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Full text of "Memoirs of a royal chaplain, 1729-1763 ; the correspondence of Edmund Pyle, D.D. chaplain in ordinary to George II, with Samuel Kerrich D.D., vicar of Dersingham, rector of Wolferton, and rector of West Newton"

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CHAPLAIN, 1729-1763 





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Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON 6* Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press 


THE original Memoirs now first brought to light, and 
which form the main subject of the present volume, are 
part of a continuous series of the correspondence of 
members of the families of Rogerson, Postlethwayt, Gooch, 
and Kerrich, dating from 1675 to 1828, a few single letters 
being of earlier date, up to 1633. The entire collection 
amounts to about seven thousand letters, which have been 
arranged by the owner in twenty-eight folio volumes. 
Briefly, the earlier portion, in seven volumes, consists of 
the correspondence of Robert Rogerson, from 1675 to 
1704; of John Postlethwayt, Chief Master of St. Paul's 
School, from his relatives and pupils, from 1691 to 1713, 
when he died ; and of his nephew Matthew Postlethwayt, 
his son and two daughters, from 1699 to 1745. The 
next portion of the collection comprises, in seven volumes, 
the letters to Samuel Kerrich, from members of the 
Postlethwayt, Gooch, and Kerrich families, and from his 
numerous friends and pupils of Bene't College, from 1713 
to 1767. Of these the Letters from Edmund Pyle form a 
part. Then follow the letters written to John Kerrich, 
and to Matilda only daughter of Samuel, from 1764 to 
1817, in one volume; the remaining thirteen volumes 
containing the correspondence of Thomas Kerrich, the 
well-known antiquary and connoisseur, dating from 1767 
to his death in 1828. He was the only son of Samuel 
Kerrich, and his letters include three volumes from the 
Rev. Edward Balme, 17701822, and two volumes from 
Francis Douce, 18041827, all replete with artistic and 
antiquarian information. 



The general character of the correspondence, other than 
that of Pyle, may be gathered from the extracts which 
have been made use of in the notice of Samuel Kerrich, 
and in illustrating various points in the Pyle Letters. 

It should be stated that connection by marriage accounts 
for the Rogerson, Postlethwayt, and Gooch letters passing 
to the younger branch of the Kerrich family, Samuel 
Kerrich having married Barbara, daughter of Matthew 
Postlethwayt and grand-daughter of Robert Rogerson, and 
heiress of the Chief Master under his Will. The marriage 
of the Editor's father with the younger daughter of Thomas 
Kerrich accounts for the descent of the manuscripts in 
question to the present possessor. 

More particularly, the letters to the Chief Master have 
considerable interest inasmuch as he was one of the most 
distinguished scholars of his day, and a friend of Mr. 
Evelyn. One of his pupils, John Wallis, became intimate 
with Addison at Magdalen, who was in the habit of sub- 
mitting his Latin compositions to Wallis for emendation 
and criticism. Postlethwayt was further eminent as an 
Oriental scholar, and to his exertions and pressure was due 
the establishment by William III. of the Arabic student- 
ships (now Lord Almoner's), at the two universities. 

With further regard to the letters from and to Thomas 
Kerrich, beginning just beyond the period of which the 
Pyle Letters treat, it will be sufficient to say now that they 
include his own letters written during his sojourn abroad 
for artistic studies, in Paris, Antwerp, Dusseldorf, and 
Rome, 1771-1775. 

With respect to Pyle's Letters, they are too candid to 
admit any idea of attempting to disguise his principles. 
Like father, like son. The former desired to rise by 
attaching himself to Hoadly and his opinions, as set forth 
in the notorious sermon, " On the Nature of the King- 
dom of Christ," but, as Archbishop Herring puts it 
" that very impetuosity of spirit which, under proper 


government, renders him the agreeable creature he is, has 
in some circumstances of life got the better of him, and 
hurt his views." The pulpit episode, mentioned in Letter 
XII., shows under what influence Edmund Pyle had been 
brought up, and one recalls with feelings akin to shame 
some of the expressions that he allows himself to use, such 
as that about Confirmation, in Letter XIII., and Absolution, 
in Letter L. He refers in Letter XLVII. to " Mr. Jackson 
of Leicester, a divine of great note," as about to stay with 
him. This man, a creature of Hoadly's, had been refused 
the Sacrament, as well as his M.A. degree, on account of 
his unbelief, and had been presented for heretical preach- 
ing. Edmund Pyle also attached himself, and with profit, 
to Hoadly, but was apparently worldly-wise enough to keep 
his heterodox principles somewhat to himself. He has 
acknowledged elsewhere that his father scarcely disguised 
his Unitarian views. 

A marked feature of the correspondence is the almost 
continuous reference to controversies that were some of 
them raging, and others dying out, and while one welcomes 
the vindications by men like Gibson, Waterland, Butler, 
Warburton, and Sherlock, it is rather a relief to turn from 
the bewildering contests, and the notices of the clamouring 
crowd of self-seeking clerical vultures, to quiet scholars 
like Pearce and Jortin. The unseemly stories of Bishop 
Mawson, the " bartering " and " managing " of Bishop 
Gooch, the wickedness of Archbishop Stone, the violent 
language of Bishop Butts, the rude ways of Archbishop 
Blackburne, and the almost uniform neglect of the dioceses, 
may be happily contrasted with the demeanour and con- 
versation of the scholarly heads of the Church at the 
present day. 

Turning for a moment to the politicians, it may not be 
doubted that, making due allowance for his party feeling, 
public life is truthfully presented by Pyle ; and that, 
glaring and true as is the light which he streams upon the 


Church of the time of George II., that which he sheds upon 
the State is as just and reliable. 

Perhaps the contest in high places for the Sees of 
Durham and London are more reprehensible than the sordid 
scheming and jobbery by the bishops themselves in church 

For art Pyle has not a word, though the modern 
British School was then arising, with Hogarth at its head. 
How the lofty spirit of Charles Townshend would have 
recoiled from the idea of his portraits, painted by Sir 
Joshua, being sold by auction a century and a half later, 
amidst all the vulgarities of a London saleroom ! 

With reference to the reproduction of Pyle's Letters, it 
should be stated that they are given mot a mot as he wrote 
them, save that the curtailed words have been extended, 
and the arbitrary and vexatious capitals, and words in 
italics, so common at the time both in writing and printing, 
disused. In all the illustrative extracts from other letters 
the original spelling has been adhered to. 

It will be obvious that in attempting to annotate the 
Pyle Letters the difficulty has been to bring the notices of 
the numerous characters into the space available in a 
limited volume. And this difficulty has been perhaps the 
more emphatic by reason of the mass of original docu- 
mentary evidence available, very tempting, and close at 
hand, for illustrative use concerning the long dead actors. 

A. H. 




NOTICE OF EDMUND PYLE, D.D., 1702-1776 . 

NOTICE OF SAMUEL KERRICH, D.D., 1696-1768 . 9-67 


INDEX . 369-388 














EDMUND PYLE was descended from a family long settled in 
Norfolk. His great-grandfather Richard appears to have 
been entered of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, in 
1617, and to have taken his M.A. degree in 1625. His 
grandfather John, born at Hunworth, Norfolk, became a 
member of Caius College in 1648. He was ordained 
priest by Bishop Joseph Hall, late Bishop of Norwich, 
in 1654; admitted by the Parliamentary Committee, 1655, 
and appointed rector of Hunworth and Stody ; he was 
buried at Hunworth. Edmund Pyle's father, Thomas 
Pyle, was born at Stody, educated at Gresham's Grammar 
School at Holt, and admitted of Caius College, May 17, 
1692. He was elected a scholar at midsummer, and took 
his degree in 1695. He was ordained in that year by 
John Moore, of library fame ; the chaplain, William Whis- 
ton, noted that he was one of the two best scholars he 
had ever examined. Thomas Pyle was appointed vicar of 
Thorpe Market, Norfolk, in 1698, and is believed to have 
acted as curate of St. Margaret's Lynn until 1701, when he 
was appointed by the Corporation minister of St. Nicholas's 


Chapel. In 1708 he became rector of Bexwell, in 1709 and 
1710 rector of Outwell and Watlington respectively, and 
in 1711 was presented to the vicarage of St. Margaret's 
Lynn. Later he obtained the livings of Tydd St. Mary 
and Gedney, Lincolnshire, and in 1726 Bishop Hoadly 
collated him to a prebend in Salisbury Cathedral. He 
was an impetuous and somewhat heterodox divine, and 
took a conspicuous part in the Bangorian Controversy. 
He married Mary, daughter of Charles Rolfe, a merchant 
of Lynn, and his eldest son Edmund Pyle was born in 

Edmund Pyle was entered of Corpus in 1720 under 
Samuel Kerrich. How he conducted himself at Cambridge 
we have no information until February 10, 1724, when his 
college life must just have been ended. It is gathered 
from his father's letter to Kerrich, of the above date, that 
Pyle's behaviour had not been satisfactory : 

"DEAR S R , 

" I have that Entire opinion of your good nature 
as to conclude You will forgive the trouble I put you 
to in a Request that so nearly concerns me. 

" My Son, I perceive, has very great Desires to retrieve 
the favor he may have lost in Ben net Coll: I am sensible 
by w l kind of misconduct he has formerly put himself back 
in it with some good Friends there ; and know not whether 
there be any probability of recovering what he seem'd once 
to have lost. I shall take it therefore as a piece of Friend- 
ship, ever to be remembered, if You (whom, I hope, He has 
never yet directly disobliged), would be so good as to 
inform me, what his Conduct has been, since his last 
coming to Coll: ; and whether You think He may be 
thought worthy of the Countenance either of y r self or 
others, if He should be a Candidate for Coll: Preferment. 

" I have only this to add, That whatever kindness you 
can doe to Him in this Affair, be it for his own sake, or for 


mine, tho' it may never be in my power to make you any 
suitable Retaliation, shall be treasured up with me as an 
obligation on me to remain, with the highest sentiments of 
affection and Gratitude, Dear S r , 

" Y r most sincere and hearty serv 1 , 

"Tno: PYLE." 
"10 Feb. 1724." 

We do not know when Pyle took his first degrees, 
but it is evident from his letter to Kerrich of July 7, 1729, 
that he had fully retrieved his character, and had been 
away from the University for some years, apparently in 
charge of a parish near Wisbech. On July 7, 1729, Pyle 
was elected, on Kerrich's recommendation, to " the Gentle- 
men of Clare Hall," to a Bye- Fellowship at that College, 
tenable only by a man born in Norfolk. He held it only 
until October 21, 1730, when he was presented to St. 
Nicholas's Chapel at Lynn, on the resignation of his 
father, a living of greater value than the Statutes of 
College allowed to be held with a Fellowship. Pyle took 
his B.D. degree from Clare in 1740. 

Henceforward Pyle's letters to Kerrich form his best, 
and, indeed, his only memoir, and they speak more freshly 
for themselves than any account that could, with irksome 
repetition, be drawn from them. But it will be expedient 
to recall from his own pen the main circumstances of Pyle's 
life, together with a few items from his letters. And this 
will be done, rather by way of introduction to the letters 
themselves, than with any idea of attempting to draw up a 
personal account from materials which are quite scanty 
compared with those which have been made use of for the 
career of Kerrich. 

Pyle was appointed Chaplain to the King before April 
1742, probably in 1740, after taking his B.D. degree, 
and no doubt through the influence of Bishop Hoadly. 
[e obtained leave from the King in 1743 f r ^ s father to 


resign to him the living of Gedney in Lincolnshire, where 
he took up his residence when he was not in waiting, still 
retaining his Lynn preferment. Living very freely, as 
every one did in those days, he suffered early in life from 
gout, and bore with fortitude the drastic remedies. He 
bought his port in the wood, and bottled it at home, for 
the practice of laying down wine was then thoroughly 
established. The mediaeval custom of bringing " liveries " 
of wine to the table direct from the pipe or tun lingered 
well into the eighteenth century, and " Portugal wines, 
neat and natural," could be thus obtained at sixteen-pence 
the quart in any tavern during the first quarter of the 
century. It was not surprising that Pyle suffered, like all 
his contemporaries, from gout, for the bulk of the port 
was immature, and the quantity that was drunk was 
astonishing. The result of the Methuen Port Wine 
Treaty of 1703 was that from 1707 to 1779 the pro- 
portions of French and Portuguese wines imported into 
England were 5 per cent, of the former and 95 per cent, 
of the latter. Thus the pure and noble vintages of France 
were deposed from the position they had held in England 
since at least early Norman times, and gout became the 
hereditary appanage of the English gentleman. 

A remarkable feature in Pyle's letters is the accuracy 
of his information both on public and ecclesiastical matters, 
nor does he make more than one or two mistakes in his 
forecasts touching appointments in the church. The fact 
was that he lived and moved among the best people, both 
political and clerical, of his party. We only once hear that 
he entered a theatre, though he talks freely enough about 
the popular plays of the day. Whether he was so bold as 
Kerrich as to venture to Vaux Hall " to see the Manner of 
the Thing " we are not told. It is somewhat remarkable 
that no mention is made of the execution of the rebels of 
"the '45." Perhaps the most extraordinary Court re- 
velation is that in the letter of October 17, 1747, record- 


Half Linear 


ing the roughness of George II. to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, which is thought to have broken the heart of 
" the poor-spirited old man of Lambeth." 

We meet with many an incitement to Kerrich to urge 
his claim for promotion, such as " I should not sit still 
now the wheel's a-turning it can't go about a great while " ; 
" Push him again " ; " Ask, say I, and with importunity 
too ; if you don't, there are those that will " ; " Remember 
74 " a cryptic warning referring to the age of the Bishop 
of Ely, then in a failing state of health. 

Pyle spends his time pleasantly enough between his 
livings and his attendance at Court. He serves his Lin- 
colnshire parishes in the summer, and his Lynn charge in 
the winter, until 1751, when he succeeded his friend 
Hayter afterwards Bishop of Norwich, and preceptor to 
the Prince of Wales in the Archdeaconry of York. This 
gives him another change, and to a country and scenery 
which delight him. 

But his good fortune does not end here. In March 
1752 he becomes " Friend and Companion " to Bishop 
Hoadly, and was domiciled at Chelsea until the Bishop of 
Winchester's death in 1761. He now gave up his Lynn 
preferment, and his dwelling there, and found himself more 
deeply involved than ever in the world of politics and litera- 
ture. His position at Court, and in the Bishop of Winches- 
ter's family, must have rendered his life a particularly 
interesting one; indeed, he says, March 27, 1753: "My 
Life passes here in a most delightful manner, both within 
doors and without " ; and in addition, he had that best of 
all earthly recreations, " a fine library," at his hand. That 
Pyle took advantage of his social opportunities is sufficiently 
shown by his letters, and his references to the numerous 
scholars of whose works and movements he records so 
much ; as he no doubt quite truly puts it, referring to the 
fulness of his existence : " 7 days of my present Life are 
>rth 7 years (I was going to say) of the life I used to 


lead and should I not be a fool if I did not make the 
most of it ? " 

The variety of Pyle's information is not the least 
attractive character of his letters. Besides almost con- 
tinuous personal details and stories of the bishops, and 
notes of the schemings and contrivings for preferment, 
we hear a good deal about things political, under the 
Stone regime in Ireland, and of the Stone influence in 
the household of the Prince of Wales ; notes are given 
on the New Style, and on the Marriage Act, including 
a story of " the Right Rev. Blunderer " in Ely Chapel. 
The accounts of the suicide of Lord Montford, and of 
Lord Gage's queer penitential death-bed, come in as in- 
teresting forgotten items of history. The publication of 
Bishop Hoadly's "Old Cocks that fought the Battles of 
Liberty in Good Queen Anne's Days," is often spoken of, 
and some of these remarkable sermons described. 

Throughout Pyle's stay at Chelsea Hoadly " laboured " 
to procure a stall at Winchester for his friend. Success 
was nearly achieved in 1755, when the matter was 
" thrown off the hooks " by " the whoreson Lowth," who 
declined to be manipulated into an Irish bishop ; so, as 
Pyle puts it "there's an End of Pill Garlick for this 
Bout." Poor Lord Walpole of Wolterton gets sadly 
handled, abused, and ridiculed as " Old British Horace " ; 
and the complicated changes in the numerous ministries 
form the subjects of many a long discourse, in which the 
Duke of Newcastle is neither complimented nor forgotten. 
The unprincipled Bower, whose perplexing case made for 
the moment a great noise in the clerical world, comes in 
for a long notice. 

In 1756 Pyle gets the prebend so long watched for, 
and, settled in his pleasant house at Winchester, gives a 
long account of the Hessian troops quartered there, and 
of the French prisoners interned much too near him. He 
was now " sincerely satisfied " with his preferment, yet he 


will endeavour to procure something more for his long 
services at Court. He will " not adopt the approved way 
of Churchmen's rising, viz. by becoming of kin to those 
who can give or procure Dignities Ecclesiastical " ; but, he 
half-bashfully confesses, it was only age that prevented 
him from taking that course, which, not so long ago, was 
most agreeably open to him. 

In his political letters the ministers not of Pyle's way 
of thinking naturally meet with much detraction. Kerrich, 
it seems, had spoken of the Great Commoner as the " Unus 
Homo qui nobis restituit Rem." Pyle, who viewed with con- 
stant misgivings Pitt's meteoric and glorious career, points 
out in reply the iniquities of the Tory chiefs; showing, in fact, 
no more than that human political nature in 1760 was much 
the same as it is at the present day, but more virulent. 

Pyle gives an excellent account of the prompt manner 
in which Bishop Hoadly put a stop to the Winchester 
School scandal, and he often speaks of Dean Lynch's 
" cryingly shameful neglect " of the fabric of the beautiful 
church of St. Cross and the Hospital buildings. It was 
on this account that Pyle declined the Mastership of this 
Foundation in 1759. 

Among the last notices of George II. is the mention 
of the pleasure he had in peeping through the trees in 
his garden at the populace admiring the brass cannons 
captured from Cherbourg in 1758. Soon after we learn 
that the King has lost the sight of one eye, and that 
" his flesh abates," and we know the end cannot be far off. 

The tragic duel between George Townshend and Lord 
Leicester gives a strange picture of licence both of tongue, 
pen, and manners, ending in the slaughter of a pacific 
nobleman by a professed soldier half his age. The Militia 
Bill, which Pyle " abhorred," was the subject of the dispute 
which led to this untoward event, and one tends to think 
that the slayer would have found a fitting place in a trial 
for murder, as did the Lord Ferrers only a year after in a 


notable scene of pageantry in Westminster Hall, for a 
crime not more heinous. 

The "proclamation" of Lord George Sackville's sen- 
tence after his court-martial must be regarded now as an 
inflated example of severity on the part of a German-bred 
King. The next reign brought many reactions. The 
officer " broken " by George II. was restored as a Privy 
Councillor by his grandson, who advanced him to the 
peerage many years after. Viscount Sackville took his 
seat in the House of Lords, though his sentence had not 
been repealed, and bore a distinguished part in political 
affairs both in the upper and the lower House. 

As Pyle grew older he found his constitution could 
not throw off the repeated attacks of gout as easily as 
it formerly did. He says in 1757: "I have tried some 
Tricks for the Gout, and, thanks to my Constitution, am 
not killed." But his handwriting after 1759 shows how 
much he has suffered, and in his last letter he alludes, 
apparently, to an internal complaint something " far out 
of the reach of Physicians' skill." Yet, as he says, " I rub 
on/' and this he did until the end of 1776, surviving his 
old friend nearly nine years. 

Edmund Pyle died in his prebendal house at Win- 
chester, and is commemorated by a plain slab of black 
stone, framed in white marble, on the wall of the south 
aisle of the nave of Winchester Cathedral, close to the 
south door, and containing the following inscription : 










SAMUEL, elder son of Thomas Kerrich, of Harleston, 
Norfolk, by Rebecca, second daughter of Samuel and 
Rebecca Kidman of Diss, was born at Harleston in 
1696, and baptized at Mendham, August 6. He had one 
brother, Charles. Rebecca Kerrich died July 10, 1705, 
and about three years later Thomas Kerrich, who is 
described as a cheerful, careless, good-natured man a 
character borne out by his portrait l married Elizabeth 
Pritchard, " out of Wales," who was extravagant and 
" plagued him sadly." She had three children, Elizabeth, 
John, and Jane. About the time of the second marriage, 
Samuel Kerrich was taken under the care of his maternal 
bachelor uncle, Charles Kidman, and presently sent to St. 
Paul's School in London, then presided over by the dis- 
tinguished scholar, the Chief Master, John Postlethwayt, 
in whose house he was domiciled. His father and uncle 
were jointly answerable for the expenses. It is gathered 
that the lonely boy seldom came home for any holidays, 
but diligently and willingly pursued his studies, being also 
continually urged thereto by his uncle, and in Colet's 
School he laid the foundations for the exact and critical 
scholarship which carried him so well through his Cam- 
bridge career. 

%* All the family portraits, personal objects, &c., alluded to are in the 
possession of the Editor, unless otherwise specified. 

One of a set of nine by John Saunders, half life size and half length, 
rich is shown in a white wig, grey coat, and steinkirk edged with lace. 



Kerrich's industry and conduct at St. Paul's resulted 
in well-founded aspirations of promotion there. This is 
shown by the following letter to him of September 24, 
1713, from his uncle: 

" I am very much afflicted w th y e Acc e you send 
me of y r Master's illness. He told me w n I was at 
London y l he designed you some Place in y e School w ch 
would goe A great way tow d y c charges of y r education 
there. I sh d be glad to hear y* you were in possession of 
it y l you might continue there A year longer. Pray let 
me know w n tis likely to be vacant & what signs y r Master 
hath given of his design to bestow it upon you. If y r 
Master sh d recover Justice Harvey designed to have sent 
his son at Mich* 5 ' If he sh d not I shalbe at A great loss 
how to dispose of you, or to gain an Exhibition for you, 
from y e Mercers Company w n you shalbe at y e Univ. I 
thought to have wrote to him ab* it but shall employ One 
to talk w th him & to shape out some way, if possible, to 
make an Interest for you." 

Two days later John Postlethwayt died, without having 
conferred an Under-Ushership on Kerrich. 

The funeral was by torch- or rather by branch- 
candlestick-light. In the accounts are charges for the 
ghastly funeral-tickets of invitation to the ceremony, with 
a deep border of skeletons, cross-bones, skulls, and hour- 
glasses, and an open coffin with a shrouded corpse within 
it; hangings for the rooms; silver sconces ; black sconces; 
silver candlesticks on mourning stands ; escutcheons of the 
Postlethwayt arms on silk for the pall ; the same on buck- 
ram, verged, and eight dozen on paper, given away at 
funeral. Many of these, as well as of the ticket of invita- 
tion, exist. Kerrich and fifteen other boarders, wearing 
black gloves, with white cuffs, walked in the long funeral 
procession to St. Austin's Church. 


There are large entries for crape hat-bands and 
scarves ; fifty pair of gloves ; forty men in black, carrying 
branch lights ; mutes with black and white staves ; " four 
sweepers with brooms " ; and " Rosemary in Plate." The 
numbers of paid assistants in the dismal procession recalls 
The Funeral in Swift's "Tender Husband/' and Sable 
the undertaker's efforts to make them all look properly 

Such was Kerrich's first public appearance. All 
thoughts of an Under-Ushership at St. Paul's were now 
given up, and two days before the funeral of the Chief 
Master, Kidman, who had been Matthew Postlethwayt's 
tutor at Corpus fourteen years before, wrote to him 
expressing his sorrow and condolence on the death of his 
" very good friend," and with the object of obtaining the 
Postlethwayt interest for an exhibition to Cambridge for 
Kerrich from the Mercers Company. He begs his old 
pupil to let his friends of the Company understand what a 
favourable opinion the late Chief Master held of Kerrich. 
On November 4 he thanks Postlethwayt for his friendly 
endeavours on behalf of his nephew, for whom the exhi- 
bition was assured. The result was that Kerrich went 
up to Cambridge a year earlier than he would have done 
had John Postlethwayt lived. 

On March 4, 1714, Kidman wrote as follows : 

" I have wrote to Mr. Postle: to desire him to come by 
Camb: and to enter you under Mr. Fawcet of Bennet Coll: 
and to furnish you w th w* mony you sh 1 have occas: for to 
discharge y e Arrears due to y r Master & for y r journey to 
Camb: & y r entrance there. If he cannot order y e matter 
so as to come along w th you I w d have you be at y e Coll: 
by y e last of this month (if you can stay so long after y e 
Q ter w th out charge) w n I design if I can to meet you if 
possible ; but if I doe not you may apply to Mr. Fawcet, 
who will take all imaginable care of you as if I were p r sent 


w th you. If I sh d not happen to meet you y n you may 
depend upon my seeing you at Sturb: fair, if not before, 
in case I live & be well. I pray God to bless you & 
prosp r y r Studies, & hope you will take y e same care 
there as at y r school, y* I may hear y e same good character 
of you as I have hitherto done, w ch will be a great comfort 
to all y r friends, espec: to 

" Y r lov: uncle." 

Kerrich accordingly made his way to Cambridge, 
punctual to his orders, and at once indites the following 
letter to Matthew Postlethwayt : 

" I am got safe to College, and entered under Mr 
Fawcet. You may remember you gave me 10 Pounds 
for Caution money, w h I shall pay but 6. However I 
have deliver'd all to Mr Fawcet, who will procure me 
necessaries w th y e Overplus. I intend y e very next 
Opportunity to give my Unkle an Account of y e money 
I have received of You, and shall continue to give you 
my hearty thanks for y e kindness You have shewn me 
in every particular. I could not possibly send you a 
Letter before but hope you will excuse it, since you are 
very well acquainted with y e Hurrys a person is in at 
his Entrance into College ; Pray give my Service to Mr 
Ayscough and all his Boarders with y e rest of My ac- 
quaintance there, and beg leave to subscribe my-self 

" Most obedient humble servant." 

Thus the St. Paul's boy was launched into the world 
and became a Cambridge man at the age of eighteen. 
This is the earliest extant letter of Kerrich that has been 
preserved, and the only one from him to his future 
father-in-law. It is immediately followed in order of 
date by the continuation of the long series from his uncle 


Kidman, which ends on December 15, 1735. In these 
letters, one hundred and ninety-three in number, filling 
one volume, we not only get a full insight of Kerrich's 
career at the University, but a surprising amount of other 
intelligence. They are largely supplemented, until long 
after the middle of the century, by the letters of Postle- 
thwayt, Kerrich, Gooch, and Ray relations. When to 
these fertile sources of information are added the long 
series of letters from Kerrich's Norfolk neighbours the 
Hostes of Sandringham Hall, the Stylemans, Fastens, 
Rogers's, Houghtons, &c., and the voluminous suites from 
his college contemporaries the whole amounting to eleven 
hundred and forty letters, besides the correspondence be- 
tween the relatives themselves, some idea may be formed 
of the mass of original material that must be totally 
ignored in now presenting only a succinct memoir. From 
these very human records of the past the sketch of 
Kerrich's life has been painfully picked out and retrieved, 
almost word by word. 

Within a year of his entrance into Corpus, Kerrich 
and a number of undergraduates formed themselves into 
a debating society. On Kidman's advice their disputations 
were carried on in Latin, and they read Locke's " Treatise 
of Government." The uncle corrects his nephew for the 
odd way he had adopted of using " stiff starch formal 
hard words," and gives him excellent advice as to shunning 
" y e Jacobite & Tory Mobb whose Insolence is insuffer- 
able." He cautions him with regard to his manner of 
speaking in debate, without heat, passion, or dogmatism, 
and " Be sure to avoyd talking ab 4 y e Trinity." " Say, 
you have not consider'd such weighty Matters enough Or, 
may it not be thus ? Or w* if we sh d suppose so or so ? 
It seems likely, as far as I have yet thought of y e matter, 
but I will not be positive : Y r thoughts proposed in some 
such doubting Way will be most inoffensive." 

At the end of 1715 Kerrich became ill from too close 


attention to his work, and went with the tutors Fawcet 
and Mawson to stay with his uncle at Banham Rectory, 
Norfolk. On May 14, 1717, he is called to order for his 
chandler's bill being so high " by reason of y 1 foolish 
custom you have got of drinking & treating w th Tea w cb 
is not only very chargeable but is y e occasion of misspend- 
ing a great deal of time. I hope therefore you will leave 
it of." On June 30 there are very good reports of him 
for his conduct and diligence. He sits for his degree in 
December, and obtains " an Optime at the 2 nd Tripos." 
Kidman more than once expresses his pleasure at the 
character of the friends he makes, and it is obvious from 
their letters that Kerrich was the most popular of men. 
In April 1718 William Bradford proposed a plan for 
correspondence between a number of Corpus men who 
have already taken or are about to take their degree, for 
the purpose of discussing points in religion, scholarship, 
logic, &c. ; this met with Kidman's warm approval, and 
was itself the origin of the long and interesting series of 
letters from Kerrich's college contemporaries. Shortly 
after he had taken his degree Kerrich begins to prepare 
for orders, and a curacy is already promised to be kept 
for him. Much pressure was brought to bear upon the 
Master of Corpus, Bradford, Bishop of Carlisle, to induce 
him to urge the Bishop of Ely to ordain Kerrich before 
the regulation age, and in the prospect of success and of 
being elected to a fellowship, Kidman sends the following 
instructions respecting his dress : " If you succeed, as I 
hope you will, get a Peruke as soon as you will, but not 
of a much lighter colour than your own hair. 1 I w d advise 

1 In a pencil miniature by Kerrich of himself forming one of a pair with 
Sarah Newton, he is shown in his own flowing hair. On now sacrificing his 
natural adornment the colour of the peruke is dwelt upon, because the lighter 
the colour the lighter was thought the character of the wearer. In one of his 
most delightful articles in the Tatler, where Steele describes Mr. Bickerstaffs 
visit to a friend of his youth who forgets how old he is, he alludes to the 
"young fellows with fair full-bottomed periwigs." 



you to get a pair of black Leather Brech: to ride w th & 
for your comon wear I had such a pair of H. Dean, & 
Mr Bull came to me w th y e same : Get a wastec: for 
Winter of serge de Nisme & A Coat of fine Farnh m 
Drugget, & a good full coat of A Warm Wick cloth 
inclining to black. I w d likew: advise you to get A short 
Callamanco Gown w th y e Sleeves full & long enough to 
button above y r Elbow, & to come down so far upon y or 
hands y l you may just lay hold upon y m thereby effectually 
to hinder any side glances into w* you sh 1 have upon y e 
Cushion w ch sh d if possible be stuffed w th y e finest feathers 
and if I were in y or place I w d have y e sides lap over like a 
Cassock w th a crape girdle to tye it ab' you. This way will 
keep you warm, save you a great deal of trouble, & serve 
in suiner over A thin Wastcoat So much for Cloaths." 

But my Lord of Ely was obdurate, and " y e cutting of 
yo r hair must be respited till y e sufner." In 1718 Kerrich 
had a legacy left him by his uncle James ; this the uncle 
Anthony delayed in paying, having got himself into trouble 
with a fair lady. In July 1719 Kidman had him arrested 
for withholding part of Kerrich's legacy and squandering the 
whole of that left to his brother Charles. 

On October I, 1719, the nine fellows of Corpus elected 
Kerrich to a fellowship that had fallen vacant owing to the 
marriage of its holder. All the voting papers have been 

On this occasion Kidman congratulates his nephew 
" upon y e honour y e Society hath done you and y e Charac- 
ter y e Bp: hath stamped upon you. I have wrote this 
.y to Mr. Mawson to thank him and the rest of my 
Friends for this & all their other Favours to you." 
Before the election the Master, Bradford, Bishop of Carlisle, 
d the President of the College, Matthias Mawson, had 
:nt for Kerrich and, " with great tenderness," gave him 
opes of success. " Such conduct," says Kidman, " is very 
ncomon." He now recommends further books as proper 


for him to read preparatory to his ordination "great 
treasures of ancient learning," and adds his wishes " y 4 y e 
remaining p l of yo r life may be as fortunate as y 4 w ch is 
past, & my assurances of giving you always argum ts of 
my being y r lov: Uncle." 

On October 7 Kerrich took the Oaths of Allegiance and 
Supremacy, and the Oath of Abjuration. He was ordained 
deacon, September 20, 1719, to the curacy at Grantchester, 
near Cambridge, and priest five days later, by the Bishop 
of Carlisle. 

His uncle now declines to send him money to make 
his chamber "so spruce & handsome as I perceive you 
linger after." Up to this time he has addressed his 
nephew as " Sam," as if he were a servant. Now he calls 
him in his letters " Coz Sam," and so he continues until 
July 1726, when he styles him " Coz Kerrich" to the end 
of the long correspondence ; the nephew calls his uncle 
" Honor d S r ." 

With regard to the manner in which the fellow- 
commoners were at that time regarded, Kidman writes, 
December I, 1719: "I suspect y e Fellows are not convers 1 
enough w th their Fellow-Comoners. I think it advisable 
for you to be so & to walk out sometimes w th y m ; " and 
in the next letter he adds " w l I wrote in my last ab 4 y e 
fitness of conversing a little more freely w th y e most sensible 
of y e Fellow-Com (w ch I suspect is too much neglected) 
ought I think to be considered at least by you : because 
w n they grow up they will remember such neglect w th great 
indignation & disregard of y e College." 

At the end of the year Kerrich took his M.A. degree 
and became associated with Herring in the business of 
pupils, taking the place in that capacity of John Denne. 
In answer to Kerrich's "large ace* of y e University 
Squabbles" Kidman thinks " y 4 by y e measures they are 
inclined to take it will render itself very ridiculous & 
ungrateful & insensible of its interest w th all discerning 


psons." " Surely y e chest had need be very full to engage 
in such chargeable suits as y e Expuls: of Dr Bentley must 
occasion. But Universities must be supposed to have 
depths of Wisdom w ch others must not p r tend to fathom." 
With reference to sermon writing "As to composing 
Sermons you know y e custom and practice will make it 
easier every day. That business must be undertaken 
some time or other & y e sooner y e better, for y e older 
you grow y e more averse you will find y r self to it. Be 
sure to write but upon one side & in a large Hand y* 
yo r discourses may be legible w n yo r sight decays." l 

In January 1722 Kerrich declined the living of 
Thwaite, Suffolk. On August 2 he was licensed to 
Teversham, near Cambridge, and about the same time he 
became engaged to Sarah Newton, a lady of great beauty 
and of considerable property in and near Cambridge. She 
was an intimate friend of the Bradfords, and at once used 
her influence in endeavouring to obtain for her fiance 
the living of Redenhall, near Harleston. The Bishop of 
Norwich gave the usual and somewhat Delphic and 
judicious answer of the time that "he would have Mr 
Kerrich in his thoughts." At the very end of the year he 
offered him a living in Essex and a position as chaplain 
in his own family. But a Sally " Newton was so uneasy 
it the thought of his absence from Cambridge that Kerrich 
gave up the idea. As to Redenhall, it was not then, or 
likely to be, vacant for some years, and, if it were, the 
istowal of it by the Bishop of Norwich would involve 
>me contest with the Duke of Norfolk, and much trouble 
'ith the parishioners about tythes " with w m it would be 
lifficult and chargeable to engage." Moreover, the Bishop 
low declared that his rule with regard to preferment was 
" detur digniori, and when merits are equal to listen to his 
>ld acquaintances." Now, a wicked man, Mr. Doyly, had 

1 The whole of Kerrich's sermons, amounting to many hundreds, and 
feigning about ten stone, remained until 1872, when they were destroyed. 



the hardihood to attempt to spread derogatory reports 
about Sarah Newton. " I am amazed/' said Kidman, " at 
his lying and insincerity." Kerrich redoubled his efforts 
with his pupils, and Kidman, on September 13, 1723, 
after referring to his chances of promotion in the church 
and his pending marriage, says : " But pray w* must be y e 
Consequence if y e Bp: sh d dye after you have quitted y- p st 
advantages in y e College & before any thing hath fallen 
worth y r acceptance. Tis a great hazard you run." With 
all Kerrich's interest with various bishops the first vacancy 
likely to occur was that of a living in Lincolnshire " in 
y e most melancholy situation w ch can well be imagined." 
" You w d quickly be weary of it, & much at a loss how 
to get a better instead of it." Both Colonel Hoste of 
Sandringham Hall and Bishop Hoadly were specially 
anxious to help Kerrich, on account of his services as tutor 
to their respective sons Major James Hoste, M.P., whose 
letters to Kerrich display such painfully strong language, 
and Ben Hoadly, the author of "the profligate play," "The 
Suspicious Husband." 

Matters remained thus in the balances, but all doubts 
and fears were soon to be put aside. Sarah Newton fell 
ill at the end of the year luctibusque heu nimium in- 
dulgens and died February 9, 1724. The funeral took 
place on February 13, when her fair body was laid to 
rest in St. Benedict's Churchyard, Cambridge. All the 
funeral accounts have been preserved. The coffin was 
covered with black cloth, and had six locks, six handles, 
double rows of nails, and a plate with the name and age. 
The beautiful woman, thus untimely taken away, was 
attended in her last illness by Dr. Ashenhurst, one of the 
principal physicians in London, who had six guineas paid 
him by the hand of Thomas Herring, as his fee, and 
Mr. Halfhyde of Cambridge supplied the medicaments. 
Goody Jolly, the nurse, was paid 4, 135. 2, 55. was 
expended for wine at the funeral namely, i^ gallons of 


Canary, 2 gallons of white, and 2\ gallons of port, 
and 27, 195. for mourning rings. The usual bequest at 
that time was a mourning ring, or a guinea to buy one. 

Sarah Newton left the whole of her property, real and 
personal, to Kerrich. This included a freehold estate in 
Bourne, eighty acres of arable land in Coton, sixty acres 
in Milton, Cambridgeshire, and eight messuages or tene- 
ments in Cambridge. He set up a monument over her 
grave consisting of a coffer-shaped quadrangular structure 
in Ketton stone and white marble, surmounted by a 
flaming urn, at the cost of $6, 155. 4d., and sur- 
rounded by iron railings which cost 16, 75. On the 
tomb is the following inscription, from Kerrich's own 

M. S. 



















1 The remarkable mortality in the Newton family thus alluded to is parti- 
irised on an adjoining altar tomb. 


In a will dated April 15, 1725, Kerrich orders himself 
to be buried in the same vault, and under the same tomb, 
where his lost love reposes. In all subsequent wills he 
takes particular care for the repairing and cleaning of 
Miss Newton's tomb and the railings surrounding it, as 
a mark of pious gratitude, and this tribute has been 
observed by his descendants to the present day. 1 

Meanwhile Kidman had been exerting himself to pro- 
cure the inclusion of Kerrich's name on the list of Select 
Preachers at Whitehall, 2 and corresponding with the Lord 
Chancellor and the Bishop of London with regard to 
livings. A great many preferments were considered, in 
the gift both of the Crown, the Lord Chancellor, the 
Bishop of Ely, and other prelates, but the only cheering 
prospect seems to have been a benefice in the diocese of 
Norwich, where " y e incumbent is not only very old, but 
very ill." Kidman adds, " Great men when they design 
favour w d have y e lifety of choosing their own Way of 
bestowing it. I am truly concerned for y e unexpected 
loss of poor Miss Newton w th whom I verily believe you 
w d have been very happy. After such signal marks of her 
affection her memory must needs be very dear to you." 
He ends this letter of February 21, 1724: "You have 

1 There are no letters remaining from or to Sarah Newton. Besides the 
pencil miniature, there is a life-size, three-quarter length portrait in oil, and 
one in pastels belonging to the set of nine already alluded to. All bear vivid 
testimony to her uncommon beauty. 

Among the collection of examples of hair of members of the Rogerson, 
Postlethwayt, and Kerrich family from their cradles to their graves is a 
lovely lock of bright golden hair from the ample tresses of Sarah Newton, still 
appearing to be touched with the sunlight of a hundred and eighty years ago. 

2 In the spring of 1724 a scheme was first devised by the Dean of the 
Chapel, at the command of the King, for two select preachers at Whitehall in 
every month, from Oxford and Cambridge respectively, resident Fellows of 
their Colleges : each to preach four sermons, and if there be a fifth Sunday 
they are to share the duty of it between them. These divines were known as 
"the Booted Apostles," on account of the amount of riding that was implied 
between London and the two universities. 


hitherto been very fortunate in all respects. I heartily 
wish you may continue so." 

So Kerrich returned to his tutorial work in College, 
while efforts were continued to obtain for him the living 
so much desired in the country. He kept on serving 
Teversham, and Kidman assured him a year later that he 
had a much fairer prospect of being removed from Corpus 
" for a call into y e country " than many others much his 
senior. The fact about the generality of livings was that 
they might be vastly improved in value if the tythes were 
gathered strictly, but if any one should so proceed he 
would not recommend himself for another living. Besides, 
law in the matter was very costly, and although, for 
instance, Edmund Castle, in the Fens near Wisbech, 
found it absolutely necessary " to deliver some of his 
obstinate and unrighteous folk to y e Iron hand of y e 
Law," it was " a very grievous thing to my Temper." 

Kerrich and his uncle met from time to time at the 
great trysting place, Stourbridge Fair, and consulted as to 
what was best to be done ; he was, indeed, willing to buy 
a living. Their efforts were increased, and Kerrich was 
licensed to St. Benedict's in Cambridge, always held by a 
Corpus man, in the room of Castle, gone to Elme in the 
melancholy fens ; and Kidman, almost in despair, writes 
" a moving letter " to the Bishop of Ely, but all to no 

So the years fleet away in hopes and fears, varied 
from time to time by the accounts of the unsatisfactory 
conduct of Kerrich's only whole brother, Charles. 

Charles Kerrich was also early taken in hand by 
Kidman. After many changes and chances in the 
endeavour to make him fit for a medical calling in the 
country, he was sent to London to study anatomy and 
surgery under Cheselden. He had at last a fair practice 
at Harleston, but he married early, and not quite satis- 
factorily, though his wife was of gentle birth. Finally he 


turned to theology, and carried himself with much credit, 
for he had great talent, and Bishop Gooch willingly 
ordained him though he had no university education. 
He became vicar of Kenninghall in 1749, and of Wickle- 
wood in the following year ; and continued medical prac- 
tice, as many clergy did at that time. Throughout his 
life he was a sore trial to his brother, from his constant 
need of money. 

Early in 1727, when things seemed at their dullest, 
and Kerrich seemed to have resigned himself to the 
pleasant humdrum life of a college don, he again became 
engaged, and again to " a famous Cambridge beauty," 
Jane, daughter of the Rev. John Kitchingman, formerly 
Fellow of Caius, and late rector of Bincombe, in Dorsetshire. 
Her portrait in the possession of the Editor testifies to her 
attractions, and she naturally had numerous admirers ; 
many love letters to her are preserved, written in the 
ardent florid style such as Steele addressed to " Prue " ; 
and there is a promise of marriage from " Jacob Astley y e 
son of Philip Astley," dated October 2, 1713. He was 
of Melton Constable, Norfolk, and was entered of Corpus 
in 1711, but took no degree. He was the eldest son 
of Sir Philip Astley, Bart., and was born in 1691. 
He married in 1721 Lucy, daughter of Sir Nicholas 
L'Estrange, Bart., succeeded his father in 1739, an( ^ died 
in 1760. The abeyance of the barony of Hastings, 
created in 1290, was terminated in 1841 in favour of 
Sir Jacob Astley, Bart., a lineal descendant of the above- 
mentioned Philip Astley. 

Throughout the years 1727 and 1728 many endeavours 
were made to settle Kerrich in a country living, among 
them a much pressed plan for Banham to be resigned to 
Kerrich, and the uncle to live with him a scheme that 
met with scant approval from the authorities, and came to 
nothing after long correspondence ; nor could any prefer- 
ment be obtained, in spite of Kidman's persistent efforts. 


In September 1727 Kerrich went to London to make 
interest for a living. He saw Lord Townshend several 
times, and the Lord Chancellor, who told him he would 
not make an absolute promise of any living until it was 
vacant, but Lord Finch assured him that from the Chan- 
cellor's manner of expressing himself to him, Kerrich might 
hope that the favour was intended him. The letter to 
Miss Kitchingman describing his visit ends : " The Care 
& Diligence y t I have taken in this Affair, perhaps to y e 
Prejudice of w l m* be expected from me in another Respect 
will convince my Dearest y* I am not capable of being so 
indifferent, as she sometimes pretends to think me. I have 
nothing to add but wishes of our mutual Happiness." 

Kerrich's old friend, Thomas Stephens, writes him a 
capital letter of congratulation, beginning : " Happy Ker- 
rich, & thrice happy Jane, so secret & yet so sincere. 
To say I commend my Friend's Choice is to tell him y e 
Lady is," &c., &c. 

On May 26, 1/29, Kerrich and " Gentle Jane," as she 
is always called, were married in Landbeach Church, near 
Cambridge ; he gave up his fellowship naturally, and 
settled in Freeschool Lane at the back of Corpus, and 
hard by the house in which Kerrich's son and grand- 
son lived from 1800 to 1872. 

The long anxieties about preferment were now at last 
to be set at rest. On August 9, Mr. Rogers, rector of 
Sandringham, wrote to say that Mr. Gill, vicar of Der- 
singham, was " in articulo mortis" and on Sunday evening, 
August 10, a messenger was sent on horseback by Rogers 
to Kerrich at Cambridge, "with a Letter to My Lord 
Chancellor in your behalf for Newton," signed by Colonel 
Hoste and his son the Major, Kerrich's pupil, " who are of 
opinion that you ought to go right away with it yourself. 
They are both heartily in your Interest, if there be any 
Faith in Man. Dersingham you are sure of, & I hope 
there will be no difficulty in obtaining Newton. There is 


a small Living called Appleton which Gill holds with 
Newton, & the Col. says he will endeavour to get it for 
you. The Col. will write to S r Rob 1 Walpole by to 
Morrow's Post." Major Hoste had written to Kerrich on 
May 8 saying that his father had given him the next 
presentation to Dersingham with the special view that the 
pupil should give it to his tutor, and that Colonel Hoste 
would do all he could to put Kerrich in possession of 
West Newton. 

At this interesting conjuncture we turn naturally to 
Kerrich's letters to his wife. Immediately on receiving 
Rogers's packet he rode up to London. We can pic- 
ture the little rosy-faced man in black leather breeches, 
bands, short cassock, and boots, wearing a white clerical 
wig under his shovel hat, cantering along the old north 
road through the night. He tells " Gentle Jane " that he 
arrived in London on Tuesday morning the I2th August, 
" time enough to be at L d Chancellors gown'd & 
cassock'd before nine this morning. I came at the lucky 
Time, his Lordship being then preparing to go out of 
Town. He was too busie to be seen, but I sent my L r by 
a Servant, who brought for Answer that my Lord was 
going out of Town, that he should see S r Rob 1 Walpole 
before he went, & that he wou'd leave his Answer with 
him. I shall endeav r to see S r Rob 1 to morrow, but per- 
haps shan't be able to see him so soon, hoping for a 
favourable Answer, & y* my next will bring you a good 
Ace 1 of y e Matter." 

Kerrich had put up at the George Inn, Holborn, and 
writes from there on August 1 4, as follows : "I have seen 
S r Rob*, was courteously rec d , have his L r to L d Chanc r & 
am just taking Horse for Ockham." This was the country 
seat of Peter King, first Lord King, Baron of Ockham, 

Kerrich lay on Thursday night, August 1 4, at Kingston, 
and starting betimes on Friday, got to his destination at 


8 A.M. "When I got to Ockham I was inquiring after an 
Inn to set up my Horses & dress myself y* I m* wait 
upon my Lord in Pontificalibus & found there were none 
nearer than J a Mile from his Lordships house. I had just 
turned my Horse to move for y e Inn when I met one of 
Lord Chancellor's Sons returning from his Morning Ride, 
whom I had some small Acquaintance with at Camb: I 
took y e Opport: & made myself known to him, not a little 
glad at this Accident. He bid me not trouble my Head 
ab* Dressing myself but go w th him directly to my Lord. 
My Lord was then among his Workmen, the Young 
Gent: moved a little before; acquainted my Lord w th my 
Name & Business, &c. I had audience imediately was 
rec d w th y e utmost Affability, deliver'd my L r from S r 
Rob 1 . His Lordship told me he had been disappointed in 
his Design of seeing S r Rob 1 before he went out of Town, 
that the living was at my Service, that he had brought an 
Order for the Seal w th him, bid me set down & fill it up, 
went up Stairs himself for a Pen & Ink, & signed it at 
once. This I am to carry to the Secretary of the Presen- 
tat ns & by Virtue of this the Great Seal is to be set. But 
after so much smooth Ground tw d be too much to desire to 
meet w th no Rubs. The Secretary is out of Town & is not 
expected till y e middle of next week. My Lord forced me 
up Stairs, dirty enough you may imagine, to drink a Dish 
of Tea w th my Lady & y e Fam: who were then at Break- 
fast. These Circumstances however of my Lord's Civility 
we may keep to ourselves. What we have now to think 
of is Dispatch;' &c. 

Kerrich stayed on at the George until the Great Seal 
could be set " in the presence of Lord Chancellor himself." 
He tells his wife on August 1 9 that " y e Sealers are actually 
gone to Ockham." The testimonials from the College were 
got ready and Kerrich was instituted to Dersingham August 
25, 1729, by the Bishop of Norwich, and to West Newton 
on the same day, and so the matter was expeditiously 


carried through within fifteen days from the death of the 
late incumbent of the two livings. Kerrich now went to 
stay with the Hostes at Sandringham Hall, and took steps 
to establish himself in a house at Dersingham, the old 
vicarage house having been pulled down by John Pell in 

The curious manner in which Dersingham came to have 
no vicarage house is thus explained. In 1726, Thomas 
Gill, then vicar, petitioned the Bishop of Norwich to the 
effect that about seventy years before the vicarage dwelling 
consisted only of " a small studded clay house " standing 
before the gate of the mansion of John Pell, who caused it 
to be pulled down, because it had become ruinous, many 
years before Gill was appointed vicar, and he received 
nothing by way of dilapidations from the representatives of 
his predecessor in the living, on account of his insolvency. 
Gill now being advanced in years, and in narrow circum- 
stances, and with children and grandchildren dependent 
upon him, presents that he is utterly unable to build a new 
house at the cost of 200, and prays to be discharged both 
from the dilapidations of the old, and the building of a new 
vicarage house, and is supported by the patron, Colonel 
Hoste. Mr. Gill, and his successors, vicars of Dersing- 
ham, were accordingly discharged and exonerated from 
rebuilding the house and from all liability respecting it. 
Thus it came about that when Kerrich was appointed 
to the living he settled himself in " the old enchanted 
house " of John Pell, who nearly eighty years before had 
directed the removal of the dilapidated vicarage. 

In the meantime " Gentle Jane," then in mourning for 
her venerable father, wrote a delightful series of artless 
affectionate letters to her husband, expressed with spelling 
of picturesque deformity. In the middle of September 
they both paid a visit to the uncle Kidman, who, on January 
2 9> I 73> ^us foreshadows an inevitable event: "I sh d 
be glad to hear how Coz: K: fares in her Condition. 


It wilbe A great addition to y e happiness of you Both if 
you can have A Little one to divert you. I send hearty 
Comend: to Her." In consequence of the lack of proper 
accommodation at Dersingham, it had been settled that 
the winter should be spent in Cambridge. " My Dear," 
writes Mrs. Kerrich, " you are very obligeing to endeavour 
our staying here this winter because you think it most 
agreable to me and in return I shall be verey willing 
to do what ever you thinke most conviniant and agreable 
to yourself." 

In Feb. 1730 Kerrich bought a watch and chain from 
the famous Daniel Delander for 33 "w ch will make a 
very good figure in a country church." 

The child was born, a daughter, and died, in March 
1730. Kerrich was not with his wife at the time, but her 
brother-in-law, John Mickleburgh, Professor of Chemistry 
at Cambridge, writes to him as follows : " My sister had 
a very severe time yet still at present she is better than 
could reasonably be expected & desired Herself that you 
might have the pleasure of knowing as soon as possible 
that she is so & that you might at the same time condole 
w th Her for the Death of Your Daughter. At this time 
& in these circumstances I need not tell You how glad 
Your Wife would be to see You if it doth not put You 
to any great inconvenience & I hope You will assure 
Yourself that we shall be as glad to have You here as 
Your Lady can be. I am S r w th the sincerest respect 
Your affectionate Brother J. MICKLEBOURGH." 

It is gathered that the event was somewhat premature, 
and that Kerrich's presence could not be procured at this 
critical time. On May 30 Mrs. Kerrich writes to her 
husband : " As for my comeing home I don't know 
when that will be. I did not care how soon for I want 
your Company verey much and I have verey bad and 
uneasey nights and my Cough is verey troublesome." 
This is the first intimation of the delicate state of health 


into which she had fallen. Exactly a year later she 
plaintively says : " Thank God my Cough is better 
and I begin to gather strength but have very restless 
nights I thinke Long to hear from you and must own 
that Cambridge with all my friends about me is but a 
melencholey place without you." In the circumstances 
of " Gentle Jane's " precarious health, there must have 
been the less desire, on the part of her husband, to bring 
her so early in the year to a cold climate like that of 
Dersingham, and there was greater danger in her so 
doing a little later on, by reason of the prevalence of 
small pox in the district, a scourge which, as the un- 
lettered Rebecca Ray puts it, "might affrate hear," as 
indeed it did. 

We have no conception at the present day of the 
appalling ravages of the small pox in East Anglia, 
almost throughout the eighteenth century. Allusions to 
it in the letters are constant, and young and old suc- 
cumbed on all sides. Thomas, or " Long " Aylmer tells 
Kerrich, November 29, 1718: "I am now in very great 
Hast, Company is come in & I am forced to betake 
myself to y e Kitchin where I write this upon y e Bellows, 
while Margaretta (his "enchanting" cousin) holds y e 
Candle for me. . . . Y e Poor Girl whom I have so often 
kiss'd is dead of y e Small Pox, but w fc signifies y l to you." 
Such was the terror inspired that houses were broken 
up and people fled away from the stricken district to 
London, Bath, &c. However, Kerrich pushes on the 
work of getting the " old enchanted house " at Dersingham 
in order for his " gentle companion's " reception, and when 
it was nearly ready, in the middle of the summer, she 
was far from strong enough to be removed to it. In her 
last letter that has been preserved, of June 5, 1731, she 
says : " I thank God I continue much as I was as to my 
health I hope rather better than worse and please myself 
with the thoughts of seeing you in a little time which will 


add very much to the sattisfaction of your Loving Wife 
Jane Kerrich." About the end of June 1731 Mrs. Kerrich 
appears to have had a miscarriage, and quite failed to 
recover her strength. Her husband receives numerous 
letters of sympathy from his friends, none quite realising 
(as is the manner of friends) how critical was the condi- 
tion of the bright-eyed Cambridge beauty. For instance, 
Thomas Herring, the future Primate, writes, July 20 : 
" I am sorry to hear Mrs Kerrich has not yet recover'd 
herself. I wish she had had as much strength & courage 
in that affair as y e Dutchess of Parma seems to have 
who is to lye in in her Guard Room" But " Gentle Jane" 
never saw the pleasant haven she longed for. She grew 
weaker and weaker, and the end came on August 22. 
Her body was laid to rest in the Middle Tread, in front 
of the altar, in St. Edward's Church, Cambridge, under 
a large black marble slab with a long Latin inscription 
from her husband's pen, ending " Renovationem Expectans 
ad Aram Ubi Purae Mentis ssepius obtulit 6YMIAMA. 
Quod tacet hie Lapis Revelabit Dies Quae Marmore Verior 
Suam cuique Laudem Tribuet." 

Kerrich now found himself, on the threshold of his new 
pastoral charge, left alone for the second time, and in many 
respects more completely stranded than in 1724, when he 
had his college duties and the teeming interests of the 
university to distract his thoughts. At Dersingham he 
had set his house in order for the bride who never 
came to brighten it, and he had to face the melancholy 
fact that his abode was left unto him desolate. His 
uncle Kidman cannot think what he will do at Dersingham 
" till you find out Another Suitable Companion." However, 
it was to be expected that in due time he would marry 
again. For Kerrich was good-looking, very popular, of 
ample means, an accomplished scholar, and only thirty-five. 
The lady he wedded on October I, 1732, was Barbara, 
elder daughter of Matthew Postlethwayt, rector of Denton, 


Norfolk, and heir after her father's death of John Postle- 
thwayt, Chief Master of St. Paul's School. 

We seem to know Barbara Postlethwayt through her 
na'ive amusing letters as well as if her living self stood 
before us her dress, housekeeping, conversation, mater- 
nal interests and anxieties, and her social duties. Other 
letters speak of her wit and accomplishments, her tiny 
hands and her white teeth (which she cleaned with 
tobacco ashes), and describe her as a charming girl, a 
beautiful singer, and brilliant performer on the organ and 
spinet. But now and then, since the truth must be told 
surgit amari aliquid she had a little temper ! This is 
once alluded to in 1720, when she was nearing 
her thirteenth year, and viciously brought up against her 
twelve years later, on her engagement long after all traces 
of childish petulance had passed away. 

As to Barbara Postlethwayt's appearance, her portraits, 
both in pastels and oil, show her pleasant hazel eyes, 
arched brows, and wavy bright brown hair. Her long 
series of letters to her husband, sister, and children, as 
well as those from her father, husband, step-mother, and 
other relations and numerous friends, form a continuous 
testimony during more than half a century of the affectionate 
regard in which she was held, while the reports of her 
charming personality have been transmitted to the present 
age by her only son Thomas Kerrich. She was born 
May 19, 1707, at Shottesham, Norfolk, and had as her 
sponsors the well - known Lady Elizabeth Hastings, 1 
" Madam Herne," and the Rev. William Starkey, supply- 
ing the place of the Chief Master. The " Female Child " is 
described by the father to his uncle as " very lusty and 
likely to live." 

1 It was to this beautiful woman, whom " the great Mr. Congreve " so 
much admired, that Steele paid the high compliment that "to have loved her 
was a liberal education." She was greatly interested in the Shottesham 
charity schools which Postlethwayt had established, and in his efforts with 
regard to them, and made a long stay there in 1713 " to regulate" them. 



As in the case of her husband it will be convenient 
now to run lightly through Barbara Postlethwayt's life up 
to the period of her marriage, making a few extracts from 
the copious correspondence which has been preserved. 

The first event of importance in her life was when she 
was sent in charge of her aunt Ann Rogerson to Denton 
Rectory to stay with her grandfather Robert Rogerson, on 
the occasion of the birth of her brother John, June 2, 
1711. It is pleasant to know that this violent old man 
did not " fly out into y e greatest rage " with the small 
child on this her first visit into the world, and to the place 
where she was afterwards to spend so many years of her 
life. Robert Rogerson became rector of Denton in 1660, 
and kept a coach and four. He was constantly in hot water 
with his parishioners, and documents have been preserved 
relating to excommunications, absolutions, libels, and cita- 
tions. He neglected his parish sadly in his latter years, and 
gave trouble to Archdeacon Tanner (Notitia Monastica). He 
had a son, a nonjuror, a character much more to be 
shunned than a leper with persons of old Rogerson's way 
of thinking, and he shunned his poor son accordingly. His 
letters to his daughter, always beginning " My deare deare 
Childe," are of the most affectionate sort, in curious 
trembling writing. On October 9, 1709, he sends " My 
kinde respects and love to my dearest Bab: whom I 
would give any thing to see w th safety as also t'other sweet 
be, whom God of his mercy blesse and preserve to y or 
great Comfort Amen Amen." The previous reports 
of Barbara, constantly repeated in the letters of her 
father to the Chief Master, and always in a postscript, 
have been "Y e Child is well," until 1708 and 1709, 
when she is reported to be "in indifferent good 
Health," getting over "y e breeding of teeth." Her 
popularity began early on August I o, 1 7 1 L, the great- 
uncle is told : " My Elder Daughter has had her health 
very well all y s Sumer, & has been at Denton ever since 


y e first of June, where she proves so great a Diversion to 
her Grandffather & Aunt y 4 they are loath to part w th her, 
& let us have her Home again, notw th standing my Wife 
& I went over last week on purpose to fetch her." So 
she stayed on, continuing " mighty well," and escaped the 
ague which fell upon her sister, and upon the father in the 
following spring, still keeping " mighty well." Matthew 
Postlethwayt caught a great cold going in the High 
Sheriff's coach as his chaplain at the Thetford Assizes. 
This turned into an ague, and " tho' y e Malignity & 
Danger of my Distemper is spent," he tells his uncle, 
April 9, 1712, he was greatly pulled down and quite 
" disabled " from going to London. This was followed in 
August by a quotidean ague, which he got rid of at last 
by " a potent & searching Vomit." This " left some- 
thing of y e Yellow-Jaundice behind it ; " he was thus 
rendered unfit to attend the High Sheriff at Norwich and 
preach the Assize sermon in the Cathedral. In the end 
he had to go to London, stay with his uncle, and put him- 
self under the care of the great physician Dr. Woodward. 
He was dieted, and dosed with oil of almonds, which had 
a strange effect upon him but he finally recovered. 

On September 7, 1712, Elizabeth Postlethwayt tells 
her husband that " Bab " had been " mighty bad with a 
feverish distemper, but is now bravely. Poor Bab give 
her duty to you & bid me not let you know how ill she 
have been, for fear it should vex you." Thus her kindness 
and consideration for others evinced itself before her fifth 
year. Presently her father sends her a " baby," that is, a 
doll, from London, for which she returns her little " dutty " 
through her mother's halting pen. 

On September 26, 1713, John Postlethwayt, Chief 
Master of St. Paul's School, died, leaving Matthew, his 
nephew, his executor and heir. This took him to London 
for the funeral and winding up of the estate. Mrs. Postle- 
thwayt joined him there after a time, and they determined 


what furniture should be retained and sent down to 
Shottesham. She returned on the last day of January 
1714, the journey of about a hundred miles occupying 
three days. She thus relates her adventures : " I had a 
very bad coming down, we were over-turn'd, but thank God 
none of us had no hurt, the next day y e Coach stook fast, 
& we were all for'st to get out in y e mire & dirt, & 
so late before we got to y e inn, & up a gain next morn- 
ing by two a clock, which very much indisposed me, but I 
went soon to Bed last night, & lay late this morning, 
that I am now thank god better only I have got a sad 
cold." On this occasion Mrs. Postlethwayt had first made 
the acquaintance of Samuel Kerrich, who married her elder 
daughter twenty years later. 

On March 5 she writes to her husband, " pray take 
care of puting up the Table Bed, put nothing in but 
what belongs to it, for my cabenet doors were forcet opin 
by being so full. Bab: is mightyly pleased with y e 
thoughts of laying in that Bed." 3 The father is desired 
by Bab and Betty to bring them " all sorts of comfits " 
from London ; the little boy " Jonny requires the huntss- 
man hunting the Hair, they turn about in a Box and 
make a noise and a Barking Doggy too you must bring 
him." A year later " Bab is highly pleased w th Mrs 
Ayscough's choice of a scarlet Riding- Hood for her, and 
begs she may have it for there is no other Colour will 
please her now. I hope she will choose a pretty one for 
Betty, she would have a flesh Colour unless Mrs Ayscough 
cou'd choose one that she think will look better. The 

1 In the Inventory of the Goods of the late Chief Master, taken 
November 3, 1713, the bed in question is thus entered: 
" It. Middle Room one p of Stairs 
"One Table bedstead & Crimson curtains a feather bed) 

bolster and pillows three blankets I quilt I blue counter- > 2, IDS." 

pane one old grate two old chairs ) 

The " cabenet " came from the Little Dining Room, and was the only one 
in the house. It is described as "One walnuttree Cabinet"; this is still 


House is not much the forwarder since you left. The 
children give their duty to you they have been very good 
but Jonny in particular desired me to let you know how 
good he had been." Matthew Postlethwayt was then in 
London on business, and his wife took the opportunity to 
make him buy a chariot light but not too small ; " be sure 
to get good harness too it." 

In February 1714 Robert Rogerson, rector of Denton, 
died, leaving all his household goods to Postlethwayt, his 
son-in-law, who now succeeded to the living under the 
terms of the will of the Chief Master. Postlethwayt built 
a new rectory house in 1718, and went into residence at 
Denton, near Harleston. 

Barbara was now sent to school at Norwich, and she 
struck up a great friendship with some schoolfellows- 
Eliza Bransby, Sarah Burton, and Isabella Barry who 
write her quaint old-fashioned epistles during many years, 
" Mistress Barry " being very musical. 1 

On March 31, 1720, Brook Rand tells Kerrich : "I 
saw Mr. Postlethwayt last Friday and p d him y r Compli- 

1 On November 13, 1728, Isabella Barry sent Barbara the following 
popular song of the day, which gave great pleasure to the Denton circle, and 
is a good example of the social ambitions of the time : 


What tho' they call me country Lass 
I read it plainly in my glass 
That for a Dutchess I might pass 
Oh cow'd I but see the day 


Would fortune but attend my call 
Att park att play att ring att Ball 
Id'e brave the proudest of them all 
With a Stand by Clear the way 


Surrounded by a Crowd of Beaux 
With Smart Toupees and powderd Cloaths 
At rivalls Id'e turn up my nose 
Oh cow'd I but see the day 


ment. Miss Bab is learning to play on y e Organ and 
Spinett. So y e if she can but add good humour to her wit 
and Musick and other acomplishm ts she may be a Charming 
Girl. I made bold to present y r Service to her too." It 
was to a child of twelve years and ten months that the 
" Service " was offered, and it is easy to realise that 
Barbara treated with indifference, and probably resented 
with petulance, the effusive compliments that the bold and 
lively Rand addressed to her, after the fashion of the time. 
As she grew older came mysterious love triflings with 
Thomas Trevor (Alonzo), Ekins Fletcher, and the ardent 
admiration of F. Stillingfleet. Their glowing letters are 

In the middle of October 17 24 the father took Barbara 
and John to London ; they lodged in the house of one 
Goldson, a mercer, in Ludgate Street, and stayed for more 
than a month, being " so unwilling to leave London." It 
must have been a great experience for Barbara, then in 
her eighteenth year. The poor Cinderella, Betty, being 
always in delicate health, and remaining at home, " desires 
her sister to buy a little Spirits of honey for her," and the 
mother makes her usual request for " Bohea Thea," 
li Coffea," chocolate, candied orange peel, chips, and citron. 


Id'e Dart such glances from these eyes 
Would make Som noble man my prize 
And then oh how Id'e tyrannize 
With a Stand by Clear the way 


Oh now for grandeur and delight 
And Equipage and Diamonds bright 
And flambeaux that out shines the Light 
Oh cow'd I but see the day 


Thus ever easy ever gay 
Quadrille shall wear the night a way 
And pleasure crown the growing day 
With a Stand by Clear the way 


In 1727 the two girls go out to "dancing bouts," and 
have become very accomplished in music and singing. 
Their performances in this way made a particular impres- 
sion upon a barrister of the Middle Temple, " Councillor " 
Robins, who writes as follows : "I got safe to Town last 
night full of thanks and acknowledgements to you and the 
rest of my good ffriends for the agreeable Summer I have 
pass'd this year in the Country of which I cannot express 
a more gratefull sense than by declaring frankly to you it 
has left such a Relish upon my Mind that 'twill be some 
time before I shall be reconciled to business, and shall be 
often thinking of your daughters Musick when I should be 
attending to the Wrangles of Westminster Hall and there- 
fore I must in a very particular manner desire my humble 
Service and thanks to them for the great pleasure they 
gave me both in their company and their performances." 

On the occasion of the death of George I., June 11, 
1727, Barbara and her sister went into mourning, and 
she writes to Elizabeth : " We must have each of us 
a plain head & Ruffles, & I wouldn't have the Fringe 
set into my Night-Cloaths but bring it with you as 
for Cloaths here is various reports about what will be 
y e most fashionalb Mourning Mrs Buxton says she hears 
either Bumbezzeens Poplins or Crapes & some talk of 
dark Gray Silks about 3 shillings a y d tho' every 
thing of Mourning will be very deere you may inquire 
what will be worn by the generality of people." Very 
like a modern letter ! Mrs. Postlethwayt died on March 
2 9> I 73- Her portrait in pastels, by Saunders, forms 
one of the set of nine. Both Barbara and her father 
wrote admirable letters to John, then an undergraduate 
at Merton, and many letters of condolence were received. 
The mother was buried in the chancel of Denton Church. 
A year and a quarter later John Postlethwayt had letters 
from his father and sister announcing the approaching 
marriage of the former to Matilda, sister of Thomas Gooch, 



Master of Caius College, and afterwards second baronet 
of the name. That this union to " Cosine Gooch " was 
all that could be desired is sufficiently shown by the 
affectionate respect in which she was held during the 
remainder of her long life by her step-children, and by 
the entertaining letters which she addressed to them, 
both before and after the death of her husband, and in her 
retirement in the house of her nephew, Benacre Hall. 

To return now to Samuel Kerrich, whom we left just 
settled in his solitary life at Dersingham. We have seen 
that he was acquainted with Matthew Postlethwayt at 
St. Paul's School at the time of the death of the Chief 
Master. But there are older associations. Matthew 
Postlethwayt was entered of Corpus in 1699 under the 
tutorial care of Charles Kidman, an old friend of the 
Chief Master, and maternal uncle of Kerrich. 1 It is 

1 The long series of letters which Kidman addressed to the Chief Master 
from 1699 to 1712 include all Matthew Postlethwayt's quarterly college bills 
from the time of his entering Corpus to his migration in December 170210 
St. John's. 

As documents of this kind and date must be very scarce an example of 
them is here given : 


Com: & siz: . 

Cook .... 

Laund: & for linn: & stock: 



Rent & Tuition 

Coals .... 

Taylour and Glover 

Grocer .... 

Milliner omitt: last Q r . 

For this Q r . . . 

Barber .... 

Shoem: .... 


Expenses . 

Income to his Chamber 

In all 

Ded: for Subscrip: mony for 6 sets of "\ 
Mr. Wells' Maps . / 

R. due = 




3 : 


12 : 

8 : 

6 : 


16 : 

9 ob. 

9 : 


6 : 





3 : 


5 = 


2 : 


7 : 



17 : 



16 : 


14 : 


10 : 





gathered from Kidman's letters to his nephew that the 
latter paid frequent visits to the uncle at Banham Rec- 
tory, and from other correspondence that Kerrich often 
called upon his old friend the rector of Denton, when at 
Banham. The acquaintance of nearly twenty years now 
developed into a warm friendship, and it appears from 
the opening letter of Postlethwayt to Kerrich that the 
entire Denton family made a stay of several days at 
Dersingham, early in November 1731. It was the first, 
and perhaps an excusable, distraction that Kerrich had 
had since the death of his wife only three months before. 
"Tis our Desire," says Postlethwayt, October 26, 1731, 
" to put you to as little Trouble as may be by our 
visit, & to be treated like intimate Friends, & not as 
Strangers, who expect Niceties and Quelque choses." 
Arrived at Denton again Postlethwayt writes, November 
30, 1731: " Y s presents You both with mine and my 
ffamily's hearty Thanks for your very kind, generous & 
handsome Entertainment You lately gave us at Darsing- 

On the verso : 
JanT 29VA- 

Receiv'd of this bill Eight pound seventeen \ r , 

shillings by y e Order of Mr. Kidman V ^ 
by me THO: FAWCET. J 2 

Jan: 30, if|. 

Received of M r Postlethwait seven pounds^ 

five shillings and six pence by the order I s. d. 
of M r Kidman by mee J ^ : 5 : 6 


So strict a disciplinarian was the Chief Master that Kidman had to remon- 
strate with him very soon after the boy's arrival in College : 

" Y r Nephew complains of a Rheu falling upon his eyes w ch I am apt to 
impute to his sitting up late w ch he says he cannot tell how to avoyd unless 
you think fit to make some abatem ts of y se exercises w ch you lay upon him : 
w ch I think you sh d doe if you intend he sh d pursue his Univers: studies 
equally w th his Companions." Similarly Samuel Kerrich in 1715 made him- 
self ill with overwork, and in 1768 he was told by the Master of Magdalene 
that his son Thomas Kerrich " continued his Evening Studies much too far 
into the Morning," and desired that it should be checked by the father. 
Perhaps three generations of such determined workers is a somewhat rare 


ham, where we filled y r House so many Days. We must 
now reckon You indebted to us a long Visit w ch we hope 
You will pay in due time not doubting of a most hearty 
Welcome from us then and at all Times." Visiting in 
those times was an arduous undertaking, especially in the 

For instance, this is what happened to Kidman on 
September 19, 1735, when he went from Dersingham 
to Banham in the same direction as Denton and only a 
few miles short of it : 

"We got tolerably well to Watton though Martin 
(Kerrich's coachman who went as guide) was mistaken 
in y e way to one of y e towns. At half an hour after 4 
we proceeded in o r journey from thence taking a Guide to 
Shropha'. Then we took directions but failed in observ- 
ing y m and wandered upon Snetterton Heath for an hour 
or 2 & y n went to Wilby instead of Eccles where we 
were at a great loss where we were & continued so 
till Harry took out one of y e Horses in quest of some 
House, who after half an hour lighted upon Mr Hare's 
who sent his man w th a Lanthorn & Horse to direct us 
hither. It w d have been lucky if Martin had not been 
under an obligation to return to Dersingham." Thus it 
took the whole day and half the night to grope the way 
of about forty miles across Norfolk, which a modern motor 
car could legally accomplish in less than two hours 
smelly, certainly, but expeditious. So much for travel- 
ling in the good old times. 

The visit of the Postlethwayt family to Kerrich must 
have implied the chariot and pair, three riding horses, 
and a tumbril for the " bagges " and " portmantuas," 
beside more than one guide to show the way over almost 
trackless Norfolk wastes in dark November days. Kerrich 
indeed rode back with the party a day's journey to Swaff- 
ham, where the Postlethwayts rested for the night, 
returning to what he tells Barbara on December 9th is 


his " joyless Abode," for he had contrived a flimsy pretext 
for writing to her. He is so glad to learn from his 
brother that " None of you suffer'd by your late Favour 
to me, I sh'd have been very much concerned that what 
gave me so much Satisfaction sh'd be attended with ill 
Consequences to those to whom I am obliged." 

Now follow the long sets of letters between Barbara 
and Kerrich, of which little can be said here, save that 
they form the most attractive reading. At first the lady 
writes with engaging primness, cleverly parrying what 
she calls Kerrich's " studied letters." The engagement 
took place at the end of the year, but negotiations re- 
specting settlements were begun between Kidman and 
Postlethwayt on the return of the family to Denton. In 
this regard Kidman tells Kerrich, November 21, 1731 
having entertained the Postlethwayts on their return jour- 
ney, and writing on the day of their departure : " After 
I had told him y* I found by y rs he had been so kind as to 
make you an offer of his D r B: I inquired w l he proposed 
to give w th H r ." Postlethwayt's reversion of a procedure 
dating from patriarchal times seems so singular that it is 
desirable to record it here. 

After the engagement Barbara unbends, but still with 
great reserve, and the letters gradually become full of 
varied interest ; the engagement ring involves many 
letters lace for livery, horses, cows, and all kinds of 
household matters are submitted for her approval or judg- 
ment, as to which Barbara constantly assures Kerrich : " I 
dare say you will have every thing as convenient as you 
can and that's all I shall mind, I fancy you'l expect I 
shall be mighty curious and exact about every thing but 
you will meet with another disapointment in that, I can 
tell you." As to the diamond ring he sent her, which 
Lynn and Norwich were not " polite " enough to afford 
(this is still preserved ; it was bought at Bury and com- 
prises a large central brilliant surrounded by eight smaller 


ones), she says : "It would become a better hand, but 
whenever I receive one of less value I hope the Giver 
will make it the most valueable of Presents." The reading 
of these letters and the answers one after another vividly 
recalls the actors in life's little drama of a hundred and 
seventy years ago. Kerrich, however, is determined that 
everything in the house shall be as he imagines she 
wishes, and gives orders for much more than he had in 
contemplation for " Gentle Jane " a year before, not, we 
may be sure, with any slighting of her memory, but in 
this case he is about to marry an heiress and money is 
not lacking. So he presses Barbara about the " fitting 
up of the rooms," the white marble pavement for the hall, 
the flooring of the bed-chambers, partitions, new offices, 
&c., " For," says he, " I suppose before we shall have 
well turned ourselves about We shall have our House 

Postlethwayt now gave his daughter " a riding horse " 
named " Calamanco," and Barbara sends an annulet for 
the exact size of the wedding-ring. She has not been 
well, but is now described as " very brisk and airy." She 
excuses herself for her letters being full of " nonsense," 
against which he sets on his part " the many Starts and 
Breaks " in his epistles, caused by " the Rapping and 
Knocking on every side of me, which, notwithstanding, I 
am very willing to bear, and perhaps could dispense w th 
more of it," provided " they make things tolerably agree- 
able to your taste." " Your nonsense," he ends, " is so 
very agreeable, that you need not be afraid you should 
give me too much of it. 'Tis so very like Sense that it 
may easily deceive your very humble servant." 

As soon as Barbara's engagement was announced 
abroad detractors set to work. In a letter to Kerrich 
of January 9, 1732, Kidman says: "I suppose you take 
it for granted that y e Country ab 1 Harleston & Diss believe 
y c Agreem 1 between you & Mrs Bab: to be as good as 


Concluded. It is therefore frequently y e Subject of 
comon Conversation. Coz: Codd w th her Husband came 
hither yester: & went away this afternoon. She hath 
given me such an Ace 1 of y e Temper of y r Friend from 2 
Persons who have been pretty much acquainted w th her as 
hath disturbed us all very much & raised such fears & 
suspicions ab' her Temper as I shall hardly be able ever 
to overcome. As y e Intelligence comes from those of her 
own Sex, from such as can be supposed to have no 
interest to serve by y e Representations they have given of 
Her it ought not to be slighted and disregarded unless 
you think it too late to make any Objections. As y e 
happiness of y e remaining part of y* life is at stake I 
think y s concerns you very much to apply to Coz: C: for 
A more punctual ace 1 of w* she heard of Her from Them 
y n I can give you or think it proper to give you my self. 
W e was s d was before a large Company. We lament very 
much y* you did not respite y e Declaration you made to 
y e Father till you came again into y e Country. I cannot 
but own y l I am pretty much shocked at w l I have heard 
& could not forbear giving you these short Hints ab l y e 
matter in hand." 

In the next letter, dated February 21, the poor 
innocent old bachelor, who evidently knew nothing about 
the ways and moods of " the eternal feminine," says he 
should have written to his nephew before had he not 
observed that he and his brother Charles "were little 
moved with y e stories Coz: Codd had heard of Mrs B: One 
of those who talked so freely of Her was Mrs Camel, who 
declared she had seen her quarrelling w th & fighting her 
Maid. The other was Mrs Peggy Bransby, who w n at 
Denton saw her striking her good Natured Sister. How 
long it was since these actions were observed Coz: Nanny 
did not hear." Kidman is inclined to reject the " favour- 
able interpretation " that Kerrich and his brother put upon 
the charges, but hopes "y l Miss Bab's good sense & good 


education may be sufficient to correct & overrule for y e 
future That Temper from whence such disagreeable actions 
might proceed. I must confess," he continues, "w n I first 
heard of y m my fears for you were great, possibly greater 
y n they sh d have been, but I am willing to stand corrected 
by y r self & Bro: for y m . As to Mrs Cam: declaration I 
mind it y e less because she is believed by All to be very 
ill natured her self." He is, however, still somewhat 
biassed by Miss Bransby's story because she was "ac- 
counted y e most agreable and good natured young Lady y' 
can be. She hath given y e same ace 1 of Mrs B: temper to 
Mrs Cooper as well as to Nanny." The detraction by 
Peggy Bransby of her old friend and schoolfellow (she 
was sister of Eliza Bransby) was perhaps the more repre- 
hensible case of the two, because she had been Barbara's 
own familiar friend, in whom she trusted, and constantly 
stayed at Denton. Barbara's had scarcely been rehabili- 
tated, and her enemies sufficiently ignored or put to con- 
fusion, than dark attempts were made to defame Kerrich 
himself in the eyes of his mistress. This entails a long 
and needless declaration to Barbara, for she is well con- 
vinced that the attack arises from " y e same little impotent 
malice." In Kidman's last letter to his nephew, December 
l $> 1 73%> we are told " Coz: Nanny Codd is in a state 
of distraction, w h I am afraid wilbe incurable," so her 
conduct is accounted for. 

Meanwhile correspondence had been going on between 
Kerrich, Postlethwayt, and Kidman respecting settlements, 
that made by Kerrich on Jane Kitchingman in 1729 being 
taken as the basis of the present arrangement. While 
the negotiations were proceeding Barbara amused herself 
and Kerrich by writing what she called " mad letters " to 
him, testing his temper, sincerity, and affection. 

The settlements were agreed upon early in September, 
Matthew Postlethwayt and Dr. Gooch, Master of Caius, 
being the trustees. The Contract of Marriage, by which 


Samuel Kerrich and Matthew Postlethwayt are bound in 
a sum of two hundred pounds, is on a printed form, and 
dated September 30, 1732. The condition of the obliga- 
tion is that Samuel Kerrich and Barbara Postlethwayt 
may lawfully marry and shall cause such marriage to take 
place at Denton between the legal hours. No date is, 
however, specified, so this instrument would have had no 
legal effect, being, in fact, a nudum pactum and " void for 
uncertainty." The document is executed by Kerrich and 
his future father-in-law, and witnessed by John Postle- 
thwayt and Elizabeth Townshend, sister-in-law of Matilda, 
Matthew's second wife, and daughter of Sherlock, Dean of 
St. Paul's, and sworn before Charles Kidman Proctor. 
The marriage took place in Denton Church, October i , 


There almost seems to have been a fatality against 

a bride being brought home to what Pyle called "the 
enchanted house " of the vanished Pell family. For now, 
as at the time of Kerrich's former marriage, the smallpox 
continued to ravage the district of Dersingham, and there 
was nothing to be done but for the bride to stay on at 
Denton while the bridegroom went forth to his labour and 
to the danger, fifty miles off on the other side of the great 
country. Again there was only an occasional visit to the 
wife, a separation made only bearable for both by their 
charming letters to each other. At last, at the end of the 
spring of 1733, the blessed day came when Barbara went 

Now opens the new life which we know from her 
constant correspondence with her sister and step-mother 
(who purveys all the Gooch news) must have been of the 
brightest kind. 

And now came the father's letters to his daughter, 
always beginning " Most Dear Child ! " and these, together 
with Mrs. Kerrich's diverting answers to her sister, the 
letters of Mrs. Hoste, Mrs. Masters, the aged Catherina 


Cobbe, and the quaint motherly epistles of Mrs. Houghton, 
give a complete picture of what went on at Dersingham, 
and in local society on both sides of the county. To 
complete the volume of news, Kerrich has his continuous 
epistolary intercourse with his relatives his father-in-law, 
Dr. Kerrich of Bury, Charles Ray, Bishop Gooch, and 
others. When to these are added the continuation of the 
correspondence with the now scattered Corpus friends, 
Aylmer, Herring, Denne, Bishop Mawson, Beacon, Rand, 
Styleman, Hoste, Stephens, and others, some idea may be 
formed of the literary equipment of the vicarage of Der- 
singham, of which the letters of Pyle form only a respect- 
able example. If, as might have been thought by friends 
in London, Kerrich was buried alive in the country, he 
certainly had the wherewithal to illumine his sepulchre. 
All this material must, alas ! be now almost ignored under 
the restraint of a limited notice. 

Arrived at the point where Kerrich is settled in his 
place we shall now proceed to run lightly through the two 
lives thus happily brought together, touching upon the 
principal events, and vivifying from time to time the dry 
recital of facts by quotations from the strictly family 

Early in the year 1733 Kerrich's father died. During 
the summer several of Mrs. Kerrich's old school-fellows 
came to stay with her, among them Miss Greenwood, who, 
she tells her sister, " has happened of a most sad Misfor- 
tune, she was lam'd with Bleeding & her arm is quite 
wither'd now, how long it has been done I don't know, 
but 'tis thought it must be her Death, & she is very 
chearfull & easy under it." In September Mrs. Kerrich 
had the first of many " disappointments," and slowly got 
better again. They receive much friendship from Lord 
Townshend, " who spends his time in planting and im- 
proving his estate," and from the Hostes of Sandringham 
Hall. The changes and chances among the servants of 


the household form a frequent theme of conversation, for 
human nature does not alter. One man who betook him- 
self to what he thought was " a fine service," soon gave it 
up, " he says it was Hell to what this was, both Master 
& Mistress swore at Him." 

In April 1735 Kerrich went to Cambridge to take his 
Doctor's Degree, staying in Freeschool Lane with his popular 
brother-in-law Dr. Micklebourgh. It is, of course, not 
often that the husband and wife were separated for many 
days together ; on this occasion Kerrich stayed away three 
weeks, and much correspondence passed between Cam- 
bridge and Dersingham. He rode to the University, his 
groom returning with the horses and coming again three 
weeks later. The main business was apparently quite 
easily got over, and Kerrich sends most interesting letters 
to his wife. " I had the Pleasure of receiving Yours 
yesterday in the Afternoon, between 5 & 6, just as I 
returned from keeping my Act ; which was a very season- 
able Relief to me, for it was the longest Act that has been 
known a great while. I had three Opponents besides y e 
Professor of Divinity, & was in the Rostrum full three 
Hours. I make no Doubt You will rejoice with me y 1 that 
Trouble is over, & y e more because I believe I may 
venture to send You Word that I have lost no Reputa- 
tion by it. Last night I treated my Opponents, & like 
Lawyers after a Cause we were very Good Friends." 

The letter which proved such a relief to the new 
Doctor of Divinity is a cheerful chatty epistle. From it 
we learn that " Mr Cremer preached us a Resurrection 
Sermon yesterday at Dersingham, & was very Grave, 
only once called to Mr Scarfe not to sleep, as for 
Wolferton if he had known there were so few People, 
he wou'd have carried no sermon, but shut his Eyes, & 
told them some Canterbury Story, or other, he said." 
" I got Mr. Golty to look of your Grafts, he says y e Frosts 
y t we had o' Mornings last Week, he is afraid has hurt 


'em." " We have Plenty of fine Radishes in the Garden, 
now, Miss & I sup of 'em sometimes, & we have 
drank Sage Tea every Morning since she came. I dont 
know but y l may be as good as y e Ale." " I think, my 
Dear, you might get a little Hartshorn for us, it's right to 
have some in y e House if it should be wanted." " I have 
got Six Ducks more hatch'd last Night, & all y e Chickens 
do pretty well now, Miss Cremer & I are very Busie 
after all y e Creatures, now & then, if they aile any thing." 
Mrs. Kerrich thinks " every day ten till you come back." 
But the contemplation and fitting of a new damask gown, 
a quilted coat, and a hoop petticoat help to while away the 
tedium of the husband's absence, and " the maids lie in y e 
Gallery o' nights" to give an air of security to the 
mistress. She is well pleased at the reception he has 
had at Cambridge, and particularly at Caius lodge, " tho' 
it's no more than I expected." 

