitc the hinder part of the inserted l)ase, and 
then the s])iii(^ i^radiially tapers as it curves into the loni^ and 
slender extremity, which is (observable through a thin film of 
intractable matrix in the fossil represented in PI. Ill, fig. 1. 
There is no evidence of the shortening of the spine by we<ir 
during life, such as occurs commonly in Gyracanthus. The 
vertical compression of the spine is well seen in a fragment of the 
type-specimen, which indicates that just at the hinder end of the 
inserted base the maximum vertical diameter equals nearly one- 
third of the width, while the dorsal and ventral faces are about 
equally flattened. These two faces are also similar in their 
ornamentation, which consists of oblique ridges, all surmounted 
vritb a regular row of smooth, rounded tubercles (PI. IV, fig. \d), 
and separated by shallow, smooth grooves, whicli are wider than 
the ridges themselves. All the ridges are complete from edge to 
edge of the spine, and thirteen to fifteen of them are cut by a 
transverse section at the hinder end of the base. Their direction 
tends to become more and more longitudinal as they are traced 
from the base towards the apex of the spine, and they may have 
been absent on the terminal portion. The anterior margin of the 
spine (PI. IV, fig. \b) is compressed to a sharp edge, along which 
the several ridges of the dorsal and ventral faces meet exactly in 
pairs. The jaosterior margin (PI. IV, fig. \c) is a narrow smooth 
area impressed by a deep longitudinal groove, which is repre- 
sented by a ridge of sandstone in the fossil-aists (PL II, figs. 2a, 
2e). It is evident that this groove was not quite median or 
bilaterally symmetrical. Its borders are not provided with any 
denticles. The calcified tissue of the spine is rather coarse, 
longitudinal vascular canals being visible to the naked eye, and 
imparting to longitudinal sections (PI. Ill, fig. 16) a fibrous 
appearance. The internal cavity is large, and a remnant of it 
seems to extend to the apex of the sj)ine. 

Anterior Free Pectoral Spine. — -There is no clear evidence of 
fin-supports or a pectoral arch at the base of the pectoral fin- 
spines ; but there are two pairs of wide, hollow, triangular spines, 
which may have projected freely from the ventral asjject of the 



body ill a manner not unusual amonof Acanthodians. Remains 
of the anterior pair of tliese peculiar spines are observable on 
both sides of the type-speciinen just in front of the l)ase of the 
pectoral tin-s])ine (one shown at « in PI. I, fi<r. ]). An internal 
cast of the correspondiug spine in a second specimen is shown in 
I'l. I, figs. 7 («), To. An imprint of one face evidently of the 
same spine, scnnewhat displaced, is also seen in I'l. ill, tii.^. 1 
(c); and variously imperfect detached spoeimens are represented 
in PI. I, ligs. 2-6. 'ilie structure is elearly a thin-walled, hollow, 
luterally-coinpressed cone, the lengtli of its base-line e([ualling 
twice its height. Part of its calcified tissue is actually preserved 
ill the type-specimen and in the original of 1*1. T, iig. 4, 
exhibiting a very ))orous texture (see especially I'l. 1, tigs, to, 
\fj) ; and impressions are marked by th(; apjiearance of fibres 
radiating from the apex, crossed by certain lines of growth which 
are concentric witli the basal edge. There are traces of a coarse 
tuliercular ornament at the ajiex of the best-preserved spine in 
the type-specimen ; and this ornament is shown to be confined 
to one face of the spine in the detached exainjile of which 
one lateral impression is represented in PI. I, fig. 2. The 
ornament consists of large, smooth tubercles arranged in ten 
to fourteen rows, which radiate from the ajiex and terminate 
at a short distance from the base of the spine, leaving a 
smooth area which was evidently the part originally inserted in 
the soft tissues, 'i'lic tiibercules increase in size towards the base 
of the spine, where they sometimes subdivide. As shown by 
various impressions (PI. T, figs. 2, 3, 5), this ornamented face bears 
much resemblance to a dental plate of the Dipnoan fish, D/p/enis; 
but even when the rest of the sjiine is not seen, the fossil is 
distinguished from a Dijinoan dental plate by its sharply-defined 
smooth area beyond the termination of the radiating ridges. The 
base-line of this spine seems to have been more or less coincident 
with the long axis of the trunk, while its apex, as crushed in the 
best-preserved fossils, is turned outwards. 

Poatenor Free Pectoral Spine. — The spine just described is 
not very large, the length of its base-line e(|iialling only one-and- 
a-half times the inaximuni width of the pectoral fin-spine. The 

L' J 


fivM! spiiuis of the second pair arc mucli lai'i^or and more elevated, 
tlie basal (!xt(!nt of cacli being about one-and-a-lialt times as 
great as that of th(i anterior spine, while the height somewliat 
exceeds this tneasiircincnt. Parts of bolb of these lari;e spines 
are seen in the tyixvspecimen, that of one side l)eing represented 
solely by its ap('X, while that of the otlu>r sidi; is better displayed 
in several broken surfaces. Another good example is well shown 
in PI. II, fig. 1, and lacks only the apex. A more imperfect 
specimen is seen near tin; front of the fossil represented in PI. V, 
fig. 1. This spine is situated opposite and just on the inner side 
of the inserted part of the pectoral flu-spine. Like the smaller 
spine in front, it is a thin-walled, liollow, laterally-compressed 
cone, with its base-line \non'. or less coincident with the long axis 
of the trunk, that is, parallel with the liasal edge of the fin-sjjine. 
Its outer side (Pi. LL, fig. la) is gently convex, with a sharply- 
bevelled area in front (restMubling that of the corresponding spine in 
Gyj'acanthns and Oracanthus^) ; its inner side is flattened or even 
slightly concave, and seems to be emarginate or excavated at its 
basal edge ; its posterior aspect (PI. II, flg. \h) indicates the 
amount of the lateral compression. Remains of the actual 
tissue of th(! spine in the type-specimen show that it was very 
porous, with an appearance of flbres radiating fi-om the apex 
towards the irregularly-crimped base (shown in internal cast in 
PL II, flg. \a). An iuipression of the outer face in PL II, fig. 
1 («) reveals a close ornament of small, rounded tubercles, not 
clearly arranged along the radiating structural lines, which are 
here very conspicuous. These tubercles (PL II, flg. le) are not 
noticeable in any other specimen, probably on account of the 
state of preservation. They might even be marks of the shagreen 
granules of a piece of skin pressed against the spine in the fossil, 
like the tubercular impressions covering the hase of the adjoining 
pectoral fln-spine ; but they are more probably true ornament, 
for similar tubercles occur on the corresponding spines both of 

1 J. W. Davis, "On the Fossil Fishes of the Carboniferous Limestone Series of Great 
Britain."— Trans. Roy. Dublin Soo. [2], vol. i. (1883), p. 529, pi. Ixiii., fig. 1. 



Gi/racaiithiis^ and Or acanthus-. Tlie narrow-ovoid basal opening 
of the large internal cavity of this spine is closed in 1 wo specimens 
by a separate basal plate, which seems to be in its natural 
])osition. This plate is well shown in the drawing of one side of 
the type-sjx'cimcn (PI. I, fig. Ih), and again in PI. II, fig. Ic. 
It is quite as thin as the conical wall of the spine itself, and is 
clearly a separate clement, calcifi(>(l from its centre, from which 
structural lines radiate outwards. It exhibits ti'aces of a tuber- 
cular ornament or of overlying shagn^en-granules in both 
specimens. Its true nature is thus very diflicult to understand, 
and it may even have been somewhat displaced in the fossils. 

Pelvic Fin-spine. — The spines of the ])elvic fins are very 
little more than half as large as those of the pectoral pair, while 
they are much more roinuUul in transverse section and straighter 
than the latter. The pelvic fins themselves are advanced so far 
forwards that the points of tlicir spines scarcely extend backwards 
beyond those of the pectoral spines. Only one displaced pelvic 
spine is partly seen in an accidental fracture of the ^yp6- 
specimen, but the relative position of the pair is indicated 
in PI. I, fig. 7 {c, &), PI. II, fig. 2 {a), PI. Ill, fig. 1 {b), 
and PI. \, fig. 1. In the first two figured examples just 
mentioned, each spine is represented solely by a natural mould of 
its internal cavity with scarcely any impression of the ornamented 
exterior face. In the original of PI. Ill, fig. 1, however, where 
the spines are somewhat crushed together, fragments of their 
actual ti.ssue are preserved, and impressions of their basal ends 
show the characteristic ornament forming jiarallel V-shaped 
ridges on tiie rounded lower face. In tlu; original of PI. V, fig. 
1, there is also the ba.sal end of the spine itself {a). These 
specimens, and the impression of one side of a detached example 
(text-fig. 2), show that tlu^ pelvic fin-spine was ornamented like 
the pectoral fin-spine, with contiiuious, tubereulated ridges, which 
are separated by comparatively wide, smooth grooves. The 
ridges tend to a more and more longitudinal direction as they ai'e 

1 A. S. Woodward, " Catal. Foss. Pishes, B.M.," pt. ii. (1891), p. 1 H). 

2 J. W. Unvis, loc. cit. 



^ -<'--2i'>i'!i ••V"^>•"^'''^"'VJV•;•^■;■►v■•'!.■^'-•'■:■ 

Fig. 2. — Gyracauthides inurmyi, A. S. Woodw.; pelvic fin-spine, sifle-view, iiat. size. 

traced from the base towards the slender apex of the spine, where 
there is an indication of a worn snrface. The base of insertion is 
very extensive, as usual, its length probably equalling one-half 
the total length of the spine. One fine example apparently of 
this spine, obtained by Mr. Sweet from Bed W in the Mansfield 
section, is nearly twice as large as the original of text-fig. 2. Its 
outer ornamented face is broken away on the exposed side, but 
the tissue of the spine is sufficiently well preserved for micro- 
scopical examination. It exhibits a remarkably coarse vascular 
structure, identical with that described by Agassiz in Gijra- 

Iledian Fins. — The specimen represented in PI. V, fiij. 1, is 
vei'y im2)erfect anteriorly, showing only a hollow mould of parts 
of the pectoral fin-spines, one displaced large free pectoral spine, 
and part of one of the pelvic fin-spines ; but it is important as 
displaying the caudal region of the fish, with traces of the median 
fins. This fossil seems to have been selected by McCoy {loc. cit., 
p. 24) as the type of a species which he intended to describe 
under the name of Chiraropcdus langtrei ; but the paired spines 
already mentioned prove that it really belongs to the Gyracan- 
thides now under consideration. As shown bv the fisjure. there 
is part of a fin-sjiine above the dorsal border of the trunk (at c) 
opposite the insertion of the pelvic fin-spine. In another more 
fragmentary specimen (PI. V, fig. 2) there is also a small spine, 
chiefly shown by the mould of its internal cavity (i) nearly 
opposite a piece of spine (a) which seems to represent the pelvic 
fin-spine. The first exarai^le might j)Ossibly be the tip of one of 

1 L. Agassiz, "Ee<;h, Poiss. Foss.," vol. iii. (1843), p. 214, pi. A, fig. 6. 



the pectoral fin-spines, but the second specimen cannot be 
explained in this manner. It is thus probable that there was a 
small anterior dorsal fin, with a spine, situated opposite to the 
insertion of the pair of pelvic fins. A posterior dorsal fin, opposed 
to the space between the jjclvic and anal fins, is more satisfac- 
torily preserved (I'l. V, fig. 1). Its slender anterior spine is 
nearly straight, and shown in a broken longitudinal section, which 
exposes the large internal cavity and appears to suggest that it 
bore an external coarse tuberevdar ornament of some kind. The 
fin itself is covered with dermal tubercles like those of the trunk. 
The length of its base-line seems to have slightly exceeded the 
height of its anterior spine, which can scarcely have equalled less 
than two-thirds the depth of the trunk at its insertion. The 
anal fin-spine, inserted opposite the hinder end of th(^ posterior 
dorsal fin, is not much more than half as long as the dorsal fin- 
.spine just described ; l)ut it is similar in character, with a very 
large central cavity. Its outer face is not seen in I'l. V, fig. 1, 
but an impression of it on the counterpart of the specimen repre- 
sented in PI. I, fig. 7 (see fig. Id) exhibits an external ornament 
of a few large, tuberculated ridges, which are disposed longitudi- 
nally parallel with the hinder border and successively terminating 
at the front edge. One of the two specimens showing the anal 
fin-spine must be distorted, for in PI. I., fig. 7, this spine {e) is 
observed quite near the ai)ex of tlie pelvic fin-spines, while in PI. 
V, fig. 1, it is further back (probably its natural position). The 
very stout caudal fin (PI. V, fig. 1) is of the usual Acanthodian 
type, with no clear line of demarcation in the fossil between the 
upper caudal lobe and the dermal expansion beneath it. 

Dermal Tubercles. — Both head and trunk are enveloped 
in a close and uniform covering of calcified dermal tubercles, 
which are not enlarged or modified even along the course of the 
lateral line. They are rhombic, usually almost equilateral in 
shape, and closely pressed together. Their inn(;r face, seen on 
parts of the type-specimen, is flattened or even slightly concave, 
and it is pierced in the middle of the oi)ening of a small, persis- 
tent pulp-cavity (PI. I, fig. ]«). Tiieir outer face is raised in 
the middle into a rounded boss, which sometimes exhibits a 



feeble radiating crimping round the base. This is best shown in 
the original of PI. II, fig, 2 (enlarged in fig. 2c), but is also 
observable in impression in other specimens from which the 
diagrams, PI. I, fig. 76 and PI. II, fig. If, have been made. 
Less accurate drawings are given in PI. V, figs, lb, 2«. The 
imperfect fossil represented in PI. \1. also seems to be an 
impression of a fragment of this dermal armour, but the drawing 
exaggerates the crimping of the tubercles and gives a false 
aj^pearance of lines bounding polygonal tesserije. This specimen 
may possibly have been interpreted Ijy McCoy as part of the 
shield of bis supposed Cephalaspidian, Hhi/tidaspis mnri'ayi. 

Obso-vations. — This species is named in honour of Mr. 
Reginald Murray, who discovered the first evidence of it at 
Mansfield many years ago. Most of the remains of Gyracan- 
thides in the collection evidently belong to it, though some 
fragments may perhaps represent other species which cannot yet 
be distinguished. 


Genus Acanthodes, Agassiz. 

[Regb. Poiss. Foss., vol. ii., pt. i., 1833, p. 19.] 

A typical slender si)ecies of this genus is represented in the 
Mansfield collection by an imj^erfect trunk and other fragments. 
It evidently belongs to the group which is characteristic of the 
Carboniferous and Permian formations in the northern 

Acanthodes australis, sp. nov. Plate Y, fig. 3; Plate VII, 

fig. 1. 

Type. — Caudal region of fish (PI. VII, fig. 1). 

Specific Characters. — A very slender species probably attain- 
ing a length of not less than 0.3 m. Anal fin-s23iue much larger 
than the dorsal fiu-sjjine, which is more curved and inserted 
further back than the former. Depth of hinder end of caudal 



pedicle somewhat exceedinsj; oiie-tliird ol' tlie leiiytli between the 
anal lin-spine and the lower lobe of the caudal fin. Scjilcs very 
small, etjuiiateral, flat and smooth. 

Description of Specimens. — The type-specnnen, of which the 
1,'i-eater part is shown in PI. VII, iiij. 1, is associated with the 
imperfect trunk of a similar lish on a small block of sandstone 
which has unfortunately been weathered. The extreme slendcr- 
ness of the trunk and the elongation of the upper caudal 
lobe are indicated ; but the oiilv remains of fins are fragments 
of the dorsal, anal and caudal. The dorsal tin-spine, 
just in front of a cnick in the fossil, is clearly nuich smaller, 
more curved, and more remote than the anal fin-spine, 
which is incomplete distally. IJotli these spines are broken, and 
the anal spine (enlarged in fig. 1/;) dis])lays its extensive internal 
cavity, 'i'he caudal fin (enlarged in fig. \a) seems to be nearly 
complete in the u])per lobe, but lacks the greater part of the 
lower lobe. A larger specimen of the tail (PI. V, fig. 3) is 
similarly imperfect. The very small scales are nearly or quite 
square, and most of them are exposed from the inner face, whicli 
exhibits its usual convexity (PI. VII, figs. Ic, \d). In one part 
of the fossil theii' outer face is distinctly shown to be flat and 
smooth (PI. VII, tig. \e). On the membranous expansion of 
the caudal fin they become minute (PI. V, fig. 3rt). In the 
original of PI. V, fig. 8, the lateral line can be traced to the 
basal portion of the upper caudal lobe, and is only marked by a 
ridge-like displacement, not by an enlargement of the scales. 

Genus Eupleurogmus, McCoy. 
[Ann. Rep. Sec. Mines, Victoria, 1889 (1890), p. 24.] 

An indeliiuible large Acanthodian with smooth scales, of 
which two series are deepened and meet chevron-wise along the 
course of the lateral line. 

The peculiar enlargement of the scales of the lateral line 
chai-acterising this genus, has only been observed hitherto in 
cert^'iin primitive si)ecies of Diplac;inthida3 from the Lower Old 
lied Sandstone of Scotland, deseriljed under the generic name of 



EuthucanthHs hy Powrio^ The resomljlance, however, does not 
necessarily iniply any close affinity. The fins must be dis- 
covered before the precise systematic position of this fish can lie 

EurLEUUOGMUS CHESS vvELLi, McCoy. Plate V., fi<^. 4. 

1890. Euj)leu7'ogmus cressioelli, F. McCoy. Loc. cit., p. 24-. 

Type. — Portion of squamation (PI. V, fig. 4-). 

Desc7'iptio)i of Specimen. — As shown by the figure, which is 
of the natural size, this must have been a rather large 
Acanthodian ; but it is only known by scattered remains of the 
scales and a fractured fin-spine of one individual. Many of the 
scales of the flank are in undisturbed order and exhibit their 
regular arrangement. They are square and apparently solid, 
with a smooth outer face. Immediately above and below the 
course of the lateral line, two of them are fused into an elongated 
scale ; the upper fusion being of scales in contiguous transverse 
series, while the lower fusion affects two scales of one and the 
same series, the result being that tbe enlarged scales are disposed 
chevron-wise, pointing forwards. At the lower left-hand corner 
of the figure the tip of a fin-spine is represented. The adjoining 
part of the fossil exhibits the remainder of this sjiine, which is 
only seen in longitudinal section. It is as stout and straight as 
some of the fin-spines of the Lower Devonian Euthacanthus, and 
has a large internal cavity. 

Subclass DIPNOI. 

Order Sirenoidei. 


Genus Ctenodus, Agassiz. 

[Reyh. Poiss. Foss., vol. iii., 1838, p. 137.] 

The characteristic cranial roof and scales of this typically 
Permo-Carboniferous genus occiu- in the collection from Mans- 
field, and permit its identification Avitli certainty. 

1 J. Powrie, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xx. (lS6-i), p. 425. 



Ctenodus breviceps, sp. nov. Plate VTTT, fit;'. 12; Toxt-fii;-. 3. 

Type. — Hinder ])art ol" cranial roof ('rcxt-lii;'. 3). 

Specific C/iuracters. — Median occipital plate; more than two- 
thirds as broad as long, and its extreme lenu;th about ecpialling 
that of the pair of plates innnediately in Front. 

Cranial Roof. — The roofing bones ol" the hinder hall' of the 
skull are partly preserved in the typ(;-specinien (Text-tig. 3), 
l)artly shown as an impression of their outer face on the matrix. 
The impression proves that they were not externally ornamented, 
their only markings being the usual fine radiating liiu;s of growth, 
which cause the sutures between the various elements to be 
plainly visible. The median occi])ital ])late (O) is shaped as in 
the typical Cfeiiodns ci'isfa/ii.s \'vn]\\ tlic jjuglish Coal Measures,' 
but differs in being rather broader in proportion to its length. 
The posterior median pair of j)lates (1) also agree with those; of 
the type-species except that they are relatively broader ; ajid 
there seems to have Ixvii the usual small median plate (O') 
between their divergent anterior ends. There is nothing worthy of 
remark concerning the lateral paired plates (II, III) so far as they 
are preserved, except that they likewise proove the skull to have 
been shorter and broader than in the type-species just mentioned. 

Fig. .3. — Cttnodus breviceps, A. S. Wofxlw.; part of occipital cm! of ci-iinial roof, 

three-quarters nat. size. O, median occipittil plate ; O', position of small median 

plate further forwards; T., II., III., paired plati-a. 

) A. S. Woodward, " Catal. Fobs. Fishes B.M.," pt. ii. (1891), p. 252, pi. iv., fiff. 1. 



Vertehrcd Axis. — One frat^mont of the abdominal rei^ion of a 
Dipiinan large enough to have bclongcfl to the head just described, 
exhibits a few very stout, curved ribs like those of the typical 
Ctenodus and Sacfenodufi. These ribs are round in section, with 
the central cavity which is always observable in the fossilised 
state. Two portions of a corresponding type of caudal region 
occur, one being an obscure fragment represented in PI. VIII, 
fig. 12, the other a tolerably well-preserved extremity of the tail. 
These specimens demonstrate the absence of vertel)ral centra, and 
exhibit stout, mesially-constricted, neural and haemal arches and 
fin-supports, which are only superficially calcified. The tail is 
clearly diphycercal. 

Sqiinmation. — -The portion of abdominal region already men- 
tioned exhibits impressions of large, thin scales, resembling those 
of Cfenodus found in the English Coal Measures.^ The charac- 
teristic shape, thinness, and flexibility of these scales are still 
better seen in another piece of limestone, which contiiins some 
fragments of them. They display the usual very fine, radiating 
structural lines, which are crossed by the coarser and more 
irregular concentric lines of gi'owth, without any enamel or 


Order Crossopterygii. 


Genus Strepsodus, Young. 

[Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxii, 1866, p. 602.] 

Numerous remains of a large Rhizodont fish are contained in 
the coU'ction, and among them it is easy to recognise the scales 
and teeth of a new species of Strepsodus. This genus has 
hitherto been found only in the Carboniferous of the northern 

1 Hancock and Atthey, Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and Durham, vol. iv. (1872), p. 398, 
pi. xiii, fig. 3 ; p. 417, pi. xvi. 



Strepsodus decipiens, sp. nov. Plate VTI., fii^s. 2, 3 ; Plate 

VIII, tigs. 1-11. 

Ti/pe.— Scales (PI. VIII, fig. 10). 

Specific characters. — Scales with the radiating ridges and 
furrows on the exposed portion more numerous than in the 
European Carboniferous species ; the small pits and tubercles on 
the attached face also apparently more numerous than in the 
latter. Teeth [from same horizon as scales and presumably of 
same species] rather large, stout, and nearly or quite smooth, 
with the apex a little incurved but not sigmoidally bent. 

Scales. — The scales exhibit tlie usual variations in form, 
according to their original i)osition on the trunk of the fish, and 
are all more or less round or oval, with a slight truncation at the 
anterior border. Most of them are preserved in a partially 
decayed condition, and they then exhibit their internal structure, 
as represented in PI. VIII, figs. 5, 6, 6a, 7, 10, 11. The 
exposed sector, seen in the lower half of these figures, is not very 
wide. Its tissue is coarser than that of the rest of the scale, 
consisting of stout radiating rods, which are closely ajjposed and 
crossed by a few feeble strands concentric with the border. The 
other part of the scale consists of very numerous radiating and 
concentric strands of tissue of about equal fineness. The differ- 
ence between the two structures is well shown in the magnified 
drawing, fig. 6«, where a portion of the covered area is seen to 
the left, a larger portion of the exposed sector to the right. The 
outer face of the scale is rarely observable, even as an impression 
on the rock; but an imperfect scale associated with the original 
of fig. 10 (the type specimen) seems to show that each radiating 
rod of the exposed sector was surmounted by a delicate supei'- 
ficial ridge, the total number of ornamental radiating ridges being 
thus eonsiderably more than in any scale of Slrepsodiis hitherto 
described. AVlien a complete view of an imj)ression of the inner 
face is obtained (as in the group represented in fig. 9), there is 
clear evidence of the large, antero-posteriorly elongated tubercle 
so characteristic of the middle of the scale in this and some allied 
genera. Occasionally, ivs in the piece of undisturbed squamation 



impressed on the original of fig. 8, the hinder sector of the inner 
face is shown to have heen covered hy fine pittings and tul)f!rcles, 
whicli are apparently more numerous than in the known scales of 
Slrepsodus. The slime-canal of the lateral line must have been 
large, as shown by its mould (fig. 10). 

Jaws and Teeth. — Tin; collection includes only two portions of 
mandible and a few^ imperfect teeth, which arc; noteworthy as 
being large compared with the scales just described. Tlie height 
of the largest laniary tooth is 0.05 m., while the maximum dia- 
meter of the largest scale is O.OiS m. The remains are sufii- 
ciently well preserved to exhibit the characteristic form and 
structure of a Rhizodont mandible, and the larger of the two 
specimens is represented from the outer aspect in PI. VIII., fig. 1. 
The dentary bone is a thin lamina with traces of an external tuber- 
cular ornament. Its oral margin bears a single regular series 
of small conical teeth, which are very slightly compressed antero- 
posteriorly and are scarcely incurved at the apex. These teeth 
are typically Rhizodont, with folded base and small pulp-cavity. 
Evidence of the shuttle-shaped bones bearing the laniary teeth is 
seen in both specimens ; and one of these elements bearing two 
teeth (namely, one laniary wdth the successor by its side) is 
imperfectly represented near the front end of PI. VIII, fig. 1. 
Like the smaller teeth the laniaries are not sigmoidally bent, but 
only incurved at the apex. They are rather stout, and when 
view'ed in longitudinal section (figs. \a, 2, 3) they exhibit the 
usual pidp-cavity with simjjle foldings of the wall at the base. 
Transverse thin sections of the teeth, wiien magnified, show clearly 
the simple character of the basal folds (fig. 4) and the absence of 
all folding in the upper part where the pulp-cavity still persists 
(fig. 4c). The ordinary thin vertical splenial lamina occiu-s on 
the inner face of the mandible. 

Jugular Plates. — There are several remains of the character- 
istic paired jugular plates of a large Crossopterygiau fish, and the 
two best specimens are shown in PI. VII, figs. 2, 3, They also 
probably belong to Strepsodus decipiens, since it is the only large 
Crossopterygiau identifiable in the collection from Mansfield. 
The original of PI. VII, fig. 2, is an impression of the inner face 



of a plate, which must have been about three times as hmi;' as 
broad, with sharply rounded ends and a feebly crimped or folded 
edi^e. Tlie orij^inal of tig. 3 is an imperfect ferruginous fossil, 
evidently incomplete at one end and at one lateral margin. A 
third s[)ecimen shows the actual spongy tissue of the bony plate, 
with indications of an irregular tubercular ornanient on the outer 
face. It seems likely that these specimens were misinterpreted 
by McCoy, and were intended for description under the name of 
Pteraspis ^ uKDisfiehleiisis {Joe. cif., p. 24). 

Appeudicnhir Skeleton. — In addition to the Rhizodont frag- 
ments just described, there is a typical small clavicle, bearing an 
external ornament of radiating ruga; and tubercles. There are 
also three stout, hour-glass-shaped internal bones, exactly resem- 
blini; the basal supi)orts of the paired, dorsal, and anal fins in the 
Rhizodonts and their allies. 

Order Actinopterygii. 


Genus Elonichthts, Giebel. 

[Fauna dcr Vorwelt, Fische, 1848, p. 249.] 

Syn. Cosmoleijiden, V. ^[cCoy, loc. cil., lyUO, p. 2t (name only). 
All the remains of Palieoniscidae from Mansfield appear to 
belong to this genus, which is found both in Europe and North 
America, and ranges from th(> Lower Carboniferous to the Lower 

Eloniciithys swketi, sp. nov. Plate IX, figs. 1-3; Plate X. 

1890. Cosmolepiden sn-eeti, F. ^fcCoy, loc. cil., ]). 2 !• (name only). 

Type. — Imperfect lish, the greater portion of the trunk in 
counterpart (PI IX, tig. 1 ; Pi. X, fig. 1). 

Specific Characlers. — A slender species attaining a length of 
at least 0.3 m., probably sometimes larg(U-. Length of hea<l with 

[19] aA 


opercular apparatus equallinf^ nearly one-quarter of the total 
length of the fish and somewliat exceeding tlie maximum depth 
of th(! trunk ; caudal pedicle slender, less than half as deep as 
the abdominal region. Distance between the origin of the paired 
fins equal to that between the origin of the anal and caudal fins ; 
dorsal completely in advance of anal fin. External ornament 
chiefly of strige ; teeth stout. Principal scales of flank not 
deeper than broad, with straight upper and lower edges ; outer 
face of all the scales completely ornamented with fine, somewhat 
oblique ridges, which terminate in the delicate serrations of the 
posterior border ; the ridges on the flank-scales nearly parallel, 
though often bifurcating and intercalated ; those on the lower 
half of the narrow ventral scales curved upwards at the front 
border, and most of them terminating behind at the diagonal 
which joins the antero-sujierior and postero-infevior angles. 

General Form. — The type-specimen is distorted in the ventral 
part of the abdominal region and incomplete dorsally ; but the 
original outline of the fish would probably be almost as repre- 
sented in the diagrammatic sketch, PI. IX, fig. 3. The tail is 
shown to be inequilobate, as usual in EJonicMhys. 

Head. — Although the form and proportions of the head are 
indicated in the type-specimen, its details are obscure and only in 
part traceable. The greater portion of the cranial roof is shown 
as an internal cast, with the mark of the longitudinal slime-canal 
traversing its frontal element ; but a fragment of a plate 
posteriorly bears a finely rugose or striated ornament. The orbit 
was situated far forwards, as proved by an impression of two of 
the circumorbital plates. The outer face of the maxilla is not 
preserved, but its oral border is distinct, curving downwards at 
the hinder end and bearing impressions of very stout conical teeth 
(PI. IX, fig. Ic). Its great postorbital ex2)ansion is about three 
times as long as deep. The slender mandible is very imperfect, 
but fragments of the bone in its hinder part seem to show an 
ornament of longitudinal striations. The characteristic narrow 
opercular apparatus is recognisable, with occasional traces of a 
striated ornament. The forwardly-curved preoperculimi is 



traversed l)y tlie usual well-developed slime-canal, while the 
suhoperculum is relatively deep. 

AppeudicuJar Skeleton. — ^The supraclaviclo and clavicle are 
seen in the typt'-spcciinen as moderately wide plates, which are 
ornamented with line ridges or striations disposed in tlu; direction 
of the long axis of these bones. There are also remains of the 
pectoral fins, which show that all their rays were articulated, 
though not very closely, for the greater part of their length. 
Both pelvic fins are likewise imperfectly preserved, arising 
slightly nearer to the anal tin than to the pectorals. Each com- 
prises at least 28 rays, of which all are articulated to the base, 
although the length of the spaces between the joints considerably 
exceeds their width. The dorsal and anal fins must have been 
nearly equal in size and shape, the i"ormer completely in advance 
of the latter. They are short and deep, comprising from 25 to 30 
rays, which exhibit distant articulations. Traces of the fringe of 
small and delicate fulcra are seen on the anal fin in the type- 
specimen. The caudal fin is imperfect in this sp(H'imen, and the 
inequality of its lobes is better seen in the original of PI. IX, fig. 
la. The lower lobe is fringed with a close series of delicate 
fulcra, and its rays are veiy finely divided distally. It is 
uncertain whether any of the fin-rays were ornamented, but 
sometimes they appear to bear indications of fine longitudinal 

Scales.— 'Y\\(i principal scales on the fiank of the abdominal 
region are shown by the type-specimen to be about as deep as 
broad. Those on the caudal region are somewhat broader than 
deep, while those near th(^ ventral edge of the fisli are at least 
twice as broad as deep. Those of the flank are united by a large 
and broad peg-and-socket articulation (PI. X, figs. 1, 1«, 16). 
Isolated scales on several specimens show that their overlapped 
anterior border was narrow, as usual in Eloiiic/ifln/s. The out(U" 
face of all the scales is completely covered with ganoine, which 
forms numerous dedicate rounded ridges sejiarated by little sharp 
clefts. These ridges have a general oblique, antero-posterior 
trend, and terminate at the hinder edge of each scale in feeble 
serrations. They often exhii)it a tendency to curve ujjwards in 



front ; wliilo not iinoommonly thoy aro inconspicuous on the 
middle of the scale, which then becomes smooth (PI. IX, fig. lb; 
ri. X, figs. Ic, Id, \e. If). The direction of the ornamental 
ridges is least oblique and most regular on the ])rinci])al abdom- 
inal flank-scales (PI. IX, fig. lb; PI. X, figs. 1e, If); nuich 
more oblique or even diagonal on the principal caudal scales (PI. 
X, figs. 1(7, Id, 2a, 2c). The characteristic arrangement on the 
ventral scales is indicated in PL X, fig. 2b. The narrow, 
diamond-shaped, small scales of the u])per caudal lobe are 
ornamented I)y fine, diagonal ridges, as shown by impressions in 
the type-specimen and in the original of PI. IX, fig. la. The 
enlarged ridge-scales are not seen in the type-specimen, but 
some of those in advance of the anai fin are shown in the original 
of PL X, fig. 2. 

Memarks. — 'Jlie impression of an imperfect, relatively large 
trunk re()reseuted in PL X, fig. 2, is not referable to this species 
with certainty ; but the shape and ornamentation of the scales 
seem to agree precisely with those of the fish now described. 
This and the type-specimen were found by Mr. George Sweet, in 
whose lionoiu' the species is named. 

Elonichthts gibbus, sp. nov. Plate IX, fig. 4 ; Plate XL 

Type. — Imperfect fish, lacking end of tail (PL XI, fig. 1). 

Specific characters. — A short, deep-bodied species with com- 
paratively small head, attaining a length of about 0.2 m. Length 
of head with opercular apparatus somewhat less than the maxi- 
mum depth of the trunk, Avhich is contained twice in the length 
from the pectoral arch to the l)ase of the caudal fin. Pelvic fins 
arising about midway between the pectorals and the anal ; dorsal 
and anal tins at least as long as deep, the former not completely 
in advance of the latter. Principal scales of flank in abdominal 
region slightly deeper than hroad ; outer face of all the scales 
completely ornamented with fine, somewhat oblique ridges, which 
terminate in the delicate serrations of the posterior border- 
Enlarged dorsal ridge-scales apparently extending as far forwards 
as the occiput. 



General Form. — As shown by tlio type-specimen and the 
orii^inal of PI. IX, fig. 4, the deepest part of the trunk of this 
species is at the origin of the dorsal fin, which is remarkal)ly 
large ajid extciidod. The other specimens ai'e more imperfect or 
distorted durini;' fossilisation. 

Ih'iid. — The small head is partly indicated in the typc- 
speeiiiicii, hut hetter shown in another impression (PI. XI, fig. 3). 
The fine ornament on at least th(5 frontal region of the cranial 
roof is partly subdivided into tubercles. The other external 
bones are only striated, the striae on tiie maxilla and mandible 
being mainly horizontal or longitudinal, those on the circum- 
orbital plates (PI. XI, fig. Zb) radiating. The maxilla bears 
large, stout teeth, and its postorbital expansion is about two-and- 
a-half times as long as deep. The opercular apparatus must have 
been very nai-row. 

ApjieiHliciilar Skeleton. — The supi-aclavicle, clavicle and infra- 
clavicle, seen in the type-specimen (PI. XI, fig. 1), are moder- 
ately wide plates, ornamented with fine ridgi;s or striations 
disposed in the direction of the long axis of thes(! bones. The 
length of the pectoral fins can scarcely have exceeded half that 
of the head with opercular apparatus. The pelvic fins seem to 
have been as large as the pectoral pair. The dorsal and anal fins 
are remarkably large and ext<md('d, the former arising at the 
highest point of the back and always depressed backwards in the 
fossils. More than 4,0 rays are indicated in the imperfect dorsal 
fin of the type-specimen, and more than 30 rays are seen in the 
anal fin in the original of PI. IX, fig. 4. The articulations of all 
the fin-rays are distant. 

Scales. — ^The slight deepening of the principal scales of the 
flank in the abdominal region is observable both in the type 
(PI. XI, lig. Irt) and in other specimens. The finely-striate 
ornamentation of the scjiles resembles that already described in 
Ulonic/il/ii/s siceeli, but there is never an indication of median 




Plate I. 

Fig. 1. — GyraccDithides mm'rayi, s]). nnv.; oiio side of type- 
specimen, sliowing anterior free pectoral spine («), 
oval plate closiiitf l) of posterior free ])ect()ral 
spine [b), ))eetoral lin-spine chiefly in impression 
(c), and dermal tubercles ((/); nat. size. 

Irt. — Diagrammatic drawing of horizontal section of 
dermal tubercles, showing the pulp-cavity ; about 
three times nat. size. 

Fig. 2. — Ditto; impression of anterior free pectoral spine, 
showing external tubercular ornament and narrow 
smooth inserted I)ase ; nat. size. 

Fig. 3.— Ditto; impression of a larger incomplete sjjccimen; nat. 

Fig. t. — Ditto; abraded imperfect specimen, outer aspect, 

showing texture, nat. size ; also the same, twice 

nat. size (!•«), and one ridge further enlarged (46). 
Fig. 5. — Ditto ; imperfect imi)ression of outer aspect ; nat. size, 

and also twice nat. size. (5rt). 

Fig. 0. — ^Ditto ; two ridges of the preceding specimen ; much 

Fig. 7 — Ditto ; ventral asjject of trunk, lacking head and end of 
tail, showing internal mould of one anterior free 
pectoral spine {a), imjjressions of part of both 
pectoral fin-spines (/v, I/), internal moulds of the 
pelvic tin-spines (c, r;'), impressions of some 
ventral dermal tubercles ((/), and both internal 
and external moulds of tlie small, apparently 
displaced, anal fin-spine {e); two-thirds nat. size. 

7</. — Internal mould of anterior free ])ectoral spine; nat. 

lb. — Outer view of dermal iirnu)ur, showing rounded 

l)osses on the tul)ercles ; magnified. 



Fig. 7c. — Mould of anal fin-spine, indicating tlie largo 
dimensions of its internal cavity ; nat. size. 
Td. — Impression of ornament of lateral face of anal 
fin-spine, showing the nearly parallel tuberculated 
ridges terminating successively at its anterior edge ; 
nat. size. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. — Gi/racant hides murrayi, sp. nov.; impression of region 
of pectoral fin, showing the finely tuberculated 
outer face of the posterior free pectoral spine («) ; 
the greater part of a pectoral fin-spine, with its 
base (ft) partly marked by overlying dermal 
tubercles, its exserted portion (c) slightly incom- 
plete at the outer edge and at the distal end ; also 
a small patch of dermal tubercles {d) ; nat. size. 

la. — Internal mould of the posterior free pectoral spine, 
taken from the hollow marked («) in fig. 1 ; seen 
. from the outer-lateral face, lacking the apex but 

showing the radiating structural lines and the 
bevelling of the anterior margin of the spine ; nat. 

\b. — The same spine, with piece of matrix, seen from 
behind, showing its lateral compression ; nat. size. 

Ic. — The elongate-oval plate, with radiating structural 
lines, closing the aperture of the central cavity 
of the same spine ; nat. size. 

\d. — Structural lines of the same spine ; magnified. 

\dd. — Diagram of hollows in matrix left by decay of 
dermal tubercles, the shai'p separating lines not 
seen in the original ; magnified. 

\e. — Fine tubercular ornament seen in cavity of fossil 
at a. 

If. — Diagram of outer aspect of dermal tul^ercles ; 
magnified, the crimping somewhat exaggerated. 



Fig. 2. — Ditto ; iniprossion of ])art of abdominal region, showing 
mould of polvic tin-spines, incomplete behind 
{a, a), ])art of liotii pectoral fin-spines (A, b), 
and somr (Iniii.-il tulicrcles (c); nat. size. 

2a. — Cross-section of mould of pectoral tin-spine just 
beyond the liinder end of its inserted j)ortion, with 
matrix oecui)ying position of the groove on its 
narrow posterior face ; nat. size. 

26. — Similar cross-section near hinder end of pelvic 
fin-spine, showing its slight compression and an 
indication of the postero-internal groove ; nat. size. 

2c. — Diagram of outer aspect of dermal tuljercles with 
rounded 1)osses ; five times nat. size. 

■2d. — Diagram of tuberculated ridges of paired fin-spine; 
magnified (not satisfaetoi-y, the intervening grooves 
scarcely wide enough). 

2e. — Cross-section like 2a, but near the anterior end of 
the pectoral fin-spine ; nat. size. 

Plate III. 
Fig. 1. — Gyracunthides itmrrayi, sp. nov.; portion of abdominal 
region showing remains of 2>ectoral fin-spines with 
their slender distal end appearing vaguely through 
the hard matrix ; numerous dernuil tubercles («); 
the pelvic fin-spines, evidently approximated by 
crushing, in part preserved, in part as impressions 
of the outer face {h) ; and a trace of the plate at 
the base of the posttu-ior free pectoral spine {c); 
nat. size. 
la. — Gutta-percha impression of the same specimen, 
showing the rounded sha])e and characteristic 
ornament of the bases of the pelvic fin-spines; 
nat. size. 
\b. — Longitudinal broken section of the pectoral fin- 
spine of the same sp(!cimen, showing its fibrous 
structure ; nat. size. 
( 2 7 J 


Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. — Gyracanlhides murroyi, sp. nov.; impression of part of 
large pectoral fin-spine, incomplete at both ends, 
])ut showing a long extent of the narrow, smooth 
base of insertion (top of fignre); nat. size. 

\a, \b, Ic. — Gutta-percha impression of the same fossil, upper 
or lower view, sharp outer edge, and grooved inner 
face respectively ; nat. size. 

\d. — Part of the tuberculated, ridged ornament of the 
same; thrice nat. size. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. — Gyro can tit Ides murrayi, sp. nov.; caudal region in side 
view, with remains of abdominal region, showing 
])art of one pelvic fin-shape («) with the tip of the 
other (6) ; traces of the anterior dorsal fin and its 
spine (c) ; the posterior dorsal, anal, and caudal 
fins ; also part of one of the posterior free pectoral 
spines ; nat. size. 

\a. — Fragment of basal end of pelvic fin-spine, showing 
hollow mould before it was completely uncovered; 
slightly magnified. 

\h. — Diagram of outer aspect of dermal tubercles ; four 
times nat. size, with the bosses represented of too 
angular a shape. 

Fig. 2. — Ditto ; fiagment of trunk, apjiarently drawn u])side 
down, disijlaying dermal tubercles, the base of a 
pelvic fin-sjiine («), and the mould of part of the 
anterior dorsal fin-spine (on the edge of the fossil 
but shown separately at h)\ nat. size. 

2a. — Partially fractured dermal tubercles, thrice nat. 

Fig. 3. — Acanthodes australis, sji. nov.; caudal fin; nat. size. 

3a. — Scales; magnified. 



Fig. 4. — Ei(pIeiirof/»ins crcssirelli, INlcCov; ])ortion of type 
.sjjcciincn, showiiii; s(|uam;iti()ii, and also the apex 
of a fiii-spino in the left lower corner; nat.sizc. 

4a. — Scales of middle of Hank, sliowini;- eidari;c(l sCiiles 

of lateral line ; thrice nut. size. 
46. — Other scales of the same; al)out twice nat. size. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. — GyiHtcanthkles nmrrayi, sp. nov.; impression of 
tubercular dermal armour; nat. size. Specimen 
prohahly intended by McCoy to represent his 
su])posed Cephalaspidian, BhytiiUispis mitn-ayi, 
and the fissure wrongly indicating an api)earance 
of polygonal tesserie ; nat. size. 

\a. — Diagrammatic sketch of imju'essions of dermal 
tubercles ; thrice nat. size. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. — Acanthodes austntlis, sp. iu)v.; caudal region of type- 
specimen, showing parts of dorsal, anal, and caudal 
tins ; nat. size. 

la. — Upper lobe of caudal tin ; twice nat. size. 

\b. — Imperfect anal tin-spine aiul tin; twice nat. size. 

1(7, \d. — Inner aspect of scales ; magnitied. 

\e. — Outer aspect of scales ; magnified. 

Fig. 2. — Strepsodiis decipieiis, sp. ^w\. : impression of inner face 
of jugular plate; nat. size. Specimen probably 
intended by McCoy to represent his supposed 
Pteraspidium, Pteruapis f maiisjieldensis. 

Fig. 3. — Ditto ; imperfectly preserved jugular i)late, incomplete 
at one side and at one end; nat. size. Also probably 
regarded as Ptenispidiau by McCoy. 

[ 2 «J J 


Plate VIII. 

Fig. 1. — Slrcp.s-od/in decipieim, sp. iiov. ; poi-tion of left man- 
dibular rinniis, oidcr aspect, sliowing a row of 
small tectli on the dentavy bone, witli two imper- 
fectly ])reserA'(!d laniary teotli in ap})osition 
(one tooth and its successor) on an internal bone in 
front ; also another imperfect bone crushed on the 
anterior end of the jaw ; nat. size. 
\a. — Section of jaw, showing vertical section of laniary 
tooth with its basal folds. 

Fig. 2. — Ditto ; vertical section of iipjjer part of tooth, with 
indications of pulp-cavity; nat. size. 

Fig. 3. — Ditto ; vertical section of laniary tooth in matrix, show- 
ing basal folds; nat. size. 

Fig. 4. — Ditto ; magnified transverse sections of laniary tooth, 
showing nature of folds at base (4-), minute struc- 
ture of dentine (4«, 46), and absence of folds in 
the upper part where the pulp-cavity still persists 

Figs. 5-7. — Ditto ; abraded and partially decayed scales, display- 
ing inner structure, the originally-exposed sector 
directed downwards ; nat. size. 
6a. — Scale-structure magnified, ^jart of the exjiosed 
sector to the right, covered portion to the left. 

Fig. 8. — Ditto ; impression of inner face of undisturbed squama- 
tion ; nat. size. 

Fig. 9. — Ditto ; impression of inner face of scattered scales, 
showing internal median tubercle ; nat. size. 

Fig. 10. — Ditto ; abraded and partially decayed scale of lateral 
line, showing infilled slime-canal ; associated with 
the type-scale, which is not figured ; nat. size. 

Fig. 11. — Ditto ; scale. 

Fig. 12. — Ctenodus breviceps, sp. nov. ; impression of part of 
caudal region, exhibiting neural and luemal 
elements of vertebi'al axis ; nat. size. 


Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. — Elonichthys sweeli, sp. nov. ; lypc s|)ocimen, fish Iti 
lateral aspect, lacking dorsal part of alxlominal 
region ; nat. size. 
la. — Caudal tin of anotlier specimen, showing its inequi- 

lobate siiape ; nat. size. 
16. — Imperfect flank scales ; thrice nat. size. 
\c. — Impressions of ujjjjer and lower teeth on edge of 
jaws ; al)out twice nat. size. 

Fig. 2. — Ditto; undetermined. 

Fig. 3. — Ditto; unsatisfactory attempt at restoration, much 
reduced, the general outline probably almost 
correct, but squamation very inaccurate and 
some other characters doubtful. hr., broad 
branchio-stegal rays; cl., clavicle; (/., mandible; 
/., anterior part of frontal; id., infraclav icle; 
io., suboperculum ; )ii.v.. maxilla (expansion too 
deep); oy;., operculum ; /;., liindcr part of IVimtal 
(internal impression, thus showing longitudinal 
slime-canal); pmx., bone below the orbit, which 
is represented too small ; po., preop(>rculum ; 
pt., post-temporal; scL, su[)ra-clavicle ; .vo., cii-. 
cumorl)ital ring; :h., undetermined bone (no 
clear evidence). 

Fig. A. — Elonichfhys (jlbhus, sp. nov.; irnperiVct trunk, showing 

inner aspect of many flank-scales with ])eg-and- 

socket articulation, also part of pelvic, dorsal, and 

anal fins ; nat. size. 

4a. — Reinains of scales showing ornamentation; enlarged. 

Plate X. 

Fig. l.—Elouichthys sireeli, sp. nov.: itiiperfect counterpart of 
trunk of type-specim(!n, showing some scales 
from inner aspect, witli peg-and-socket articu- 
lation (A, \^), pectoral fin (C), pelvic fin 


upturned (D), part of dorsal fin (E), anal fin 
(F), and caudal fin ; nat. size. 
la, lb. — Inner aspect of scales ; about twice nat. size, to 
show peg-and-socket articulation, and some of the 
pegs further magnified. 
Ic.-lf. — -Impressions of scales ; three or four times nat. 
size, showing nature of external ornamentation. 
Fig. 2. — Ditto; impression of part of large trunk, showing 
traces of displaced pectoral fin (G), pelvic fins 
(H), dorsal fin (I), and anal fin (K); nat. size. 
2«-2/. — Impressions of scales ; thrice nat. size, showing 
natiu'e of external ornamentation (long axis of 
figs. 2a-2d wrongly placed vertically). 

Plate XI. 

Fig. 1. — Elouichthys gibbits, sp. iiov.; type-specimen, lacking 
hinder half of caudal region ; iiat. size. 
la. — Impression of flank-scales ; magnified. 
\b. — Restored drawing of dorsal ridge-scales ; magnified. 
Fig. 2. — Ditto ; distorted fish ; nat. size. 

Fig. 3. — Ditto ; impression of part of head and trunk ; nat. size. 
3rt. — Impression of scales ; magnified. 
3/^. — Impression of circumorbital plates, showing radiat- 
ing ornamentation ; thrice nat. size. 
Fig. 4. — -Ditto ; part of trunk and fins ; nat. size. 

4)a. — Impression of part of two dorsal ridge-scales ; 

4i. — Impression of flank-scales ; magnified (long axis 
wrongly placed horizontally). 
Fig. 5. — Ditto; fragmentary remains of ; nat. size. 
Fig. 6. — Ditto ; unsatisfactory attempt at restoration ; much 
reduced, the general outline probably almost 
correct, but squamation inaccurate and restored ; 
extent of paired, dorsal, and anal fins too large. 


Mem. Nat. Mus., 
Melbourne. 1. 

Plate i. 

"J' WM Ualiik 




Mem. Nat. Mus,. 
Melbourne. 1. 

Plate II. 


Suam hlM Uav'J'ruitai^ Offict 

Melbourne. 1. 

Plate III. 


l"vr jt''-(^ cur^l- 

Statmluiui Got'^TivitingOffta, 

ITI Cl-DWUniM t.. I. 



Profit Oyjiiru^ 

Steam/MJu G<n*PrinWig Offux. 



Plate V. 


Stean UtAa f?.>r*/VMlA/y Of^Ua 

Mem. Nat. Mus., 
Melbourne, l. 

Plate VI. 


'9 Hk 




StuanlU/u Gtf'Pnnhnj Offwt 

iMEM. Nat. Mus., 
Melbourne. 1. 

Plate Vll. 




"'WlU,lU el lUh 

StrfitJtn/^ tfCvy, Jmx' 

Steam hSto Gn'fnnting Offict 

Mem. Nat. Mus., 
melbourne. 1. 

Plate VMI. 



^: /\^'\ 






1.H3 i rr ! I 



V'' WOd. JtlttUlk 

Ju-frtJtrak M^Cey, iirtx ' 

SUtJn lilfio tw'hviOii^&fu^ 




Plate IX. 



iSUam haJuy-Otf'Prtntui^Ofria 

Plate X. 

T\r W.I J J.I I i,ti 

CA f.ii.. r 4£L«_^.- nrr... 

Mem. Nat. Mus., 
Melbourne. 1. 

Plate X. 

D'wad itituA 


SUum LithB (ioy* Fruiting Offui 

Mem. Nat. Mus. 
Melbourne. l. 




Sirfirdmc/iJirCp, daa> 

Sttm Jtlho OMfPru^mf Offia- 




No. 2.— A Monograph of the Silurian Bivakd Mollusca of 







li)i aiiHioriip: 

KKBRUARY, 1008. 



I. lulroiluction ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

1. iSources of ilie Present Ciillfctioii ... ... ... ... o 

2. Some Geiienil Aspects of the Silurian Bivalvcd Fnnnii, willi notes 

on Geueni New to Anstraiiii. iiml TaMf"* sliowin": Idenliral and 

Helateil Species ... ... ... ... ... C 

11. i)e:^cript ion of the Species ... ... ... ... ... 13 

111. Index and Strnligrapliical Disliibiitiun ol' Silniiun Ppjerypoda in 

Victoria ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 

W. Kxplanalion cif Plates ... ... ... ... ... 59 

A 2 

A )i(i.\(Mii:.\i'ii (IK Tin; sii.hman I!Ival\i:i) 

MOLU'SCA OF \ l( TnillA, l.\ Till: ('0LM:(TIUN 

//// l-'ndi'i'ick ('iKijimint. Ptthvdntiiloaist to the Salioiial 
Museum, Melbourne ; Assoc. Linn. !Suc. Lond.; F.R.M.S. 


Sources of the Present Collection. 

A large proportion of the fossil specimens descrilx^d licrcin 
was collected duriiiL;- the first (icological Survey of Victoria, 
under the direction of Mr. (afterwards Sir) A. R. C. Selwyn; 
and was deposited in the National Museum, Melbourne, then 
under the directorship of Professor (afterwards Sir) Frederick 
McCoy, who was at the time also palieontologist to the Survey. 

Verv few of the specimens were identified by McCoy: — a 
single species described in liis IModromus of the Paheontology 
of Victoria* under the name of Canfivm (jijrpslandicuvi 
[ = Panenha fi! pj)slandira], and some fossils generically deter- 
mined for future labelling as Orlhonotus. .Inodonfo/isis. Leptn- 
(lomus. Area, AvindopectPn and Avicula, appear in the Museum 

On the I sheet No. 1 N.\V. ]\reliiounie, McCoy noted the fol- 
lowing bivalved genera from Moonee Ponds Creek (" Royal 
Park"), viz., SanguinoHtea ( = Orthnnnfn fnt.ttralis sp. nov.) and 
Cucullella (= Nvndites maccoyianus, sp. nov.). 

The fossil referred to under the MS. name of Oilhonotns 
suhrigidus by McCoy on \ sheet No. 4 S.W. Ceol. Siirv. Vict, is 
MOW shown, by the hinge structure, to be identical with \iiruJa 
InmeUata, d. Hall, and not allied, as McCoy supposed, to 
Orthonota rinida Sow. sp. of tlie Upper T.landovery and Lower 
Ludlow of Great Britain. On the same geological niap a 
Lf'-ptodomvs allied to amyqdoUnns is noted by McCoy. This is 
now shown to be a distinct sj^cies, here named Lt'/>fndonius 
mnrcoyianvs. Certain fossils named in MS. bv McCoy as 
Area spp. arc herein described as Sucnla ophnn. J. Hall. var. 

•Decade VI., 1870, p. ij. PL I.VI. 

[ 5 ] ^ .i- 


australis, nov., and .' I'arallelndon kilmoriensis, sp. iiov. 'I'hc 
CucvUeUd, sp., noted on \ sheet 3 N.E., by McCoy, I have 
now referred to Nuculites cnarctatus, Phillips sp. 

The followin"' "enera of bivalved shells have been recorded 

o o 

from the Silurian ("Upper Silurian") of Victoria by McCoy, 
in T'roo-ress Report, Geol. Surv. of Victoria, No. 1, 1874, p. 34. 

Cncnllella, 2 spp. [ = Xnculites]. 

Area, sp. [ = Nticnia and ? PornI!elod'n\ 

Avictda, 2 spp. [ = Actinopteria]. 
The fossil (No. 3368, Mines Dept.) alluded to by McCoy, in 
Progi^ess Tveport No. TV., 1877, p. 156, as " a small Aviculoid 
shell allied to A mhonyckia (new species)", is here described and 
fignired as ])robab]y a young foiin of a new species — Lnnuli- 
cavdiiim ant i striatum. 

Three species of Silurian pelecypoda, which had already 
been described by the Rev. A. W. Cresswell, M.A.,* have been 
presented by him to our collection. These are Conocardmm 
bellulum and C. costatiim, originally described imder the generic 
name Pleiirorhynchvs; and Ptcrinea tatei, previously described 
as an Ambonychia, but probably identical with P. lineata, 

The larger part of the remainder of these Silurian bivalved 
shells has been obtained from the richly fossiliferous mudstones 
at South Yarra over the area of the Yarra Improvement Works. 
They were chiefly collected by Mr. F. P. Spry (now of the 
National Museum). Other gentlemen who have kindly assisted 
us in obtaining new material are Messrs. J. T. Jutson, and A. E. 
Kitson, F.G.S., whilst the oiiportiinc donation from Mr. Thos. 
Warr, of material from a well-boring at Croydon,! has resulted 
in the addition of several new and remarkable forms of aviculoid 
and other shells. In addition to the species previously men- 
tioned, we are also indebted to the Rev. A. W. (^'resswell. M.A., 
for a valuable collection of mudstone fossils from near Lily- 
dale,t which has furnished us with several additional forms to 
our list of species. 

Some Gener.-vl Aspects of the Biv.\lved Fauna. 
The collection now described comprises 62 species and 
varieties, referred to 29 genera. Of the total number, as many 
as 58 species and varieties are here recorded from the Victorian 

*Proc. Roy. Soc. Vicl., Vol. V., N.S., 1893, pp. 43, 44. 

t For a preliminary description of this collection see Victori.m Naturalist. Vol. 
XXITT., 1006, pp. 237-239. „ „ 

t See .Mr. Cresswell's remarks on lUe fossils and the precise localities in rroc. Roy. — 
Soc, Vict., Vol. VT., N.S., 1804, T- "S^. 

[ 6 ] 



Silurian for the first time, whilst 14 gencrii aro new to Aus- 
tralia. These ncwlv recorded "enera arc — Pald'fnintina. Car- 
(Hold, Panenka, Paracnrdirim, Prwliicina, Ctenndonta, \iini- 
lites, Xitcithi. Pnrallelndon. ActiiKuJcsjiui. J.iniiilictirdiu in . 
Mytilarca. Glossifes and Cypricardinia. 

The following notes on the above-named gcnrra arc cnin- 
piled in order to show^ how interesting is the cjuestion of the 
distribution of the bivalved fauna of the Australian Silurian. 
When our knowledge of this group and of the remainder of the 
molluscan classes is more complete, it will bo possible to make 
some valuable deductions as to the general relationship of thi? 
widely distributed phylum of the animal kingdom, both from 
geological and geographical stand-points. 

Palceanatinn, J. Hall. — Hitherto found onlv in the Upper 
Devonian of North America. 

Cardinla, Broderip. — This is a Silurian genus in Great 
Britain; and it also occurs in the Silurian and Devonian in 
Eastern Europe. It appears to be aksent from North America, 
although the somewdiat closely associated genus, Panenka, is 
found there in Devonian strata. 

Paiien/,a, l^arrande, is lioth a Silurian and Devonian genus, 
but attains its maximum development in the latter formation. 

Paracardimii, Barrande. — This genus occurs in the Silurian 
(Stage E) in Bohemia, and in the Devonian of North Amei-ica. 

Prcnlucina, Barrande. — A well-defined generic group in the 
Silurian and Devonian of Bohemia. Barrande notes the total 
absence of the genus in the Stage Eci, but in the Upper Siluiian 
Ee^ there occur 25 species, whilst in the lowest zone of the 
Devonian, Ff, there are only two species. 

('tenndontn, Salter, is already known elsewhere fiom flic 
Silurian, and its range extends to the Carboniferous. 

Nvndite!^, Conrad. — A Silurian and Devonian genus, well 
represented in the Devonian of South Africa and South 

Niindn. T.amarck. This genus ranges from Silurian to 
Recent. Probably many of the British Silurian species now 
referred to Ctenodonta may prove eventually to belong to this 
genus. .Mthough originally described as species of \iicvlti. 
some of these fossils appear to have been transferred to ('tena- 
donta, on insufficient evidence of the hinge characters."* 

Parallelodon, Meek and ^^'orthcn. — Tt is interest iu'j' to 
record this genus from the Silurian of Victoria, since it had an 
already-known range from the Devonian to Tertiary. 

• Com|iarc rrmnrks In T. L. T.oblev, on " Paloco/oic ArcifJie,"' Proc-. f^col. .\*sn<,, Vul 
V . No. 8, i88S, p. 40J. 

[ 7 ] 


Actinodesma, Sandberger. — Although the liitherto-rccorded 
range of this genus is restricted to the Devonian, there is very 
little doubt that it is represented in the Silurian (Upper Lud- 
low) of Wales by the so-called " Avicula" or " Pterinea" 
amj)liata, to which our fossil bears a close resemblance. 

Lurmlicardium, Miinster. — This genus is confined to the 
Silurian and Devonian. In Bohemia it is found throughout 
both formations; in North America only in the Devonian. 

Mytilarca, J. Hall. — Well-represented in the Devonian of 
North America. It occurs in the Silurian (Wenlock shale) in 
England, usually referred to as Mytilus. The British Silurian 
fossil recorded as Mytilus chemKngensis seems to differ 
from the species originally described by Conrad from the 
North American Devonian. The genus occurs in the upper 
division (Yeringian) of the Victorian Silurian. 

Glossites, J. Hall. — Fossils of Devonian age in North 
America (Corniferous Limestone to Waverly Group); and in 
South Africa (Bokkeveld Beds). 

Cypricardinia, J. Hall. — This interesting genus ranges 
through the Silurian and Devonian, both in Europe and North 
America. It is here confined to the upper beds of the Silurian. 

An inquiry into the number and distribution of the Vic- 
torian species which are also found elsewhere in homotaxial or 
closely-related strata, affords some interesting data. There are 
no less than eleven species of Silurian bivalves (18 per cent.) in 
our Victorian rocks which can be identitied with fossils found in 
other, often widely separated areas. Regarding the occurrences 
of similar fossils in Great Britain, shown by the subjoined table, 
it will be noticed that, with few exceptions, the distribution 
ranges through the AVenlock and Ludlow series, whilst in Ger- 
many and Bohemia the fossils occur in the Lower and ^Middle 
Devonian.* The species of bivalved mollusca which occur in 
North America are found in the IMiddle Devonian, but not 
below it, whilst one of our forms is also found there in L'pper 
Devonian rocks. From this the inference may be drawn, that 
since both in Western Europe and Australia the species made 
their first appearance in the Silurian, the point of dispersal 
would probablv be situated mid-wav between tliose places, pro- 
vided the conditions were equal, and that there were no barriers 
to their migration. The data given below would also appear to 
implv that consideral^le obstacles did exist against their dis- 
persal along the radius extending to Eastern Europe (Germany 

* Cl. )?:irrande, Syst. Sil. Bohemc, Ft. i. Vol. VI.. Acephales, iSSi, p. 304. (Stage 
F, included in the Silurian by Barrande, is now referred to the Lower Devonian,) 

[ 8] 


and Bohemia); ami in the same proportion complex and adverse 
conditions prohahly obtained on the inioratnrv path to North 

Further proof of the general trend of these comparative 
data as derived from other gronps of the Victorian Silurian 
Mollusca is shown in the Museum collections; oiie notable 
example being the occurrence of a gasteropod, Eiioni/i/ialns 
(/if'jiinrti/s, J. Hall.* in the Victorian \eringian division of the 
Silurian, specimens of which are inseparable from the shells 
described by Hall, from the Lower Helderberg of New^ York 
(T.. Devonian). The Pteropod. Coleohts acicvlum, J. Hallt of 
the Middle Devonian (Gencssee Slates) of North America, 
has a close relation in a form which may eventually prove to be 
identical, and which is not uncommon in the McllKnirnian shales 
of South Yarra.j: 

Comparative 'I'able ok Victorian .Species oe Silurian I'elecvpoda, 


Uc'iiera aiul Species. 

Cardiol a cornticopice, 

floidfiiss sp. (C. 

interriipta, .Snw.) 
I'raliicina aiicilla, 

SuciiUles c oar (tains, 

Piiiil. sp. 
Kuciila I am ell at a. J. 

Ft frill en Hue at a, 

? Pterinca tcitiiis- 

triata, >fcCoy 
? Amhniiycliia aciiti- 

CO si at a. \frCoy 
Arliiioplcrid tfxtii- 

rata. Phiil. sp. 

A. boxdi. Coiirac! sji. 

Modiplopsis compla 
iiata. Sow. s(). 

Cypricardiiiia (tin 

1 1' via. H.irr. 


Foreign Area. 

Milliiuiinian Piiirope 

N'i'i ingian ... 

V'eringi.nn ... 
\'criiigi.Tii ... 


Great Britain 

North America 

( r.reat Britain .. 
\ GiTman\ 
Great Britain .. 


Eiiglant! (Devon- 
f r^nglanf] 
\\ NVirth .America 
Melljniirnian Great lirjtain ... 

( Great Hiilain .. 
I Bohemia 



I.. Devonian 

Sil. (Ludlow) 

.Mid. and Up. De- 
Silurian (Ludlow) 
L. Devfinian 
Sil. (Wenlock to 

Up. Ludlow) 
Sil. (Wenlock and 

L. Ludlow) 
.Mid. De\onian 

Sil. (Ui.. I.udl-.w) 

M. Devonian 

Sil. (W.-nlfK-k' to 

passage Ix'ds) 
Sil. (Winloik and 

L. Ludlow) 
L. De\onian 

• fal. N\« Vorfc, Vol. TIT., iS^O, P- ^40. PI- I-XV.. I'ic. 8; PI. I.XVIII., Fifj. 4a,*. 

+ New Vork. Vol. v.. Pi. II.. 1870, p. 187: PI. XXXIIa.. liys. 11 i;. 

: Proc. R. Sot. Vict., Vol. XVl., Pt. II., N.S., 1904, \>. 339; I'l. XXXI., lig. 7. 

[ 9 ] 


Tlic large majority of the species of Silurian bivalves herein 
(i(>s( ribofl are in more or less close relationship with those found 
elsewhere; at the same time they appear to be sufTiciently dis- 
tinct to warrant their separation as nevi^ species. AVhen closely 
examined, the data afforded by these " paramorphs " or alliod 
forms, are of the greatest interest ; for these, as well as the more 
cosmopolitan species above enumerated, shed considerable light 
upon the generally obscure rpiestions regarding the relationship 
of our Australian palaeozoic faunas to those of other areas. 

The subjoined table is an attempt at giving a synopsis of 
the species clescribed from other areas, which, ai>parently, are 
most closely related to the Victorian Silurian pelecypoda. A 
glance at this table will suffice to show that, as in the former 
table of identical species, the general aspect is nearly the same 
with regard to the several areas known elsewhere. 

In Great Britain and Ireland some of our species find their 
affinities with Upper Ordovician forms (very rarely), with 
Silurian, Llandoverv to Ludlow (commonly), and in the 
Devonian (very rarely). Tn Germany related species occur in 
the Devonian (very rarely). 

Tn Bohemia their relationships are found in typical 
Silurian and Lower Devonian strata (rarely). 

In Canada, a single allied form occurs in the Silurian. 

In the United States the many related forms range through 
the Devonian, from the Hamilton to the Waverley groups; 
whilst only one species having related characters is found in the 
Upper Ordovician. 

The question as to whether the Lower Helderberg group in 
North America should be correlated with the Devonian, as main- 
tained by Continental geologists, who recognise in it the equiva- 
lent of the Coblenzian; or with the Silurian, as held by American 
geologists, is a difficult point to determine. The fauna of the 
uppermost beds of the Silurian in Victoria seems to support the 
American geologists to some extent ; for it includes many types 
of trilobites, many representatives of the CajniUdce, and 
certain spirifers which, although characteristic of the Hercynian 
fauna of Europe, are also Helderbergian in aspect. There seems, 
therefore, as much evidence in support of the one opinion as the 
other, and it is merely a question of recognising the possibility 
of the subsequent migration to another area of a distinctive 
fauna, with a minimum amount of change in its facies. 

[ 10 ] 


Comparative Table ok \ktokian Si'i-.ciks oi Sii.i kian I'KLECvroDA, 


Aufttrnlitiii Spet-ifs 

Ortlwnota anslralis, >y. w>\. (Mel- 

iimnnnvsia rf. armata. ("oiiiad sj). 

(\ cringianK 
(i. all", plena, j. Hail ( 

l.cpli'diHiiKs maci'oyiaiiiii, >j). nov. 

/.. Iicathcotienais. sp. imv. (.Mel- 

/'tilaaiialina <"f. soltiioiilt>. J. Hall 

Edmondia ■pcrobliqiia, sp. niiv. 

Pancitka plaiiicoita. sji. n\.\\ . (VL'iiii- 

Paracardium filosnm, sji. iiov. 

Ctciiodonia porllocki. sp. iiov. (Mel- 

boiimian and Veringian). 
Xi/ciili/es maecoyianiis. sp. no\ . 

A', iiihqiiadraliis, sp. nov. (Mcl- 

A'. JKtsoiii, sp. nox. ( ? Yeriiigian) 

\'iiciila melhoNninisif, sp. nov. .Mol- 

■V. uiubonata. sp. nov. (Melliourniaii). 

.V. arcajormii. sp. nov. (Mel- 

.V. laylori. sp. no\-. (Mfll)Ourniaii). 

W opinio . J. Hall. var. australis, 
nov. (Mplloumian and YeringianV 

A', cf. lirafa, Conrad sp. (Mel- 

Paldoncilo victoria, sp. nov. CMcl- 

/'. raricnsttr. s[). nov. (Yftingian). 

/'. prodiicta. sp. nov. (MplbournianV 

P. ? cnnstricta. Conrad sp. C.Xfi-l 

P. cf. hrcvis, J. Hall (MelhoiirnianV 

Kt-latvil S|twK's. 

(h cxtrasulcata. Salter. L |)piT Lud- 
low, Kiigland. 
(/". arcuala. Conrad sp. Haniilion 

group ; North America. 
(/. plena. J. Hall. Cliinuing and 

Waverley groups ; .North .\nierica. 
Grammysia suhareiiata, J. Hall. 

Chemung group : North .America. 
I.cplodomiii Inincaliis. \lr(,'o\. Up. 

J.uillow ; England. 
/'. solcnoides, J. Hall. Chemung 

group; .North America. 
I" A', obliqiia \ J. H.dl, Chemung 
I. A. iitbinala) groii[) ; .N. .America. 
/'. nana, Barrarule. Silurian ; Ho- 

/'. filijcntm. iiarrandc. Silurian ; 

Area [Clcnudonlo^ dissi mills. I'ort 

lock. Up. Ordovician ; Irelarul. 
A", ohlongaius, Conrad. Hamilton 

grou|>; .North America. 
A', nyssa. J. Hall. Hamilton group; 

North America. 
\'. nhlongatns. Conrad. Hamilton 

group: North America. 
Xiiciila bellistriata, Conrad sp. Hamil- 
ton group ; Niirtli .America 
.\ . raricoia. J. Hall. Hamilton 

group; North .America. 
N . siibaqnalis, McCoy sp. U|). Idan- 

(lovery : England. 
iV. anglieii, d'Orhignx. Up. Ordo- 
vician and Silurian : England. 
A', nyssa, J. Hall. Hamilton group ; 
I North America. 

X . lira/a. Conrafl sp. Hamillon 

group: North America. 
P. muta. J. Hall. Hamilinn group; 

North .America. 
P. tniita. J. Hall. Hamilton group : 

North .America. 
/'. clongata. J. Hall. Chemung 

group; North America. 
' P. constricfa, Conrad. Hamilton, 
I Portage, and L. Chemimg groups : 
I North America. 

P. brfTis. T- Hall. Chemung group ; 
I North .America. 

f 11 ] 


('oMi'AK.viivK Taum-. ok V'ktorian Spkcik.s OF SiuiRiAN Pelecypoi.a- 


Australian Species. 

/'. cf. tcntiistriata, J. Hall (Mel- 

Limuiuardiiiin anlnlriainni ,, sp. iiov. 


M \t'darca acnl'irostris, sp. no\'. 

Conocardinm hcilulum, Cresswell sp. 

Actinnpicria (nprnila, McCoy, sp. 
\ar. croyddiiciiiis, nov. (Yerin- 

.1. Iiral//fii/iciiiis, sp. nov. (Mcl- 

HI ltd i III op sis inclhininiciisis, sp. nov. 

M. nasnia, Conrad sp., var. aiis- 

tralis, nov. (Melbournian). 

Glossitcs victoria, sp. nov. (Yerin- 

Goitiopliora ansiralis, sp. nov. 