On April 29 Kerrich paid 22, 135. 6d. fees to the 
Proctor; 10, the composition for a Treat on taking his 
Doctor's Degree, and 2 u as a Caution for A Determina- 
tion," and on May i he received his Certificate of Admission 
to the Degree of Doctor in Divinity. 

The uncle Kidman, writing to congratulate Kerrich on 
his Degree, says that the pleasure is so much the greater 
since he hears from Cambridge how well he has deserved 
it. His strength is fast failing, and he fears he will never 
see Dersingham again. Alluding to the "distinguishing 
marks of favour from such patrons (Walpole and Towns- 
hend) as you have met with," he says, May 10, 1736: 
" May it not be proper to let y m know how acceptable it 
would be to you to get you in among y e K gs Chaplains y 1 
you may have an opportunity of showing y r self more to 
y e world." 

In the spring of 1736 Mrs. Kerrich paid a visit of 
many months to Denton, after a " disappointment." She 
and her delicate sister played at Piquet for hours together, 


the mysteries of which game, as well as of Quadrille and 
Ombre, they learnt from Mrs. Townshend, who writes 
elaborate letters about the rules of the games, those for 
Ombre being very peculiar, with the matadores, beasts, 
spadil, minil, codil, and basto. On this occasion the 
portraits of Samuel and Barbara Kerrich were painted 
by Thomas Bardwell, an artist of Beccles. Barbara is 
shown in a " night-gown " of yellow satin with sleeves 
with ruffles at the elbows, and a scarfe. One long lock 
of hair falls in a semi-neglige curl on the breast. A 
portrait of her in pastels, by Saunders, one of the set 
of nine already alluded to, exhibits her in a rich blue 
dress, and well shows her attractive piquant face. Bard- 
well's picture of Kerrich is that which is reproduced in 
this volume. 

In September 1737 Kerrich again went to stay with 
the Micklebourghs at Cambridge, on business connected 
with the sale of some of his property near there, and the 
purchase of an estate adjoining the Postlethwayt lands at 
Denton. He spent one day at Caius Lodge " with his 
Lordship, who was so complaisant as to drink our 
Healths ! " During his absence they had terribly wet 
weather at Dersingham, and floods throughout the dis- 
trict, The " old enchanted house " took on a new aspect, 
the cellars filled with water, and Mrs. Kerrich writes : 
" I am washed out of all y e Rooms below stairs, the 
Springs have risen very much in y e Garden all this Week, 
and run in all y e little Alleys in streams. I mostly set in 
y e little Parlour, & yesterday in y e afternoon, as I sat 
there, y e Water rise under my Chair before I saw it, & 
we look'd into y e great Parlour, it began to come out at 
y e Door into y e Kitchen, and was near a quarter of a yard 
deep, in some parts of it, & this Morning it was all 
over y e Hall & Kitchen, Willson, & Martin, & all y c 
servants are trying to get it out, but y e Springs bubble 
and run, sadly in y e Garden still." She assures her 


husband that " when you have been handsomely Received 
by all your friends at Cambridge, you will be sure of one 
at Home who will be sincerely rejoyced to see you, and 
always glad to have your company if it cou'd be, I believe 
I sh'n't easily part with you again." 

To divert Mrs. Kerrich in her watery retreat, Mrs. 
Postlethwayt writes one of her lively letters, full, as usual, 
of delicious local gossip. Mr. Martin Baily has married a 
lady " a Londoner " ; Miss Molly Langley has married 
young Jenny, one of Mr. Sayer's rakish clerks, who " be- 
haves better at present than formerly " ; the news she 
likes the worst is that Miss Barry will be carried off 
by Mr. Stillingfleet, who has such a deluding tongue ; 
would that she could break the match. " Mr. Page 
(after courting upwards of 20 young & old) is married 
to a young Girl of 2 or 3 in twenty, out of the Shires, 
the Motto of the wedding is in Latin, but this is the 
English, I came, saw, conquer'd, on which the following 
lines are made : 

" ' I came, saw, conquer'd, active Cesar said, 

But meant Rome's Foes, not the consenting Maid ; 
Cou'd He have spoke of Cleopatra won, 
He wou'd have said, I came, saw, was undone. 
Least are Love's Triumphs when our Pride is most, 
Who knows or loves like Cesar scorns to boast.' " 

The course of the Pyle correspondence gives a general 
idea of the continued endeavours that were made to obtain 
for Kerrich an advancement in the Church, and the diffi- 
culty of getting anything sufficiently good for a cleric of 
his circumstances. This feature in his life need not there- 
fore be much touched upon here. Moreover, we shall see 
from Pyle's letters how embarrassed both bishops and 
ministers were, particularly after the death of Walpole, 
both by claims and promises, and how much the former 
groaned under the exactions of the latter. 


Kerrich, indeed, cherished just expectations of ad- 
vancement to the episcopal bench until after the fall of 
Walpole; but the death of that great man in 1745 put 
an effectual stop to any pretensions of the kind, at least in 
that quarter. Bishop Gooch, who well knew in how high 
a degree of favour Kerrich stood with Walpole, 1 says, 
shortly before Lord Orford's death : " I am afraid Lord 
Orford grows worse, you are among those who will 
greatly miss him." And he thus tersely puts the case 
after that event : " The Truth is : You lost your Bene- 
factor, before You lost your Friend. The first ended with 
his Loss of Power, the last with the Loss of Life. He 
intended You some Dignity in the Church ; when he c d 
conveniently obtain it for You. But You are not the only 
One, whose prospects a few Years ago were, by his kind 
Intentions, very considerable ; but are now no more." 

The even tenour of the Kerrich life at Dersingham is 
also indicated by Pyle's letters. The minute details of 
it appear in those which passed between Mrs. Kerrich 
and her father, sister, and step-mother. Of Kerrich's visits 
to Cambridge after he had taken his Degree, full notices 
are preserved in the letters to his wife in 1741, 1745, 
and 1749, in which latter year he took his place in his 
scarlet gown in the procession at the Installation of the 
Duke of Newcastle, Sir Clement Cotterell being " High 
Master of the Ceremonies." At that time he went on from 
Cambridge to Lambeth, to stay with Archbishop Herring, 
who had not chosen to attend the Installation in conse- 
quence of a difficulty having arisen in his mind respecting 
his precedence. On this occasion Kerrich went so far as 
to venture to Vauxhall and " stay'd about half an hour 

1 When Sir Robert Walpole began the building of Houghton in 1722, he 
had mahogany specially imported for the woodwork. It was at that time a 
material far from common in England. He gave some of it to Kerrich, from 
which a massive double-folding oval table with club feet was made. This 
is still preserved. 


to see the manner of the thing." If he had been a year 
later he might have happened to fall in with his neigh- 
bour Lord Orford and Mrs. Norsa, and helped Lady 
Caroline Petersham to mince the chickens. Perhaps it 
was as well that he didn't. 

With the exception of long stays at Denton, Kerrich 
seldom went far from home after 1740. It is certain 
that his sermon writing and his correspondence occupied 
him greatly for many years, and copies of a number of 
his important letters have been preserved. As time went 
on his epistolary duties gradually ceased as his friends 
one by one were recalled Kidman in 1740, Postlethwayt 
in 1745, Ray in 1750, Rand in 1752, Herring and 
Gooch in 1754, and Denne in 1755. The correspond- 
ence with Kenrick, Bradford, Aylmer, Castle, Stephens, 
and others had ceased some years before. This was the 
natural result of circumstances, and, as to the later corre- 
spondents, the melancholy penalty of outliving his Cam- 
bridge contemporaries. So by the middle of the century 
Kerrich found himself in a manner driven back upon him- 
self, and his books, and, as all things work together for 
the best, when his son became of a proper age his educa- 
tion formed the pleasure of the father's declining years. 
Besides this scholastic relaxation, Kerrich studied deeply 
and annotated the works of Shakespeare. His annotated 
copy of the great dramatist's plays came into the posses- 
sion of his daughter Matilda after his death. Fifty- two 
years subsequent to that event, namely, on May 6, 1820, 
Thomas Kerrich writes as follows to the Rev. Edward 
Balme : " Scarce any thing has given me a severer shock 
than seeing the state of my father's books which he left 
my sister (300 volumes to be chosen by herself) which 
comprehended all the English books of polite literature 
particularly his Shakespear full of his MS. notes, which 
I do believe to be very precious. They have been all 
lent & abandon'd & are all pull'd to pieces, & dirtied 


& out of the binding. It makes me sick & think of the 
vanity of all things." 

To return to Mrs. Kerrich. In order to brace up her 
constitution she was urged to have cold baths, and her 
husband points out to her what a service it would be 
to her " if you could get courage enough to try it." This 
was in the middle of July. Ann Gooch, wife of the 
bishop's son and heir, also exhorts the poor lady to have 
sea-bathing, and writing from Benacre Hall thus gives 
her own not very seductive experience : " I must pro- 
ceed to execute the commission I have receiv'd, viz. to 
acquaint you madam with my method of Batheing in the 
Sea, &c. I go down in our Chariot about Eleven a Clock 
by y l time I think my Breakfast is digested & the Air 
a little warm'd it is generally advised to go in Fasting 
which I did in the Hot weather I put on a waiscote with 
long sleeves & petticoat of Green Bays a p r of Shoes 
thus equip'd I step forth with a trembling Heart I confess, 
my maid puts a long Rope with a slip Knot About my 
waist then I hasten to pay my Compliments to old Nep- 
tune but first rub my Head all over with a wet Towell 
then walk in up to my Knees or higher if the Sea is very 
smooth if there is a large Swell I dont go so far I soon 
turn my back ungrateful as it may seem upon my Bene- 
factor I then turn my Head & watch for the wave then 
I throw myself down flat to let it Rowl over me twice or 
three times as I chuse always takeing Care to be well Sop'd 
then come skiping out as Brisk as a Bird & immediately 
Cover my Head with a dry Towel & get my cloathes on 
as soon as maybe." Mrs. Gooch's procedure and costume 
would perhaps hardly commend themselves to the naiads 
of Trouville and Dieppe. 

On September 4, 1740, the uncle Kidman, who had 
been more than a father to Kerrich, died, leaving his 
property at Diss equally between his four nephews 
Samuel Kerrich, Charles Kerrich, Charles Ray, and Charles 


Simpson. They jointly erected a handsome monument in 
Diss churchyard with a Latin inscription, the production 
of Kerrich and Ray. Kerrich has left the following ap- 
preciation of his uncle : " A Man of Great Judgement, 
Candour & Virtue : the Person that introduced y e Read- 
ing of Mr Locke in y e University of Cambridge, & a 
Fast Friend to Liberty in All Times. He was Fellow 
many Years & afterwards President of Corpus X u or 
Benet, College; a Celebrated Tutor, & an Excellent 
Governor of Youth. To Him it was principally owing y l 
y e College of w ch he was a Member was so remarkably 
attach'd to y e Revolution & y e Succession in y e House of 
Hanover. Many Persons, brought up under his Care 
have been advanced to y e Greatest Dignities in y e Church, 
& been Eminent in the Comonwealth of Learning. As 
soon as y e Work he had undertaken could be safely 
coiriitted to other Hands, he was promoted by Arch 
Bishop Tenison to y e Rectory of Stystead in Essex : 
Which, having w th Difficulty obtained His Grace's Con- 
sent, he exchanged for a Benefice of much less Value in 
his own Country, near his native Place. Where he spent 
y e Latter Part of his Life in Great Peace of Mind : Re- 
ver'd by Those Above him ; Pleased at y e Frequent Oppor- 
tunity he had of Congratulating Friends, whom he knew to 
be Worthy, upon their Advancement, & Easie in a Lower 
Station, from an Unconion Diffidence of his own Merit." 

In November 1740 Mrs. Kerrich lost the first of her 
children that had lived more than a few hours, and she 
writes letters to her sister too touching almost to make 
public, but " the best of Husbands " assuages her grief, 
and after a while she goes into society again and fills her 
letters to her sister with accounts of " night gowns," 
" mody sleeves," " hats that tye under the chin," " mobs," 
"aperns," "rails" and " sacques." She takes renewed 
interest in her ten young turkeys, the teeming bees, 
the knotts and arbours, and all the old-fashioned garden 


delights. The Hostes, Hammonds, Goodriches, Bacons, 
Nelthorpes, Pawletts, Browns, and other neighbours are 
constantly there the gay Mr. Nelthorpe " in y e beauti- 
fullest Waistcoat I ever saw, wrought upon white Padusoy 
full of exceeding small Flowers of y e finest colours & 
embroider'd round very thick with Gold, broader than an 
Orrice in a Wave fashion." The new manservant " can 
set up napkins in y e shape of y" whole Cris Cross Row." 
The old trees in the form of the two Goliahs and their 
wives, which hindered the view into the knott from the 
" parlour " window, are cut down, and fresh butter is 
churned every morning for breakfast ! 

By dint of taking great care of herself and constantly 
wearing that curious Rogerson talisman " Ye Eagle 
Stone," 1 the happy day at last arrived, October 31, 1742, 
when Mrs. Kerrich's daughter Matilda was born, " a pretty 
rogue enough with a mighty healthful clear complexion." 
Henceforth the letters teem with the attractions of the 
newcomer, the early dawnings of her many engaging 
qualities, the pleasure in her society, and anxiety for her 
welfare. The sponsors are the step-grandmother, Matilda 
Postlethwayt, her brother Bishop Gooch, and the child's 
aunt Elizabeth. The grave grandfather reports that " a 
pair of Lillyputian shoes are being contriv'd for y e little 
Girl," the usual comical antiquated feminine questions are 
asked and answered, and Mrs. Houghton cuts in at this 
conjuncture with her tried maternal wisdom and old wives' 
nostrums addressed to both father and mother. 

1 " The Eagle Stone," or " Stone found in an Eagle's Nest," is nearly an 
inch long, of plain heart shape, cut and polished, and of a light brown close- 
grained marble or pebble-stone, and pierced at the wide end for suspension. 
It is frequently mentioned in the old letters and its merits extolled. In 1894 
the Editor bought one almost identical in size and shape, but darker in colour, 
and mounted in a late seventeenth-century silver setting, with a ring attached, 
in Nuremberg. In 1884 he had an inaccessible eagle's nest pointed out to 
him on the top of the rocky mountain that frowns over the Gorge de Fier 
in Savoy, and was assured by a native that it would contain " beaticoup de 
cailloux" of whose talismanic value he seemed to be quite aware. 


In this year, as was then universal, they all read 
" Pamela " and " wept sorely over it. Nothing can be 
more moving." Similarly in 1749 they read "Clarissa 
Harlowe," " and all agree there's no reading them without 
shedding a good many tears," " it is so affecting and 
moving." Would any one be " moved " by this affected 
novel at the present day ? The great desire of the 
Postlethwayt family to see the child was frustrated by 
the raging of the smallpox on the borders of Norfolk and 
Suffolk, and it was not until October 1 744 that the precious 
treasure, " Little Matilda," could be taken to Denton. 

Throughout his life Kerrich showed himself a careful 
man of business, like his father-in-law, and many of the 
letters that passed between them have considerable interest 
in relation to the management of the Denton and other 
property. A good deal of county news was exchanged at 
the Book Club in the district, and the letters of Postle- 
thwayt have particular attraction by reason of the insight 
they give into the clerical affairs of the diocese. In his 
last letter to Kerrich, dated May 11, 1745, Postlethwayt 
says : " We are much pleased to hear y r little Tilda 
proves so rare a girle, both for her Tongue & her Feet." 
He died suddenly, June 27, and is buried in the chancel of 
Denton Church. It is sad to relate that the latter years of 
his life had been grievously embittered by the misconduct 
of his only son, John, he who, in 1714, was so anxious 
that his father should " know how good he had been ! " 
The widow now retired to Benacre Hall, and the son 
was presented by the Archbishop of Canterbury to the 
rectory of Denton. 

At the time of his death Matthew Postlethwayt was 
rector of Denton, and had been collated to the Arch- 
deaconry of Norwich and to the rectory of Redenhall with 
Harleston in 1742. The long Latin inscription in Denton 
chancel, from the pen of Kerrich, sets forth his character 
and erudition. The Norwich newspaper of the day speaks 


of Postlethwayt as " always steady in the Cause of Liberty; 
of Exemplary Piety, and Good Learning." a Councillor " 
Robins referred to him in 1730 as one " whose whole life 
and ffunction is one continued pursuit of doing good." He 
is described as lt a rather tall thin grave black man " a 
regular Cumbrian Celt. This is borne out by his portraits 
one in oil, small size, by Francis Cufaude ; another in 
pastels, one of the set of nine by Saunders ; and a small 
oval minature painted in oil by Cufaude. He is shown in 
all these portraits vested in clerical habits, with a white wig 
and thick, arched, black eyebrows. His sermons, all written 
in character, were at last destroyed, July 10, 1795, by 
Thomas Kerrich. They weighed 8 stone 8 Ibs. 

The scare of the rebels at the end of this dark year 
brought terror to the heart of Mrs. Kerrich lest any harm 
should befall her child ; the plate and valuables were 
buried in the garden, and the whole countryside was in a 
great state of ferment for fear the rebels " should bend 
that way," and dreading savageries at the hands of the 

The increase in the Window Tax, which was first im- 
posed in 1695, affecting every house with more than seven 
windows, did infinite harm in causing the destruction of the 
numerous picturesque many-windowed houses of earlier 
times, or their marring by the walling up of half the 
accesses of light, besides inflicting incalculable mischief 
upon English domestic architectural style. On March 19, 
1746-47, Barbara Kerrich tells her sister: "The D r is as 
busy as a bee looking after y e stoping up y e Windows in 
this great rambling House. We shall pay for about forty 
do what we can, but paying for y e Chariot disturb me more 
by half, 'tis a sad thing to pay for going a broad & staying 
at home too if we have any light." 

The year 1748 was signalised in Norfolk by a grievous 
murrain among horned cattle, by robberies (apart from the 
normal incidents of the highways), by crimes of arson, and 


" houses beset in the night." The subsequent recurrence 
of the distemper among cattle caused very stringent regula- 
tions to be enforced. On May 23, 1754, Kerrich desired 
to sell " a Brindled Cow " to a man at Snettisham, and 
it was necessary that Henry Aldersea of Dersingham, 
" a Credible Person," should make oath before Theodorus 
Hoste, one of the Commissioners of the Land Tax, that the 
beast had been in Kerrich's actual possession above forty 
days from the above-named date, and that the said cow, 
and the herd with which it fed, have been entirely free 
from any contagious distemper during the said term, and 
have not been within a mile of any infected place during 
the said time. The matter is set forth in a written docu- 
ment signed and sealed by Hoste. Mrs. Kerrich recounts 
to her sister the following incident that occurred close to Der- 
singham : " There was a maid servant walking t'other day 
in a lane & she happened of a Man & a Woman, who strip'd 
her of all her Cloaths but her Shift & that they ty'd about 
her head." 

These anxieties came at a time of trial for Mrs. Kerrich. 
She had been to the gay wedding of her friend Miss Brown 
at Lynn, and on February 3 wrote a full account of the 
dresses to her sister, which is printed elsewhere. On Feb- 
ruary 4 her son was born. The poor child was early intro- 
duced to life's troubles by having an issue at once cut in his 
arm, and afflicted later by inoculation for the smallpox; the 
mother was induced to drink tar-water, the acrid but popular 
panacea of the time. During these years Kerrich saw a 
great deal of Nicholas Styleman and his wife at Snettisham 
Hall, and they witnessed, when " the players " came there 
in 1749, the brilliant Farquhar's "Recruiting Officer," and 
" The Beaux' Stratagem," and other popular pieces. It was 
on these occasions that " Tilly" delighted her father with her 
intelligence for the drama. Old Mr. Styleman died January 
6, 1751, " of y e numb Palsey," and Kerrich was invited " to 
attend y e corps," and, as Nicholas Styleman puts it, "to per- 


form y e last sad Office to Our departed Friend my Father." 
The renewed intimacy at Houghton, and the splendour of 
Mrs. Norsa, who visited Mrs. Kerrich in a landau and six, 
though rather shocking to Elizabeth Postlethwayt, gave a 
fresh zest to the life at Dersingham. 

On May 10, 1750, the death of John Postlethwayt 
caused a great sensation. Ever since his induction into 
the living of Denton he had been going from bad to worse, 
both at home and abroad. His end appears to have been 
tragically sudden, the result of an " accident," apparently a 
fall from his horse when returning from a convivial meeting. 
This ill-starred young man had forced his invalid sister to 
leave Denton and live at Norwich ; only the distance and 
the danger for her to travel prevented her from taking 
refuge at Dersingham. 

The letters from Matthew Postlethwayt and his two 
wives are full of the sorrows caused by the son, John 
at St. Paul's School, at Merton, as chaplain in the navy 
on board H.M.S. Worcester , at home at Denton, and finally 
as rector in his father's room. His reckless extravagant 
conduct nearly forced his father to break up his establish- 
ment, and it was only because the air of Denton suited his 
delicate daughter that he continued there. It is curious to 
contrast John Postlethwayt's notorious demeanour with the 
certificate given him, June 1 1, 1734, by John Baron, Dean 
of Norwich, and three other divines, before his ordination 
as deacon. These worthies certify that he " has by his Be- 
haviour in this Neighbourhood, acquired a great Reputation 
for being an Ingenious & Sober young Gentleman, & well 
affected to our present Establishment both in Church & 
State." Attachment to the "Establishment" was then 
considered as giving a far better title to Holy Orders than 
a high standard of life and conversation. 

The coffin for John Postlethwayt was lined with " fine 
flannel " and covered on the outside with " fine black cloth," 
and cost four guineas. His portrait, as a handsome dark 


boy, in a white wig, grey coat and steinkirk, forms one of 
the nine pastel pictures by John Saunders. 

The silver now went to Dersingham, for Mrs. Kerrich 
told her husband, May 21,1750: " The Plate to be sure 
you dont think of parting with." The greater part of it is 
still in the possession of the Editor. The whole amounted 
to 169 oz., three ounces less than the plate of the Chief 
Master, of which it mainly consisted. The best of the 
furniture (and all the brewing utensils) were also taken to 
the Kerriches, and is still preserved ; indeed, Barbara said : 
" I am very sure you will do every thing for y e best, but 
if it cou'd be help't I woudn't part with any thing but y e 
Books, for y e sake of whose they were." " One thing I 
desire we may have, & y l is y e Draught of House y 4 is in 
y e great Parlour, you may easily make y e Chimney-Piece good 
again, before y e Gentleman come y l is to have it." The 
draught in question is still preserved in excellent condition. 
It is a picture in oil painted by Francis Cufaude, measuring 
about four feet long and one foot ten inches deep, giving an 
isometrical view of Denton Rectory and gardens, with the 
church in the distance. It is full of life and interest. 
Matthew Postlethwayt and three well-dressed women are 
walking in the trim walled gardens, and a divine perhaps 
intended for Samuel Kerrich is riding on a Suffolk punch 
into the fore-court of the house, which is enclosed with 
white railings. There is a " pleasant mount," with a 
summer house on the top, as in Jacobean gardens ; a smart 
man, in a scarlet coat and gold-laced hat, waves his hand to 
the people in the walled enclosures, as he climbs the stile 
into the wood, and a gardener, in a cocked hat, digs in the 
kitchen garden. None of the figures and objects in the 
picture condescend to cast any shadows. A water-colour 
drawing, by Paul Sandby, showing exactly the same view, 
was given to the Ashmolean in 1885 by the Rev. Greville 

The living of Denton, thus unexpectedly vacant, was 


given by the Archbishop of Canterbury to George Sandby, 
a most kind and pleasant man, who became a great friend, 
and wrote letters to Kerrich until 1767. Sandby was in no 
hurry to take up his residence. He at once placed the house 
in Kerrich's hands, for as long a time as he liked, for the 
removal of the household gods from Denton to Dersingham. 

In this year an amusing person, Mrs. Mary Masters, 
spoken of as " Y e Yorkshire Poetess," made long stays at 
Dersingham, her movements to and fro being much ham- 
pered by the smallpox. She wrote a poem describing 
Mrs. Kerrich's garden, which is included in her collected 
works, but it is sad doggerel. She introduces the bowers 
of "twisted greens," presumably the knotts, and the "scaly 
fry" meaning the little fishes in the "canals" in the 
garden. She issued her book in 1755, in sheets, to the 
great annoyance of her 88 1 subscribers, so it is very scarce. 

In June 1751 Elizabeth Postlethwayt was moved from 
Norwich to Dersingham in a horse-litter brought expressly 
from London, and took up her abode, to everybody's joy, 
with her sister. The correspondence between herself and 
Mrs. Kerrich now ceases, and our information is reduced 
mainly to the continuation of the letters from the old lady 
at Benacre Hall. From these we gather something of the 
progress of Tilly, and of Tommy, as the future distinguished 
antiquary and connoisseur is ruthlessly called, and of the 
events at Dersingham, but not much, because Mrs. Postle- 
thwayt's news generally concerns the doings of the Gooch 
family, and the social gossip of her own district. In Sep- 
tember 1751 Mrs. Kerrich had the misfortune to lose her 
wedding-ring, which if sank her spirits." 

With regard to Thomas Kerrich, from his childhood 
upwards he never seems to have been without a pencil 
in his hand, and quantities both of his early as well as 
his later work have been preserved. Mrs. Postlethwayt 
alludes to his "Genius for drawing" in 1753, when he 
was in his sixth year. He was well advised by his father 


to study and copy, when quite a boy, the surpassing beauty 
of Greek coins, and it is presumed that by this discipline 
he early acquired, not only his accuracy and delicacy of 
touch, but his delight in drawing from the human figure, 
and his wonderful mastery of its construction. Some of 
his portraits were engraved by the brothers Facius. 

About 1758 a roll of drawings by Thomas Kerrich 
was taken to London by Mrs. Anguish, a Norfolk friend, 
and shown to Hogarth. The following report was re- 
ceived : " Mrs Anguish presents her Comp s to The Doct r 
& Mrs Kerrich & returns them Master Kerrich's 
drawings, which Mr Hogarth saw & thought them a 
very pretty Performance, but that in his opinion it was 
an Art too little to be depended upon for a Youth to be 
brought up to, Especially Considering the Numbers that 
are now aiming to Excell in it, since the Establishment of 
the Society of Arts and Sciences, & that if he had A 
Son believes he should (not) bring him up in that Way, 
As he knows several Eminent Landscape Painters &c. 
who get but a very small income." 

From the character of his charcoal, chalk, and pencil 
drawings of landscapes, and his close study of the sea, 
the light and the clouds, Thomas Kerrich appears as an 
early " impressionist." The pleasure that the gifted son 
must have given his father by his artistic success was 
enhanced by his painstaking and industry in his classical 

Although the boy has recorded his disappointment at 
the narrowness of a home training, which lacked the grasp 
of an education at Eton, Westminster, or Winchester, his 
inquietude was groundless, since he took the respectable 
degree of Second Senior Optime. Here we must leave him 
and his attractive and interesting career, merely adding 
that his correspondence with members of his family, 
detailing his continuous artistic studies in Paris, Ant- 
werp (where he won the silver medal at the Academy of 


Painting), and Rome, from November 1771 to April 1775, 
have been preserved, and form, together with the correspond- 
ence of his friends, the goodly amount of eleven volumes. 

Kerrich remained in the old Pell house until 1753. 
In March of that year he wrote to Lord Orford's agent 
saying that he would gladly stay where he was if the 
house were repaired, some parts of it " having become in 
a manner untenantable." Lord Orford, however, would 
do nothing, so the picturesque old mansion was abandoned, 
and a few years after pulled down. Kerrich removed to 
Dersingham Hall, a good old house with crow-stepped 
gables, after the late sixteenth and early seventeenth 
century Norfolk fashion. Here he remained until his 
death in 1768. The house is still standing much as it 
was a hundred and fifty years ago, and is now the centre 
of a large bulb and nursery garden. 

In August 1754 Kerrich paid his last visit to Cam- 
bridge, going by way of Swaffham and Newmarket, where 
he met his half-nephew John Kerrich, who came to dine 
with him. "A fine youth," he tells his wife ; "he has 
his Mother's Smile, & his Uncle Ch: Ray's Leg, but a 
good deal handsomer than either, with a very good Air 
& Manners." The man thus commended was destined to 
marry Kerrich's daughter Matilda twelve years later. On 
this journey Kerrich had to leave Swaffham at five o'clock 
in the morning on account of crossing " the horrible 
Brandon Sands " l in the cool of the day to save distressing 
the horses. Mr. Micklebourg rode off fifteen miles to a 
venison feast, which Kerrich declined and went to see his 
relative, Dr. Gooch, at Fen Ditton, going to Ely the day 
after to stay with his old friend Bishop Mawson, who had 
been translated from Chichester in the room of Bishop 
Gooch, who had died on February 14. One of the last 

1 Brandon Sands were rendered still more repellent by the gibbets which 
stood upon them. In 1785 Thomas Kerrich made sketches of two men 
hanging in chains on one gibbet, May and Tybald, two forgotten criminals. 


acts of this prelate was to set on foot a scheme of ex- 
changes by which Kerrich would have been placed in a 
stall at Ely. But death put an end to the negotiations. 

Returning to Mrs, Kerrich : after her sister came to 
live with her the main streams of local and family news 
ceased ; but some of her friends continued to write long 
letters. For instance, Miss Bransby gives an account of 
the Assembly Balls at Lynn during the Assize week of 
1754. At these gatherings country dances went on until 
one o'clock, then minuets till three in the morning. This 
gay young lady was a great favourite at Benacre, and had 
just been staying there for the Beccles " Horse Race." 
Mrs. Postlethwayt says : " She's as high as a Maypole, 
but cuts a good figure enough, like her Mother in temper, 
good natur'd & obliging. Mrs Bransby looks mighty 
well, Lady Bacon say that Miss look more like her sister 
than daughter." 

Conspicuous among the scourges of the eighteenth 
century in East Anglia was cancer. Several persons who 
have been mentioned in the present volume succumbed to 
that malady. On many occasions Matthew Postlethwayt, 
referring to his wife's health, speaks of "y e knott in her 
Breast," to which she finally yielded. The remedies then 
used were both idle and repulsive, worthy indeed of the 
darkest ages of chirurgy. 

The first mention of Mrs. Kerrich's inherited affliction 
is in a letter to her of March 23, 1756, from Matilda 
Postlethwayt. The case of Mrs. Brewster is spoken of at 
some length, and she is urged to adopt a loathsome 
nostrum, of which wood-lice formed an ingredient, and 
which seems to have been quite the usual one of the 
time. In November 18, 1757, Kerrich and his wife 
stayed at Benacre and delighted all the domestics by 
their "largesse" to them a well-known Norfolk expres- 
sion at the present day. 

The latter years of Mrs. Kerrich's life were brightened 


by visits to Mrs. Pawlett at Lynn, chiefly for the sake of 
taking her attractive young daughter to see "the players." 
The last letters that passed between her and her husband 
relate to two of these entertainments, for which Mrs. 
Kerrich requires some fans, " pairs of sleeves," and other 
finery. She excuses herself for troubling him " we shall 
hardly ever do such a thing again " ; to which the good old 
fellow answers : " You have none of You so many Oppor- 
tunities of this Kind as to neglect making y e Best of any of 
them. Ne'er heed me as the Honest Gent: says in y e Play." 

What Barbara Kerrich said was, in a way, prophetic. 
The incurable malady increased upon her, and she was 
mercifully recalled " Placide Mortem obiit" August 22, 
1762. On August 26 her body was laid to rest in the 
beautiful chancel of Dersingham Church. 

After his wife's death the stricken husband seldom 
went abroad save to his nearest friends, but his son's 
education continued his constant care. In 1765 the 
daughter Matilda became engaged to her half-cousin, John 
Kerrich, second son of the rector of Banham, and the 
marriage took place November 5, 1767. John Kerrich 
died in 1787, and Matilda's extended widowhood lasted 
until 1823. Both are buried in one grave in the chancel 
of Dersingham Church, under a great black marble slab 
with a Latin inscription. Finished pencil portraits of 
them both by Thomas Kerrich have been preserved. On 
November 7, 1 767, Thomas Kerrich took up his residence 
in Magdalene College, Cambridge. He came home for 
Christmas, finding his father in very failing health, and 
obliged to get assistance for the Sunday duty at Wolfer- 
ton. On January 28, 1768, Elizabeth Postlethwayt re- 
ports that he was " poorly & apt to fret about ever}' little 
matter, and writing is troublesome to him." 

In Kerrich's last letter to his son, February 14, 1768, 
in a trembling hand, he begs him, in a postscript, " to 
take an Opportunity of stepping in to Bennett Churchyard 


on a Sunday without taking Notice to any Body & let 
me know in What Condition the Altar Tomb is, & the 
Iron Rail about it. At Your Leizure send me a Sketch 
of it. It has been thought very Neat." Thus the remem- 
brance of his first love, dead since forty-three years, 
hovered about the old man's mind in his last days. 

On March 7 the son rode from Cambridge all through 
the night to see his father once more, but he arrived too 
late. The mysterious change came in the forenoon of 
March 8, and Samuel Kerrich passed away. His body 
was buried in the same grave with Barbara, covered by a 
great slab of black marble richly carved with the Kerrich 
and Postlethwayt arms, mantling, and crest, and with the 
following inscription of his own composition : 























It remains to add that a portrait of Samuel Kerrich 
forms one of the series (in which is also included a portrait 
of Matilda Postlethwayt) in pastels by Saunders. A 
miniature of him was painted in quite the latter years 
of his life by his son Thomas, who also made pencil 
sketches of his father's face after his death. 

On the break-up of the home at Dersingham, Elizabeth 
Postlethwayt went to live with her niece, Matilda Kerrich, 
at Burnham Market, and there she died in 1794, in her 
eighty-sixth year, having long outlived the delicacy of her 
youth and middle age. She rests under a black marble 
slab in Dersingham chancel with a Latin inscription. 

Of portraits of Elizabeth Postlethwayt there are two 
life-size in oil by Bardwell, three-quarter and half-length 
respectively, showing her in a " night-gown " of white 
satin crossed by a pink scarfe or sash ; a long lock of 
black hair resting on the breast, as in her sister's picture ; 
she is shown in mauve silk in Saunders's pastel, and admir- 
ably represented in Thomas Kerrich's searching life-size 
head in coloured chalks, as well as in a miniature by him. 
He also made delicate pencil-drawings of the aged and 
honoured lady after her death. 

The faithful friend and correspondent, Matilda Postle- 
thwayt, died at Benacre Hall in 1760, and is buried at the 
feet of Matthew Postlethwayt in Denton chancel. 

Finally, returning for a moment to Thomas Kerrich : 
he went back to Cambridge Sir Thomas Gooch and 
John Gooch, D.D., being his guardians to pursue the 
long life during which "he was" as the inscription by 
Bishop Turton on his monument in Dersingham chancel 
states " eminently distinguished amongst his learned con- 
temporaries by the varied endowments of his mind." The 
connection with Dersingham was revived in 1784, when 
he was presented by Dixon Hoste to the living, which he 
held until his death in 1828. He is buried under a black 
marble slab in the chancel of Dersingham Church. There 



also repose the remains of his sweet wife, Sophia Hayles 
justly called " Miranda " who survived him seven 

Half life-size bust portraits of rare artistic beauty in 
chalk by Thomas Kerrich of " Miranda " and her two sisters 
are preserved. Mrs. Kerrich and Mrs. Wollaston wear 
turbans and late Empire gowns, and Miss Hayles is shown 
in a bouffante and tall black Directoire hat. 



" Wisbech, July 7 th , 1729. 

" Be pleased to accept my most hearty thanks 
for your recommendation of me to the gentlemen of Clare 
Hall. I am much pleased with an opportunity of becoming 
again a member of the University, both in point of the 
credit of a fellowship, and the opportunity it may some- 
times give me of serving a good cause with my vote. 
Dr. Morgan has been so kind as to give me notice of 
my election, and tells me that I may be admitted at any 
time. I purpose to be at Cambridge about the latter 
end of the next week to be admitted, and give my thanks 
to you and the rest of my friends there. I am, Sir, 
"Your much obliged Serv 1 ' 


" My Father, who is now with me, sends his service & 
thanks to you." 


To the Rev. Mr. Kerrich, 

Fellow of Bennet College in Cambridge. 
By Caxton. 


"7 May 1735. 

" I will take care to fill 4 doz. bottles with such 
port as is dignum intrare in tuo docto corpore ('tis Moliere's 



Latin). I wish you joy of your Degree & kiss your 

"E. PYLE. 

" My compliments wait upon Mrs. Kerrich." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 


"1$ Nov r 1737. 

" The Quakers are going to give us fresh trouble 
again, next sessions, about tythes. So the Bishops have re- 
solved to publish an exact account of all the prosecutions for 
tithes that have been set on foot against any of that tribe, 
in the Exchequer or ecclesiastical court, for as many years 
backwards as they can get good informations of. Agree- 
ably to this resolution, they have written to the clergy in 
all the large towns within their respective dioceses, desiring 
them to request help herein of the brethren in their neigh- 
bourhoods. Such a letter to my father from the Bishop 
of Norwich is the occasion of the trouble given you. Be 
so good therefore as to send me an account, How many 
Quakers you have in your parishes ; how many have been 
sued in either of the above-named courts for tithes (for as 
many years last past as you can get information of), and 
why in those courts rather than elsewhere ? Desire the 
same favour of Mr. Sharp, and as many of your neighbours 
as you can think of. We fight pro aris et focis, therefore 
Men of Israel help ! 

" Y rs &c., 

"E. PYLE. 

" Service to Y r Lady. 

" 'Tis not doubted but that the prosecutions will appear 


so trifling that the lenity the Quakers have been used with 
will defeat their design." 


To the Rev. Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

The persecution of the Quakers had been carried on 
from their foundation in the middle of the seventeenth 
century until the passing of the Act of Toleration in 1689. 
It is not surprising that the violent and disreputable 
prelate of Norwich should attack them. How superior 
the Quakers were in their lives and conversation to those 
who then wished to persecute them the course of the 
correspondence now under notice will sufficiently show. 


" 1 8th Dec r 1738. 

" I thank you for the reading of Mr. A.'s good 
sermon. I found a letter from Dr. Nightcap when I came 
home, who desires service to all his Norfolk friends. By 
some letters from London I am informed that Dr. Water- 
land will not accept of the bishoprick of Landaff unless he 
can have the deanery of Wells along with it ; but this 
can't be done, because 'tis promised to Professor Smith, 
who thereupon has resigned all pretensions to the Master- 
ship of Trinity, which is now fixed for Dr. Mawson. This 
is the state of matters at this time. By what I have sent 
you, with this, I have fulfilled my promises as far as I was 
able. I am, S r , 

" Y r most Humble Serv f , 

(I TT P VT 17 " 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich. 

Daniel Waterland, Master of Magdalene, was one of the 
most distinguished Cambridge men of his time. He took 


a learned part in the Arian controversy, and in publishing 
a vindication of Christ's divinity attacked Dr. Samuel 
Clarke, whose leanings towards that particular heresy had 
been more than suspected. Waterland took an active 
part in the struggle of the university with Bentley. He 
did more than any divine of his generation to check the 
advance of latitudinarian ideas within the church of 

There is some confusion with regard to the informa- 
tion in Pyle's letter. In consequence of Waterland's 
attitude Llandaff was offered to and accepted by Mathias 
Mawson, who was translated in 1740 to Chichester, and 
thence to Ely, holding the Mastership of Corpus from 
1724 to 1744. Many curious stones are told of this 
episcopal oddity and excellent man in the course of the 
present correspondence. 


"London, i flfc Apr. 1742. 

" I have, amongst many idle thoughts, one that 
prompts me to write to you. In the present distracted 
state of publick affairs, as it is very unsafe for a Lynn man 
to open his mouth, he must write, as a kind of mental 
evacuation. Our great neighbour has little favour to hope 
for, and did not candid men believe he wants no favour, 
his case would be looked upon as hopeless. Yet even 
with the best cause and the best conscience in the world, 
who is there that would wish him to undergo the fiery 
trial of an Inquisition ? Such, and no better, is that 
he must pass through, for except that the matter is in 
lay, not clerical, hands, and concerning temporal, not 
spiritual things, there is no sort of thing that differences 
his accusers from Inquisitors. Nay, what seems even to 
be worse, this dainty committee who are to sit upon his 


conduct, know yet of no crime he has been guilty of, 
but are to hunt & seek out for something to accuse him 
of. Surely this is a wonderful proceeding, to appoint 2 1 
persons to sit in the solemnest manner upon they don't 
know what ! and to try out of general surmises to fish 
something that their malice may represent as capital. 

" Not one article is specified upon which they are to 
proceed. But their business is to strain, squeze & invent, 
if need be, somewhat to make a rout about. This, I 
suppose, would be thought such a way of proceeding 
against any other subject as the people of England would 
not endure. 

" The proportion of foes to friends is 1 6 to 5. So God 
send him a good deliverance. And God us one too ! 
for, at this rate, who of us is safe ? 

" I mention nothing of the burnings and hanging in 
Effigy which have been previous to this unprecedented 
appointment, of which I doubt not but you have heard. 

" The Bishop of Chichester seems to wish my brother 
Phillip had been a little while at Norwich school, in order 
to double his chance for a fellowship at Bene't. This 
(possibly) might yet be done. I do not pretend to judge 
of the matter. But wish you, who perfectly understand 
it, would talk about it with my father. I am very much 
obliged to you for your intentions as to next Sunday, and 
will pay my respects in due time for the execution of 

" I am, Y rs &c., 

" E. PYLE." 

To the Rev. Dr. Kerrich 
at the Rev. Mr. Pyle's 

at Lynn in Norfolk. 

On March 23, 1742, Mr. Pulteney, who had declared 
himself averse to the appointment of a committee to 
inquire into Sir Robert Walpole's administration during 


the preceding twenty years, supported another motion 
which was carried by seven votes only, limiting the 
inquiry to ten years. A secret committee of twenty-one, 
of which nineteen were Walpole's political opponents, 
was nominated. A letter from Major Hoste, M.P., of 
Sandringham Hall, gives the names. The distribution of 
the Secret Service money was the first, and, indeed, the 
most important subject of inquiry. But the Secretary 
and the Solicitor to the Treasury refusing to make answer, 
on the plea that they were accountable only to the King, 
the Committee reported that they were unable to collect 
evidence. A Bill was introduced to indemnify witnesses 
who would bring any evidence against Walpole. It only 
just passed the Commons, and was thrown out by the 
Lords. On June 30 the House of Commons presented 
its second report, the charges set forth against Walpole 
being threefold the exercise of undue influence at 
elections, the granting of fraudulent contracts, and pro- 
fusion in expending Secret Service money. The first two 
fell through, as in no wise proved. By garbling the 
figures of a selected decade, 17071717, with those of 
the period 17311741, profusion was established. But 
even then the expenditure of Secret Service money was 
much less than before the Revolution, and Walpole was 
better furnished than any of his predecessors. There is 
little question that votes had from time to time been 
obtained by direct payments instead of with places and 
pensions, but this was a system which Walpole had 
inherited from " Shifty " Sunderland. Burke was thus 
justified in his statement that the charge of corruption is 
less applicable to Walpole than to any other Minister who 
had served the Crown so long. Consequently the inquiry 
proved an absolute failure. Walpole was created Lord 
Orford ; he retired to Houghton and died in 1745 of stone, 
the common complaint of the age, 40,000 in debt. 



" St. James's, Ap r 4, I742. 1 

" I am just going upstairs to see your old friend 
the Bishop of Bangor kiss the King's hand for the arch- 
bishoprick of York, which prize in the lottery of the church 
has, as everything else has done, fallen into his lap. He 
has, against all rules of gravity, & experience, risen by the 
weight of his character. The Bishops of Sarum and 
Norwich are said to have played too cunning a part with 
regard to this dignity. The former had it offered to him, 
over & over again, but absolutely refused it, thinking, as 
the world will have it, that by holding out against so many 
entreaties, the ministry would offer him Sarum for his 
brother Gooch ; but, if he thought this, he is bit. Dr. 
Hutton will succeed to Bangor. And the Deanery of 
Rochester will be given (as a prebend of Westminster was 
lately) to a Jacobite, as the wicked say, for folks will 
presume that they who were once of this kidney are so 

" The Dean of Norwich, who is by this time at Creake 
to spend the Holy-Days, is in a poor way. I think the 
Bath has done him no good. And though he may live 
some years, he will, I fear, never be fit to act a part in 
publick life. 

" Ever since I came hither London has been a great 
hospital wherein there are scarcely persons enough that 
are well to attend those that are sick. Colds, attended 
with a fever & pain in the head and back, prevail in 
every family, but are not mortal. I have escaped with 
only a hoarseness. I wish heartily for your health, & 
Mrs. Kerrich, and Miss - -'s, and had not troubled you 
with this poor geer but I had an opportunity of dispatch- 

1 The date of this letter should be 1743. 


ing it to you without more expence than that of your 
patience in reading. 

" I am, most heartily, 

Y rs &c., 

" E. PYLE." 

To the Rev. Dr. Kerrich, 

to be left at Mr. Smith's, a 

Grocer in the Grassmarket, 
in Lynn, Norfolk. 

Thomas Herring (16931757) was educated at Jesus 
College, Cambridge, and afterwards at Corpus. He be- 
came Chaplain to the King in 1726, and was consecrated 
Bishop of Bangor in 1737, with leave to retain the 
Deanery of Rochester, held since 1732. He was trans- 
lated to York in 1743. During this year he claimed to 
have confirmed above 30,000 persons, a pious work, in 
which he was assisted by Mathias Mawson, Bishop of 
Chichester. Great and shameful must have been the 
neglect of his predecessor, Archbishop Blackburne. 
Herring was conspicuous for his zeal on behalf of the 
House of Hanover. In 1745, both by sermons and 
speeches, he stirred up the people of Yorkshire to found 
an association for the defence of the Constitution, and the 
liberties of the Kingdom. This organisation raised a sum 
of ^40,000 to equip bodies of horse and foot to aid the 
Government. In a letter to Kerrich of November 1 8, 
1746, he alludes to the share he took in the matter. 

"The part w ch I acted last winter was much more 
accidental than premeditated, and all the effectual Good 
w ch attended was owing to y e gallant spirit of the York- 
shire Gentlemen : we were first fright nd , and as we 
thought things seemed to be in ultimo discrimine, it was 
very natural to struggle for such good things as Religion 
and Liberty and property, of which I have just y e same 
warm sense that I had, when you used to set my fire out 


in spite of y e Stratagem of y e Poker. I am just come in 
from the House, the Speech and Address will please you. 
As y e Bill of Suspension of y e Corpus Act was out on 
Thursday, it was judged necessary to continue y e Suspen- 
sion three months longer. The Bill was read three times 
to-day, and ordered to be engrossed nem. con." 

The Bishop of Sarum here mentioned was Thomas 
Sherlock, formerly Bishop of Bangor (1728), whence he 
was translated to Salisbury (1734), and subsequently to 
London (1748), where he died in 1761. 

Sir Thomas Gooch, Bart., formerly held the See of 
Bristol, from which he was translated to Norwich (1738), 
and subsequently to Ely (1741). His first wife was 
Mary, sister of Bishop Sherlock. 

The expression to be " bit " was much in use during 
the eighteenth century, and was used by the best writers. 
In Pope's lines touching the Pitt diamond and its 
vicissitudes, he says 

" He pledged it to the Knight ; the knight had wit, 
So kept the diamond and the rogue was bit." 

Or, as we have it in Swift's astounding and impious lines 
on the end of mankind 

" I to such blockheads set my wit, 
I damn such fools go, go, you're bit ! " 

Matthew Hutton, who succeeded Thomas Herring as 
Bishop of Bangor (1742), became Archbishop of York 
(1747), Archbishop of Canterbury (1757), and died in 
the following year, leaving, as Pyle tells us, " 5 0,000, 
which he had saved out of the Church in twelve years, and 
not one penny to any good use or public charity." Let 
this fact be contrasted with the modest 743 left in 1903 
by the saintly Prince of another Communion, Cardinal 
Vaughan, autres femps, autres mceurs. 

Thomas Bullock, Dean of Norwich from 1739 to his 


death in 1760, was rector of North Creake. He is buried 
in Norwich Cathedral. 


" Thursday, 8 th July (1742). 

" I am just returned from Cambridge, where I 
have been with my youngest brother, & settled him in the 
old House. All there are well, particularly honest J. 
Mickleburgh, with whom I spent Tuesday evening very 
pleasantly. A doleful comencement not a doctor in any 
Faculty & very few M.A.s, so the professors none of 
them appeared in the Senate House on Tuesday. There 
were in their stead four strange Doctors (& strange 
ones they were) Ellis, Sam Knight, the Archdeacon of 
Lincoln, & your most obedient 

" E. PYLE. 

" Service to Mrs. Kerrich. My father, mother, and 
sister are all at Creake, & have been all the week." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

Samuel Knight was of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and one of the " Founders," in 1717, of the Society of 
Antiquaries. He became Archdeacon of Berkshire, and 
wrote the well-known " Life of Colet." 


" 13 Sept r 1742. 

" My father, I believe, has no time set him for re- 
turning the money ; & I am sure he expects to receive 
a great many sums at the Michaelmas visitation. Philip 


will not go to Cambridge till the latter end of October, 
and you may do as you please about the cash or bill to 
J. Mickleburgh. 

"The sum of 2. 15. 8. I saw my father transcribe 
from your letter, in order to get it down in his account. 
Philip may not go on horseback (& yet he may) ; but for 
certainty your parcel to C. Thomas had better be sent by 
the passage boat & be left at Thomas Tingey's at the 
Lamb in Ely; where he is, or his servant, two or three 
times every week. 

" Y rs heartily, 

tt T? p 

(Addressed) *- r - 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 


"4 Dec r 1742. 

" I sent my compliments to you & your spouse, by 
Miss Hoste, some time ago, and will come and pay them 
my self, into bargain, before it is long. We hear from 
London that his lordship of Bangor has been deliberating 
some while whether he shall become his Grace of Dublin. 
You will see, by the enclosed, that your old friend Dr. 
Denne has sustain'd a great loss. The Advertisement I 
observe is continued in the papers. What do you hear 
of a malignant spotted fever that prevails at Cambridge ? 
Our good friend Dean Bullock stays at Bath all the 
winter, the waters operating but slowly, tho' they do him 

" I am with best wishes Y rs &c. 

"E. PYLE." 


To the Rev. Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham, 


The enclosure referred to is the following extract from 
the Daily Advertiser of November 29, 1742 : " Stolen from 
the Rev. Dr. Denne, Archdeacon of Rochester, on Satur- 
day last, a large polish'd Silver Waiter, weighing 38 oz. 
17 dwts., with a Coat of Arms engrav'd, viz. two 
Leopards Heads on two Haunches (Flaunches), impal'd 
with three Staggs Heads, on a Fess, the Crest a Stag 
couchant ; a Silver Waiter of a less size, the Arms as 
above ; two Hand-Waiters, weighing 1 2 oz., the Crest as 
above ; two large Silver Candlesticks, with Snuffers and 
Stand, weighing 47 oz., the Crest as above; a small 
Smoaking Candlestick, the Crest as above ; three Silver 
Castors, weighing 1 9 oz., the Crest as above ; a Silver 
Tankard, mark'd IDE ; a Silver Cup with two Handles, 
mark'd ID ; two Pair of Silver Salts, one pair mark'd 
SBI, the other WB ; a small silver Saucepan, the Crest 
as above ; a small Silver Porringer, with Arms of Brun- 
sell ; a large Soup-Spoon, the Crest as above ; a large 
Silver Scuer ; a Marrow-Spoon, marked IDS; a Punch- 
Ladle, mark'd ID ; eleven large Silver Spoons, mark'd 
IDS ; three ditto, mark'd B ; one ditto, mark'd ID, 
CCCC ; a Shagreen Case, with eight Silver Tea-Spoons, 
Tongs, and Strainer, mark'd D ; five other Tea-Spoons, 
mark'd D ; two Tea-Spoons, mark'd B ; and a Silver 
Coffee-Pot, the crest as above. If any Person into whose 
Hands the above Plate, or any part of it may fall, will 
give Notice to Mr. Pemberton, Bookseller, at the Buck in 
Fleet-Street, he shall have Ten Shillings in the Pound 
Reward upon producing the said Plate ; and Ten Guineas 
more provided the Person offering any part of it to Sale 
be secur'd, so as to be brought to Justice." 

Nearly all Denne's long series of letters to Kerrich, from 
1721 to 1755, are sealed with his arms impaling those of 
his wife, Susanna, younger daughter of Samuel Bradford, 
Bishop of Rochester. It is noteworthy that no silver forks 
are included among the plate stolen. They were always 
scarcer than spoons, up to almost the end of the century. 


The " Smoaking Candlestick " has a displeasing sound. 
It was simply what is now known as a taper candlestick, 
and was the attribute of every gentleman's study, placed 
together with the tobacco-box on the small round top 
of a mahogany table. Kerrich's silver smoking candle- 
stick, without nozzle (an item which was not introduced 
before 1740), and the tall mahogany table belonging 
to it, are in the Editor's possession. Dignitaries of the 
church then smoked contemplative long flat-spurred clays 
from Broseley, like gentlemen, in the quiet of their 
rooms, a procedure in pleasing contrast with that of 
the present time, when the clergy may be seen with 
short wooden pipes in their mouths in every third-class 
carriage, and on all public promenades. It is not edi- 
fying. Some of Denne's plate, marked WB, appears 
to have belonged to his late brilliant brother-in-law, 
William Bradford a delightful correspondent of Kerrich 
whom Denne succeeded as Archdeacon of Rochester on 
Bradford's death, at the early age of thirty-two. The 
strainer, part of the contents of the shagreen case, is a 
small spoon ornamentally pierced in the bowl, with a long 
handle spiked at the end for clearing out the leaves from 
the bottom of the sprout of the teapot, before the fixed 
strainer was introduced. A spoon of precisely the same 
character was used by the revellers up to the end of the 
century for taking the lemon pips out of the punch bowl, 
and spearing the floating lemon-peel. Spoons of this 
form have also been considered, but apparently upon no 
definite authority, as specially for mulberries and olives, 


"Mar. i, 1742-3. 

" I was abroad when Mr. Pierce came hither 
with your letter. But yesterday I received one from him, 
& in my answer to it this day I have desired him to come 


hither one day this week that I may talk with him about a 
curacy of 40 a year, well paid, which perhaps I may be 
able to help him to. I am laid up with the gout, & it 
would be charity to come & see me, & to bring tackle in 
your pocket for a Sunday's work, for by the poor condition 
of Mr. Phelps's health, & his melancholy for the dis- 
appointment of Barsham living, we are very scantily 
provided with labourers at this time. The old gentleman 
works hard. 

" I am, Yours very affectionately 

" E. PYLE. 

"Service to Mrs. Kerrich above stairs. 
" My Lord of Norwich certainly goes to York at 
Lancelot's Death." 

Mrs. Kerrich's situation " above stairs " refers to her 
long weakness after the birth of her first living child, Matilda, 
who died in 1823. With reference to the approach of this 
event Elizabeth Townshend, daughter of Bishop Sherlock, 
and sister of Bishop Gooch's first wife, thus expressed 
herself in a letter to the prospective mother : " I remember 
'twas remarkable Dr. Trimmel's Lady never Bred till he 
was made A Bishop. I would not have you stay for that, 
but begin with A D r of Divinity first & y e Bishop may 
come in time." 

Lancelot Blackburne thus familiarly alluded to had 
been translated from Exeter to York in 1724. He was 
a prelate notorious for the extraordinary freedom of his 
manners. It is recorded that on the occasion of a 
visitation at St. Mary's, Nottingham, he ordered pipes 
and tobacco and liquors to be brought into the vestry 
" for his refreshment after the fatigues of confirmation." 
Blackburne is said to have acted early in life as chaplain 
on board a buccaneer, and many unsavoury slanders were 
propagated concerning him, and readily credited by the 
town, and to which his free and easy manners gave colour. 


His considerable knowledge of the world for he was 
" hackneyed in the ways of men " well fitted him for 
discerning the characters of the clergy in his diocese, 
many of which, Pyle tells us later on, he left behind him 
for the benefit of his successor. 


"St James's, Ap r 21, 1743. 


" The King having been pleased to give leave 
for my father to resign his living in Lincolnshire to me, I 
shall have so much to do to get this affair signed twice by 
the King before he goes abroad, then to get it through the 
offices of the Privy & Great Seal, then through the office 
at Lambeth, & then to the Great Seal again, & then 
institution, that I cannot possibly be at Lynn till the 
middle of next month, on the 8th day of which I earnestly 
beg of you to preach for me there. 

" Lord Orford's illness & absence for air &c., occa- 
sioned this affair to be entered upon so late, that I have 
had infinite trouble to prevent its being hung up till the 
King comes back, which God grant &c 

" Dear friend excuse my freedom who am y rs most 

"E. PYLE. 

" His Grace of York sends you his service. He was 
confirmed to-day." 


To The Rev d Dr Kerrich at Dersingham, 

To be left at Mr Smith's at the 

corner of the Grass Market in 

Lynn, Norfolk. 

Free Benj. ~| 


The absence of the King was on this wise. Parlia- 
ment was prorogued on April 2 1 , the date of this letter. 
Votes had been passed for 40,000 seamen, 11,000 
marines, 23,000 men for home guard and garrison, and 
16,000 further British troops for Flanders. In the King's 
speech he informed the Houses that he had ordered his 
army to cross the Rhine for the support of the " King " of 
Hungary, Maria Theresa. These additions were required 
for what turned out both a difficult and a glorious campaign 
against the French. It may be recalled that its crowning 
feature was the Battle of Dettingen, June 27, 1743, the 
last occasion on which an English king commanded in 
person. George II. then fought with the greatest gallantry; 
his people, up to the end of his life, never forgot his 
bravery, and looked with leniency upon his many short- 
comings. The Cheshire Regiment, which rallied round 
the King at Dettingen in a moment of extreme danger, 
was then granted the privilege of wearing the Oak Leaf 
one of the signs of its heroic past which is always dis- 
played on occasions of ceremony. Among the troops that 
were ordered abroad in 1743 was Lord Sempel's Highland 
regiment. A panic among these men as to their real 
destination led to the romantic incident known as " The 
Mutiny in the Black Watch/' while temporarily in camp 
at Finchley on their way to the Continent, the capture of 
the deserters to the number of a hundred and sixteen in a 
wood near Oundle, Northamptonshire, May 22, 1743, and 
the execution of the ringleaders. A narrative of the 
mutiny was compiled by the Duke of Athole, from the 
original proceedings of the General Courts-Martial, and 
published at Perth in 1893. 

In a letter from James Hoste, M.P., of Sandringham 
Hall, to Kerrich, June 25, 1743, he says that he had 
just seen an Extraordinary Gazette which had been sent 
down and reprinted at Lynn ; he enclosed a copy, a 
reproduction of which appears here. The date of the 


reprint is inaccurate. He mentions that Lord Orford had 
ordered "a Treat for y e Hall at y e Duke's Head last 
night/' and begs his friend to " step up to drink Success 
to Glorious George." 

" Whitehall, June 23, 1743. 

" This Morning Mr. Parker, one of His Majesty's 
Messengers, arriv'd at the Duke of Newcastle's Office with 
the following Letter from the Right Honourable the Lord 
Cateret to his Grace : 


" Dettingen, June f}, 1743- 

" ' His Majesty (God be praised) has this day 
gained a very considerable Battle. The French passed the 
Mayn at this Place, with about twenty-five thousand Men, 
and have been forced to repass it with considerable Loss. 
I write this from the Village near the Field of battle, which 
the French were in Possession of; by which Means we 
have secured our Conjunction with the Hessians and 
Hanoverians, in Number above 12,000, which are within 
two Leagues of us ; and to intercept whom, the French 
made this hazardous Attempt, which has failed them. 
His Majesty was all the Time in the Heat of the Fire ; 
but is in perfect Health. The Duke [of Cumberland] 
received a Shot in his Leg, which pierced the Calf of his 
Leg ; but the Bone is not hurt : He is very well and in 
high Spirits. I must refer the Particulars of this great 
Affair till To Morrow, or next Day. General Clayton is 
killed ; and we have taken several General Officers 
Prisoners, and many Officers of the French King's House- 
hold in their fine Cloaths. The Army lies all Night under 
arms. I am in a Cottage with Marshal Neiperg. The 
Austerians behaved themselves with great Gallantry : The 
Duke d'Aremburg is wounded with a Musquet-Shot in the 


Breast. This is a good Beginning of the Campaign, the 
Emperor's Auxiliaries having received a very considerable 
Check ; and they were the Aggressors. 

" ' I am ever, with the greatest Truth and Respect, 
" ' My Lord, Your Grace's most humble and 
" * most obedient Servant, 


" 1 P.S. The Hanover Artillery has a considerable 
Share in this Victory : The Battle began at ten in the 
Morning, and lasted to Four ; when the Enemy repassed 
the Mayn with Precipitation.' " 

This is the first Franked letter of the series. Frank- 
ing was a privilege that, before the time of Charles II., 
had been only enjoyed by the sovereign and the executive. 
It was extended after the Restoration to Members of 
Parliament, by an Act creating a post-office in the Kingdom. 
Some years later the right was advanced to the House of 
Lords. It was subject to great abuse by the franking of 
consignments to ambassadors and others. Thus, couples 
of hounds were passed free to Rome, two maid-servants 
transmitted to an ambassador in Portugal, and suits of 
clothes, bales of stockings, and flitches of bacon franked. 
These deceptions ceased when the control of the packet 
service passed out of the hands of the post-office authorities. 
But when the privilege was confined to letters strictly, 
frauds of a different kind arose. Members signed large 
packets of covers, or of sheets of writing paper, at once, 
and gave them to their friends ; they were also sold, or 
given to servants in the place of wages. This led to 
forgeries of names, and the abuses increased to such an 
extent that from a value of 24,000 of franked corre- 
spondence in 1715, the amount had increased in 1763 to 
170,000. In 1764 it was enacted that the whole 
address must be in the member's hand, as well as his 


signature, thus causing seekers after franks to be regarded 
as unmitigated nuisances. In 1784 it was ordered that 
each franked address must be fully dated, and posted the 
same day. Franking continued until 1839. 



" I have been almost ever since I saw you in 
Lincolnshire (repairing my vicarage house, and going to 
meetings of logger-heads, about the distemper amongst 
horned-cattle, which prevails there to a dreadful degree), 
so that your obliging letter came to my hands but t'other 
day. I shall easily induce the old gentleman to comply 
with your request. He has been out of order with a 
violent hoarseness & oppression upon his lungs, and found 
little relief from medicines, but going abroad has set all to 
rights. He walked, t'other day, to see his new church, 
wherein a magnificent pulpit is putting up, as the finishing 
stroke. In going down the middle isle he started back, on 
a sudden, at the sight of Trinity in Unity emblematically 
displayed in the front-panel of the said pulpit, and what 
with distemper & indignation was almost suffocated. But 
nature, God be praised, got the better both of the mystery 
& the disease, and the conflict produced, what physic had 
in vain attempted, a free and large expectoration, which 
was succeeded by a fit of as clear and audible raving as a 
man would wish to hear from a sound Protestant divine 
upon so provoking an occasion. I am, &c., 

" E. P." 

To the Rev. Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

This little story sufficiently indicates Thomas Pyle's 
heterodox leanings, and does not say much for those 
of his son. The new pulpit was introduced into St. 


Margaret's Church, Lynn, in 1743, at the restoration 
necessitated by the destruction caused by the fall of the 
south-west tower in the previous year. It is a beautiful 
example of early Georgian work. In spite of the shock it 
caused to Thomas Pyle, the offending " Trinity in Unity 
emblematically display'd " was happily suffered to remain. 
It consists of the sacred monogram within a triangle inlaid 
with different woods. 


" 17 July 1743. 


" I return'd from Cambridge charged with ser- 
vices to you from many of your old friends, particularly 
from Mr. Aylmer, Mickleburgh, Castle, Dr. Ellis, and my 
noble Lord of Chichester, who has given umbrage to the 
fellows & scholars of his house both literally & figuratively; 
literally, by the shade of a very large elder-tree, which 
hides the windows of one side of the chapel, & figuratively, 
by refusing to cut down the said tree, which the fellows 
desired him to do, since they have put new glass into the 
chapel windows, and are beautifying it in other respects at 
a very considerable expense. Though it stands upon his 
premises, it was a good while before they could make him 
own he knew of any such tree, and when he was made to 
understand where it grew, he absolutely refused to let it 
be cut down. The fellows said it darkened one side of 
the chapel to a great degree, was very offensive by the 
smell of its leaves & flowers & by its berries, and 
dropping after rain upon all that went into the chapel, as 
it very much hangs over the passage but all in vain. 

" He staid a week with them in his way from York to 
his diocese ; and we have had a deal of laughter from 
hearing several incidents of his Northern expedition. As 
he went, the Archbishop & his company were magnificently 
entertained at the Duke of Kingston's seat, though his 


Grace the Duke was not there, being obliged to be from 
home himself, and ordering his French mistress to abscond 
for that day. After their repast, as the Archbishop was 
admiring the place, & expressing his sense of the honours 
done him there, my Lord of Chichester said, ' Yes, indeed, 
very fine, Herring, but I wish we had seen Madame.' 

" As he came back he dined with my Lord Tyrconnel, 
forgot himself, staid till near ten at night, & was over- 
turned at one in the morning, not reaching his place of 
lodging till past two. He was very angry with his coach- 
man, & told him he was an idle fellow, & had got a cup in 
his crown, & he'd turn him off at Cambridge to which the 
fellow replied with a very philosophic gravity, ' If your 
Lordship had been as regular in your hours, as I was in 
my drinking, this had not happened.' 

" When we were all together, upon the Commencement 
night, and talking upon the subject of his journey, I said 
that I feared the pleasure of his Lordship's tour was much 
abated by the fatigue that must arise from the share he 
had in the work of Confirmation, which must be very 
large, I supposed, as the towns in Yorkshire were very 
populous, and there was an arrear of 1 2 years' neglect 
which was to be paid off. To which he said, { Wh}% truly, 
Mr. Pyle, the places were very large & the people very 
numerous, but yet I saw nothing in the business of Con- 
firmation but what one pair of hands might very well have 
performed ' ; which answer, I own, struck me very much, 
as having, sometimes, in the wickedness of my heart, con- 
sidered Confirmation as a sort of handy-craft. 

"'Tis said the Archbishop has offended the clergy of 
his diocese by speaking handsomely of his predecessor, & 
hinting that he had left behind him characters of many of 
them, for the benefit of his successor. 

" Y rs &c., 

F p " 


To the Rev. Dr. Kerrich. 


Francis Aylmer migrated from Clare to Corpus, and 
became Fellow and President of the College, by which he 
was presented in 1740 to the rectories of Fulmondeston 
and Thurning, Norfolk. His letters to Kerrich are dated 
between 1736 and 1740, and there is also a copious and 
interesting series from his brother "long" Aylmer, also 
President, and Vicar of Leverington, Wiltshire. John 
Mickleburgh, also of Corpus, was Professor of Chemistry, 
and Rector of Landbeach, near Cambridge. A man greatly 
beloved by his friends. Edmund Castle, another Corpus 
man, was elected Master of the College in 1 744. He was 
made Dean of Hereford in 1748. 

In the course of a long and charming series of letters 
to Kerrich, from 1719 to 1 744, he gives a graphic picture 
of his life and thoughts, his speculations " upon mores 
hominum multorum" and the contentions and " queri- 
monies" of his relations. A touching description is set 
down of his sad lot with his " gentle companion, Sukey," 
during his stay as vicar of Elm and Emneth, in the then 
ague-smitten Isle of Ely. " I could not have been sent to 
a place more unsuitable to my constitution and disposition 
almost in every respect. I have a very burdensom and 
laborious Cure, w ch is almost beyond my Strength to dis- 
charge, & it is exceeding difficult to get in the profits ; I 
find it necessary to deliver some of my obstinate un- 
righteous folk to y e Iron hand of y e Law, w ch is a very 
grievous thing to my Temper. ... I have suffer'd very 
severe agonies of Repentance for resigning my Prefer- 
ments at Cambridge, & am astonisht at my perverseness 
in not hearkening to y e prudent advice of all my Friends. 
... I have received the Benediction of the Country, viz. 
an Intermitting Fever." 

Allusion is constantly made to his religious meditations, 
his astronomical studies, the difficulties of " sermonizing," 
" y e discipline of y e Bark," his " philosophic pipes " and 
green tea. He was appointed Public Orator in 1726. 


In Kerrich's letter of congratulation on Castle's second 
return to the College in 1 744, he says : " I have been 
calling to mind y e many pleasant hours you and I spent 
together in our younger time at y e Lodge, & y e many 
Walks of Meditation you then took in y e Long Gallery 
which you may now pass and repass with Double Pleasure. 
You may remember how we sat and regretted sometimes 
y* a Scheme could not be found out to make the College 
Life (to which we now and then gave y e Name of Monkish) 
consistent with y e State of Matrimony ; y l we would enjoy 
y e Society of the Learned & y e Fair too. In Your Case 
They are both consistent, & I heartily wish You all y e 
Happiness y l can arise from either." To this the new 
Master answers : " You may remember, I had no thoughts 
of my first return, till it was proposed to me by good Bp: 
Bradford, whose memory, I dare say, you join with me in 
reverencing; nor had I any thoughts of a second till it 
was proposed to me by my good frd: y e Bp: of Ch fc . I 
hope this promotion comes to me with the blessing of 
Providence, & that I shall be enabled to discharge the 
Duty of it faithfully, that I may not forfeit the good 
opinion of my friends who are pleased to see me raised 
to it." Thus Castle fulfilled his mission and verified his 
constant adage in the days of his trouble that " all will be 
well in the end." The picturesque Long Gallery alluded 
to above was unhappily removed, together with the Master's 
Lodge shown in Loggan's isometrical view, on the building 
of the new court in 1822-1827. 

Benjamin Joseph Ellis, admitted of Corpus in 1702, 
succeeded his father as Vicar of St. Andrew the Great, 
Cambridge, which living he held together with St. Peter's 
Hungate and the rectories of Buckenham Ferry with 
Hussingham, Norfolk. By no means an example of 
excessive pluralism ! 

Evelyn Pierrepoint, second Duke of Kingston, suc- 
ceeded his grandfather in 1726. He married Miss 


Chudleigh, one of the maids-of-honour to the Princess 
Dowager, widow of Frederic, Prince of Wales. This 
lady, so notorious as Duchess of Kingston, was afterwards 
convicted by her peers of bigamy in 1776. The Duke 
died without issue in 1773, when all his honours became 
extinct, and the estates devolved upon his nephew, Charles 
Meadows, who assumed the name of Pierrepoint, and was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Pierrepoint, and advanced 
as Viscount Newark, 1799, and Earl Manvers, 1806. 
The entertainment of the bishops must have taken place at 
Thoresby Park, Nottingham, in the old house burnt down 
a century and a half ago. This was the home of Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu, a Kit Cat toast in person at the 
age of seven, and the subject of Pope's unbounded worship. 
Eighteen extravagantly worded letters from him to his 
" Oriental" flame were sold at Sotheby's, June 20, 1903, 
for 250. According to the barbarous law of the time 
the Duchess was liable as a bigamist to be branded in the 
hand, but she claimed the privilege of her peerage. The 
facts were that she had been first married to the Hon. 
Augustus John Harvey, grandson of the first Earl of 
Bristol, who succeeded his brother as Earl of Bristol in 
1775 ; hence her claim being allowed. She had lived 
with the Duke of Kingston as his mistress from about 
1760 to their marriage in 1769. 

The entertainment of Bishop Mawson on his return 
journey was at Belton, Lincolnshire, by Sir John Brownlow, 
of Humby and Belton, M.P. for Grantham and for Lincoln- 
shire. He was very wealthy, good-natured, and silly, and 
was refused by Mary Granville before her sacrifice to 
" Gromio." George II. said that Brownlow was " a puppy 
who never voted twice on the same side." He was created 
Baron Charleville and Viscount Tyrconnel in 1718. He 
was twice married, and dying in 1754 without issue, all 
his honours became extinct. His sister Anne married Sir 
Richard Cust ; their son John became Speaker of the 


House of Commons, inherited Belton, and was succeeded 
by his son John, who was created Baron Brownlow, and 
left a son who was advanced in 1815 to the dignity of 
Earl Brownlow. 


"15 Oct. 1743- 

" I'm very glad to hear first of your health (casus 
Medicusve levarit aegrum ex praecipiti), & next of your 
daughter's great love to books. I could almost wish she 
had torn Bott, that I might have had it to say to that 
rascal, that people gave their children his book to play 
withall. I have had the gout instead of the very bad dis- 
temper of the Season, & am this day come down stairs 
after a week's lying-in, which I call a slight matter. Pray 
take care of yourself. Poor Robinson of Germans has 
been at death's door, but is well again. My father is very 
jolly but has lost his horse for the second time, & I hope 


" Yrs heartily, 

"E. P. 

" Rand has stolen into Norfolk without calling here. I 
go to Norwich the end of this month, & shall stay a fort- 
night. Pray send me your subscription to the poor 
widows next week." 


To the Reverend Dr. Kerrich. 

Thomas Bott has been described as a choleric but 
kindly man, a follower of Hoadly. He published many 
works of a controversial nature, his principal book thus 
censured by Pyle having been brought out in 1743 in 
answer to Warburton's " Divine Legation." Brook Rand 
was of Corpus, where he was elected Fellow in 1719. He 
became chaplain to Thomas Green, Master of Corpus 
(1698-1716), and successively Bishop of Norwich and Ely, 


who preferred him first to two livings in Essex and after- 
wards to the rich benefices of Leverington and Newton in 
the Isle of Ely. Rand's lengthy and agreeable letters 
to Kerrich, from 1716 to 1752, are replete with interesting 
social and ecclesiastical information, particularly about his 
parochial work. The earlier ones give a really remarkable 
insight into the ways of lovers and their "mistresses" in 
the time of George I. We have, in 1717, full accounts 
and critiques of such " dear pretty rogues " as the dryad 
Sarah Woods, of Henham, and Diana Ann Faulkner, " the 
nymph of the river Wyn," on whose banks he first met 
the attractive maid to whom he " resigned that Heart 
which was once unworthily bestowed upon Mrs. Woods " ; 
while other fair damsels are passed in aesthetic review. 

As Bishop of Ely Thomas Green had visitatorial powers 
over Trinity College, Cambridge, which the quarrel between 
Bentley and the Fellows forced him to exercise. He it was 
who, in spite of Bentley's delays and struggles, re-estab- 
lished his authority in an appeal to the House of Lords, 
and he pronounced sentence of deprivation on the master- 
ful head of Trinity, April 27, 1734. All the earlier letters 
to Kerrich teem with references to Bentley's long conflict 
with the College. The controversy finally had a period put 
to it by the death of Green in 1738. 



" I remember, when I consulted you about the 
method of drying & curing rhubarb, you told me your 
gardner was the person skilled in that affair. I beg you 
would send me his directions therein ; I purposing to take 
up a good part of my plant for that experiment. I pro- 
mised Mr. Rand a young root y l is sprung from seed of 
my old one ; & want to know the proper time of taking it 
up I guess it should be about Michaelm. 


" This is all the Burden of my present Song only my 
heartiest wishes of health & hapiness to your self, & your 
house from 

" Dear Sir, Yours most affectionately, 

"E. PYLE. 

" Lyn Regis. Where Envy & Distraction reign." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 


"Lynn, 13 Dec r 1743. 

" I have a design to beat up your quarters, & to 
see how you & yours do, some time in the holidays : 
Though I've had several accounts, tolerably intelligible, of 
your recovery & weal, from the Major, your neighbour, 
who is, in my mind, a poorer spectacle than ever. As I 
can't now fix my time of coming to Dersingham, I would 
not have you, as yet, make any preparations for my recep- 
tion. 'Twill be time enough to kill two or three hogs for 
me & my retinue when I write again. By the way, I am 
determined to take my old liberties of eating, smoking & 
talking just as I please, having been all this winter in high 
health & very saucy spirits. Dr. Whalley has sent me 
word that he has chosen the month of April to wait in at 
Court, so that I shall be so happy as to have every year a 
month's company of that agreeable man. The Court beat 
the country by fifty about keeping the Hanoverians in pay. 
" I am with all possible service, &c., 

"E. PYLE. 

" P.S. By Luck, about three days ago I paid Mr. 
Phelpes for the pound of tobacco." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 


The Major here alluded to was Major James Hoste, 
M.P., of Sandringham Hall, who succeeded his father in 
1729. He was entered of Corpus under Kerrich in 1722. 
The letters from the father to the tutor give much informa- 
tion concerning his son, his amusements and health. He 
was a keen hunting man, though modern sportsmen will 
learn with surprise that fox-hunting was over at that time 
in Norfolk by the end of January. Much concern is ex- 
pressed by the father regarding James Hoste's imperfect 
speech, and the hope is expressed that Kerrich " could 
prevaile to let them 2 ugly teeth be taken out, I am of 
opinion it would helpe his speech mightily, besides they 
look to me very disagreable and nasty." We gather that this 
drastic remedy was not carried out, because a year later the 
father says his son's " head runns much of going abroad, I 
wish there could be some helpe found as to his speech, w ch 
is a very great trouble to me." On leaving college in 
1724 "a 10 piece of Plate" was presented, and in the 
following year James Hoste went to Paris with Thomas 
Stephens, a Fellow of Corpus. In the course of a long 
series of letters to Kerrich, from 1725 to 1742, the 
following account of Paris is taken from a letter written at 
Fontainebleau, September 4, 1725 : 

" I am come to this place to see the Marriage of y e 
young Monarch, and I am up this Morning at six that I 
may finish this before y e Post goes ; I intended when I 
began my letter to send you some acc't of what I saw in 
my Passage from London to Paris, but that I presume you 
have already heard ; if Letters from this Place do not mis- 
carry, as I begin to believe they do when directed to a 
Rev d , &>., & for that reason you must pardon me when I 
omit it upon y e Address of this. My poor Companion, Mr 
Hoste, has been at Death's door, a violent Fever seiz'd him 
w ch raged for three weeks w th great fury. I was under 
vast concern for y e Heir of Sandringham, & the D r w ch had 
y e care of him, & who was esteem'd a very able Man, not 


being able to make y e Fever intermit I very happily met an 
Oxford Man, a Physician, who has been here some years, 
having the Travelling Fellowship founded by Dr Ratcliff, 
this Gentleman ordered him to be blooded again, & in a 
few days after the Fever intermitted, & he is now in a fair 
way of recovery, but very weak. This Country (whose 
Description I chuse to defer till our happy meeting next 
Winter at Cambridge), has every thing in it that's agreable 
and delighting ; a People gay, & chearful, but thoughtless 
'tis no uncommon sight to see embroidery & Poverty go 
hand in hand, & in y e midst of Indigence they are alert & 
brisk; y e Palaces of their Kings are extreamly magnificent, 
Versailles is a wonder, & y e Machine of Marly is y e greatest 
work of the last age. Fontainebleau, from whence you have 
this, is another stately Palace, here it was that y e Marriage- 
Solemnity was kept, w ch was as magnificent as a gay Court, & 
a young Monarch cou'd make it. I saw y e whole Procession, 
& will give you a short sketch of it ; the Guards & Pages w th 
variety of Musicians went first, & then about thirty of y e top 
Nobility of y e Blood Royal & Dukes as richly clad as the Art 
of Man cou'd make 'em, then came y e young Monarch, 1 clad 
in Gold & Diamonds, his shoulder-knot was full of Dia- 
monds, and each Button of his Coat was a large one, & 
that w ch was formerly Pitt's, was y e Button of his Hat. 
Y e Queen 2 (who is a sweet-looking Lady, but not very 
handsome) was finely bedeck'd, & y e Crown w ch she had 
on was one of the richest in Europe. Y e Duke of Orleans 
was on her left hand & Duke of Bourbon on her right, & 
then follow'd y e beautiful Ladies of y e Court all in their 
Order. . . . When you see y e good Family att y e corner 
house, assure 'em of my respects & tell 'em there was 9 
ells in y e train of y e Queen, 7 in y e Trains of y e Princesses 
of y e Blood, & 5 in the other Ladies of y e Court. Y e Queen 
is not unlike one of y e four Ladies." 

1 One of the most worthless and vicious scoundrels that ever sat upon a 

2 Maria Lesczinski, daughter of Stanislas, the dethroned King of Poland. 


The letters from Major Hoste are full of political and 
parliamentary intelligence, with full details of the Mathews 
and Lestock case. He was an ardent patriot, and friend 
and supporter of Walpole, with whom he was connected by 
marriage, and diligently attended in his place at West- 
minster in spite of his poor health. He had a wen taken 
out in 1741, and constantly suffered much from rheumatism, 
which flew to his lame leg, and also from gout, ague, and 
jaundice. These untoward conditions perhaps account for 
the surprising strength of his language. He was great- 
uncle of the distinguished admiral, Sir William Hoste, of 
the junior or Ingoldsthorpe branch of the family, first 
baronet, who obtained the brilliant victory over the French 
and Italian fleets, March 13, 1811, off the Island of Lissa. 
Major Hoste presented Kerrich to the livings of Dersing- 
ham and Wolferton, and by his interest obtained for him 
that of West Newton. He was prepared to assist with 
regard to the living of Appleton, but did not proceed, for, 
as the afflicted Mr. Rogers, rector of Sandringham and 
Babingley, states : " There is no Duty to be perform'd. 
There is neither Bell, Book, Surplice, Pulpit, nor Desk in 
the Church," a condition very different from that of the 
present day under royal auspices. 

When the brilliant and rapid surgeon, William 
Cheselden, came to Cambridge in 1730, the hope was 
expressed by Andrew Rogers's friends that he would 
take the opportunity of undergoing an operation for 
stone. He shrank from the ordeal of what must then 
have been, without anaesthetics, a frightful experience, and 
died in the following year. It is very doubtful, however, 
whether so serious a case could have been successful. 
Masters relates, in his " History of Corpus," that Kerrich 
saw a stone taken from Rogers's body, " nearly of the size 
and shape of a turkey's egg. It was rough and scaly for 
the most part, but quite smooth in four almost equidistant 
places ; which smoothness it seems to have acquired during 



the violence of the paroxysms, than which perhaps no man 
ever endured greater or with greater patience." It may 
here be recalled that, in Cheselden's great folio work, 
" Osteographia, or, The Anatomy of the Bones," the 
copper-plates engraved by Vandergucht, 1733, have un- 
common merit ; the full-length skeletons of men and 
women are placed in the attitudes of famous statues of 

Dr. Whalley, the agreeable Royal Chaplain, was Regius 
Professor of Divinity at Cambridge. He died in 1748 
" sorely in debt." 

With regard to the Hanoverians on the opening of 
Parliament George II. announced that he had augmented 
the British forces in the Low Countries with 16,000 
Hanoverians, and 6000 Hessians. They are alluded to 
in the Dettingen Extraordinary Gazette. On Decem- 
ber 10, the motion that we should pay for these troops, 
and that a grant of .650,000 should be made for their 
maintenance, was carried by a majority of 67. In the 
Lords, the large and growing debts, the engagement, 
without the consent of Parliament, of mercenaries truly, 
as in the Thirty Years' War 

" Barbaras dont la guerre est 1'unique metier, 
Et qui vendent leur sang a qui vent le payer " 

and the great Hanoverian gulf, which swallowed up so 
much British treasure, were rigorously dwelt upon ; but 
all in vain, the ministry gained the day. 



" I am sorry for the stubborness of your cold, 
and wish the worst effect of it may be your not being able 
to exalt your voice for me. As soon as I can get abroad, 
& have seasoned myself, I must go to London. I hope to 


be able to contrive for assistance, when I am there, with- 
out giving you trouble, this year. But will not answer 
for so much, if we live, and are well, another year. 

" The Bp. is in high favour at Court, and may have 
his choice of the good things that shall fall. 

" With service to Mrs. Kerrich, and Miss Matilda if 
capable of receiving the same, or even if not ; 

"I am 

" Y rs &c. 

" E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

That " Miss Matilda " was able to receive compliments, 
the following extract from the letter of the fond mother, 
Barbara Kerrich, to (a prejudiced recipient) her sister, 
Elizabeth Postlethwayt, will sufficiently show : 

"Feb. 13, 1744. 

" I thank God my little Girl grow finely & is more & 
more like your Picture every day only her Hair is a very 
light brown Strangers can see y e likeness, & She Surprize 
every body with her talking She speak so plain, & almost 
every word She hear, and know y e meaning of some words, 
for when she want to drink she say, I dry, & when tis 
night She say dark ! dark ! & can call everybody in y e 
House by their Names, & when she have a mind to go to 
Sarah's, she say Nurse ! Nurse ! See Boys & there she 
is as jolly as any of them, and trot about for she begin to 
walk prettily with only holding her back string, ever since 
Sarah's Christening when she go there she call out 
dance ! dance ! and take hold of her Frock of each side 
and jig about, one of y e young men y l were at Sarah's 
Christening cou'd Play upon y e violin so Molly and Sarah's 
sister, & some more made up four Couple & Sarah danced 


with Tilly in her arms y t y e child was so delighted she 
woud'nt come home till nine o'clock, y* she was just asleep, 
& then she kept talking of dancing, she has cut two 
double Teeth more, but no Eye Teeth yet, & them I fear 

It is noticeable that the local ladies talked and wrote 
" Norfolk." The men, who had the advantage of a 
classical education, did not do so. 

In the next letter, of April 24, a journey was in con- 
templation to Norwich to show the aunt " my dear little 
girl," but the pleasing prospect was darkened by the dread 
of smallpox, then raging in East Anglia. " Everybody 
here discourage us very much, we have been at Mrs Grig- 
sons this afternoon, & there was more company, & we 
were talking of our journey, & one of y e ladies said if we 
had a half dozen children she thought we might venture 
to carry one abroad this sickly season, but as it was she 
thought it wou'd not bear any dispute. Tilly was with 
us & as merry as a cricket, crowing and laughing, & 
looking of every body & every Thing, you would be sur- 
priz'd to see how she rejoice at Tea things, not y e she'l 
drink much, but she love to put her hands among them, 
& see y e Tea Pour'd out, but if she hears any body turn 
over y e leaves of a Book she is ready to fly off one's Lap, 
there's nothing please her, nor quiet her if she be crying 
so soon as giving her a book to turn over y e leaves w ch she 
will do her self very prettily. I thank God she has fine 
Health, & I wish you cou'd see her, I have got all her 
short coats made & six new white Frocks thinking we 
shou'd have set out this week, but we must stay till we 
hear y e country is more healthful." 

Another observer, perhaps also a trifle biassed 
Mrs. Susanna Houghton who writes a long series of 
bright letters to Barbara Kerrich, full of curious local 
gossip, gives the following testimony : 


l( I very much Pity you for the Fatigue'yoif 
under Whilst your Servants continued ill and not the least 
wonder Miss engrossed most of your time for a Child of 
Misses quick apprehension and good Nature must gain a 
Mother's affection in a high degree and work up Enjoy- 
ment to Transport." 


"Xtmas Eve (1743). 

" I'm very sorry for your illness, & am endeav- 
ouring to be with you to-morrow 7 night, but as we have 
the Sacrament at two of the three churches, on that day, 
I cannot as yet be sure that I can serve you, which I 
shall always do with the greatest pleasure. Let some 
body from Dersingham call on me next tuesday & I'll 
send you a positive answer. 

"With best wishes, I am, 

" Y rs , &c. 

"E. PYLE. 

" If I come I'll serve both churches." 


To the Reverend Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 


"3 d Jan: 174}. 

" By bleeding & physick, water-gruel & much 
lying in bed, I have, in a good measure overcome my 
hoarseness ; & had Mr. Phelpes with me, (contriving 
matters against next Sunday) when your letter came. I 
am glad, however, you are better provided. Otherwise 
I would have given your flock some rusty divinity ; & how 
do I know but it might have been good for them, as a 


-ehaiybteat ? * -When you want company & I am got quite 
well, I will see you ; in the mean while, with best wishes, 
I remain, 

" Your most 

" Humble Serv 1 , 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

Bleeding was one of the most popular remedies of 
those times. The operation was almost a prerogative 
of the barbers, and had descended to them from the 
barber-surgeons of pre-Reformation days ; men went as 
regularly and naturally to be cupped or blooded for their 
healths' sake, as a precautionary measure against pro- 
spective ailments, or for the most trivial complaints, as 
to have their heads shaved and their wigs dressed. Hence 
the bleeding-basin as the common barber's sign. Help- 
less babes were then rigidly dealt with, and, in addition 
to their being "let blood" when only a few days old, 
were tormented by the cutting of " issues " in their tender 
frames. On November 19, 1742, Mrs. Susanna Houghton 
of Bramerton, Norfolk, whose pernicious still-room seems 
to have been in active operation, proposes the following 
drastic treatment of the little Matilda Kerrich, then aged 
nineteen days. After detailing some vivid methods of 
general procedure, she says : 

" If Miss should turn black with stoppages to bleed 
her is the best Remedy, my Jacky was bled before he 
was a week Old for it and we think saved his life 'tis 
easy done with Leaches. I must beg leave to recommend 
one thing more that is to cut an issue. I have reason 
to think tis owing to that I have the life of any. I have 
buried four and three of them never had one Cut. The 
forth had. but it was too late, for it should be done before 
illness come because the effect is not gained presently. 
The three that I have alive had an issue before they were 


Six weeks Old. The operation is very little pain if they 
be layed to the breast they hardly cry for it." 

The letters of the Rev. Charles Phelpes, rector of All 
Saints, King's Lynn, and its Library Keeper from 1742 to 
about 1773, are in a very minute hand upon cards. The 
charge of the Library was usually placed in the hands 
of the usher of the Grammar School. The latter position 
only was held by the murderer, Eugene Aram, from 1758 
until his arrest. It was a practice at that time to write 
short social notes upon playing cards. There is a belief 
that Cumberland's order at Culloden to give no quarter 
to the rebels was written on the back of the Nine of 
Diamonds, hence the significance of the much disputed 
expression " the nine of diamonds the curse of Scotland." 


"Feb. 14 th , I74f- 

" I am just got abroad, after three weeks in con- 
finement with a poor-spirited slow fever, not fit for a 
gentleman's constitution. The gout, which is fit for a 
man of quality, made an effort to relieve me, but went 
off; so I was consigned over to the joys of bleeding, 
vomiting, rubarb, salt of wormwood & Jesuit powder. 

" This comes to know how you do, my man informing 
me that the old fellow, who, I suppose, is the bearer of 
this, tells him that he carries so much physick for you 
to Dersingham every market day that 'tis impossible you 
should ever be well. I set out for London the 1 2 th of 
next month. Will see you, if I can, before I go, & shall 
order my affairs so as to give you no trouble when I am gone. 
" Service to Mrs. K. 

" Y rs , &c. 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 



"2i* Feb. i74i 

" I writ Dr. Hepburn a letter, in which, to 
prevent any mistake, I used the very words of your letter 
to me. But when you will see him I can't tell, nor he 

" The reason of my speaking of my illness in such 
contemptible terms, was owing to the slightness of the 
symptoms, tho' they were pretty lasting, & their difference 
from what I ever experienced ; my constitution being apt 
to throw out whatever it dislikes, very vigorously. And 
as to your methodus medendi, I had no more of design 
than I have of skill or authority to inquire into it. I 
intended only to divert you with the senseless notion of 
the old fellow, who has no belief of any persons being 
able to survive two or three doses of doctor's stuff. You 
certainly did very right in sending for help that would 
be permanent ; for my part my doctor could not come to 
me sometimes by eight days together. 

" Pray God keep us from the French. Or rather 
the French from us. Service to Mrs. K. concludes all from 

" Y rs , &c. 

" E. PYLE. 

" P.S. I saw Dr. Hepburn's back through the window 
just now, so he has certainly been at home since my letter 
was delivered." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

" DEAR SIR, "London, 6th Ap: 1745. 

" I don't know what to say more than that I 
am your servant, which you knew before. Writing news 


is writing the lie of one day. To day I can tell you there 
is to be a change of Ministry the Chancellor is displaced 
the Parliament dissolved, with a deal more of that sort ; 
& to morrow I could contradict it again, & next day it 
revives, and so on ; you may have wagers laid both ways, 
& all I think that is true is that things are in a very un- 
settled condition, and the King very peevish with all about 
him. The Tories are alert the court ladies go fine & 
the taxes go on. This is all the politicks I have in me. 

"Such steps are already taken by Parliament as will 
end in an Act to lower the duty on the meaner sort of tea 
to prevent smuggling ; the fine sort will be as dear as ever, 
the tax being to be laid ad valorem. 

" Every bodys attention is raised, and we are waiting 
with impatience for the House of Commons' resolutions, 
about our two Admirals' behaviour in the Mediterranean, 
against the fleets of France & Spain. Most persons of 
sobriety & impartiality that I hear speak of the matter 
are of opinion that if both the admirals & a half dozen 
of their captains were hanged 'twould be right, & that 
nothing short of this can be right. 

" Mr. Whiston has found out an Epistle of Timothy's 
more than was known before, & found also (in that I 
suppose) that the Restoration of the Jews, & the re- 
building of their Temple, will be this time one & twenty 

" Lord Orford's dying, forty thousand pounds in debt 
surprises me a little, tho' I never thought him a monied 

" Do you know that the Mastership of the old House 
was very hardly conferred on the present possessor of it. 
The Archbishop of York turn'd the scale by turning his 
cousin, which was done with difficulty. My Lord Matthias 
& his chaplain are quite out upon the chaplain's peremp- 
torily refusing to vote for Castle. So much had passed 
'twixt Aylmer & him (the chaplain) that he would neither 


vote for Castle, nor accept the Mastership for himself, 
which was offered to him. This is a secret, but you may 
depend upon its truth. I am of opinion that had not 
Aylmer married Miss Daniel he had carried the headship 
in spite of all that could have been done. I am sorry he 
has written an angry letter to the Archbishop on this 

" I've had no opportunity of saying a word to his Grace 
in private, & his life is such a round of engagements 
that 'tis extremely difficult to happen of a moment wherein 
such a thing is to be done. The King does not go abroad, 
they say. 

"Your bundle is delivered 3 s i d paid. I am with 
service to Mrs. Kerrich, 

" Y rs &c., 

"E. PYLE. 

" Pray Remember 28 Ap: at Lynn." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, to 
be left with Mrs. Hendry at 
Lynn, Norfolk. 

[Free Matt: Cicest:] 

The taxes on tea during the eighteenth century, until 
1784, were so excessive that they amounted to about 
200 per cent, on the value of common tea. The result 
was that a gigantic smuggling trade was created, imported 
tea was extensively adulterated, and much spurious "tea" 
fabricated. The average price per pound in the early part 
of the century was sixteen shillings. 

The two admirals were Richard Lestock and Thomas 
Mathews. Their names have been handed down by history 
more on account of the manner in which they sacrificed the 
interests of their country to private resentment, than for 
any special capacity or brilliant acts of valour on the ocean. 
Their remarkable conduct in the engagement off Toulon, 


February 1 1, 1744, with the French and Spanish fleet, 
excited public feeling to such an extent that the House of 
Commons petitioned the King for an official inquiry, and 
in the end the admiral who was perhaps the less culpable 
alone received the punishment. This is what happened : 
When the combined fleets of France and Spain sailed from 
Toulon, February 10, 1744, Mathews, in order to prevent 
their escaping southward, had to fight at once. The en- 
gagement lasted all day, and some Spanish ships were 
burnt, but Lestock and his division held almost entirely 
aloof on the ground of the extraordinary confusion of 
Mathews's signals. Some English vessels engaged, some 
captains lost their heads, there was almost a panic, and the 
upshot was that the French came to the assistance of the 
Spanish fleet, and the English retired northward. On the 
next day Lestock gave chase to the escaping enemy, 
followed by the whole fleet, but shortly before coming 
up with the foe was signalled by Mathews to retire. 

Mathews declared, with justice, that Lestock' s defection 
was done purposely and of malice ; Lestock asserted, with 
equal justice, that he was recalled from the pursuit of the 
enemy through the jealousy and resentment of Mathews. 
However, Lestock was suspended and sent home for trial 
by Mathews, who was himself summoned later on to stand 
a court-martial. 

Of these inquiries there were several ; a dozen captains 
were cashiered, but Lestock, the main cause of the failure, 
was acquitted, promoted, and even employed again in an 
expedition against Lorient, which was an ignominious 
failure, chiefly owing to the evil influence over Lestock of 
a woman whom he carried with him. As to Mathews, he 
was tried in 1746 on charges preferred against him by 
Lestock, and fully supported by evidence, and dismissed 
the service. He did not care. He considered the inquiry 
the outcome of an iniquitous parliamentary faction, and 
regarded it as not in any way reflecting on his honour. 


He appears to have been " a choleric old man of the 
traditional John Bull type " and devoid of any manners. 

William Whiston was a man of great learning and 
fanciful theories, honest and plain-spoken, and an indus- 
trious mathematician. By his writings he helped in calling 
attention to important points in ecclesiastical history. The 
discovery referred to by Pyle is no doubt set forth by 
Whiston in one of his latest works " The Primitive New 
Testament in English," 1745. He combined scientific 
with theological inquiries, and concerned himself with 
prophecies, earthquakes, &c., and puzzled his head with 
speculations and researches regarding the Lost Tribes 
that curious safety-valve for inquiring minds. He finally 
seceded from the church and joined the Baptists. 


" Nov r 2d, 1745. 


"I've been afraid to see you or write because 
the Small Pox is much here. As to wine, I always have 
mine in a vessel & bottle it at home. I have my |- now 
in the house, & shall bottle it in a few days. I doubt not 
but your part is ready to bottle, & I will give proper 
orders about it, & the bottles. 

" What times ! Have you associated & subscribed, 
& been abused for so doing, like most of your Cloth ? 

"You know, I trust, that I was with the Dean of 
Norwich five weeks at Buxton, a warm bath in the Peak 
of Derbyshire. I am the better for the journey and the 
waters, as is the Dean. There I saw one Mr. Seward 
who attended his Brother (Frank) in his last illness & knows 
you, & presents you his service. He is a very agreeable 
man, well prefer'd in that country, and has a wife, who 
seems to have all the charms of body & mind that a 
human person can have, and is worth any man's going as 
far as the Peak to see & converse with. 


" My Lord of Norwich, & his New Archdeacon (of 
Suffolk) are subjects of much discourse. Do you preach 
stoutly against Popery, as is the way now, everywhere ? 
I think to claw off the dogs till Lady Day. Praying God 
to you, your wife, & child, & me without wife or child, in 
His good keeping, 

" I rest, y rs Cordially, 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev. Dr. Kerrich. 

The learned Dr. Rutherford, Regius Professor of 
Divinity in Cambridge, published "A Vindication of the 
Right of Protestant Churches to subscribe to an Estab- 
lished Confession of Faith and Doctrines," in 1766. 

The Dean referred to was Thomas Bullock, Dean of 
Norwich and Rector of North Creake. Judging from the 
remains of baths and other structures, and from the evidence 
of a milestone inscribed (TR) IB . POT . COS . I (I) IP . 
P . A NAVIONE . MP . X , it is certain that the mineral 
springs of Buxton were known to the Romans, who 
worked lead mines extensively in the Peak. Thompson 
Watkin identified Buxton with Aquae, the station on the 
Limes being the castrum of Dictum. The baths of Buxton 
were a favourite resort in the period before the Reforma- 
tion, when the patients were in the habit of offering their 
crutches to the image of St. Anne, the tutelar saint, in 
token of gratitude for benefits derived from the springs. 
At the Reformation Sir William Basset, of the ancient 
family of Basset of Blore, destroyed the " tabernacle " and 
prohibited the pious though foolish practice. The baths 
were extolled in 1572 by John Jones, " Phisition at the 
King's Mede near Derby," in " The Benefits of the Ancient 
Baths of Buckstones," and at a later date they were cele- 
brated by Hobbes and Cotton and Sir William Browne of 
Lynn, through whose influence many sufferers from East 
Anglia journeyed to the Peak. 


The immediate predecessor of Kerrich in the livings 
of Dersingham and West Newton was Mr. Gill, "very 
aged & infirm, & Bed-ridden." He had a curate at 15 
a year, who lived with him, Frank Seward by name. On 
August 1 6, 1728, Andrew Rogers, Rector of Sandring- 
ham, wrote the following letter to Kerrich : 

" Sandringham, Aug fc 16, 1728. 

"DEAR S R , 

" There has lately been a Wedding in our 
Neighbourhood of a very uncommon and surprizing 
Nature; & because it may possibly affect your Affairs 
in its Consequences, I therefore thought it wou'd be the 
part of a Friend in me to acquaint you with it at large. 

"Mr Gill has a Daughter, of about 50 Years of Age, 
who has been a Widow about 20 Years, & has for many 
Years last past kept a Boarding-House at Yarmouth, Her 
Name Clarges. She has been a merry Wife, & a merry 
Widow. She has 2 Daughters, Women grown. The 
Younger of these Lasses (Penelope by Name) has kept 
Mr Gill's House ever since he has been a Widower, & is 
a cheerful, sprightly little Tit Mr Gill has had a Curate 
in his House about Half a Year, one Mr Seward, whose 
true Character I am a Stranger to ; but it is possible you 
may know something of it, he being that Senior West- 
minster-Lad that miss'd of a Fellowship at Trinity. Ever 
since he has been at Mr Gill's, he has behav'd with so 
much Gallantry towards Penelope as to raise very tender 
Emotions in her Breast ; & their mutual Fondness soon 
became apparent, not only to their own Family, but like- 
wise to the whole Neighbourhood ; in so much that every 
body concluded it would be a Match, especially Mr Gill 
seeming to acquiesce in it. 

" Penelope's Mother hearing something of the Matter, 
hastens over from Yarmouth to make her Father Gill a 
Visit at Darsingham, & brings her eldest Daughter (Suky) 


along with her. And perceiving that her Daughter Pene 
& Seward were like to make a Match (to which she seem'd 
averse), she takes away Pene home with her to Yarmouth, 
& leaves Suky to keep Mr Gill's House ; & the given 
Reason for this, was, that poor Suky in her Turn, might 
have an Opportunity of obliging the old Gentleman, as 
well as Pene, & so become a Sharer of his Favours. It 
was natural enough for Seward (taking it for granted that 
his Passion was honourable) to pursue his Nymph Pene to 
Yarmouth. He did so. But when the Widow got him 
there, she was so frank in her Declarations to Seward, as 
to let him know that She (the Widow) had conceived such 
an ardent Passion for him, that either Death or Enjoyment 
must be the Result of it. The noble Doctor took pity on the 
languishing Widow, married her before he returned to Dar- 
singham, & has left poor Pene to weep and call him Father. 
" Mr Seward has no Preferm 1 , but Mr Gill's Curacy 
(15 p r Ann: & Board). And I am well assur'd that he 
designs to push for Darsingham & Newton upon Mr Gill's 
Demise. Nay, it is not improbable that he may work up 
the old Gentleman to resign Darsingham at least, if he can 
but secure a Presentation. And he is well acquainted 
with L d Chancellor's Son. He is a Man of fine parts & 
Learning, & has gain'd the Esteem of the Col. & Major, 
by his Preaching & Conversation ; & I don't know how 
far his artful Address may be conducive to the Attainment 
of his Ends. Do you put all these Circumstances to- 
gether, & judge whether it may not be for your Interest 
o take an Opportunity of waiting on the Col. I'm sure 
ought not to neglect writing to him : but take no 
notice of what I have wrote to you. Assure your self, I 
have, & shall take every Opportunity of managing for 
y r Interest, to the best of my Judgement. Mr Gill has 
been very ill of late, and seems to decline apace. I was 
desirous of giving you full Information of these Matters, 
which must be the Apology for the Length of this Scribble, 



My Friend Mr Thomas was with me yesterday. Pray let 
me know in what part of the World Mr Stephens sojourns. 
My Service to my good Friend Mr Micklebourg. I am, 

with all Sincerity, Y rs , 

" A: ROGERS." 

There was no occasion for anxiety about the living 
of Dersingham. Colonel Hoste (who died of smallpox, 
January 16, 1729) had already given the presentation to 
his son, expressly on behalf of Kerrich, as soon as the 
vacancy occurred. It has been seen that Major Hoste 
duly carried out this arrangement. 


"DEAR SIR, XtmasEve( I7 45). 

" I had seen you ere now, but I've had a very 
bad cold, and am still a good deal out of order. Yester- 
day's Gazette gives us hopes that times will mend, as they 
had need. The Duke is up with the Rebels' rear, & has 
had one bout with them, till 'twas dark, on the Fast Day, 
their loss not known when the express came away, ours 
forty wounded & killed. A prospect of peace is very near 
'twixt Prussia, Poland & the Empress. Twenty transports 
of the French, run a-ground & taken by our privateers ; 
a very large Spanish ship taken with arms & money ; 
six thousand Hessians a coming with consent of Parlia- 
ment ; thirty Martinico ships taken & sunk ; stocks risen 3. 
The French commander in Scotland has sent Marshal Wade 
word he comes to make war against England, by the King 
of France's order, & as his general. I doubt that fag-end 
of Britain is thoroughly corrupted. With all possible good 

" I remain, Y rs &c., 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 


On December 10, 1/45, Barbara Kerrich wrote as 
follows to her sister, Elizabeth Postlethwayt, at Denton 
Rectory, near Harleston : 


" I write to you now in y e greatest confusion, as 
is all y e countrey hereabouts, for yesterday it was report'd 
y ! y e Rebels wou'd be at Lynn as to morrow, but we had 
a Letter from D r Pyle just now & he says y e Rebels are 
at Ashbourn in Derbyshire The Duke at Coventry, & 
Marshal Wade at Mansfield, this is y e last advice, however 
he says we are greatly alarm'd. The Rebels may some of 
them straggle hither if thrash'd, or y e French may come 
who are making a vast Embarkation, we are arming to 
defend ourselves, & if we hear they bend this way we 
shall cut down all our Bridges & lay Ships in y e shallower 
parts to defend us, this is what was in Dr Pyle's L r This 
is a little Respite, but God know what is to become of us 
nor where we can go for to be sure they will be all over 
y e County if they come here, we have Pack'd up our most 
valuable things to hide somewhere if they do come, Mrs 
Grigson & me meet allmost every day to contrive & 
comfort one another I Pray God you may be safer where 
you are I dont know where to wish you for y e best, & 
that we may meet again in this World Tilly that was 
one of my greatest Pleasures is now my greatest Sorrow 
when I look upon her, to think what may befall her She 
never was so well & looks y e Picture of Health & grow 
very Tall, pray God preserve her . . . God grant us a 
meeting in better times 

" Dear Sister yours very affectionately, B. K." 

The letter referred to from Dr. Pyle is missing from the 
series ; it was probably lent in the neighbourhood, and in 
the excitement went astray. 

To this Elizabeth Postlethwayt replied, December 26, 



1745 : " I receiv'd your letter with a good deal of concern. 
I was in fears for you before, for it was report'd here that 
the Rebles were expect'd at Lynn every day. I wish'd 
you all here. I thought perhaps you might be safer here 
as we have but few Houses hereabouts to what you have 
worth plundring that its possible they may escape us. I 
should wish to be all together if it shou'd please God to 
Suffer such a dreadful thing to happen, but I hope God 
Almighty will defend and keep us, our apprehensions and 
fears I hope will prove greater than our sufferings." 

Matilda Postlethwayt, sister of Thomas Gooch, Bishop 
of Norwich, and stepmother of Barbara and Elizabeth, 
writing from Benacre Hall to Mrs. Kerrich, January 14, 
1746, says: "This brings the wishes of many happy 
years which I hope will prove so tho' at present the 
Prospect be dark, and I must think the coming time is to 
be dreaded, & can only depend on Providence for security. 
. . . We have had many alarms of the French coming on this 
coast, my Nephew wrote me word if they did I must take 
the Chariot and come up to London. I told him he might 
as well bid me go fight the Rebels, for I was almost as 
capable of one as t'other ; no, I was resolved to stand 
my ground tho' I did believe the hurry & fright wou'd 
demolish me, & so it wou'd if I remov'd, for I grow 
weaker and weaker going on in my old way." 

The panic in London on account of the invasion was 
extraordinary. These are evidences of the scare that ran 
through England, even to remote parts of East Anglia, 
when the Young Pretender captured Carlisle, the Great 
Border City of Rufus, November 18, and made his mem- 
orable march into the heart of England in the winter of 
1745, and entered Derby on December 4. Here the rebels 
stayed until the 6th. A broadside printed at Derby 
states that they drank great quantities of beer, ale, wine, 
and drams ; that they were very dirty in their persons and 
savage in demeanour ; and adds the interesting philological 


intelligence that most of them " talked a language called 
Earsh or Wild Irish." Ashbourne had been visited on 
the way to Derby, and was the first halting-place of the 
Highlanders retreating in anger and with curses by the 
way that they came, and now changed into a plundering, 
dispirited, and disorderly rabble. This soon induced 
reprisals, and a legend still darkly exists that a Highlander 
who had strayed away from romantic Ashbourne into the 
Peak was caught, killed, and flayed. 

The " bout " mentioned by Pyle was the skirmish on 
Clifton Moor, near Penrith, the last engagement ever 
fought in England, in which the attack was directed by 
the Highlanders on the Duke of Cumberland's Dragoons. 
This had the effect of checking the pursuit, and enabled 
the rebels to continue their march by night, and the van 
to reach Carlisle the next day, December 20, there then 
being a distance of eight miles from the van to the rear. 
Leaving a garrison, the Young Pretender and his forces 
quitted Carlisle on the 2 1 st, and the turbulent Esk was 
crossed by the men by hundreds abreast, and breast deep 
in the water. On reaching the opposite wooded bank the 
pipes struck up and the drenched rebels danced reels till 
they were dry changing the gender, from naiads they 
turned to dryads ! The unfortunate garrison of Carlisle 
capitulated to the Duke of Cumberland, December 30, 
many eventually to fall victims to inhuman retribution, 
and to suffer the ferocious death for high treason, in exact 
accordance with the ancient Statute of four centuries 
before. It is recorded that one intrepid spirit of these 
victims struggled for a few moments with William Stout 
of Hexham the fiend who, for twenty guineas and the 
clothes, did the bloody business when his bosom was 
opened and his heart plucked out. 

Seasonably on the very day that Pyle indited this 
letter peace was concluded at Dresden. Frederick the 
Great had already in September, after the defeat of Maria 


Theresa at Sohr, near the sources of the Elbe, offered to 
make peace, but his overtures had been rejected. Another 
victory over the Austrians and Saxons put the King in 
possession of Dresden, where peace was concluded on 
Christmas Day, 1745. Silesia was confirmed to Prussia, 
and Frederick acknowledged the election on September 1 3, 
at the Diet of Worms, of Francis, Duke of Lorraine, and 
husband of Maria Theresa, as Francis I., Emperor of 
Germany. By the " Christian, universal, and perpetual 
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle," signed October 18, 1748, the 
Duchy of Silesia, and the County of Glatz, which included 
the important glass-making districts, were confirmed to 
Prussia. Full accounts of this war will be found in 
Coxe, "House of Austria"; Koch, Traites de Paix ; 
Flassan, Histoire de la Diplomatic Fran^aise ; Lacretelle, 
Histoire des Fran$ais ; Ancillon, Systeme politique de 
I* Europe j &c. 

Among the numerous German subsidies that were 
bestowed by England at this time was one of 300,000 to 
Maria Theresa, "King" of Hungary. When Hanoverian 
and Hessian troops were temporarily discontinued as British 
auxiliaries they were transferred to Maria Theresa and her 
subsidy increased to 500,000. Subsequently, as there 
was no clamour raised, the former troops were again taken 
into direct pay and, as Pyle states, 6000 were coming to 
England. In 1746, 18,000 Hanoverians were employed 
abroad, and 20,000 in the following year. 

Marshal Wade, the not very brilliant commander, 
who was so out-manoeuvred by the Rebels in " the '45," 
is perhaps best known to fame as the maker of the 
military roads, begun in 1726, for the civilisation of 
Scotland ; though he will always be remembered by the 
lines inscribed on an obelisk formerly standing on the way 
between Inverary and Inverness : 

"If you'd seen these roads before they were made, 
You wou'd lift up your hands and bless General Wade." 


The meaning of " made " being, " put into order and 
made fit for the use of artillery." 

Wade's memory is not held in greater esteem by 
antiquaries than by military critics. Being called upon 
in 1750 to make " the military way" from Carlisle to 
Newcastle he carried it wherever he could upon the 
Roman Wall, which he threw down to its lowest course 
for that purpose. 

With regard to the civilisation of Scotland when the 
military roads were begun, the following letter from John 
Butler, Fellow of Corpus, to Kerrich, may not be without 
interest, and as showing the change that was wrought 
a century later under the " magic touch of the great 
Novelist " : 

"Edinburgh, Aug fc y e i8 th 1728. 
J-/EAR o 

" We have been in Scotland 6 or 7 days, y e 
motive of our touring hither you know was Curiosity & 
that has also occasion'd our making so long a Stay here ; 
None Sure ever came into this Country for the Gratifica- 
tion of their sensual Appetites of any sort ; their Provisions 
for the Belly are plenty enough & good in nature but the 
Cooks never fail to spoil it in the Dressing, were all our 
Fellows to spend a week here, they wou'd cease their 
Complaints & commend the neatness of Benet College 
Kitchen. The women in this part of Britain have no 
Allurements for one born & bred in the South, They 
must be hungry Dogs indeed who can dispence with such 
dirty Puddings ; Monkish Chastity may be preserved here 
without Particular Prsecepts. The sluttishness of the 
Creatures is, I think, a sufficient noli me tangere. I must 
do the justice to Glascow to say the people there seem 
much more humanized than y e rest of their Compatriots. 
Mr Houblon, Mr Eyles (members of Corpus) & all our 
fellow Travellers are in good health & join with me in 
due respects to Yourself & all friends. We propose to 


hasten towards Cambridge with all convenient expedi- 
tion. I shou'd be glad to have a Letter at York from 
you, y' I may know w n 'twill be necessary for me to 
come to y e University upon Duty. 
" I am, Dear S r , 

" Your most humble Ser 1 



"24 May i74f 


" I am come home, & very well, after great 
rejoycings for the illustrious Duke's victory such as 
were never seen in London before. To-morrow ought to 
be observed as a Day of Thanksgiving throughout the 
kingdom, and will be so, I presume, almost everywhere ; 
but, I know not by whose blunder the Additional Thanks- 
giving to to-morrow's Service is not come hither tho' I hear 
they have it at Wisbech, & in Lincolnshire. 

"You are to know (if you don't already) that your 
subscription to the widows & children of poor clergymen 
is desired to be advanced now, for the year 1746, as the 
inclosed will inform you ; so pray send me your money 
on Tuesday that I may remit it with the rest. I intend 
to see you soon, but can't as yet say when. I go, after 
preaching on the 2 9th, into Lincolnshire to meet the 
Dean of Norwich & bring him hither. He is much better, 
so much better as to dine in the publick room at Buxton 
with the Duke of Kingston, and some other rakeshanes 
who are there, and to go to the public prayers, I suppose, 
without them. 

" With all good wishes and service to you & yours, I 
am, &c., 

" E. PYLE." 

To the Reverend Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 


This obsolete term of reproach should be Rakeshame, 
signifying a base rascally fellow. Milton in his work on 
" Reformation in England," Bk. II., has "Tormentors, 
rooks, and rakeshames sold to lucre." 


"9 Mar. 174$ 

" I have not had the grace to thank you for a 
very good sermon of your relative's. The truth is I've 
been on horseback all the morning long, these two or 
three weeks, to bring myself into order (after the gout), 
and, as I dine late, I have not returned time enough to 
write by the Dersingham courier. But to-day, being the 
first of my staying at home, I do you to wit that I am 
going to London, by way of Cambridge, where I shall 
stay ten days ; and if you have any commands I desire 
you'd let me have 'em by Saturday's Mercury. To be 
sure you've heard of Ben: Hoadly's Comedy called ' The 
Suspicious Husband ' ? I am going to read it, & see it, 
and then, I'll say more to you. At present all I have to 
observe is, that it is a wonderful thing (to me) that any 
man could find in his heart to write a Comedy in the 
year of mourning for his wife. I suppose 'tis to be solved 
by the old rule of evils being cured by their contraries. 
I correspond with a lady in London who tells me Ben's 
is a fine play, & 'tis generally thought that the Bishop 
corrected it. Isn't this pleasant ! Surely the town's 
quite out in thinking thus. For an old man that marries 
a young wife, is not so proper for a writer of comedy, as 
for a subject of it. But, to be serious, the play is none 
of Ben's. It was left, nearly finished, by an acquaintance 
who died ; Ben put the last hand to it, and used all his 
interest to get it the run it has had, and has given all the 
profit to his friend's widow. However, 'tis published, 
with Ben's name on the title-page. I am very credibly 


informed that a Norfolk physician (I think he's of Norwich, 
though I am not told his name), has also produced a piece 
for the theatre, but knows not yet the fate of his brat. 
I wish him well, and pray God to bless both him and 
Ben for setting so good an example ; which it would be 
happy for the nation if ninety-nine out of each of the 
many hundreds of the faculty would follow, by writing for 
the stage, instead of the churchyard. This would lessen 
the Bills of Mortality more than any twenty ordinary 
expedients, and the very best thing that can be done not 
excepting even the suppression of gin in these woeful 
times, when men are so much wanted for the wars, wars 
both foreign & domestic. 

" Pray have you seen his Grace of York's fast-sermon ? 
It is a fine one, and has recovered him the credit he lost 
by his sermon at York last year. N.B. To page 15 it is 
the very sermon he preached against the " Beggar's Opera." 

" There is one Jack, a poor Scotch schoolmaster, who 
has written a book that you must get. 'Tis a demonstra- 
tion of the being and attributes of God, in a method 
strictly geometrical. He has another work a-coming, viz. 
a demonstration of the great truths of morality, written 
in the same manner. This last was, with all his goods 
and chattels, carried away by the Rebels, and the poor 
man is writing it again. He is certainly a very extra- 
ordinary fellow. 

" There is a critique upon Dr. Rutherford's Essay on 
Virtue coming forth, being assisted in its birth by the 
Great Mr. Warburton. The writer of this is also a very 
extraordinary person, being an old lady, of the county 
of Northumberland, the widow of a clergyman, and the 
Daughter of one. She wrote a defence of Mr. Locke's 
essay about the year 1707, and has since written several 
things in the Republics of Letters, & such sort of works, 
one particularly, whilst Jackson and Mr. Law were dis- 
puting about Space, &c. 


My father has had an ague, but is very well again. 
I little thought, when I sat down, of writing such a heap 
of stuff; but, as I was going on, it came into my head 
that I would refute a calumny which Mrs. Kerrich has 
several times thrown in my teeth ; (which are very bad 
ones, & one or two of 'em going out) ' that I could not 
write a long letter.' 

" I am, Dear Sir, 

" Y rs &tc., 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev. Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

On November 2, 1745, Pyle asked: "Do you preach 
stoutly ag fc Popery, as is the way now, every where ? " 
In answer Kerrich sent him a sermon by his father-in- 
law, Matthew Postlethwayt " On the Moral Impossibility 
of Protestant Subjects preserving their Liberties under 
Popish Princes." In the following year Kerrich published 
" A Sermon on the Suppression of the Late Unnatural 
Rebellion," at that time a very popular but soon a very 
hackneyed text with the clergy, " well affected to the 
present establishment." 

Benjamin Hoadly was the eldest son of the Bishop 
of Winchester ; he was appointed physician to the King's 
household in 1742, and to that of the Prince of Wales 
in 1746. "The Suspicious Husband" was styled by a 
contemporary " Hoadly's Profligate Pantomime," because 
it consisted principally of entrances and exits through 
windows at night and of dissolute small-talk. Such was 
the play which delighted the town and was generally 
thought to have been corrected by the Bishop of 

With regard to the excessive drinking of gin, it may 
be recalled that up to so late a date as the end of the 
fifteenth century, there was no distillation of ardent 


spirits in England, and no acquaintance with the art 
of extracting aromatic essences from flowers and plants. 
The knowledge of distillation, like that of many other 
arts and sciences, came slowly westward from the Orient 
and was practised here quite early in the sixteenth century, 
the results rapidly becoming popular both in England and 
in Ireland. There is apparently no mention of " usky," 
or aqua vitae, in Scotland before 1495. "Glasses" of 
" waters " were fashionable birthday gifts in Elizabeth's 
time, and early in the seventeenth century there were 
few houses of great lords, such as William Lord Howard 
of Nawarth, " Belted Will" of Border history, where 
" waters " were not distilled for home consumption, as 
well as cordials and perfumes. Gradually the practice 
fell into the hands of fair ladies, who artfully extracted 
a world of waters, cordial and ardent, from mingled and 
spiced liquors, herbs, flowers, whites of egg, and other 
surprising sources. These were the "pretty secrets of 
curious Housewifes " ; they included many " aquae " and 
odd receipts for surfeit waters, remedies against the 
plague, drinks for those that are forspoken, &c., the 
use being generally, as with " Xeres sec " at its first 
coming into England early in the sixteenth century, 
medicinal. Glasses were specially made called " aqua 
vitae measures," and long before the Restoration the 
English palate had become well accustomed, but with 
moderation, to what the travelled Baskerville calls the 
" uncomparable strong waters " to be found in country inns. 
The Dutch habits introduced on the return of Charles 
II. included the use of " innocuous giniva" "oude 
klare jenever," and this was here translated, name and 
thing, into the pernicious, cheap, low-class liquor called 
" gin," of which the only merit even of the better sort 
seems to be certain diuretic qualities, which other much 
less harmful liquids supply. The consumption of this 
noxious fluid increased so rapidly that the Gin Act of 


1736 was passed. It was a strongly repressive measure 
and greatly enraged the ill-regulated and fatuous mob, 
who raised the ominous cry of " No Gin, No King," the 
people declining then, as they always will, to be made 
sober by Act of Parliament. So the laws were defied 
and the evil increased until the Gin Act was repealed 
in 1742, and less severe legislation introduced. But 
the popularity of the degrading spirit was established, and 
the people only too faithfully copied the example of their 
betters at the time when the expression to be " as drunk 
as a lord " was no mere figure of speech. The conditions 
adverted to by Pyle were well and truthfully illustrated by 
Hogarth in his print of " Gin Lane" published in 1750. 

The " Beggar's Opera," by John Gay, was first produced 
in 1728, and at once made the author's name a house- 
hold word. Portraits of " Polly," " Lucy," and " Macheath," 
were reproduced upon fans and screens, as well as the 
favourite songs ; and long after Gay's death, upon the 
flat circular table snuff-boxes called " Turgotines " after 
the minister ; and pictures of the Polly and Lucy scene 
were painted by Hogarth. That this sparkling play should 
have been advanced to the dignity of condemnation in 
a sermon by his Grace of York is sufficient testimony to 
its extraordinary popularity. 

The " Critique " alluded to by Pyle relates to " An 
Essay on the Nature and Obligations of Virtue," 1744, 
of which Mrs. Catherine Cockburn wrote a confutation 
which Warburton published, with a preface of his own, 
as, " Remarks upon the Principles of Dr. Rutherford's 
Essay in Vindication of the contrary Principles and 
Reasonings inforced in the writings of the late Dr. 
Samuel Clarke," 1747. Catherine Cockburn, a dramatic 
and philosophical writer, at an early age joined the Roman 
Church, and, in 1702, published her defence of Locke's 
theories against Thomas Burnet of the Charterhouse. She 
returned to the Church of England about 1707, and 


married Patrick Cockburn, an English clergyman, who 
eventually held the vicarage of Long Horsley, Northum- 
berland, where she died and is buried. The work par- 
ticularised by Pyle is " Remarks upon some Writers in 
the Controversy concerning the foundations of Moral Duty 
particulars in Works of the Learned." 

John Jackson was a persistent controversialist. He 
was refused his M.A. degree on account of his writings 
respecting the Trinity. He established himself at 
Leicester on receiving the position of confratership of 
Wigston's Hospital, which involved no subscription, and 
carried the Lectureship at St. Martin's. On Clarke's 
death Jackson became master of the hospital. Present- 
ments were made against him for heretical preaching, 
and he was forcibly kept out of St. Martin's pulpit in 
1730. In this year Hoadly offered him a prebend at 
Salisbury but he would not subscribe, having resolved 
since the publication of Waterland's " Case of Arian Sub- 
scription " in 1721, to do so no more. At Bath, in 1725, 
whither he had gone with a dislocated leg, he was refused 
the Sacrament on the ground that he did not believe the 
divinity of the Saviour. The matter alluded to by Pyle 
is the tract " A Defence of the Existence and Unity of 
God proved from his Nature and Attributes," I735> 
against Edmund Law's " Enquiry into the Ideas of Space 
and Time," 1734. 

Edmund Law was descended from an ancient family 
of " Statesmen " in Cumberland. He was of St. John's, 
Cambridge, and became a Fellow of Christ's. At the 
university his friends were Jortin, Waterland, Master of 
Magdalene, and Taylor, the editor of Demosthenes. He 
was elected Master of Peterhouse in 1756, and appointed 
Principal Librarian to the University of Cambridge in 
1760, an office created in 1721 and first held by Conyers 
Middleton. It was occupied by Thomas, only son of 
Samuel Kerrich, from 1797 to his death in 1828. 



"Aug. n, 1747. 

" I write this to acquaint you that my father 
intends you a visit on Thursday, and begs to dine by 
twelve or thereabouts, being fearful of the falling of the 
dews in the evening. 

" He will be attended by your most faithfull 

" Humble SerV 

" E. PYLE." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 


"22 d Aug: 1747. 

" The letter I writ to you, in which I begged a 
dinner at twelve, was sent to you, as I tho't, the Tuesday 
before I saw you last (with Mr. Phelpes), but, I perceive, 
that green-goose at whose house it was left kept it there a 
week. This solves also my receiving a letter from you, 
after I had been with you, which I concluded (it having no 
date) had lain by the way a week. I very seldom write, 
but I put a date, yet it might be so in what I writ about 
my father's intention to visit you: If not it will explain 
itself. I shall take care for the future how I commit letters 
to such a jackanapes, who assured me he could & would 
send the letter in question to you that very day. Enough 
of this. Poor Mrs. Rand is dead. With service. 

" I am y rs entirely, 
" E. P. 

" Bergen op Zoom must be lost as all people think." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 


This important fortress, standing on the river Zoom 
at its entrance into the eastern branch of the Scheldt, was 
one of the great strongholds of the Low Countries during 
the long struggle with Spain. It was greatly strengthened 
in 1688 by Cooehoorn, and then thought to be impregnable. 
It was, however, still further fortified in 1725, but was 
now taken by storm by the French under Lowendal, after 
a siege of nearly three months. It was demolished in 


"Octb. 17 th 1747. 


" I have a favour to ask of you, in behalf of an 
acquaintance, in which if there is anything disagreable to 
you, please to think no more of the matter than if this 
letter had never been written. 

" Dr. Philip Williams, of Barrow, "near Bury, is vicar of 
Long-Sutton, the next parish to mine. He has the stone 
to a degree of great severity & danger, as is generally 
thought. My friend has a relation for whom he would 
purchase that preferment, and I am made to believe the 
patron & the intended purchaser have had some conversa- 
tion together upon the subject, and the affair betwixt 'em, 
so far as it has gone, has gone upon the supposition of the 
doctor's being unable to bear the gentlest motion even in 
his coach ; and, as this is the case, they are apt to con- 
clude him in an incurable condition, unless he submits to 
be cut. He has taken Jurin's soap lees for above a year, 
& is ne'er the better. The clerk for whose service this 
business of bargain & sale is set on foot, will needs have 
it that Dr. Kerrich, of Bury, might, by your means, 
deliver his opinion freely, upon Dr. W.'s being or not 
being, in a desperate way : and I have only to add, upon 
this head, that what intelligence you may be able to help 
us to in this particular, shall be very thankfully acknow- 
ledged, & intirely secret. 


"My lord of Canterbury is no more. His death, 
tho' he was some time out of order, was not expected. 
It came upon him so much sooner than was appre- 
hended, that the instruments constituting his son, the 
lawyer, Master of the Faculties, &c., in Dr. Andrews 
his stead, were left unsigned. So the next Archbishop 
has at least 500 a year to bestow, as soon as he is 

" You know how much the deceased prelate has been 
at odds with the Court, for a good while, & how warmly 
he has fallen in with the Prince's distressing (& distressed) 
measures. The unforseen dissolution of the late Parlia- 
ment (a Thought of Bp. Sherlock's for which he has 
been rewarded with the Deanery of York, for his nephew, 
aged 30 years) defeated all their hopes : and the poor- 
spirited old man of Lambeth, was coming about again. 
He had twice asked audience of his Sovereign, & been 
twice refused admittance. At length he obtained it, but 
had better been without it, for the interview was closed 
with the King's telling him, " He was a Man of a little 
dirty Heart." Whatever the heart was, this saying is 
thought to have broke it ; and the warmth of it is generally 
excused, and forgiven to the indignation that is justly due 
to a behaviour, in a person of that station and character, 
tending to weaken his Prince's hands in a season so criti- 
cally dangerous as the present is. 

" London & Sarum will have the offer of the Primacy, 
but 'tis taken for granted will decline the acceptance of it. 
Dr. Butler (of Bristol) is next spoken of; & if he should 
stick to his prospect of Durham (which would certainly 
please him better, & is likely to fall every day), I see not 
but it may come, as every thing else has done, to my Lord 
of York's door. 500 a year to be added immediately to 
all Dr. William Herring has already (& which his law- 
degree qualifies him happily to take), may co-operate with 
the desire of glory, & make your old friend consent to 


cross the water, tho' his present see may suit his inclina- 
tion better. 

" With best wishes to your spouse and daughter, 

" I am, y rs &c., 

" E. PYLE. 

" The papers to-day are very positive that Dr. Sherlock 
is to be Archbishop, but I don't give credit to 'em." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

James Jurin of Trinity College, Cambridge, was one of 
the most learned physicians of his time. He was a strong 
advocate of inoculation for smallpox and became Pre- 
sident of the College of Physicians. 

The letter from Dr. Kerrich to his cousin Samuel is 
dated October 21, showing how rapid communications 
then were. He corroborates the gravity of the sufferer's 
condition and the uselessness of Jurin's nostrum. 

My Lord of Canterbury was John Potter of University 
College, Oxford, son of a linendraper at Wakefield. He 
held several livings in succession, among them Greene's 
Norton, Northamptonshire, once famous for the monu- 
mental effigies of the Greenes, the destruction of which in 
1826 forms a sad passage of county history; here he 
abode from 1697 to 1700. In 1704 he became domestic 
chaplain to Archbishop Tenison, and three years later 
Regius Professor of Divinity and Canon of Christ Church. 
He was a Whig, but a high churchman, and naturally took 
part in the Bangorian controversy against Hoadly. He 
was consecrated Bishop of Oxford in 1715, and translated 
to Canterbury on the death of Archbishop Wake in 1737. 
The following epitaph was written upon him : 

" Alack, and well-a-day, 
Potter himself is turned to clay." 


His second son, Thomas Potter " the Lawyer," inherited 
a large fortune from his father ; he was a wit and a man 
of parts, and sat for many years in Parliament, where he 
was distinguished for his fluency. He was one of the 
notorious Medmenham Abbey Club, and was the worst of 
the associates of the disreputable 5 .} ohn Wilkes, and he it was 
who enjoyed the distinction of having poisoned the morals 
of that eminently bad man. It was well, therefore, that 
the Instrument constituting Thomas Potter " Master of 
the Faculties " was not executed by his father. Edmund 
Gibson, Bishop of London, was succeeded by Thomas 
Sherlock, Bishop of Salisbury, in 1748. 

Dr. Butler was son of a draper at Wantage. He was 
of Oriel, and wrote his famous " Analogy" in 1736 
during his stay in the " golden rectory " of Stanhope in 
Weardall. While there he shut himself up so much that 
Archbishop Blackburne answered Queen Caroline in answer 
to her question as to whether he was dead : " No, Madam, 
he is not dead but buried." He took Bristol when Gooch 
was translated in 1738, but unwillingly, as it was the 
poorest bishopric in England, holding Stanhope in com- 
mendam until 1740, when he was made Dean of St. Paul's. 
On Potter's death the primacy was offered to Butler, but 
declined by him, it is said, on the ground that " it was too 
late for him to try to support a falling church." The See 
of Durham was offered to him in 1741, weighted with the 
proviso that the Lord Lieutenancy should be given to a 
layman, and that he should relinquish his deanery. Butler 
refused to allow the Lord Lieutenancy to be separated from 
the episcopal dignity, or to agree to a contract which he 
thought simoniacal. He did not appear to mind being 
thus, as it were, pre-consecrated to a see that was not 
vacant, or to a traffic on the life of Edward Chandler, the 
prelate then occupying the chair of Eadmund, and who 
is said to have paid 9000 for that position. Perhaps 
he thought then, and as Pyle did six years later, that 



Durham was " likely to fall every day." As a matter of 
fact, Chandler, like Allix, dean of Ely, was " tough," and 
did not die until 1750. So, as Pyle would say, Butler 
was " bit." He waited too long for his advancement, and 
though he was only fifty-eight when it came, he died two 
years later at Bath. He went there to prolong life, as so 
many did at that time without avail, as witness the count- 
less tablets, many of refined taste, in Bath Abbey Church. 
Dr. William Herring was brother of the Archbishop of 
York. He became Dean of St. Asaph in 1751. 



" You are very obliging, and I thank you. The 
Post stays so I can only tell you that 'tis agreed on 
all hands that the Archbishop of York is the man for 
Lambeth. I never mentioned the Justice affair to him, 
& why ? I've never had an opportunity of speaking to 
him since, but at Court or in the park (sub die), neither 
of 'em proper places ; whenever I have been at Kensington 
to wait on him he has been abroad. 

"Y rs &c., 

"E. P." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich. 

" The Justice affair " refers to Kerrich's desire to be 
included in the Commission for the Peace. On March 3 I , 
1747, the new primate wrote thus to him : 

" I saw Lord Buckingham yesterday at Court and 
made my request to him on the subject of the new 
Commission. His answer was, that no Body of the 
Church was put in except the Dean, and I think the 


Chancellor that if any clergyman was admitted you 
should be so." 


"30 Nov r 1747. 

" I received yours at Norwich on friday last. 
I've been there some time. The pox is very mortal here ; 
tho' it has been here so long that there are but few to 
have it, yet those that it lights upon have, of late, it 
seems, fared very badly. 

"You may, to be sure, congratulate the Archbishop 
now, all ceremonies respecting his translation being past. 
I take for granted he is at Kensington. 

" Rand was with me a week before I went to Norwich. 
I hope he'll get it over. I shall spend a week or ten 
days with him before the winter goes ; I fancy at the 
time of our miserable Mart. 

" I am with all Love, &c., 

E. P. 

" The small pox is very much at Norwich. 
" This was written hoping the old woman would come 
last Tuesday." 


To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
At Dersingham. 

In answer to Kerrich's congratulations on his advance- 
ment "Tho: Cantuar:" says : "I know your good wishes 
for me proceed from your Heart, and I thank you for 
them most affectionately. I am truly sorry to hear that 
you are so much out of order and that your apprehensions 
for yourself are so uneasy, but Spring, that renews every 
thing, will I hope have y e best effects upon you and 
enable you to resolve upon and execute a London Journey. 
I was not in haste to accept and am not now to remove 


to Lambeth, but you will find me in as good a Place and, 
what will be best both for you and me, less encumber'd 
w th Ceremony. You know how much I loved it in Days 
of Yore, and some occasions have occurrd lately in w ch I 
have laughd at my self and thought of you You will 
know my meaning but I must not explain it." 


" 12 Jan. i74j. 


" I ha'n't thrown a word at you a great while. 
I hope you & yours have escaped the epidemic cold, which 
has raged everywhere. My father has been severely 
handled with it, insomuch that for two days we did not 
know what to think of him ; but he is now getting well, 
tho' sadly maul'd and reduced. The fens are drowned 
worse than was ever remembered, and the distemper 
amongst cattle has made such havoc on the other side 
of the Wash that we Lincolnshire folks expect to break 
next year by scores in a day. However, for my own 
part, I have as little to fear as any body but really the 
case of that county is most deplorable. 

" Here at Lynn we are as in the days of Noah, eat- 
ing, drinking, marrying. On Thursday is to be celebrated 
Mr. Folkes's wedding with Miss Browne, in St. Nicholas's 
chapel, with all the doors open. A long cavalcade of 
equipages is to be preceded by several scores of flags, and 
all the other mob-apparatus of an election ; at night the 
windows of the party are to be illuminated. I think all 
this is doing the thing by halves. I would have a tent 
fixed in the Market Place for the consummation and, in 
due time, another put up in the same place for madam's 
crying-out ; as, I have read, was done for a Queen of 
Sicily; but I bar the Drs. being midwife. Now I have 
named him, poor gentleman, I must tell you, that a few 
nights ago, at the tavern, he thought fit to pick a quarrel 


with our collector who, in return, treated him in the 
worst manner imaginable, that is, with giving the com- 
pany a full history of all his rogue's tricks, & flinging a 
glass of wine in his face, which he wiped off very patiently. 
I think if Mr. Folkes ever had any chance to represent 
this town in Parliament, 'tis all over. For there are many 
persons, your servant for one, who never would have 
signalized themselves by taking pains against Mr. Folkes, 
who will fight all the weapons through against Dr. 
Browne's son-in-law. 

" I am &c., 

"E. P. 

"All happiness to you in this & many future years." 


To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 

William Ffolkes, son of Martin Ffolkes, Solicitor-General, 
1695, married as his second wife Mary, only child of 
Sir William Browne, K 1 ., M.D., of King's Lynn, and by her 
had a son, Martin Browne Ffolkes, F.R.S., who was 
created a baronet in 1774; from him is descended the 
present representative of the family seated at Hillington 
Hall, Lynn. 

On February 3, 1 74-J, Barbara Kerrich gives the fol- 
lowing account of Miss Browne's wedding, to her sister 
Elizabeth Postlethwayt : 

" The News-man is not come yet (but I am going to 
give you an account of the fine Bride at Lynn) so if he 
bring me a Letter from you I must answer y l last. I 
suppose you saw in y e Papers y l Mr. Foulks was Married 
to Dr. Browne's Daughter, of Lynn, their finery have 
been y e Subject of all y e Tea Tables hereabouts, & it is 
so remarkable I must give you some account of it, She 
was Married in a white Sattin Sack y e Apron part flouncd 
with silver fine mecklin lacd fly-cap & Hood & Tippet 


and Ruffles y e same, a Pink colour'd Sattin fly-Petticoat 
with a deep Silver Fringe at y e bottom & a broad open 
lace above it. The Sunday after She was drest in a sute 
of Cloaths y e ground a white corded Tabby with very 
high rais'd Leaves, & flowers, of Greens, & Purples, 
y e Stalks all Silver, done all in various ways, a Point 
Head, Ruffles, Tippet, & Tucker, a blue Sattin fly- 
Petticoat every seam lac'd with an open Silver Lace, now 
for her Diamonds, on one side of her Head she had an 
exurgent or ensurgent, I don't know y e right name, how- 
ever tis Feathers of Diamonds, & a diamond Star on y e 
other Side, y e Seven Stars in diamonds before upon her 
Stays, a diamond Necklace of small diamonds set like true 
lovers Knotts all round y e neck, & a Solitair, a diamond 
Girdle Buckles, & Shoe Buckles, a fine repeating Watch 
with his Picture set round with Diamonds. The Sack 
She receiv'd her company in was Scarlet Damask, y e Apron 
part flounc'd with Silver, & Robeings all Silver, y e side 
Seames of y e Sack laid all y e way down with two open 
broad silver laces of a Side, a fine lac'd fly-cap flower'd 
Gauze Ruffels and Tippet, with Silver lace mix'd with 
snail or Something upon it. As to y e Bridegroom, I don't 
understand his dress so well but it v/as cut velvets, fine 
Waistcoats, &c." 

Mary Browne was an intimate friend of Barbara 
Kerrich, and often stayed at Dersingham Hall before her 
marriage, " both she & her Mother," as Barbara writes to 
her sister in her amusing letters, " always as fine as 
Jewells & Rich Cloathes can make them." This " wild 
young Lady " used greatly to affront and terrify the 
coachman's poor little boy at Dersingham, by " running 
after him & covering him with her Hoop-petticoat." 

The fashion of " setting up " this remarkable garment 
had not then long reached Norfolk, for, in a letter of March 
I0 > !735 Mrs. Kerrich asks her sister: "How do you 


like y e setting up of y e Hoops ? they make y e Cloaths 
hang well if they be done decently, one must set up their 
Heads & Tails too now to look like the rest of the World. 
I think I am grown very fashonable to like all this." In 
accordance with these sumptuary dawnings, chiefly in- 
duced by the fashionable outfit of Miss Browne, we 
presently meet with the following note on Barbara's 
appearance in the beautiful church of Dersingham : " I 
like my Mob y t I made like yours, better than any thing 
I have to my head, last Sunday was my Wedding-day & 
I put on all y l sute of Linnen & my Scarlet Gown, I can 
tell you I made no small figure in our Church, I pin'd y e 
mob up & put on my Velvet Hood y 4 it look'd like a dutch 
head under that. I'll put a Piece of my Gown into y e Box." 

Mrs. Browne appears to have been quite the arbiter 
elegantiarum of the district, for in the next letter Elizabeth 
Postlethwayt is told that Mrs. Kerrich, on Mrs. Browne's 
insistence, has had her hair cut behind by the fashionable 
lady's maid, who " learnt to cut Hair at London and does 
it mighty prettily." " I have it done but once a week, 
every satterday my maid do it up with water & it holds 
in curl all y e week, Mrs. Brown's maid desir'd y e ends of 
y e hair might be just snip'd every time it was done up 
(like Miss Brown's) & she said it wou'd make my hair 
grow strong & thick all over, w ch I find it does better 
than any thing I ever try'd." Twenty years later, on 
Aug. 26, 1762, pleasant, witty Barbara was laid to rest 
in Dersingham chancel on the very site of her modest 
wedding-day triumph. 

The " poor Gentleman," Sir William Browne, was 
son of a physician in Durham, and was entered of Peter- 
house in 1 707. With a licence from the University he 
began to practice medicine in Lynn in 1716, where he 
lived, as Pyle shows three letters further on, for thirty 
years. He made a fortune in spite of his eccentricities 
alluded to by Pyle as " his Rogue's Tricks." He became 


Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1721, F.R.S. 1739, 
was knighted in 1748, when he removed to London, and 
was elected President of the College of Physicians in 1765, 
having been out-voted from the office of Treasurer ten 
years before. Not being able to maintain his dignity in 
this office he resigned in 1766, instead of holding it for 
the usual term of five years. He took a foolish pride in 
his old age in his alert and youthful appearance, and 
seems to have had the knack both of giving offence and 
making himself ridiculous. Foote caricatured him on the 
stage in his farce " The Devil on Two Sticks." He was 
buried at Hillington, and directed that his Elzevir Horace 
should be placed on his coffin. This at least betokens a 
refined mind, and may be set against the peculiarities 
which excited the vulgar insults of a Tax Collector and a 
tipsy company at a Lynn tavern. Browne's works are 
numerous, but he is best remembered by his answer to 
the epigram on the presentation by George I. of Dr. 
Moore's library to Cambridge : 

" The King observing with judicious eyes, 
The state of both his Universities, 
To Oxford sent a troop of horse ; and why ? 
That learned body wanted loyalty ; 
To Cambridge books he sent as well discerning 
How much that loyal body wanted learning." 

Dr. JOSEPH TRAPP, 1679-1747. 

" The King to Oxford sent a troop of horse 
For Tories own no argument but force ; 
With equal care to Cambridge books he sent, 
For Whigs allow no force but argument." 



"Thursday, Jan 128, 1746- 

" By the Papers of this Day we are told that on 
Tuesday died Robert Lord Bishop of Ely. If so 'tis well 


for the Old House, since My Lord of Chichester will 
certainly succeed him. For it has been resolved a good 
while to make a way to Chichester for (that sweet creature) 
Bp. Trevor, who has an estate of I 3 hundred a year in 
Sussex. I am, 

11 Y rs &c, 
" E. P. 

" Man proposes & God disposes. Poor Stedman. Set 
the wife & the brats against the prebend of Canterbury 
& what remains ? " 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

Robert Butts was of an ancient Norfolk family which 
came to the front in the time of Henry VIII. He was of 
Trinity College, was made chaplain to George II., and D.D. 
by royal mandate. He was raised to the episcopal bench 
and translated from Norwich to Ely in 1738. When an 
undergraduate he was famous as a pugilist and football 
player, and skilled in all manly exercises. Cole, whose 
characters must be received with caution, says that Butts 
was a man of violent party spirit hence his action against 
the Quakers in 1737 that he was universally disliked, 
not to say detested, that he treated the clergy with great 
insolence, and was often heard " swearing a good round 
hand," and using vulgar and scurrilous expressions. This 
pillar of the Christian hierarchy which Butler of the 
"Analogy" deemed, in 1747, "a falling church" (see 
p. 129), was buried in Ely Cathedral under a marble 
monument with a bust and a laudatory inscription. 

Richard Trevor was second son of Thomas Lord Trevor 
>f Bromham. He was educated at Westminster and 
Queen's, Oxford, and became Fellow of All Souls, for, 
according to the adage, he was at least " bene natus" He 
was subsequently promoted to a canonry at Christ Church, 


and, being advanced to the See of St. David's in 1744, 
was translated to Durham in succession to Butler in 1752. 
In 1759 Trevor competed unsuccessfully with George 
Henry Lee, third Earl of Lichfield, and John Fane, third 
Earl of Westmoreland, for the office of Chancellor of the 
University. He was buried at Glynde, Sussex, where the 
estate mentioned by Pyle is situated, and left large sums 
for charitable purposes, an unusual episcopal act. 


"Thursday Even 25 Feb. 

" I write now, because it comes into my head ; 
but shan't seal 'till Saturday, when possibly something 
else may offer, or I may hear from you. The Evening- 
Post to-day tells us that on Friday the Bishop of Norwich 
(since formally chosen of Ely) presented the Arch- 
deaconry of Suffolk to Mr. Goodall. I was told a day or 
two ago by a clergyman from Bury that it would be given 
to this gentleman, for that Mr. Hervey, son of the Earl of 
Bristol, had only the offer of it on condition he could 
procure his own or some other living in Norfolk or Suffolk 
for Goodall, that might consist with Mattishal which he 
has already. As this could not be brought about, the 
affair is gone as above. My brother writes me word 
that the Archbishop's option is a prebend of Ely and 
that it is designed for the Master of Benet, as he believes, 
first from common talk, & next from the Master's not 
seeming to discourage that same talk. If therefore you 
can't expect the only prebend that will, probably, be dis- 
posed of by the Bishop of Ely, or the Mastership of 
Jesus, (of either of which expectations I presume not 
to judge), give me leave to put you in mind of Wisbech 
living (250 p ann.) that will consist with one of those 
you have, & the other may be kept, as only voidable. 


Bull's Life is not worth |- of a year's purchase. The 
house is a very good one. The country you know is 
none of the best nor of the worst neither. But this is 
one of my random thoughts. 

" Dr. Middleton has lately published a two-shilling 
pamphlet in defence of his Introductory Discourse, against 
two writers, Stebbing and Chapman, whom together with 
the Blessed Hierome, he does whip most daintily. I have 
it not of my own, else I would send it, for your diversion, 
this cold weather. With kind love and service, I am, &c., 

"E. PYLE." 

Mr. Harvey was one of the seventeen children of John 
first Earl of Bristol. To use an appropriate modern vul- 
garism, the complaisant Goodall was " squared " with some 
further cure of souls which " consisted " with the prefer- 
ment he had already, and Harvey obtained the archdeaconry 
of Suffolk. 

The suggestions by Pyle as to the living of Wisbech 
were caused by Kerrich's desire for change. A few days 
before he had received the following letter from his old 
friend the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Herring : 


" I have both your Letters. I did not know 
that you had so good an interest w th Dr. Gooch, as by your 
explanation of it you had & must have, & I think, you will 
be fairly justified in putting in your claim to him, now, 
when his opportunities of helping his friends are so much 
larger and more considerable than they were. As to y e 
Deanery of Norwich, it is extreamly probable, that the 
new Bp. will be dispos'd to recommend a Friend of his own, 
& the great men will hardly gratify y e old Bp. of Norwich 
to y e displeasure of y e new one, so that a vacancy in y e 
Bps. Patronage in y e way you mention is not very likely to 
happen. Upon y e Confirmation I shall be looking out for 


an Option, but I protest, I hardly know where to find any 
thing worth my claim, & whatever I can obtain at present, 
one or other of four young Clergymen in my service (one 
of them not at all, and none of them according to the usual 
rate of things, above half-provided for) will have their eyes 
upon it, & in truth, I think, & I dare say, you think with 
w h Justice. 

" I am Dear Sir 

" your assurd Friend 

"Tno: CANTUAR:" 
Kens, Feb. 20, 1747. 

Pyle's brother's information was correct. The arch- 
bishop's fl option " was a prebend of Ely, which was 
bestowed upon Edmund Castle, Master of Corpus. 

"The Archbishop has a customary prerogative when a 
Bishop is consecrated by him, to name a Clerk or Chaplain 
of his own to be provided for by such suffragan Bishop ; 
in lieu of which it is now usual for the Bishop to make 
over by deed to the Archbishop, his executors and assigns, 
the next presentation of such dignity or benefice in the 
bishop's disposal within that see, as the Archbishop him- 
self shall choose, which is therefore called his option 
which options are only binding on the bishop who grants 
them, and not on his successors." Stephens on " The Laws 
of the Clergy," vol. i. p. 43 (1848). 

In Phillimore's "Ecclesiastical Law," vol. ii. p. 882 
(1895), after quoting 3 and 4 Viet. c. 113, s. 42, is the 
following : " This Section has been construed to take 
away the ancient options of the Archbishop." 

Conyers Middleton was of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and one of the opponents of Bentley, regarding the fees he 
demanded as Regius Professor of Divinity, on the confer- 
ring of the degree of D.D. After many delays Bentley was 
deprived of all his degrees in 1718. The learned and dispu- 
tatious Arthur Ashley Sykes took the Master of Trinity's 


part in " The Case of Dr. Bentley farther stated and 
vindicated " ; this action was censured by Middleton, who 
was thus brought into direct conflict with Bentley himself. 
In the end Middleton was pronounced guilty of libel by 
the Court of King's Bench, in 1721, and fined. Neverthe- 
less, in the course of Bentley's long warfare with the 
college, Middleton took an active part, being endowed with 
the power of " bitter and plausible invective." But 
Bentley triumphed finally, and his degrees were restored 
as at the first. In a letter of February n, 1723, from 
John Denne, D.D., domestic chaplain and son-in-law to 
Bradford, who succeeded Atterbury as Dean of West- 
minster and Bishop of Rochester, to Kerrich, he writes 
as follows : 

" Dr. Bentley dined with us on Saturday, but does not 
seem wondrously elated & triumphant in his Victory over the 
V: C e & his party, for as he looks upon a Tryal in his case 
always the same as Victory, so he is never much transported 
at the Success, being only pleased with having the Favour of 
a hearing granted to Him He rejected with indignation 
some proposals of Accomodation that were made by 
Sherlock two or three days before the Tryal How does 
your intrepid Vice-Chancellor intend to behave himself 
under the Commands of a peremptory Mandate ? Has he 
courage enough left to defy an attachment, & to sacrifice 
his liberty in defense of University-Privileges ? Or will 
he appeal from the injustice of four unanimous judges in 
King's Bench to a superior & more Hon ble Court ? I wish 
his Spirit would carry him thus far, for then we might 
expect some thing of greater & better consequence, than a 
bare confirming the Mandate." 

In 1723 Middleton went to Rome and collected some 
antiquities, which he ceded to Horace Walpole many years 
after. His " Letter from Rome " upon the incorporation of 
pagan beliefs and ceremonies in the Roman Church, 
brought him credit, He entered into a controversy with 


Water-land, which marked the culmination of the deist 
dispute, and was answered by Zachary Pearce, afterwards 
Dean of Westminster and Bishop of Rochester, who 
accused him of covert infidelity, and he was threatened 
with the loss of his degrees. He now wrote the life of 
Cicero, which was long regarded as a model of style. 

In this, however, he was charged, and justly, with 
arrant plagiarism, and the hirsute Dr. Parr fell upon him 
in his " Preface to Bellendenus." He was a friend of Gray, 
and Cole, who was not over-given to praise, speaks of his 
great social charm. In his latter years he returned to 
controversy, or rather, excited it, by his writings upon the 
miraculous powers attributed to the Christian Church. 
Warburton was blamed in 1738 for complimenting 
Middleton in the first volume of the " Divine Legation " 
as a " formidable adversary to the free-thinkers." His 
works are very numerous, in a pure and polished style, 
among them a dissertation upon the " Origin of Printing." 
The pamphlet alluded to by Pyle was the defence of "An 
Introductory Discourse to a larger Work concerning the 
Miraculous Powers which are supposed to have subsisted 
in the Christian Church from the earliest Ages with a 
Postscript on an archidiaconal Charge by the Rev. Dr. 
Chapman," 1747. 

Henry Stebbing, of St. Catherine's, was Chaplain to 
the King and Archdeacon of Wiltshire. This well-known 
champion of Church of England Orthodoxy was buried in 
Salisbury Cathedral. He wrote against Whitfield and 
Hoadly, and particularly against Warburton, for many 
years, beginning with an attack upon the " Divine Legation 
of Moses," which Warburton published in 1737 and 1741. 
Stebbing was quite able to hold his own against enemies 
high, low, or broad, 



"(March 1 748). 

" Here's the book for which you ought to send 
me a shilling, considering my name's being set down for 
it in Hollingsworth's book : a less circumstance than this 
has made many a single man lose his good-name. 
" I am with services, 

" Y rs to the stumps, 

"E. PYLE. 

u Sir W. Browne, Kt., has hired a house in London & 
wrote word hither that he shall come no more, but to take 
away his things." 

Hollingsworth was a bookseller and publisher of some 
repute in Lynn. He had two daughters, Mary and 
Susan, who kept a school for young ladies to which 
Matilda Kerrich was sent. The two sisters in after years 
wrote the most excellent prim letters to their pupil, from 
1762 to 1779, giving precise accounts of the dresses and 
jewels both of men and women at the balls, routs, 
weddings, and other social functions in the town, besides 
full descriptions of the theatrical entertainments, so dear 
to the heart of Matilda throughout her long life. 


"(March 1748). 

" I have not, thank God, many pressing affairs, 
but yet when a boy gave me your last I had not oppor- 
tunity of answering it. I was mistaken indeed as to the 
person that was to go to Ely, yet so confident was I of it, 
that I would have laid great odds Bp Mawson would carry 
it. The Master of Caius is a bold man, truly, to venture 


on a new wife, both in the fleshly and spiritual way, at 
74 ; for I presume you are no stranger to the former of 
these things, any more than to the latter. Your last 
words make me prick up my ears with expectation. I don't 
presume to guess at any particular, neither will I give 
any man an intimation of what, I myself think and hope. 
I don't know anything that has passed between Dr. 
Stedman & the Bishop. But in general one may say there 
can be no obligation on the Bishop, from what his pre- 
decessor intended. And a situation in Cambridge I take 
it would be more acceptable to you than any other thing 
not vastly superior in value ; I am sure it would be so to 
me. Poor Dr. Warren died in a woeful pickle, both as to 
suffering & circumstances. Without doubt the Bishop of 
Sarum's influence turned the scale as to the person to be 
sent to Ely. And therefore I take for granted that 
Dr. Moss & Dr. Awbrey will have the interest of their 
patron (& the Bishop's), exerted for any thing they like 
to have. The first is as subtle as a Jesuit, is rich 
already, & is to be My Lord Sherlock's cousin, by 
marriage ; the other is My Lord's cousin by birth, a very 
clever man, & one whom his Lordship is set upon 
advancing. How tickets will come up time, as you say, 
must show. But if I we/e in your case (pardon this 
freedom) I should not sit still now the wheel's a turning, 
it can't go about a great while, remember 74, as above. 
" I would have your cause speed as an atonement for 
a multitude of sins. Not that I think it a matter of 
charity but, what is more, & should have the precedence, 

of justice. 

" I am &c., 

" E. PYLE. 

" I have had the best health this winter, of many that 
have passed. There being, I fancy, something in my 
constitution different from all other peoples. I was 
perfectly healthy in one very sickly year, before this, 


" I go for London (if God pleases) March I4th. 

" Sir W. Browne (an please ye) came down from 
London on Saturday night with Dr. Taylor the occulist, 
who is here yet, making fun of Knighthood. I writ this 
on the Fast- Day. I see the archdeaconry is gone neither 
to man or woman, but a Hervey, as old Sarah used to 

The significant " 74," alluded to by Pyle as being the 
age of Bishop Gooch, made it desirable for Kerrich to 
make the best use he could of the interest he had with his 
relative the new bishop of Ely. 

There was much justification in the endeavours that 
were made to procure promotion for Dr. Kerrich. Bishop 
Gooch recognised his just pretensions, as is shown by 
the extract from his letter referring to Sir Robert Walpole, 
printed at p. 50. 

Dr. Stedman pushed for the mastership of Jesus, 
Cambridge, on account, apparently, of an intention of 
Robert Butts, late bishop of Ely, in whom lay the ap- 
pointment by virtue of his episcopal office, but, as is 
shown in the next following letter, the Mastership was 
" engaged " by the ministry, that is to say it was part of 
the " arrangement " by which Sir Thomas Gooch was 
translated to Ely. 

Charles Moss was of Caius. He became the favourite 
chaplain of Bishop Sherlock at Salisbury, who, on his 
translation to London in 1748, appointed him archdeacon 
of Colchester, and gave him valuable preferment in 
London. Moss defended his patron's " Trial of the 
Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus," and delivered 
the Boyle Lectures from 1759 to 1762. He was con- 
secrated bishop of St. David's, and translated to Bath 
and Wells in 1774, in which See he was succeeded by 
Richard Beadon. His only son Charles was Bishop of 
Oxford from 1807 to 1812. 



The mention of Richard Beadon recalls that he was 
of St. John's, Cambridge, Eighth Wrangler and Senior 
Chancellor's Medallist in 1758, Public Orator in 1768, 
and Master of Jesus in 1781, holding that position until 
1789, when he was advanced to the See of Gloucester in 
consequence of the care he bestowed on the King's son 
Frederick William, afterwards Duke of Gloucester and 
Chancellor of the University. He was very popular with 
the undergraduates and distinguished as a tutor. He 
married Rachel, younger daughter of John, son of Bishop 
Gooch, and prebendary of Ely and rector of Fen Ditton, 
Cambridgeshire. It was for John Gooch that Cole wrote 
the " History of Fen Ditton," which was edited by 
Professor Ridgeway in 1893 for the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society. There is a long series of letters (1779- 
1825) from Rachel Beadon to Thomas, only son of 
Samuel Kerrich, whom Bishop Beadon made a prebendary 
of Wells in 1812. The Bishop died in 1824. A seated 
statuette of him by Goblet, assistant of Nollekens, in the 
possession of the Editor, represents him with a large rose 
in his button-hole and a snuff-box in his right hand. 

John Taylor was an itinerant oculist who studied 
surgery under Cheselden and practised as surgeon and 
oculist at Norwich ; but meeting with opposition he 
journeyed through the country, and on the continent, 
for more than thirty years. He was known as the Cheva- 
lier, a title loosely applied at that time, and received 
several degrees. In 1736 he was appointed oculist 
to George II., who had lost one eye in 1758, and, as 
Pyle tells us, November 21, the other was not a good 
one. Dr. William King, in his " Anecdotes," speaks of 
Taylor's " fine hand " and " great dexterity." He was 
accustomed to make bombastic orations in advertising 
himself, and used the common arts of the charlatan. 
Dr. Johnson said that he was " an instance of how far 
impudence will carry ignorance." Taylor wrote many 


treatises on the eye in several languages. His son John 

became oculist to George III., who was sightless long 
before his death. 



" I have a spare moment which I chose to em- 
ploy in telling you what is said here about some things. 
The Mastership of Jesus, they say, is engaged for my 
Cousin Keene, by the Ministry. And Dr. Stedman, who 
has pressed hard for it has had a negative. The Bishop 
retains the Late Bishop's chaplain, and, 'tis thought, will 
fulfill the former person's engagement about Wisbech. 

" There is no news stirring, but that there has been 
a most terrible riot at Oxford, on the 2 3 of last month, 
which is the Pretender's youngest son's birthday. King 
George was damned & King James blessed, in the open 
streets, by open daylight, and the Vice-Chancellor (who 
is a Jack) is sent for up to give an account of his con- 
duct. I am in attendance at Court with a very clever 
man of that university, who tells me that Jacobitism at 
Oxford at this time wears less reserve, & cares less about 
the decency of the exterior than in the year 15. God 
save us. 

Y rs 

" E. P. 

"March 24, 1748-9." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

at Dersingham, near Lynn, Norfolk. 


B Free Win-~| 
~ Chester. J 

Edmund Keene, for whom the Mastership of Jesus 
as " engaged," was Pyle's first cousin, and younger 


brother of Sir Benjamin Keene, minister plenipotentiary at 
Madrid. He was of Caius, and became master of Peter- 
house. He had been appointed to the rectory of Stanhope 
on the resignation of Butler in 1 740. Horace Walpole 
says that Sir Robert gave him Stanhope on the condition 
that Keene should marry one of his natural daughters, but 
that he jilted her instead, satisfying his conscience by 
giving her 600, a year's income of the benefice. Keene 
was appointed Bishop of Chester in 1752, but retained 
his Mastership until 1754. He declined translation to 
the Archbishopric of Armagh, but accepted Ely in 1770. 
Cole says that he was much puffed up with his episcopal 
dignity, and this is borne out by his appearance in an 
engraved portrait. He married a lady of large fortune, 
and showed his munificence in rebuilding the Palace at 
Chester, and in a great measure that at Ely, where he 
formed the highly interesting collection of portraits of its 
Bishops since the Reformation. He also obtained an 
Act of Parliament in 1772 to alienate the ancient palace 
in Holborn and to buy a freehold site in Dover street, on 
which he built the present town house of the See. 
Bentham appropriately dedicated his " History of Ely " to 
Keene. He left a daughter Mary, an accomplished water- 
colour artist in the style of her time. Her drawings 
came by bequest to her god-child Sophia Barbara, grand- 
daughter of Samuel Kerrich and aunt of the Editor. 

With regard to the disloyal Vice-Chancellor at Ox- 
ford, Pyle gives an account in 1757 of the manner in 
which the Bishop of Winchester put an end to the 
practice of the fellows of New College electing as Warden 
of Winchester the head of their own society, which had 
been done on six successive occasions, and was quite 
contrary to the very precise statutes of the Founder. 
Thus was excluded the very " Jack " here spoken of, Dr. 
Purnell, whom the fellows of New College presented to 
the bishop. In consequence of the laxity that had crept 


in, the revenues of the school were mis-applied, education 
on the foundation had become very expensive, and learn- 
ing both in the school and at New College had sunk to 
the lowest ebb of scholarship. 


"(June 22, 1748). 

" I am glad you're come home again, because 
now the small-pox is absolutely banished this place I hope 
to see your and Mrs. Kerrich here. I never had a visit 
from her in my life, and hardly above one from you, I 
mean made expressly for that purpose. So praying God to 
put this good things (for me) into your hearts, and having 
a very good story to tell you, about my Lord of Ely's 
marriage (which I never will tell you out of my own 
house) I rest (litterally) this prodigious hot day 
" Y r loving friend & comrade, 

" E. PYLE. 
"Tuesday (being the Day of Gaywood Fair)." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich. 

Gaywood Fair, taking place one and a half miles east 
of Lynn, had the same renown in East Anglia as 
Boughton Greene Fair had in the shires, and Barnet Fair 
in the Home counties. Gaywood Fair exists no more. 
Boughton Greene Fair, originating in a charter granted 
to Sir Henry Greene of Greene's Norton and Bough- 
ton, in reference to which country people date the ages 
of their children and other important family events, 
retains now but a shadow of its former greatness ; and 
Barnet Fair has sadly fallen from its high estate. At 
Gaywood, as at other such resorts, the county folk were 
wont to assemble, and many feuds were there healed, 
or deepened, vows of constancy interchanged, and Fair- 


ings presented in the form of gifts of china or glass, 
such as caudle cups, mead bowls, wooden punch ladles, 
duly furnished with a check half-way up the stem to 
prevent them from slipping into the bowl, white " whip " 
or syllabub glasses, tumblers and cups embellished by 
words or sentiments on them, answering to the "wel- 
waaren " glasses of the Low Countries, and rude earthen- 
ware vessels inscribed in praise of Agriculture or of life 
on the ocean wave. Martages were objects bought at the 
recurring weekly or monthly markets, such as were held 
on the great market-places at Lynn, Nottingham, or 
Northampton, and constant mention is made of presents 
and useful household objects bought " at the Mart " at 
Lynn by Barbara Kerrich for her daughter Matilda, and 
her sister Elizabeth Postlethwayt, and by Mrs. Hoste of 
Sandringham Hall, the lively well-dressed Miss Browne, 
the generous old lady Mrs. Newton, Mrs. Styleman, Mrs. 
Hendry, Lady Bacon, and others. On one occasion Mrs. 
Kerrich bought for her sister at the Mart a small set of 
" seasoned " china as a " martage." 


" (4th October) 1748. 

" 1 have no neighbours now upon whom the small- 
pox has any power, or has left any infection. So I don't 
know but I may ride to Dersingham in the next week, 
and spend a night as well as a day, if I do not hear any 
thing from Dr. Kerrich by that day se'nnight expressive 
of his fear of me as coming from an infected place. 

" E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich. 



"25* October 1748. 

" I've had company with me, and the rest of 
my time I've spent with my poor mother who is in a very 
bad way. I can undoubtedly procure you the gown you 
speak of, here, or at Norwich, where I shall be in a fort- 
night. So let's have your orders. I don't know what 
you mean by a book of Whiston's (who has written a 
thousand) tell me the name, stile, or title & I'll tell you 
what I know. 

" Y r Loving cousin 

" & counsellor 

" E. PYLE. 

" I have no wife to join in compliments to your 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 



" I have, with design to serve both you and 
myself, bought a piece of damask, at Norwich, of the 
maker, whereby I have saved 2 d a yard, besides getting 
stuff better in quality. This I did under direction of 
Mrs. B[agge], Mrs. Salter, and other fair ladies. But 
now I've done, it so falls out that you must be content 
rith 20 yards (the piece being but 30) I wanting ten 
myself. The gentlewomen above nam'd did all bear me 
in hand that you could not use above 18 yards for a 
double-gown so that you will have 2 yards to spare for 
repairing, if needful. I put it by way of if, for in all 


my experience I have never needed any to be left for 
repairs ; for when the back part grows thin I have those 
breadths put before, & vice versa, which makes the 
garment last as long as can be wished. I beg pardon 
if I have done (or said) wrong. 

" 'Tis come home, & you may have it whenever you 
please, price 2 s & 2 d p r yard. 'Tis supposed to be a 
very nice piece. 

" Yonder is such a clatter as never was about Bishop 
Hoadly's ordaining one Jackson, a broken brewer, at the 
instance of your friend Mr. Beacon, who gave him an 
excellent character to the said Bishop. I have some 
notion (but 'tis a mere notion) that you are the person 
thought on for preacher at the Bishop's visitation here 
next summer. 

" Service &c. 

" Y rs Lovingly 

" E. PYLE. 

" I fancy you've heard somewhat before touching this 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 

Mrs. Salter, who helped in the purchase of Kerrich's 
new gown, was the wife of Samuel Salter, of Corpus, 
Rector of Bramerton, Archdeacon of Norfolk, Prebendary 
of Norwich, and Chaplain to the King. Cole describes 
him as one of the tallest men he ever saw. Edward 
Beacon, Fellow of Corpus, was presented to the rich living 
of Calbourne, in the Isle of Wight, by Hoadly. He says 
in a letter to Kerrich, in 1 744 : "I am still single and 
only want a favourable opportunity to be otherwise. In 
the mean time I amuse and divert myself with my Little 
Farm ; reflect upon past pleasures with my old friends ; 
& make the present hours as joyous as I can." He 


was tutor to Bishop Hoadly's son John, the scandalous 



"You are very welcome to any pains of mine. 
If there could have been a piece got of 34 yards- 
you had had more stuff for your gown, & less stuff in 
my apology. Take your time about the money. 

" My notion arises from seeing you at the head of the 
list of three to be given in to the Bishop, for him to choose 
one. The other two are Mr. Robinson of Germans, & 
Mr. Horace Hammond. 

" Poor Professor Whalley is dead. Peace to him ! 
I told my father this piece of news (as he sat melancholly 
by my good mother who is under sentence of death by a 
cancerous breast). ' What did he die of ? ' says he. 
1 Drinking, at first setting out with Jacobites,' quoth I. 
4 Poor young man ! ' says he ; * he dead ! & Tom Gooch 
alive I ' 

" I am y rs &c., 

"E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich. 

E. Pyle. 

Kerrich's well-known talents in the pulpit had caused 
his selection as a special preacher at Whitehall many 
years before, as appears by the following extract from 
a letter of Dr. Denne to him, dated March 26, 1724, 
" My Lord " being Samuel Bradford, Bishop of Rochester 
and Master of Corpus : " I have scarce more time at 
present than to tell you that our Friends need not ride 
up post-haste to London to press my Lord to do y m any 
service within his power He has it in his thoughts & 
inclination to do them all the good he can, & I have 


reason to believe, that his Success is answerable to his 
requests, & that yourself & some others of the Society will 
find your-selves enrolled in that list of Preachers, w ch the 
Dean of the Chapel has now settled for Whitehall by the 
commands of his Majesty. I am not at liberty to send 
you the names of all who are put up, but when you come 
to know y m you will be satisfyed, that the Interest of the 
old House is at his Lordship's heart, together with y e 
encouraging a zeal for his Majesty's Title and administra- 
tion in the two Universities. The Conditions of these 
Preachers' places are, that they be generally resident & 
that they hold this place so long as they are resident 
Fellows of a College, & give no just occasion of offense. 
The Money, if we may credit the promises of the Treasury, 
is to be paid unto every Preacher, as soon as the duty of 
the month is discharged. There will be two Preachers 
appointed in every month, one from Cambridge, y e other 
from Oxford, who are to preach four sermons apiece, & if 
there be a fifth Sunday they are to share y e duty of it 
between y m ." 

The allusion to Bishop Gooch indicates his former 
political proclivities. Was he not one of the great army 
of waverers in the crisis of "the '45" who, in modern 
parlance, " sat upon the fence ! " 


"20 Dec r (i748). 


" Thanks for your kind offer about my poor 
mother but 'tis too late : euthanasia is all we can wish 
but fear that prayer will not have its return. 

" I know nothing about Cambridge affairs. 'Tis said 
Mr. Younge of Trinity stands fair for the professorship. 
And that my Cousin Keene will be nominated to Bishop 
Gooch by the Peterhousians. If so (which I am inclined 
to believe) Jesus Coll: will be again to be disposed of 


and (I say) push him again, you can lose nothing but, 
' you know best.' The plan for a new Old House is a 
whim, I believe, of Mr. Masters. They have no fund for 
such a work nor, that I can hear, any thought of attempt- 
ing the thing. I will thank you for some apples. 

" The Bishop of Winchester has been so attack'd both 
by friends & enemies about the brewer, that he has thought 
it necessary to vindicate himself (& poorly too in my mind). 
It comes out that Mr. Beacon is principally to blame in 
the matter for the Bp: confided in him. 

" The Chancellor has refused to licence this brewer, 
and the Bishop of Norwich is much pleased with the 
Chancellor's conduct herein, and declares he never shall 
have a licence while he is Bishop. So Mr. Beacon, for 
ought I can see, may have him to maintain, for it seems 
that he's his cousin, & a very great rascal to boot. 

" The Bp: of Winchester has been pelted with (about 
20) the most abusive letters from Norwich, &c. that 
can be imagined, for ordaining the brewer. And Bishop 
Gooch said, when last at Norwich, that, ( By this time all 
scoundrels know that there was a door open for them at 
Winchester. Bugden was the door a'while ago. Now 
Winchester has taken up the scandalous trade.' 

" By the way The scandalous chronicle of Norwich 
has it, That Mrs. Gooch is a-breeding, & has a glass-eye. 

" I am y rs , E. PYLE." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich. 

It was Bishop Gooch who was to be " pushed " for the 
headship of Jesus, in his gift as Bishop of Ely. The con- 
nection of the Bishops of Ely with Jesus College dates 
back to about 1135, when St. Rhadegund's nunnery, 
the original foundation, was established, and benefactions 
and charters granted to it by Nigellus, the second holder 
of the See. The College was founded in 1496, on the site 


of the nunnery, the buildings being then in a dilapidated 
state, by Bishop John Alcock, and the gift of the master- 
ship remained with the Bishops of Ely until 1882, when 
the election was placed in the hands of the fellows by the 
new Statutes of 1882. 