G. cf. glauciis, J. Hnll. sp. (Mel- 

Paracvclas sihiricns, sp. nov. (Mel 

KclatcU Species. 

P. tcniiislriata, J. Hall. Hamillf/ii 

grou|>; North America. 
? ( ardinm slriaium, Sowerby. Hala 

'O Up. Ludlow ; Great Britain. 
.)/. trigona, Goldfuss sp. Mid. De- 
vonian ; Germanv. 
M. chcmioigensis, of Salter non 
Conrad. Wenlock series; Wale.s. 
C. diptcrum, Salter sp. Up. Ordo- 

vician ; Scotland. 
.1. aspcriila, McCoy si). Up. Ordo- 
vician ; Wales. 


.1. liirundclla, Whidlwrni 

\onian ; England. 
A. vciiiricosa, Goldfuss sp. 
vonian ; Germany. 
HI. solcnoides, .Sowerby sp. Uj). Luil 

low ; England. 
/I/. iiasKta. Conrad sp. Up. 
vician ; Xorth America and 
Glossitcs dcpressiis. J. Hall. 

ling group; North America. 
' G. cxmhctformis. .Sowerbv sp, 
Itirian ; British Islands. 
G. consimilis, Billings. Silurian ; 

Nova Scotia. 
G. glauciis. J. Hall sp. Hamilton 
grou[>; North .A.merira. 
Paracvclas liiuala. Goldfuss sp. 

Devonian ; Germanv. 
P. bulla, McCoy sp. Up. Ludlow , 

England. .Silurian ; Ireland. 
P. clliptica. J. Hall. CorniferoUM 
limestone and Hamilton grouj) ; 
North America. 




No attempt is here made to subdivide the two series 
of the Victorian Silurian, designated by Prof. J. W. Gregory as 
Melbournian and Yeringian.* It was evident, during the pro- 
gress of the present work, nevertheless, that several horizons can 
eventuallv be defined, after further detailed work has been done, 
by conjoining the stratigraphical and palreontological data. 

* Prcc. Roy. Soc, Vict,, Vol. XV., Tt. II., N.G., 1903. pp. i-i, 172. 


The life provinces ol' the variuiis huii/uiis ol' the X'icturiau 
Sikirian may then be studied witli advantage. As, for instance, 
that of the sandstone of Moonec i'onds Creelv, witli their pre- 
vailing types of brachiopods and ophiuroids; and tlie shales 
and mudstones of South Yarra, with their mure abundant 
bivalve and trilobite faunas. These two areas are apparently 
on the same stratigraphieal liorizon, but represent deposits laid 
down under dilTcrent lithologieal conditions. 

At present the facilities for e.xamining sections of strata in 
tlic various Silurian areas, by means of road and railwa\ 
cuttings, and by borings, aie not so good as in less recently 
developed countries such as England or the United States, and 
consequently this renders Ihc work of correlation a dithcult task. 



Family Solenopsidae. 

Genus Orthonota, Conrad, Ibll. 

Orthonota aiistralis, sp. nov. PI. I., Fig 1. 

Description. — Shell large, elongate; dorsal and ventral 
margins parallel; posterior margin well rounded. From the 
umbo to the posterior margin slightly more than twice the height 
of the shell. 

Valves rather strongly convex, moderately steep «jn the 
ventral margin, and sloping away towards the posterior cardinal 
area, where they are more compressed. 

Beaks situated close to the anterior extremity, ratliei- 

Surface of the valves ornamented with a series of strong 
concentric sulci, interrupted below the high umbonal lidge by the 
cincture, which is limited on each side by a furrow. 

Measurements. — .\pproximate (from the spcH-iiiieii Honied). 
Length, 42 mm. 
Greatest height, 18 mra. 

Affinities. — A British fossil (found also in Norway and 
Gotland), which shows .some features in common with ours is 
Orthonota extrasulcata, Salter,* occurring in the Upper Ludlow 

• Mem. Geol. Surv. G. Brit., Vol. 11., Pi. I., 1848, p. 361, PI. 17, I'ig. 3. See als« 
Grammysia extrastiUala, Sailer sp., McCoy, Urit. Pal. I'ossils, 185.*, p. 281, PI. IK. 
lif. ay. 

[ 13 ] 


beds, near Kendal. In tliis .species the concentiic |)lications are 
not nearly so pronounced as in tlie Australian form. Another 
species which may he comijared with ours i.s Orthonotu undulata, 
(.'ourad.* This lo.ssil occurs in tlie Jlamilton Group in the 
United States. Although generally resembling our form, it is 
not so convex, and it has the concentiic fuiicms inidulate in tlic 
posterior area of the shell; whilst the portion between the 
umboiuil ridge and the post-cardinal slope is more numerously 
relieved by radiating folds. 

Obserrations. — The Orthonota occurring in the Silurian 
beds at Yass, New South Wales, and recorded by Prof. T. W. E. 
Davidt in his geological section of that district as Orthonota 
rlgida ? [Sow. sp.] appears to be a new species, judging from a 
specimen in the National Museum from the Shearsby collection. 
It is not related in any way to McCoy's Victorian 0. stibrigida 
(MS.), which is further on shown to be referable to Nucula 
lameUata. Compared with Orthonota aiist rails, sp. nov., the 
Yass specimen is more compressed, and has a more pronounced 
mesial sinus. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian), Moonee 
Ponds Creek, Flemington (" Royal Park "j. Two specimens 
collected by the Geol. Snrvey of Victoria. [7869 (type). 7870].^ 

Family Grammy siidae. 

Genus Grammysia, E. de Verneuil, 1847. 
Grammysia abhreviata, sp. nov. PI. I., Fig 2. 
Description. — Shell subquadrate, cardinal line arched; 
ventral margin nearly straight, slightly incurved at the junction 
with the umbonal depression, the latter meeting the ventral 
margin a little in front of the median third. Surface of shell 
rather strongly convex towards the beaks, which are sub-anterior. 
A sub-umbonal depression in front of the shell makes a slight 
angularity reaching from the nmbones to the antero-ventral 
margin. In the figured specimen this angularity is emphasized 
by crushing. From the umbo to the postero-ventral margin 

* Conrad, Geol. Survey, N. York,; Ann. Rep., 1841, p. 51, PI. — ., Fig. 6. J. Hall, 
Pa!. N. Y^ork, Vol. V., P't. I., 1885. Lamellibranch., II., p. 478, PI. LXXVIII., Figs. 

+ Ann. Rep. Dept. ilines, N.S. Wales, 1S82 (1883). Notes to Section across Silurian 
and Igneous Rocks, Yass. 

jiiegistered Xos. in Museum. 

[ 14 ] .: 


there is an obtuse shoulder, and from thence the surface slopes 
rapidly away to the posterior margin. The presence of the 
posterior shoulder and the moderately prominent beaks preclude 
this form from being referred to the genus Cardiomurpha, to 
which it ol her wise bears .some resembhmce. The valves are 
concentrically striated or finely suleate, and the character of 
these surface markings is closely comparable with that seen in 
the smaller species of Gramviysia (lcscril>etl from the Hamilton 
Group of iSorth America. 


Approximate length, 28 mm. 

Height, I'l mm. 

Thickness (before crusiiingj, probably about S ram. 
Observations. — The fossil recorded as ? Cypricardia retusa, 
ksowerby,* of the Upper Ludlow series of JUeibury, near l>udlow, 
bears a striking resemblance to our species, w itli the 
ditference, however, that in the latter the beaks arc situated 
farther forward, and the postero-umbonal slope has an accen- 
tuated shoulder. Another somewhat allied form is Grammysia 
ulrichi, Clarke,! from the Devonian of Brazil. 

Hurizun and Locality. — Silurian (Melbouinianj, Yarra Im- 
provements, S. Yarra. i^resented by Mr. t. ISpry. [7b71.J ^\. 
somewhat similar form to the above occurs in the Silurian 
(leringiau) calcareous shales at Grilhth's Kiln, seven miles 
south of iManslield. Specimen presented by Mr. E. 0. Thiele. 


Grammysia, cf. arcuata, Conrad, sp. 

Posidoniaf arcuata, Conrad, 1841, Geol. Surv., N. Y'ork, 
Ann. Kep, p. 53. 

Grammysia arcuata, Conrad, sp., J. Hall, 1885, Pal. N.Y., 
Vol. v., Pt. I., Lamell. II., p. :i7;j, IM. LXl., Figs. 1-9; PI. 
LXIIL, Fig. G '.; PI. XCIIL, Fig. 27. 

Observations.— \^h\s is an impertect specimen of a Gram- 
mysia in olive mudstone; only the anterior half of the valve 
being preserved. The character of the sharp, concentric folds 
reminds one of G. arcuata, Conrad sp., of the Hamilton Group 
of N. America. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). Wilson's, 
near Lilydale, Victoria. Presented by Mr. J. T. Jutson. [7872.] 

* Soucrby in Murcliison's .Silurian System. I't. II., 1839, P- ^9> ^''' ^'-> ^' '(!■ 5' (Now 
referred by some KnglisU palxontologists to Orthonota, and included with C. amygdalina, 
Sow. sp. 

•f bee Kat/.er, (Irundzilije drr Geologic des Ama/onas^'ebieles, 190J, |). 20;, I'l XIV., 
Kig. 19. 

[ 35 ] 


Grammysia, aff. j)lena, J. Hall. 

Gram/nysiu plena, J. Hall, 18b5, Pal. X.Y., Vol. V., Tt. I., 
Lamell. II., p. 382, PI. LXL, Figs. :31, 32. 

Observations. — The antero-niedian area of this fossil 
exhibits the confluent character of the interrupted con- 
centric folds, also seen in the N. ^Vnieiican species quoted above. 
The folds, iiioicover, become more prominent and thinner at the 
anterior end. There is also a faint, but ty|)ically placed, 
cincture, extending from the beak tu the ventral ntaigin, behind 
I lie middle of the anterior thud. (> . jdciia occurs in the 
Chemung and Waverley groups of Burlington, Iowa. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Ranges 
east of Heatlicote. An imperfect specimen in pinkish sand- 
stone. Coll. Geol. Surv. of Vict., B'^ 50. [7873.J 

Grammysia cuneiformis, R. Etheridge fil. 

Grammysia cuneiformis, R. Etheridge fil, 1899, Prog. 
Rep., No. XL, Geol. Surv., Vict., p. 35, PL B., Fig. 10. 

Observation. — This species is represented in the collection 
of the National Museum by a cast of a left valve in pinkish, 
friable sandstone. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian), Heathcote. 
Coll. by Geol. Surv. of Victoria. [7874.] 

Genus Leptodomus, McCoy, 184-i. 

Leytodomus maccoyianus, sp. nov., 1*1. I., Fig. 4. 

Description. — Valves sub-trigonal, elongate, with the hinge- 
line and ventral margin approximately parallel: anterior end 
narrow and truncated below; ventral border sinuous, posterior 
rounded and truncated towards the cardinal line. Extremities 
of valves compressed; beaks prominent, sharp and arcuate, 
directed forward and situated sub-anteriorly. .V mesial sinus 
extends obliquely from the beak to the middle of the ventral 
border ; umbonal slope well-arched. Surface of valves having a 
series of closely-set, and somewhat irregular, concentric striae, 
which in some specimens are merged into concentric ridges. 
The shell-surface is also marked wath faint radial striae passing 
across the ridges from the umbo to the ventral border. 

Measurements. — Type specimen: Length, 20 mm.; height, 
9 nmi. ; greatest depth of valve, 4.5 mm. Another specimen has : 
Leno-th, 15 mm. ; height, 7 mm. ; greatest depth of valve, 4.5 mm. 

[ 16 ] 


Affinities.— This type of shell belongs to the gi(iii|) exempli- 
fied by Grammysia subaicuaia, J. Hall,* from the Chemung 
Group of N. America, especially in having a forwardly pro- 
jecting beak with the ventral border narrowing anteriorly. 
Another form also distinctly i'elate(l, is the Myacites striatiihis 
of Ivdmer.t whieh notably differs in its more depressed beak. 

Oliscreatio/if.— h is interesting to iccoid that McC'oy, who 
established this genus, selected the specimen now ligured, as an 
example of Leptodovius; it was, however, not specifically de- 
termined. Tliis is probal)ly the same form to which McCoy 
referred in a note on I sheet. 4 S.W. Geol. Surv. of Victoria, 
as " Leftodomus allied to amy(jdaUnns."\ The species named 
may be allied to Hall's genus t* holadella. 

It is appropriate to dedicate this species to one who did 
such signal work in describing many typical genera and species 
of British palseozoic niollusca. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbouniian). Type 
specimen [970] from Jiroadhurst's Creek, east of Kilmorc, Geol. 
Surv., Vict., B^- 18; north-east of Kilmore, Geol. Surv., Vict., B*^- 
24. Also west of Mount Disappointment, gully near porphyritic 
dyke, Geol. Surv. Vict., B''- 16. 

Leptodomiis heathcotiensis, sp. nov. PI. I., Fig. 5. 

Description. — Shell subtrigonal, elongate, compressed; 
rounded in front, subtruneated l)ehind : ventral margin more or 
less parallel with the cardinal border, but slightly incurved, 
owing to a feeble sinus extending in a vertical line from the 
beaks to the ventral margin. Beaks anterior, salient, and nearly 
terminal. Cardinal line straight. Posterior cardinal area 
hollowed from the beaks to the j)OStero-ventral margin, resulting 
in a curved umbonal ridge below. Median area depressed. 
Surface having numerous parallel concentric ridges (about 18 
to 20). 

Measurements. — Type specimen: Length, 25 mm.; height, 
about 1^ mm.; depth of left valve, 4 mm. 

Affinities. — The nearest allied form with ours is un- 
doubtedly McCoy's " Leptodomus truncatus"% from the Upper 

•rrcliminiry notice, Lamciribranchi.itfi, 2, 1870, p. 61 : G. (I.tflodomus?) subarciiata, 
J. Hall, I'al. N.V., Vol. v., I't. I., 1885, Kamell., II., p. 375, PI. LXI., Figs. 10-22; PI. 
XCIII., Fii;. if>. 

t Das Kluinisohe lTcbcrf;anKst;<^'''''G<^i '^44. P- "<>. •''• ''•. Fi(j. 5. ncushaiiscn, 
Abhiin.ll. Kon. Prcuss. Geol. L.amlcsanst, N.F. Hcfl, XVII., i8<)5, p. 265, PI. XXIV., 
Figs. 12-14. 

tSee Sowerby, in Murchison's Silurian System, iSjo, p. 6on, I'l. V., I'lg. 2— " Cy^/- 
eartiia amvgdalina." 

§ British Paleozoic Fossils, Pt. II., 1852, p. 270, PI. iK., Figs. 2r-24. 

[ 17 1 
6»)S.— B. 


Ludlow of Benson Knot, Kcndtal, Westmoreland. The charac- 
ters which separate our species from McCoy's are the depressed 
umbones and the more closely striated surface in the former. 
In common with the Ludlow species, the specimens from Heath- 
cote also show the same variation in the length of the shell; our 
figured type being a rather elongate form. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Ranges 
east of Heathcote. Coll. of the Geol. Surv. Vict., B''- 50 
[987, type]. Also specimens from the same locality presented 
to the Museum by Mr. J. H. Gatliff. 

Genus Pal^anatina, J. Hall, 1870. 
Palceanatina cf. solenoides, J. Hall. PL I., Fig. 6. 
Palwanotina solenoides, J. Hall, 1885, Pal. N.Y., Vol. V., 
Pt. I., Lamell. II., p. 489, PL LXXIX., Figs. 38, 39. 

Observations. — The specimen before us is unfortunately in- 
complete, but there is enough evidence to show that it was thin- 
shelled, inequivalve, the left valve larger than the right. It 
bears a fairly close resemblance to the comparatively large, 
parallel-sided species from the Devonian of N. America, quoted 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). In hard, 
grey mudstone, S. Yarra. Presented to the National Museum 
by Mr. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S. [7875.] 

Genus Edmondia, de Koninck, 1842. 
Edmondia perobliqtia, sp. nov., PL I., Figs. 7, 8; PL I., Fig. 9. 
Description. — Shell sub-ovate, oblique; thickest in the 
median and umbonal area. Beaks rather inflated, directed 
forward, and situated anteriorly. Anterior border short, and 
truncated towards the ventral margin, curving widely to the 
posterior extremity, where it turns abruptly upwards to meet 
the cardinal line. Cardinal border moderately short. In the 
cast of the shell there is a depression beneath the posterior 
umbonal slope indicating a ridge or support inside the shell, 
terminating in a semilunar muscle scar. The posterior area of 
the shell is compressed, and almost nasute at the postero-ventral 
margin; and sometimes it is expanded, as in Ptycliodesma, J. 
Hall, to which this forju shows certain affinities. Surface of 
shell with fine concentric lines of growth, and obscure radii, 
especially noticeable on the umbonal slope. 

The shell of this species was evidently very thin, since the 
sculpturing is conspicuous on the casts. 

[ 18 ] 


Affinities. — Edmondia obliqaa, .). Hall* and E. suhovata, 
J. Ilall.t bear certain close relationship to our species. They 
lH)th (lilTcr, however, in general siiapc, the former heini;' sul)- 
qiiadrate, and the latter lacking the obliquity of the unibonal 
ridge. l^oth the above-mentioned species were from the 
Chemung Group (Upper Devonian) of the State of New York. 

Mensiiremonts. — Length of type specimen, 22 mm.; greatest 
height, 15 nun.; thickness of the two valves, about 8 mm. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). In pale 
mudstone, Yarra Improvement Works, S. Yarra, and the dark 
indurated mudstone of the Domain-road sewerage cuttings, S. 
Y'arra. Not uncommon. The type specimen presented by Mr. 
F. P. Spry. [7876 (type), 7877, 2239.] 

[Genus incertse sedis.] 

Genus Sphenotus, J. Hall, 1885. 
Sphenotus warburtonensis, sp. nov. PI. I., Fig. 10. 

Description. — [Details from an internal cast.] Elongate- 
ovate: anterior extremity short, posterior broad and compressed. 
Beaks prominent, sub-anterior; a well-marked umbonal 
ridge running from the beaks to the post-ventral border. 
Cardinal line nearly straight; area having several long, undulose 
and thin lateral teeth, posteriorly, and two short cartlinal teeth 
beneath the beak. Ventral margin sinuous, incurved towards 
the middle, where it meets a conspicuous cincture in front of the 
umbonal ridge. Shell compressed tencath the beaks, and with 
the margin rounded to the ventral border. A strong adductor 
impression occurs under the beaks, situated half-way to the 
ventral angle. Surface of cast marked by strong lines of growth 
at wide intervals, shown as deep groovings. 

Measurements. — Length, 53 mm.; height, 25 mm.; depth 
of valve, G nun. 

Ohservntions. — Tiio al)ove species is typical of the genus in 
all essential details. It differs from Modiolopsia, to which genus 
it might othei\ be readily referred, in having the charac- 
teristic lateral teeth and anterior cincture. 

It is noteworthy of this genus that elsewhere, as in England 
and N. America, it has hitherto only been recognised in the 
Dovonirin; but its occurronce here, in one of the highest beds of 
the Victorian Silurian, is not surprising, since we already know 

• Pal. N.V.. Vol. v., Vt. I., 1885. Lamell. II., p. 388, PI. LXIV., Figs. 15, 16, 23. 
flbid., p. 389, PI. I.XIV., KIr'!. 10, 1S-21, 26-28. 

f 19 1 

B 2 


tluit llie i'aiiiia present in these beds has a stronjf Devonian 
aspeet, which abnormal feature has led Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., 
and other Australian palaeontologists to refer to such assem- 
blages as Siluro-devonian. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silmian (Yeringian). Reefton, 
Warburton, Upper Yarra, Victoria. From the Mines Dept., 
Vict., No. 3431. [2240.]* 

Family Cardiolidse. 

Genus Cardiola, Broderip, 1839. t 

Cardiola cornucopias, Goldfuss sp., PI. I., Figs. 11, 12. 
Cardium cormicojnce, Goldfuss 1837, Petrefactise Ger- 
maniae, Vol. II., p. 216, PI. CXLIIL, Figs. 1 a-e. 

Cardiola interrnj)ta, Sowerby, 1839, in Murchison's 
Silurian System, p. 617, PI. VIIL, Fig. 5. 

Observations. — Our Australian specimens present no dif- 
ferential characters by which they can be even varietally sepa- 
rated from the well-known European species. Numerous 
examples of ('. cornuco'pice from Bohemia in the National 
Museum collection help to confirm the opinion of Sowerby and 
others regarding the identity of that species with C. interrupta. 

Although Sowerby's specific name {interrupta) is almost 
universally used for this form, it must unfortiinately be set aside 
for the earlier described C. cornucopice of Goldfuss. The 
specific name C. interrupta, given by Sow-erby (not Broderip, 
as Fischer in his "Manuel de Conchyliologie," gives it) was not 
published until two years after that of Goldfuss' description. 
There was no previous reference to, nor description of, fJ. inter- 
rupta, as Murchison would lead one to suppose (see his foot- 
note— Silur. Syst., p. 617); for turning to the Proceedings of 
the Geological Society of London, Vol. II., under date January, 
1834, p. 13, the reference given by Sowerby and Murchison, no 
allusion to ('. interrupta is found, while in the Table facing p. 
13, Div. I., Ludlow Rocks, we read — " Cardiola," Brod., a new 
genus, 2 spp. My friend Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, F.G.S., who 

* In Progress Report No. IV. Geol. Surv., Vict., i8;;, p. 156, there occurs .-i note by 
McCov on this and associated fossils, stating them to be of Ludlow age. Even at the 
present time we cannot speak much more definitely, but judging from the strong Devonian 
aspect of the fossils they may be even comparable in part to the Dowtonian. 

t Recorded as a genus (nomcn nudum] in 1834, in :Murchison, Proc. Geol. Soc, Vol. 
II., Table, p. 13. 

[ 20 ] 


has been good enough to verify these references, thinks that in 
all pn)l);il)ility the original laanuscript of Murchison was 
abbreviated before publication. 

Cardiola cornucoji'ur (as (!. intevnt[>Ui) has a recoidcd 
range in Britain from the Llandeilo to the Upper Ludlow 

lloriznn and Locality. — Silurian (Mclbournian). In brown 
and blue shale from the Yarra Improvements, S. Yarra, col- 
lected by Mr. F. Spry and the author. Also in brown sand- 
stone, IVioonec Ponds (.'reek, Flemington (" Roval Park '"). Coll. 
by Geol. Surv. Vict. [7878, 987.] 

Family Prsecardiidse. 
Genus P.\nenka, Earrandc, 1881. 

Panenka gippslandica, McCoy, sp. 

('(trdium aippslandicuvi, McCoy, 1879, Prod. Pal., Vict., 
Decade VT., \x'2\i., 1>1. LVI. 

Observations. — In describing tlii.s fossil under the generic 
name of Cardium, McCoy wrote : — " Although not quite satis- 
fied with ihc generic reference to Cardium, still it is congeneric 
with the previously described Upjjcr Silurian Cardiums." At 
that time the genus to which we now refer it had not been estab- 
lished, but in 1881 Earrande separated those forms with ex- 
panded superior margin and strong radial and concentric 
ornament from Cardiola, Broderip, to which the Upi)er Silurian 
"Cardiums" were afterwards referred, and ])lae('(l them under 
the above generic name. In Victoria, the genus PanenLa is 
found associated with Silurian and occasional Devonian forms, 
in one of the highest group of the Yeringian IkmIs; it is 
characteristic of the Silurian and Devonian in J5ohcniia (stages 
1'' to G), and of Devonian beds in Devonshire and N. America. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). Mt. Mat- 
lock; near Starvation Cre<^k; and Russell's Creek, Gippsland 
1 74bG (type), 74^7-SS. 2097.] 

Panenha /'Irmicosta, sp. nov. PI. I., Fig. KJ. 
Description. — Shell minute (for this genns), sub-orbicular, 
oblique; cardinal alse conspicuous; hinge line nearly straight; 
ventral border well-rounded, truncated in front and produced 

• K. lilhcriilgc, Foss. »rit. Ms., I'alico/.oic, Vol. I., 1888, p. loi. 

[ 21 ] 


behind. Height nearly equal to the length. Beak.s prominent, 
sub-central, slightly anterior, and directed forward. Surface 
of shell not much inflated, with the greatest convexity towards 
the middle; ornamented by about 10 flaltcned riblct.s on tlic 
median area, each having towards the ventral border a distinct 
groove, becoming evanescent beyond half the length. I\)stero- 
dorsal area bearing a few riblets, disappearing toward the 

Measurements. — Length of the type specimen, 4.25 mm.; 
height, 4 mm. 

Observations. — This ibrm might be regarded as the imma- 
ture shell of P. gijJfslandica, but for the distinguishing feature 
of the riblets, which are depressed and grooved, whilst in P. 
rfipjx^Iandica they are simply and sharply ridged. 

Affinities. — The nearest related form to the above appears 
to be Barrande's Panenka nana.* from Stage E in Bohemia. 
The chief differences shown in the latter are the more numerous 
riblets, the narrower interspaces, the double strise on their sur- 
faces, and the general form of the shell, Avhich is not so 
depressed; neither are the alae so well developed as in ours. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). In the dark 
shale of Mt. Matlock, associated with Tentacvlites matlock- 
iensis. Chapman ;t presented by Mr. N. Lepoidivil, in 1877. 

Panenlca cingulata, sp. nov. V\. I., Fig. li. 

Description. — Shell of medium size, obovate, ventral border 
evenly rounded, abrupt in front, produced behind. Surface 
evenly convex in the median area and near the umbones; concave 
anteriorly, depressed posteriorly. Beaks oblique, pointing for- 
ward. Surface ornament consisting of about 26 curved ribs 
radiating from the umbo, well-rounded, closely set and separated 
by deep furrow^s. The ribs are transversely crossed at intervals 
by the rather deep concentric furrows, which apparently repre- 
sent distinct stages in the growth of the shell, causing 
interference with the continuous and even growth of the riblets. 

Measurements. — Length, 38 mm.; height about 26 mm.; 
greatest depth of valve, 5 mm. 

Observations. — The regular convexitv of the valves, and the 
rounded ribs render this form easily distinguishable from P. 
gippslandica, McCoy. 

* Syst. Sil. Boherae, Vol. VI., Pt. I., Acephales, 1881, PI. 110, Figs. 1-3; PI. 266, 
Figs. I., 4-7. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc, Vict., Vol. XVI. (new series), Pt. II., 1904, p. 338, PI. XXXI., 
Figs. I, 2, 3, 5. 

[ 22 ] 


Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). MacMahon's 
Creek, Upper Yarra. Coll. by Dept. of Mines (37H0) 
[2263]. Another specimen, probably related to the above 
species, was presented to the National Mnsenni by Mr. R. Jacob 
in 18G7. This was foinul at the Caledonian Diggings. One Tree 
Hill, Christmas Hills, in strata apparently of abont the same 
horizon as that of the type sj)ecinicn. In this example the sliell 
is higher than the figured type, but this difference may Ik; 
due to compression; the concentric furrows also are not so well 
marked. [7880.] 

Genus Paracardium, Barrande, 1881. 

Paracardium filosum, sp. nov. PI. I., Figs. 15, 10. 

Description. — Shell sub-trigonal, the beaks prominent, 
ventral margin rounded and expanded. Surface contour well 
arched, especially in the umbonal region and towards the 
ventral margin. Surface ornament consisting of about 22 fine, 
flattened riblets, grooved medially. Cardinal line not perfectly 
preserved, but apparently less extended than in the previous 

Affinities. — The small size of the shell, together with the 
prominent, incurved umbones, and the sub-truncate posterior, 
show this fossil to belong to the genus Paracardium. It closely 
apjiroaches Barrande's P. fiUferum* in surface ornament, but 
dilVers in the more regular proportion of the fine and coarse 
riblets. The Bohemian examples occurred in the Silurian 
(Stage E). 

Measurements. — Height, 7 mm. ; length, 8 mm. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). Starvation 
Creek, Upper Y''arra. Coll. Geol. Surv., Victoria (3779). 

Genus PRiELUciNA, Barrande. 
PrcBlucina ancilla, Barrande. PI. VI., Figs. 88, 88a. 

Pro'lucina, ancilla, Barrande, 1881, Syst. Sil. Boheme, Vol. 
VI., p. 280, PI. LXVIII. 

Observations. — The occurrence of this species in the 
palaeozoic of Victoria is of some stratigraphic importance, since 
it is apparently a widely-distributed form, having already been 
described by Barrande from the lowest bed of the Devonian 
series in Bohemia, a black limestone (FF,) resting on Silurian 

• Syst. Sil. BoMme, Vol. VI., Pt. I., i88i, Ac^phaUs, PI. I XXV., Figs. II. 1.4. 

[ 23 ] 


(Ee.). Although we have only a mould from a single specimen 
to judge by, there can be no hesitation in assigning our example 
to the above species, for it shows the following characters in 
common with Barrande's figured specimens : — Shell longer than 
high, sub-oval, truncatcly lounded in front at the base, boldly 
curved behind; beaks low, pointed slightly forward, and situated 
anteriorly. The riblcts are numerous (risuallv about 80), 
rounded; moderately strong on the basal margin, becoming very 
fine and almost obsolete towards the umbo. The shell-surface 
is marked with concentric, inequidistant furrows. 

The hinge characters are not shown in any of Barrande's 
specimens, nor in ours, but in the latter the area on either side 
of the beaks is marked with several conspicuous short, curved 
folds or ligamental grooves, more or less parallel with the car- 
dinal border. 

Compared with actual Silurian (Stage E in the Bohemian 
Basin) species of the genus, our specimen differs from the 
nearest allied form, P. lustralis* in its more sharply truncated 
anterior, and higher shell. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). Maindample, 
near Mansfield. Presented by Mr. Hutchinson, per Rev. R. 
Thom. [7882.] 

Family Ctenodontidse. 
Genus Ctenodonta, Salter, 1851. 

It seems convenient to refer the nuculoid shells without 
ligament-pit (i^esilifer) to Salter's genus, whilst the subrostrate 
forms of the same type find a place in Palceoneilo of J. Hall. 
Some authors, as Beushausen, include both the above-named 
forms in the one genus. 

Ctenodonta lyortlocki, sp. nov., PI. II. Figs. 17-20. 

Description. — Outline of shell variably elongate-ovate to 
subquadrate; with moderately high umbones and a prominent 
cardinal area, the hinge lines sloping away from the imibo. 
Beaks anterior, the posterior hinge line tAvice the length of the 
anterior. Surface of shell concentrically striate, or with shal- 
low concentric grooves. 

* Barrande, op. cit., I'l. LXXI., Figs. 1-13. 

[ 24 ] 


Measurements — 

Ex. 1. Length, 15 iniii. Height, 10.5 mm. 

Kx. 2. T>cn<rtli, 10 iiiin. Iloitiht, 8 mm. 

Y.\. 3. Length, 1J.5 imii. Height, Id mm. 

OhsciL-ations. — Tlic \'ictoiiaii specimens ai)[)car ti> loscmblo 
I'ocllociv's Area [('liiKK/oiifaj i/issiiiiilis^ from tlic I'lipcr Ortlu- 
vician of Tyrone, Irehuul, in some particulars, Imt diUVr jii 
having a sl(»|)ing or ^-shaped cardinal lino. In C dissiinilia 
the hinge line is straight, and the area conspicuous. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian) ; in the 
mudstoneof South Yarra, type presented by Mr. Spry. Silurian 
(Yeringian); Wilson's Station, Lilydale, presented by Mr. d. 
T. Jutson; junction of Woori Yallnck and Yarra, B 23, Coll. 
Gcol. Surv. Vict. [7883 (type), 7884-6.] 

Genus Nuculites, Conrad, 1841. 

[Note. — Certain species from Victoria in tlic National 
Museum now described for the first time, were labelled as Cucul- 
lella by McCoy, and this name was used in tlic notes on the 
quarter sheets of the Geological Survey of Victoria. Since 
Conrad's genus Nuculites is essentially the same as McCoy's 
Cucullella, and antedates it by some years, it is obviously the 
correct one for adoption.] 

Nuculites maccoyianus, sp. nov., PI. II., Figs. 21-23. 

Description. — Shell elongate-ovate; variable in size, and to 
some extent in form. Cardinal lino sinuously ai'chod, ventral 
margin gently and evenly curved, rounded oil' abru|)tly at the 
anterior border; posterior extremity rounded, sometimes com- 
pressed, narrow and flange-like. Cardinal area having the 
characteristic taxodont hingo. Surface moderately convex, 
highest just below the beaks; the latter are usually depressed 
an<l situated sub-anteriorly, project ing slightly forward. l''ach 
valve carried an anterior buttress or clavicular ridge immedi- 
ately in front of the umbones, and there is a distinct posterior 
adductor im|)rossion midway between the beaks and the pos- 
terior margin. The specimens found are practically in the 
form of internal ca.sts and moulds, but the latter show indica- 
tions of a surface ornamentation of concentric rugae or lines of 

• Rep. Gcol. LoQdoQderry, 1843, p. 428, PI. XXXIV., Fig. s- 

[ 25 ] 


Measurements. — Smallest specimens, length, 4.5 nun.; 
height, 3 mm. A large example, length, 12 mm.; height, 7.5 
nnn. The largest specimen in the present series has a length 
of 15 mm. 

Affinities. — The Nuculites ohlonrjatus of Conrad* from the 
Hamilton Group in North America is, in general features, 
closely coniparahle with our species, hut differs in having a rela- 
tively greater length and a straight ventral margin. With re- 
gard to the posterior adductor impression nearly always present 
in the Victorian species, comparison may be made with a simi- 
larly marked fossil shell, Nuculites colonicus Rcedt from the 
Bokkeveld beds of Cape Colony. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Very 
abundant in the ochreous and blue mudstone at the Yarra Im- 
provement Works, S. Yarra, and the Swanston-street sewer near 
Collins-street; in brown mudstone N. of Yan Yean, Geol. Surv. 
Vict., coll. B^- 11; and in pale grey mudstone, Merri Creek, Kal- 
kallo, Geol. Surv. Vict., coll. B^ 3; also Silurian (Yeringian), 
junction of Woori Yallock and Yarra. Geol. Surv. Vict. B 23. 
[7887 (type), 7888-9, 969-75.] 

Nuculites coarctatus, Phillips, sp. PL II., Figs. 24, 25. 

Nuciila coarctata, Phillips, 1848, Mem. Geol. Surv. Gr. 
Brit., Vol. II., Pt. I., Paleeont. Append., p. 366, PI. XXIL, 
Figs. 1-4. 

Cucullella coarctata, Phill. sp., McCov, 1852, Brit. Pal. 
Foss., Pt. II., p. 284. 

Observations. — This species was originally described from 
the Ludlow Rocks of Great Britain, and it is therefore interest- 
ing to find it also in the Silurian rocks of Victoria. A. coarctatus 
is a somewhat variable species, but is distinguished from the 
allied form N. triqueter, Conrad,:}: from the Hamilton Group of 
N. America, by the beaks being less pronounced, and the 
posterior area not so obliquely produced. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). In the 
mudstone of S. Yarra, specimen presented bv Mr. F. P. Spry; 
west of Mount Disappointment; coll. Geol. Surv., Vict., B''- 17. 
(See note on \ sheet 3 N.E., " Cucullella sp.") [7890-1.] 

* J. Hall, Pal. N. York, Vol. V., Pt. I., i88;, Lamellibranchiata II., p. 324, PI. 
XI.VII., Figs. 1-12. 

t .'\nnals S. African Museum, Vol. IV., Pt. VI., No. 11, 1904, p. 250, PI. XXXII., 
Fig. I. 

J Geol. Surv. New \ork, Ann. Kept., 1S41, p. 50. See .ilso J. Hall, Pal. N. York, 
1885, Vol. v., Pt. I. Lamell. II., 326, PI. XLVII.", Figs. 1--2S, PI. XCIII., Figs. 810. 

[ 26 ] 


Nuculltes subquadratus, sp. iiov. J 'I. II., Figs. 26, 27, 27«. 

Description. — Shell of medium size, subquadrate in out- 
lino, narrower anteriorly; the ventral border l)roadly curved and 
truncated towards the jiostero-cardinal angle. Beaks rather 
prominent, situated sub-anteriorly and directed forward. 
Anterior buttress impression commencing just in front of the 
i)eal\, curving slightly, and traversing al)out two-thirds of the 
distance to the ventral margin. Posterior adductor impression 
strong. Surface highly convex; median area near the beaks 
dejtressed. curving evenly to the ventral margin, rather steep 
towartl the postero-ventral angle, presenting a decided umbonal 
slope; depressed immediately below and in front of the beaks. 
Shell surface ornamented with closely-set, concentric lines of 
growth, and crossed by fine stria?, which apparently radiate from 
the umbo, becoming stronger towards the ventral margin. 

Measurements. — (1) Length, 11.5 nun.; height, mm. (2) 
Length, 6 mm.; height, 5 mm. 

Observations. — This species is unusually short, and reminds 
one of Area in its squareness. The two specimens figured, 
although differing somewhat in details, are referred to the 
same species, as they agree in their essential features. 
In A', subquadratus we have a surface ornamentation similar to 
that seen in some of the better-preserved British specimens of 
vV. coarelatus, this feature of the radiating stria? apparently 
being confined to these two species. 

Affinities. — The present species very closely approaches A^ 
nyssa, J. Hall.* from the Hamilton Group of N. America, but 
the latter form is not marked with radiating stria?, nor is it so 
quadrate in outline. 

Horizon and Lnenlity.- Silurian (Melbournian). North of 
Yan Yean; coll. Geol. Surv., Vict., B'" 11; west of Mount Dis- 
appointment, G.S.V., Bb- 17. [7892 (type), 977.] 

Nuculites jutsoni, sp. nov. PI. IT., Fig. 28. 
Description. — Valves ovately elongate, length nearly twice 
the height. Ventral margin evenly curved ; cardinal line slightly 
arched. Beaks sub-anterior, tumid; anterior extremity broadly 
rounded and compress^vl beneath the beaks: posterior extremitv 
narrow. |)rfKluced, curving ui)ward and forward to meet the 
cardinal line obtusely. Deepest part of the valve just behind 
the anterior third. Surface somewhat steeply inclined in front 

• N. Vork, Vol. v., rt. I., 1885, I..nmcll. TT., p. 3^8, PI. XT.VIT.. FIrs. 2^, 30. 

: 27 ] 


and along- the cardinal area, boldly arched in the middle, and 
thence sloping gently to the back and basal margin. A few 
i'aint irregular concentric striaj or growth-lines present. 
Indications of the anterior buttress just below the umbo; this 
feature is shown more clearly in another specimen collected from 
the same locality by Mr. F. P. Spry. 

Measurements. — Height, 7.5 mm.; length, 14 nun.; depth of 
valve, about 3 mm. 

Affinities. — The nearest form to the above appears to be 
Nuculites oblongatus, Conrad,* a fossil of the Hamilton Group 
of N. America, and already compared with our A. maccotjianus. 
The above species differs, however, from the N. American 
example in being slightly more convex at the umbones, more 
strongly curved on tlic ventral margin, and more attenuated 
posteriorly. It differs from the previously-described A', mac- 
coyianus in the more forward position of the beaks and the 
acuter posterior extremity. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian ( ; Yeringian), Wan- 
dong,t Victoria. Presented by Mr. J. T. Jutson. Also from 
the same locality, presented bv Mr. F. P. Spry. [7893 (type), 

Family Nuculidse. 

Genus Nucula, Lamarck, 1799. 

Nucula melbournensis, sp. nov. PI. II., Figs. 29, 30, 31, 31a, 
( 032, ( 032rt, ( 033, ( 033a. 

Description. — Shell broadly ovate, ventral margins evenly 
convex; cardinal line oblique, arcuate; anterior end short, 
obliquely rounded towards the base; posterior end broad and 
rounded. Beaks prominent, pointing slightly forward, and 
closely adpressed. Greatest thickness of valves just below the 
beaks. Surface sculptured by varices or undulpe at more or less 
equal intervals. Adductor impressions well-marked on the 
surface of casts. 

Measurements. — Type specimen. — Length, 13.5 mm.; 
height, 10.5 mm.; width of shell near umbones, 6 mm. 

*J. Hall, Pal. N. York, Vol. V., Pt. I., 1SS5, LameO. \\, p. 324, PI. XLVII., Figs. 

f The rock containing the above fossils is a dark brown irregularly bedded sandstone, 
probably younger than the dark impure limestone with Dalmanites found to the westward 
of the same locality. 

[ 28 ] 


Affinities. — This species resembles in outline A', bellistriata, 
Conrad, sp.,* from the Hamilton Group of N. America, but lacks 
the fine concentric sculptuiiny of the surface seen in the latter. 

Observations. — A', melbuurnensis is variable in outline, and 
although agrcein<.f in general form, a series can be readily 
collected which shows a regular gradation from narrow-oblong 
to broadly-ovate, or even sub-orbicular forms. It is abundant 
in some of the localities around Melbourne, especially in the hue 
argillaceous sliales. So far as avc RTiow at. piescnt, N . melbour- 
nensis is conlincd to the neighbourhood of Alelbourne. 

Horizon and Loeality. —Silurian (Mclbournian). Yarra 
Improvement Works, S. Yarra; Sewerage Works, Domain road, 
S. Yarra; Swaiiston-street Sewer. Mell)ourne; also a doubtful 
specimen from Mcrri Creek, Kalkallo (Kinlochcwc). Coll. Geol. 
Surv., Vict., W> 3. [7895 (type), 7896-8, 985-6.] 

Nucula umbunata, sp. nov. PI. II., Figs. 34, 35. 

Description. — Shell sub-trigonal, oblique; strongly convex, 
especially toward the beaks. Ventral margin gently rounded; 
anterior border widely curved, sloping steeply and sub-truncated 
at the junction with the ventral margin; the posterior border 
is formed by a long curved slope, meeting the ventral margin 
somewhat abruptly. Beaks not very prominent, incurved, 
gibi)ous. Umbonal slope narrowly rounded, extending from the 
beaks to the postero-ventral margin. Surface of shell marked 
by several strong concentric varices, between -which occur 
numerous line growth lines. One specimen shows the ligament- 
pit (resilifer) very clearly. 

Measurements. — Length, 11 mm.; height, 9 mm.; depth of 
valve, 3.5 mm. 

Affinities. — Both in the general form of the shell and its 
surface ornamentation our species shows some relationship with 
.V. rnrirosa, J. Hall.t a fossil from the Hamilton Group of N. 
America (N. York State). A marked dilleience, however, exists 
between them, in that the Australian species has sub-;inleiior 
beaks which are not prominently directed forward. 

Horizon and Locality.- — Silurian (Melbournian). Type 
specimen from the Police Paddock, Kilmore; coll. Geol. Surv., 
Vict., B''- 22. Also from the south end of the Pcservoir, Yan 
Yean; coll. Geol. Surv., Vict., B>> 14. [7899 (type), 7900.J 

•Sec J. Hall, Pal. N. York, Vol. V., Pt. I., i88<;, I.atncllibranrhi.ila II., p. 318, PI. 
XI.VI.. 1-iKs. J-0- 

t l'.il. N. York, Vol. v., Pi. I., 1S81;, I-.Tmcll. II., p. 31.). I'l. XI.VI., Pigs. 12-23, 
I'l. XCIII., Kig. 4. 

[ 29 ] 


Nucula arcceformis, sp. uov. I'l. II., i-"ig. ^6. 

Descrij)tion. — Shell sub-rectangular, oljlong; strongly 
convex toward the beaks, sloping away toward the ventral 
margin, which is depressed and almost flange-like. Beaks 
])romincnt, sub-central, directed slightly forward. IJoth ex- 
tremities vertically truncate and only slightly rounded; ventral 
margin straight. Surface marked by irregular and somewhat 
coarse undulations or lines of growth, especially conspicuous 
near the ventral border. 

Measurements. — Length, 15 mm.; height, 10 mm.; depth of 
valve, about 2.5 nun. 

Affinities. — The shape of the valve in this species is pecu- 
liarly rectangular, and not quite comparable with any form 
hitherto figured, the nearest being Nucida subcecpialis, McCoy, 
sp.,* from the Upper Llandovery beds of the Malverns and 
Wales. The latter species, however, is much more gibbous in 
the umbonal area. A fragment of another valve is fortunatelv 
found underlying the figured specimen of N. arccBformis, which 
shows the form of hingement to belong to the genus Nnciila. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). In the hard 
black shale of the Domain-road Sewer, and the blue mudstone 
of the Yarra Tmpt. Works, S. Yarra (coll. by F. P. Spry). Also 
from Merri Creek, sect. XXVIIL, parish of Merriang, and hills 
east of Creek; coll. Geol. Surv., Vict., B^- 6. [7901 (type), 

Nucula taylori, sp. nov. PL II., Figs. 37, 38. 

Description. — Shell small, sub-ovate. Beaks prominent, 
incurved, sub-acuminate, sub-central. Cardinal line strongly 
arched. Ventral margin gently and evenly rounded, curving 
boldly anteriorly, and sharply at the posterior extremity, where 
it is truncated toward the beaks. A well-marked umbonal 
slope runs from the beak to the postero-ventral margin. 
Cardinal area on both sides of beak depressed. Surface smooth, 
or with a few faint lines of growth. 

Measure7iients.—\.Q\\gi\\, 6.5 mm.; height, 5 mm. 

Affinities. — iV. taylori bears some resemblance to Nactda 
anglica, d'Orbigny,t which ranges from the Caradoc series to the 
Lower Ludlows in liritain; the chief difterence being the greater 
convexity of our form, especially in the umbonal region. 

*(Arca siibccqualis) Brit. Pal. Fossils, p. 283, PI. iR., Fig. i. Siluri.i, 4th ed., PI. 
X., Figs. 7, 8. 

t Prodr., p 33, Stnge I, No. 194. A^iicula ovalis, Sowerby, Sil. Syst., 1S3Q, 
p. riori, PI. v., Fig'. 8. Ctenodonia anglica. d'Orb. sp. Siluria, 4tli ed., 186;, PI. XXXIII., 
Fig. 10. 

[ 30 ] 


Observations. — This species is named after Mr. Norman 
Taylor, who was attached to the Geological Survey of Victoria, 
ami surveyed the district whence the present specimens came. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Broad- 
hurst's Creek, east of Kilmorc; coll. Geol. Surv., Vict., B''- 18; 
also Yarra Irupt. Kxtcnsion, JJoyts J'addoek, S. Yarra. I're- 
sented hy Mr. F. V. Spry. [7907 (type), 7908.] 

Nucula ojjima, J. Hall, sp., var., australis, nov. PI. IIT., Figs. 


Cuculhva opima, J. Hall, 1885, Rep. 4th Geol. Distr. N.Y., 
p. 197, No. 78, Fig. 3 (p. 19(3). 

Nucula randalli, J. Hall, 1885, I'alKont. N. York, Vol. V., 
Pt. I.. Lamell. II., p. 315. PI. XL\L, Figs 6, 10, 16, 23, 26, 27; 
V]. Xf'TTT.. Figs. 1, 3. 

Observations.— In the general shape of the valves and their 
surface ornamentation our Victorian variety agrees fairly 
closely with the form figured by J. Hall under the names of 
Cucullcea ojiivia and Nucuki randalli. [[all ivmai-ked on the 
identity of the fossils desci'ihcd under the two above-named 
species,* but preferred to retain the later name since it had 
"gone into the literature of the science." The earlier name, 
however, should undoubtedly be employed, in accordance with 
accepted rules of nomenclature. 'J he N. American examjiles 
were obtained from the Hamilton Group of the State of New 

The Victorian specimens are much smaller than the N. 
American, the largest measuring only 13 mm., whilst the average 
length of J. Hall's e>cam))les is about 23 mm. In the Vic- 
torian variety there is a greater tendency for the concentric 
striae to liecome fasciculate. Two of our specimens (PI. III., 
Figs. 41, 43) show a remarkable gibbosity of the umbonal area. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). From the 
Yarra Improvement works, S. Yarra, jMcscntcd by Mr. F. ]*. 
Spry; also from the coll. Geol. Survey of Victoria, north of Yan 
Yean, B''- 11; from a shaft of the tunnel in Ue.scrvoir, Yan 
Yean, B''13; Fraser's, or No. 3, Creek. Springfield. B'- 25. (Yeringian). About 1,', miles l)elow Simmons' l5ridgo 
Hut. on the Yarra; coll. Geol. Surv., Vict., BIG. [7909 (type), 
7910-13, 965-6.] 

• Op. supra, cit., 1885, p. 315, footnote, 

[ 31 ] 


Nucula cf. lirata, Conrad sp. IM. III., Fig. 44. 
Nuculites lirata, Conrad, 1842, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Philad., Vol. VIII., p. 250, PI. 15, Fig. 7. 

Nucula lirata, Conrad, sp., J. Hall, 1885, Pal. N. York, Vol. 
v., Pt. I., Lamell. II., p. :jlU, PI. XLV., Fig.s. 5, 1], 15, 17-22, 
24,25; PI. XCIIL, Fig. 5. 

Observations. — Our figured specimen is a crushed valve of 
a Nycula, showing the ligaineut-pit and denticulate cardinal 
area. The strong lirae and the general form of the shell, point 
to an affinity with the above species, which occurs in the 
Hamilton Group of N. America. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). From the 
coll. of Geol. Surv. of Vict., Van Yean. Bb. 14. [7914.] 

Nncula lamellata, J. Hall. PI. III., Figs. 45 (var.), 46. 

Nucula lamellata, J. Hall, 1885, Pal. N. York, Vol. V., Pt. 
I., Lamell. II., p. 320, PI. XLV., Fig. LJ; PI. LL, Figs. 18-21; 
PL XCIIL, Fig. 7. 

Observations. — This species of Nucula is of a somewhat 
different type to the usual forms, particularly in the sub- 
quadrate outline, and the sub-central position of the beaks. A 
connecting link between the sub-ovate forms and this species is 
exemplified in N. lirata, Conrad, sp.* 

In nearly all the Victorian specimens before us, represented 
either as internai impressions or hollow casts, the ligament pit 
is visible. One of our fossils (Fig. 45) appears to be a short 
variety of the above species. The specimens referred to by 
McCoy on quarter sheet 4 S.W., Geol. Surv. Vict, (notes on Bb. 
18, 20, and 22), under the MS. name of Orthonotus suhrigidus 
are here included under Nucula lamellata, J. Hall. 

In N. America, N. lamellata is found in the Hamilton and 
Chemung Groups in the State of New York. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Schist 
Hill, Merri Creek, coll. Geol. Surv. Vict., B^- 6; south end of 
Pvescrvoir, Yan Yean, coll. Geol. Surv. Vict., B''- 14; Broad- 
hurst's Creek, east of Kilmore, coll. Geol. Surv. Vict., B''- 18 
(short variety); Kilmore creek, north of Special Survey, coll. 
Geol. Surv. Vict., B^- 20; Police Paddock, Kilmore, coll. Geol. 
Surv. Vict., B^- 22. Silurian (Yeringian); about 1^ miles 
below Simmons' Bridge Hut, on the Yarra, coll. Geol. Surv. 
Vict., B16. [2252, 2243-49.] 

* See above references. 

[ 32 ] 


Family Ledidse. 
Genus Pal/EOneilo, J. llall, 1870. 
Palceoneilo victorice, sp. nov. PI. III., Figs. 47-49. 
Description. — Shell of variable size, length more than twice 
the height, rostrate; moderately convex in the umbonal region 
and the triangulai' aiea beneath, tlic latter bounded Ijy the 
anterior slope ami the posterior umbonal ridge. Cardinal line 
nearly straight w oidy slightly arcuate; ventral border sub- 
parallel and .straight, but nai'rowing the shell i)ustci'iorly, widely 
roimded anteriorly to meet the cardinal line at an obtuse angle; 
the hind extremity narrow, with the postero-ventral angle 
bluntly I'uunded, curving backward and inward to the cardinal 
line, which posteriorly torms a salient angle. Escutcheon well 
marked, the depressed area bounded abruptly by the umbonal 
ridge. Surface of shell gently convex and sloping anteriorly; 
towards the ventral margin the surface slopes more steeply, 
whilst the margin itself, in adult shells, is depressed and flange- 
like. Beaks sub-central oi' slightly posterior, prominent, some- 
what incurved and depressed, or only moderately inflated. 
Hinge showing an alternating series of curved bars and sockets. 
On the cardinal border there is a well-marked groove to receive 
the external ligament. Surface ornamented with numerous 
concentric lamellar ridges, between which are several parallel 
thread-like stria?, whilst, in a very few well-preserved examples, 
traces of fine lineations radiating from the umbo are seen, 
especially stronger on the salient edges of the concentric 

Measurements. — Type specimen (PL III., Fig. 47). 
Length, 27 nun.; height, 12 mm.; number of concentric lamellte 
in the space of 4 mm., measured in median area — 7. 

A medium-sized example. — Length, 17 mm.; height 7.5 
mm.; number of concentric lamellai in the space of 4 mm. in 
the median area — 9. 

A small example. — Length, ID mm.; height, 6 mm.; 
number of concentric lamellae in space of 4 mm. — 16. 

Observations. — The number of the concentric lamellar 
ridges to a given width is not a factor of any importance in 
dealing with this group, so far as the Victorian examples show, 
and the various graduations in ornament do not allow of even a 
sub-varietal division of the species. A possible explanation of 
this varying feature in ornamentation, and one partly borne out 
by the evidence liefore us is, that in areas of quiet sedimentation 

[ 33 ] 

6608.— C. 


the molluscs found time and material for forming a broad 
varix along the pallial border; whereas in sandy areas or under 
impure conditions of the water, as, for instance, in the presence 
of decaying Crustacea and cephaloi^oda, seen in the JJomain- 
road examples, the successive laminae were laid down closer 
together, and the shell itself would be proportionately thin and 

This, together with another newly-described ornate species, 
P. 'producta, are among the commonest forms of the genus in the 
Victorian rocks. 

Affinities. — P. victoria' somewhat resembles the type of 
shell described under the name of P. muta by J. Hall,* from the 
Hamilton Group of the State of N. lork. P. muta differs, 
however, from our species in having the beaks decidedly anterior, 
in the extremely lamellose condition of the main concentric 
striae, and in the absence of the concavely depressed escutcheon 
in the posterior region. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). From the 
Yarra Improvement Works, S. \arra, in blue and yellow shale, 
common; in the hard, dark shale of the Domain-road Sewerage 
Works at 103 ft. from surface, presented by Mr. F. P. Spry. 
In the yellowish sandstone with casts of shells, coll. Geol. Surv. 
Vict., Moonee Ponds Creek, Flemington; in the brown argil- 
laceous rock of Broadhurst's Creek, east of Kilmore, coll. Geol. 
Surv. Vict., B^'- 18. In the brown argillaceous sandstone of 
Anderson's Creek, near Warrandyte, coll. Geol. Surv. Vict., 
B22; in the sandstone of Fraser's, or No. 3, Creek, Springfield, 
coll. Geol. Surv. Vict., B^ 25. [7915 (type), 7916-7.] 

PalcBoneilo raricostce, sp. nov. PL III., Fig. 50. 

Description. — Shell of variable size, length more than twice 
the height, elongate-ovate, rostrate. Depressed convex. 
Umbonal ridge not strongly developed. Anteriorly broad and 
Avell-rounded, the margin meeting the cardinal line at an obtuse 
angle; posteriorly produced and sharply rounded. Cardinal 
line arcuate, straight between the vertical line and the posterior 
angle. Beaks depressed. Teeth of hinge characteristic, but 
comparatively large and few. Greatest convexity of shell- 
surface just behind the anterior umbonal slope. Shell orna- 
mented with well-marked lamelliform concentric varices, com- 
paratively widely spaced, the area between each being relieved 
by numerous thread-like striae. 

*Pala;ont. X. York, Vol. V., Tt. I., 18S5, Lamcll. II. p. 33;, PI. XLIX.. Figs. 25-32. 

[ 34 ] 


Measurements. — Type specimen : Length, 21.5 mm.; height, 

9 nun.; number of coucentnc lamellar ridges measured over a 
^vidth of 4 mm. — 5. 

Observations. — The above species is recognised by its 
depressed valves, the somewhat acutely rostrate posterior 
extremity, and the comparatively wide interspace between the 
concentric ridges. 

Affinities. — This species also shows certain aHinitics with 
the previously-mentioned P. miifa, J. Hall, from the Hamilton 
Group of New York State. The rostrate extremity of P. 
raricostce and its depressed shape shows it to be specifically 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). From the 
dark mudstone at the junction of the Woori Yallock and the 
Yarra, coll. Geol. Surv. Vict., B2o. In the olive-brown mud- 
stone about li miles below Simmons" Bridge Hut on the Yarra, 
coll. Geol. Surv. Vict., BIG. [7918 (type), 2251.] 

Pala^oneilo spectabilis, sp. nov. IM. IIL, Figs. 51, 52. 

Description. — Shell of medium size, elongate ovate, 
rostrate; strongly convex in the umbonal region. Beaks nearly 
central, moderately well-inflated and gibbous. Cardinal line 
arcuate, gently curving to the broad anterior extremity. 
Ventral border straight, inclining posteriorly towards the 
cardinal line, and meeting the latter in a somewhat sharp curve. 
Umbonal slope forming with the median area a sinuous and 
obtuse ridge. Anterior slope gently convex. Teeth compara- 
tively stout, and not so numerous as usual in this genus; about 

10 on the posterior side of the beak. Surface having a series 
of concentric step-like folds and lamellar ridges, with com- 
paratively fine striae in the intervals between the ridges. 

Mea.'^urenients. — The type specimen: length, 28.5 mm.; 
height, 11.5 mm.; depth of valve, about 4 mm. 

Observations. — This species is distinguished from P. vic- 
torice by its umbonal convexity and consi)icuously rostrate 
outline. It is also a much heavier shell, and the groove for the 
external ligament is more distinctly seen. 

Horizon and Locality.— iii\nr\a,x\ (Melbournian). In the 
blue and yellow shale of the Yarra Tm])rovpnient Works, S. 
Yarra. Tvpc presented by Mr. F. P. Spry. Also in the fine- 
grained sandstone at Moonee Ponds Creek. Flemington, coll. 
Geol. Surv. Vict., B 8. [7919 (type), 7920.] 

[ :{r, ] ' • '•• 



Palwoneilo j)roducta, sp. nov. I'l. III., Figs. 53, 53a. 

Descri'ption. — Shell small, ovate, very long, length more 
than twice the height; posteriorly attenuate, almost rostrate. 
Cardinal line only slightly arched, ventral border gently 
rounded, and curving upward toward the posterior end, then 
abruptly forward, meeting the cardinal line at an obtuse angle; 
well-roiinded anteriorly, and curving boldly To the cardinal line. 
Beaks acuminate and salient, nearly central. X'alvcs depressed- 
convex below; highest in the middle and at the umbonal region, 
sloping steeply towards the front, and gently to the posterior 
extr-emity, except where interrupted by the umbonal ridge and 
sulcus; the latter is rather feebly developed, and is parallel with, 
and in front of, the posterior umbonal ridge. Shell surface 
marked with very fine, regularly concentric striae, about 12 to 
the millimetre, counted on the middle of the shell below the 
umbonal inflation. 

Measurc7nents. — Type specimen : Length, 15 mm. ; height, 
6.75 mm. ; depth of valve, about 2.5 mm. 

The average length of the larger number of specimens found 
is 11 mm. 

Affinities. — This species shows a certain relationship to 
PalcBoneilo elongata, J. Hall,* from the Chemung Group (Upper 
Devonian) of the States of New York and Pennsylvania. 'the 
points of difference, however, are these : — 

The present species has more acuminate beaks. 

It is proportionately more elongate. 

The cardinal margin is less arcuate. 

The surface striee are finer and more than twice as 

Horizon arid Locality. — Silurian (Melboiirnian). Common 
in the blue and brown shale at the Yarra Improvement Works, 
S. Yarra (type specimen presented by Mr. 1. P. Spry). Also 
from the Domain-road sewer, S. Yarra. In the coll. Geo!. Surv. 
Vict, a single specimen from N. of Yan Yean, B''- 11. [7921 
(type), 7922, 1563.] 

Palwoneilo f constricta, Conrad sp. PI. III., Fig. 5-4. 

Nuculites constricta. Conrad. 1842. Journ. Acad. Nat. 
Sci.,Philad., Vol. VIII., p. 249, PL XV., Fig. 8. 

Palwoneilo constricta, Conrad sp., J. Hall, 1885, Pal. N. 
York, Vol. v., Pt. I., Lamell. II., p. 333, PI. XLVIIL, Figs. 
1-16; PI. LI., Fig. 17. 

* Pah-Eont. N. York, Vol. V., Pt. I., 1885, Lamell. II., p. 345, PI. XLVIII., Fig. 39; 
PI. XCIII., Fig. iia. 

[ 36 ] 


Observations. — Our figure is drawn from a cast of a nucu- 
Inid shell which, b)^ its depressed umbo, apparent absence of a 
ligaiiioiit-pit and constricted jiosterior angle, Tails into tiic 
genus Palcponei/o as defined bj^ J. Hall. The present specimen 
IS exactly coni])arablo in outline with Conrad's figuic of P. con- 
stricta, and it further shows a characteristically large posterior 
adductor impression. Tn the absence of external ornament 
there is some slight doubt as to its specific identity. 

This species ranges through the Devonian of North 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). In the 
shale of the Yarra Improvement Works, S. Yarra. [7923.] 

PalcEoneilo cf. brevis, J. Hall, pI.VT:^ Fig- 55. 

Paheoneilo brevis, J. Hall, 1870, I'relim. Notice Lainell. 2, 
p. 10, Id. 1885, Pal. N. York, Vol. V., Pt. I. Lamell. II. 
p. 342, PI. L., Figs. 24-33. 

Observations. — Our specimen is comparable with the above 
form in having a short, ovate valve, ornamented with fine con- 
centric strine. The posterior margin is not perfect, but the 
depressed surface in front of the umbonal ridge is sufficient 
indication of the presence of a constriction on the basal margin 
of the shell. In the absence of more perfect specimens 
it will be safer to indicate the species with some reserve. J. 
Hall's examples were from the ("henmng Group (Up. Devonian) 
of the States of New York and Pennsylvania. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). In pale 
mudstone, Merri Creek, sects. 2 and ;J, Kalkallo (Kinlochewe), 
coll. Geol. Surv. Vict. 3^3. [968.] 

Pal(€oneilo cf. tenuistriata, J. Hall, I'l TIL, Fig. 56. 

Palwoneilo tenuistriata, J. Hall, 1885, Pal. N. York, Vol. 
v., Pt. I. Lamell. IT., p. 336, PI. XLIX., Figs. 1-12, 14; PI. 
XCIIL, Fig. 13. 

Observations. — Our figure is taken from a wax squeeze of 
a mould of the external surface of shell. In the regularly and 
finely striate surface, and the obovate form of the valve it can 
be closely compared with J. Hall's species cited above. The 
strongest points of difference are, the obsolescence of the postero- 
umbonal sulcus in our form, and the central position of the 
beaks, although one example figured by Hall approaches ours 

[ 37 ] 


very closely in this respect. The Victorian specimen may also 
be compared with P. fecunda, J. Jlall,* althouf^h that species 
has a marked depression in front of the umbonal ridge. 

P. tenuistriato occurs in the Hamilton nr()ii[) in the States 
of New York and Pennsylvania. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). In the 
whitish mudstone of Merri Creek, Serfs. 2 and 3, Kalkallo, coll. 
Geol. Surv. Vict. B^ 3. [967.] 

Family Parallelodontidae. 

Genus Parallelodon, Meek and Worthen, 1866. 

Parallelodon spryi, sp. nov. Plate I., Fig. 3. 

Description. — Shell of medium size, subovate; cardinal line 
nearly straight, meeting the posterior border almost at right 
angles, but slightly upturned; ventral border convex, narrower 
anteriorly, and broadly curved posteriorly. Median area 
swollen, rising prominently towards the beaks, which are 
situated sub-anteriorly; posterior region compressed. Cardinal 
area exposed in the type specimen, showing what appears to be 
the extremity of a series of about six parallel and slightly 
oblique hinge-teeth. Surface of valves grooved concentrically, 
the highest part of the ridges being obliquely striated, the 
stri« radiating from the beaks. Indications present of a large 
anterior muscle impression situated close to the cardinal area. 

Measurements. — Length, about 26 mm.; height, 17 mm.; 
thickness of entire shell, 8 mm. 

Observations. — The presence of a parallel series of anterior 
teeth points to relationship with Parallelodon, sensu stricto. 
The genus Macrodon, Lycett, 1845 (nom. emend. Macrodns. 
Beushausen, 1895)t is closely allied, and is regarded by Dall]; 
as synonymous. The latter genus differs in some slight respects, 
such as the obliquity of the anterior teeth. Should both types 
prove to be congeneric, the former name will stand, since the 
latter had been used by J. Mliller for a genus of fishes, whilst 
Beushausen's name is of much more recent date. 

*Tom. supra cit., p. 336, PI. XLIX., Figs. 13, 15-24. 

+ Abhandl. von Preuss. Geol. Landesanst., N. F. Heft. XVII. p. 36. 

X Text-book of Palaeontology, Zitlel-Eastman, 1900, p. 364. 

[ 38] 


Affinities. — Both Macrodon hamiltonicE, J. Hall, of the 
Hamilton Group of N. America* and Macrodus villmarensis, 
ik'iishausi'ii. tVoiii the upper l)eds of the Middle Devonian of the 
Rhine areat bear a general resemblance to our species, but in 
many points of detail they are quite distinct, lacking; the boldly 
curving ventral inarj^in, and strong compression of tlie i)osterior 
region of the shell seen in the Australian species. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yerinf:^ian), Wandong, 
Victoria; in yellow sandstone. Type specimen collected and 

f resented by Mr. F. P. Spry, after whom tHe species is named. 

Parallelodon ccqualis, sp. nov. Plate IV., Fig. 57. 

Description. — Shell small, elongate oval, rounded and con- 
stricted in front, broader and truncated behind, with a sharp 
unibonal ridge extending from the umbo to the postero-ventral 
margin. Beaks sub-anterior, or nearly central, inflated and 
directed forward. Cardinal line straight; ventral border 
slightly curved and approximately parallel with the hinge- 
line. Three posterior, oblique, lateral teeth visible behind the 
beaks, and close to the cardinal border. 

Measurements. — Length, 12 mm.; height, 7.5 mm.; depth 
of valve, 2.5 ram. 

Observations. — The above species belongs to a type of shell 
of which the ".l/ro sciti/la" of iMcCoyl is an example. That 
species differs from ours in the more extended posterior, and in 
the strong concentric surface ornament; McCoy's species may, 
however, eventually prove to be more nearly related to the 
North American Devonian types of this genus. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). In brown 
mudstone, Yarra Improvement AVorks, S. Yarra. Presented by 
Mr. F. P. Spry. [7924.] 

f Parallelodon kilmoriensis. sp. nov. PI. TV.. Fig. 58, 1 fig. 59. 

De.<^cri ption. — Shell small, rhomboid, sub-circular; length 
a little more than the height. Ventral margin boldly rounded; 
both extremities broad, the anterior short and truncate, the 
posterior margin curving upward and forward to meet the 
cardinal line. Beaks prominent, slightly anterior, pointing 

•Prelim. Notice, I.nmrlli., 2, p. 13, 1S70. Sec mIso ]. Hall, I'liljpont. New York, 
Vol, \'.. I't. I. I..iincllibr.inrliial.i, II.,' 1R81;, p. nn, V\ T.T., Kijrs. 1, 7, 0, 10. 

t Abhandl. von. Preuss. Landesanst., X. V. Mefl., XVII., 1805, p. 38, PI. IV., 
Fig. 2. 

J Synopsis of the Silurian Fossils of Irelind, 1846, p. jo, PI. IT., Fig. 6. 

r 39 ] 


forward and inward, umbonal area triangular, with a slight 
vertical depression from the beak towards the ventral margin. 
Cardinal line long and straight; cardinal area compressed in 
front and Ijehind. Surface marked with fine concentric lines of 
growth, which become lamellose in the cardinal area. 

Measurements. — Length, 16 mm.; height, 14 mm.; depth 
of valve, 3.5 mm. 

OhservafAons. — This species is referred to the genus 
Parallelodon with some reservation, since the hinge structure is 
obscure. The evidence tends, however, in the direction of this 
genus, for the beaks are not closely adpressed, and the cardinal 
area is lamellose, as in typical forms of Paralleloclon, pointing 
to the former presence of an external and amphidetic ligament. 

The specimen figured on PI. VI., Fig. 4, although at first 
suggestive of TeUinoj^sis, is apparently referable to this species, 
possessing the lamellose cardinal area and traces of teeth. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Coll. of 
the Geol. Surv. Vict, in the Nat. Museum; I'olice paddock, Kil- 
more, B'^- 22. Also a doubtful example from Swanston-street 
sewer, Melbourne. [7925 (type), 7926.] 

Family Pterineidse. 

Genus Pterinea, Goldfiiss, 1832. 
Pterinea lineata, Goldfuss, PI. IV., Fig. 60. 

Pterinea lineata, Goldfuss, 1837, Petrefactise Germanise, 
Vol. II., p. 135, PL CXIX., Figs. 6 a-c. 

cf. Amhonychia tatei, Cresswell, 1893, Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Vict., Vol. v., N.S., p. 44, PI. IX., Fig. 8. 

Observations. — There is very little doubt that the imperfect 
valve figured under the name of Ambonychia tatei by the Rev. 
A. W, Cresswell is an example of Pterinea lineata, Goldfuss. 
Fragments of the above form are fairly common at some 
Yeringian localities east of Melbourne, and it seems to be a 
characteristic form in the uppermost Silurian beds in Victoria 

In Britain, this species was recorded by McCoy from the 
Ludlow beds; in Germany it is a well-known Devonian fossil. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). ? Lilydale 
(Rev. A. W. CressAvell); north of Lilydale, in mudstone, pre- 
sented by the Rev. A. W. Cresswell; and Croydon, near Lilydale, 
in mudstone, presented by Mr. Thos. Warr.' [7927, 2269" (tvpe 
of " A. tatei ")]. 

r 40 1 


? Pterinea tenuistriata, McCoy. PI. IV., Fig 61. 

Ptennea temiistriata, McCoy, 1852, Brit. Pal. Foss., p. 263, 
PI. 1 I., Fig. 4. 

Observations. — The Victorian example shows very little 
diflcrence from McCoy's figured specimen; tlie chief distinction 
being the acute form of the ears, a character which is not sufh- 
ciently important to justify its separation from the British 
species. Were there other specimens for comj)arison it is prol)- 
able that we should find more tyi)ical examples them. 
The general form and surface ornament is simihir to the British 
species. It has been recorded in Britain from the Wcnlock and 
tJie Lower and Upper Ludlows. This species is doubt- 
fully referred to the genus Pterinea, as further examples may 
show that both McCoy's and our specimens are really referable 
to Actinopteria. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silui-ian (Melbournian). Yarra 
Improvement Works, S. Yarra. Presented by Mr. F. P. Spry. 


Genus Actinodesma, Sandberger, 1850. 

Actinodesma cf. ampliata, Phillips, sp. Plate VI., Fig. 87. 

Avicula ampliata, Phillips, 1848, Mem. Gcol. Surv. Gt. 
Brit., Vol. 2, Pt. 1, p. :367, PI. XXIIL, Fig. 1. 

Pterinea ampliata, Phillips, sp., de Koninck, 1876, Foss. 
Pal. Nouv.-Galles du Sud, Pt. 1, p. 37. 

Observations. — A somewhat imperfect valve of a Pterinea- 
like shell which occurs in the present series is, with very little 
doubt, referable to the above genus. It is most closely allied to 
Phillips' species above-mentioned, both in form and ornament, 
which fossil was originally describcil from the Upper T-udlow of 
Llangadoc in Walc^. 

De Koninck has recortled this species from Sihuian rocks 
at Dangelong, Cooma District, New South Wales. 

Comparison mav also bo made with J. Tlnll's " r/////^/o- 
desina" erecfiim,* from the Hamilton Group of N. America. 
This shell, however, is longer on the ventral margin, and the 
valve is not so strongly convex. 