Robert Masters, 1713-1798, was entered of Corpus 
in 1 7 3 1 ; he was elected Fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries 1752, and appointed Rector of Landbeach, Cam- 
bridgeshire. He contributed several papers to " The 
Archaeologia," and published a catalogue of the pictures 
in the Public Library and Colleges in Cambridge. He is 
best known by his useful " History of Corpus Christi 
College." A life-like portrait of Masters, by Thomas 
Kerrich, was engraved in stipple by Facius in 1796, and 
is now very scarce. 

In 1 747 Masters employed James Essex, then a young 
architect of twenty-six, to make a plan and designs for a 
new court for Corpus. This he caused to be engraved by 
William Stephens of Cambridge, who was much more at 
home in the production of book-plates, full of nebulous 
whimsicalities, such as that he did for Samuel Kerrich in 
1754 than in tracing upon copper the lines of architec- 
tural design. On this plate, showing a new building 
for Corpus, Masters had the hardihood to inscribe 
" Design'd by R. Masters," and published it as a frontis- 
piece to his History in 1753. Hereupon Essex took steps 
to publish his own design, with a pamphlet condemning 
Masters's action and proving the gross plagiarism. It is 
a fortunate thing that there were no funds for carrying 
out this exceedingly bald work. Essex died in 1784, 
bequeathing his drawings to his nephew by marriage, 
Thomas Kerrich, who in his turn left them, at his death 
in 1828, together with his own MSS. and drawings, to 
the British Museum. Essex's work at Cambridge, Ely, 
and Lincoln, shows him to have been a very capable 
architect, and with a remarkably correct knowledge of 


Gothic at a time when the study of that science was quite 
in its infancy. 

The Bishop of Lincoln, indicated as " Bugden " by the 
Bishop of Ely, was John Thomas, Dean of Peterborough 
1740, Bishop of St. Asaph (elect) 1743, of Lincoln 1744, 
translated to Salisbury 1761. He was greatly esteemed 
by George II., partly because he could speak German ; a 
worthy but weak man, he was four times married, and to 
him among others is attributed the well-known wedding- 
ring posy 

" If I survive 
I'll make them five," 

which, however, has rather a seventeenth than an 
eighteenth century jingle. 


" Dr. Keene is Master of Peterhouse. 

" Dr. Rook (they say) will be professor. But the 
foundation for Castle's being Dean of Hereford I know 
nothing of. The Bp: of Hereford is a most egregious 
blockhead (of i 5 hundred a year) that married a Pelham, 
& will be Archbishop if he can. 

" Service to Mrs. K. & best wishes from, 

" E. P." 

To Dr. Kerrich. 

Burke informs us that Lord James Beauclerk, thus 
vituperated by Pyle, was the seventh son of Charles, first 
Duke of St. Albans, son of Charles II. by Eleanor Gwynn. 
He was born in 1702 and died, unmarried, Bishop of 
Hereford, in 1787. 


"The Master of Bennet was made Dean of Here- 
ford without knowing of it before hand and after he 


was informed of it, strove with earnestness to get leave 
to exchange it for a prebend of Ely, but the Glorious 
Chancellor would hear nought of his self-denying principle. 
Mr. Greene of St. John's is professor Dr. Rook made 
interest & secured such a number of votes that Green 
could not obtain it without making interest above to get a 
promise made to Rook, that pleased him as well as the 
professorship for which he is not fit. Mr. Greene of 
Cottenham is appointed chaplain to the Embassy to France. 
Have you seen Dr. Middleton's larger work ? It is 
prettily composed, but has little new in it, to persons 
tolerably versed in that blessed reading called Church- 
History ; & who have read Le Clerk, Dallee & Barber ac 
(if I spell it right). The Lives of the Popes I have not 
read, but it is a book well esteemed. 

" I hear poor Whalley died sorely in debt at last 
& that money is like to be lost by him which, if true, is 
a great shame. So no more at present from y rs , 

" E. P." 

To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 


" March 7 (1749). 


" I begin to think of my London journey so 
if you have any commands send them soon, or rather, 
come & deliver them, next week, when you may spend a 
day or two with our friend Rand, who will be here in 
order to concert matters for our travelling up to town 

" You know my poor mother's dreadful case ; it goes 
on from bad to worse I think, she is so weak as that her 
death must happen before I return. May I be so much in 
your favour as to obtain your help on a Sunday, in April 
or part of May, if her death should confine the ' good old 


man ' to his house for some days of mourning ? Your 
company in that disconsolate juncture would be charity to 
him, and your help the greatest service to us both. Pray 
give me an answer. I am y rs to the last drop, 

" E. PYLE. 
" I go Easter Tuesday." 


To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 


"Fryday, 28th May, 1749. 

" Mr. Jackson of Leicester, a divine of great 
note spends the next week with us. Your company will 
be very acceptable. The week after, or thereabouts, 
Mr. Rand & his spouse are to be here, with a design, 
principally, to visit at Dersingham. 
" Dear Sir, 

" Y rs cordially, 

"E. PYLE." 

To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 

For the character of the " divine of great note " see 
p. 124. 


" Monday, 19 June 1749. 

" I had your letter, and have a moment's time 
before I go into Lincolnshire to assure you that you 
may depend upon my resolution to meet you at Brandon 
Monday the 26th, if God gives leave. With hearty 


service to Mrs. Kerrich from Mr. Rand & Self, and an 
expectation on both our parts, of seeing her this summer 
at our houses, 

" 1 am, &c., 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 



" I have but a moment's time to say that words 
are but wind ; ask say I and with importunity too. 
If you don't there are those that will. I will see you 
before I set off, a lame horse that ha'n't been rode these 
4 months shall not prevent it. 

" I am, 

"Y rs &c., 

(Addressed) " E. P." 

To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich. 


"2 Apr. 1750. 


" I have been 2 or 3 times lately setting pen to 
paper to enquire how you've done in these evil days of 
earth-quakes & air-quakes & sea-quakes. But my man's 
telling me he never saw the old woman now-a-days, and 
Mr. Hendry's violent illness making it improper to send a 
letter to his house, I have laid down my arms. 'Till the 
old woman's calling on Saturday, with your love & service, 
gave me heart ; and you are going to see what is come 
of it. 

" Dr. Middleton's letter to my Lord of London you've 
seen, to be sure. I find he would have got more credit 
by that performance, if he had concealed the motive of 


writing it, viz., my Lord's giving discouragement to his 
promotion in the church. And I am apt to think Dr. 
Rutherford's defence of the Bishop, when it comes, may 
make folks say that my Lord of Ely's authoritative, (& 
generally disliked) interposition in his behalf, at St. John's, 
was the spring that set him at work. Now I have named 
my Lord of Ely, I am led to say that I hear, from 
good hands, that he has been, for some time past, in a very 
bad way, forced to leave London and Live at Kensington 
Gravel-pits where, if you remember, his last wife (poor 
woman !) was extremely ill. I know that the supposed ill 
state of his health made his chaplain fearful of losing a 
moments time after the death of Dr. Bull. 

" The Master of Ben'et is in so bad circumstances of 
health that, the " Magnates hujus Mundi," in his phrase, 
are looking out upon the subject of a successor to that 
Headship. But of this I have no better information than 
that of a lady who lives at Hemingford and, I believe, 
spake what she said to me after some of the family of Mr. 
Charles Greene, the Late Bishop of Ely's son, who lives in 
that town. 

" What say you to my Lord of London's pastoral 
letter on occasion of the earth-quakes ? I am prodigiously 
pleased with his comparison of popish absolution to a 
dram, having always considered it, myself, as the very 
humpty dumpty of divinity. 

" I do not go to London this year. I have some 
affairs in Lincolnshire that deserve attention just after 
Easter. And the King is going abroad so soon, that at 
the time I should have been in Town it (the said Town) 
will be quite deserted. Not to mention that some of my 
most agreeable friends will not be there at that time 
whether the King were there or not. And having, in my 
time, done several people good turns, in my office as 
Chaplain, one of them is now ready to do so much for me, 
so the thing has been fixed this month. 



" I have had the gout very favourably, & was scarcely 
ever in so good health in my life as just now. I intend 
to spend a little time at Norwich this summer with my 
friend the Dean & the new Bishop (whom I have known 
some years) in the way of making my self amends for the 
want of a London expedition. 

" My father continues very well considering his years. 
He would be very glad to see you, when good weather 
comes, having himself done going beyond the limits of the 

"With service to Mrs. K. I am, dear Sir, 

" Your Affectionate serv*, 

" E. PYLE. 

" James Forster's discourses on the Principal Branches 
of Natural Religion, Vol. I., is a fine book. It outdoes 
greatly all he has done before." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

On July i, 1749, Thomas Hendry wrote the following 
impertinent letter to Mrs. Kerrich : 

" MAD M , 'Tis usual here with People of Fashion, to 
Inquire of the ffamily where a Serv 1 is, whether or no 
Such Serv* be Disengaged before the Servant is Apply'd 
to ; so in Answer to yours can only say that Ruth has 
not had Notice from either Mrs. Hendry or me to part, 
nor would she have given us Warning, had she not had a 
Promise of being your Upper Servant (as she says). And 
as your Letter comes three weeks after such her Notice 
given us, Must think our Parting, can't at this time be un- 
known to you & am Y r hble Serv' 


" P.S. She'll go from us on Lamas day next. 
"Lynn, July ist 1749." 


To this he received the following snub : 

" SIR, 

" As I had no hand in your Maid's going away I 
neither know nor care when she go, but her Mother told 
me when she was here she shou'd stay at Lynn no longer 
than Micklemas, I can only say I am sorry I didn't rightly 
consider who I was going to write to, if I had I shou'd not 
have given myself that Trouble. 


On October 25, 1751, Pyle speaks of "that desperate 
fine creature Mrs. Hendry." 

Allusion is here made to Middleton's examination of 
Sherlock's discourses on prophecy 17491750. In 
1737 Middleton tried to obtain the Mastership of the 
Charterhouse ; Sir Robert Walpole told him that the 
cause of his non-success was Sherlock's declaration that 
his appointment would have offended the Bench. Mid- 
dleton was piqued at getting no preferment, and said 
that as he had not been trusted with the care of a see 
he was at liberty to speak his own mind. The work 
mentioned by Pyle is "A Defense of the Bishop of 
London's Discourses concerning the Use and Intent of 
Prophesy in a Letter to Dr. Middleton." 

The health of the Bishop of Ely was of serious import 
to his friends. Writing to Kerrich from Ely, August 20, 
1751, Bishop Gooch says: " My health is in a very 
dubious (I may say dangerous) State." 

In a letter to Barbara Kerrich, March i, 1752, he 
says : " You may think your letter has been too long 
neglected. But the Difficulty has been, not when, but 
what to answer. I have not been unmindful of your 
Family, or the Relation I bear to it. I will not enter 
into particulars ; nor will I forbear to serve Dr Kerrich, 
when I have Opportunity. As to my own Patronage I 


wish it were larger or none at all. I am call'd upon by 
some who have a Right to command me ; and am now 
call'd upon by my own Son who thinks he has a Right to 
demand whatever he can hold. Thus stands my Case at 
pres 1 , but (what is worse) thus it is not likely long to stand. 
Old Age and great Decays bid me think of taking Leave of 
my Friends. I wish them all well, and particularly those 
at Dersingham." 

He had lost one eye and was quite deaf on one side. 

After the earthquakes of 1750 Sherlock published a 
" Pastoral Letter," of which 10,000 copies were sold in two 
days, and 50,000 subscribed for since the first two editions. 

Mrs. Matilda Postlethwayt, writing to Barbara Kerrich 
from her secure retreat at Benacre Hall, says : " The 
Earthquakes that have lately happen'd at London are very 
shocking, and must make people live in continual terror 
there I think, but as no judgment will alarm some so that 
first shock that was felt had so little effect that the 
Masquerade was as full of company that very Night as 
ever, Hardend Wretches ! " 

James Foster was a dissenter, and began to preach in 
1718 at Exeter. He removed to Somerset, declining to 
subscribe to a declaration of orthodoxy with respect to a 
leaning of some of his persuasion to Arianism. Settling 
finally in London he became known as an eloquent 
preacher. He administered the Sacrament to Lord Kil- 
marnock in the Tower, and was present on the Scaffold, 
Aug. 1 8, 1 746. Apropos of Foster's great reputation 
Pope wrote in " Epilogue to the Satires " (I. 132133): 

" Let Modest Foster, if he will, excel 
Ten Metropolitans in preaching well." 

This Dr. Johnson explained by saying that Pope hoped 
the remark would vex somebody. The work mentioned by 
Pyle was published in two volumes in 1749 and 1752, 
and had two thousand subscribers. 


"DEAR SIR, ' 19* Apr. 175* 

" The woman brought me the favour of yours. 
And the answer sent ' That it needed no answer ' was 
owing to her delivering it to me a very little time before I 
was to go to church, to put an old alderman into Abraham's 
bosom, that Left 305. a year for a sermon to be preach'd 
on each Easter-Tuesday. 

" I am very sorry for your account about your eyes, 
but hope the warm weather that is to come will set you 
right. You shall see me often before I go to Norwich, 
that is, if you & Mrs. Kerrich will encourage me by a 
visit here. We have no such thing as the small-pox in 
town, as the Doctors & both my servants, assure me ; 
which two last are yet to have that distemper, and there- 
fore are very alert in their inquiries about it. You don't 
say a word about my Lord of Ely, sure I wrote no 
treason ! As to the matter of the nonsuit I never heard 
a word of it. Who is intended, by the great or the 
small, for Master of the Old House, I don't know. I 
know that if they'll choose me, I will give them 1000 
pounds to buy a living with or to do anything with that 
they can do by Law and Conscience. But I never told 
any of 'em so much, and I don't think that I ever shall. 

" Your sufferings by the tide exceed what I expected 
to hear ; but if your accounts are taken from the farmers 
of the lands that were drowned, I am sure, by experience, 
that they are not to be depended upon. 

I have not the Bishop of London's letter, of my own, 
nor can I borrow it at present. 
" I am, Dear Sir, 

" Yours, y r heirs, executors, 

" Administrators & assigns. 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 


-DEAR SIR, i8Aug. I75 i. 

" I set out for London (by the Duke of Newcastle's 
command) on Monday i.e. tomorrow, in order to be 
transformed into a joint (almost the last in the tail) of 
the body ecclesiastico-political, called an Archdeacon ; 
thence I go to York, & when I return must move into 
another house, where you & yours shall be ever welcome 
to him who is both obliged & inclined to manifest on all 
occasions the esteem wherewith he is, 

" Dear Sir, 

" Y rs etc. 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 

Thomas Pelham Holies, Duke of Newcastle (1693 
1768), was educated at Westminster and Clare Hall, but 
took no degree. He succeeded, as adopted heir, to the 
estates of his maternal uncle, John Holies, Duke of New- 
castle, in 1711, and in 1712 to the peerage of his father, 
Lord Pelham. George I. made him Earl of Clare, 1714, 
Duke of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1715, and K.G. 1718. In 
1724 he succeeded Lord Carteret as Secretary of State 
for the Southern Province. From February 6, 1748, 
until March 6, 1754, Newcastle was Secretary of State 
for the Northern Department, hence his concern with 
Pyle on his preferment to the Archdeaconry of York. 


"Sept: 13 th 1751. 

" Since the 2 1 of the last month I have been at 
London & York, have finished my business, and am now 
getting out of the old house into another, where, tho' the 


first week in September is past, I shall look upon you & 
Mrs. Kerrich as bound to perform your promise of spend- 
ing a day or two with me, whenever it suits best with 
your convenience & inclination. I have as much, or 
more, reason to like the exchange, with Mr. Eyre, now 
it is finished, as I had when it was first proposed. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury enquired after your health, & 
is your servant, & was extremely serviceable to me in 
getting me quickly out of the Duke of Newcastle's hands. 
I have more to say but I am so taken up with thoughts 
& preparations for flitting that I must postpone several 

" I am yours, most heartily & hastily, 

"E. PYLE/' 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 


"October 25 th 1751. 

" Here is the long letter I told you of. I sent 
you two suckling plants, Last Tuesday, which I delivered 
my self to that desperate fine creature Mrs. Hendry ! I 
don't know what to do with any flowers in the garden I 
have at present, which is not much bigger than my 
kitchen. Flitting is a very troublesome thing I perceive. 
That, or something else, gave me such a cold, that I have 
been very hoarse, & unable to preach this fortnight. 
However the old gentleman is come home, and the 
Swaffham air has made him so bonny that he preached 
for himself last Sunday ; and I am grown so much better, 
that I think to show away next Sunday myself, and so I 
will when I am in this (heavenly) town so long as he 
lives, that is to say in the winter time, for in the 
summer I will serve my own parishes. I expect Rand 
to-day & two Ladies with him, to stay a night, i.e. he, 


but they longer. What do you country-politicians say to 
the death of the Prince of Orange? Those dogs, the 
Dutch are so frenchified, that I fancy the Widow, or even 
the little Bebe is capable of doing as much good upon 
them, as any statdholder of 'em all. I had like to have 
lost my heart at York. It is a terrible thing to have such 
a place in the church as I have ; nothing but ladies by 
dozens (& very pretty ones) on the right hand or the left, 
or in front of my stall. But, through mercy, having the 
service to read, I was forced to look, at least, as much 
upon the rubrick of the book as upon that of their cheeks ! 
So I am returned safe & sound. If this be what ye call 
writing a long letter, I think I could make it long enough ; 
for surely any body might, by the help of now & then a 
little victuals & half an hours sleep, write a letter of the 
sort that should be a week long. I am at the bottom of 
my heart, as well as of the paper. Yours & your heirs, 

"E. PYLE. 

" I hear S r Thomas L'Estrange is quite upon tilt ; 
with private drinking." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 

The Stadhouder, William IV., died in 1751. His 
widow, Anne of England, daughter of George II., carried 
on the government for " the little Bebe," her son, 
William V., who was made a Knight of the Garter in 
1752, at the age of four years, and installed, July 5, by 
his proxy, Sir Clement Dormer Cottrell. This event is 
commemorated by a large cut drinking - glass, probably 
one of a set, in the cabinet of the Editor, engraved with 
the Prince's arms of Nassau-Dietz, within the Garter, and 
inscribed with a diamond point on the under side of the 
foot: " Jacob Sang, Fee, Amsterdam, 1765." His rule 
was distinguished by the springing up of several learned 


societies in Holland, and by the stimulus given to scientific 

The whited and beraddled appearance of the ladies in 
York Minster might have recalled to Pyle's mind the old 
Puritan saying : " From beef without mustard, from a 
servant who overvalueth herself, and from a woman who 
painteth herself good Lord deliver us." 

Pepys makes many comments upon the painted and 
patched ladies in the churches and elsewhere. No doubt 
the belles of York also wore patches or nwuches, but they 
were so necessary an adjunct of paint and powder that 
Pyle took no account of them. An early instance of 
patching occurs in Bulwer's Artificial Changeling, 1653. 
Lady Castlemaine decreed that patches could not be worn 
with mourning, but they were otherwise correct at all times 
of the day and night. Anstey, in 1766, mentions " Velvet 
patches a la Grecque," which must have looked very well 
qua patches. The practice came to an end in England early 
in the nineteenth century, but lingered, together with paint 
and powder, in Italy at least as late as 1826. We have 
seen so many revivals in the present day paint certainly 
among them and white hair has become so conspicuous, 
that it is rather surprising that " velvet patches a la 
Grecque" have not reappeared. 

It is certain that the ladies who confronted Pyle in 
York Minster, so greatly to his peril, in August 1751, also 
carried fans, though he naturally does not comment upon 
so indispensable an attribute of the toilet. Apropos of 
fans, a contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine, May 
! 753> records that the twelve designs upon as many 
fans, held up before a like number of pretty faces, at a 
late celebration of the Communion, "in a certain church 
of this metropolis," were as follows : 

1. Darby and Joan. 

2. Harlequin and Columbine. 


3. The Prodigal Son with his harlots, copied from 

Hogarth's " Rake's Progress." 

4. A rural dance with a band of music fiddle, bag- 

pipe, and Welsh harp. 

5. The taking of Portobello (1739). 

6. The solemnities of a filiation. 

7. Joseph and his mistress. 

8. The humours of Change Alley. 

9. Silenus. 

10. The first interview of Isaac and Rebecca. 

1 1. The Judgment of Paris. 

12. Vaux Hall Gardens, with the decorations and 


Sir Thomas L'Estrange, Bart., died in 1751, and was 
succeeded by his brother, Sir Henry, sixth and last 
baronet, dying without issue 1 760. Dr. John Kerrich, 
the physician of Bury, writing to Kerrich, December 2 1 in 
this year, says : " My Cousin S r Roger, who married 
Kate Sheldrake's Sister, and so became my Cousin, is 
undoubtedly the apparent heir to the Title. . . . There 
was indeed one before him, who had been, as I am told, 
stable Boy to Mr. Eldred of Saxham in this Neighbour- 
hood. He was afterwards a Servant somewhere else, 
went over to Dunkirk with Horses, was there, for some- 
thing or other, clapt into Prison, and never heard of since, 
tho: the Family made strict Enquiry after him. But here 
is still in this Town Hamon L'Estrange, Esq r , about 90 
Years old, who looks upon himself as next Oars, after 
S r Roger, and who, I believe, would be much pleased to 
appear in the other World as a Baronet. He has no Son, 
so the Title is in a fair Way to drop." 



" 10 Feb. 1752. 


" I will come & see you, for a night if I can, 
before I go to London. 

" Mr, Primatt said no more to me than I said to you, 
& what I said I wrote from his mouth. So, I can answer 
none of your queries, but a letter to him will procure you 
an answer to them all. 

"As to the London Corporation, My Lord of Ely is 
the man to apply to ; he understands all the ways of 
doing perfectly, & has been, to my knowledge, very ready 
to do good offices, & has done them effectually, upon 
application from persons that he had infinitely less reason 
to regard than he has to regard you. And I would do 
every thing but swear, that at your instance he would go 
to work for the widow. I transacted an affair of thy sort 
with him once, but I've quite forgot the forms. Lose no 
time for I think this is the season for transacting such a 
matter, being about 3 months before their Music & Feast. 
And it was at this time of year that I got such a favour 
done by him in, I think, the space of a fortnight. They 
say he is at Cambridge yet, but goes soon to London ; so 
send a letter to him at each place lest you should miss ; 
though that missing will lose but a day's time. 

" He sent his chaplain Goodall to Norwich, whilst I 
was there, to be installed, with a wife at the tail of the 
surplice, aged 27. A greater offer has been made, of the 
same sort, to one you know, & nothing but the ejusdem 
cetatis was his objection. 

" The old gentleman is very brisk again, & thanks you 
for your compliments. 

" I am, y rs , &c., 

"E. P. 


" If his Lordship was ever clear of engagement for 
the Headship of Jesus, he should seem to be so now." 


To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 

" Mr. Primatt " appears to signify the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, but the last letter being dated October 25, 
1751, there is a gap of three and a half months in the 
correspondence. The subjects in question were the new 
Commission for the Peace, and the procuring of interest 
on behalf of Lieutenant Samuel Kerrich, son of Charles, 
brother of Pyle's correspondent. Of this young man very 
little is known. He married a lady of great personal 
attractions, but in other respects he seems to have been 
unfortunate. She is always spoken of in the family cor- 
respondence as " Poor Sarah," richly endowed though she 
was by nature. Her melancholy beauty is well shown 
by the portrait drawn in black chalk by Kerrich's son 
Thomas. In accordance with Pyle's suggestion, Kerrich 
wrote to the Primate and received the following promises 
of assistance : 

" It is treating an old friend ill to let a letter of his 
lye so long unanswer'd, but the Truth is I have carried it 
in my pocket to the House several times, in hopes of 
seeing L d Buckinghamshire to speak to him about the 
Commission, but I have not yet seen him. I hope to do 
it before the House rises. I believe your nephew may be 
help'd. I will endeavour it most assuredly." 

Sir John Hobart, Bart., of Blickling, Norfolk, first 
Earl of Buckinghamshire, was born about 1694. He was 
nominated Lord Lieutenant of the County in 174 5, and 
raised to the peerage in the following year. His sister 
Henrietta, who became Countess of Suffolk in 1731, was, 


as Mrs. Howard, mistress of George II., and it was 
through her influence that her brother was advanced. 
He died in 1756. 

This interest in the widow relates to the obtaining of 
a pension for the widow of a clergyman from the Cor- 
poration of the Sons of the Clergy. Kerrich, accordingly, 
wrote to his relative, Sir Thomas Gooch, and received the 
following reply : 

"CambAp r 5 1752. 

" Want of Health and Want of Leisure must 
excuse to my Friends y e seeming Neglects I am guilty of. 
But I could not have said sooner, any more than I say 
now, that the Widows Affair is in y e best Hands, as the 
A.Bishop is not only a Member but y e President of the 

" I wish well to You and yours, and am with Respect 
" Yours affectionately 

" THO. ELY." 

He also wrote to Thomas Hayter, Bishop of Norwich, 
who answered as follows : 

U Cr 


" I have just received Yours and shal be very 
ready to serve the unfortunate Widow you recommend, 
for her Case is truly compassionate. I have already taken 
one step towards it ; for I have, by this post transmitted 
Your Letter to my Brother in London, who is Treasurer 
to the Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy ; & I desired 
him to take Care to get her put upon the List, the first 
time that any Widows are admitted. They have stated 
times for doing this, but they return at different distances, 
as more or fewer Vacancys have happen'd. As soon as 
You send me the Petition properly signed, I have promised 
to transmit it to him, 


" I am glad I had this opportunity of expressing the 
Regard I have for you, and to assure you that I am, S r , 
" Your real Friend & 

" Affect: Brother, THO. NORWICH." 

Each letter is in its way a characteristic example of 
the prelate who indited it ; the one short and to the 
point, the other kindly and business-like. Pyle, in a 
letter of January 17, 1762, speaks of Bishop Hayter's 
capacity in affairs as contrasted with the " purring and 
puzzling" of poor old Zachary Pearce, Dean of West- 
minster and Bishop of Rochester. 

The somewhat obscure remark as to " a greater offer " 
has reference to Pyle's entrance into the married state. 
He touches upon " so insignificant a subject " with more 
lucidity and great candour on July 29 and September 21, 
1756. On this occasion the vacancy in the headship of 
Jesus was filled by the appointment of Philip Younge, 
who resigned in 1758 on his promotion to the Bishopric 
of Bristol. 


"25 Feb., 1752. 


" There is no doubt but that either Gaily or 
Vernon (much more both of them, as, in most respects, 
par nobile fratrum), if they bear the office you mention, 
may have any favor in the power of the Society in whose 
service they spend 4.0 at least a piece. (Gaily, by the 
by, lives in Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, & Vernon 
is parson of Bloomsbury Church.) 

" I am a good deal better winded, &, therefore better 
minded than when I spake to the Chevalier Harris. Yet 
I keep my intention & shall set out on Thursday for 
London & be above a week agoing by Bury & Colchester. 
I shall see nobody at Bury to whom I intend to make 
myself known. 


"It has been suggested to me, as if I might be in the 
Commission you mention, and therefore why not you. I 
am sure there is more reason for it. For myself I will 
not ask it. But if when with the Archbishop occasion 
should offer to throw in a word to the purpose of your 
desire, it shall not be neglected by y rs heartily 

"E. PYLE." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 

" The Chevalier Harris " appears to be Nicholas 
Harris, who was entered of Corpus in 1717, and was 
known there as "The Squire." He left the college 
early in 1720 for the reasons suggested in the follow- 
ing extract from a letter of Edmund Castle to Kerrich, 
March 21, I7^: 

" I was surprised to hear of Mr. Harris's leaving the 
College and the occasion of it. I was in hopes he was 
going to reform his life. I remember a little while ago, 
as we were walking in the Garden, he began to talk of y e 
beauty of Virtue, the satisfaction of reflecting on a well 
spent life, the excellency of Knowledge, &c., he said, he 
was very sorry for having mispent his time in ill com- 
pany, that he saw his folly, & was resolv'd to leave it. 
Bless us, thought I, what is now come to the Squire, has 
some invisible power secretly touch'd & turn'd his mind. 
I was very glad of it, & exhorted him to go on as well 
as I could. But I find twas all Grimaces and came not 
from y e heart, troth' little man, I have but a very in- 
different opinion of Young Squires ; they are grown so 
outrageous & unruly that there would be no living for 
an honest and sober-minded man were not y e Leviathan 
on his side." 

The title of Chevalier was an honorary one given 
in the eighteenth century to younger sons of French 


noble families, and frequently applied to or adopted by 
soldiers of fortune. The Chevalier is as constant a 
figure in the plays and novels of that time as the wicked 
Baronet of the early Victorian age. Thackeray's Chevalier 
Strong in Pendennis is a capital example. The term 
Chevalier is still used to designate membership of an 
honourable Continental Order, as in the Legion of Honour, 
instituted by Napoleon in 1 804, as a reward for civil and 
military service, but not, as such, used as a title of ad- 
dress. The Pope can, and does, create cavalieri. Lord 
Temple, on whom George II. so rudely conferred the 
Garter, was known as " Squire Gawky." Middle-aged 
Oxford men will readily recall a famous " Squire " who 
stroked the Eight more than once to victory in the 


" London March 9 th 1752. 

" I have seen my Lord of Canterbury, but for a 
moment only, so could not say a word of the Pudding, but 
you may depend I will say something of it to him before I 
leave this place. I shall be at Lynn about the middle of 
April, which is almost a month sooner than I intended. 
Because I am to put off my house and all concerns there, 
before the middle of June, having been requested by the 
good Bishop of Winchester to come to Chelsea & spend 
my time with him for the residue of his life as a Friend & 
Companion. This offer is a temptation to me that is 
irresistible. My Lord was about to propose conditions to 
me, but I stopt all that talk by refusing to make terms 
with him. I will leave all to himself, & I am sure not to 
fare the worse for that. He tells me his health is sur- 
prisingly better than it was in his younger years. Bishop 
Keene will be a lord of parliament in form before the King 

W. Hogarth, Pinxt. ., ,'*', 



goes, which I believe will be in Easter week. I have not 
time to add more than my hearty respects to you & yours. 

"E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham. 

" The good Bishop of Winchester " was Benjamin 
Hoadly, who, as Thackeray puts it, " cringed from one 
bishoprick to another " namely, from Bangor to Hereford, 
Salisbury, and Winchester, where he died in 1761. 

George II. went on one of his many visits to his 
beloved Hanover at the end of March, and was there 
occupied with small local interests, and with offering sub- 
sidies to numberless petty German princes, quite against 
the pledges which his ministers had given to the country. 
He quarrelled with his nephew, the King of Prussia, about 
East Friesland, and nearly came to a breach with the 
Emperor and Maria Theresa. He returned to England 
on November 18. 


" St. James's, 8 Ap r 1752. 

"The Archbishop tells me to-day that he has 
written to you the reply he had from the Lord Lieutenant 
of Norfolk. And bids me say to you further that, if any 
clergyman is in the Commission you shall be in it too. 

" I will spend a day with you before I leave Norfolk, 
rhither I shall set out (I think) on the i6th. 

" I am &c., 

"E. PYLE. 
" Service to Mrs. Kerrich." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 



" Winchester House Chelsea. 
"Aug. 20, 1752. 


" I have been an inhabitant of this sweet place 
five weeks & better, and know as much of the manner of 
life in such a family as this, as I can know in as many 
years. And all I shall or need say of it is, that (having 8 
hours in each day to my self, for exercise or study, and 
the privilege of going to London, for a day or two, as oft 
as I please) could I make my Lord's life & my own comen- 
surate, I would not leave this house for any preferment 
in England. Such easiness, such plenty, & treatment so 
liberal, was never my lot before, and if God gives me 
health you can't think of a happier man. 

" The danger I apprehend most is from the table, 
which is both plentiful & elegant. But I think I shall by 
use, not be in more peril from my Lord's ten dishes than 
I was formerly from my own two, for I begin already to 
find that a fine dinner every day is not such a perpetual 
temptation as I thought it would be. 

" If the weather had favoured me a little more my 
Northern expedition would have been a most delightful 
one, for such prospects & such variety of them I never 
saw, as there are in the West-Riding of Yorkshire. But 
as to roads, when you leave the turn-pike way, if the 
weather be rainy, they are woful ones indeed. Deep clay 
full of stones ; think o' that, as Falstaff says. However, 
upon the whole a man would go in any weather, rather 
than not see that country. 

"The Archbishop of Canterbury visits sometimes at 
this house. If he comes in a morning, he is shut up with 
my Lord in the study in private conversation. But when 
he comes in an afternoon I get a sight of him, and have 
twice borne him company to walk, in Kensington Gardens, 


& Dr. Benjamin Hoadly's fine garden in this place, con- 
sisting of several acres, with a view both up & down the 

" You must not expect news from hence, at this time 
of year. We live now the still country life. 

" There is no Bishop of Durham appointed. It is 
believed that Bishop Trevor (of St. Davids) will be the 
man, though the King is for the Bishop of Norwich. But 
his Majesty has riot always the best interest at Court. 
The new Bishop, I hear, will be Dr. Ellis, formerly of 
Clare Hall, a minister of a parish in the City, & prebendary 
of Gloucester, a man who has lived many years un-noticed 
but (they say) is a worthy person. His Grace of Canter- 
bury has done a most generous thing to Dr. Forster, 
Chaplain to the late Bishop of Durham, a prime scholar 
(taken by Bp: Butler for that reason from Oxford) 
and his Lordship dying without making any provision 
for him, the Archbishop sent him word that if he liked 
to be his chaplain there was an apartment at Lambeth 
at his service. 

" There are two stories current of my Lord Chichester 
that are well vouched. It is his manner, it seems, before 
he goes into bed, to lay his breeches upon a chair, & 
then go in his shirt to the fire-side, & expectorate 
pretty largely. But once last spring, being a little 
absent at the time of night above-named, he threw his 
breeches into the fire, and spit all over the bottom of 
a great chair. 

" He has a niece that lives with him, that's a pretty 
fat woman, and a gentleman at table desiring her, several 
times, to take care of herself, for she eat nothing ' Let 
her alone, Mr. Robinson/ quoth my Lord ; ' She need 
not eat, you may see she has a month's meat in her 
belly ! ' 

" I hear there has been some hanging at Lynn since I 
left it, and I should be neither surprised nor sorry to hear 


of more instances of that sort. But of the other work of 
destiny, matrimony, I hear not a word. 
" I am with service to Mrs. Kerrich, 

Y rs heartily, 

"E. PYLE. 

" (Write under Cover To the Bishop in Hill Street, 
Berkeley Square)." 


To the Rev. Dr. Kerrich. 

It will be remembered that at this time there were no 
houses between Chelsea and Westminster. The low ground 
now forming the greater part of the South- Western postal 
district, and known as Upper and Lower Belgravia, and 
Pimlico were open fields. In the undrained marshy parts, 
skirting the river Thames, snipe used to be shot almost 
within living memory. 

As a result of the unseemly contest for the See of 
Durham, Trevor was appointed ; the King's nominee, 
Hayter, remained at Norwich until his advancement to 
London in 1761, and Ellis was consecrated to St. 
David's in Trevor's room. 


" Winchester House, Chelsea, 

"4 th Nov r 1752. 

" I am very much obliged by the favour of your 
letter. As to your having been ill, tho' I'm very sorry, I 
am far from being surprised at it, for there has been such 
an uninterrupted succession of foggs that I wonder every 
body has not been sick. I thought it might have been a 
local evil ; but my accounts from Chancellor Herring at 
York, & my brother in Devon, speak of the same state of 
the air, at the same time, in those countries. For my 


part, I'll make an affidavit before justice Mixon, mayor of 
Lynn, or his wife (which will do as well), that I never 
knew foggs so offensive to the eye, or the nose, in the fens, 
in all the time of my sojourning in the Land of bell 

" Bishop Ellis has a very good character, but he has 
been a man as little spoken of in the fifteen years that I've 
been a hearer of news & characters in the capital, as any 
minister of a City parish whomsoever. Since I wrote to 
you, I found after some morning visits to this house that 
my friend Dr. Bullock of Streatham was close at his heels, 
& very likely to give him the go-by, as we say in Norfolk. 
When Dr. Ellis was named to the King he asked who he 
was, & said he never heard of him, adding that there were 
persons enough that he had heard of that might better 
have been named than a stranger. Here Bullock's interest 
was very near taking place ; but it came to pass at last 
that what the King said once was true a second time, viz. 
that he had not the best interest at Court. 

" Dr. Johnson was second master at Westminster 
School, & has all the pride & disdain in him that belongs 
to a man that's allowed to have a knack at an epigram. 
He has been a pretty high Tory, & is devilishly belied if 
he has not a deal of the old leaven in him yet. He rises 
by the interest of Mr. Stone (one of the same kidney), 
sub-governour to the Prince of Wales, & for many years 
Under-Secretary to the Duke of Newcastle, & brother to 
the infamous Primate of Ireland, who is contemned by all 
good (& bad) men in that country, & treated as such a 
fellow deserves ; who rose from poverty brought on by 
debauchery, to the highest station of the church, faster 
than a mushroom does in a hot-bed at Battersea. 

" The first two of the above-named, & some assistants, 
are striving to throw out your Bishop from being preceptor 
to his Royal Highness. My Lord Harcourt sticks to the 
Bishop, & is determined to go out with him if he goes 


out which is to be tried by the Bishop's procurement, 
as soon as the King comes home. 

" Mr. Warburton has a volume of sermons in the 
press. Mons: Voltaire has published two volumes, called 
' The Age of Lewis XI V./ that are very entertaining, being 
written in the same spirit and (for what I know) with the 
same approaches to the romance as the ' Life of Charles 
XII. of Sweden.' 

" Dr. Moss, Rector of St. James's, Westminster, is in 
so bad a state of spirits (that's the phrase now for a 
madman) that it is thought he can never recover so as to 
be a man fit for the business of his place & profession. 

" I hope Mrs. Kerrich is well, and that your daughter 
profits by the precepts of Mr. Harris. To whom I beg 
you will give my service & accept yourself the most 
hearty wishes of, Dear Sir, 

" Yrs., &c. f E. P. 

"The things I have written above are not to be 
spoken of as coming from me, because it will be known 
how they came to me." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 

William Herring was younger brother of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and well preferred by him in the 
diocese of Yorkshire. He was appointed Dean of St. 
Asaph in 1751, holding his livings of Bolton Percy and the 
Archdeaconry of York after the manner of pluralists. 

Pyle's brother Thomas lived to the age of ninety-four. 
He was also Fellow of Corpus, and became Canon of Salis- 
bury, Rector of Marlborough, Vicar of West Alvington, 
Devonshire, and Canon of Winchester. 

James Johnson was educated at Westminster and 
Christchurch. He became Chaplain to the King and Canon 
of St. Paul's in 1748, and went twice with George II. to 


Hanover. On his return thence in 1752 it was in con- 
templation to appoint him preceptor to the Prince of 
Wales, an intention violently opposed by the Whigs. He 
was then consecrated Bishop of Gloucester, and in the 
following year he was charged before a Cabinet Council, 
together with Stone and Murray (afterwards Lord Mans- 
field), with having toasted the Pretender. Walpole says 
he defended himself " with insolence." In 1759 he was 
translated to Worcester, and during his rule of that See 
he greatly improved both Hartlebury Castle and the 
Palace in Worcester. He died in Bath from the effects 
of a fall from his horse, and is commemorated by a 
monument by Nollekens. 

Andrew Stone, 1703-1773, son of a banker of Lom- 
bard Street, was educated at Westminster and Christ- 
church. He became private secretary to Thomas Pelham- 
Holles, Duke of Newcastle, and such was his confidential 
intimacy with the Duke and his brother, Henry Pelham, 
that when Walpole desired a favour from Newcastle his 
first step was to give Stone a snuff-box. Stone's influence 
over the Pelhams was pernicious, and to him was largely 
due his younger brother's rapid rise to the Primacy of 
Ireland. In 1734 Stone was appointed Under-Secretary 
of State to Newcastle ; he was returned as Member for 
Hastings in 1741, and sat for that borough until 1761. 
In 1748 he went with the King to Hanover, George II. 
showing him " the greatest distinction " and expressing 
" the greatest regard and approbation." He was appointed 
sub-governor to the Prince of Wales in 1751 on the 
reconstitution of the household necessitated by the death 
of Prince Frederick. He was credited with instilling into 
the Prince's mind the exaggerated ideas of the royal 
prerogative which so banefully distinguished George III. 
as King. Walpole says that Stone was the "dark and 
suspected friend of the Stuarts." There were then many 
such, descendants of the waverers of a generation earlier. 


When he was accused in 1753, together with his two 
old schoolfellows, Murray and Johnson, of having toasted 
the Pretender, Stone's examination by the Cabinet was 
answered to the Council's satisfaction. He was made 
Treasurer to Queen Charlotte on her arrival in 1761, and 
naturally attached himself to Lord Bute. This dark, 
proud, and able man, of evil influence over the King, is 
buried in Westminster Abbey. The mass of Stone's 
correspondence in the British Museum, together with the 
Newcastle and the lately-acquired Hardwicke papers, form 
valuable material for the ministerial history of the time. 

George Stone was at Westminster and Christchurch 
like his brother. He went to Ireland as one of the 
chaplains to the Lord Lieutenant, the Duke of Dorset, and 
his rise was as rapid as Pyle says Dean of Ferns, 1733; 
Dean of Derry, 1734; Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, 
1740; translated to Kildare, 1743, and Dean of Christ 
Church, Dublin ; translated to Derry, 1745, and Arch- 
bishop of Armagh by patent, 1747. This young Primate 
set himself in opposition to Henry Boyle, the Irish Speaker, 
in the direction of Irish affairs, the question between them 
being, from 1749 to 1753, whether or not the Irish 
House of Commons had the right to dispose of the sur- 
plus revenues of the country. In the end Stone was left 
virtually dictator of Ireland. Boyle continued his active 
opposition to the Government until the dismissal of the 
Duke of Dorset. In the succeeding vice-royalty of the 
Duke of Devonshire, Boyle was created Earl of Shannon, 
and Stone had to retire from the direction of affairs. He 
now became head of one of the three factions which made 
independent government impossible. Eventually he made 
up his differences with Shannon, and with the assistance 
of John Ponsonby was enabled to carry on the government 
of Ireland during the rest of his life. The charges levelled 
at him by Pyle were, doubtless, notorious, being corro- 
borated by Walpole, and the appellation of " the beauty of 


holiness/' given to Stone on account of his good looks, 
was not supported by any single excellence of moral char- 
acter. This unpleasant person was also buried in West- 
minster Abbey, and it is in accordance with the fitness of 
things that nothing remains to mark the site of his grave. 

The Lord Harcourt here mentioned was Simon Har- 
court, first Earl Harcourt. He was educated at West- 
minster, and made a Lord of the Bedchamber to George 
II. in 1735, in which capacity he was present at the 
Battle of Dettingen. In 1745 he raised a regiment for 
the protection of the kingdom, and was created Viscount 
Harcourt of Nuneham Courtney and Earl Harcourt of 
Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire. In 1751 he was ap- 
pointed governor to the Prince of Wales in the place of 
Francis, Lord North. In 1761 he was sent as Ambas- 
sador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz, for the purpose of formally demand- 
ing the hand of the Princess Charlotte in marriage for the 
young King. He married her by proxy, and conveyed her 
to England. The last previous marriage of an English 
king by proxy was that of Mary of Modena, married 
by proxy on behalf of James II. by the fighting Earl of 
Peterborough. In 1768 Lord Harcourt was appointed 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
to Paris. He went to Ireland in 1772 as Lord Lieutenant, 
but his rule not being a success he retired in 1777. 
Walpole says that as Governor to the Prince of Wales, 
which position he resigned in 1753, he could only teach 
the Prince what he knew best himself namely, hunting 
and drinking, so his influence must at least have been 
better than that of Stone. 

The famous William Warburton was of an ancient 

Cheshire family and educated at Newark school where 

the master considered him "the dullest of all dull scholars" 

and at Oakham. In 1 7 14 he was articled to an attorney. 

Pyle was evidently not aware of this preliminary essay in 


Warburton's education, because, on September 25, 1755, 
speaking to Kerrich of Knapton's (the bookseller) failure, 
and his debt to Dr. Warburton of 5000 profits of the 
sale of his books, he says : " A man designed for a Scholar 
should be first bound to an Attorney in order to make the 
best of his Learning when he has got any." Nevertheless 
Warburton's legal training availed him indifferently. He 
developed an extraordinary appetite for reading, and so 
much of a theological kind that decided him to take orders; 
he was ordained in 1723 by Archbishop Blackburne, and 
in 1728 presented to the Rectory of Brant Broughton, 
Nottinghamshire. Cambridge gave him his Master's 
Degree in the same year ; he continued his excessive 
studies, entering also into a correspondence with Stukeley 
the antiquary, and in 1736 appeared his " Alliance between 
Church and State," in which he accepts in the main Locke's 
principles. His most famous book, " The Divine Legation 
of Moses Demonstrated," appeared, the first part in 1737, 
the second in 1741, the third he never completed. In 
this work he professed to be answering the English deists. 
" The Divine Legation " excited innumerable controversies, 
and brought Warburton into conflict with Middleton, 
Stebbing, Sykes, and with numerous writers of less 
reputation, and he made enemies all round. It is as Sir 
Leslie Stephen truly says, impossible to exhaust the list 
of Warburton's controversies. Bentley remarked that he 
had "a prodigious appetite but a very bad digestion." In 
one of Bolingbroke's " Letters on the Study of History " 
he gives an excellent picture of the impression left on the 
mind by a work of Warburton, ending : tl To ask him a 
question was to wind up a spring that rattled on with 
vast rapidity and confused noise till the force of it was 
spent, and you went away with all the noise in your ears, 
stunned and uninformed." With respect to this passage, 
Warburton of course had an altercation with Bolingbroke. 
It is also impossible to indicate Warburton's numerous 


works, and the quibbling and quarrels they induced. Pope 
had a great regard for him, and Dr. Johnson respected 
him. It is said that when he was a prebendary at 
Durham he was the first to disuse the cope, because its 
high collar ruffled his full-bottomed wig. 

The volume of sermons mentioned by Pyle was the 
first of two series preached at Lincoln's Inn, entitled 
" Principles of Natural and Revealed Religion." Voltaire 
was exiled to England in 1726 ; he remained for nearly 
three years, during which time he wrote his " History of 
Charles XII.," alluded to by Pyle. It was not until 1762 
that he began his assaults upon the Christian faith, which 
he continued until the end of his long life. He died in 
1778, aged eighty-four. 

Visitors to the foyer of the Theatre Francais will 
remember the seated statue of Voltaire by Houdon, and 
the surprising manipulation of the aged hands, showing 
the sculptor's mastery over his material to have been 
complete. The original clay model is said to have been 
fashioned upon an actual skeleton. Houdon's technical 
skill was as great as that of Roubiliac, and both sculptors 
sometimes suffered themselves to go beyond the limits of 
their art, just as Martin Heemskerck, " the Raphael of 
Holland," and the wonderful draughtsman of the human 
form to whose engravings Rubens and many other 
painters were so much indebted sometimes pushes his 
attitudes almost beyond the powers of the manly frame. 

Pyle's gloomy forebodings for Dr. Moss had little 
foundation. He was, in fact, wrong by as much as fifty 
years, for Dr. Moss did not die until 1802. 

D EAR S IR , "Chelsea Jan: 27 - I753 . 

" How do you this new-year, and how does the 
New Stile agree with you ? There's great grumbling at 


the said Stile against my Lord Macclesfield (who brought 
the Bill into parliament for the use of it) in the county of 
Oxford, where he is trying to get his son, Ld Parker, 
chosen representative at the next General Election, and 
where he never appears but he's called upon by country 
fellows to give an account, & restore the eleven days that 
he cheated the country of. 

" Perhaps you saw in the newspaper of late an account 
of a Master in Chancery (Holford), who died in his chair 
with his spectacles on his nose & a book before him. I 
don't mean, by bringing this account to your mind, to 
discourage you in the use of spectacles, but to tell you a 
consequence of this man's death, viz. that a large tract of 
ground, well built upon, & commonly called Chichester 
Rents (in London), of the clear yearly value of 300, is 
fallen in to Bishop Mawson. He got as much a year or 
two ago by an old woman's being knocked o' the head 
with a deal box that fell from a shelf. Besides these two, 
he has had a third job, that, itself, was worth eleven 
thousand pounds to him. Insomuch that your pupil, 
Dean Ashburnham (who gives his service to you) that's 
to be his successor, when God pleases to take Bishop 
Gooch (who must make a fine figure in Heaven) inso- 
much, I say, that the Dean, begins to fear that he shall 
come in for nothing but a Chichester Rump. 

" The Land Tax will be 2 s in the pound this year. 
And his Majesty will, it seems, suffer himself to stay in 
England this summer ; against this you might have had 
odds laid some time since. 

" Here's been the Devil to pay concerning your Bishop 
and Lord Harcourt's resigning their offices about the 
Prince of Wales. All good men are sorry for the hands 
the poor boy's in now. The Archbishop of Canterbury is 
amongst those good ones. And from his not being able 
to prevent the Bishop of Norwich's being so ill treated, 
he sees, & the world sees, that his influence is but little. 


We have lost our next neighbour, Sir Hans Sloane, aged 
93. It is, at present, thought that the King will purchase 
his curiosities, which are intrinsically worth more than 
twenty thousand pounds, & certainly cost him above fifty. 
Mr. Warburton's sermons, they say, are most high flown 
stuff; I have not seen them. I kiss your hands and 
am, &c, 

" E. P." 

To the Reverend Dr. Kerrich 

To be left at Mrs. Waldegrave's in 

the Market place in Lynn 

B free Win-H 
~ chester.J 

Thomas, Viscount Parker, here spoken of, of Ewelme, 
Oxfordshire, was eldest son of George, second Earl of 
Macclesfield, who had succeeded Thomas, first Earl, im- 
peached for corruption in 1725, removed from the Chan- 
cellorship and fined 3 0,000. Full accounts of this 
matter are given in letters to Kerrich by Thomas Herring. 

Sir Charles Ashburnham, third baronet, descended 
from the second son of Thomas Ashburnham of Broom- 
ham, Sussex, in the time of Henry VI. (the eldest son 
being the progenitor of the noble family of Ashburnham, 
raised to the peerage in 1689 as Baron Ashburnham ; 
Viscount St. Asaph and Earl of Ashburnham 1730), was 
succeeded in 1762 by his eldest son William, who was 
entered of Corpus, under Kerrich, in 1728, and was 
elected Fellow in 1732. He exchanged the rectories 
of Gamston and Cromwell, Nottinghamshire, for that 
of Bexhill, Sussex, and held it with the Deanery of 
Chichester, to which he was appointed in 174 1- He 
was made a canon of St. Paul's in 1753, and consecrated 
Bishop of Chichester in the following year, a dignity 
which he held for the long period of forty-four years, 


until his death in 1798. From Sir William Ashburnham 
is descended the present family so long seated at Broom- 
ham Park. 

The famous physician, Sir Hans Sloane, whose name 
is so fashionably perpetuated locally, bequeathed his 
collections to the nation on the condition that his 
family should be paid 20,000, their prime cost having 
been, as Pyle states, 50,000. In June 1753 an Act 
was passed accepting the gift, and trustees appointed ; 
Montague House was bought, the Sloane collections 
were moved to it, together with the Cotton and the 
Harley MSS., and thus was formed the nucleus of the 
British Museum. 


"Chelsea House, Mar 27 1753. 

" I don't know but you may be right in the 
Dean of Norwich & Bishop Ellis being contemporaries at 
Clare, but you must not think that to be the prevailing 
reason of his being made a Bishop ; for the same reason 
would operate for Dr. Bernard. The late Chancellor 
Macclesfield, to whom he was Chaplain, made him pre- 
bendary of Gloucester, and when Dr. Benson became 
Bishop there, he took a great liking to him, & was 
frequently recommending him to the late & present 
Archbishops, & to the Duke of Newcastle, as a very 
proper man to be raised. This, together with the Lord 
Chancellor's regard to all that ever belonged to Lord 
Macclesfield (who was the man that led him to fame in 
the law), is the account of Dr. Ellis's ascent to the mitre. 
The only difference betwixt writing to Hill Street, Berkeley 
Square, or to Chelsea, is that letters to Chelsea are 
brought by the penny post, & cost the (poor) Bishop a 
little money, at which, however, he never grumbles. My 
life passes here in a most delightful manner both within 


doors and without ; for riding in the King's Roads is 
exceedingly pleasant, & so is Hyde-park, on account of 
the company one sees, as well as the goodness of the 
country. I go little to London, though now the time 
of my waiting comes on I shall be there daily till the 
middle of May. I shall match you then for sauntering, 
& not reading, which last, God forgive me ! I do very 
little of here, not withstanding the temptation of a fine 
library. When Mrs. Hoadly has not ladies with her, 
(which is very seldom), the Bishop makes me read to 
him in an evening Burnet's History or some such book ; 
his observations upon which are worth more than my 
pains. He is going to put forth a volume or two of 
Sermons, which will go through my hands, before & after 
they have been at the press. I believe Mr. Knapton 
must pay well for the copy, for 'tis certain they will sell 
fast enough. And I believe also that the money will 
be given in charity to some grandchildren of Bishop 
Burnet, who, by the death of the judge, their uncle, are 
left in distress. But this is what I am not sure of, nor 
must be quoted for, if I was sure. 

" I am apt to think I shall not see my friends in 
Norfolk in the next summer, as I proposed ; For I am 
to go all through the diocese of Winchester with Bishop 
Pearce, who confirms in all the great towns, for my Lord, 
in part of the months of June & July. And that will 
take up as much time as the sort of officer I am in this 
family can be spared. And it would be very ungrateful 
in me to put One under any difficulty, who has studied 
to make my way clear to a stall in his cathedral (if there 
should be a vacancy in his time), & has effected that 
design. The number of prebendaries, viz. twelve, three 
of 'em of above 70 years of age, and a fourth who has 
been fistulous for some years, cut, over & over, in vain, 
& twice at death's door by the great discharge from 
wounds that are open still, together with the Bishop's 


extraordinary good health, are the circumstances which 
are thought to make my chance for success herein a 
good one. 

" Here has been the Devil to pay, in Council, and 
one day's work in the House of Lords, about the Sub- 
Governor to' the Prince of Wales being charged with 
having drank the Pretender's health. The gentleman is 
acquitted ! The more I see of this world, the more I 
am convinced that the happiest persons in it are those 
that are competently provided for & have few connexions. 
The envied stations place men in relations that are pro- 
ductive of a deal of plague & vexation. The Bishop of 
Norwich has gone through more uneasiness than I would 
do to be Archbishop of Toledo. And now all his view 
is to be snug & happy in his diocese. I could give many 
other instances that have come in my way. But have 
only time now to add to the foregoing geer my service 
to Mrs. Kerrich 

" I am, Dear Sir, 

" Yours truly, 

"E. PYLE. 

" Ld Bp of W. in Hill Street Berkeley Square." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 

Martin Benson was educated at the Charterhouse and 
Christ Church, and became at an early age Archdeacon of 
Berkshire, and was appointed to one of the " golden 
prebends " of Durham. He was consecrated Bishop of 
Gloucester in 1735, and revived in his diocese the institu- 
tion of rural deans. He personally visited the diocese 
of York for Archbishop Blackburne, who left him a service 
of plate. He died greatly beloved and lamented, not at 
all the usual meed of the haughty neglectful prelates of 
his time. 


The King's Roads were "The King's Old Road to 
Kensington," now Rotten Row, and " the King's New 
Road to Kensington," now the carriage drive. Both 
roads crossed the lake at the outfall of the Serpentine 
at Knightsbridge, as shown in John Rocque's Survey, 
published in 1746. The lake, formed in 173637, was 
abolished about 1844. The accounts for the work are 
printed in Mr. W. L. Rutton's interesting papers in the 
Home Counties' Magazine for April and July 1903. 

Mrs. Hoadly, here spoken of by Pyle, was the Bishop 
of Winchester's second wife, whom he married July 23, 
1745. She was Mary, daughter and co-heiress of John 
Newy, Dean of Chichester. Hoadly's first wife, the 
mother of his five sons, was Sarah Curtis, who had some 
reputation before her marriage as a portrait painter. She 
was a pupil of Mary Beale, and painted the likenesses 
of Burnet, Whiston, and Hoadly. She died in 1743. 

Of Gilbert Burnet, the well-known author of the 
" History of His own Time," a few words may properly be 
said here. The " History " was published posthumously, 
and was severely criticised on the score of its inaccuracy 
and prejudice. Individuals whose conduct was censured 
expressed themselves much as the Earl of Aylesbury : " He 
wrote like a lying knave, and, as to my own particular, 
the editors deserved the pillory, for what relates to me 
is as false as hell." Burnet's early life was spent in 
Scotland under the patronage of Lauderdale, the L of 
the Cabal of 1667, the others being Clifford, Arlington, 
Buckingham, and Ashley. He was a consistent high 
churchman, both in politics and doctrine, and the ablest 
prelate of his day, unsparing in pastoral labour, unosten- 
tatious, and charitable. His character has been painted 
in colours darkened by political dislike. One who knew 
him well, for example, says perhaps with the desire of 
setting down literary antitheses, " he was zealous for 
the truth, but in telling it he always turned it into a 



lye ; he was bent to do good, but fated to mistake evil 
for it." 

One would have been glad to hear from Pyle what 
Hoadly had to say about the bishop who preceded him by 
a quarter of a century at Salisbury. The judge alluded to 
by Pyle was Sir Thomas Burnet, 1694-1753, third and 
youngest son of the bishop. He began life with politics, 
debauchery, and wit, just as did, a generation later, Thomas 
Potter, " the lawyer," son of the Primate " the man of a 
little dirty Heart." Burnet was " called " in 1715; he 
was for some years consul at Madrid, and was appointed 
to a judgeship of the Common Pleas in 1741. The 
children in question, whom Hoadly desired to help, were 
the offspring of Gilbert, second son of Bishop Burnet, who 
had been made royal chaplain in 1718, and supported 
Hoadly in the Bangorian Controversy. 

James Knapton was a bookseller and publisher in 
Ludgate Street. He failed honestly in 1755 (see Pyle's 
letter of September 25, 1755). He was the father of 
George Knapton, the portrait painter who limned the 
members of the Dilettante Society, in a style very different 
to the two masterpieces by Sir Joshua deposited in the 
National Gallery. 

The career of Zachary Pearce is an interesting and 
typical example of that of a scholar of his day. He was 
educated, as all the best men were at that time, at West- 
minster, and at Trinity, Cambridge. He became domestic 
chaplain to Lord Chancellor Parker, on the latter's appoint- 
ment in 1718 to the high office which he abused, and 
remained for three years. In 1720 Pearce was instituted 
to the rectory of St. Bartholomew, and made King's 
chaplain. On the translation of Bishop Green from 
Norwich to Ely in 1720 the vicarage of St. Martin's in 
the Fields, which he had held with the episcopate of 
Norwich in commendam, was given to Pearce. The im- 
peachment of his patron, Lord Macclesfield, in 1725, put 


an end to further advancement from that quarter, and he 
remained at St. Martin's until 1739. During this period 
from 1722 to 1726 Gibbs rebuilt St. Martin's church, 
the most famous of his works. In 1739 Pearce was 
instituted to the Deanery of Winchester, and in 1747, on 
the translation of Hutton from Bangor to York, he was 
offered Bangor with St. Martin's in commendam. This he 
at first declined ; but upon Newcastle saying that if 
clergymen of merit refused bishoprics, ministers could 
not be blamed for appointing men of less worth, Pearce 
consented. It is recorded, as an unusual point in his 
favour, that he visited his diocese annually until 1753. 
Two years later he was translated to Rochester and West- 
minster. He was a good scholar, and wrote against 
Woolston and Conyers Middleton, and in examination of 
some of Bentley's Emendations to the text of " Paradise 

In spite of these dispiriting conditions or promising 
appearances as to Pyle's Winchester preferment, and in 
consequence of the refusal in 1 7 5 5 of Dr. Lowth, Arch- 
deacon of Winchester, to accept the bishopric of Limerick, 
and thus by a shuffling of ecclesiastical cards make clear 
the way to a prebend for Pyle (see Letter, May 29, 1755), 
added to the determination of the prebendaries of Win- 
chester, both healthy and afflicted, to live, and not be 
juggled out of their places, it was not until June 1756 
that the prebend so long desired fell vacant, and Pyle's 
schemes and wishes were fulfilled, as will duly appear. 

With reference to the troubles of patrons alluded to 
by Pyle, Archbishop Herring wrote as follows to Kerrich, 
August 14, 1754: 

" I am going to talk like a father of a family, you 
know I am not so, & yet I am not without great tender- 
ness for my friends, and when I say, I should be glad to 
stay here till I could do something for the all I speak from 


a better motive than a desire of long life. You know 
very well I have had a long regard for you, ever since I 
us'd to send you to bed, by stirring out my Fire, when it 
grew very late and what has come of it ? Just nothing 
at all, & I do in great truth assure you, that the A. of 
Canterb, knows of no circumstance that bears so hard 
upon him, as to find himself deem'd an inexhaustible 
Patron w th a slender Patronage. I would to God, I knew 
how to restore you to y r true Spirits, by some substantial 
Benefit, but one way is quite shut up to me, for, I find, my 
great Friends so prodigiously embarass'd, that out of a 
point of honour, & in truth, a sort of compassion I never 
yet ask'd any thing of them for my nearest Relatives & I 
think I never shall." 


" Winchester House 

"Chelsea loth May 1753. 

" I shou'd have said that I had been troubled, 
two or three times, with Whiston the Bookseller's company, 
whilst I was in waiting at Court, but that I learnt from 
him that Mr. Jackson will be in town in a very little time, 
if he be not come already. When I see him I will set 
your matter to rights, some how or other. 

" The evils you speak of must increase where they are 
not opposed with consistency, by the clergy, nor cared 
a farthing about by the Ministry, & great men. The 
increase of methodism at Norwich is owing intirely to the 
wrong-headedness of some dissenters, who were afraid 
that the church-men had a design to ravish Madam 

" I am willing to acknowledge the receipt of yours 
though in great haste. 

" Your most obedient, 

" E. PYLE. 


" The Archbishop of Canterbury has been in danger of 
death, by an inflamation on his lungs ; he was thrice bled 
in a little time. He is now recovering. I was with him 
yesterday, a few minutes, with My Lord's compliments. 

" I have sent Mrs. Kerrich for her amusement four 
advertisements : That marked ( I ) produced the three 
others, marked (2). They are taken from the papers of 
yesterday & the day before. 

" I think it is mentioned as one characteristic mark of 
the last day that people should be without natural affection." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 

To be left with Mrs. Waldegrave 
in the Market-Place at 

Lynn, Norfolk. 
B Free Win-l 
~ Chester. J 

John Whiston, who troubled Pyle, was son of William 
Whiston. He was one of the printers of the votes of the 
House of Commons, and one of the first issuers of regular 
priced catalogues, as early as 1735. His shop was the 
resort of men of letters, and a comical encounter is reported 
to have taken place there between Warburton and an 
adversary, Dr. John Jackson. 



" Here's your account & a lame one it is. 
" The Archbishop has been very ill with a relapse 
the case is asthma & cough. He is pretty well again, 
but not abroad. Many fear his life is likely to be short. 
I am in haste, but, in all circumstances, 

" Truly y rs 

"E. PYLE. 


" 3 vols of Sermons will appear this year from My 
Lord of Winchester." 


To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

To be left with Mrs. Waldegrave, at 
Lynn, Norfolk. 


B Free Win--| E. Pyle enclosing John 

~ Chester. J Jackson 1753. 

Archbishop Herring, writing to Kerrich, August 14, 
1754, says: "You are very obliging & kind to me in 
your Congratulations ; I am I bless God, much better, but 
I am just upon the point of 61 & many years older than 
I was a year agoe but serius cujus calcanda via est." 


"Winchester House, i2th Jan? 1754. 

tf I had the favour of your letter whilst I was 
under the operation of a fit of the gout, and was good for 
nothing. I am not good for much yet but able both to 
wish you many happy years, &, by the use of the pen & 
ink, to express that wish. Poor Rand's death was no 
surprise, though matter of much concern to me. When I 
took my leave of him, in June 1752, I was apprehensive of 
his being in a deplorable way. He was shrunk pro- 
digiously, & the skin of his face discoloured, shrivelled, & 
pucker'd, Like parchment scorch'd with the heat of the fire. 
I hear my Lord of Ely has parted those two fine rectories 
that were our friend's, & has given one to Mr. Greaves, a 
near relation of the Commissary, who is vicar of Long 
Sutton, & rector of a small parish not far from Cambridge. 
He married a Miss Chester, daughter of one of the 
Southsea directors, sister to a gentleman who lately lived 
at Hillington, & a relation of Bishop Sherlock's wife. 


Mr. Bacon of Eartham, from whom I heard what is above, 
has been with the Bishop of Ely twice (as Trustee for 
Mr. Rand's children) & in the space of five weeks, which 
was the distance between his visits, thought his Lordship 
alter'd in his looks & greatly for the worse. He is at Ely 
House, & seems resolved to winter there. The Bishop of 
Winchester's wife (who was a daughter of Dr. Newey that 
preceded Bishop Sherlock in the Deanery of Chichester) 
met my Lord of Ely about a quarter of a year ago, at a 
visit at Fulham Palace. He had not seen her of I 8 years, 
& after saluting her, in a very genteel manner he burst 
into tears, & asked her if she should have known him, had 
she met him elsewhere ? And for the rest of the afternoon, 
never look'd upon her, or spoke to her, without little or 
much of the same emotion ; & said often, he was sure 
she could not have known him by his looks, he was so 
alter'd from what he was when she used to see him at 

" His Grace of Canterbury is in a way that gives those 
who love him fears. He, it is true, eats & sleeps well, and 
is able to ride on horse-back, & is in good spirits. But he 
is not clear of asmathic complaints, & loses the little 
flesh he had, so that he looks like a shadow, if you could 
give it a fresh colour. He had a prodigious windfall t'other 
day. By the death of Mr. Bennet (who married a Wake), 
all the lives are out, of the Patent of the Office of Register 
of the Faculties ( I 5 hundred pounds a year) which Patent 
his Grace can renew for any three lives he pleases, & may 
make the persons whose names he puts into the Patent 
agree (by deed under hand & seal) to any application 
of the profits of the office that he shall direct. Of 
this Bennet, Dr. Sykes had last year 1000 pounds, 
for putting in a life to the estate that belongs to him 
as Chantor of Sarum, & by Bennet's death he will get 
1000 more. 

" I have been very busy in decyphering (as I call it) 


short-hand, in order to the publication of some of My Lord 
of Winchester's Sermons, which have lain in that pickle 
(character) ever since he was minister of St Peter's poor. 
Before these come, a volume of some that have been pub- 
lished before, with an addition of six new ones, and another 
of such as were preached at Court, will make their 

"I am very glad you have got out of that old 
(enchanted) house of the Walpoles. For I like your new 
house as much better than that old one, as I like your new 
landlord worse. 

" What to say about the Marriage Act I know not. 
The Lord Chancellor & the Archbishop took the chief pains 
in forming it ; & they would, neither of them, designedly 
throw contempt upon the body spiritual. 

" The King will be kept at home this year, but by 
what motives I can't pretend to say. 

" There is the Devil to pay in Ireland. The Primate 
Stone (brother to the [Sub] Governour to the Prince of 
Wales) and a son of the Lord Lieutenant, have a mind to 
make the House of Commons there jump over a stick, as 
they give the word of command. The Commons ride 
restive and will not jump. So the Speaker, & seven or 
eight more principal figures in the opposition, are to be 
turn'd out of very profitable places, if the King leans to 
the side of the Lieutenant's son & the Primate, which 
some fear. I hope not. For there will be some very 
bad work in that kingdom, if the King falls in with those 
who are against the Commons. 

" I am yours most cordially 

"E. PYLE." 


To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

To be left with Mrs. Waldegrave 
at Lynn, Norfolk. 

B Free Win.' 
~ Chester. 


It has been seen that Bishop Gooch had been failing 
for some time. He was one of the few prelates of those 
days who wore his own hair instead of the full-bottomed 
episcopal wig. A portrait of him by Thomas Bardwell, a 
Norfolk artist (who is buried in the churchyard of Beccles), 
in the possession of the Editor, shows him with long 
flowing whitish hair, as does also a portrait by Heins at 
Benacre Hall. The fashion of Bishop Gooch's hair is that 
of a generation earlier, such as is shown on the medal of 
the Seven Bishops of 1688, and before the prelates had 
adopted false head-gear. The wigs of bishops in Gooch's 
time were the most conspicuous attribute of their attire, 
and had, as did the wigs of the clerics generally, their own 
peculiar amplitude on which the laity did not infringe. 
Wigs continued to be worn by the occupants of the 
Episcopal Bench long after they had been abandoned by 
the clergy generally. Howley, when he crowned our late 
beloved Queen in 1837, wore a wig. Sumner, his 
successor, finally abandoned it. Strictly speaking, it was 
twenty years since Mrs. Hoadly met Bishop Gooch. He 
went to Chichester in May 1734 on account of the contest 
for the county, as he tells his brother-in-law Matthew 
Postlethwayt. Mrs. Hoadly must have met Dr. Gooch, 
then Bishop of Bristol, at the house of her father, 
Dr. Newy, Dean of Chichester, when the former was 
Canon-Residentiary of Chichester, to which position he 
was appointed in 1719. 

William Wake, Archbishop of Canterbury, was pre- 
decessor of John Potter, Pyle's " poor-spirited old man of 
Lambeth," to whom George II. was so violent. He came 
of the ancient Northamptonshire family of twelfth century 
Norman rather than of Saxon origin, and married Ethel- 
dreda, daughter and co-heir of Sir William Hovell, Knt., 
of Hillington, Norfolk, and sister of Dorothy, mother of 
Martin and William ffolkes. The Archbishop's second 
daughter, Etheldreda, married Thomas Bennett of Norton 


Bavant, and Pithouse, Wiltshire, and the last life in the 
Patent Office spoken of by Pyle. 

Many of the sermons by " My Lord of Winchester," 
now about to be published, were preached when he was 
rector of St. Peter le Poer in the city in the third year of 
Queen Anne. 

" The enchanted house " was a picturesque rambling 
old place that belonged to Sir Robert Walpole, with a 
Latin inscription over the entrance doorway. It was built 
in the reign of Queen Mary by one of the ancient family of 
Pell, long seated in the neighbourhood of Dersingham. 
Kerrich took it in 1/30, after his institution to the vicarage 
of Dersingham, and to the rectory of West Newton. His 
cousin Rebecca Ray, who suffered agonies at home from 
" a barbarous mother - in - law," i.e. step - mother and 
generally lived with her uncle, married eventually Kerrich' s 
half-brother, John Kerrich, Rector of Banham, Norfolk. 
She had charge of the house before Kerrich came into 
it, and while the numerous repairs were being made. 
Mistress Ray gets into sad straits with her spelling, and 
her daring orthography must be an extreme example of 
the limited literary powers of the ladies of the time. In 
the course of a letter of September 29, 1730, she 
says : " J hop I shall have y e pleasur of Hearing you got 
safe to Denton and that my unkle and all The Good Family 
thear was wall, we have gon on very Slowly sence you left 
us haveing had only Rob 1 all this Week. Mr Scoot call'd 
And gave me y e promis to come Next week the Stairs do 
Much Better then J Expected and J hope every thing will 
be don in your Absence to y r Satisfaction ; J assure you 
Dear S r Notheng shall be Wanting on my Side in y* or 
Eney thing eke pepple are very Bege w th thoughts of y r 
Comming Home ; and Pallit came for y e kee of y e Church 
to Put y e Bells in order so y t I have y e Pleasur of hearing 
what they ame at w ch J hope J shall see in Reality. 

'The Boy y e Cap 4 left at Dars m was taken ill and J am 


sorry to tell Such ill News but it proves to be y e Smallpox 
w ch apeair'd last wedsin Day so that J can't give you aney 
fauther account of itt till My Next Letter ; Young Mr Host 
have Darnk Tea heare two or three times Which has ben 
all y e Company we have had : M r Sharp is not Retrund yet 
W th Dutty to My unckle," &c. 

The tenour of all Rebecca Ray's letters indicates the 
dread that was then caused in East Anglia on account of 
Smallpox. This condition lasted for nearly a quarter of a 
century. The scourge which so long afflicted the district 
can only be compared with The Black Death of four cen- 
turies earlier, of which the ravages may be traced in the 
architectural history of many an ecclesiastical building. 

The Marriage Act was that of 26 George II., commonly 
known as Lord Hardwicke's Act. It relieved England and 
Wales from the scandal of clandestine marriages members 
of the Royal family, the Jewish and the Quaker communities 
alone excepted. But by requiring solemnisation according 
to the law and ritual of the Church of England, and in- 
validating infants' marriages without consent of parents or 
guardians, such as the Fleet unions, by which heirs or 
heiresses to noble estates were entrapped into most 
repulsive alliances, it produced many grievances only 
gradually removed by amending Acts. It was finally 
superseded in 1823 by the measure that forms the basis 
of the present law. 


"Friday Feb: 15 th 1754. 


" Last night died Bishop Gooch. He had deferr'd 
giving away Rand's livings so long that instruments, &c., 
could hardly be got ready in the time he was capable of 
performing the part of a Bishop in the affair, but it was got 
thro' on Tuesday night (I think). 


" I have only time to say thus much, before I go to 
Croydon, on a little business of my Lord's. If anything 
particular offers there, you shall hear it from, 

11 Y rs &c., 

"E. PYLE." 
To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

To be left at Mrs. Waldegrave, 

at Lynn, Norfolk. 
B Free Win-n 
-* Chester. J 

Thomas Gooch, eldest son of Thomas Gooch of Yar- 
mouth, by Frances, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Lone 
of Worlingham, Suffolk, was entered of Caius College in 
1691, M.A. and Fellow 1698, and, later on, domestic chap- 
lain to Henry Compton, Bishop of London, one of the 
Seven Bishops, whose funeral sermon he preached at St. 
Paul's in 1713. He was a chaplain in ordinary to Queen 
Anne, Rector of St. Clement Eastcheap, with St. Martin 
Orgar, and Archdeacon of Essex from 1714 to 1737. He 
was appointed Canon-Residentiary of Chichester in 1719, 
Lecturer at Gray's Inn, and Canon of Canterbury 1730 
1738. Gooch was elected Master of Caius in 1716, and 
held that office until his death. He was Vice-Chancellor 
in 1717, in which year the new building of the Senate 
House was undertaken partly through his exertions. He 
was consecrated Bishop of Bristol in 1737, but never visited 
his diocese, being translated to Norwich in the following 
year, apparently much to his satisfaction. In a letter to 
Kerrich, from Westminster, October 28, 1738, he says: 
" I thank you for your kind Congratulations, which You 
may be sure are the more acceptable to Me for coming from 
a Friend & Relation. As my Translation has brought me 
into my own Country, I shall, as I ought, be well contented 
to breath my last, where I breath'd my first." 

Gooch sat in the chair of Losinga for ten years, during 
which time he repaired and beautified the palace at great 

Thos. Hudson, P 



ise. In 1748 he was again translated, to the See of 
Ely. In 175 I he succeeded, in accordance with the special 
remainder, to the baronetcy conferred upon his younger 
brother William Gooch in 1746, in recognition of his long 
and eminent services as Governor-General of Virginia. A 
large neglected marble monument in the north transept of 
the great church at Yarmouth commemorates Sir William 

Sir Thomas Gooch was three times married, firstly, to 
Mary, daughter of William Sherlock, Dean of St. Paul's, and 
sister of Thomas Sherlock, Bishop of London ; secondly, to 
Harriet, daughter of Sir John Miller of Lavant, Sussex, 
Bart. ; and thirdly, to Mary, daughter of Hatton Compton. 
His son and successor Thomas, by his first wife, inherited 
a large fortune in 1761 from Bishop Sherlock. John, 
his son by the second wife, became Prebendary of Ely 
and Rector of Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire. 

Sir Thomas Gooch is described as in many ways a 
typical bishop of the eighteenth century, dignified and 
charitable, and attentive both to the work of his diocese 
and to his parliamentary duties to his party, and that he 
was considerate and courteous is well shown by his letters. 
Cole has many anecdotes of his adroitness in his own per- 
sonal advancement, and in the securing of preferment for 
his younger son he did not leave a very pleasant reputation 
behind him at Caius. Perhaps his conscience smote him as 
to this when he caused the words to be penned in his will 
" if the Fellows will receive me." They swallowed their 
displeasure, and not only did so receive the remains of the 
prelate who presided over the ancient house for the long 
period of forty-eight years, but suffered the erection in the 
chapel of a monument with an inscription of the usual 
pompous and laudatory sort. Cole thus sums up Thomas 
Gooch : " He was a man of as great art, craft, and cunning 
as any in the age he lived in, as he was as much of a gentle- 
man in his outward appearance, carriage, and behaviour." 


A sampler in the possession of the Editor, dated 1684, 
is further inscribed : FRANCES GOOCH WROUGHT THIS. 


"Tuesday 19 th Feb: 1754. 

"Yester I saw Bishop Mawson kiss the King's 
hand for the Bishoprick of Ely. Before which I saw him 
above half undress himself in the antichamber & perform 
some parts of his dress, to which he objected, better. He 
put down & then pulled up & new garterd his stockings, but- 
toned up the front of his breeches, set his periwig on the 
very top of his head & pulled off his band, & put it on 
again more to his liking, in which last operation he ruffled 
the said periwig to such a degree as made it frightful, & in 
that condition went in with it to the King. All this was 
no small fun to the lords, gentlemen, officers, & clergy that 
were in the anti-chamber & this fun was enjoy'd by none 
more than your pupil Ashburnham (now Bishop of 
Chichester) and your 

" Humble serv 1 

"E. PYLE." 

" Bp. Gooch will be inter'd in his College Chapel on 
Thursday. He desired to be buried there in his Will 
adding these words, l if the Fellows will receive me.' Dr. 
Thurston, Late Mott, will succeed him there. 

" Poor C. Ray is gone. The King will give away St. 
Albans & the other living. The two clerks that succeed 
Rand had but just time to get institution (by riding post) 
before Bishop Gooch died." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

To be left with Mrs. Waldegrave, 

at Lynn, in Norfolk. 
B Free Win-~| 
-* Chester. J 


Charles Ray was first cousin of Kerrich and brother 
of Rebecca, the remarkable orthographist. He was a 
Fellow of Corpus and for many years chaplain to Robert 
Butts, Bishop of Norwich. He became Rector of King's 
Langley, and afterwards Vicar of St. Peter's, St. Albans. 
A prim and patronising man, when he was not absurdly 
pompous and affected, who, on marrying in 1744 a wife 
whom he calls " Nanny," thus speaks of her to Kerrich : 
" I make no doubt at all of her Behaviour or Conduct as 
a Wife. She is an honest Good Girl, & has always 
shown a true respect to me. In a word S r I believe she'd 
acquit herself well and answer mine and my Friends' 
Expectations." Poor patronised " Nanny " was a daughter 
of Archdeacon SalteT, the tall man. 

Ray kept up a voluminous correspondence with 
Kerrich, of much the same character as that of Pyle, 
but treating generally of other literary, social, and political 


"March 2, 1754. 

" Mr. Greaves has Newton living, and Levering- 
ton is held by one son of Dr. Warren, late Archdeacon of 
Suffolk (whom the Archbishop is to provide for) for a 
younger son of the same person, not yet of the age of 
24. Your cousin Ray is dead. And Bishop Gooch gave 
away his livings, the very last thing he did, to one 
Keller of Jesus College, a high Tory, who is also to be 
a canon of Windsor, being espoused by Lord Middleton 
of Nottinghamshire, who told the Duke of Newcastle, 
that if Keller was not well prefer'd he would make the 
Nottinghamshire election cost more than a little. There 
is no depending upon news-papers. But certainly there 
is as ill-temper now in Ireland as can be ; especially 
against the Lord Primate & Lord Lieutenant. The Lord 


Primate is a brother of Andrew Stone, who from a rake, 
&c. &c. turn'd parson, & is (to be sure) a most ignorant 
worthless fellow, & the preferring him to the post of 
Lord Primate was enough to make the stones of the wall 
cry out & the beam of the timber to answer them. 

" I am heartily y rs &c. 

" E. PYLE." 

" Dr. Stebbing (in his late book on Absolution) goes a 
bow-shot further than once did the Bishop of Bangor, 
& has, as I may say, out-hoadlyed Hoadly. 

" Eyton Butts, eldest son of Bishop Robert (rov 
fULdKapiTov) being out at heels, elbows, &c. &c., is gone 
to Ireland to one living of 570 a year, in hand, and 
the promise of another 300 a year, that is shortly 
expected to be vacant, both in the Gift of Dr. Garnet (of 
Sidney) now Bishop of Ferns. The preferments he had 
in England, viz. Shalewell, & Haddenham, & a stall at 
Ely, were given (in exchange) to Garnet's brother, who is 
Bishop Keene's chaplain. Lord Gooch transacted this 
affair a very little time before he died. The Archbishop's 
option at Ely is old Jones's prebend. The rest being 
young men, Mawson will hardly present to a stall in that 
church, or even to any good living, matters have been so 

" 'Tis no news to you that Burroughs is Master of 
Caius & Thomas of Christ's. But it may be so that 
Bishop Keene has wrought upon his society of Peterhouse 
to promise to elect Dr. Law (Late of Christ's), editor of 
Archbishop King of the Origin of Evil, in his place ; & 
will e're long make that place void for him, in pure regard 
to his fitness to be head of a house of learning. 

" There are several plays published & publishing this 
winter. One, now in action, Virginia, founded on the 
Story of Appius in the Roman History is well received. 
Another, Constantine, by Francis (editor of Horace) 


sticks, The author, being a clergyman of very loose 
character, has had an advice given him, that would not I 
suppose have been offer' d to a better man, viz. to give 
his play a lift, by advertising it thus, ' On Thursday, 
Feb: the last will be represented at the Theatre in Covent 
Garden the Tragedy of Constantine, to which will be 
added a Farce of one act, called The Council of Nice, 
with the comical humours of Athanasius and his Creed ; 
for the benefit of the Author.' 

"This letter is like a plant I once saw, which had 
excrescences from it, that, put them all together, exceeded 
very much the bulk of the body. 

" Lady Gooch (I am told) has got nothing but her 
title from her marriage with the Bishop. 

" Young Salter has got the Preacher's place at the 
Charterhouse (200 a year) & Dr. Goodal goes to Yar- 
mouth. I suppose old Salter is at Bromley drawing in 
the sweet breath of young girls to prolong his life. For 
he certainly left Norwich, & went to board at the great 
Girls School at Bromley (in Kent) with a view of that 
sort, on reading a very clever book called ' Hermippus 
Redivivus,' who recommends that I speak of to old men. 

" P.S. I hear that Keller could not do more than take 
possession of St. Albans before Gooch died, & is to have 
the other living from the Crown, sede vacante, and that 
the said Gooch was very angry on the Monday before 
Thursday on which he died, with those that intimated to 
him their thoughts of his danger." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

To be left with Mrs. Waldegrave, 

at Lynn, Norfolk. 
B Free Win-1 
~ chester.J 

Francis Keller, the successor of Charles Ray in his 
livings, was Fellow of Jesus, Cambridge. He brought 


out an edition of Justin Martin's " Apologies" from the 
notes of the shy, diffident Dr. Ashton, the master of his 
college. In the possession of the Editor is a MS. sermon 
by Keller on a young man of St. Albans, " who was killed 
by the fall of a bucket in a well." 

Francis Willoughby, who made the unseemly election 
threat, succeeded his father, Thomas, in 1729, and died 
in 1758. He was descended from Bridget, eldest daughter 
and co-heir of Sir Francis Willoughby of Wollaton, Not- 
tinghamshire, who built the beautiful house, Wollaton 
Hall, 1580-1588, designed by John Thorpe and carried 
out by Robert Smythson, surveyor of the works and 
director of certain Italian master-workmen. These refined 
artists would have considerably opened their eyes at the 
odd curly gables and other German details which the 
marriage of the Princess Elizabeth to Frederick V., Elector 
Palatine of the Rhine, and the general wave of debased 
Renaissance then passing over Europe, made so popular 
in England later on. 

Eyton Butts was so named after his mother, Eliza- 
beth, of the ancient Salopian family of Eyton of Eyton. 
She was buried in the chapel of the Palace at Norwich. 

John Garnet was a Fellow of Sidney and Lady 
Margaret Preacher to the university. He went to 
Ireland in 1751 as chaplain to the Duke of Dorset, and 
in 1752 was made Bishop of Ferns; he was translated 
to Clogher in 1758, where he remained until his death. 
He is oddly described as " a prelate of great humility and 
a friend to literature and religion. Tho' he had but one 
eye he could discern men of merit." He wrote a dis- 
sertation on the Book of Job in 1 749, concerning which 
Lord Morton said, on seeing a copy at the Duke of New- 
castle's, that it was " a very proper book for the ante- 
chamber of a prime minister." Probably many in their 
long tarryings in what Dr. Johnson, in his famous surly 
letter to Lord Chesterfield, calls " the outward rooms," 


recalled the patriarch's awe-ful chapter and cursed their 
day, as he did. 

Bishop Gooch's " managing " with regard to prefer- 
ment was notorious. Before he had been seven months 
at Ely, Barbara Kerrich thus speaks of her right reverend 
uncle to her sister Elizabeth Postlethwayt, September 22, 
1748: "Y e Bishop do bartter & bargain away things 

Edmund Law was of St. John's, Cambridge, and a 
Fellow of Christ's. He was descended from an ancient 
family of " Statesmen " in Westmoreland. The univer- 
sity presented him to Greystoke rectory, Cumberland, and 
he was appointed Archdeacon of Carlisle in 1743. He 
was elected Master of Peterhouse in 1756, through the 
influence of Bishop Keene and, but for his own action, 
would have succeeded Bishop Green in the Divinity Pro- 
fessorship instead of Rutherford (see Letter, November 13, 
1756). Law was appointed Principal Librarian to the 
University of Cambridge in 1760. 

In 1763 Law was collated to a prebend at Lichfield, 
and appointed Archdeacon of Staffordshire ; in the same 
year he was collated to a prebend at Lincoln, and in 1767 
to one at Durham. He was consecrated Bishop of Car- 
lisle in 1769, and died at Rose Castle in 1787. His 
first work, that mentioned by Pyle, was his " Essay on 
the Origin of Evil," a translation of Archbishop King's 
(William King, Dublin, 17021729) De Origine Mali } 
which Law annotated copiously. In 1734 appeared his 
" Enquiry into the Ideas of Space and Time," an attack 
upon a priori proofs of the existence of God in answer to 
Jackson's work. The book by which Law is best known 
is " Considerations on the State of the World with regard 
to the Theory of Religion," 1745. In his philosophical 
views he was a disciple of Locke. His life was written 
by Paley of " The Evidences," and his portrait was 
painted three times by Romney. Law's son Edward 


became Lord Chief Justice of England and first Baron 
Ellenborough. He was retained as leading counsel for 
Warren Hastings in the trial in Westminster Hall, in 
1792, so well described by Madame D'Arblay. Another 
son was successively Bishop of Chester and of Bath and 
Wells, where he is still remembered for his sumptuous 
style of living and travelling after the manner of the pre- 
lates of a previous generation. 

Philip Francis, of Trinity College, Dublin, was a 
miscellaneous writer and clergyman. He was fortunate, 
after failing at play-writing, to become private chaplain to 
Lady Caroline Fox, and taught Lady Sarah Lennox to 
declaim, and Charles James Fox to read. He went with 
the boy to Eton, after the fashion of that time, for his 
assistance in his work, and made himself useful to Lord 
Holland, who obtained for him both preferment and a 
Crown pension. The translation of Horace, alluded to 
by Pyle, was a work of Francis's early years, and much 
commended by Dr. Johnson. The play of " Constantine," 
scoffed at by Pyle, produced at Coven t Garden, February 
2 3> *754> expired on the fourth night. It was printed, 
and dedicated to Lord Chesterfield. As to his character, 
Pyle's words seem hardly borne out by the patronage he 
enjoyed and the pension he received, through George 
Grenville's influence, of 300 a year. Churchill attacked 
Francis in " The Author " as " the atheist chaplain of an 
atheist lord." The " advice " spoken of by Pyle evidently 
has reference to this view of Francis's character. He 
was the father of Sir Philip Francis, whose warrant to be 
the author of many of the Letters seems to be established, 
though Sir Philip never claimed to be "Junius." It 
appears, however, that " Junius " was a far better writer 
than Francis, and both Pitt, and Woodfall the printer of the 
Letters, stated that they knew Francis not to be " Junius " ; 
but " both died before the authorship had been publicly, 
if at all, attributed to Francis." Recollecting Lord Beacons- 


field's weighty advice to a nobleman's sons respecting the 
execution of Charles I., and the authorship of the Letters 
of Junius, the latter subject may not be pursued further 

Samuel Salter, son of the Archdeacon of Norfolk, 
was educated at the Charterhouse and Corpus. He was 
elected a Fellow in 1735. He held many preferments, 
among them prebends at Gloucester and Norwich, and the 
rectory of St. Bartholomew near the Royal Exchange. 
He was appointed Master of the Charterhouse in 1761. 
In 1777 he corrected for Nichols the printer the proof 
sheets of Bentley's " Dissertation on Phalaris." Of the two 
sermons he printed, according to the common custom of the 
time, that on the worn text, " Can these dry bones live ? " 
is referred to at length by Pyle in the letter of May 29, 
1755. Samuel Salter, the father, left Norwich at the 
age of seventy, and settling in London, became a member 
of the Rambler's Club, Dr. Johnson being one of the nine. 
The boarding-school for young ladies at Bromley, to which 
Salter retired, was kept by the wife of another of the nine 
Ramblers, Mrs. Hawkesworth. 


" 22 May 1754. 

" The resignation of S. Lynn does, I hear, dis- 
turb some persons & who can help that ? It was the 
only way of serving one of the worthiest men in the world ; 
& preventing his passing the residue of his poor sickly 
life in the drudgery of curate's office. Our family have 
obligations to him beyond what is done for him, or what 
may be suffer'd for him, if the baseness of some minds 
should lead them to gratify a low revenge on a wrong 
object. For I am, really, the person of ill-desert, if there 
be any; all being of my doing. And I ask only one plain 
question. Suppose Everard's interest had lain in the new 


Bishop of Ely & mine in the old one, what would he 
have thought of me if I had been angry that he used his 
interest with the person now in the see to serve his 
friend, & did not compliment my friend with the pre- 
ference ! 

" We have got 700 by Mr. Rolfe's death. Your 
neighbour 50,000. The new Bishop of Chichester is 
there. The Bishop of Ely is at Kensington, & will be yet 
some time. 

" Young (Jack) Gooch has, I hear, told several that his 
father set on foot the negotiation with Eyton Butts, for 
Rand's two livings, on purpose to give you a stall at Ely. 
And lamented, it seems, that he could not bring the matter 
to bear ; but was forced to let Garnet and Butts agree, & 
the prebend go with two livings to the former. I have 
said, (so that he might hear it again) that either of Mr. 
Rand's livings would have been as acceptable to you, 
& produced you more money, than a stall, & he might 
have given you one of them without any negotiation at all. 
This may be, perhaps, my year for doing mischief. 

" H. Hammond has been a begging (by his uncle old 
[British] Horace) at every bishop's door in England a 
great while, and refused everywhere ; nay even where he 
has now succeeded; so that all hopes were lost. But two 
stalls, at Bristol and Rochester falling together, & two of 
the Yorkes studying (of late) politely at old Horace's feet, 
they asked one of these & obtained it. Old Horace has 
been angry with my Lord a good while that he would not 
set me aside for his nephew. 

" I am, ever y rs ., 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn, in Norfolk. 

B Free Win-~i 
~ Chester. J 


Pyle's remarks about " S. Lynn " refer to his resigna- 
tion of St. Margaret's. The " neighbour " who " has 
got" 50,000 by Mr. Rolfe's death is apparently the then 
owner of Heacham Hall, near Dersingham. " Young 
Jack Gooch " was John, son of the bishop by his second 
wife. He became rector of Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire. 
There is a beautiful portrait of him in pastels by Thomas 

" Old British Horace " is Horatio Walpole, a dis- 
tinguished diplomatist during the administration of his 
brother, Sir Robert. He was created Baron Walpole of 
Wolterton, Norfolk, in 1756. His sister Susan married 
Anthony Hammond of Wotton, in the same county, and 
" H. Hammond " must be her son. Horatio, Lord 
Wolterton's son, second Baron Wolterton, succeeded his 
cousin, Horace Walpole, in 1797, as fifth Baron Walpole 
(all the other honours having then expired according to 
the limitation), was created Earl of Orford in 1806, and 
became the ancestor of the present peer. 

The fortunate Yorke was probably James, fifth son of 
Philip, first Earl of Hardwicke. He was consecrated 
Bishop of Ely on the death of Edmund Keene, and ruled 
that see until his death in 1808. 


"June 20, 1754. 


" The Bishop sets out this day for Norwich. 
There can be no doubt of your letters going right to 
the Dean of St. Asaph. The Archbishop lives, & is to 
live, at Croydon, where any letter will go directly to him. 
(The Dean of St. Asaph always lives at Lambeth Palace.) 
I think his Grace is as well as ever, except that he has not 
recovered the flesh he lost in his late illness. 

" Dr. Shuckford was treated with about exchanging his 


stall at Canterbury for one at Durham, by which swop he 
would have been gainer 100 a year. But in the time of 
the treaty he has a second stroke of the palsy which has 
put an end to that, & to his capacity for any business, 
though it is possible he may live a few years, if the 
distemper does not attack him again. 

" I am, Dear Sir, 

" Yours &c., 

"E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham near Lynn, 

in Norfolk, 
B Free Win--| 
-" Chester. J 

Samuel Shuckford was a scholar of Caius, and became 
canon of Canterbury and rector of All Saint's, Lombard 
Street. He was the author of " Sacred and Profane 
History of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian 
Empire and to the Declension of the Kingdom of Judah 
and Israel under the reigns of Ahaz and Pekah," published 
in 1728, a work that has often been reprinted. His 
" Creation and Fall of Man" appeared in 1753. The 
few letters from Shuckford to Kerrich, 17201721, are 
written in a fluent and attractive style, teeming with 
apposite classical quotations. He married in 1721, and 
writes thus from Hardwicke, December 1 3th : " 'Tis too 
soon for me to pretend to write to you ab* the Satisfac- 
tions of a married Life ; it is a Subject of weight and 
moment ; it requires as many experiments as S r Isaac 
Newton made ab* Lights & Colours & perhaps (I don't say 
as much Patience, but) as much Skill in trying them." 
" The distemper," as Pyle calls it, appears soon after 
to have again attacked this amiable man, for he died 
on July 14, 1754, and is buried in Canterbury 



"Chelsea, Oct : 8. 1754. 


" Mr. Phelpes sent me word t'other day, that 
you gave your service to me, so here's my service to 
you again. Don't ye pray for rain in Norfolk ? we 
do here, might & main ; for the face of the country looks 
as if it had never been green, (the lands hereabouts being 
highly forced with dung,) & people are very hard put to't 
to support their milch cattle ; every thing of the cabbage 
kind, that the caterpillars have not devoured, the cows 
have, & also all the first crop of (deplorable) turnips. We 
can hardly get milk enough for common uses in the family. 
In the mean time every body acknowledges it a healthful 
autumn as has been known. 

" I presented this day to his Majesty a volume of 
Sermons, of the Bishop of Winchester, all but six of which 
are republished. They are the Old Cocks, that fought the 
battles of liberty in good Queen Anne's days ; the other 
six are on State Holy-Days. This volume will be fol- 
lowed, in about two months, by another that will contain 
chiefly, Sermons preached at Court, & which, at the time 
of preaching, & since, have been much talked of. 

" On Sunday was 7 night I spent the day at Fulham 
Palace, by invitation from my Lord of London ; I being to 
present there for Holy Orders, a Scotch Lord, and an 
English Justice of Peace, (who are now both presbyters 
of the church of England, & officiate in the diocese of 
Winton,) upon whom hands were imposed by the Bishop 
of Bangor. 

" My Lord of London looks shockingly stupid, is vastly 
deaf & so feeble that he cannot rise from his chair without 
help, & hardly sit down again without as much assistance. 
His speech (which never was good) is now so thick & 
imperfect that I could scarcely understand what he talked ; 


& he can hardly write his name. Yet his parts, they say, 
are good still, I am sure his stomach is. He is nothing 
like a dying man ; but such a life is not worth having. 
The Archbishop of Canterbury was here three hours, one 
day last week. He eats, sleeps, & uses exercise like 
other folks ; but has never yet been quite clear of his 
original complaints, shortness of breath & a pain in his 
side ; nor has recovered the flesh he lost, whilst under the 
doctor's hands ; & which he could very ill spare. He will 
not, it is feared, live many years. He is quite settled at 
Croydon & I fancy, for life ; for he sees he's a cypher 
who they will let have no influence, & will gladly lay any 
blame upon. The Minister is himself the Fac Totum in 
ecclesiastic affairs, & a sweet manager he is, for what with 
the last Election, & his pitiful passion for the Chancellor- 
ship of Cambridge he has involved himself in promises of 
church preferments to the greatest degree of perplexity. 
There are now two vacant stalls ; one at Durham, & one 
at Canterbury ; & he durst not dispose of either of them. 
He torments the poor Archbishop of Canterbury for every- 
thing that falls in his gift, so that if a thing drops, he is 
forced to give it away the moment he is informed of it, 
for fear of the Duke of Newcastle. He is as great a 
plague to the other Bishops, asking even for their small 
livings. Ely gives him everything (they say, by bargain :) 
Chichester, Peterborough, Durham, Gloucester, Salisbury, 
&c., &c., are slaves to him, in this respect. Only London 
& Winchester give him flat denials, unless we are to add 
York, which is a point problematical. As to Lord Chan- 
cellor, it is a kind of bargain made with every one that 
enters upon that high office, ' that the Minister shall 
dispose of most of the church preferments in his gift.' 

" I hear the Bishop of Ely has had a bad fit of 
sickness, for the first time in his life, but is recovered, & 
was very tractable in his illness. Have Lord Boling- 
broke's volumes reached you ? They don't sell, as was 

ll'illiaw Hoare, Pi;t*t. y, McArdell, Fecit. 



expected. His abuse of church-men is so over charged 
that it does not the mischief he intended. I do not hear 
of one High-Church clergyman that is about answering his 
calumnies, except you reckon Warburton in that number. 
This great genius is lately made a Doctor, at Lambeth, & 
Chaplain to the King, in order to his being made Dean of 
Bristol. The chaplainship, all the world knows to be 
a waiting job, & (by what I can hear of the Dean of 
Bristol's health) t'other thing is likely to be of the same 
sort. He has printed some sermons that are much in the 
stile of South, and has answered Bolingbroke in the same 
sort of rant as that divine would have done. He is likely 
to lose credit by this latter performance, & not to get it by 
the first. 

" Sir W. Browne received last week a very great 
mortification by being voted out of the office of Treasurer 
of the College of Physicians. That body has been for a 
good while in the same state the town of Lynn was lately, 
viz. the heels where the head should be. And the Knight 
has played much the same game in both cases. Some of 
the top physicians resolving to attend the affairs of the 
College, which they had shamefully neglected, & knowing 
Sir William's aim to be at the Presidentship, they privately 
settled that point for Dr. Reeve, a physician of the first 
practice in the city, & a man who will do more honour to 
the post than he will receive from it. When he was 
elected, the elections of other officers came on. The votes 
for and against Sir William's being continued Treasurer 
were 1 1 & 1 1 ; by ballot. On which the new President 
refused to decide the case by a casting vote, & desired a 
second ballot ; in which the balls against Sir William 
were 12, & for him 1 1. In the progress of balloting for 
other officers, it was found in one case that the balls were 
dropt into wrong boxes, viz. the black into the white box, 
and vice versa. Upon this Sir William stood up and said, 
' how did he know but there might be the same mistake 


in his case ? ' And demanded a third ballot. This was 
consented to, and then he had I 3 balls against him & 9 
for him. He is treated with great contempt by the 
Faculty, & has no manner of business. 

" I am amazed to see what a heap of stuff I have 
thrown together, & so good night to you. 

" I am, with proper respects, 
" Dear Sir, 

" Y rs &c., 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

at Dersingham, near Lynn, in Norfolk. 

B. Free Win-l 
~ Chester. J 

Twenty years had passed since anything had appeared 
from the Bishop of Winchester's pen. Many, perhaps, 
who now read Hoadly's " Old Cocks " of two centuries 
ago will be disposed to exclaim with the most memorable 
martyr of the great Revolution Madame Roland, born in 
this very year as she looked upon the statue of Liberty 
from the scaffold in 1793, " O Liberte, comme on t'a jouee." 

The dignitaries who were in the untoward plight de- 
scribed by Pyle were Thomas Sherlock, Bishop of London, 
who nevertheless lived until 1761, and Thomas Herring, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in 1757. The 
Duke of Newcastle succeeded his brother, Henry Pelham, 
as First Lord of the Treasury in 1754. He had been 
appointed High Steward of Cambridge in 1737, and 
Chancellor of the University in 1748. He resigned 
office as First Lord of the Treasury in 1756, and was 
created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme. 

Writing to Kerrich, August 14, 1754, with reference 
to preferment, Archbishop Herring says : " But one way 
is quite shut up to me, for I find my great Friends so 
prodigiously embarrass'd that out of a point of honour, & 


in truth a sort of compassion, I never yet asked anything 
of them for my nearest relation, & I think I never shall." 
A better proof of the accuracy of Pyle's information there 
could not be. 

In further testimony we have the following extract 
from a letter to Kerrich from his first cousin John Kerrich, 
M.D., of Bury St. Edmunds, dated November 24, 1752, 
showing how long and persistently " the Minister " had 
plagued the bishops : " When the Duke of Newcastle is 
satisfy'd other Folks may have some Chance, he made 
the Master of Jesus, and the Master of Bennet, and will 
make the Master of Peterhouse. . . . The Archbishop and 
Bishop of Ely have, undoubtedly, great Obligations to the 
Duke, but sure the Time will come when they will think 
they have sufficiently repaid him." 

Owing to the manipulations of Bishop Gooch, Bishop 
Mawson had hardly the prospect of the presentation to 
a single stall in his church, or of a good living in his 
diocese " matters have been so managed " (see Letter of 
March 2, 1754). So Ely's "bargain" with "the Mini- 
ster " must have been rather one-sided. 

The Lord Chancellor here spoken of was Philip Hard- 
wicke, first Earl of Hardwicke. On the death of Henry 
Pelham, Hardwicke managed the negotiations which placed 
Newcastle at the Treasury, he himself retaining the Great 
Seal. He was rewarded for his long and eminent services 
by the titles of Viscount Royston and Earl of Hardwicke. 
He was chiefly responsible for the harsh measures dealt 
out to Scotland after " the '45 " ; for the annexing of the 
forfeited estates in perpetuity to the Crown ; the invalida- 
tion of the order of Scottish non-juring episcopalian clergy, 
and the introduction into Scotland of regular impartial 
administration of justice. To him also was due the 
reform of the Marriage Law in 1753. He considered 
Admiral Byng guilty, and held No. 45 of the North 
Briton, the organ of the notorious John Wilkes, to be 


a seditious libel ; but he disapproved of the dangerous 
principle of A General Warrant, exercised in Wilkes's case 
in 1 764, and since pronounced to be illegal. Hardwicke's 
plan for the pacification of Scotland presents a strange 
blending of wisdom and folly, including as it did the 
abolition of the tartan. During his prolonged tenure of 
the Great Seal the clavis regni he displayed his great 
qualities, and quietly brought equity from a chaos of 
precedents into a scientific system. He exercised his 
patronage jointly with Newcastle, just as Pyle says. 

Of Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke, the cele- 
brated orator and brilliant writer, profligate and free- 
thinker, it can only be said here that the volumes alluded 
to by Pyle are the collected works in five books, published 
in 1754 by Mallet. 

Warburton was appointed one of the King's chaplains, 
September 1754, and made a D.D. by Archbishop Herring, 
and Dean of Bristol by Pitt, just elected M.P. for Bath, 
July 1757. Warburton answered Mallet's Bolingbroke 
in 1754 and 1755 in " View of Lord Bolingbroke's 
Philosophy," " a work as tiresome as the book assailed." 
The Deanery of Bristol was also so far " a Waiting Job," 
inasmuch as two years later its holder was advanced to 
the See of Gloucester. 

The brilliantly witty South was another Westminster 
boy, and one of Busby's scholars. He became a canon 
of Christ Church, to which " House " he had been elected 
from Westminster, and was appointed in 1678 Rector 
of I slip, where he restored the chancel of that interesting 
Norman church, and built the rectory dwelling. He 
was appointed a prebendary of Westminster in 1663. 
It is perhaps to be expected that Pyle should stigmatise 
as " rant " the graphic humours of the sermons of a 
high churchman such as South, whose change of attitude 
or "shiftyness" would have been safer ground for attack 
from such a quarter. 



Sept 25 (1754)- 

" Since I saw you my father has been worse 
than when I saw you, so I did not go to Earlam, but 
have been with him almost all this time. He has been free 
from any symptoms of fever for 5 days and is (what they 
call) recovering apace but desperately shock'd in my 
opinion, & I dread his passage thro' the winter. You 
need not fear my not being at home at the season of 
Visitation. A good bed, &c. is, & shall be, ready for you ; 
come and dine with me o' the monday. The old gentle- 
man reckons upon your company. 

" I am yrs to the Hilts, 

"E. PYLE." 
To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 


"Jan. 11, 1755. 

" After wishing you many happy years, I shall 
give you such stuff as I have, and, should be glad if it 
were better, for your sake. My Brother Philip has (I 
believe by this time) parted with a living of 300 a year, 
in Wiltshire, & accepted Castle Rising, in lieu of it. The 
Bishop of Winchester proposed to join a living in his Lord- 
ship's gift, to that this gentleman has parted with, but he 
was pleased to let his Lordship know he would have 
nothing to do with any country but Norfolk. And, in 
less than a month after this refusal, a living fell of 350 
a year, which my brother might have joined to his 
former. What I speak of is two years ago. I send you 
this ridiculous account, first, to wish you joy of your near 
neighbour, that is to be ; 2ndly to desire you to contra- 


diet your son sometimes, the want of which has been this 
fellow's ruin ; and thirdly to express my prayer that he 
may never live, but in the almshouse, or lie but with the 
old women, by turns. 

" Three times have the principal divines of the Church 
of England lately met together, viz. at St. Pauls, at West- 
minster Abbey, & at Court, for the forming and perfecting 
of that poor, harmless, creature (of man's invention) called 
the Convocation. I was at all these meetings. Dr. 
Plumtree, Archdeacon of Ely, preached, & made the 
Latin speech at presenting the Prolocutor ; & did both 
well. The Prolocutor spoke, but ill, & is, I think, a 
mere old woman, name & thing : & never was a young 
girl more delighted with a pair of laced shoes, than is this 
old fool with his insignificant pre-eminence. You see by 
what is happened to Lynch, that it is not an infallible 
road to a bishoprick. What is the matter with that 
man's character, I can't say. But there is something to 
his prejudice that sticks so with the Minister, that, for all 
his wants of things in the Church to stop peoples' 
mouths, which are great & crying, and for all the good 
things Lynch has to resign, & is willing to resign, 
he will not hear of his being a bishop. His Grace of 
Canterbury has laboured hard for him, but in vain. 
And, it seems, cannot tell him the reason why he cannot 
serve him. 

" The Archbishop of York's eldest daughter has been 
upon the brink of matrimony, twice, to one Dr. Cotton of 
the Peak of Derbyshire, who has very good preferment, 
besides a good estate, & demands a great fortune in cash 
with the lady, & will not reckon his chance for preferment 
from his Grace at any price. So Mrs. Hutton has, a 
second time, thrown the thing off the hooks ; and I don't 
know whether an acquaintance of yours is not likely to have 
his ears boxed, for a joke, that Cotton is pleased with, & 
has propagated, viz. That Mrs. Hutton (who was once a 


chambermaid at the old Duke of Somerset's) has swept 
him with the Beezom of Destruction. 

"Lord Montford, having intangled his circumstances 
very much, having an expensive and paltry fellow for his 
son, and some bodily complaints (that exercise would have 
cured), shot himself on new year's day in the morning, 
with all the premeditation and deliberation imaginable. 
He had talked with surgeons & others, about the best 
way of shooting into the head. And having sent for a 
lawyer and read over his will twice, & signed a codicil, 
& asked, over & over, if all was so clearly expressed that 
there could be no dispute about his meaning, & being told 
all was right, he stept out of the room, &, at going, 
said ' I'll be with you presently/ went into the ad- 
joining room, & in an instant shot himself into the 
roof of his mouth, with a pistol he had provided on 
purpose. It is pity but he had done thus twenty-five 
years ago, for he has made all the young nobility mad 
after gaming. 

" For three days last week it was in everybody's 
mouth, in London & twenty miles round, that the Duke 
of Bedford had caught his duchess napping with a 
gallant, & shot the man upon the spot. Never was a 
story so soon spread and so universally believed, and 
yet there was not the least ground in the world for 
the report. 

"As for literary news there is very little stirring. 
Mr. Chandler & Dr. Leland (it is said) are answering 
Lord Bolingbroke. Dr. Warburton has published a New 
Edition of the first volume of his Divine Legation 
of Moses, in two parts. The second volume of Divine 
Legation he does all he can to suppress. So there's an 
end of that mighty work. His two volumes of Sermons 
do not sell ; nor his Letters in reply to Bolingbroke. 
Hume, a Scotsman, the writer of (Deistical and Atheisti- 
cal) Essays &c., &c. has published the first volume of a 



(professedly) Jacobite History of England. The fears of 
Old Whigs that we are in danger of falling into very 
bad hands (in the next reign) are broke out in a pam- 
phlet well worth your reading, called an Essay on 
the Liberty of the Press. The Bishop of Norwich's 
Chaplain Dr. Butler, minister of Yarmouth, has pub- 
lished a mighty clever sermon preached before the Sons 
of the Clergy. 

" Now I am upon Men of Letters, I'll tell you of 
a thing done but not yet published, i.e. Old Mawson has 
married a couple of his own servants in Ely-House 
Chapel & is actually liable to transportation. I believe 
the folks were married over again at St Andrew's Hoi- 
born & the thing is hushed up. I have heard it twice 
from a Member of the House of Commons that you know 
very well. If the story gets wind, I intend to tell it, that 
he read the burial office over the couple, and so the law 
can't touch him. This Right Rev d (blunderer) was at the 
meetings of Convocation, and though he is peculiarly the 
Cambridge Bishop, had, in the particular habit of cere- 
mony used by bishops on those occasions, every mark of 
his being an Oxford graduate. 

" Your pupil my Lord of Chichester, preaches on the 
30 of January. If I do not forget it, I will put him in 
mind to send you his Sermon. Somebody told me, a 
great while ago, that J. Mickleburgh was got into a 
scrape about marrying a couple, & was guilty by the 
old law, as well as the new. 

" The Bishop of Winchester will publish another 
volume of Sermons, preached chiefly at Court, in a few 
weeks. They will be worth your reading. And pray 
mind one of them on building again the things one had 
pulled down. 

" Dr. Sykes has had the gout in his stomach, but is 
well again. He will put forth, in a week or two, a Para- 
phrase & Commentary (in Locke's manner), on the Epistle 


to the Hebrews. I saw him t'other day, poor creature, 
in the midst of his pain, correcting Rahab the Harlot. 

"Old Sam: Shepherd's daughter (a fine girl, worth 
150 thousand pounds), will, probably, by Lord Montford's 
death, escape marrying his worthless son. The deceased 
behaved in the best manner to this young lady. 

" I have seen here lately a daughter of Dr. Grey's of 
Northamptonshire, with Mrs. Hoadly's sister. This Miss 
Grey astonishes the world of painters &c., by her works 
in worsted. I saw a bunch of grapes of her doing that 
are equal to anything of Rubens. And I saw a painter 
astonished at being told that what he saw was needle work, 
though he stood but three or four yards from it ; * and 
more astonished when he went up to it. I think I have 
emptied my budget, & finished my paper. So good 

" I am &c., 

"E. PYLE. 

" * She has also copied a picture of Rubens of 
Fruit & Landscape in worsted, on seeing which the Princess 
of Wales presented her with i oo guineas & wished herself 
able to take the work & give her a proper reward. It is 
thought it will sell for 600. 

" There is a Bill for regulating marriages in Scotland 
just brought into the House of Lords. 

" The King will go abroad very early, & as Lord 
Holderness goes as Secretary, Dr. Green (of Cottenham) 
will go as Chaplain, & be Dean of Peterborough, on the 
Vacancy which Bishop Sherlock's death is expected to 
make, of London, & the promotion of the Praeceptor of 
Peterborough, & the promotion of Dr. Lamb, of the 
Deanery. Dr. Green (Master of Bennet) is to be Dean 
of Ely. But Allix (they say) is tough. 

" Lord Gage after having called himself a Protestant for 
many years, returned, & died in the bosom of the church 


of Rome. On his death-bed he performed the following 
penance in order to be absolved viz. had his head shaved, 
& lay 2 days & nights without a cap, & as oft as he was 
able, held a wax taper in his hand." 


To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
At Dersingham, near 
Lynn in Norfolk. 

B Free Win-1 

~ Chester. J 

Philip, younger brother of Edmund Pyle, was entered 
of Corpus in 1742, when he became Fellow, and after 
holding the preferment mentioned by Pyle, was appointed 
in 1756 Rector of North Lynn. How far he had earned 
the fantastic benediction of his brother there is no evidence 
to show, beyond the fact of his separating himself and his 
fortunes from Bishop Hoadly. He wished apparently, like 
Bishop Gooch, to " breathe his last where he breathed his 

The Lynch mystery to Pyle in 1755 is an enigma 
to us a century and a half later. We gather from sub- 
sequent letters that this well-preferred ecclesiastic was 
troubled with what Pyle calls "a vast carcass." He was 
Dean of Canterbury from 1734 to his death in 1760, and 
Master of St. Cross, Winchester, where "he lived like a 
Prince," for thirty-three years, & during which time he 
displayed a " cryingly shameful neglect " towards the fabric 
of that beautiful church and the Hospital buildings. He 
was one of the nineteen children of John Lynch of Staple, 
Kent, and married Mary, elder daughter of Archbishop 

Henry Bromley, only son and heir of John Bromley of 
Horseheath, Cambridgeshire, was born 170 5, and educated 
at Eton and Clare Hall. He sat as M.P. for Cambridge 
from 1727 to 1741, in which latter year he was created 


Baron Montfort. He committed suicide in the manner 
that Pyle relates on January i, 1755, and was buried in 
Trinity Chapel, South Audley Street. His wife died at 
the birth of her son Thomas, who succeeded his father as 
second Lord Montfort. He was Member for Cambridge- 
shire, and married Mary Ann, sister of Sir Patrick Blake, 
Bart. He was, as Pyle states, a worthless person, and set 
up for a man of fashion, and sold Horseheath to gratify 
his extravagances, one of them being a taste for mena- 
geries. So lt the fine girl," Miss Shepherd, and her 
hundred and fifty thousand pounds, had an escape. 

Samuel Chandler was a Nonconformist of much dis- 
tinction. In the full list of his works by Flexman there is 
nothing about his answering Bolingbroke. He wrote many 
attacks upon Roman Catholicism, and furnished several 
contributions to the Deist controversy, including " Reflec- 
tions on the Conduct of Modern Deists," " Plain Reasons 
for being a Christian," and a defence of Sherlock's " Trial 
of the Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus." 

John Leland was another Nonconformist divine, who 
also attacked the Deists, particularly in a work that came 
out in two volumes, 1754-1756, "A View of the Principal 
Deistical Writers that have appeared in England during the 
last and present Century," a work, as Sir Leslie Stephen 
says, of some value to the history of English thought. 
Leland published a separate volume in 1753 on Boling- 
broke's " Letters on the Study of History," and it is not 
apparent that he again answered Bolingbroke as Pyle 

About 1742 Warburton attacked Bolingbroke's "Letters 
on the Study of History," and he assailed him again in 
1749 on tne appearance of the "Letters" on the "Idea 
of a Patriot King." Pyle now alludes to Warburton's 
" View of Lord Bolingbroke's Philosophy " in answer to 
Mallet's posthumous edition of the sceptic's works. 

Of David Hume, the acutest thinker in Great Britain 


of the eighteenth century, it must suffice here only to 
recall that he went to France at the age of twenty-three, 
and lived a solitary life at La Fleche dreaming his philo- 
sophy. The publication of the first and second books of 
his " Treatise on Human Nature " gave the impulse to the 
storm that it aroused both in Scotland and Germany, and 
he was described as the outcome of the empirical philosophy 
of Locke. It was not until 1751 that Hume abandoned 
philosophy for history, his first volume appearing, as Pyle 
indicates, in 1/54. It met with a most disappointing 
reception, a condition which time has amply remedied. 
The scepticism of Hume, his relations with Rousseau, and 
his political career can only be alluded to here. 

John Butler, thus commended, was not a member of 
either university, but Cambridge gave him his LL.D. 
degree. Having taken orders he became a popular 
preacher in London, and in 1/54 was appointed chaplain 
to the Princess Dowager. He appears to have been vicar 
of Great Yarmouth before 1755, and Hayter, when Bishop 
of Norwich, made him his chaplain. 

Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act of 1753 practically 
placed marriage on the lines upon which it is now 

Miss Grey was daughter of the rector of Hinton in the 
Hedges with Stene, where Nathaniel, Lord Crewe, Bishop 
of Durham, 1674-1722 of discreditable political memory, 
and of Bamborough Charity and Lincoln College munificent 
fame had his ancestral home. Here is the picturesque 
chapel built by his father, Sir Thomas Crewe, in 1620, in 
a mixed, late Perpendicular and classic style, containing 
effigies two by Nicholas Stone and monuments, and the 
waving heraldic banners of the family. It may now be 
recalled that just a century later Miss Linwood, of a stock 
long settled at the delightful village of Cogenhoe in the 
same county, astonished society by similar trumpery per- 
formances to those of Miss Grey. 


Robert D'Arcy, fourth Earl of Holderness, was Gentle- 
man of the King's Bedchamber, in 1744 Ambassador to the 
Venetian Republic, and in 1749 Minister Plenipotentiary 
to the States General of the United Provinces. In 1751 
he was one of the principal Secretaries of State, a position 
which he resigned in 1752, but was re-appointed two 
years later. He made way for Lord Bute in 1 760. By 
his death in 1778, without male issue, the barony of 
D'Arcy and the earldom of Holderness became extinct. 

Peter Allix was of Jesus, Cambridge, and successively 
Dean of Gloucester and Dean of Ely. 

Thomas Gage, succeeded as eighth baronet, created 
Baron Gage of Castlebar, Co. Mayo, and Viscount Gage of 
Castle Island, Co. Kerry, Ireland. He died as described 
by Pyle, and was succeeded by his elder son, who was 
created a British peer in 1780, Baron Gage of Firle, 
Sussex. On the death of his only son in 1790, being 
deprived of direct descendants, he obtained another 
British peerage as Baron Gage of High Meadow, co. 
Gloucester, with remainder to his nephew and heir- 
presumptive, from whom the present and fifth Viscount 
Gage is descended. 


"20 Feb. 1755. 

" I have a word or two to say whilst I think of 
it. i. Pray buy J a pennyworth of good ink, of Mr. 
Somersby of Lynn ; for I can scarcely read your letters. 
2. I can say nothing as yet to the Bishop of Norwich, for 
he is busy over head & ears in making a sermon, for some 
publick occasion. 3. The skilful say there will be no war ; 
Our preparations have done the business. By which Lord 
Anson has got great credit. 4. I know nothing of the 
book about Babel, nor does any body else that comes in 
my way. Do you mean that the author has reflected 


upon my father ? if so, tell me what are his words. Some 
body has been trying to do mischief with the Archbishop 
of Canterbury about Phelpes having South Lynn. I take 
it to be your twopenny neighbour Dr. Hammond. He has 
missed his mark. And I may one day or other rib-roast 
him for the dirty attempt. I was some hours with the 
Archbishop t'other day. No man alive was ever so thin & 
looked so like a ghost. But he says he is well. Dr R. 
Newcomb (a year or two above me, at Queens,) will be 
Bishop of Landaff, by the Devonshire interest. He edu- 
cated the Marquis of Hartington & the Duke of Bridge- 
water. He's a clever fellow & as proud a one as ever 
wore a black gown & that's saying a great deal. Have 
you read the Essay on the Liberty of the Press ? get it. 

Y rs 

"E. PYLE." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

Dersingham, near Lynn, Norfolk. 

B Free Win-T 
~ Chester. J 

This refers to the important part the distinguished 
Admiral took in the reorganisation of the naval forces, a 
step which practice in war had shown to be necessary. 
The marine regiments were broken up, and a new corps of 
marines under the jurisdiction of the Admiralty was formed. 
The administration of the dockyards was improved and a 
new code of Articles of War drawn up, which was ratified 
by Parliament in 1749. These remained the law of the 
service until 1865, and the corps of marines, as planned 
in I 75$r is tne sam e as at the present day. For his 
beneficial reforms Anson well deserved the credit which 
Pyle says he got. 

Richard Newcome was consecrated Bishop of Llandaff 
in 1755 and translated to St. Asaph in 1761, where he 
remained until his death in 1769. 



"(Aprils, 1755)' 


" I really don't know what are the motives to the 
determination you mention, by the Society for the Relief 
of Clergymen's Widows, &c. 

" For Ink. 2 \ ounces Nut Galls (well pounded but not 
finely powder'd) put to a pint of rain water in a quart 
bottle and kept therein 4 weeks, shaking the bottle often. 
Pour off the liquor into another quart bottle. Then add 
Copperas i\ ounce, Gum Arabick one ounce, a piece of 
Alum as big as two large hazlenuts. Put in a few small 
pebbles (or 4 ounces of shot) and set the bottle (out of 
the sun) where you pass daily, & shake it stoutly, otherwise 
the parts separate, &, if ever so good at first, your ink will 
soon be good for nothing. This will cost about eight 
pence & last you your life. Mr. Somersby sells all the 

" I shall send, shortly, twenty sermons, published last 
week by the Lord Bishop of Winchester, to Mr. Phelpes, 
for the perusal of my friends in & near Lynn, amongst 
whom you are named, and on writing to Mr. Phelpes will 
have the volume sent you as soon as it is " out of hand," 
as the Coffee-men say by newspapers. 

" Dr. Warburton is made prebendary of Durham the 
Bishop of Durham's Chaplain liking Warburton's prefer- 
ments better than that prebend ; all which are resigned 
to him. I think of nothing else at present. With true 
love & service, &c., 

" E. PYLE. 
" Thursday, Easter Week. 

" Since I writ what is on the other side I have cast 
my eye on Charles's book. He is considered by Sykes, 
&c. as a mere ' whacnum ' to Warburton. All that part 
on the Revelations & the Notes are Warburtons, & most 


of the rest licked over by him. The young man has 
printed 500 at his own expense. 

" I had forgot what gave occasion to the rudeness to 
my father. But Dr. Sykes has helped me to recollect. 
Viz. In the Dr.'s book against Warburton the first page 
begins with saying 'Our Friend Mr. P. calls it ("War- 
burton's Legation ") a Learned Romance.' Now in the 
MS. (Dr. Sykes says) it was Mr. T. & the printer made it 
a P. Sykes did not alter this in the printed sheet. And 
as to my father (however likely) he never did in fact say 
such a word, as W.'s book being a Learned Romance. If 
it was said, Dr. Sykes thinks it was by Mr. Tomlinson (of 
Queens.) You see upon what a pretty foundation this 
blade has built, or rather his master, who has written him- 
self out of reputation. And has used Mr. Jortin so ill that 
he has thrown off his acquaintance." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn, Norfolk. 

B Free Win-"] 

~ Chester. J 

Joseph Charles was son of the Rector of Swaffham, 
Norfolk ; he appears to have taken no degree or to have 
been of either university. He was presented to the 
Vicarage of Wighton, Norfolk, in 1740, and remained 
there until his death. The book spoken of by Pyle seems 
to have been his only work " The Dispersion," written 
in a style " prolix even for that time." 

John Jortin was son of a Huguenot refugee. He was 
educated at Charterhouse and Jesus, Cambridge ; he 
became Fellow in 1721. Archbishop Herring gave him 
the rectory of St. Dunstan in the East, and Bishop 
Osbaldeston made him a prebendary of St. Paul's, and 
Archdeacon of London. His charges, like his sermons, 
were highly thought of, but he would not publish them, 


saying " They will sleep till I sleep." He contributed 
some remarkable letters on the obscure subject, " The 
Music of the Ancients/' to Avison's " Essay on Musical 
Expression." Jortin's " Erasmus " was well considered in 
its day, and his five volumes of ecclesiastical history are 
still valued for their light and epigrammatic style. 


"The day of the Happy Restoration, 1755. 

" I am glad of your letters contain they little or 
much. My Lord of Chichester is gone to his diocese ; and 
so are most of the Lords Spiritual. Ely & Norwich are 
here, for about I o days longer. This is not the season of 
news. Young Dr. Salter (who is come hither, some think, 
to be undone) has set up his coach. And preached a 
sermon before the Stewards, &c. of the Sons of the Clergy, 
(from Ezekiel's Dry Bones) in which he railed at all parts 
of the management of that charity, offended the Stewards, 
& made all the talk in Town for a week. It was not 
desired to be printed, but, at last, is recanted, and printed 
as it was not preached, and is thought a very poor & 
rediculous performance. I told you of my sending to Mr. 
Phelpes my Lord of Winton's second vol. of twenty 
Sermons, for my friends, (& you by name) to read. 
When you read them you may consider them as, in a 
manner, written by the author at 78 years of age. For I 
do assure you, that, between the time of their going 
out of my hands, (who did them from short hand into 
long), & their coming from the press, they received amend- 
ments that shew the writer equal to the composition of 
them at this time of his life. This is inter nos. The first 
Sermon, On Superstition, caused Bishop Gibson to say 
he should lay his Thumb upon the man that preached it. 
Whereupon the next time the man preached in his hearing 


he gave him Sermon VII. On Consistency. The twentieth 
Sermon is the first the author ever made, & was preached 
for Dr. Lunn in the last century at his parish of Elsworth. 
The Sermon on the Good Samaritan, brought Dr. Clarke 
& the author acquainted, the Dr. (by chance) hearing it at 
Westminster Abbey. The Sermon about Unprofitable 
Servants was made at the desire of a person unknown, 
who prefered his request to the author on meeting him in 
the street, thanked him, afterwards, in the street also, & 
was never seen by him any more. Sermons V. & IX. 
have been spoken of with the greatest encomium, & the 
printing of them often desired, by the present Lord 
Chancellor. They are all universally read & commended. 
There are enough for another volume, and it shall go hard 
but the world shall have them. Shortly will appear an 
Account of the French Parson's forging a note over the 
Bishop's name for 8,800 pounds; of which you may pro- 
bably have heard a great deal of talk. The Bishop of 
London has also published a second volume of Sermons 
lately ; & he has given 1,000 (out of a very large sum fallen 
to him a while ago by the death of his brother's widow), to 
the Corporation for the Maintenance of Clergymen's 

" We are in a strange state, betwixt War & Peace, 
that nobody knows what to make of. The Stocks rise, 
however. But are not got up to what they were six 
months ago. The Archbishop of Canterbury is what they 
call very well. I have seen him twice lately coming to 
the meeting of the Lords of the Regency, which he attends 
weekly. He looks like a shadow, but speaks very 

" I have had bad luck ; as thus. Dr. Lowth, who is 
possessed of the Archdeaconry of Winchester, & a living 
of ^.350 a year, in my Lord's gift, was lately make First 
Chaplain to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, & since that 
the Bishoprick of Limerick (2000 a year) is fallen. My 


Lord had no doubt but Dr. Lowth would accept it gladly ; 
so his English preferment was offered to one of the pre- 
bendaries of Winchester if the said prebendary would 
resign his stall to me. He consented, & we thought the 
thing as good as done. But Lo ! the whoreson Lowth 
will not be an Irish Bishop, at any rate ; & has got leave 
to exchange Limerick for a Deanery in England, so he 
keeps what he has besides, and there's an end of Pill 
Garlick for this bout. And so good night to you. 

" E. P." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn, in Norfolk. 
B Free Win-"] 
~ chester.J 

Edmund Gibson was admitted of Queen's College, 
Oxford, as a " poor serving child." He took an interest 
early in life in Anglo-Saxon studies, and published an 
edition of the " Saxon Chronicles" in 1692, when in his 
twenty-third year. He brought out an English transla- 
tion of Camden's Britannia, with the help of Lloyd of 
Jesus and others, in 1698, and Reliquiae Spelmannice 
in 1698. Archbishop Tenison made him his domestic 
chaplain, and gave him the rectory of Lambeth. Gibson 
became involved in the controversy as to the rights and 
powers of Convocation, and strongly opposed the views of 
Atterbury. He published in 1702 Synodus Anglicana, 
or the Constitution and Proceedings of an English Con- 
vocation, a work of great merit and research. In 1713 
appeared his magnum opus, Codex Juris Ecclesice Angli- 
cance, or the Statutes, Constitutions, Canons, Rubrics, 
and Articles of the Church of England, a monument of 
research, still one of the best authorities on ecclesiastical 
law. Gibson was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln in 1716, 
and translated to London in 1723. He wrote numerous 


tracts against the deists, the free-thinkers, and the general 
prevailing laxity, hence the observation upon Hoadly's 
sermon quoted by Pyle. His " Earnest Dissuasion from 
Intemperance," his " Serious advice to Persons who have 
been Sick," his " Sacrament of the Lord's Supper 
explained," and the " Sinfulness of profaning the Lord's 
Day" all reached numerous editions, and are as commonly 
to be found now on old bookstalls as " Blair's Sermons " or 
" De Lolme on the Constitution." 

No member of Corpus was so beloved in his day as 
Alured Clarke. His rise was rapid. In 1723 he was 
collated to the rectory of Chilbolton, Hampshire. Writing 
to Kerrich on May 1 6, he says : " Pray give my Hearty 
Thanks to all My Old Friends for the kind Part they have 
taken in my Success & accept the Same Your self. And I 
dare say You will be pleas'd to hear that my Good Fortune 
has yet further increas'd upon My Hands, for Mr. Bingham 
declining to change His Living I am this Afternoon to be 
Instituted to Chilbolton which my Cous Sturges left & is 
a good deal better both in Value & Circumstances than 
the other I was to have had, being not above Eight Miles 
distant from Winch 1 with a fine House and Gardens in a 
Very Pleasant Country." 

In the same year Clarke became a Prebendary of 
Winchester. He was appointed a Chaplain in Ordinary 
to George II., who conferred upon him the degree of D.D. 
on his visit to Cambridge in 1728, and promoted him to 
a prebend at Westminster in 1731, also making him one 
of the Deputy Clerks of his Closet. In 1740 Clarke was 
advanced to the Deanery of Exeter. He died in his forty- 
sixth year, May 31, 1742, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey. It was in consequence of Alured Clarke's action 
and generosity that a County Hospital was erected at Win- 
chester in 1736, the first establishment of the kind set up 
out of London. 

Bernard Fournier, a pervert from Rome, and a 


curate in Jersey, had come to England to appeal to the 
Bishop of Winchester, Ordinary of Jersey, and obtained 
Hoadly's signature as a frank to a letter. Over this he 
wrote a forged promissory note for 8 800. The Bishop 
might and ought to have prosecuted the man for forgery, 
but he chose only to bring the forged note into Chancery, 
there obtaining a decree that it was " a gross fraud and 
contrivance." He wrote an account of the transaction, as 
Pyle intimates, in the form of a letter to Clement Chevallier. 
This was published, and brought the Bishop much credit, 
at the age of eighty-one (see Letter of April 6, 1758). 

Bishop Sherlock published in 1724 six sermons 
against the deists, on " The Use and Interest of Prophecy." 
Those alluded to by Pyle were contained in one of the 
four volumes of sermons published in 1758. A fifth 
appeared after Sherlock's death. He lived until 1761 "in 
the last stage of bodily decay." 

Robert Lowth was of Winchester and New College, 
to which he was elected in 1729; Vicar and Rector of 
Overton, Hampshire, 1735 ; Professor of Poetry at Oxford, 
1741 ; appointed Archdeacon of Winchester and Rector of 
Woodhay, Hampshire, by Hoadly, as Pyle intimates, in 
1750. It was as First Chaplain to the Duke of Devon- 
shire, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, that Lowth was offered 
the Bishopric of Limerick. He declined it, but got leave 
to transfer the offer to Dr. James Leslie, receiving in ex- 
change Leslie's preferments, namely, a prebend in Durham 
and the valuable rectory of Sedgefield, Durham. Leslie 
ruled the See of Limerick until 1770. Pyle's version of 
this matter, which produced the uncomplimentary epithet 
against Lowth, and postponed his own advancement, is 
one of the rare instances in which his information was not 
[uite correct ; he must inadvertently have written deanery 
for prebend. In consequence of Lowth's commendation 
of Hoadly's actions with reference to the election of Dr. 
Christopher Golding as Warden of Winchester (see Letter 


following that dated June 4, 1 7 5 7) to the exclusion of Dr. 
Purnell, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford in 1748, who allowed 
" K. George to be damned and King James blessed in the 
open streets by open daylight," he became involved in a 
controversy. Again in 1765 he suffered in another 
controversy, as many others did, from the insolence of 
Warburton. Lowth was consecrated Bishop of St. 
David's in 1766, and in the same year translated to 
Oxford. In 1777 he was translated to London, but he 
declined the primacy in 1783 on account of failing health, 
and the prevalent affliction of the age stone. 

The common use of the word Pill Garlick, now is by 
persons speaking of themselves as deserving of pity, as in 
the time of Pyle who knew it as a Norfolk expression. In 
Wright's English Dialect Dictionary it is " said originally 
to mean one whose skin or hair had fallen off from some 


"10 July, 1755. 

" I send you the enclosed for your amusement, & 
also for Mrs. Kerrich's. How like you my Patron's dis- 
courses ? I shall be glad to hear. The ingenious Sir G. 
Littleton is printing, very slowly and pompously, an History 
of Henry the 2d, in two fine quartos. So if you care to 
give at least a guinea for the story of a King & a Monk, 
you may be gratified in a year or two's time. My Old 
Gentleman has slipped into the hands of honest Mr. Bagge 
the Lynn ministry. Some do not Love Bagge. So, had 
it not been now & thus, it might have met with rubs after- 
wards. Tace as to this. Yesterday I went to Croydon & 
saw the Archbishop, I think very well, I am sure very 
cheerful. I hope all danger is over. He attends the 
Meetings of the Regency constantly, and often dines at 
London. I caught him with only Dr. W. Herring of York. 


And we talked over some old things. Dr. Salter the elder 
had a fit as he was reading prayers in the Abbey Church 
at Bath, where he spent part of the winter & of this sum- 
mer. I don't find it was a dangerous affair. However, 
the Archbishop has been applied to for the Dr.'s Arch- 
deaconry, which is his Option, & that he tells me was the 
first notice he had of the Dr.'s illness. The young Doctor 
has set up his coach in town, & flants away bravely. He 
has preached before the Sons of the Clergy, and found 
great fault with the manner of conducting that Charity. 
The Sermon offended the stewards, & the City clergy very 
much and he was not asked to print it, and there was 
a great bustle about it. But it is made up and the 
Sermon is printed, as it was not preached, with a Note 
of the Author's having altered his mind, in some par- 
ticulars. It was from these words, Can these Dry Bones 
live ? It is thought a poor performance, and he will have 
good luck if the nick-name of Dry Bones be not given 
him, as it was to Bishop Burnet. It is said here, in a way 
that makes one think it came from Lord Leicester, that 
Houghton House is in so ill a state, that it would cost 
some thousand pounds to put it into the condition it 
ought to be. And all this owing to Ripley's unskilfulness 
& want of understanding how the masonry work ought to 
have been performed ; whereof Lord Leicester often gave 
old Sir Robert hints, whilst the building was raising. 

" By the way Lord Leicester has bought some houses 
on the north side of Pail-Mall, & intends to build a town 
house that is to out-do all the others as much as his 
country one does. 

" But to return to Houghton. The Lord of that place 
has a most paltry character (which I am sorry for) & is 
never, by what I hear likely to have a better. He will, 
they say, be a beggar in spite of fate. For he lives with- 
out any regard to the expence his fortunes will admit of. 
As to his post of Lord of the Bedchamber to the King, 



(which is 1,000 a year) he is, I fear, only the supernumary 
as yet ; or what we call at college pre-elected : and so has 
no salary, till a vacancy is made by death or otherwise ; & 
may, possibly, not be continued in the next reign. 

" Who knows who shall come after him, a wise man, or 
a fool ? If old Sir Robert had borne this question in mind, 
surely he would not have done as he did. (Tace here also.) 
" When I shall see Norfolk I know not. What I know 
is that seven days of my present life are worth seven years, 
(I was going to say) of the life I used to lead, and should 
I not be a fool if I did not make the most of it ? 

" The Bishop of Winchester will in a while give the 
world a pamphlet on the subject of the Note written over 
his name for 8.800 pounds by a priest of the Church of 
England, who was heretofore of the Church of Rome. I 
kiss your hands and take my leave. 

"E. P. 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn, Norfolk. 
B Free Win-H 
~ Chester. J 

George, eldest son of Sir Thomas Lyttelton of Hagley, 
Worcestershire, was a distinguished scholar, educated at 
Eton and Christ Church. He entered Parliament in 1730, 
became an eminent speaker, and held many high political 
offices. He was made Chancellor of the Exchequer in 
1755, the duties of which post greatly bewildered him. 
He was raised to the peerage as Baron Lyttelton of Frank- 
ley, Co. Worcester, in 1756, and rebuilt Hagley in 1759- 
1760, with the help of an amateur architect, Saunderson 
Miller. Lyttelton's numerous works, though of little 
originality, once had considerable reputation. His Life of 
the great monarch Henry II. gives "a full and sober 
account of the time," and his poetry gained him a place 
in Johnson's " Lives," 


Pyle's remark " Tace as to this " refers to the comple- 
tion of the scheme for his father's resignation of the 
vicarage of St. Margaret's Lynn, which he had exchanged 
in 1732 for his old livings of Outwell and Watlington, 

Thomas Ripley was of humble origin, and owed his 
advancement to Sir Robert Walpole, by whom he was 
appointed Chief Carpenter to all His Majesty's works, in 
succession to Grinling Gibbons. From 1722 to 1735 he 
carried out Colin Campbell's designs for Houghton, with 
improvements of his own. Together with Kent and Ware 
(who was once a chimney-sweep, and is said to have re- 
tained the stain of the soot in his face to the day of his 
death) he published plans and elevations of this great house, 
the plans being also shown in perspective under each view, 
after the fashion of architectural books of the time. Rip- 
ley also built Wolterton House restored in this present 
year and about to be re-occupied after standing empty for 
half a century and the Admiralty, Whitehall, all but the 
facade. In 1756 he was appointed Comptroller of the 
Board of Works in succession to Vanbrugh. The pro- 
bable reason why Houghton had fallen so soon into an 
ill state is that Ripley was a carpenter by trade and not a 
mason. Strange stories are current in Norfolk as to the 
manner in which the workmen were paid " Treasury gold" 
sent down in cement barrels, &c. There was evidently no 
expense spared on the interior woodwork a subject which 
Ripley thoroughly understood, the double doors of the state- 
rooms being as fine as they can be, in specially imported 
Spanish mahogany, said to have been its first introduction 
into England. This is not quite true, for mahogany was 
first brought from the West Indies by Captain Gibbons at 
the end of the seventeenth century. 

The Lord of Houghton in 1755 was George, third Earl 
of Orford, only son of Robert the eldest son of the 
Minister. There was much friendly intercourse between 


Houghton and Dersingham, and it was no secret that the 
Minister intended to advance Kerrich to considerable dignity 
in the Church. These designs came to an end with the 
fall of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742. But the friendly 
relations continued between Kerrich and Lord Orford's 
successors at Houghton. With further regard to the 
character and prodigality of the third lord of that place, 
Barbara Kerrich, evidently somewhat ashamed of herself, 
writes the following vindication to her stricter sister, 
October 1 8, 1 749 : " To tell you y e truth I made Mrs Norsa 
a vissit first my Lord ask'd me several times very kindly, 
I believe it was taken well, for she soon return'd it, I 
wouldn't tell you of my Vissit because I didn't know what 
you wou'd think of it, for I don't know but it might be 
cutting a bold stroke, She is a very agreeable Woman, & 
Nobody ever behav'd better in her Station, She have every 
body's good word, and bear great Sway at Houghton, She 
is every thing but Lady, She came here in a Landau & Six 
horses & one Mr Paxton a young Clergyman with her." 

The presence of the young clergyman was a tasteful 
and disarming piece of Mrs. Norsa's policy, and the incident 
is characteristic of the time and worthy of the pencil of 
Hogarth. The demure sister Elizabeth Postlethwayt, who 
had only seen the world through the windows of Denton 
Rectory, writes to Barbara Kerrich on October 27 : "I 
think you cou'd not well avoid making a visit to Mrs Norsa 
without disobliging my Lord and 'tis a thousand pityes a 
Lady that can behave so well should fail in so great a 
point." In " Horace Walpole's Letters " he gives a lively 
account in 1750 of a visit to Vauxhall with Lady Caroline 
Petersham and pretty little Miss Ashe " the pollard Ashe." 
They and their party had a picnic-supper in a booth, and 
they fetched in " my brother Orford from the next box, 
where he was enjoying himself with his Norsa and petite 
partie, to help us to mince chickens." They arrived home 
at three in the morning " after many bumpers." 


It was George, third Earl of Orford, who sold the 
Houghton pictures to Catherine of Russia in 1779, and 
they have since adorned the Hermitage. In the possession 
of the Editor is a series of scale drawings by Thomas 
Kerrich, showing the position of all the pictures on the 
walls of Houghton House before their removal. 


" Sept. 25, 1755- 

" It is said there is a considerable opposition 
hatching against the First Minister. Chiefly on account 
of the influence which Mr. Stone & the Attorney-General 
are supposed to have over him, & which the Whigs & 
Dissenters are greatly averse to. Mr. Legge the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer's having refused to let his name 
appear to the Warrant for 75,000 pounds, as the 1st 
payment of the Hire of Hessians &c., before the Parlia- 
ment has confirmed that Contract has been a subject of 
much conversation. As has also a very crude paragraph 
in pages I o & 1 1 of the Bishop of Chester's Sermon 
before the Society for Irish Schools. Which I have not 
mentioned to any of my Lynn friends, & desire you would 
not speak of as from me. A third thing which has 
afforded matter of talk has been the failure of Knapton 
the great Bookseller, who has stopt (honestly) whilst there 
is enough to pay everybody; & when he was thought to 
be worth 30,000 pounds. One article in the list of his 
debts is 5000 to Dr. Warburton. So much he owes 
the Doctor as two-thirds of the clear profits of the sale 
of his books (& Pope's published by him) due to him (by 
contract) after deducting the charges of paper & printing. 
A man designed for a scholar should be first bound to an 
attorney in order to make the best of his learning, when 
he has got any. 


" Establishments are certainly not essential to Chris- 
tianity, It was in its best state before Constantine's time. 
But there is a mighty difference between looking on them 
as not being essential, & endeavouring to overthrow them 
at all events where they are found. Good men are to do 
what they can to mend the defects of them, from time to 
time ; to make the terms of communion such as all sin- 
cere Christians may comply with; & to prevent Chris- 
tianity's being made a mere engine of state, or the service 
& articles of a Christian church a bundle of disputable 
notions. The state has nothing to do with religion. And 
should do nothing but keep men from doing each other, 
& the public, mischief about it. This would be the right 
thing. And the nearer this is approached to the better is 
the affair of religion conducted by any government. 
" With best wishes, I remain Y rs &c., 

"E. P. 

" The Pamphlet will soon come. The forger lives in 
Essex, near Colchester, much caressed & supported by the 
High Church, especially since the Abp: has forbid him to 
act as a clergyman in the Province of Canterbury. 

" Perhaps you are the only man in England that takes 
Lord Orford for the Old Minister's grandson. 

"What fine politicians they are at Lynn, to take in 
three the most determined enemies they have, at one 
election ! 

" Surely, I have got myself & the old Gentleman clear 
of that absurd place in the luckiest manner that ever 


To the Rev d Doctor Kerrich, 

at Dersingham, near Lynn, 
in Norfolk. 

B Free Win-~| 
~ Chester. J 


Henry Bilson Legge, 17081764, fourth son of 
William, first Earl of Dartmouth, became private secretary 
to Sir Robert Walpole, with whom, as Horace Walpole 
records, he was an " unmeasurable favourite." He was 
discarded for endeavouring to steal Mary, then only 
daughter of his patron. This lady married, in 1723, 
George, third Earl of Cholmondely, in whose descendant, 
in consequence of failure of heirs male of Sir Robert 
Walpole, in 1797, the mansion and domains of Houghton 
are now invested. Legge was appointed to the Secretary- 
ship for Ireland in 1739, by the Duke of Devonshire, then 
Lord-Lieutenant, in 1 746 a Lord of the Treasury, and in 
1749 Envoy Extraordinary to the King of Prussia, by 
whom he was " duped and ill-treated." George II. took a 
dislike to Legge, and when he resigned the Treasurership 
of the Navy, in 1754, an office he had held since 1749, to 
become Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Newcastle 
administration, the King stipulated that " Legge should 
never enter his closet." On the fall of Newcastle, in 
1756, he was again appointed to the Exchequer, but was 
dismissed together with Pitt in April 1757. After the 
ministerial interregnum he again became Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, and in 1758 levied new taxes on houses and 
windows. Legge's refusal, related by Pyle, to sanction 
the payment for the Hessian soldiers, in 1755, contributed 
to the dismissal of this good man of business. Like 
Horatio Walpole, with his East Anglian speech, he also 
was quaint in his dialect, but after the manner of the 
West Saxons. 

With regard to Knapton's failure, Pope, dying in 
1744, left to Warburton the properties of all the printed 
works upon which he had written, or should write com- 
mentaries, only providing against alterations in the text. 



" Winchester House, 15 Jan. 1756. 


" The people at Lynn are very fine people as a 
man would wish to stick a knife into. They have taken 
in two the rankest enemies (Allen & Elsden) they have, 
into the Hall ; who will bewray the nest they were bred 
in, if they don't fly in their faces who have served them, 
as soon as they can. Many of the Old Interest there 
will never forgive this step. The Recorder has declared 
that for this reason he will never more concern him- 
self in parliamenteering affairs at Lynn, let what will 

" Old British Horace is to be made a Lord (an Earl, 
they say), and will leave the House of Commons, as he 
abode in it, in a stink. He asked for this honour, and 
was told that the price of it was a defence of the subsidies, 
in the Lower House, this winter. He said he hoped being 
neuter would do, & speaking peace ; & pressing the not 
making the King uneasy, or strengthening the hands of 
the Ministry when all was at stake, &c. &c. &c. He was 
told this would not do. He must expressly vindicate the 
steps of Prussians & Hessians taken into pay, &c., & 
speak plainly, & not by inuendo. Now this went hard 
with the Old Caitiff (if he has any more principle in 
politicks than in other things), for he must, by this means, 
unsay all he had been long saying, & inculcating upon 
younger politicians, by way of foundation. However, he 
has done it, to the amazement of many, who have sat at 
his feet, particularly of Mr. L. (Late Chancellor of the 
Exchequer), who, expressing his surprise to him on this 
subject, had this answer given by him ' Why ! what 
signifies it ? we are undone upon any scheme, so the 
difference matters not, betwixt one and another.' His 


behaviour at Norwich to Mr. Bacon, is much cried out 
upon. People (here) have been guessing at places dirty 
enough for him to take his title from, as Puddle-Dock, 
Hockley-Hole, &c., but Norfolk carries it from all of them, 
& he is to be Lord Wolterton, it seems. 

" No credit is given to the story of the Herefordshire 
earthquake. Dr. Hoadly (who is Register of that Diocese, 
& has a correspondence there) spake of it to me, t'other 
day, as a Lie : but whether on special information, is more 
than I can say. Tuesday's papers had an account of a 
Scotch earthquake, I hope it is good in that country 
against the itch & the Pretender, whose son we hear 
is very pert at Paris ; hoping soon to be better supported 
than he was in his attempt in 1745. Now I am upon 
Scotch matters, let me tell you I have had a young man 
of that country under my hands for ordination who as 
much surpassed the Oxford young men (of whom I have 
the fingering of some dozens in the year) as you can 
imagine. This young fellow's name is Trail. He is tutor 
to Lord Hereford's sons, & this Lord has procured for 
him the living of St. John in Southwark, from his Majesty, 
void by the death of poor, wretched Lernoult, of our 
College, who died paralytic, drunk, & a beggar, about a 
month ago ; & has left a couple of distressed daughters. 
This young man presented me with a sermon, preached 
last April by his elder brother, in Scotland, before the 
Synod of Aberdeen (God help it) on the ' character & 
qualifications of Ministers of the Gospel/ which is the best 
composition, & especially the best piece of English that I 
have seen for a long time. 

" No body knows a word about Peace or War. The 
general opinion is that the French will make some mighty 
attempt against us. The best of it is, we have 8000 of 
their sailors in our hands. The earthquake sets all philo- 
sophers at gaze, nothing like it, in point of extent, 
appearing in story. 


" If you don't get better ink, I must buy a pair of 
spectacles. I can't read your letters by candle-light. 

" I have not heard a word about stewards of the Sons 
of the Clergy since Dr. Salter (who flants about in his 
coach like any thing) set all their backs up last year by 
preaching against the management of their Charity. The 
name of those who are in office for this year will soon be 
printed in all newspapers. 

" I was sadly disappointed at Dr. Louth's preferment 
not falling. A man knows nothing till he tries. A living 
of 340 a year & a sinecure of 40 or 55, have gone 
a-begging a good while for my service. And there's never 
a prebendary of Winton will give up his stall for them. 

" I am, ever y rs 

(Addressed) " E. P." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

at Dersingham, near 

Lynn, Norfolk. 

B Free Win- ~| E. Pyle, 1756. 

~ Chester. J 

The two sons of Edward Devereux, eleventh Viscount 
Hereford and premier Viscount of England, were Edward, 
who succeeded his father in 1760, married Charlotte Tracy 
Keck, maid-of-honour to Queen Charlotte, and died without 
issue in 1783. He was succeeded by his brother George, 
who married Marianna, only daughter and heir of George 
Devereux, from whom the present peer is descended. 

" Poor, wretched Philip Lernoult " was of Corpus. He 
became chaplain to the factory at St. Petersburgh, and 
after 1753 rector of St. John's, Horsleydown, Southark, 
by the gift of the Lord Chancellor. 

The eight thousand French sailors had been captured 
by privateer cruisers in the West Indies, where French 
trade had been almost annihilated. But the squadrons of 
Hawke and Byng failed to intercept the return of the 
French fleet from Canada. 


earthquakes spoken of by Pyle must have been 
premonitory of the dreadful Lisbon disaster, on November 
I, 1756. 


"Winchester House, Feb. 3, 1756. 

"The reason, I presume, of modern Ink being 
so pale is that what is written now-a-days is hardly worth 
reading &, certainly not worth keeping. 

" I wish you would refer me to the writers & the 
places in their works, where Earthquakes, one or more, of 
anything like the extent of the late one, are mentioned. 

" There is come out I am told, a very roguish Print 
of which there are very few copies, & the plate destroy'd. 
It represents Horace Walpole contriving with an old tailor 
to make Parliament robes out of a decay'd red cloak ; & 
his wife skinning a cat, by way of fur for the borders. 
The tailor shakes his head, to signify that there is not 
enough of the cloak for the purpose ; & the female figure 
is dropping off a red under-petticoat, to help out. 

11 1 am y rs &c., 

"E. PYLE. 

"The title of the Print is 'Lord Subsidies Robes.'" 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

at Dersingham, near 

Lynn, Norfolk. 
B Free Win- ~i 
~ Chester. J 


" March 16, 1756. 

" Here is, & has been for these 6 weeks, all the 
world in a hubbub about Mr. Bower, writer of the Lives 


of the Popes. Sir H. Bedingfield of our county, has shown 
5 letters written, as he says, & as the handwriting shows, 
by the said Bower, to one Sheldon, an English monk, 
deceased. These letters have been read by most men in 
the literary way in Town. They were some time in the 
hands of the Lord Chancellor. Bower denies the writing 
of them; says they are a forgery; and advertises 100 
guineas reward to any who will discover the forger. The 
first of these letters relates to a sum of money Bower let a 
convent (I believe) of Jesuits have, at 7 per cent, interest, 
and his calling-in the same. The lending & calling-in 
was after he was in England, & had left his places in 
Italy. The matter of this letter he does not deny, tho' 
he does the writing, so 'tis plain he had dealings with the 
Jesuits after he was away from Rome. (N.B. he was a 
Jesuit and a priest himself.) Another letter expresses the 
most earnest desire to make up with the church of Rome, 
for his running away (N.B. That he ever abjured popery 
does not appear), and to submit to any thing, if he may 
be taken into her bosom again ; even to a mission into 
the most distant & worst part of the world. The last 
speaks of his design of writing his Book, and hopes the 
doing this may be wholly excused, or at least considered 
only as a frailty, since he cannot expect any pecuniary 
aids from the English Government without doing some- 
thing that may merit a pension, of which he has great 
hopes ; however, do, say, write, what he will, his heart 
is with them, i.e. the Papists. 

" There is a vast deal of writing in these 5 letters. 
Too much, it is thought, for any body in the world to 
forge to such an exact likeness : for it is not to be dis- 
tinguished from what is confessedly Bower's hand, by the 
most critical & repeated comparisons. 

"It is said Sir H. Bedingfield has offered to make 
proof of every thing that can at present seem the least 
doubtful in this matter, provided Lord Chancellor will 


give his word of honour that the persons by whom this 
can be done shall not have any harm done them by 
discovering themselves to be priests of the Church of 

" People are extremely for or against Bower. The 
most, & best judges, I think, are against him ; & believe 
he can't stand this shock. It has brought other par- 
ticulars on the carpet, especially his having never given 
any written account of the motives & manner of his 
leaving Italy. He has talked about it. And from his 
talk somebody writ an account of the matter. But he 
has owned that that account was not accurate. And the 
Jesuits have, in a printed letter from Douay, 2 years ago, 
which I have seen, scouted that account in several re- 
spects. Yet he has never taken any notice or writ a 
better account or one that he will stand by. In that 
letter the Jesuits refer to a family in Italy to give an 
account of the reason of Bowers leaving that country. 
They don't say what that reason is in the Pamphlet ; but 
in discourse they charge him with debauching a nun ; 
and after he was in England (before he married Mrs. 
Connor the Milliner) keeping a girl, by whom he had a 
child which last alleged fact there are many who be- 
lieve ; whatever they may do as to the story of the nun. 
In the Jesuits' Pamphlet there is also a denial (upon seem- 
ingly fair reasons) that he had or could have, amongst 
them the Denominations he speaks of himself as having 
in the title-page of his book. 

" How this matter will end God knows, I hear Sir G. 
Littleton his Patron, does not give him up yet. He has 
a place of 200 a year & a pension of 2 more procured by 
Sir George's means, chiefly. Let the man turn out as 
he will the papists have not undertaken to answer his 

" I am, Y rs , &c, 

" E. PYLE. 


" It is generally thought that the French will not 
venture on invading us. The King of Spain & of Prussia 
are striving to make peace. 

" There is one thing in favour of Bower, that weighs 
much with me. A man of less sense, & less experience 
of the temper of the church of Rome than he had, could 
not but know that when he had once left them, & come 
into England, as a man dissatisfied with some of that 
church's notions, he could have no hopes of being really 
received into their favour again. The Case of the Arch- 
bishop of Spalato, & others, might shew him that if they 
let him return it would be only to ruin him more effec- 
tually. Therefore I am hard of belief, in the matter of his 
desiring to make up with the papists. All that I think 
unfavourable to my supposition is his having never, that 
we know of, finally renounced the Popish religion. 

" The following particular is very confidently affirmed. 
Bower said to Lord Granville, (before these 5 letters were 
exposed) that the papists had a design to ruin him by a 
forgery of letters, which they had done so well that the 
writing could not be distinguished from his hand. Lord 
Granville spoke of this very soon after, in Sir H. Beding- 
field's company. Sir Henry replied, My Lord if Bower 
says the writing is exactly like his hand he is guilty ; for, 
unless he wrote the letters he never saw them. There 
are not 3 people in England that have seen them. 

" I hear Bower has been with the Bishop of Norwich 
in hopes to make his Lordship sensible of the base usage 
he has received in the affair of the 5 letters, &c. but 
with little success. 

" Dr. Birch the greatest man of letters of these days, 
has been most zealously inquisitive into this affair ; & is 
against Bower tooth and nail. Birch is a fair & candid 

11 His Grace of Canterbury has now & then for some 
months past, lain a night or so at Lambeth. In one of 


these Town adjournments, he paid an afternoon's visit 
(i.e. 7 or 8 at night) to my Lord of Ely in Holbourn. 
And in passing (as it is supposed) through that raw old 
Hall, he caught cold, & has had a little fever, & some 
slight returns of former complaints, On this incident his 
Grace is forbid any more London frolicks : And my Lord 
of Ely has caused a great fire to be kept daily in the fore 
said hall. This fire makes a third singularity (if you can 
pardon such an expression) in that bishop's economy ; 
no bishop of Ely, before his Lordship, having had a fire 
in the hall, or a French valet-de-chambre, or metal buttons 
in the front of his breeches. 

" N.B. Here's sad times for the bishop of Ely's fire ; 
coals being 5O S a chaldron and will be a good deal 
dearer. They press for sailors like mad." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn in Norfolk. 
B Free Win- 1 
~ Chester. J 

It is difficult at the present day to realise fully the 
interest and hubbub which the affairs of the commonplace 
and unworthy character, Archibald Bower, excited. The 
agitation was emphasised by the violent feeling against 
the " papists " and a vague dread of France and the 
retender. Pyle's account is perfectly accurate as far 
it goes, tho' somewhat disjointed and non-consecutive, 
and may be a little supplemented. Bower was sent from 
undee in 1702 to the Scottish College at Douai. This 
as originally founded at Pont-a-Mousson, in Lorraine, in 
576, and moved to Douai in 1579, thence to Louvain, 
d finally retransferred to Douai in 1608. Clement 
III. placed it under the administration of the Jesuits, 
t was closed by Government in 1793. Bower proceeded 
to Rome, and was admitted into the Society of Jesuits 
1706. His own account of his life until 1726 is not 







to be depended upon, but he was probably professed of 
the four vows in 1722. Having held various scholastic 
appointments he fled from Perugia to England in 1726, 
deeply impressed with inquisitorial cruelties, accounts 
of which he published thirty-one years after his escape. 
In 1726 he renounced the Roman communion and con- 
formed to the Church of England, though Pyle says that 
it does not appear that he ever " abjured Popery"; indeed 
the last letter to Sheldon, if genuine, bears out this view. 
In 1747 the "Lives of the Popes" was proposed, and 
the first volume issued in 1748. This helped to procure 
for Bower the keepership of Queen Caroline's Library ; 
the second and third volumes appeared in 1751 and 
1753, and were attacked as mere translations from 
Tillemont. The fourth and fifth volumes were published 
in 1757 and about 1761, the intervening time being 
spent by the author in vain attempts to vindicate his 
own and his History's reputation. But the public had 
long since turned, in Bishop Burnet's phrase, " to matters 
of a different nature," and political feeling and violent 
religious spirit, which had noised an untruthful and shifty 
person into an unprincipled hero of the hour, had cooled 
down. As for Pyle, he was happy with his summing 
up that " the papists " had not undertaken to answer 
Bower's disclosures. Bower's "case" came to an end 
with his death in 1766, and for any one who still took 
interest, there was the further complication in the fact 
that Bower died in the Protestant faith. The inscription 
on his tomb in Marylebone churchyard describing him 
as " a man exemplary for every social virtue, justly 
esteemed by all who knew him for his strict honesty 
and integrity, a faithful friend and a sincere Christian," 
forms the interesting anticlimax of Bower's career, and 
is surely a curious pendant to the revelations in Pyle's 
lengthy letter. 

The case of the Archbishop of Spalato alluded to 


by Kerrich's correspondent, is a remarkable one. Marco 
Antonio de Dominis seceded from the Roman communion. 
He arrived in England in 1616, and was made Dean 
of Windsor in 1617. He was banished from England 
in 1622, and died two years later. " His study was 
searched, and there were found certain papers which did 
imply his opinion to be that there was Inequaltias person- 
arum in Sancta Trinitate. It was resolved that he died 
in a state of heresy, and so his body was burned." The 
title of his Roman diocese recalls the great palace in 
Dalmatia, erected by Dioclesian at the end of the third 
century. This building is architecturally of the highest 
interest, the arch being there for the first time used with 
the entablature, the whole of which cornice, frieze, and 
architrave is carried bodily round the opening in the 
curved form. It was the beginning of the change from 
trabeated to curvilinear construction which was fraught 
with such immense possibilities. 

Sir Henry Arundel Bedingfield, who naturally took 
great interest in Bower's case, married Lady Elizabeth 
Boyle, eldest daughter of Charles, Earl of Burlington, 
the enthusiastic admirer of Palladio, who displayed his 
architectural taste in the dormitory at Westminster, and 
in the colonnade within the court of his town mansion, 
Burlington House ; Bedingfield died in 1 760. 

John, Viscount Carteret, was educated at Westminster 
and Christ Church. He availed himself so sedulously of 
these advantages that, in the words of Swift, "with a 
singularity scarce to be justified he carried away more 
Greek, Latin, and philosophy than properly belonged to 
a person of his rank." He was Ambassador Extraordinary 
to Sweden in 1719, in 1721 one of the two foreign 
secretaries, and in 1724 Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. He 
took the lead in the attempted overthrow of Sir Robert 
Walpole in 1742, and became Secretary of State for the 
northern department until 1744; he was present at the 



Battle of Dettingen, June 23, in the preceding year, and 
dictated the Extraordinary Gazette from the field. Lord 
Carteret's foreign policy is described as wise and good ; 
but he had not time to develop it, being driven from 
power by Pelham in 1744. He succeeded as Earl 
Granville on the death of his mother, October 1745. He 
held the office of Lord President of the Council under 
Henry Pelham, in 1751, and was instrumental in 
bringing Pitt to power. Horace Walpole speaks of his 
pure patriotism, wit, and classical attainments, his good 
looks and conviviality. 

Pyle's description of Thomas Birch is very apt. He 
was of neither university. Horace Walpole in his airy, 
patronising way told Cole that Birch was " a worthy, 
good-natured soul, full of industry and activity, and 
running about like a young setting dog in quest of 
anything new or old, and with no parts, tastes, or judg- 
ment." He contributed to the Philosophical Transactions, 
but made little use of his large collection of MSS. 
chiefly relating to English History and biography which 
he bequeathed to the British Museum. These contained 
a series of letters which were published in 1849, in f ur 
volumes, entitled " The Court and Times of James the 
First," and " The Court and Times of Charles the First." 
Dr. Johnson said that " Tom Birch is as brisk as a bee in 
conversation, but no sooner does he take a pen in his 
hand than it becomes a torpedo to him and numbs all his 
faculties." Pyle's epithet connotes to a certain extent 
the contumely of Walpole, and the long posthumous use 
made of Birch's industry is evidence of Johnson's torpedo. 

The London residence of the Bishops of Ely, from 
the time of William de Luda in 1290, was Ely House, 
Holborn. It was much reduced during the long episco- 
pate of Richard Cox (15 591 599) a * ^ ne pressing instance 
of Queen Elizabeth, for she obliged the Bishop to mortgage 
a part of it to her for ;i8oo in favour of Sir Christopher 


Hatton. This the Bishop's successors were unable to 
redeem, and the ground so leased became covered with 
streets. The remaining part, a dark, incommodious habi- 
tation, entered by a large gateway, consisted of a small 
paved court. On the right were some offices supported 
by a colonnade, and on the left a small garden enclosed 
by a brick wall. In the front was the venerable old 
hall, seventy-two feet long by thirty-two feet wide and 
about thirty feet high, lighted by six windows, roofed 
with oak and leaded. At the west end were the chief 
living rooms and other apartments, and on the north 
side a square cloister, ninety-five feet by seventy-five, 
round a garden, and over it rooms and galleries. On 
the north side of the cloister, in a field containing about 
an acre, walled and planted with trees, stood the chapel 
of St. Etheldreda, ninety-one feet by thirty-nine feet, the 
floor raised ten or twelve feet above the level of the 
ground, supported by eight strong oak posts, and forming 
a crypt or substructure. In 1772 Bishop Keene obtained 
an Act of Parliament for the sale of Ely House to the 
Crown for 6500 and an annuity of 200 a year settled 
in perpetuity on the Bishop and his successors in the 
see. The chapel was repaired and fitted up for divine 
service, and remains for the use of the inhabitants of 
Ely Place, the houses of which occupy the site of the 
old palace of the Bishops of Ely. With the money thus 
obtained a freehold site in Dover Street was bought, 
upon which was built the present town house of the see. 


"Chelsea, June 29 th 1756. 

lt I have just time before I go down to Win- 
chester to read the Service, &c. to thank you for your 
compliments of congratulation on my promotion in that 


church ; which has fulfilled my schemes, and wishes as to 

" No body knows what to say about politicks. The 
most candid rather thank the Ministry for the care of us 
at home, than blame them for what goes wrong abroad. 

" Mr. Bower is to publish the forged letters, as he 
calls them, & his Apology next week. 

" Tho' I have not been Prebendary of Winchester 
much above 3 weeks, yet I have a junior in the church, 
by exchange of a stall there for a canonry of Sarum. 

" This, I believe, will let me into an excellent house 
in the close, which, otherwise, I was not likely to get of 
some years : Tho', to say the truth, all of 'em are better 
than I have seen belonging to any church : as much so 
as the church itself excells the other fabricks of that sort, 
being the finest thing within-side I ever saw. 

" The poor Archbishop cannot live long, if the weather 
be hot I should think not 'till Michelmas let the weather 
be what it will. We have been diverted with an Account 
of J. Mickleburgh's guttling legacy to Caius College. 

" I am Y rs &c., 

"E. PYLE. 

" Bishop Mawson wished me joy t' other day of the 
stall which My Lord of Ely had given me ! 

"The day before, he sat with 2 other Bishops besides 
others Lords & Commons, who are a Committee to pull 
down houses t'wixt the Admiralty and Charing Cross, (in 
order to widen the way to Parliament,) & settle the damages 
that will be done to ground-landlords ; & to tenants, & 
lodgers, by turning them out at short notice. The Bishop 
of Norwich observed that there were a pretty many lodgers 
in those houses, ladies of the town, the settling of whose 
damages might, perhaps, disconcert and distress the gravity 
of the 3 Commissioners of the episcopal bench, whatever 
it might do to others. Upon which old Mawson got up & 


said these words, ' Why, my Lord of Norwich, the people 
you speak of, call them as you please, why, these women, 
must, to be sure, have their Ubi, as well as others. And, 
look ye, it concerns us, as Commissioners, to see to it.' 

" This set the Board a laughing at such a rate that 
there was an end of that day's business. I had this story 
from a commissioner then present." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn, in Norfolk. 

B Free Win-n 

~ Chester. J 

Pyle's patronising remarks about the august fane, 
Winchester Cathedral, indicate the lack of intelligent in- 
terest on the part of the clergy with regard to church 
architecture. It was the universal condition among the 
Anglican clerics a century and a half ago, when religious 
fervour, together with appreciation for the masterpieces of 
the great science, were at their lowest point. But it is 
accidentally to the credit of the eighteenth-century clergy 
that, not comprehending the architectural history of their 
churches, having no wish to spend money on them, and 
regarding them, in fact, merely as convenient halls in which 
to preach political sermons, to be afterwards printed with 
a view to advancement they were content to leave them 
alone ; besides, popular modes ran in quite different direc- 
tions. At the present day we have to deplore that the 
zeal in fashionable nineteenth-century church " restora- 
tion " was not tempered with some knowledge how 
the historic buildings that were dealt with so light- 
heartedly came to be what they were. And we lament 
now with shame and anger that the " restorers " foolish 
and hateful word had so little cognisance either of the 
general course and the local developments of architecture, 


or of that large chapter touching ancient church fittings, 
such as would have enabled them to read correctly the 
writing on the wall. Nineteenth-century ignorant zeal 
having thus been far worse than sordid eighteenth-century 
apathy, the old stone and wooden records were swept away, 
obliterated or, what is worse, written anew, backwards, 
before our eyes. All know the sorry picture of the climax, 
with the gaping congregations glamoured by the shiny 
tiles, the pitch-pine seats, the gaudy organ, and the lawn 
sleeves, rejoicing in their simplicity that all things have 
become new ! 

On Pyle's first visit to York, when he was installed 
Archdeacon in 1751, it was the parterre of painted ladies 
in the choir, and not the noble minster which impressed 
him. He does speak on another occasion, in 1759, of 
Dean Lynch's " cryingly shameful neglect " of the Hos- 
pital of St. Cross and its Romanesque church, then called 
and probably believed to be " Saxon," and he compares its 
size to that of the once beautiful church of Dersingham, 
which suffered so grievously from restoration in our own 

The legacy left by John Mickleburgh was not of the 
Apician character indicated by Pyle. It was an endow- 
ment of 1000 for the foundation of a scholarship in 
chemistry, and was noticeable as the first of what would 
now be called " Natural Science Endowments." Mickle- 
burgh was a Fellow of Corpus, having migrated from 
Caius. He was Professor of Chemistry, and Vicar of 
St. Andrew the Great, Cambridge. Appointed Rector 
of Landbeach, Cambridgeshire, in 1727, he was elected 
one of the proctors for the clergy of the diocese of Ely. 
A man greatly beloved by his friends. 

Pyle's congratulations from Bishop Mawson form a 
characteristic example of the absent-mindedness of " the 
Right Rev d Blunderer " of the See of Ely. 



"Chelsea July 29 1756. 


" When I speak of myself as satisfied with the 
preferment I have, I speak very sincerely ; and am as sure 
as I can be of any thing that depends on my own temper, 
that if I never get one penny per annum more, I shall never 
have one moments sollicitude. 

" I do not by this intend you should think that I will 
not endeavour to get something, if I can, for the service I 
have performed at Court. Tho' I do faithfully assure you, 
I believe, I shall be hard put to it to be a gainer by this 

" One thing you may depend upon, that a scheme of 
being served by a greater and higher promotion than any 
that has yet come to my share, which was once thought of, 
and is an approved way of churchmen's rising, viz. by 
becoming of kin to those who can give or procure dignities 
ecclesiastical, will not be gone into by me ; tho' since I 
saw you, I thought I should, & am sure I could have 
lifted my self up that way, above my present height. 

" I shall be in residence at Winchester from August 
29 to Sept 29. Wherever I am, 

" I am y rs &c. 

" E. PYLE. 

" This Letter is to be considered as verbum Sapienti. 

" My Scheme of abode, if I outlive my patron, is May, 
June July, August at York & my livings ; Thence to the 
end of January at Winton, the other 3 months in London. 
My months of residence at Winchester are September & 
the two following. And I am obliged to attend that 
Chapter that is nearest to those months, i.e. the Xmas 
Chapter. Whilst I live with the Bishop he can dispense 
with me for two months out of these 3, & for my Chapter 


attendance. The emoluments of our church are good. 
And so they had need ; for, I assure you, it is nearly as 
dear living at Winchester as in London. All sorts of 
poultry pigs rabbits &c. are very high-priced. Coals as 
dear as in London, & what is sold in the shambles is a 
penny in the pound weight above the Norfolk price. I 
have been much amused with seeing the Hessian soldiers, 
in their military exercise, at their devotions in the body of 
our Cathedral, & in their encampment about a mile from 
the city." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn, in Norfolk. 
B Free Win--| 
Chester. J 

In consequence of the threatening attitude of France 
a navy of 50,000 men was suddenly voted, and an army 
of 34,000 native troops ; but these not being ready, it was 
agreed to bring over 8000 Hessians and Hanoverians. 
To meet these expenses new duties and taxes were 
imposed, and Speaker Onslow, in presenting the money 
bills, said that there were two circumstances which tended 
to create alarm foreign subsidies and the introduction of 
foreign troops ; and he expressed the hope " that the 
sword of these foreigners should not be trusted a moment 
out of his Majesty's own hand to any other person what- 


"Close at Winton Sept. 21, 1756. 