•Pal. N. York, Vol. V., I't. I., 1884, Lamtll., F., p. 153, PI. XI., Kigs. i-io; PI. XII., 
Figs. 1-3, ,-o; PI. XIII.. Figs. 1-4, li-i:;; PI. XXV., Figs. 14-17; PI. I.XXXVI., Figs. 
18; PI. LXXXVII., Figs. i-j. 

I ^11 J 


Our fossi], which is the impression of the interior of a left 
valve, shows tlie presence of transverse striae on the cardinal 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). North of 
T.ilydale; presented by the Rev. A. W. Cresswell, M.A. [2267.] 

Family Lunulicardiidae. 

Genus Lunulicardium, Miinster, 1840. 

Lunulicardium anti striatum, sp. nov. PI. |V., Figs 62 63 

63a;64-65 (juv.). 

Descripion.—^heW vertically sub-elliptical to sub-circular, 
somewhat oblique; generally highly convex. Heaks prominent, 
sub-anterior, incurved, with an external ligamental groove 
situated in front of the beak. Anterior border narrow; 
posterior broad, gently curved and sub-truncate. Surface 
marked concentrically with coarse rugae, and radially striated, 
bearing numerous fine riblets. sometimes showing a'granulose 
ornamentation when magnified. 

Meas7irements. — A typical left valve. Height, 36 mm.; 
length, 30 mm. ; depth of valve, 7 mm. Right valve of a long 
variety— height, 18 mm.; length, 21 mm.; depth of valve 6 mm. 

Observations. — The above fossils, from the uppermost beds 
of the Victorian Silurian, at first glance present little difierence 
from those figured under the name of ? Cardium striatum bv 
Sowerby.* A minute inspection of a fairlv long series of Aus- 
tralian specimens shoAvs, however, that, although closely related 
to Sowerby's species, their costulfe are less numerous and more 
distinctly medially grooved, especially towards the ventral 
margin of the shell, and also that the concentric folds are much 
more pronounced. Our species is more oblique than that figured 
by Sowerby, and in this respect they agree more closely" with 
the variety mentioned by that author, from Brindgwood Chace 
floe, cit., p. 614). A specimen of the Dudley shell in the 
National Museum collection shows the multisfriate character of 
the externa] surface very clearlv, and that the riblets or strife 
tend to become medially grooved near the ventral margin. The 
related British species ranges from the Bala beds to the Lower 

*In Murchison's Silurian System, 1830, Pt. IT., p. 614. PI. V\., Fig. 2. Cardiola 
striata, Sow. sp., Etheridge, 1888, Foss. Prit. Ids., Vol. I., P.ilaeozoic, p. 102. 

[ 42 ] 


From the Tentaculite slates (G^) of Bohemia, Barrande has 
described LunuHrardiiiin graniilosuin, which, althougli a more 
depressed shell, is closely related to our species, more especially 
in the granulose ornament of the shell surface.* 

In the shaly mudstone from the mouth of Starvation Creek 
there also occur numerous small bivalves (Figs. 64, 65), which, 
on first examination, might reasonably be mistaken for a species 
of Vlasta; in its superficial character and general form, however, 
it corresponds very closely to the prodissoconch and early disso- 
conch stages of Lnniilicard'mm antistriatum. In connexion 
with these specimens it is interesting to compare the figure of 
? Vlasta, sp., figured l)y Mr. F. H. C. Reed from the Upper 
Silurian beds of Zebingyi, Burma, t 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). Common in 
the blue slates and shales of McMahon's Creek, Upper Yarra, 
Dept. of Mines coll. (3778); Reefton, near Warburton, Dept. of 
Mines coll. (3432, 3434).} 

The apparently young examples, or micromorphs of the pre- 
sent species occur at Mount Matlock, associated with Tentacu- 
lites matlockiensis, Chapm., specimens presented to the Museum 
by N. Lepoidivil. Esq., in 1877; and from the mouth of Starva- 
tion Creek, coll. Dept. Mines, Vict. (3368). § [2257 (type), 2255, 

Family Ambonychiidae. 

Genus AMnoNVCHiA, J. Hall, 1847. 

Ambnnychia acuticostata, McCoy, PI. IV., Fig. 66. 

? Ambnnychia aniticnstata, McCov, 1852, Brit. Pal. Foss., 
p. 264, PI. IK., Figs. 16, 16«. 

Observations. — This is a sub-trigonal or sub-ovate shell, 
which in its general form and ornamentation closely resembles 
McCoy's species from the Wenlock and Lower Uudlow Beds of 
Wales. Our specimen shows a less distinct co.station on the 
umbonal part of the shell, but this may be due to imperfect 

•Sysl. Sil. Hohcm., Vol. VI., Pt. I., PI. 192, Figs. 6-10. 

t Pnla-ontoloci.i Inrlica, N.S., Vol. TI., Mem. i, 1006, p. iiq, PI. VI., f. 37. 

JSee I'roR. Rep. No. IV., 1877, Geol. Surv. Vid., pp. 156, 157, where the Kite Sir F. 
McCoy in'lir.itcd their :\ge to be I'pjier Siltirian (I.ikIIow). 

§ Sec torn, supra cit., p. 156, where McCoy refers to these specimens as "a small 
Aviculoid shell allied to Ambonychia (new species)." 

[ 43 ] 


preservation, as it seems to have been partly decorticated. The 
tegulate ornament on the sharp costse towards the base of the 
shell appears exactly as shown in McCoy's drawing. There 
seems to be no reason for doubting the generic affinity of this 
species, although queriod by McCoy. In his Fossils of the 
British Islands, Eobt. J^^theridge refers* to the genus without 
a qiiery, but misquotes the specific name as " acuticosta." 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringianj. Cave Hill, 
Lilydale. Collected by the author. [2268.] 

Genus Mytilarca, J. Hall, 1873. 
Mytilarca acutirostris, sp. nov. PI. IV., Fig. 67. 

Description. — (Cast). Small, ovate, sub-trigonal; length 
slightly less than the height. Anterior and basal margins 
curved and meeting almost at right angles; posterior margin 
truncate and broadly curved. Beaks acuminate, curving 
sharply forward. Cardinal grooves presenf on the anterior 
and posterior ligamental areas. An anterior umbonal ridge 
passing immediately below the beaks to the ventral margin. 
Highest part of valve just behind this ridge. Surface of shell 
gently curving from the beaks to the base and truncated 
posterior margin, steeply falling to the anterior border, where 
it is depressed, and continued so along the base. Inner surface 
markings consisting of numerous, indistinct, concentric growth 
lines seen as shallow sulci. 

Measurements. — Length, 9 mm.; height, 10.5 mm. 

Affinities. — The present species differs from Mytilarca 
{" Cardimn"] trigona, Goldfuss sp.t in having the beaks more 
incurved, and a more rounded basal margin. Another species 
which seems to bear some relation towards ours is Salter's 
Mytilarca \" Mytilvs"] chemvngensis (nan Conrad), from the 
Wenlock Shale of Usk, Wales.:}: This is, however, a more 
generally elongate form. 

Horizon and' Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). Coll. Geol. 
Surv. Viet., from junction of the Woori Yallock and Yarra, 
B 23. [7930.] 

*Vol. I., i888, p. gg. 

t PetrefactiiE Germ.inix, Vol. TI., 1837, p. 2iq, PI. CXI. II.. Fi^s. Sa-c. 

J Mem. Geol. Surv. Gr. Brit., Vol. II., Pt. I., 1848, p. 365, PI. XX., Figs. 10, 11. 

[ 44 ] 


Family Conocardiidse. 
Genus Conocardium, Brown, 1835. 

Conocardium hellulum, Cresswell, sp. 

Pleurorhvnchus helhtlus, Cresswell, 189:3, Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Vict., Vol. V.', N.S. p. 43, PI. IX., Fig. G. 

Observations. — This species is dis'tiuguislied from the 
rarer form which accompanies it, by the more numerous costae, 
which are typically lamcllated or even squamose, by the greater 
obliquity of the umbonal ridge, ami by its generally smaller 

Affinities. — The nearest described form to C. bellulum is 
Salter's species C. dipterum* from the Upper Ordovician (Bala 
beds) of Ayrshire, Scotland. In this species, however, the 
umbonal ridge and the costae are not so oblique nor so strongly 

C. bellulum also shows some alliance with Conocardium 
cuneus, Conrad sp. var. nasuta, J. Hall,t a fossil which occurs 
in the Helderberg series of New York State. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (icringian). The type 
specimen was found by the Rev. A. W. Cresswell at Cave Hill, 
Lilydale. It is also an abundant species in the dark-blue lime- 
stone of Deep Creek, a tributary of the Thomson River, Gipps- 
land, 7 miles N. of Walhalla. Specimens from the latter locality 
were presented to the National Museum by Mr. Cresswell. In 
the Geol. Surv. Coll. from the junction of the Woori Yallock and 
Yarra. B 23. we have a single specimen in mudstone, which 
is also referable to the above species. [911 (type), 2343-51, 

Conocardium costatum, Cresswell sp. 

Pleurorhynchus costatus. Cresswell, 1893, Proc. R. Soc, 
Vic, Vol. V. N.S., p. 43, PI. IX., Fig. 5. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian); a slightly 
crushed and otherwise imperfect specimen from the Domain- 
road sewer is here doubtfully referred to the above species.- — 
Presented by Mr. F. P. Spry. 

Silurian (Yeringian). The type specimen came from Cave 
Hill, T.ilydale, and there is also another specimen from the same 
locality in the National Museum collection. [910 (type), 1086, 

•In Murcliison's Siliiriu, 1850, 3r(l eil., \<. Ji.t, l'os>ils 36, Kig. 7 (Pleurorhynchus 

t Pal. N. York, Vol. V., I't. I., 1885, I.amcll, II., p. 410. IM. I.XVII., Figs. 12 20. 

[ 45 ] 


Family Pteriidse. 

Genus Actinopteria, J. Hall, 1883. 

Actinopteria texturata, Phillips sp., Plate IV., Figs. 68, 68a. 

Avicula texturata, Phillips, 1841, Palaeozoic Fossils of 
Cornwall, W. Devon and Somerset, p. 51, PI. XXIIL, Figs. 
87a, b. 

Pterincea texturata, Phill. sp., R. Etheridge, 1888, Foss. 
Brit. Islands, Vol'. I., p. 159. 

Actinopteria texturata, Phill. sp., Whidborne, 1892, 
Devonian iauna (Pal. Soc. Mon.), p. 74, PI. IX., Figs. 2, 2a, 'S, 
3a, 5-7. 

Observations. — This is an oblique shell with an unusually 
deep left valve. The ornament is very distinct from the usual 
type in this genus, consisting of a series of rounded radial rib- 
lets crossed at varying intervals by moderately thin undulating 
laminae, and this gives to the shell-surface a woven appearance. 
The only difference between our form and already described 
specimens is the convexity of the posterior wing of the 
left valve, which, however, seems to be a minor character. 
An extraordinarily large specimen, which may belong to this 
species, occurs in the present series; this specimen shows a 
tendency in the gerontic stage to throw off irregular concentric 
laminae on the shell-surface, instead of regular, rounded 
threads, whilst the radii become almost obsolete towards the 
ventral margin. 

The previously-recorded examples of Actinopteria texturata 
were from the Devonian, of Devonshire, England; the occurrence 
of Victorian specimens thus extends its range both from a geo- 
graphical and geological point of view. 

This figured specimen is probably that referred to by Mr. 
Cresswell as " Pterincea sub-falcata, or an allied species."* It 
differs from Conrad's sitb-falcata in the character of the ribs, 
which in that species are not crossed by intermediate threads. 

Measurements. — Spec, a (figured). — 

Height, 23 mm.; length, 19 mm.; depth of valve, 5 mm. 
Spec, b ( ( texturata) — 

Height, about 53 mm.; length, about 46 mm.; depth of 
valve, about 16 mm. 

*Proc R. Soc, Vict., Vol. VI., N.S., 1894, p. 156. 

[ 46 ] 


Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). The figured 
specimen is from the mudstone N. of Lilydale; the hxrge example 
is from the limestone of Cave Hill, Lilydale. Jioth specimens 
were collected by the Rev. A. W. Cresswell, M.A. ['2'2(i4, 2'270.\ 

Actinopteria boydi, Conrad sp., Plate IV., Fig. G9, PI. V., 70. 

Avicula boydii, Conrad, 1842, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Philad., Vol. VllL, p. 237, PI. XIL, Fig. 4. 

Pterinea boydi, Conrad sp., McCoy, 1852, Brit. Pal. Foss., 
p. 259. 

Actinopteria boydi, Conrad sp., J. Hall, 1884, Pal., N. 
York, Vol. SI., Pt. I., Lamell. I., p. 113, PI. XIX., Figs. 2-24; 
PI. LXXXIV.. Figs. 16, 17. 

Obsercations. — This very handsome species, although 
variable, is sufficiently distinguished by its characteristic radial 
and concentric ornament; the concentric laminae are undulose 
and concave between the rays, meeting the latter in a more or 
less sharp point. The edges of the concentric lamellae are often 
so pronounced as to give rise to a series of scalloped frills. The 
areas cut oft' l)y the concentric lamellae are usually much higher 
than broad. 

This species occurs in the Upper Ludlow in Britain, at 
Kendal, in Westmoreland. In N. America it is abundant in 
the shales of the Hamilton Group in New York State. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). In mud- 
stone from Wilson's, near Lilydale, presented by Mr. J. T. 
Jutson. Also from a shallow well at Crovdon, presented by 
Mr. Thos. Warr. [7933-35.] 

Actinopteria asperula, McCov sp., var. croydonensis, nov., 

Plate v.. Fig. 71. 

Observations. — This variety is distinguished from the type 
species described by McCoy,* by its shorter form and fewer 
ribs, the latter numbering about 22 on the body of the shell in 
the Victorian variety. The essential characters of our shell, so 
far as they can i)e made out, are, with the above exceptions, the 
same as those of the specific form. McCoy's species was 
recorded from the Caradoc series of Ilivdnorshire, Wales. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). In the yel- 
low mudstouc from a shallow well near Kilsyth Post Office, 
Croydon, near Lilydale. Presented by Mr. Thos. Warr. [7936.] 

*PUrinea? asperula, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., jnd ser., Vol. VII.. jS^i, p. 60. Brit. 
Pal. Foss., Pt. II , 1852, p. 250 >'l. II., Kig 5. 

[ 47 ] 


Actinopteria cf. sowerbii, McCoy, sp. J'l. V., Fig. 72. 

Avicula reticulata, ^ovfQrhy {nonlii'imgev , non Goldfuss), 
1839, in Murchison's Silurian System, p. 614, PI. VI., Fig. 3. 

Pterinea sowerbii, McCoy, 1852, Brit. Pal. Foss, p. 263. 

Observations. — The Victorian specimen is represented by 
an imperfect mould of the shell, and a wax impression of this 
shows it to be closely allied to the above-named species. The 
ornament of lamellated concentric fohls, and the interrupted 
radii, together help to support this identification. Until better 
specimens have been discovered, however, it is safer merely to 
point out its relationship with the British fossil, which has been 
recorded as ranging from the Upper Llandovery to the Aymestry 

There is another species to whicli our shell bears some 
resemblance, namely, " Pterinea " lamellosa, Goldfuss,* but the 
radial ornament of the latter is much more strongly pronounced 
than in our specimen. Goldfuss' species is a typically Devonian 
shell, and has only been doubtfully recorded from the Wenlock 
shale and limestone in Britain.! 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). Reefton, 
Warburton, Upper Yarra; coll. Geol. Surv. Vict. (spec. 3431). 

Actinopteria heathcotiensis, sp. nov. PI. V., Fig. 73. 

Description. — Left valve obliquely extended to the posterior 
angle; umbo sub-anterior, rather prominent. Anterior ala (0 
small, posterior triangular, inflated in the central area; the 
longest side adjoining the posterior slope and extending half- 
way down the posterior margin. Anterior extremity narrow, 
the border curving obliquely round the ventral to the posterior 
margin, which is greatly produced, meeting the border of the 
posterior slope at a blunt angle. Posterior slope distinctly 
hollowed. Surface of shell evenly and gently convex from the 
middle of the umbonal area to the posterior corner, and more 
strongly convex from the umbo to the ventral margin. The 
shell is concentrically sulcose and striated, the striae turning up 
at an acute angle on the posterior wing. Traces of radial striae 
from the umbo to the ventral border. A salient feature of this 
species is the strongly convex ventral margin. 

Measurements. — Height, 46 mm. ; length, 65 mm. ; depth of 
valve, 8 mm. 

* Petrefactiae Germanias, 1837, p. 136, PI. CXX., Figs. 10, *. 

t R. Etheridge, Brit. Pal. Foss., Vol. I., 1888, p. 100 [recorded in error as Pterinea 
laminosa, Goldf.]. 

[ 48 ] 


Affinities. — Our species appears to be closely allied to 
Whidijoriie's Actinopteria hirnndella*, from the iJevonian of 
Lumiiuitou, Uevonsliire. 'J'he latter species differs in the more 
forward position of the beaks, and in the straight posterior 
slojjc behind the umbones. Anotner species having the same 
type of shell is " Ptcrinea" ventricosa, Gold fuss, t 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). East of 
Heathcote; coll. Geol. Surv. Vict. [7938.] 

Genus Leiopteria, .1. Jlall, 1883. 
Leiopteria cf. oweni, J. Hall. I'late V., Figs. 74, Ha. 

Leiopteria oiceni, .1. Hall, 1884, Pal. New York, Vol. V., 
Pt. 1., Lamell. I., p. 170, PI. XX., Fig. 10. 

ObsercatioHs. — The Victorian specimen is represented as a 
fairly complete cast in mudstone. So far as can be seen, it 
resembles the above species in its outline, and details of surface 
markings, such as the undulose growth lines and faint and com- 
paratively widely-spaced radii. Hall's specimens came from 
the Hamilton Group of New York State. 

Mr. H. Etheridge, jun., has described a species probably 
referable to this genus under the name of Leiopteria f 
australis\, from the Carboniferous, neaf West Maitland, New 
South Wales. Our species could scarcely be compared with the 
former, which has a shorter hinge-line, and conseiiucntly smaller 
l)osterior wing, whilst in outline it dil't'ers considerably, being 
altogether a higher shell. There are, moreover, no traces of 
radii in Etheridge's species. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian ( Vrringian). Kilsyth, 
Croydon; presented by Mr. Thos. Warr. [7939.] 

Family Pectinidae. 

Genus Aviculopecten, McCoy, 1852. 

Aviculopecten spryi, sp. nov. PI. V., Fig. 75. 

Description. — Shell small, sub-orbicular; ventral border 
almost circular; narrow at cardinal area, hinge-line short, ears 
well defined. Umbo fairly conspicuous. Surface broken by 20 
grooves, the intermediate areas foiniing (le])ressed convex ribs 
with a strong median striation and fainter lateral strife. 

♦ Pal. Soc. Mon., Vol. XLVI., 1892, Devonian Fauna of the S. of England, p. 6:, 
PI. VI.. FiRS. 5, 6; PI. VII.. Fir. 4. 

+ I'clrcfurtisc (".ermania;, Vol. II., 1837, p. 134. PI. CXIX., V\g. 2 

X Geol. Surv. N.S.W., Vol. V , Pi tv., 1898, p. 178, PI. XIX.. Fit;. 19. 

[ 49 ] 
660S.— D. 


The original is an impression of a left valve in blue mud- 
stone, and the drawing has been made from a well-defined cast 

in wax. 

Observations. — The above fossil is a typical Aviculopecten, 
in accordance witli the emended definition of the genus given by 
J. Tlall,* since it has a short hinge-line and well-defined ears. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Yarra 
Improvement Works, S. Yarra; presented by Mr. F. P. Spry. 
[7940. J 

Family Modiolopsidae. 

Genus Modiolopsis, J. Hall, 1847. 

Modiolopsis melbournensis, sp. nov., PI. V., Figs. 76, 76a. 

Description. — Shell small, sub-quadrate, elongate, com- 
pressed posteriorly; length rather less than twice the height. 
Cardinal line nearly straight; ventral margin parallel. 
Anterior extremity narrowly rounded, and incurved under the 
prominent sub-anterior beaks. Posterior extremity broadly 
rounded, and meeting the hinge-line at an obtuse angle. 
Umbonal ridge extending from the beaks to near the postero- 
ventral angle. Greatest convexity of surface in the umbonal 
region; ventral area somewhat depressed. Surface marked by 
fine, irregularly concentric growth-lines. 

Measurements. — Length, 16 mm. ; height, 9 mm. 

Affinities. — A form nearly allied to the above is Modiolopsis 
solenoides, Sowerby, sp.t, from the Upper Ludlow, near Bridge- 
north, England. It differs from our species, however, in its 
greater compression, less prominent beaks, and in having a 
broad median depression in the ventral region. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Yarra 
Improvement Works, S. Yarra. [7941.] 

Modiolopsis complanata, Sowerby, sp. PI. V., Fig. 77. 

Pullastra complanata, Sowerby, 1839, in Murchison's 
Silurian System, p. 609, PI. V., Fig. 7. 

Modiolopsis complanata, Sow. sp., McCoy, 1852, Brit. Pal. 
Foss., p. 266. 

*Pal. N. York, Vol. V., Pt. 1., 1884, Lamell. I., p. XII. 

t Siluria, 3rd ed., 1859, PI. 23, Fig. q ['■ Orthonota [ICyfricardia) solenoides"]. 

[ 50 ] 



Observations. — The Middle Devonian I'ossil identified by J. 
Phillips* as f PuUastra complanata, 'Sowerby, is distinct from 
the Sihirian fossil, and is not related to Mudiulupsis, since the 
posterior cardinal area is not compressed nor expanded, whilst 
the beaks are not situated so far forward. The Victorian 
specimen agrees in almost every detail with Sowerby 's species, 
which in Great Britain occurs in the Weiilock, the Upper 
Ludlow, and the Tilestone Series. 

Measurements. — 'ihe Victorian specimen has a length of 
18.5 mm.; height, 11 mm. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbouniian). This 
striking species was found by Mr. F. P. Spry in the blue mud- 
stone of the Van-a Inipioveinoiit \\'oiks, S. Vaira, and pre- 
sented by him to the National Museum. [7942.] 

Modiolopsis nasiita, Conrad sp., var. australis, nov. 
Plate VL,. Fig. 78. 

References to type form — 

Cypricardites nasuta, Conrad, 1841, Ann. Rep., p. 52. 

Cypricardites nasuta, Emmons, 1842, Geol. Rep., p. 403, 
Fig. 4. 

Modiolopsis nasuta, Conrad sp., J. Hall, 1847, Pal. N. 
York, p. 159, PI. XXV., Fig. 7. 

Orthonotus nasutus, Conrad sp., McCoy, 1852, Brit. Pal. 
Foss., p. 275, PI. 1 L, Fig. 23. 

Orthonota nasuta, Conrad sp., Salter, 1859, in Murchison's 
Siluria, 3rd ed., p. 74, fossils 12, Fig. 12. Etheridge, 1888, 
Foss. Ikit. Ids., Vol. I., Palaeozoic, p. 108. 

Observations. — Those elongate and modioli form shells 
which have no sharp posterior urabonal ridge, and in which the 
cardinal line is more or less curved, may be justifiably sejiaralcd 
from the genus Orthonota. as now understood, and jilaced witji 
Modiolopsis (as restricted by McCoy). t The above shell is an 
example of such, which, although not so strongly arched in the 
uinbonal region, yet seems to possess all the essential chaiacters 
of Hall's genus. 

It is interesting to note that the specific form is widely 
distributed, and there seems no reason to doubt that the Aus- 
tralian example is generally comparable with both the N. 

•Pal. Foss. Devon and Cornwall, 1841, p. 35, PI. 17, Fig. 56. 
t Brit. Pal. Foss., p. 263. 

r 51 ] 


American and Britisli specimens. The previously-recorded 
horizons for the specific form are at the top of the Ordovician 
(Hudson 1 liver Group and the Caradoc series). 

The present variety is distinguished from the type species 
by its shorter and stoutei- for'm, and less pronounced nasute 
anterior extremity. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournianj. In the 
hard ])lack shale, Domain-road, S. Yarra; collected and pre- 
sented by Mr. F. T. Spry. [7943.] 

Genus Glossites, J. Hall, 1885. 

Glossites Victoria;, sp. nov. Plate VI., Fig. 79. 

Description. — Shell small, compressed, elongate ovate, 
narrow in front, broad behind. Hinge line slightly curved. 
Beaks sub-anterior, depressed. Posterior margin strongly 
curved; ventral margin gently curved and truncately rounded 
at the anterior extremity. Umbonal convexity gradually be- 
coming more depressed on approaching the postero-ventral 
margin. Shell texture thin; surface concentrically wrinkled 
with irregular lines of growth. 

Measurements. — Height, 9.5 mm. ; length, 16.5 mm. ; depth 
of valve at umbo, 3 mm. 

Affinities. — The only form of this genus with which the 
above species can be at all closely compared is G. depressus, J. 
Hall,* from the Chemung Group of Ithaca and Elmira in the 
State of New York. That species, however, has a more gener- 
ally depressed shell, and the beaks are more acute. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). Croydon, 
near Lilydale; presented by Mr. Thos. Warr. [7944.] 

Genus Goniophora, Phillips, 1848. 
Goniophora australis, sp. nov. PI. VI., Fig. 80. 
Description. — Shell sub-ovate, elongate; length about 
twice the height. Beaks large and anterior, strongly incurved 
toward the ventral margin. Anterior extremity of the shell 
narrow, very broad behind. Umbonal ridge prominent and 
sharp (in the type-specimen the posterior extremity of the shell 
is lient forward against the umbonal ridge). Basal edge 
sinuously curved; rising up to, and terminating just below, the 
beaks, at a sharp angle. Surface ornamented with numerous 
bifurcating lines of growth. 

*P;il. N. York, 1885, Vol. V., Pt. I., Lamell. II., p. 496, PI. XL., Figs. 15, 17; PI. 
XCVL, Fig. 12. 

[ 52 ] 


Measurements. — Length, about 23 mm.; hci_<;;ht, 10.5 mm. 

Obserrotions.- 'I'hi.s t'oi'in at oiur reminds o\w dI (i. cijin- 
hceformis, 8ow. sp.*, wliicli ranges lliiouglioul the Silurian in 
the British Isles. That species, however, is not so conspicuously 
marked with the lines of growth, which in our specimen are 
clost^ly set and strikingly hi furcated. Another foiin somewhat 
allied, but having more numerous growth striae, and a higher 
shell, is (i. ron^iinins of Hillingst from the Silurian of Nova 

Horizon and Localitij. — Silurian (Yeringian). Tn mud- 
stone N. of Lilvdalo. Presented bv the Rev. A. W. Cresswell, 
M.A. [989.] 

Goniophora cf. f/laucus, J. Ilall sp. PI. VP, Fig. 8P 

Sanquinolites (jlaucus. Hall, 1870, Pieliin. Notice, Lamcll, 
2, p. 38.^ 

Goniophora qlaucns, Hall, 1885, Pal. N. York, Vol. V., 
Pt. I., Lamcll. Tf., p. 299, PI. XTJTT., Fig. Ifi; PI. XLIV., 
Figs. 10-17. 

Observations. — Our specimen is imperfect, but the anterior 
and most characteristic part of the shell is represented. 

The habit of the shell is short. The surface is finely 
striated, and the striae turn up at a steep angle over the um- 
bonal ridge; this latter feature itself indicates a short form. 
The beaks arc small and strongly incurved, whilst the umbonal 
ridge is sharp and widely curved. Hall's specimens came from 
the Hamilton Group of New York State. 

Horizon and Locality.— ^Wwv'i^n (Melbournian).— From 
tlie mudstone of the Yarra Improvement Works, S. Yarra. 
Presented by Mr. F. P. Spry. [7945.] 

i';niiil\ Pleiirophorldae. 

Genus Cypricardinia, J. Hall, 1859. 

Cypricardinia contexta, Barrandc. Plate VI., 82, 83, 84. 

Pterinea ? planulata, Salter pars, (non Conrad), 1848. in 
Phillips, Mem. Gcol. Surv. Gr. Brit., Vol. IP, Pt. I., p. 368. 
PI. XXIII. , Figs. 2 and 4. 

•Cypricardia cymbseformis, Sow., in Murcliison's Siliirinn System, Pt. II., 1839, p. 
602, PI. III., Fig. loa, p. 609, PI. v.. Fit; «> 

t Pal. Fossils, Geol. Surv. Canad.i, Vol. II., I'l I., p. 1)5, I'l. \II1 , I'lR. 8 

[ 53 ] 


(Jypricardinia nitidula, var. contexta, Barrande, 1881, 
Syst. Sil. Boheme, Vol. VI., Pt. I., PI. 257, Fig. IV., 19-24. 

Observations. — Barrande's Cypricardinia nitidula is pro- 
bably the same form as (J. plannlata, and it therefore falls into 
the synonymy of the latter species. The variety contexta of the 
same author, however, is undoubtedly similar to some of the 
British fossils described by Salter under Conrad's name of C. 
planulata, but from which they differ in having a secondary 
iuterlamellar ornament. The Victorian specimens show the 
striae to be often arranged in chevron fashion, and a tendency 
in this direction is indicated in one of Salter's figures (Fig. 
4, loc. cit.), shown by the peculiar twist of the radii. The 
Bohemian, British and Victorian fossils, having a similar 
ornamentation, may perhaps be more conveniently referred to as 
Cypricardinia contexta, Barrande. The British examples of C. 
contexta were described by Salter as being pretty generally dis- 
tributed through the Wenlock and L. Ludlow series, where it 
appears to be associated, as in Bohemia, with C. planulata. 
The Bohemian examples are recorded from Stage Ffj, which 
by Kayser and others is now considered to be Lower Devonian, 
although formerly placed in the Silurian. 

Another striated form of the same type of shell as the above 
is to be found in Sandberger's C. crenistria* represented by the 
more highly convex right valve. In this species, however, the 
striae are essentially regular and radial. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Yeringian). From the 
parish of Yering, coll. Geol. Surv. Vict., 1862; north of Lily- 
dale, presented by the Rev. A. W. .Cresswell, M.A. ; from a 
shallow well near Croydon, presented by Mr. Thos. ^Varr. [7946, 

Family Lucinidse. 

Genus Paracyclas, J. Hall, 1843. 

Paracyclas sihiricus, sp. nov. PI. VI., Figs. 85, 85a. 

Description. — Shell orbicular, length equal to the height; 
more or less strongly convex, compressed in the cardinal region. 
Beaks central, prominent, roundly acuminate. Anterior border 
not so widely rounded as the posterior, and less compressed. 

* Die Versteinerungen des rheinischen Schichten Svstems in Nassau, 1856, p. 263, PI. 
XXVIII., Figs. 5, 50, b. 

[ ."vl ] 


Ornamented \vith concentric rin>;s of growth, appearing as 
irregular folds, and most strongly marked near the extremities. 
All the examples known at present from Victoria are in the 
form of sandstone casts, so that the finer markings, if any, have 
perchance been lost. In wax squeezes taken from these casts 
there seem to be faint traces of a feeble radial, linear sculptur- 
ing, such as is seen in Paracyclas Unentn, Goldfuss sp.*, which, 
by the way, our species otherwise resembles, with the exception 
that the latter is more regularly convex over the whole surface. 

Mensiirements. — Figured specimen: Length, 15.5 mm.; 
height, 15.5 mm.; depth of valve, ;}.5 mm. 

Observations. — The present species resembles McCoy's 
Anodontofsis bulla] in its general shape, b\it differs in the 
coarser sculpturing of the shell-surface. The .1. bulla, McCoy, 
does not appear to show- any decided affinities wdth the other 
species described under the generic name Anodonto [jsis by 
McCoy, and seems to be a typical example of the earlier 
described genus Paracyclas. 

It is of much interest to record that McCoy indicated the 
actual specimens with which I am now dealing as " a new form 
of Anodnntopsis allied to .1. bulla," by a pencil note written on 
the tablet of a mounted series in the Museum. The generic 
name Anodontopsis, besides being ante-dated by Paracyclas, 
appears to embrace three generic types as exemplified by 
McCoy's published species in his "British Palaeozoic Fossils," 
as follow : — 

Anodontopsis bulla, McCoy ^ Paracyclas, J. Hall, 1843. 

A. anrfustifrons, McCoy = Modiomnrpha, J. Ifall, 1870. 

A. quadratus, McCoy ^Cypricardella, -J. Hall, 1856 
(Microdon. Conrad, 1842 — pre-occupied by Agassiz's genus). 

Another species which may be cited for comparison with 
ours is Paracyclas rlliptica, J. Hall.| from the Corniferous 
Limestone and the Hamilton (h'oup of the United States and 
Canada. It is, however, not so high, and the lirfc are more 
distinct and more closely set. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Coll. 
Geol. Surv., Moonee Ponds Creek, Flemington. Ranges east of 
Heathcote, B'' 50, very common. [7947 (type), 7948.] 

• Pelrefactiac Germaniit, 1834-40, p. 227, PI. CXI.VI., Figs. 8<7, *. 

t l.ucina bulla. McCov sp., Syn. Silur. Fos<., IrelanH, 1846, |>. 17, IM. TI., I-'ig. i. 
Ancdonlefsis bulla, McCoy. i8;2, Brit. Pal. Toss., P(. 11., p. ^71, I'l. iK., Kif;s. it-13. 

tPal. N. York, Vol. v., Pt. I., 1S85, Lamcll. TI., p. 440, PI. T.XXII., Figs. 23-33; 
I>1. XCV., Fig. 18. 

[ 55 ] 


Paracyclas siluricus, var. heathcotiensis, nov. PL VT., Figs. 

86, 86«. 

Descriftion. — Suborbicular, rounded in front, subtruncate 
behind Beaks central, salient and snbacuminate. sharper than 
in the preceding species. Valves strongly convex, esi)ecially in 
the umbonal region, where they become almost ridge-like; super- 
ficial markings in the form of fine concentric striae. 

Measurements. — Length, 13.5 mm. ; height, 13.5 mm. ; depth 
of valve, 4 mm. 

Observations. — This variety presents marked differences 
from the foregoing species, but in view of the fact that only 
a single example has occurred up to the jDresent, and in associa- 
tion with the specific form, it will be safer for the present to 
regard it merely as a variety. In common with the type form, 
the figured specimen shows obscure indications of a radial 
lineation of the shell. 

Horizon and Locality. — Silurian (Melbournian). Ranges 
east of Heathcote, coll. Geol. Surv., Vict., B^ 50. [988.] 

[ 56 ] 



M — Melboiirnian or older Silurian ; Y = Yeringian or younger Silurian. 


abbreoiata (Grammysia) . . 14 

Actinodesina cf. amplidia, I'liillips 
.sp. Y .. .. .. ..41 

Actinopteriii asperulri, McCoy .sp. var. 

Acrni/iloncnsis, var. tiov. Y . . 47 

ActinopO'ria boijdi, Conrad sp. '\' . . 47 
Aclinopli-ria hmthcoticnsis, sp. uov. 
M .. .. .. ii< 

Aclinoplerin cf. sowerbii, .McCoy 
sp. Y .. .. .'. 48 

Actinopteria lexliirntd, I'hill. sp. Y Hi 

acuticoslntn (Amhontjchiu) . . 4^! 

aculirostris (Mi/lilfirca) .. ..44 

aqualis (Parallelodon) .. ..39 

Amhoni/chia aculicostata, McCoy. Y 43 
ampUnld cf. (Aciinodesmn) .. ..41 

ancilln (Purlucina) .. ..23 

nnlislriatitm {Luniilicardium) .. 42 

arcfr/fn-wis {Nticula) .. .. 30 

arcunln, c{. (Grammysia) .. 15 

asperula, var. croydotiensis (Ac- 
anstralis (Goniophnrn) 
auslratis (var. of Modiolopsis nasuta) 
aiixtridix (var. of Nucula opima) 
austrtilis {(hthonota) 
Avicuhjyecten upryi. sp. nov. M 
bellulum (Conocardium) 
boydi (Actinopteria) 
brerix. cf. (PaUroneilo) 
Cardiola cnrtiucopirr. (ujldfiiss sp. M 
cinijulala {Vnncnhi) 
rnarct'itux (.Xiicitlilcf!) 
cctmplanaUt (Mridinhipxin) .. 
Conocardium liellulum, Cresswell 

Conocardium coslatiim. 

•t M and Y 
cnnslricta. '! {Pnhroneiln) 
conlerla (Cypricardinia ) 
cornucopia' (Cardiola) 







costatum (Conocardium) 

croydonensis (var\ of Actinopteria 

Clcnodontd portlocki, sj). nov. .M and 

cuiieijonnis (Grammysia) 
( 'ypricardinia conterta, IJarrande. 
Edmondia pvrnbliqua, sp. no\'. M 
filoMim (Parncardium) 
ijippslandica (Pancnka) 
t/laucus. cf. (Goniophoru) 
Glossites victoria', sp. nov. Y 
Goniophora australis, sp. now \ 
Goniophora cf. qiaucus, .]. Hull 

Grammi/sia abbreviala, si), nov 

and Y 
Grammysia cf. arcuiita, Conrad 


Grammi/sia cuneijormis, W. VA\\ (il 

M ■ .. 
Grammysia aff. plena, .1. Hall M 
hcathcoliensis (Actinnptrrin) 
heathcotiensis (Leptodimm) 
krathcoliensis (var. of Paracyclas 

julsoni (Nuculilcs) 
kilmoriensis (? Parallelodon) 
lamella la (Xucula) 
Leiopleria cf. oiretii, .1. Hall '^' 
Leptodimius heulhcoliensis, sii nov 


Leptodomus maccoyianus, sp. nov. M 
lineala (Pterinea) . . 
lirata, cf. (Nucula) 
Lunulicardium antistriatum. 

Y .. 

).") maccnyianux (Leptodomus) 
3fi i maccoyianus (Nuculites) 
53 melbournensis (Modiolopsis) 
20 melhournensis (Xucula) 


sp. nov. 













Index to V'ktokian Silurian Pei-kcypoda — continued. 

Modiolopsis comjilaruita, So\vi'rl)y sp. 

Modiolopsis ■mdhournensis, sp. nov. 

Modiolopsis nasuta, CJonrad sp., var. 

auslralis, nov. M 
Mytilarca acutirostris, sp. nov. Y . . 
nasuta, var. {Modiolopsis) . . 
Nucula arccejorniis, sp. nov. M 
Nucula lainellata, J. Hall M and Y 
Nucula cf. lirata, Conrad sp. M 
Nucula melhournensis, sp. nov. M . . 
Nucula opima, J. Hall sp., var. 

atistralis, nov. M and Y'' 
Nucula tai/lori, sp. nov. M 
Nucula umbonata, sp. nov. M 
NucuUtes coarctalus, Phillips sp. M 
Niusulites julsoni, sp. nov. ? Y 
NucuUtes maccoyianus, sp. nov. M 

and Y' 
NucuUtes suhquadratus, sp. nov. M 
opima var. (Nucula) 
Orthonota auslralis, sp. nov. M 
oweni, cf. (Leiopteria) 
Palaanatina cf. solenoides, J. Hall 

Palwoneilo cf. hrevis, .J. Hall M 
Palwoneilo ? constricta, Conrad sp. 

PalcBoneilo producta, sp. nov. M 
Palftoneilo raricostce. sp. nov. Y 
Palceoneilo spectabilis. sp. nov. M . . 
Palmoneilo cf. tenuistriata, J. Hall 


Palceoneilo rictoriw, sp. nov. M 
Panenka cingulata, sp. nov. Y 



Panenka gippslandica, McCoy Y 



Panenkn planicosta, .sp. nov. Y 


I'aracardium filosum, sp. nov. Y 



Paracyclas siluricus, sp. nov. M 
Paracyclas siluricus, var. heathcotien- 



sis, nov. M . . 



Parallelodon aqualis, sp. nov. M 



? Parallelodon kihnoriensis, sp. nov. 





Parallelodon spryi, sp. nov. Y 



perobliqua (Edmondia) 



planicosta (Panenka) 


plena, aff. (Grammysia) 



portlocki (Ctenodonta) 



Prcplucina nncilla, Barrande Y' 



producta (Palceoneilo) 



Pterinea lineata, Goldfuss Y 



? Pterinea tenuistriata, McCoy M . . 


raricostrs (Palceoneilo) 



siluricus and var. (Paracyclas) 54 



solenoides, cf. (Palcranatina) 



sowerbii (Actinopteria) 



speclnhilis (Palceoneilo) 



Sphenotus warburtonensis. sp. nov. 




spryi (Aviculopecten) 



spryi (Parallelodon) 


subquadratus (NucuUtes) 



taylori (Nucula) 



tenuistriata, cf. (Palcroneilo) 



tenuistriata ('^ Pterinea) 



texturafa (Actinopteria) 


umbonata (Nucula) 



victoricB (Glossites) 



victorirp (Palceoneilo) 



warburtonensis (Sphenotus) . . 


58 ] 




1. Orthonota australn, sp. nov. [I'vix^.] Moonee Ponils Creek. [7869. J 

Nat. size. 

2. Grammyna abbrcviata, sp. nov. [Type.] S. Yarra. [7871.] xz 

3. Parallclodon spryi, sp. nov. [Type.] Wandong. [795°] Nat. size. 

4. Leptodomus maccoyianiis, sp. nov. [lyP^-] Broadhurst's Creek. 

[976.] X 2. 

5. L. heatlicoticnsis, sj). nov. [Tyi)o.] Hcithcote. [987.] x 2. 

6. Falaanaiina cf. solciioides, J. Hall. S. Yarra. [7875.] x 2. 

7. Edmondia perobliqiia, sp. nov. [T\pf.] S. Yarra. [7876.] xjj. 

8. E. pcrobliqua, sp. nov. S. Yaxra. [7877.] X2. 

9. E. pcrobliqua. sp. nov. Domain Rcl., S. Yarr.-.. [2239.] xi. 

10. Sp/:eno/us -uarburfoficnsis, sp. nov. [Type.] Right \alve, internal cast. 

Reefton, Warburton. [2240.] Nat. size. 

11. Cardiola cornucopia, Goldfass sp. S. Yarra. [7878.] Nat. size. 

12. C. cornucopia, Goldfuss sp. Moonee Ponds Cieek. [978.] Nat. size. 

13. Panenka planicosta, ?.^. nov. [Type]. Mount Matlock. [7879.] X4 

14. P. cingulata. sp. nov. [Type.] MrNfahon's Cret'k, Upper Yarxa. 

[2263.] Nat. size. 

15. Paracarduim fi'iosum. sp. nov. [Tyj'e.] From a wax imi)rPssion of an 

external mould. Starvation Creek, Upper Yarra. [7881.] x 2. 

16. P. filosuni. sp. nov. Cardinal a.spert of same X3. 


17. C/enodonta portlocki. sp. nov. Wilson's Station, Lilydale. [7884.] 

X 2. 

18. C. portlocki, sp. nov. [Type.] S. Yarra. [7883.] x 2. 

19. C. portlocki, sp. nov. S. Yarra. [7885.] X2. 

20. C. portlocki, sp. nov. S. Yarra. [7886.] x 2. 

21. Nuculites maccoyianns, sp. nov. [Type.] S. Yarra. [7887.] xz 

22. A', maccoyianus, sp. nov. Junction of Woori Yallock and Yarra. [7888.] 

X 2. 
2},. N . maccoyianus. sp. rov. S. Yarra. [7889.] x 2. 

24. A', coarctatus, Phillips, sp. A short variety. S. Yarra. [7890.] 

X 2. 

25. A*', coarctatus, Phill., sp. Typical form, from W. of Mt. Disappoint- 

ment. [7891.] X 2. 

26. A', subquadratus, sp. nov. W. of Mt. Disappointment. [977-] X2 

27. A', subquadratus, sp. nov. [Type.] X 2. 27A, Anterior of valve 

more highlv magnified to show surface ornament. N. of Yan Yean. 
[7892-1 X4. 

28. A', jutsuni sp. nov. [Type.] Wandong. [7893.] x 2 

39. Nuiula melbournensis, sp. nov. Internal mould. S. Yarra. [7896.] 

X 2. 

[ 59 ] 


30. XiicNia mdbournensis, sp. nov. A sub-orbicular variety. Domain Rfl. 

srwer, S. Yarra. [985.] x 2. 

31. X . melbaurnemii, sj). nov. [Type.] 31 a, umlK)nal a.spect of left valve. 

S. Yarra. [7895.] x 2. 

32. ,V. ? melhoiiructiiis, sp. nov. 32A, antero-dorsal vi<-\v. Mcrri Creek, 

Kalkallo. [7879.] x 2. 

^V N- ? melhouniensis, sj). nov. .Attached valves. 33A antero-dorsal pro- 
file of valves. S. Varra. [7898.] x 2. 

34. N. umbonata, sp. nov. [Type.] Kilmore. [7899-] ^ ^ 

35. A', umbonata, sp. nov. Inner surface of \al\e showing cardinal line 

and ligament pit. Yan Yean. [7900.] x 2. 

36. .V'. arcaformis, sp. nov. [Type.] Domain Rd. sewer, S. Yarra. [79or.] 

X 2. 

37. A^. taylori, sp. nov. [Type.] S. Yarra. [7907-] '^ 2. 

38. .v. fav/ori, sp. nov. Wax impression of an internal mouM. Broad- 

hurst's Creek, E. of Kilmore. [7908.] x 2. 


39. Nucula opiiiia, J. Hall, sp., var. ai/stralis. vat. nov. Yan Yean. [7910.] 

X 2. 

40. N. opima, J. Hall, .sp., var. auslralis, \ar. nov. [Type.] Yan Yean. 

[7909.] X2. 

41. .V. opima, J. Hall, sp. var. auslralis, var. nov. S. \ arra. [79n-] 

X 2. 

42. N. opima, J. Hall, sp., var. australis. Internal cast. Eraser's Creek, 

Springfield. [965.] x 2. 

43. .V. opima, J. Hall sp., var. australis, var. nov. Abnormal form, 

South Yarra. [7912.] x 2. 

44. ^V. cf. lirata, Conrad sp. Yan Yean. [7914.] x 3. 

45. A^ lamellata, J. Hall. A short variety. Broadhurst's Creek, E. of 

Kilmore. [2252.] x 2. 

46. N. lamellata, J. Hall. Schist Hill, Merri Creek. [2243.] X2. 

47. Palaoneilo victoria, sp. nov. Left \alve. [Type.] S. Yarra. [7915-] 

X 2. 

48. P. victoria, sp. nov. Elongate form ; the two valves with the cardinal 

lines in position. S. Yarra. [7916.] x 2. 

49. P. victoria, sp. nov. Right valve of an elongate and finely costate 

form. Domain Road sewer, S. Yarra. [7917.] x 2. 

50. P. raricosta, sp. nov. [1 yP'^'-] Left valve. Junction of Woori 

Yallock and Yarra. [7918.] x 2. 

51. /-". spectabtlis, sp. nov. Right valve. [Type.] S. Yarra. [7919-] 

X 2. 

52. P. spectabilis, sp. nov. Interior of left valve and cardinal area of right 

valve. Jolimont, E. Melbourne. [7920.] x 2. 

53. P. producta, sp. nov. [Type.] 53A, dorsal aspect of right valve. 

S. Yarra. [7921.] x 2. 

54. P. ? cnnstricta, Conrad sp. Cast of right valve. S. Yarra. [7923.] 

X 2. 

55. P. cf . brevis, J. Hall. Merri Creek, Kalkallo. [968.] x 3 

56. P. cf. tenuistriata, J. Hall. Merri Creek, Kalkallo. [967.] x 2. 

[ 60 ] 



57. Parallelodou aqualis, sp. nov. L'^ype.] S. Varra. [7924.] x 3. 

58. ? I'arallelodon kilmoriemis, sp. nov. [Type.] Kilmore. [7925.] 

X 2. 

59. ? P. cf. kilmorietisis, sp. nov. Swanston St. sewer. [7926.] X2. 

60. Fterinea littea/a, Goklfuss. Left valve. Croydon, near Lilvdale. 

[7927.] Nat. size. 
6i. /'. Uiiuistriata, McCoy. S. \'arra. [7928.] x [i 

62. Liinidicardium antistriatum, sp. nov. [l'vi>e.] McMalion's Creek. 

[2257.] Nat. size. 

63. /. . antntriatum, sp. nov. Reefton, VVarburton. [2255.] Nat. size. 
63A. A. antnlnatum, sp. nov. Vental margin of shell. Reefton, War- 
burton. [2255.] Nat. size. 

64. 65. ? Lunulicardium antntriatum, sp. ni)v. I'rohablv young examples. 

Mouth of Starvation Creek, Upper Varra. [2260-61.] X2. 

66. Ambonycliia acuticostata, McCoy. Cave Hill, Lilyilale. [2268.] 


67. Mytilarca acutirostris, sp. nov. [Tyj^e.] Junction of Woori V'allock 

an<l Varra. [7930.] x 2. 

68. Aciinopteria textiirata, Phillips, sp. (x 2): 68.\, porcion of shell- 

surface more highly magnified ( x 4). Near Lilydale. [2264.] 

69. A. boydi, Conrad, sp. Near Lilydale. [7933-] x 2. 


70. Actinopteria boydi, Conrad, sp. Another specimen to show variation 

in surface ornament. Croydon, near Lilydale. [7935.] Nat. size. 

71. .4. aspenila. McCoy, ^i., var. croydononis, \ar. nov. Croydon, near 

Lilydale. [7936. ] Nat. size. 

72. A. cf. stnverbii, .McCoy, sp. From a Wjix impression. Reefton, near 

Warburton, Upper Yarra. [7937.] Nai. size. 

73. .4. heatlicntifuiii, sp. nov. ['l"\pe.] Hcathcote. [7838.] Nat. size. 

74. Leiopteria cf. oiceiii, J. Hall. Left valve. 74A, profile. Croydon, 

near Lilydale. [7939.] -Nat. size. 

75. Aviculopecten spryt, sp. nov. [Type.] S. Varra. [7940.] X3. 

76. Modtolopsis melboiirnensis, sp. nov. [Tyjje.] Left valve. 76A, antero- 

dorsal profile of valve. S. Varra. [7941] x 2. 

77. M. complanata, Sowerby, sp. S. Varra. [7942.] x 2. 


78. Modiolopsis nasiita, Conrad. s|). var. aiistralis, var. rmv. [Type.] 

S. Yarra. [7943] x 2. 

79. Glossttes victoria, sp. nov. [Tyjie.] Right valve. Croydon, near 

Lilydale. [7944.] x 2. 

80. Goniophora aiistralis, sp. nov. [Type.] N. of Lilydale. [989.] xj*. 

81. G. cf. glaucus, J. Hall, sp. S. Yarra. [7945.] x 2. 

[ Gl 1 


82. Cypricardinia coniexia, Barrande. Right valve. Croydon, near 

LilvdalL'. [7946.] X 2. 

8,5. C. coHle.xta, Barrandf. Surface of right valve on the umbonal slope. 

(."roydon, near Lilydale. [7946.] X4. 

84. C. cunlcxtd, Barrande. Left valve. Vering, L'jjper V'arra. [2242.] 

X 2. 

85. Faracyclas siluricus, sp. nov. [Tyjje.] 85A, iimlx>nal a.spe<.-t of left 

valve. Ranges E. of Heathcote. [7947.] x 2. 

86. P. iiluricui, var. Iieathcotiensis, var. nov. [Type.] 86a, umbona) 

aspect, left valve. Heathcote. [988.] x 2. 

87. Actinodesma ci. ampliata, Phillips, sp. N. of Lilydale. [2267.] 

Nat. size. 

88. Praluaiia aticilla, Barrande. From a wax impression of a mould of a 

right valve in hardened mudstone. 88a, umbonal aspect. Main- 
dample, Gippsland. [7882.] Nat. size. 

By Authority : J. Kemp, Government i'linter, Melbourne. 

[ 62 ] 

Mem Nat Mus., 
Melbourne 2. 

Plate I 

F Ch/xpma/i ad Tiat deL 

J EisTnfiJctLn0Gov^Frmt0: ' 

Mem Nat Mus., 
Melbourne 2 


Ch/ipfnafi ad, not del 

JJCsmp^ctut^ Coy^Pnuter 

Mem. Nat. Mus., 


Plate III. 

F C^uzfirrm/i ad'fiatdel 

jAemp.ActUi^ Gcv^PruiUr 

Mem Nat Mus., 
Melbourne 2. 

Plate IV 

t Crmpman, ad. ruitdd 

J Kcmfi.AuuyCovt'Prijiter 

Mem Nat Mus., 


Plate V 

. un 'uii Qfi 

. • ktn\f , ^'Ji/i.ji^yy'}'rtfU^ 

Mem Nat Mus.. 
Melbourne 2 

Plate VI. 

'uifthUJl.^<ld.ttui df4. 

. i ne/np, Mc/ijy GoY^Pr(AUr 




No. 3, 


|Bj) Jlulhoritii: 


B'BlBR-Cr.A.Ei'Sr, ISIO. 





A Collection of Sub-Fossil Bird aod Marsupial Remains from Kiug Island, 
Bass Strait. By Baldwin Spencer, C.M.G., M.A., F.R.S., Hon. 
Director of the National Mu.seum, and J. A. Kershaw, P'.E.S, 
Curator of the Zoological Collections (with plates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) 5 

The existing Species of the Genus Phascolomys. By Baldwin Spencer, 
C.M.G., M.A., F.R.S., Hon. Director of the National Museum, and 
J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., Curator of the Zoological Collections (with 
plates 9, 10, 11) ... ... . . ... ... ■•• 37 


Bi/ lidUIaiii S/jenre)\ CM (i., M.A.^ F.It.S., Hun. Director of 
the Natinniil Mum'Uiii, and J. A. Kersh'i?i\ F.E.S.^ 
Curator of the Zoulogical ( Collections. 

King Island lies at tlic western entrance to Bass Strait, almost 
midway l)etween Victori.i and Tasmania. A line of soniiding, 
between the island and Tasnumia. as laid down in the Admiralty 
charts, shows an averas^e depth of thirty-two fathoms. The 
lowest is twenty, tlu' hi<i;hest forty-four, and the great majority 
range between tiiirtv and thirty-Hvo fathoms. A line between 
King Is! ind and Cape Utway, on tlie Victorian coast, averages 
nearly forty-eight fathoms. The lowest is thirty-nine, the highest 

The date of the formation of Bass Strait is a matter of doubts 
but it may in all prol)al)ility be assigned to the Post Pliocene 

The I'auna of Tasmarna differs from that of Victoria partly in 
the absence of certain animals, sncli as the Dingo ( C.////.V dintio) and 
the Hying phalangers amongst the marsupials, and partly in the 
presence of otiiers. snch as Thylacinns ami Sarcophilus, which 
are nowe.\tinct on the mainland of Australia. Such dilferences as between the fauna of Victoria, south of the Dividing Range, 
and that of Tasmania, may be regarded as due to the formation of 
Bass Strait, which resulted, during comparatively recent times, iu 
the separation of Tasmania from the soutli-east part of Au.stralia. 
Some idea of the nature of the land briilge that oinc stretched 
across between Victoria and what is now the islanil of Tasmania 
can be gained from a study of its remnants, as revealed to us in 
tlie chain of islands that stud both the western and the eastern 
margins of Bass Strait. Tiie central part of the strait is open 
water, but on the eastern side a chain of islands, consisting in the 
north of smaller groups, snch as the Curtis and Kent, and in the 
south the larger Kurneanx group, lead across from Wilson's I'ro- 
montory on tJie to the north-east corner of Tasmania. On 
the west there is King Island, and close to the north-west point of 

* Howitt, Presidential Address, Antlirop. Sect. Aust. Asa, A.It. Sci., Sydney, 1898, Vol- 
VII., p. 741. 


TasniMuiii a group of smaller islands — Iluntor Islands and the Hum- 
mocks. Between King Island and Cape Otvvay lies open water, 
with a curious and well-marked di])piiig invading the fifty fathom 
linei indicating in all prol)al)ility the foi-mer existence of the 
estuary of a large stream that once ran southwards from the Vic- 
torian ranges. We may therefore safely conclude that the old laud 
bridge was traversed in its north-western part In- a i-iver of con- 
siderable size, that its central part was comparatively low land,* 
and that this was bordered on the east by a chain of lofty hills. 
Across this central part a river ])rol)ably ran northward to join the 
one flowing southwards near its estuary. On the western side, to 
the south of the estuary, was high ground, part of which is now 
represented by King Island. 

In the early days of Australian settlement a few sealers and 
fishermen frequented King Island, but for long years it was practi- 
cally deserted until, about thirty or forty years ago, an attempt was 
made to utilize it as a sheep run, but the e.xistence of the poison 
weed {Swain sonia lesser ti folia) proved fatal to the scheme, and once 
more the island was abandoned. In November, 1887, the Vic- 
torian Field Naturalists' Clul) organized an expedition to the 
island. Its onlv inhabitants at that time were the lighthouse- 
keepers at Cape Wickham and Currie Harbor, and one solitary 
wallaby hunter. We had con.siderable difficulty in traversing the 
island, owing to the fact that its northern half was covered with 
dense scrub, and its southern part with impenetrable forest. During 
recent years the island has been occupied again, much of the 
scrub has been cleared away, and parts previously inaccessible 
have been opened vip. (In one occasion a large flock of sheep was 
placed on what is now known as the "sand patch." near to Stokes 
Point, the exti'eme south-western promontory of the island. At 
that time this particular part of the island was covered with grass, 
but the sheep eat this down to the roots, and, later on. " numbers 
of pigs, rooting about, turned up the soil and started a sand-blow, 
which now extends over some hundreds of acres. iliere is a 
dividing ridge running the length of the patch, and the sand shifts 
from one side of the ridge to the other with every change of ^nnd. 
It was during a strong westerlv gale that 1 rode down 

to Surprise Bay Every few yards lay the bone of 

some animal in a more or less perfect state of preservation, and 
here and there the ground was covered with the petrified stumps 
and roots of old scrubs."f 

The fact of the existence of these sub-fossil remains became 
known to Mr. H. H. Scott, the Curator of the Victoria Museum, 
Launceston, who placed himself in communication with Mi*. J. 

* Howitt, A.A.A.S., Sydney, 1898, Vol. VII., p. 758. 

t Extract frnin a letter written to one of the authors by Mr. T. Alfred Stephenson, to whom 
we are indebted for valuable assistance. 



McKie Bowling, the proprietor of that part of the ishmd, and was 
instrumental in secnrinij the Hrst collection that was made. A 
short time afterwards Miss Dickson, of Ilobnrt, visited the island, 
and was shown the fossil remains hy Mr. Bowlins^. ( )n her return 
to Hol)art Miss Dickson l)rouL>lit the matter under the notice of 
the IJoval Society of Tasmania, with the i-esult that Mr. R. M. 
Johnston and the late Mr. Ale.x. Morton went across from Laun- 
ceston, and, through tiie instrumentality of Mr. Bowling, were 
able to secure a series of s])eciniens, which thev kindly placet! at 
our disposal for description. This collection included a consider- 
able number of bones of an Emu, and, after a careful examination 
of the latter, they were described as the remains of a new s])ecies, 
to which the name Dmmceiis minnr was given.* 

The collection received from Messrs. Johnston and Morton 
included also skulls of a Wombat and Dasyurus, and, in view of the 
importance of the remains as indicating the e.xistence in the islands 
of Bass Strait of animals, such as an Emu and a Wombat, distinct 
from those of the mainland and Tasmania, we thought it advisable 
to make further investigations, and, accordingly, one of us (J. A. 
Kershaw) went across to King Island, and spent some time there 
carefully collecting as much material as was available. Most 
fortunately for us Mr. Bowling was much interested in our work, 
and afforded us the most generous assistance, without which it 
would not have been possible for us to secure the large series of 
specimens that we now possess, and we take this opportunity of 
thanking Mr. Bowling for his invaluable aid. 

The n-mains were chiefly distril)uted over the sand dunes on 
the e.\trenie southern portion of the island. f The area covers 
some 300 acres in extent, and consists of a series of small 
ridges, the highest of whic-ii is on the south-east point. The sand 
is constantly l)eiiig blown from one side or the other of these ridges, 
and the bones alternately ex])Osed and cnvered. During the strong 
winds wlii<di prevail these are sifted out in considerable numbers, 
and lie distril)uted along the sides and in the trough of the ridges 
Portions of the skulks, lower jaws, and limb bones of Wallabies 
were found mixed up with the leg l)ones of the Emu, skulls of 
Wombats ami Dasyures, and here and there portions of the 
skeletons of bolh Seals and Sheep. Wallabv remains were l)v far 
the most numerous, and, though e\tremely fragile, fairly complete 
skulls could l)e ol)tained. Portions of the lower jaws were scattered 
about in large numi)ers along the sides of some of the ridges, which 
had recently been exposed to the action of the wind. 

• "Victorian Naturalist," xxiii., p 140 (1906). 

+ We are indebted to Mr. C. L. Barrett for the opportunity of illustrating the nature of 
these dunes. 



Emu remains were scarce. Every l^oiie that would Ijear 
liandlino' was coUfrtod. Very dillii^ent search was made for any 
portions of the skull or sternum, l)ut although the whole area wa> 
carefully examined several times, l)ut few fragments of skulls or 
sterna were found. Very incomplete portions of the sternum were 
occasionally found imbedded in the firmer soil iKueath the sand, 
but every attempt to remove them resulted in their crumbling 
away. The remains of the eggs were frequently met with either 
in small fragments in tlie loose sand, or in patches imbedded in the 
firmer soil beneath. In one or two instances fully half the shell 
was found completely flattened out and fractured into small frag- 
ments, with the surface more or less removed by the action of the 
driving sand. 

Exposure to the sun and rain had rendered many of the bones 
extremely fragile, so that when distiirbed, however carefully, they 
broke into small fragments. 

Fairly comjilete skeletons of Wallabies and one or two Emus 
were found lying in the more compact soil beneath the sand, but 
the most careful attempt to remove them again resulted in failure. 

Although most of the remains were found on the extreme south 
point of the island, they were also met with on several parts of the 
west coast wherever a sand blow had started. Bones ot Wallabies, 
Wombats, Emus, and Dasyures were found fairly numerous on an 
extensive sand blow near the Porky River, some 6 miles north of 
Currie Harbor. These were, however, less complete and nmch 
more fragile than those obtained from the south. That so many 
bones should be gathered together in one spot is doubtless to be 
attributed to the fact that in the early days, before the advent of 
the white man with his sheep, this area was one of the most fertile 
spots in the island, and was probably a much freqiu'uted and 
favourite feedina; g-round. 

The collection contains remains of the following animals : — 
1. Dromaeus minor. Spencer. 
•2. *Tachyglossa aculeata, var. setosa. Shaw. 

3. *Macropus billardieri. 

4. *Macropus ruficollis. Desm. 
.'). *Pseudochirus cooki. Desm. 

6. *Potorous sjj. 

7. Phascolomys ursinus. Shaw. 

8. *Phascologale minima. Geoff. 

9. Dasyurus bowlingi. Sp. n. 
10. Mus sp. 

Of these animals the six marked with an asterisk form part of 
the present fauna of the island, but their l)ones are intermingled 
under the sand dunes with those of the other three that are now- 
extinct. We will deal at further length with these three. 

[«1 ' 


Dromjeus minor. 

The original discovery of an Emu on the islands of Bass Str.iit 
was made in 1 802. Tn December of that year Admiral Baudin in 
his e.xploring ships Gio<irnphe, Xnfurulisfe, and Casunri/iii vi.sited 
Kangaroo Island, so named 1)V Flinders, though Baudin. unaware 
that ho had been forestalled by the Enalish navigator, called it 
lie Decres. I'eron described the existence of large troops of 
Enuis there. Three of them were brought back alive to Paris. 
( >ne went to the Jardin des Plantes and two to the Chateau of 
Malmaison. The latter evidently found their way eventually to 
the Museum, as Viellot speaks of several Emus of small size livins: 
at his time in the Jardin des Plantes. The Museum now 
possesses two specimens*, (I) a skeleton labelled " Casoar de la 
Xouvelle Ilollande, mort a la Menagerie en Mai 1H22, de I'ile 
King, par I'eron et Lcsueur, expedition du Capitaine Baudin," (2) a 
stuffed specimen labelled " Drontaii/s ater \'., Port Jackson, 
Australie, ex])cdition du ("apitaine Baudin." and bearing this 
further reniarkalde legend, " Casoar de la Nouvelle Hollande. 
< 'nsKfii 'nta Jus/ni/is, Lath . rapporte vivant de Port Jackson par 
I'cxpcdition du Capitaine Baudin, mort en avril 1822 — Le s(juelette 
est a I'anatomie." As Milne Eldwards and < )nstalet point out, the 
stuffed specimen certaiidy contains some hones, and as the 
skeleton in the gallery is complete the two specimens must repie- 
.sent parts of at least three birds. However tiiis may be, both 
specimens certainlv came from Kangaroo Island, and from neither 
King Island nor I'nrt Jackson. The mistake with ivgard to King- 
Island is all the more curious, because during Baudin's expedition 
the naturalists Leschcnault. Baillv. Lesueur, and Peron were left 
stranded at Sea Elephant Bay, on the east coast of King Island, 
a strong gale forcing the ships to stand off from the land. Fortu- 
natclv for them, thev came across a few sealers who had settled in 
this out-of-the-way spot. The chief man anu)ngst them, named 
Cowper, entertained the French naturalists in his quarters, and in 
addition to actually seeing two " Casoars " hanging up in his larder 
they subjected him to a <|uestioning, the questions and 
answers l)eing set forth in great detail in a remarkable manuscript 
recentlv piil)lislicd bv Messrs. Milne Edwards and E. Oustalct.f 
( owper described the l)ird as possessing when young a greyish 
plumage that l)ecame quite black when the bird reached maturity ; 

• Notice sur quelques e3|)Aces d'oiscnux actucllement t-teintes qui sc trouvent repro- 
Hent^es dans les collections du .Museum d'histoire nnturclle, [Kir M. A. Milne Kdwnnls 
et M. K. Oiistjilct. I'nris. IS9.3. Kxtrait riu volume cummeDiorative du ccntenaire de In 
foodation du Museum d'hittoire naturelle, {>. 63. For the opiiortunity of consulting ttiis 1 
nm indebted to I'rofessor E. C Stirling. 

t Note sur I'eraeu noir (I)rom:eus atcr V.) de I'ile Uecres. Bull, du Museum d'histoire 
iiaturelK'. IS'J'J. p. JiMi For the opportunity uf refiM-riiiff to this I am indehUd to U. 
Etheridge, jun., Em{. 



its lieia:ht was 4^ ft. — that is less than the iiiaiiiland form — it 
weighed 40 lbs. to 50 lbs. ; the male was slightly larger than the 
female, but there was not much difference; and. finallv, Cowper 
informed his catechist that he had himself killed no fewer than 
300 birds. 

It is rather curious that the naturalists appear to have con- 
tented themselves with questioning Cowper, and apparently made no 
attempt to capture a specimen, which would have been a mu(di more 
satisfactory manner in which to determine the nature of the bird. 

For mauv vears sealers and fishermen frequented King I.sland, 
and if manv of them followed Cowper's e.xample in regard to his 
wholesale slaughter oi' the bird, as doubtless they did, it is not at 
all surprising that the members of the Field Naturalists' Club, 
who visited King Island in 1887, found not a trace of the Emu at 
Sea Elephant Bay on the very spot where, eighty-five years 
earlier, the French naturalists liad questioned Cowper. 

In addition to the collection secured by Messrs. Johnston and 
Morton we have the extensive one made by one of us. and ^Ir. H. H. 
Scott, Curator of the Victoria Museum in Launceston, generously 
placed all of his material at our disposal. We have been in firequent 
communication with Mr. Scott, who has assisted us in every 
possible wav, and we desire to record our special thanks to him. 

The whole collection, upon which the following account is 
based, contains, apart from many others that evidently belong to 
decidedly innnature birds, the following bones : — 

1. Sixty-four femora. 

2. Forty-one tibio-tarsi. 

3. Seventy tarso-metatarsi. 

4. Four pelves of which the total length can be measured, 

and parts of sixteen others. 

5. Parts of six skulls. 

6. One pectoral arch. 

7. Portions of three sterna. 

8. Fourteen fibulae. 

9. Ribs. 

10. Vertebral bodies. 

11. Toe bones. 

1. Femur. 

(Plate 2.) 

The sixty -four femora vary in length from 186-130 mm. 
A mature D. nuvce-liollmidke measures l'38 mm., and the length 
of that of D. pernni ( = D. afe?-) is given as 180.* 

• In his work on " Extinct Birds," (p. 235), the Hon. Walter Rnthschild points out that 
Vieillot applied tlie specific name ater to Latham's Caxuarius iiovce-hollanditi, and also that 
the same author makes no mention of P^ron or^the ile Decr^s. Mr. Rothschild has, therefore, 
proposed the specific name peroni for the extinct Kangaroo Island bird. 



The followins: table is instructive as affordinti: a srood idea of 
the oenei'al size of the femur : — 

LraEtb. 18l> and over. 170-180. 

1 1 



150-140. 1 Lew UV. 


1 ' 

Number of apecimena 2 13 



C 4 

Of the two lon<rest, one measures 186, the other 180, hut 
as will be seen, the uieat in.ajoritv lie I)et\veen 150-180. The 
collection eviduutly includes bones of birds of different ages, as the 
smallest ones (not included in the table) only measure 110 mm. 
Almost everyone of those included in the table would, however, if 
found separately, be regarded as the bone of a well -developed 
bird. How far differences in size are sexual as well as age 
characteristics it is impossible to say, but when questioned by the 
French naturalists, Cowper, the dshernian, said that though the 
male was the larger the difference in size was not considerable. 
He also said that the l)ird reached maturity in one year. We 
may probably regard the two larger ones as decidedlv above the 
average size of a mature bird, the femur of which would be more 
nearly 170 than 180 mm. So far as the structure of the bone is 
concerned, there is no difference save size between it and the 
corresponding bone of D. novce-liollnndice. 

2. Tibio-tursus. 
(Plate 3. Figures 1-10.) 

The whole collection includes 75 examples of this bone. The 
41 that are included in the table of measurements varv greatlv 
in length. In the original description the greatest length was 
given as 332. Out of the limited number then collected onlv 
two exceeded .'320. In the large collection now available there 
are only four of this size, and they measure respectively 363 mm.* 
(?), 3.J4 mm., 332 mm., and 328 nun. The general results of 
the measurements is given in the followinu; table : — 





Above 360 

















It will be noted that two out of the series exceed by 23 mm. 
and 14 mm. resjiectively the length of the specimen of D. pernni 
in the Paris Museum. The number of specimens of the latter 
species that have l)een ])reserved is unfortunately so small that it 
is impossilde to judge of the amount of variation in the size of the 

This is ilightly broken. 


bird. That considerable variation did exist is almost certain, 
judging- from tlie measurements oi' adult mainland and King Island 
forms. Out of" 42 a|)parently mature bones of the King Island 
bird, that is, bones in which the tibial and tarsal elements are firmly 
ankylosed, it would be rather curious not to find more than two 
representing those of normal full-sized birds, so that we are prob- 
ably safe in concluding that these two especially long bones 
represent birds of abnormal size.* 

We are inclined to think that the length of an average-sized 
mature male is between 3(10 and 3-0; that those in the table above 
this are exceptionally large specimens; that the large number 
measuring from 270-290 mm. in all j)robability are fully-grown 
females and males that are not fully grown. In the case of all 
those included in the 41 the bones appeared, however, to be 
mature, with the peroneal ridge well marked. 