"I had the favour of your letter of the I3th 
by the last post. I spake as I think of the doubtfulness 
of what I shall gain by my service at Court ; so, if it 


comes to nothing I shall not be disappointed. As to the 
other affair, there was nothing disagreeable, but quite the 
contrary, in the person, & nothing more probable than 
the preferment ; which was to be in hand, & not in hope. 
The objection was Nicodemus's, of a man's being born 
again when he is old. I have great fears of growing 
infirmities. And that's enough, in all conscience, to 
trouble you with on so insignificant a subject. 

"You were told, I think, why I came to residence 
here, for % of a year's profits. The letter of the statute 
is not to be dispensed with. But, surely this is one of 
the cases wherein the letter killeth. I could not, how- 
ever, have come hither at any time so agreeable. The 
Hessian Camp draws the world hither. The discipline 
as well as the structure of it is delightful. Of 8000 men 
living surrounded by fields of corn, not a man has dared 
to step over a hedge, or pluck an ear. Their evenings 
devotion, which is by singing & prayer, in a vast circle 
(I should have said two circles, one of Lutherans, the 
other of Calvinists), is decent & edifying to the last 
degree. Woe to the man that is without a book or 
behaves remissly. The Psalm is reared by a sergeant of 
grenadiers, a stately fellow, with a vast pair of whiskers, 
and part is born in it, from the general to the lowest 
private man. One of the general-officers (Fustemberg) 
who is a papist never fails to attend. It is not to be 
thought how far the minister's voice is heard in his pray- 
ing, yet he does not strain. 

" This example of constant religious exercise has, we 
are told, produced an imitation (but a very slovenly one), 
in the English camp near Blandford. You can scarcely 
imagine how much the officers & poor soldiers of Hesse 
are cheated by the good subjects of Great Britain ; who 
are greatly assisted (because they are not rogues enough 
of themselves), by a crew of circumscised rascals, that 
act as interpreters to these strangers. 


" The life of a prebendary is a pretty easy way of 
dawdling away one's time ; praying, walking, visiting ; 
& as little study as your heart would wish. A stall in 
this church is called a charming thing. And so it is. 
But one circumstance of it, spoken of, usually, with a 
mighty recommendation, viz. that one comes into it with 
out expense, is a jest. The income of my house, & 
charges of collation instalment &c. (without reckoning 
travelling expenses, & my maintenance here), have cost 
me 50 pounds ; and were I not excused from two months 
residence out of 3, as the Bishop's Chaplain, it would 
cost me above 100 pounds more before I could eat or 
sleep in my own house. (Here I am now at Dr. Hoadly's.) 
And I will affirm that a pound at Lynn (at all times) will 
procure more things of the same kind & quality than 30 
shillings will do here. Indeed our houses are repaired, 
& taxes paid, by the church. 

" In the Deanery where Winchester lies, & the adjacent 
one of Droxford, called the Golden Deaneries, on account 
of the great rectories of which the bishop is patron ; it 
will surprise you to be told, how the real value of those 
envied preferments is reduced by unavoidable defalcations. 
There is not one of them but has a chapel annexed, wherein 
there is double duty on Sunday & therefore a curate must 
be kept, if one serves the mother church himself. Most of 
them have houses for those curates to live in, which are 
considered in law as parcel of the parsonage house, must 
be upheld, & dilapidations &c. are due if they are not left 
in good order. Several have two such chapels. Taxes 
to King & poor are laid to the rack. So that I do affirm, 
that, generally speaking, a living of 200 a year, will pro- 
duce more clear money, in Marsh-Land or Lincolnshire, 
than one of 300 hereabouts. Besides the comparative 
dearness of all articles of life in this county, which is 
to be taken in consideration when you've got the money. 
There are several rectories of 500 and 450 a year, that 


I would not take one of, in lieu of my Lincolnshire 
parishes ; and nobody but a Bishop's son can get two. 

" Don't imagine I tell you all this, as if I took what 
you say, about my Lord's preferring you, seriously ! You 
know better than that comes to. His life is too far gone 
to give him opportunity of serving any one of your circum- 
stances. He will in all likely-hood have nothing of the 
value of 200 a year fall in his time. He has already 
given away the good things. 

" Dean Lynch has been at the neighbouring Hospital of 
St. Cross, with his family, ever since I've been here. He 
has received 600 & lived like a prince. I have seen 
him there and received visits from him here. He is very 
jolly tho' he has a son that spends him several hundreds 
a year on his travels abroad. 

" Dr. Stedman, as prebendary of Canterbury, gave a 
living in London (Late Shuckford's) to a person on the 
Archbishop's recommendation & so he is become arch- 
deacon of Norfolk. I have heard Bishop Tanner say, 
the particulars in which that archdeaconry profits con- 
sists, were so ill paid, that he did not reimburse himself 
of the expenses of coming into it of two years. Perhaps 
Dr. Salter has mended that matter. 

"You know one of my brethren here, Mr. Exton. 
He has two livings about 300 a year, got 5000 in a 
lottery, keeps his chariot, lives as much as he pleases 
with Lord Portsmouth (to whom he was recommended 
by Alured Clarke as tutor to his sons), and is a dry, sly, 
old batchelor. 

" Old Sykes is here. Brewing a pamphlet to prove 
historically that the Resurrection (of the body) was never 
part of any Xtian creed, for the first 350 years. 

I think of nothing else to trouble you with except 
services &c. 

" from y &c., 

"E. PYLE." 


The expression " to rear " is akin to " to vamp," as 
with a vamping horn, of which a few examples remain. 
There is one in Braybrooke church, and another at 
Harrington, both in Northamptonshire. 

According to Pyle all the foreign troops in the camp 
at Winchester were Hessians. 

John Hoadly, .with whom Pyle was staying, was a 
younger son of the Bishop of Winchester. He was, of 
course, of Corpus, and began life as a poet and dramatist, 
and assisted his brother Benjamin in some of his un- 
successful dramatic writings. With this licentious train- 
ing he decided to take orders, with the view of availing 
himself of some of the rich patronage in his father's gift. 
No time was lost, for the Bishop ordained him deacon and 
priest on the 7th and 2ist December 1735. His scheme 
of life was realised as follows : He was appointed at once 
chancellor of the diocese of Winchester, and chaplain in 
the household of the Prince of Wales ; he was appointed 
rector of Mitchelmersh, Hampshire, vicar of Wroughton, 
Wiltshire, rector of Alresford, Hampshire, and prebendary 
of Winchester all in 1737. In 1743 he was made rector 
of St. Mary's, near Southampton, and in 1746 vicar of 
Overton, Hampshire ; all the above benefices, with the 
exception of that of Wroughton, being obtained by the 
gift of his father. In 1748 Archbishop Herring conferred 
on him an LL.D. degree, and in 1751 he was made 
chaplain in the household of the Princess Dowager. On 
the death of Dean Lynch in I 760, Bishop Hoadly further 
appointed him to the Mastership of St. Cross. It seems 
incredible, but it is a fact that John Hoadly retained all 
these preferments (except the vicarage of Wroughton and 
his prebendal stall, which he resigned in 1760) until his 
death sixteen years later. In a very long letter from 
Pyle, following that dated June 4, 1757, he says that 
Chancellor Hoadly had 1500 a year without St. Cross, 
which he says is worth 500 per annum. He adds : 


" How far it may be proper for Chancellor Hoadly to have 
it thrown upon the heap of his preferments will, I am sure, 
be well considered." It was, and with the result which 
has been stated above. And it was only Bishop Hoadly's 
lack of " merit " with the Duke of Newcastle that prevented 
the further scandal of John Hoadly being made Dean of 
Winchester. The prescient politician and erudite scholar, 
Jonathan Shipley, was appointed one of the steps in his 
remarkable ascent to the Bench. 

The Deanery of Broxford is now known as that of 
Bishop's Waltham. Pyle would probably not be surprised 
if he knew how much further reduced in value are the 
episcopal rectories in the Golden Deaneries at the present 
day. In the Deanery of Winchester Wonston rectory is cer- 
tainly entered in the Clergy List as worth ^850, but the 
next below it is Compton, only 310, while in the Deanery 
of Droxford Meonstoke is put down at 780, Droxford 
600, and Bishopstoke 400, the other livings in the 
bishop's gift in these deaneries being under 300 a year. 

Thomas Tanner of Queen's College, Oxford, was one 
of the most reliable of the antiquaries of his time, well 
known for his Notitia Monastica, and his Bibliotheca- 
Britannico-Hibernica. He was appointed Bishop of St. 
Asaph in 1732. There are many letters from him to 
Matthew Postlethwayt, father-in-law of Samuel Kerrich, 
dated between 1713 and 1734, and all beginning "Good 
Sir ! " 

Richard Exton, a Northamptonshire man, entered of 
Corpus 1715, whence he migrated to Peterhouse, where 
he was elected Fellow. He was presented to the rectory 
of Chilbolton, Hampshire, by Bishop Hoadly, which, 
though not in a " golden deanery," was of considerable 
value, and is now returned at 502 a year. Exton also 
held another living according to Pyle, but he under- 
estimates their values. The scions of the house of 
Portsmouth, to whom Exton acted as tutor, must have 


been John Wallop, who succeeded his grandfather as 
second Earl in 1762, and died in 1797 ; Henry, who was 
made a Groom of the Bedchamber to George III. and died 
in 1794 ; and Barton, born in 1747, who became Master 
of Magdalene College, Cambridge. 


" Nov. 13, 1756. 

" The Ministry is totally changed. Mr. Fox 
(who began the change with resigning the office of 
Secretary, in order to leave all the difficulty of conducting 
public affairs in these mad & dangerous times upon the 
Duke of Newcastle) has fared very ill. For Mr. Pitt, 
the new Minister, declares he will have nothing to do with 
public business if Fox has any degree of concern in it. 
Lord Chancellor goes out, after the Term ; having some 
causes before him that he chooses to finish ; who is to 
come in his place no-body can tell. The Duke of Devon- 
shire will be First Lord of the Treasury (for ornament, 
for he's not qualified for taking the lead in public affairs,) 
& Mr. Legge Chancellor of the Exchequer, upon whom the 
whole conduct of that Board will rest, & who is thoroughly 
fit for it. I forbear to mention others who will come 
in, upon that tumble. Lord Anson goes out. The two 
Townshends, it is now said, will not be taken notice of. 
They are looked upon as a couple of Profligate Creatures, 
who will stick at nothing to serve their own purposes of 
interest or revenge. Charles professes, fearlessly, a con- 
tempt of all tie but that of interest. The other does not 
profess this, but is not better than he who does. The 
circular letter to all Corporations about the Militia Bill 
signed by the elder of these brethren is looked upon as 
the most audacious affront to a parliamentary determina- 
tion. And yet, for all this, I don't know but, in the 
present weak & tottering state of things, these people 


may push themselves into something considerable. They 
threaten, it seems, to do great matters if they are not 
pleased. What a deplorable state of feebleness are we 
come to, when two saucy boys can attempt such things ! 

"The Duke of Newcastle has settled the Prince of 
Wales' s household, before his going out. The Prince & 
his Mother, are not pleased with this settlement : nor are 
upon good terms with the King. There is a sly Scotch- 
man, at the head of this settlement, whom the Duke of 
Newcastle could not help taking in (for he has got the 
length of the Princess-Mother's foot) that will soon out all 
he don't like. His name is Lord Bute. 

" ' I turn ' (in Bishop Burnet's phrase) ' to matters of a 
more private nature.' The Master of Bennet has stept, 
in the critical minute, into a Deanery of 700 a year ; with 
a better patronage annexed to it, than belongs to half the 
bishopricks. Dr. Rutherford who is professor in the new 
Dean's room, was designed for it before the vacancy by 
the death of Whalley, but by the time that vacancy was 
made, Rutherford had played the fool egregiously (& as 
is said, contrary to engagement) about the late Prince of 
Wales's being Chancellor : So Greene came in. Since 
that time Rutherford has repented bitterly, & by Bishop 
Keene's means been reconciled to the Chancellor ; and 
had hopes given him that Greene should be advanced 
(the deanery of Ely was designed for him) & Rutherford 
succeed him in the chair, if the Chancellor would procure 
it for him. In the interim Dr. Law came into the head- 
ship of Peter-house, by Bp: Keene's means solely, and was 
told of the intended scheme for Rutherford & bid not to 
have an eye to the Chair. When Greene was advanced, 
The Chancellor being not on very good terms with the 
Trinity College people, they (who have 3 votes in the 
choice of a Professor) offered themselves to Law. The 
Master of Christ's (his old friend) did the same. Law 
has a vote himself. So here was 5, out of 7 votes sure 


for Law's being Professor. Law would not touch without 
Bishop Keene's leave. The bishop desired him to let the 
intended scheme take place So it did, and Rutherford 
owes the Professorship absolutely to his lordship. If the 
late Minister had stood, Law would have been considered 
for this behaviour very handsomely. 

" Dr. Salter also has just nick'd the matter ; being made 
rector of St Bartholomew by the Exchange, the best of all 
the city livings a good, i.e. clear 300 a year. This con- 
sists with his place of Preacher at the Charter-house. He 
gives up a Lincolnshire rectory of good value, but not so 
good, by a deal, as what he has taken. 

" I suppose you've heard that Lord Townshend's 
daughter is run into Flanders with a married man (Capt. 
Orme) to whom she has given ; 14,000. She is with 
child &, besides all her other infamy, has gone off deeply 
in debt to all sorts of trades-people. The common wish 
expressed in town on this incident, was, would to God all 
the family were gone out of the nation ! 

" I am sorry for the distraction at Norwich. Young 
Walpole is well spoken of. My Lord, his father, is at the 
lowest ebb of character. 

"The new Chancellor of the Exchequer, (who has 
5,000 a year in Hampshire) is a very great friend of the 
bishop of Winchester, and of Sir B. Keene's. The Bishop 
of Winchester served his dear friend Dr. Lowth very 
greatly ; of which both the Dr. & the Chancellor retain 
the highest sense. The Dr. will be a bishop. And my 
Lord of Winchester has been pleased to say he will very 
strongly recommend one you know to the said Chancellor 
to be considered for 18 years service at Court. 

" Time will shew what this will produce A man's a 
fool that is sanguine on such a foundation. I have writ 
all this in extreme hurry, so pardon all inaccuracies. 

" I am y rs ever 

"E. P. 


" The poor King (pardon the adjective) is chagrined, 
bitterly, on the behaviour of his brutal subjects to the 
Hessians & Hanoverians, in refusing them quarters on a 
very doubtful, and (to be sure) rigorous interpretation of 
law. This he owes, in part, to the Townshends. If 
there are huts to be built, His Majesty will do that at his 
own expense. If they are sent away immediately, God 
knows what the French will do, or attempt at least, with 
the 20 ships they are getting ready at Brest. These 
people came by parliamentary consent, all of them, & the 
Hanoverians at the express request of Parliament. They 
have, at least, prevented any attempts of the French on 
England, and deserve better usage. But we are mad ; & 
considered nationally not worth saving. One effect this 
unexampled brutality may have, &, I hope, will have, viz. 
that since it has effectually prevented our ever having help 
from abroad in any extremity, to put us upon keeping 
always a good standing force at home. 

" The Militia scheme is to be scouted by Lord Chester- 
field with all his wit in the next session." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, near 

Lynn, Norfolk. 
B Free Win-"] 
~ Chester. J 

It is impossible to read this long and interesting letter 
without desiring to recall something of the careers of the 
eminent men who are mentioned in it. Henry Fox was 
the unprincipled but very gifted father of the distinguished 
Charles James Fox. Having squandered his private 
fortune by gambling before 1735, when he returned from 
the Continent he was elected to Parliament. His career 
is too intricate to touch upon in detail here. He was 
leader of the House of Commons in 1755, and appointed 
Secretary of State in the room of Robinson, but resigned 



in the following year, as Pyle states. In 1757 he accepted 
the lucrative position of Paymaster-General, and amassed 
a large fortune by appropriating to himself the interest of 
the huge balances in his hands. In consequence of his 
political tergiversation Fox was hated on all sides, and had 
the reward of his apostacy in his creation as Baron Hol- 
land, April 1 6, 1763, retaining the position of Paymaster- 
General until 1765. Proceedings were commenced against 
him in the Court of Exchequer in 1769, and having been 
already described (in 1763) as "a perfidious and infamous 
liar," the Livery of the city now spoke of him in a petition 
to the King as " the public defaulter of unaccounted 

William Pitt (first Earl of Chatham) was educated at 
Eton and Trinity College, Oxford. He became a cornet of 
horse in Lord Cobham's regiment, but was deprived of his 
commission for an offensive speech directed against the 
King. He had entered Parliament as member for Old 
Sarum in 1735, and taken the side of the Prince of Wales, 
to whom he was Groom of the Bedchamber from 1737 to 
1744. His influence increased rapidly, and he took an 
active part against Walpole at the time of his downfall in 
1742. He was one of the secret committee of twenty-one, 
and supported George Lyttelton in the attempt to procure 
the appointment of another committee of inquiry. In 1746 
he was made Paymaster-General, and sworn of the Privy 
Council. During his nine years' tenure of this office he 
declined to behave as Henry Fox did two years later, as 
above mentioned, greatly to his honour and political 
stability. On November 13, 1755, Pitt made a brilliant 
speech against the German subsidies, and both he and 
Legge were dismissed, November 20, the latter having 
refused, at Pitt's instigation, to sign the Treasury Warrants 
for carrying the Hessian treaty into execution. In this 
and the following year the list of disasters, such as the 
loss of Minorca, the defeat of General Braddock at Fort 


Duquesne, the capture of Calcutta by Surajah Dowlah, and 
the horrors of the Black Hole completed the unpopularity 
of the Newcastle Ministry. 

On the death of Henry Pelham, March 6, 1754, 
Hardwicke managed the negotiations which placed New- 
castle at the Treasury, he retaining the Great Seal. He 
successfully defended the Hanoverian subsidiary treaties, 
and defeated the Militia Bill of 1756. In the crisis which 
followed the loss of Minorca he resigned office for the 
reasons which Pyle gives, November 19, 1756. 

William Cavendish was First Lord of the Treasury and 
Prime Minister from November 1756 to May 1757, and 
Member for Derbyshire from 1741 to 1751, when he 
was called up to the House of Lords. In 1755 he was 
appointed Lord Treasurer, Lord-Lieutenant, and Governor 
of Ireland, where he was popular, but displayed no great 
political ability. When all England demanded in 1756, 
on the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, that Pitt should 
be called to the head of affairs, and when the Great 
Commoner refused to serve under the Duke of Newcastle, 
Devonshire was summoned from Ireland, as Pyle says, 
" for ornament." He resigned a few weeks later, when 
Pitt and Newcastle coalesced, and was made Lord Cham- 
berlain of the Household. He married Georgiana, daughter 
of Earl Spencer, and was father of the book collector. 

Charles Townshend was second son of Charles, third 
Viscount Townshend. He was returned for Great Yar- 
mouth in 1747. He opposed Lord Hardwicke's Marriage 
Act in 1753, an d attacked Newcastle for the employment 
of German mercenaries. When Devonshire became Prime 
Minister, with Pitt Secretary of State, in 1756, Townshend 
was appointed Treasurer of the Chamber, and retained 
office all through Pitt's great administration, 1757-1761. 
He succeeded Barrington as Secretary at War under Bute 
in 1761, and at the general election in May he gave up 
his seat at Yarmouth to his cousin, Charles Townshend, 


afterwards Lord Bayning. Townshend served as President 
of the Board of Trade under Bute, 1761, but declined to 
act as First Lord of the Admiralty under Grenville, who 
succeeded Bute, and attacked the Ministry unsparingly, 
both by speech and pen. Yet when Henry Fox resigned 
the office of Paymaster-General, Townshend accepted it. 
In Pitt's second administration he became Chancellor of 
the Exchequer on the dismissal of Legge, March 1761 ; 
and when Pitt ascended to the Lords, Townshend became 
the dominant Minister, after a career almost unexampled 
for its political changes. The disastrous results of his 
sinister influence became apparent in America. He it 
was who proposed and carried the measures of taxation 
of commodities which led to the Separation. Some of 
Townshend's speeches were the most admirable ever 
delivered in the House of Commons, but he had no con- 
sistency or stability of character. Macaulay speaks of 
him as " the most brilliant and versatile of mankind, 
who had belonged to every party and cared for none." 

George Townshend, fourth Viscount and first Marquis 
Townshend, elder brother of Charles, and godson of 
George I., was of St. John's, Cambridge. In order to 
remove him from the influence of his mother, who had 
become a Jacobite, he was placed by his relatives the 
Pelhams in the family of the Duke of Cumberland, under 
whom he served at Culloden. Differing from the burly 
Duke, he retired from the service in 1750. An unfortunate 
facility for caricature, and a too free criticism of the royal 
commander, widened the breach. Townshend's hostility 
to the Duke, and his dread of standing armies, made him 
a strong advocate of the militia system, and he was the 
author of the bill which became law in 1757 for estab- 
lishing this force on a national basis. After Cumberland's 
defeat by the French under D'Estrees at Hastemberg, and 
his capitulation December 8, 1757 at Closterseven, 
which so angered George II., who received him, saying : 


" Here is my son, who has ruined me and disgraced him- 
self," he retired into private life ; and Townshend returned 
to the army in 1758, and served as brigadier-general 
under Wolfe in the expedition against Quebec. As com- 
mander of the left wing at the battle on the Heights of 
Abraham, the death of Wolfe in the moment of victory 
so vividly depicted by West gave the direction of affairs 
into Townshend's hands, and his action, both then and 
subsequently, provoked criticism. He succeeded his father 
as fourth Viscount in 1764, and on August 12, 1767, was 
appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. This mission 
marked a new epoch in the history of Ireland. But the 
sudden death of his brother Charles September 4, 1767 
made his task a difficult one. He became highly unpopular, 
and resigned September 17. He subsequently held several 
minor offices, and was created Marquis Townshend in 

The " two profligate creatures " and " saucy boys " of 
Pyle's diction were then aged respectively thirty-one and 

John Stuart, third Earl of Bute, was educated at 
Eton, and succeeded in 1723. He attracted the notice 
of Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1737, and was made 
one of the Lords of his Bed-chamber. On the Prince's 
death, in 1 7 5 i , he became Groom of the Stole to his 
son, but the King refused to admit him into his closet to 
receive the gold key of office. He imbued the mind of 
the young prince with Bolingbroke's theory that a king 
should not only reign, but govern. This, as after events 
proved, was the bane of that particular king's career. On 
the accession of George III., Bute was appointed one of 
the principal Secretaries of State, and on the resignation 
of Pitt became supreme in the Ministry, and, together 
with Fox, harried the Whigs. The unsatisfactory terms 
of the Treaty of Paris, February 10, 1763, concluding the 
war with Spain, increased his unpopularity. He was 


hated by the populace for being a Scotsman and a 
favourite, and his own emblem the boot, as well as a 
petticoat were burned in a hundred bonfires. More- 
over, the scandalous stories about him and the Princess 
Dowager, though merely conjectural, were widely credited. 
He resigned office on April 8, 1763, but the King, with 
characteristic obstinacy, still accorded him his confidence. 
Owing to his bad influence, Grenville had to insist upon 
Bute's retirement from Court, September 28, and to ex- 
tract a promise from the King that Bute " should never 
directly or indirectly, publicly or privately, have anything 
to do with his business, nor give advice upon anything 
whatever." In 1763 the brothers Adam built Luton 
Hoo for Bute and his great library and collections. The 
library perished in a fire in 1771, and the house in 1843. 
The mansion on the south side of Berkeley Square, now 
called Lansdowne House, was also built for Bute by the 
same refined architects. 

John Green, whose ascent to the deanery of Lincoln 
gave rise to so much jockeying with preferments, was of 
St. John's, Cambridge. He became chaplain to Charles, 
Duke of Somerset, Chancellor of the University, who pre- 
ferred him in Cambridgeshire. On the death of Dr. 
Whalley he was appointed Regius Professor of Divinity. 
In 1750, on the death of Castle, the Fellows of Corpus 
being in a difficulty about the election of a Master, referred 
the matter to Archbishop Herring, who, at the request of 
the Duke of Newcastle (who had succeeded the Duke of 
Somerset as Chancellor), nominated Green, who was then 
elected. In 1756, on his promotion to the deanery of 
Lincoln, he resigned his professorship. When John 
Thomas was translated in 1761 to the See of Salisbury, 
Green, by the Newcastle interest, was promoted to the 
Bishopric of Lincoln. This vacated his other church pre- 
ferments, but he still retained the Mastership of Corpus 
until 1764. As late as 1771 he obtained in commendam 


a residentiary canonry at St. Paul's, and went very little to 
his diocese. He had a considerable literary reputation, 
and wrote against the Methodists, then the rising sect, 
and he assisted as a contributor to the " Athenian Letters," 
supposed to have been written by a Persian living at 
Athens during the Peloponnesian War. For some years, 
from 1765, the conversaziones of the Royal Society were 
held in Green's house in Scotland Yard. In 1772 he 
alone of all the bishops voted for the repeal of the Cor- 
poration and Test Acts, and was strongly in favour of the 
Deceased Wife's Sister Bill. He died in his sleep at 
Bath "sic sopor trruptf." In the possession of Miss 
C. M. Hartshorne is a profile miniature of Bishop Green 
in wax from the able hand of Francis Gosset. 

Though, by the force of political circumstances, 
Edmund Law was not " considered " at the time Pyle 
speaks of, his reward came later, as has already been 

Audrey, only daughter of Charles, third Viscount 
Townshend, was sister of the " two profligate creatures," 
George and Charles. She married Robert Orme of 
Devonshire, and died in 1782, leaving issue. No doubt 
the gossip of the town is here tinged by malignant political 

Sir Benjamin Keene was elder brother of the Bishop, 
and one of the numerous Norfolk men who came to the 
front under the auspices of Walpole. His mother was 
Susan Rolfe, sister of Pyle's mother. In 1724 he was 
Consul at Madrid, and was promoted three years later to 
the position of Minister Plenipotentiary. He arranged 
the treaty of Seville in 1729, under the direction of 
William Stanhope, afterwards Lord Harrington. Keene 
was recalled in 1739, on the declaration of war, and sat in 
Parliament from 1740 to 1748. Walpole says he was 
" one of the best kind of agreeable men, quite fat and 
easy, and with universal knowledge." 


Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, made 
his last speech in the House of Lords, December 10, 
1755, so the expected display against the Militia Bill 
never took place. It was greatly owing to the tact 
and good offices of Lord Chesterfield that the way was 
smoothed between Pitt and Newcastle on June 27, 1757, 
and that the political interregnum of eleven weeks came to 
an end. With the opening of 1758 began the succession 
of British victories all over the world. In 1730 Lord 
Stanhope was Lord Steward of the Household. Up to 
that time he had supported the Whigs, but being turned 
out of office on account of his action regarding the Excise 
Bill, he joined the opposition and became one of Walpole's 
bitterest antagonists. He joined the ministry formed by 
the Pelhams in 1744, and in 1746 was one of the prin- 
cipal secretaries of state. In 1748 he retired from public 
life. It was to him that Dr. Johnson wrote his lofty letter 
of surly indignance. Chesterfield's Letters to his natural 
son are well known. This young man predeceasing his 
father in 1768, Lord Chesterfield became aware that the 
subject of so much training in the not very elevating 
manners of the " gallantry " of the time, and of repeated 
warning, had long been secretly married to a lady of no 
very brilliant attractions. 

(Part of a Letter) 

11 Dr. Law, Master of Peterhouse has won the Duke of 
Newcastle's heart by the last Cambridge Address. This 
Address Law modestly declines the praise of and says 
the Lord Hardwick made it fit to be commended. Lord 
Hardwick says he altered only the words of one sentence 
in it & he will not say that alteration was for the better 
The master's expression he thinks was as good. 


" The Duke has acknowledged himself Dr. Law's 
debtor for this, and assured him of his Majesties favour, by 
his Majesties authority, in a very handsome letter ; which 

I have seen So Dr. Law, (if nothing better offers 

sooner,) will be Margaret Professor. 

" Newcome had like to have died a while ago 
of a fever attended with difficulty of breathing and 

Richard Newcome was of Queen's, Cambridge. He 
kept a school at Hackney, where many of the sons of the 
nobility were educated, among whom were William, 
Marquis of Hartington, who succeeded as Duke of Devon- 
shire in 1755, and Francis Egerton, third and last Duke 
of Bridgewater, who succeeded his brother at the age of 
twelve years in 1748. He is described at the age of 
seventeen as ignorant, awkward, and unruly, but he 
became the remarkably shrewd canal-builder and coal- 
owner and prospector. Philip, Charles, John, and James 
Yorke were all educated at Hackney by Newcome, and all 
four became members of Corpus, Cambridge. A fifth son, 
James, succeeded Edmund Keene as Bishop of Ely in 
1781. Newcome was made Bishop of Llandaff in 1755, 
and translated in 1761 to St. Asaph, where he died. 


"Xmas Day, 1756. 

" I thank you for your letter which came yester- 
day, and is the only Norfolk letter I have had a good 
while that has not made me melancholy, by an account of 
my good father's sickness, which I expect to hear every 
post has closed the scene of his life. It is foolish to grieve 
at the law of mortality yet one can't help it, when the 
trial comes ; tho' I thankfully look on the fair side, and 


consider how long God has been pleased to continue his 
life beyond the usual term. 

" My good friend Sykes is gone. He was, besides his 
other valuable qualities, an excellent member of our church. 
It is a very poor consideration that in balance of such a 
loss that I come into what I think the very best house in 
Winchester Close. Five seniors have refused to remove 
into it ; 4 of them, (thank 'em) for silly reasons. The 
widow Sykes is worth 12,000 pounds beside an interest 
for life in the London House, & in a small estate. 
Dr. Ayscough has, in his day, suffered at Oxford as a 
Whig & Hoadleian, from his college there, where he was 
refused a fellowship, but on appeal to Bishop Willis, (the 
visitor) was admitted ; Old Ephraim, as he was called, 
giving the President & Fellows to understand, on hearing 
the merits, in this house, that if they did not admit 
Ayscough in a quarter of an hour, in his presence, he 
would Out every man of them, in the next quarter. 
Bp Potter used him ill afterwards in his exercise for his 
Dr's degree ; which Ayscough had spirit to resent properly 
on the spot. He fell by the death of the Prince of Wales 
from 1,000 a year, in hand, & the greatest expectancies, to 
the income of a country living. The Princess did what she 
could to save him, by vindicating him to the King, on some 
points that his Majesty had taken offence at ; but it would 
not do & she wisely urged matters no farther. She has 
since been very generous to him, (in a private way), and 
My Lord has received both her & her son's thanks, for the 
notice he has taken of him. Chancellor Hoadly is her 
chaplain, & always treated by her with distinction. And 
how far a regard to his son's interest hereafter might 
influence the Bishop in Ayscough's promotion, I can't say, 
positively, but I believe not much. The Chancellor has 
1,400 a year, besides his savings. Ayscough is a Win- 
chester man born, & bred in the College there. 

" It is Dr. W. Herring's son, the Dean of St Asaph, 


whom the Archbishop has made Precentor of Sarum. It 
is 69.6.8 a year and a life is dropt in the lease of the 
estate, the renewal of which is worth 900. Dr. Sykes 
had so much for the last life. 

" A London Clergyman, whose name I can't recollect, 
to whom the Archbishop took a liking, as secretary to the 
Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy, (or, that of 1st 
fruits & tenths, or some such fraternity) is the person to 
whom Shuckford's living in town was given, (by the 
Church of Canterbury) & which produced Stedman's 

" It is said the leading men of the Country Party have 
declared they will join with the new ministers, Legge & 
Pitt, whom they take for good Englishmen. Timeo 

I am y rs &c, 

"E. PYLE. 

" Accept the compliments of the season." 


To the Rev" 1 Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn, Norfolk. 

B Free Win-"] 
~ chester.J 

Arthur Ashley Sykes was educated at St. Paul's School, 
under the distinguished scholar John Postlethwayt, and 
admitted of Corpus under the tutorship of Charles Kidman 
in 1701. His merits and his friends soon procured for 
him several preferments in the church, and from one of 
them, Dry Drayton, near Cambridge, he became a vigorous 
partisan of Bentley against Conyers Middleton. In 1724 
Sykes was collated a prebendary of Salisbury, and made 
precentor or chantor three years later. He was advanced 
to the Deanery of St. Burian, Cornwall, in 1739, an( ^ to 
a prebendal stall at Winchester. Thanks to his copious 


preferment, his ecclesiastical windfalls, and the profits 
from his literary labours, Sykes left a considerable fortune. 
A voluminous writer and controversialist, his whole life 
was a warfare of the pen, making him a conspicuous figure 
among the latitudinarian clerics of his time. He defended 
Hoadly, vindicated Bentley, answered Waterland, and 
supported Clarke in the revived Arian controversy. He 
took part in the dispute about Phlegon's Eclipse ; in the 
Enquiry concerning the Demoniacs, and wrote upon 
Miracles and Revelations. He naturally incurred the 
resentment of Warburton, and was gibbeted, with many 
others, in the notes to "The Divine Legation." Some of 
Sykes's letters, written in Latin to John Postlethwayt 
between 1702 and 1705, form part of the correspondence 
of that scholar in the possession of the Editor. 

Francis Ayscough was of Corpus, Oxford. After two 
years' probation he became a candidate for a fellowship. 
Without giving any reason, the president and the majority 
of the fellows voted against his admission, whereupon he 
appealed to the visitor, Richard Willis, Bishop of Win- 
chester, the immediate predecessor of Hoadly. The college 
pleaded that they had the right to make elections to fellow- 
ships without being responsible to the visitor ; but the plea 
was overruled by the bishop, who acted promptly in the 
matter, as Pyle describes, and Ayscough was at once elected. 
It was in 1735 that Archbishop Potter "the man of a 
little dirty heart " used him ill. The country living he 
held was the rectory of Berkhampstead St. Mary or North 
Church, Hertfordshire, in the gift of the Prince of Wales ; 
but even this was disputed by the chapter of Windsor. 
Ayscough married Anne, one of the two sisters of George, 
first Earl of Lyttelton, and was for a time tutor to 
George III. before his accession. He ended his life as 
Dean of Bristol. 

Bishop Willis was of Wadham, and was elected a 
Fellow of All Souls in 1688 though he was only the son 


of a journeyman tanner. Owing to his good preaching, but 
still more to his good Whig principles, Willis was advanced 
from a prebend at Westminster to the Deanery of Lincoln 
in 1701 ; he was consecrated Bishop of Gloucester in 
1715, holding his deanery in commendam. He was 
translated to Salisbury in 1721 and promoted to Win- 
chester two years later. This last advancement appears 
to have been due to his long oration against Atterbury, 
on the occasion of the third reading of the bill of Pains 
and Penalties. 

Lengthy and interesting accounts of the trial of the 
Bishop of Rochester in 1723 are given in letters from 
Thomas Herring, the future primate, and from John Denne 
to Kerrich. The whole bench of bishops voted against him 
except Francis Gastrell, Bishop of Chester. The conten- 
tion of my Lord of Chester was the irregularity of pro- 
ceeding against Atterbury without his being first degraded 
by the Archbishop. Many of Atterbury's peers were 
indeed eager to put him to the shame of the block, little 
thinking, probably, of the great French dramatist's line : 
" Le crime fait la honte et non pas 1'echafaud." 


"22 Feb. 1757. 

" I received yours of the fourteenth. Since 
you wrote it you have seen, I presume, the death of 
Dean Clerke, in the newspapers. He died of an ague ; 
caught by living in that vile damp close of Salisbury, 
which is a mere sink ; and going to a church, daily, that 
is as wet as any vault ; and which has destroyed more, 
perhaps, than ever it saved. Had he wintered at Nor- 
wich, as he used to do, he might have been alive & bonny 
many a day longer. His successor is Dr. Greene of 
Cottenham, who stept into that noble preferment (600 


a year certain) by a very extraordinary coincidence of 
circumstances. Dr. Newton, of St. Mary le Bow, had 
the King's Privy Seal for a vacant canonry of West- 
minster ; last year : & yet miss'd of it. So, when the 
Duke of Newcastle went out, he obtained his Majesty's 
promise to make Newton amends for this disappointment. 
The first thing that fell, since, was a canonry of Windsor. 
Upon this, Newcastle presented a memorial to the King, 
in favour of Newton. The Duke of Cumberland press'd 
hard for another man. And it was resolved to rest the 
matter, & to serve 'em both together, when a second good 
thing fell. Of this Lord Holderness was bid to take 
care. Holderness is Greene's intimate (school college) 
acquaintance & carried him to Hanover. On the death 
of Dean Clerke, Holderness went to the King, & 
settled every thing, in a moment : The deanery for 
Greene ; Greene's canonry of Westminster for Newton, 
& the canonry of Windsor for the Duke of Cumber- 
land's man. 

"Greene has now 1200 a year, besides his private 
Fortune. But he has had a further, most extraordinary, 
piece of good luck. Dean Clerke died on the Thursday. 
And on the Sunday following died Mr. Younger who was 
possessed of the livings, of St. Nicholas in Guilford, & 
that of Godalming adjoining to it ; each of the value of 
200 a year, & better ; and also of the Officially to the 
Dean of Sarum's peculiars ; which is 80 a year, after a 
deputy is paid. These 3 things are in the gift of the 
new Dean. And of these the late Dean's son-in-law has 
been long in expectation. 

"This piece of bad luck to the Clerke family, tho' 
indeed, very disagreable, may be tolerably sustained ; 
by the consideration that two estates of 1000 a year 
(put together) which have fallen in, are now in the 
possession of the three daughters of the late Dean. 

"You see the living of Northwold is given to Mr. 


Oram of Benet, Chaplain to My Lord of Ely a special 
clever young man. 

" Now I am, in my thoughts, within the walls of the 
Old House, I cannot forbear mentioning the peculiar 
good fortune of the Head of it ; in having a fine of 700 
brought to him, while he was at Lincoln, taking possession 
of that deanery, which is 700 a year, with a better 
patronage than many of the Bishop's have. 

" The late Lord Walpole died of the loss of 4000, 
at least, & of his interest at Norwich, which was lost at 
the same time. He thought & talked of nothing else to 
the last ; & at the very last ordered rings to be given to 
the Harbords to show he died in charity with them. 

"The intended representative for Lynn is a most 
delicate Italian fop. And, inter nos, will not go to that 
place to be chosen. Whether the Earl, his nephew, has 
pressed him enough on this subject I can't say. But I 
can say (that, if I know anything of the spirit of the 
better & worser sort of people there) it is a slight they 
will not forget : how little so ever they may talk of it 
just at the time when it is put upon them. And, it is in 
my opinion, that, if W. Folkes thinks it not too late in 
his life, this indignity will give him a better chance, when 
the next Election comes, than he ever had yet. Sir J. 
Turner is prodigiously vexed at this : and has done all 
he could that it might not happen ; and to exculpate 
himself, if it does happen. 

"The New Minister Mr. Pitt out-did his usual out- 
doings in the House of Commons last week ; when he 
appeared for the first time since his long illness and 
spake so for the Subsidy of 200,000, for the King of 
Prussia, that it was carried Nem: Con: 

" The Archbishop of York, with a posse of his 
brethren ; and a body of the chief men amongst the 
dissenters ; have been with Mr. Pitt (but not both to- 
gether) to remonstrate against the exercising the intended 


Militia on Sundays. There have been, since, several 
petitions presented to the House, from the dissenters of 
Shrewsbury, Warwick, &c. &c., and many more petitions 
are ready to come, to the same effect. So, there's an 
end, probably, of that silly scheme for the worst reason, 
perhaps, of all that might be alleged against it. The real 
reason, I hear, is the fear of putting arms into the hands, 
and skill to use them into the heads, of so many dis- 
affected boobies as there are in abundance, of the Counties 
of England. If the French invade you, with the Pretender 
along with them (& they are not sueh fools as to come 
without him) who can say which side The Lancashire, 
Cheshire, Staffordshire, Leicestershire, Devon, Hampshire, 
Suffolk, Militia will take ? 

" I am y rs &c. 

" E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

at Dersingham, near 

Lynn, in Norfolk. 
B Free Win-~| 
~ chester.J 

John Clarke was younger brother of the famous 
Samuel the metaphysician ; he was of Caius College, and 
became successively prebendary of Norwich, chaplain to 
the King, canon of Canterbury, and dean of Salisbury. 
He was distinguished as a mathematician. Cole describes 
him as " rather a well-looking, tall, and personable man," 
with, as Cole would not be likely to omit, " a squint." 

Thomas Greene, son of the Master of Corpus, the 
Bishop of Lincoln, was admitted of " The Old House " and 
elected Fellow in 1730 ; he migrated to Jesus and became 
rector of Cottenham, Cambridgeshire. He was appointed 
to a prebendal stall at Ely, and to a canonry at West- 
minster, now resigned in favour of Dr. Newton, on his 
own advancement to the deanery of Salisbury. The disuse 


of incense at Ely is attributed to Greene, whose head it 
caused to ache. He added the e to the end of his name. 

Thomas Newton, the pivot of so much juggling with 
ecclesiastical places, was educated at Westminster and 
Trinity, Cambridge. He was elected Fellow, and ob- 
tained preferment in London. When Pulteney became 
Earl of Bath in 1742 he obtained for him the rectory of' 
St. Mary-le-Bow, the stepping-stone to higher things, as 
in the case of his predecessor Samuel Lisle, who went 
from St. Mary's to the See of St. Asaph and on to Nor- 
wich where he succeeded Gooch in 1748 or as with 
Bradford, who passed from St. Mary-le-Bow to Carlisle in 
1718, and further to Rochester and Westminster in 
1723 in the room of the deprived Jacobite Atterbury. 
In 1749 Newton published his annotated edition of 
" Paradise Lost." The Princess Dowager made him her 
chaplain on the death of Prince Frederick, and in 1756 
the Duke of Newcastle had offered him, as Pyle relates, 
a prebend at Westminster by mistake, there being then 
no vacancy. In the following year came a competition 
in high quarters, and by a not very creditable shuffling 
of the cards of interest Newton got his Westminster pre- 
ferment. In 1761 Bute obtained for him the bishopric 
of Bristol, Dr. Younge being translated to Norwich, in 
succession to Hayter advanced to the See of London. 
The bishopric of Bristol being only worth 300 a year, 
and Newton having to resign most of his preferments, 
including the prebend of Westminster, he was righted by 
being appointed prebendary of St. Paul's in 1761. In 
1764 Granville recommended Newton, unsuccessfully, for 
the See of London, vacant by the death of Osbaldeston, 
and in the same year he offered him the Primacy of 
Ireland, on the death of the " infamous " George Stone. 
This Newton declined on account of increasing infirmities. 
On the decease of Archbishop Seeker in 1768 the King 
wished arrangements to be made by which Newton should 



become Bishop of London. This was opposed by the 
ministry, and Newton was palliated with the deanery of 
St. Paul's. He retained the See of Bristol until the end 
of his life. The capricious course of his preferment 
during a long period of years forms a good example, 
which it is desirable to recall now, of the career of a 
divine of no conspicuous merits in " the good old times." 
It fell to Newton, as Dean of St. Paul's, to urge the 
acceptance of a scheme under which Sir Joshua and other 
Royal Academicians had offered to decorate St. Paul's at 
their own cost. It was abandoned owing to the dis- 
approval and good sense of " the whoreson " Lowth, 
Bishop of London, with the excuse that it " tended to 
popery." Judging from Sir Joshua's designs for ecclesi- 
astical work in glass, and the calibre of the Academicians 
of his time who worked in " the grand style," and who 
would have exercised their skill within Wren's master- 
piece, we may be thankful indeed for Lowth's timely 
opposition. Dr. Johnson, in his vulgar familiar rough 
fashion, admitted that Newton's " Dissertation on the 
Prophecies " was " Tom's great work ; but how far it was 
great and how much of it was Tom's was another 

It does not appear why Cumberland interested him- 
self for the " man " who got the Windsor canonry. His 
enormous unwieldy form is well depicted by a small 
full-length portrait by Sir Joshua in the National Portrait 
Gallery, showing the prince standing on a flight of steps. 

In the possession of the Editor is a cotemporary 
statuette of the Duke of Cumberland, a family relic, 
9J inches high. The face is well modelled in wax, the 
hair powdered, and tied behind with a black bow, and 
set in a pig-tail or queue. The coat is of scarlet cloth, 
lined with thin buff leather, faced and cuffed with green, 
and edged with gold lace. The waistcoat is of yellow silk, 
with deep gold edging ; the breeches of black velvet, over 


which white hose are drawn ; the shoes black, with high 
heels and low quarters, and the black cocked hat gold- 
laced and tied up in front to the crown with the black 
Hanover cockade. The Duke wears the Ribbon, Star, 
and Garter, and a black sword with a gold-wired grip. It 
is a military dress, but it cannot be identified as of an 
English regiment, and is perhaps Hanoverian. 

Mr. Oram was a Fellow of Corpus, and chaplain to 
Mawson, Bishop of Ely. 

"The late Lord Walpole," so often abused by Pyle, 
was Horatio, younger brother of Sir Robert Walpole. 
He was so long a conspicuous political figure that his 
career demands more than a passing notice. Educated at 
Eton, and elected to a Fellowship at King's, he entered 
Parliament in 1700, and remained a member for fifty-four 
years. From his long connection with the diplomatic 
service he acquired unrivalled experience in foreign affairs, 
which became, indeed, the main business of his life. He 
served successively in Spain under General, afterwards Lord 
Stanhope, and in Holland under Lord Townshend and Lord 
Cadogan, and showed his sagacity and foresight in his con- 
duct at the critical time of the Atterbury Plot, and in his 
dealings at Paris, from 1724 to 1730, with the masterful 
spirit of Cardinal Fleury. As minister at The Hague, from 
1731 to 1740, he was very instrumental in keeping Great 
Britain free of the War for the Polish Succession, 1733- 
1736. As to his home service, upon which Pyle always 
attacks him, Walpole was not so successful. He took 
office under Townshend, on the accession of George I., as 
Secretary of the Treasury, Sir Robert becoming First 
Lord and Chancellor of the Exchequer. This place he 
quitted in 1717, on the dismissal of Townshend and the 
resignation of his brother, taking the same office again on 
Sir Robert Walpole's return to power in 1722. Then 
followed a long period of diplomatic employment. His 
vacillating policy in 1752, with respect to the subsidies' 


treaties, detailed by Pyle, naturally brought him great 
discredit, though he has been described as " consistent 
save when his party and its chief were affected." His 
nephew Horace, who, like Pope, never lost an opportunity 
of saying a smart or an ill-natured thing something that 
would wound somebody describes him as " one who 
knew somewhat of everything but how to hold his tongue." 
His dress was slovenly, his diction homely, and his tongue 
was tipped with the Norfolk accent. Like many others he 
could not resist printing an Answer to the Latter Part 
of Lord Bolingbroke's " Letters on the Study of History " 
that eminently stimulating source of controversy. Like 
his brother Robert, he died of stone, and his eldest son, 
Horatio, succeeded as second Baron Wolterton, and was 
the subject of the new creation of the Earldom of Orford 
in 1806. "Puddle Dock" and " Hockley-in-the-Hole," 
alluded to by Pyle in his letter of January 15, 1756, with 
regard to Walpole's title, as terms of derision, are two of 
the lost beauties of the English language. The former 
place was approached from Puddle Dock Hill, Blackfriars, 
and, together with Puddle Dock Wharf, was the resort of 
what Pyle would call " an illiberal tarpaulin crew." Hock- 
ley-in-the-Hole was, as the name implies, a place of very 
moderate refinement, where such rough amusements as 
bear- and bull- baiting and cock-fighting took place. In 
Hogarth's vulgar "Five Days' Peregrination" of 1732, a 
porter at the Dark House, Billingsgate, is spoken of, and 
called in derision " the Duke of Puddledock." 

Again we are confronted by a most interesting person- 
ality Horace, fourth son of Sir Robert Walpole. An early 
and characteristic incident in his life is that in 1727 he was 
taken, at his own request, June I, 1727, to kiss the hand 
of George I., just before the King left for his last journey to 
Hanover. Eight days later the tragic death took place in 
the carriage, between Ippenburen and Osnabruck, which 
placed George II. upon the throne, and assured the posi- 

1'anloo, Pinxt.. 1J37 



tion of Sir Robert Walpole. Horace was educated at 
Eton, and King's, Cambridge, and doubtless in those " holy 
shades" first acquired his appreciation of buildings and 
things "gothic" which distinguished him throughout his 
long life. Who does not readily recall the main features 
of his interesting career ? The grand tour and the quarrel 
with Gray, his " noble rage " for pictures, his connoisseur- 
ship, his vers de societe, his " Anecdotes of Painting," his 
dabblings in the higher literature, his " gothic " house at 
Strawberry Hill, his troops of friends among them 
Thomas Kerrich, and, most of all, his delightful corre- 
spondence. His Memoirs of his Time also have uncommon 
interest, though prejudiced by party spirit. In 1757 
Walpole vacated his seat for Castle Rising one of the 
most rotten of the rotten boroughs to which he had been 
elected in 1754, for that of King's Lynn. He spoke but 
rarely in the House, but worked in vain to save Admiral 
Byng. To Horace Walpole may be attributed in a great 
measure the renaissance of gothic architecture ; but with 
all his misconceptions of the style, he would have been 
startled indeed if he could have seen some of the gothic 
vagaries of the present day, and the havoc of " restora- 

In 1748, on the occasion and in consequence of 
ffolkes's marriage, Pyle thought very little of his chances 
of representing Lynn (see Letter, January 12, 174$). It 
may be gathered from a letter of nearly four years later 
(November 22, 1760) that ffolkes's health was failing 
apace and that he had no longer the wish for a Parlia- 
mentary career, that would take him away from his 
building and his bounteous hospitality to his neighbours. 

Continuing the retrospect of Pitt he became Secre- 
tary of State for the Southern Department, December 4, 
1756, Premier, and Leader of the Commons, with the Duke 
of Devonshire as First Lord of the Treasury, Temple 
First Lord of the Admiralty, and Legge Chancellor of the 


Exchequer. Pitt at once began to put into execution his 
own plan of carrying on the war with France the Seven 
Years' War, so calamitous for that country both by sea and 
land, but principally in the loss of her American colonies, 
concluded by the Peace of Paris, February 10, 1763. 
The failure of Byng and the loss of Minorca, and the 
pitiable conduct of Mordaunt and Hawke at Rochefort, 
formed the ominous opening of Pitt's advent to power. 
The people said, justly enough, that Byng was shot for 
not doing enough, and Mordaunt acquitted for doing 
nothing at all. The inauguration of a brilliantly suc- 
cessful foreign policy, the raising of the militia, and the 
strengthening of British naval power, met with opposition 
from the King, and Pitt and Temple had to resign office, 
April 5, 1757. So greatly was this to the public dis- 
content that the stocks fell. An alliance was patriotically 
concluded, two months later, between Pitt and Newcastle, 
by which the former again became Secretary of State, with 
the supreme direction of the war, and of foreign affairs, the 
Duke of Newcastle returning to the Treasury " with the 
disposal of civil and ecclesiastical patronage, and of that 
part of the secret service money which was employed in 
bribing the Members of the House of Commons." In the 
reconstruction of the Government Legge returned to the 
Exchequer. It is desirable to recount the above details 
because, although Pyle writes a letter to Kerrich on April 
21, 1757, he takes no account of the notable political 
impasse which had arisen fifteen days before. Doubtless 
it would have been sufficiently noised abroad. One would 
have been glad of Pyle's views on the ministerial recon- 
struction, but, unfortunately, the next letter but one a 
very long one is occupied with matters of Church, and 
not of State, bringing us in the following letter to April 6, 
1758. As soon as he was firmly re-established in power 
Pitt's war policy was distinguished by such vigour and 
sagacity that France was everywhere completely beaten on 


land and at sea by Britain and her allies. During these 
four eventful years the biography of Pitt forms a large 
part of the history of the world, and at the close of the 
reign of George II. "the Great Commoner" was, as 
Macaulay truly says, " the first Englishman of his time, 
and he had made England the first country in the world ; " 
supplies were voted without discussion, divisions became 
unknown, and in 1760 no less than sixteen millions were 
voted. During the earlier part of the winter of 1756 Pitt 
was laid up with a severe attack of gout. He made his 
first appearance as Leader of the House, February 17, 
1757, and delivered a message from the King desiring 
support for his electoral dominions and the King of Prussia. 
On the following day he proposed the vote of 2 00,000 
on that account, as mentioned by Pyle. George II. 
disliked Pitt, and complained that his speeches were 
beyond his comprehension which is very likely. 

There was a good deal in these objections of Pyle's to 
the Militia Bill, and they would have been much more 
cogent a few years earlier. Besides the slumbering 
animosity in the counties mentioned by him, there was 
specially strong antipathy to the House of Hanover in the 
northern part of " Proud Salopia," and in the districts of 
Montgomery, Denbigh, and Flint, adjoining that county 
and Cheshire " The Seed Plot of Gentility." In Glouces- 
tershire and in Oxfordshire, which took its cue from the 
University City, which was swarming with " Jacks," was 
extended disaffection, and the gentlemen of the Duchy re- 
mained eminently distinguished for their loyalty to the 
Stuarts. Besides, the country continued privily tinged 
with Jacobitism from end to end, and was teeming with 
the more dangerous host of waverers, waiting to take 
either side, each man according to his prospect of personal 
advantage ; not to mention the troops of scheming gentle 
rebels ! The Cause was constantly and secretly speeded, 
and the sentiment kept alive by the ever popular convivial 


practice of pledging " the King over the Water " in the 
"Fiat/ 1 the " Radiat," the " Redeat," or the Virgilian- 
mottoed and rose-engraved glasses, over the glittering 


"March 15, 1757. 

" The Archbishop of Canterbury died on Sunday. 
He was filling again in the dropsical way. And one day, 
in the beginning of the last week, was prevailed upon to 
take a dose of the medicine, which he has used since the 
regular physicians could do no more for him. It wrought 
as it used to do, that is pretty strongly, in the diuretic 
way (I take it) ; but he was then so unequal to the opera- 
tion that it hastened his end, perhaps, a few days. On 
Friday last he desired to be by himself and spent some 
hours in burning papers ; the family were not pleased at 
his being so long alone ; but no-body cared to disobey his 
order, about not going in to his room. At last he rang 
the bell, and was found unable to speak intelligibly. So 
he continued till Sunday morning. He dies worth only 
1 8 thousand pounds. And when the legacies he has left 
are paid (of which one is of 1000 to Benet College) 
there will be somewhat better than ;iooo a piece for his 
relations, i.e. Dr. Will Herring of York, Herring the draper, 
& their children. The Archbishop of York it's thought 
will succeed him. I have a minute's leisure to tell you 
this, to-day & am y rs &c. E. PYLE. 

"This good prelate lived till he was reduced to the 
resemblance of a skeleton covered with bladder, or parch- 
ment : And was, really, a sad sight." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, near 

Lynn, in Norfolk. 
B Free Win- n 
~ Chester. J 


Thomas Herring had been translated to Canterbury 
in 1747. Some of his letters are preserved among Add. 
MSS. in the British Museum, others to John James 
Majendie are noticed in the fifth " Report of the Historical 
MSS. Commission/' Appendix, and the following char- 
acteristic missive of 1752, to the Dean of Canterbury, 
the ponderous Dr. Lynch, Master of St. Cross, Win- 
chester, is printed in Vol. I. of the New Series of the 
same Commission :- 

" DEAR MR. DEAN, Archbishop Anselm, it seems, lies 
buried in our Cathedral, and the King of Sardinia has a 
great desire to be possess'd of his Bones, or Dust & 
Coffin. It seems he was of the County of Oost, the 
Bishop of which has put this desire into the King's Head, 
who, by-the-by, is a most prodigious Bigot, and in a late 
Dispute with Geneva gave up Territory to redeem an old 
Church. You will please to consider this request with 
your friends but not yet capitularly. You will believe I 
have no great Scruples on this Head, but if I had I would 
get rid of them all if the parting with the rotten Remains 
of a Rebel to his King, a Slave to the Popedom & an 
Enemy to the married Clergy (all this Anselm was) would 
purchase Ease and Indulgence to one living Protestant. 
It is believed that a Condescension in this Business may 
facilitate the way of doing it to thousands. I think it is 
worth the Experiment, & really for this End, I should 
make no Conscience of palming on the Simpletons any 
other old Bishop with the name of Anselm." 

So much for " the weight of the character " of Arch- 
bishop Herring spoken of in Pyle's letter, dated April 4, 
1742 ! Anselm ruled the See of Canterbury from 1093 
to 1114. There was no other primate of the name of 
Anselm, so it may be presumed that Herring's proposed 
pious fraud was not carried out. He greatly improved 
the palaces at Bishopsthorpe, Lambeth, and Croydon. 


His handsome and dignified appearance was twice com- 
mitted to canvas by Hogarth (see also note to Letter of 
April 4, 1742). 


"Ap r 2i. 1757. 

" Yours of the I 5 came not to me 'till this day. 
Dr. Moss may be directed to as rector of St. James's 
Westminster, and the letter will go to him directly. 

" If any of the magazines come in your way, look into 
them for a paper (which, I doubt not, will be in them all) 
called ' Short but Serious Reasons for a Militia Act.' It 
will divert you. Mr. Jennings of Cambridgeshire wrote it. 
"I am a little shy of asking any body to serve a 
clergyman's child, in the way you speak of (when it can 
be done without me ;) because I have been threatened to 
be made a Steward, which I will not absolutely refuse, 
but, will not perform 'till many others, of much greater 
preferment than mine, have gone thro' that service : then 
I am willing. 

" I am Your most obedient Ser vt 

11 E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

at Dersingham, near Lynn, 
in Norfolk. 

B Free Win- 
~ Chester 


Charles Moss, of whose health Pyle thought so badly 
in his letter of November 4, 1752, was of Caius, and 
became the favourite chaplain of Bishop Sherlock at 
Salisbury, who, on his translation to London in 1748, 
soon after appointed him Archdeacon of Colchester, suc- 
cessively giving to him the valuable livings of St. Andrew, 
Undershaft, and St. James's, Piccadilly, 1750, and that of 


St. George's, Hanover Square, in 1759. He defended his 
patron's " Trial of the Witnesses " in a tract which finally 
appeared in 1 749 as " The Sequel of the Trial of the 
Witnesses." Moss delivered the Boyle Lectures from 
1759 to 1762 inclusive. He was consecrated Bishop of 
St. David's in 1766, and translated to Bath and; Wells, 
1774, which see he retained until 1802, being succeeded 
by Richard Beadon. He was a warm supporter of Hannah 
More at Wrington in her good works in the Cheddar 
Valley. Moss appears, from what Pyle says, to have 
married a connection of Bishop Sherlock. He left an 
only son, Charles, who was of Christ Church, and was 
Bishop of Oxford from 1807 to 1812. He inherited 
from his father a large fortune which came from his 
great-uncle, Robert Moss, Dean of Ely. 


"June 4, I757- 

"When I took Mrs. Stephens' medicines I swal- 
lowed two ounces of soap a day, for six months together. 
Besides the oyster shell, or egg shell powder, in small beer, 
to the quantity that will lie on a half-crown with each dose 
of soap ; I think the doses were 3 or 4 in a day. 

" I have tried some tricks for the gout, and, thanks 
to my constitution, am not killed. The Duke of Portland's 
Powder was the last. You shall never catch me at doing 
any thing more for it. He that is subject to it, had 
better bear the fits, as nature throws them out than strive 
to put her out of her way, which if you do furca licet, 
usq recurret. 

"There is no doing any thing with any steward of 
this year. The affair is all over, 

" I am y rs &c., 

"E. PYLE. 


" Dr. Hoadly is in a very bad (viz a dropsical) state, 
& we fear won't live long." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham near Lynn, 

B Free Win- ) 
-" Chester.) 

The peer who was honoured as sponsor of powder 
for gout was William, second Duke of Portland, who 
made the important marriage in 1734 with Lady Margaret 
Cavendish Harley, only daughter and heir of Edward, 
second Earl of Oxford, and died in 1762. 

Dr. Hoadly, the author of " the profligate pantomime " 
entitled " The Suspicious Husband," died on August i o, 
about the time Pyle foretells. 



" I think I told you that Dr. B: Hoadly your pupil, 
is far gone in the worst Symptoms of a dropsy, proh Dolor ! 
" There has been a remarkable incident lately, respecting 
the bishop of Winchester's visitatorial power in the two 
Colleges of W: of Wickham, that is worth relating to you : 
as (for what I know) it may make much talk in the 
world ; tho', I think it seems of late as if the great 
battle will go off in Fumo. It has been the practice, for 
6 successions, of the Fellows of New College, Oxon, to 
choose their Warden, to the wardenship of the College at 
Winton : worth ?OO a year. Of these elections, five 
have been confirmed by the former bishops of Winton ; 
(The statute requiring the bishop's confirmation of the 
election, if duely made :) and the sixth by the present 
bishop implicitly in confidence that his predecessors, who 


were Oxford men, knew all to be right, in that case. But 
Lo ! about 3 years ago, (on the late Warden's being 
struck with the palsy,) some papers given about, in print 
& MSS., made it requisite for the bishop to peruse the 
Statute of Election very carefully: on which perusal it 
most evidently appeared, that the Warden of New College, 
was not comprehendible in any of the descriptions of 
persons whom W. of Wickham, (with more preciseness 
than was ever used by any founder of a college) specifies, 
as eligible to that office. Therefore, on the death of 
Dr. Coxed, Warden of Winton, about 3 weeks ago ; the 
Society of New Coll:, Oxon, electing & presenting to the 
bishop, their head, the (in)famous Dr. Purnell (Vice- 
chancellor in 1746 & 1747, &c.) ; who refused to punish 
some scholars that talked and acted Treason. His Lord- 
ship refused to confirm that Election, for the reason 
given above ; declaring to the Dr. his concern for his error 
in confirming & admitting the late Warden ; and named, 
(as the Statute directs & obliges him,) a person, of the 
Wickham Foundation, to the headship of Winton College, 
in 5 days. This person is one Mr. Golding, Fellow of 
New College ; One of a most excellent character, for 
learning & virtue ; and, what is very particular in that 
society, a friend to King George. 

" This man, who is 50 years of age & no more 
dreamt of this advancement, than he did of being Pope ; was 
very nearly frightened out of his wits, at the bishop's mes- 
sage to him, to come & be admitted Warden of Winton. 

" But, in 3 days, he recovered himself so well, as to 
write the enclosed speech ; partly on the Sunday in 
London, & partly on Monday, on the road to Win- 
chester, where he was received by the College (to their 
honour be it spoken ; tho' they are Jacks ;) with all 
respect ; & is possessed of his lodgings ; and in no fears 
about the event of a Chancery suit, with which Purnell 
threatens him & the bishop. 


" I send you the only copy extant of his speech ; 
which I beg to have again. He knew it was the custom 
for one of the Foundation-Scholars to receive the New 
Warden with a speech ; on which he says something: 
and what he says to his Old Master (Informator) Dr. 
Burton, who received him with tears of joy, will touch 
you to the quick. 

" The breaking the custom of the Warden of New 
College's succeeding to the headship of Winton, is a 
glorious thing ; and will cause the bishop's memory to be 
had in honour for ever, by all true sons of W. of Wickham. 
Not as it has defeated one who is a Jacobite without 
disguise, and a very worthless fellow, in all other respects, 
but as it will, if anything can, raise the reputation of the two 
colleges ; which is now sunk to the lowest ebb. For, the 
Heads of New College has not studied or cared for, any- 
thing, of many years, but making, & keeping up an interest 
in their fellows ; in order to be, by them, elected to the 
Headship of Winton, in case of a vacancy. So that 
learning has been got, or not, just as young men were of 
themselves inclined ; all discipline is lost, & sometimes 
there has not been so much as a tutor in the college, to 
instruct those, who, after two years were to be Fellows of 
it. And at Winchester College (where the Warden of 
New College is visitor, to all intents & purposes, of the 
school), the Warden and ten Fellows, have swallowed up 
so much of the revenue, that an education of that founda- 
tion, designed by W. of Wickham to be almost without 
charge, is become so expensive, that few but persons of 
very good fortunes can afford to send a son thither. 

" At New College, this event has set the Fellows all in a 
flame against Purnell, their Warden ; by whose obstinacy, 
they have lost an opportunity of promoting a Jacobite to 
the finest thing in the kingdom. The papers written on 
this subject, some time ago, put them upon requesting of 
him, to let them apply to the bishop, (as their visitor & 


patron : whose duty it is, to assist them in understanding 
their Statutes,) lest by a flaw in the election, he (Purnell) 
should lose this precious thing ; and they not get the 
disposal of it. But he would not hear of this ; & over- 
ruled them haughtily. And when they found the bishop 
has rejected this whoreson Purnell ; 5 of them came, 
(Post) to London, to beg his Lordship's leave to make a 
new choice. But this the bishop had no power to grant. 
The Statute expressly requiring of him, to name a man 
within 5 days if the Fellows have acted, in their election, 
unstatutably, in any instance. If a deputation of the 
fellows had come to the bishop, for council before their 
choice of their Warden ; I do not see how my Lord would 
have avoided saying so much to them as would have been 
declarative, in a manner of his opinion, on that case. 
But 'tis better as it is. 

" Dean Lynch, after a previous illness of irregular 
gout, & bilious cholic, has had a paralytic stroke ; which 
has sorely shattered half his vast carcass. He is not yet 
well enough to go to Bath. 

" He is possessed of the best thing the bishop of Winton 
has in his gift, viz. the Mastership of the Hospital of St. 
Cross near Winchester : (500 a year ; called 700). 

" If He dies, Dr. Hoadly's ill state may embarras the 
bishop sadly. That Hospital may be held by any man, lay 
or clerk : And to be sure the Dr. would be the man. But 
he will not live J of a year ; I fear, perhaps not half so long. 

" How far it may be proper for Chancellor Hoadly to 
have it thrown upon the heap of his preferment, which is 
1,500 a year already; will, I am sure, be well con- 
sidered. He has no child ; &, I believe, cares not a 
farthing about mere money. For my part, I will not ask 
for it ; if Dr. Lynch should vacate it, & Dr. B. Hoadly be 
dead. And if it should be offered me, on condition of 
resigning my prebend, I should consider of it a little. I 
have enough, full as much as I know what to do with, 


and, in troth, I should be lothe to give up my pretty 
house and gardens at Winchester, which I have laid out 
,200 on, for a nasty dwelling in a dirty boggy village, a 
mile & half off any conversible person, in an old rats- 
hall, that is worse than Magdalen College First Court, at 
Cambridge. But I am shooting at rovers Lynch may 
live ; & if he dies, it may not be offered to me and I 
will not ask for it. The Chancellor may take it & 
resign that office which is a troublesome one, that he 
does not love ; Or a sinecure of 100 a year which he 
has And, by Dr. B. Hoadly's death, one or two sinecure 
things of $o a year value each ; which, I think, clerk or 
layman may have ; will be void : So that here may be 
great hustling. 

" Good night to you for I hear the Clock strike 1 2. 

" Yrs &c. 

" Tace." " E. P. 


"DEAR SIR, " AP6 ' 1758 ' 

" My health has not been good in the winter. 
I was plagued with the gout, twice, and do not recover 
strength as I did in younger days. 

" The Warden of Winton has possessed his place in 
great quietness hitherto. The lawyers having refused to 
meddle with the case ; and the Jacobites only cursing him 
& his promoter in secret. They bounced mightily at first 
& threatened the bishop & him with Chancery &c. &c. f but 
they are quite crest-fallen. It is a most noble preferment; 
but requires the strictest residence. Sir B. Keene would 
have left Spain had his health been good ; he was so near 
coming away, that lodgings were taken for him in Pall-Mall. 

" The great men of the Law have express'd much 
admiration & pleasure at seeing evidence stated so con- 
cisely & strongly as is done in the Letter to Chevallier ; 
& declare themselves incapable of having drawn it up so 


clearly, without taking much greater compass. And all 
people say, that no one but the bishop could have put 
such matter so together as to make a reader go through 
it with an appetite & relish. 

" The promotion of the bishop of Oxford to Canterbury 
is generally liked. His predecessor died in time for his 
character ; for he was grown covetous & imperious to 
excess. He left 50,000 which he has saved out of the 
Church in 1 2 years, and not one penny to any good use 
or public charity. 

" Your old acquaintance Dean Lynch is half dead ; but 
the other half may hold a good while. He came in the 
latter part of summer to London in order for the Bath, 
but was sent home by the physicians of the metropolis. 

" Should he die before my Lord of Winchester I had 
schemed to make my brother Tom prebendary of our 
church : But as paralytic people live long beyond proba- 
bilities, (witness Dean Bullock), and people after 8 1 are apt 
to die, I have taken a bird i' the hand, viz. a living in 
Devonshire very near what he has there already, which 
will bring him in as much clear money as a prebend would 
do, when he had resided & paid all yearly unavoidable 
deductions. This living has long been an object of his & 
my father's wishes. And I have had the good luck to get 
it, by my Lord's tempting the incumbent to change for 
a very pretty parsonage in Hampshire ; where the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer's estate lies ; to whom the man 
hopes to make himself acceptable & I hope so too ; for 
he's a deserving man. 

" I am, y r most 

"humble serv', 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

at Dersingham near Lynn, 

B Free Win- ) 
~" Chester. ) 



Pyle's first cousin, the good-natured, well-informed 
stout man, Sir Benjamin Keene, was sent in 1746 as 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to 
Portugal to bring about a peace with Spain. He resumed 
his place at Madrid in 1748, and concluded a treaty of 
Commerce in 1750. It fell to him, a most angrily un- 
willing agent (for he thought the Government was mad) to 
make Pitt's offer to restore Gibraltar, and also to propose 
some other concessions on the condition of Spain's joining 
England against France. It will be remembered what an 
outcry was caused in our own day at the bare suggestion 
that England should relinquish her hold on "The Rock." 
Keene died at Madrid in 1758. 

Thomas Seeker, now promoted from Oxford to Canter- 
bury, was educated for the dissenting ministry. In a 
Nonconformist Academy at Tewkesbury he consorted with 
students who afterwards became famous Butler, Bishop 
of Durham ; Maddox, Bishop of Worcester; and Samuel 
Chandler, the Nonconformist divine. Like many other 
clerics of his time Seeker studied medicine, both in 
London and Paris, and through the influence of Bishop 
Talbot of Salisbury, he quitted dissent and entered at 
Exeter College, Oxford. Talbot gave him preferment in 
his diocese of Durham, and he was made chaplain to the 
King at the instance of Sherlock. In 1735 Seeker was 
appointed Rector of St. James's, Piccadilly, and consecrated 
Bishop of Bristol, retaining St. James's and his Durham 
prebend, Bristol being then the poorest see in England. 
He attempted, without success, to bring about a reconcilia- 
tion between George II. and his son, and of course gave 
offence to the irrational King. In 1737, when he suc- 
ceeded Potter as Bishop of Oxford, he was followed at 
Bristol by Thomas Gooch, who remained for one year, and 
was in his turn succeeded by Seeker's friend Butler. The 
new prelate found Oxford a hot-bed of Jacobitism, but he 
carried himself well, and avoided collision with the parties 


opposed to him politically. He was one of the friends 
of Sarah, Duchess of Maryborough, at Blenheim, and an 
executor of her will. In 1750 Seeker was made Dean of 
St. Paul's, in the room of Butler promoted to Durham. 
His consecration as Primate of All England was a preli- 
minary step to his reconciliation with George II.; and he 
was a favourite with George III., whom he had baptized, 
confirmed, crowned, and married. During Seeker's ten 
years' tenure of the seat of Augustin, he showed himself 
" a favourable example of the orthodox eighteenth-century 
prelate." Seeker had no sympathy with the Whig theology 
of the time, and spoke of the " Hoadleian divinity " as 
" Christianity secundum usum Winton." Like Herring, 
he was a man of commanding presence and dignified and 
winning address. His works include the inevitable large 
number of not very brilliant sermons, and his few printed 
charges have value as giving insight into the state of the 
church in the middle of the eighteenth century. 

Matthew Hutton, here censured by Pyle, was a lineal 
descendant of Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of York from 
J 593 to 1607. He was of Jesus, Cambridge, and became 
Fellow of Christ's. The Duke of Somerset presented 
him to the rectory of Trowbridge. In 1732 he married 
Mary, daughter of John Lutman of Petworth, Sussex, of 
whom Pyle speaks January n, 1755, as having been 
a chambermaid at the Duke of Somerset's. Hutton held 
several other preferments, amongst them a canonry of 
Windsor, which he exchanged for a prebend at West- 
minster in 1739. Of his two daughters, Dorothy and 
Mary, the elder was, as we have seen in Letter LXXIIL, 
" twice upon the brink of matrimony to Dr. Cotton of 
the Peak." Mr. Arthur Gray, in his " History of Jesus 
College," shows the following remarkable parallelism in 
the lives of the two Archbishops Herring and Hutton. 
They were born in the same year, 1693, and entered 
Jesus in 1710 Herring one day before Hutton, which 


small priority of time Herring maintained in the suc- 
cessive steps which took each to Canterbury. They 
migrated from their own Tory college Herring to 
Corpus, Hutton to Christ's ; and were elected to fellow- 
ships Herring in 1716, Hutton in 1717. Herring was 
promoted to the sees of Bangor in 1737, York 1743, and 
Canterbury 1747 ; and Hutton directly followed him in 
each of these episcopal seats, surviving his old friend only 
one year. 

Thomas Pyle was the second son of Thomas Pyle. 
He was of Corpus, and elected fellow in 1735. He 
became Rector of Marlborough and Canon of Salisbury in 
1741. He held a living later in Devonshire, and, by the 
manipulation of preferment described by Pyle, he obtained 
that of West Alvington near it. In 1 760, on the advance- 
ment of Dr. Shipley to the Deanery of Winchester, 
Thomas Pyle was appointed to the vacant prebend. He 
appears now to have resigned his canonry at Salisbury 
and his first Devonshire living, retaining only that of 
West Alvington. He lived to the great age of ninety-four, 
dying in 1807. On a wall of the south aisle of the nave, 
close to the south door of Winchester Cathedral, is a plain 
slab of black stone framed in white marble, and thus 
inscribed : 

M. S. 



1 ^ETATIS SUM 94. 

Immediately below is a like memorial of Edmund Pyle. 



" Chelsea Sept. 16, 1758. 

" I am returned from a wet residence at Win- 
chester (not in the same sense as we say a wet 
Quaker) And besides the disagreeable circumstances of 
almost perpetual rain, I have had another no very agree- 
able one, viz.: the noise of about 1200 French prisoners 
who are allowed to divert themselves all day long in what 
manner they please in a large enclosure round the house 
built, but not finished by K. Char: II ; which stands on 
an eminence over against my garden. I have had amends 
made me by very good company in the close, especially 
Dr. Balguy's our new prebendary, who is a special clever 
man ; and by a great deal of the Dean of Canterbury's 
conversation, who was at St. Cross all the time of my 
residence, renewing leases to the tune of 600 at least. 
He is disabled on one side by the palsy, but far from any 
resemblance of a man likely soon to go off. He bears part 
in conversation with his usual cheerfulness. Tells stories, 
I think, as well as ever. I am sure he never performed 
better in that way than in one he told of little Bishop 
Green (then rector of the church which he now has, & 
where his estate lies) reading a First Lesson in a hot 
summer afternoon about the gods of Hamath & of Arphad 
the gods of Sepharvaim, Hena & Ivah as if it had 
been the very pith and marrow of all holy writ and his 
father, old Lynch, a snoaring, to a degree that diverted 
the reader from the Lesson, to that object with a 
Good Lack ! it is my cousin Lynch. He went every 
other day to Southampton & bathed in the sea ; & was, 
I think, considerably the better for it. He visited & 
dined with several of us at Winchester : preached at 
St. Cross o' Sundays and may, for what I can see, 
disappoint many an expectant. 


" Here has been glorious news lately & a great deal 
of it. 

" The 2 1 Brass Canon & two mortars taken from Cher- 
burg are yet exposed to view in Hyde-Park to the great 
amusement of his Majesty's subjects who flock in vast 
numbers to see them daily. And the King can take a 
peep, when he pleases, at them & his people from the 
openings of some of the groves in his gardens, without 
being seen. And the old man is highly delighted in so 
doing and has ordered all folks of all sorts to be let go 
close to the canon & boys to get up & sit across them, 
&c. &c. 

" They are very fine things of their sort. Illustrated 
with the Arms of France most pompously. And each 
bears the name of some puissant woman in ancient story 
that has done mischief in the world : Semiramis, Nitocris, 
&c. And all have the unprincipled Motto of ' Ratio 
ultima Regum.' 

" I did not think to have writ half so much stuff when 
I sat down to acknowledge the favour of your last letter, 
supposing I believe truly, that I had not done it before. 
"I am, 

" Your most humble Serv 1 , 

"E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, near 
Lynn, Norfolk. 

B Free Win- ) 
~ Chester. \ 

With regard to the French prisoners mentioned by 
Pyle it may be convenient to mention that the French 
Government was at this time brought so low that it was 
not able to support its subjects who were prisoners of war 
in England, to the number of twenty-four thousand, and 
many of these Frenchmen must have starved but for the 


charitable subscriptions of the English people. In Letter 
XXIII. of Goldsmith's "Citizen of the World," which first 
appeared in two volumes I2mo in 1762, he speaks of 
the " late instance of finely directed benevolence " of the 
English people. 

The King's House, or Palace, was begun by Charles 
II., Wren being the architect, and carried on during the 
short reign of James II., at whose abdication the work 
came to an end. In November 1759 t ^ ie French prisoners 
taken by Hawke in Quiberon Bay, in the brilliant action 
against Conflans, were interned in the half-finished palace, 
and it again received prisoners of the same nation from 
1804 to 1811. Latterly it was used as barracks for the 
depots of the Hampshire Regiment, but was burnt to the 
ground a few years ago. It has been rebuilt as barracks, 
which will be opened in the present year. 

Dr. Thomas Balguy, the " specially clever man," was 
of St. John's, Cambridge. He gave lectures on Moral 
Philosophy and the Evidences for sixteen years. In this 
year he became tutor in the family of the Duke of 
Northumberland, that is to say, in the household of Sir 
Hugh Smithson, who had married in 1 740 Lady Elizabeth 
Seymour and was created Earl Percy and Duke of 
Northumberland in 1766. Balguy was thus tutor to 
Hugh, second Duke, born 1742, and died 1817. He 
states in the " Life " of his father (who was a strenuous 
defender of Hoadly in the Bangorian Controversy) that he 
owed all his advancement and preferment to " the favour 
and friendship" of the Bishop of Winchester. He de- 
clined the See of Gloucester on the death of Warburton in 
1781, on account of failing health. 

With regard to the behaviour of " Old Lynch " in 
church it will be remembered that when the witty South 
was preaching before Charles II., he had to call out to 
rouse the Earl of Lauderdale, who, he said, snored so loudly 
he would wake the King. 


The brass cannon taken from Cherbourg in August 
1758 by the fleet sent by Pitt to destroy that port which 
had been built by Fleury " for all eternity " were in 
addition to a hundred and seventy-six pieces of iron cannon. 
We gather from the " Guide to the Tower of London " of 
1784, that the whole of the brass cannon were then 
preserved, and that their names were as follows : Hecube, 
made in 1709; Nitocris,t 1739; L'fimerillon, 1730; Le 
Temeraire, 1748; Auguste,t 1748; Antonin,t 1740; 
L'Insensible,t 1748; Le Malfaisant,t 1741; Le Vain- 
queur,t 1750; Le Juste t; La Divineresse ; L'lm- 
perieuse t ; La Furieuse ; La Violente t ; Le Sage ; 
La Moresque ; La Diligence t ; La Laborieuse t ; Le 
Renomme t ; Le Foudroyant t ; and L'Ulysse. Those 
marked t were " spiked up." In the " Tower Guide " for 
1831, it is stated that the whole of the above cannon 
were represented by two brass guns, ten feet long, that 
had been cast out of them in 1762. One was embellished 
with the arms of Lord Ligonier, Master-General of the 
Ordnance, and the other with the arms of Lord Towns- 
hend, with the names of the principal officers of the 
ordnance. These still exist, one on each side of the 
steps leading to the parade ground. It is to be regretted 
that these historic and beautiful pieces were thus abrogated. 
It may be recalled that the French had only two hundred 
and sixty-six cannon in all at Waterloo. These were all 
carried off the field in a surprisingly short time by the 
Prussians to Genappe, to the exceeding anger of the Duke 
of Wellington. In the end the English only recovered 
one half the amount as their portion of the spoils of 
war sixty-five guns less than the remarkable number 
taken at the destruction of the fortress of Cherbourg. 
The two mortars mentioned by Pyle still remain on 
Tower Green; they are dated 1684, and inscribed " Non 
solis radios sed Jovis fulmina." 



"Nov r 2i, 1758. 

"I have a favour of yours to acknowledge. 
There is a great dearth of literary news. The only 
articles, of that sort, that I know of, are : That Dr. Hales 
hath actually published ; what has been some time talked 
of; a tube of tin, with a box, of the same, at the lower 
end of it, (like a box for a Great Seal,) that is full 
of very small holes. This engine, with the help of a 
pair of bellows, blows up cream into syllabub, with great 
expedition. This complex machine has already procured 
the Dr. the blessing of the housekeeper of this palace, and 
of all such as she is, in the present generation, (who 
know the time & labour required to whip this sort of 
geer : and will cause his memory to be had in reverence, 
by all housekeepers, in the generations that are yet for 
to come. And that Dr. Middleton's widow & executrix 
hath not yet, but is resolved, (notwithstanding the 
remonstrances of some very judicious friends) shortly to 
republish a discourse, written by her husband, on prayer. * 

have conversed with, I am sure whose character you 
know & respect. This person, I say, in discoursing with 
me lately about the intended pamphlet on Prayer, told me 
that Dr. Middleton confessed to him, ' That he did not 
believe t . . . and that he had been many years in the 
same way of thinking on that subject ' : adding, f that, 
formerly when he (Dr. M) conversed freely with $ . . . 
neither of them believed one jot more than he did.' 

" There is a hint, that looks this way, in Middleton's 
book against ' Sherlock's Discourses on Prophecy ' but 
what I have told you is as plain as a pike-staff. 

* Part of the letter is here torn off. t Three words defaced. 

Five words defaced. 


" My old master, the King, is not well : very far 
from it He vexes himself & no wonder, at the deplor- 
able condition of his native country, that is undone in a 
cause it has no relation to. he has lost one eye, & the 
other is not a good one and his flesh abates. I am 
afraid for him. But I am apt to fear the worst for those 
I love. 

" I am &c. 

"E. PYLE." 

To The Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, near 

Lynn, in Norfolk. 
B Free Win. ) 
~ Chester.) 

The blessed benefactor Stephen Hales was of Corpus 
and was elected a Fellow in 1702. He became rector of 
Faringdon, Hampshire, and proctor for the diocese of 
Winchester. Hales was one of the last of the clergy who 
made his female parishioners do penance for irregular 
behaviour. Walpole calls him " a poor good primitive 
creature " ; a much greater man, Pope, had a high regard 
for him, and Hales was one of the witnesses to his will. 
Hales was distinguished as a botanist, and his contributions 
to animal physiology are important. His works include 
pamphlets against the abuse of strong waters ; the salting 
and preserving of animal and vegetable food for use at 
sea ; experiments on the blood ; on the malady of the 
stone ; treatises on ventilation ; distilling, &c. His 
inventions were numerous. So highly appreciated was 
he by the Princess Dowager that she put up a memorial 
to him in Westminster Abbey. 

Syllabub was well known and appreciated in the early 
years of the seventeenth century, and no doubt came into 
use with the first introduction of sack, for medicinal 
purposes, early in the sixteenth century. The accom- 


plished citizen of the world, James Howell, writing from 
Kent to Thomas lones, June i, 1625, says: "I pray 
leave the smutty Ayr of London and com hither to breath 
sweeter wher you may pluck a Rose and drink a Cilibub." 
At that time, and throughout the century, the practice 
was to imbibe syllabub, like posset, through the spout of 
an earthenware pot with two handles. The Immortal 
Dreamer had such a pot in Bedford Jail. In Pyle's time 
the somewhat mawkish drink was consumed from special 
tumbler-shaped glasses, then called in the trade " whipt- 
sillibub glasses," and slightly "evase's." It may be 
doubted whether the " engine " of which the royal house- 
keeper at Kensington Palace so highly approved, had any 
merit save that of saving trouble in towns, for the whip- 
ping of "that sort of geer " must have been then a 
frequent operation in the great houses. But no device 
could supply the picturesque old-world open-air system, 
such as was in use in hay-fields in Northamptonshire 
within the Editor's recollection, namely, the " stroking" 
of the sack and the spices in the bowl at the actual side 
of the fragrant cow. 

Dr. Conyers Middleton's widow must be his third wife 
Anne, daughter of John Powell of Boughrood near Radnor. 
Sir Leslie Stephen states that Middleton left behind him 
several MSS., some of which appeared in the posthumous 
" Collection of his Miscellaneous Works." His papers 
were left by Anne Middleton to Dr. Heberden, who is said 
to have burnt one of them against the utility of prayer. 
It is also said that Bolingbroke surreptitiously preserved a 
copy of this paper, after advising Middleton's executors to 
destroy it. There can be no doubt that Samuel Kerrich 
thought the information conveyed to him by Edmund 
Pyle so serious, and so damaging to Middleton's character, 
and that of another, that he tore off the several lines of 
the letter that are missing, and at once defaced the 
criminatory words and the name of the " particeps crimi- 


nis." These defacements recall the letter of " Oxoniensis " 
in the Daily Telegraph of 1904 on the question " Do we 
believe ? " and the astonishing resultant correspondence. 
Sherlock's book referred to is "An Examination of the 
Lord Bishop of London's Discourses concerning the Use 
and Intent of Prophecy." 

"The Deplorable Condition " of Hanover must have 
reference to the bloody battle of Hochkirchen in which 
Marshal Keith was killed, October 14, 1758, when the 
Austrians burst upon and defeated the Prussians in a 
fearful scene of carnage. The French, who had been 
driven out of Hanover by Ferdinand of Brunswick, after 
the Battle of Crefeld, June 23, now re-entered the 


" Feb. 13 th , 1759- 


" Except the inclosed (which is not yet printed 
& which I desire to have again & which is written by 
Soame Jennings) and a story a sad story wherein my 
Lord of Ely has shone ; I have nothing to say to you. 

" The story is of an Irish bishop (late John Craddock 
of St. John's) who, has married an Irish widow (of an 
officer) young very handsome & of good jointure, and 
fame. But Lo ! this woman is brought to bed some months 
too soon for the child to be the bishop's ; and many too 
late for it to be the captain's. On this provocation the 
bishop has been so indiscrete as to treat her, once & again, 
with stripes. And both are now striving for a divorce 
he on account of the belly she of the battery. This 
affair which is matter of much speculation & discourse, 
especially amongst the bishops, occasion'd the prelate of 
Ely to deliver his opinion in, but not to the House of 
Lords, t'other day; as followeth. 'Why, look'ee, as to 
the beating, that may go a good way towards procuring a 


divorce : but as to your big belly (my Lord of Chester) I 
take it to be in this as in other like cases, suppose of a 
horse caveat emptor.' 

11 I am &c., 

11 E. P." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, near 
Lynn, in Norfolk. 

B Free Win-"! 
~ Chester. J 

Soame Jennings was of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and Member for the county from 1742 to 1780, with 
one exception. The enclosure mentioned by Pyle was per- 
haps " Short but Serious Reasons for a National Militia," 
written in the year 1757, a matter that caused enormous 

Pyle's " sad story " appears to have been as malicious 
an invention as the tragic event related in the letter 
of January n, 1755, respecting a noble Duke. The 
facts about Mrs. Cradock are as follows : Mary, daughter 
of William Blaydwin of Boston, Lincolnshire, married, 
firstly, Richard St. George, of Kilrush, Co. Waterford. On 
August 28, 1758, she married John Cradock, Bishop of 
Kilmore, 17571772, advanced in the latter year to the 
Archbishopric of Dublin. The only issue of this marriage 
was John Francis Cradock, born August 11, 1759. He 
changed his name to Caradoc, and was created Baron 
Howden in the peerage of Ireland in 1819, and dying 
without issue the title became extinct. Mary Cradock, his 
mother, died December 15, 1819, aged eighty-nine, and 
was buried in the Abbey Church of Bath. In her will, 
proved May 4, 1820, both the date of her son's birth and 
the fact of his being her only son are stated. 



"May 10, 1759. 


" I have this moment, almost, found your letter 
of the 2d April, in a new coat pocket, which, I remember, I 
fitted some days after I went into waiting at Court, and never 
have touched it since, 'till this morning ; being 'till the end 
of that month almost perpetually in my gown & cassock. 
I was frightened at the article of Tenths but, on looking 
at the date, I took heart ; in confidence that I can have 
done you no harm ; for, I think, if payment is delayed 'till 
the first of that month, the delay may as well be made 
longer, for the forfeiture of some small matter is then 
incurred. 1 say I think so for, to confess the truth, I 
never paid a farthing of that sort, on my own account, in 
my life ; my brother Farraine always doing it for me. 

" But if this should not be the case, and you have 
suffered by my delay ; I ingenuously confess I have done 
wrong : and that is the next best thing to doing right. 

" Lord L. is dead since you wrote. I wish, with 
IOOO more, that his antagonist were in the shades too 
(provided his family were no sufferers :) for I hold him, & 
his brother (Charles) to be two most dangerous men ; as 
having parts that enable them to do great mischief, & no 
principles that lead them to do any good. The challenger 
was (by confession of his friends) drunk when he wrote to 
Lord L. of whom, notwithstanding what I have here said, 
I never was an admirer. But in the case now under con- 
sideration how can one help being of his side ? He spoke 
contemptuously of the Militia very true and so do 
thousands. It has been burlesqued in publick papers, 
over & over again & treated with the highest scorn & 
satire. Yet because Ld. L. was a little severe upon it at 
his table he is to be challenged, truly ! and by whom 
why, by G. T. a man whose licentious tongue spares not 

Thos. Hudson, Pinxt. 



the most sacred characters. King priest prophet 
minister general all have felt the lash of his wit (as he 
takes it to be) in scurrilous language, in burlesque prints, & 
in every way that would render them the joke of the very 
scum of the people. This is the man, that denounces death 
to any one that shall dare to scout a silly project that he 
thinks fit to espouse & insists on being received seriously 
by the English nation. In troth, my good friend, things, 
at this rate, are come to a rare pass. Noble or ignoble, old 
or young, are all to look with awe and reverence, on what- 
ever this spark shall think fit to declare for, at the peril of 
their lives. What if a fit of Jacobitism should seize him, I 
should say return upon him ; ( for he spent most part of 
his time at Cambridge with Caley of St. John's, & some 
other professed ones of that sort ; going all their lengths, & 
drinking all their healths ) are all to be run thro' who 
don't declare for James III ? Tantum : amico, ab amico. 

"\Receipt for Ink]. 

" Jib of Galls, bruised. 
" 2 ounces of Copperas. 
" 2 ounces of Gum Arabick. 

" J ounce Allom. makes a quart of Rain or River water. 
" If not constantly shaken will grow bad if originally very good." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, near 
Lynn, in Norfolk. 

B Free Win-H 
Chester. J 

The " Lord L " here spoken of by Pyle was 

Thomas Coke of Holkham, who began the building of the 
great house in Norfolk. He was raised to the peerage 
as Baron Lovel, of Minster Lovel, Oxfordshire, and created 
Viscount Coke of Holkham, and Earl of Leicester in 1744. 
He died in 1759 from the effect of wounds received in a 


duel with swords with George Townshend under the cir- 
cumstances descanted on by Pyle. It is somewhat remark- 
able that this tragic incident should not be as notorious as 
the duel certainly peculiarly bloody on November 15, 
1712, in which Lord Mohun (who had twice stood his trial 
by his peers for murder) was slain, in the assassination by 
himself and Macartney of the Duke of Hamilton. The 
wickedness of the slaughter of so pacific a nobleman as 
Lord Leicester, at the age of sixty-five, was emphasised by 
the fact of the challenger being a professional man-slayer, 
accustomed to arms, and thirty years the junior. Lord 
Leicester left no issue, and all his titles became extinct. 
The Viscountcy of Coke and the Earldom of Leicester were 
revived in 1837 in the person of Thomas Coke's great- 
nephew, the well-known Thomas William Coke of Holkham. 


"Jan. 10, 1760. 


" To confess the truth I never read the Oxford 
Address nor any of the late ones. The news-papers 
taken in at this house being all of the daily sort, which 
do not insert them. But I do conjecture, that the temper 
of that illustrious seat of learning is not a bit changed. 
The present V. Canr: is Dr. Brown head of Queens, who 
was Tutor to Lord James Beauclerk, the bishop of Here- 
ford, & is Chancellor of his diocese & his nurse makes 
his sermons & charges &c &c and may very probably 
hope by his means to be raised & might have influence 
enough, as far as I know, to get such an Address, as you 
speak of carried in Convocation : it not being usual to 
oppose what the V. Canr: offers, & he being, take him for 
all in all, High-Churchmen enough in conscience. 

" I abhor, detest, & abjure, as impious (tho' not heretical) 
the rise progress and continuance of the Militia scheme upon 


many good accounts, which I have not time to mention. 
For the future please to direct your favours to Chelsea 
the bishop has left off going to London. 

" I am ever &c &c, 

" E. PYLE. 

" Many happy years to you and yours." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

at Dersingham near Lynn, 

B Free Win- ) 
~ Chester. > 


"Apr 26, 1760. 


" On the affair of the Scotch Militia being de- 
bated in the House of Commons, the English ditto has 
had a thorough roasting, & is scouted out of all credit, as 
a most ridiculous, expensive, and to the Common men (as 
to morals & industry) ruinous project. Those counties 
that have tried it are heartily sick of it ; and, I believe, 
those that have not, will be wise at the cost of those that 
have. The trial of the Noble Murderer was a most august 
sight. He will suffer in spite of all intercession. The 
King, in just resentment of the behaviour of the most 
impudent of men, Lord George Sackville, has ordered a 
Proclamation to be made at the head of every Regiment 
in the British Service, to this effect, That he has approved 
& confirmed the sentence against him, passed by the Court 
Martial ; whereby every officer may learn that no rank, 
wealth, or interest, shall screen any man that does not his 
duty, from such disgrace as is worse than death. 

" The Bp of Winchester has not merit enough with 
the Minister, to prefer his son to the deanery ; tho' he has 
more to give for it than it is worth. That poor puzzle- 



headed man, is entirely sway'd by a few of the rankest 
Tories, to say no more. 

" I doubt my good friend Dr. Law has had very ill 
offices done him with the 'foresaid whirligig-pated man, as 
tho' he was in an heretical way of thinking. O ! the 
roguery & folly of this world. Happy is the man that has 
least to do with it ; & that can live quietly without having 
any thing to ask or fear from those rascals that govern it. 

" Dr. Shipley one of our prebendaries will be our 
Dean. And my brother Thomas will be prebendary 
in his room, if I choose that rather than to stay for 
the Chancellorship of the diocese at the death of Dr. 
Lynch, of which we expect very soon to hear. I be- 
lieve I shall choose to serve my brother, having enough 

" I think of nothing more to trouble you with & am, 
" Your most, 

" obedient Serv' 

"E. PYLE." 

"The Noble Murderer" was Laurence Shirley, fourth 
Earl Ferrers, who shot his steward or receiver, John 
Johnson, in a premeditated manner, January 18, 1760. 
He was tried by his peers, under the presidency of Sir 
Robert Henley, specially-created Baron Henley of Grainge, 
the Lord Chancellor of the coalition ministry of Newcastle 
and Pitt of 1757. The trial took place, on April 16 
and the two following days, in Westminster Hall. Ferrers 
was unanimously adjudged guilty, and sentenced to death, 
April 21, but respited until May 5. On that day the 
condemned noble man, dressed in a suit of light clothes 
embroidered with silver, was driven in his own laudau, 
drawn by six horses, from the Tower to " Tyburn's triple 
tree." He is said to have been the first to suffer by the 
" new drop " just then introduced in the place of the bar- 
barous cart, ladder, and mediaeval three-cornered gallows. 


The " new drop " made its way slowly in public esteem, 
and it was not until 1 8 1 8 that it was introduced at North- 
ampton. There its capacity was so ample, that it was 
proudly described by the governor of the County Gaol as 
efficient for the hanging of twelve persons " comfortably." 
There is no foundation for the story of a silken rope in 
the case of a peer suffering at the gallows, but there is 
other evidence of high-born victims quitting life in their 
best clothes, For instance, Brantome, in Hommes II- 
lustres et Femmes Galantes, has : " De la meme maniere 
mais royalment voulut mourir Marie Stuart cette brave 
reine d'Ecosse allante a la mort et au supplice avec les 
plus beaux vetements qu'elle pourrait avoir alors." 

"The most impudent of men/' George Sackville Ger- 
main, first Viscount Sackville, known from 1720 to 1770 
as Lord George Sackville, was third and youngest son of 
the seventh Earl and first Duke of Dorset. He was edu- 
cated at Westminster there was no question in those days 
of other public schools, since become so distinguished 
and at Trinity College, Dublin. In 1737 he was captain 
in Lord Cathcart's Horse, now the 6th Dragoons, and 
was present, and wounded, at Fontenoy, 1745. He served 
in Scotland immediately after Culloden, and from 1741 
to 1761 he had a seat at Westminster, as well as in the 
Irish Parliament from 1751 to 1756. Sackville had the 
chief command in 1758 of all his Majesty's forces on the 
Lower Rhine, under the paramount authority of Prince 
Ferdinand of Brunswick. At the battle of Minden, 
August i, 1759, Sackville not being on good terms with 
the Prince, and possessed of a haughty and exacting 
temper, chose not to understand and carry out the orders 
given to him, and, missing the moment for decisive action, 
the British cavalry had no share in the honour of the day. 
He came home and was " broke," or dismissed the service. 
He pressed for a court-martial, in spite of the assurance 
that if the finding were adverse he would be shot, like 


Byng. In consequence of his persistence, which, at least, 
proves courage, he was court-martialled, and made a high- 
handed and spirited defence. He was, of course, found 
guilty of having disobeyed the orders of the Prince, and 
adjudged unfit to serve his Majesty any further. George II. 
confirmed the sentence, which was proclaimed as Pyle 
states, and the King sent for the Privy Council books, and 
erased Sackville's name therefrom. He retained his seat 
in Parliament, and in the new reign there came the inevit- 
able reaction and his name was restored to the Privy Council 
books; he was further honoured in 1769 with the credit 
of the authorship of the " Letters of Junius " ! He assumed 
the name of Germain by Act of Parliament, in accordance 
with the will of Lady Elizabeth (commonly called Lady 
Betty) Germain, and he re-established his character by the 
active part he took in political matters, acquiring much 
influence with the king. He was created Viscount Sack- 
ville of Dray ton Manor, Northamptonshire, in 1782, and 
an attempt made to exclude him from the House of Peers 
as a person still under sentence of court-martial was un- 
successful. He died of the stone, the usual complaint 
of the hard-drinking times. 

The " poor puzzle-headed man " was the Duke of 
Newcastle, who returned as First Lord of the Treasury, 
June 1757, but found himself reduced to the same 
position of impotence which he had occupied under 

Jonathan Shipley was of St. John's, Oxford, but 
migrated to Christ Church. He became tutor in the 
family of that remarkable man of action, Charles Mor- 
daunt, third Earl of Peterborough, whose niece he married. 
He went with the Duke of Cumberland as chaplain-general 
in the campaign of 1745, which culminated so disastrously 
for England at Fontenoy. In 1748 Shipley was made 
Canon of Christ Church, and in 1760 appointed Dean of 
Winchester. He was consecrated Bishop of Llandaff in 


1769, and in the same year translated to St. Asaph, when 
he resigned all his numerous other preferments except the 
best the Rectory of Chilbolton, Hampshire. The inner 
history of his rapid preferment cannot be clearly traced. 
Shipley's action regarding the American question was far- 
seeing and noteworthy, and gained for him the esteem of 
Benjamin Franklin. He was a politician before everything, 
and constantly opposed the American War. He neglected 
his diocese, but his political career was earnest and of 
much interest. 

It will be noticed how complacently Pyle " having 
enough myself" vilifies the " rascals " by whom he has 
been so well preferred. 




" How have you fared this long while ? And 
what is the best news of your part of the world ? What's 
become of Lord Orford's two livings that my acquaintance 
Mr. Jacomb had ? I hear the widow of your pupil H. 
has drank up her drink. Poor old Hepburn to live to 
90 years, and leave only 2,000 ; with his great oppor- 
tunities of saving for his children ! He was always a 
vicious expensive man. 

"The freshest piece of news I can send you from 
hence is that Warburton will be bishop of Gloucester. 
This is but lately settled by Mr. Pitt's insisting on it. 
Pitt is member for Bath, where Allen, whose niece War- 
burton married, rules in everything. Dr. Ewer and the 
Master of Bennet, must tarry, 'till my Lord of London, 
or my good master makes room for one of them. The 
bishop of London is a deplorable object with respect to 
all ability of helping himself, or making himself under- 
stood, except by signs. He lies almost always in bed, 


of late. The bishop of Winchester who was always the 
reverse of the other, lies very little abed and sleeps very 
badly there. Last winter he had a sore broke out in 
one of his legs by which he suffered a great deal, but it 
was upon the whole of service to his health and he is 
now under the operation of another sore, in his thigh, 
occasioned by St. Anthony's fire and, what with this 
sore and the preceeding fire, he has had such discharges 
as no man could bear at his age that was not still very 
strong. Out of all this, he is emerging ; & is very likely, 
for all this, to out-live Dean Lynch who has had two 
paralytic strokes and has had little use of half his vast 
carcass for near two years, and is daily plied with mus- 
tard, horse-radish & assafetida by which he is no better, 
nor indeed is he worse than he was two years ago, 
unless not being better, is being worse. So that Dr. 
Hoadly is thought to stand a very good chance for the 
best thing in the diocese of Winchester, St. Cross ; and 
your humble servant stands the same chance of being 
Chancellor of the Diocese in Dr. Hoadly's place, when he 
is advanced to St. Cross. I hope the Duke of Newcastle 
will give Warburton's deanery of Bristol to Dr. Law 
Master of Peterhouse I am sure he ought to do it 
or he ought never to have written him such a letter of 
thanks as he once did (every thing but in the King's 
name) for an Address from the University of Law's 
penning. But I speak from my wishes, about this, not 
from information. Law was in Town with the last Ad- 
dress (when Burroughs was be-knighted) and was greatly 
caressed by the Duke of Newcastle. 

" We have brought the French very low but have 
run the nation so fearfully in debt to do it that no 
mortal can forsee what will be the issue of that. 

" I am (with wishes of the ensuing Season) 

" Dear Sir, y rs &c, 

" E. PYLE." 


There are many letters in the Editor's possession from 
the " vicious expensive " nonagenarian who was a doctor 
in Lynn. 

Pitt made Warburton Dean of Bristol in 1757, an< ^ 
he was consecrated Bishop of Gloucester in 1760. Like 
so many of his confreres on the Bench, he took his epis- 
copal duties easily, and even gave offence by neglecting 
to take the Sacrament. The death of his only son in 
J 775 gave him a shattering blow from which he never 
recovered. Dr. Johnson considered Warburton as " per- 
haps the last man who has written with a mind full of 
reading and reflection." Sir Leslie Stephen more justly 
regards him as one with wide reading and rough in- 
tellectual vigour, but neither a scholar nor a philosopher. 
Pyle's opinion, in the letter of September 25, 1755, with 
respect to the value of a legal education to a scholar, can 
only refer to the mercenary or " business " side of the 
question. The grotesque theological system presupposed 
in " The Divine Legation," and the adoption of wrangling 
instead of reasoning methods, sufficiently show the mis- 
chief of a legal education to such a nature as that of 

Ralph Allen was of humble origin. When in the 
Bath post-office he gained the patronage of General Wade 
by detecting a Jacobite plot. In 1745 ne raised and 
equipped a corps of a hundred volunteers, and made a 
large fortune by a new system of cross posts, which he 
farmed himself. As proprietor of the Combe Down 
quarries his profits were very large, and his ideas were 
consonant with them, for he erected a great house at 
Prior Park, and "Sham Castle," both near Bath. A 
man of great generosity and hospitality, Pope refers to 
him in the well-known lines of the epilogue to the " Satires " 
of Horace : 

" Let humble Allen, with an awkward shame, 
Do good by stealth, and blush to find it fame." 


At Prior Park Warburton met Allen's niece, Gertrude 
Tucker, and it was through Allen's influence with Pitt 
that he was made Bishop of Gloucester. Bishops Sherlock 
and Hurd were intimate associates of Allen, who, in a 
bequest to Pitt in his will, spoke of him as " the best of 

Dr. Ewer, who was of Eton, a Fellow of King's and a 
Canon of Windsor, had not to " tarry " long for a bishopric; 
he was consecrated to Llandaff in 1761, on the occasion 
of the changes on the episcopal bench caused by the 
deaths of Hoadly and Sherlock " the two old antago- 
nistic prelates " gone, as Pyle piously trusts (November 1 9, 
1761) "to a place of amity" and translated to Bangor 
in 1768. The Master of Bennet, John Green, was more 
fortunate, both as regards his dignity and his cathedral, 
for he was appointed Bishop of Lincoln in 1761. It is 
certain that Green thought more of his literary and social 
than of his ecclesiastical position. He saw very little of 
his glorious cathedral, and seldom appeared in his diocese. 

Sir James Bourroughs was of Caius College, and an 
amateur architect of the classical school, who has left his 
disastrous mark upon the colleges of Queen's, Emmanuel, 
Peterhouse, and Trinity Hall, and at St. Mary's Church. 


" Novr 22 d 1760. 

" I thank you for your congratulations. The 
more I consider the advancement of my brother, the more 
I bless myself for making choice of that, rather than 
accepting of the office of Chancellor, or resigning my 
prebend & taking St. Cross either of which I might have 
done. In the one case I should have had a ruined fabrick 
upon my hands, bigger than Magdalen College, (besides a 
church as big as yours at Dersingham) neglected, by the 
late Master, to a degree cryingly shameful ; after enjoying 


500 a year from thence for 33 years : or, in the other 
case, have had the vexation of presiding in a Court where 
the most paltry causes are managed in the most dilatory 
& expensive manner, by common attorneys, who act as 
proctors in it and been plagued out of court, with per- 
petual complaints made against a very rude & (for above 
20 years) unbridled set of Oxford-bred clergymen ; or by 
them against parishioners ; &c &c &c &c which would 
have been (as bishop Burnet says of Ember Weeks) ' the 
burden of my life.' 

" Dr. Butler has a living in the diocese of Winchester, 
about 7 miles from that city, & another in Wiltshire, so 
that he has been known to the bishop these 10 years. 
But the great character given of him to his lordship by 
Mr. Legge & the bishop of Norwich, occasioned a further 
acquaintance and on the late great fall of preferment 
(2 good Livings, three prebends, & St. Cross, all together) 
the bishop gave him one of the prebends, without any 
manner of application, from Mr. Legge or the bishop of 
Norwich ; & without having ever given Dr. Butler the 
least expectation of any such thing. He is a very clever 
man & is now keeping his residence, of 90 days, in 
my house, he having been so weak as to let a Militia 
officer into his own house, whom he can't get out. 

" The Master of Magdalen became so by a personal 
interest, of a long standing, in Lady Portsmouth, the 
Patroness. A woman not much given to love good 
people, or do good things, but in this matter is said 
both to have intended & done well. She was the plague 
of poor Dick Exton's life, &, some say, shorten'd it. I 
know he hated her, beyond expression. Yet, had he lived 
he might have had the Mastership but I dare say he 
would not have taken it. Lord Portsmouth had the 
greatest value for him ; for the excellent part he acted in 
the education of his sons. He was recommended to my 
Lord by Alured Clarke ; & lived in the greatest friendship 


with that good nobleman (for above 25 years) who gave 
him about 600 a year. 

" I hear of Mr. Folkes's building & living at Hilling- 
ton : where he desires to see company on two fixed days 
in each week. He entertains with magnificence, & is 
extremely desirous of company from Lynn, to all of whom 
he has declared, over & over again, that he will never 
give them any more trouble on the article of electioneering. 
C. Bagge, who tells me this, adds that Mr. F. grows old 
apace, his head shaking, & his hands also, in so much 
that he is forced to use 'em both, to carry a glass of wine 
to his mouth. He has lived away in his time : and his 
Bro r Martin (the P.R.S.) was the most vicious man, and 
the most foolishly and beastly vicious in the wenching 
way of any body I ever heard of, a good deal beyond 
Dr. Mead, 

" The strange L'Estrange affairs, is the strongest 
instance that can be, of the difficulty of getting the non- 
sense of hereditary right as well as the infection of the 
King's-Evil, out of a family. 

" Now I'm upon kings Our young one has behaved 
hitherto as to gain the hearts of all that come near him, 
the Oxford Jacks not excepted. God grant him to go on 
as he has begun. 

" I am y r most 

" Humble Servt. 

"E. PYLE. 

" The Duke of Newcastle was for resigning on the 
K's death, and it was not 'till after 3 days consideration 
that he consented to the request (of the new King & 
others), that he would go on in the full extent of power 
that he had been so long possessed of. This you may 
depend upon." 


To Dr. Kerrich, 


Since the last letter was written Dr. Lynch, Dean of 
Canterbury, and for so many years Master of St. Cross, 
had died. The result has been that Pyle's brother, 
Thomas, has been advanced to the prebend vacated by 
John Hoadly on this cleric's promotion to the Mastership 
of St. Cross. Thus was the Hoadly scandal consummated ; 
but it is due to the Bishop to recognise that he had the 
grace to offer St. Cross to Pyle in the first instance. In 
a letter to Kerrich, dated August 7, 1728, John Denne 
tells him of his promotion to the Archdeaconry of Roches- 
ter, in the room of his brilliant brother-in-law, William 
Bradford. He says further : " Dr. Lynch was here with 
his Grace of Canterbury (Wake) to visit my Lord (Brad- 
ford, Bishop of Rochester) on Monday, & he is this day to 
set out on a journey to Winchester, in order to take posses- 
sion of the Mastership of St. Cross." How this unwieldy 
divine left undone the things he ought to have done during 
his long tenure of office is sufficiently indicated by Pyle. 

Dr. Butler was presented to the valuable living of 
Everley, Wiltshire, by Sir Jacob Astley, and appointed a 
royal chaplain. In 1762 he changed his political prin- 
ciples, and though a king's chaplain, he attacked Bute and 
the Ministry under the signature " a Whig." In 1 769 he 
was Archdeacon of Surrey. During the American War he 
strongly supported the policy of Lord North, and was 
appointed Bishop of Oxford in 1777. While he occupied 
this See he assisted Dr. Waide to translate the Alexandrine 
MS. of the Bible the far-famed Codex Alexandrinus of 
the Royal Library, once rescued from a fire at Ashburn- 
ham House, during the temporary deposit there of the 
library by Dr. Bentley, who was seen by Friend, the 
famous head-master of Westminster, to issue from the 
threatened house, clad only in a dressing-gown and flowing 
wig, with the precious volume under his arm. In 1778 
Butler was translated to Hereford, where he remained 
until his death. 


John Wallop, created Baron Wallop and Viscount 
Lymington, 1720, was advanced to the dignity of Earl of 
Portsmouth in 1743. He married first, in 1716, Bridget, 
eldest daughter of Charles, Earl of Tankerville ; she died 
in 1738. He married secondly, Elizabeth, eldest daughter 
of James, second Baron Griffin, of Braybroke, Northamp- 
tonshire, of the ancient family of Griffin of that place. 
She was widow of Henry Neville, who assumed the name 
of Grey, and died in 1762. Her sister Anne, who suc- 
ceeded eventually as sole heir of her brother Edward, last 
Lord Griffin, who died in 1742, married William Whitwell, 
of Oundle, and her son, John Griffin Whitwell, having 
obtained from his aunt, Lady Portsmouth, her share of the 
Saffron Walden or Audley End estate, assumed the sur- 
name and arms of Griffin. His claim to the ancient 
barony of Howard of Walden being admitted (as great- 
grandson of Lady Essex Howard, only child of James, 
Earl of Suffolk, and Lord Howard, of Walden), he was 
summoned to Parliament in that dignity. He was after- 
wards created Baron Braybroke, with a special remainder, 
which barony is still extant. There is a remarkable 
monument in the chancel of Braybroke Church, replete 
with Renaissance details, and the manifold quarterings of 
Griffin. The right of appointment to the Mastership of 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, lies with the owner of the 
Audley End estate, which was held by Thomas Audley, 
the second Founder, such right being consequently now 
vested in Lord Braybroke, as confirmed by a modern Act 
of Parliament. 

Charles, sixth son of John Bagge, of Lynn, by his 
second wife, Susan Cromwell, a co-heiress, married 
Barbara, daughter of E. Elsden, of that place. This was 
apparently the artist who carved in wood after the manner 
of Grinling Gibbons. He executed a beautifully-carved 
frame for a clock, surmounted by a crowing cock, of life 
size, for Dr. Glynn-Clobery. This is in the possession of 


the Editor. Some of Elsden's works are in the Town 
Hall of Lynn. He subsequently took military service in 
Spain, and, as noted by Dr. Glynn, attained to the rank 
of Major-General. 

Martin ffolkes was the eldest son of the Solicitor- 
General of the same name, and brother of William, who 
is described in the letter of January 1 2, 1 74$. He was of 
Clare Hall, and of such good parts that he was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society in his twenty-third year, and 
often presided in the absence of Sir Isaac Newton. He 
became President in 1741, on the death of Sir Hans 
Sloane. This position he resigned in 1753, owing to ill 
health. In the meantime he was elected a Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries, and presided over the deliberations 
of that learned body from 1749 until his death. He 
communicated several papers to the Archceologia on Coins, 
and published the " Tables " of English gold and silver 
coins, a work which has been much consulted. He is 
described as upright, modest, and affable, a character that 
will probably withstand even Pyle's information. It is 
true that he married an actress, but he took her off the 
stage " for her exemplary and prudent conduct." 

Dr. Richard Mead, who also comes under the lash of 
Pyle, was one of the most distinguished and learned Eng- 
lishmen of the early part of the eighteenth century. Dr. 
Johnson said very justly that he " lived more in the broad 
sunshine of life than almost any man." It will suffice to 
refer to him here as one who adorned every school in the 
world of culture in which he moved. His skill in medi- 
cine, his noble patronage of learning and of the arts, and 
his wise generosity, well became the great person that he 
publicly appeared. 

With regard to Pyle's commendation of the King's 
conduct, George III., on his succession, issued a much 
needed and generally approved proclamation against immor- 
ality. He further acquired great popularity by recom- 


mending Parliament to provide that judges' commissions 
should not expire on the demise of the Crown. It was 
remarked by Walpole that Tories now attended the court, 
and that prerogative became a fashionable word. 


"Dec. 25, 1760. 

" You seem to mean Mr. Pitt by the ' Unus homo 
qui nobis restituit rem.' And to rejoice in the boasted 
extinction of parties. This has always been the Tory 
method of getting into influence ; to seem to wish for the 
extinction of parties. But what they really mean is, to 
lull the Whigs into repose, whilst they are using incessant 
means to extinguish them. This game is playing now 
what the luck will be time will shew as my brother 
Letter-writer John Dyer used to say. Mr. Pitt knows 
nay confesses that were the Duke of Newcastle to with- 
draw, he could not carry on the public affairs a fortnight ; 
for he is no more able to secure a majority in the House 
of Commons, than you are able to do it. What therefore 
is all this rout made about Mr. Pitt for ? Why, in good 
truth, for talking more against German attachments, than 
ever man did, till he got into the Ministry ; and then 
going greater lengths in expence of British money, for the 
preservation of German Dominions than ever any Minister 
did, or dare, I wont, say advise (tho' that is the right word) 
but consent to. This is Mr. Pitt : who is now bringing 
in I know not whom & Scotch Bute bears the blame, 
with the vulgar. 

11 The Deanery of Norwich is kept vacant 'till a deanery 
falls, for Dr. Gaily (alias Gojack) to whom the Duke of 
Newcastle had promised Norwich Deanery ; but was not 
willing to perform the promise he had made when he found 
the interest of all the Townshends & Walpoles to be 
united for Edward Townshend. Gally's interest lies in 



Mr. Knight of the house of Commons a Nottinghamshire 
member, whose first cousin married Gaily. And Knight 
brings himself, & a cousin of the Duke of Newcastle's into 
a borough ; & never had place or pension. This man 
used to dispise Gaily. How he came to alter his mind I 
know not. But the affair of a deanery for Gaily has been 
on foot ever since Lord Hardwick was Chancellor. That 
Lord joined with Knight in the request. And, I am told, 
Gaily in order to secure Lord Hardwick's interest in the 
matter, declared himself ready to give up both his prebends 
(then in Hardwick's gift) for the sake of being Mr. Dean. 
How that matter will go now ; I can't say. For the 
sorry creature that has the Seals, at present, has no great 
interest in the Minister, or any body else ; being generally 
despised, as a vicious wretch, &, in all his behaviour a 
great brute, & a bully. So Gaily may hold both his pre- 
bends with a deanery, for what I know,- as the Keeper, 
will not, it's probable, give them to the Minister, if they 
are vacated, without an equivalent. 

" Thus I have all along understood the matter of Gally's 
interest to stand : & so it did once, undoubtedly stand : 
but, since I writ what is above, I have seen the bishop 
that is most likely to know how the present state of that 
affair is : and he says, that he takes the delay in filling 
up Norwich Deanery to arise from Townshend's incapacity 
(by reason of the Gout) to go to Cambridge, and take the 
Degree which is requisite in the case. And that as to 
Gaily, he apprehends either that Newcastle has satisfied Mr. 
Knight some other way : or that he will not give up the 
Prebend to the Keeper, as he would have done to the late 
Chancellor, his most firm & particular friend : nor make 
ally a Dean and let him keep them. 

" Dr. Berney had the promise of the Deanery made to 
him wholly and solely by Mr. Fowl's interest in Sir R. 
Walpole. And Bishop Gooch was angry that this promise 
was procured without his being consulted on the subject 


For he would fain have made a merit to himself of this 
matter. After Sir R. Walpole died, the same Fowl, pro- 
cured a repetition of the promise, by old Horatio Walpole's 
means ; without taking any notice of the bishop. And 
that bishop might tell you what he pleased, but I do verily 
believe that had Berney been made Dean in his (Gooch's) 
time, he would not have given up the Archdeaconry. For 
he had a precedent of Dr. Prideaux being Dean, and 
holding an Archdeaconry of the Bishop of Norwich's along 
with it. And the Archdeaconry was all Berney owed to 
Gooch & the sole remuneration for having been his toad- 
eater at Caius College, for many years after he left the 
Tory side his toad-eater, I say ; and the jest of every 
other person in the college except Stedman. 

"When Dean Bullock died, Horace (Ld.) Walpole, 
was dead also. And so was bishop Gooch. So that 
Fowl had nobody to claim the promise of the King ; and 
he was not considerable enough to do such a thing him- 
self, either of the King or the Minister. For the Walpoles 
& Townshends all to a man, went to the Duke of New- 
castle for Townshend to be Dean. Berney presented a 
petition to the late King on this subject which, probably, 
his Majesty never read : The way being for the King to 
deliver the paper to the Lord of the Bedchamber that 
stands at his elbow ; & not one in an hundred of such 
things are ever called for; but the Lord-in-Waiting 
carries them away in his pocket, & so to the neces- 

" Besides, I have been told that the Duke of New- 
castle was very seriously expostulated with, on the 
intention of raising a man totally illiterate so high as to 
the Deanery of Norwich ; a place abounding with many 
very shrewd dissenters ; &c. &c. &c. &c. &c. 

"It is agreed, Nem: Con: that the Oxford Address is 
greatly superior to that of Mother Cam: who drew up 
either of them I know not. 


" My Lord of Ely is well but bears great marks of 
age in his countenance, &c. 

" You could not have hit upon a worse man to intro- 
duce you to the bishop of Winchester's acquaintance than 
Dr. Sykes he thought he had not enough done for him- 
self, and, to the very last wanted more tho' he owed 
every thing he had, (except his living in the hundreds of 
Essex) to the bishop, not his St. James's Lecture excepted. 
Your pupil the Dr. would have done you no good ; for he 
never did or would be persuaded to ask his father any- 
thing for any clergyman. And as to the College I know 
he despised it, and thought all his time spent there as good 
as thrown away. 

" I think of nothing more but the good wishes of the 
season, and am Dear Sir, Your most 

" humble serv 1 , 

" E. PYLE." 

To Dr. Kerrich, 

There is no evidence forthcoming as to the letter- 
writing capacity of John Dyer, alluded to by Pyle. He 
was educated at Westminster, wrote poetry, and studied 
art in England and Rome with indifferent success. He 
was ordained in 1741, and held preferment in Lincoln- 
shire. On the publication of the poem called " The Fleece," 
it was remarked by Dodsley that, according to Johnson, 
he " would be buried in woollen." 

The characteristic scheming and jobbery of the age in 
ecclesiastical preferments is again well exemplified by the 
case of the Deanery of Norwich. Henry Gaily was of 
Corpus, and held several preferments, including prebends 
at Gloucester and Norwich, and the rectory of Ashton, 
Northamptonshire. He published some essays and 
pamphlets, and edited Theophrastus. He was great- 
grandfather of Henry Gaily Knight, the well-known 



writer upon Continental architecture before the days of 
" Murray," and who married Selina, daughter of William 
Fitzherbert, of Tissington, Derbyshire, of a family of con- 
siderable antiquity there settled. Gaily Knight left no 
issue, and his Nottinghamshire estates fell at his death to 
the Fitzherberts, as did also his library, now preserved at 
Tissington Hall. 

In spite of Gally's interest the Deanery of Norwich 
was given to Edward, fourth surviving son of Charles, 
second Viscount Townshend, by his second wife Dorothy, 
one of the sisters of Sir Robert Walpole. He was of 
Trinity, Cambridge, and resigned his prebend at West- 
minster on being preferred to the Deanery. 

On the formation of the coalition ministry by the Duke 
of Newcastle and Pitt, in 1757, Sir Robert Henley was 
made Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, and took his seat as 
Speaker of the House of Lords, July I. There he pre- 
sided as a commoner for nearly three years, but in antici- 
pation of his having to preside at the trial of Lord Ferrers, 
he was created Baron Henley of Grainge, March 27, 
1760. He was further advanced as Viscount Henley and 
Earl of Northington in 1764. This " sorry creature" and 
" vicious wretch," in the language of Pyle, was a man of 
talent, but of rough, boisterous, and undignified manners 
one of the blaspheming hard-drinking lawyers of his 


"Jan. 28, 1761. 

"You'l judge from this writing, that my hand 
has been disabled. I am recovering from such a fit of 
the gout as I am taught to call a tolerable one. The old 
Pretender, after whom you ask, lives at Rome, in a sullen 
poverty. His son strip'd him of every penny he was 
worth in 1745, (which was said to be 100,000 pounds) 
for the expedition to Scotland to which the old man was 


totally averse, but the young one over-ruled him. The 
young one lives a strolling mean life, going from convent 
to convent, and living with the abbot & monks. He's 
looked upon as something betwixt a fool & a madman. 
The father & the two sons hate each other. 

" The Author of the Considerations on the German 
War is one Mr. Mauduit, a trader in the Blackwell Hall 
way ; once a dissenting teacher ; a fellow of the Royal 
Society, & much esteem'd by the best persons of it ; one 
of the first rank in Lord Willoughby's Sunday night Club 
of Divines, Philosophers & Scholars at large. A man 
of fortune enough to live as he likes, wanting neither place 
nor pension. Who will answer his book I can't say. 
Some have attempted it. All things in it are not right. 
And the book had much better have been published 4 
years ago, or not 'till the war was ended. If the German 
scheme be ever so bad, it must be persued to the end of 
this war. 

" Mr. Beacon I never see. He lives at home chiefly. 
Once a year he goes to Bath. He is very rich & lives 

"At the recommendation of the Chancellor, (to whom 
he had the address to make himself agreeable when he 
was his tutor) the bishop gave him a living in the Isle of 
Wight, then thought not worth 200 a year. But, by 
gathering the tithes & devoting himself wholly to that 
point for some years, he has brought its value to near 
400 a year. This is all I know of him. Except that 
the bishop thinks he was a much better tutor to the 
younger son, than Long Aylmer was to the elder. I 
don't believe he has seen the bishop for the ten last 

" About a year ago Dr. Denne left Lambeth, and 
settled at Rochester, for the remainder of his life. He is 
unfit for parochial, & indeed for all, business. There was 
something in the manner of that man, that was a bar to 


his being promoted to any of the high stations in the 
church. Archbishop Herring made him Prolocutor & 
that was all. He set him up to preach at Court on a 
Fast- Day in the late war ; whereby he lost credit, being 
so weak as to talk politicks in that pulpit. 

tl I believe he forfeited the good opinion of some good 
man by his manner of ruling Bishop Bradford. For he 
did rule him. Bradford was one of many of the Pre- 
bendaries of Westminster, that had, all along, exclaimed 
against Atterbury's encroaching on the rights & emolu- 
ments of the Prebendaries. And when he succeeded him 
in the Deanery, he never would hear of the least abatement 
of the highest of the pretentions, his predecessor had set 
up. This was laid to Denne's door. Bradford was 
indeed super-annuated when he became Dean. He was 
so weak in body 2 or 3 years after he was Dean as not to 
be able to walk, as he should do, at the late King's Coro- 
nation. He by his Office was to carry the crown on a 
cushion, in the procession. And he totter'd so, that had 
not two persons voluntarily supported him as he went 
along, he could not have reached the Abbey. And who, 
of all mankind, should these two be, but Wilks & 
Cibber the Comedians, who had got within the rails & 
marched along with those who walked in procession. At 
the Sacrament he had like to have pour'd the Wine in 
the Cup into the King's bosom. 

" My good Master always had a close friendship with 
and a high regard for Bishop Bradford ; & never speaks 
of him to this day, but in the most respectful terms. But 
of Dr. Denne I suppose he has no great esteem. He has 
never visited the bishop since I lived here, tho' one of the 
considerablest parish-ministers in this part of his diocese. 

" Bishop Ellis is gone as good a man as any left on 
the bench. Dr. Talbot youngest son of the late Lord 
Chancellor, a Clergyman, of 20,000 original fortune, 
who would never take any preferment, but with a view to 


the service of others, will be bishop of St. Davids. He 
is a man of an excellent character. 

" This is all I think of at this time. 

" I am &c., 

"E. PYLE. 

" Dr. Talbot's interest Lies in His brother Lord Talbot 
who is a mighty favourite of Lord Bute's so he was 
recommended to the King and the King referred to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury for his character. Canterbury 
owes all he has in the world to Talbot's grandfather bishop 
of Durham ; so he spake highly in favor of Dr. Talbot to 
his Majesty not more highly than he really deserves. 

" Had Talbot been out of the question, the bishoprick 
would have lain (sometime) 'twixt the Master of Bennet & 
Dr. Squire. Both have very strong interest." 


To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, near Lynn, 

in Norfolk. 
B Free Win-"] 
- Chester. J 

Reliable information as to the movements of the Young 
Pretender, after the rebellion of 1745 had been crushed, 
is difficult to obtain. What we do know is that, after 
having been driven, like his father, from France, he con- 
tinued to cherish hopes of the Crown from which he was 
excluded finally, as everybody knows, by the Settlement 
of the Succession by several Acts of Parliament. At first 
there was some justification for the Prince's Confidence, but 
when his claims were no longer supported by any foreign 
power, he sank into a habit of life in strange and melan- 
choly contrast with the activity and brightness of his 
youth. From the position that Pyle held at the Court, 
and the invariable accuracy of his intelligence, we may be 
sure that the news he communicates about the Young 


Pretender's chequered life was absolutely true. It was in 
this year, 1760, that Miss Walkinshaw left him on account 
of his brutality. That the degraded Stuart sank still 
lower later on has been fully shown by the latest litera- 
ture of the subject. 

Israel Mauduit was educated for a dissenting minister, 
but became a partner with his brother Jasper in a woollen- 
draper's business in Lime Street, London. 

The pamphlet mentioned by Pyle " on the present 
German War " came out anonymously in 1 760. Walpole 
says it was " shrewdly and ably written, having more 
operation in working a change on the minds of men than 
perhaps ever fell to the lot of a pamphlet," "as after its 
publication England remained neutral on the differences 
between the various German states." The pamphlet was 
defended in Parliament by Charles Yorke. 

Kerrich had evidently been asking for information 
about the friends of his college days. He had not heard 
from Beacon since January 4, 1744, and the last letter 
from Denne is dated April 19, 1755, a long, curious, and 
interesting communication on a matter he was well com- 
petent to expound namely, ( I ) the keeping of the Marriage 
Register; (2) by whom and where it shall be kept ; (3) 
as to the very penal clause of the Marriage Act ; and (4) 
his opinion regarding the publishing of the Banns. Kerrich 
had brought these points for Denne's opinion in conse- 
quence of the Marriage Act of 26 George II. In thanking 
his old friend for his congratulation on his advancement 
to the Prolocutor's chair, Denne ends his letter thus : 

" But it is time to finish so long, and, as I fear, tedious 
an Epistle; How ever give me leave to thank you for the 
very obliging Compliments of your Friendship on my un- 
expected Advance to the Prolocutors Chair ; notwithstand- 
ing I must call your Judgement in question, as best knowing 
how unqualified I am for the Honour, or Duty of such an 


Office. I can only say for myself, that I took it quite 
against my Will, & inclination : & because I could not 
refuse it, considering the very friendly, unanimous & 
obliging [manner in which] I was calVd & chosen to it, & 
its acceptance press'd upon me. My Chief Hope is that no 
Business will be brought before the Convocation, that will 
much try my Skill, prudence, or Courage : or consequently 
much expose my ignorance, or inability But be this, as it 
will, I shall be easy, nay rejoice in the testimony of a good 
Conscience : or in holding fast my Integrity, & in acting 
with that sincerity, wherewith I am, and always have 

" Dear Sir, 

"Your most affectionate Friend, 
" & Faithful, Humble Serv 1 , 


This is sufficient answer to Pyle's disparaging remarks. 
It is melancholy to see how Denne's beautiful handwriting 
changed in the last few years, foreshadowing the complete 
break-up of his constitution five years later. 

John Denne was of Corpus. He became fellow and 
tutor and domestic chaplain to Samuel Bradford, Bishop of 
Carlisle, and of Rochester, and Dean of Westminster in 
the place of the deprived Atterbury. Denne married in 
1724 Susannah, youngest daughter of Bradford. He 
patronisingly speaks of her to Kerrich at the time of the 
marriage as "the most agreeable of women." He held 
several preferments, among them the rectory of St. Mary, 
Lambeth. On the death of his talented brother-in-law, 
William Bradford (whose long series of letters to Kerrich 
from 1716 to 1720 form the most delightful reading), 
Denne succeeded him as Archdeacon and Prebendary of 
Rochester, and Vicar of St. Margaret's. The letters from 
Denne to Kerrich cover the years 1721-1755. They are 
as full of information as those of his brother letter-writer 


Pyle, and are mirrors of courtesy. During his stay at 
Rochester he arranged and had bound in volumes the 
Cathedral archives and the Acts of the Courts of the 
Bishop and Archdeacon, a labour for which antiquaries of 
the present day should be much indebted to him. His sons, 
John and Samuel, were both of Corpus ; the latter became 
well known as an antiquary, and died in 1799 a ^ ter suffer- 
ing from a bilious complaint for forty years. Denne died 
seven months before his life-long friend Kerrich, and is 
buried in Rochester Cathedral. No allusion is made in 
his letters to the documents which must at one time have 
occupied so large a part of his attention. 

It may be recalled that Bradford was ever of a weakly 
constitution, and was frequently attended by Dr. Mead. 
In his latter years he was sorely afflicted with ague, so 
his uncertain carriage at the coronation of George II. is 
accounted for. In a letter of December 19, 1728, from 
T. Stephens to Kerrich, he says : " This cold weather 
pinches y e good O. Bp. of Rochest: when he went with y e 
Bps. to pay their Compli'ts to P. Fred: y e Prince was 
forc'd to give him his hand to help him up he was so 
feeble. We don't expect y e Prince att Somerset-H. Y e 
Queen will not let him be so much out of her sight, S r 
Rob't has environ'd him with his own Creatures." 

Robert Wilks came of a good Worcestershire family, 
and was the original of Sir Harry Wildair, in the brilliant 
Farquhar's " Constant Couple," 1699; of Sir Charles 
Easy, in the " Careless Husband," December 7, 1 704 ; 
and of Captain Plume, in the " Recruiting Officer," April 8, 
1706. He acted at the Haymarket in plays of Shake- 
speare in 1706, and was Archer in the "Beaux' Strata- 
gem," March 8, 1707 ; Careless in the " Double Gallant," 
and Sir George Airey in Mrs. Centlivre's " Busy Body," 
December 12, 1709. Later, at Drury Lane, Wilks was 
Juba in Addison's " Cato," April 14, 1713, and he created 
countless other original characters. His greatest triumphs 


were in comedy, and specially in the interpretation of the 
genius of Farquhar. Both Johnson and Steele lauded him, 
the latter in The Tatler says : " Wilks has a singular 
talent in representing the graces of nature, Gibber the 
deformity in the affectation of them." 

Colley Gibber was son of Caius Gabriel Gibber, the 
sculptor, and artist of the figures of Raving and Melancholy 
Madness originally over the gateway of Bethlehem Hospital, 
or Bedlam, and now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Colley Gibber belonged to the Drury Lane Company, on 
whose fortunes he exercised so important an influence. 
He remained there, with one or two short intervals, for 
the whole of his theatrical career of forty-three years. 
He was conspicuous as actor, manager, and dramatist. 
His rise in the first capacity was slow, and having no 
important parts allotted to him, he wrote " Love's Last 
Shift," or "The Fool in Fashion," taking the title-role 
himself. This was in 1696, and met with great success. 
In the sequel, by Vanbrugh, " Sir Novelty Fashion " was 
re-named " Lord Foppington." He took part in many 
plays by himself, Farquhar, Etherage, Congreve, Wycher- 
ley, Betterton, and Fielding, and his altered version of 
" Richard III.," in 1700, remained the only acted one until 
1821. The story of his life is that of Drury Lane and 
its actors, and, during Gibber's long stay, plays became 
more decent and actors and actresses a little better con- 
ducted. In his own comedies he ceases to rely upon the 
hackneyed and threadbare theme of the injured husband 
for his successes. Gibber married Mrs. Shore, sister of 
the Serjeant Trumpeter, one of the few office-holders 
such as the Serjeant-at-Arms and, in Tudor times, the 
Serjeant Carver, besides the heralds and certain high legal 
dignitaries, privileged to wear the Collar of SS. 

It became a regular custom in the early years of 
the eighteenth century for young men to correspond 
under noms de plume, generally taken from the char- 


acters in popular plays. Among the numerous corre- 
spondents of Kerrich, the following are some of the 
names adopted : 

William Bradford 1717, "Juba" (Prince of Numidia 
in Addison's u Cato "), and " Charles Easy" (a character 
in Gibber's " Careless Husband "). 

Matthew Kenrick 1717, " Philo-Phil-'eleutherus " and 
" Phil-'eleutherus." Zachary Pearce, Dean of Westminster 
and Bishop of Rochester, wrote under this name against 
Conyers Middleton in 1719. It was a favourite contro- 
versial pseudonym of the time. Thomas Herne, of Merton, 
formerly of Corpus, Cambridge, who writes many interest- 
ing letters to Matthew Postlethwayt about the politics in 
the different Oxford colleges, tells him that he was charged, 
as many were, with being the " Phileleutherus Canta- 
brigiensis " who wrote against Law's Second Letter. In 
consequence Herne was "loaded with many ignominious 
titles," among them that of " an Ingenious damned Rogue," 
and with difficulty got his Master's Degree. 

Francis Aylmer signed himself 1716, " Muley Ish- 
mael " ; 1 7 1 7, " Florio " ; 1 7 1 8, " Ned Vainlove " (from a 
play by Congreve), " Whitebread," and " Mysogynus." 

Samuel Shuckford " Morelove." 

The names used by Samuel Kerrich in writing to 
different friends were 1717, " Portius," " Marcus " (sons 
of Cato in Addison's play), " Schach," " The " ; 1718, 
" Morelove " ; 1719," Octavio." 

A long letter, dated 1652, to Thomas Rogerson, 
grandfather of Barbara Postlethwayt, wife of Samuel 
Kerrich, is signed Phael." " Mrs. Morley " and " Mrs. 
Freeman " are distinguished examples of this time. 

In a letter of February 5, 1719, William Bradford 
says his dress consists of "a suit of black cloths, as I 
think they are the genteelest wear that is, with a sword 
and white gloves." So habited, his visits to the peerless 
" Maria," he says quoting " Lord Foppington " in Van- 


D "Love's Last Shift," by Gibber "add 
an agreeable vermeile to my complexion." This further 
shows how deep an impression the loose and fashionable 
plays made upon the imagination of cultivated young men of 
the age. Yet, in the whole of the correspondence addressed 
to Kerrich by his friends, though there is plenty of talk 
about coffee - houses and taverns and the toasting of 
mistresses, there is not one word to the effect that any 
of these young men ever attended theatrical performances. 
It is true that at that time no section of the public looked 
to the stage for guidance in matters of "conversation," 
costume, or morals. 

In 1716 the following fifteen members of Bene't 
College John Lockwood, Matthew Kenrick, Brock Rand, 
William Bradford, Thomas Aylmer, Francis Aylmer, 
William Smith, Edmund Castle, John Denne, Alured 
Clark, Thomas Stephens, Hugh Wyat, Edward Beacon, 
Matthew Scawen, and Kerrich formed themselves into 
a society for the purpose of mutual correspondence during 
the vacations, and after taking their degrees. The corre- 
spondence was to be on controversial points in matters 
of religion and scholarship, and in philosophical and logical 
disputations " disputandi gratia " as well as upon affairs 
of " love, gallantry, intrigue, and some scandal, subjects 
never to be exhausted in Cambridge." Of this society 
William Bradford and Samuel Kerrich were the moving 
spirits. " Though we are likely to be a young society," 
says Bradford at the outset, " yet I hope not a wild one, 
my friend ; and what we want in years we must endeavour 
to make up in prudence and knowledge." All the members 
above named corresponded with Kerrich ; many continu- 
ing the practice long after the initial object had passed 
away, has resulted in lengthy series, and all the letters 
forming the correspondence thus brought about are con- 
spicuous for English not unworthy of that golden age of 


The competition in 1761 for the bishopric of St. 
David's lay strictly between the friends of Dr. Talbot and 
Dr. Squire ; for the Master of Bene't, John Green, was 
promoted, through the Newcastle interest, from the 
Deanery to the Palace at Lincoln. Anthony Ellis, of 
whom Pyle speaks so well, was of Clare Hall ; he became 
chaplain to Lord Chancellor Macclesfield, and held a 
canonry at Gloucester, the rectory of St. Olave's, Jewry, 
and other preferments, which he relinquished on his con- 
secration to St. David's in 1752. He died at Gloucester, 
and is buried beneath the stately vaults of the cradle of 

George Talbot, for whom Pyle also has a good word, 
was brother of William, second Baron Talbot of Hensol, 
created Earl Talbot in 1761 a title which expired at 
his death and uncle of John Chetwynd Talbot, created 
first Earl Talbot of Hensol. Dr. Talbot married Aline, 
eldest daughter of Jacob, Lord Folkestone, and died in 

Samuel Squire, whose "very strong interest" pro- 
cured for him the episcopacy of St. David's, was of St. 
John's, Cambridge, and was elected fellow in 1737. In 
1741 he became "Friend and Companion" of John 
Wynne, Bishop of Bath and Wells, living with him in 
Joceline's interesting moated palace, and occupying exactly 
the same position as Pyle did in the household of Bishop 
Hoadly. His patron made Squire Archdeacon of Bath, 
and gave him a prebend in Wells Cathedral. Sub- 
sequently, after Bishop Wynne's death in 1743, he 
obtained the rectory of St. Anne's, Soho, and the vicarage 
of Greenwich, both of which he retained until his death in 
1766. He was appointed chaplain to the Duke of New- 
castle, and on the establishment of the Prince of Wales's 
Household, in 1756, Squire was made Clerk of the Closet. 
He was appointed Dean of Bristol in 1760. He was 
greatly disliked, and scoffed at in Cambridge for his 


ringing servility, and ridiculed, even at that time, for 
his grasping as a pluralist. He was F.R.S. and F.S.A., 
and accounted a good Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian 
scholar. As to his classical attainments he had the 
temerity to attack the Latin oration pronounced by Dr. 
William King, Principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, on 
the opening of the Radcliffe Library. In King's "Anec- 
dotes " he shows that Squire was unaware that Cicero 
could write either Latin or sense ! 


"Winchester Close, July 31, 1761. 


" It would take more time than it is worth, to 
tell you where and how I have been. I will only say 
I have not been well these three months, and am 
now (I think) going into a fit of the gout, which is 
to make me (I believe) a great deal better, is it not 
a blessed condition that a man is in, when he wants such 
a remedy ! 

" My Lord of London has left this dirty planet since 
you wrote. He was a year and 3 months younger than 
my good master, who died just 3 months before him. 

" Who will succeed bishop Sherlock, of the two 
candidates, Rochester or Norwich, is a point I think, not 
yet settled. The latter is beyond all doubt, the fittest 
person for that see. But he has great opponents. Yet I 
hope he'll carry it. The Duke of Newcastle is against-him 
tooth and nail. The Archbishop of Canterbury is against 
him certainly, tho' not professedly because a bishop of 
London is (as such) so often concerned with any Ministry 
and has so many opportunities of ingratiating himself with 
those at the helm, that if he is a man of address & parts, 
& understands business, he'll quickly make a cypher of an 


Archbishop of Canterbury. This Gibson did by Wake, 
and he knew that Sherlock would have done the same by 
him, and therefore ever (in Sir R. Walpole's and Queen 
Caroline's time) laboured against his promotion to that see 
in case of his own promotion to the primacy. The same 
two persons are strenous to serve the bishop of Rochester. 
Newcastle wants Rochester & the Deanery of Westminster 
for his favourite Young bishop of Bristol. My Lord of 
Canterbury wants a quiet hum-drum man who cannot make 
himself a competitor with him for power and influence. 
And besides these, Lord Bath, (who, I'm sorry to say it, 
goes up the back-stairs at St. James's when he pleases,) 
will leave no stone unturned to serve his old friend Scarse. 
And on the other side Hayter has a good assistant in that 
wicked fellow Lord Talbot. These are the hinges upon 
which the affairs the spiritual affairs of this world turn. 
God be praised ! I have nothing to do with 'em. If Hayter 
speeds I fancy but 'tis only a fancy Bishop Cornwallis 
will have Norwich ; he was born in the diocese & his 
own & wife's family are amongst the greatest persons 

" I shall, if health permits, pass y e greatest part of 
every ensuing summer at my livings, making a month's 
excursion into Yorkshire, therefore 'tis probable I may 
sometimes ride round by Middle-Tower, and pass a day 
with you at Dersingham. 

" I expect to be in London at the Coronation having a 
right to bear a part in the procession, as a King's Chaplain 
promoted to a Dignity. 

"Afterwards if I should find this place is agreeable to 
me, where the air is excessive sharp I will spend most 
of the winter at Bath. 

" I am, 

" Dear Sir, Your most 
" Humble Serv 1 , 

"E. PYLE. 


" When you favour me with a Letter put it (undirected) 
under a cover to Mr. Auditor Aislabie at his office White- 
hall. Write in the cover, < This is for Dr. Pyle.' " 

/Addressed, in Mr. \ 
V Aislabie's hand, / 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn, Norfolk. 
Wm. Aislabie Aud: T.F. 

"The two old Antagonist Prelates" have so often 
formed the subject of Pyle's discourse, and they filled so 
large a space in the ecclesiastical and political world of their 
time, that succinct accounts of their careers will necessarily 
appear here. 

Thomas Sherlock, " My Lord of London," was the 
eldest son of the Dean of St. Paul's, and was educated at 
Eton and St. Catherine's Hall. He was two years junior 
to Hoadly in the same college, and their long rivalry began 
at Cambridge. Sherlock was elected fellow in 1698, and 
married in 1707 Judith Fontaine, a lady of good descent 
in Yorkshire, described in Cumberland's memoirs as " a 
truly respectable woman," sounding at the present day as 
if such characters were scarce at the time. He was 
appointed chaplain to Queen Anne and Prebendary of 
St. Paul's in 1713; being elected Master of St. Catherine's 
Hall in the following year, he took an active part in 
vindicating the rights of the university against Bentley. 
In 1715 he was appointed Dean of Chichester, and in 
1719 Canon of Norwich, when he resigned his Mastership. 
In consequence of the part he took against Hoadly, Sher- 
lock was struck off the list of royal chaplains. In 1724 
he entered into controversy with the deists, and on the 
death of George I. he again came into favour at Court, and 
was consecrated Bishop of Bangor in 1728, seven years 
after Hoadly's translation from there to Hereford. Walpole 


and Queen Caroline the Illustrious were his constant patrons. 
In 1729 appeared his famous book, "The Tryal of the 
Witnesses of the Resurection of Jesus." He was translated 
to Salisbury in 1734, directly succeeding Hoadly, and was 
offered York in 1743, before its acceptance by Her- 
ring; in 1747 he similarly declined the primacy which 
Herring accepted. In the following year Sherlock succeeded 
Gibson in the episcopate of London. He became paralysed 
in J 753) but continued to transact his business with 
industry and efficiency. Pyle's letter following that dated 
April 26, 1760, shows to what a deplorable condition 
" The two Antagonist Prelates " had become reduced. 
Like Willis of Winchester, Potter of Canterbury, Gibson 
of London, Chandler of Durham, Hutton of Canterbury, 
and Gilbert of York, Sherlock amassed a large fortune 
" out of the church." Some of this came, after the 
death of his widow in 1764, to Sir Thomas Gooch, 
third baronet, and eldest son of Sir Thomas Gooch, Bishop 
of Bristol, Norwich, Ely, by Mary his first wife, Sher- 
lock's sister. Thomas Gooch married Anne, daughter 
and heir of John Atwood, and further inherited a very 
large capital from his maternal grandfather, the Dean of 
St. Paul's, who died in 1707. Thus were the fortunes of 
the house of Gooch founded. On June 24, 1742, Bishop 
Gooch, writing to his sister Matilda Postlethwayt, gives an 
account of his son's and Miss Atwood's fortune. He 
adds : " I shall settle Him in Norfolk : and who w d have 
thought of seeing a Son of mine make so great a figure 
there." The Benacre estate was then bought from the 
ancient family of Carthew, the Hall having been lately 
newly built. A deer park was established in 1757, and 
the country gentry were entertained at Benacre instead of 
having haunches sent to them. In Dr. King's "Anecdotes," 
he relates that Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, declared to 
him " that he should think himself guilty of the greatest 
crime, if he were to raise fortunes for his children out of 

Pinxt., 1-40 7- McArddl, Fecit. I 7S 7 



the revenues of his bishopric. Bishop Sherlock died 
childless. He left large benefactions to religious societies, 
and his library, with 7000 to bind it, to the University 
of Cambridge. 

Benjamin Hoadly was the second son of the 
Rev. Samuel Hoadly. He was entered of St. Catherine's 
Hall in 1691. Ill health attacked him from the first, and 
he lost seven terms, returning to Cambridge so crippled 
that after his ordination he was obliged henceforth to 
preach in a kneeling position. He married Sarah Curtis 
in 1701, and was appointed rector of St. Peter- le-Poer, 
Broad Street, in 1 704. There he preached some of " The 
Old Cocks that fought the Battles of Liberty in Good 
Queen Anne's Days." Hoadly first made his mark as a 
controversialist, for which he became so eminently distin- 
guished, in the part he took in the advocation of conformity 
against Calamy. In 1706 he was involved in a contest 
with Atterbury, the leader of the High Church party, and in 
1709 in consequence of a sermon preached in 1705 
he was further entangled in dispute with the Tory clergy as 
to the liberty of the subject under ecclesiastical ministers ; 
and the " Essay on the Origin of Civil Government," 1 709, 
brought Hoadly high credit with the Whigs. On the 
accession of George I. he was made a royal chaplain, and 
took up the new standpoint of ridiculing the notion of 
church authority. He was consecrated to Bangor in 1716, 
but never visited his diocese during his six years' tenure 
of that See, and he appears to have acted similarly with 
regard to Hereford, to which he was translated ; he 
remained in London, the advocate of extreme latitudinarian 
principles. In March 1717 came the notorious sermon 
preached before the King, and at once printed by royal 
command "On the Nature of the Kingdom of Christ." 
This was the origin of the Bangorian Controversy. It can 
only be recalled here that Hoadly was perfectly explicit in 
his denial of the power of the Church over the conscience, 



and of her right to determine the condition of men in 
relation to the favour of God. An unparalleled excitement 
was caused, a bewildering maze of pamphlets issued, and 
by the action of the Crown the power of Convocation was 
reduced for the future to the transaction of business only 
of a formal character. In this controversy Sherlock was 
Hoadly's ablest opponent, and William Law the most 
earnest and powerful. From Hereford Hoadly was 
translated to Salisbury, in 1724, and on his further 
removal to Winchester ten years later he justified his life 
and writings in a charge to his clergy, and repudiated the 
conclusions drawn from them by others, and particularly 
with regard to a Treatise on the Lord's Supper, which had 
caused great theological excitement. Twenty years later, 
namely, in 1754, appeared "The Old Cocks," revised by 
their author, and Hoadly's literary life ended by his 
exposure of the Fournier forgery. 

William Law, mentioned above as a strenuous opponent 
of Hoadly, was of Emmanuel, and a conspicuous Northamp- 
tonshire worthy. His mystical tendencies brought him out 
of harmony with John and Charles Wesley, who were at 
first his followers. His strict principles of life, and the 
rigidity of the schools which he founded at King's Cliffe, 
where wooden spoons have been made from time 
immemorial were too much out of harmony with the 
times. Law was a Jacobite, and a non-juror. His well- 
known work, "A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy 
Life," first published in 1728, must always command 
respect. He considered that the dominant rationalism 
of the time, and of which Locke was the exponent, 
could only lead to infidelity. 

Again, as in 1752 with regard to the See of Durham, 
there was presented the sorry squalid picture of a contest 
for the episcopacy of London. The King this time was 
apparently not concerned in the struggle, though the 
Princess Dowager, and with her Bute, were won over to 


Hayter's side. His triumph over the Duke of Newcastle 
in this prelatico-political struggle was of short duration, 
for he died in the following year. Bishop Pearce stayed 
where he was, at Rochester and Westminster, and New- 
castle's protege, Younge, succeeded Hayter at Norwich. 
" The mere Cypher " at Lambeth was Thomas Seeker. 

With respect to Thomas Hayter, he was the eldest son 
of the rector of Chagford, Devonshire, a benefice which 
has been held uninterruptedly by successive members of 
the Hayter family from 1637 to the present day. The 
new prelate of London matriculated at Balliol in 1720, 
and subsequently changed his university and became a 
member of Emmanuel. Archbishop Blackburne gave him 
a stall at York, and one at Southwell ; and he was made 
a prebendary of Westminster in 1739. He was appointed 
Archdeacon of York, or West Riding, in 1730, and was 
succeeded in that position by his friend Pyle in 1751. 
On the death of the distinguished epigraphist, Samuel 
Lisle, in 1749, Hayter was consecrated Bishop of Norwich, 
and on the re-arrangement of the Household, after the 
death of Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1751, made 
governor or preceptor to the young Prince George (created 
Prince of Wales a month after his father's death) and his 
four brothers. Hayter's strict discipline did not please the 
Princess Dowager, or the princes, and must have been 
greatly at variance with the baneful principles instilled by 
the sub-governor, Andrew Stone. So the Household was 
divided into two parties one suspected, with good reason, 
of a leaning to Jacobitism, headed by Stone, the other con- 
sisting of Lord Harcourt and the Governor, both zealous 
Whigs, who in the end resigned. Hayter was a very able 
man of business, an accomplished scholar, and died much 
regretted. His fortune eventually passed to his niece 
Grace, who married John Hames, and from her is 
descended the present representative of the family of 
Hayter Hames of Chagford. Pyle's mention of Arch- 


bishop Wake, who died in 1737, recalls the tradition that 
he was the last of the primates who went from Lambeth 
to the Houses of Parliament by water in the State Barge. 

When the Duke of Newcastle wanted Pearce to accept 
the See of London, he found him not so pliable as in 1 747, 
when he persuaded him to accept Bangor. And in spite 
of the added pressure of Pulteney, Lord Bath, Pearce 
not only declined to become " the quiet, hum-drum man " 
of London, but desired to resign Rochester and West- 
minster, the King consenting. This the wily ministers 
opposed, on the ground that it would encourage the young 
monarch to interfere personally in the appointments of 
bishops. So Pearce stayed where he was, which was 
perhaps best, for Pyle declares in his letter of January 1 7, 
1762, that he was " so slow and dawdling, that business 
in his hands would never get on." 

It is very seldom that Pyle is wrong in his information. 
But he has now quitted London, a remove consequent on 
the death of his patron, Bishop Hoadly, and has to get his 
news as he can, at Winchester. Cornwallis, Bishop of 
Lichfield, remained under the shadow of the three grace- 
ful spires sacred to St. Chad until 1768, when he was 
advanced to the Primacy. He ruled the See of Canterbury 
until 1783, and throughout his life, in all his stations, 
whether as Fellow of Christ's, country parson, metropolitan 
dean, or prince of the Church, he was conspicuous for his 
affability, courtesy, and bounteous hospitality. Even Cole, 
who was not much given to praising, much less loving any- 
body, records : " No one was more beloved, or bore a 
better character, during all the time of his residence in 
Cambridge." He was educated at Eton, the seventh son 
of the fourth Lord Cornwallis, and married Caroline, 
daughter of Charles, second Viscount Townshend. 

We may realise exactly what place Pyle occupied in 
the Coronation Procession of George III. by referring to 
the vivid moving panorama of that of Charles II., from the 


firm and delicate burin of Wenceslaus Hollar. In this 
picturesque tableau " the chaplains promoted to dignities " 
ride in their gowns and college caps, six of them, two and 
two. They are immediately preceded by the clerks of the 
Chancery, Signet, Privy Seal, Council, Parliament, and 
Gown, ten in all, riding two abreast, and followed by the 
King's Advocate and Remembrancer, Masters of Chancery, 
and King's Learned Council, &c. 

William Aislabie, who receives and franks Pyle's letters, 
was the only son of John Aislabie, who was Chancellor of 
the Exchequer in 1718, and was expelled the House of 
Commons in 1721 in consequence of his " most notorious, 
dangerous, and infamous corruption " in the matter of the 
South Sea Company. William Aislabie was elected for 
Ripon, in the room of his erring father, in 1721, and 
remained its Member until his death in 1781. When his 
daughter died in 1845 the estates of Studley Royal, together 
with Fountains Abbey, devolved upon Thomas, second Earl 
de Grey, whose great-grandfather, Sir William Robinson, 
had married John Aislabie's sister. 


"Winton, 19 Nov r 1761. 


" I set down, in a very unfit condition, but I set 
down for shame, to thank you for a kind letter dated so 
long before this, that I am out of countenance on looking 
at it, as it now lies before me. I am recovering from a fit 
of the gout in my hands, regular & smart. I have been, for 
the most part of the summer, out of order in my head ; 
with noise and deafness ; which this same gout has carried 
off. And this is enough on so insignificant a subject. 

"The Two old antagonist prelates are gone, to a place 
of amity I trust. He of Winton left 17,000 behind him 
which will just pay two annuities, & one legacy, and his 


funeral charges, & delapidations of 3 vast houses. He of 
London left 140 thousand pounds. What disposition he 
made I know not, except that he left his widow a vast 
income for her life while the other only added to his 
widow's jointure, barely enough to keep her a coach for 
her life. 

" It was to bring the Duke of Newcastle into temper 
after his defeat in the matter of London, that Dr. Young 
was translated to Norwich, & Dr. Green made bishop 
of Lincoln. Bennet mastership is to be resigned to 
Mr. Bernadiston one of the fellows, As the bishop of 
Chester told me at the Coronation. This bishop, by the 
way, is jocky'd by the Cantabrigians, who have worked 
themselves in, & His Lordship out, of their Chancellor's 
favour. Bishop Hayter gave in Norwich bishoprick at 
.2160 a year to the Ministry & vouched it to be of that 
value, every farthing. His Grace of Canterbury finds him- 
self, as his predecessors have done, after 2 or 3 years, a 
mere cypher, in the disposition of church preferments. 
He knew not one thing that was resolved on in all the 
late promotions till every body else knew it. 

" Of politicks I have nothing to say. Whatever Mr. 
Pitt may be, or may not be I care not. He may have 
been a good Minister, or not, for what I know. But I am 
sure he is a very inconsistent and shameless man. For he 
worked himself into power, by incessant & intemperate de- 
clamation, against spending a penny or sending a man, to 
the help of Hanover, &c. and when he was in power he 
raised & spent ten times more money in the defense of 
that country than ever any Minister before him, dared so 
much as to think of; and when he had involved himself so 
that he did not know what to do went out in a huff; in 
order to continue a popular IDOL. 
"I am, Dear Sir, 

" Your most Humble Serv' 

"E. PYLE. 


" Bishop Hayter's triumph over the Duke of Newcastle 
by succeeding to the see of London, is very great. It was 
a hard struggle. The victory was gotten, by Lord Talbot's 
weight with Lord Bute & the P. Dowager. Dr. Butler late 
of Yarmouth will be served by this event, being first chap- 
lain & favourite of my Lord of London. I said, served, 
but, it may be, not much profited. But he has given up 
Yarmouth 200 a year, on being Prebend of our Church. 
And if his patron gives him a London living, as I find is 
intended, he must quit two livings of 120 a year clear to 
take it. I think, and so do better judges, that Bishop 
Hayter's life is not a good one. The same complaint that 
kept him from visiting his diocese last year, hangs upon 
him still. He has a leg, knee, & thigh, swelled much, 
after all the Physicians have done to reduce that swelling. 
And some fear it will end in a dropsy." 

The Duke of Newcastle had hoped, on Pitt's resigna- 
tion, September 1760, to regain his old ascendancy, but 
the appointment of Hayter to the Primacy, through the 
influence of Bute, was a crushing blow. Pyle tells us 
what odd steps were taken " to bring him into temper." 
He soon found himself slighted and treated with indignities, 
and he had to resign office, May 26, 1762. He was then 
created Baron Pelham of Stanmer, with remainder to his 
cousin Thomas Pelham, afterwards first Earl of Chichester. 
His fall, we are told, was so complete, and Bute's pursuit 
of him so vindictive, that his adherents to a man quitted 
him, including even the bishops, many of whom owed 
everything to him. Personally Newcastle was a pompous, 
nervous, ignorant man, and had none of the qualities essen- 
tial to a great minister of foreign affairs. But he was 
honest during fifty years of public life, and full of good and 
popular social qualities. 

Pyle has his own peculiar way of dismissing the Great 
Commoner. It is proper to speak finally of him here, in 


conclusion of what has been expressed on two previous 
occasions. On the accession of George III., October 26, 
1760, political matters took a great change under the 
advice of Lord Bute, who was appointed Secretary of State 
in the place of the last Lord Holderness. Legge was dis- 
missed from the Exchequer, March 1761, and Pitt resigned 
in September, on the question of peace, pressed for by 
Bute, saying that he had no desire for any peace that did 
not involve the complete humiliation of France. Bute now 
became supreme in the Ministry, although Newcastle con- 
tinued its nominal head until his retirement in May 1762. 
Pitt remained out of office until 1 766 ; his health was giving 
way, but he then accepted, July 30, the sinecure position 
of Lord Privy Seal, and was raised to the peerage as 
Viscount Pitt of Burton Pynsent, and Earl of Chatham, 
August 4. The elevation of one so great as a commoner 
was not popular, and rude spirits said he had had a fall 
upstairs and would never stand upon his legs again. This 
was, in a measure, true, for his state of mental and bodily 
health caused him but rarely to take part in the debates 
in the upper house until 1772. In that year he spoke with 
his well-remembered eloquence on behalf of the American 
Colonies, and notably on May 30, on moving an address to 
the Crown for the cessation of hostilities, in a speech of 
uncommon animation and beauty. Other brilliant efforts 
followed, and, although the only hope of retaining the 
friendship of America, and of baffling and further humbling 
France, lay in the return of Chatham to power, the King, 
who believed himself anointed by a Divine commission, de- 
clined to have any direct communications with him. Thus 
was the rising current of history turned aside by the 
obstinacy of one dull, imperfectly educated young man. 
And thus was prevented the auspicious concord which 
might to-day have developed a vast Anglo-Saxon power to 
dominate for good and pacify the modern world. Now we 
shall have to be content with the federation of the British 

Richard Brampton, Pinxt. 


>\ Eiiuar\i ftMf,>,,FtjH. > , , 

i". r.5 :' -,^>' i\i ? ,' 

55 jjs 3 , 


Empire not a bad substitute. Chatham's last appear- 
ance in the House of Lords was in order to declare his 
disagreement with the American policy of the Government. 
But the sands were fast running out, and the effort was 
too great. He fainted, as in the memorable scene depicted 
by Copley, and was carried out to die a few weeks later 
May ii, 1778, leaving a name, truly 

" On Fame's eternal beadroll worthie to be fyled." 


"DEAR SIR, Winton, I7 Jan. I7 6, 

" I am very much obliged by the favour of your 
letter, and return an acknowledgement of it the sooner, to 
make you & yours the seasonable compliments of wishing 
you and them many happy years. 

" You see my suspicion of Bishop Hayter's ill condition 
of health was not ill grounded. His death has taken away 
the fittest person in the kingdom for the see of London, 
Who of those that are left is fit for it, I can't say for I 
think none of them so. Thomas, late of Lincoln, now of 
Sarum, would do very well, were he not half blind and 
f deaf, and 7 1 years old at least ; three particulars that 
very much disqualify a man for a station that requires 
activity. Bishop Pearce is as old and he is so slow & 
dawdling, in every thing he does, that business in his 
hands would never get on. I dare say he would purr & 
puzzle over a complaint from the West Indies, for a 
month, that Hayter would have settled in one morning. 

"The bishop of London is, really tho' not nominally, 
bishop of the West Indies plantations ; and cases of com- 
plaint of Presbyterians & other dissenters there, against 
Episcopal Ministers, & Congregations ; & vice versa, make a 
part of the trouble that unavoidably belongs to that great see. 

"The death of Bishop Hayter, besides the loss of 


him which the public has sustained, is a grievous blow 
to my brother Prebendary Dr. Butler, whose advancement, 
very considerably, would have attended the bishop's con- 
tinuing some years. The first-fruits of his regard to him 
would have been, a good town living, & the Archdeaconry 
of London, both expected to become void, daily, by the 
death of Dr. Cobden. Poor Butler, He has bought a 
house, at Kensington, & furnished it ; in order to be 
within half an hour's walk of his patron's house, whether 
he dwelt in town or at Fulham ; and has resigned 
Yarmouth into boot. Tho' I know not whether I should 
lament for the last particular, as that place is the most 
uncomfortable in the nation for a man of learning & a 
generous mind to be fix'd in. The people are a most 
illiberal, tarpaulin, crew. 

" I know not what to say of politicks. All people, but 
sea-captains, are grieved at the war with Spain. Most 
believe that when the Parliament meets our King will be 
desired to call home the forces now in Germany. Great 
changes are talked of at Court. The Duke of Newcastle 
to retire with a great pension & Mr. Pitt to keep out 
of play with his little one. 

" I am far from being in a good state of health. 
Perhaps it is owing to the weather's having been almost 
always rainy, since May when I came to this place. 
Riding is to set me to rights, I am told & so I went, 
last week, 40 guineas deep in the flesh of two saddle 
nags. I am ever truly y rs p^ 

(Addressed in Mr. 
Aislabie's hand) 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 

at Dersingham, near Lynn, Norwich. 

Wm. Aislabie, Audr. T.F. 

Edward Cobden, whose death was thus watched for 
by the clerical vultures, was of Trinity, Oxford. He 


removed to King's, but returned to Oxford and obtained 
his D.D. degree. Gibson, Bishop of Lincoln, made him 
his chaplain, presented him to a stall in St. Hugh's 
Minster, and on his translation to London in 1723 made 
him a prebendary of St. Paul's and gave him further 
preferment, including the archdeaconry spoken of by Pyle. 
As a royal chaplain he preached a timely sermon before 
George II. entitled "A Persuasive to Chastity," which lost 
him that dignity. No wonder that at such a court and at 
such a time he was ridiculed and lampooned. 


"Tyd. May 22, 1762. 

" I received the favor of your very obliging letter. 
And I should most gladly gratify myself by a visit at 
Dersingham, if my distress'd circumstances could admit of 
it, whilst I stay in this country. I left London, after ten 
days stay there, because it was nothing but a great 
hospital : every body being made sick of colds & fevers, 
by the sudden access of hot weather. For my part, tho' 
I was not sick in form, I cou'd neither breath nor sleep 
tolerably in the air of that place. So I got away, & 
travelled hither by easy stages. Here I found all people 
ailing. And in 3 days time was laid up with the gout. 
That is pretty well gone off, and I am upon legs again, 
but very feeble. And Lo ! now my servant is decrepit 
with a fit of rheumatism, so that he has two people to nurse 
him ; and when he will be able to go abroad no one can 
yet foresee. Add to all this the circumstances of a lame 
horse, and you will have a just idea of the piteous pickle 
wherein is 

11 Dear Sir, 

" Your most Humb: Serv 1 , 

(Addressed) " E. PYLE." 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham. 



" Winchester, Nov r . 2. 1762. 

" Tho' I look upon compliments of condolence to 
be little more than renewals of grief; I cannot forbear to 
say, how much I was affected by an account, (lately given 
me by Mr. Phelpes for I saw it not in the news) of a 
melancholy incident in your family. 

" As such misfortunes are common to all men, happy, 
comparatively, are those good persons who can call in the 
succours which religion and philosophy supply to support 
them under their afflictions. I am, 
" Dear Sir, 

" Your Affectionate 
" Humble Serv*. 

/Addressed in MrA " E. Pyle." 

\ Aislabie's hand. / 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, 

near Lynn, Norfolk. 

Wm. Aislabie Audr. T.F. 

Pyle's belated " compliment of condolence" refers to 
the death of Barbara Kerrich, which took place at Der- 
singham Hall, August 22, 1762 

" Quae placide hac in Vicinia, plus triginta Annos 

Vitam egit, 
Placide Mortem obiit." 


"Winton, July 15 th , 1763. 

"To ask, How d'ye, & all that is the chief 
purpose of this epistle. I hope well : and shall be glad to 


have that hope raised into certainty, by a word or two 
under your hand. 

" Next, How like you the times with a Whig 
Sacheverel, in a red Coat ? For my self you know I am 
Whig enough and inclined enough to the minority yet 
I wish that side would disclaim the prodigious licentious- 
ness of the 'foresaid very bad man. So much for 
politicks ; for I go no further. 

" As to my health ; I was badly handled, almost all 
the winter, by the gout ; and am far from being well, 
notwithstanding ten weeks use of the Bath waters. Yet 
I rub on how long I may do so, depends on God's will, 
to which I submit ; and on particulars that are far out of 
the reach of physicians skill. I wish you all health and 
happiness & am ever y rs most affectionately, 

"E. PYLE." 
/Addressed in Mr.\ 
\ Aislabie's hand. / 

To the Rev d Dr. Kerrich, 
at Dersingham, near 

Lynn, Norfolk. 

Wm. Aislabie Audr. T.F. 

John Wilkes was a friend and pupil in wickedness of 
Thomas Potter, who missed the appointment of " Master 
of the Faculties " by the death of his father the primate. 
Wilkes became famous by the publication, April 1763, of 
No. 45 of the North Briton, in which the King and the 
ministry were grossly attacked. He was arrested under 
an unconstitutional instrument known as " A General 
Warrant," a dangerous proceeding since declared to be 
illegal ; this was the beginning of the conduct which brought 
into prominence a disreputable celebrity of the moment 
and exalted him into a champion of the people when " the 
British Lion " was declared to be " roused." Wilkes was 
released on the ground of his privilege as a Member of 


Parliament. The high-handed proceedings against him 
on account of his " Essay on Woman " increased his popu- 
larity. He was expelled the House in January 1764, 
and outlawed. In 1768 his outlawry was reversed amidst 
great public rejoicings, extending to so distant a place as 
Lynn. Susan Hollingsworth writes as follows to Matilda 
Kerrich, June 20, 1768 : 

" I think you must have heard what a Public Spirited 
Town Lynn is, it proved itself so when Mr. Wilkes had 
his Outlawry reversed, we was illuminated, (a compliment 
too great however to pay the King on his Birthday) there 
was few of Sir John Turner's friends who had any lights 
out, we little folks in High-street must do as the Mobility 
directs under pain of having our Windows demolished, 
which I believe we should have been bold enough to have 
hazarded had my Papa been at home, but it happen'd 
very unluckily he was in Lincolnshire, If you take the 
Public Papers I imagine you have seen an account of all 
the Mad Frolicks of our Drunken Mob, which notwith- 
standing is stiled by our Patriotic gentry a love of liberty. 
I suppose we shall have matter sufficient to fill all the 
Newspapers both Town and Country, for no less Person 
than the formidable Mr. Wilks is to be in town next 
Week if acquited, but I will say no more about him, least 
as he bewitches people at such a Distance he may change 
us intirely when he comes so near." 

Wilkes was again expelled from the House of Com- 
mons for libel ; he was three times elected for Middlesex, 
but the elections were cancelled ; he was again returned 
in 1774, when he was suffered to take his seat. In honour 
of the first of a series of tumultuous episodes large glass 
tankards were made and inscribed " Wilkes and Liberty, 
No. 45 " ; these vessels are now extremely rare. Wilkes 
was undoubtedly a man of parts. Franklin went so far 


as to say that if his moral character had been equal to 
that of the King he might have taken the King's place. 

Pyle's comparison of Wilkes with Sacheverel is appo- 
site in so far that Henry Sacheverel brought himself 
into a place in history by the violent literary means of 
two sermons, in which he rancorously assailed the prin- 
ciples of the Revolution Settlement, and the Act of Tolera- 
tion, and so roused the wrath of the Whig Government 
that he was impeached before the House of Lords, and 
brought to all the circumstance of a trial in Westminster 
Hall. Ardent crowds shouted " High Church and Sache- 
verel " in 1710, just as half a century later the fatuous 
mob bawled " Wilkes and Liberty." 

" Mobile sic sequitur fortuna2 lumina vulgus." 

Similarly, as in Wilkes's case, Sacheverel who ought 
to have been put in the pillory and parted with his ears, 
as many better men had for much less lived down his 
offence. His mild sentence of suspension for two years 
was soon over and forgotten, and, the Whig ministry 
having fallen, he was chosen to preach the Restoration 
Sermon before the House of Commons in 1713, and 
specially thanked by the whole House for it. As there 
are some things too sad for tears, or too grotesque for 
laughter, so there are rehabilitations too astounding for 
astonishment ! That Wilkes, the Whig Sacheverel, should 
be spoken of by Pyle as " in a red coat " was in exact 
accordance with the costume of the country gentlemen of 
his day. 

Thus closes the correspondence of thirty-four years. 
Samuel Kerrich died at Dersingham Hall, March 8, 1768. 
His old friend Edmund Pyle survived him nearly nine 
years, dying in his prebendal house at Winchester, Decem- 
ber 14, 1776, aged seventy-four. 


ADDRESS, the Cambridge, 280 

Oxford, 320 

Aislabie, John, his expulsion from 
House of Commons, 357 ; his cor- 
ruption, ib. 

William, his unexampled length 

of service in House of Commons, 


Aix-la-Chapelle, Peace of, 1748, 116 

Allen, Ralph, his patriotism and 
generosity, 327 ; Pope's lines on 
him, ib. ; a friend of Pitt, 328 

Allix, Peter, Dean Gloucester, Ely, 
227, 231 

Anne of England and Nassau, 168 ; 
her son William V. made Knight 
of the Garter at age of four, ib. ; 
glass in honour of the event, ib. 

Anselm, Abp., Herring's letter on 
his remains and character, 297 

Anson, Admiral Lord, 231 ; his re- 
organisation of naval forces, 232 

Appleton Church, its neglected con- 
dition in 1729 contrasted with that 
of the present day, 97 

Aquse. See Waters 

Arenberg, Duke of, wounded at 
Dettingen, 84 

Ashburnham, Sir Charles, Bt., Bp. 
Chichester, of Corpus, 189 ; his 
family and preferments, ib. 