For the sake of comparison we have illustrated both the til)io- 
tarsus of D. novce-hollandicB and that oi'D. peroni.^ The former is 
mature, and measures 440 mm. The latter is not mature, and 
measures only 270 mm. The Paris specimen measures 342. We 
have placed the Kangaroo Island tibio-tarsus by the side of a 
King Island bone of ap]n-oximately the same length. A compari- 
son of the two indicates the fact that the latter bird was evidently 
of considerably more robust build than the former. Messrs. Milne 
Kdwards and Oustalet sa\- that the til)ia in D. peroin is quite 
straight, in contrast to the slightly curved bone in D. iiovcb- 
hnllandice. In all tibio-tarsi from King Island, and in the 
Kangaroo Island bone, there is a slight but ciuite distinct 

3. Taiso-metd tarsus. 

(Plate 4. Figures 1-12.) 
The 70 specimens measured are not all of them mature 
bones. The lengths of those that are mature, that is, in 
which the tarsal element is lirndy attached to the end of the 
metatarsal element, the tubercle for the tibialis anticus well 
marked, and the foramen completely enclosed, varies from 210 mm. 
to 292 mm. The lai'gest presumably belonged to old males of 
exceptional size, the smaller to small females. On the other hand, 
there are quite immature bones measuring as much as 240 mm. 
in length. Out of the 70 specimens measured, one reached the 
length of 292 mm., J and four others the lengths respectively of 
278, 278, 277, and 271 mm. As shown in the tjible, the majority 
of measurements lie between 220 and 250 mm. There are 23 
between 230 and 240. and 12 between 220 and 230. and the same 

*See-p. 17. 

tFor the opportunity of liguriug this «e are much iiulebted to Professor .Stirling, 
Director of the .Soutli Australian Museum. 

J Mr. H. H. Scott informs us that one of his specimens me:isures 294 mm. 



ininilK'r between 24() and 250. We arc probahly correct in rei^ard- 
iug the lenii'tli of an avcraa;e mature tarso-inetatarsus as l)ein<i: 
between "i^o and 240 mm. 

Above '290 L'S0-290 270-280 260-270 250-200 240-250 230-240 220-230 210-220 200-210 190-200 



In the following table are given the measurements of the femur, 
tibio-tarsus, and tarso-mctatarsus of seven mature specimens of 
Dromivus nnva'-hi)ll(i>tdi(t\ from which it will be seen tiiat there 
is considerable variation in the .size of the bones of the mainland 
form, though not so great as in the case of the island species: — 

Bones of Dromaus iiovtB-kollaiidife. 

T»r6o-mcta tarsus 



























In the following table we give side by side the lengths of the 
same bones in the three species, taking, in the case of D. minor 
and D. novce-ZiollnndicB, l)ones that belong to fair, average-sized, 
mature specimens. 




D. minor. 


D. nova;- 


D. peroni. 



4. Pelvis. 

(Plate 4.) 
There is a most striking ditference in size between the pelvis 
of the mainland and that oftlie King Island l)ird, and foitunately, 
though the Ijoues are very fragile, only one spiniinien retaining 
any appreciable part of the pui)is and ischium, sufHcient measure- 
ments can be obtained to warrant the separation of the two 
species on the evidence of this bone alone. 


Width in front 
Width hchind 
cavity ... 

D. minor. 








i>. Dovai- 













• Specinieni in the National Museum. Melbourne. 

T Specimens belonging to the .\ Museum, Sydney. We are indebted lo .Mr. K. 
Klhcridpc for thi' opporluiiity of inciHuring llasc. 

J Mcaguremfnt.H given by Mccsrs. Milne Kdwards and Ouslalel ior iMiniiiarisoii with those 
of D. altr. This specimeD, presumably in the Paris .Museum, can scarcely be full grown. 



The first portion of a pelvis secured was obtained bv Mr. 
Campbell, and presented by him to the National Museum. This 
by itself was too fragmentary and imperfectly preserved to base 
any decided conclusion upon. Indeed, in the absence of other 
specimens it could not be definitely stated whether it was an 
adult or a young one, but the structure of the 20 specimens now 
in onr ]jossession is decisive. As the table shows, there is a 
difference of 150 mm. between the length of the largest pelvis of 
D. minor and D. novce-hollandioe, and a difference of nearly 
50 mm. between the former and D. jjeru/ii. Indeed, the latter 
appears to be intermediate in size between the two former. 

5. Skull. 

(Plate 6.) 

As might be expected, remains of the skull are difficult 
to procure, and are of necessity more or less fragmentary, the 
fragile bones of the jaws being easily detached and broken. 
The complete fusion of the bones, and entire eradication of all 
sutural marks, show that the remains are those of quite mature 
birds; indeed, unless complete fusiou of the bones had taken place, 
there would uot be the slightest chauce of the preservation of the 
cranium as a whole. The shifting of the sand, under which the 
bones lie buried, by strong westerly gales would soon dissociate the 
skull bones. Ju a young D. novce-hollandia:., with a length of 80 
mm. between the frontal suture and the occiput — that is, much larger 
than the largest of the skulls of D. minor — the sutures between 
the occipital, parietal, and frontal bones are widely open, and 
during maceration the bones separate from one another. Instead 
of there being any chance that the skulls are those of immature or 
not fully grown birds, it may be I'egarded as absolutely certain 
that only perfectly mature skulls would have any chance of 
surviving the movements of the shifting sand. 

Even more striking than the difference in size is that in the 
shape of the cranium of the island and the mainland form. The 
illustrations of the skulls seen in side-view in figures 5, 6 and 9, 
and the outline drawings representing the curvature of the upper 
surface of the cranium in two adult specimens of D. minor and two 
adult and one immature specimens of D. nnvcE-hollandice, show at 
a glance the great difference that exists in the cranial formation of 
the two forms. The outline drawings are life-size and in each 
case the horizontal line passes through the condyle posteriorly, 
and the suture of the frontal bone anteriorly.* The conti'ast 

* The drawings were made by means of the Dioptograph, designed by Dr. Rudolph 
Martin, for the opportunity of using which we are indebted to Professor R. J. A. Berrj". 



Fu; 1. D. minor. 

Fro. 2. D. minor. 

Fig. 3. D. novce-hollandia , juw. 

Fig. 4. D. nova-hoUandia. 

Fio. 5. D. noea-hoUandia. 


between tlie doiue-sliaped skull of tlie island forin and the frontally 
flattened one of" the mainland iorni is sti'onjily marked. It will he 
noted also that the dome shape of the cranium is indicated to a 
certain extent in tlie immature mainland form The frontal 
region is certainly flattened, Init the proportionate height of the 
cranium above a basal line running from the condyle to the 
frontal suture is decidedly greater than in the mature specimens. 
Tliere is unfortunately no detailed description of the skull of IJ. 
peroni available, but it the dome shape of the cranium was any- 
thing like as well inarkcd in the Kangaroo Island species as it is 
in that of the King Island bird, it could not have failed to attract 
attention. This character alone is sufficient to distinguish the 
King island species from that of the mainland, and presumably 
also from that of Kangaroo Island. 

In the following table we give (1 ) certain length measurements 
of the skulls and (2) the proportionate height of the cranium to 
the length of a basal line drawn from the condyle to the frontal 
suture, taking this line as 100:— 

D. novie-hoUancHse. 

D. peroni. 

D. minor. 






Occiput to frontal suture 








Maximum width 








Interorbital space ... 








Length of premaxilla 


70 + 






Proportionate height of skull 








6. Pec (oral Arch. 

(Plate 4. Figures 19 and 20.) 

Only one pectoral arch — that of the right side — has been 
found, and that has the clavicle missing, and about half of the 
scapular broken off". It is not perfect enough to found any com- 
parisons upon. 

7. Portions of three Sterna. 

(Plate 7.) 

It was found very difficult to secure remains of the sterna' 
which broke up into powder as soon as they were touched. 
The fragment figured i-epresents the greater part of it, but 
there is nothing apart from size to distinguish it clearly from 
the sternum of the mainland bird. The concavity on the 
inner or upper side is less accentuated, but then this is a 
feature in which the mainland form varies : one of our specimens 
being decidedly shallower and flatter than the one figured. The 
difference in size is, however, striking. 



8. Five FihuloB. 
(Plate 3. Figures 11 and 12.) 
These appear to {lifter only in size. 

9. Ribs. 

(Plate 4. Figures 10. 17, 18.) 

Oiilv two ribs were secured, and l)otli of these are broken, 
The larger one corresponds to the first rib tliat meets the sternum, 
and the smaller one to the third. Both belong to the right 
side. The tulierciilum of each is broken, and the capitnlnni is 
decidedly longer in jjroportiou tlian in the corresponding ril) of 
the niainlnnd form. 

10. Vertebral Bodies. 

The collection includes forty-three vertebra;, but, so great has 
been the action of the wind-driven sand, that not one of them is 
entire. A]iart from si/e, they do not apparently differ from those 
of the larger species. 

1 1. Toe Bone.<<. 
(Plate 4. Figures 13, 14, 15.) 
These are such solid parts of the skeleton that it might 
naturally be expected that thev would be well represented, but 
only two could l)e found. llach ^>t them is the proximal phalange 
of the large middle toe, and, apart from size, differs in no way 
from the same bone in the larger bird. 

In the table we give the measurements, and, on the supposition 
that the first phalange of the median toe has the same relation 
to the length of tiie whole toe in the island as in the mainland 
form, we have calculated the probable total length of the toe, 
taUing as a guide the length of tiie larger of the twn bones, 
which evidently iielony-ed to a mature l)ird : — 

Total leDf^h uf inerlian toe 
LuDgth of Isl pliiiUingc ... 

I). noviL'-lioUamli.i'. 



I), minor. 



D. peroni. 

The measurement given of the length of the toe in D. pernni 
is 110, so that in tiiis respect D. iiiinur is somewiiat larger than 
the former. 

3981.— K. 



Genekai. Remarks on the Species of Duomjeuh Inhabiting 
THK Islands or Bas.^ Sikait. 

It is a matter of sjreat roiirot tliat in the earlv davs of 
Australian exploration so few specimens of the fauna of the islands 
of Biiss Strait were preserved. We know now. when it is too late 
to do more than gather together — and tiiat witii difficulty — such 
remains as we can secure of their skeletons, that these islands were 
the home of a species of Emu distinct from that of the mainland of 
Australia, and probably also from that of Tasmania. The early 
inhabitants of the islands were naturally not in the least interested 
in natural history, save so far as the animals that they found 
inhabiting the primeval scrub wei-e good to eat. Their only object 
was to capture as many seals and sea lions as possible, and 
whilst doing this they replenished their larder by exterminating as 
many birds and mammals useful for food as they could secure. 
P^ron records the fact that on King Island Cowper and his 
associates had actually trained their dogs to go out by themselves 
and hunt down Emus and Kangaroos.* When they had killed 
their prey the dogs returned to camp, and, "par signes non 
equivoque," announced their success, and then led the men to the 
places where their victmis lay dead. On Kangaroo Island, by 
means of one dog trained by the English sealers, and presented to 
the French naturalists, the latter were able to capture twenty-seven 
Kangaroos alive, and numberless others that were killed and 
eaten. Peron savs that Kangaroos are so easilv killed bv a trained 
dog that a few of these would not take many years to exterminate 
all the formei" on Kangaroo Island. 

Peron also relates that the English fishermen had actually 
domesticated the Wombats, ^vhich went out during the day into 
the foi'ests in search of food, and returned to their shelter huts at 
night.f We may be permitted to accept this statement with some 
reserve. P^ron and his associates were very hospitably treated by 
the English sealers when they were in a very uncomfortable plight, 
owing to their ships having to stand off suddenly from the coast ; 
indeed, if it had not lieen for Cowper and his friends the French 
naturalists would have had at least a very unpleasant time, so that 
naturally everything that they say about their rescuers and their 
surroundinps is not likely to suffer from any lack of friendly 
and appreciative description. 

If Cowper really domesticated the Woml:)at for the purpose of 
securing a ready food supply, then this is the first case on record 
of any such thing in regard to marsupials. How", in what must 
have been a relatively short space of time, he had trained them to 

* "Voyage de decouvertes, &c.," vol. ii., p. IS. 
t Loc. cit., vol. ii., p. 14. 



•ro out in the day in search of food and return to their huts at 
night is a mystery. This means not only tliat he liad ])ersua(ie(l 
the animals to aijandon their Ijurrowing habits, but, what is more 
remarkable still, he iiad changed a nocturnal into a diurnal animal. 
The domestication story must, we fear, be regarded as a mvth. It 
is true that Flinders remarks on the fact thatOn Clarke Island he 
saw Womliats feeiiing during the day time. (.)n the mainland the 
animal is also sometimes .seen duri'ig the day, l)ut it is e.ssentiallv 
nocturnal in its hal)its, and Sir Kverard Home states, in regard to 
one taken alive from King Island to [.rondnn, that it was quiet 
during the day and active at night. 

There is no doul)t that Enuis and Wombats were plentiful at 
the time of Peron's visit, and that I'eron actually saw them. 
There is a very curious discrepancy between two accounts that are 
published dealing with their size. Pcron makes the following 
.statement* :—" i.e puissant Casoar, liaut dc l(i a 22 decimetres 
(5 a 7 pieds)," and, in the margin opposite this, reference is made 
to plate (U"). ()n tlii' other hand, in the ])ublication by Messrs. 
Milne Edwards and Oustalet, to which we have already referred,f 
the following question put to, and the answer to it made by, 
Cowper, are given : — 

"G. Quelle est la hauteur la plus grande a laquelle il 
parvient ? 

A I'ile King, a pen pres 4 pieds I, plus petit qu'i Sydney." 

The plate referred to contains the figures of adult and voung 
birds, and bears the following legend :-" Nouvelle-IIollande — 
ile des kanguroos. Casoar de la N'"'- Hollande (Casuarius Novaj 
Hollandi;n-Lath.)" It will i)e noted that in the letterpress the 
name ile Decres is used, and on the plate the name ile des 
Kanguroos. It is evident that T^ron imagined that the island and 
the mainland forms of Rnm were the .same, and that he made very 
little efioit to ca])ture them on the islands— indeed, he says, 
speaking of Kangaroo Island, "Nous mimes peu de soin a. les 
cha.s.ser, nous ne pfimes nous en procurer que trois individus 
vivans.']: He makes no remarks whatever about the size of the 
Kangaroo island specimens. 

it is well known now that there are three authentic specimens' 
ot'D.pemni in existence§ — amounted sltiii and skeleton in Paris and 

* "Voyage do drcourertcs, Ac," vol. ii., p. U 

+ "Note 8ur Teniou noir. *c., Bull, du MusiJum d'hiet. nat.," 1899, p. 206. 

t Loc. cit., |>. 78, Tol. ii. 

!i Hon. Walter Rothhchild. " Extinct Birds." 1907. .Vise Dr. H. H. Giglioli. 
" Nature. April 4, 1907, p. 534. A very good account of the various s[)cciincni< brought 
to Europe is given by Graham Renhhaw in the " Zoologist." No. 741, 1903. p. 81. 

[ 19] 

B 2 


a skeleton in Florence.* These three are undouhtcdly those 
taken from Kanti,aroo Island by Baudin's expedition. In addition 
there is the doubtful specimen discovered in Liverpool Ijy Dr. 
H. O. Forbes, in regard to wliich the Hon. Walter liothscliild 
savs f— " in addition to Decres or Kangaroo Island, also Flinders, 
King Island, and Tasmania had Emus living on them at the time 
of Ftjron's visit, and I believe, if authentic specimens from these 
localities were in existence, we should find that each of tliese 
islands had had a distinct species or race of Emus. Taking this 
for graiited, and also taking into account that it is slightly 
different from the type of D. peroni, 1 have come to the con- 
clusion that the Liverpool specimen is an inmiature, though full 
grown, individual from one of these other islands ; but it is not 
possible from this one rather poor specimen to se[)arate it from 
the Kangaroo Island species, especially as there is absolutely no 
indication of the origin of this specimen." The only other remains 
of the Kangaroo Island Enm are two bones, one a tibio-tarsus and 
the other a tarso-metatarsus, of which, through the courtesy of 
Professor E. C. Stirling, the Director of the South Australian 
Museum, we are able to give illustrations. 

Dr. Giglioli is of opinion that the Liverpool specimen is 
identical with the Paris and Florence specimens. Most unfortu- 
nately, there is no evidence whatever of where it came from or by 
whom it was collected. A few bones from King Island were also 
sent to Dr. Giglioli by the late Mr. Alex. Morton, and while 
pointing out the necessity of securing a larger series of bones from 
the ishuids Dr. Giglioli expressed the opinion that the King Island 
specimens belonged to D. peroni. 

With the comparatively large series of bones now available it 
is possible to form a tolerably correct idea of the average size of 
the King Island bird. Unfortunately, we have only the measure- 
ments of the bones of one specimen of D. peroni, but we have 
the advantage of knowing that this was full grown, as it lived for 
some time after its arrival in France either at the Jardin des 
Plantes or at the Chateau of Malmaison, and we may therefore 
regard it as probably an average sized specimen — more especially 
as there does not appear to be any great discrepancy in size 
amongst the Paris and the Florence specimens. 

* 111 his " Catalogue of the Fossil Organic Remains, Mammalia, and Birds contained in 
the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons," London, 1845, p. 353, Owen makes the 
following statement hi regard to specimen No. 15(i3 :— " A corresponding section of the 
pelvis of a young Emeu (Drom(eii.-< aler), showing a smaller proportional expansion of the 
spinal canal for the enlargement of the chord whence the nerves of the legs originate, and 
the more marked difference in the form and ])ropoi-tions of the iliac plates, esiiecially 
behind the acetabulum." In his work on "The Extinct Wingless Birds of New Zealand " he 
also figures, in Plate xxxv. , fig. 7, a sternum to which he applies the name of Dromaius ater. 
No reference to this particular specimen nor any reference to the species is made in the letter- 
press. It seems clear that Owen is not using ater as a synonym for iiom -ho//aii'Ji'r, because 
the latter specific name is applied to specimens figured in Plates xxxi. and xxxvii. 

+ " Extinct Birds," p. ^S'y. 



In the Following table we give the ineasiireineMts of tlie l)ones 
of six sj)eciiueiis of Drnmams nrwcB-hnlldndla;, of ;he large 
series of the King Island form, and the nieasnrenients of the one 
specimen of D. peroni. In the case of the King Island form we 
have given three series of measurements— the minimum, the 
maxinnim, and those between which lie the great majority of the 
measurements. Thus, for example, in the case of the fenmr the 
mininuun of mature bones is 14'> and the maximum 186, Init 
whilst onlv 2 specimens measure more than 180 and (? less than 
I. ')0 mm., ni) fewer than irl measure l)etween 150-180 nun., and 
of these 31) measure between 150-170 mm. 


I). novee-hollandlR. 

King Island Species. 

D. peroni. 

Skull, lengtli 



„ width 






140, 1.^0-180, 186 




265, 27)-320, 363 



335-4 ! 1 

216, 220-280, 292 


Pelvis, leiigtli 




Pelvis, width in front 




Pelvis, width behind 




It will be seen that there is considerable variation, not only in 
the case of the King Island species, but also in that of the main- 
land si)ecies, and doul)tless a corres])()ii(ling amouiit of variation 
would be found to exist amongst the Kangaroo Island birds if oidy 
we were fortunate enough to ])o.s.sess as lai-ge a series of their 
bones as we do of those of the King Island Kmns. It is, for 
example, almost certain, or at least quite prol)able. that amongst 
the Emus of Kauiiaroo Island thei-e wei-e many adult bii'ds that 
exceeded the measurements given in the al)ove tal)Ie, and many 
that fell below them unless the three specimens .secured happened 
to belong to birds of either iiiaxiiiium or minimmn size. 

One verv striking fact in regard to the IJatitaj is that on insular 
areas we find a most remarkable develojmient of distinct .species, 
and that on continental areas there is a widespread distribution of 
a 'imited number of species. 

riiroughout the whole of the South American continent we 
iind only three species of Rhea. Africa has only three species of 

[21 ] 


Throughout the whole of Australia there is only one species of 
Emu*. Six living species of Apteryx are recognised on the islands 
of New Zealand, where tliere also exist the remains of at least 
twenty species of Dinornis and closely allied genera. In Australia 
there is only one species of Cassowary ; on the Papuan Islands to 
the north there are no fewer than ten species, and of these one 
species may be confined to one island, as in the case of the well 
known Ceram Cassowary, or several may occur on the same island 
as in the case of New Guinea. 

It is thus apparent that for some reason or another an 
insular environment is associated with considerable variation 
amongst Ratite birds. It would not therefore be a matter of 
surprise, judging by what has taken place in the case of the Ratite 
birds of New Guinea and the suiTouuding islands to the north of 
Australia, if King and Kangaroo Islands and Tasmania each 
possessed its own species of Emu. 

The measurements in the table given above indicate very 
clearlv the fact that the King and Kangaroo Island Emus were 
quite distinct from those of the mainland. Of this there can be 
no doubt whatever. There now remains the question of the 
identity or otherwise of the two former. Despite the fact that in 
the ease of the femur, tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus our 
collection from King Island includes in each case one or two bones 
equal in length to the corresponding bones in the Paris specimen 
from Kangaroo Island, it is clear that these belong to exceptionally 
large specimens, and tliat the average size of these bones was con- 
siderably less than the maximum given in the table. The two 
bones from Kangai'oo Island also indicate the fact that the species 
of Emu inhaljiting the latter was of decidedly less robust build 
than that of King Island. Not only is this so, but the measure- 
ments of the skull and pelvis are quite sufficient to distinguish the 
two species. 

Both the King Island and the Kangaroo Island species were 
distinguished bv iheir dark colour from that of the mainland. 

We have now to deal with the question of the Tasmanian Emu. 
At the present time no Emu is extant in the island, but names such 
as Emu Bay and Kmu Plains evidently indicate the fact that when 
the island was first occupied by white men, and probably for many 
years afterwards, Emus did exist. Tlie only examples of the Tas- 
manian Emu of which we can find any record ai'e two skins of 
adult birds presented to the British Museum by Mr. Ronald Gunu, 
and recorded by Gray in his List of !!irds in the British Museum, 
iii., p. 54, 1844, and again by Salvadori in the British Museum 
Catalogue of Birds, xxvii., 1895. 

* D. irroratua of N.W. Auitralia is doubtfully distinct from D. novir.hollandia. 



In 1804, the Ilt'V. U. KiKipwoKil wrote :i di.-irv of \n> visit to 
Tasmania wlicn H.M. ship Calcutta sailed from Port IMiillip to the 
Derwent River in lasmania.* On Wednesday, 7tli March, he lias 
the iolh)\ving recorii in his diary — " We see Kantiaroos, Emews, 
Pigeons, and Parrotts "; again, on .Monday, 2()th March, he says — 
"They cano;iit six voung Kmews, about tlie size of a turkey, and 
shot the oM mother ;" and, on 9th ()ctol)er, he records the capture 
by liis dogs of an "• Kmew (10 Ihs. \veight."t 

BisehofF,^ writing ill 1832, and ([uoting from " An Account of 
Van Diemen's Land," pul)lished hy Widovvson, in 1 829, says — 
" The birds that may lie called game are very numerous, with 
the exception of the Emu or Native Ostrich, they very much 
resemble the latter liird, and are very nearly as large." In the 
" Van Diemen's Land Anniversary and Hol)ait Town Almanac," 
for the year 18.11, the •' Emu or Cassowary Khea iSoviv-lIollan- 
diae," is included in " A glossary of the most common natural 
production of Van Diemen's Land," so that evidently the bird was 
well known at this early date. 

The Emu is known to have existed in large numbers in 
Tasmania up to at least the year 1840. Col. W. V. Legge,§ the 
distinguished ornithologist of Tasmania, states that during the 
'• forties "' the birds inhabited and bred regularly in a locality 
known as Kearney's Bogs, aljout 12 miles south of Avoca, 
amonu:st the ranjres of the east coast. He states that one of the 
shepherds '• u.sed not unfrecjuently to bring eggs to the house. 

Mr. D. Le Souef, in his notes on the extinct Tasnianian Emu,|| 
mentions that Mr. Ransom, of Killymooii, in the Fingal district, 
rememliers Captain Hepburn, ot Roy's Hill, Hnding an Emu's nest 
with eight or nine eggs. A little later these were hatched under 
a turkey hen. From others were bred, and a pair of them 
were given to the late Baron von Steiglitz, of Kiilymoon, one of 
which survived until 1S7.S, when it was drowned while trying to 
cross a flooded river. With its death, the Tasnianian Emu. Mr. 
Ransom i)elieved, became extinct. 

Gould, in his ''Birds of Australia," pul)li.shed in 1848, states 
that Emus were then almost extirpated in Tasmania ; a few still 
ranging over the western part. 

* We are indebtcil to Mr. .1 .1. Fletcher for inueli valuable assistance in regard to the 
early literature ilealing with the Kniu and I'hiiscolomys. 

t " .lourn.-il of the Rev. Robert Knopwood, .V.M.," in " Historical Records of Tort 
Phillip," e<iited l>y John J. .Shillinglaw, p. 6'>. 

; Skcteh of the History of Van Uieman's I^nd, &c. James Bischoft, 1832. 

§ ■• Emu," iii., p. ^9. 1904. 

Il " Kmu, • vi., 1907,1". '16. 



Mr. Geo. T. Lloyd* writing in 1H62, says, "The Emu ofTas- 
mauia, as I have before stated, is much smaller and darker in 
plumage than that of Australia ; hut, never numerous there, that 
noble bird is nr)w nearly extinct." 

One difficulty in I'egard to the safe identification of the true 
Tasmanian Kmu lies in the fact that at a comparatively early date 
specimens were introduced from the n)ainland. Mr. D. Le Souef 
states, on the authority of Mr. Stephens, that one or more were 
imported from Victoria by Mr. James Cox, of Clarendon, in the 
earlv " fifties," and others were introduced somewhat earlier. 

Further evidence of this is afforded by Mr. R. Gunn,f who, 
writina: in 1851, savs that he obtained two Emus from the Horti- 
cultural fi aniens in Hobart, and adds "they were originally from 
a Port Phillip stock, but brought up in Van Dieman's Land." 
He goes on to say, " a leg of a Tasmanian Emu is now in my 
possession, and so far as I can judge from it, as a very imperfect 
specimen, there ai*e differences in the an'angement and size of the 
scales, which may justify the separation of the Tasmanian Emu 
from that of New Holland." In a foot-note, Mr. J. Milligan adds 
that, " Captain Hepburn, of St. I'aul's Plains, possesses a breed of 
Tasmanian Emus, which he succeeded in rearing from eggs found 
many years since upon the high healthy land in his vicinity." 

Two eggs have been recorded as those of the Tasmanian Emn, 
one of which is in the collection of Mr. J. W. Mellor, of Adelaide, 
and the other in that of Mr. D. Le Souef, Director of the Zoological 
Gardens, Melbourne. Both are said to be considerably smaller 
than those from the mainland. The measurements given by Mr. 
Le Souef are 4*85 x 3"-40 inches and 4*80 x 3"50, as compared with 
.5 ".56 X ?>-6'3 inches of a tvpical egg of a mainland form. A bone 
found by Mr. H. H. Scott in a limestone quarry was sent to Mr. 
D. Le Souef, who identified it as the femur of an Emu smaller than 
those from the mainland, but too damaged to be of any value. 

Finallv, during: a recent visit to Eua,land, Mr. D. Le Souef 
examined the two skins of the Tasmanian Emu in the collection 
of the Bi'itish Museum, and arrived at the conclusion that they 
were distinct from those of the mainland, a conclusion in which he 
informs us he was confirmed by the Hon. W. Rothschild, 
Dr. Bowdler Sharp, and Mr. Hartert, who also examined them. 

On the evidence derived from the size of the earg Mr. Le Souef 
pro]iosed the name of Drnmceus diemensu for the I'asmanian bird 
that laid it, but exactly what this bird was it is now quite im- 
possible to say with absolute certainty. Presumablv, however, 
granting that the eggs are those of the true Tasmanian Emu, and 

* " Thirty-three years iu Tasmania and Victoria," p. 62, 1862. 
+ R. Guun. Proc. R. S. Tas., 185,S, p. 170. 



not somewhat small ones of introduced mainland birds, the two 
skins preserved in tiie British Museum belong to the same species 
of bird that laid the euirs referred to by Mr. Le Souef. ^'o 
adecpiate description of tliese skins has yet been jiublished, but in 
view of the facts that (1) we know of eggs found in Tasmania 
that are distinct from those of the mainland form, and (2) that 
there are two authentically recorded skins of Knuis from Tasmania 
that differ from those of the mainland bird, and differ also l)oth in 
size and colour from those of the Bass Strait Islands, it appears 
to be certain that Tasmania uas iuhal)ited by an Kmu distinct Ijoth 
from that of the Australian Continent and that of the Islands, and 
for this species when it is adequately described the name of D. 
ilit'ini'iisis may approijriately be retained. 

In the following tables we give details of the measurements of 
the Fenuirs. Til)i(^tarsal. and Tarso-metatarsal bones, the general 
results of which have been summarized in .some of the foregc)ing 

tJibles : — 

Dro.m^us minor. 

















































169- 5 






















































































• SIlKhtly broken. 



DROMyKoa Minor — continued. 













3 IK 










































































Slightly broken. 

Tarso-metatarsus . 



































































































































218 " 















* Slightly broken. 



In conse(|uence of the large series of remains secured since 
the oriyiiial (U^scription was puhlished it is necessary to alter the 
diagnosis then Liiven : — 

Dun.M.ias MINOR. 

Size varying considerably, but always much smaller than that of 
D. iitivu'-liollniid'KV : not exceeding that of T). prror/i, hnt of more 
robust l)uild. Tiliio-tarsus rarely e.xceediug S'60 mm., most usually 
from 270-320 nnn. in greatest length. Tarso-metatarsus rarely 
exceeding 280 mm., most usnallv from 220-280 mm. in greatest 
length. Frontal region of skull decidedly dome-shaped. Length 
of skull from frontal suture to occiput not or only slightly exceed- 
ing ()0 mm. Greatest width of skull not or only slightly ex- 
ceeding o.") nnn. 

Hdhitdt. Kins: Island. Bass Strait. Now extinct. 

Phascolomys ursinus, Shaw. 

In a separate paper we deal at length with the question 
of the different s])ecies of Phascolomys, popularly known as 
Wombats, that have been recorded from Australia, Tasmania, and 
the Islands of Bass Strait. It will suffice to say here that the 
earliest known Wombat was secured on Clarke Island, in Bass 
Strait, and taken alive to Sydney in 1797. There is no record of 
the name of its discoverer.* After lingering in captivity for six 
weeks it died; and in .Auuust of that year Hunter, then (Governor 
of New South Wales, sent the body together with a description of 
the animal to the Newcastle Philosophical Society, f In 1800 
ShawJ pnl)lished a brii-f description of this animal under the name 
of Didflitliijs tirsiii'i. Up to this year, and indeed until at the 
earliest 1802, the only Wombat known in England was the one 
sent home by Hunter. Bass found his sju'cimeM on Cape Barren 
Island ill 179'J, but no description of this was published nntil 

/ There can be no donl)t whatever that all the early descriptions 
of Phascolomys were based upon specimens from tlie Islands of 
Bass Strait, and further still tluit without any adequate investiga- 
tion it was taken for granted that tin- Bass Strait Island species 
was idi'iitieal with the Tasmaiiian. •. )ur collection from the Bass 
Strait Islands includes eight skulks, thirty lower jaws, and two 
skins, and altera careful comi)arison of thi'se with fourteen skulls 
from Tasmania, and a large numl)er from Australia, we have 
come to the conclusion that the Bass Strait Island form is quite 
distinct from that, of Victoria and Tasmania, and that as already 

* It is generally stated that the first Wombat taken to Sydney was captured by Baas, but 
this is not ao. 

t In Bewick's " History of QimJrupoilH," 4tli edit. 1S0(), p. Sio, Hunter's letter is quoted 
in full, and n i|uaint flgurc nf the unhiml, u liich is culled " The Wonibacli," is given. 

X "tienerul Zoology " i., pt. "2, p. 504. 



described the two latter are also distinct from one another, though 
at the same time tliey are more closely allied than is the Hass 
Strait Island Wombat to either of them.* 

It is therefore necessary to distinguish specifically the two forais 
which up to the present time have been united under the name of 
of P/iaxcolomys ursiniis. As this was, without any douljt, a|)plied 
in the first instance to the particular form secured on Clarke 
Island, sent to England hy Hunter, and named Di(l<'li)hys ursimi 
l)V Shaw, we retain the specific name unlnus for the Bass Strait 
Island species, and redescribe the distinct Tasmanian species under 
the name of Ph. fasmamensis. 

It is an interesting fact that the first reliable drawings of a 
AVombat, those in the Atlas to Peron's work represent the King 
Island species, and further that one of the earliest descriptions of 
the anatomy of any species of the genus was based upon a specimen 
taken to London by the distinguished naturalist, R. Brown, who 
secured it on one of the Bass Strait Islands. f Sir Everard Home, 
when describing the anatomy of this sjiecimen, says that it lived 
in captivity with him for two years, and " It appeared to have 
arrived at its full growth, weighed about twenty pounds, and was 
about two feet two inches long." 

In addition to the sub-fossil specimens from King Island our 
original collection included a skull from Deal Island, indistinguish- 
able from the King Island skulls. For the purpose of procm-ing, 
if ]iossible, material from the Furneaux Group, of Avhich Clarke 
Island, the habitat of the first found Wombat, forms a part, one of 
us paid a visit to Flinders Island, the largest of the group, and 
made the interesting discovery that the small Wombat, though rare, 
is not yet actually extinct. Further reference to this is made in a 
separate article. Here it will suffice to say that the Deal, 
Flinders and King Island skulls are identical. Deal. Flinders, 
Clarke, and Cape Barren Islands, form parts of a chain of 
islands stretching across the eastern entrance to Bass Strait, 
whilst King Island lies far away on its western margin. It would 
be, at least, a most curious thing if the Deal, Flinders, and King 
Island wombats were identical, as they are, and at the same time 
distinct from those of Clarke and Cape Barren Islands. 

We have therefore decided to retain Shaw's specific name 
uraitn/s for the Wombat of the Bass Strait Islands. Though much 
has been written about it, and it is the oldest known species, 
it has for many years been confused with the quite distinct Tas- 
manian form, and it is doubtful if any well authenticated skin of it 
is in existence, except two recently secured on Flinders Island. 

* It is a somewhat remarkable fact that both the King Island Emu and Wombat are more 
distinct from tlie mainland and Tasmanian forms than the two latter are from one another. 

tHome. Phil. Trans, 1808, p. 304. "An account of some Peculiarities in the 
anatomical structure of the Wombat, &c. " 



Ihifortunately HuiitiM- in his letter to the Newcastle Philo- 
sophical Society, when sendins; to Kiigland the oriirinal specimen 
on which Shaw established the species, gave onlv a verv vagne 
description of it, nor does that specimen ajipear to have ever heen 
ade(|uately described. 

("nliins, howevei-, pul)lished a more detailed account of the 
specimen oljtained l>v Bass on Cape Barren Island, though in his 
account, whidi UMdoul)t('dly refers to this p^irticulnr species of 
Womliat,* then- is a curious error in regard to the dentition which 
must have arisen in consequence of a mistake in the transcription of 
notes. Taking Bass' account of the e.Kternal form and combining 
it with tlie results obtained from the investigation of the skulls 
from King. Deal, ?.nd Flinders Islands, and skins from the latter, 
the following may be taken as a fairly accurate description of this 
species : — 

I'hascolomys uksinus. Shaw. 

Size, smallest of the genus. Length, from tip of tail to tip of 
nose, about 77o nuu.f Length of head, 175 mm. Weight, irom 
twenty-Hve to thirty pounds. The female slightly larger than the 
male. Hair coarse, light sandy l)rown in colour, darkest along the 
back. Ears siiarp and erect, al)out 57 mm. long. Eyes about 
60 mm. apart. Muzzle naked. The fore legs .strong and mu.scular, 
their length to the sole al)out I "-0 nun. The three middle claws 
20 nun. in length, claws of Hrst and fifth digits 15 mm. in length. 
The three inner claws of the foot about 5 mm. longer thanthe 
longest of the fore claws. Skull smaller than that of the Australian 
or Tasmanian species. Basal length, lL'0.182 nmi. Greatest 
breadth 99-lOiirnm. Nasals much expanded posteriorly, their 
greatest breadth at least three-fourths of their length. Post-orbital 
processes sni.ill. The malar bones strongly bowed downwards and 
outwards below the orbit. Length of upper molar tooth .series not 
e.\( ceding 45 mm. ; that of the lower tooth series not exceeding 
4(;imn. ijength of humerus '.'8 mm. Greatest width of humerus 
at its distal end 42 nun Length of femur, 12.'^ nun. 

Ilafiifaf.—Kmg, Deal, Cape Barren, Clarke, and Flinders 
Islands in Bass Strait. 

Type specimen is the one sent to Newcastle l)y Hunter, it is 
doul)tful whether it is now in existence. 

Dasyurus bowungi. sp. n. 
When describing the fauna of King Islaiul,! I'eron .say.s. ''Nous 
y avoiis recueilli, M. Lesiuur et moi, une foiile d'especes inconnes 
a I'Europe, parnii lesquelles se trouvent deux Dasyures elegans, 

• " An iiccomit of the English colony of New .South Wales." 2nd Kdit. 1804, p. 469. 

+ Thin in.-iy probaUly be rc)j;anU'il lui the maximum. Of two skins from Flinders Island, 
one, a mature m:ilc, measures "I."" mm , the other, a female, not quite complete, as the 
tip uf the snout is wanting, measures 67.i mm. 

X Voyage dc decourertes, etc., \>. 12. 



&c." In speaking of Kangaroo Island he says,* " Nous y avons vu 
que trois cspuoes de mammifcrcs : I'une appartient au joli genres 
des Dasyures," and in connexion with tlie latter refers to a plate on 
which two Dasyures are drawn, the title of the plate being a.s 
follows : — " Nouvelle-Hollande : Nouvelle Galles dii Sud. Dasyure 
a longue queue ( Dasyurux Macrouriis^ Geof.)." 

It is evident that F6ron regarded the Kangaroo Island species 
as identical with the larger mainland form now known as Ddsifurua 
tnaculaf.iis^ but he says notliing with regard to the two King Island 
species, and does not appear to have collected specimens. 

At the ])r('sent two species of Dasyurus are known from 
Victoria and Tasmania, a somewhat larger form, D. maculalns, and 
a somewhat smaller one, D. vivp.rriiiu.s. Both of these are found 
in Victoria and Tasmania, the first-named species being more 
abundant in the island than on the mainland. During the visit ot 
the Field Naturalists' Club in 1887, D. maculntus was reported as 
existing on King Island, but not D. virerrinns. 

Our collection of bones includes tiie remnants of twenty-five 
crania, and sixty lower jaws, one of which came from Deal Island. 
No trace of any other bone could he found. 

The crania and jaws are clearly divisible into two sets, a larger 
and a smaller, indicating the existence of two species as recorded 
by P^rou, who, unfortunately, gave no indication of their relative 
size. The question arises as to the relationship of these two 
species to those now existing in Australia and Tasmania. In our 
collection, twenty-one of the crania belong to the larger form, and 
four only to the smaller. Of the lower jaws, thirty-seven appear 
to belong to the larger, and twenty-nine to the smaller. The 
difference in size is not due to immaturity, the dentition of both 
series being the permanent one. 

In order to try and decide the relationship of the fossil forms, 
we have made a considerable number of measurements of skulls 
and lower jaws of recent specimens, the results of which are given 
in the following tables. 

In the following table the crania of the King Island specimens, 
and of a series of specimens of Z). maculatus and D. civerrintts nve 
grouped in accordance with their basal lengths : — 


Basal length. 








115 & 

King Island species 
D. maoulatus 
D. viverrinus 









* Soe. cit. p. 7«. PI. 63. 



The greatest Uasal length of any of our specimens ()l'/>. inac/i- 
Idtiis is 98 mm., and that particular specimen came from 
Queensland ; a second, measuring 97 mm., from Tasmania ; 
a third, measuring 9() mm., from Victoria ; are particu- 
larly iariie ones. In the British Museum catJilogue the 
Ija.sal length of oue is given as 101, but this, as well as 
the above tiiree, mav be rcirarded as decidedlv above the 
average siz.e. Even if we take lUit mm. as the Ijasal length 
of D. maculatu^, the above table still shows very clearly the 
great relative size of the King Island species. 

In tile following taldes the same species are grouped in accord- 
ance with their tooth measurements : — 

Length Molails '-' — Upper Jaw. 











King Islaml species 
L>. niaculatiis 
IX viverrinus 








Lexcth Molars Serie.s — Lowkk .Iaw. 





21-22. 22-23. 23-24. 




27-28. 1 28-29. 

King lalanil species 
D. maculatus 
I), viverrinus 








13 2 

Lkxotii of Upper pS. 

King iHland apecies 
I), niaculatiis 
1). viverrinus 
















.'(".'ill. I (i(V above. 

Lesotu of 

Lower p 











King Island species 
U. maculatus 
D. viverrinus 












[31 ] 


Tlie measurc'iuents in the first pliice show unmistakably that 
D. vici'.rrinas is not represented amongst tlie remains. 

They equally clearly indicate the existence of a species decidedly 
larger than the existing D. maruliilu.s, and at the same time prove 
the existence of animals of a size equal to that of large examjiles of 
D. maculatus. The question then arises as to whether the smaller 
King Island specimens are to he regarded as females of the larger 
form or as re[)resentatives of another species, that is D. maculatus. 
"We incline to the latter opinion which, moreover, is in accordance 
with the definite statement made by Per(jn that two species existed 
on the island. 

A reference to Plate 8, Figs. 2 and 3, representing a larger 
and smaller specimen will serve to show how distinct the forms are, 
and though, of course, the smaller amongst the larger forms tend to 
merge into the larger amongst the smaller, yet an examination of 
the collection as a whole unmistakal)ly gives the impression that it 
contains the remains of two distinct foTuis. 

The evidence from the teeth is as decisive as that from the 
basal length of the skull, \\\ no example of D. maculatics does the 
length of the upper first three molar teeth exceed i9"5 mm.; in 
the large island specimens it is consistently 20 mm. or more, and 
the same difference is seen in the leno-th of the lower molar series 
and of both the upper and lower pre-molar. 

But beyond these measurements there is fortunately one 
structure in the skull which Ijoth serves still further to mark the 
larger form out as a distinct si)ecies and at the same time bears 
evidence in favour of the fact that the smaller island form is 
D. maculatifs. Two of the larger and two of the smaller skulls 
fortunately have the mastoid bulbe sufficiently intact to show 
clearly what was its size. In D. viverrinus this is very largely 
inflated, the breadth of the bulla being at least three-quarters the 
length ; in D. maculatus the expansion of the Ijulla is not so great, 
the breadth beino- slio;htlv more than half the lenath. When we 
examine the King Island specimens (Figs. A, B, C,) we find that in 

Fig. a. Fig. B. Fie. C. 

D. bowlingi. D. maculatjis. D. viverrinus. 

the large ones the bulla is decidedly more elongate and much less 
swollen, whilst in the smaller ones it is similar to that of 
D. maculatus. In a large island form witli a basal length of 

[ 32 ] 


117 mm. the width of the hulla is 6 mm. ; in a small island form 
with a basal length of BTo nmi., the width is C mm., and in a 
D. inaculatus, with a basal length of 91 mm., the width is 6-5 mm. 

Taking evervthing into account we are of opinion — tirst, that 
the Dasyurus remains include those of two sjjccies ; secondly, that 
tlie larger of these two is distinct from any yet described ; and, 
thirdly, that the smaller form is identical with /). muctdatua. 

It is of conrse possible that the larger species may still exist in 
some of the wilder ami more inaccessible parts of the island, l)Ut it 
is much to l)e feared that, like the small Wombat and the Kmu, it 
is now (juite extinct, and will only be known from its sub-fossil 

We describe it as follows, and associate with it the name of Mr. 
J. McKie Bowling, to whose assistance in securing these remains 
from King Island we are nmch indebted. 


Size, considerably larger than D. inactdntus. Basal length of 
skull, 105 nun. or more. Length of upper tirst three molars, 
20 nnn., or more ; and of lower molar series, 'lb mm., or more. 
BuUie much less swollen than in D. mdculidns, and more obliquely 
elongate, their length decidedly more tlian twice their widtii, and 
their height, measured vertically above the glenoid surface, not or 
only slightly exceeding ^ mm. 

Habitat. — King Island.* Extinct. 

Type (skull) in the National Mu.seum, Mell)ourne. 

* .\ lower jaw from Deal Island, with a measurement of 26 mm. for the molar series, and 
pirt of a cranium, prol>ably indicate the former existence there of this larger species of 





View of sand-blow at Seal Hay, King iHland, where the majority of the s[x;eimcn» were 
obtained. Fragments of bones can be soon in the foreground. From a photograph 
taken by Mr. C. L. Barrett. 

PLATE -2. 

Fig. 1. Left Femur, D. novcs-hoUandioe. 238 mm. 

Fig. 2. Left Femur, D. minor. 180 mm. 

Fig. 3. Femur, D. minor. 158 mm. 

Fig. 4. Left Femur, D. minor. 156 mm. 

Fig. 5. Right Femur, D. minor. 186 mm. 

Fig. 6. Left Femur, D. minor. 171 mm. 

Fig. 7. Left Femur, D. minor. 160. 


A series of bones showing variations in size of the Tibio-tarsus, and a comparison of this with 

the same bone in Dromceus novce-hollandice and D. peroni. 
Fig. 1. Right Tibio-tarsus, D. minor. 338 mm. (broken, probably 25 mm. longer). 
Fig. 2. Right Tibio-tarses, D. minor. 333 mm. 
Fig. 3. lieft Tibio-tarsus, D. minor. 328 mm. 
Fig. 4. Left Tibio-tarsus, D. minor. 314 mm., slightly broken. 
Fig. 5. Right Tibio-tarsus, £>. minor. 315 mm. 
Fig. 6. Right Tibio-tarsus, D. minor. 301 mm. 
Fig. 7. Left Tibio-tarsus, D. peroni. 276 mm., broken. 
Fig. 8. Left Tibio-tarsus, D. minor. 283 mm., shghtly broken. 
Fig. 9. Right Tibio-tarsus, D. novcB-hoUandicE. 447 mm. 
Fig. 10. Left Tibio-tarsus, D. rtovce-hoUandim. 447 mm. 
Fig. 11. Fibula, D. minor. 
Fig. 12. Fibula, D. minor. 

Figs. 1-12 show the variations in size of the Tarso-metatarsus, and a comparison of tWs in 

Dromaeiis minor with the same bone in D. novm-TwUandice and D. -peroni. 
Fig. 1. Right Tarso-metatarsus, D. novce-hollandicE. 395 mm. 
Fig. 2. Left Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor. 292 mm. 
Fig. 3. Right Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor, 278 mm. 
Fig. 4. Left Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor. 278 mm. 
Fig. 5. Right Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor. 265 mm. 
Fig. 6. Left Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor. 253 mm. 

Fig. 7. Right Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor. The specimen is immature. 242 mm. 
Fig. 8. Left Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor. 245 mm. 
Fig. 9. Left Tarso-metatarsus, D. peroni. 237 mm. 

Fig. 10. Left Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor. The specimen is immature. 231.5 mm. 
Fig. 11. Left Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor. 232 mm. 
Fig. 12. Left Tarso-metatarsus, D. minor. 218 mm. 
Fig. 13. Middle Toe Bone, D. novce-ltollandice. 
Fig. 14. Middle Toe Bone, D. minor. 
Fig. 15. JOddle Toe Bone, D. minor. 
Fig. 16. Rib, D. novce-hollandim. 
Fig. 17. Rib, D. minor. 
Fig. 18. Rib, D. minor. 

Fig. 19. Pectoral Girdle without the Clavicle, D. novm-hoUnndios. 
Fig. 20. Pectoral Girdle without the Clavicle, D. minor. 


Fig. 1. Pelvis of Drommus novce-hoUandice. Length 423 mm. 

Fig. 2. Pelvis of Drommus tninor. Broken specimen, showing the proximal parts of the pubis 

and ischium. 
Fig. 3. Pelvis of Drommus minor. Length 285 mm. 
Fig. 4. Pelvis of Drommus minor. Length 295 mm. 
Fig. 5. Pelvis of Drommus minor. Length 276 mm. 




Fig. I. Upper view of cranial portion of skull of D. minor. 

Fig. 2. Upper view of cranial portion of another specimen of D. minor. 

Fig. 3. Hind view of skull shown in Fig. 1. 

Fig. 4. Hind view of skull shoivn in Fig. 2. 

Figs. 5 and 0. Sido views of skulls of U. minor, showing clearly the domed nature of the skull 
as compared with thiit of /). novtt-hoUandice. 

Fig. 7. Upper view of the craniiil portion of the skull of D. minor with the pre-raaxilla approxi- 
mately in its proper relative position. 

Fig. 8. Upper view of skull of adult D. novac-lmllandia. 

Fig. 9. Side view of skull of immature D. novcE-hollandicB. The frontal bone of the right side 
ia removed. 


Fig. I. Ventral view of sternum of Dromcetu novce-hoUartdice. 

Fig. 2. Ventral view of sterftum of D. minor. 

Fig. 3. Sido view of sternum of D. tniiior. 

Fig. 4. Dorsal view of sternum of D. minor. 


Fig. 1. Dorsal view of skull of Dasyurui bowlingi. 
Fig. 2. Dorsal view of skull of Da^yurus bouiingi. 
Fig. 3. Dorsal view of skull of Da.iyuru^ maculatut. 
Fig. 4. Sido view of lower jaw of Dasyurua bowlingi. 
Fig. .5. Side view of lower jaw of Dasyurus bowlingi. 
Fig. 0. Side view of lower jaw of Dasyurus maculalus. 







Pi, ATI. TT. 

Plate II. 

Platf. hi. 

Platk IV. 

Hem. Nat. JIus.. Melbourne. 3. 

Pl.\te IV. 


JIem. Nat. J[rs.. J[ei. bourne. 3. ■ 

Pl.\te V. 

Mini. X\t. .Mis.. \ 

Pl.vtk \'I. 

Mkm. \ai- Mis. Mu.un 

Plate VI. 

Mkm. \\t. .Mis. 


KNK. •!. 

Plate VII. 





1 " 





it " 

1m JB^^Kf' 





Up- ^^ 






^^E^' ' 











'I. ATI-: VIII. 

JFem. Nat. JIi's.. JIelboi'RNE. 3. 

Plate Vf[l. 


By Baldwin Spencer, C.M.O.. M.A.. F.R.S., Hon. Director of the 
National \[>isrum, and J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., Curator of the 
Zoological Collections. 

{Plates 9, 10, 11.) 

In this papor we propose to deal principally with the question 
of the relation to one another of the species of Phascolomys that have 
been described as inhabiting; Victoria, Tasmania, and the Islands of 
Bass Strait. At the present time, three existinji species of the genus 
are recognised in Australia, viz. : — Ph. ursinus of Tasmania and the 
Islands of Bass Strait, Ph. mitchelli of Victoria, New South Wales, 
and South Australia, and Ph. latifrons of South Australia. The 
latter with its almost silW fur, its hairy nose, and strongly marked 
post -orbital processes, is a very clearly defined species. 

Until quite recently it was supposed that the Bass Island forms 
were extinct, and Ph. ursinus has been known only by specimens 
from Tasmania. Mr. Oldfield Thomas,* describing the latter animal, 
says — ■" This species, the oldest known of the group, presents a 
remarkable exception to the usual rule of size in Tasmanian animals, 
these being generally larger instead of smaller than their continental 
allies. The species seems to be well distinguished from Ph. mitchelli 
bv this character of size, but otherwise there appears to be no 
difference of importance between the two," 

The investigation of a collection of sub-fossil bones from King 
Island has caused us to inquire into the history- of this species, an 
outline of which we propose to give. 

During the year 1797, a ship called the Sydney Cove ran on shore 
in Strait, between Preservation and Rum Islands, which 
form part of the Fumeaux group, and lie off the south-west coast 
of Flinders Island. Hunter, then Governor of New South Wales, 
sent a boat down from Sydney to rescue the ship-wrecked crew, and 
this party brought back with it the first found wombatf. It only 
lived six weeks in captivity, and in August, 1798, Hunter sent its 
body to England " for the inspection of the learned members of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne." 

• Brit. Mut. Cat. 1888. p. 217. 

t It is, however, flifliriilt to say positively whether this first womhnt was brought back to 
Sydney by the tirst exptvlition sent to rescue the crew "f the Si/dnfii (.'orr or by Flinders himself 
when he went down on a second expedition to the scene of the wreck in the schooner, 
leaving Port Jackson on Febniary I, 1798, and returning on March 0th. 

[.37 ] 


Early in 1798, Bass had made his celebrated expedition in a 
whale boat, penetrating the strait that now bears his name, and in 
October of the same year, accompanied by Flinders, he again set 
out, this time in a small sloop called the Norfolk. During this expe- 
dition he found and brought back a wombat from Cape Barren 
Island.* It is commonly stated that Bass found the first wombat, 
but this is not so. As a matter of fact. Hunter sent his specimen to 
Newcastle in August, 1798, and Bass only returned to Sydney with 
his in January, 1799. It is also evident that Flinders knew of the 
existence of the animal when, late in 1798, he accompanied the 
schooner Francis on its second visit to the wreck of the Sydney Cove. 
He refers several times to it, calling it by its native name, that is, 
the name applied to the mainland form by the aborigines of Kew 
South Wales. Thus, for example, he saysf — " The stations whence 
angles were taken for a survey of the channel and surrounding lands, 
were — first. Point Womat, a rocky projection of Cape Barren 
Island ; " and, again, speaking generally of the Furneaux Islands,! 
he says — " No other quadrupeds than the kangaroo, womat, and 
duck-billed aculeated ant-eater were found upon the islands ; " 
and, lastly, he says§ — " Clarke's Island afforded the first specimen 
of the new animal called Womat, but I found it more numerous upon 
that of Cape Barren ; Preservation and the Passage Isles do not 
possess it. The little bear-like quadruped is known in New South 
Wales, and called by the natives womat, wombat, or womback 

it burrows like a badger, and on the continent 

does not quit its retreat tiU dark ; but it feeds at all times on the 
uninhabited islands, and was commonly seen foraging amongst the 
sea refuse on the shore, though the coarse grass seemed to be its 
usual nourishment." 

In 1800, Bewick issued the fourth edition of his History of 
Quadrupeds, and in this|| appears in fuU the letter dated August 5th, 
1798, addressed by Hunter to the Philosophical Society of Newcastle, 
in which he states the position of the island on which the animal was 
found and describes it.^ Amongst other things he says — " It is 
about the size of a badger, a species of which we supposed it to be 
from its dexterity in burrowing in the earth, by means of its fore 
paws ; but on watching its general motions, it appeared to have 

much of the habits and manners of a bear This animal 

has lately been discovered to be an inhabitant of the interior of the 
country also The natives caU it wombach." 

This is undoubtedly the earliest notice published of any species 
of Phascolomys, and was indeed the only description of the animal 

• Collins. An Account of the English Colony of Xcw South Wales, 2nd Edit., 1S04, p. 4(>n. 
t Flinders. Voyage to Terra Austraiis, 1814, Vol. i. Introduction, p. cxxviii. 
J Loc. cit., p. cxxxiv. 
§ Loc. cit., p. cxxxv. 
II 4tli Ed., 1800, p. 522. 

TI The latitude of the Lsland is given as 40' Sfi" S., thus proving conclusively that, as Flinders 
aays, the first wombat came from Clarke Island. 

[ 38 ] 


sent to Europe up to the year 1800. Bewick gives no scientific 
name to the animal, but above Hunter's letter appears a quaint 
figure of the animal, which is entitled " The Wombach." There 
can be no doubt that this account formed the source of infonnation 
upon which Shaw founded his very brief description of Didelphys 

His description reads as follows : — * 

" Ursine opossum." 

" Didelphis ui-sina. D. flavescens lahio superiore bifido. 
Yellowish 0. with bifid upper lip. 

The largest of all the opossums : size of a badger: colour, pale 
yellow : fni-, longish and sub-erect : nose strongly divided by a 

Xative of New Holland : a species very lately discovered and 
not yet fully or satisfactorily known or described." 

The letter from Hunter, and Shaw's brief description, seem to 
have attracted no attention, but when, in 1802, Collinsf published 
his Account of the English Colony in New South Wales he 
included in it Bass' description of the specimen that was captured 
on Cape Barren Island. It is, at least, a curious fact that in this 
lengthy account no reference whatever is made to Hunter's specimen ; 
on the contrar}- Collins speaks of Bass' finding on Cape Barren 
Island " a new quadraped which was also a grass eater." He goes 
on to say — " This animal, being a stranger, appears to merit a par- 
ticular description. The wom-bat (or, as it is called by the natives 
of Port Jackson, the Wombacl-) is a squat, thick, short-legged, and 
rather inactive quadmped, with great appearance of stumpy strength, 
and somewhat bigger than a large turn-spit dog." It is difficult to 
account for this, because certainly Flinders, and without doubt 
Bass also, were well aware of the previous capture of wombats on 
Clarke Island ; it is indeed, as pointed out previously, ((uite possible 
that the first specimen was actually captured by Flinders himself. 

In describing the animal from Bass' notes, Collins says that it 
head measures 7 inches in length, the body 23 |";, inches, and that its 
weight was from 25 to 30 lbs. The animal was a female, and 
amongst wombats this sex is heavier than the male. Collins de- 
scribes how Bass chased one " and with his hands under the belly 
suddenly lifted him off the ground and laid him upon his back, 
along his arm, like a child He carried the beast up- 
wards of a mile, and often shifted him from arm to arm, sometimes 
laying him upon his shoulder, all of which he took in good part, 
until being obliged to secure his legs while he went into the bmsh 
to cut a specimen of new wood, the creature's anger arose with the 

• General Zoology, 1, Pt. 2, p. 604- 

t Ist l>"d , Vol. ii., p. 153 ; 2nd Ed., 1804, p. 406. In this work an account is j;iv<ii of Kass 
anil FlindoW voyage in the Norjolk-, diirinR which they finally proved Tasmania to lie an island. 

L 39 ] " 


pinchinji of the twine ; he whizzed with all his might, kicker], and 
scratchod most furiously, and snapped off a piece from the elbow 
of Mr. Bass' coat." To those who are acquainted with the animals 
in their living state, the idea of Bass carrying for a mile, apparently 
with ease, a f\ill-grown female specimen of Phoftcolomys tirsinus 
(as at present recognised) which does not usually weigh much less 
than 50 lbs., is suggestive of some mistake having been made in this 
account. It would take a verv strong man to hold and carry a full- 
grown Tasmanian wombat if it behaved as Mr. Bass' specimen did. 
i.e., " whizzed with all his might, lacked, and scratched most furiously." 
By some curious error, either Bass or Collins confused the account of 
the wombat with that of some other animal in regard to the teeth. 
Towards the close of his description, which is otherwise quite correct, 
Collins wrote — " The opening of its mouth is small : it contains five 
long grass-cutting teeth in the front of each jaw, like those of the 
kangaroo : within them is a vacancy of an inch or more ; there 
appear two small canine teeth of equal height with, and so much 
similar to, eight molars, situated behind, as scarcely to be distin- 
guishable from them. The whole mxmber in both jaws amounts to 
twenty-four." The description is accompanied by a drawing of the 
animal, which is quaint but unmistakable, and bears a strong re- 
semblance to, though it is much larger than, Bewick's figure. The 
style of drawing and curious pose of the animal, the position of the 
front and hind legs and of the head — aU of these are identical in 
the two illustrations. We think there is very little doubt that they 
were drawn by the same hand. There is no evidence that any white 
man, up to that time, had ever seen the mainland wombat — all that 
they knew was that a similar creature did exist in New South Wales. 

In neither Bewick's nor CoUins' account was any scientific name 
applied to the animal. 

During the years 1800-1804, the celebrated French expedition 
under the command of Baudin was engaged in exploration around 
the coast of Australia and Tasmania. 

One of Baudin's ships, the NaturaUste, sailed for Europe in 1802, 
parting from the other two ships, the Geographe and Casuarina, at King 
Island. The NaturaUste carried to Europe specimens of the wombat, 
which presumably came from King Island, though this is not defi- 
nitely stated. In 1803, E. Geoffroy published a preliminary de- 
scription* of the animal brought to Europe by the NaturaUste, and 
proposed the generic name of Phascolomys. Evidently he was quite 
unacquainted with the works of Bewick and Shaw, but had seen 
CoUins' account, because he says that the animal described by Bass, 
" a le porte de nos nouveaux animaux : mais il en est bien certainement 
different, si les observations qui out ete pubhees sur leurs dents sont 
exactes." He adds, " Us out ete trouves a la cote occidentale de la 

* Annales du Museum (Thistoire naturelle. Vol. 2, 1803, p. 364. 



Noiivelle-Hollande." In those early davs, ideas with regard to 
Austmlian ceorrinphv were naturally mther vajnie. CJeoffroy says 
that the wombats were 17 inches long, but as they were young, 
there was reason to think that if the two that remained coidd be 
kept alive, thov would reach the size of a badger. He also adds 
that they appear to be endowed with very little energy, they prefer 
to sleep during the day, and, like bun-owing animals, search for their 
food at night time. 

In the same year, Desmarest mentioned the animal under the 
name of Wombattns fossor* It is evident that he had not seen, or 
at least, carefully investigated a specimen. Sevastianof, writing 
in February', 1807. describes the skins of two quadnipeds sent to 
the Museum in St. Petersburg by a correspondent of the Academy, 
living in London, named Waxel.f One of these was a specimen of 
Dasijurus maculafus. the other was a species of wombat " decouvert " 
says Sevastianof, " par les navigateurs anglois Bass et Flinders dans 
la nouvelle Galle du Sud." He goes on to quote Desmarest's de- 
scription of WombatKS fossor, and adds finally, " Desmarest a range ce 
quadrupede dans le meme ordre et sous-ordre, que Dasyure tachete. 
II est carnassier par ce qu'il a six incisives et deux canines a chaque 
machoire." Sevastianof had only a skin, of which he gives a very 
fair figure, and it is evident that Desmarest's name was applied in 
the first instance to the specimen secured by Bass. 

In 1807 there appeared also the fii-st edition of the first volume 
of the letterpress of Peron's Voyage ; the atlas to this appeared 
in 1808. J In the first edition, there appears a plate. § drawn by 
Lesueur, with the following legend — " Nouvelle-HoUande : ile King. 
Le wombat (Phascolomys wombat)." Good drawings are given of a 
light and dark variety of the animal, together with four young ones. 
• The letterpress describes how four naturalists, including Peron and 
Lesueur, were left stranded on King Island, when a violent gale forced 
the exploring vessels to stand out to sea. The naturalists were hospi- 
tably entertained by some English sealers, the leader of whom was 
a man named Cowper, from whom they gathered many particulars 
concerning especially the emu that then existed in large nunibei-s 
on the island. Unfortunately, beyond describing how Cowper and 
his associates had domesticated the wombats, which went out during 
the day-time to feed in the scnib and returned at night-time to the 
huts, and describing also the value of the animal as an article of food, 

• Desmarest. X. Diet. d'HUt. Sat., xxiv., p. 14. We have unfortunately been unable to 
refer to this work anil give the reference accordinu Uj ScvMtianof. 

t Sevastianof. Mrm. de C Acnd. de St. rilerahoiiry, i., 1807, p. 44,3. Plate 17. 

X Peron et Krey<-inet. Voyage dc lli'eouirrtes nui Tirres .-luMrnlrs. The Iptterpres-s niid were issued wparately. Of the two volumes of letterpress, the lirsl edited by Peron 
appeared in 1807, the .seconil edited first by Piron, and, after hJH death, eontiniied by Frcycinet, 
ni>|>eare<l in ISlfi. The first part of the atln.s, willi fnrtyone plates of views and illustrations of 
Natural History objects by Ivcsueur and Petit appeared in 1S08, the second part, edited by 
Kreyrlnet, containing fourteen charts, ap|ioared in 181 1. A second edition of part i. of the atlas, 
contrtiniiin sixty-eiL'bt plates, ap|M'ari'd in IH'24. 

§ Plate -M. In the second edition it is plate M. 



thev tell us very little about it. In one part Peron says that lat^r 
on he intends to deal in greater detail with the animals to which he 
makes brief reference, but unfortunately, he died before his work 
was completed, and in regard to the Bass Island wombat, the only 
really valuable record in Peron's work is this plate. Possiblv the 
figures were drawn from life by Lesueur during his enforced stay on 
the Island. The legend attached to the plate proves clearly that 
in 1808, the name Phascolomys ivombat was applied bv Lesueur 
and Petit to the King Island species. 

In the year 1802, also, Charles Grimes,* Acting Surveyor-General 
of New South Wales, made a voyage of discovery in the Cumberland 
from Sydney to King Island, and in a journal kept by Flemming, 
it is stated that the party from his ship met the members of the 
Baudin expedition, and that " the captain (Bobbins) hoisted His 
Majesty's colours behind the French tents." The journal also says 
that on Thursday, 30th December, 1802, they " caught four emus, 
three badgers, three porcupines, and a kangaroo " — ^badger being 
the popular name then applied to the wombat. 

While Baudin with his three boats, the Geographe, Naturaliste, and 
Casuarina, was exploring the southern coasts of Australia, he met 
Fhnders at Encounter Bay. Flinders, in the Investigator, had previously 
to this visited King Island and there found the wombatsf which were 
well-known to him after his experiences amongst the islands of the 
Furneaux Group. He says — " On stepping out of the boat, I shot 
one of those bear-like little quadrupeds, called womat, and another 
was afterwards killed." Flinders was detained by the French at 
Mauritius, but material collected by Brown, who accompanied him 
as a naturalist, evidently reached Europe safely, for in 1808, Everard 
Home read a paper before the Royal Society in which he embodied 
an anatomical account of it written by Brodie. J Home says that the 
wombat was a male, that it " was brought from the islands in Basse's 
Straits by Mr. Brown, the naturalist attached to Captain Flinders' 
voyage of discovery. It lived in a domesticated state for two years. 

It was quiet during the day, but constantly in motion 

during the night It appeared to have arrived at its 

full growth, weighed about 20 lbs., and was about 2 feet 2 inches 

In 1811, Illiger enumerated two forms under the names respec- 
tively of Phascolomys fusca, Geoff., and Amblotis fossor, the latter 
genus being founded because Illiger, on account of the wrong de- 
scription of the teeth given by Collins, naturally imagined that the 
animal originally described under the name Vombatiis could not be 
the same as that to which the generic title Phascolomys was afterwards 
given. The latter animal he distinguished as Phascolomys fusca.^ 

* Historical Eecords^of.Port Phillip. Edited by Shillinglaw, 1879. 

tJ.4 Voyage to Term Australis, 1814, p. 206. 

X Trans. E.S., 1808, p. 304. 

§ Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, 1811, pp. 77-78. 

r 42 ] 


We now come to a description by Leach, published in 1815,* in 
his Zoological Miscellany. In the matter of brevity and inadequate- 
ness, it much resembles the original one of Shaw, but it is accom- 
panied by a better fiijure. The description is as follows : — " Phasco- 
lomis Vombatus. P. pallide fidvescentc-brunneus : naso obscuriore ; 
unguibus elongatis. Wombach. Bewick, Gen. Hist, of Quadrup., 
Ed. 4, p. 522. Habitat in Aiistralasia." Then he goes on, "Wom- 
bat phascoloinis. Pale fulvescent-brown : nose darker: claws 
elongated : inhabits New Holland. 

For an account of the anatomical stnicturo of the Wombat Phas- 
colomis, see Philosophical Transactions for 1808. It is named ^^'olu- 
bat, or Wombach, by the natives of New South Wales, who kill it for 
food, its flesh being considered verv' delicate. The usual length of 
this animal is about 2 feet, exclusive of the tail." Reading this, 
one would feel doubtful as to whether the writerhadeverseen the ani- 
mal, but on referring to Gray's List of the Speci7nens of Mammalm in 
the collection of the British Museum, p. 95, published in 1843, the follow- 
ing entr\' occurs : — " b. Young : discoloured, having been in spirits. 
(The one figured in Leach. Z. Misc. t. 69)." Only five specimens of 
wombat are recorded, the one mentioned above, two from New Hol- 
land, one from Mr. Gould's collection, and a young one from Van 
Diemen's Land. No locaUty is given for Leach's specimen, nor does 
he help us in his own description, beyond saying that its habitat is 
New Holland, and that Home described the anatomy of the species. 
Home's specimens we know came from King Island. In Thomas' 
catalogue (1888), apparently the same specimen is described as a 
young skin, and the locality of Tasmania is ascribed to it. It would 
be interesting to know the definite authority for this locality, as, up 
to the time when Leach published, that is, twenty-eight years before 
Gray's catalogue was issued, there is no record of any tnie Tasmanian 
specimen having been sent to Europe. 

It is to be presumed that, as neither Gray nor Leach in 1815, nor 
Gray in 1843, give any definite locality for this particular specimen, 
none was known when those writers published, more especially since 
Gray carefrdly gives the locality of eveiy other specimen. So far as 
the name is concerned, it does not matter, inasmuch as that of Phas- 
colomys Wombat had been applied to the King Island species eight 
years before Leach published his description. There can, however, 
be no reasonable doubt that the specimen described by Leach came 
from the Bass Strait Islands. 

Cuvier, writing in 1817,t describes and figures the animal and 
its skull. He says that only one species is known, which is of the 
size of a badger and lives on King IslandJ and that this is identical 

• Leach, p. 102, PI. 90. 
t Geo. Cuvier. Regtit Animnl, PI. 51. 

X He was ocqiiaint'Ml with BaH.<' animal, which »a«, hi' says, externally the same as the 
wombat, hut had a dilTcrent dentition, and refers to Illiger therefor caUing it Aniblotis. 

L -ts ] 


with Shaw's Didplphis ursina. Tho fijnirfi that ho frivps is one of a 
brown variety, and was drawn from a stuffed specimen in the Paris 
Museum — presumably one of those captured durinj; Baudin's expe- 
dition. Lesson and Gamot, describing the zoolorrical results of 
Duperrv^'s voyage in 1826, say* — " Nous ne trouvAmes qu'une seule 
peau de wombat on phascolome a Sydney (didelphis ursina, Shaw ; 
phascolomys wombat. Per. et Les.) animal qu'on n'observe que surla 
cote sud et dans les petites lies du dotroit de Bass." 

In 1831, Owen, when describing the specimens of wombat in 
the collections of the Eoyal College of Surgeons,! stated definitely 
that the distribution of Phascolomys Wombat was " King Island and 
near Port Jackson," and makes no reference at all to Tasmania. 

It is, we think, quite certain from the above records that before 
the year 1831 no wombat had been sent to Europe from Tasmania.! 
With the solitary exception of the skin which Lesson and Gamot 
mention as found in Sydney in 1826, there is no record of a specimen 
actually secured on the mainland, and even in this instance there is 
no proof that the skin was that of a mainland animal. It is quite 
likely that it had been brought to Sydney from one of the Islands in 
Bass Strait. It is difficult to believe that no specimens were sent 
from New South Wales, but, if any were, no record of them appears 
to have been published, and, apparently, it was taken for granted that 
the wombats of King, Clarke, Cape Barren, and other islands in Bass 
Strait were identical with those of New South Wales ; indeed. Owen's 
statement in regard to the distribution of Phascolomys Wombat, 
quoted above, makes this quite clear. 

In 1838, Ronald Gunn,§ one of the earhest naturalists in 
Tasmania, contributed to the Annals of Natural History a 
paper entitled " Notices of some Mammalia and Fish from 
Van Diemen's Land," and to this, Gray added some notes in 
which, referring to the wombat, he says — "I have seen Bass' 
specimen, which is now in the museum of the Natural History 
Society of Newcastle-on-Tyne ; it is the same as the one we now 
usually receive from Van Diemen's Land, only discoloured by having 
been kept in spirit." It is evident that this particular specimen 
must have been the one sent to England by Hunter, and not by Bass. 

In 1838, Owen described a mutilated sub-fossil cranium found 
by Mitchell in the Wellington Valley in New South Wales, under the 
name of Phascolotnys mitchelli — this being the fii-st occasion on which 
a distinct name was given to a mainland form.] | In his description, 

* Dupeiry. Voyage. Antour du Monde. Zoologie par Mm. Lesson et Garnot, Tome i., 1826 
p. 399. 

t Cat. R.C.S., 1831. p. 78. 

J In 1831, a large wombat reached England, lint whether it came ftom Tasmania or Aus- 
tralia is not known. This particnlar animal lived in the Zoological Society's gardens for five 
years ; in 1830 it died, and its anatomy was described by Owen. 

§ Gunn. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1., p. 103, 1838. Gray's note is on p. 107. 

jl Mitchell's Three E.xpeditioits into the Interior of Eastern Aiislrnlia, &e.. Letter from Owen, 
dated Mav 8th, 1838, containing, inter alia, description of Phase. mitcheUi. 