Ashe, "the Pollard," at Vauxhall, 

Ashenhurst, Dr., attends Sarah New- 
ton, 1 8 

Astley, Sir Jacob, Bt., abeyance of 
barony of Hastings terminated in 
his favour, 22 

Jacob, his promise of marriage 

to Jane Kitchingman, 22 

Atterbury, Francis, Bp. Rochester, 
letters with accounts of his trial, 

Aylmer, Francis, his preferments and 
letters, 89 ; nom de plume, 346 ; 


member of society for correspond- 
ence at Bene't, 1716, 347 

Aylmer, Thomas, extract from letter 
to Samuel Kerrich, 28 ; member of 
society for correspondence at 
Bene't, 1716, 347 

Ayscough, Francis, Dean of Bristol, 
his sufferings at Oxford, 282 ; 
generosity of the Princess Dowager 
to him, ib. ; prompt action of Bp. 
Willis in his behalf, ib., 284; ill- 
used by Bp. Potter, ib. 

BAGGE, Charles, his marriage, 332 

Balguy, Thomas, his tutorial work 
and preferments, 311 ; indebted- 
ness to Bp. Hoadly, ib. ; declines 
see of Gloucester, ib. 

Balme, Edward, letter of Thomas 
Kerrich to, quoted, 51 

Bardwell, Thomas, his portraits of 
Samuel and Barbara Kerrich, 48 ; 
of Elizabeth Postlethwayt, 66 ; of 
Bp. Gooch, 201 

Barnet Fair, 149 

Barry, Isabella, a friend of Barbara 
Kerrich, 34 ; sends popular song, ib. 

Basset, Sir William, of Blore, destroys 
" tabernacle" at Buxton, 109 

Beacon, Edward, extract from letter to 
Samuel Kerrich, 152; his prefer- 
ment, ib., 339; member of society 
for correspondence at Bene't, 1716, 

Beadon, Rachel, her letters to 
Thomas Kerrich, 146 

Richard, Bp. Gloucester, Bath 

and Wells, his university distinc- 
tions and popularity, 146; statuette 
of, ib. 

Beauclerk, Lord James, Bp. Hereford, 
157; Dr. Brown, his "nurse," &c., 

Bedford, Duchess of, groundless story 
of, 225 

2 A 



Bedingfield, Sir Henry, Bt., his in- 
terest in Bower's case, 252 

Bene't College. See Corpus 

Bennett, Thomas, last life in a patent 
place, 199 ; his marriage to Ethel- 
dreda Wake, 201 

Benson, Martin, Bp. Gloucester, 
revives institution of rural deans, 
192 ; his great popularity, ib. 

Bentley, Dr., his case commented on 
by Samuel Kidman, 16 ; conflict 
with Trinity College, 93 ; depriva- 
tion, ib. ; degrees restored, 141 ; 
elation at his trials, ib. ; considera- 
tions on his case in letter from John 
Denne to Samuel Kerrich, ib. ; 
rescues the Codex Alexandrinus,33i 

Bergen op Zoom, its great strength, 
126; taken hy the French, ib. ; de- 
stroyed, ib. 

Berney, Archdeacon, a competitor for 
the Deanery of Norwich, 335 ; dis- 
regards Bp. Gooch, whose toad- 
eater he had been, ib. , 336 ; his 
petition to the King slighted, ib. 

Birch, Thomas, his activity and 
literary collections, 258 ; Dr. John- 
son's opinion of him, ib. 

Bishops, great fortunes of, 352 

Blackburne, Lancelot, Bp. Exeter, 
Abp. York, his notorious manners, 
8 1 ; neglects his diocese for twelve 
years and leaves characters of 
clergy to his successor, 88 

Black Death, The, 203 

Black Watch, mutiny in the, 83; 
punishment of ringleaders, ib. 

Bleeding, Miss Greenwood lamed by, 
45 ; popularity of, 102 

Bolingbroke, Lord, ill success of his 
collected works, 218, 222 

Bott , Thomas, his character and works , 

Boughton Greene Fair, 149 

Bourroughs, Sir James, his architec- 
ture at Cambridge, 328 

Bower, Archibald, his case and its 
complications, 251,255; death and 
monumental inscription, 256 

Boyle, Henry, his action in Ireland 
against the Government, 184; 
created Earl of Shannon, ib. 

Bradford, Samuel, Bp. Carlisle, his 
efforts for Samuel Kerrich with the 
Bishop of Ely (Fleetwood), 14; 

uncommon kindness at his election 
to fellowship at Corpus, 15 ; his 
uncertain carriage at coronation 
of George II., 340; assisted by 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, 344 
Bradford Susannah. See Denne, John 

William, his scheme for cor- 
respondence, 14; plate, 80 ; letters 
to Samuel Kerrich, 343 ; noms 
de plume, 346 ; costume, ib. ; 
" vermeille complexion," 347 ; 
member of society for correspond- 
ence at Bene't, 1716, ib. ; regula- 
tions and aspirations for it, ib. 

Brandon Sands, gibbets upon them, 

Bransby, Elizabeth, a friend of 
Barbara Postlethwayt, 34 ; de- 
scribes Lynn balls, 63 

Peggy, her detraction of Bar- 
bara Postlethwayt, 42 

Brantome, le Sieur de, quoted, 323 
Bray broke, Griffin of. See Griffin 

creation of barony of, 332 

Brown, Dr., President of Queen's, 

his influence, 320; " nurse " to Bp. 
of Hereford, ib. 

Browne, Mary, her marriage, 132 ; 
account of her garments and 
jewelry, 133 ; her wild conduct, 


Mrs., her fashionable influence, 


Sir William, insulted at a 

Lynn tavern, 133 ; his undignified 
conduct, 136; answer to epigram 
on Dr. Moore's library given to 
Cambridge by George I., ib. ; dis- 
position of his Elzevir Horace, ib. ', 
voted out of treasurership of College 
of Physicians, 219 

Brownlow, Sir John, Viscount Tyr- 
connel, 91 ; his character, ib. 

Buckinghamshire, Earl of. See Ho- 

Bullock, Dr., his interest, 181 

Thomas, Dean of Norwich, 

rector of North Creake, 76 ; visits 
Buxton with Edmund Pyle, 108, 

Bute, John, Marquis of, his influence 
over the Princess Dowager, 271 ; 
household and political appoint- 
ments, 277 ; baneful influence over 
George III. , ib. ; his great unpopu- 



larity with the populace, 278 ; his 
retirement insisted upon, ib. ; his 
houses, books, and collections, ib. 
Butler, Dr., his loss by death of Abp. 
Hayter, 362 

John, Bp. Oxford, his prefer- 
ments, political principles, and 
literary work, 331 

John, his letter to Samuel 

Kerrich about the Scotch people, 

Joseph, Bp. Bristol, Durham, 

his preferments, 129; writes the 
"Analogy," ib. ; reason for de- 
clining the primacy, ib. ; reason for 
declining the See of Durham, ib. ; 
his " pre-consecration," ib. ; long 
expectation, 130; death, ib. 

Burke, Edmund, his opinion of Sir 
Robert Walpole's conduct, 73 

Burnet, Gilbert, Bp. Salisbury, his 
history, life, episcopal and political 
character, 193 

Gilbert, supporter of Bp. 

Hoadly, 194 

Sir Thomas, his character and 

public life, 194 

Burton, Sarah, a friend of Barbara 

Kerrich, 34 
Butts, Eyton, his preferments, 208 

Robert, Bp. Norwich, Ely, 

persecutes Quakers, 70 ; his skill 
in manly games, 137 ; swearing, and 
insolence to the clergy, ib. ; bust 
and monument, ib. 

Buxton, baths of, the Aquae of the 
Romans, 109 ; their popularity in 
mediaeval and later times, ib. 

CAMBRIDGE : Kerrich houses in 
Freeschool Lane, 23 ; monument 
to Sarah Newton in St. Benedict's 
churchyard, 19 ; monumental slab 
of Jane Kerrich (born Kitching- 
man) in church of St. Edwards, 29 

Cammell, Mrs., her detraction of 
Barbara Postlethwayt, 42 ; her ill 
nature, 43 

Cancer, prevalence of, 63 ; death of 
Elizabeth Postlethwayt (born Ro- 
gerson) from, ib. ; the malady 
inherited by Barbara Kerrich, ib. ; 
repulsive remedies, ib. ; her death, 

Carteret, Viscount (Earl Granville), 

his dispatch from the battlefield of 
Dettingen, 84 ; his interest in 
Bower's case, 254 ; distinguished 
career, 257 

Castle, Edmund, Dean of Hereford, 
his letters to Samuel Kerrich, 89 ; 
sad lot in the Fens, ib. ; his "gentle 
companion," ib. ; religious medita- 
tions and astronomical studies, ib. ; 
discipline of the bark, philosophic 
pipes and green tea, ib. ; con- 
gratulations on election as Master 
of Corpus, 90, 105 ; his constant 
adage fulfilled, 90 ; prebendary of 
Ely by Abp. Herring's "option" 
in 1747, 140; intricate ecclesiastical 
movements on appointment as 
Dean of Hereford, 271 ; member 
of society for correspondence at 
Bene't, 1716, 347 

Castlemaine, Lady, her decree con- 
cerning patches, 169 

Catherine of Russia, 225 ; buys 
Houghton pictures, 245 

Chandler, Samuel, his works, 229 ; 
answers Bolingbroke, ib. ; his con- 
troversies, ib. ; defends Sherlock's 
"Trial of the Witnesses," ib. 

Charles II., his palace at Winchester, 
311 ; its fate, ib. 

Charles, Joseph, his literary position, 
233; his work "The Dispersion," 


Charlotte, the Princess, of Mecklen- 
burg-Strelitz, married by proxy, 

Chelsea, its rural character in 1752, 
179, 1 80 

Cherbourg, cannon from, 310 ; ex- 
hibited in Hyde Park, ib. ; the 
king's delight, ib. ; list of cannon, 

Cheselden, William, visits Cambridge, 
97 ; his " Osteographia," 98. 

Cheshire regiment, the, its privilege 
and heroic past, 83 

Chesterfield, Philip, Earl of, his 
good offices between Pitt and New- 
castle in political impasse of 1757, 
280 ; household, political appoint- 
ments and " Letters," ib. 

Chevalier, title of, 175 

Chevallier, Clement, letter on Four- 
nier's forgery addressed to him by 
Bp. Hoadly, 239 



Churches, their treatment in eight- 
eenth and in nineteenth centuries 
contrasted, 261 

Gibber, Colley, supports Bp. Brad- 
ford at coronation of George II., 

344 ; his long career at Drury 
Lane Theatre and reform of stage, 

345 ; marriage, ib. 

Clarges, Mrs., marries Francis 
Seward, in 

Penelope, jilted by Francis 

Seward, in 

Clarke, Alured, Dean of Exeter, 236 ; 
his popularity, preferments, and 
generosity, 238 ; death, ib. ; mem- 
ber of society for correspondence 
at Bene't, 1716, 347 

John, Dean of Salisbury, cause 

of his death, 285 ; preferments and 
appearance, 288 

Clayton, General, killed at Dettingen, 


Cobbe, Catherina, her letters to 
Barbara Kerrich, 45 

Cobden, Edward, his universities and 
preferments, 362 ; Court sermon on 
chastity and its consequences, 363 

Cockburn, Catherine, her career and 
literary works, 1 20, 123 

Codd, " Coz," her detraction of Bar- 
bara Postlethwayt, 42 ; "in an in- 
curable state of distraction," 43 

Cole, William, his characters (to be 
received with caution) of Bp. Butts, 
137 ; Bp. Keene, 148 ; Archdeacon 
Salter, 152 ; Bp. Gooch, 205 ; John 
Clarke, 288 ; Abp. Cornwallis, 356 

Convocation, forming and perfecting 
of, 224 

Cornwallis, Frederick, Bp. Lichfield, 
Abp. Cant., his preferments, 356 ; 
greatly beloved in all his stations, ib. 

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 
Matthias Mawson, Master of, 71 ; 
Francis and Thomas Aylmer, Presi- 
dents of, 89 ; Edmund Castle, Mas- 
ter of, ib. ; Long Gallery at, 90 ; 
Thomas Green, Master of, 92 ; 
Essex's design for New Court, 156 ; 
John Green, Master of (on nomina- 
tion of Abp. Herring), 278 ; society 
for correspondence formed at, 1716, 


Cotterell, Sir Clement, High Master 
of Ceremonies at Installation of 

Duke of Norfolk as Chancellor at 
Cambridge, 50 

Cotton, Dr., twice "on brink of 
matrimony with Dorothy Hutton," 
224 ; twice swept by Mrs. Hutton 
"with the Beezom of Destruction," 

Cradock, John, Bp., malicious story 
about his wife and treatment of 
her, 316, 317; Bp. Mawson's re- 
marks thereon, ib. 

Cremer, Miss, her amusements, &c., 
at Mrs. Kerrich's at Dersingham, 

Mr., his grave Resurrection 

Sermon at Dersingham, 46 ; his 
suggestion for sermon at Wolfer- 
ton, ib. 

Crewe, Nathaniel, Lord, Bp. Durham, 
his munificence, family, monuments, 
&c., and ancestral home, 230 

Cufaude, Francis, his portraits of 
Matthew Postlethwayt, 56 ; picture 
of Denton rectory, 59 

Cumberland, Duke of, wounded at 
Dettingen, 84 ; in pursuit of the 
Rebels, 112, 113; Carlisle capitu- 
lates to, 115 ; rejoicings in London 
for victory at Culloden, 118; George 
Townshend's hostility to him, 276 ; 
George II. 's anger at his defeat at 
Hastemberg, and capitulation at 
Closterseven, 276 ; retirement into 
private life, 277 ; portrait, 290 ; 
statuette, ib. 

DE DOMINIS, Marco Antonio, Abp. 
Spalato, his case, 254, 256 ; death 
in state of heresy, 257 ; body 
burnt, ib. 

Delander, Daniel, Samuel Kerrich 
buys watch and chain from, 27 

Denne, John, succeeded in tutorial 
work at Corpus by Samuel Kerrich, 
1 6 ; his letters to him, 45, 343; 
silver plate stolen, 78 ; list of items, 
79 ; letter about Bentley's trials, 
141 ; his failing health and Pyle's 
character of him, 339; his own 
opinion on his appointment as Pro- 
locutor, 342 ; marriage to Susannah 
Bradford and preferments, 343 ; 
letters to Samuel Kerrich, ib. ; 
antiquarian labours at Rochester, 
344 ; his sons, ib. ; member of 



society for correspondence at 
Bene't, 1716, 347 

Denne, Samuel, the antiquary, his 
death, 344 

Denton Rectory, built by Matthew 
Postlethwayt, 1718, 34; description 
of picture of, by Francis Cufaude, 
59 ; picture of, by Paul Sandby, ib. 

Robert Rogerson, Rector of, 

31 ; Matthew Postlethwayt suc- 
ceeds him, 34 ; John Postlethwayt 
presented, 55 ; George Sandy pre- 
sented, 60 

Dersingham, Samuel Kerrich insti- 
tuted to vicarage, 25 ; reasons for 
no vicarage house, 26; the Pell 
mansion-house put into order for 
reception of Jane Kerrich, 26, 28 ; 
further fitted up for Barbara Postle- 
thwayt, 41 ; become partly un- 
tenantable and abandoned for 
Dersingham Hall, 62 

Dettingen, battle of, 83 ; Extraordi- 
nary Gazette for, 84 

Devonshire, William, Duke of, 270 ; 
his official appointments, 275 ; 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, ib. 

Dresden, Peace of, 1754, 116 

Durham, contest for See of, 179, 180 

Dyer, John, his letters, 334; educa- 
tion and Poem, " The Fleece," 337 

EAGLE-STONE, a Rogerson talisman, 
54 ; example from Nuremberg, ib. 

Earthquakes of 1750, Pastoral of 
Bishop Sherlock on them, 161, 164 ; 
Matilda Postlethwayt's opinion, 

Ellis, Anthony, Bp. St. David's, 179, 
1 80; his good character, 181 ; 
reasons for his "ascent to the 
mitre," 190 ; death and commenda- 
tion, 340 

Benjamin, his pluralism, 90 

Elsden, E., wood-carver, his works 
and military service, 332 

Ely House, description of, 258 

Essex, James, his design for new court 
at Corpus, 156 ; ill-treatment by 
Robert Masters, ib. ; bequests of 
his drawing, ib. ; character of his 
architectural works, ib. 

Ewer, John, Bp. Llandaff, Bangor, 
his preferments and consecrations, 

Exton, Richard, his preferments, and 
patronage by Lord Portsmouth, 
267, 269 

FANS,in church, 169 ; their designs, ib. 

Fawcett, Thomas, tutor to Samuel 
Kerrich at Corpus, 12 

Ferrers, Laurence, Earl, his crime 
and State Trial, 321, 322 ; drive to 
and dress at the " new drop," ib., 


Ffolkes, William, his marriage 
to Mary Browne, described, 132; 
his election prospects, 133, 287, 
and wishes, 293 ; building, hospi- 
tality, and failing health, 330 

Martin, his great abilities, 

333 ; early election to Royal 
Society, ib. ; President of Society 
of Antiquaries, ib. ; works, charac- 
ter, and marriage under special 
conditions, ib. 

Finch, Lord, assurance to Samuel 

Kerrich, 23 
Fletcher, Ekins, his love letters to 

Barbara Postlethwayt, 35 
Fontainebleau, Thomas Stephens's 

visit to, with James Hoste, 95 ; 

account of Hoste's illness, ib. ; 

account of marriage of Louis XV. at, 

96 ; opinion of French people, ib. 
Foster, James, his works, career, 

and reputation, 162, 164 ; on the 

scaffold with Lord Kilmarnock, 

ib. ; Pope's vicious lines regarding 

him explained, ib. 

Dr., provided for by Abp. 

Herring, 179 

Fournier, Bernard, 236; forges Bp. 
Hoadly's name, ib., 238 

Fowl, Mr., misses his preferment, 

Fox, Henry, his unprincipled poli- 
tical career, 273 ; peerage, 274 

Francis, Sir Philip, his warrant to 
authorship of Letters of Junius, 


Philip, his life, character, 

and works, 212 

Franking, its origin, growth, and 
abuse, 85 

Franklin, Benjamin, his characterisa- 
tion of John Wilkes, 367 

French prisoners, at Winchester, 
309 ; English charity towards them 



alluded to in 
World," 31 1 

Citizen of the 

GAGE, Thomas, Viscount, his death- 
bed penance, 227 ; subsequent 
peerages, 231 

Gaily, Henry, jobbery over his 
preferments, 334, 338 ; misses 
deanery of Norwich, ib. 

Gaily Knight, Henry, his books on 
Continental architecture, 338 ; es- 
tates and library, ib. 

Garnet, John, Bp. Ferns, Clogher, 
description of, 210 ; his work on 
Book of Job characterised, ib. 

Gastrell, Francis, Bp. Chester, his 
contention about Atterbury, 285 

Gay, John, his "Beggar's Opera," 120, 
123 ; preached against by Arch- 
bishop Herring, ib. 

Gaywood Fair, 149; nature of "fair- 
ings" at, 150 

George II., his campaign in Flanders, 
83 ; battle of Dettingen, ib. ; opin- 
ion of Lord Tyrconnel, 91 ; "very 
peevish," 105 ; his daughter Anne, 
wife of Stadthouder William IV., 
1 68 ; his mistress, Mrs. Howard 
(Countess of Suffolk), 172; dis- 
regards his ministers' pledges, 177 ; 
quarrels with King of Prussia, ib. ; 
has not the best interest at Court, 
179, 181 ; Hoadly's sermons pre- 
sented to him by Edmund Pyle, 
217; dislike to Legge, 247; 
chagrined about treatment of 
Hessian and Hanoverian troops, 
273 ; anger with Duke of Cum- 
berland, 276 ; hand kissed by 
Horace Walpole, 292 ; cannot com- 
prehend Pitt's speeches, 295; 
delighted with Cherbourg cannon, 
310; very far from well, has lost 
an eye and "flesh abates," 314; 
vexed at deplorable condition of 
Hanover, ib., 316 ; resents Cob- 
den's " Persuasive to Chastity," 


III., his obstinate confidence 

in Bute, 278 ; requests the Duke 
of Newcastle not to resign, 330 ; 
commended for his proclamation 
against immorality, &c., ib. ,333; 
repulses Chatham and changes 
the current of history, 360 ; con- 

ditionally compared with Wilkes 
by Franklin, 378 

Gibbs, James, rebuilds St. Martin's 
Church, 195 

Gibson, Edmund, Bp. Lincoln, Lon- 
don, on Hoadly's sermon on 
Superstition, 235 ; his valuable 
ecclesiastical, antiquarian, and 
religious works, 237 

Gill, Thomas, "in articulo mortis," 
23 ; his ruinous vicarage house 
pulled down, 26 ; petitions the 
Bishop of Norwich and is dis- 
charged from all liability, ib. ; his 
daughter, Mrs. Clarges, supplants 
her daughter Penelope, 1 1 1 

Gin drinking, 121 ; legislation against, 

Golding, Christopher, appointed 
warden of Winchester, 239, 301 

Gooch, Ann, her bathing procedure, 

5 2 

Frances (born Lone), her 

sampler, 206 

John, his demands for pre- 
ferment from his father, 164; 
portrait by Thomas Kerrich, 215 

Matilda, married to Matthew 

Postlethwayt, 37 ; her letters, ib. ; 
portrait, death, and burial, 66 

Thomas, Bp. Bristol, Nor- 
wich, Ely, trustee of Barbara 
Postlethwayt's settlements, 43 ; 
his letters to Samuel Kerrich, 45 ; 
third marriage, 144 ; failing health, 
161, 163; tearful emotion, 199; 
old fashion of hair, 201 ; portraits, 
ib. ; death, 203 ; family and pre- 
ferments, 204 ; marriages, 205 ; 
character, burial, and monument, 
ib. ; his "managing," 208, 21 1 ; 
anger at intimation of danger of 
his death, 209 ; fortunes of house 
of Gooch founded, 352 ; Benacre 
bought and son settled in Suffolk, 

Goodall, Mr., "squared" by Arch- 
deacon Harvey, 139 ; installed at 
Norwich, 171 
Gossett, Francis, wax portrait of 

Bishop Green by, 279 
Granville, Earl. See Carteret 
Gray, Mr. Arthur, quoted, 307 
Green, John, Bp. Lincoln, Regius 
Professor of Divinity, 271 ; Master 



of Corpus, Dean and Bishop of 
Lincoln, 278 ; preferments and 
literary reputation, 279, death in 
sleep, and wax miniature, ib. 

Green, Thomas, Bp. Norwich, Ely, 
deprives Bentley, 93 ; death and 
result, ib. 

Greene, Thomas, Dean of Salisbury, 
his colleges and preferments, 
288 ; causes disuse of incense at 
Ely, 289 

Greenwood, Miss, lamed in arm by 
bleeding, 45 

Grey, Miss, her worsted pictures, 
227, 230 

Griffin of Braybroke, Lord, descent 
of Audley End estate, 332 

HALFHYDE, Mr., supplies medica- 
ments for Sarah Newton, 18 

Hall, Joseph, Bp. Norwich (ejected), I 

Hammond, H., his persistent en- 
deavours for preferment rewarded, 

Hanover, its deplorable condition, 
314, 3i6 

Hanoverian soldiers, in pay, 98 ; 
transferred to Maria Theresa, 1 16 ; 
again taken into pay, ib. 

Harcourt, Simon, Earl of, his patriotic 
action and diplomatic employ- 
ment, 185 ; proxy in marriage of 
Princess Charlotte, ib. ; governor 
to Prince of Wales, ib. ; Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland, ib. ; resigns 
governorship to Prince, ib., 188 

Hardwicke, Philip, ist Earl of, 
his public services and great legal 
qualities, 221 

Harris, Nicholas (the Chevalier), 
his misspent life and "grimaces," 

Harvey, Mr., scheme by which he 

became Archdeacon of Suffolk, 138 
Hastings, Lady Elizabeth, sponsor 

to Barbara Postlethwayt, 30 ; her 

interest in Matthew Postlethwayt's 

schools, ib. 
Hayles, Miss, her portrait by 

Thomas Kerrich, 67 

Stephen, his syllabub 

machine, 313 ; medicinal and 
physiological works, 314; monu- 
ment in the Abbey, set up by the 

- Princess Dowager, ib. 

Hayter, Thomas, Bp. Norwich, 
London, letter to Samuel Kerrich, 
173; his "uneasiness," 192; 
family, universities, and prefer- 
ments, 355 ; appointed preceptor 
to Prince George and his brothers, 
ib. ; strict discipline and high 
principles not popular, ib. ; re- 
signation, ib. '> scholarship and 
fortune, ib. ; triumph over Duke 
of Norfolk in contest for See of 
London, ib., 359; failing health, 
ib. ; death, 361 
Heemskerck, his draughtsmanship of 

the human figure, 187 
Hendry, Mr., his illness, 160; letter 

to Barbara Kerrich, 162 
Hendry, Mrs., a "desperate fine 

creature," 163, 167 
Henley, Robert, Lord Henley of 
Grainge, presides at trial of Lord 
Ferrers, 322 ; a "sorry creature" 
and " vicious wretch," 338 
Hepburn, George, M.D., 104; death 

and character, 325, 327 
Hereford, Edward, Viscount, Mr. 
Trail, the excellent tutor to his 
sons, 249, 250 

Herne, " Madam," sponsor to Bar- 
bara Postlethwayt, 30 
Thomas, his letters to Mat- 
thew Postlethwayt, 346 ; charges 
against him and ignominious titles, 

Herring, Thomas, Bp. Bangor, Abp. 
York, Abp. Canterbury, his wishes 
for Jane Kerrich, 29 : letters to 
Samuel Kerrich, 45 ; abstains from 
attending installation of Duke of 
Newcastle at Cambridge, 50 ; 
kisses hands for archbishopric of 
York, 74 ; his career, 75; confirmsup- 
wards of 30,000 persons in 1743, *& 
activity in defence of the Kingdom 
in " the '45," ib. ; letter to Kerrich 
upon it, ib. ; entertained at Thoresby 
Park and Belton, 91 ; advanced to 
Canterbury, 130, 131 ; answer to 
Kerrich's congratulations, ib. \ his 
"option," 138, 139; letter to 
Kerrich concerning his prefer- 
ment, ib. ; letter as to his in- 
clusion in Commission for the 
Peace, 177 ; his visits to Bishop 
Hoadly, 178; letter to Kerrich 

376 INDEX 

about his patronage, 195 ; in 
danger of death, 197 ; his own 
view of his health, 198; looks like 
a shadow with a fresh colour, 199 ; 
will not live long, 218; a cypher, 
ib. ; letter to Kerrich on his pat- 
ronage, 220 ; his emaciated ap- 
pearance, looks like a ghost, 232 ; 
looks like a shadow, 236 ; very 
cheerful, 240; his London frolics, 
255 ; cannot live long, 260 ; last 
hours, death, small fortune, and 
sad appearance, 296 ; his letter 
about Anselm's remains, 297 ; 
buildings at Bishopsthorpe, Lam- 
beth, and Croydon, ib. \ portraits 
and handsome appearance, 298 ; 
parallelism in his and Archbishop 
Hutton's life, 307 

Herring, William, Dean of St. Asaph, 
127, 130 ; legacy from his brother, 
the Archbishop, 296 

William (son of preceding), 

precentor of Salisbury, 282 

Hessian soldiers, in pay, 98 ; trans- 
ferred to Maria Theresa, 116; 
camped near Winchester, 264 ; their 
strict discipline, 265 

Hoadly, Benjamin, Bp. Bangor, 
Hereford, Salisbury, Winchester, 
his interest in Samuel Kerrich, 18 ; 
abused for ordaining the "broken 
brewer," 155; takes Edmund Pyle 
as his friend and companion, 176; 
"cringes from one bishopric to 
another," 177; observations on 
Burnet's History, 191 ; prints 
sermons, ib. ; his two wives, 193 ; 
his sermons presented to George 
II., 217; character of "The Old 
Cocks," 220 ; prints further ser- 
mons, 226, 233 ; details about them, 
235 ; forgery of his name by Ber- 
nard Fournier, 236, 238 ; his action 
thereupon and letter to Chevallier, 
239; patronage of Pyle, 237, 259, 
272, 328, 331 ; patronage of his son 
John, 268, 331 ; his prompt action 
respecting the wardenship of Win- 
chester, 301 ; appoints Christopher 
Golding, ib. ; commendation of 
letter to Chevallier, 304; his bad 
health, 326 ; completes the John 
Hoadly scandal, 331 ; death, 349 ; 
life and works, 353 ; Bangorian 

controversy,*^. ; excitement caused, 
and action on Convocation, 354; 
his own justification, ib. ; small 
fortune, 357 

Hoadly, Benjamin, M.D., his Pro- 
fligate Pantomime, 121 ; his fine 
garden, 179; death imminent, 
300 ; his prospects as Master of St. 
Cross, 303 

John, his licentious training 

for Holy Orders, 268 ; rapid and 
incredible " heap of preferments," 
ib., 269, 303 ; presented to St. Cross 
and the Hoadly scandal consum- 
mated, 331 

Mary (born Newy), second 

wife of the Bishop, 191, 193 ; emo- 
tional meeting with Bishop Gooch, 

Sarah (born Curtis), first wife 

of the Bishop, 193 ; mother of the 
five sons, ib. ; a portrait-painter of 
repute, ib. 

Hobart, John, 1st Earl of Bucking- 
hamshire, his advance to the peer- 
age, 172 

Hochkirchen, bloody battle of, 316 
Hockley-in-the-Hole, 249, 292 
Hogarth, William, criticism of 
Thomas Kerrich's drawings, 61 ; 
his portraits of Archbishop Her- 
ring, 298 

Holderness, Robert, 4th Earl of, 
227 ; arranges preferments at 
Court, 286 

Hollar, Wenceslaus, his engraving of 
Coronation procession of Charles 

II.. 357 

Hollingsworth, Mary and Susan, 
their letters to Matilda Kerrich, 
143; on illumination of Lynn in 
honour of John Wilkes, in 1768, 

Hoste, Col. James, his interest in 
Samuel Kerrich, 18 ; letters to 
Lord Chancellor and Sir Robert 
Walpole in his favour for West 
Newton rectory, 23 ; letters in his 
favour for Appleton, 24 

Major James, signs letter to 

Lord Chancellor in Samuel Ker- 
rich's favour for West Newton 
rectory, 23 ; presents him to 
Dersingham vicarage, 24 ; his 
letters to him, 45, 97 ; on im 



peachment of Walpole, 73 ; sends 
copy of Extraordinary Gazette 
with account of Battle of Dettingen, 
83 ; his health, amusements, and 
appearance, 95 ; goes with Stephens 
to see marriage of Louis XV. at 
Fontainebleau, ib. ; his dangerous 
fever there, ib. ; parliamentary 
letters, wretched health, and, 
strength of language, 97 

Hoste, Miss, 78 

Mrs., her letters to Barbara 

Kerrich, 44 

Houdon, Jean Antoine, his seated 
statue of Voltaire at the Theatre 
Fran9ais, 187 

Houghton House, its bad condition, 
241 ; descent of manor and do- 
mains, 247 

Houghton, Mrs., her letters to 
Barbara Kerrich, 45 ; maternal 
wisdom and nostrums, 54 ; pro- 
posed drastic treatment of Matilda 
Kerrich, 102 

Hume, David, 225 ; life and works, 
229 ; History, 230 

Hutton, Matthew, Bp. Bangor, Abp. 
York, Abp. Canterbury ; his great 
fortune, 76 ; early preferments and 
inferior marriage, 307 ; daughters, 
ib. ; parallelism in his and Abp. 
Herring's life, ib. 

Mrs., twice prevents her 

daughter Dorothy's marriage to Dr. 
Cotton, 224 ; " sweeps him with 
the beezom of destruction," 225 ; 
formerly a chambermaid, 307 

INK, 231 ; receipt for, 233 ; receipt 

for, 319 
Issues, cutting of, 57, 102 

JACKSON, John, persistent controver- 
sialist, 124; his heterodoxy and 
heresy, ib. ; treatment at Leicester, 
ib. ; works, ib. ; in Edmund Pyle's 
opinion " a divine of great note," 


Mr., a " broken brewer," 

ordained by Bishop Hoadly, 152; 
the bishop abused, 155 ; vindicates 
himself, ib. ; the man's bad charac- 
ter, ib. 

Jacobites : Riot at Oxford, 147, 148 ; 
districts of disaffection, 295 ; hosts 

of waverers and gentle rebels, ib. ; 
the Cause speeded in special glasses, 

Jesus College, headship of, in gift of 
Bishop of Ely, 155 

Johnson, Dr., his opinion of John 
Taylor, 146 ; explanation of Pope's 
lines on James Foster, 164; one of 
the nine "Ramblers," 213; opin- 
ion of Thomas Birch, 258; of 
Bishop Newton, 290 ; of Bishop 
Warburton, 327 ; of John Dyer, 
337 ; of Wilks, 345 

James, Bp. Gloucester, Wor- 
cester, his pride, and politics, 
181 ; education, 182 ; suspected 
Jacobitism and insolent defence, 
183 ; improvements at Hartlebury 
and Worcester palaces, ib. ; monu- 
ment by Nollekens, ib. 

Jolly, Goody, nurses Sarah Newton, 

Jortin, John, preferments, 234 ; high 
character of sermons and charges, 
235 ; letters on music of the 
ancients, ib. ; ecclesiastical history, 

Junius, authorship of, 212 ; assigned 
to Lord George Sackville, 324 

Jurin, James, his nostrum for stone, 
126; its uselessness, 128 

KEENE, Sir Benjamin, diplomatic 
career and success, 279, 306 

Edmund, Bp. Chester, Ely, 

Master of Peterhouse, 148 ; odd 
conditions of appointment to 
Stanhope rectory, ib. ; declines 
Archbishopric of Armagh, ib. ; 
his episcopal pride, ib. ; works at 
palaces of Chester and Ely, ib. ; 
collects portraits of bishops of Ely, 
ib. ; builds Ely House, ib. 

Mary, bequest of her water- 
colour drawings, 148 

Keller, Francis, appointed to Charles 
Ray's livings, 207 ; his literary 
work, 209 ; sermon by, 210 

Kenrick, Matthew, his letters to 
Samuel Kerrich, 45, 51 ; nom de 
plume, 346 ; member of society for 
correspondence at Bene't, 1716, 

Kerrich Family, hair of members 
of, 20 



Kerrich, Anthony, in trouble, 15; 
arrested, ib. 

Barbara (continued from 

Postlethwayt, Barbara), settles at 
Dersingham, 44; her "disap- 
pointments," 45, 47 ; sage tea in- 
stead of ale for breakfast, ib. ; her 
ducks and chickens, ib. ; her ward- 
robe, ib. ; plays piquet, quadrille, 
and ombre, 48 ; washed out of the 
rooms by floods, ib. ; her cold 
baths, 52 ; encouraging example of 
Anne Gooch, ib. ; loses her first 
child, 53 ; her grief and recovery, 
ib. ; accounts of her wardrobe, 
ib. ; social distractions and garden 
improvements, 54 ; wears " the 
Eagle Stone," and birth of Matilda 
Kerrich, ib. ; the child's attractions 
and sponsors, and Mrs. Houghton's 
nostrums, ib. ; " weeps sorely "over 
"Pamela," 55; "affected and 
moved " by " Clarissa Harlowe," 
ib. ; death of her father, ib. ; scared 
by the Rebels, 56 ; disturbed by win- 
dow and chariot taxes, ib. ; birth of 
Thomas Kerrich, 57 ; visits Mrs. 
Norsa at Houghton, 58 ; death of 
her brother, ib. ; loses her wedding 
ring, ib. ; afflicted with cancer, 63 ; 
stays at Benacre, ib. ; at Lynn with 
Mrs. Pawlett, 64 ; death, and burial 
in Dersingham chancel, ib. ; ap- 
preciation of early dawning of 
Matilda Kerrich, 99; the child's 
behaviour at tea-tables, and love 
for books, 100 ; proposed treat- 
ment of her at the age of nineteen 
days, 102; letters on preparations 
against the Rebels, 113 ; account of 
Miss Browne's wedding garments 
and jewelry, 133 ; Mrs. Kerrich's 
"set up" hoops, scarlet gown, and 
velvet hood in Dersingham church, 
135; her letter to Mr. Hendry, 
163 ; letter from Bishop Gooch on 
his patronage, and failing health, 
ib. ; her opinion of the bishop's 
bartering and bargaining of pre- 
ferments, 21 1 ; account of her 
visit to Mrs. Norsa, 244 ; Edmund 
Pyle's " compliment of condo- 
lence" on her death, 364 

Charles, 9 ; his education, 

21 ; under Cheselden, ib.\ or- 

dained and continues medical 
practice, 22 ; constant trouble to 
Samuel Kerrich for want of 
money, ib. 

Kerrich, Elizabeth (born Pritchard), 
her extravagance, 9 ; children, ib. 

James, leaves legacy to 

Samuel Kerrich, 15 

John, M.D., his opinion on 

a case of stone and the remedies 
used, 126, 128; on the succession 
in the L'Estrange family, 170; on 
Duke of Newcastle's requisitions 
from the Episcopal Bench, 221 

John, M.D., commended by 

Samuel Kerrich, 62 ; engaged 
to Matilda Kerrich, 64 ; his death, 
burial, and portrait, ib. 

Matilda, birth and christen- 
ing, 54; her grandfather's appre- 
ciation of her, 55; intelligence for 
the drama, 57 ; sees the players 
at Lynn, 64 ; engaged to John 
Kerrich, ib. ; her death, burial, 
and portrait, ib. 

Rebecca (born Kidman), 9 ; 

her death, ib. 

Samuel, D.D., birth and 

parentage, 9 ; sent by his uncle 
Charles Kidman to St. Paul's 
School, ib. ; his industry and 
conduct, 10 ; walks in the pro- 
cession at the Chief Master's 
funeral, ib. ; obtains a scholarship 
and is entered of Corpus, 1 1 ; 
arrival at Cambridge, 12 ; long 
series of letters from Kidman, 
relatives, and college contem- 
poraries, 13 ; joins Latin debating 
society, ib. ; falls ill from over- 
work, 14; his conduct and dili- 
gence, ib. ; obtains "an Optime 
at the 2nd Tripos," ib. ; joins 
society for correspondence at 
Bene't, and prepares for Orders, 
ib. ; his first peruke, ib. ; clothes, 
15 ; legacy from James Kerrich, 
ib. ; elected with uncommon dis- 
tinction to fellowship at Corpus, 
ib. ; takes the oaths, 16 ; ordained 
deacon to curacy at Grantchester, 
ib. ; priest, ib. ; his M.A. degree, 
ib. ; succeeds John Denne in 
taking pupils with Herring, ib. ; 
declines a living and is licensed 



to Teversham, 17; engaged to 
Sarah Newton, who uses her 
interest with the bishops of Carlisle 
and Norwich, ib. ; declines a living 
and chaplaincy in the Bishop of 
Norwich's family, ib. ; illness and 
death of Sarah Newton, 18 ; ex- 
penses of her funeral and monu- 
ment, ib. ; bequest of all her 
property to him, 19; a Select 
Preacher at Whitehall, 20 ; tutorial 
work and efforts for a living in the 
country, 21 ; engaged to Jane 
Kitchingman, 22 ; goes to London 
to make interest for a living, 23 ; his 
marriage, ib. ; Major Hoste sends 
special messenger and presents 
him to the living of Dersingham, 
24 ; journey to London, to the 
Lord Chancellor and Sir Robert 
Walpole, ib. ; to Ockham, Surrey, 
ib. ; reception by the Lord Chan- 
cellor, and presentation to West 
Newton Rectory, 25 ; the Great Seal 
set, ib. ; instituted to Dersingham 
and to West Newton, ib. ; puts the 
old Pell mansion house in order, 
26 ; buys a watch and chain, 27 ; 
illness and death of Jane Kerrich, 
29 ; her burial, ib. ; Latin inscrip- 
tion, ib. ; Kerrich's acquaintance 
with Matthew Postlethwayt, 37 ; 
visits to Denton, 38 ; entertains 
Postlethwayt family at Dersing- 
ham, ib. ; engagement to Barbara 
Postlethwayt, 40 ; letters between 
them, ib. ; engagement ring, ib. ; 
house fittings, 41 ; attempts to 
defame him, 43 ; contract of 
marriage, ib. ; marriage, ib. ; 
his literary equipment, 45 ; takes 
his D.D. degree with reputation, 
46 ; reception at Cambridge, 47 ; 
degree fees, ib. ; Walpole and 
Townshend his patrons, ib.\ stays 
at Cambridge, 48 ; his just pre- 
tensions to a dignity in the church 
ended by death of Lord Orford, 

50 ; visits Cambridge at installa- 
tion of Duke of Newcastle, 1745, 
ib. ; goes to London, stays with 
Archbishop Herring, and visits 
Vauxhall, ib. ; his sermon writing, 

51 ; his correspondence and its 
' gradual cessation, ib. ; his resource 

in his books and his son's educa- 
tion, ib. ; his annotated Shake- 
speare, ib. ; ill-treatment of his 
library, ib. ; artistic advice to his 
son ; 60 ; removes to Dersingham 
Hall, 62 ; last visit to Cam- 
bridge, ib. ; appreciation of John 
Kerrich, ib. ; last letters to his 
wife, 64; her death, ib. ; his 
failing health, ib. ; last letter to 
his son, ib. ; remembrance of his 
first love, Sarah Newton, 65 ; his 
death, burial, and monumental 
inscription, ib. ; his portraits, 66 ; 
noms de plume of his correspond- 
ence, 346 ; member of society for 
correspondence at Bene't, 1716, 
347 ; Pyle's "compliment of con- 
dolence" on death of Barbara 
Kerrich, 364 

Kerrich, Samuel, Lieut, of Marines, 
interest made for, 172 

Sarah, her melancholy beauty, 


Sophia, "Miranda" (born 

Hayles), death, burial, and por- 
trait by Thomas Kerrich, 67 

Thomas, his marriages, char- 
acter, and portrait, 9; death, 

Thomas, his birth, 57 ; 

surgical treatment, ib. ; genius for 
drawing, and mastery of the human 
figure, 60, 61 ; Hogarth's opinion 
of his work, ib. ; its character, ib. ; 
education and artistic studies in 
Paris, the Low Countries, and 
Rome, ib. ; his letters, 62 ; entered 
of Magdalene College, 64 ; 
guardians, 66 ; appointed to Der- 
singham Vicarage, ib. ; death, 
burial, and monumental inscription 
by Bishop Turton, ib. ; bequeaths 
his drawings, 156 ; his plans of 
Houghton pictures, 245 

Kidman, Rebecca. See Kerrich, 

Samuel, 9; letters to Samuel 

Kerrich, 10, n, 13; tutor of 
Matthew Postlethwayt, n, 37; 
counsels Kerrich as to peruke and 
clothing, 14, 15 ; manner of ad- 
dress, 1 6 ; advice as to fellow- 
commoners, ib. ; opinion on the 
Bentley case, ib. ; views as to 



Kerrich's prospects, 18; exertion 
to obtain a living for him, 20, 21 ; 
his journey across Norfolk, 39 ; 
anxiety about Barbara Postleth- 
wayt's temper, 42 ; " stands cor- 
rected," 43 ; failing strength, 47 ; 
death and disposition of property, 
52 ; monument, 53 ; appreciation 
by Samuel Kerrich, ib. 

Kilmarnock, Lord, attended by 
James Foster on the scaffold, 164 

King, William, " Anecdotes "quoted, 
146 ; opinion of Samuel Squire, 


King's roads, 191, 193 

Kingston, Duke of, entertains Arch- 
bishop of York, and Bishop of Chi- 
chester, 87 ; marriage to Miss 
Chudleigh,9i ; at Buxton, 118 

Duchess of, convicted of 

bigamy, 91 ; exemption under 
her first marriage from a bar- 
barous law, ib. 

Kitchingman, Jane, her engagement, 
22 ; beauty, portrait, and love 
letters, ib. ; letters to her husband, 
26, 27 ; her daughter born and 
dead, ib ; her precarious health, 
28; miscarriage, death, burial, and 
part of Latin inscription, 29 

John, 22 

Knapton, George, his portraits of 
members of Dilettante Society, 194 

James, publishes Bishop 

Hoadly's sermons, 191 ; his honest 
failure, 245 

Knight, Samuel, author of " Life of 
Colet," 77 ; one of the " Founders 
of the Society of Antiquaries," ib. 

" L," LORD. See Leicester 

Law, Edmund, Bp. Carlisle, his 
career at Cambridge, 124 ; prefer- 
ments and works, 211 ; portraits 
by Romney, ib. ; his distinguished 
sons, 212 ; self-denying conduct 
about Regius Professorship of 
Divinity, 272 ; his Cambridge ad- 
dress, 280 

William, his strict principles 

and schools, 354 ; religious works 
and opinions, ib. ; the most earnest 
and powerful opponent of Hoadly, 

Legge, Henry Bilson, his appoint- 

ments and offices, 247 ; three times 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, ib. ; 
the King's dislike to him, ib. ; 
West Saxon dialect, ib. 

Leicester, Earl of (Lord "L"), 
killed in duel by George Towns- 
hend, 318, 319; his peerages re- 
vived, 320 

Leland, John, 225 ; his works, 229 ; 
answers Bolingbroke, ib. 

Lernoult, Philip, his miserable end, 
249, 250 

Lestock, Admiral Richard, 106 ; his 
conduct off Toulon, 107 ; court- 
martial and acquittal, ib. 

L'Estrange, Hamon, 170 

Lucy, married to Jacob Astley, 


Sir Nicholas, 22 

Sir Roger, 170 

Sir Thomas, his broken con- 
dition, 168 ; death, 170 ; his suc- 
cessors, ib. 

Linwood, Miss, her works in worsted, 

Lockwood, John, member of society 
for correspondence at Bene't, 1716, 


London, George Inn, Holborn, 24 ; 
rejoicings for Duke of Cumber- 
land's victory, 118 ; contest for See 
of, 354 

Louis XV., account of his marriage, 


Lowth, Robert, Bp. St. David's, Ox- 
ford, London, declines See of 
Limerick, 237 ; his preferments, 
239 ; controversies, 240 ; causes 
rejection of Sir Joshua's scheme for 
St. Paul's, 290 

Lynch, John, Dean of Canterbury, 
something prejudicial to his char- 
acter, 224 ; his neglect of St. Cross, 
228 ; his wife, ib. ; " lives like a 
prince," 267 ; has a paralytic 
stroke, 303 ; his health and stories, 
309 ; medical treatment, 326 ; 
death, 331 ; long neglect of his 
duties, ib. 

Lynn, St. Margaret's, I ; St. 
Nicholas's Chapel, ib. ; pulpit in 
St. Margaret's, 87; Markets at, 
150; Election of 1756, 246, 248; 
illumination in honour of Wilkes, 


Lyttelton, George, ist Lord, his" Life 
of Henry II.," 240 ; political offices, 
242 ; rebuilds Hagley, ib. 

MACCLESFIELD, George, Earl of, 189 

Thomas, Earl of, his impeach- 
ment and fine, 189 ; references 
to, ib. 

Magdalene College, Thomas Kerrich 
takes up his residence, 64 ; ap- 
pointment of Mastership, 332 

Markets at Lynn, 150 

Marriage Act, 200, 203 

Marriage contract of Samuel Kerrich 
and Barbara Postlethwayt, a nudttm 
pactum, 44 

Martages, objects bought as, 150 

Mary of Modena, married by proxy, 

Mary, Queen of Scots, her dress on 

scaffold, 323 
Masters, Mary, her letters, 44; her 

poetry, 60 ; collected works, ib. 

Robert, his History of Corpus, 

156 ; portrait by Thomas Kerrich, 
ib. ; ill-treatment of Essex, ib. 

Mathews, Admiral Thomas, 106 ; his 
conduct off Toulon, 107 ; court- 
martial and dismissal, ib. 

Mauduit, Israel, his pamphlet on the 
German war, 339, 342 

Mawson, Matthias, Bp. Llandaff, 
Chichester, Ely, tutor at Corpus, 
14 ; his letters to Samuel Kerrich, 
45 ; gives umbrage to Corpus men, 
87 ; his oddity, ib. ; stories of, 88 ; 
entertained at Thoresby Park and 
Belton, 91 ; stories of, 179; kisses 
hands for Ely, his toilet in the 
royal antechamber, 206 ; his lack 
of preferment to bestow as Bishop 
of Ely, 221 ; liable to transporta- 
tion, 226 ; his wrong vestments, 
ib. ; his fire in the hall of Ely 
House, and personal dress, 255 ; 
his blunder about Pyle's stall, 260 ; 
queer story of him, ib. ; remarks 
on a malicious invention, 316 

Mead, Richard, appreciation of, 333 

Methuen, Mr., the Port Wine 
Treaty, 4 

Micklebourg, John, his letter to 
Samuel Kerrich on death of his 
daughter, 27 ; his preferment, 89 ; 
performs unlawful marriage, 226 ; 

bequest to Caius College, 260, 

Middleton, Conyers, his conflict with 
Bentley, 140 ; visits Rome and col- 
lects antiquities, 141 ; his contro- 
versy with Waterland and Pearce, 
142 ; Life of Cicero, social charm, 
and polished style, ib. ; critique on 
Bishop Sherlock's Discourses on 
Prophecy, 160, 163; exclusion from 
preferment, and "not trusted with 
the care of a see," ib. ; damaging 
statement regarding his belief, 313, 


Francis, Lord, his election 

threat, 207 ; his beautiful house, 

Militia Bill, 270, 273 ; cogent objec- 
tions to it, 288, 295, 298 ; Soane 
Jennings's pamphlet on, 316, 317; 
Lord " L's" fatal duel with George 
Townshend on account of, 318, 
320; Pyle's abhorrence of the Bill, 
320, 321 

Miller, Saunderson, designs Hagley, 

Montford, Thomas, Lord, his worth- 
less son, 225, 228 

Montfort, Henry, Lord, his suicide, 
225, 228 

Moore, John, Bp. Norwich, ordains 
Thomas Pyle, I 

Moss, Charles, Bp. St. David's, 
Bath, and Wells, "a madman," 
182 ; his career, 145 ; preferments, 
298; defends the "Trial of the 
Witnesses," and the " Sequel," 299 

Charles, Bp. Oxford, 299; his 

large fortune, ib. 

NEWCASTLE, Duke of, installation as 
Chancellor at Cambridge, 50 ; his 
titles and political offices, 166 ; en- 
tanglement with regard to church 
preferment, and requisitions from 
the bishops, 218; testimony of 
John Kerrich, 221 ; settles the 
Prince of Wales's Household, 271 ; 
his patriotism in political impasse 
of April 1757, 294; requested by 
George III. not to resign, 330; 
formation of Coalition Ministry 
with Pitt, alluded to, 338 ; slighted, 
after Pitt's resignation, Sept. 1760, 
and vindictively pursued by Bute, 

382 INDEX 

and abandoned by the bishops who 
owed everything to him, and by all 
his adherents, 359 ; resigns office 
May 1762, and created Lord Pel- 
ham, ib. ; his honesty and many 
good qualities, ib. ; great pension 
talked of, 362 

New College, low scholastic reputa- 
tion of, 302 

Newcome, Richard, Bp. Llandaff, St. 
Asaph, his interest and pride, 232; 
school and pupils, 281 

New Style, the, 187 

Newton, Sarah, her engagement, 17 ; 
beauty and property, ib. ; influ- 
ence with the Bishop of Norwich, 
ib.\ detraction of her, 18 ; her death 
from grief, ib. ; funeral, coffin, 
medicaments, wine, and mourning 
rings, ib. ; disposition of her pro- 
perty, 19 ; monument and inscrip- 
tion, ib. ; care of her tomb, 20 ; 
portraits and hair, ib. ; remembered 
after forty-three years by Samuel 
Kerrich in his last days, 65 

Thomas, Bp. Bristol, ar- 
rangements for his Westminster 
canonry, 286 ; his capricious pre- 
ferment and royal interest, 289 ; 
declines primacy of Ireland, ib. ; as 
Dean of St. Paul's urges acceptance 
of Sir Joshua's scheme of decora- 
tion, 290 

" Nine of Diamonds the Curse of 
Scotland," 103 

Norfolk, travelling in, in 1714, 33; 

in I73i' 39 ', in 1735, # 
Norsa, Mrs., at Vauxhall, 51; visits 
Barbara Kerrich, 58 ; visited by 
her, 244 ; " bears great sway " at 
Houghton, ib. ; Elizabeth Postle- 
thwayt's coy regret, ib. 
Northampton, markets at, 150 
Northumberland, Duke of. See Smith- 
Nottingham, markets at, 150 

OCKHAM, Lord Chancellor, 24 ; his 
reception of Samuel Kerrich, 25 

Oram, Mr., 287, 291 

Orange, Prince of. See William IV. 

Orford, George, Earl of, 241 ; his 
character and extravagance, ib., 
243 ; with his mistress, Mrs. Norsa, 
at Vauxhall, 244 ; sells his pictures, 

245 ; drawings of their positions, 

Orme, Robert, marries Audrey 

Townshend, 279 

"Option" of archbishops, 140, 208 
Oundle, capture of deserters from 

Black Watch near, 83 
Oxford Eight, the, stroked by a 

famous " squire," 176 
Oxford, Jacobite Riot at, 147 

PARKER, Thomas, Viscount. See 

Patches, 169; patches a la Grecque, ib. 

Patrons, troubles of, 163, 195, 207, 

Pearce, Zachary, Bp. Bangor, Ro- 
chester, his " purring and puzzling," 
174; a typical scholar, 194; hesita- 
tion about See of Bangor, 195 ; his 
nom de plume, 346 ; stiffness about 
See of London in 1762, 356 ; his 
utter unfitness for it shown, 361 

Pepys, Samuel, comments on painted 
and patched ladies, 169 

Peterborough, Earl of, marries Mary 
of Modena by proxy, 185 

Petersham, Lady Caroline, at Vaux- 
hall, 51,244 

Phelpes, Charles, his card-letters, and 
preferment, 103 

Pitt, William, Earl of Chatham, 270 ; 
his parliamentary career and influ- 
ence, 274 ; the political impasse of 
1757,294; his great war policy and 
complete humbling of France, 295 ; 
great political changes on accession 
of George III., and supremacy of 
Bute, 360 ; unpopularity of his 
peerage, and failing health, ib. ; 
brilliant speeches on behalf of 
American colonies, ib. ; obstinacy 
of the king, ib. ; last and memor- 
able appearance in House of Lords, 
361 ; death, ib. 

Plumtre, Dr. , speaks at Convocation, 

Ponsonby, John, assists Archbishop 
Stone in carrying on government 
in Ireland, 184 

Pope, Alexander, quoted, 76 ; his 
worship of Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu, 91 ; quoted, 164 ; his 
bequest to Warburton, 247; quoted, 



Portland, William, 2nd Duke of, his 
important marriage, 300 

Portsmouth, John, Earl of, his Bray- 
broke connection, 332 

Port Wine Treaty of 1703, 4 

Postlethwayt, family, hair of mem- 
bers of, 20 

Barbara, birth, parentage, ap- 
pearance, characteristics, portraits, 
sponsors, 30 ; visit Denton, 31 ; 
health, ib. ; kindness and considera- 
tion, 32; her school-fellows, 34; 
visit to London, 35 ; goes to " danc- 
ing bouts," 36 ; her musical talent, 
ib. ; mourning for George I., ib. ; 
engagement to Samuel Kerrich, 
40 ; letters, ib. ; her detractors, 42 ; 
complete rehabilitation, 43 ; repels 
malicious attack on Kerrich, ib. ; 
her marriage, 44. (For continua- 
tion, see Kerrich, Barbara) 

Elizabeth (born Rogerson), 

letters to her husband, Matthew 
Postlethwayt, 32, 33 ; journeyfrom 
London, ib. ; requirements, from 
the Chief Master's house, ib. ; death, 
36 ; portrait, ib. ; burial, ib. 

Elizabeth, her delicate health, 

35 5 g es to " dancing bouts," 

36 ; her musical talent, ib. ; 
mourning for George I., ib. ; ill- 
treatment by her brother, 58 ; re- 
moval in horse-litter to Dersing- 
ham, 60 ; goes to live at Burnham 
Market, 66 ; death, burial, and 
monumental inscription, ib. ; her 
portraits, ib. ; her coy regret at 
her sister's visiting Mrs. Norsa, 244. 

John, Chief Master of St. 

Paul's School, 9; his death and 
funeral procession, 10 ; furniture, 
33 ; plate, 59 

John, birth, 31 ; his childish 

pride in his good conduct, 34 ; 
reckless and extravagant behaviour 
as a man, 58 ; chaplain in the 
navy, ib. ; rector of Denton and 
tragic end, ib. ; coffin, portrait, 
and plate, id., 59. 

Matilda (born Gooch), her mar- 
riage, 36 ; extract from letter to 
Barbara Kerrich, 49 ; her portrait, 
66 ; death and burial, ib. ; her re- 
marks on the earthquakes of 1750, 

Postlethwayt, Matthew, obtains exhi- 
bition for San?uel Kerrich, II ; 
letters to the Chie'f Master, 31 ; his 
health and treatment, 32 ; chaplain 
to High Sheriff, ib. ; buys chariot, 
34; succeeds to Denton rectory, 
ib. ; death of his wife, 36 ; marries 
"Cousine" Matilda Gooch, 37; 
his college bills, ib. ; visits Kerrich 
at Dersingham, 38 ; offers him his 
daughter Barbara, 40 ; gives her a 
saddle-horse, 41 ; his business ac- 
quirements, 55 ; sudden death ib. ; 
burial, and Latin inscription to his 
memory, ib. ; appreciations of his 
character, 56 ; portraits, personal 
appearance, and sermons, ib. 
Potter, John, Bp. Oxford, Abp. Can- 
terbury : George II. 's roughness to 
him, 127 ; his death, ib. ; prefer- 
ments and epitaph, 128 

Thomas, his associates, and 

notorious character, 129 
Pretender, the Young, in Paris, 249 ; 
in Rome, " in sullen poverty," 338 ; 
his " strolling, mean life," 339 ; 
movements and conduct, ib.> 341 
Pritchard, Elizabeth. See Kerrich, 


Pulteney, Mr., his motion on im- 
peachment of Walpole, 73 
Puddle Dock, 249, 292 
Purnell, Dr., his disloyalty as Vice- 
Chancellor, 147 ; exclusion as 
Warden of Winchester, 148, 301 
Pyle, Edmund, his descent, I ; birth, 
2 ; entered of Corpus, ib. ; his con- 
duct, ib. ; fellow of Clare, 3 ; mini- 
ster of St. Nicholas's Chapel, Lynn, 
ib. ; letters to Samuel Kerrich, ib. ; 
appointed Chaplain to the King, 
ib. ; succeeds his father at Gedney, 
4 ; his port wine, ib. ', accuracy of 
his information and Court revela- 
tions, ib. ; his incitement to Ker- 
rich, 5 ; manner of life, ib. ; ap- 
pointed Archdeacon of York, ib. ; 
"Friend and Companion" to Bishop 
Hoadly, and life with him, ib.\ 
details of his letters, 6 ; his attacks 
of gout, 8 ; death and monumental 
inscription, ib. ; attacks of gout, 
and medical treatment, 101, 103, 
104, 119, 162, 299, 304, 338, 
349. 357, 363, 365 5 his " rusty 


divinity," 101 ; visits Buxton, 
108 ; his letter about the Re- 
bellion, 113 ; a good story to tell 
about Bishop Gooch, 149 ; buys 
new gowfi, 151 ; appointed Arch- 
deacon of York, 166 ; nearly loses 
his he->t in the Minster, 168 ; hints 
of his marriage, 171, 174, 263, 

265 ; to live as " Friend and Com- 
panion " to Bishop Hoadly, 176; 
his happy life at Winchester House, 
178 ; danger from the table, ib. ; 
delighted with Yorkshire, ib. ; rides 
in the King's Roads, 191 ; reads 
Burnet's History to Bishop Hoadly, 
ib. ; prospects of a stall at Win- 
chester, ib. ; deciphers Bishop 
Hoadly's sermons, ib. ; presents 
them to George II., 217 ; his " bad 
luck," 236 ; sums up the Bower 
case, 253, 256; Prebendary of Win- 
chester, 260 ; his satisfaction with 
his preferment, 263 ; scheme of life, 
ib. ; chances of recompense for his 
eighteen years' service at Court, ib., 
264, 272 | easy life of a prebendary, 

266 ; value of preferments in dis- 
tricts, ib. ; objections to the Militia 
Bill, 288, 295 ; thoughts of further 
preferment, 303 ; relates a "sad 
story," 316; declines mastership 
of St, Cross, 328, 331 ; commenda- 
tion of George III., 330, 333 ; con- 
demnation of Pitt, 334, 358 ; his 
opinion of John Denne, 340 ; de- 
scription of Bishop Bradford at 
Coronation of George II. , ib. ; his 
own place in Coronation procession 
of George III., 350, 356; his fail- 
ing health, 362 ; " compliment of 
condolence " on Barbara Kerrich's 
death, 364 ; submission and resigna- 
tion as to his health, 365 ; his death 
nine years later, 367 

Pyle, John, I 

Mrs. (mother of Edmund), 

"under sentence of death," from 
cancer, 151, 153, 154; her death 
imminent, 158 

Philip, cuts himself and fortunes 

off from Bishop Hoadly, 223 ; his 
brother Edmund's benediction, 
224 ; his preferments, 228 

Richard, I 

Thomas, birth and education, 

i ; of Caius College, ib. ; his 
scholarship, and preferments, ib. ; 
heterodoxy, 2 ; marriage, ib. ; letter 
to Samuel Kerrich about Edmund 
Pyle's misconduct in college, ib. ; 
" distemper and indignation " in 
his church, at the sight of "Trinity 
in Unity," 86 ; loses his horse again, 

92 ; suffers from ague, 121 ; limits 
his movements, 162; very brisk, 
171 ; " desperately shocked," 223 ; 
approaching death, 281 

Pyle, Thomas (jun. ), his preferments, 
308, 331; great age, death, and 
monument, 308 

QUAKERS, persecution of, 69 


Rand, Brook, his criticism of Bar- 
bara Postlethwayt, 35 ; letters to 
Samuel Kerrich, 45 ; preferments, 

93 ; interest of his early letters, ib. ; 
death of his wife, 125 ; his appear- 
ance and death, 198; member of 
society for correspondence at 
Bene't, 1716, 347 

Ray, Charles, his death, 206 ; prefer- 
ments, 207, character and wife, ib. 

Rebecca, her sufferings, 202 ; 

marriage and daring orthography, 

Rebellion of 1745, The, pursuit of 
rebels by Duke of Cumberland, 
112; consternation in Norfolk, and 
extracts from letters of Barbara 
Kerrich at Dersingham, Elizabeth 
Postlethwayt at Denton, and Ma- 
tilda Postlethwayt at Benacre, 113, 
114; panic in London, ib. ; march 
and behaviour of rebels, 115; in- 
human retribution, and ferocious 
death suffered, ib. ; Lord Kilmar- 
nock on the scaffold, 164 

" Restoration." See Churches 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, his scheme for 
decoration of St. Paul's rejected, 

Ripley, Thomas, his bad masonry at 
Houghton House, 241 ; and good 
wood-work, 243 ; other works, ib. 

Robins, "Counsellor" Charles, his 
visit to Denton in 1727, 36 ; im- 
pressed by the unusual talents of 
the Miss Postlethwayts, ib. 



Rogers, Andrew, his letter to Samuel 
Kerrich about impending vacancy 
at Dersingham living, 23 ; letter 
about Mr. Seward and Penelope 
and Mrs. Clarges, 1 10 ; great 
sufferings and death from stone, 97 

Rogerson, Ann, 31 

family, hair of members of, 

20 ; Eagle Stone talisman of, 54 

Robert, his extravagance and 

conduct, 31 ; death, 34 

Roland, Madame, quoted, 220 

Rolfe, Mary, wife of Thomas Pyle, 2 

Romney, George, portraits of Ed- 
mund Law, Bishop of Carlisle, 211 

Rook, Dr., palliated with prefer- 
ment, 158 

Roubillac, Louis Francis, his 
technical skill, 187 

Rubens, Peter Paul, his indebtedness 
to Martin Heemskerck, 187 

Rutherford, Thomas, his vindication, 
&c., 109; defence of Bishop 
Sherlock, 161, 163 ; scheme by 
which he became Regius Professor 
of Divinity, 271 

Rutton, Mr. W. L., quoted, 193 

SACHEVERKL, Henry, compared 
with Wilkes, 365, 367 ; his punish- 
ment and rehabilitation, ib. 

Sackville, Lord George, his military 
conduct, 323; "broke," ib. ; 
restored, 324 ; political activity, 
ib. ; raised to the peerage, ib. 

St. David's, competition for See of, 
341, 348 

St. Martin's church rebuilt, 195 

St. Mary le Bow a stepping-stone to 
higher things, 289 

Salter,' Samuel (jun.), his prefer- 
ments, &c., 213, 272; his Dry 
Bones Sermon, 235, 241, 250 

Samuel (sen.), his prefer- 
ments, 152; one of the nine 
" Ramblers," 213 

Sampler of Frances Gooch, dated 

1684, 206 
Sandby, George, rector of Denton, 


Paul, his water-colour draw- 
ing of Denton Rectory, 59 

Sandringham Hall, the Hostes of, 

18, 23, 26 
Sang, Jacob, engraves glass, 168 

Saunders, John, his nine pastel 
portraits, 9, 20, 30, 36, 48, 56, 

Sea wen, Matthew, member of society 
for correspondence at Bene't, 1716, 


Seeker, Thomas, Bp. Bristol, Ox- 
ford, Abp. Canterbury, his educa- 
tion, life, works, and preferments, 
306; a favourite of George III., 
307 ; orthodox character and com- 
manding presence, ib. ; "a mere 
cypher," 350, 355, 358 

Seward, Francis, jilts Penelope 
Clarges and marries her mother, 

Shakespeare, fate of Samuel Kerrich's 
annotated copy of, 51 

Shepherd, Miss, her escape from 
marrying Lord Montfort, 227, 229 

Sherlock, Thomas, Bp. Bangor, 
Salisbury, London, his Pastoral 
on earthquakes of 1750, 161 ; de- 
plorable health, 217, 325; death, 
349 ; preferments and works, 351 ; 
declines York, 352; declines Canter- 
bury, ib. ; paralysed, ib. ; destina- 
tion of his fortune, ib. ; the ablest 
opponent of Hoadly, 354 ; amount 
of his fortune, 358 

Shipley, Jonathan, Bp. Llandaff, St. 
Asaph, his scholarship and political 
prescience, 269 ; rapid preferment 
and far-seeing and earnest career, 


Shuckford, Samuel, his works, and 
letters to Samuel Kerrich, 216; 
marriage and death, ib. ; nom dt 
plume, 346 

Silver Plate, Dr. Denne's collection 
stolen and described, 1742, 79 

Sloane, Sir Hans, his death, 189; 
collections, ib., 190 

Small-pox, 28 ; terror inspired by, 
in East Anglia, ib ; its effect on 
Jane Kerrich's settlement at Der- 
singham, ib. ; its effect on Barbara 
Kerrich's establishment in " the 
enchanted house," 44 ; very bad 
at Lynn, 108 ; "very mortal" at 
Norwich, 131 ; duration of the 
scourge, 203 

Smith, William, member of society 
for correspondence at Bene't, 1716, 

2 B 



Smithson, Sir Hugh, Duke of North- 
umberland, his son's tutor, 311 ; 
marriage and creations, ib. 

South, Robert, his sermons, prefer- 
ments, and wit, 222 ; story of, 311 

Spalato, Palace of. See De Dominis 

" Squire Gawky," 176 

Squire, Samuel, Bp. St. David's, 
his very strong interest in com- 
petition for, 348 ; places and prefer- 
ments, ib. ; servile and grasping 
character, ib. ; Anglo - Saxon 
scholar, and of imperfect classical 
attainments, 349 

" Squire," title of, 175, 176 

SS., collar of, wearers of, 345 

Stage, the, its general improvement 
during Gibber's life, 345 ; impres- 
sion made by plays read but not 
witnessed, 347 ; no guidance to 
the public, ib. 

Starkey, William, proxy for John 
Postlethwayt at christening of 
Barbara Postlethwayt, 30 

Stebbing, Henry, his championship 
of orthodoxy, 142 ; attacks on 
Whitfield, Hoadly, and Warbur- 
ton, ib. ; on Absolution, 208 

Stedman, Dr., his pressure for Master- 
ship of Jesus, 145, 147 ; prebendary 
of Canterbury, 267 

Steele, Richard, on periwigs, 14 ; 
lauds Wilks, 345 

Stephens, Thomas, his letters to 
Samuel Kerrich, 23, 45 ; gives 
account of marriage of Louis XV. 
at Fontainebleau, 95; member of 
society for correspondence at 
Bene't, 1716, 347 

Stillingfleet, F., a lover of Barbara 
Postlethwayt, 35 

Stone, Andrew, 181 ; his political 
career, 183 ; Sub-Governor to 
Prince of Wales, ib. ; his baneful 
influence, ib. ; accused of toasting 
the Pretender, 184,192; Treasurer to 
Queen Charlotte, 184; burial in the 
Abbey, ib. ; his correspondence, ib. 

George, Bp. Ferns and 

Leighlin, Kildare, Derry, Abp. 
Armagh, his infamous character, 
181 ; rapid preferments in Irish 
deaneries and bishoprics, 184 ; 
virtual dictator in Ireland, ib. ; 
his mischievous opposition to the 

Government, ib. ; burial in the 
Abbey, 185 

Stone, Nicholas, effigies by, 230 

Stout, William, executioner of rebels 
for " the '45," 115 

Stuart, Henry Benedict, Cardinal of 
York, riot at Oxford on his birth- 
day, 147 

Styleman, Nicholas, his letters to 
Samuel Kerrich, 45 ; visits to, 57 ; 
death of his father of "the numb 
palsey," ib. 

Suffolk, Countess of. See George II. 

Swift, Jonathan, quotation from, 76 ; 
on Lord Carteret's knowledge of 
the classics, 257 

Sykes, Arthur Ashley, his works, 
226 ; death, 282 ; preferments, 
283 ; constant warfare with the 
pen, 284 ; letters to John Postle- 
thwayt, ib. 

Syllabub, its materials and manner of 
making, 315 ; pots and glasses 
for, ib. 

TALBOT, George, his interest in the 

competition for the Bishopric of 

St. David's, 341 
Tanner, Thomas, Bp. St. Asaph, 

his antiquarian works, 269 ; letters 

to Matthew Postlethwayt, ib. 
Taylor, John, The Chevalier, his 

dexterity as an oculist, 146 ; his 

quackery, ib. ; Dr. Johnson's 

opinion of him, ib. 
Temple, Lord, "Squire Gawky," 176 
Thomas, John, Bp. St. Asaph (elect), 

Lincoln, Salisbury, 157 ; his four 

marriages, ib. 
Thoresby Park, seat of the Duke of 

Kingston, 91 ; entertainment of 

Archbishop Herring and Bishop 

Mawson at, ib. ; home of Lady 

Mary Wortley Montagu, ib. 
Thorpe, John, designer of Wollaton 

Hall, 210 
Townshend, Audrey, 272 ; married to 

Robert Orme, 279 
Charles, his character, 270 ; 

his brilliant and versatile life, 275 ; 

sinister influence in America, 276 
Edward, Dean of Norwich, his 

interest for Deanery, 334, 338 
Elizabeth, advice to Barbara 

Kerrich, Si 



Townshend, George, 1st Marquis, 
270 ; removed from his mother's 
Jacobite influence, 276 ; difference 
with and hostility to the Duke of 
Cumberland, id. ; military career, 
ib., 277; unpopularity as Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland, ib. ; kills 
Lord Leicester in a duel, 318, 319 ; 
Pyle's condemnation of him and 
the Militia Bill, ib. 

Lord, 23 ; improving his estate,45 

Mrs., teaches games of cards, 48 

Trail, Mr., a distinguished Scotsman 
and Oxford graduate, 249 ; prefer- 
ments and sermon, ib. ; tutor to 
Lord Hereford's sons, 250 
Trevor, Richard, Bp. St. David's, 
Durham, 137 ; competes for Chan- 
cellorship of Cambridge, 138; suc- 
cessful in contest for See of Durham, 
179, 180 

Thomas (Alonzo), a lover of 

Barbara Postlethwayt, 35 

Trimnel, Charles, Bp. Winchester, his 
wife quoted, 81 


Vaughan, Cardinal, his fortune, 76 

Visiting in Norfolk in 1731 and 1735, 


Voltaire, Arouet de, his " Age of 
Lewis XIV." 182; Life of Charles 
XII. of Sweden, ib. ; his statue by 
Houdon, 187 

WADE, Marshal, at Mansfield, 113; 
his military roads in Scotland, 116 ; 
lines concerning him, ib. ; throws 
down the Roman Wall, 117 

Waide, Dr., translates Codex Alexan- 
drinus, 331 

Wake, William, Abp. Canterbury, his 
family, 201 ; his daughter Mary 
married to Dr. Lynch, 228 

Walpole, Horace, at Vauxhall, 244 ; 
his opinion of Dr. Birch, 258 ; de- 
scription of Sir Benjamin Keene, 
279 ; his seat in Parliament, 287 ; 
life and influence education, taste 
for "gothic," "noble rage," anec- 
dotes, friends, correspondence, 292 

Sir Robert, his intentions for 

Samuel Kerrich, 50; impeach- 
ment, 71, 72 ; created Lord Orford, 
73 ; death and debts, ib. 

Wales, Prince of, Bishop Hayter his 
preceptor or governor, 181 ; An- 
drew Stone, sub-governor, ib. ; ill- 
effects of Hayter's resignation, 188 ; 
Household settled by Duke of New- 
castle, 271 ; Hayter's strict disci- 
pline and high principles, 355. (For 
continuation, see George III.) 

Princess Dowager of, her 

liberality to Miss Grey, 227 ; scan- 
dalous stories about her and Bute 
conjectural but widely credited, 
278 ; her generosity to Francis 
Ayscough, 282 ; sets up monument 
in Abbey to Dr. Hales, 314 

Warburton, William, Bp. Gloucester, 
his legal training, ordination and 
preferments and studies, 185 ; his 
"Divine Legation," 186 ; contro- 
versies and enemies, ib. ; Bentley's 
and Bolingbroke's descriptions, ib. ; 
sermons, 219, 225; assails Boling- 
broke, 229 ; his " Divine Legation," 
"a learned romance," 234; profits 
from his books, 245, 247 ; neglects 
his episcopal duties and privileges, 
327 ; death of his son, ib. ; John- 
son's opinion of him, ib. ; Leslie 
Stephen's opinion of him, ib. 

Warren, Dr., his death " in a woeful 
pickle," 144 

Waterland, Dr., Master of Magdalene, 
70; his orthodoxy and influence, 71 

Waterloo, cannon taken at, 312 

" Waters," cordial and ardent, 122 

Westminster, educated at : Bishop 
Trevor, 137; Duke of Newcastle, 
1 66 ; Bishop Johnson, 182 ; Andrew 
Stone, ib. ; George Stone, 184 ; 
Lord Harcourt,i85 ; Bishop Pearce, 
194; Robert South, 222; Viscount 
Carteret, 257 ; Bishop Newton, 
289 ; Lord George Sackville, 323 ; 
John Dyer, 337 

Whalley, Professor, his wait at Court, 
94, 98 ; death and debts, 153, 158 

Whiston, John, the bookseller, 196, 

William, his opinion of 

Thomas Pyle, I ; discovery of 
Epistle of Timothy, 105 ; his in- 
dustry and various writings, 108 

Wigs, adopted by Samuel Kerrich, 
14 ; Steele on, ib. ; lay and cleri- 
cal, 20 1 ; worn by Archbishop 



Howley, abandoned by Archbishop 
Sumner, ib. 

Wilkes, John, his wickedness, 365 ; 

" No. 45," ib. ; illegally arrested 
under General Warrant, ib. ; his 
"Essay on Woman," 366; expul- 
sion from House of Commons, and 
outlawry, ib. ; the same reversed 
amidst public rejoicings, ib. ; 
illuminations at Lynn, and glasses 
inscribed in his honour, ib. ; 
Franklin's comparison of him with 
the King, and Pyle's comparison 
of him with Sacheverel, 367 

Wilks, Robert, supports Bishop Brad- 
ford at coronation of George II., 
340 ; his dramatic excellence in 
plays of Shakespeare, Farquhar, 
Addison, 344 ; his countless charac- 
ter creations, ib. 

William IV., Stadthouder, 168 

William V., Stadthouder,! 68; created 
Knight of the Garter at age of four 
years, ib. ; glass in honour of event, 
ib. ; distinctions of his rule, ib. 

Williams, Philip, his sufferings from 
stone, 126 

Willis, Richard, Bp. Gloucester, 
Salisbury, Winchester, 282; his 
i long oration against Atterbury, 

Winchester College, Bishop Hoadly 
puts a stop to illegal election of 
Wardens of, 300; expensive charac- 
ter of education at, and low reputa- 
tion of scholarship, 302 

Window tax, imposition of, in 1695, 
and increase of, in 1747, 56; mis- 
chievous effect upon domestic archi- 
tecture, ib. 

Wollaston, Mrs., her portrait by 
Thomas Kerrich, 67 

Wollaton Hall, designed by John 
Thorpe, 210 

Wolterton, Lord Walpole of, 215 ; 
his vacillating political principles, 
248 ; opprobrious titles for his 
peerage, 249; "roguish print" 
against him, 251 ; makes his peace 
with the Harbords, 287 ; diplomatic 
and political employment abroad 
and at home, 291 ; dress, diction, 
death, 292 

Woodward, Dr., M.D., attends 
Matthew Postlethwayt, 32 

Wyat, Hugh, member of society for 
correspondence at Bene't, 1716, 

YORKE, James, Bp. Ely, 215 
Younge, Philip, Bp. Bristol, Nor- 
wich, 154, 174, 355 

A. H. 



T has long been a reproach to 
England that only one volume 
has been adequately rendered 
into English ; yet outside this 
country he shares with 
TOLSTOI the distinction 
being the greatest and most daring 
student of humanity now living. 

11 There have been many difficulties to 
encounter in completing arrangements for a 
uniform edition, though perhaps the chief bar- 
rier to publication here has been the fact that 
his writings are not for babes but for men 
and the mothers of men. Indeed, some of his 
Eastern romances are written with biblical can- 
dour. "I have sought truth strenuously," he 
tells us, " I have met her boldly. I have never 
turned from her even when she wore an 


unexpected aspect." Still, it is believed that the day has 
come for giving English versions of all his imaginative 
works, as well as of his monumental study JOAN OF 
ARC, which is undoubtedly the most discussed book in the 
world of letters to-day. 

H MR. JOHN LANE has pleasure in announcing that 
he will commence publication of the works of M. 
ANATOLE FRANCE in English, under the general 
editorship of MR. FREDERIC CHAPMAN, with the 
following volumes : 















JOAN OF ARC (2 vols.) 

1T All the books will be published at 6/- each with the 
exception of JOAN OF ARC, which will be 25/- net 
the two volumes, with eight Illustrations. 

11 The format of the volumes leave* little to be desired. 
The size is Demy 8vo (9 x 5 J in.), that of this Prospectus, and 
they will be printed from Caslon type upon a paper light in 
weight and strong in texture, with a cover design in crimson 
and gold, a gilt top, end-papers from designs by Aubrey 
Beardsley and initials by Henry Ospovat. In short, these are 
volumes for - the bibliophile as well as the lover of fiction, 
and '-forrri perhaps the cheapest library edition of copyright 
novels' 'ever published, for the price is only that of an 
ordinary novel. 

11 The translation of these books has been entrusted to such 
competent French scholars as MR. ALFRED ALLINSON, HON. 




f As Anatole Thibault, dit Anatole France, is to most 
English readers merely a name, it will be well to state that 
he was born in 1844 in the picturesque and inspiring 
surroundings of an old bookshop on the Quai Voltaire, 
Paris, kept by his father, Monsieur Thibault, an authority on 
eighteenth-century history, from whom the boy caught the 
passion for the principles of the Revolution, while from his 
mother he was learning to love the ascetic ideals chronicled 
in the Lives of the Saints. He was schooled with the lovers 
of old books, missals and manuscripts ; he matriculated on 
theQuais with the old Jewish dealers of curios and objets d'art ; 
he graduated in the great university of life and experience. 
It will be recognised that all his work is permeated by his 
youthful impressions ; he is, in fact, a virtuoso at large. 

1T He has written about thirty volumes of fiction. His 
first novel was JOCASTA &r THE FAMISHED CAT 
appeared in 1881, and had the distinction of being crowned 
by the French Academy, into which he was received in 1 896. 

^f His work is illuminated with style, scholarship, and 
psychology ; but its outstanding features are the lambent wit, 
the gay mockery, the genial irony with which he touches every 
subject he treats. But the wit is never malicious, the mockery 
never derisive, the irony never barbed. To quote from his own 
GARDEN OF EPICURUS : "Irony and Pity are both of 
good counsel ; the first with her smiles makes life agreeable, 
the other sanctifies it to us with her tears. The Irony I 
invoke is no cruel deity. She mocks neither love nor 
beauty. She is gentle and kindly disposed. Her mirth 
disarms anger and it is she teaches us to laugh at rogues and 
fools whom but for her we might be so weak as to hate." 

H Often he shows how divine humanity triumphs ovei 
mere aceticism, and with entire reverence ; indeed, he 
might be described as an ascetic overflowing with humanity, 
just as he has been termed a "pagan, but a pagan 
constantly haunted by the pre-occupation of Christ." 
He is in turn like his own Choulette in THE RED 
LILY saintly and Rabelaisian, yet without incongruity. 


At all times he is the unrelenting foe of superstition and 
hypocrisy. Of himself he once modestly said : " You will find 
in my writings perfect sincerity (lying demands a talent I do 
not possess), much indulgence, and some natural affection for 
the beautiful and good." 

1T The mere extent of an author's popularity is perhaps a 
poor argument, yet it is significant that two books by this 
author are in their HUNDRED AND TENTH THOU- 
SAND,and numbers of them well into their SEVENTIETH 
THOUSAND, whilst the one which a Frenchman recently 
described as " Monsieur France's most arid book " is in its 

V Inasmuch as M. FRANCE'S ONLY contribution to 
an English periodical appeared in THE YELLOW BOOK, 
vol. v., April 1895, together with the first important English 
appreciation of his work from the pen of the Hon. Maurice 
Baring, it is peculiarly appropriate that the English edition 
of his works should be issued from the Bodley Head. 


_ 190 

To Mr.. 


Tlease send me the following works of <Anatole France 
to be issued in June and July : 

for which I enclose ......... 



$(0 TICE 

Those 'who possess old letters, documents, corre- 
spondence, ^MSS., scraps of autobiography, and also 
miniatures and portraits, relating to persons and 
matters historical, literary, political and social, should 
communicate with Mr. John Lane, The Bodley 
Head, Vigo Street, London, W., who will at all 
times be pleased to give his advice and assistance, 
either as to their preservation or publication. 


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By TEODOR DE WYZEWA. Translated from the French by C. H. 
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The Life of Thomas William Coke, First Earl of Leicester of 
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NEY, K.C.M.G., Commander of Li Hung Chang's trained 
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A Translation by WINIFRED STEPHENS. 

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*** Joan of Arc, by her friends accounted a saint, by Jter enemies a witch, stands out 
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time of birth-giving- from -which proceeded the glories of the Renaissance. Bitter con- 
troversy raged round tht Maid in her life-time. Round her story to-day litirary 
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Marie-Therese-Charlotte of France, Duchesse D'Angouleme. 


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*** M. G. Lenotre is perhaps the most widely read of a group of modern French writers 
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Nearly half a century has passed since Mr. W. H. James Weale, then resident at 
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Rector of the Collegio Borromeo, Pavia. Based on research in the 
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*** No complete Life of Vincenzo Foppa has ever been written : an omission which 
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light being that he lived for twenty-three years longer than was formerly supposed. The 
illustrations will include several pictures by Foppa hitherto unknown in the history of art, 
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existing work by the master at present known. 


Illustrating the Arms, Art and Literature of Italy from 1440 to 
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*** For many years this great book has been out ef print, althmigh it still remains the 
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JEAN FINOT. A Translation by HARRY ROBERTS. Demy 8vo. 
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*** This is a translation of a book which has attained to the position of a classic. It 
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LADY CHARLOTTE BURY. Being the Diary Illustrative of the 
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Pall Mall Gazette." To the portrait of the man, Thomas, these letters do really add 

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WELSH CARLYLE. A Collection of hitherto Unpublished 
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Account of his Life, Work, and Influence. By E. A. VIZETELLY. 
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detailed record of the last two years of the Reign of His Most 
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1813-1855. Edited by MRS. WARRENNE BLAKE. With numerous 
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*.* This work is compiled from diaries and letters dating from the time of the Regency 
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There is an atmosphere of Jane Austens novels about the lives of Admiral Knox and his 
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CESAR FRANCK : A Study. Translated from the 

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*** There is no purer influence in modern music than that of Cesar Franck, for many 
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Barres, Rene Bazin, Paul Bourget, Pierre de Coulevain, Anatole 
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being the Life of Sir Richard Granville, Baronet (1600-1659). 
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GEORGE MEREDITH : Some Characteristics. 

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of the Ancestry, Personal Character, and Public Services of the 
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of Caroline of Brunswick, Queen of England. From the Italian 
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Translated from the Italian of an Unknown Fourteenth-Century 
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Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. 5;. net. 

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ROBERT BROWNING : Essays and Thoughts. 

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BOOKS AND PLAYS : A Volume of Essays on 

Meredith, Borrow, Ibsen, and others. By ALLAN MONKHOUSE. 
Crown 8vo. 51. net. 

By WILLIAM HAZLITT. Edited, with an introduction, by RICHARD 
LE GALLIENNE. To which is added an exact transcript of the 
original MS., Mrs. Hazlitt's Diary in Scotland, and Letters never 
before published. Portrait after BEWICK, and facsimile Letters. 
400 copies only. ^.to. 364 pp. Buckram, zi/. net. 

TERRORS OF THE LAW : being the Portraits 

of Three Lawyers the original Weir of Hermiston, "Bloody 
Jeffreys," and " Bluidy Advocate Mackenzie." By FRANCIS 
WATT. With 3 Photogravure Portraits. Fcap. 8vo. \s. 6d. net. 

The Literary World. "The book is altogether entertaining; it is brisk, lively, and 
effective. Mr. Watt has already, in his two series of 'The Law's Lumber Room,' 
established his place as an essayist in legal lore, and the present book will increase his 


Men-of-War in the Days that Helped to make the Empire. By 
EDWARD FRASER. With 16 Full-page Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 


The Story of Ships bearing the name of Old Renown in Naval 
Annals. By EDWARD FRASER. With 8 Illustrations in colours, 
and 20 in black and white. Crown 8vo. 6s. 


YC 28505