[ 44 ] 


Owen remarks that it is a little larger than the largest wombat's 
cranium in the Hunterian collection. This is not sui-prising, since 
the latter specimens were all presented by Home, and came from 
King Island. 

In 1836, Owen described the anatomy of a specimen* under the 
name of Phascolomys wombat, Peron, at the same time making the 
following remarks : — " The individual lately dissected at the museum 
of the Zoological Society had lived at the gardens upwards of five 
years. The one dissected by Sir Everard Home in 1808 was brought 
from one of the islands in Bass Strait, and lived as a domestic pet in 
the house of Mr. Clift for two yeare. This animal measured 2 feet 
2 inches in length, and weighed about 20 lbs. It was a male. The 
society's specimen was a female and weighed, when in full health, 
in October, 1833, 59 J^ lbs." Owen does not say where his specimen 
came from. The fii-st definite notice of the existence of a wombat in 
Tasmania that we can find is in the paper published by Gunn in 
1838, to which we have already referred. The author, Mr. Ronald 
Gunn, was well known as a naturalist in the early days of Tasmania.f 
In this he describes the animal under the generic title Phascolomys, 
but gives no specific name. He states that one large specimen that 
he secured measured 36 inches from snout to tail, and 34 inches 
in circumference. 

Waterhouse, J writing in 1841, accepts the name Phascolomys wom- 
bat, and says that " the wombat is found in New South Wales, South 
Australia, and Van Diemen's Laud, as well as in some of the Islands 
in Bass's Straits." Gunn's collection was presented to the British 
Museum, and possibly it included the young specimen mentioned 
by Gray m his catalogue,§ with the locality given as Van Diemen's 
Land. So far as we can ascertain this was the first occasion on which 
a specific name was applied to a definite example of a Tasmaniau 
wombat, Gray regarding it as an example of Phascolomys ursinus. 

In 1845, Owen in his article on Marsupialia iir Todd's Cyclo- 
pedia,\\ deals with many points in the anatomy of the wombat and 
figures a complete skeleton, the name Phascolomys jusca appearing 
under the figure. This is the only mention that he makes of this 
specific name. In the same year he exhibited at a meeting of the 
Zoological Society^! " the skull of a wombat {Phascolomys vombatus, 
Auct.) from Van Diemau's Land, and the skuU of a wombat trans- 
mitted by Governor Grey from Continental (South) Australia." He 
pointed out their dillerences and named the new continental form 
P. lalifrcms. In 1847** Gray drew attention to certain differences 

• r.Z.S., 183r,, Pt. 4, |). 4U. 

t ■■ Notices acc'onipanyiiif! a Collcition of yiiaclriii)cd» and Fisli from Van Diemen's Land. 
.■lii«(i/» Sat. liUt., Vol. i.. 1s:JH, p. lol. 

X Jardine'H SutiirdliM'n Librori/, 1S4I, |j. 300. 

{ List of Oie Spicijiieiia oj MammiUia in thu CoUtction oj the Britiiih Museum, 1843, p. Ou. 

II Vol. iii., 1831I-1847, lig. lO.x 

•jl P.Z.S., 1845, I't. xiii., p. 82. 

•• P.Z.S., 1847, Pt. XV., p. 41. 

[ 45 ] 


in the teeth of three skulls, two from Van Diemen's Land, and one from 
New South Wales, and suggested that there might be more than one 
species confounded under the name Phascolomys vomhatus. Matters 
remained in this state until, in 1853, Owen described two skulls in the 
collection of the Koyai College of Surgeons* as distinct from Phas- 
colomys vomhatus. For these he proposed the name P. flatyrhinus, 
that is, under different names as regards two of them, Owen at that 
time recognised the three recent species that are now accepted, viz., 
Phas. vomhatus ( — Phas. ursinus), Phas. flatyrhinus ( = Phas. mitcheUi), 
and Phas. latifrons. Apparently, however, he regarded the first of 
these as distributed on the mainland as well as in Tasmania and the is- 
lands. Some confusion arose in regard to the South Australian species, 
named originally by Owen on the strength of a skull only. AYhen 
the skin of the hairy-nosed wombat of South Australia was first seen 
it was not identified as belonging to the same animal to which Owen 
gave the name P. latifrons. Gray accordingly founded a new genus 
and species for it,t Lasicrhinus m'coyi ; Gould called it Phas- 
colomys lasiorhinus% and Krefft described a dark variety under 
the name of P. niger.§ Of the distinctness of P. latifrons there is no 
doubt. There remains the question of the Eastern mainland species, 
that of Tasmania, and that of the islands. 

In 1865, Murie published a paper deahng in detail with the 
various species. || He came to the conclusion that P. mitchelli and P. 
flatyrhinus were identical, but retained the latter name for the recent 
species, and also, Hke Owen, recognised two other species — Phas- 
colomys womhat and Phascolomys latifrons. These residts he con- 
firmed in 1867, but curiously says nothing definite with regard to 
the geographical distribution of the species. McCoy, writing 
of Phascolomys womhat in 1868,^ said, " This is now known to be 
confined to Tasmania and other islands south of the Australian con- 
tinent, and as I have demonstrated from the specimens on the table, 
it is specifically distinguishable with ease and certainty by the charac- 
ters of the skull and skin, pointed out by Dr. Murie and others, from 
the wombats of the mainland, which were at one time supposed to 
be referable to it." Krefft,** in 1871, says again that Phascolomys 
wombat " is peculiar to Tasmania and the islands of Bass Strait. 
The New South Wales wombat {Phascolomys flatyrhinus) is found 
on the east and south coast, extending even as far as Victoria, where 
also a brown variety occurs. This eastern wombat differs little 
from the Tasmanian one, except that it is larger and grows to over 
SO lbs. in weight." 

* Descriptive Catalogue Ostcolngical iSeries, R.C. Surgeons, \ol. i. 1853 p. 334. 

t A. M. N. H. 18«3, p. 854. 

j Mamtnals, Pis. 59 and 60. 18G3. 

§ Mammals oj Australia, 1871. Text to PI. v. 

II Murie. P.Z.S., 1865. 

il Proc. R. S., ^'icturia, 1868, p. 266. 

** Mammals oj Australia. Text to PI. v. 

[ 4ti ] 


In 1888, Thomas published his well-known Catalogne. and in 
this used the names that have been applied ever since to the existing 
species, viz., Ph. uraimix for the Tasnianian and Bass Strait Island 
species; Ph. mitcheUi for the common mainland form with naked 
muzzle ; Ph. latifrons for the hairy-nosed, South Australian species. 

The main points in regard to the history of the various species of 
wombat up to the present time may be briefly summarized as 
follows : — 

(1) The discover}' of a wombat on Clarke Island in Bass 

Strait, to which the specific name of ursina was first 
given. (1797). 

(2) The discoverv of a wombat on King Island. (1S02). 

(3) The discover)' of a wombat on the mainland of AustraUa. 

first in New South Wales, later in Victoria, supposed 
to be identical with the Bass Strait Island species. 
(Exact date uncertain). 

(4) The discovery of a wombat in Tasmania, supposed to be 

identical with the island and mainland species. (Exact 
date uncertain.) 

(5) The discovery of a fossil species (Ph. mitchdli) on the 

mainland.' (1838.) 

(6) The discoveiy of P. latijrons in South Australia. (1845.) 

(7) The detennination of P. flatyrhinus on the mainland, as 

distinct from P. urswus of Tasmania and the islands 
of Bass Strait. (1865.) 

(8) The discover)^ of the specific identity of P. mitchelli, the 

fossil form, and P. flatyrhinus, involving the retention 
of the former name for the New South Wales and Vic- 
torian species. (1865.) 

(9) The discovery of sub-fossil remains of the King Island 

wombat.*' (1903.) 

(10) The discovery on Flindci's Island by Mr. .). A. Kci-shaw 

of living specimens of wombats identical with the sub- 
fossil remains from King Island. (1908.) 

A comparison of the skulls from King, Deal, and Flindci's Islands 
shows that the same species of wombat was distributed over all 
three, and as Clarke and Cape Barren Islands form part of the Fur- 
neaux group, separated from Flinders Island and from one another 
by only shallow, narrow passages, we may safely conclude that the 
wombat which once existed on these two islands was identical with 
that on Flinders. 

* Wc have dealt at length with this in a previous paper. Cf. " A Collection of Sub-foaail 
Bird and ^[arsupial remains from King Island, Boss Strait. ' Memoira of Nat. .Vtw., Meibourne. 
\o. 3, p. 28. 

[ ^- ] 


It is many years ago since the King Island wombat was exter- 
minated. When the island was visited by a party of the Victorian 
Field Naturalists Club in 1887, no trace of it was discovered nor, 
during the process of clearing the land that has been vigorously 
carried on during recent years, has any record of a living wombat 
been made. 

Flinders Island afforded the only prospect of securing a living 
specimen of the Bass Strait species, and in the hope of finding that 
the animal had not been completely exterminated there one of us 
(J. A. Kershaw) took advantage of a trip organized by the Aus- 
tralasian Ornithologists' Union to visit the island in November, 1908. 
A considerable part of the north, north-east, and north-west coast 
line was examined, and abundant evidence was obtained to prove 
that the animal, though very rare and difficult to obtain, was not 
extinct. In the deserted hut of a half-caste native at KilUecrankie 
two skins were foimd. On the extreme north end of the island an 
incomplete skeleton, including a skull with the skin still attached to 
it, was secured, and part of another skin on the north-east coast. 
On the island there are, in addition to a few settlers, a number of 
half-castes, or rather the much-mixed offspring of whites, Austra- 
lian, and Tasmanian aborigines. The existence of the wombat is 
well-known to them, but it is by no means easy to secure. During 
the three days spent in searching no living animal was seen, and all 
that could be done was to make arrangements to have one sent to 
Melbourne when captured. On Cape Barren Island, where most of 
the half-castes live on the native reserve, the animal was found to 
be quite extinct, though well-known under the name of " badger," 
the common term " wombat " not being known there. 

Though not successful in obtaining a living specimen, Mr. Ker- 
shaw's visit was the means of proving that the animal is still extant, 
and in addition to the sub-fossil remains from King Island we now 
possess also recent remains, including skins from Flinders Island. 

In January, 1909, Dr. J. W. Barrett organized a trip to the islands, 
and kindly invited Mr. Kershaw to join the party, with the object of 
searching again for the animal. Once more, owing to the very 
limited time available, the search proved fruitless, but we are 
much indebted to Dr. Barrett for his cordial co-operation. 

At the present time the matter stands thus : Evidence of the 
existence of a wombat is forthcoming in regard to King Island on 
the west side of Bass Strait, and Deal, Flinders, Barren, and Clarke 
Islands on the eastern side. Those of King, Deal, and Flinders 
Islands are specifically identical, and it may be taken for granted, 
as already said, that the same species inhabited Barren and Clarke 
Islands. The animal is now extinct everywhere except on Flinders 

[ 48] 


The specimen sent to Newcastle by Governor Hunter in 1798 
belonged to this species, and it was to this that Shaw referred when 
he described the animal that he calls DIdelpJnjs ursiua. At a later 
time other writers described the same species under other generic 
and specific names. In 1803, Geoffroy, ignorant of the fact that a 
specimen had been sent to England five yeare earher, and briefly 
described by Shaw under the name of Didelphijs ursina, proposed the 
generic name Phascolomys. The true designation of the wombat 
of the Bass Strait Islands is therefore Phascolomys ursinus, Shaw; 
and the following names, all of which have at one time or another 
been applied to the Island species, are synonyms of the former: — 

Wowbatus fossor, Desmarest (1803). 
Phascolomys wombat, Peron et Lesueur (1808). 
Amblotis fossor, lUiger (1811). 
Phascolomys jusca, Illiger (1811). 
Phascolomys vombatus. Leach (1815). 
Phascolomys bassii. Lesson (1827). 

The question now arises as to the relationship of Phascolomys 
iirsixus, the mainland species, and the Tasmanian species. There 
is no question as to the specific distinction of the hairy-nosed wom- 
bat, Phascolomys latifrmis, of South Australia. The remaining main- 
land form, Phascolomys mitchelli, is closely allied to the Tasmanian 
form, which again, up to the present time, has been supposed to be 
identical with the Bass Strait Island species, that is Phascolomys 
ursinus. In the following tables we give the measurements of the 
skull, teeth series, &c., of a series of Phascolomys from Bass Strait 
Islands, Tasmania, and Victoria, as well as a certain number of 
Phascolomys latifrons. 

Table 1. — Skull Measurements of Phascolomys from King and 

Deal Islands. 

Deal Island 

Numbor o( Specimen . . 










Adult. Juv. 

Basal Icngtli 




Circatoat hrcadtli 







104 ' 


102' 82' 

Nasal Icnglli 







„ greatest breadth 






39 30 

„ least lircailtli . . 






13 9 

luterorbital breuiltli 










Brcadtli between tips 

of postorbital pro- 





















Palate lengtli 






77 .09 

Diastema length 

2!). 5 






25 18 

Palatine foramen 








Basi-iranial axis 





Hasi'fai'iiil axis 







83 f>3 

Facial inilex 




. . 

Length of tooth series 









43 35 

3981.— D. 



Table 2. — Skull Measurements of Phascolomys from Fliaders 


Number of SpeclmeD 





Basal length . . 
Grreateat breadth 

Nasal length . . 




„ greatest breadth 
„ least breadth 


Interorbital breadth 


Breadth between tips of poatorbital pro- 




Intertemporal constriction . . . . 
Palate length 
Diastema length 



Palatine foramen 



Basi-cranial axis 


Basi-facial axis 



Facial index . . 


Length of tooth series — upper jaw 
lower jaw 













o tc o -f a « 
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< & CO 'I s 
♦- "3 .S rS 

[51 ] 


















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■* '* CO 00 ec ^ 

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Table 5. — Skull Measurements of Phascolomvs latifrons. 

Number of Specimen 






Biv.'ial length 






< breadth 






.\a.ial length 






„ greatest brca<U!i . . 






Ica-st breatlth 






Interorbital bremlth 






Rreailth between tips of pro- 





( t 


Intt'rt*>niporal oonstrirtion 






Palate length . . 






i)ia.steina len^^th 






Palatine foramen 






Basi-cranial axi.-* 






Pia.'ii facial axis 






Facial inde.\ . . 






Length of tooth series . . 














Table 6. — Measurements of Humerus. 













( Jreatest width di.stal 









P mitchelll. 

P mltcheUi. 


( freatt-st width distal 







P. mitchelll. 

P. mitchcUi. 


P. mItcbelU. 

P. mltclicUI. 

P. mitcheUi. 

P. latl- 


(liTateHt width rlistal 
end . . ■ • • 






Table 7. — Measurements of Femur. 














[53 ] 


Table 7. — ^Measurements of Femur — contimted. 




P. mit«helli. 

P. mitcbeUJ. 

p. mlUrheUl. 








P. mitchclli. 

P. mitohelU. 

1 : 

P. mitchoUI. 

P. latUrons. 






Table 8. — Measurements of Lower Teeth Series of King Island 


Number of Specimen . . 













Length of series 









Number of Specimen . . 











Length of series 











NumbP.' of Specimen . . 











Length of series 











Number of Specimen . . 









Length of series 








• Those marked with an "isterisk are immature. In specimens numbered 2fl. 32, and 31. the fourth moliars 
not yet in position. 

Table 9. — Measurements of Lower Teeth Series of Phascolomys 


Number of Specimen 

Length, teeth series 
























Table lo. — Mcasiiiements of Lower Teeth Series of Tasmaniau 


.\ umber of Spccimsn 

Length, U>etli aeries 



• > 













* M* Dot in rarrect podtlon. 

Some of the main features in the above Tables mav be sum- 
marized as follows: — 

1. — King, Deal, and Flinders Islands Species. 

Banal length 
Greatest breadth 
Teeth — upper series 
„ lower series 
Length of humerus 

„ femur 

Greatest width of humerus 

2. — Tasmanian Species. 

Basal length 
Greatest breadth 
Teeth — upper series 

„ lower 
Length of humerus 
„ femur 

Basal length 
Greatest breadth 
Teeth — upper 
,, lower 
Length of humerus 

|{a.Hal length 
Greatest bretkdth 
Teeth — upper 
,, lower 
liength of humerus 
„ femur 

3. — P. mitchdli. 

4.— p. latifrons. 

121 - 


99 - 


40 - 


41 - 


90.5 - 


120 - 




135 - 

151 (163) 

111) - 

128.5 (138) 

47 - 

50 (51) 

48 - 


110 - 


143 - 


164 - 


127 - 


50 - 


52 - 


116 - 


150 - 




116 - 


47 - 


48 - 




The structural peculiarities of P. latifrons, such as the very pro- 
minent post-orbital processes and the hair}- muzzle, serve to dis- 
tinguish it at once. In regard to the other three groups, the dif- 
ference is mainly one of size. It will also be noticed that, so far as 
the measurements are concerned, the Tasmanian species and P. 
latifrons are ver>' closely similar to one another. 

The Island species, the Tasmanian and P. mitchelli appear to 
represent three well-marked forms, so far as size is concenied. The 

[oo J 


larger Island specimens, of course, approximate in size to the smaller 
Tasmanian ones, just as the larger Tasmanian ones do to the smaller 
P. mitcheUi. In the case of the Tasmanian form, one skull, for 
which we are indebted to Mr. H. H. Scott, curator of the Launceston 
Museum, is remarkable for its relatively large size. Its basal length 
is 163 mm., the next largest being 151 mm., but even this largest 
Tasmanian sloiU is slightly smaller in size than the smallest P. mit- 
cheUi, and it stands out as a giant amongst the Tasmanian specimens. 
When other bones, such as the humems and femur of the Island 
species (Plate 11, Figs. 9-14) are seen side by side with those of the 
Tasmanian form, the difference in size and in robustness of the bones 
is very marked, and they clearly indicate two animals of very dif- 
ferent form. 

The measurements of both the upper and lower tooth series serve 
also to mark the Island species as distinct. The maximum length 
of the upper tooth series of the Island species is 45 mm., the mini- 
mum of the Tasmanian species being 47 mm., and that of P. mitcheUi 
50 mm. The maximum of the lower tooth series of the Island species 
is 46 mm. ; the minimum of the Tasmanian form is 48 mm., and 
that of P. mitcheUi 52 mm. 

A reference to Plate 11, Figs. 1 and 2, illustrating respectively 
side views of the skulls of a King Island and Tasmanian wombat, 
serve to show not only the difference in size, but one or two features 
of structural importance in which they differ from one another. In 
the Tasmanian specimen (and the same is true of P. mitcheUi) the 
paroccipital process slants downwards and markedly forwards, in the 
King Island skulls it always runs nearly straight down, the forward 
slant being scarcely noticeable. A second point is that in the Island 
specimens the malar bone is always strongly bowed downwards and 
outwards beneath the orbit (cf. also Plate 9, Fig. 1, Plate 10, Fig. 1). 
In regard to thetwo specimens figured in Plate 11, it will be obser\"ed 
that the snout region in Fig. 1 is distinctly more elongate than the 
same part in Fig. 2, with the result that, seen from above the nasals, 
more completely hide the premaxillse from view in the Island than 
in the Tasmanian specimen. This feature, though it happens to be 
rather marked in the two examples figured, is subject to a certain 
amount of variation, and cannot be relied upon. 

The two skins obtained on Flinders Island measure respectively 
715 mm. and 675 mm., the latter being slightly incomplete. The 
hind foot of the first measures 65.5 mm. In the colour and general 
nature of its fur, the larger specimen, a male, is clearly similar to 
light-coloured specimens of P. mitcheUi or the Tasmanian fonn. In 
the smaller specimen each hair is light-coloured at the tip, giving a 
general light greyish-brown colour to the fur, the darker basal part 
of each hair being hidden from view. This basal part is much more 
darkly coloured than in the case of the other example. lu the 

[ ■''6 ] 


smaller one also, the fur has a curious silkA- appearance, with small 
curlfi all over it, but it is c(»arse to the touch. There is also a lipht 
nisset-brown line along the back. 

In regard to the mainland species (P. mitcheUi) and the Tas- 
manian wombat, the difference in size is not so marked as it is in the 
case of the Island species when tlu' latter is compared witli either of 
the two former. The exceptionally large specimen of a Tasmanian 
wombat skull sent to us by Mr. Scott (Plate 0, Fig. 7) is so abnormal 
in size that we feel it would be misleading to take this as the nuixi- 
mum size of Tasmanian specimens without drawing attention to the 
difference between it and the largest of all the other Tasmanian skulls. 
A glance at the measurements detailed in Table 4 will sei-ve to show 
that this one is abnormal so far as Tasmanian wombats are concerned. 
We have therefore, in the summarized results of measurements, 
placed in brackets the Bgures referring to this skull and have taken 
the largest of the normal series of specimens as indicating what 
may be fairly regarded as the maximum size of Tasmanian 

In either case it is evident that, so far as size is concerned, the 
Tasmanian specimens form a group well marked off from those of the 
mainland, conunonly described under the specific name of Phas- 
colomys mitcheUi. As Mr. Oldfield Thomas* says—" The species 
seems to be well distinguished from Ph. mitcheUi by this one charac- 
ter of size, but otherwise there appears to be no difference of impor- 
tance between the two." 

As a result of the evidence now available we have come to the 
conclusion that four species of existing wombats must be recognised, 
as follows : — 

1. Phascolomys ursinus'\, Shaw. The oldest known species 

of the genus confined to the Islands of Bass Strait, 
and now extinct in all so far as known, except Flindei-s 
Island. This is considerably the smallest species. 
Type is the specimen sent to Newcastle by Hunter in 

2. Phascolomys mitcheUi, Owen. The largest species and the 

most common one on the Australian mainland. It 
extends over New South Wales, A^ictoria, and South 
Australia. The head and body measure 950-1150 mm. 
The basal length of the skull measures 160-180 mm. 
Type (fossil) in Museum of the Geological Society, 

• Cat. of Mnrsupialia and Monntremata. 1888. p. 217. 

t For descriptive characters of this cf. " ("olloction of Sub-fossil Bird and Miirsiipial 
Retnaitis from Kin)? Isand, Bass Strait." Spencer and Kershaw. Mitiuiim Nat. Mii.s.. Mcllioiirnc, 
iii.. p. -ilt. 

[ ■>7 ] 


3. Phascolomys latifrons, Owen. Characterized by the soft 

silky fur, hairy rhinarium, and prominent post-orbital 

Habitat, South Australia. 
Type in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. 

4. Phascolomys tasmaniensts, sp. n. Size medium, inter- 

mediate in this respect between Ph. mitchelli and Ph. 
ursinus. Total length of the head and body 910 mm. 
Except in size it agrees closely in external form with 
Ph. mitchelli. Colour grizzled grey. Underfur fairly 
abundant, especially on the anterior part of the body. 

Hairs within the ear light coloured. 

Basal length of skuU,* 141 mm. ; greatest width, 116 mm. 

Type (male) in National Museum, Melbourne. 

Specimens vary somewhat in size, the smallest mature 
female in our possession having a total length of 
780 mm., the largest female measuring 910 mm. 
One male measures 878, and a second (the type) 910 
mm., which is probably about the maximum size of 
the male form, the female reaching a length of 
950 mm. 

The variation in colour is very considerable, from grizzled 
grey to black. In melanistic specimens the distal 
half of the long hairs is black, the proximal half dark- 
brown; the underfur is also dark-brown, but it is 
completely, or almost completely, hidden from sight 
by the black tips of the abundant long hairs. The 
hairs within the ear are dark-brown in colour. The 
general colour of the majority of specimens is grizzled- 
grey, with, at times, brownish or russet tinged areas. 
The grizzled appearance is due to the fact that the 
majority of the hairs are tipped with white, and these 
are interspei-sed with long, coarse, dark-tipped hairs, 
varying in number in different parts. They are fre- 
quently abundant enough to give a general dark colour 
to certain areas, such as the middle line of the back. 

The underfur appears to be always noticeably thicker on 
the anterior part of the body, especially in the shoulder 

In aU specimens, excepting melanistic ones, the hairs 
within the ear are always light-coloured, sometimes 
almost white. The chin is brown, throat and chest 
uniformly light-coloured. There is considerable varia- 
tion in the coarseness of the hair which is not generally 
so harsh as in Ph. mitchelli. ,/ 

■ For sKull measurements of the type specimen, see Table 4, specimen No. 3. 

[ 58] 


In the following list we have enumerated the more important 
memoirs, &c.. dealing with the genus Phascolomys, and have given 
a brief outline of thoir contents, so far as they are concerned, with 
the history of the species included in the genus. 

1. Bewick. — History of Qnadrwpeds, 4th edit., p. 522, 1800. 

Contains in full the letter written by Hunter, accom- 
panying the body of the wombat from Clarke Island 
sent to Newcastle. Above the letter is a figure of " the 

2. Shaw.— General Zoology, 1, Pt. 2, p. 504, 1800. Gives a 

short description of, presumably, the animal sent to 
England by Hunter (as no other was then known) 
under the name of Didelphys ursina. 

3. Collins. — Account of the English Colony in New South 

Wales, 1st ed., vol. ii., p. 153, 1802. 2nd ed., 1804, 
p. 466. Includes a description of a wombat found by 
Bass on Cape Barren Island. The description of the 
teeth is wrong. The animal is figured, the drawing 
being remarkably similar to the one in Bewick. 

4. Geoff roij. — Annales du Museum d^histoire naturelle, vol. 2, 

1803, p. 264. Contains a preliminarv description of 
certain animals collected on Baudin's expedition. 
The generic name of Phascolomys is proposed for the 
wombat. Reference is made to the animal described 
by Bass and to the nature of its teeth. 

5. Desmarest.—N. Diet, d'hist. nat., xxiv., p. 14, 1803. 

Refers to the animal described by Bass, and calls it 
Womhattus fossor. 

6. Sevastianof. — Mem. de VAcad. de St. Petersbourg, i., 1807, 

p. 443, PI. 17. Describes a skin sent to the Museum 
in St. Petersburg, and says that it is the same species 
as the one discovered by Bass and Flinders. 

7. Peron et Freycinet. — Voyage de Decouvertes aux Terres 

Australes, Vol. i., letterpress, 1807 ; atlas, 1st part, 
1808. Gives an account of the finding of wombats 
on King Island by the naturalists of Baudin's expedi- 
tion. Plate 28 (Ist edit.) represents light and dark 
varieties of the animals together with young ones, 
drawn by Lesueur. The animal is called Phascolomys 
wonbat. and the locality given is King Island. 

8. Home.— Trans. R. S., 1808, p. 304. Contains a description 

of the anatomy of a male wombat. It was one of 
those taken to England from King Island by Brown, 
and lived in a domesticated state for two years. 

[ 5i' ] 


9. Illiger. — P/odromus Syst. Mamw. et Avium, 1811. pp. 77, 
78. Refers to what is evidently the species sent to 
France from the Bass Strait Islands under the name 
of Phascolomys fusca, and proposes the genus Amblntis 
for Bass' animal, in consequence of the wrong descrip- 
tion of teeth given by Collins. 

10. Flinders. — A Voyage to Terra Australis, vol. i, p. 206, 

1814. Describes the finding of wombats on King 
Island in April, 1802. Some were taken to England 
by Brown. 

11. Leach. — Zoological Miscellany, p. 102, PI. 96, 1815. Gives 

a very brief description of the animal, which he calls 
Phascolomis vombatus, together with a figure. He 
mentions Bewick's and Home's accounts as referring 
to the same animal, the usual length of which he says 
is 2 feet. 

12. Cuvier {G.).—R('gne Animal Tome i., p. 184, PI. 51, 1817. 

Says that only one species is known; it is the size of 
a badger, lives on King Island, and is identical with 
Shaw's Didelphis ursina. Figures a brown variety from 
a stuffed specimen in the Paris Museum. 

13. Lesson and Garnot. — ^In Duperry Voyage autour du Monde, 

Tome i., p. 399, 1826. The authors say that they 
could only secure one skin of the wombat in Sydney, 
and that it is only known from the southern coasts of 
Australia and the Islands of Bass Strait. 

14. Owen. — Catalogue, Royal College of Surgeons, 1831. Gives 

the distribution of Phascolomys wombat as " King 
Island, and near Port Jackson," and makes no 
reference to Tasmania. 

15. Owen. — P.Z.S., p. 49, 1836. Description of the anatomy 

of Phascolomys wombat that had lived in the gardens 
for five years and weighed 59j lbs. 

16. Gunn.— Annals Nat. Hist.,Yo\. i..p. 103, 1838. Says that 

Phascolomys, the wombat, is commonly known as the 
badger, and is found in various parts. One that he 
caught measured 36 inches in length and 34 in circum- 

17. Gray.— Annals Nat. Hist., Vol. i., p. 107, 1838. In a note 

appended to Gunn's paper (15) Gray says that he has 
seen Bass' specimen at Newcastle, and that it was the 
same "as the one we now usually receive from \an 
Diemen's Land " (The specimen was Hunter's, not 

[60 ] 


18. Owen.— In Mitcholl's Three Expeditions into the Interior 

of Eastern Australia, &c. Letter, dated May, 
1838. Contains original description of Phascolomys 

19. Waferhouse.—Jardine's Naturalists' Library, p. 300, 1841. 

Describes the animal under the name Phascolomys 
wombat, and i;ive.s its distribution as New South Wales, 
South Australia, and Van Diemen's Land. A short 
general account of the histoi}^ of the nomenclature of 
the animal is also given. 

20. Gray. — List of Specimens of Mammalia in Collection of 

Brit. Mus., p. 95, 1843. Includes a young specimen 
from Van Diemen's Land. 

21. Oiven. — In article Marswpialia in Todd's CVclopedia, 

p. 208, rtg. 105, 1845. Figures a complete skeleton 
under the name Phascolomys fu^ca. 

22. Owen.^P.Z.S., p. 82, 1845. Gives the specific name 

latifrons to a South Australian form (skull) ; also 
exhibits skull of Phascolomys from Tasmania. 

23. Waterhouse.—Nat. Hist, of the Mammalia, p. 246, 1846. 

Recognises two species — Ph. wombat (distribution as 
in 19), and Ph. latifrons from South Australia, and 
gives a general account of the knowledge of the 
genus up to date of publication. 

24. Gray.—P.Z.S., Pt. xv.. p. 41, 1847. Describes and com- 

pares skulls from Tasmania and Australia, and suggests 
possibility of more than one species being confounded 
under name Ph. vomhatus. 

25. Owen.-'Trans. Z. S., p. 303, 1849. Describes and com- 

pares the skulls of a Tasmauian wombat as Ph. 

26. Owen.— Cat. Ost. Ser. R. C. Surgeons, Vol. i., 1853, p. 344. 

Describes two skulls from Australia under the name 
of Ph. platyrhinus. 

27. Angas.—P.Z.S., p. 268, PI. 60, 1861. Describes and 

compares living specimens of the Tasmanian wombat 
and Ph. latifrons. 

28. Gould. — Mammals of Australia, Introduction, p. 29, Plates 

69 and 60, 1863. Recognises Ph. wombat from Van 

Diemen's Land and the Islands in Bass Strait; Ph. 

latifrons from Victoria and South Australia ; Ph. 

lasiorhinus from Victoria and South Australia ; and 

describes Ph. niijer from South Australia (?). He 
figures the first three. 
[61 ] 


29. Gray.— A.M.N. H., p. 457, Vol. xi., 1863. Describes 

Ph. ursinus from Van Diemen's Land, Ph. angasii 
from South Australia, Ph. setosus from Australia. The 
latter is the specimen figured by Gould as Ph. latifrons. 
Describes the first skin of Ph. latifrons that reached 
England under the name of Lasiorhinus m'coyi. 

30. Sdater.— A.M.N. IL, Vol. xii., p. 78, 1863. States that 

Gray's Ph. angasii is identical with Gould's Ph. niger. 

31. Murie.—P.Z.S., p. 838, 1865. Contains general dis- 

cussion with regard to the species of the genus de- 
scribed up to date. Gives figure of Ph. latifrons (ani- 
mal), and of skrdls of Ph. latifrons, Ph. wombat, and 
Ph. flatyrhinus. States that Ph. platyrhinus is identi- 
cal with Ph. mitchelli. Recognises Ph. wombat and 
Ph. flatyrhinus, and Lasiorhinus as a sub-genus with 
the species Ph. latifrons. 

32. Murie.—P.Z.S., p. 798, 1867. Describes Ph. flaty- 

rhinus at length, and again recognises three species. 
Figures Ph. flatyrhinus. 

33. McCoy.— P.R.S., Victoria, p. 266, 1868. States that the 

common Victorian species is Ph. platyrhinus, of which 
Ph. niger is only a variety, and with which Ph. angasii 
is identical. Recognises Ph. setosus as a distinct species. 

34. Krefft. — Mammals of Australia, Text to Plate v. Says 

that Ph. wombat is peculiar to Tasmania and Islands 
of Bass Strait. Ph. flatyrhinus occurs in New South 
Wales and Victoria. 

35. Grimes. — Voyage of His Majesty's Colonial Schooner 

" Cumberland " froyn Sydney to King Island and Port 
Phillif in 1802-3. The journal kept by Flemming 
was published in Historical Records of Port Phillif, 
edited by John J. Shillinglaw, Melbourne, 1879. 
Grimes met Baudin at Sea Elephant Bay on the east 
coast of King Island, and on the return voyage to 
Sydney discovered the River Yarra. Several refer- 
ences are made to the capture of emus and wombats 
(called badgers) on King Island. 

36. Thomas. — Cat. Marsuf. Brit. Mus. Recognises Ph. 

ursinus of Tasmania and Islands of Bass Strait ; Ph. 
mitchelli, the common mainland form ; with naked 
rhinarium and Ph. latifrons in South Australia, Avith 
hairy rhinarium. The species as recognised by Thomas 
have been accepted up to the present time. 
[ »i2 ] 




Fig. 1 — PhiucUomya arsiniu). Sbaw. King Island. 
Fig. '2 — Pha»colomy/i la»nianiensU. Sp. n. Juv. Tasmania. 
Fij;. 3 — PluisctJoinyn ursinus. Shaw. King Island. 
Kig. 4 — Ph'iaaJomys tasma>ikn/)is. Sp. n. Ta-siuania. 
Fig. "i — Phaacolomya tirainua. Shaw. King Islanil. 
Fig. (> — PhascolomyH taamanunais. Sp. n. Tasmania. 
Fig. 7 — Phaacolumys UtimanUnsis. Sp. n. Tasmania. 
Fig. 8 — Phaecolomys mitcheUi. Owen. Victoria. 

PLATE 10. 

Fig. 1 — Plmtcolumys urainii.i. .Shaw. King Islauil. 
Fig. "i — PhusciAomys urainut. Shaw. King Islanil. 
Fig. 3 — Phascolomya ursinua. Shaw. King Island. 


Fig. 1 — Side view of skull of Phaacotumys ursiiiag. King Island. 

Fig. '2 — Side view of skull of PItaacolomya Uisnumieneia. Sp. n. 

Fig. 3 — Ixjwcr jaw of Phaacolomys uraimia. King Island. 

Fig. 4 — Lower jaw of Phaacotumya uraiiiua. King Island. 

Fig. rt — Lower jaw of PhaMCfiltniiys taanKiiiittiais. 8p. n. Juv. 'rasiiiania. 

Fig. <> — Lower jaw of Phaaculnmys mitchcUi. Owen. N'ictoria. 

Fig. 7 — Lower jaw of Plutacolomya tasmanienaia. Sp. n. Tasmania. 

Fig. 8 — Ixiwcr jaw of Phaarnlomya Uiamuniensia. Sp. n. Tasmania. 

Fig. 9 — Femur of PluiactAomya urainua. Shaw. King Island. 

Fig. 10 — Femur of Phaacnlumya (aanumienaia. Sp. n. Tasmania. 

Fig. II — Femur of Phtiicniomys nrsinus. Shaw. King Island. 

Fig. 12 — Femur of Phaac'Ji)mya mitchcUi. Owen. Victoria. 

Fig. 13 — Humerus of Pluiscalomye urainua. Shaw. King Island. 

Fig. 14 — Humerus of Phaacolomya taamanietiaia. Sp. n. Tasmania. 

By Autbori(\ 

J. Kejip, Government Printer, Melbourne. 

[63 ] 

Much to our regret we overlooked the description of a 
new species of hairy-nosed Wombat pulilished by ^Ir. C. W. 
(le Vis in the Annals of the Queenshmd Museum, No. 5, 
p. 14, lyOO. Mr. de Vis' description is based upon two 
entire specimens and a skull secured at St. George, on the 
Moonie River, in South-eastern Queensland, close to the New 
South Wales border. Externally it is indistiuguishalile from 
the South Australian species, Phascolomi/s lutifrons, but Mr. 
tie Vis, as the result of certain cranial peculiarities, regards 
it as distinct from the latter. In the collection of the 
National Museum, Melbourne, we have three skins, a stuffed 
specimen, and skulls of a hairy-nosed Wombat from Deniliquin, 
in the southern part of New South Wales, close to the 
Victorian border. One of us,* since this paper has been in 
print, has recorded these under the name of P. latifrons, thus 
widely extending the distribution of the species. In regard 
to the ])roportion3 of the skull, the shortness of the frontals, 
the pronounced ramification of the naso-frontal suture, and 
the l)ackward cuneiform extension of the same, our Deniliquin 
spc'cinicn agrees to a large extent with those of Mr. de Vis, 
for which he has jiroposed the name of Pliascolomys ^illespiei, 
but we feel consideral)le doul)t as to whether either the 
Queensland or the New South Wales form is specifically 
distinct from /'. latifroiis. 

• .1. A. Kcr.-haw. Victorian NaluraliM, vol. •26, p. 118. 1909 


Mkm. N'at. Mil 

Plate IX. 

JIe.m. Xat. l[rs.. Melbourne. 3. 

Plate IX. 

.Mkm. \\t. Mi- 

I'r.ATi; \'I. 

Plate XI. 





No. 4. 



gSi) ^uthorifp 


FEBSXJ-A.Il"2', 1912. 


An Index to the Land Shells of Victoria. By J. C. Cox, M.D., and C. Hedley, 

F.L.S. (plates 1, 2, .3) .. ' .. .. .. 5 

On Some T\-pes of Lepidoptera in the National .Mu.seuni, Melbourne. Bv 

A. Jefferis Turner, M.D., F.E.S. .10 

Catalogue of the Victorian Cicadidse in the National Museum, Melbourne. 

By Howard Ashton (plate 4, figs, b, d. — h, j, k) 2.'$ 

Descriptions of New Australian Cicadidee in the National Museum, Mi-i- 

bourne. By Howard Ashton (plate 4, figs, a, c, i) . . . • -'0 

On a New Rhvtiphora in the National Museum, Melbourne. By Arthur 

M. Lea, F.E.S. 33 

On an Unnamed Species of Pecten from the Tertiary (Barwonian) of Southern 
Australia. By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S. (plate V., 
figs. 1,2, 3) .. 36 

Notes on a Collection of Tertiary Limestones and thoir Fossil Contents, 
from King Island. By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S. (plates 
vi., vii.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 

Note on Fijian Clubs ornamented with Maori Patterns. By R. H. Walcott, 

F.G.S. (plate viii.) . . . . . . . . . . • . 54 



By J. C. Cox, M.D., and C. Medley, F.L.S. 
(Plates I., II., III.) 

At the invitation of the Director of the National Museum, Mel- 
bourne, we have undertaken a brief survey of the land shells of 
Victoria. ]\Iaterial from the National Museum and from the private 
collection of Mr. J. A. Kershaw has been confided to us. We have 
also drawn upon the resources of the Cox collection and of the 
Australian Museum, Sydney. Previous studies on the Tasmanian 
land shells* by the late Mr. W. F. Petterd and one of us, formed a 
suitable introduction to the present task. 

But little attention has yet been paid to the land molluscan 
fauna of the State. Recently Dr. T. S. Hall wrote, " As to our land 
and fresh water moUusca, again, we in Victoria are sadly in the 
dark. Collecting has been done in the south-west of the State, but 
the rest is a blank."f Although the search has not been exhaustive 
and several species doubtless await discovery, sufHcient has been 
done to show that Victoria is poorer in land shells than other parts 
of Australia. Professor Tate, in discussing this remarkable paucity, 
suggested that " A deluge of igneous mass must have destroyed 
terrestrial forms of life over the greater part of the southern region 
of Victoria. "J 

Probably the first conchologists to work in Victoria were the 
naturalists of the Astrolabe, who, in 1826, visited Western Port and 
found Helicarion cuvieri and Succinea australis. In 1868, but five 
species, including two lately collected by Mr. G. Masters, were 
recorded from Victoria, in Dr. Cox's Monograph of Australian Land 
SJidls. A few more species have since been added by desultory 
collecting. In the earliest paper written exclusively on the moUuscs 
of Victoria, Mr. Maplestone observed the scarcity of land shells 
around Melbourne.§ In 1884, Professor Tate published a list and 
general discussion of the land shells. It was his intention to 
complete this preliminary statement by a more detailed study, 
but the increasing pressure of an active life gave him no further 
opportunity of resuming the subject. 

An account of the land and freshwater moUusca of Castlcmaine 
was more recently published by Mr. F. L. Billinghurst.|| 

During the preparation of this report, our friend the veteran 
conchologist, Mr. W. F. Petterd, passed away. He took a keen 
interest in the subject, and had generously assisted us with speci- 
mens and information. 

• Pettcnl and Hedley. Rtc. Aiulr. .Vim., vii.. 1900, pp. 283-304, pis. lixiii.-lixxvii. 

t HiiU. Vielnrian Xaluralint, xxvi., 1910. p. l-Jfi. 

j Tate. Trnn.'. Roy. S.x., S.A., iv., 188-.'. p. 74. 

§ Maplestiinc. Mi/nlhly Hirro^aipieat Jnumal, viii., 1872, p. 53. 

II Billinghuret. Victorian Naturalitt, x., 1803, p. 61. 


All known Victorian species have now been illustrated, and the 
present index to the subject will enable students to identify them. 
But it is to be remembered that smaller and rarer species yet await 
discovery, and that the structure of some of the small forms also 
requires investigation. 


Family Succineidae. 

Genus Succinea, Draparnaud, 1801. 
SucciNEA AUSTRALis, Ferussac. 

Succinea nustralis, Ferussac, Tabl. Sysl., II., 1821, p. 27. 

Id., Quoy et Gaimard, voy. Astrolabe, ZooL, II., 1832, p. 150, 
pi. xiii., f. 19-23. 

Id., Tate, Trans. Boy. Soc, S.A., IV., 1882, p. 95. 

Id., Billinghurst, Vict. Nat., X., 1893, p. 62. 

Id., Petterd and Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., VII., 1909, p. 283. 

Habitnt. — "Western Port (Astrolabe), Melbourne (Petterd), f'astle- 
maine and Harcourt (Billinghurst), Stawell (Australian Museum), 
Frankston and Wimmera District (Kershaw). 



Family Acavidae. 

Genus Panda, Albers, 1860. 
Panda atomata, Gray, var. kershawi, Brazier. 

Bulimus kershawi, Brazier, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1871, p. 641. 

Id., Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc, S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

Panda atomata, var. kershawi, Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., II., 
1892, p. 31, pi. v., f. 9. 

Habitat. — Snowy River. Gippsland (W. Kershaw). The species 
is unknown between the Hunter and the Snowy rivers. This is the 
most remarkable instance of discontinuous distribution recorded 
among Australian land moUusca. 

Family Helicidae. 

Genus Chloritis, Beck, 1837. 

Chloritis victoria, Cox. 

(Plate I., figs. 1, 2.) 

Hdix victorice. Cox, Monogr. Austr. Land Shells, 1868, p. 37, 
pi. xii., f. 5. 

Helix brunonia, Johnston, Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasm., 1887, p. 75. 

Chloritis brunonia, Petterd and Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., VII., 
1909, p. 285, pi. Ixxxii., f. 2, 3, 4. 


After Panda and Paryphanta, this is the largest Victorian snail. 
When deprived of its characteristic bristly epidermis, it seems 
transformed into another species. It is obvious that this is what 
Professor Tate doubtfully recorded* from Fernshaw as H. mansueta, 
Pfr. The latter is a Queensland shell hearinp a general resemblance 
to C. victoria' in size, form, and ccjlour. But ('. mimsueta may be 
distinguished in all stages of growth by the broader umbilicus and 
sparser bristles. Professor Tate's record (op. oit.) of //. brevipila, 
Pfr., from Melbourne is evidently again a misquotation for C. Vic- 
toria;. During the preparation of the Revised Census of the Terres- 
trial Mollitsca of Tasumnia, Mr. W. F. Petterd was not quite satisfied 
of the identity of C. hrunonia with C. victoria'. In the last letter we 
received from him, he had decided that they were the same. This 
decision is here adopted. The species seems to be common and 
widely distributed. We have received specimens from the fol- 
lowing places : — Western- Port (type locality. Masters and Petterd), 
Victorian Alps (French), Jan Juc (Kershaw). Forrest (Steel), Lome 
(Pritchard), Loutit Bay (Kershaw), and Cape Otway (Petterd). 
Beyond Victoria it is only known from King Island, and from Mt. 


Family Rhytididse. 

Gexus Rhytida, Albers, 1860. 

Rhytida ruga, Cox. 

Hdix ruga. Cox, in Legrand Coll., Monog. Tasm. Land Shells 
1871, .«p. 24, pi. i., f. 5. 

Id., Trynn, Man. Conch., III., 1887, p. 264, pi. 37, /. 93-95. 

Rhytida ruga. Mollendorff and Kobelt, Conch. Cab. Agnatha, 1903, 
p. 29, pi. v., f. 10-12. 

Id., Petterd and Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., VII., 1909, p. 286. 

Helir exoptata, Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc, S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

This species is generally distributed throughout the State. It 
was first recorded from Victoria by Mr. \\. F. Petterd, who remarked 
that " specimens from the Dandenong Range, Victoria, are identical 
with those from the northern portion of this island "f, ic-- Tasmania. 

Professor Tate appears to have considered, on the contrary, that 
mainland shells should be specifically distinguished from the Tas- 
manian. and proposed to name the Victorian form, which he recorded 
from Sale, Cape Otway, and P'emshaw, as Helix exoptata, but he 
never published a formal description or noted differential characters. 

The size principally distinguished R. ruga from its northern 
relations, and it may prove a dwarf of a widespread species which, 
in different parts of Australia, has received different names. We 

• TiitP. Trnnit. Roy. Sor.. S.A.. iv.. 18«-2. y. 7."). 
t Petterd. ilonogr. Tatm. Land ShelU, 187», p. 7. 



Would suggest comparison with Hdix georgiana, Quoyand Gaimard* 
from King George's Sound, Western Australia; with Zonites walkeri, 
Gray,"j" collected 70 miles from Fort Macquarie, New South Wales, 
in company with P. atomata; with Hdix capillacea, Fenissac,J col- 
lected by Peron at Port Jackson, New South Wales ; with Nanina 
fricata, Gould§, collected by Drayton in lUawarra, New South Wales; 
and with Hdix gawleri, Brazier|| from the Mount Lofty Kange, 
South Australia. 

Genus Paryphanta, Albers, 1850. 
Paryphanta atramextaria, Shuttleworth. 

Nanina atramentaria, Shuttleworth. Mittheil. Naturf. Gesdl. Bern, 
1852, p. 194. 

Id., Fischer, Notitiae malacol., II., 1877, p. 5, pi. i., /. 2. 

Helix atramentaria. Cox, Monogr. Austr. Land Shdls, 1868, p. 5, 
pi. Hi., f. 2. 

Hdicarion atramentaria, Ten. Woods, iProc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 
III., 1879, p. 124, pi. xii., f. 2, 2a. 

Id., Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc., S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

Habitat. — Port PhilUp (Shuttleworth), Moimt Arnold and Bendigo 
(Cox), Fernshaw (Tate), and Dandenong Range (Tenison Woods). 

Paryphanta compacta, sp. nov. 
(Plate I., Figs. 3, 4, 5.) 

Shell depressedly globose, narrowly perforate, thin, whorls four. 
Colour brown, deepening on the last whorl to black and on the 
second whorl passing into straw yellow. The epidermis, in which 
the colour resides, is thick and very glossy. Sculpture : On the 
earlier whorls are obhque wrinkles, on the later a few irregular 
growth lines occur. Suture deeply impressed. Spire slightly ele- 
vated, base well rounded, umbihcus a narrow perforation. Aperture 
very oblique, slightly descending above, sinuate at the peripher}', 
left insertion a little reflected over the perforation. Margins united 
by a callus which within the throat is purple and finely granulated. 
This callous lining does not extend to the very edge of the aperture, 
but leaves a narrow epidermal margin. 

Maj. diam., 24 mm., min. diam., 19 mm. ; height, 17 mm. 

Type presented to the Australian Museum by Dr. J. C. Cox, 
collected by Mr. A. D. Hardy in debris and rotten wood at Smithers 
Creek, Otway Ranges. Three other specimens collected by Mr. 
Kershaw at the Erskine Falls, Loutit Bay, differ by being smaller, 
namely : — Maj. diam., 20 mm. ; min. diam, 15 mm. ; height, 14 
mm., and by the spire whorls being almost flat. 

• Quoy et Gaimard. Voy. Astrolabe, Zool, ii., 1832. p. I-2!», pi. x., f. 26-30. Id., Ferussac 
et Deshayes, Hist. Not. Moll. Terr, (no date), i., p. 88. pi. 84, f. 3— t. Vitrca georgiana. Smith, 
Proc. Mai. Soc, i., 1894. p. 87. 

t Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 63. 

j Ferussac. Tabl. Syst., 1S21, p. 40, nam. nud. Id., Ilist.,y,\.S-2,i. 5 (nodate). 7(f . , Pfeiffer, 
Conch. Cab. Helix, 1846, p. 65, pi. 83, f. 7, 9. 

§ Gould. U.S. Expl. Exped., xii., 1852, p. 32, pi. v.. f. 71 a, b. 

II Brazier. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1872, p. 618. Bhylida gawleri, Kobelt and Moellendorff, 
Conch. Cab. Agnatha, 1903, p. 37, pi. 7, f. 12-14. 



The novelty is nearest in the genus to P. atramentaria, but with 
as many whorls in about half the diameter, the whorls increase 
more slowly, the last whorl is proportionately smaller, the perfora- 
tion narrower, and the whole shell more globose. In size it re- 
sembles the Tasmanian P. fumosn, but the whorls of compacta are 
wound more noarly in the same plane and increase less rapidly. It 
seems confined to the southern part of the State, while atramen- 
taria inhabits the centre. 


Family Endodontidse. 
Genus Endodonta, Albers, 1850. 
Endodonta albanensis. Cox. 

Hdix albanensis. Cox, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, p. 723. 

Id., Mon. Austr. Land Shells, 1868, p. 15, pi. iv., f. 2. 

Endodonta albanensis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch., VIII., 1892, pi. 
xxxim, f. 43-46 ; IX., 1894, p. 34. 

Id., Hcdley, Proc. Maloc. Soc, I., 1895, p. 260. 

/(/., Petterd and Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., VII., 1909, p. 288. 

Helix stanleyensis, Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc, S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

Habitat. — Femshaw (Petterd), Wimmera (Australian Museum), 
Gippsland and Wilson's Promontory (Kershaw). 

Endodonta funerea. Cox. 

Helix funerea. Cox, Monogr. Austr. Land Shells, 1868, p. 16, 
pi. Hi., /. 1. 

Endodonta funerea, Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., II., 1896, p. 104. 

This species appears to be generally distributed. We now record 
it from Frankston (Australian Museum), Burmmbeet (Tate), Baims- 
dale (Kershaw), and Mount Shadwell (Whan). 

Endodonta juloidea, Forbes. 

Helix juloiden, Forbes, voy. Rattlesnake, Append., p. 319,pl.ii.,f. 4. 

The type of this species was found at Port Molle, in tropical 
Queensland, so that the shell is very unlikely to occur also in Tas- 
mania or Victoria. Professor Tate recorded (Trans. Roy. Soc, S.A., 
IV., 1882, p. 75) juloidea from Victoria, but specimens which he 
80 determined prove to be E. funerea. The Melbourne shell which 
Tenison Woods (Proc Linn. Soc, N.S.W., III., 1879, p. 125) called 
juloidea was probably E. albanensis. 

Endodonta murrayana, Pfciffer, var. submurrayana, var. ncv. 
(Plate I., Figs. 6, 7, 8.) 
Helix murrayana, Pfeiffer, Proc Zool. Soc, 1863, p. 527. 
Id., Angus, op. cil., p. 521, and Journ. of Conch., I., 1876, ;). 134. 
Id., Cox, Monofj. Austr. Land Shells, 1868, p. 14, pi. xix., f. 10, 
10a, 106. 



E. murrayana is related to E. funerea, than which it is larger, 
flatter, with wider umbilicus, and more distant radial lamellse. It 
has not hitherto been recorded from Victoria. Some exampleji 
from Geelong, collected by Dr. T. S. Hall, have a narrower umbilicus 
and weaker closer radial riblets than typical shells from the Murray 
cliifs. For these we adopt the varietal name of suhmurrayana, 
which Professor Tate proposed to bestow when he had this form 
under consideration. A specimen in the Australian Museum here 
figured is, major diam., 6 '5 mm. ; minor diam., 5 mm. ; and height, 
3 '5 mm. 

Endodonta retipora. Cox, var. melbourxensis. Cox. 

Helix retipora, Cox, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, p. 39. 

Id., Man. Austr. Land Shells, 1868, p. 21, pi. vii., f. 8. 

Id., Billinghurst, Vict. Nat., X., 1893, p. 62. 

Helix melbournensis. Cox, Man. Austr. Land Shells, 1868, p. 22, 
pi. xii., f. 10. 

Id., Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc, IV., 1882, p. 75. 

Endodonta melbournensis, Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 
XXVII., 1902 (1903), p. 604, pi. xxxi., f. 16, 17. 

The Victorian form is rather more finely sculptured than the 
South Australian, but the difference is not constant enough for 
specific distinction. 

Habitat. — Melbourne (Masters), Femshaw (Petterd), Castlemaine 
(Billinghurst), Gippsland and Wimmera (Australian Museum), Mount 
Macedon, Dandenong Range, and Western Port (Kershaw). 

Endodonta tamarensis, Petterd. 

Helix tamarensis, Petterd, Mon. Tasm. Land Shells, 1879, p. 30. 
Id., Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc, S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 
Charopa tamarensis, Billinghurst, Vict. Nat., X., 1893, p. 62. 
Endodonta tamarensis, Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., XXVII., 
1903, p. 605, pi. xxxi., /. 18, 19, 20. 

Id., Petterd and Hedley, Bee. Austr. Mus., VII., 1909. p. 291. 
Habitat. — Burrumbeet (Tate), Mount Franklin (Billinghurst). 

Genus Cystopelta, Tate, 1881. 
Cystopelta petterdi, Tate. 
Cystopelta petterdi, Tate, Proc Roy. Soc, Tasm., 1880 (1881), 
p. 17. 

Id., Hedley, Proc Linn. Soc, N.S.W., (2), V., 1890, pp. 44-46, 
pi. i. ; and Rec. Austr. Mus., II., 1896, p. 102. 

Id., Petterd and Hedley, Rec Austr. Mus., VII., 1909, p. 292. 
Habitat.— BaWsLTSit (Musson), Loch (Frost). 



Genus Laoma, Gray, 1849. 
Laoma morti. Cox. 

Helix morti. Cox, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3). XIV., 1864, j). 182. 

Id., Manog. Austr. Land Shells, 1868, }>. 21, pi. xi., j. 13. 

Id., Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc, S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

Laoma morti, Pelterd and Hcdleij, Rec. Austr. Mus., VII., 1909, 
p. 294. 

Helix hobarti, Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc., S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

Flammulina retinodes, Tate, Horn Exp., II., p. 187, p. xvii., f. 4. 

Habitat. — Mdunt Eliza (Pritchard), Jan Juc (Kershaw). 

Professor Tate has quoted other Victorian localities, but since 
that of Melbourne (on the authority of Pettcrd) refers to L. mucoides, 
we regard them as uncertain. 

Laoma mucoides, Tenison Woods. 
(Plate II., Figs. 9, 10, 11, 12.) 

Helix mucoides, Tenison Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., III., 
1879, p. 125, pi. Hi., f. 5, 5a. 

Id., Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc., S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

L. mucoides is closely related to L. morti. Cox, in form and sculp- 
ture, and has in the past been mistaken for it. L. mucoides has an 
extra whorl, and is larger, darker, and more solid. In L. morti the 
radial lamclljc arc better developed. One of Tenison Woods' type 
specimens here figured is 2 "8 mm. maj. diam., 2 '35 mm min. diam., 
and 1 '35 mm. in height. The type locality is Melbourne. 

Laoma penolensis. Cox. 

Hdix penolensis. Cox, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 724. 

Id., Monogr. Austr. Latul Shells, 1868, p. 8., pi. xi., f. 12. 

Helix pictilis, Tate, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., II., 1878, p. 290. 

Laoma pictilis, Petterd and Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., VII., 1909, 
p. 294, pi. Ixxxvi., f. 35-37. 

Cape Northumberland, the type locality of //. pictilis, is but a 
short distance from Penola, where the type ftt H. penolensis was 
found. Professor Tate distinguished H. pictilis from the Penola 
shell by "its coarser ribbing, its colouration, and the presence of 
transverse stria?." The first and second characters are variable, and 
we find that the type of H. penolensis in the Cox collection has micro- 
scopic spiral striae. So that //. pictilis may be safely reduced to a 
synonym of //. penolensis. 

Found at Port Fairy, by the Rev. W. T. Whan ; near Melbourne 
and at Obcron Bay, Wilson's Promontory, by Mr. J. A. Kershaw; 
at Lome, by Dr. G. B. Pritchard. 

Genus Fla.mmulina, v(m Martens, 1873. excelsior. Hedley. 
Flammulina excelsior, Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., II., 1896, p. 103, 
pi. xxiii., f. 2-4. 

[" J 


The type of this species occurred on Mount Kosciusko. It is 
likely that the iiiilocalized Victorian specimen obtained bv Professor 
Spcnc<n-, and referred to in the original description, came from some 
neighbouring alpine district. 

Flammulina fordei, Brazier, var. m'coyi, Petterd. 

(Plate II., Figs. 13, 14, 15.) 

Helix fordei, var. m'coyi, Petterd, Monogr. Tasm. Land Shells, 
1879, f. 14. 

Helix m'coyi, Tate, Trans. Roy. Sac, S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 
? Helix fernshawensis, Petterd, Journ. of Conch., II., 1879, j). 355. 
Id., Monogr. Tasm. Land Shells, 1879, p. 15. 
Id., Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc, S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

The type which Mr. Petterd presented to the Australian Museum, 
and which measures, maj. diam. 7 '5 mm., min. diam. 6 mm., 
height 5 "5 mm., is here figured. The H . fernshawensis is Tega,T:ded 
by us as a lost species, for Mr. Petterd had retained no specimen of 
it, neither is an example preserved in the Tate collection, as Dr, 
Verco kindly informs us. We have taken advantage of Professor 
Tate's suggestion, that H. fernshawensis is an immature H. m'coyi, 
to suppress it as a synonym. 

Habitat. — Dandenong Kange (Petterd), Fernshaw (Tate), Don 
River (National Museum), Upper Yarra (Kershaw). 

Flammulina elenescens, sp. nov. 

(Plate III, Figs. 16, 17, 18.) 

Shell subdiscoidal, thin, spire slightly elevated, base flattened 
and broadly umbilicated. Colour ochraceous-bufi, with a few faint 
radial streaks of brown. Whorls five, slowly increasing, parted by 
deeply impressed sutures. Sculpture : First whorl and a half smooth, 
about the ante -penultimate whorl the shell is ornamented with fine 
close even thread-like radials at the rate of about a hundred to a 
whorl, this sculpture is also visible within the umbilicus. On the 
later whorls this sculpture gradually vanishes, so that their smooth- 
ness is only broken by fine and rather irregular growth lines. There 
is no spiral sculpture. Umbilicus about a quarter of the shell's 
diameter, broad and open, exposing all the earlier whorls. Maj. 
diam., 6 "7 mm. ; minor diam., 5 '4 mm. ; height, 2 '9 mm. 

Habitat. — Merri Creek (Tenison Woods). Type in the Australian 

In general appearance the novelty is like F. diemenensis and F. 
marchiancB, between which it is intermediate in size. The break in 
sculpture of F. elenescens readily distinguishes it. 

I 12 ] 


Sub-genus allodiscus, Pilsbry, 1892. 

Obs. — The following species are assigned to this sub-genus by 
reason of thoir spirally striated nuclear whorls. 

Flammulina otwayensis, Petterd. 

Hdix otwayensis, Petterd, Mon. Tasm. Land Shells, 1879 (April), 
p. 39. 

Id., Joiirn. of Conch., II., 1879 (December), p. 356. 

Endodontu otwayensis, Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., XXVII., 
1903, p. 605, pi. xxix., f. 10, 11, 12. 

Habitat.—Cape Otway (Petterd), Fern Tree Gully (Hall), Fem- 
shaw (Kershaw). 

Flammulina subdepressa, Brazier. 

Helix subdepressa. Brazier, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1871, p. 641. 

Endodonta subdepressa, Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S. W., XXVII., 
1903, p. 605, pi. xxxi., f. 13, 14, 15. 

Helix dandenongensis, Petterd, Journ. of Conch., II., 1879, p. 355. 

Id., Tate, Proc. Roy. Soc, S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

Habitat. — Snowy River and Fernshaw (Kershaw), Dandenong 
Range (Petterd), Oakleigh (French), G«mbrook (Coghill), Emerald 
District (Jarvis). 

Flammulina meraca, sp. nov, 

(Plate in.. Figs. 19, 20, 21.) 

Shell small, very thin, subdiscoidal spire slightly elevated, base 
narrowly perforated. Colour pure white. Whorls three and a half, 
parted by deep sutures and rather rapidly increasing. Scidpture: 
The protoconch, of one and a half whorls, is finely spirally striated 
and ends abruptly, the adidt shell is perpendicularly traversed by 
fine evenly spaced radial riblcts, amounting on the last whorl to 
about two hundred, between the riblets are a few very minute 
radial threads. Aperture lunate-ovate, columella slightly reflected. 
Inner lip overlaid by a callus spread in advance over the riblets of 
the preceding whorl. Base rounded, umbilicus narrow, about 
one-fifteenth of the major diameter. Height, 2 mm. ; maj. diam., 
4 mm.; minor diam., 3 mm. 

Habitat. — Dandenong Range, numerous specimens (Kershaw), 
and Fernshaw (Petterd). Type from the Dandenongs in the 
National Museum. 

The novelty is nearest related to F. nirea, Hedley,* from Kos- 
ciusko, which differs in the microscopic details of the sculpture, 
is more closely coiled, and has a sunken instead of an elevated spire. 

It is possible that this may be the species recorded from Fern- 
shaw as Helix yarthii, Petterd, M.S. by Professor Tate.f 

• Hwllcy. Ree. AiuCr. Mtu., ii., 1896, p. 103, pi. xxiii, f. 2^. 
t Tato. Traru. Roy. Soe., S.A., iv., 1884, p. 75. 

[13 1 


Neither the collection of Professor Tate nor of Mr. Petterd 
now contains this shell, so that the name must be written off as 

Family Zonitidse. 

Genus Helicarion, Ferussac (em.), 1821. 
Helicarion cuvieri, Ferussac. 

Helicarion cuvieri, Ferussac, Tabl. Syst., 1821, f. 20. 

Id., Petterd and Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., VII., 1909, p. 301. 

Vitrina nigra, Quoy et Gaim., voy. Astrolabe, Zool., II., 1832, 
p. 135, fl. xi., f. 8, 9. 

Id., Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc., S.A., IV., 1882, p. 75. 

Vitrina verreauxii, Pfeiffer, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1849, p. 132. 

Hahitat.^W estem Port (Astrolabe), Femshaw, Sale, and Cape 
Otway (Petterd), Jiimbunna, South GipjJsland (Kitson). 

The following land moUusca have been introduced into Victoria 
from Europe : — * 

Litnax maximus, Linne. 
Limax fiavus, Linne. 
Agriolimax agrestis, Linne. 
Agriolimax Icevis, Muller. 
Milax gagates, Drapamaud. 
Vitrea cellaria, Muller. 
Zonitoides nitidus, Muller. 
Helicella caperata, Montagu. 
Helicella harhara, Linne. 
Helix aspersa, Muller. 
Helix pisana, Muller. 

* Musson.— Proc. Linn. Soc. (2), v., 1890, pp. 883-896. Woodward.— ^ourn. ot Conch.. 

X.. 1903. DP. 352-367. 


Mkm. N'm. Mrs., Mklboitrxk. 4. 

Plate I. 


^"^-^yCf w^/ 

70ii.-,. — [■• 

Mem. Nai. Mis.. Mki.hoiunk. 4. 

Plate II 




Mk.m. Nat. Mis., .Mkluoi rne. i. 





Plate I. 

Fig. 1. — Bristles and (Fig. 2) hair scars of Chloritis victoriee. Cox. 
Much magnified. 

Figs. 3, 4, 5. — Various aspects of Paryphanta compacfa. Cox and 
Hedley. Enlarged. 

Figs. 6, 7, 8. — Various aspects of Endodonta murrayana. Pfeiffer. 
Var. suhnmrrayana. Cox and Hedley. Enlarged. 

Plate IL 

Figs. 9, 10, 11. — Various aspects of Laoma niucoides. Tenison 
Woods. Enlarged. 

Fig. 12. — Sculpture of L. mucoides. Much magnified. 

Figs. 13, 14, 15. — Various aspects of Flammvlina fordei. Brazier. 
Var. irCcoyi. Petterd. Enlarged. 

Plate III. 

Figs. 16, 17, 18. — Various aspects of Flamtnidina denescens. Cox 
and Hedley. Enlarged. 

Figs. 19, 20, 21. — Various aspects of Flammulina meraca. Cox and 
Hedley. Enlarged. 

C !■' ] 


By A. Jefferis Turner, M.D., F.E.S. 

In a little work published in 1869 under the title Characters 
of Undescribed Lepidoptera Heterocera, by the late Mr. FrancLs 
Walker, F.L.S., are the descriptions of a number of .species which 
it is desirable to identify as far as possible. The work commences 
with 102 species described as new from the collection of T. Xorris, 
Esq. Of these, eight are stated to have been taken at Moreton 
Bay, but a large proportion of the species are without locality, so 
that it is quite possible that there are more Australian types among 
them. Whether these types are still in existence I do not know, 
but I believe I have seen some of them in the British Museum. 
I have made an attempt to identify the Australian forms from 
the descriptions. 

12. Lithosia remota is a synonym of Lexis nitens, Wik. 

24. Turriga invasa is probably a variety of Olene mendosa, Hb. 

26. Entometa adusta is a synonym of Pinara metaphaea, "Wlk. 

32. Doratifera congrxm is a synonym of Susica alphaeo; Fab. 

33. Mecytlm antiqua I have not been able to identify. 

37. Anthercea insignis is a synonym of Copaom janetta. White. 
81. Plana lignificta, and 88. Hypopyra fusifascia, I am not 
able to identify. 

The next instalment is headed " The following fifty-one species 
inhabit Australia, and are in the National Museum at Melbourne." 
Through the courtesy of Mr. J. A. Kershaw, the Curator, I have 
had the opportunity of carefully examining these types. They are 
kept in a drawer by themselves, and have been well cared for, but 
bear the traces of previous ill-usage. Mr. Kershaw informs me 
that they were placed in this drawer from a box, which contained a 
label saying that they were " received in bad condition," probably 
from damage in the post. Beneath each type is an M.S. name, 
probably in Walker's handwriting, and these names correspond 
to the descriptions in print. Two of the types are missing, but 
one of these I have identified to my own satisfaction from the de- 
scription. The remaining forty-nine are all Victorian species, or 
at least forty-seven of them, which I have determined. Of the 
two remaining, one is an obscure species of the genus Anthela, which 
will probably be identified some day ; the other is represented by 
thorax and hind wings only, and all that can be said of it is that it 
is a species of Agriophara. Forty-eight of the species are now 
accounted for, and of these forty-eight names, thirty-one are 



s\Tionyms. most of the species having been previously named by 
Walker himself. There remain seventeen names which nuLst, I 
think, be adopted. Most of these have been since described by 
other authors, who had not the opportunity of examining Walker's 
types. Of the four generic names proposed, none are valid. 

I should not have been able to obtain results so complete if it 
had not been for the generous assistance of Mr. J. A. Kershaw and 
Mr. Geo. Lyell. The latter went through the types before my 
arrival, and left me a box of examples from his own collection, which 
he had compared and identified with tlu'in. The former supple- 
mented these with other examples from the Museum collection. 
Having satisfied myself of the correctness of the identifications, 
and in some instances this required special care, I was able to study 
the loaned examples at leisure after my return to Brisbane. 

My detailed results are as follow : — 

1. Eterusia auroatra. — The tvpe is unfortunately missing. 

The description applies to some species of unusually 
distinct appearance, and should be recognisable, but 
at present I cannot identify it with any Australian 
species known to me. 

2. Eutane partita. — This is a good species correctly identified 

by Sir Greo. Hampson, and described as Thallarchu 
partita (Cat. Lop. Phal. II., p. 503). There are 
several allied and very similar species ; this one is 
best distinguished by its deep orange-ochreous ground- 
colour, and by a fuscous spot in cilia of hind winge 
below middle. It appears to be very rare in collec- 
tions ; a specimen lent me from the National Museum 
bears the locality label Spring Vale, Victoria. I have 
taken a series, which I refer to this species, at Glen 
Innea, New South Wales, in October. 

3. Castula binotata = Castulo doubledayi, Newm. = Cluaca 

TuhricoHta, Wlk. The type of binotata is a variety 
occasionally met with in which the termen and cilia 
of hind wings are ochreous, with a narrow dark-fuscous 
subtenninal line. 

4. Orgyui semifusca is, I think, a good species, but cannot 

be referred to this genus. The i agrees structurally 
with Portheaia, but Mr. Kershaw has lent me a 9 from 
the National Museum which strikingly resembles a 
? Orgyia. I propose to make this species the type of 
fl. new genus Ocybola, and both genus and species will 
be described below. 

5. Tenra luctipennis is a synonym of Oenosandu boisduvalii, 

Newm. i . This species is sexually dimorphic. 

7966.— B 


6. Entnmeta despecta. — The type is a ,J and liliould be easily 

recognised ; the hind wings are blackisli and much 
darker than the fore wings, which are bnAvn, densely 
irrorated with orange-ochreous. I have this species 
under the name of Entometa obscura, Wlk. Walker's 
types of this genus require to be elucidated, 
the ? 9 of many of the species are very similar, and 
unfortunately some of the types are ? . 

7. Entometa iqnobilis belongs to the Ps?/cAi(toe, and has been 

correctly identified by Meyrick and Lower (Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S.A., 1897, p. 197), who redescribe it as 
Clania ignohilis. 

8. Ptilotnacra antiqua is a synonym of Ptilornacra senex, Wlk. 

9. Opsirrhina punctilinea is a synonym of Pinara divisa, 

Wlk. 9 . 

10. Tolype subnotata is a good species so far as I know. It 

is closely allied to trimacula, AYlk., which Mr. Lyell 
tells me is the 9 of Crexa punctigera, Wlk. I suspect 
that my Creoca hyaloessa may be the i of subnotata. 

11. Hepialus fasciculatus is a synonym of Oncoptera intricata, 


12. Leucania adjuncta is a synonym of CirpJiin ciliata; Wlk. 

It is not the same as the species described by Hamp- 
son as Cirphis adjuncta (Cat. Lep. Phal. V., p. 489), 
for which I propose a new name below. 

13. Mamestra confundens is a synonym of Dasygaster hol- 

landice, Gn. 

14. Agrotis costalis is a synonym of Caradrina tortisigna, Wlk. 

15. Agrotis transversa = Euxoa porphyricollis, G-n. 

16. Anclioscdis bicolor = Agrotis compta, Wlk. 

17. Orthosia deprivata is a slightly darker example of Agrotis 

compta, Wlk. 

18. Euplexia inamestroides has been described by me as 

Prometopus poliophracta. (Trans. Roy. Soc. South 
Australia, 1908, p. 57.) Hampson identifies this 
species as Omplialetis exundans, Gn. (Cat. Lep. Phal. 
VIII., p. 377.) It is very similar in markings to 
Caradrina instipata, Wlk. 

19. Xylina saxaiilis ^^ Ectopatria subrufescens, Wlk. 

20. Pantydia canescens = Pantydia diemeni, Gn. 

21. Samea distractalis = Nacoleia rhoeonalis, Wlk. The 

type is mangled, but recognisable. 

22. Ebulea gavisalis has been since described as Mecyna 

rhodochrysa, Meyr. 

23. Stenopteryx corticalis = Nomophila noctiteUa, SchifE. 

24. Idiodes inornata = Idiodes apicata, Gn. 

26. Azelina inordinata = Mnesampela privata, Gn. 




26. Azelinn bipla^ga is a good species, which has been re- 

described as Metrocatnfa glaucias, Meyr. 

27. Passa pi/gaeroides = Smyriodes nplectaria, Gn. 

28. Monoctenia decora is a pale variety of Monoctenia 

vinaria, Gn. 

29. Arnissa simplex belongs to the genus Anthela (Lyman- 

friadne). The type is an obscure ? , and I Was not 
able to identify the species. 

30. Tephrosia scitiferata = Selidosema mundifera, \\\k. 

31. Tephrosia fulgurigera ^ Selidosenm excursaria, Gn., a 

variety with tliickened dark-fuscous lines on wings. 

32. Asthena vexata = Euchoeca rtibropuncturia, Wlk. 

33. Macarin comptaia = Diastictis auslraliaria, Gn. 

34. Larentin approximata has been since described as 

Phrissogonus pyretodes, Meyr. Tlie type is a <J and 
rather ilarker than usual. 

35. LarerUia gdidata (Walker's M.S. label reads " Larentia 

cdgidata ") is a s example of Xanthnrhop subidaria. Gn. 

36. Oesymnti. stipataria is a 9 example of Microdes squumu- 

laUi, Gn. 

37. Eupithecia destructata has been since described as Phris- 

sogomis catastreptes, Meyr. In this instance only I 
had no example to compare with the type, but I am 
confident of my identification. 

38. Acrobasis subcvltella = Epipaschia nauplialis, W'\k. 

39. Hypntxi moderatella = Chlenias arietaria, Gn. 

40. Dichelin vicariana = Caccecia postvittana, W]k. 

41. Sperchia intractana is, I believe, the species described by 

Meyrick under the name of Capua obfuscatana. 

42. Tinea annosella has been since described as Xysmatodona 

saxosa, Meyr. 

43. Tinea arctiella lias been since described as Lepidoscia 

comocJiora, Meyr. 

44. Tin&t nivibractdla is a good species of the genus Monopis, 

Hb. I give a full description below. 

45. Tinea intritdla has been redescribed as Phloeopola 

exarcka, Meyr. 

46. Hyponometita ? viduata is a good species which may be 

j)nivisi((nally referred to the genus Xylorycta. Besides 
the type there are three examples in the National 
Museum, all imperfect and without palpi. (Localities: 
Melbourne and K<'well, Vic.) 

47. Chinutbacche saxipenneUa. This is, I have no doubt, a 

species oi the genus Agriopkara, but as the type has 
now no fore wings, palpi, antennae, nor abdomen, it 
Would be rash to identify it more particularly. 
[ 19] 


48. Gelechia improbella is a species of the genus Eulechria. I 

have not been able to identify it with any of Mr. 
Mey rick's descriptions, but it is a species difficult to 
recognise. I describe it below. 

49. Gelechia genimipunctellu is represented by a single fore 

wing only, but this is sufficient to identif}' it with 
Glyphipteryx atristiella, Zel. I consider G. chry- 
solitliella, Meyr., to be the same species, the colour of 
the hind wings being variable in different localities. 

50. Oecophora impletella. The type is missing, but from 

the description I have no hesitation in identifying 
this with Philobota herodiellu, Feld. As vol. ii. of 
the Reise Novara was published in 1874, Walker's 
name has the priority. 

51. Cryptolechia scitipunctdla is a synonym of Hoplitica 

repandula, Zel. 

In the National Museum is the Curtis collection of British insects. 
Among them I examined Arctunis sparshaUii, Ciirt., which is un- 
doubtedly the same as Trichetra stihosma, Butl. Mr. Lyell informs 
me that he considers this to be a varietal form of Trichetra melanosoma, 
Wlk. How this Australian insect came to be ascribed to Great 
Britain must remain a mystery. 

In the Museum Library I had an opportimity of examining 
Donovan's Insects of New Holland. His Tinea strigateUa (Plate 40) 
is the same as Philobota chrysopotama, Meyr. The only discrepancy 
is that the ground-colour is figured purple, but comparison with the 
description shows that this is an error of the colourist. 

Genus Ocybola, nov. 

wicvfioXoc, quick-darting. 

Head and thorax densely long-haired. Tongue minute. Palpi 
moderate, porrect, hairy. Antennae in i with two rows of long 
pectinations to apex, in ? shortly bipectinate. Legs hairy, pos- 
terior tibiae with two pairs of spurs. Abdomen without crests. 
Fore wings with 2 from middle, 3 from before angle, 4 and 5 from 
angle, 6 connate with 7, 8, 9, 10, which are stalked, 10 arising 
beyond 7, no areole. Hind wings with 5 absent, 6 and 7 stalked. 
Wings in ? rudimentary. 

Ocybola semifusca, Wlk. 

3 , 28 mm. Head, thorax, and palpi dark-fuscous mixed with 
whitish-ochreous hairs. Antennae whitish-ochreous, pectinations 
and inner surface dark-fuscous. Abdomen dark-fuscous, tuft and 
imderside orange-ochreous. Legs ochreous mixed with dark-fuscous. 
Fore wings triangular, costa gently arched, apex obtusely roimded, 
termen bowed oblique ; orange-ochreous rather densely suffused 

[20 J 


with dark-fuscous, which forms an ill-defined basal patch, dentate 
postmediaii line, and terminal line, eilia dark-fuscous, apices 
ochreous interrupted with fuscous. Hind wings with tennen 
rounded ; orange-ochreous with scanty dark-fuscous irro ration 
towards termen, cilia concolorous. 

9 . Head, thorax, palpi, antenna?, legs, and abdominal tuft 
whitish ; wings represented by narrow linear-lanceolate whitish 
rudiments, sufficiently long to reach middle of abdomen. 

Victoria : Williamstown, near Melbourne ; Ocean Grange, near 


<"aiTi'krr,/ifi<, witli hairy shins. 

(J S , 36-40 mm. Head, thorax, and palpi grey-whitish, with 
scanty blackish irroration, external surface of palpi in S purplish 
tinged. Antenna- grey, towards base grey-whitish ; ciliations in i ^, 
bristles 1. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs whitish, with sparse 
blackish irroration ; anterior femora in S densely hairy and anterior 
tibiie with immense fuscous-puqjle tufts. Fore wings elongate- 
triangular, costa nearly straight ; apex roimded, termen scarcely 
oblique, rounded beneath ; grey-whitish with sparse blackish 
irroration, and sometimes some patchy purjjle-grcy suffusion; 
a white postmedian discal dot immediately preceded by a blackish 
dot ; a row of dark-fuscous dots at ^ parallel to termen ; a series 
of minute terminal dots ; cilia grey-whitish, tinged with purplish, 
with a fuscous subapical line. Hind wings with termen wavy ; 
whitish, towards termen suffused with fuscous ; cilia whitish, 
purplish-tinged except towards tornus, with a fuscous median line. 

Very similar to Cirphis ciliata, Wlk., from which it may be 
readily distinguished (1) by the i fore legs, (2) by the postmedian 
line on fore wings being single, not double. 

Type in coll., Turner. 

Queensland: Brisbane, in FebniarA' and May. Three specimens. 


(J?, 15-22 mm. Head snow-white. Palpi dark-fuscous, apex 
of terminal joint white. Antennsc dark-fuscous ; in <J simple. 
Thorax fuscous with a large white anterior spot. Abdomen 
ochreous. Legs fuscous; po.sterior ])air ochreous. Fore wings 
elongate, slightly dilated posteriorly, costa strongly arched, apex 
rounded, termen obliquely rounded ; dark-fuscous, markings snow- 
white ; a large (juadrilateral spot on dorsum near base, rather 
broadly separate from base and costa ; an irregularly triangidar 
spot on costa beyond middle ; smaller spots witli very irregular 
outlines on costa before apex, mid-termen, and tornus, tlie first two 
tending to confluence ; all tending to be broken up by dark-fuscous 



or ochreous-fuscous irroration ; cilia dark-fusoDus, on rnid-tertncn 
and tornus white. Hind wings lanceolate ; grey ; cilia pale-ochreouB, 
at apex grey. 

This species is very similar to Monopis meliorella, Wlk., with 
which it has been confused. For some years I have recopniscd its 
distinctness, and am glad to take this opportunity of describing it. 
The best point of distinction is the broad dark-fuscous band between 
dorsal white spot and base and costa. Both species are common 
and widely distributed. 

North Queensland: Stannary Hills. Queensland: Brisbane, 
Toowoomba, Warwick, Bimya Mountains. New South Wales : 
Glen Innes, Kiama, Jenolan. Victoria : Melbourne. 

M. mdiordla I have from North Queensland : Cardwell, Mareeba, 
Kuranda, Stannary Hills, Townsville. Queensland : Brisbane, 
Rosewood, Stradbroke Island, Dalby, Warwick, Adavale. 


.? , 18 mm. Head ochreous-fuscous. Palpi fuscous, inner aspect 
of second joint mostly ochreous-whitish. Antennae and thorax 
fuscous. Abdomen ochreous-fuscous, tuft whitish-ochreous. 
Legs fuscous ; posterior pair whitish-ochreous. Fore wings elon- 
gate, not dilated, costa gently arched, apex rounded, termen 
obliquely rounded ; whitish-ochreous densely irrorated with dark- 
fuscous ; a round dark-fuscous discal dot at ^, a second beneath 
it on fold, and a third in disc at § ; veins towards termen out- 
lined with fuscous ; cilia whitish-ochreous, basal half irrorated 
with fuscous. Hind wings ovate-lanceolate ; grey-whitish, slightly 
darker towards termen ; cilia grey-whitish. 

Victoria : Melbourne (National Museum collection). 



By Howard Ashton. 
(Plate TV., Figs, b, d— h, j, k.) 

During my investigations into this group T have been afforded 
frequent opportunities for examining the collection contained in 
the National Museum, Melbourne, and, acting on the suggestion of 
the Curator. T have drawn up the following catalogue embracing 
all the Victorian species in the Museum. In the collection are a 
number of specimens determined by Walker; also a number deter- 
mined by Goding and Froggatt, together with some of their types. 
\\Ticre there is any doubt of a species, I have followed the deter- 
minations of Distant, since he has all the material at his dispo.sal, 
and has recently systematized the family in a thorough and admirable 
manner. Several of the species in my own collection have been 
determined by him, and, having these, I havefound occasion to differ 
a little from other workers in the familv. I have to thank the Curator 
of the Zoohjgical Department, Mr. J. A. Kershaw, for facilities 
afforded me during the examination of the collections, and for the 
loan f)f several specimens. In addition to the references given here, 
may be understood in each case those of Distant's Catalogue of 1906. 

Family Cicadidae. 


Division Cydochilaria. 
Genus Cyclochila, Amy. and Serv. 
Type C. australasioB, Donov. 


Tettigonia australasicB, Don. Ins. N. Holl. Hem., pi. II., f. 1, 1905. 

Cicada nlivacen. Germ., Thon. Ent. Arch. II.. 1830; id. Silb. 
Rev. Ent. II., p. .57, 1834. 

Cyclochila australasice. Amy. and Serv. Hist. Hem., p. 470, 1843 ; 
McCoy, Prodr. Zool. Vict, decad. V., p. 57, /. 4. pi. 1. 1880 ; et al. 

Var. spreta, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., p. 570, 

Genu.s Praltoda. Stal. 

Type Psaltoda moerens. Germ. 
P. MOERENS, (ierm. 

Cicada moerens. Germ., Silb. Rev. Ent. II., p. 67, 1834. 

P.viltoda mnerens, Stal., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., I., p. 614, 1861 ; 
God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., p. 590, 1904 ; ct al. 

Cicada moerens, McCoy, Prodr. Zool. Vict., V., p. 53, pi. I., fs. 1. 
2, 1880. 



P. AURORA, Dist. 

PsaUoda nurnm, Dist., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 664, 1881 ; 
God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1904, p. 586. 

(Note. — Though included in the Victorian collection, the locality 
must bo considered as doubtful. Botli Distant and Goding and 

Froggatt give its habitat as Queensland.) 

Genus Henicops^ltria, Htal. 

Type H. eydouxi, Guer. 


Fidicina nubivena. Walk., List. Horn. Sup., p. 17, 1858. 
Henicopsaltria ruhivenn,, Stal., Berl. Ent. Zeit. X., p. 171, 1866; 
God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1904, p. 578. 

(Note. — ^Hitherto not recorded from within Victoria. 


Division Taphuraria. 

Genus Abricta, Stal. 

Type A. brunnea, Fabr. 
A. AURATA, Walk. 

Cicada aurata, Walk., List. Horn. I., p. 215, 1880 ; et al. 
Tibicen auratus, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., p. 606, 

(Note. — One specimen determined by Walker in the collection.) 

Genus Diemeniana, Dist. 
Type D. coleoptrata. Walk. 

Cicada coleoptrata. Walk., List. Horn. Z., p. 223, 1850. 

Tibicen coleoptrata, Stal., Otv. Vet. Ak. Fork., p. 485, 1862. 

Tibicen coleoptratus, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1904, p. 608. 

Diemenia coleoptrata, Dist., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), XVL, 
p. 206, 1905 {Gen. nom. praeocc). 

Diemeniana coleoptrata, Dist., Syn. Cat. Horn. I., Cicad., p. 145, 

(Note. — One specimen determined by Walker in the collection.) 

Division Melampsaltra ria . 
Genus Melampsalta, Am. 
Type M. musiva, Germ. 

Melampsalta denisoni, Dist., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXXVII., 
p. 78, 1893 ; God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., p. 636, 1904. 



Mdanifsaltti kersham, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1904. p. fiSfi. 

(Xote. — The type specinipn of M. kershawi is a femalo of 
M. denitioni, faded in colour, and rather mutilated.) 

M. BiNOTATA, Cod. and Frogo., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1904, 
p. 643. 

Mehimpsalta angttsta, God. and Frogg. (nee. Walk.), loo. cit., p. 643. 

(Note. — Detennined by Walker as M. angusta, AValk., in the col- 
lection. In the Macleay Museum, Sydney, Croding and Froggatt 
have detennined the male as .1/. angusta, and the female as M. 
hinolata, God. and Frogg. M. angusta is a synonym for M. criien- 
tata, Fabr., a very distinct species, from New Zealand.) 


TettUjonia cruentata, Fabr., St/.'it. Ent., p. 680, 177.'). 

Melampsalta cruentata, Stal., Hem. Fabr., IL, p. 116, 1869. 

Cicada sericea. Walk., List. Horn., p. 169, 1850. 

Cicada rosea. Walk., loc. cit., p. 220. 

Cicada angusta. Walk., loc. cit., p. 174. 

Cicada bilinea. Walk., List. Horn. Supp., p. 34, 1858. 

Cicada muta, Kirby, Trans. N.Z. Inst., XXVIIL, p. 445, 1885. 

Melampsalta angii.ita, Dist., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), IX., 
p. 326, 1892 ; God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1904, p. 643. 

(Note. — One specimen amongst Victorian Cicadidse, but ■wnthout 
locality. In all probability from New Zealand.) 


Melampsalta. abdominalis, Dist., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), IX., 
p. 323, 1892 ; God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1904, p. 634. 

(Note. — One female specimen determined by Walker as Cicada 


Melampsalta murrayensis, Dist., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XX., 
p. 421, 1907. 

Melampsalta (dibreviata, God. and Frogg. {nee. Walk.), Proc. Linn. 
Soc. iV.,S.H'.. /). 649, 1904. 

(Note. Determined by Ooding and Froggatt in the Macleay 
Museum and National Museum, Melbourne, as M. abbreviata. Walk. 
This latter species has been placed, however, in the genus Quintilia, 
and deterniiuod by Distant as Q. injans. Walk. This genus may be 
distinguished by having the upper ulnar veins distinctly separate 
at base.) 




Melampsalta lundsboroiu/hi, Dist., Proc. Zonl. Soc. Lond., 1882, 
p. 131, pi. VII., /.S-. 14a, b ; God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1904, p. 639. 

Melampmlta tristrignta, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1904, p. 638. 

(Note. — Determined by God. and Frogg. in the Macleay Museum 
and also in the National Museum, Melbourne, as M. tristrigaia, 
God. and Frogg. Also determined in the female form in the latter 
collection by God. and Frogg., as M. incepta. Walk. The species 
is very variable, both in colour and size, especially in the female form.) 

M. TORRIDA, Erich. 

Cicada torrida, Erich., Arch. I., p. 286, 1842. 

Cicada basiflamma. Walk., List. Horn., I., p. 170, 1850. 

Cicada connexa, Walk., loc. cit., p. 173. 

Cicada dainater. Walk., loc. cit., p. 178. 

Melampsalta torrida, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1904, p. 631. 

(Note. — Two specimens, male and female, in the collection 
determined correctly by Walker; several determined as M. inter- 
ruptus ? Walker has also determined a Western Australian species 
as Cicada basiflamma, and Goding and Froggatt have correctly 
described this as their type of M. rubricincta.) 

M. RUBRiSTRiGATA, God. and Frogg. 

Melampsalta rubristrigata, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W., 1904, p. 638. 

(Note. — These specimens were sent to me by Mr. G. Lyell, from 
Horsham. Recorded by Goding and Froggatt from South Australia 

M. OXLEYI, Dist. 

Melampsalta oxleyi, Dist., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 131, 1882 
God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. iV.iS'.TF., 1904, p. 655. 

(Note. — This species, so far, has only been recorded from Queens- 


Dundubia labyrinthica. Walk., List Horn., p. 75, 1850. 

Melampsalta labtjrintlnca, Stal. Ofv. Vet. Ak. Fbrh., p. 484, 1862 ;' 
God. and Frogg, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1904, p. 646. 

Cicada interstans. Walk.. List Horn. Sup., p. 32, 1858. 

Melampsalta interstans, Stal, Ofv. Vet. Ak. Fbrh., p. 484, 1862 ; 
God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1904, p. 634. 

(Note. — One specimen determined as C. sericea by Walker. The 
confusion has arisen through the generally lighter colour of the female. 
Both sexes are described by Walker under different names.) 

[ 26 ] 


(tEnus Kobonoa, Dist. 
Type K. utnbrinmgo. Walk. 
K. UMRRIMAOO, Walk. « 

Ciaida uinbrimago. Walk.. lAst Horn. Sup., p. 32, 1858. 

Melampsalla umhriuuifju. Stdl., Ofv. Vet. Ak. Furh.. p. 484, 18fi2 ; 
God. and Frogg., Prnc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1904, p. 632. 

Knhonga umhriniago,, Ann., Mag. Nat. Hist. (7). XVII., 
p. 387, 19ttfi. 

(Note. — Scut by Mr. J. A. Leach from Nyah ; the only record'id 
specimen of the species from outside Western Australia.) 

(jrExrs Pauropsalta, God. and Frogg. 

Type P. mneme, \A'alk. 
P. .MXE.ME, Walk. 

Cicada mneme. Walk., List Horn. I., p. 181, 1850. 
Cicada antica, Wfilk., loc. cit., p. 182. 

MeUtynpsalta mneme, Stal., Ofv. Vet. Ak. Fohr. p. 4S4, 1862. 
Pauropsalta leurensis, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Snc. N.S.W., 
1904, p. 622. 


Cicada encaruitica. Germ., Silb. Rev. Ent. II., p. 62, 1834. 

Cicada ardus. Walk., List Horn.. I., p. 184. 1850. 

Cicada dolens. Walk., loc. cit., p. 188. 

Cicada juvenis. Walk., loc. cit., p. 190. 

Pauropsalta encaustica., God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1904, p. 662. 

P. ANXULATA, God. and Frogg. 

Pauropsalta annulata, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
p. 620, 1904. 

Pauropsalta encaustica, THst., Syn. Cat. Horn. dead. I., p. 178. 
1906 (nee God. and Frogg). 

P. DUBiA, God. and Frogg. 

Pauropsalta dubia, God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1904. p. 621. 

Gekus Urabunana, Dist. 
Type U. sericeivitta, 'Walk. 
U. festiva, Dist. 

Urabunana fe^tiva, Dist., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), A'A". ]i. 4-3, 

(Note. — Determined by Walker as Melampsalta puer. Walk. 
The genus is, however, distinct in the possession of four apical areas 
to the wings.) 



Division Tettigarclaria. 

Genus, Tettigarcta, White. 
• Type, T. tomentosa. White. 

T. crinita, Dist. 

Tettigarcta crinita, Dist., Proc. Zool. Hoc. Land., 1883, f. 188, 
/. 5a, b, c, pi. XXV. ; God. and Frogg., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1904, p. 666, pi. XVIII., figs. 3, a, b.' 

(Note. — Specimens in the collection also determined as T. 
tomentosa. White, from which species, however, T. crinitci may be 
readily distinguished by the absence of the spinous projection on 
the lateral borders of the pronotum.) 




I have figured eight species which have not so far been illustrated. 
Several of these have been the subject of some confusion, especially 
Tamasa tristigma, Erich. 

Fig. b. — Melampsalta torrida, Erich. Victoria. 

Fig. d. — Diemeniana coleoptrata, Walk. Victoria. 

Fig. e. — Urabunana festiva, Dist. Victoria. 

Fig. f. ^Tamasa tristigma, Germ. Queensland. 

Fig. g. — Abricta aurata. Walk. Victoria. 

Fig. h. — Melampsalta binotata, God. and Frogg. Victoria. 

Fig. ;'. — Melampsalta rubricinda, God. and Frogg. Western 

Fig. k. — Henicopsaltria nubivena. Walk. Victoria. 



By Howard Ashton. 
(Plate IV., Figs, a, c, i.) 

While engaged in tlie preparation of the Catalogue of Victorian 
Cicadidee in the l^ational Museum, the following species were found 
to be new. 

These, with the consent of the Director, Professor Baldwin 
Spencer, I am now enabled to describe and figure. 

Family Cicadidse. 


Division Cicadaria. 

Genus Macrotristria. 

Macrotejstria dorsalis, sp. NOV. (Fig. a, 1, 2.) 

Male. — Body above ochraceous, mesonotum tinged with 
brownish, in fresh specimens probably greenish. Central sulcus 
to vertex of head, a short longitudinal and anteriorly angulate spot 
on each side of region of ocelli, and anterior margins to eyes 
and basal margin of front very narrowly black. Abdomen with a 
broad central dorsal longitudinal fascia extending from base, where 
it is very wide, and narrowing sharply to penultimate segment ; 
base of apical segment and spot on anal appendage piceous or black. 
Face and head beneath, bright ochraceous ; sternum, opercula, and 
legs sordid ochraceous brown ; anterior and intermediate tarsi and 
disc of abdomen beneath warm fuscous. Tegmina and wings hyaUne, 
talc-like ; tegmina with costal membrane and area and basal half of 
venation ochraceous ; postcostal area and apical venation fuscous, 
and claval nervure black ; wings to basal two-thirds of venation pale 
ochraceous, apical veins light fuscous. Head (including eyes) equal 
in breadth to lateral dilations of posterior pronotal margin. 
Abdomen much shorter than space between apex of head and base 
of cruciform elevation ; rostrum with tip piceous, barely reaching 
posterior coxae. Lateral areas of abdomen much depressed. Long., 
male 25 mm., female, 23 mm. ; exp. teg. 75 mm. 

Habitat. — Kuranda, Queensland ; several male and female 
specimens. (Presented by R. W. Armitage, 1908.) 

Allied to M. intersecta, Walk., and M. sylvanella, G-od. and Frogg., 
but differing in the shorter abdomen and overlapping opercula. 
Differing also from M. extrema, Dist., by the narrower head and 
thorax. The dark fascia on the dorsum renders it easily identifiable. 




DivLsion Melainpaaltraria. 
Genus Melampsalta. 
Melampsalta cylindrica, sp. NOV. (Fig. i.). 

Male. Body above black, anterior and lateral discal areas of 
pronotuni suffused with castaneous, a central shcjrt longitudinal 
fascia to same; spots on mesonotal cmciforni elevation, posttsrior 
margins of third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh abdominal seg- 
ments and tip of anal appendage ochraceous. Head beneath, 
sternum and legs piceous, margins of front, a large sj)ot on each side 
of prosternum, rostrum (excluding apex) ai)ices of coxa?, trochanters 
beneath, stripes to anterior femora, stripe beneath and apices of 
intermediate and posterior femora, bases of intermediate and pos- 
terior tarsi, opercula, and posterior margins of third, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth abdominal segments, ochraceous. Tegmina talc-like, 
costa and venation brownish-testaceous at base, piceous towards 
apex ; first and second apical anastomoses broadly and darkly 
suffused with fuscous. Wings similar, with anal streak milky. 
Head narrower than pronotum, whicli is equal in width to the 
raesonotum and abdomen ; abdomen longer than space between 
apex of front and base of cruciform elevation. Breadth of tegmina 
considerably more than one-third the length. Rostnim reaching 
intermediate coxae ; opercula large, obliquely reniform, shining 
piceous at base. Long., male, 25 mm. ; exp. teg., 68 mm. 

Habitat. — Victoria (Fernshaw). 

One male in the collection labelled M. labeculaUi, Dist., by Goding 
and Froggatt. The species resembles superficially one of the 
smaller species of Tibicrna, being similar in general form to T. 
septemdeciin, Linn., the well-known U.Sj\.. species. 

MeL.\.MPSALTA CAPI.STRATA, sp. NOV. (Fig. c). 

Mule. — Body above and below yellow. Head with broad black 
fascia (embracing area of ocelli) between eyes. Pronotum with 
central longitudinal fascia and narrow borders to lateral margins 
black. Mesonotum black, metanotum and abdomen yellow. 
Tegmina and wings hyaline, immaculate, venation iiicoous, costa 
yellow. Bod\- below with sides of face and apex of rostrum (which 
extends to intermediate coxae), black. 

Female. — With the mesonotum also yellow, and four obconical 
anterior marginal spots (central pair shortest), fine central fascia 
behind these, and spots before the anterior angle of crucifonn eleva- 
tion black. Abdominal segments finely margined with black. 

Long., male, 11 nmi. ; female, 14 mm. ; exp. teg., male, 31 mm.; 
female, 38 mm. 

^rt7«M. Queensland (Kuranda). Presented by R. W. Armitage. 

Allied to M. froggatti, Dist. I have examined two male and one 
female specimens ; <me of the males has five apical areas onlv in 
one wing. 

[31 1 



Fig. a, 1, 2. — Macrotristria dorscdis, sp. nov. Queensland. 
Fig. c. — Melampsalta capistrata, sp. nov. Queensland. 
Fig. i. — Melampsalta cylindrica, sp. nov. Victoria. 


Mkm. Nai. Mrs., Mklbourne. 4. 


Howava AsVttbTV 
l>elh 1911 



By Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S. 

Some time ago, Mr. C. French sent for examination a very large 
Rhytiphora, with the. request that 1 should describe it if new. This 
it appeared to be, and I would gladly have described it then, but 
thinking it possible that such a fine insect would not have escaped 
description if in other entomologists' hands, and that the Zoological 
Records are usually about two years behind in their records, I 
deferred describing it till after hearing from Mr. C. J. Gahan, of the 
British Museum, to whom I wrote. In the interim I returned the 
specimen to Mr. French, and he gave it to the National Museum, 
from whence, at my re(|uest, I have again received it. 

The species is certainly allied to R. dallasi, but is even more 
magnificent than that fine species, from which it differs in being 
considerably larger, the clothing denser, somewhat differently 
disposed, and not uniformly silvery. The most noticeable difference 
is in the elytral costae; counting the suture as the first, then the 
third and fourth (jn each elytron are conjoined close to apex, with 
the space between densely clothed with ochreous instead of silvery 
pubescence, and the space equal to or even more than the space 
between the second and third. In, the third and fourth are 
not conjoined at apex, and the space between them is much less 
than that between the second and third. On the prothorax, the 
dark transverse lines are two in munber instead of four, as in dallasi. 

Mr. Gahan wrote — " I have not described nor do I know any 
species of Rhytiphora answering to the description you have sent 
me. It appears certainly to be distinct from dallasi. In all our 
four specimens of dallasi, the white elytral band between the third 
and fourth costte is very narrow, barely more than a line, and in 
one specimen it is partly broken up into spots. I notice that in 
the male of dallasi there is no pubescent depression at each side 
behind the posterior margin of the first abdominal segment, as there 
is in most <>i the other species of Rhytiphora. But this sexual 
character varies a good deal, being more pronounced in some species, 
and ver}' feeble in others. Have you noticed the sex of the specimen 
of the new species ? " 

I was under the impression that the type is a female, as although 
the abdomen is conspicuously variegat<'d, the pubescent depressions 
common to so many males of the sub-family are entirely absent ; 
and in Rhytiphora I know of no other external feature by which the 

7965.— c [ 33 ] 


sex of an unique specimen may be determined. Still, if cUiIlasi is 
without such depressions in the male, quite possibly the male oi this 
species is without them. 

At Mr. French's request, the species is named after the late Sir 
William Macleay. 


Black. Densely clothed with white and ochreous pubescence, in 
places glabrous or with black pubescence ; the el)i;ra conspicuously 

ReaA large, with rather coarse but partly concealed punctures, 
with a narrow continuous median line. Antennse of moderate length. 
Protliorax about one-fourth wider than long, transversely rugose. 
Elytra widest across shoulders, sides thence regularly diminishing 
in width to apex, where each is acutely spined ; with four almost 
equidistant feeble but conspicuous elevations on each, the first very 
close to suture, the second terminated at about the apical fifth, the 
third commencing just within the shoulder, and the fourth just below 
it, these two conjoined near apex ; all these ridges have small granules 
towards the base, sometimes rounded, but often acute, and all have 
coarse punctures gradually decreasing in size posteriorly, but 
smaller on the subsutural ridge than the others ; the margin is 
narrowly ridged and smooth. Length 43, width 15 mm. 

Habitat. — Western Australia : Kook}Tiie. 

The clothing on the head is ochreous, but becomes whitish below 
the eyes and about the mouth ; on each side of the base near the 
middle there is a narrow black patch, straight on its inner, and 
curved on its outer edge. On the prothorax, the pubescence is 
whitish, but in places more or less deeply stained with ochreous, 
and leaving two curved black transverse lines, a median one not 
interrupted in middle, and a sub-basal one interrupted in middle. 
The scutellum has ochreous clothing, margined with black. On 
each elytron the stripes are as follow : — An extremely narrow pale 

[ 34 ] 


sutural stripe, a narrow black stripe, a wide silvery stripe, a narrow 
black stripe, terminated at the apical fifth, a wide silvery stripe, 
a narrow black stripe conjoined near tip with another on the outer 
edge of a wide ochreous stripe, a wide silvery stripe, and then the 
narrow black margin ; the white stripes about the base are more 
or less stained with ochreous. Under surface with silvery pubes- 
cence marked with ochreous stripes (one at apex of each abdominal 
segment) and blotches, and black patches (a longitudinal one 
towards each side of metasternum, and acur\-ed one — very narrow 
across middle — on each abdominal segment). Antennal jointft 
white tipped with black, but the black increasing till at the seventh 
it covers half the surface, and the eleventh is white at the extreme 
base only. The black patches and stripes are due either to the 
surface being bare or to being clothed with very short black 



By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., Palceontologist to the 
National Museum, Melbourne. 

(Plate V.) 

A form of Pecten, somewhat closely related to Tate's Pecten 
consobrinus has long been known to Australian palaeontologists as 
P. consobrinus var. In Professor Tate's " A Revision of the Older 
Tertiary Mollusca of Australia,"* that author refers to P. consobrinus, 
var., as occurring at Aldinga Bay (Lower beds), Shelford, Maude and 
Belmont, Waurn Ponds, and Spring Creek. Messrs. Dennant and 
Kitson, in their " Catalogue of the Described Species of Fossils (except 
Brv'ozoa and Foraminifera) in the Cainozoic Fauna of A-'ictoria, 
South Australia, and Tasmania,"! cite the following localities for 
Pecten consobrinus var. Tate : — Aldinga (Lower beds). Aire Coast, 
Fishing Point and Guerard Hill, Shelford, Lower Moorabool, Maude, 
? Corio Bay, Curlewis-Belmont, ? Mitchell River, Waurn Ponds, 
and Spring Creek. 

It will thus be seen that this particular form is practically re- 
stricted to Janjukian beds, and possibly to the horizon immediately 
below, or the summit of the Balcombian series. 

The species P. consobrinus was originally described from the 
Upper beds at Aldinga ; whilst the variety occurs in the lower part 
of the same series, which is shown by its faunal characters, allowing 
for local lithologlcal differences, to belong to our Victorian Jan- 
jukian beds. 

The present note is written to establish a name for this variety of 
P. consobrinus, for the convenience of future reference. vSince it 
would appear illogical to refer to an ancestral form of an already 
described species as a variety thereof, it seems advisable to give it 
a specific standing, at the same time bearing in mind the fairly close 
relationship existing between it and the species from the yoimger 
beds. Its claims to a specific name are perhaps as great as are those 
of P. antiaustralis and P. australis. The affinity with P. consobrina 
is denoted by the denomination praecursor. 

Descriptioic of Type of Pecten praecursor, sp. xov. 
( = "P. consobrinus var." Tate). 

The type selected is a left valve of medium size (between the 
neanic and ephebic stages). 

Locality — Spring Creek, Torquay {ex Dennant Coll.) 

* Trans. R. Soc. South Australia, vol. xxiii. 1899. p. 269. 
t Reo. Geol. Surv., Victoria, vol. i., pt. 2, 1903, p. 119. 



Description. — Valve triangularly orbicular, nearly eqiiilateral, 
the antero-ventral border more sharply curved than the posterior ; 
surface with ten maj<ir folds, subacute, with a summit ridge and 
generally two lateral ridges on either side ; interspaces occupied by 
from 2-6 costulse, the central usually stronger. All the riblets are 
closely lamellose or tegulate. Groimd surface finely granulate, 
with shagreen texture, tending tf) develop into transverse 
undulate ornament at the extremities of the valves. Ears very 
unequal ; anterior triangular, with (mtcr margin tnincated, having 
five radial costse ; interspaces granular ; posterior triangular, 
tnm(\ated ; faintly costate and granular. 

Measurements of type — Height, 25 mm. ; length, 24 n^m. 

Remarks. — This form differs from P. covsobrinus in having 
normally ten folds instead of eight. The folds are subacute, whereas 
in P. consnbrinus they are gently convex and equallj' and numerously 
costate. In P. praecursor, moreover, the transverse ornament of 
the riblets is, in fresh specimens, more decidedly tegulate, whereas 
in P. consobrinus the ornament is a series of delicate concentric 

This species appears to pass upward into P. consobrinus (Kalim- 
nan) by loss of major folds, and to pass downward into P. foul- 
cheri ( Janjukian) and Balcombian by increase of folds and transition 
of tegulate ornament into the erect squamoee. 




Fig. 1. — Pecten praecursor, sp. nov. Holotype. Spring Creek, 
Torquay. (Dennant Coll.) Janjukian. 

Fig. 2. — P. praecursor, sp. nov. Paratype. Waurn Ponds, near 
Geelong. (Coll. Geol. Snrv., Victoria.) Janjukian. 

Fig. 3. — P. praecursor, sp. nov. Paratype. Curlewis. (CoU. Geol. 
Surv., Victoria. Ad. 12.) Barwonian. 

The figures are enlarged 7-25tlis more than actual size 


Mem. Nat. Mus., Mei boi-rne. 4. 

Plate V- 

7965.— G 


By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., Palceontologist to the 
S'atinnal Museum, Melbaurne. 

(Plates VI., VII.) 


The samples of limestone and limestone-fossils herein described 
were collected by Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., whilst on a recent 
exploring trip to King Island. Mr. Kershaw informs me that he 
found this limestone cropping out on the extreme south-east part 
of the island, and well exposed in the river bed and banks of 
the Seal River. The outcrop showed a vertical thickness of about 
25 feet. The limestone in places was vers' hard, and the horizontal 
bedding could be clearly seen on account of the weathering of the 
softer layers; the mum compact limestones projecting as ledges. 
The polyzoal rock with pectens was found outcropping at the sur- 
face of the upper levels. In the absence of any further note as to 
the relation uf the hard limestone to the polyzoal rock, it may be 
inferred that the latter overlies the hard limestone ; and, if this be 
the case, we have a similar sequence to that of the polyzoal rock of 
the Grange Bum, which is underlain by the hard pink limestone 
cropping out at the junction of Grange Bum and Muddy Creek. 

The present collection does not comprise many determinable 
fossils, but, nevertheless, is of great interest, for although several 
outcrops of tertiary limestone have already been reported from King 
Island,* no fossils seem to have been collected.! 

Prof. Baldwin Spencer, in his report on the general results of 
the expedition to that locality in 1887, J states that the limestone 
" lies directly upon the granite, and is widely distributed. Thus 
it was cut through (though the depth of the bed was not recorded) 
in laying the foundation for the Wickham lighthouse before the 
grey granite was reached. Again, an outcrop occurs half way from 
here to Yellow Rock, and on the east coast one a little south of 
Lavinia Point, and another at the BhjW-hole Creek. On the west 
it is well marked on the coast between the Pass and Ettrick Rivers, 
inland near Porky Lagoon, and again forms an extensive formation 

• Sw •■ EiiK'ilition to King Isl ;n<i, NovcruUr. Ih.^"." — Vicl. Sat., vol. iv., Jan., 1SS8. 

t Sinoo writing the ab )Vo nnil following ace uint of the fos«ilH (May, 190!l), I have seen a 
paper by Mr. F. DeU'nhnm. B.A.. entitled "Notes on the (leology of Kinv' Inland, Basa 
Strait*. "—Proc. R. iSoc. X. S. Wales, vol. xliv.. liMO, pp. 500-570. That author de-icribe» 
therein this name Tertiary liniestom^ of the .Si'al River, and records I'utcn all. antiawtralis, 
Tate; Lima ef. 6ajMi, T. Wood< ; Uipponyx ef. atulralU; TurrilrJIa sp., (?) Htmilhyrui, and 
Reieporo. Those deterniiiintioni) were made by Mr. W. S. Dun, F.(»..S.. who regards this lime, 
stone (and rightly so from the present examination) as belonging to the Table I'apc Series. 

I Loc. mpra ctl., p. lUS. 



on the surface inland from Fitzmaurice Bay." Mr. Kershaw's 
discovery of the same limestone series at the Seal River is therefore 
additional to the previous records. 

During a recent expedition Mr. E. B. Nicholls obtained specimens 
of a limestone of similar age to the above, and largely composed of 
polyzoa, which he collected on the east coast, 8 or 9 miles south 
of Sea Elephant River. This also is a new locality. The specimens 
have been presented by Mr. Nicholls to the Museum. 

General Description. 

One variety of the limestone from the Seal River is of a pale 
ochreous colour, fragmental in structure and of a friable nature. 
Hand specimens of this rock are seen to consist chiefly of polvzoa 
with occasional shells of pectens and other mollusca. It bears a 
strong resemblance to certain beds of polyzoal rock at Waum 
Ponds, Batesford, and Torquay. 

A harder limestone, associated with the" polyzoal rock, is yellow 
to pink in colour, close textured, and occasionally cavernous, with 
a tendency to the development of crystalline calcite in the hollows. 
This rock, like the former, contains much polyzoa and numero\is 
echinoid spines. In its hard texture and pink colour it is closely 
comparable with the compact limestone of the beds occurring in 
association with the older basalt on the banks of the Moorabool 
River, near Maude (W.T.M. 2 and 4 in Nat. Mus. CoU.). 

A microscopical examination of thin sections of the friable 
limestone (PI. VII., fig, 5) shows the same organic constituents as 
the compact rock, with the exception that the former has a liberal 
proportion of clear calcitic cement between the indi\adual grains, 
whilst the hard limestone has a cement of the nature of a dense 
pinkish-brown calcareous mud (PI. YLI., fig. 6). 



Bormg (?) Fungi. 


(Plate VII., Fig. 4.) 

Some of the shell fragments in the pink limestone were seen 
to be perforated by a parasitic boring organism. Remains of this 
kind are frequently met with in both recent and fossil shells and 
corals, as well as in fish-scales, teeth, and bones. Certain of these 
are referred to algae, whilst others are regarded as fungi, j It is 
probable that the form herein dealt with is of the nature of a fimgus, 
since the thallus is merely constricted and not distinctly septate, 
and has sporangium-Uke terminations. 

• .30th November. 190S. 

t See Seward. Fossil Plants, vol. i., 1898, p. 127. 



Description of the borings of P. tuberosa. — Found in shell frag- 
ments which ;iro penenlly more or less wat«r-worn. Perf(jrations 
(A type), at first slender, entering the shell at right angles to the 
shell surface or nearly so,* subsequently bec<miing slightly tortuous, 
and tending to give off short branches, gradually increasing in 
width until terminated by a bliuit or swollen end ; cohmr, amber 
yellow. Other perforations in association (B type), commencing as 
an extremely fine short tube, wliich suddenly develops a more or 
less globular termination (? sporangium). Colour, deep reddish 
brown. Tubes and terminal swellings usually more or less filled 
with granular material, probably of the nature of spores, some of 
which are also seen scattered in the neighbourhood of the (?) sporan- 
gium. As mentioned above, no distinct septation of the vegetative 
structure visible, but occasional constrictions occur through the 
course of the tube. Tlie borings average 13 micra in diameter, 
and 86 micra in length ; sub-globose terminations averaging 18 
micra in diameter. 

Obsermtio7is. — The shortness of the perforations and their charac- 
teristic clavatc terminals serve to distinguish the present form 
from Dimcan's Palaeachhjn ferforans,'\ which that author foimd 
ver>- widely distributed in geological time; one example described 
having occurred in a foraminifer of Ordo\'ician age.J 

MM. Bomet and Flahault§ have described a boring organism, 
Lithopythium, which they refer to the iungi. Their species, L. 
queketti, bears certain resemblances to the above form ; it has a 
tortuous and filamentous thallus, with globular sporangia at the 
terminations and outer angles of the sinuses. It differs, however, 
in the closely interlacing habit of the thallus and the perfectly 
globular sporangia. 

M'ith regard to Australian occurrences of Pcdaeachlya, Mr. R. 
Etheridge, jim., has described P. tortuosa as a parasitic species 
within a Queensland monticulipf>rid oi Carbo-permian age.|| The 
chief characters of that species are, a flexuous tube, circular in 
section, with the terminations irregularly enlarged and with (»c- 
casional swellings along the course of the tube. Another species 
instituted by Etheridge is P. torquis,'[\ foxmd in the coeuost«um of 
a species of Favosites from the Devonian limestone of Tamworth, 
New South Wales. This form consists of slender contorted tubes, 
filled with yellow granular matter, and haNdng a diameter of "01 mm. 
It will be seen that the tube of this species is comparable in size to 

• In the case of a prismatic shcU, the l)oring scemi) to be facilitated by the orgauiBm jicnetrit- 
inp aloni; the line or prismitic direction, for easy solution of it« b.i»e of attack 
may conntitutc an important factor in itA growth. 

' t Quart. .lourn. (ieol. Soc., Tal. zxxii., 1876, p. 205, pL iri. 

X l/tt. fit., pi. xvi., fip. 6. 

J "Sur lea Alguea Perforantai," Bull. Soo. Bot., Prance, vol. zxzri., 1889, p. clzzii., pi. xii., 
tigs, o, C. 

II Rec. Geol. Surv. N.S.W., ^o\. ii., pt. 3, 1891, p. 95, pi. vii., fig. 1. 

^ Rec. Aust. Mus., vol. iii., No. 6, 1899, p. 121, pi. zziii., fig. 6. 

7965.— D [ -tl ] 


the above-described form, but which differs, in the very limited 
length of the tubes, their swollen ends, and occasional bifurcati(m. 
It is worthy of notice that Professor Duncan, in his paper previouiily 
referred to, figures some very diverse forms imdcr his diagnosis of 
Palaeachlya perforans, and that one oi his examples, from a Tas- 
manian Tertiary coral (Thamnastraea) is distinct from our species in 
that the tubes are excessively slender, long, and tortuous.* P. 
tuberosa also occurs in shell fragments in the limestone of the 
Moorabool Valley at Maude. 

In the ,pink limestone ; Seal River. 

Marine Algae— RHODOPHYCE^. 


Minute fragments of this calcareous alga were seen in thin sections 
of both limestones, but were too imperfect to compare with any 
Tertiary examples already described. They belong to a ramose 
form, since a terminal fragment was observed, showing the charac- 
teristic curved and divergent series of cells. The cells from a well- 
developed branchlet showed a height of '034 mm. and a width of 
•019 mm. 

Globigerina cf. BULLOiDES, d'Orbigny. 
(Plate VI., Fig. 1.) 

G. bullmdes, d'Orbigny, 1826, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. Yil., p. 277, 
No. 1.— Modeles, Nos. 17 and 76. 

G. buUoides, d'Orb., Brady, 1884, Rep. Chall, vol. IX., p. 593, 
pi. Ixxvii., Ixxix., figs. 3-7. 

A nearly median section of a Globigerina shell occurs in a thin 
slice of the hard pink limestone. Its test is moderately thick, and 
from the regular helicoid form, it appears to be referable to G. bullmdes. 
This species has been recorded by Mr. Howchin from the Muddy 
Creek (lower) beds (Balcombian), Waum Ponds (Janjukian), and 
Moimt Gambler (Barwonian). 

Truncatultna lobatula. Walker and Jacob, sp. 

Nautilus lobatidus, Walker and Jacob, 1798, Adams' Essays, 
Kanmacher's Ed., p. 642, pi. xiv., fig. 36. 

Truncatulina lobatula, W. and J. sp., d'Orbigny, 1839, Foram. 
Canaries, p. 134, pi. ii., figs. 22-24. 

One example, with unusually well-inflated chambers, was found 
in washings from the polyzoal limestone. 

This species has-been recorded by Mr. Howchin from the older 
beds of Muddy Creek, the Government Well at Murray Flats, the 
Government],Bore at Kent Town, Adelaide, and from the west end 
of Torrens Lake, Adelaide, the last in comparatively younger strata. 

• Q. J. Q. S., voL xxiii., 1876, pi. xvi., fig. 1. 


Truncatulixa variabilis, d'Orbigny. 
(Plate VII., Fig. 6a.) 

T. variabilis, d'Orbignv, 1826, Ann. Sci. Nat., Vol. VII., p. 279, 
No. 8 ; Brady, 1884, Rep.' ChaU., Vol. IX., p. 661, pi. xciii., fig.s. 6, 7. 

A good example of T. variabilis is seen in a thin section of the 
pink limestone from the Seal River. It is easily recognised by its 
thin test and numerous chambers arranged in a tortuous and broken- 
spiral fashion. 

From the Australian Tertiaries, Mr. Howchin obtained this 
species in the older beds of Muddy Creek. 

Truncatulina ungeriana, d'Orbigny sp. 
(Plate VI., Figs. 2a-c.) 

Rotalina ungeriana, d'Orbigny, 1846, Foram. Foss. Vien., p. 157, 
pi. viii., figs. 16-18. 

Truncatulina ungeriana, d'Orbigny sp., Brady, 1884, Rep. ChaU., 
Vol. IX., p. 664, pi. xciv., figs. 9a-c. 

A small example witli a very deep and conical inferior face was 
found in the washings of the polyzoal rock. 

Mr. Howchin recorded this form as occurring in the Lower and 
Upper Muddy Creek beds, at Mount Gambier, the Bore on the 
Murray Flats, and the Kent Town Bore, Adelaide. 



MoPSEA hamiltoxi, Thomson sp. 
(Plate VI., Figs. 3 a, 6 ; 4.) 

Isis hamiltoni, Thomson, 1908, Trans, and Proc. N.Z. Inst., 
Vol. XL, p. 99, pi. xiv., fig. 1. 

In the present series there are two calcareous joints of an 
alcyonarian which may be referred to the above species. One of 
them is more or less cylindrical (subquadrate), and longitudinally 
grooved with comparatively coarse and deep furrows. Ridges 
often once bifurcated and slightly twisted. A few impressed puncta 
visible along the surface of the ridges and sometimes in the furrow*. 
A scar on the side of this specimen seems to indicate the position 
of a branchlet. P]nd of axis dilated and meeting the intemodal 
surface to form a tolerably sharp angle. Terminal face subconical, 
furrowed, and subdivided into a series of primar}' septa, and by 
further division into as many again. These furrows are generally 
continuous with those on the lateral surface. There is a small 
conical papilla in the centre of the articular surface. Diameter of 
axis, 2 '5 mm. 

The second specimen is much shorter, slightly stouter, and with 
the lateral furrows crossed by little bars or dissepiments, giving 
the grooves a distinctly punctate appearance. 

7965. -K [ 43 ] 


There is no doubt of the relationship of the tw(j specimens 
figured, since all the chief characters are common to both. 

Observations. — Mopsea hamiltoni has been lately described by Jlr. 
J. A. Thomson, from the greensands accompanying the limestones 
at Kakanui, New Zealand. Mr. Thomson remarks on the apparent 
identity of Duncan's New Zealand example, Isis sp.*, with the t}'pe 
above referred to, and the writer had come to the same conclusion 
regarding these, and also the Cape Otway sj)ecimens figured by 
Dimcan,t prior to seeing Mr. Hamilton's paper. The fossils, how- 
ever, belong to the genus Mopsea and not to Isis, as wiU be seen on 
comparing, the structure of the joints with those of the species of 
Mopsea still found living round the Australian coast. Duncan's 
remarks upon the affinities of the fossils did not clear the ground 
for later students, for, in following Ehrenberg, he says, "It is this 
branching from the calcareous body which distinguishes the genus 
Isis from Mopsea, in which the branching starts from the homy 
substance {loc. cit., p. 673). In point of fact, the typical Mopsea 
encrinula, to which our species is allied, shows the branching to 
take place on the calcareous internodes by the formation of a horny 
node, in some cases, however, so close to the node as to appear to 
start from it, when in reality it is attached to the calcareous joint 
(see also Wright and Studer, Chall. Rep. on Alcyonaria, p. 40). 

The above species is distinct from Tenison Woods' Isis ductyla,% 
in having finer lateral striations a^d concentrically lineate condyles. 
Isis melitensis of Goldfuss,§ is more nearly relat'«i to /. dactijla in 
having fine and numerous lateral furrows ; whilst the internodal 
faces are acutely conoidal and devoid of radial grooves. Goldfuss' 
species was found in the Pliocene of Sicily and Piedmont. 

The above species was found in the polyzoal rock of the Seal 
River outcrop. 


CiDARis (Leiocidaris) cf. austkallae, Duncan sp. 

Leiocidaris australiae, Duncan, 1877, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
Vol. XXXIIL, p. 45, pi. iii., figs. 1, 2. 

There is a somewhat worn fragment of the test of a cidarid in 
the present series. It shows a portion of the interambidacral area 
with two primary tubercles and a line of ambulacral pores. Only 
the one species above mentioned has been recorded from our Ter- 
tiaries, and the present specimen, so far as the fragment shows, is 
probably referable to it. It was first described from the Cape 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxi., 1875, p. 675, pi. xxxviiis., figs. 1, la. 
■f Loc. supra cit., p. 674, pi. xxxviiiA., figs. 5, oa. 

J Palseout. New Zealand, pt. iv., " Corals and Bryozoa of the Neozoic Period in New 
Zealand," 1880, p. 7, pi. i., fig. 1. 

§ Petrefacta Germaniae, 1826-1833, vol. i., p. 20, pi. vii., dg. 17. 



Otway beds (Janjukian). It also occurs in the Lower Aldingan 
beds, and the higher zones of the Balcoinbian, as at Bairnsdale, and 
has also been recorded from Beaumaris (Kalimnan). 
Found in the polyzoal rock. 

Spines of Echinoids. 

(Plate VII., Fig. 5 a.) 

Several varieties of echinoid spines are met with in thin sections 
of the polyzoal rock. In their asperous surface and average dimensions 
they resemble the smaller secondary spines of the Cidaris type. 


Si'iRORBis sr. 

Tw^o of the valves of pectens have attached to their external 
surface some remains of annelid tubes referable to Spirorhis. The 
tubes are not sufficiently well-preser\-ed for description. The 
superior face is convex and subconical. excavate centrally and the 
surface of the tube transversely wrinkled, whilst a median ridge 
runs along the upper surface bordered by two lateral ridges. The 
tube varies somewhat in diameter, averaging about 1 "25 mm. 

The genus is mentioned by Tate* as occurring in our older Ter- 
tiary beds. The above specimens occur in the polyzoal rock. 

POLYZOA Cyclostomata. 

Hi-yrERpi'ORA Pi8iK)RMis, MacGiilivray. 
(Plate VI., Figs. 5, 6.) 

H. fisiformiis, MacGillivray, 1895, Trans. R. Soc, Vict., p. 144, 
pi. xxi., fig. 15. 

The definition of this species, which Dr. T. S. Hall furnished for 
the late Dr. MactHllivray's report, runs as follows : — "' Zooecium 
nearly spherical, apparently free. Surface closely covered by rounded 
polygonal apertures of varying size, so that it is not evident in many 
cases which arc zooecia and which are ca«celli, as all gradations 
in size are present. Bounding walls of aperture stout. The aper- 
tures of all sizes usually closed by a concave porous plate placed 
slightly within the mouth." 

Three examples were found in cnishings from the polyzoal 
limestone of the Seal River. One w;us perfectly spherical, and 
subsequently fell to pieces owing to incipient fracture. The zoarium 
here figured is spherically topped, but appears to be adherent to a 
foreign particle at the base, so that it has assumed the shape of a 
fig. The third specimen was partly damaged, but still shows a 
clavate outline, and of this a section was made, which exhibits the 
curvi-radiate arrangement of the zooecia. 

This species lias hitherto been recorded only from Spring Creek, 
Torquay (Janjukian). 

• Proc. Roy. Soo.. V.S.W., vol. xiii.. y\. 2, 18H8, p. 2-; ' 


POLYZOA Chilostomata. 

Selenaria margixata, T. Woods. 

(Plate VII., Fig. 3.) 

S. marginata, T. Woods, 1880, Trans. R. Soc, S.A., Vol. III., 
p. 9, pi. ii., figs. 9a-d. 

The Zoaria are abundant in the hard pink limestone. In thin 
sections of the rock they are cut in all possible directions, and show 
the characteristic form of the thyrostome. Where the sections cut 
through the apex, there is usually seen an adventitious shell or 
detrital fragment immersed in the apical portion. The zooecial 
margins are rounded, and there are numerous \4bracular cells inter- 
spaced at the angles of the zooecia, of about half theirsize, and with 
a cribriform wall. A section parallel with and close to the dorsal 
side shows the radial areolae to be non-porous, as in MacGillivray's 
var. lucens* 

Selenaria concinna, T. Woods. 

(Plate ^^., Fig. 7.) 

S. concinna, T. Woods, 1880, Trans. R. Soc, S.A., Vol. III., 
p. 10, pi. ii., figs, lla-e. 

Sections of the entire zoarium occur in the hard pink limestone. 
They show the characteristic shield-shaped outline of the zooecium, 
whilst the apical zooecia have in some cases the projecting tongue 
on the proximal border, which is feebly developed in this species 
and more strongly shown in the allied S. otwayensis, Maplestone.f 
The elongate vibracularia cells can also be made out, more than 
one showing the opening with the serrate border typical of this species. 

Tenison Woods recorded this form from the Kalimnan of 
Muddy Creek. It is also distributed in the lower beds, of 
Barwonian age, in Victoria (Maplestone). 

Amphiblestrum (?) bursarium, MacGillivray. 

A. bursarium, MacGillivray, 1887, Trans, and Proc. R. Soc, 
Vict., Vol. XXIIL, p. 66, pi. ii., fig. 2. 

Idem, 1895, Trans. R. Soc, Vict., Vol. IV., p. 41, pi. v., fig. 22. 

Part of a large zoarium, about 20 mm. square, from which the 
front walls of nearly aU the zooecia have been removed. Zooecia 
subquadrate to elongate, alternate ; more generally quadrate than 
in MacGillivray's figured specimens. Zooecial margins thick, 
granular, or furrowed. 

Occurs in the polyzoal rock. 

* Trans. R. Soc, Victoria, vol. iv., 1895, p. 48, pi. vii., fig. 11 (named lucens in test and 
lucida in explanation to plat«). 

t Proc. R. Soc, Victoria, vol. xvi. (N.S.), pt. ii., 1904, p. 216, pi. xxt., fig. 8. 

[46 J 


(?) Lepralia cf. CRASSATINA, MacGiUivrav. 

Lepralia crassatina, MacGillivray, 1895, Trans. R. Soc, Vict., 
Vol. IV., p. 74, pi. viii., fig. 4. 

Our example is represented by a small cluster of encrusting 
25ooecia. somewhat inflated, with sub-he.\agonal margins. In its 
general character it agrees with the above species, with the excep- 
tion that many of the zooecia tend to become sub-elliptical by 
crowding. It has the porous front wall to the zooecium and semi- 
circular thyrostome as in the above form. Mr. Maplestone has 
pointed out to me that MacGillivray's species appears to belong 
more properly to Macropora than to Lepralia. A comparison 
may be made with Macropora darkei, T. Woods sp.* That 
species, however, has a generally depressed or even concave zooecial 
wall, and the zooecia are distinctly broader than in our form. 
(?) L. crassatina occurs throughout our Tertiary series, being foimd 
in the lower beds of the Muddy Creek series, at the Moorabool River 
and Waurn Ponds; and is also found living off New Zealand. 

Found attached to a valve of Placummomia in the polyzoal rock 
of the Seal River. 

Adeona sp. 

A portion of the branched stem which supports the flabellate 
zoarium occurs on the surface of one of the slabs of polyzoal lime- 
stone. It measures 40 mm. in length and 27 mm. across at the 
widest part, where there are nine branches. 



A cast of a brachiopod shell occurs in the hard pink limestone, 
which is referable to one or other of the closely related species M. 
divaricata, Tate sp.f or M. garibaldiana, Davidson sp.J The 
radial plication seen in the present example is common to both species, 
but the shell of M. divaricata is typically narrower, and shows a 
marked lateral compression in the region of the beak, also to be 
seen in our specimen. 


Pinna reticosa, sp. nov. 
(Plate VI., Fig. 8.) 
Description. — Shell triangular, elongate. Valve moderately con- 
vex, with a strong umbf)nal ridge, slightly sinuous throughout its 
length. Antero-ventral border short and curving backward to 
meet the postero- ventral edge in a rounded angle. Posterior border 

• MacCillivriv. op cit.. p. .Vj, |)1. viii., liK». o. «. 

f (?) WMhni'mi'i divaricala, Tiite. Trani. Phil. Soc., Alclaid?. 1880, p. 10, pi. viii., 

figs. 8, a. b. 

tWaldhfimia garibaldi'ina, DnvidKon. Geologist, vol. v., 1802, p. ■146, pi. xxiv., hg. 9. 
W. maernpora, McCov. Prod. Pal. Victoria. Ucr., v., 1877, pi. xliii., Bgs. 4, 6. If. jaribaldiana, 
Dav., Tote, Trans. Phil. Soc., Adelaide, 1880, p. 7, pi. xi., figs. a-t. 



transversely truncated, forming a right angle with the dorsal margin. 
Dorsal line slightly concave. Umbo convex and incurved to the 
ventral side. Dorsal slope with about nine flat longitudinal ribs 
crossed at fairly regular intervals by transverse flat ridges. Ventral 
slope marked by numerous incurved ridge-like growth lines. 

Length (approximate, minus the extreme point of the umbo), 
15 "5 mm. ; greatest width, 7 mm. 

Observations. — This is a small species of Pinna which, in its 
strong convexity, narrow umbonal area, and the general outline 
resembles P. cordata, Pritchard*, with the exception that our shell 
is of a more oblong form. P. reticosa is distinct in having the dorsal 
ribs transversely cancellated by flat ridges parallel with the growth 
lines. The above form differs from P. semicostata, Tate,t in the 
relative narrowness of the proximal part of the^hell, and the absence 
of scales on the ribs. Professor Tate has also recorded a species 
of Pinna (sp. indet.) from the Calciferous sandrock, River Murray 
cliffs, near Morgan, which agrees generally with the above-named 
species P. reticosa, and he gives the following description! : — 
" Apical portions only known. Valves acutely angulated, with 
faint longitudinal ribs separated by broad interspaces on the 
ventral slope, crossed by undulose ridges." 

From the polyzoal limestone of Seal River, King Island. 

Vulsella laevigata, Tate. 

V. laevigata, Tate, 1886. Trans. R. Soc, S.A., Vol. MIL, p. 29, 
pi. iii., figs. 3a, h. 

A right valve, somewhat imperfect, occurs in the polyzoal rock. 
It is interesting to record this form in the King Island 
material, since it has only been noted hithert<i from the lower beds 
at Aldinga. 

Pecten aldingensis, Tate. 

P. aldingensis, Tate, Trans. R. Soc, S.A., Vol. MIL, 1886, 
p. 16, pi. vii., figs. \a-c. 

Two typical valves of tl^is species are found in the present series. 
The larger specimen shows, towards the front margin, some distant, 
concentric lamellae traversing the ribs, a character mentioned by 
Tate in his original description of the species. 

It is interesting to find the above species in the present series, 
since, with the exception of Stansbury, S.A., Tate's original record 
appears to be the only other locality known, viz., Aldinga Bay, 
South Australia, in glauconitic limestone (Lower Aldingan). 

Found in the polyzoal rock. Seal River. 

* Proc. R. Soc, Victoria, vol. vii. (N.S.). 1895, p. 228, pi. xii.. figs. 4. 5. 
t Trans. R. Soc, SDuth Australia, vol. viii., 1886, p. 29, pi. lii., fig. 9. 
t Imc. supra cit., p. 30. 



Pecten praecursor, Chapman. 

(Plate VII., Figs. 1, 2.) 

P. consobrinus var. Tate, 1899, Trans. R. Soc, S.A., Vol. XXIII., 
p. 269. 

P. praecursor. Chapman, 1912, see present Memoir (No. 4), 
p. 36, pi. v., figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Perhaps the most abimdant fossil remains in the Seal River 
polyzoal rock, \vith the exception of the polyzoa, are those of 
Pecten. Of this genus the species P. aldingensis is readily recog- 
nised, but the remaining specimens show a considerable diversity 
of ornament, partly due to the condition of the shells, so that it was 
somewhat difficult to settle their points of relationsliip. There 
are, however, several fairly weU-proser\'ed fragments which show 
that P. praecursor is present, and was an abundant form. One of 
the more perfect valves represented in the present series is nearly 
flat, and by the curvature of the ribs is seen to be a left valve. There 
are about ten or eleven primary folds with a strong median rib, on 
either side of which are one or two secondary ribs, and between 
these numerous riblets. Another specimen shows a part of the 
ventral margin of the valve, in which the surface ornament is par- 
ticularly w-ell-preser\'ed. The surface of the ribs is concentrically 
relieved by a series of imbricating lameUse similar to that seen on 
well-preserved examples of P. antiauslralis.* The paucity of the 
ribs precludes any reference to that species, and, moreover, the 
intercostal spaces in our specimen are distinctly of a granular shagreen 

P. praecursor is a characteristic fossil of the lower beds at Aldinga, 
as well as of many localities, chiefly (or all ?) Janjukian, in Victoria. 

Frequent in the polyzoal rock. Seal River. 

Lima bassi, T. Woods. 

(Plate VI., Fig. 9.) 

L. hassi, Tenison Woods, 1877, Proc. R. Soc, Tas. (Vol. for 1876), 
p. 112. 

L. bassi, T. Woods, Tate, 1886, Trans. R. Soc, S.A., Vol. MIL, 
p. 24, pi. v., tig. 8 ; pi. viii., fig. 1. 

An external mould of the shell occurs in the hard pink limestone. 
The ribs are rounded and transversely lamellated, and the inter- 
spaces also show fine and distinct tmnsverse lamellae. The shell 
is of the more elongate variety, common at Table Cape, and 
occasionally found also in the Balcombian.f 

* The apccimoiid referred to by Mr. W. S. Utiii, in .Mr.'s paper on King laland 
{op. eil. p. 507). na a Pecten very closely related to P. antinwitralt», may possibly be referable to 
the above-named spcoiea, P. praecursnr, judginff from the variation of ornament seen in the 
present series. 

t Sir. W. S. Dun has already rocorded Lima of. batti from the King laland Tertiary lime- 
itoue (Ux. supra eit.). 



Placunanomia sella, Tate. 

(Plate VI., Fig. 10.) 

P. sella, Tate, 1886, Trans. K. Soc, S.A., Vol. VIII., p. 9, pi. v., 
figs. \a-c. 

Remains of four valves of tliis species are found exposed on 
fractured surfaces of the polyzoal limestone. It is somewhat diffi- 
cult to separate the two forms P. tone, Gray, and P. sella, Tate. 
The latter, according to Professor Tate's synopsis of characters, is 
distinguished by the fine radial threads, as compared with the coarse 
ornament of P. ione, whilst in the latter the radii tend to become sub- 
spinose. It is just possible that one of our specimens may belong 
rather to P. ione, since it measures 46 mm. in height ; that of Tate's 
example of the same species being 47 mm. 

List of King Island Fossils, with Notes on their Strati- 
graphical Distribution in the Tertiaries of Southern 

PalaeaMya tvberosa, sp. no v. 

Lithothamnium, sp. 
Globigerina cf. bulloides. d'Orbigay 
Truncatulina lobatula, W. and J. sp. 
Truncatulina variabilis, d'Orb. sp. 
Truncatulina ungeriana, d'Orb. sp. 
his hamiUoni, Thomson 

Cidaris (Leiocidaris) cf. auslraliae, 

Duncan sp. 
Spines of ecliinoids, indet. 
Spirorbis sp. 

Heleropora fisijormis, MacGill. 
Selenaria tnarginala, T. Woods 
Selenaria concinna, T. "Woods 
Amphibhst.rum (?) bursarium, 

(?) Lepralia cf. crassatina, MacGill. 
Adeona sp. 

Magellania cf. divaricata, Tate sp. 
Pinna reJicosa sp. nov. 
Vulsella laevigata, Tate . . 
Pectcn aldingensis, Tate 
Pecten praccursor, Chapm. 
Lima bassi, T. Woods . . 
Placunanomia sella, Tate 


Also found in the limestone of tbe Moorabool 

Valley, at Maude. 
Common in tlie polyzoal rock generally. 
Balcombiau to Kalimnan. 
Distributed tliroughout the Tertiaries. 

Balcombian to Kalimnan. 
P^e^^ously recorded from .Janjukian beds 

as Isis sp., but not specifically named. 
Chiefly Janjukian and Kalimnan ; also from 

the Gellibrand Eiver (Balcombian). 

Only recorded locality, Spring Creek. 
Balcombian to Recent. 
Balcombian to Recent. 
Balcombian to Recent. 

Balcombian to Recent. 


Lower beds, Aldinga. 
Lower beds, Aldinga. 
Chiefly Janjukian. 

xotes on a collection of tertiary limestones. 

Note on the Aoe of the Beds. 

The palseontological e\'idence of the foregoing limestone fossils 
strongly supports the idea of their Janjukian age. Therefore, 
from a physiographic stand-j^oint, the King Island limestone beds 
were presumably continuous with those portions of the old sea-bed 
now represented by the Bird Rock Cliffs, the fossiliferous shell-beds 
of Table Cape, Tasmania, and the lower beds at Aldinga, South 
Australia. Not the least interesting fact brouglit out by the present 
examination of the King Island fossils is the occurrence in this fauna 
of two species of mollusca which have hitherto been known almost 
exclusively from the lower Aldinga beds of South Australia, thus show- 
ing a strong affinity in its facies with the f<jssils of that area. 
Although the present list of fossils is not so extensive for a complete 
comparison with other southem Australian horizons as could bedesired, 
yet the evidence before us is fairly conclusive, since the already- 
known forms recorded here have all — excepting one doubtful poly- 
zoan, which, however, is found living — been previously found in 
either the Table Cape beds, the Spring Creek series, or the lower 
Aldingan strata. Further than this, some are peculiar to the 
Janjukian group. 

The correlation of the lower Aldingan beds xvith normal Jan- 
jukian strata is by no means new, since this relationship was long 
ago pointed out by Messrs. Tate and Dennant* in dealing with the 
Cape Otway series, also Janjukian. Those authors, however, in- 
cluded both the upper and lower beds at Aldinga which, as Messrs. 
Hall and Pritchard rightly point out,f belong to distinct stages. 
The first-named authors, in their second paper on the " Correlation 
of the Marine Tertiaries of Australia," noted {loc. cit.) "the com- 
paratively large proportion of Aldingan species " in the Cape Otway 
section. " Thus of the forty Aldinga species present at Cape Otway, 
eighteen are restricted to these two sets of beds," "whilst five of 
the species indicated are common also to the Spring Creek Fauna." 

In my examination of this collection I am xmder obligations to 
Dr. G. B. Pritchard, F.G.S., and Mr. C. M. Maplestone for helpful 
suggestions regarding the mollusca and polyzoa respectively. 

Note on the Dune Sand of King Island.| 

In addition to the previously described limestone specimens, Mr. 
Kershaw also handed me for examination a sample of the dune 
sand from Surprise Bay, King Island. 

• Trans. R. Soc.. South Australia, vol. xix., IS9r>. p. 110. 

t Proo. R. .Soc. Victoria, vol. xiv. (N.S.). pt. ii.. 1902. p. 79. 

X Since WTitinjr this nolo (May, 1909), Mr. Dcbcnham {op. »tiprn cil. pp. 564, ,565) has 
described the physical and chemical characters of the sand dunes of King Island, and has 
given a chemical analysis of the sand. 



This sand consists chiefly of quartz grains (well-rounded) and 
rolled shell-fragments in about aqual proportions, together with 
fragmental remains of polyzoa, ecliinoids, and a few worn tests of 
foraminifeia. Of the last-named group, the following species, all 
common to the beaches of the southern coast of Australia, were 
recognised : 

Miliolina vulgaris, d'Orb. sp. 
Milinlina tricarinata, d'Orb. sp. 
Discorbina dimidiata, Jones and Parker. 
PulvinuJina repandn. Fichtel and Moll sp. 
Polystotnella erispa, Linn. sp. 


Mem Nat. Mrs.. Melbourxk. t. 








•'J I 




'I I 







Mrm. N'at. Mrs.. MELnoi-RNK. 4. 

1'i.ATi; vir. 



Plate VL 

Fig. I. — Globigerina cf. bulloides, d'Orbigny. A median section of 

the test. X 52. 
Fig. 2. — Truncatulina ungeriana, d'Orbigny, sp. (stout var.) : 

(a) Superior usjn'ct ; (b) inferior aspect ; (c) peripheral 

aspect. X 52. 
Fig. 3. — Mopsea hamHtoni, Thomson : {(i) l^ateral aspect ; (6) 

articuhir .surface. x 3. 
Fig. 4. — Mopsea hamiltoni, Thomson. Lateral aspect of another 

example, x 3. 
Fig. 5. — Heteropora pisiformis, MacGillivray. x 10. 
Fig. 6. — Heterupora piaifurmis, MiicGillivray. Vertical section of a 

pyriform zoarium. x 26. 
Fig. l.—Selenaria amcinna, T. Woods. A thin section in limestone, 

taken tangentially to the zooecial surface ; showing 

vibracular and zooecial cells, x 52. 
Fig. 8. — Pinnn reticosa, sp. nov. x 2. 
Fig. 9. — Liina bassi, T. Woods. A portion of the shell surface ; 

from a wax squeeze of a mould in limestone, x 3. 
Fig. 10. — Placunanomia sella, Tate. Nat. size. 

Note.— Figures 2-6, 8, and 10 are from the polyzoal limestone of 
the Seal River ; the remainder are from the hard limestone of the 
same locality. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. — Pecten praecursor, Chapm. From the polyzoal rock. Nat. 

Fig. 2. — P. praecursor, Ch. Another specimen showing tegulate 
ornament on the marginal part of the valve. Polyzoal 
rock. Nat. size. 

Fig. 3. — Seletiarki marginata, T. Woods. A tangential section 
including apical regirm. From the pink limestone. 
X 14. 

Fig. 4. — Palaeachltfa, Chapm. The organism perforating a 
worn .shell-fragment. From the pink limestone, x 164. 

Fig. 5. — Thin section of the polyzoal rock, .showing a cidaroid spine, 
numerous polvzoa, and the granular calcitic groundmass. 
X 14. 

Fig. 6. — Thin section of the pink limestone, showing polyzoa, shell- 
fragments, and foraminifera (a = Truncatulina varia- 
bilis), embedded in a fine padty calcitic groundmass. 
X 14. 



By R. H. Walcott, F.G.S., Curator of the Geological and 
Ethnological Collections. 

(Plate VIII.) 

During a visit to the Museum, Professor R. B. Dixon, of the 
Anthropological Department of the Harvard University, was par- 
ticularly interested in a Fijian club bearing an incised design of 
distinctly Maori origin. Professor Dixon had pre\nously seen 
elsewhere two other specimens ornamented with a similar type of 
design, and as, apparently, no record had been made of such an 
interesting instance of borrowed art, it is well that the Museum 
should publish a description of the specimen in its collection. 

I was fortvmate enough, on mentioning the subject to Mr. W. H. 
Schmidt, of the Australian Metal Company, Melbourne, to find 
that he had in his private collection another example of a club 
decorated in a similar manner, which he kindly offered to lend for 

The Museum specimen, Reg. No. 14,870 (Fig. 1), is, apart from 
its ornamentation, an ordinary Fijian club of the cylindrical 
type. Its total length is 3 feet 7f inches, with an approximate 
diameter of If inches for 23 inches of its length from the 
end of the handle. It then gradually increases in diameter to the 
termination of the head, where it attains a maximum of 1| inches. 

The end of the handle is hollowed out to a depth of a quarter 
of an inch, a feature not uncommon in Fijian clubs. 

The incised design on the handle extends from the extreme 
end for 11| inches without a break, and from its termination to the 
end of the head, seven bands, about three-quarters of an inch wide, 
of the same incised design are unequally spaced. 

The specimen was acquired from Mr. W. Simmonds, of Melbourne, 
in March, 1908, by whom I have been informed that it was collected 
by himself some thirty or more years before. Mr. Simmonds, who 
made a number of visits to Fiji, was unfortunately unable to recollect 
imder what circumstances he obtained the club, or from which 
island of the group. 

The style of ornamentation is common in Maori carvings, and 
consists, as may be seen from Fig. 2, which is a reproduction of 
a rubbing, of a series of transverse parallel bands each of four 
lines, alternating with single lines of diamond-shaped points. The 
bands of parallel lines do not continue unbroken round the whole 


Mem N'ai. Ml s.. Mklboirnk. 4. 

Plate VIII- 



"/Iv/- -c\vb:>j/'^r .:^ —s^Ji^ 

■^1 ■ 

^f=s^ r:^ 

ggSfl !l!i^^ 



circumference of the club, but at some place or places in their length 
bend sharply either upwards or downwards to meet the adjacent 
band. Interspersed among these are six link-Uke ornaments, five 
resembling the stud links of a ship's cable, and tiie sixth resembling 
two long plain links. They are arranged longitudinally with 
reference to the greater axis of the club, or at right angles to the 
main design, which they resemble in principle, but they are com- 
posed of three lines instead of four, as in the transverse bands of 
the main design. 

It seems evident that this type of ornamentation is derived from 
the spiral, so characteristic of Maori art, and only resembled at all by 
the scroll pattern prevalent in New Guinea decoration. 

Mr. A. Hamilton,* Director of the Dominion Museum, Wel- 
lington, N.Z., was informed by an old Maori that the spiral, 
called pitau, represented the young circinate frond of the tree 
fern, pitau being the Maori term applied to the young frond of 
the tree fern (Cyaihea). 

The small studs between the coils of the spiral in the carvings 
represent the pinna? of the frond. The five links in the design 
on the club are plainly only the elongated first or central coil of 
the spiral, with one end continued and closed on the central coil, 
while in the double links both ends are continued and closed. 

The transverse bands are simply a further elongation of the 
same coil, although their origin is not so apparent. The diamond- 
shaped points forming lines between the bands and in the links take 
the place of the studs in the spiral. 

Mr. Schmidt's specimen (Fig. 3), which has no available history, 
he having purchased it from a dealer in Prahran, a suburb of 
Melbourne, is what is commonly knowTi as the pineapple type 
among Fijian clubs, on account of the head bearing a resemblance 
to that fruit. 

As in the previous specimen, there is also nothing in the form 
of this club which shows any departure from the tj-pe it represents. 

The ornamentation (Fig. 4) is restricted to 8^ inches of the 
handle, the rest being perfectly plain. With the exception of a 
central transverse band, the ornamentation is in the main similar 
to that just described. 

These minor differences consist in most of the four lined bands 
being curv'ed, and not bent to meet the adjacent ones. The dis- 
tance between the bands is also greater, so that the diamond-shaped 
points of the other club here rather assume the character of short 
longitudinal ridges, and in the two lower links they are replaced 
by U-shaped forms. The links, of which there are four, are all 
double, while in the Museum specimen, as pointed out, there is only 
one of this kind. 

• Maori Art, Part I., p. 11, 1896. 


The transverse band near the centre of the design, referred to 
above (Fig. 4), is about three-quarters of an inch wide, and consists 
of a trianguhir jiattern of closely placed lines. The .style of this 
decorative band .seems to be more characteristic of Fijian than of 
New Zealand ornamentation. 

With regard to the origin of Maori ornamentation on Fijian 
articles, it is a matter of some difficulty to decide to what circum- 
stances it is due. 

Accepting the theory that Maori art is endemic, it having been 
evolved since the isolation of the Maoris from the rest of the world 
after the last great migration about the year 135U, and was not brought 
with them from their original home, it cannot be said that that 
found in Fiji represents the remnant of a type originally derived 
from a common source and distributed throughout many islands 
in the Pacific visited and colonized by the early Polynesians. 

No intercourse, then, having taken place between the Maoris 
and other peoples of the Pacific since the evolution of their art, 
its introduction into Fiji can best be explained by attributing it to 
communication between the two places, which commenced with 
the European whaler.s and traders at the beginning of last century. 

There is, however, a possible explanation which may refer its 
introduction into Fiji to earlier times, and which was suggested by 
pieces of a New Guinea canoe in the Museum, said to have been 
picked up on the coast of New Zealand. It is that, in like manner, 
a Maori canoe may have been driven out of its course and eventually 
stranded on one of the islands of the Fijian Group, where either the 
designs on the canoe were copied by the inhabitants, or the charac- 
teristic form of carved decoration was made known to them by 
some of its Maori survivors. 

If by this explanation its origin can be referred to a period ante- 
dating the advent of the European, the fact may possibly be ascer- 
tained by the type of weapon, or some feature in the carving, 
differing from that of more modern times. There is nothing in the 
types represented by the two clubs under consideration, or in their 
condition, to suggest antiquity; and with reference to their orna- 
mentation, I am not in a position to give an opinion as to any 
variation in the detail of the work which may offer a clue; but I 
believe Professor Dixon held the view that some such evidence 
of antiquity did exist in the Museum specimen. On the other hand, 
it may only mean that the ornamentation, used originally as a 
pattern, was of ancient design. 

Failing proof of antiquity, it appears to me that the ornamenta- 
tion most probably originated either by articles brought from New 
Zealand to Fiji by missionaries, traders, or whalers, or else by some 
of their Maori sailors decorating the weapons of the Fijians with the 
New Zealand patterns. 

[56 J 


In this way the Maori type of ornamentation may have become 
kiiuwTi to the Fijians, and, perliap.s, adopted by them at times, as 
offering a pleasing variation on their own well-known designs; but 
it is not even certain that its introduction can be put back as far 
as is suggested, and it may only date from about forty or fifty 
years ago, when a rapid influx into Fiji from the Australasian 
Colonies took place. 

Bv Authoritv : I. Kemp, Government Printer, Melbourne. 
[ ^ ] 




No. o. 


Br authonip: 


JXJLT, 1014. 


On the Succession and Homotaxial Relationships of the Australian Cainozoic 

System. By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S. . . 5 

Note on the Precise Locality of the Type Specimen of Lepidodendron australe, 

McCoy. By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S. . . 53 

Notes on Testacea from the Pleistocene Marl of Mowbrav Swamp, North-west 

Tasmania. By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S.. F.R.M.S. (plates I, II.). . 55 



By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., Palrrontolorjisl to the 
National Museum, Melbourne. 


Previous Opinions of Time Eijuiviileiits 5 
The Relative Values of the Percentage Method ; aiul tlic Compari.son of 

Tvpical Fauna.s. in determining the Ages of the Australian Cainozoic 

Strata . . . . 10 
Some Cosmopolitan and Widely-distributed Fossil Tvpes and their 

Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 

On the Absence of Nummulites in the Cainozoics of Southern Australia . . 20 
The Evidence of the Complex-structured Foraminifera in the Au.stralian 

Cainozoic System . . . . . . . . . . 2.'} 

Stratigraphical Notes bearing on the Sequence of the Strata . . 26 

Table of Cainozoic Strata in Australia ■ . . . . 50 

Summary of Conclusions . . . . 50 

Previous Opinions of Time Equivalents. 

In the earlier davs of paheontolonrical work in Victoria, the 
conclusions as to the age of the rich Tertiary faunas of southern 
Au.stralia* were nece.s.sarily founded on Hniited evidence, derived 
from an imperfectly-known .series of fossils. The paltcontology of 
these beds had then been scarcely touched by .systematic workers, 
so that the .small number of species available for purposes of com- 
pari.son. both in relation to the question of local stratigraphical 
.sequence and the wider one of correhiting them with the well-studied 
Tertiary faunas of Europe, rendered a solution of the problem one 
of great difficulty. 

The first effort at correlation was made by Sir A. R. C. Selwyn in 
18.')4, who. in a "Report on the (leology, Pakcontology, and 
Mineralogy of the Oountrv situated between Melbourne, Western 
Port Bay, Cape Schanck, and Point Xepean,"t stated, "Both the 
clay and limestone " [of the Mornington beds = Balcombian] "are 
very rich in fossil remaias, and both in general lithological character, 

• By douthcm AiiNtrslia it in intrnrlcd to inrliitlf the States of South Australia and Victoria, 
which h»vp a community of focicw in Tertian,' iitratiKraphy. Thiit explonalion in nc<e«ary 
from the fait that lu< alitiivi in Victorio have oft«n been erroneouHly referred by European 
palnHint<ilopiitj< to .South AuHtralia. 

t Pari. Paper., 18.M-55, vol. i. 



mineral and organic contents, bear a striking resemblance to the 
clay and associated calcareous nodules of the London and Hampshire 
Basins." Since no detailed analysis or comparison of the fossil 
faunas were offered, this conclusion was only tentative. A further 
opinion was advanced by Selwyn in 1856, when, in his " Report 
on the Geological Structure of the Colony of Victoria, the Basin of 
the Yarra, and part of the Northern, North-eastern, and Eastern 
Drainage of Western Port Bay,"* he relegated the Victorian 
Tertiaries to Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene. 

"William Blandowski, in 1857 (in a Report A^Titten in 1854)j 
referred to several genera of mollusca and polyzoa as occurring in 
the Mount Martha beds (= Balcombian), and expressed the opinion 
that they are co-eval ^\"ith the uppermost strata of the London, 
Paris, and various Italian clay basins. 

The Mount Gambler Cainozoics (polyzoal limestone) were regarded 
by the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods, in 1859, t as Eocene ; but, later, 
of the age of the Pliocene Coralline Crag in England.§ The same 
author finally arrived at a mean in concluding!! that they were older 
than that series, and younger than the Muddy Creek beds ; con- 
clusions which are upheld in the present paper, as far as relate to 
the lower bed of that series. 

Sir F. McCoy, in 1861,^ regarded the Balcombian beds of Mt. 
Ehza and Mt. Martha (Balcombe's Bay) as of Upper Eocene age ; 
but this was subsequently altered** to Oligocene, in accordance with 
the change of nomenclature and subdivision of similar beds in 
Europe, to which McCoy referred in the following terms : — '" These 
have the general facies, and even specific identity of so many species, 
so clearly marked that there cannot be the shghtest doubt of the 
great thickness of those beds being Lower Miocene of the date and 
general character of the Faluns of Touraine, the Bordeaux and the 
Malta beds ; while the base of the series blends imperceptibly with 
a series of beds having a slightly older facies, and rendering the 
adoption of the Oligocene formation of Be}T.'ich as convenient for 
Victoria as for European geologists." In this Essay McCoy draws 
the inference of a community of strata of Oligocene and IMiocene 
a'ges exhibited in the Victorian, European, and North American 
deposits, by noting the occurrence of the teeth of Squalodon jt and 
typical IMiddle Tertiary sharks. With his extensive knowledge of 
European fossil faunas, and a keen eye for resemblances in the facies 
of widely separated areas, ]\IcCoy gave his conclusions, which were at 

• Votes and Proceedings, Legislative Council, 1855-56., toI. ii. 

t " On an Excursion to Frankston, Balcombe's Creek, Mount Martha, Port Phillip Heads, 
and Cape Schanck." Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. i., p. 24, et seq. 

% Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi., p. 253 et seq. 

§ Geol. Obs. in S. Australia, 1862, pp. 85, 86. 

II Q.J.G.S., 1865, vol. xxi., p. 393. 

il Exhibition Essays, 1861, p. 159. 

** Ditto (1866), 1867, p. 322, or sep. paper, p. 16. 

tt The Victorian species is now referred to a related genus, Parasqualodon . See T. S. HaU. 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. sxiii. (N.S.), pt. II., 1911, p. 262. 



the time almost prophetic, but in reality were based on a knowledge 
of the guide fossils of both areas. It had yet to be proved whether 
the Lyellian method of molluscan percentages as a test of the exact 
age (or as in the case of antipodeal strata, of their homotaxial 
relationships) could be applied to the Cainozoic beds of this southern 

A suggestive contribution bearing on the present subject is found 
in the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods' " False ontological Evidence of 
Australian Tertiary Formations."* In this paper the author 
showed that a close relationship exists between the majoiity of our 
Tertiary fossils and those of the Miocene of other areas ; and although 
many of the fossil determinations given in that paper require some 
revision, the conclusions are based on good reasoning. He there 
says,t " Speaking of the Corals generally, we have more affinities 
with IMiocene forms than any other formation ; but a few genera 
are common to both Eocene and Miocene formations. We have 
no truly Eocene forms, such as Turbinolia, which are found in the 
Eocene" beds both of Europe and America ; neither have we among 
the many Foraminifera such characteristic fossils as Xummulites ; 
but we have certain American genera which have seldom been found, 
as far as I am aware, above the Eocene." With regard to his remark 
about the absence of Nummulites in Australia, Tenison Woods was 
the first to record our commonest nummulinoid form as Amphis- 
tegina. a determination made for him by Prof. T. Rupert Jones.J 
Subsequently the genus Nummulites was recorded from our Cainozoics 
in error for Am-phistegina, as will be shown in a separate section, 
and this has been a factor in the acceptance of the Eocene age of the 
Lower Muddy Creek and other related beds by certain authors. 

The corals and echinoids of Victoria were first systematically 
dealt with by Prof. M. Duncan,§ and yielded that author no very 
decided evidence as to the age of our Cainozoic fossil series, when 
compared with the European faunas ; although Duncan remarked] | 
that the southern Australian fossil deposits with madreporaria, 
polyzoa, echinodermata, and moUusca have " a facies characteristic 
of all the European marine tertiary deposits above the Nummulitic." 
Later on he stated^ that the aspect of certain genera of the echinoids 
" gives a Nummulitic-of-Europe-and-India facies to the fauna, whilst 
the cretaceous aspect is presented by Catopygus ..." also noting 
other genera the names of which, as well as of the supposed 
Catopygus of Southern Austraha (now Studeria), have since been 
changed, redeterminations showing that the forms have a Tertiary 

* Journ. Roy. Sue. N.S. Wales, vol. xi. (1877). 1878, pp. 113-128. 

t Loc. Hi., p. 119. , - , . 

j J. E. T. Woods.—" On Some Tertiary Deposits in the Colony of V ictoria, Austraha. Quart. 
Joura. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. xxi., 1805, p. 391. 

§ Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. xxvi., 1870, pp. 284^318; and vol. xxxm., 18/ 1, 
pp. 42-73. 

II Q.J.G.S., vol. xxvi., 1870, p. 317. 

\ Q.J.G.S., vol. xxxiii., 1877, p. 69. 



relationship. At the same time he admitted that many of the .species 
were abnost identical with those of the Miocene of ^lalta. Duncan 
was inclined to group the Australian tertiaries in one series as 
Cainozoic, referring the deposits below the Mt. Gambler beds to the 
Lower Cainozoic, and all above it to the Upper T'ainozoic.* 

By the researches of Prof. Jlalph Tate, Sir F. McCoy, and others, 
who have so ably followed in descriptive work, a large number of 
Tertiary species, particularly in the group of the niollusca, have been 
carefully diagnosed and figured ; although in some cases perhaps 
scarcely enough attention has been paid to the work of authors 
who have dealt with fossils from related strata in areas not verv 
far removed, as those of New Zealand. A critical examination of 
our Victorian lists will in all probability show that in more than one 
instance the same fossil is credited mth two names. On the other 
hand, this comparative work has been often retarded by iasufhcient 
descriptions and inadequate illustrations. 

A modification of ]McCoy's earlier opinion of the age of the 
Victorian strata was published in the First Progress Report of the 
Geological Survey of Victoria in 1874 (pp. 35, 36), in which there 
occurs a list of fossils by that author, correctly placing the Mornington 
beds at the base of the series, and referring to them as Oligocene. 
In this Hst, however, there is an admixture of fossils which are now 
referred to two different horizons in Victoria.! 

In the correlation of the southern Australian Tertiaries by Prof. 
Ralph Tate and Mr. J. Dennant, in 1893, J the clays and polyzoal 
Umestones of the Balcombian and Janjukian Series (giving them 
the local terms applied by Drs. Hall and Pritchard, vide seq.) are 
there referred to the Eocene. The Cainozoic strata of the Gippsland 
Lakes and the upper bed at Muddy Creek (^ Kalimnan) are there 
called Miocene. The older and newer mammaliferous drifts are 
regarded as Pliocene to Pleistocene. 

In 1895 Dr. P. H. MacGillivray, fresh from the study of our 
Cainozoic polyzoa, makes the following statement : — " The age of 
•the deposits has been the subject of a good deal of discussion among 
geologists. They are now generally referred to the Oligocene or 
early Miocene, but some are considered by different authorities to 
belong to the Eocene. It is difficult, however, to believe that any 
of them can be so old as the Eocene, at least considering it to be 
comparable to that of Europe. So far as an opinion can be formed 
from an examination of the Polyzoa, they are not of very different 

Drs. T. S. Hall and G. B. Pritchard, who have worked very 
assiduously in the study of our Cainozoic faunas and stratigraphy, 

* Q.J.G.S., vol. xxvi., 1870, p. .SIS. 

t BaJanophijUia campanitlata , Trigonia aciiticostalo, Spondylus gaederopoide-s, VohitUithes 
antlcingulnlus. Valuta macroplera and Cypram platyrhiinchn are found in beds of later age. 
% Trans. R. Soc. S. Australia, vol. x'vii., pt. I., 1893, p. 216. 
§ Trans. R. Soc. Vict., vol. iv., 1895, p. 2. 


follow Messrs. Tate and Dennant in the same general reference of the 
older Cainozoics to the Eocene, but consider the Janjukian beds 
{vide posted), in contradistinction to the last-named authors, to underlie 
the Balcombian clays. This difference of opinion as to sequence 
is mainly due to the occurrence of fossiliferous clays resting on the 
polyzoal rock at Belmont* and Curlewis containing a fauna which 
was compared by Hall and Pritchard with the Balcombian clays 
of the Mornington and Muddy Creek type. The difficulty is easily 
explained by the fact that the species in these upper clays are 
unrestricted ; that is, they pass from the underlying Balcombian 
into the Janjukian, but are, to a great extent, absent from the 
intermediate polyzoal facies, purely on account of difference of 
hydrographical conditions. 

Until Drs. Hall and Pritchard instituted local names for those 
beds showing distinct faunal characters, f references to the various 
strata were very confusing, since no two authorities were actually 
agreed as to the use of the terms Eocene, Oligocene, jMiocene and 
Pliocene when applied to the southern Australian CainozoicJ The 
local names referred to are Balcombian, Janjucian (afterwards 
phonetically spelt Janjukian), Ivalimnan, and Werrikooian. To these 
terms were afterwards added the comprehensive term '" Barwonian," 
which includes both the Balcombian and Janjukian, as having some 
faunal characters in common, and distinguished from the Kalimnan, 
between which and the Balcombian there seemed, to the 
above authors, to be a greater palseontological break. It is here 
postulated that the Janjukian is the younger series, and therefore 
nearer in faunal characters to the Kalimnan ; and, moreover, 
the palseontological difference referred to is not so marked 
as those authors believed. This is borne out by an exhaustive 
study of the fossils of the Mallee borings, in which there occurs 
a gradual passage downwards from Kalimnan into Janjukian, 
without intercalation of beds containing restricted Balcombian 

In Drs. Hall and Pritchard's important paper on "A Suggested 
Nomenclature for the Marine Tertiary Deposits of Southern 
Australia, "§ those authors give a convenient summary of the various 
opinions as to the sequence and age of our Cainozoic strata, together 
with their local terms for these beds, which has already proved to 
be of the greatest use in providing a definite terminology for the 
various outcrops. The use of local terms consequently prevents 
that confusion which previously occurred when each author ascribed 

* Mr. Mulder informs the writer that the shaft at Belmont, after passing through fossiliferous 
clays, finally reached polyzoal limestone. 

"t Proc. 'R. Soc. Vict., vol. xiv., N.S., pt. II., 1902, pp. 75-81. 

X For an excellent summary of authors' opinions, see Ci. B. Pritchard's paper. " On the 
Present State of our Knowledge of the Older Tertiaries of Southern Australia." Rep. Austr. 
Assoc. Adv. Sci. Brisbane, 1895. 

§ Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xiv.. N.S.. pt. 2, 1902, p. 81. 


the same stratum to formations of different ages. The summary 
referred to is given below : — 

McCoy. Tale and Dennant. Hall and Prilchard 

^„ \ Pleistocene (Tate) ) „ 

WeRRIKOOIAN — ;T),,„, /T^ \ , PUOCEXE 

' ruocEXE (Dennant) ) 
Kalimnax Older Pliocexk ]\Iioc'exe Miocene 

Balcombian Oligocexe IOocene Eocene 

Janjucian (now Miocene to Oli- Oligocexe (?) (Tate) Eocexe 
Janjukian) gocene Eocene 

Aldingan — Eocene (in part) J Eocene (in 

' I part) 

In Drs. Hall and Pritchard's paper above referred to, the 
sequence given for the Australian Tertiary strata places the Janjukian 
at the base of the series. There is very strong evidence, however, 
in favour of the Balcombian being the oldest formation with marine 
fossils, and of an approximately equivalent age to the Upper 
Oligocene and Lower Miocene of Eurojje, North America, the West 
Indies, and Patagonia. In connexion with the last-named area, 
Ortmann* lately published an elaborate account of the fossils, and 
gave his conclusions as to the age of those beds. He also compared 
them with the Australian Tertiaries, agreeing almost entirely mth 
the early views of McCoy. Dr. Ortmann based his conclusions upon 
a comparison of the fossil invertebrates with related forms from 
other localities and horizons in the Tertiaries ; and after giving the 
percentages of related fossils, goes on to say, " We see a constant 
increase of the percentages from the Cretaceous to the [Miocene, and 
then again quite a sudden decrease from Miocene to Recent." 

As Dall and Ortmann have shown, some of the West Indian 
faunas used for purposes of comparison have been referred to the 
Oligocene, and this points to the Patagonian beds ha\ang a stronger 
affinity towards the Older Cainozoic than would otherwise appear 
from Ortmami's previous calculations ; and accordingly the latter 
regards them more decidedly as Lower Miocene.t 

The Relative Values of the Percentage Method; and the 
Comparison of Typical Faunas, in Determining the 
Ages of the Australian Cainozoic Strata. 

When Sir Chas. Lyell formulated the method of judging the age 
of the various Tertiary beds of the London, Hampshire and Paris 
Basins by the percentage of the recent species of mollusca contained 
therein, he was deahng with a set of strata deposited under 
fairly constant conditions, and dominated by an entirely 
different geographical distribution of land and water from that 
which must have prevailed more or less throughout Tertiary times 
in southern Australia. Since Lyell's time this once generally 

* Reports of the Princeton Univei-sity Expeditions to Patagonia, 189(5-1899, vol. iv. , pt. 2, 
1902. Tertiary Invertebrates, pp. 48-332, pis. xi-xxxix. 
t Op. supra cit., p. 297. 



accepted rule has been questioned. Kayser remarks*, '" Although 
the principle underlying this classification has in progress of time 
proved in the main accurate, the percentages of living species 
originally adopted by Lyell for the various groups have not remained 
firm. Thus for the Pliocene we must take 40-90 instead of 35-50, 
and for the Miocene 10-40 instead of 17." 

That the percentage method of correlating strata in widely 
separated areas is attended with serious difficulties has been early 
recognised, as, for example, by so able an observer of faunal 
distribution in the past and present as the late Capt. Hutton, of 
Christchurch, whose words on the subject we cannot do better than 
quote. After discussing the relative ages of two beds in the Wanganui 
System of New Zealand, which, on account of the close percentage 
of living to extinct species, Hutton was incHned to think, overlapped, 
and advocating the use of this same means of discrimination in 
determining the relative ages of beds in the same general area, he 
speaks thus : — f 

" But it does not follow that this method can be trusted for 
correlating with accuracy sets of beds in widely distant areas. On 
the contrary, different districts have undergone different physical 
changes, and we have therefore every reason to suppose that 
alterations in floras and faunas would proceed with unequal rapidity 
in different parts of the world. At the same time, as the replacement 
of a whole marine fauna can rarely be sudden, it follows that the 
percentage system has some value even here. But it must always 
be used in conjunction with a comparison of the specific forms of 
the two areas. And here, again, it is only the wide-ranging oceanic, 
or deep-sea species — such as sharks, cephalopods, and a few 
bivalves — which should be depended upon for evidence, but these 
wide-ranging forms are of the very greatest value in correlating 
strata all over the world." 

Another difficulty which confronts us with regard to the com- 
putation of the actual percentage of li\dng species is the variable 
estimation by different authors of the value of minor characters ; 
as, for example, of shell sculpture in the group of the moUusca, 
where shght differences are seen only after careful study, or it may be, 
a trivial variation in form, which, if sufficiently constant would be 
regarded by some as specific. Hence, critical work on any fauna 
will always tend to lower the jiercentage of living species in any given 
fossiliferous series, and consequently to ino'ease its approximate age. 
It seems, therefore, that we, in the southern hemisphere, to use the 
percentage method, must gradually erect a standard of percentages 
which will generally accord with the evidence afforded by a study 
of the strata in this part of the world ; never forgetting, however, 
to exercise a cautious spirit in regard to species-making in working 
from this stand-point. 

* Text Book of Comparative Geology. English translation by P. Lake, 1895, p. 330. 
t and Proc. New Zealand Inst., vol. xviii., 1886 (for"l885), p. 345. 

[H ] 


Although Capt. Hutton mentioned certain groups of animals 
which, by reason of their comparatively deep sea habitat, furnish 
species of world-wide distribution, it appears highly probable 
that even these particular forms would be prone to considerable 
variation should they survive in an environment differing from that 
of the open ocean ; and this will account for the difficulty of 
discovering universally distributed species for comparative purposes. 
To aid in this matter of the comparison of facies of widely separated 
faunas other than recent, it may be suggested that generic types, 
no matter of what group of organisms, but which are limited to 
distinct horizons in the northern hemisphere, should also be regarded 
as of special value in the correlation of the Tertiary strata m the 
southern hemisphere. A comparison of selected faunal types, more 
or less indicative of distinct horizons elsewhere, will be made in 
drawing up a suggested stratigraphical correlation, and discussed in 
the notes following in the next section. 

In connexion with this subject, it is also necessary to draw 
attention to the recent work of Dr. A. E. Ortmann* as ha^•ing an im- 
portant bearing on the present question. From a study of the 
moUusca he has brought forward strong evidence in favour of 
correlating the Patagonian Tertiary beds with at least one of our 
southern Australian series, as well as with the Pareora formation 
of New Zealand, all of which he regards as Lower Miocene. 

With particular reference to the percentage method, Ortmann 
remarks! : — " In very many cases the age of the Tertiary deposits 
is determined by the percentage of living species found in them. 
In my opinion this line of evidence is entirely inadmissible in our 
case, and I hardly need to say anything to support this view ; this 
method may be safely used in Europe, but in the southern hemi- 
sphere it is out of the question." 

Dr. Ortmann further points out that, owing to the changes 
in the systematic views of the various authors of species, the number 
of the identifiable living forms fluctuates, and one or two doiibtful 
ones obviously lower the percentage considerably. This difficulty, 
as I have already mentioned, has frequently arisen in respect to the 
work of our Australian geologists, causing the same stratum to be 
referred to under three different age-names by as many authors. 
As a case in point, the work on the faunas of the Lower ^luddy 
Creek section and the Spring Creek beds by Drs. Hall and Pritchardf 
showed a percentage of living species as low as 2.5 per cent, for 
the former locality, and only about 1 per cent, for the latter. Since 
only 3 out of 293 species were identifiable with living forms in 
the Spring Creek fauna, it is clear that by addition of a few more 
recent species these beds might be reversed in apparent sequence, 
by the opinion of the investigator of doubtfully valid living species. 

* Tom. supra cil. 

t To?ii. cit., p. 288. 

i Proc. Rov. 6oc. Vict., vol. viii., 1895, p. 190. 

[ 1-^ ] 


It is worthy of note that, in connexion with the subject of the 
value of the percentage method in its general sense, later research 
has already proved the survival of many other fossils of the Cainozoics 
in the seas of the present day. For instance, Lissarca ruhricata, 
now living in Western Port Bay and elsewhere, occurs in the 
Janjuldan of the Mallee bores ; and the Balcombian to Kalimnan 
Trivia avellanoides is found living off the New South Wales Coast. 

Some Cosmopolitan and Widely-distributed Fossil Types 
AND their Significance. 

Cetaceans. — In the Nodule or Phosphate Bed which is found 
at the base of the Kalimnan Series in Victoria, remains of cetacea 
are very abundant. They include ribs, vertebrae, an occasional 
scapula, digitals, tympanic bones, &c., evidently belonging to 
several distinct foims, and representing the Toothed Whales, 
including the Beaked Whales and the Dolphins. Similar remains 
are found scattered through the Janjukian Beds of Waurn Ponds 
and other localities where the strata are of considerable thickness, 
and marly or purely calcareous ; and this, with other data of fossil 
occurrences, show convincingly that the nodular phosphatic bed of 
the Grange Burn and that at the base of the cliffs at Beaumaris, 
which there underlie the Kalimnan, represent a remanie bed of the 
Janjukian series. 

One of the toothed whales {Odontoceti) occurring in Victoria is 
now referred to Parasqualodon, and another from South Australia is 
the type of the genus Metasqualodon* These are closely related 
to Squalodon, a typically Miocene form extending into the Pliocene. 
The teeth of the squalodonts form a more numerous and closer 
seriesf than those in the Eocene Zetiglodon; the former being smaller 
animals, with a shorter rostrum. The southern hemisphere 
squalodonts have the roots of the molar teeth united, whilst in the 
northern forms they are separate and incurved. McCoy described 
a molar tooth of " Squalodon " (= Parasqualodon) wilhinsoni from 
the " Miocene Tertiary sands of Castle Cove, Cape Otway Coast, "J 
in beds of Janjukian age ; and he subsequently figured another 
example, a canine tooth from Waurn Pounds, near Geelong. Several 
specimens both of the molar and canine teeth have since been 
found in the Waurn Ponds quarries in strata of similar age. In de- 
scribing the Parasqualodon teeth, McCoy compared them with Squalo- 
don grateloupi, H. von Meyer, from the Miocene of Bordeaux, from 
which they differ in the conjunction of the roots. Mr. E. B. Sanger, 
in 1881, described and figured a molar tooth of a cetacean under 
the name of Zeuglodon harwoodi,^ which has been made the 

* T. S. Hall. " On the Systematic Position of the Species of Squalodon and Zeuglodon, 
described from Australia and New Zealand." Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. xxiii., N.S., pt. 2, 1911 
pp. 257-265, pi. xxxvi- 

t Both Zeuglodon and Prosqualodon have five molars, whilst there are seven in Squalodon 

t Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. 2, 1875, p. 7, pi. xi., fig. 1 ; Dec. 6, 1879, p. 20, pi. Iv., fig. 3. 

§ Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. v., 1881, p. 298, woodcuts A.B. 



genotype of Metasqualodon, T. S. Hall. The specimens were found in 
yellow, calcaiTous clay oi! tlic Murray Rivor near Wellington, South 
Australia. The molariform teeth have shorter roots than in 
Parasqualodon, this constituting the chief difference. In a remark- 
ably well-preserved tooth of Metasqualodon ivilkinsoni, from Mt. 
Gambler, in the National Museum collection, the enamel of the crown 
is of a rich brown colour, and the surface covered with minute 
prickly tubercles. This example is embedded in the white polyzoal 
limestone of the locality ; the rock being in all probability equivalent 
to the yellow polyzoal limestone of Waurn Ponds and Jan Juc (Spring 
Creek). Although new genera have been instituted for these southern 
types of toothed whales, the conclusion as to their Miocene age is 
not affected thereby, as they are all members of the Squalodontidae, 
belonging to a higher zone than the Eocene Zeuglodonts. 

Fishes.^-lw two papers on the Tertiary fish remains of 
Australia, published by Dr. G. B. Pritchard and myself,* the general 
distribution and range in time of each genus and species was fully 
dealt with ; but no inference was then drawn as to the ages of the 
beds yielding these remains. It is there stated (op. cit. vol. 
XVII., p. 292) that " These data do not furnish any very clear 
evidence of our Tertiary succession and relative age of the beds, 
since the fauna has a general Tertiary aspect, but the occurrence of 
the few Mesozoic forms gives an aspect of antiquity to the older por- 
tion of our Tertiary strata." 

The genera discussed in those papers range from Jurassic to 
Recent, and none hav^e a restricted occurrence in Tertiary times. 
This at first sight is disappointing to the palseontological inquirer 
for exact data of chronological value. However, looking more 
closely into the relative abundance of the genera of sharks and 
other characteristic fishes of the Tertiary, we find that all the 
abundant generic forms are especially typical of Miocene strata 
in the northern hemisphere. Amongst these may be mentioned 
Galeocerdo, Odontasfis, Lamna, Oxyrhina, Carcharodon, Labrodon, 
and Diodon. Evidence of greater antiquity than Miocene is 
afiorded by the occasional occurrence of Asteracanthus, Edaphodon, 
and Ischyodus, which appear to be the survivors in Australian 
seas of types that are elsewhere found in earlier formations. This 
is a parallel case wdth the occurrence of Trigonia and other forms 
of archaic life found in the same area at the present day. 

With regard to the group of the sharks, the species common to 
southern Australia and the northern hemisphere are Carcharias 
acutus-\, Sphyrna prisca, Odontaspis contortidens, 0. cuspidata, 
Lamna crassidens, L. compressa, L. bronni, Oxyrhina hastalis, 0. 

* Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. xvii., N.S., pt. 1, 1904, pp. 207-297, pis. xi., xii. Ibid, vol. xx., 
N.S., pt. 1, 1907, pp. 59-75, pU. v.-viii. 

t This determination was formed on the apical portion of a serrated tooth which nwo 
appears to belong to a recently recorded genus common to the Patagonian and Victorian 
series, viz., Carcharoides. — See Victorian Naturalist, vol. xxx., 1913, pp. 142, 143. 



desori, 0. retroflexa, 0. eocaena, 0. tninuta, Carcharodon auriculatiis, 
and C. megalodon. Of these, 2 are northern Cretaceous forms, 11 
are Eocene, 1 Oligocene,* 11 Miocene, and 6 Pliocene. A closer 
scrutiny of these species reveals the fact that, whereas the genus 
may be recorded from both Eocene and JVliocfene, yet in regard to 
abundance and ubiquity the evidence of the species, as before stated, 
is decidedly in favour of a Miocene age for the majority of the 
fish remains in the older portion of our Tertiaries. 

With reference to the other fish remains in the Austra- 
lasian Tertiary, it is interesting to note that the Chimaeroids have a 
more ancient history elsewhere, whilst around Australia they lived 
in large numbers in the Balcombian and Janjukian seas. Our 
Tertiary Labrodon is comparable with the typical Miocene species 
of South Carolina, the Vienna Basin, Italy, Sicily, and Brittany. 
The Australian gymnodont, Diodon formosus, is most nearly allied 
to D. vetus from the Miocene phosphate beds of South Carolina. 
The fossils of this genus are commonest as Miocene forms. 

Mollusca.—Oi the tetrabranchiate cephalopods, the Aturia 
australis of McCoy is a typical fossil in the Australasian Tertiaries. 
It had an extraordinarily long existence, being found in the 
Balcombian, the Janjukian, and the Kalimnan series ; although 
it seems to be more common in the blue clays of the Mornington 
and Muddy Creek beds (Balcombian), where it often attains a 
large size. An exceptionally fine specimen from Muddy Creek in 
the National Museum collection measures 17.5 cm. (nearly 7 
inches) in diameter, and about 6 cm. across in the umbilical region. 
This species is distinct from the Lower Eocene form, A. ziczac, to 
which it was formerly referred, in having more compressed sides. 
In this respect it is similar to A. aturi, Basterot, originally described 
from the Miocene of Dax, France, and also occurring at Turin and 
Malta in beds of the same age. 

The true Nautili are also well represented in our faunas, but up 
to the present only one form has been described, viz., N. geelong- 
ensis, Foord,t which that author compares with N. regalis, J. Sow. 
The London clay species differs, as Foord remarks, in that " it is 
a more inflated shell, and its sutures much less flexuous." Examples 
of what appear to be the same form, in the National Museum collec- 
tion, are from the Moorabool Valley, Victoria, and the cliffs of the 
Lower Murray River in South Australia (Janjukian). 

The dibranchiate cephalopod, Spirulirostra, is one of the most 
remarkable genera of the Australian fauna. The only southern 
species, S. curta, made its appearance suddenly, but after a very 
short existence as quickly died out. It is strictly confined to 

* The low number of records from the Oligocene is probably accounted for by the fact that 
certain beds of this system were previously regarded as Eocene. A revision of these records 
would possibly raise the number for the Oligocene. 

t Cat. Foss. Cephal. Brit. Mus., pt. 2, 1891, pp. 332, 333, figs. 69a-c 



Miocene strata, and in Australia to a very limited horizon of a few 
feet in thickness in tlie Janjukian of Spring Cr^jek, near Geelong. 
Until the Australian species, S. curia, Tate,* was described, this 
genus was represented by two species only, viz., S. hellardii, 
d'Orbigny, from the tfiocenc of Turin, f and S. hoernesi, von Koenen, 
from the Miocene of Dingden, Berssenbriick.| 

The remaining groups of the mollusc are not especially repre- 
sented in the Australian Tertiary by genera restricted to any 
particular horizons elsewhere ; but the Australian beds are rich in 
species of gasteropods, bivalves, and other invertebrates, related to 
these in the Tertiary faunas of the northern hemisphere, and to 
which reference will be made. 

Echinoidea. — The Australian Tertiary fauna is rich in echinoids ; 
and these furnish some interesting data in regard to closelv related 
forms found in the northern hemisphere. When first authoritatively 
examined, our fossil sea-urchins were pronounced by Profs. P. M. 
Duncan and J. W. Gregory and others to have a decided 
Cretaceous aspect. This opinion has since been abandoned in 
consequence of the characters of the Australian species having 
been more clearly defined, showing them to be distinct from 
apparently related but older forms, as for example, Holaster 
(Cretaceous), and Duncaninster (IMiocene). Certain genera, as 
Cassidulus, Plesiolampas, and Prenaster, are Eocene elsewhere. 
Echinoneus is a genus ranging from Miocene to Recent in other 
areas. It is represented in our faunas by E. dennanti, T. S. Hall, 
and is found in the Batesford limestone associated with a Miocene 
foraminifer, Lepidocyclina. Clypeaster, although unrestricted, attains 
its maximum development in the Miocene faunas, as at Malta and 
the south of France. Linthia has a range from the Cretaceous to 
Recent, but is typically a Miocene form. It is represented by 
several species in our Janjukian series ; L. antiaustralis, Tate, 
occurs at Curlewis in beds of that age, whilst L. mooraboolensis, 
Pritchard, is found in the Batesford limestone associated ^"ith 
Miocene foraminifera, as Lepidocyclina nmrginata and L. tournoueri. 
Another unrestricted genus but typically ]\Iiocene, is Schizaster, 
and one of its species, *S. sphenoides, T. S. Hall, from the 
Barwonian of the Sherbrooke River, is almost identical with S. 
scillae, Desmoulins, a typical Miocene form in Europe. 

Foraminifera. — The general facies of the foraminifera from 
Balcombian strata is that of the Lower Miocene fauna, with a 
tendency to the Oligocene : but no nummulites are present, as 
in typical Oligocene strata elsewhere. The Janjuldan series, by 
its included species of Lepidocyclina, Cycloclypeits and Amphistegina, 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. xxWi., 1894. p. 170, pi. x., figs. 1, \a, b. 

t Ann. Sci. Nat. 1842, \'ol. xvii.. p. 262, pi. xi. See also Jlicheiotti, Foss. Terr. Jliocenes, 
Ital, 1847, p. 346, pi. xv., fig. 12. 

t Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch., vol. xvii., 1865, p. 428. Palseontographica, vol. 
XV!.'. pt. 3, 1867, p. 145, pi. xiv., figs. 6a~h. 

[ '6] 


is proved to be of Miocene age, as contrasted with the Eocene. 
This group of organisms, however, will be discussed in detail in a 
subsequent section. 

Cotnparative Types. — The following comparative types of 
European Tertiary fossils have been selected as comprising some of 
the more strildng forms which are isomorphous with the Australian 
species. It is by no means an exhaustive list, but will serve to 
illustrate the trend of evidence now brought forward, which proves 
that the greater part of the southern Australian series is of Mocene 
age ; whilst below are beds of Ohgocene to Lower Miocene, and 
above, of Pliocene, ages : — 

b. = balcombian ; bw. = barwonian* ; j. = janjukian ; 

k. = kalimnan. 
Southern Australia. Et'rope. 

Bw. — Ceratotrochis typus, Seg. sp. C. typus, Seg. sp. (Up. Mio- 
J. — Deltocyathus aldingensis, T. D. italicus, Ed. and Haime 

W. (Uppei- Miocene). 

B.J. — Balanophyllia australiensis, B. praelonga, Michelottl ^li 

Dune. gocene and Miocene). 

J. — Balanophyllia cylindrica, B. cylindrica, Mich. (Upper 

Michelin Miocene). 

Bw. — Balanophijllia selivyni, Dun- B. italica, Ed. and Haime 

can (Miocene). 

J. — Psammechinus woodaijhauhe P. monolis, Desmoulins sp. 

sp. (Pliocene). 

B.J.K. — Clypeaster gippslandicus, C. grandiflorus, Bronn (Mio- 
McCoy cene). Note. — McCoy re- 

fers to C. subdepressus, 
Gray, a W. Indian and W. 
African living species, as 
a near ally. 
Bw. — Linthia gigas, McCoy sp. . . L. crucia, Desor (Miocene). 
B.J.K. — Lovenia forhesi, Woods and Lovenia hoffmanni, Goldfuss 
Duncan sp. (Upper Oligocene). 

This species is usually re- 
ferred, apparently erro- 
neously, to the genus 
Hemipatagus, for, judging 
from specimens in the 
National Museum collec- 
tion, it has the sub-anal 
fasciole well developed, and 
should therefore be trans- 
ferred to the Prymnodes- 

* Probably almost all the Barwonian localities will eventually be found to represent an 
argillaceous phase of the Janjuljian. 

14328.— B [ 17 ] 


Comparative Types — continued. 

Southern Australia. Europe. 

A small depressed variety of L. L. ocellata, Defr. sp. (Mio- 
jorhesi, more frequent in the Jan- cene). 
jiikian and Kalimnan 
B.J.K. — Cucullcea corioensis, McCoy C. crassatina, Lam. (Eocene- 
L. auriia, Brocchi sj). (Oli- 
B. — Limofsis morningtonensis, , gocene-Recent). 

Pritch. \L. scalaris, Sow. sp. (Upper 

J. — Area {Barhatia) limatella, Area (B.) appendicula, Sow. 
Tate sp. (Upper Eocene and Oligo- 

B.J.K. — Area {Barhatia) eonsutilis, Area (B.) biarujula, Lam. 
Tate sp. (Middle and Upper 

B.J.K. — Glycimeris eainozoieus, T.W. G. fulvinatus, Lam. The 
sp. variety described by Bron- 

gniart from the JMiocene. 
B. — Pteria erassicardia, Tate sp. P. phalaenacea, Lam. sp. (Mio- 
B.J. — Peeten peroni, Tate . . Pecten spinulosus, Miinster 

B.J. — Pecten hochstetteri, Zittel . . Pecten buidigalensis, Lam. 

B.J. — Pecten sturtianus, Tate . . Peeten fistulosus, Eichw. (= 

malvinae, Dubois) (Plio- 
B.J.K. — Pecten yahliensis, T.W. . . Pecten hoffmanni, Goldfuss 

(Upper Oligocene). 
B.J. — Hinnites corioensis, McCoy H. eortesii, Defr. (Miocene). 
J. — Spondylus gaederopoides, S. gaederopus, Linne (^lio- 

McCoy cene). 

B.J. — Lima bassi, T. Woods . . L. inflata, Lam. (^Miocene). 
K. — Cardita calva, Tate . . C. orbicularis, Bromi (= 

chamaejormis, Goldfuss) 
B(?).J. — Carditameracompta,llsiiQ&^. C. crassicosta, Lam. sp. (Mio- 
B.J. — Cha^nalamellif era, T.Woods C. squamosa, Sol. (Upper 

B.J.K. — Dentalium mantelli, Zittel D. hickxi, Miinster (Oligo- 
B.J.K. — Crepidula unguiformis, Jj&ra. C. unguiformis, Lam. (]\Iio- 




Comparative Types- 
Southern Australia. 




— Natica hamiltonensis, Tate ]N. Jielicina, Brocchi sp. (Mio- 

Natica wintlei, T. Woods ) 
Natica subnoae, Tate 



B.J. - 

B.J. - 

J. - 
J. - 
J. - 

B.J. - 

J. - 

B.J. - 
J. - 


B. — 
B. - 

B.J. - 

B. — 
B. — 
K. - 

B. — 

B. — 

J. - 


B. — 
B. J., - 
B. — 

B 2 

—Turritella tristira, Tate . . 

—Cypraea archeri, T.W. . . 

Trivia avellanoides, McCoy 

Lotorium lortirosire, Tate 

Murex tenuicornis, Tate . . 
Murex legrandi, T. Woods 
Typhis tripterus, Tate . . 

Typhis macGoyi, T. Woods 

Fasciolaria johnstoni, 

T.W. sp 


N. noae, d'Orb. (Eocene). 

vindohonensis, Partsch 

-{ (Miocene). 

It. triplicata, Brocchi. 

C. sphaericulata, Lam. (Mio- 

T. ai^nis, Wood (Miocene and 

L. arguttim, Kyst sp. (Middle 
Eocene-Miocene) . 

M. spinicosia, Bronn (Miocene). 

M. cristatus, Brocchi (Miocene). 

T. fisfulosus, Sow. (Upper Eo- 

T. pungens, Sol. sp. (Upper 

F. hilineata, Partsch sp. (Mio- 
Fasciolaria decipiens, Tate F. tarbelliana, Grat. (Miocene). 
Volutilithesanticingulatus, V. cingulaius, Nyst sp. (Oligo- 


V. scalatis, Sow. sp. (Upper 

V. spinosa, Lam. (Eocene). 

0. clavula, Lam. sp. (Miocene). 

A. dubia, Deshayes sp. (Middle 

A. glandiformis, Lam. sp. (Mio- 

A. obsoleta, HoU (Miocene). 

C. varicosa, Defr. (Miocene). 

T. pertusa, Bast. (Miocene). 
\T. acuminata, Bors. (Miocene). 
[T. meJaniana, Grat. (Miocene). 

P. planum, Giebel (Ohgocene). 

McCoy sp. 
-Volutilithes antiscalaris, 

McCoy sp. 
-Valuta strophodon, McCoy 
Olivella angustata, Tate sp. 
Ancilla subampliata, Tate 

Ancilla hebera, Hutton sp. 

Ancillalanceolata,Tate sp. 
Cancellaria exaltata, Tate 
Terebra angulosa, Tate . . 

Terebra platyspira, Tate 


Pleurotoma murndaliana, 

Apiotoma bassi, Pritchard Pleurotoma ramosum, 

-Bathytoma rhomboidalis, B. cataphracta,livocchi sp. (]Mio- 

T. Woods sp. cene). 

Bathytoma decomposita, Tate B. turhida, Bronn sp.(Oligocene). 
Conus heterospira, Tate I 
Conus hamiltonensis, Tate J 


C. dujardini, Desh. (Miocent^). 


Comparative Types — continued. 

Southern Australia. Europe. 

B.J.K. — Conus cuspidatus, Tate . . C. raristriatus, Bell, and Mich. 

B.J.K. — Conus extenuatus, Tate . . C. procerus, Beyrich (Oligo- 

B. — Vaginella eliymostoma, V. strangulala, Grat. sp. (Micj- 

Tate cene). 

B.J.K. — Aturia australis, McCoy A. aluri, Bast. (Miocene). 

j'*S. hellardi, d'Orb. (Miocene). 
J. — Spirulirostra curta, Tate -S. hoernesi, von Koenen (Mio- 

'. cene). 
K. — Scaldicetusmacgeei,C\\a])m. Scaldicetus carreli, Du Bus 

(Lower Pliocene). 

Ox the Absence of Nummulites in the Tertiary of Southern 


One of the chief factors which gave support to the conclusion 
that the Australian Tertiary beds belong in part to the Eocene or 
Nummulitic formation, was the erroneous record of the genus 
Nummulites from the lower beds at Muddy Creek, near Hamilton, 
Victoria. The nummulinoid foraminifer occurring so commonly 
throughout the main portion of our Tertiaries was, however, correctly 
assigned to the genus Amphistegina as early as 1865 by Tenison 
Woods*, for whom, as before stated, it was named by Prof. Rupert 
Jones. In describing the foraminifera from Muddy Creek, Woods 
writes as follows :,— " The foraminifera are large and numerous ; 
indeed one species, Amphistegina mdgaris, d'Orb., is so common 
that the clay is principally composed of it. Its large lenticular 
form can be traced in almost every pinch of the debris, and what 
makes the individuals more conspicuous is that they have all 
received the ferruginous glaze which makes them look like little 
coins. Prom their numbers the strata may in truth be called an 
Amphistegina-hed, similar to that in Vienna, and possibly of the same 
age. Other Foraminifera occur, such as Discorbina turbo, Pulvimdina 
ptdchella, Planorbulina Haidingeri, Operculina complanata, Poly- 
morphina lactea, Textularia sagittula, Miliolina semiluna, and M, 
irigonula. Next in frequency to the Amphistegina vulgaris is the 
Operculina complanata. Bast., and though equal in size to the 
species found at Mount Gambler, it is much more common in the 
latter locality." 

The earliest reference to the supposed occurrence of Nummuhtes 
in AustraUa appears to be that given by T. R. Jones in 1882, j 
when a descriptive note on specimen P. 253 in the British Museum 

* Quart. Jouin. Geol. Soc, vol. xxi., 1865, p. 391. 
t Cat. Foss. Foram. Brit. Mus., p. 67. 



was published, reading as follows : — " Small Nummulites (near N. 
variolaria) and Amphistegina ? In the Muddy Creek Tertiaries 
(Hamilton beds). South Australia.* T. Rupert Jones Coll." 

The previous deterniination made by Prof. Jones in 1865 was 
the correct one ; and here he was evidently misled by the large 
size of the Amphisteginae, which on casual inspection might be 
readily assigned to the genus Nummulites. In his earlier deter- 
mination, Rupert Jones had, without doubt, carefully examined 
these forms and satisfied himself as to their amphistegine nature. 

Mr. Walter Howchin, in his valuable and comprehensive 
account of " The Foraminifera of the Older Tertiary of Australia 
(No. 1, Muddy Creek, Victoria). "| recorded Amphistegina lessoni, 
d'Orb., and Nummulites variolaria, Sow., from the upper and lower 
beds (Kalimnan and Balcombian), and mentioned in the descrip- 
tion of N. variolaria the ])robability of the specimens from the 
upper bed being derived from the lower bed. 

In the course of work on the Tertiary fossils of southern 
Australia since 1902, I have had occasion to microscopically 
examine samples of foraminiferal rocks from nearly all Victorian 
and many South Australian and other localities, and in every 
case have failed to find a true Nummulite, although many 
specimens were put aside as doubtful until sections were made 
from them. Latterly I wrote to my friend, Mr. Howchin, 
asking him for samples of the supposed Nummulites Avhich he 
possessed. These he very kindly forwarded, and on my returning to 
him sliced examples of the shells, Mr. Howchin concurred with me 
as to their relationship with Amphistegina. At the same time he 
very generously favoured me with a note for publication which will 
explain how the confusion had arisen in the determination of these 
difficult forms. 

Mr. Howchin writes : — " When working up the foraminifera of the 
Muddy Creek beds, I was writing to Brady on sundry matters, and 
enclosed a few of the large nummuline-like forms that are a 
proininent feature in the Muddy Creek material. Under date, 
25th October, 1886, Brady replied as follows : — ' Firstly with regard 
to your specimens. 1. Nummulites in quill. So far as can be made 
out, this does not materially differ from Num. variolaria — assuming 
these are fully-grown species and not the young of some larger 
species. I do not altogether trust my laaowledge of the distinctions 
marking the allied varieties of this group — the subject has become a 
special one. However, von Hantken, of Pest, to whom I was writing, 
and enclosed one or two of the specimens, replies to the same effect.' 
I am afraid that I accepted too readily, and without due examination, 
the testimony of those two experienced authorities. It is only fair 

* For South Australia read Victoria ; a frequent error, made even by some Australian 

t Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xii. (1888), 1889, pp. 1-20, pi. i. 



to say that neither Brady nor von Hantken made sections of the 
specimens, and the very large size of tlie Ampliistegina was no doubt 
a misleading factor in the determination." 

This common little nummulinoid species of the Australian 
Tertiaries is without doubt referable to A. lessonii, d'Orl)igny ; and 
the fresh or unworn examples resemble the variety found in the 
Vienna Basin, known as A. hauerina, d'Orb. Some of the larger 
specimens occurring in the Balcombian marls of Muddy Creek, 
T. Woods remarked upon as being " glazed with a ferruginous 
deposit." It appears, however, that abrasion and polishing has 
occurred in these examples, presumably by aeolian agency, and that 
they have been subsequently stained by the action of ferriiginous 
water. The large sized tests of the Amphisteginae found in the Muddy 
Creek shell-marl can be matched by those from moderately shallow 
water of tropical or subtropical areas. At Funafuti the examples 
of this genus are similarly of large size, and frequently AA'ind-wom 
or even polished ; the latter character appearing on specimens of 
the tests from various depths in the deep boring. Atnphistegina 
lessonii occurs at Funafuti at all depths down to 200 fathoms, and it 
was at its largest at about 36 fathoms.* 

For the convenience of workers in other fossil groups who may 
not be conversant with the characters separating the genera 
Amphistegina and Nummulites, the following table is given. 

Common and differential characters of — 

Arrangement of 

Peripheral aspect . . 

Umbilical axis 


Alar prolongations, 
or lateral develop- 
ment of chambers 



Spiral, equitant 

Asymmetrical. Chambers 

more spacious on the lower 

With unequal-sized cones of 
finely tubulate shell sub- 
stance ; apices of cones 
directed inward 

Curved backward. angu- 
lately ; and either with 
simple septal wall, or with 
ill-developed interseptal 

Forming supplementary lobes 
on each side ; those of the 
lower surface nearly 
severed, excepting for a 
narrow neck, and forming 
the astral lobes 

A rotaline or crescentic .slit 
on the lower face 


Spiral, equitant 

Symmetrical ; therefore 

chambers equal on both 

Without umbilical cones 

Roundly arched, not thrown 
so far backward. Inter- 
mediate skeleton and 
interseptal canal-system 
highly developed, resulting 
in double shell-walls. 

Alar prolongations com- 
pletely covering the earlier 
convolutions. and en- 
closing either a simple 
laminar space, or one sub- 
divided into loculi 

A simple V-shaped slit at the 
junction of the penultimate 

* Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool., vol. xxviii., 1902, p. 414. 
I 21 1 


The Evidence of the Complex-structured Foraminifera in the 
Australian Tertiary System. 

The shells of foraminifera exliibit great diversity of form, as 
well as a wide range of complexity in shell-structure. It is too 
often assumed that, because these ubiquitous marine organisms 
belong to the lowest phylum of the animal kingdom, they cannot 
therefore be of value in helping to decide the age of the beds in which 
they occur. This, however, is far from the truth, for, prima facie, 
no one with a special knowledge of palaeontology would dispute the 
proofs of the restriction of the Nummulites to a limited series of 
strata (Eocene and OUgocene), or ignore the zonal value of certain 
species of tlie genera LepidocijcUna and Miogypsina. 

With regard to the genera of foraminifera which possess simply 
constructed tests, we may for the present disniiss these from 
consideration ; for, although they have a certain distributional 
value in affording evidence of geographical facies dominated by local 
conditions of life, or controlled by sedimentation and hydrographical 
factors, there is a much more important section to be dealt wnth in 
the specialized forms constituting the Family Orbitoididae, and 
some other more or less related forms with highly speciahzed shell- 

Gypsina howehini, Chapman.— I have already shown* how closely 
the above species agrees with the Miocene ancestor of Gypsina, \az., 
Mioqypsina. The chief difference lies in the absence of the vertical 
pillars as seen in cross-sections of Miogypsina ; the only differentia- 
tion of the chamberlets in the median plane in the test of G. howehini 
being in their more spacious character.| 

Amphistegina lessonii, d'Orbigny.— The inequilateral Amphis- 
tegina took the place of the equilateral Nummulites towards the close 
of the Oligocene, and was the predominant form in many foraminiferal 
deposits of Miocene age. J 

Cycloclypeus pustulosus, Chapman.— This species is, so far as 
known elsewhere, confined to the IMiocene (Burdigahan), being 
found in the Island of Santo, New Hebrides, where it is associated 
with Miogypsina burdigalensis, Giimbel sp. ; M. complanata, 
Schlumberger ; M. irregularis, Michelotti sp. ; Amphistegina lessonii, 
d'Orbigny •' Heterostegina depressa, d'Orb. ; H. margaritata, Schl. ; 
Lepidocyclina mwtini, Schl. ; L. andrewsiana, Jones and Chapman ; 
and L. insulae-natalis, J. and C. 

With regard to the Orbitoididae, this group has a range froni the 
Cretaceous to the Miocene. In southern Australia these foraminifera, 
represented by the Ohgocene-Miocene genus Lepidoeyclina, play the 
very important part of forming a large proportion of certain lime- 
stones such as those of Batesford and Keilor ; whilst they are also 

* Pioe. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xxii. (N.S.), pt. 2, 1910, p. 291. 
t Pioc. Roy. Soc. Vict., torn, supra cil., pi. liii., fig. 5. 
X See also loc. supra cit., p. 308. 



found, often in al)undance, in the sliallow-water deposits of some of 
the beds in the Tertiary series, sucli as those of Clifton Bank, Muddy 
Creek, and Waurn Ponds, near Geelong. 

The earliest reference to the " Orhitoides " group in the southern 
Australian Tertiaries was made by the Rev. W. Howchin, F.G.S., 
who, in 1889, recorded Orhitoides dispansus, Sowerby, 0. mantelli, 
Morton, and 0. stellata, d'Archiac, from the lower beds at 
Clifton Bank, Muddy Creek, near Hamilton, Victoria.* An 
examination of the median layer of the Muddy Creek forms shows 
them to belong to the genus Lepidocyclina, a group that was 
imperfectly worked out when Mr. Howchin made his determinations. 
The lepidocycline relationship was suggested by Lemoine and 
Douville in their paper, " Sur le Genre Lepidocyclina, Gumbel,"! 
where they say, " a Muddy-Creek (Victoria), dans des couches que 
Ton considere comme d'age eocene, M. Howchin a signale 0. mantelli 
et 0. steUata d'Archiac ; cette derniere forme, d'apres la description 
de M. Howchin, possede desloges hexagonal es et doit, par suite, etre 
rangee dans le genre Lepidocyclina." This latter form I had already 
determined to my own satisfaction as belonging to that genus, and 
have since been able to refer it to L. martini, Schlumberger. 

In 1891 Messrs. Hall and Pritchard recorded Orhitoides mantelli 
from the Filter Quarries and Upper Quarry at Batesford ; and also 
at Griffin's and near Madden's in the Moorabool Valley to the south- 
east of Batesford. I These specimens were identified by Mr. Howchin. 

Genus Lepidocyclina, Giimbel. — Examples of the genus Lepido- 
cyclina have been collected by me from four of the known localities 
in Victoria, and this collection has been further increased by specimens 
kindly given me by Dr. T. S. Hall. The localities furnishing this 
interesting group of foraminifera are, in the Balcombian series — 
Clifton Bank, Muddy Creek ; in the Janjukian series — Waurn Ponds, 
Batesford, Griffin's, near Madden's, along the Moorabool Valley, 
all near Geelong; and at Green Gully, Keilor. Quite recently I fou:~d 
a rich horizon for Lepidocyclina in Western Victoria, in the Janjukian 
limestone of the Granee Burn opposite Mr. Henty's farmstead. 

It has already been pointed out in another place§ that, whilst 
the Burdigalian species, Lepidocyclina iournoueri, Lemoine and 
R. Douville, occurs in great abundance at Batesford, the Keilor 
ferruginous limestone contains, besides this form, another species, 
L. verheehi, Newton and Holland, a species also met with at Clifton 
Bank (Balcombian). This fact seems to point to the Keilor horizon 
representing, although Janjukian, a bed slightly older than the 
Batesford limestone. To illustrate this more clearly we may note 

* Traas. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xii., 1889, p. 17. 
t Mem. Soc. Geol. France, vol. xii., fasc. ii., 1904, p. 32. 
± Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. iv., pt. 1, 1891. pp. 10, 18, 19. 

§ Chapman. " A Study of tlie Batesford Limestone." Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xxii. 
(N.S.), pt. 2, 1910, p. 311. " 



that Douville has pointed out* that the Lepidocyclinae fall into two 
groups : — 1st. The L. dilatata group, in which the vertical pillars are 
small and uniformly distributed over the shell, the test being 
typically large, as L. chaperi, L. insuhe-natalis, L. verbeeki, and L. 
elephantina. 2nd. The L. marginata group, in which the pillars are 
more or less developed, but always more crowded towards the centre 
of the test, as L. raulini, L. morgani, L. toumoueri, L. suhmarginata, 
and L. sunuitrensis. 

The beds in Borneo, Italy and Panama (San Juan), characterized 
by the first group, that of L. dilatata, belong to the Aquitanian stage. 
The beds in Borneo, the south of France and Panama containing 
those of the second, L. marginata group, belong to the Burdigalian 
stage, t 

The distribution of the Victorian forms of LepidocycUna may 
best be shown by the following schedule : — 

Victorian Localities. 


Beds elsewhere. 

Batesford . . 

Clifton Bank, Muddy 

L. toumoueri, L. marginata, 

L. martini 
L. toumoueri, L. verheeki . . 

L. verbeeki 

Burdigalian of southern 

Gaj Beds of India ; Upper 

Aquitanian, S. of Europe ; 

L. iusulae-natalis Beds of 

Christmas Id. 
Lower Aquitanian 

F. Sacco has studied the faunas containing LepidocycUna and 
Miogypsina vnih especial regard to the Tertiary basin of Piedmont, 
Italy ; and, although he differs from Douville and Prever with 
reference to the precise horizon of L. marginata in that .area, yet that 
question does not affect our present conclusions. M. Sacco fixes 
the L. marginata beds as Aquitanian (but Miocene), whilst Douville 
and Prever place them in the Burdigahan (still Miocene). The 
succession remains the same, and the periods follow suit. It is thus 
merely a local adjustment of terms. J 

Prof. A. Silvestri, in his " Distribuzione Geografica e Geologica 
due Lepidocicline communi nel Terziario Italiano,"§ cites 
the occurrence of both L. dilatata and L. toumoueri in the 
Priabonian (Oligocene) in Italy and Greece, and their recurrence 
in Italy in the Miocene. In the former instance those species are 
associated with more archaic forms, as the striated nummulites 
and Chapmania, which, however, are absent from the Australian 

* Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 4, vol. vii., 1907, p. 57. 

t H. Douville. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 4, vol. v., 1905, p. 454 (Table), and p. 455. 
J " Sur la Valeur Stratigraphique des LepidocycUna et des" Bull. Soc. Geol. 
France, ser. 4, vol. v., 1906, p. 882. 

§ Mem. Pont. Accad. Rom. dei Nuovi Lincei, vol. xxix., 1911, pp. 54, 55. 

[25 J 


Stratigraphical Notes bearing on the Sequence or the 


A. — The Port Phillip Area. 

A boring at Sorrento close to the Port Phillip Heads has 
been lately put down by the Mines Department of Victoria to a 
depth of 1,693 feet.* The results obtained from this, perhaps the 
most valuable boring from a scientific stand-point which has yet 
been made in the Cainozoic strata in this State, sets at rest any 
doubt as to the succession of these beds. In the marls from 
1,310-1,426 feet there are bands of Vaginella eligynostoma, a 
pteropod occurring in the fossil beds at and above sea-level at 
Mornington and Grice's Creek, about 18 and 22 miles to the 
north-east. This difference in level of the same strata between 
the two places within so short a distance is explained 
by the fact that the great Dandenong to Cape Schanck 
fault cuts between the two areas ; Sorrento, being on the down- 
throw side, and Mornington and Grice's Creek on the upthrow side. 
These lowest beds of the bore are proved by their fossil contents 
to be of Balcombian age. In the same boring Janjuldan marls are 
distinguished, at 990 and 758 feet, by containing typical Spring 
Creek fossils, as Eutrochus fontinalis and many others. From 
741 to 585 feet Limopsis beaumariensis and other typical Kalimnan 
fossils denote this portion to belong to the upper series. Above 
this again, the Werrikooian or Upper Pliocene is represented probably 
between 585 and 489 feet ; whilst above this comes a Pleistocene 
and Holocene succession of estuarine muds and sand-dune rock. 

The Cainozoics at Sorrento were not bottomed at 1,693 feet. 
Judging from the exposure of Mesozoic shales \Anth Thinnjeldia on 
the foreshore south of Grice's Creek, it is highly probable that the 
Cainozoics at Sorrento may rest on these same Mesozoic rocks. 

Follo\ving the Port Phillip coast-line in a north-easterly direction 
beyond Dromana, we find, at the north end of Balcombe's Bay, t^'pical 
Balcombian blue clays ^vith septaria containing Vaginella eligmostoma. 

vrfitK annelid boi-'t^^i 

:-^_ set- ><v<.l 


This bed passes upwards into a grey marl with gypsum crystals. 
Going southward from the Cement Works past the low point with 
tumbled ferruginous grits (Fig. 1), a shallow indent in the coast 

*See Ann. Report, Dept. Mines, Vict., for 1910 (1911), p. 152. 


reveals a thick series, about 80 feet in extent, of a grey clay with 
gypsum similar to that north of the Cement Works, and which is 
evidently part of the same Balcombian series. The upper beds are 
seamed with fracture-lines due to local faulting, and through these 
minor rifts percolation has taken place through the surrounding 
strata containing pyritous matter, resulting in the replacement of 
the fossil shells by gypsum (Fig. 2). The occurrence of the marl-bed 

rlS 8of-l- 

sea. i-g~«l 

at this place is compatible with the general character of an Oligocene 
fluvio-marine series, as typified on the other side of the Bay at 
Newport and Altona. The relationship between the older basalt 
and the Balcombian clays is obscure at this part, owing to the 
maslving by landslips and extensive faulting ; but near Landslip 
Point* the basalt is seen to overlie the granite and conglomerate, 
the latter being referred by Messrs. Hall and Pritchardf to the 
Balcombian or older, and to underlie the fossiliferous ironstone 
conglomerate with a typical Janjukian fauna. In a recent visit to 
Frankston, Mr. R. A. Keble and the writer obtained several restricted 
Janjukian fossils from the fossihferous ironstone ; thus linking this 
bed with similar ironstones at Flemington, Keilor, and South 
Yarra (see postea, p. 29). 

Older basalt is met with at various points along the coast, as 
between Checbingurk Creek and Mornington, between Mornington 
and Grice's Creek, and between Wallace Bay and Frankston. { 
Leaf-bods also occur, associated " with quartz pebbly drift "... 
" in the base of a high cHfE in Balcombe Bay,"§ and Mr. Kitson 
thinks the leaves resemble those of the Janjukian at Sentinel Rock, 
Cape Otway. Mr. J. S. Green has lately obtained some leaves from 
these beds, which show a marked resemblance to the genera 
described by H. Deane from Berwick, as Apocynophyllum, cf. 
Tristanites, Lomaiia, and cf. Fagus. No leaf-beds were met with 

* See Section C-D of A. E. Kitson's Report on the Coast Line between Frankston, Jlorninirton 
and Dromana. Geol. Surv. Vict., Monthly Prog. Rep. No. 12, 1900. " 

t Proc. Roy. Soc. V'ict., vol. xiv. (N.S'.), pt. 1, 1901, p. 43. 

X See Kitson. Monthly Prog. Rep. Geol. Surv. \ict., No. 12, 1900, p. 8. ALso Hall and 
Pritchard, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xiv., pt. 1, 1901, p. 35, et ser/. 

§ Kitson, loc. supra cit., p. 11. 



ill the SorroMtn Boro, so we may foiuhuU' that tliat area was outside 
the infhicnce of fluviatile conditions of tlie continental seaV^oard of 
that time. As regards Kitson's reference to these leaf beds as 
resembling tliose of the Otway Coast, it is interestii-g to note that one 
specimen collected by Mr. J. S. (ireen is practically identical with 
branchlets of a Casuarina from Sentinel Rock.* 

The exact relationship of the basalt to the Balcombian blue 
clays in the Mornington district appears to be obscured by slipping 
and faulting ; but at Grice's Creek, Drs. Hall and Pritchard mention 
that these clays are "succeeded by basalt, which occupies the bed of 
the stream for nearly a chain, and over which the ascent is steep. "f 
In the Table of Rock-Succession, however, the same authors:}: place 
the basalt below the blue and grey clays, and above the lignitic 
beds ; and in another place§ mention the occurrence of grits and 
conglomerates (lignitic) as " passing under a small mass of basalt 
which shows well-developed tabular jointing." This basalt is not 
seen intercalated between the clays and lignites in the cliff sec-tion 
at Balcombe Bay. Hall and Pritchard offer two possible explana- 
tions of this problem. Either a narrow stream of lava flowed down 
an eroded valley, cutting through the upper sandy beds till the 

fe.Toff mdv^S SlnCM l^ivy 

lignitic series was reached, or a sheet of basalt was laid down ujjon 
the lignitic series, and subsequently partially removed by denudation 
before the deposition of the overlying sandy beds. 

* Cf. Ettingshausen. Callitrls prixi-a, from Vegetable Creek, N.S. Wales, in Mem. GeoL 
Surv. N.S. Wales, Pal. No. 2, 1888, p. 95, pi. viii., figs. 3, 4. 
t Proc. Roy. See. Vict., vol. xiv., pt. I, 1901, p. 37. 
X Loc. cit., p. 41. 
§ Loc. cit., p. 40. 



The most clearly defined section of this much disturbed and 
masked coast-line is that given by Mr. Kitson,* from Landslip 
Point to Narringalling Creek (Kackeroboite Creek of Kitson). At 
Landslip Point (Fig. 3, a generalized section) the succession is 
shown to be : — 

6. Ferruginous sands. 

•5. Ferruginous grits with fossils. 

4. Basalt. 

3. Hard ferruginous grit. 

2. Conglomerate (with slate pebbles). 

L Granite. 

The discovery of fossils in the ferruginous bed No. 5 mentioned 
above was made some years ago by Mr. Kitson, F.G.S., who, in his 
paper, " Report on the Coast-line and adjacent Country between 
Frankston, Mornington, and Dromana,"f stated that " The [fossil] 
casts obtained have been examined by Mr. Dennant, who unhesi- 
tatingly pronounces them to be of Eocene age." 

A fairly extensive series of fossils from this ferruginous band 
was obtained and recorded by Hall and Pritchard in 1 90L J Although 
their list comprises 36 species, none of them seems to be restricted 
to Balcombian strata. In point of fact, an examination of that list 
shows that the affinities of the species enumerated lie as closely with 
a Janjukian as a Balcombian facies, mth which latter series Hall 
and Pritchard state they " show a close agreement." 

During the last year I have visited this locality in company 
with Mr. R. A. Keble, and we have made a fairly comjjrehensive 
collection of the ironstone fossils. The impressions, as a rule, are 
very clean, and in some cases even the shell is preserved. Several 
of the forms found are not>eworthy as being restricted Janjukian 
species, and as such give strong evidence as to the precise age 
of this band of ironstone. The fossils amongst the collection 
made by us which are new to the already published list referred to 
are : — 

Corals — 

Placotrochus sp. 

Sphenotrochus emarciatus, Duncan. 
Vermes — 

Ditrufa cornea, L. sp. var. wormbeiiensis, McCoy. 

Brachiopoda — 

Terebratula (.?) aldingae, Tate. 
Magellania garibaldiana, Dav. sp. 

* Monthly Prog. Rep., Geol. Surv. Vict., No. 12, 1900; section facing p. 4, C-D. 

t Loc. supra, cil., p. 10. 

{ Pioc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xiv. (N.S.), pt. 1, 1901, pp. 44 and 46-53. 



Pclccypoda — 

FecCen foulcheri, T. Woods. 

Fecten cf. flindersi, Tate. 

Fecten fraecursw, Chapman. 

Limalula sp. 

Cuspidaria sp. 
Scaphopoda — 

Dentalium mantelli, Zittel. 
Gasteropoda — 

Latirus {?)actinoste'phes, Tate sp. 

Oliva sp. 

Colwnbarium acanthostephes, Tate sp. 
Of the above forms the following are worthy of especial note : — 
Sphenotrochus enuircialus has a remarkably extensive range, being 
found alike in Balcombian, Janjukian, and Kalimiiau strata. 
Ditrupa cornea, var. wormbetiensis is especially typical of Janjukian 
beds ; it is a characteristic and abundant fossil in the polvzoal rock 
of the Mallee Bores and of the upper limestones of the Spring Creek 
series, and so far as I am aware, only a single specimen has occurred 
in the Balcombian, at the top of the series, at Miiddy Creek. The 
brachiopod provisionally referred to Terebratula (?) aldmgae is a 
cast, which, by its compressed shape and outline, is nearest that 
species, only occurring in Janjuldan strata ; the squarish anterior 
is matched very closely by specimens in the Dennant collection ; 
and the only other species with which it could be compared is T. 
vitreoides, T. Woods, also a Janjukian form. Fecten praecursor is a 
specially characteristic Janjukian form. P. flindersi is also of 
similar age, being found at Aldinga. 

From Mornington towards Frankston, and over the hinterland, 
thick deposits of fine and coarse sands, often ferruginous, are largely 

K a. 1 1 KM n 3->-n 5 a-n d S 

Cir-a-ni 1-^ 

overspread. The age of this series is doubtful, being unfossiUferouc;, 
but the lower portion is undoubtedly of Janjukian age, as sho'mi 

[ 30 ] 


Vftllow sa-vds 

Atd tl».y"> - 
i^Xl . r\-\.T\ a.«- 

_ _ _ CiU4.r««><y^ 

- - — — Olotclj-yS 

above, and comparable with those beds known elsewhere, as in 
Western Victoria, as the " older gold-drifts." The general sequence 
of the strata in Port Phillip between Frankston and Mornington 
appears to be easily explained by the accompanying diagram (Fig. 4). 

Still on the downthrow side of the great fault of Port PhiUip 
and on the opposite (west) side of that great inlet, are situated 
Altona Bay and Newport, at which places deep shafts have been put 
down, extending into Balcombian strata, and affording a continuous 
series from surface level. These bores reveal several seams of lignite 
or brown coal, one of which is 74 feet in thickness. Unfortunately, 
no detailed and scientific 
account of the strata 
passed through in these 
bores is available, but the 
data given by the engineers 
show that the beds are 
very variable in character, 
and a general idea may be 
gained as to their nature. 
The bed-rock, probably an 
Ordovician slate (Fig. 5), 
was struck in Bore No. 1 
at Altona Bay (Sect. VII., 
parish of Truganina) at 
656 ft. 3 in., and pene- 
trated a thickness of 
238 ft. 4 in.* Above this 
bed-rock there is a variable 
series of gravelly sands 
and lignitiferous clays, 
with occasional seams 
containing broken shells, 
which amounts to a thick- 
ness of 235 ft. 6 in. Above 
this, again, occurs a brown 
coal bed 70 ft. 5 in. thick. 
The succeeding calcareous 
clays and limestones, as 
well as those just men- 
tioned, are of Balcombian 
age, and have yielded an 
extensive faima, chiefly of 





Dif\qR/^Ni SE.CT10S of=" BoR&s 
NE.A\R Al_TOr^^A\e)^V Port PHu-LiP. 

moUusca, which have been hsted by Messrs. Thiele and Grant,! 
and more recently by Messrs. Dennant and Kitson.t The latter list 

* Ann. Rep. Dept. Mines, Vict., for 1902 (1903), p. 69. 
t Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xiv., pt. 1, 1901, p. 145. 
t Rec. Geol. Surv. Vict., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1903. 

[31 J 


also include the occurrences from the Newport Bores. Above the 
calcareous clays there are alternating bands of ferruginous 
clays and sands, which afford strong evidence of belonging to the 
Janjukian series of the Corio Bay marly facies ; smce from these beds 
Messrs. J. S. Green and W. J. Parr have obtained many fine examples 
of the large Magellanias characteristic of the beds at Corio Bay, 
which crop out to the south-west at the locality named. As 
collecting on the spoil-heaps from these borings has been done 
somewhat indiscriminately, it is possible tliat the published li.sts of 
fossils from these localities may include some forms which are not 
actually from the Balcombian series. 

In the report of Messrs. Thiele and Grant it is stated that this 
" cream-coloured sandy clay, with nodules of yellow hmestone 
. . . . isvery full of foraminifera (largely of the genus OjaercuZina), 
and contains a fair number of brachiopods, but few gastropods or 
lamellibranchs." The brachiopods were not included in their 
list.* They also noted the uppermost bed as consisting of " a 
coarse ferruginous grit," in which they " failed to find any traces 
of fossils." In all probability this bed is the equivalent of the 
marine Kalimnan series of Brighton and Beaumaris and the subaerial 
sands of the Melbourne district. 

Crossing again to the eastern side of Port Philhp, and on the 
Melbourne side of Frankston, the cliffs in the neighbourhood of 
Beaumaris are mainly composed of the Kalimnan beds, consisting 
of ferruginous clays and sands, which contain typical Kalimnan 
fossils, as Limopsis beaumariensis and Trigonia margaritacea, var. 
acuticoatala. On the foreshore may be commonly found teeth of 
sharks, many of which are common also to the nodide bed seen at 
the Grange Burn and on Muddy Creek ; and which by their position 
there are seen to form the basal bed at Macdonald's and Forsyth's. 
Although the beds on the foreshore at Beauinaris are covered by a 
thick deposit of shingle, it has been proved that, by sinking a shaft 
for a few feet, the basal nodule bed is exposed in situ. By a 
comparison with the beds of the Hamilton district it is evident that 
the rolled fossils of the nodule bed constitute a remanie fauna, 
whilst the surrounding clay contains indigenous Kalimnan fossils. 

B. — Flinders. 

An interesting little patch of polyzoal limestone is found on the 
coast at Fhnders, resting on the older basalt. The limestone has 
evidently been deposited in an eroded hollow on the surface of the 
lava,t and it has a maximum thickness of about 20 feet. The 
fossils contained in this friable limestone show unniistakeable 
affinities with the Cainozoics of the Moorabool Valley and Curlewis, 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xiv., pt. 1, 1901, p. 145. 

t See also Kitson. Rec. Geol. Surv. Vict., vol. i., pt. 1, 1902, p. 49. 



both of which must be referred to the Janjiikian. For instance, the 
numerous Amphisteginae* present in the FHnders rock make it 
comparable to the Filter Quarry stone at Batesford ; whilst the 
occurrence of an abundance of calsisponges shows its time-relation- 
ship with Curlewis and the Moorabool section at " Griffin's." At 
Curlewis I have lately obtained numerous examples of Tretocalia 
pezica, which were only recorded previously from Flinders. Other 
Janjukian (restricted or Jjost-Balcombian) fossils found at Flinders 
are — Arachnoides (MonostycMa) australis, Cidaris {Leiocidaris) 
australiae, Pecten gamhierensis, and P. subhifrons. 

Besides affording positive evidence for a Janjulcian age, it is 
interesting to note that this limestone rests on the older basalt 
(Fig. 6), as does the fossilifcrous ironstone of the Flemington railway 
cutting and many other Miocene (Janjuldau) occurrences. Whilst 
far from assuming that the older basalt so-called represents an 
effusion of one definite period, it is always so closely associated 
with those beds, which are proving themselves to be merely different 
lithological phases of the great Janjuldan and Mount Gambier 
series, that we are forced to the conclusion that during this period 
of maximum sedimentary deposition on the southern Australian 
coast, an intermittent series of flows were poured out of a generally 
dense, magmatic basalt, which in some measure represents the 
relieving outbursts consequent upon the extraordinary strain that 
was exerted at that period on the continental shelf. 

Flp. b. QiPvqf?ft.'»1 SECTioM or JM<JUKift,N Lir'vCSToHe. ■vr'O 
AwSSoCi lvxe.-D STRATA AT ruiMOERS. 

The Flinders limestone, by the abundance of its foraminifera, 
polyzoa, and calcisponges, indicates a fairly deep water and 
tranquil condition, with little or no solution of the ferruginous 
constituents of the volcanic sea-bed. At Flemington we have 
the opposite conditions, of a shore-line with littoral shells, as 
Haliotis and Patella, and much alteration of the original shell- 
conglomerate, resulting, by its absorption of iron probably both 
from above and below, in a highly ferruginous rock. 

An extremely interesting discovery was lately made by Mr. 
R. A. Keble, of the Mines Department, of a small patch of polyzoal 
rock resting on older basalt at the back of Cape Schanck. The 
position of this rock is about 1 mile north-west of the junction of the 

* Referred in error to Nummulites variolaria by Mr. Kitson. 
14328.— C . r '^'^ ] 


Lighthouse and Sorrento roads. Besides generally resombling the 
Flinders limestone, to which horizon it clearly belongs, it proves on 
examination to contain tests of Lefiducyclina, the first recorded 
east of Port Phillip, the previously known localities being Batesford, 
Keilor, and Muddy Creek, Hamilton. This occurrence strengthens 
the view that the beds in the Moniington. district also, that overlie 
the older basalt, belong to the Janjukian and not to the Balcombian, 
as Hall and Pritchartl supposed,* judging from their examination 
of the fossils at Landslip Point, Frankston. This assemblage, by 
the way, does not contain any restricted Balcombian species, for even 
Vaginella is found very sparingly as high in the geological series as 
the younger beds of Muddy Creek (Kalimnan), according to the list 
of Dennant and Kitson."|' Moreover, the Frankston locahty contains 
some restricted Janjukian species, as shown earlier in this paper. 
The reason one might advance for the absence of Lefidocydina 
from the Flinders limestone is its deep-water aspect, the foiaminifera 
belonging to that genus appearing to favour shallow to moderately 
deep-water conditions, but this evidence is not conclusive, since 
the Filter Quarry deposit is both polyzoal and Lepidocycline in 

C. — The Bairnsdale Distnct. 

The Cainozoic rocks of this area were first noticed in detail by 

paper " Notes on the Geology of Part 

Dr. A. W. Howitt, in his 
of the Mitchell River 
Division of the Gipps- 
land Mining District."! 
In this j)aper the beds of 
the Tertiary system are 
divided into — 1st. Middle 
Tertiaries (Miocene), with 
a coarse limestone con- 
taining marine fossils ; 
marly beds with similar 
remains. 2nd. Upper 
Tertiary (Pliocene) fer- 
ruginous pebble con- 
glomerate ; clayey and 
sandy beds, stained with 
iron oxide, and contain- 
ing marine fossils in 
concretionary layers of 
arenaceous ironstone ; 
imperfectly flaggy sand- 



1 ronihont iru* 


NiircMeLL River Ti 1ST Ric-r. 

* Proc. Rov. Soc. Vict., vol. xiv. (N.S.). )it. 1, 1901. p. 3l>. 

t Rec. Geoi. Surv. Vict., vol. i., pt. 1. 1902. p. 137. 

± Prog. Rep. Geo). Siirv. Vict.. No. 2, 1874. p. 59. Also lljid.. No. 4. 1S77. p. 122. 



The fossil determinations and age of the rocks were reported 
upon by McCoy* ; and their joint conclusions are very nearly the 
same as advanced in the present work. A similar sequence is given 
by Mr. Dennant,f who, however, relegates the two beds to the 
Eocene and Miocene respectively (Fig. 7). 

As shown in the previous part of the present paper, the 
subdivisions of the Cainozoics are regarded by the latter author as 
of greater age than is justified by the fossil evidence. The Bairnsdale 
and Mitchell River limestones and calcareous fossil beds contain a 
facies resembling the polyzoal series of Mount Gambler and the 
Corio Bay marl beds. The difference in the two series, of the 
Bairnsdale and Mount Gambler deposits, lies in the fact that in the 
former the marine conditions during the Miocene were of a shallow- 
water nature, more akin to that of the Corio Bay series, as shown by 
the community of fossils, such as Hinnites corioensis. At Sale, in 
similar beds (Dutson's Quarry) the rock is a true Amphistegina 
limestone, like that of the middle series at Grange Burn, and the 
Flinders limestone. At Bairnsdale a large echinoid, the Clypeaster 
gifpslandicum, is fairly common ; it is a form which also occurs in 
the lower (Balcombian) stage at Muddy Creek, but of smaller 
dimensions, and in the higher (Kalimnan) stage at Beaumaris, 
where it is also of less size than at Bairnsdale. This is one of many 
good examples in Victoria of the law of maximum development in 
the Miocene. Another fossil we may note from Bairnsdale, but 
which is restricted to beds of Janjukian age, is Sfondylus gaedero- 
foides, being found in common at Maude, Torquay, the Aire coastal 
beds, in Victoria, and Table Cape, Tasmania. Of these localities, 
there can be no doubt regarding their stratigraphic position. 

The upper series in the IVIitchell River district, as shown by 
Mr. Dennant,t is referable to the beds now classed as Kalimnan 
(Miocene of Dennant and others. Lower Pliocene of McCcy and the 
present writer). Many of the fossils found therein are also common 
to the upper beds at Muddy Creek. A part of the fauna, however, 
(that of Jemmy's Point), indicates deep-water conditions as compared 
with that of the last-named locality ; and the fauna, as a whole, is 
perhaps more comparable with the deposits which were laid down 
in the Kalimnan sea of the Murray Gulf, now found underlying the 
Mallee district of Victoria and South Australia, and also of Beaumaris. 
As a case in point, Turritella fctgodula may be mentioned, which is 
a common fossil in the Mallee bores, and also found in the Beaumaris 
cliffs. Evidence as to deep-water conditions in the Kalimnan beds 
at Jemmy's Point is seen in the aspect of the foraminifera, several 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. iii. (N.S.), 1891, pp. 5.3-69. 

t Op. supra cit. See also Dennant and Clarke. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xvi., pt. 1, 1903, 
p. 46. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xvi., pt. 1, 1903, p. 21. 

C 2 [ 3.5 ] 


species of which indicate deeper bathymetrical surroundings than 
the upper heds at Muddy Creek, and clearer water than prevailed 
in the Beaumaris area. 

The view that the Bairnsdale limestone indicates a somewhat 
low horizon in the extensive and extremely variable Janjukian 
series is supported by the fact tliat the two Tertiary groups as 
revealed in geological sections along the course of the Mitchell River 
in the Bairnsdale district are luiconformable.* Here, as indicated 
by Dr. Howitt, the Upper Cainozoics rest on an eroded surface of the 
Bairnsdale limestone. This is also clearly set forth by Messrs. 
Dennant and Clarke, | wlio state that at Rose Hill, " Immediately 
underlying the Miocene [Lower Pliocene] marls there is the typical 
Eocene [Miocene] limestone of the area, which was here evidently 
an eroded surface when the later beds were deposited upon it." 
The same authors also record the Kalimnan series at Belle Vue, 
represented by a fossiliferous ironstone bed. 

D. — The Geelong Area. — Corio Bay. 

The strata exposed in the low sea-clifi of Corio Bay consist of 
yellow and occasionally greyish shelly and earthy marls, in which 
the large Magellanias, large Pectens, and solitary corals are 
conspicuous. The beds are evidently an argillaceous phase of the 
Janjukian stage. An extensive comparison of the fauna with 
that of some Balcombian marls would at first sight lead one to 
suppose the ages of the two beds to be identical, so many species of 
mollusca and other fossils being common to both beds. If, however, 
we test the faunas from these beds and select the restricted species, 
we find the following list of nine species of fossils present in the 
Corio Bay series, J which are elsewhere entirely confined to Janjiildan 
localities. They are : — 

Bullinella pauGilineata, Tate and Cossman. 

Ancilla ligata, Tate sp. 

Scala echinophora, Tate sp. 

Turbonilla lir accost ata, T. Woods. 

Limopsis insolita, Sow. sp. 

Pecten praecursor. Chapman. 

P. peroni, Tate. 

Nucula semistriata, Tate. 

Linthia (?) cjigas, McCoy sp. (probably referable to L. moora- 

boolensis, Pritchard). 

Besides these Janjukian restricted forms, another species, J/?/se^Za 

sericea, Tate, is recorded which elsewhere only occurs in the overlying 

Kalimnan series at Beaumaris, the upper beds of Muddy Creek, and in 

* Prog. Rep., vol. ii., 1874, p. 62, section No. 4. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xvi., pt. I, 1903, p. 21. The terms in square brackets are 
inserted by the present writer. 

J See list of Cainozoic Fossil-:, by Dennant antl Kitson. Rec. Geol. Siirv. Vict., vol. i., pt. 
2, 1903. 



the upper beds of the Murray Cliffs. On the other hand, only one 
species in the Corio Bay series, Capulits danieli, Crosse, is restricted 
to Balcombian elsewhere. 

This particular phase of the earthy limestone of Corio Bay is also 
found to the east of Geelong, in the outer harbor at Curlews, and its 
faunistic and lithological similarity was pointed out by Drs. Hall 
and Pritchard.* 

Curleivis. — The interpretation of the succession of the strata 
exposed in the cliffs from Clifton Springs to Curlewis is rendered 
somewhat difficult by the numerous faults which have occurred, 
and further made more obscure by landslips. By carefully piecing 
the evidence together the succession appears to be as follows. The 
lowest bed is a stratum of volcanic ash, almost black,f followed by 
a 2-ft. bed of blue clay with fossils which passes into a greenish 
sandy clay with similar forms. The argillaceous fossil beds of 
this locality have yielded several restricted Janjukian fossils J 
including Bela rvoodsi, Tate, Cypraea ovulatella, Tate, and Pecten 
praecursor. Chapman. Above this bed comes a hard polyzoal 
limestone, altogether about 6 feet thick. This limestone band 
crops out again a little way beyond the shore at low water, 
near the point of intersection of the parish boundary with the 
coast-line, as a curved or slightly undulating reef (Fig. 8). 

^«a. lcvej_ 




Roe >T OvS A ReEF- ^T Low 

This limestone, as pointed out by Messrs. Hall and Pritchard, § 
is similar to that of the Moorabool Valley. To the westward, 
at the Geological Survey locality (Ad 12), I fomad in this 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. vi. (N.S.), 1894, p. 6. 

t Idem, ibid., p. 4. 

t For some of these fossils the Museum is indebted to Mr. J. Hay Young. 

§ Loc. cit., p. 3. 



polyzoal rock some calcisponges typical of the Janjukian, as well 
as a fine specimen of Thamnastraea sera, a Table Cape coral. At 
the locality, Ad 14, the reef of limestone before mentioned is seen 
to have been once continuous with the limestone band in the middle 
of the cliff, and thus forms part of an anticline with a steep pitch 
of 28° to the N. 21° W. These beds dip to the west at about 15°, 
and are succeeded by yellow and brown clays, in the former of wliich 


F\tf.Q. Cliff-scction (So ya,ros w. of A>c* n.,Co<^uEwis-. 

Swowinq OVE«V-Yit»q TofF BE-o *S»<e. uqnx -Dowh (3>f 

there is a band of earthy limestone nodules. The Janjukian beds 
are followed by extensive ash and tuft beds of a brown and yellow 
colour, which are here seen to have slipped en bloc from above 
down to shore level (Fig. 9). To see the relation of the volcanic 
tuffs and the basalt to the beds immediately succeeding, we have to 
go eastward to within 1 mile of Clifton Springs Hotel. There we 




(?) HXumNAr* CjRl-rS RESTiKq or* Ef^oTsCO SORF^CE OF- 

^^s<^u■r.- loo \^c?Bs w. of cw\rFe Ho\»sE,,ci-\FTor« sprinciS. 

have the bedded tuffs, agglomerate and basalt underljang the grit 
beds (Fig. 10). At the base of the grit beds there is a coarse pebbly 
deposit of quartz and metamorphosed rocks, but the bulk of the 



deposit is a coarse whke and irou-staiued sand, identical in appearance 
with the Kalimiwui sf.nds of the Melbourne district, and like them, 
in all probability ofiKalimnan age. The view here maintained, 
that the main volcanic series occurs above the yellow limestone and 
under the Kalimnan grits, is the same as brought forward by Mr. 
Daintree as early as 1861. A reproduction of Daintree's sketch- 
section of the cliff at Curlewis (Ad 12) is given in my paper on some 
Tertiary fossils.* On a recent \'isit to this place (shown on Quarter- 
sheet 23 sw) the section of the clifi showed a bed of tenacious blue 
clay resting on an ash bed, and above this a polyzoal limestone 
about 5 feet thick. This is surmounted by about 13 feet of basalt, 
and on this a thin layer of hill wash. 

The present occurrence of older basalt as high as the top of the 
Janjukian is unique in the experience of the \\Titer, for it generally 
occurs interbedded with or underhang the sedimentaries of that 
epoch. It further strengthens the view that the Janjukian episode 
was not onlv intermittently siibject to volcanic disturbance, as 
already found in the Anglesey district by the occurrence of tufEs 
interbedded with the sedimentaries, f b\it that the effusions did not 
cease until about Kalimnan times. 

Fyansford. — The Orphanage Hill section consists of grey clays 
passing into yellow clays. These beds probably represent an 
argillaceous phase of the Janjukian. The molluscan fauna has not 
been completely worked over, but by comparing the list of Hall 
and Pritchard, it will be seen that five species recorded by them, J 
viz., Terebratula vitreoides, T. Woods, Natica gihbosa, Hutton, Pleuro- 
toma haastii, Hutton, Limopsis insolifa, Sow. sp., and Cardita gracili- 
Gostata, T. Woods, are restricted Janjukian fossils. The remainder 
are persistent types and widely distributed forms. It is probable 
that by diagnosing the new forms to be found in this locality the 
proportion of restricted species will be raised. The palaeontological 
evidence, although leaving much to be desired, points to affinity 
with the Janjukian rather than to the Balcombian, since not one of 
the species enumerated by Hall and Pritchard is confined to Bal- 

In my paper on " A Revision of the Species of Limopsis in the 
Tertiary Beds of Southern Australia, "§ in following the general 
usage i there placed the Orphanage Hill beds as well as the Corio 
Bay Beds in the Balcombian series. The above evidence, however, 
is sufficient proof to my mind of their affinities with the younger, 
Janjukian, series. 

Moorahool Valley and Batesford. — There is no doubt as to the 
position of these beds in the Victorian Cainozoic series, for their 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xx. (N.S.), pt. 2, 1908, p. 215. 

t Hall, T. S., Proc. Rov. Soc. V'ict., vol. xxsii. (N.S.). pt. 1, 1911, p. 49. 

X Ibid., vol. iv. (N.S.),"pt- 1. 1892. pp. 19 and 24. Table II. 

§ Ibid., vol. xxiii. (N.S.), pt. 2, 1911, p. 419. 



faunal relationships are decidedly Janjukia:-- From Batesford, 

extending \\p tlie Mooralwol Valloy, the pol,yzoal rofk is greatly 
in evidence. This deposit at the base isfJargely composed of 
Lepiclocyclina shells, with abundant granite detritus from the 
adjoining coast. The overlying white polyzoal limestone with 
Amphistegina replacing to a large extent the Lepidocyclina 
indicates fairly deep water conditions, and a general freedom 
from terrigenous material. During this phase, therefore, the 
Janjukian sea probably represented a fjord -like aspect in which 
an arm of the sea extended up a drowned valley. In the 
neighbourhood of Steiglitz tliere are certain fault-lines which run in 
a parallel direction with the general trend of the axis of outcrop of 
the polyzoal rock, and these may have been developed as a small rift- 
valley cutting into the Ordovician ranges of the country beyond 
Maude and Steiglitz. That the conditions were not stable for a long 


Ordov'>C»a.v "iliVe 


<3e.oTiom iri the. t^oo«^ A&ooi_VA.\.\.e>r ne».« v^kude. 

period is seen in the presence of argillaceous beds between the poly- 
zoal rock as at Torquay, and above the same at Waurn Ponds and 



The relationship of the Ciirlewis polyzoal rock to that ot the 
Moorabool Valley has already been pointed out. The latter locality 
has yielded a species of Cerithium (C. ])ritcJwrdi, Harris), which is 
a typical Table Cape fossil. This species also occurs at Mitchell 
River, Bairnsdale, being additional evidence for the correlation of the 
latter series with the Janjukian. Further proof of the relationship 
of the Maude beds to other Janjukian occurrences is furnished by 
the discovery in this Museum collection of Lucina planaiella, Tate, 
and Modiola pueblensis, Pritchard, in samj)les of the hard limestone 
beds collected by the Geological Survey of Victoria (WTM2). 
The former shell is a Table Cape fossil and the latter occurs at 

From an examination of the sections along the river-valley 
at Maude below Mr. MacDonald's house, I was able to gain a 
clear idea of the succession of these beds (Fig. 11), which is as 
follows : — 

At the base is a bed of Ordovician slate, covered by a siliceous 
or quartzose grit, containing impressions of plant stems. This is 
followed by polyzoal rock containing, in places, pebbles of Ordovician 
slate and siliceous sandstone derived from the two underlying beds. 

" — n ruV\>W ~fo\fXe>i-i v-ocVc <j* ' ' - i 

t , ( 

--= 3' 

Fig". 17.. Section at lOOFet-r &£LOW N\^OQe TowpI- 

This polyzoal rock corresponds to the specimens marked TM3 
of Wilkinson's survey of this locality, and occurs about 80 feet above 
the bed of the Moorabool at the spot where I examined it. Lying 


u])oii the polyzoal rock is a bed of older basalt, and above this again 
a bed of pink limestone, thoroughly indurated and containing 
shells of littoral species, such as the Ceriihium before-namfd and 
Haliotis. Upon this lies another bed of basalt, covered by a nibbly 
polyzoal rock. 

At 100 feet below Maude township, on the road to the bridge 
( Knight "s-bridge), the following section was Seen (Fig. 12) : — 

In feet by 

Surface deposits passing downwards into limestone . . 100 
Basalt, near top of which is an intercalated band of 
hard limestone, followed by (?) polyzoal rock, 

probably masked by talus . . . . . . 200 

Siliceous grit . . . . . . . . . . 40 

Ordovician slate . . . . . . . . 40 

Close to the basalt an excavation at the side of this same road 
showed : — ■ 

ft. in. 

Rubbly polyzoal limestone . . . . ..09 

Current bedded polyzoal limestone resting on an 

eroded surface of basalt . . . . ..30 

This basalt is only about 18 inches in thickness. Under this 
basalt occurs the hard pink limestone (WTM4) of the littoral type 
before mentioned. 

The above section supports the surv^ey interpretation of these 
beds by showing that in some localities there was a second somewhat 
feeble effusion of the older basalt. It also proves the extremely 
variable thickness of the basalt and polyzoal limestone. In other 
sections not far distant the second flow is absent, as shown by the 
data given by Hall and Pritchard. 

E. — The Hamilton District. 

Two divisions of the Cainozoic beds in this area have been clearly 
defined by the work of Messrs. Tate, Dennant, Hall and Pritchard. 
These beds are revealed by the erosion of the Grange Burn and the 
Muddy Creek. The lower beds at Muddy Creek are correctly 
correlated with the Mornington beds (Balcombian) ; whilst the 
ujiper series, seen at Grange Burn and j\IacDonald"s, belong to the 
same geological horizon as the Beaumaris and Jemmy's Point beds 

There is, however, a third and intermediate series, which has to 
be intercalated between these beds, but which up to the present 
has been entirely overlooked, in relation to its stratigraphical 
importance and position. In all probability this was a neglected 
factor on account of its great variability, even in the same district. 
I have already postulated the middle position of the Janjukian 



or Spring Creek series in the Cainozoics ; a view indeed held by 
Messrs. Tate and Dennant, the former using the term Post- 
Eocene for these beds. If such be the case, this series should 
be either represented between the upper and lower beds in 
the Hamilton district, or should be negatively represented by an 
unconformity. That this middle series is present the following data 
will show : — 

During a visit paid to this district six years ago I was struck 
with the important development of the pink limestone with echinoids 
{Eupatagus rotundus and Linthia mooraboolensis), polyzoa, and fora- 
minifera. This rock can be followed from the bed of the Grange 

Z«s lo I mile. Ct. = Clifton Ba.riK (B*4c ornb iln). C;.= MoJult 
Led (^KAlimnawJoK Ja-njukii^ C!a.y5 J.= Jurtchion 0^ Balcomfc- 

la-n. and JartjoW'iiw.. i_.= Lepi(!<oc>jcli^a_ titr\«st'or(e(^Ja„.yk\ajni. 
n.- ni.c1Jo«i.Ms(^V<aJimni«j. N.«- Nodule bed {^Uise o^ KaJ<m>ia.r>i 
P.= Qi»arhi Porph-^r^ooerlairt iri places Ir-y Ca'no io i c l>eds . 

Burn at Forsyth's, past Henty's, where it is developed on the west 
in a limestone cliff 60-80 feet high, with caves, and can be traced 
down the Grange Burn for U miles to its junction with Muddy 
Creek (Fig. 13). Anent this polyzoal limestone Mr. Dennant 



remarks* as follows :— " So far as the Muddy Creek itself is con- 
cerned, all the beds consist of the clayey and calcareous layers 
alroady noticed, but in the Graiifir- Burn, fossiliforous strata of a 
different character appear, wliich have not, 1 tliink, been referred 
to by any previous geologieal writer. They form a rather friable 
rock, composed mainly of bryozoan remains, with spines of echini, 
and occasional shells, chiefly pectens, scattered through it. In 
outward appearance, it resembles almost exactly the strata on the 
Crawford River, about halfway between Muddy Creek and the 
soiith coast of Victoria. Somewhat similar strata are also found at 
Apsley, on the western boundary of Victoria, and also at Narracoorte, 
in South Australia. Those at the last-named place are described 
by Professor Tate under the name of ' polyzoal rock,' which in 
his classification of the Australian Tertiaries he has placed as ante- 
cedent in age to the Muddy Creek shell beds. In one place only 


Mvidloi'Y CreeK 

Ft^. 11+. Pou"rxoA.i. Rock RESTinq o« BKccotv\(?!M^. S.Bakk 

or MUQ O y C«eE.K, "2-0 Crt/v.\rHS r«.w. oP CUiFror\ 
B(\«K ^ = BM-COr^Bi AM Ruoe Ci.«,Y ; 6 = BfM.Corl6- 

I fttt BRoWM SMtwi. niVRi. ; C - Po L\ to^i. l.i»'\tSTopte_ 
v^J(\H J om^ti J ii-«S>TO. 

have I seen the strata in close proximity, and there the polyzoal 
rock appeared to underlie the shell beds. As, however, I was unable 
to trace actual contact, I am not prepared to speak definitely 
on the point. As I said before, this rock is nowhere ^^sible in 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Australia, vol xi., 1889, p. 34. 


the Muddy Creek, but it aboiuids in the Grange Burn, not 
only above but also for a long wav below its junction with Muddy 

In a recent visit to the Hamilton district I was able to trace 
the Cainozoic beds in succession along both creeks, and at one spot, 
about three-quarters of a niile up the Muddy Creek, from the junction 
of the Grange Burn, was fortunate enough to find a small landslip 
revealing the polyzoal rock resting on the Clifton Bank beds (Bal- 
combian), and not underlying them as Mr. Dennant supposed (Fig. 
14). This occurrence of the limestone in Muddy Ci-eek is only 
20 chains from the well-known Clifton Bank exposure. The section 
there gives 3 feet of rubble ; foraminiferal and polyzoal limestone, 
3 feet; brown sand (fossiliferous), 20 feet; and blue clay, 
2 feet down to the water line of Muddy Creek. The two last- 
mentioned beds are comprised in the Balcombian oi Clifton Bank 

The Cainozoic strata in the Hamilton district are not perfectly 
horizontal, as Mr. Dennant believed (see loc. cit., p. 33), and conse- 
quently their irregularity does not " only arise from denudation." 
In fact, were the strata perfectly horizontal, the great thickness of 
the jjolyzoal limestone in the Grange Burn area would present an 
insm-mountable difficulty. The latest data I have collected goes 
to prove that Clifton Bank itself is on the axis of an anticline, in 
which the beds dip from 2 to 5 degrees. On the west bank of the 
Grange Burn, opposite Henty's, there are high cliffs of Lefidocyclina 
limestone surmounted by Kalimnan beds, that is, an oyster bed 

^- E. 

• -J ' • ^ T^^ — ~ — ^^ 

"^ iS" vj' i 


- " Jinjokian — 

— I 

F"io'.l5. Lir«\e.STort£ SCMRP Oit qRA.r(qe. BURW AO" HEmTy's. AREfc. ot 

with Natica cunninghamensis. .This elevated position of the middle 
series shows that the cliff at this spot represents a fault scarj) ; and 
further, that the western bank of Grange Burn at Henty's has been 
uplifted for at least 40 feet (Fig. 15). Moreover, the Grange Burn 

[ 45 ] 


from this point to the junction bears the aspect of a rejuvenated 
stream, flowing in a deep, entrenched valley {see Fig. 16). The 
line of fault referred to passes almost due north and south 

Fid'.lb. ^^uuev OF the: QRKNqE surh betweem he^^ty's «.nd -tmc 

cutting the Muddy Creek at MacDonald's, 1 mile south of 
Forsyth's {see sketch map Pig. 13). The effect of this fault is 
seen on the course of the Grange Burn below Forsyth's, where 
the mature stream, after coming from Hamilton and flomng 
over Kalimnan strata (Fig. 17), taking a more northerly turn, cuts 
through high banks of polyzoal limestone resting on quartz porphyry, 
thence flows to the west for 20 chains, and then southward for another 



3 Ft-. 

Ka-lii^>^3.»-i sIkII- (>e<<,_ -^ =^~ ,^37 _' 

vo'it-t^ Vi».*sa-^N»-*'ica--: — 

Tcre^i-a-^»»ct "XCKi-l-iopS'iS — ■ — 


la-y^-cs —•^- 



— ( 

I -I 

_ .( 

pjtf IT SccT\Ori IN rj\rtK OF qRAriCJE' BURN opposite: 

* ' Forsyth's . 

20 chains, after which it follows its normal westerly com-se towards 
the Wannon. On the same area of uplift at Muddy Creek, starting 
from Clifton Bank, the Balcombian beds gently dip, with some 
slight undulations, towards MacDonald's, but are still seen at a 



slight elevation, about 10 feet, at 40 chains east of Clifton, when 
the Muddy Creek suddenly turns north-east for 25 chains and as 
suddenly turns back to the south-east, indicating a small downthrow 
at this point, which brings the Kaliranan beds almost to creek 

From the above observations it is clear that the polyzoal rock 
of the Grange Burn directly succeeds the typical Balcombian of the 
" Lower beds. Muddy Creek." It is further proved by the occurrence 
of Linthia moorahoolensis and Lepidocydina tournouen in that lime- 
stone, that this polyzoal rock is the precise equivalent of theBatesford 
limestone. On a previous visit to this locality I had failed to fuid 
the tests of Lepidocyclina, although that genus, represented by L. 
martini occurs in the older Balcombian beds at Clifton ; but on the 
last occasion was delighted to find that a large portion of the bluf? 
(60 feet) opposite Henty's was composed of a Lepidocyclina rock 
containing species identical with those occurring at Batesford. 
At the top of the bluff west of Henty's the beds are somewhat inac- 
cessible, but at one spot, where I was accompanied by Mr. C. J. 
Gabriel, we found the rock passing into a concretionary bed with 
Kalimnan oysters and other shells (0. manubriata and Natica cunning- 
hamensis). This upper bed was 15 feet thick, so that the total 
height of the cliff from the bed of the Grange Burn is 75 feet ; whilst 
exactly opposite, the top of the Kalimnan from the creek is only 
about 45 feet. At about 30 chains up stream the same Kalimnan 
beds are only a foot or so abo^'e the bed of the creek. As to the 
succession of the beds above the polyzoal rock, the data are very 
clear along the Grange Burn, for at Pat's Gully* the top of the poly- 
zoal rock is concreted by the leaching out of the phosphoiic acid 
from the bones and coprolites of the nodules immediately overlying 
it. The nodule bed, I was at one time inclined to think, represented 
a remanie deposit of the Janjukian series, but my recent visit 
convinces me that it is the basal bed of the Kalimnan. It consists, 
as before stated, of cetacean and turtle bones, fish teeth, &c., and lies 
embedded in a stiff brown clay. The rolled ]iortion of the deposit is 
probably derived from the underlying Janjukian, since I discovered 
in a similar bed on the Muddy Creek a scutum of Lepas pritchardi, 
a fossil only found, hitherto, at Waurn Ponds and Torquay in 
undoubted Janjukian strata. The brown clay of the nodule bed 
usually contains typical Kalimnan fossils, thus proving the age 
of the deposit, and making it without doubt a conglomeratic basal 

The most complete evidence of the succession of all our Cainozoic 
series in one locality is therefore to be gathered from the Grange 
Burn exposures. Let us, however, examine the data afforded on 
the other side of the Clifton Bank antichne. At about 35 chains 

* Named after Mr. Pat. Stiiut;, a local resident. 
[47] ^ 


up the Muddy Creek past Clifton, at a point marked " G " on the 
sketch map (Fif;;. 13) the Balcombian fossilifcrous sandv flays appear 
a few inches above the bed of the creek, and show a dip to the east 
of 8 degrees. This is surmounted by 4 feet of polyzoal rock with 
rolled fi'agments, containing many fossils common alike to either 
Balcombian, Janjukian, or Kalimnan strata, as Area (Barbalia) 
comutilis, Cucullaea corioensis, Chania Imnellifera, Pecten sturtianus, 
Cardita delicalula, and Venus (Chione) 'projnmjua (specimens small 
atid ajjproaching the Spring Creek form V. (Ch.) halli, as well as a 
tooth of Galeoeerdo, a form which has not occuiTed lower than the 
.Janjukian. There is no doubt that whilst the Grange Burn area 
was rapidly subsiding, and given over to clear water conditions, 
on this, the east side of Clifton, the Janjukian sea was shallow, 
and subjected to currents, whilst very little deposition took place. 
Above this 4-ft. bed of polyzoal rock follows the tj'pical Kalimnan 
strata resting on a nodiUe bed, the latter containing typical fossils 
of that stage, as Glyeimeris halli, and fully developed specimens of 
Venus [Chione) propinqua. 

F. — The Mallee (Victoria) and the Mount Gamhier District, the 
Adelaide Plains, and the Eucla Basin (South Australia). 

The first two of the above localities, so far as their imdergrormd 
geology is concerned, are comprised within one area of deposition. In 
Janj ukian times that which is now the Southern Ocean extended for 
some hundreds of miles inland, forming a great gulf — the Murray 
Gulf. This gulf was bounded on the west by the great palaeozoic 
axis of which the Mount Lofty Ranges forms a part. Its deposits 
form the rocks of the Mount Gambler district, and an extension of 
the area underlies the Adelaide Plains. The fossil fauna of the latter 
area, as exemphfied in the polyzoal limestones of South Australia, is 
practically identical with the white limestone and marls of the lower 
portion of the borings in the Mallee of Victoria. The sediments 
laid down to the north of Gregory's " Primitive Moimtain Chain "* 
formed the foundation of the vast area occupied at the present day 
by the basins of the Wimmera, Murray, Darling, Murrambidgee, 
and Lachlan Rivers ; and which form the great subartesian 
basin of the Murray Gulf. In New South Wales alone this sub- 
artesian area comprises, according to C. S. Wilkinson, no less than 
22,000 square miles. 

These older deposits revealed by boring in the Mallee, Victoria, 
in South Australia and New South AVales, show, by their fossil 
contents, that they are Janjukian or Miocene in age. The only 
Cainozoic fossils found in the New South Wales bores occurred at 
Arumpo,f and one of them is strongly confirmatory of this conclusion 

* Gregory, J. W. Geography of Victoria, 2nd ed., 1912, p. 75. 
t Reo. Geol, Surv. N.S. Wales, vol, iii., pt, 4, 1893, p, 115. 



as to age ; for it has been identified by Mr. Robt. Etheridge as 
Trigonia semi-undulata, of the type-form which is only found 
in the Janjukian series in Victoria, in being ornamented with 
fimbriated rugae instead of ahnost plain sulcations as in the 
Balcombian variety.* In the last boring in the Mallee which 
I have examined (No. 11), there are 333 feet of white polyzoal 
limestone with occasional black cherty bands, and the bottom of 
the series was not reached. The fauna altogether showed a strong 
Aldingan and Batesfordian aspect ; both Aldinga (lower beds) and 
the Batesford Limestone being of Janjukian age. To the westward 
these bores showed a thinning-out of the deep water polyzoal facies, 
the strata being replaced by terrigenous greensands with a rich 
fish fauna. The Janjukian polyzoal limestone and greensands pass 
upwards by gradiul seqiience into Kalimnair (Lower Pliocene) shell 
marls and sands of a decided littoral aspect. The maximum thick- 
ness of this Kalimnan series is 92 feet. These are followed by 
estuarine foraminiferal sands, whicli I regard as Werrikooian 
(Upper Pliocene), similar in age to the upper beds of the 
Glenelg River. The maximum of these deposits is 163 feet. 
Pleistocene beds are indicated by barren quartz sands and grits. 
The later Pleistocene and Holocene stages are represented by 
ferruginous sands, and pinkish concretionary limestone, with 
occasional land-shells ; this series attaining a maximum thick- 
ness of 148 feet. A full report on the bores of the Mallee district, 
Victoria, is being prepared at the National Museum, ai^d will be 
published shortly. 

Another but smaller sub- artesian basin, or gulf of the Janjukian 
sea — really the remanet of a once very extensive area — is seen in 
the Eiicla Basin, north of the Great Bight, and miderlying the 
Nullarbor {= treeless) Plains. The absence of running water in this 
locality is due to the porous character of the white polyzoal limestone ; 
any moisture falling upon its surface being absorbed as by a sponge, 
to be carried away by means of underground streams. The average 
height of the Bunda Plateau, as this country roimd the Great Bight 
is called, is from 800 to 1,000 feet. 

The limestone coimtry of the southern part of Western Australia 
is of great thickness, since, according to Mr. H. Deane (in a lecture 
before the Royal Society of Victoria in 1911), a Government 
bore passed through 1,370 feet of limestone before reaching 
bed-rock. From the description it appears to be a similar lime- 
stone to that of the Eucla Basin. It is to be hoped that some 
data will be gleaned in the near future from borings and well- 
sinkings in this area during the construction of the Transcontinental 

* Trigonia semiunduhUa, var. lulosa, Pritchard, Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. xv. (N.S.), pt. 1, 
1902, p. 92, pi. XV., figs. 6, 7. 

14328.— D [ 49 ] 


Tablk ok ('aixozoic Strata in Australia. 

I'Ipoclis in Kiiropo. 

Pleistocene . . 





Oligocene . . 

Kriuivalfnt Strata in Australia. 

Dunes, beaches, sliell-beds, and delta deposits now forming. 

Raised beaches ; river terraces (younger) ; swamp deposits 
with Diprotodoii ; cave breccias with e.xtinct marsupials 
in Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, South Aus- 
tralia, and Western Australia Helix sandstone of 
Barren and Flinders Islands ; older sand-dunes of 
Warrnanibool and Sorrento. 

Estuarine beds of the Murray Basin ; (?) hard sandstone 
with microzoa at 520 feet in Sorrento Bore ; shell-beds of 
Limestone Creek, Glenelg River, Victoria ; upper beds of 
Moorabool Viaduct. (= Werrikooian, Hall and Prit- 

Terrestrial Series. — Red Sands of Nillumbik Peneplain, near 
Jlelbourne ; newer deep leads of Victoria. 

Marine Series. — Shell-beds of Jimmy's Point, Gippsland ; 
sandy shell marl of Beaumaris ; Liinopsis beaumarieiisis 
bed of Sorrento Bore ; upper beds. Muddy Creek, Hamil- 
ton. (= Kalimnan, H. and P.); Upper Aldingan of 
South Australia. 

Terrestrial Series. — Older deep leads, Victoria ; leaf-beds of 
Maddingley, Bacchus Marsh, Victoria, and Dalton and 
Gunning, New Soutli Wales. 

Marine Series. — Fossiliferous beds of Cape Otway and 
Spring Creek, Victoria, and Table Cape, Tasmania. 
Batesford and Grange Burn limestone (Lepidocyclina 
tournoueri and L. marginata beds, = Burdigahan). 
Polyzoal rock. Flinders, Victoria, and Mount Gambier 
and Nullarbor Plain.?, South Australia ; Older Cainozoic 
of bores in Murray Basin ; Lower Aldingan of South 
Australia ; middle series of Sorrento Bore with Eutrochus 
fontinalis. {= Janjukiau, H. and P.). Fossiliferous 
marls, of Fyansford, Camperdown, Corio Bay and Bairns- 

Shelly clays and leaf-beds of ilormngtou ; lower part of 
Altona Bay and Newport Bores^ with sandy shell-marl 
and brown coal ; lower beds of Sorrento bore ; lower beds 
of Muddy Creek. (= Balcombian. H. and P.). 

Summary of Conclusions. 

1. The oldest fossiliferous beds of the Cainozoics of southern 
Australia are represented by the Balcombian series (of Hall and 
Pritchard), as exemplified by the blue clays of Mornington and 
Altona Bay Coal-shaft, in Port Phillip, and the Clifton Bank series 
at Muddy Creek, Hamilton. 

2. The homotaxial equivalents of the Balcombian in European 
stratigraphy is the Oligocene (approximately Priabonian to Rupelian), 
including the fluvio-marine beds of the south of England and the 

[ 50 ] 


Isle of Wight, the Septaria Clay of Hermsdorf and Latdorf, in North 
Germany, and the Tongrian of Belgium. In Patagonia the Magel- 
lanian beds probably belong to this series, as well as the Waimangaroa 
series of New Zealand. 

3. The stage above the Balconibian is the Janjiikian (of Hall and 
Pritchard), including the Lower Aklingan (of Tate), in South Aus- 
tralia. During this period»enormous subsidence of the coastal plains 
and adjoining sea-beds took place, which resulted in the accumulation 
of a great vertical thickness of deposits ; consisting of polyzoal 
limestones, foraminiferal limestones (with Lepidocydina and Awphi- 
stegina), foraminiferal soapstone, echinoid limestones, shell marls, 
and deeper water blue muds with gasteropods. 

4. The Janjukian marine beds are, in all probability, synchronous 
with the terrestrial ironstone, sandy, or pipe-clay leaf-beds of 
Maddingley, Pitfield, Narracan, Berwick, Cobungra, Dargo, and 

5. The older basalt, in exposures where fossiliferous evidence is 
available, is either contemporaneous with the Janjukian, that is, 
interbedded ; or underlying, and probably post-Balcombian ; or 
overlying the Janjukian, and pre-Kalimnan. 

6. The homotaxial equivalent of the Janjukian in Europe is the 
Miocene (approximately Aquitanian to Tortonian), and its greatest 
development approximates to the Burdigalian. In the Miocene of 
the Vienna Basin a somewhat similar fauna and flora existed, as 
seen in the accumulated banks of foraminiferal tests of Amphistegina, 
of a variety with sharp keel, found at Batesford, and by the prevalence 
of the calcareous alga Lithothamnion ranipsissimurn. 

7. The Janjukian of southern Australia is the homotaxial 
equivalent of the Patagonian beds of Santa Cruz in Patagonia ; and 
approximately of the Oamaru series of New Zealand. 

8. The Miocene age of the Janjukian receives strong support 
from the rule of maximum development in certain types of fossil 
forms of that geological epoch. As for example, in the occurrence 
of gigantic Clypeasters in the Bairnsdale beds, and the enormous 
tests of Linthia in the Murray River and Batesford beds. 

9. The occurrence of the complex-structured foraminifera, as 
Lepidocydina, of species which are elsewhere Aquitanian and Burdi- 
galian, as in southern Europe, India, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and 
New Hebrides, further support a Miocene age for the Janjukian; 
as well as the extremely prolific growth of myriads of Amfhisteginre 
which, although found more sparingly in the lower, Balcombian 
stage, constitute whole beds of limestone, often of great thickness 
in the Janjukian series. The absence of Nummulites from the Aus- 
tralian Cainozoics is significant of their being younger than Eocene. 

10. Although the precise use of the percentage method for testing 
the relative ages of the beds is here questioned, its value in a general 
sense is not overlooked. Later researches into our molluscan fauna 

D2 [ 51 ] 


and of recent dredged material are continually revealing living 
species, wliicli are also foiitul in Janjnkian or even Balcombian 

11. The Kalirnnan of southern Australia is seen, from the 
occurrence of widely disti-ibuted fossil tyjx's, as Scaldicetus, as well 
as from its associated stratigraphical relationships, to be of Lower 
Phocene age. • 

12. The complete sequence of tlie Caiiiozoic strata occurring in 
the following order, Balcombian, Janjukian, and Kalirnnan, is .seen 
in the Hamilton District, as first shown in the present paper ; and 
also in the sequence of strata revealed in the deep boring at Sorrento. 
The Mallee bores demonstrate the gradual transition of the 
Janjukian into Kalirnnan. 

[52 1 


By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S.^ F.R.M.S., Palceontologist to the 

Nationoc Museum. 

In the " Prodromus of the "'alseontologv of Victoria," Decade 
I., 1874, p. 39, the late Sir Fredk. McCoy recorded the figured 
specimen (Holotype) of Lefidodendron australe as occurring in the 
" red and yellow micaceous carboniferous sandstone of the Avon 
River, Gippsland, 5 miles above Bushy Park. Presented by the late 
Angus McMllan." This present note is written to define the 
locality more clearly, and to accredit Mr. George Thomas Jones* 
with the discovery of the specimen. 

I am indebted to that gentleman for the following information. 
About the autumn of 1854 Mr. G. T. Jones was assisting Mr. William 
Tennant Dawson in sui-v^eying the Avon River District. Whilst 
scrutinizing the sandstone rocks of a spur dividing the Boisdale 
Plam from the Little Plain, immediately opposite the junction of 
the Avon • River and Valencia Creek, Mr. Jones discovered the 
specimen on which McCoy founded his species. 



* Now Secretary and Engineer, Ballarat Shire. 




The locality is on the opposite si^e (right bank) of the river to 
Bushy Park, and 3-| miles in a nort};i-westeTly direction from that 
locality, instead of 5 miles, as stated by McCoy. 

The specimen was handed over to Mr. W. T. Dawson for trans- 
mittal to Melbourne, and presumaWy was sent later on, with other 
specimens by Mr. Angus McMillan, of Bushy Park. 

Appended is a sketch map showing the exact locality, marked 
by X, where the specimen was fou'nd. 



By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., Palceontologist to the 
National Museum, Melbourne. 

(Plates I., II.) 

The object of the present note is to record one or two additions 
to the Hst of mollusca given by Dr. F. Noetling*, and to describe 
the occurrence of some Ostracoda new to Tasmania. For the oppor- 
tunity of examining a sample of this marl from the Mowbray Swamp 
I am indebted to Dr. T. S. Hall, M.A., and Mr. T. Stephens, M.A. 
From this deposit the remains of a giant marsupial, the Nototherium 
tastnanicum of Mr. H. H. Scottj, were obtained, whilst Dr. Noetling 
has dealt generally with the characters of the mud deijosit. 

Quoting from Dr. Noethng (loc. cit., p. 12.5), " The Mowbray 
Swamp is about 12 miles west of Smithton, and, apparently, fills 
up a shallow depression of the surface. Probably it represents an 
old river course, which once had an outlet to the sea, but which 
subsequeiitly became blocked up by sand. At present the ' swamp ' 
is divided from the sea by a narrow strijj of sand, on which low 
dunes are rising towards the coast. There is hardly any natural 
fall from the swamp to the sea, and the vegetabilic mould, or, better 
said, peat, which fills up the depression, is completely waterlogged. 
The thiclaiess of the peat layer is not exactly known yet, but along 
the edge of the swamp, where drainage work has been extensive, 
it reaches about 25 feet to 30 feet. To me it seems very probable 
that the deepest point of the firm bottom on which the peat rests, 
is below sea level, and this would account in some way for the 
sluggishness of the fall." 

The material here examined, chiefly for ostracoda, of which, 
by the way, no species have yet been recorded, is a pale yellowish- 
grey marl, of a loose, pulverulent nature. 

The mollusca met with in the present sample are : — 

Sphcerium tasmanicum, T. Woods sp. 

Pisidium tasmanicum, T. Woods. 

Bythinella nigra, Quoy and Gaimard sp. 

Assiminea tasmanica, T. Woods. 

Bulinus tasmanicus, T. Woods sp. 

Amphipeplea subaquatilis, Tate sp. var. neglecta, Petterd. 

Vitrina milligani, Pfeiffer. , 

* Proc. R. Soc. Tas., 1911, pp. 124-133. List of mollusca on p. 128. 
t Tasmanian Naturalist, vol. ii.. No. 4, 1911, p. 64. 

[ 5--. ] 


Of these, Assiminea tasmanica and Amphi'pe'plea suhfiqualilis, 
var. neglecta, arc not recorded by Dr. Noetling. The genera As- 
siminea and Bythinella are strong indications of the pres^ncs of 
tidal influence in this swamp. This bears out Noetling's conclusions, 
since he states that " Probably it represents an old river course 
which once had an outlet to the sea." (loc. supra cit.). 

The ostracoda are new to this locality and deposit. They are 
referable to — 

Candona liitea, ICing, and 
Zdmnicythere mowhrayensis, sp. nov. 



Sph^rium tasmanicum, T. Woods sp. 

Cyclas tasmanica, T: Woods, 1876, Proc. R. Soc, Tasm., for 
1875, p. 82. Spharium macgillivrayi, E. A. Smith, 1881, Proc. 
Linn. Soc, Lond., ZooL, vol. XVI., p. 305, pi. VII., fig. 34. 

Tenison Woods gives the length of the type shell as 9mm.; 
whilst the largest of our fossil form is only 4mm. The general 
colour of the shell, and the silvery bands mentioned by that author, 
are still visible on the fossil specimens. 

As regards the synonymy of the species, there is no doubt of the 
identity of Mr. Edgar Smith's species with the earlier S. tasmanicum. 
This conclusion is based not only on a comparison of the description 
of both shells and the figures of S. macgillivrayi, but also from an 
examination of many examples from different localities in Victoria 
and Tasmania, in the Dennant collection. Moreover, the young 
of S. tasmanicum, from Lake Connewarre, near Geelong (labelled 
in the Dennant collection as a Pisidium, is identical with our 
Pleistocene fossils from the Mowbray Swamp. Further than this, 
the Sphcerium tasmanicum is the only sjjecies knowii from Tasmania, 
and has been previously identified by Dr. Noetling from that 

Pisidium tasmanicum, T. Woods. 

Pisidium tasmanicum, T. Woods, 1876, Proc. R. Soc, Tasm., for 
1875, p. 81. 

The length of the shell in this species, according to T. Woods, 
is from 2-4mm. The fossil examples are about 1.75mm. in length. 
In the original description of this species, there is no mention of 
other surface-ornament than the concentric striae. The present 
specimens, however, show numerous very fine radial striae crossing 
the concentrics, when viewed under the microscope by obhque 
incident light. This species has teen recorded from the same 
locality by Dr. Noetling. 



Bythinella NIGRA, Quoy and Gaimard sp. 

Paludina nigra, Quov and Gaimard, 1834, Voyage Astrolabe, vol. 
III., p. 174, pi. LVIII.,' figs. 9-12. 

Bythinia legrandi, T. Woods, 1876, ibid for 1875, p. 76. 

B. tasmanica, T. Woods, 1876, ibid, p. 77. 

Bythinella exigim., T. Woods, 1878, ibid, for 1877, p. 71. 

Potamopyrgus nigra, Quoy and Gaimard sp., Petterd, 1889, ibid, 
for 1888, p. 69, pi. ill., figs." 2-8. 

Bythinella. nigra, Quoy and Gaimard sp., Noetling, 1912, ibid, 
for 1911, p. 129. 

The above species is the commonest mollusc in the Mowbray 
Swamp deposit. It agrees with the normal form figured by Quoy 
and Gaimard, and only slightly varies in height of spire and tumidity 
of whorls. None of the specimens show any variation towards the 
varieties legrandiana, Brazier*, or unicarinata, T. Woodsf. 

This species has been recorded by Dr. Noetling from the same 
locality as above. 


Assiminea tasmanica, T. Woods, '1876, Proc. R. Soc, Tas., for 
1875, p. 79. 

Rissoa (Setia) sienncB, T. Woods, 1877, p. 153. 

Assiminea tasmanica, T. Woods, Petterd, 1889, Proc. R. Soc, 
Tas., for 1888, p. 77, pi. IL, fig. 2. 

A. tasmanica, T. Woods, Gatliff, 1905, Vict. Nat., vol. XXIL, 
p. 15. 

The present specimens agree with the original description by 
Tenison Woods, and, to some extent, with Petterd 's figure referred 
to above. The latter, however, does not do justice to the shell in 
showing the characteristic acute spire and sub-angularity of the 
last whorl. Some examples of the species from Port Albert, Victoria, 
which I have been enabled to examine through the kindness of Mr. 
C. J. Gabriel, have, however, a decidedly inflated outline. The figure 
of A. tasmanica given by Mr. Hedleyf is suggestive of A. brazieri, 
T. Woods, in its obtuse spire, sub-globose shell with rounded whorls, 
and colour bands. These colour bands are absent from typical 
examples of A. tasmanica, as also from our fossil specimens, which, 
when moistened, show all other colouration originally present. 

The present genus and species does not appear in Dr. Noetling's 

Genus Bulinus, Adamson, 1757. 

Note on the genus. — The common Australian sinistral pond- 
snails have been variously ascribed to Physa, Bulinus, Isidora, and 
Aflexa. Under the genus-name Bulinus, Prof. R. Tate has made 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 698. " Paludestrina Ipgrandiana." 
t Proc. R. Soc. Tas. (for 187.5), 1876, p. 77. "Bythinia nnicariiialn." 
j Proc. Linn. Soo. N.S. Wales, vol. xxx., 1905, p. 527, pi. xxxii., fig. 27. 

[ 57 ] 


tlie following observations regarding this group* : — " The sinistral 
spiral pond-snails of Australia have been placed (incorrectly so, I 
i)(']i('vo) in the genus Physa. Tlie thick periostracuin of most of 
thcni, which in many of them is prolonged into cilia or bristles, is 
incompatible witli a largely rcflexed mantle. I have not examined 
all the Australian so-called Physre, but in no instance have I found 
those distinctions which (characterize Phym as separable from 

Bulinus The mantle margin is neither expanded 

nor digitate, in B. tenuistriata, however, it has three small serratures 
on the columella side." 

In looking into this question of the generic position of our sinistral 
pleistocene fossils the present writer has examined two typical 
living Victorian species, namely, Bulinus bullatus, Sow. sp.f, and B. 
crebreciliatus, T. Woods sp.|, with the following results : — 

The edge of the mantle in both these species is slightly reflected 
and undulate (PL I., figs. 1-3), but is not divided into numerous 
distinct angiilar tags, as in Physa (see also Pelseneer§). This 
Australian type of shell would, therefore, naturally fall into the 
genera Bulinus or Aplexa, but that the latter has a polished shell. 1 1 
The relationship was then tested by the structure of the radula. 
Aplexa in being placed with Physa in the Physidw gives no e\ndence 
of relationship with the Australian specimens I have examined. In 
Bulinus froteus. Sow. sp., the radula, on the contrary, shows its 
relationship to be %vith the Planorhidce (PL I., figs. 4ff-c), in which 
family Bulinus is placed by Pelseneer. The centrals and laterals 
of the lingual ribbon in B. fi-oteus are only slightly modified from a 
radula such as Planorbis corneus, Linne^, the three cusps being a 
constant character of the free edges of the teeth**. 

Bulinus tasmanicus, T. Woods sp. 
(Plate I., Figs. 5, 5a.) 
Physa tasmanica, T. Woods, 1876, Proc. E. Soc, Tas., for 1875, 
p. 74. 

It was of this species that Teiiison Woods remarked {op. supra 
cit., p. 74) that it " is the common Physa of the country, and is 
found in all the inland streams. It is, however, so closely allied 
to the Physa fontinalis which is diffused over Great Britain and 
Europe, that we may well doubt if it be distincttf- If not, has it 

* Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., vol. v.. 1882, p. 51. 

t " Physa bullata," Sowerbj', in Reeve, 1874, Con. Icon., fig. 97. 

X " Phijsa crebreciliaiu," T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. xiv., 1878, p. 63. 

§ on Zoolog}-, pt. 5, Jlollusca, Oxford, 1906, p. 186. 

II See Fischer, P., Manuel de Conchyliologie, 1887, p. 511. 

T[ Op. supra cit., p. 504. 

** Since writing the above, Mr. C. J. Gabriel has kindlv drawn mv attention to an important 
paper by the Rev. A. H. Cooke (Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond., for 1889, pp. 136-143), "On the 
Generic Position of the .so-called Phi/sm of Australia." in which the structure of the radula is 
fully discussed. The conclu.sions arrived at are in exact agreement with the above investigation.*, 
that the Australian Phy-sae are really sinistral Limnaeids. but in their radulse nearer to Planorbis 
than to Limnmtt. 

It Physa foniinalis is a shorter form with a less acuminate spire. 



been introduced ? ' In discussing the question of the importation 
ot this shell, on the grounds of its determination as Physa Dr 
Noetlmg* points out that the association of the remains of a giant 
marsupial goes to prove that it is indigenous. The present 
determination, that it is a distinct type from Physa, although 
outwardly resembling it, affords another instance of converaence 
of external form in different organisms. '^ 

Two minute specimens of Bidinus were also found accompanying 
the shells of B. tasmanicus in this deposit ; and these were at first 
thought to represent a new specific type, on account of the few 
whorls and exceptionally globose protoconch. On comparing the 
latter characters, however, in a series of B. tasmaniGUs a great range 
of vanabihty was found in regard to the form of the apex ; and the 
natural conclusion is, that these specimens represent the embryonic 
shells of B. tas7mnicns. This species, by the way, appears to connect 
B. nitida and B. eburnea, the former having a sliort shell with a large 
aperture ; the latter a shell with the aperture narrow, ovate, and 
shorter than the spire. 

Dr. Noetling also records this species from the above locality. 

Amphipeplea subaquatilis, Tate, var. neglecta, Petterd. 

Limnwa suhaquatilis, Tate, var. neglecta, Petterd, 1889, Proc Rov 
Soc, Tas., for 1888, p. 66, pi. IL, fig. 13. ' ^' 

This interesting httle species is here represented by two specimens, 
typical in all points but that of size, the length of the larger example 
being 3mm., against 7mm. in Petterd's specimen. It differs from 
the European L. feregrer, Draparnaud, in the less expansive aper- 
ture and more slender form of the shell. 

Vitrina milligani, Pfeifier. 

Vitrina milligani, Pfeif!er, 1852, Monographia heliceorum viven- 
tium, vol. III., p. 4. Cox, 1868, Mon. Austr. Land Shells, p. 82 pi 
XIV., figs. 2, 2a. ^ '^ 

A bleached and somewhat imperfect shell of the above occurs in 
the marl. The species has already been recorded by Dr. Noetling 
from the same locality. 


Genus Candona, Baird. 

Candona lutea, King. 

(Plate II., Figs. 6 a, h, 7.) 

Candona luiea, King, 1855, Proc. R. Soc, Tas., vol. III. nt I 
p. 67, pi. X., fig. K. ' ^ ■ •' 

C. lutea, King, Brady, 1886, Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond., p. 92 p] 
VIII., figs. 10, 11, pL X., figs. 7, 8. ^ I ^ I- 

Observations.— Thin species is excessively common in the Mowbray 
Swamp deposit. There is a fair amount of variation in the carapaces 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania for 1911, 1912, p. 128. 


some having the postero-dorsal angle obtuse, as in a typical Candona, 
although the majority are more evenly rounded than usual in that 
genus. A yoimg individual is here figured, which goes to show 
the identity of the specimen from the Tweed River, New South Wales, 
figured by Dr. Brady as doubtfully belonging to this species {loc. 
svpra cit., pi. VIII., figs. 10, 11) ; since graduated examples linking 
both forms may be found here. The living examples previously 
recorded were all from New South Wales. 

The carapaces of some examples in the present series are so well 
preserved as even to show remains of the dried animal within, though 
in a powdery condition, whilst the dull yellow colour of the original 
shell is evident in most of the specimens. 

Genus Limnicythere, G. S. Brady. 


(Plate II., Figs. 8, a-c.) 

Description. — Carapace very minute ; measuring ■46mm. in 
length, •27mm, in greatest height (in the anterior third), and •17mm. 
in the thickness of the carapace. Seen from the side, subrectangular ; 
dorsal margin almost straight ; ventral edge with a broad median 
re-entrant angle ; anterior border roimded, trmicately so on the 
dorsal region ; posterior boldly rounded. There are three romided 
tubercles situated a short distance from the dorsal margin in the 
antero-median area, and one large, prominent tubercle near the 
middle of the ventral border directed dorsally. Anterior border 
finally crenulate ; post-ventral area with a border of minute 
aculeations. Anterior margin compressed and flange-like. Surface 
of carapace finely sculptured with a thread-like reticidated or areolate 

Observations. — This form, although distinct from any species 
knowai to me, approaches the type of Limnicythere inopinata, Baird 
sp.; a form common in ditches, lakes, and nmning streams in Sweden, 
Holland, and Great Britain ; and also occurring as a pleistocene 
fossil in Scotland and England. It is especially related to that 
variety of L. inopinata known as var. compressa*, which occurs in 
A\liitefield Loch, Wigtonshire, Scotland. That variety differs in 
the absence of the quadruple tuberculation and in the general 
contour of the carapace in edge ^^ew. 

Limnicythere moivhrayensis is common in the marl deposit of 
the Mowbray Swamp, Tasmania. This appears to be the first 
record of the genus Limnicythere in Australasia. 

In conclusion, my best thanks are due to IMr. C. J. Gabriel for 
valued assistance in the literature of the mollusca discussed ; to Mr. 
J. Wilson for kindly allowing me to examine his sUdes of moUuscan 
radulse ; and to Mr. W. L. May, for some valuable notes on the local 

* Bradv and Norman. Trans. R. Dubl. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv., 18S9, p. 170. pi. x\ii., figs. 
18, 19. 




1 . The sinistral molluscs generally referred to Physa, Isidora, 

and Aflexa, are here shown to belong to Bulinus, as 
already held by Prof. Tate, on account of the more or 
less entire character of the margin of the mantle, and 
V the structure of the lingual teeth which closely aj^proach 

those of Planorhis. 

2. Two species of ostracoda are newly recorded from Tas- 

mania. One of these is an entirely new species, and 
extremely interesting in view of the occurrence of 
a closely related form in Europe, found similarly in 
Pleistocene deposits. This opens up a question 
regarding the transportation of lacustrine or fluviatile 
organisms within moderately recent geological time. 

3. The conclusion as to the age of the Mowbray Swamp 

deposit is significant, for it shows that the first mar- 
supial associated \\\t\\ these remains cannot date very 
far back in Pleistocene times, as seen in the com- 
paratively fresh condition of some of the moUusca 
and the ostracoda, many of which have their original 
colour markings still preserved. This evidence gives 
further support to Dr. Noetling's previously recorded 
conclusions, based on an examination of the mollusca 




Plate I. 

Fig. L — Part of body of Bulinus crebreciliatus, T. Woods sp., showing 
the non-digitate mantle. Living. Sandringham (Nat. Mus. 
Coll.) X 2. 

Figs. 2, 3. — Borders of the mantle in Bulinus bullatus, Sow. sp. ; 
showing the sinuate margin. Living. Goulburn Valley, 

Vict. X 2. 

Fig. 4. — Lingual teeth of Bulinus proteus, Sow. sp. («) central 
teeth ; (b) lateral teeth ; (c) marginal tooth. Living. Mere- 
dith, Vict. X 380. 

Fig. 5. — Bulinus tasmanicus. An embryonic specimen. Pleistocene. 
Mowbray Swamp, Tasmania. 5«, protoconch. X 26. 

Plate IL 

Fig. 6. — Candona lutm, King, (a) side \'iew ; (6) ventral view. 
Pleistocene. Mowbray Swamp, Tasmania, x 26. 

Fig. 7. — C. lutea, King. A young example. Pleistocene. Mowbray 
Swamp. X 52. 

Fig. 8. — Limnicythere mowbrayensis, sp. nov. (a) side view ; (6) 
ventral view ; (c) end view. Pleistocene. Mowbray Swamp, 
Tasmania. X 52. 

B» Authority : Albert J, Mullett^ Government Printer, Melbourne. 

[ ^-2 ] 

Mem. Nat Mus., Melbourne 5. 

Plate 1. 

F.C. ad nat del. 

Structure in Bulinus. 

14328.— E 

Mem. Nat Mus., Melbourne. 5. 


F.C- ad nat. del- 

Pleistocene ostracoda, Mowbray Swamp, Tasmania 





No. 1. — On a Carboniferous Fish Fauna from the Mansfield 

District, Victoria. 




iltdbourne : 

PaiNTED BY Ford k Son, Drummokd Street, CARLTOy. 

January, 1906. 





No. 2.— A Monograph of the Silurian Bivalved illollusca of 








ISb autfioi'itit; 









No. 3, 


gjD Jlttthoritg: 






No. -4-. 




FEBKXJJ&.RT 1912. 




' 'No, 5. 



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J TJX^-Sr, 1 ©14.